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Sample records for additional radiation exposure

  1. Possible effects of protracted exposure on the additivity of risks from space radiations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curtis, S. B.

    1996-01-01

    Conventional radiation risk assessments are presently based on the additivity assumption. This assumption states that risks from individual components of a complex radiation field involving many different types of radiation can be added to yield the total risk of the complex radiation field. If the assumption is not correct, the summations and integrations performed to obtain the presently quoted risk estimates are not appropriate. This problem is particularly important in the area of space radiation risk evaluation because of the many different types of high- and low-LET radiation present in the galactic cosmic ray environment. For both low- and high-LET radiations at low enough dose rates, the present convention is that the addivity assumption holds. Mathematically, the total risk, Rtot is assumed to be Rtot = summation (i) Ri where the summation runs over the different types of radiation present. If the total dose (or fluence) from each component is such that the interaction between biological lesions caused by separate single track traversals is negligible within a given cell, it is presently considered to be reasonable to accept the additivity assumption. However, when the exposure is protracted over many cell doubling times (as will be the case for extended missions to the moon or Mars), the possibility exists that radiation effects that depend on multiple cellular events over a long time period, such as is probably the case in radiation-induced carcinogenesis, may not be additive in the above sense and the exposure interval may have to be included in the evaluation procedure. It is shown, however, that "inverse" dose-rate effects are not expected from intermediate LET radiations arising from the galactic cosmic ray environment due to the "sensitive-window-in-the-cell-cycle" hypothesis.

  2. Estimation of radiation risk in presence of classical additive and Berkson multiplicative errors in exposure doses.

    PubMed

    Masiuk, S V; Shklyar, S V; Kukush, A G; Carroll, R J; Kovgan, L N; Likhtarov, I A

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, the influence of measurement errors in exposure doses in a regression model with binary response is studied. Recently, it has been recognized that uncertainty in exposure dose is characterized by errors of two types: classical additive errors and Berkson multiplicative errors. The combination of classical additive and Berkson multiplicative errors has not been considered in the literature previously. In a simulation study based on data from radio-epidemiological research of thyroid cancer in Ukraine caused by the Chornobyl accident, it is shown that ignoring measurement errors in doses leads to overestimation of background prevalence and underestimation of excess relative risk. In the work, several methods to reduce these biases are proposed. They are new regression calibration, an additive version of efficient SIMEX, and novel corrected score methods. PMID:26795191

  3. Radiation Exposure

    MedlinePlus

    Radiation is energy that travels in the form of waves or high-speed particles. It occurs naturally in sunlight. Man-made radiation is used in X-rays, nuclear weapons, nuclear power plants and cancer treatment. If you are exposed to small amounts of radiation over a ...

  4. Radiation Exposure

    MedlinePlus

    ... particles. It occurs naturally in sunlight. Man-made radiation is used in X-rays, nuclear weapons, nuclear power plants and cancer treatment. If you are exposed to small amounts of radiation over a long time, it raises your risk ...

  5. DOE 2012 occupational radiation exposure

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2013-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Analysis within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE (including the National Nuclear Security Administration [NNSA]). The DOE 2012 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations (C.F.R.), Part 835, Occupational Radiation Protection dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the adverse health effects of radiation. The report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. Over the past 5-year period, the occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site.

  6. DOE 2011 occupational radiation exposure

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2012-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Analysis within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE (including the National Nuclear Security Administration [NNSA]). The DOE 2011 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations (C.F.R.), Part 835, Occupational Radiation Protection dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the adverse health effects of radiation. The report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. The occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site over the past five years.

  7. DOE 2009 occupational radiation exposure

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2010-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Corporate Safety Analysis (HS-30) within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE.* The DOE 2009 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with DOE Part 835 dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the effects of radiation. The report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. The occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site over the past 5 years.

  8. DOE 2010 occupational radiation exposure

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2011-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Analysis within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE.* The DOE 2010 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with DOE Part 835 dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the effects of radiation. The report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. The occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site over the past 5 years.

  9. DOE 2008 occupational radiation exposure

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2009-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Corporate Safety Analysis (HS-30) within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE. The DOE 2008 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with DOE Part 835 dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the effects of radiation. This report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. The occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site over the past 5 years.

  10. Radiation exposure and pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Labant, Amy; Silva, Christina

    2014-01-01

    Radiological exposure from nuclear power reactor accidents, transportation of nuclear waste accidents, industrial accidents, or terrorist activity may be a remote possibility, but it could happen. Nurses must be prepared to evaluate and treat pregnant women and infants who have been exposed to radiation, and to have an understanding of the health consequences of a nuclear or radiological incident. Pregnant women and infants are a special group of patients who need consideration when exposed to radiation. Initial care requires thorough assessment and decisions regarding immediate care needs. Ongoing care is based on type and extent of radiation exposure. With accurate, comprehensive information and education, nurses will be better prepared to help mitigate the effects of radiation exposure to pregnant women and infants following a radiological incident. Information about radiation, health effects of prenatal radiation exposure, assessment, patient care, and treatment of pregnant women and infants are presented. PMID:25333800

  11. Americans' Average Radiation Exposure

    SciTech Connect

    NA

    2000-08-11

    We live with radiation every day. We receive radiation exposures from cosmic rays, from outer space, from radon gas, and from other naturally radioactive elements in the earth. This is called natural background radiation. It includes the radiation we get from plants, animals, and from our own bodies. We also are exposed to man-made sources of radiation, including medical and dental treatments, television sets and emission from coal-fired power plants. Generally, radiation exposures from man-made sources are only a fraction of those received from natural sources. One exception is high exposures used by doctors to treat cancer patients. Each year in the United States, the average dose to people from natural and man-made radiation sources is about 360 millirem. A millirem is an extremely tiny amount of energy absorbed by tissues in the body.

  12. Radiation Exposure and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Instruction concerning prenatal radiation exposure. Washington, DC: U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission; NUREG 8.13, Revision 3; June 1999. The Health Physics Society is a nonprofit scientific professional organization whose ...

  13. Pregnancy and Radiation Exposure

    MedlinePlus

    ... had that might impact the development of their sperm or their eggs (ova) and their risk of ... your concerns with them. Radiation Exposure to the Sperm from Diagnostic X-Ray Studies There are no ...

  14. Cardiovascular complications of radiation exposure.

    PubMed

    Finch, William; Shamsa, Kamran; Lee, Michael S

    2014-01-01

    The cardiovascular sequelae of radiation exposure are an important cause of morbidity and mortality following radiation therapy for cancer, as well as after exposure to radiation after atomic bombs or nuclear accidents. In the United States, most of the data on radiation-induced heart disease (RIHD) come from patients treated with radiation therapy for Hodgkin disease and breast cancer. Additionally, people exposed to radiation from the atomic bombs in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan, and the Chernobyl, Ukraine, nuclear accident have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. The total dose of radiation, as well as the fractionation of the dose, plays an important role in the development of RIHD. All parts of the heart are affected, including the pericardium, vasculature, myocardium, valves, and conduction system. The mechanism of injury is complex, but one major mechanism is injury to endothelium in both the microvasculature and coronary arteries. This likely also contributes to damage and fibrosis within the myocardium. Additionally, various inflammatory and profibrotic cytokines contribute to injury. Diagnosis and treatment are not significantly different from those for conventional cardiovascular disease; however, screening for heart disease and lifelong cardiology follow-up is essential in patients with past radiation exposure. PMID:25290729

  15. DOE 2013 occupational radiation exposure

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2014-11-01

    The Office of Analysis within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environment, Health, Safety and Security (EHSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE (including the National Nuclear Security Administration [NNSA]). The DOE 2013 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations (C.F.R.), Part 835, Occupational Radiation Protection dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the adverse health effects of radiation. The report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. Over the past five-year period, the occupational radiation exposure information has been analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site.

  16. Human exposure to ultraviolet radiation.

    PubMed

    Diffey, B L

    1990-03-01

    Although the sun remains the main source of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure in humans, the advent of artificial UVR sources has increased the opportunity for both intentional and unintentional exposure. Intentional exposure is most often to tan the skin. People living in less sunny climates can now maintain a year-round tan by using sunbeds and solaria emitting principally UVA radiation. Another reason for intentional exposure to artificial UVR is treatment of skin diseases, notably psoriasis. Unintentional exposure is normally the result of occupation. Outdoor workers, such as farmers, receive three to four times the annual solar UV exposure of indoor workers. Workers in many industries, eg, photoprinting or hospital phototherapy departments, may be exposed to UVR from artificial sources. One group particularly at risk is electric arc welders, where inadvertent exposure is so common that the terms "arc eye" or "welders flash" are often used to describe photokeratitis. In addition to unavoidable exposure to natural UVR, the general public is exposed to low levels of UVR from sources such as fluorescent lamps used for indoor lighting and shops and restaurants where UVA lamps are often used in traps to attract flying insects. PMID:2203439

  17. Epidemiology of accidental radiation exposures.

    PubMed Central

    Cardis, E

    1996-01-01

    Much of the information on the health effects of radiation exposure available to date comes from long-term studies of the atomic bombings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Accidental exposures, such as those resulting from the Chernobyl and Kyshtym accidents, have as yet provided little information concerning health effects of ionizing radiation. This paper will present the current state of our knowledge concerning radiation effects, review major large-scale accidental radiation exposures, and discuss information that could be obtained from studies of accidental exposures and the types of studies that are needed. PMID:8781398

  18. DOE occupational radiation exposure 2007 report

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2007-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Corporate Safety Analysis (HS-30) within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE.* The annual DOEOccupational Radiation Exposure 2007 Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with DOE Part 835 dose limits and ALARA process requirements. In addition the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the effects of radiation. This report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. The occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site over the past five years.

  19. Radiation Exposure and Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... what we know about these types of high-energy radiation and how they affect cancer risk. Cancer Compensation Programs for People Exposed to Radiation as Part of Nuclear Weapons Testing Between 1945 and 1962, several countries ...

  20. Epidemiology of accidental radiation exposures

    SciTech Connect

    Cardis, E.

    1996-05-01

    Much of the information on the health effects of radiation exposure available to date comes from long-term studies of the atomic bombings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Accidental exposures, such as those resulting from the Chernobyl and Kyshtym accidents, have as yet provided little information concerning health effects of ionizing radiation. This paper will present the current state of our knowledge concerning radiation effects, review major large-scale accidental exposures and the types of studies that are needed. 64 refs., 3 tabs.

  1. Radiation Therapy: Additional Treatment Options

    MedlinePlus

    ... This is refered to as immunotherapy . Intraoperative Radiation Therapy Radiation therapy given during surgery is called intraoperative ... external beam therapy or as brachytherapy . Novel Targeted Therapies Cancer doctors now know much more about how ...

  2. Radiation exposure of trainee anaesthetists.

    PubMed

    Ismail, S; Khan, F A; Sultan, N; Naqvi, M

    2006-01-01

    This prospective study was conducted to determine the level of radiation exposure of trainee anaesthetists working in urology, orthopaedics and radiology environments. Anaesthetists wore lithium fluoride thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) badges over a 6-month period. The position of badges was standardised at the collar site (TLD1) and at waist level (TLD2). Area specific dosimeters were used and exchanged between anaesthetists. Of a total of 723 procedures, anaesthetists were exposed to radiation in 33% of procedures in orthopaedics, 30% in urology and 39% in radiology. The mean (SD) exposure time to radiation per case was significantly greater in orthopaedics than in urology (9.2 (4) min vs. 4.2 (2) min). The radiation exposure per case was highest in radiology (19.2 (22) min). The net combined exposure over a 6-month period was 0.2177 mSv in urology, 0.4265 mSv in orthopaedics and 3.8457 mSv in radiology. The combined exposure was less than the 20 mSv recommended as the maximum exposure per year. Our data does not support the need for routine dosimetric monitoring of anaesthetists working in the above settings. PMID:16409335

  3. [Radiation exposure of the dentist].

    PubMed

    Regulla, D F; Wachsmann, F

    1975-08-01

    The radiation dosis per person undergoing dental treatment measured at the trunk is rather considerable, though not alarming. However, the number of people whose hands has been exposed to radiation as well as the individual extent of exposure were unexpectedly high. The radiation dosis measured at the hands was about 100 times bigger than the radiation dosis determined at the trunk for the whole body. Although these results may be very impressive, it should be borne in mind that the data on which the investigation was based date from 1967/68 and may no longer be fully applicable to the present situation. Whether and to what extent this assumption is justified ought to found out by control studies regarding radiation dosis per person and Röpak programs which are presently being started and whose results will be discussed in this journal. PMID:1058098

  4. Occupational exposure to natural radiation.

    PubMed

    Dixon, D W

    1985-10-01

    Natural sources of radiation can make an important contribution to the exposures of people at work. Two areas of interest are work with minerals having elevated concentrations of activity and work in buildings where radon daughter concentrations are elevated. The Euratom Directive on ionising radiation requires that the handling of radioactive substances be reported to national authorities. National authorities may waive this requirement where the activity per unit mass is below 100 Bq g-1, or for solid natural radioactive substances, 500 Bq g-1. An investigation was undertaken in five factories to determine whether work with minerals having levels of natural activity below these might lead to significant doses. Models based on the data collected were used to relate the activity in the minerals to the effective dose equivalent arising from gamma radiation, inhalation of radon daughters, and intake of long-lived activity. These assessments show that the activity concentration at which exposures to airborne dust could lead to doses equal to one-tenth of the dose limit for workers are 0.3 Bq g-1 for thorium-232 and 1 Bq g-1 for uranium-238. Above these values, radiological supervision may be necessary. In a separate study, measurements of radon daughter concentrations were made in seventy workplaces. Concentrations in some premises approached or exceeded the derived air concentration for occupational exposure. The highest concentrations were found in premises with low ventilation rates. PMID:4081708

  5. New approaches to reduce radiation exposure.

    PubMed

    Hill, Kevin D; Einstein, Andrew J

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to ionizing radiation is associated with a long-term risk of health effects, including cancer. Radiation exposure to the U.S. population from cardiac imaging has increased markedly over the past three decades. Initiatives to reduce radiation exposure have focused on the tenets of appropriate study "justification" and "optimization" of imaging protocols. This article reviews ways to optimally reduce radiation dose across the spectrum of cardiac imaging. PMID:25962784

  6. Radiation Exposure Monitoring and Information Transmittal System.

    2005-06-23

    Version 01 The Radiation Exposure Monitoring and Information Transmittal (REMIT) system is designed to assist U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) licensees in meeting the reporting requirements of the Revised 10 CFR Parts 20.1001 through 20.2401 as outlined in Regulatory Guide 8.7, Rev.1, Instructions for Recording and Reporting Occupational Exposure Data. REMIT is a PC‑based menu driven system that facilitates the manipulation of data base files to record and report radiation exposure information. REMIT is designedmore » to be user‑friendly and contains the full text of Regulatory Guide 8.7, Rev.1, on‑line as well as context‑sensitive help throughout the program. The user can enter data directly from NRC Forms 4 or 5. REMIT allows the user to view the individual's exposure in relation to regulatory or administrative limits and will alert the user to exposures in excess of these limits. The system also provides for the calculation and summation of dose from intakes and the determination of the dose to the maximally exposed extremity for the monitoring year. REMIT can produce NRC Forms 4 and 5 in paper and electronic format and can import/export data from ASCII and data base files. Additional information is available from the web page www.reirs.com.« less

  7. A new radiation exposure record system

    SciTech Connect

    Lyon, M.; Berndt, V.L.; Trevino, G.W.; Oakley, B.M.

    1993-04-01

    The Hanford Radiological Records Program (HRRP) serves all Hanford contractors as the single repository for radiological exposure for all Hanford employees, subcontractors, and visitors. The program administers and preserves all Hanford radiation exposure records. The program also maintains a Radiation Protection Historical File which is a historical file of Hanford radiation protection and dosimetry procedures and practices. Several years ago DOE declared the existing UNIVAC mainframe computer obsolete and the existing Occupational Radiation Exposure (ORE) system was slated to be redeveloped. The new system named the Radiological Exposure (REX) System is described in this document.

  8. Hematologic consequences of exposure to ionizing radiation.

    PubMed

    Dainiak, Nicholas

    2002-06-01

    From the early 1900s, it has been known that ionizing radiation (IR) impairs hematopoiesis through a variety of mechanisms. IR exposure directly damages hematopoietic stem cells and alters the capacity of bone marrow stromal elements to support and/or maintain hematopoiesis in vivo and in vitro. Exposure to IR induces dose-dependent declines in circulating hematopoietic cells not only through reduced bone marrow production, but also by redistribution and apoptosis of mature formed elements of the blood. Recently, the importance of using lymphocyte depletion kinetics to provide a "crude" dose estimate has been emphasized, particularly in rapid assessment of large numbers of individuals who may be exposed to IR through acts of terrorism or by accident. A practical strategy to estimate radiation dose and triage victims based upon clinical symptomatology is presented. An explosion of knowledge has occurred regarding molecular and cellular pathways that trigger and mediate hematologic responses to IR. In addition to damaging DNA, IR alters gene expression and transcription, and interferes with intracellular and intercellular signaling pathways. The clinical expression of these disturbances may be the development of leukemia, the most significant hematologic complication of IR exposure among survivors of the atomic bomb detonations over Japan. Those at greatest risk for leukemia are individuals exposed during childhood. The association of leukemia with chronic, low-dose-rate exposure from nuclear power plant accidents and/or nuclear device testing has been more difficult to establish, due in part to lack of precision and sensitivity of methods to assess doses that approach background radiation dose. Nevertheless, multiple myeloma may be associated with chronic exposure, particularly in those exposed at older ages. PMID:12063018

  9. DOE 2012 Occupational Radiation Exposure October 2013

    SciTech Connect

    2012-02-02

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Analysis within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE (including the National Nuclear Security Administration [NNSA]). The DOE 2012 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations (C.F.R.), Part 835, Occupational Radiation Protection dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the adverse health effects of radiation. The report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. Over the past 5-year period, the occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site. As an indicator of the overall amount of radiation dose received during the conduct of operations at DOE, the report includes information on collective total effective dose (TED). The TED is comprised of the effective dose (ED) from external sources, which includes neutron and photon radiation, and the internal committed effective dose (CED), which results from the intake of radioactive material into the body. The collective ED from photon exposure decreased by 23% between 2011 and 2012, while the neutron dose increased by 5%. The internal dose components of the collective TED decreased by 7%. Over the past 5-year period, 99.99% of the individuals receiving measurable TED have received doses below the 2 roentgen equivalent in man (rems) (20 millisievert [mSv]) TED administrative control level (ACL), which is well below the DOE regulatory limit of 5 rems (50 mSv) TED annually. The

  10. [Thyroid cancer following exposure to ionising radiation].

    PubMed

    Schlumberger, M; Chevillard, S; Ory, K; Dupuy, C; Le Guen, B; de Vathaire, F

    2011-08-01

    Exposure to ionising radiations during childhood increases the risk of thyroid cancer. Similar risk factors have been found after external radiation exposure or internal contamination with radioactive iodine isotopes. In case of contamination with radioiodines, administration of potassium iodide can prevent thyroid irradiation. PMID:21723770

  11. DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure, 2001 report

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2001-12-31

    The goal of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is to conduct its operations, including radiological, to ensure the safety and health of all DOE employees, contractors, and subcontractors. The DOE strives to maintain radiation exposures to its workers below administrative control levels and DOE limits and to further reduce these exposures to levels that are “As Low As Reasonably Achievable” (ALARA). The 2001 DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides a summary and analysis of the occupational radiation exposure received by individuals associated with DOE activities. The DOE mission includes stewardship of the nuclear weapons stockpile and the associated facilities, environmental restoration of DOE, and energy research.

  12. Ionizing radiation exposure of LDEF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benton, E. V. (Editor); Heinrich, W. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    The Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) was launched into orbit by the Space Shuttle 'Challenger' mission 41C on 6 April 1984 and was deployed on 8 April 1984. The original altitude of the circular orbit was 258.5 nautical miles (479 km) with the orbital inclination being 28.5 degrees. The 21,500 lb NASA Langley Research Center satellite, having dimensions of some 30x14 ft was one of the largest payloads ever deployed by the Space Shuttle. LDEF carried 57 major experiments and remained in orbit five years and nine months (completing 32,422 orbits). It was retrieved by the Shuttle 'Columbia' on January 11, 1990. By that time, the LDEF orbit had decayed to the altitude of 175 nm (324 km). The experiments were mounted around the periphery of the LDEF on 86 trays and involved the representation of more than 200 investigators, 33 private companies, 21 universities, seven NASA centers, nine Department of Defense laboratories and eight foreign countries. The experiments covered a wide range of disciplines including basic science, electronics, optics, materials, structures, power and propulsion. The data contained in the LDEF mission represents an invaluable asset and one which is not likely to be duplicated in the foreseeable future. The data and the subsequent knowledge which will evolve from the analysis of the LDEF experiments will have a very important bearing on the design and construction of the Space Station Freedom and indeed on other long-term, near-earth orbital space missions. A list of the LDEF experiments according to experiment category and sponsor is given, as well as a list of experiments containing radiation detectors on LDEF including the LDEF experiment number, the title of the experiment, the principal investigator, and the type of radiation detectors carried by the specific experiment.

  13. DOE occupational radiation exposure 2006 report

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2006-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Corporate Safety Analysis (HS-30) within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE. This report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information for all monitored individuals associated with DOE activities. The occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site over the past five years.

  14. DOE occupational radiation exposure 2005 report

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2005-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Offi ce of Corporate Safety Analysis (HS-30) within the Office of Health Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE. This report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information for all monitored individuals associated with the DOE activities. The occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site over the past 5 years.

  15. Minimizing radiation exposure during percutaneous nephrolithotomy.

    PubMed

    Chen, T T; Preminger, G M; Lipkin, M E

    2015-12-01

    Given the recent trends in growing per capita radiation dose from medical sources, there have been increasing concerns over patient radiation exposure. Patients with kidney stones undergoing percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) are at particular risk for high radiation exposure. There exist several risk factors for increased radiation exposure during PNL which include high Body Mass Index, multiple access tracts, and increased stone burden. We herein review recent trends in radiation exposure, radiation exposure during PNL to both patients and urologists, and various approaches to reduce radiation exposure. We discuss incorporating the principles of As Low As reasonably Achievable (ALARA) into clinical practice and review imaging techniques such as ultrasound and air contrast to guide PNL access. Alternative surgical techniques and approaches to reducing radiation exposure, including retrograde intra-renal surgery, retrograde nephrostomy, endoscopic-guided PNL, and minimally invasive PNL, are also highlighted. It is important for urologists to be aware of these concepts and techniques when treating stone patients with PNL. The discussions outlined will assist urologists in providing patient counseling and high quality of care. PMID:26354615

  16. Taste aversions conditioned with partial body radiation exposures

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.C.; Hollander, G.R.; Spector, A.C. . Dept. of Psychology)

    1981-11-01

    Radiation-induced taste aversion was compared in rats which received partial body exposure to the head or abdomen with rats receiving whole body irradiation. Exposure levels ranged from 25 to 300 roentgens (R). In additional groups, saccharin aversion to partial body gamma ray exposures of the abdomen were conditioned in animals which had prior experience with the saccharin solution. Aversion was measured with a single-bottle short-term test, a 23-hour preference test and by the number of days taken to recover from the aversion. Whole-body exposure was most effective in conditioning the aversion, and exposure of the abdominal area was more effective than exposure to the head. Also, the higher the exposure, the stronger the aversion. Rats receiving prior experience with the saccharin did not condition as well as control rats with no prior saccharin experience. The possible role of radiation-induced taste aversion in human radiotherapy patients was discussed.

  17. Radiation exposure from fluoroscopy during orthopedic surgical procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, S.A. )

    1989-11-01

    The use of fluoroscopy has enabled orthopedic surgeons to become technically more proficient. In addition, these surgical procedures tend to have less associated patient morbidity by decreasing operative time and minimizing the area of the operative field. The trade-off, however, may be an increased risk of radiation exposure to the surgeon on an annual or lifetime basis. The current study was designed to determine the amount of radiation received by the primary surgeon and the first assistant during selected surgical procedures involving the use of fluoroscopy. Five body sites exposed to radiation were monitored for dosage. The results of this study indicate that with appropriate usage, (1) radiation exposure from fluoroscopy is relatively low; (2) the surgeon's dominant hand receives the most exposure per case; and (3) proper maintenance and calibration of fluoroscopic machines are important factors in reducing exposure risks. Therefore, with proper precautions, the use of fluoroscopy in orthopedic procedures can remain a safe practice.

  18. Intraoperative Radiation Exposure During Revision Total Ankle Replacement.

    PubMed

    Roukis, Thomas S; Iceman, Kelli; Elliott, Andrew D

    2016-01-01

    Intraoperative C-arm image intensification is required for primary total ankle replacement implantation. Significant radiation exposure has been linked to these procedures; however, the radiation exposure during revision total ankle replacement remains unknown. Therefore, we sought to evaluate the radiation exposure encountered during revision total ankle replacement. The data from 41 patients were retrospectively analyzed from a prospective database: 19 Agility(™) to Agility(™); 4 Agility(™) to Custom Agility(™); 9 Agility(™) to INBONE(®) II; 5 Agility(™) to Salto Talaris(®) XT; 2 Scandinavian Total Ankle Replacement Prosthesis to Salto Talaris(®) XT; and 2 INBONE(®) I to INBONE(®) II revision total ankle replacements were performed. Two broad categories were identified: partial revision (Agility(™) to Agility(™), Agility(™) to Custom Agility(™), INBONE(®) I to INBONE(®) II) and complete conversion (Agility(™) to INBONE(®) II, Agility(™) to Salto Talaris(®) XT, Scandinavian Total Ankle Replacement Prosthesis to Salto Talaris(®) XT). The mean radiation exposure per case was significant at 3.49 ± 2.21 mGy. Complete conversions, specifically Agility(™) to INBONE(®) II, exhibited the greatest radiation exposure and C-arm time. Revision implant selection and revision type (complete or partial) directly contributed to radiation exposure. Accordingly, revision systems requiring less radiation exposure are preferable. Surgeons should strive to minimize intraoperative complications and limit additional procedures to those necessary, because both lead to additional radiation exposure. PMID:27320191

  19. Real Time Radiation Exposure And Health Risks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hu, Shaowen; Barzilla, Janet E.; Semones, Edward J.

    2015-01-01

    Radiation from solar particle events (SPEs) poses a serious threat to future manned missions outside of low Earth orbit (LEO). Accurate characterization of the radiation environment in the inner heliosphere and timely monitoring the health risks to crew are essential steps to ensure the safety of future Mars missions. In this project we plan to develop an approach that can use the particle data from multiple satellites and perform near real-time simulations of radiation exposure and health risks for various exposure scenarios. Time-course profiles of dose rates will be calculated with HZETRN and PDOSE from the energy spectrum and compositions of the particles archived from satellites, and will be validated from recent radiation exposure measurements in space. Real-time estimation of radiation risks will be investigated using ARRBOD. This cross discipline integrated approach can improve risk mitigation by providing critical information for risk assessment and medical guidance to crew during SPEs.

  20. Ultraviolet Radiation: Human Exposure and Health Risks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tenkate, Thomas D.

    1998-01-01

    Provides an overview of human exposure to ultraviolet radiation and associated health effects as well as risk estimates for acute and chronic conditions resulting from such exposure. Demonstrates substantial reductions in health risk that can be achieved through preventive actions. Also includes a risk assessment model for skin cancer. Contains 36…

  1. Cancer risks after radiation exposures

    SciTech Connect

    Voelz, G.L.

    1980-01-01

    A general overview of the effects of ionizing radiation on cancer induction is presented. The relationship between the degree of risk and absorbed dose is examined. Mortality from radiation-induced cancer in the US is estimated and percentages attributable to various sources are given. (ACR)

  2. Radiation exposure modeling and project schedule visualization

    SciTech Connect

    Jaquish, W.R.; Enderlin, V.R.

    1995-10-01

    This paper discusses two applications using IGRIP (Interactive Graphical Robot Instruction Program) to assist environmental remediation efforts at the Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site. In the first application, IGRIP is used to calculate the estimated radiation exposure to workers conducting tasks in radiation environments. In the second, IGRIP is used as a configuration management tool to detect interferences between equipment and personnel work areas for multiple projects occurring simultaneously in one area. Both of these applications have the capability to reduce environmental remediation costs by reducing personnel radiation exposure and by providing a method to effectively manage multiple projects in a single facility.

  3. Radiation exposure in the moon environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reitz, Guenther; Berger, Thomas; Matthiae, Daniel

    2012-12-01

    During a stay on the moon humans are exposed to elevated radiation levels due to the lack of substantial atmospheric and magnetic shielding compared to the Earth's surface. The absence of magnetic and atmospheric shielding allows cosmic rays of all energies to impinge on the lunar surface. Beside the continuous exposure to galactic cosmic rays (GCR), which increases the risk of cancer mortality, exposure through particles emitted in sudden nonpredictable solar particle events (SPE) may occur. SPEs show an enormous variability in particle flux and energy spectra and have the potential to expose space crew to life threatening doses. On Earth, the contribution to the annual terrestrial dose of natural ionizing radiation of 2.4 mSv by cosmic radiation is about 1/6, whereas the annual exposure caused by GCR on the lunar surface is roughly 380 mSv (solar minimum) and 110 mSv (solar maximum). The analysis of worst case scenarios has indicated that SPE may lead to an exposure of about 1 Sv. The only efficient measure to reduce radiation exposure is the provision of radiation shelters. Measurements on the lunar surface performed during the Apollo missions cover only a small energy band for thermal neutrons and are not sufficient to estimate the exposure. Very recently some data were added by the Radiation Dose Monitoring (RADOM) instrument operated during the Indian Chandrayaan Mission and the Cosmic Ray Telescope (CRaTER) instrument of the NASA LRO (Lunar Reconnaisance Orbiter) mission. These measurements need to be complemented by surface measurements. Models and simulations that exist describe the approximate radiation exposure in space and on the lunar surface. The knowledge on the radiation exposure at the lunar surface is exclusively based on calculations applying radiation transport codes in combination with environmental models. Own calculations are presented using Monte-Carlo simulations to calculate the radiation environment on the moon and organ doses on the

  4. Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation and Human Exposure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. W.; Goldhagen, P.; Friedberg, W.; DeAngelis, G.; Clem, J. M.; Copeland, K.; Bidasaria, H. B.

    2004-01-01

    Atmospheric ionizing radiation is of interest, apart from its main concern of aircraft exposures, because it is a principal source of human exposure to radiations with high linear energy transfer (LET). The ionizing radiations of the lower atmosphere near the Earth s surface tend to be dominated by the terrestrial radioisotopes especially along the coastal plain and interior low lands and have only minor contributions from neutrons (11 percent). The world average is substantially larger but the high altitude cities especially have substantial contributions from neutrons (25 to 45 percent). Understanding the world distribution of neutron exposures requires an improved understanding of the latitudinal, longitudinal, altitude and spectral distribution that depends on local terrain and time. These issues are being investigated in a combined experimental and theoretical program. This paper will give an overview of human exposures and describe the development of improved environmental models.

  5. Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation and Human Exposure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, John W.; Mertens, Christopher J.; Goldhagen, Paul; Friedberg, W.; DeAngelis, G.; Clem, J. M.; Copeland, K.; Bidasaria, H. B.

    2005-01-01

    Atmospheric ionizing radiation is of interest, apart from its main concern of aircraft exposures, because it is a principal source of human exposure to radiations with high linear energy transfer (LET). The ionizing radiations of the lower atmosphere near the Earth s surface tend to be dominated by the terrestrial radioisotopes. especially along the coastal plain and interior low lands, and have only minor contributions from neutrons (11 percent). The world average is substantially larger but the high altitude cities especially have substantial contributions from neutrons (25 to 45 percent). Understanding the world distribution of neutron exposures requires an improved understanding of the latitudinal, longitudinal, altitude and spectral distribution that depends on local terrain and time. These issues are being investigated in a combined experimental and theoretical program. This paper will give an overview of human exposures and describe the development of improved environmental models.

  6. Overview of radiation environments and human exposures.

    PubMed

    Wilson, J W

    2000-11-01

    Human exposures to ionizing radiation have been vastly altered by developing technology in the last century. This has been most obvious in the development of radiation generating devices and the utilization of nuclear energy. But even air travel has had its impact on human exposure. Human exposure increases with advancing aircraft technology as a result of the higher operating altitudes reducing the protective cover provided by Earth's atmosphere from extraterrestrial radiations. This increase in operating altitudes is taken to a limit by human operations in space. Less obvious is the changing character of the radiations at higher altitudes. The associated health risks are less understood with increasing altitude due to the increasing complexity and new field components found in high-altitude and space operations. PMID:11045522

  7. Overview of Radiation Environments and Human Exposures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, John W.

    2004-01-01

    Human exposures to ionizing radiation have been vastly altered by developing technology in the last century. This has been most obvious in the development of radiation generating devices and the utilization of nuclear energy. But even air travel has had its impact on human exposure. Human exposure increases with advancing aircraft technology as a result of the higher operating altitudes reducing the protective cover provided by the Earth s atmosphere from extraterrestrial radiations. This increase in operating altitudes is taken to a limit by human operations in space. Less obvious is the changing character of the radiations at higher altitudes. The associated health risks are less understood with increasing altitude due to the increasing complexity and new field components found in high altitude and space operations.

  8. Comprehensive European dietary exposure model (CEDEM) for food additives.

    PubMed

    Tennant, David R

    2016-05-01

    European methods for assessing dietary exposures to nutrients, additives and other substances in food are limited by the availability of detailed food consumption data for all member states. A proposed comprehensive European dietary exposure model (CEDEM) applies summary data published by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) in a deterministic model based on an algorithm from the EFSA intake method for food additives. The proposed approach can predict estimates of food additive exposure provided in previous EFSA scientific opinions that were based on the full European food consumption database. PMID:26987377

  9. Risks and management of radiation exposure.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Loren G

    2013-09-01

    High-energy ionizing radiation is harmful. Low-level exposure sources include background, occupational, and medical diagnostics. Radiation disaster incidents include radioactive substance accidents and nuclear power plant accidents. Terrorism and international conflict could trigger intentional radiation disasters that include radiation dispersion devices (RDD) (a radioactive dirty bomb), deliberate exposure to industrial radioactive substances, nuclear power plant sabotage, and nuclear weapon detonation. Nuclear fissioning events such as nuclear power plant incidents and nuclear weapon detonation release radioactive fallout that include radioactive iodine 131, cesium 137, strontium 90, uranium, plutonium, and many other radioactive isotopes. An RDD dirty bomb is likely to spread only one radioactive substance, with the most likely substance being cesium 137. Cobalt 60 and strontium 90 are other RDD dirty bomb possibilities. In a radiation disaster, stable patients should be decontaminated to minimize further radiation exposure. Potassium iodide (KI) is useful for iodine 131 exposure. Prussian blue (ferric hexacyanoferrate) enhances the fecal excretion of cesium via ion exchange. Ca-DTPA (diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid) and Zn-DTPA form stable ionic complexes with plutonium, americium, and curium, which are excreted in the urine. Amifostine enhances chemical and enzymatic repair of damaged DNA. Acute radiation sickness ranges in severity from mild to lethal, which can be assessed by the nausea/vomiting onset/duration, complete blood cell count findings, and neurologic symptoms. PMID:24201986

  10. OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE TO EXTERNAL RADIATION IN SWITZERLAND.

    PubMed

    Mayer, S; Baechler, S; Damet, J; Elmiger, R; Frei, D; Giannini, S; Leupin, A; Sarott, F; Schuh, R

    2016-09-01

    Individual monitoring for both external and internal exposures is well regulated in Switzerland. The article gives an overview on the occupational exposure to external radiation of workers based on the data collected in the Swiss national dose registry (NDR) in 2013. The NDR records the monthly doses of radiation workers since the introduction of ICRP 60 recommendations and is manifested in the Swiss ordinance since 1994. Annual dose limits for effective dose are typically exceeded once a year in Switzerland, mostly in medicine. The NDR is a useful optimisation tool to identify and characterise areas with the highest exposures. While exceeded dose limits were often related to accidental acute exposure in the past, they are now more related to continuous exposure during normal work, especially in medicine. PMID:27012882

  11. Radiation exposure to anaesthetists during endovascular procedures.

    PubMed

    Arii, T; Uchino, S; Kubo, Y; Kiyama, S; Uezono, S

    2015-01-01

    Medical radiation exposure increases the likelihood of cataract formation. A personal dosimeter was attached to the left temple of 77 anaesthetists during 45 endovascular aortic aneurysm repairs and 32 interventional neuroradiology procedures. Compared with interventional neuroradiology, the median (IQR [range]) total radiation dose emitted by fluoroscopic equipment was significantly lower during endovascular aortic aneurysm repair (4175 (3127-5091 [644-9761]) mGy than interventional neuroradiology (1420 (613-2424 [165-10,840]) mGy, p < 0.001). However, radiation exposure to the anaesthetist's temple was significantly greater during endovascular aortic aneurysm repair (15 (6-41 [1-109]) μSv) than interventional neuroradiology (4 (2-8 [0-67]) μSv, p < 0.001). These data suggest that anaesthetists at our institution would have to deliver anaesthesia for ~1300 endovascular aortic aneurysm repairs and ~5000 interventional neuroradiology cases annually to exceed the general occupational limits, and ~10,000 endovascular aortic aneurysm repairs and ~37,500 interventional neuroradiology cases to exceed the ocular exposure limits recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection. Nevertheless, anaesthetists should be aware of the risk of ocular radiation exposure, and reduce this by limiting the time of exposure, increasing the distance from the source of radiation, and shielding. PMID:25267714

  12. Tissues may adapt to radiation exposure

    SciTech Connect

    1993-08-01

    French scientists discovered radioactivity and developed vaccination, so it is perhaps appropriate that a prominent French cancer specialist should be promoting the idea of a radiation vaccination effect - or radiation adaptation, as he prefers to call it. Raymond Latarjet, of the Institut Curie in Paris, maintains that recent studies at the gene level are showing evidence that with low doses of radiation, there is time for a cell repair mechanism to take effect, and that this seems to provide some protection against subsequent exposure to high doses. He cited experiments in his laboratory in which exposure to a dose of 4 Gy (400 rad) had, predictably, produced a large number of gene mutations in a specimen, but the number of mutations was less than half that number in a specimen that had been exposed to a dose of 0.02 Gy some six hours before exposure to the 4 Gy.

  13. Exposure to chemical additives from polyvinyl chloride polymer extrusion processing

    SciTech Connect

    Lamb, C.S.

    1989-12-01

    The report presents a model to predict worker inhalation exposure due to off-gassing of additives during polyvinyl chloride (PVC) extrusion processing. Data on off-gassing of additives were reviewed in the literature, the off-gassing at normal PVC processing temperatures was studied in the laboratory, process variables were estimated from an equipment manufacturer survey, and worker-activities and possible exposure sources were observed in an industrial survey. The purpose of the study was to develop a theoretical model to predict worker inhalation exposure to additives used during PVC extrusion processing. A model to estimate the generation rate of the additive from the polymer extrudate was derived from the mass transport equations governing diffusion. The mass flow rate, initial additive volatile weight fraction, off-gassing time, diffusivity, and slab thickness are required to determine the generation rate from the model.

  14. DOE occupational radiation exposure 1996 report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    The goal of the US Department of Energy (DOE) is to conduct its radiological operations to ensure the health and safety of all DOE employees including contractors and subcontractors. The DOE strives to maintain radiation exposures to its workers below administrative control levels and DOE limits and to further reduce these exposures and releases to levels that are ``As Low As Reasonably Achievable`` (ALARA). The DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report, 1996 provides summary and analysis of the occupational radiation exposure received by individuals associated with DOE activities. The DOE mission includes stewardship of the nuclear weapons stockpile and the associated facilities, environmental restoration of DOE and precursor agency sites, and energy research. Collective exposure at DOE has declined by 80% over the past decade due to a cessation in opportunities for exposure during the transition in DOE mission from weapons production to cleanup, deactivation and decommissioning, and changes in reporting requirements and dose calculation methodology. In 1996, the collective dose decreased by 10% from the 1995 value due to decreased doses at five of the seven highest-dose DOE sites. For 1996, these sites attributed the reduction in collective dose to the completion of several decontamination and decommissioning projects, reduced spent fuel storage activities, and effective ALARA practices. This report is intended to be a valuable tool for managers in their management of radiological safety programs and commitment of resources.

  15. Occupational Radiation Exposure During Endovascular Aortic Repair

    SciTech Connect

    Sailer, Anna M.; Schurink, Geert Willem H.; Bol, Martine E. Haan, Michiel W. de Zwam, Willem H. van Wildberger, Joachim E. Jeukens, Cécile R. L. P. N.

    2015-08-15

    PurposeThe aim of the study was to evaluate the radiation exposure to operating room personnel and to assess determinants for high personal doses during endovascular aortic repair.Materials and MethodsOccupational radiation exposure was prospectively evaluated during 22 infra-renal aortic repair procedures (EVAR), 11 thoracic aortic repair procedures (TEVAR), and 11 fenestrated or branched aortic repair procedures (FEVAR). Real-time over-lead dosimeters attached to the left breast pocket measured personal doses for the first operators (FO) and second operators (SO), radiology technicians (RT), scrub nurses (SN), anesthesiologists (AN), and non-sterile nurses (NSN). Besides protective apron and thyroid collar, no additional radiation shielding was used. Procedural dose area product (DAP), iodinated contrast volume, fluoroscopy time, patient’s body weight, and C-arm angulation were documented.ResultsAverage procedural FO dose was significantly higher during FEVAR (0.34 ± 0.28 mSv) compared to EVAR (0.11 ± 0.21 mSv) and TEVAR (0.06 ± 0.05 mSv; p = 0.003). Average personnel doses were 0.17 ± 0.21 mSv (FO), 0.042 ± 0.045 mSv (SO), 0.019 ± 0.042 mSv (RT), 0.017 ± 0.031 mSv (SN), 0.006 ± 0.007 mSv (AN), and 0.004 ± 0.009 mSv (NSN). SO and AN doses were strongly correlated with FO dose (p = 0.003 and p < 0.001). There was a significant correlation between FO dose and procedural DAP (R = 0.69, p < 0.001), iodinated contrast volume (R = 0.67, p < 0.001) and left-anterior C-arm projections >60° (p = 0.02), and a weak correlation with fluoroscopy time (R = 0.40, p = 0.049).ConclusionAverage FO dose was a factor four higher than SO dose. Predictors for high personal doses are procedural DAP, iodinated contrast volume, and left-anterior C-arm projections greater than 60°.

  16. EXPOSURE TO CHEMICAL ADDITIVES FROM POLYVINYL CHLORIDE POLYMER EXTRUSION PROCESSING

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report presents a model to predict worker inhalation exposure due to off-gassing of additives during polyvinyl chloride (PVC) extrusion processing. ata on off-gassing of additives were reviewed in the literature, the off-gassing at normal PVC processing temperatures was stud...

  17. Exposure to UV radiation and human health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimlin, Michael G.

    2005-08-01

    This paper will overview the significant issues facing researchers in relating the impact of exposure to sunlight and human health. Exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation is the major causative factor in most sun-related skin and eye disorders, however, very little is known quantitatively about human UV exposures. Interestingly, human exposure to sunlight also has a nutritional impact, namely the development of pre-Vitamin D, which is an important nutrient in bone health. New research suggest that low vitamin D status may be a causative factor in the development of selective types of cancer and autoimminue diseases, as well as a contributing factor in bone health. The 'health duality' aspect of sunlight exposure is an interesting and controversial topic that is a research focus of Kimlin's research group.

  18. Integrated natural radiation exposure studies in stable Yugoslav rural communities.

    PubMed

    Zunic, Z S; McLaughlin, J P; Walsh, C; Birovljev, A; Simopoulos, S E; Jakupi, B; Gordanic, V; Demajo, M; Trotti, F; Falk, R; Vanmarcke, H; Paridaens, J; Fujimoto, K

    2001-05-14

    The results of field investigations of natural radiation exposures of the general population in two stable rural communities in Yugoslavia are presented. The principal emphasis was on exposures to contemporary indoor radon, but measurements of external penetrating radiation absorbed dose rates in air were carried out in the majority of cases. In addition, in a limited number of dwellings, measurements of thoron gas concentrations were made. By means of making a series of sequential 3-month radon measurements, both seasonal variations and annual average radon levels in the dwellings were determined. Using passive alpha track detectors, individual radon and thoron indoor concentrations as high as 9591 Bq m(-3) and 709 Bq m(-3), respectively, were detected while absorbed dose rates in air in the dwellings as high as 430 nGy h(-1) were recorded. On the basis of these different types of measurements, assessments could be made of the integrated natural radiation exposures being received by the populations. In addition to contemporary radon measurements, retrospective radon exposure assessments in most of the dwellings were made on the basis of measurements of 210Po concentrations in both surface (glass) traps and in volume (porous materials) traps. A description is given of the sampling strategies and protocols used in this field work. It is shown that at least one stable rural community receiving high natural radiation exposures, has been clearly identified and plans for future health investigations of the population there are outlined. PMID:11379920

  19. 10 CFR 35.70 - Surveys of ambient radiation exposure rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Surveys of ambient radiation exposure rate. 35.70 Section... Requirements § 35.70 Surveys of ambient radiation exposure rate. (a) In addition to the surveys required by Part 20 of this chapter, a licensee shall survey with a radiation detection survey instrument at...

  20. 10 CFR 35.70 - Surveys of ambient radiation exposure rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Surveys of ambient radiation exposure rate. 35.70 Section... Requirements § 35.70 Surveys of ambient radiation exposure rate. (a) In addition to the surveys required by Part 20 of this chapter, a licensee shall survey with a radiation detection survey instrument at...

  1. 10 CFR 35.70 - Surveys of ambient radiation exposure rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Surveys of ambient radiation exposure rate. 35.70 Section... Requirements § 35.70 Surveys of ambient radiation exposure rate. (a) In addition to the surveys required by Part 20 of this chapter, a licensee shall survey with a radiation detection survey instrument at...

  2. 10 CFR 35.70 - Surveys of ambient radiation exposure rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Surveys of ambient radiation exposure rate. 35.70 Section... Requirements § 35.70 Surveys of ambient radiation exposure rate. (a) In addition to the surveys required by Part 20 of this chapter, a licensee shall survey with a radiation detection survey instrument at...

  3. Radiation exposure in interventional radiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinto, N. G. V.; Braz, D.; Vallim, M. A.; Filho, L. G. P.; Azevedo, F. S.; Barroso, R. C.; Lopes, R. T.

    2007-09-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate dose values in patients and staff involved in some interventional radiology procedures. Doses have been measured using thermoluminescent dosemeters for single procedures (such as renal and cerebral arteriography, transjungular intrahepatic portasystemic shunt (TIPS) and chemoembolization). The magnitude of doses through the hands of interventional radiologists has been studied. Dose levels were evaluated in three points for patients (eye, thyroid and gonads). The dose-area product (DAP) was also investigated using a Diamentor (PTW-M2). The dose in extremities was estimated for a professional who generally performed one TIPS, two chemoembolizations, two cerebral arteriographies and two renal arteriographies in a week. The estimated annual radiation dose was converted to effective dose as suggested by the 453-MS/Brazil norm The annual dose values were 137.25 mSv for doctors, 40.27 mSv for nurses and 51.95 mSv for auxiliary doctors, and all these annual dose values are below the limit established. The maximum values of the dose obtained for patients were 6.91, 10.92 and 15.34 mGy close to eye, thyroid and gonads, respectively. The DAP values were evaluated for patients in the same interventional radiology procedures. The dose and DAP values obtained are in agreement with values encountered in the literature.

  4. DOE occupational radiation exposure 1998 report

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    1998-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environment, Safety and Health with support from Environment Safety and Health Technical Information Services publishes the DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report. This report is intended to be a valuable tool for DOE/DOE contractor managers in managing radiological safety programs and to assist them in prioritizing resources. We appreciate the efforts and contributions from the various stakeholders within and outside DOE and hope we have succeeded in making the report more useful. This report includes occupational radiation exposure information for all monitored DOE employees, contractors, subcontractors, and visitors. The exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site. For the purposes of examining trends, data for the past 5 years are included in the analysis.

  5. DOE occupational radiation exposure 2003 report

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2003-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Corporate Performance Assessment (EH-3) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report. This report is intended to be a valuable tool for DOE and DOE contractor managers and workers in managing radiological safety programs and to assist them in prioritizing resources. We appreciate the efforts and contributions from the various stakeholders within and outside DOE to make the report most useful. This report includes occupational radiation exposure information for all monitored DOE employees, contractors, subcontractors, and members of the public. DOE is defined to include the National Nuclear Security Administration sites. The exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site. For the purposes of examining trends, data for the past 5 years are included in the analysis.

  6. DOE occupational radiation exposure 2004 report

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2004-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Corporate Performance Assessment (EH-3) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report. This report is intended to be a valuable tool for DOE and DOE contractor managers and workers in managing radiological safety programs and to assist them in prioritizing resources. We appreciate the efforts and contributions from the various stakeholders within and outside DOE to make the report most useful. This report includes occupational radiation exposure information for all monitored DOE employees, contractors, and subcontractors, as well as members of the public. DOE is defined to include the National Nuclear Security Administration sites. The exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site. For the purposes of examining trends, data for the past 5 years are included in the analysis.

  7. DOE occupational radiation exposure 1999 report

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    1999-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Safety and Health publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report. This report is intended to be a valuable tool for DOE and DOE contractor managers in managing radiological safety programs and to assist them in prioritizing resources. We appreciate the efforts and contributions from the various stakeholders within and outside DOE and hope we have succeeded in making the report more useful. This report includes occupational radiation exposure information for all monitored DOE employees, contractors, subcontractors, and visitors. The exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site. For the purposes of examining trends, data for the past 5 years are included in the analysis.

  8. DOE occupational radiation exposure 2000 report

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2000-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Safety and Health publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report. This report is intended to be a valuable tool for DOE and DOE contractor managers in managing radiological safety programs and to assist them in prioritizing resources. We appreciate the efforts and contributions from the various stakeholders within and outside DOE in making this report most useful to them. This report includes occupational radiation exposure information for all monitored DOE employees, contractors, subcontractors, and visitors. The exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site. For the purposes of examining trends, data for the past 5 years are included in the analysis.

  9. DOE occupational radiation exposure 2002 report

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2002-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Corporate Performance Assessment (EH-3) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report. This report is intended to be a valuable tool for DOE and DOE contractor managers and workers in managing radiological safety programs and to assist them in prioritizing resources. We appreciate the efforts and contributions from the various stakeholders within and outside DOE to make the report most useful. This report includes occupational radiation exposure information for all monitored DOE employees, contractors, subcontractors, and members of the public. The exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site. For the purposes of examining trends, data for the past 5 years are included in the analysis.

  10. DOE occupational radiation exposure 1997 report

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    1997-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environment, Safety and Health publishes the DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report. This report is intended to be a valuable tool for DOE/DOE contractor managers in managing radiological safety programs and to assist them in prioritizing resources. We appreciate the efforts and contributions from the various stakeholders within and outside DOE and hope we have succeeded in making the report more useful. This report includes occupational radiation exposure information for all monitored DOE employees, contractors, subcontractors, and visitors. The exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site. For the purposes of examining trends, data for the past 5 years are included in the analysis.

  11. DOE occupational radiation exposure 1996 report

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    1996-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environment, Safety and Health publishes the DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report. This report is intended to be a valuable tool for DOE/DOE contractor managers in their management of radiological safety programs and to assist them in the prioritization of resources. We appreciate the efforts and contributions from the various stakeholders within and outside the DOE and hope we have succeeded in making the report more useful. This report includes occupational radiation exposure information for all DOE employees, contractors, subcontractors, and visitors. The exposure information is analyzed in terms of collective data, dose to individuals, and dose by site. For the purposes of examining trends, data for the past 5 years are included in the analysis.

  12. A Translatable Predictor of Human Radiation Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Suchindran, Sunil; Nakamura, Mai; Chao, Nelson J.; Himburg, Heather; Minor, Kerry; Phillips, Gary; Ross, Joel; Abedi, Majid; Terbrueggen, Robert; Chute, John P.

    2014-01-01

    Terrorism using radiological dirty bombs or improvised nuclear devices is recognized as a major threat to both public health and national security. In the event of a radiological or nuclear disaster, rapid and accurate biodosimetry of thousands of potentially affected individuals will be essential for effective medical management to occur. Currently, health care providers lack an accurate, high-throughput biodosimetric assay which is suitable for the triage of large numbers of radiation injury victims. Here, we describe the development of a biodosimetric assay based on the analysis of irradiated mice, ex vivo-irradiated human peripheral blood (PB) and humans treated with total body irradiation (TBI). Interestingly, a gene expression profile developed via analysis of murine PB radiation response alone was inaccurate in predicting human radiation injury. In contrast, generation of a gene expression profile which incorporated data from ex vivo irradiated human PB and human TBI patients yielded an 18-gene radiation classifier which was highly accurate at predicting human radiation status and discriminating medically relevant radiation dose levels in human samples. Although the patient population was relatively small, the accuracy of this classifier in discriminating radiation dose levels in human TBI patients was not substantially confounded by gender, diagnosis or prior exposure to chemotherapy. We have further incorporated genes from this human radiation signature into a rapid and high-throughput chemical ligation-dependent probe amplification assay (CLPA) which was able to discriminate radiation dose levels in a pilot study of ex vivo irradiated human blood and samples from human TBI patients. Our results illustrate the potential for translation of a human genetic signature for the diagnosis of human radiation exposure and suggest the basis for further testing of CLPA as a candidate biodosimetric assay. PMID:25255453

  13. Effects of prenatal exposure to ionizing radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.W. )

    1990-07-01

    Prenatal exposure to ionizing radiation induces some effects that are seen at birth and others that cannot be detected until later in life. Data from A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki show a diminished number of births after exposure under 4 wk of gestational age. Although a wide array of congenital malformations has been found in animal experimentation after such exposure to x rays, in humans only small head size (exposure at 4-17 wk) and mental retardation (exposure primarily at 8-15 wk) have been observed. In Hiroshima, small head size occurred after doses of 0.10-0.19 Gy or more, and an excess of mental retardation at 0.2-0.4 Gy or more. Intelligence test scores were reduced among A-bomb survivors exposed at 8-15 wk of gestational age by 21-29 IQ points per Gy. Other effects of in-utero exposure to atomic radiation include long-lasting complex chromosome abnormalities.

  14. Risk Assessment of Radiation Exposure using Molecular Biodosimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliott, Todd F.; George, K.; Hammond, D. K.; Cucinotta, F. A.

    2007-01-01

    Current cytogenetic biodosimetry methods would be difficult to adapt to spaceflight operations, because they require toxic chemicals and a substantial amount of time to perform. In addition, current biodosimetry techniques are limited to whole body doses over about 10cGy. Development of new techniques that assess radiation exposure response at the molecular level could overcome these limitations and have important implications in the advancement of biodosimetry. Recent technical advances include expression profiling at the transcript and protein level to assess multiple biomarkers of exposure, which may lead to the development of a radiation biomarker panel revealing possible fingerprints of individual radiation sensitivity. So far, many biomarkers of interest have been examined in their response to ionizing radiation, such as cytokines and members of the DNA repair pathway. New technology, such as the Luminex system can analyze many biomarkers simultaneously in one sample.

  15. Medical exposure to radiation and thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Schonfeld, S J; Lee, C; Berrington de González, A

    2011-05-01

    In 2008, the worldwide estimated age-standardised incidence rates for thyroid cancer incidence were 4.7 and 1.5 per 100,000 women and men, respectively. Thyroid cancer's overall contribution to the worldwide cancer burden is relatively small, but incidence rates have increased over the last three decades throughout the world. This trend has been hypothesised to reflect a combination of technological advances enabling increased detection, but also changes in environmental factors, including population exposure to ionising radiation from fallout, diagnostic tests and treatment for benign and malignant conditions. Studies of the atomic bomb survivors and populations treated with radiotherapy have established radiation as a risk factor for thyroid cancer, particularly from early life exposure. About 0.62 mSv (20%) of the global annual per caput effective radiation dose comes from diagnostic medical and dental radiation for the period of 1997-2007, increased from 0.4 mSv for the years 1991-1996. This international trend of increasing population exposure to medical diagnostic sources of radiation, attributed in large part to the growing use of computed tomography scans, but also interventional radiology procedures, has raised concerns about exposure to radiosensitive organs such as the thyroid. Worldwide, medical and dental X-rays constitute the most common type of diagnostic medical exposures, but their contribution to the cumulative effective dose is relatively low, whereas computed tomography scans account for 7.9% of diagnostic radiology examinations but 47% of the collective effective dose from diagnostic radiation procedures in parts of the world. Although the radiation exposure from computed tomography scans is substantially lower than that from radiotherapy, multiple computed tomography scans could result in non-trivial cumulative doses to the thyroid. Studies are currently underway to assess the incidence of cancer in large cohorts of children who received

  16. Space Radiation and Human Exposures, A Primer.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Gregory A

    2016-04-01

    The space radiation environment is a complex field comprised primarily of charged particles spanning energies over many orders of magnitude. The principal sources of these particles are galactic cosmic rays, the Sun and the trapped radiation belts around the earth. Superimposed on a steady influx of cosmic rays and a steady outward flux of low-energy solar wind are short-term ejections of higher energy particles from the Sun and an 11-year variation of solar luminosity that modulates cosmic ray intensity. Human health risks are estimated from models of the radiation environment for various mission scenarios, the shielding of associated vehicles and the human body itself. Transport models are used to propagate the ambient radiation fields through realistic shielding levels and materials to yield radiation field models inside spacecraft. Then, informed by radiobiological experiments and epidemiology studies, estimates are made for various outcome measures associated with impairments of biological processes, losses of function or mortality. Cancer-associated risks have been formulated in a probabilistic model while management of non-cancer risks are based on permissible exposure limits. This article focuses on the various components of the space radiation environment and the human exposures that it creates. PMID:27018778

  17. Low-dose radiation exposure and carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Keiji; Yamashita, Shunichi

    2012-07-01

    Absorption of energy from ionizing radiation by the genetic material in the cell leads to damage to DNA, which in turn leads to cell death, chromosome aberrations and gene mutations. While early or deterministic effects result from organ and tissue damage caused by cell killing, latter two are considered to be involved in the initial events that lead to the development of cancer. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated the dose-response relationships for cancer induction and quantitative evaluations of cancer risk following exposure to moderate to high doses of low-linear energy transfer radiation. A linear, no-threshold model has been applied to assessment of the risks resulting from exposure to moderate and high doses of ionizing radiation; however, a statistically significant increase has hardly been described for radiation doses below 100 mSv. This review summarizes our current knowledge of the physical and biological features of low-dose radiation and discusses the possibilities of induction of cancer by low-dose radiation. PMID:22641644

  18. Modeling Impaired Hippocampal Neurogenesis after Radiation Exposure.

    PubMed

    Cacao, Eliedonna; Cucinotta, Francis A

    2016-03-01

    Radiation impairment of neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus is one of several factors associated with cognitive detriments after treatment of brain cancers in children and adults with radiation therapy. Mouse models have been used to study radiation-induced changes in neurogenesis, however the models are limited in the number of doses, dose fractions, age and time after exposure conditions that have been studied. The purpose of this study is to develop a novel predictive mathematical model of radiation-induced changes to neurogenesis using a system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations (ODEs) to represent the time, age and dose-dependent changes to several cell populations participating in neurogenesis as reported in mouse experiments exposed to low-LET radiation. We considered four compartments to model hippocampal neurogenesis and, consequently, the effects of radiation treatment in altering neurogenesis: (1) neural stem cells (NSCs), (2) neuronal progenitor cells or neuroblasts (NB), (3) immature neurons (ImN) and (4) glioblasts (GB). Because neurogenesis is decreasing with increasing mouse age, a description of the age-related dynamics of hippocampal neurogenesis is considered in the model, which is shown to be an important factor in comparisons to experimental data. A key feature of the model is the description of negative feedback regulation on early and late neuronal proliferation after radiation exposure. The model is augmented with parametric descriptions of the dose and time after irradiation dependences of activation of microglial cells and a possible shift of NSC proliferation from neurogenesis to gliogenesis reported at higher doses (∼10 Gy). Predictions for dose-fractionation regimes and for different mouse ages, and prospects for future work are then discussed. PMID:26943452

  19. Radiation exposure monitoring in civil aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrewe, Ulrich J.

    1999-02-01

    Based on the 1990 Recommendation of the ICRP (ICRP Publication 60, Pergamon Press, Oxford, 1991) a European Directive [Official J. Eur. Communities 19 (1996) L159, 1-114] commits the European Union (EU) member states to revise their national radiation protection laws by the year 2000 such that the exposure of aircrews to the increased cosmic radiation prevailing at aviation flight altitudes will be treated as occupational risks. A consequence will be that employers must assess the aircrew exposure. The ACREM (Air Crew Radiation Exposure Monitoring) research project intends to investigate practically methods for aircraft dose equivalent determination. The in-flight measurements were carried out on cargo aircraft. Field calibrations were performed using Tissue-Equivalent Proportional Counters (TEPC) as the reference instrument. Various monitors were used to investigate the spatial doserate distribution. The measured data were collated according to the different altitudes and geomagnetic latitudes. The results obtained from various in-flight measurements are reported and a concept for a future routine dose assessment for aircrew is proposed.

  20. Regulation of nuclear radiation exposures in India.

    PubMed

    Mishra, U C

    2004-01-01

    India has a long-term program of wide spread applications of nuclear radiations and radioactive sources for peaceful applications in medicine, industry, agriculture and research and is already having several thousand places in the country where such sources are being routinely used. These places are mostly outside the Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) installations. DAE supplies such sources. The most important application of nuclear energy in DAE is in electricity generation through nuclear power plants. Fourteen such plants are operating and many new plants are at various stages of construction. In view of the above mentioned wide spread applications, Indian parliament through an Act, called Atomic Energy Act, 1964 created an autonomous body called Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB) with comprehensive authority and powers. This Board issues codes, guides, manuals, etc., to regulate such installations so as to ensure safe use of such sources and personnel engaged in such installations and environment receives radiation exposures within the upper bounds prescribed by them. Periodic reports are submitted to AERB to demonstrate compliance of its directives. Health, Safety and Environment Group of Bhabha Atomic Research Centres, Mumbai carries out necessary surveillance and monitoring of all installations of the DAE on a routine basis and also periodic inspections of other installations using radiation sources. Some of the nuclear fuel cycle plants like nuclear power plants and fuel reprocessing involve large radioactive source inventories and have potential of accidental release of radioactivity into the environment, an Environmental Surveillance Laboratory (ESL) is set up at each such site much before the facility goes into operation. These ESL's collect baseline data and monitor the environment throughout the life of the facilities including the decommissioning stage. The data is provided to AERB and is available to members of the public. In addition, a multi

  1. Ionizing Radiation Environments and Exposure Risks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, M. H. Y.

    2015-12-01

    Space radiation environments for historically large solar particle events (SPE) and galactic cosmic rays (GCR) are simulated to characterize exposures to radio-sensitive organs for missions to low-Earth orbit (LEO), moon, near-Earth asteroid, and Mars. Primary and secondary particles for SPE and GCR are transported through the respective atmospheres of Earth or Mars, space vehicle, and astronaut's body tissues using NASA's HZETRN/QMSFRG computer code. Space radiation protection methods, which are derived largely from ground-based methods recommended by the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) or International Commission on Radiological Protections (ICRP), are built on the principles of risk justification, limitation, and ALARA (as low as reasonably achievable). However, because of the large uncertainties in high charge and energy (HZE) particle radiobiology and the small population of space crews, NASA develops distinct methods to implement a space radiation protection program. For the fatal cancer risks, which have been considered the dominant risk for GCR, the NASA Space Cancer Risk (NSCR) model has been developed from recommendations by NCRP; and undergone external review by the National Research Council (NRC), NCRP, and through peer-review publications. The NSCR model uses GCR environmental models, particle transport codes describing the GCR modification by atomic and nuclear interactions in atmospheric shielding coupled with spacecraft and tissue shielding, and NASA-defined quality factors for solid cancer and leukemia risk estimates for HZE particles. By implementing the NSCR model, the exposure risks from various heliospheric conditions are assessed for the radiation environments for various-class mission types to understand architectures and strategies of human exploration missions and ultimately to contribute to the optimization of radiation safety and well-being of space crewmembers participating in long-term space missions.

  2. Radiation Exposure Alters Expression of Metabolic Enzyme Genes in Mice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wotring, V. E.; Mangala, L. S.; Zhang, Y.; Wu, H.

    2011-01-01

    Most administered pharmaceuticals are metabolized by the liver. The health of the liver, especially the rate of its metabolic enzymes, determines the concentration of circulating drugs as well as the duration of their efficacy. Most pharmaceuticals are metabolized by the liver, and clinically-used medication doses are given with normal liver function in mind. A drug overdose can result in the case of a liver that is damaged and removing pharmaceuticals from the circulation at a rate slower than normal. Alternatively, if liver function is elevated and removing drugs from the system more quickly than usual, it would be as if too little drug had been given for effective treatment. Because of the importance of the liver in drug metabolism, we want to understand the effects of spaceflight on the enzymes of the liver and exposure to cosmic radiation is one aspect of spaceflight that can be modeled in ground experiments. Additionally, it has been previous noted that pre-exposure to small radiation doses seems to confer protection against later and larger radiation doses. This protective power of pre-exposure has been called a priming effect or radioadaptation. This study is an effort to examine the drug metabolizing effects of radioadaptation mechanisms that may be triggered by early exposure to low radiation doses.

  3. Modelling of aircrew radiation exposure during solar particle events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al Anid, Hani Khaled

    In 1990, the International Commission on Radiological Protection recognized the occupational exposure of aircrew to cosmic radiation. In Canada, a Commercial and Business Aviation Advisory Circular was issued by Transport Canada suggesting that action should be taken to manage such exposure. In anticipation of possible regulations on exposure of Canadian-based aircrew in the near future, an extensive study was carried out at the Royal Military College of Canada to measure the radiation exposure during commercial flights. The radiation exposure to aircrew is a result of a complex mixed-radiation field resulting from Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCRs) and Solar Energetic Particles (SEPs). Supernova explosions and active galactic nuclei are responsible for GCRs which consist of 90% protons, 9% alpha particles, and 1% heavy nuclei. While they have a fairly constant fluence rate, their interaction with the magnetic field of the Earth varies throughout the solar cycles, which has a period of approximately 11 years. SEPs are highly sporadic events that are associated with solar flares and coronal mass ejections. This type of exposure may be of concern to certain aircrew members, such as pregnant flight crew, for which the annual effective dose is limited to 1 mSv over the remainder of the pregnancy. The composition of SEPs is very similar to GCRs, in that they consist of mostly protons, some alpha particles and a few heavy nuclei, but with a softer energy spectrum. An additional factor when analysing SEPs is the effect of flare anisotropy. This refers to the way charged particles are transported through the Earth's magnetosphere in an anisotropic fashion. Solar flares that are fairly isotropic produce a uniform radiation exposure for areas that have similar geomagnetic shielding, while highly anisotropic events produce variable exposures at different locations on the Earth. Studies of neutron monitor count rates from detectors sharing similar geomagnetic shielding properties

  4. 10 CFR 35.70 - Surveys of ambient radiation exposure rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Surveys of ambient radiation exposure rate. 35.70 Section 35.70 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL General Technical Requirements § 35.70 Surveys of ambient radiation exposure rate. (a) In addition to the surveys required by Part 20 of this chapter, a licensee...

  5. LPGS. Code System for Calculating Radiation Exposure

    SciTech Connect

    White, J.E.; Eckerman, K.F.

    1983-01-01

    LPGS was developed to calculate the radiological impacts resulting from radioactive releases to the hydrosphere. The name LPGS was derived from the Liquid Pathway Generic Study for which the original code was used primarily as an analytic tool in the assessment process. The hydrosphere is represented by the following types of water bodies: estuary, small river, well, lake, and one-dimensional (1-d) river. LPGS is designed to calculate radiation dose (individual and population) to body organs as a function of time for the various exposure pathways. The radiological consequences to the aquatic biota are estimated. Several simplified radionuclide transport models are employed with built-in formulations to describe the release rate of the radionuclides. A tabulated user-supplied release model can be input, if desired. Printer plots of dose versus time for the various exposure pathways are provided.

  6. Intrauterine radiation exposures and mental retardation

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.W.

    1988-08-01

    Small head size and mental retardation have been known as effects of intrauterine exposure to ionizing radiation since the 1920s. In the 1950s, studies of Japanese atomic-bomb survivors revealed that at 4-17 wk of gestation, the greater the dose, the smaller the brain (and head size), and that beginning at 0.5 Gy (50 rad) in Hiroshima, mental retardation increased in frequency with increasing dose. No other excess of birth defects was observed. Otake and Schull (1984) pointed out that the period of susceptibility to mental retardation coincided with that for proliferation and migration of neuronal elements from near the cerebral ventricles to the cortex. Mental retardation could be the result of interference with this process. Their analysis indicated that exposures at 8-15 wk to 0.01-0.02 Gy (1-2 rad) doubled the frequency of severe mental retardation. This estimate was based on small numbers of mentally retarded atomic-bomb survivors. Although nuclear accidents have occurred recently, new cases will hopefully be too rare to provide further information about the risk of mental retardation. It may be possible, however, to learn about lesser impairment. New psychometric tests may be helpful in detecting subtle deficits in intelligence or neurodevelopmental function. One such test is PEERAMID, which is being used in schools to identify learning disabilities due, for example, to deficits in attention, short- or long-term memory, or in sequencing information. This and other tests could be applied in evaluating survivors of intrauterine exposure to various doses of ionizing radiation. The results could change our understanding of the safety of low-dose exposures.

  7. DOE 2008 Occupational Radiation Exposure October 2009

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security

    2009-10-01

    A major priority of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is to ensure the health, safety, and security of DOE employees, contractors, and subcontractors. The Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) provides the corporate-level leadership and strategic vision necessary to better coordinate and integrate health, safety, environment, security, enforcement, and independent oversight programs. One function that supports this mission is the DOE Corporate Operating Experience Program that provides collection, analysis, and dissemination of performance indicators, such as occupational radiation exposure information. This analysis supports corporate decision-making and synthesizes operational information to support continuous environment, safety, and health improvement across the DOE complex.

  8. Lead exposure and radiator repair work

    SciTech Connect

    Lussenhop, D.H.; Parker, D.L.; Barklind, A.; McJilton, C. )

    1989-11-01

    In 1986, the ambient air for lead in radiator repair shops in the Minneapolis-St. Paul metropolitan area exceeded the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) action level in nine of 12 shops sampled by Minnesota OSHA. We therefore sought to determine the prevalence of lead exposure/toxicity in this industry. Thirty-five radiator shops were identified, 30 were visited, and 53 workers were studied. The mean blood lead level was 1.53 (range 0.24-2.80). Seventeen individuals had blood lead levels greater than or equal to 1.93 mumol/L (40 micrograms/dl). The mean zinc protoporphyrin level (ZPP) was 0.55 mumol/L (range 0.16-1.43). No single worksite or personal characteristic was a strong determinant of either blood lead or ZPP level.

  9. Changes in gene expression associated with radiation exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Woloschak, G.E.; Paunesku, T.; Chang-Liu, C.M.; Grdina, D.J.

    1995-12-31

    Current research from our group has demonstrated differences in gene induction patterns for high- and low-linear energy transfer radiations; some genes are induced selectively following neutron exposure, others selectively following {gamma}-ray exposure, and others induced following exposure to either. These genes are associated with a broad array of different functions including apoptosis, cytoskeletal function, and gene regulation (dd-RT-PCR) technology to identify genes induced following exposure to different qualities of radiation and following exposure to radiation in the presence of radioprotectors.

  10. Novel Human Radiation Exposure Biomarker Panel Applicable for Population Triage

    SciTech Connect

    Bazan, Jose G.; Chang, Polly; Balog, Robert; D'Andrea, Annalisa; Shaler, Thomas; Lin, Hua; Lee, Shirley; Harrison, Travis; Shura, Lei; Schoen, Lucy; Knox, Susan J.; Cooper, David E.

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: To identify a panel of radiation-responsive plasma proteins that could be used in a point-of-care biologic dosimeter to detect clinically significant levels of ionizing radiation exposure. Methods and Materials: Patients undergoing preparation for hematopoietic cell transplantation using radiation therapy (RT) with either total lymphoid irradiation or fractionated total body irradiation were eligible. Plasma was examined from patients with potentially confounding conditions and from normal individuals. Each plasma sample was analyzed for a panel of 17 proteins before RT was begun and at several time points after RT exposure. Paired and unpaired t tests between the dose and control groups were performed. Conditional inference trees were constructed based on panels of proteins to compare the non-RT group with the RT group. Results: A total of 151 patients (62 RT, 41 infection, 48 trauma) were enrolled on the study, and the plasma from an additional 24 healthy control individuals was analyzed. In comparison with to control individuals, tenascin-C was upregulated and clusterin was downregulated in patients receiving RT. Salivary amylase was strongly radiation responsive, with upregulation in total body irradiation patients and slight downregulation in total lymphoid irradiation patients compared with control individuals. A panel consisting of these 3 proteins accurately distinguished between irradiated patients and healthy control individuals within 3 days after exposure: 97% accuracy, 0.5% false negative rate, 2% false positive rate. The accuracy was diminished when patients with trauma, infection, or both were included (accuracy, 74%-84%; false positive rate, 14%-33%, false negative rate: 8%-40%). Conclusions: A panel of 3 proteins accurately distinguishes unirradiated healthy donors from those exposed to RT (0.8-9.6 Gy) within 3 days of exposure. These findings have significant implications in terms of triaging individuals in the case of nuclear or other

  11. Predictive modeling of terrestrial radiation exposure from geologic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haber, Daniel A.

    Aerial gamma ray surveys are an important tool for national security, scientific, and industrial interests in determining locations of both anthropogenic and natural sources of radioactivity. There is a relationship between radioactivity and geology and in the past this relationship has been used to predict geology from an aerial survey. The purpose of this project is to develop a method to predict the radiologic exposure rate of the geologic materials in an area by creating a model using geologic data, images from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), geochemical data, and pre-existing low spatial resolution aerial surveys from the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) Survey. Using these data, geospatial areas, referred to as background radiation units, homogenous in terms of K, U, and Th are defined and the gamma ray exposure rate is predicted. The prediction is compared to data collected via detailed aerial survey by our partner National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), allowing for the refinement of the technique. High resolution radiation exposure rate models have been developed for two study areas in Southern Nevada that include the alluvium on the western shore of Lake Mohave, and Government Wash north of Lake Mead; both of these areas are arid with little soil moisture and vegetation. We determined that by using geologic units to define radiation background units of exposed bedrock and ASTER visualizations to subdivide radiation background units of alluvium, regions of homogeneous geochemistry can be defined allowing for the exposure rate to be predicted. Soil and rock samples have been collected at Government Wash and Lake Mohave as well as a third site near Cameron, Arizona. K, U, and Th concentrations of these samples have been determined using inductively coupled mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and laboratory counting using radiation detection equipment. In addition, many sample locations also have

  12. Effects of high vs low-level radiation exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Bond, V.P.

    1983-01-01

    In order to appreciate adequately the various possible effects of radiation, particularly from high-level vs low-level radiation exposure (HLRE, vs LLRE), it is necessary to understand the substantial differences between (a) exposure as used in exposure-incidence curves, which are always initially linear and without threshold, and (b) dose as used in dose-response curves, which always have a threshold, above which the function is curvilinear with increasing slope. The differences are discussed first in terms of generally familiar nonradiation situations involving dose vs exposure, and then specifically in terms of exposure to radiation, vs a dose of radiation. Examples are given of relevant biomedical findings illustrating that, while dose can be used with HLRE, it is inappropriate and misleading the LLRE where exposure is the conceptually correct measure of the amount of radiation involved.

  13. Real and Perceived Risks of Medical Radiation Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Hendee, William R.

    1983-01-01

    There is almost no subject that elicits greater concern and less objective understanding than that of exposure of patients to radiation accompanying diagnostic radiologic procedures. One or more of the health effects (cancer, developmental abnormalties and genetic changes) attributed to low-level exposure to radiation are frequently misinterpreted as likely consequences rather than statistical risks following radiation exposure. Even less well understood is the small magnitude of the risks accompanying radiation exposure compared with those related to activities encountered during the daily routine. For this reason, the perception of risk associated with exposure to low-level radiation is inconsistent with the reality of the risk as estimated by even the most conservative models of radiation injury. PMID:6858126

  14. Reduction of radiation exposure during radiography for scoliosis

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, J.E.; Hoffman, A.D.; Peterson, H.A.

    1983-01-01

    To reduce the radiation exposure received by young scoliosis patients during treatment, six changes in technique were instituted: (1) a posteroanterior projection, (2) specially designed leaded acrylic filters, (3) a high-speed screen-film system, (4) a specially designed cassette-holder and grid, (5) a breast-shield, and (6) additional filtration in the x-ray tube the thyroid, breast, and abdominal areas were made on an Alderson phantom. They revealed an eightfold reduction in abdominal exposure for both the posteroanterior and the lateral radiographys. There was a twentyfold reduction in exposure to the thyroid for the posteroanterior radiography from 100 to less than five milliroentgens and for the lateral radiograph there was a 100-fold reduction from 618 to six milliroentgens. For the breasts there was a sixty-ninefold reduction from 344 to less than five milliroentgens for the posteroanterior radiography and a fifty-fivefold reduction from 277 to less than five milliroentgens for the lateral radiograph. These reductions in exposure were obtained without significant loss in the quality of the radiographs and in most instances with an improvement in the over-all quality of the radiograph due to the more uniform exposure.

  15. Exposure Risks Among Children Undergoing Radiation Therapy: Considerations in the Era of Image Guided Radiation Therapy.

    PubMed

    Hess, Clayton B; Thompson, Holly M; Benedict, Stanley H; Seibert, J Anthony; Wong, Kenneth; Vaughan, Andrew T; Chen, Allen M

    2016-04-01

    Recent improvements in toxicity profiles of pediatric oncology patients are attributable, in part, to advances in the field of radiation oncology such as intensity modulated radiation (IMRT) and proton therapy (IMPT). While IMRT and IMPT deliver highly conformal dose to targeted volumes, they commonly demand the addition of 2- or 3-dimensional imaging for precise positioning--a technique known as image guided radiation therapy (IGRT). In this manuscript we address strategies to further minimize exposure risk in children by reducing effective IGRT dose. Portal X rays and cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) are commonly used to verify patient position during IGRT and, because their relative radiation exposure is far less than the radiation absorbed from therapeutic treatment beams, their sometimes significant contribution to cumulative risk can be easily overlooked. Optimizing the conformality of IMRT/IMPT while simultaneously ignoring IGRT dose may result in organs at risk being exposed to a greater proportion of radiation from IGRT than from therapeutic beams. Over a treatment course, cumulative central-axis CBCT effective dose can approach or supersede the amount of radiation absorbed from a single treatment fraction, a theoretical increase of 3% to 5% in mutagenic risk. In select scenarios, this may result in the underprediction of acute and late toxicity risk (such as azoospermia, ovarian dysfunction, or increased lifetime mutagenic risk) in radiation-sensitive organs and patients. Although dependent on variables such as patient age, gender, weight, body habitus, anatomic location, and dose-toxicity thresholds, modifying IGRT use and acquisition parameters such as frequency, imaging modality, beam energy, current, voltage, rotational degree, collimation, field size, reconstruction algorithm, and documentation can reduce exposure, avoid unnecessary toxicity, and achieve doses as low as reasonably achievable, promoting a culture and practice of "gentle IGRT

  16. Radiation exposure of nurses in a coronary care unit.

    PubMed

    Jankowski, C B

    1984-01-01

    In response to increasing awareness of radiation as a possible occupational hazard, nursing personnel staffing a hospital CCU were monitored over a 3-year period to determine occupational exposure. Portable x-ray machines, fluoroscopic units, and patients injected with radiopharmaceuticals were all potential radiation sources on such a unit. Whole-body TLD badges, exchanged monthly, indicated no cumulative exposures over 80 mR during the entire study period. The minimal exposures reported do not justify regular use of dosimeters. Adherence to standard protective measures precludes most exposure to machine-produced radiation. Close, prolonged contact with a patient after an RVG study that utilizes 99mTc may account for some exposure. The data indicate that radiation is not a significant occupational hazard for CCU nurses at this hospital; similar minimal exposures would be expected of other nonoccupationally exposed nursing personnel in like environments. PMID:6559185

  17. Radiation exposure of nurses in a coronary care unit

    SciTech Connect

    Jankowski, C.B.

    1984-01-01

    In response to increasing awareness of radiation as a possible occupational hazard, nursing personnel staffing a hospital CCU were monitored over a 3-year period to determine occupational exposure. Portable x-ray machines, fluoroscopic units, and patients injected with radiopharmaceuticals were all potential radiation sources on such a unit. Whole-body TLD badges, exchanged monthly, indicated no cumulative exposures over 80 mR during the entire study period. The minimal exposures reported do not justify regular use of dosimeters. Adherence to standard protective measures precludes most exposure to machine-produced radiation. Close, prolonged contact with a patient after an RVG study that utilizes /sup 99m/Tc may account for some exposure. The data indicate that radiation is not a significant occupational hazard for CCU nurses at this hospital; similar minimal exposures would be expected of other nonoccupationally exposed nursing personnel in like environments.

  18. Computer Aided Dosimetry and Verification of Exposure to Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waller, Edward; Stodilka, Robert Z.; Leach, Karen E.; Lalonde, Louise

    2002-06-01

    In the timeframe following the September 11th attacks on the United States, increased emphasis has been placed on Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear (CBRN) preparedness. Of prime importance is rapid field assessment of potential radiation exposure to Canadian Forces field personnel. This work set up a framework for generating an 'expert' computer system for aiding and assisting field personnel in determining the extent of radiation insult to military personnel. Data was gathered by review of the available literature, discussions with medical and health physics personnel having hands-on experience dealing with radiation accident victims, and from experience of the principal investigator. Flow charts and generic data fusion algorithms were developed. Relationships between known exposure parameters, patient interview and history, clinical symptoms, clinical work-ups, physical dosimetry, biological dosimetry, and dose reconstruction as critical data indicators were investigated. The data obtained was examined in terms of information theory. A main goal was to determine how best to generate an adaptive model (i.e. when more data becomes available, how is the prediction improved). Consideration was given to determination of predictive algorithms for health outcome. In addition. the concept of coding an expert medical treatment advisor system was developed (U)

  19. 47 CFR 1.1310 - Radiofrequency radiation exposure limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... exposure limits. The criteria listed in table 1 shall be used to evaluate the environmental impact of human..., “Evaluating Compliance with FCC-Specified Guidelines for Human Exposure to Radiofrequency Radiation.” Note to... Levels with Respect to Human Exposure to Radio Frequency Electromagnetic Fields, 3 kHz to 300 GHz,”...

  20. DOE occupational radiation exposure. Report 1992--1994

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    The DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report, 1992-1994 reports occupational radiation exposures incurred by individuals at US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities from 1992 through 1994. This report includes occupational radiation exposure information for all DOE employees, contractors, subcontractors, and visitors. This information is analyzed and trended over time to provide a measure of the DOE`s performance in protecting its workers from radiation. Occupational radiation exposure at DOE has been decreasing over the past 5 years. In particular, doses in the higher dose ranges are decreasing, including the number of doses in excess of the DOE limits and doses in excess of the 2 rem Administrative Control Level (ACL). This is an indication of greater attention being given to protecting these individuals from radiation in the workplace.

  1. DOE Basic Overview of Occupational Radiation Exposure_2011 pamphlet

    SciTech Connect

    ORAU

    2012-08-08

    This pamphlet focusses on two HSS activities that help ensure radiation exposures are accurately assessed and recorded, namely: 1) the quality and accuracy of occupational radiation exposure monitoring, and 2) the recording, reporting, analysis, and dissemination of the monitoring results. It is intended to provide a short summary of two specific HSS programs that aid in the oversight of radiation protection activities at DOE. The Department of Energy Laboratory Accreditation Program (DOELAP) is in place to ensure that radiation exposure monitoring at all DOE sites is precise and accurate, and conforms to national and international performance and quality assurance standards. The DOE Radiation Exposure Monitoring Systems (REMS) program provides for the collection, analysis, and dissemination of occupational radiation exposure information. The annual REMS report is a valuable tool for managing radiological safety programs and for developing policies to protect individuals from occupational exposure to radiation. In tandem, these programs provide DOE management and workers an assurance that occupational radiation exposures are accurately measured, analyzed, and reported.

  2. Rising Level of Public Exposure to Mobile Phones: Accumulation through Additivity and Reflectivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hondou, Tsuyoshi

    2002-02-01

    A dramatic development occurring in our daily life is the increasing use of mobile equipment including mobile phones and wireless access to the Internet. They enable us to access several types of information more easily than in the past. Simultaneously, the density of mobile users is rapidly increasing. When hundreds of mobile phones emit radiation, their total power is found to be comparable to that of a microwave oven or a satellite broadcasting station. Thus, the question arises: what is the public exposure level in an area with many sources of electromagnetic wave emission? We show that this level can reach the reference level for general public exposure (ICNIRP Guideline) in daily life. This is caused by the fundamental properties of electromagnetic field, namely, reflection and additivity. The level of exposure is found to be much higher than that estimated by the conventional framework of analysis that assumes that the level rapidly decreases with the inverse square distance between the source and the affected person. A simple formula for the exposure level is derived by applying energetics to the electromagnetic field. The formula reveals a potential risk of intensive exposure.

  3. Occupational Exposure to Natural Sources of Ionising Radiation in Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Organo, Catherine; Colgan, Tony; Fenton, David; Synnott, Hugh; Currivan, Lorraine

    2008-08-01

    The Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland (RPII) has recently completed a detailed evaluation of all radiation exposure pathways from sources of both natural and artificial radiation in the Irish environment. This paper presents a compilation of the occupational doses received by Irish workers exposed to natural sources of ionising radiation.

  4. Occupational Exposure to Natural Sources of Ionising Radiation in Ireland

    SciTech Connect

    Organo, Catherine; Colgan, Tony; Fenton, David; Synnott, Hugh; Currivan, Lorraine

    2008-08-07

    The Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland (RPII) has recently completed a detailed evaluation of all radiation exposure pathways from sources of both natural and artificial radiation in the Irish environment. This paper presents a compilation of the occupational doses received by Irish workers exposed to natural sources of ionising radiation.

  5. Natural ionizing radiation exposure of the Spanish population.

    PubMed

    García-Talavera, M; Matarranz, J L; Martínez, M; Salas, R; Ramos, L

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates the exposure of the Spanish population to natural radiation sources. The annual average effective dose is estimated to be 1.6 mSv, taking into account contributions from cosmic radiation (18%), terrestrial gamma radiation (30%), radon and thoron inhalation (34%) and ingestion (18%). Cosmic radiation doses were calculated from town altitude data. Terrestrial gamma ray exposure outdoors were derived from the MARNA (natural gamma radiation map of Spain); indoor exposure was obtained multiplying the corresponding outdoor value by an experimentally calculated conversion factor. Radon doses were estimated from national surveys carried out throughout the country. To assess doses by ingestion, data from a detailed study on consumption habits in Spain and average radioactivity values from UNSCEAR have been considered. The variability in the exposures among individuals in the population has been explicitly taken into account in the assessment. PMID:17906301

  6. Trimming Exposure Data, Putting Radiation Workers at Risk: Improving Disclosure and Consent Through a National Radiation Dose-Registry

    PubMed Central

    Shrader-Frechette, Kristin

    2007-01-01

    In the United States, regulatory standards allow workers to be exposed to ionizing radiation that can cause 1 additional cancer fatality per 400 workers per year. Because radiation-dose limits cover only single sources (e.g., a nuclear plant) or exposure classes (workplace, medical, or public) and are defined for average occupational exposure, workers typically do not know their precise cumulative, individual, and relative risks from radiation. Nevertheless, this information is necessary for informed consent, because most scientists say radiation effects are cumulative and linear with no risk threshold. To promote public health, informed consent, and better understanding of the effects of low-dose radiation, I argue for a multistage National Radiation-Dose Registry, beginning with cumulative, individual worker doses. PMID:17761581

  7. DOE 2010 Occupational Radiation Exposure November 2011

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Analysis

    2011-11-11

    This report discusses radiation protection and dose reporting requirements, presents the 2010 occupational radiation dose data trended over the past 5 years, and includes instructions to submit successful ALARA projects.

  8. Gene expression as a biomarker for human radiation exposure.

    PubMed

    Omaruddin, Romaica A; Roland, Thomas A; Wallace, H James; Chaudhry, M Ahmad

    2013-03-01

    Accidental exposure to ionizing radiation can be unforeseen, rapid, and devastating. The detonation of a radiological device leading to such an exposure can be detrimental to the exposed population. The radiation-induced damage may manifest as acute effects that can be detected clinically or may be more subtle effects that can lead to long-term radiation-induced abnormalities. Accurate identification of the individuals exposed to radiation is challenging. The availability of a rapid and effective screening test that could be used as a biomarker of radiation exposure detection is mandatory. We tested the suitability of alterations in gene expression to serve as a biomarker of human radiation exposure. To develop a useful gene expression biomonitor, however, gene expression changes occurring in response to irradiation in vivo must be measured directly. Patients undergoing radiation therapy provide a suitable test population for this purpose. We examined the expression of CC3, MADH7, and SEC PRO in blood samples of these patients before and after radiotherapy to measure the in vivo response. The gene expression after ionizing radiation treatment varied among different patients, suggesting the complexity of the response. The expression of the SEC PRO gene was repressed in most of the patients. The MADH7 gene was found to be upregulated in most of the subjects and could serve as a molecular marker of radiation exposure. PMID:23446844

  9. Transcriptional profile of immediate response to ionizing radiation exposure.

    PubMed

    Rouchka, Eric C; Flight, Robert M; Fasciotto, Brigitte H; Estrada, Rosendo; Eaton, John W; Patibandla, Phani K; Waigel, Sabine J; Li, Dazhuo; Kirtley, John K; Sethu, Palaniappan; Keynton, Robert S

    2016-03-01

    Astronauts participating in long duration space missions are likely to be exposed to ionizing radiation associated with highly energetic and charged heavy particles. Previously proposed gene biomarkers for radiation exposure include phosphorylated H2A Histone Family, Member X (γH2AX), Tumor Protein 53 (TP53), and Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor 1A (CDKN1A). However, transcripts of these genes may not be the most suitable biomarkers for radiation exposure due to a lack of sensitivity or specificity. As part of a larger effort to develop lab-on-a-chip methods for detecting radiation exposure events using blood samples, we designed a dose-course microarray study in order to determine coding and non-coding RNA transcripts undergoing differential expression immediately following radiation exposure. The main goal was to elicit a small set of sensitive and specific radiation exposure biomarkers at low, medium, and high levels of ionizing radiation exposure. Four separate levels of radiation were considered: 0 Gray (Gy) control; 0.3 Gy; 1.5 Gy; and 3.0 Gy with four replicates at each radiation level. This report includes raw gene expression data files from the resulting microarray experiments from all three radiation levels ranging from a lower, typical exposure than an astronaut might see (0.3 Gy) to high, potentially lethal, levels of radiation (3.0 Gy). The data described here is available in NCBI's Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO), accession GSE64375. PMID:26981369

  10. Transcriptional profile of immediate response to ionizing radiation exposure

    PubMed Central

    Rouchka, Eric C.; Flight, Robert M.; Fasciotto, Brigitte H.; Estrada, Rosendo; Eaton, John W.; Patibandla, Phani K.; Waigel, Sabine J.; Li, Dazhuo; Kirtley, John K.; Sethu, Palaniappan; Keynton, Robert S.

    2015-01-01

    Astronauts participating in long duration space missions are likely to be exposed to ionizing radiation associated with highly energetic and charged heavy particles. Previously proposed gene biomarkers for radiation exposure include phosphorylated H2A Histone Family, Member X (γH2AX), Tumor Protein 53 (TP53), and Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor 1A (CDKN1A). However, transcripts of these genes may not be the most suitable biomarkers for radiation exposure due to a lack of sensitivity or specificity. As part of a larger effort to develop lab-on-a-chip methods for detecting radiation exposure events using blood samples, we designed a dose–course microarray study in order to determine coding and non-coding RNA transcripts undergoing differential expression immediately following radiation exposure. The main goal was to elicit a small set of sensitive and specific radiation exposure biomarkers at low, medium, and high levels of ionizing radiation exposure. Four separate levels of radiation were considered: 0 Gray (Gy) control; 0.3 Gy; 1.5 Gy; and 3.0 Gy with four replicates at each radiation level. This report includes raw gene expression data files from the resulting microarray experiments from all three radiation levels ranging from a lower, typical exposure than an astronaut might see (0.3 Gy) to high, potentially lethal, levels of radiation (3.0 Gy). The data described here is available in NCBI's Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO), accession GSE64375. PMID:26981369

  11. [Radiation exposure and air quality aboard commercial airplanes].

    PubMed

    Bergau, L

    1999-10-01

    The amount of exposure to cosmic radiation during air travel is next to a number of additional factors mainly dependent on the flight level of the aircraft. Flying in an altitude of 41,000 feet equaling 12,800 meters the amount of radiation exposure is of course considerable higher than on the ground. The overall exposure of flying personnel to cosmic radiation flying about 600-700 hours per year can be estimated between 3 and 6 mSv (300-600 mrem). According to the flight hours of passengers, the radiation exposure is much lower and can be neglected for most of the travelers final judgement about the possible risks for flying personnel as far as a higher incident of malignant tumors is concerned has not jet been finally made. Talking of cabin air quality compromises have to be made and thus the well-being of the passengers can be negatively influenced. Air pressure and oxygen partial pressure correspond to an altitude of 2400 meters (8,000 feet) above sea level with possible consequences to the cardiopulmonary system. Increased level of ozone can lead to respiratory problems of the upper airways, increased carbon dioxide may cause hyperventilation. The mucous membranes of the respiratory tract are dried out due to the extremely low humidity of the cabin air. Smoking during flight results in an increase of the nicotine blood levels even in passengers sitting in the non-smoking areas. In modern aircraft the fresh-air flow cannot be regulated individually any more, this may lead to an insufficient circulation of used air in relation to fresh air and could cause the phenomena of hanging smoke. There has always been the idea that there is an increased risk for passengers for acquiring infectious diseases. However this is not the case. Modern HEPA-filter prevent an accumulation even of the smallest particles including bacteria and viruses within the recirculation flow in the cabin air. The overall risk of getting an infectious disease is significantly lower than in other

  12. Patient radiation exposure during pediatric cardiac catheterization

    SciTech Connect

    Fellows, K.E.; Leibovic, S.J.

    1983-08-01

    Exposure air product (EAP) and center field entrance exposure (free-in-air) were measured in seventeen pediatric patients undergoing cardiac catheterization. Exposures were recorded separately for biplane fluoroscopy and cine angiocardiography using flat-plate ionization chambers. In the posterior-anterior (PA) projections, median EAP was 425 Roentgen-square centimeter (R-cm/sup 2/), with a range of 90.5-3,882 R-cm/sup 2/; 29-35% of this exposure occurred during cine filming. In the lateral projection, median EAP was 276 R-cm/sup 2/ (range 117-1,173); 52-59% of this exposure was due to cine filming. Median center field entrance exposure in the PA view was 7.86 Roentgens (R) with a range 2.16-73.9 of and in the lateral projection 7.39 R (range 2.64-24.6). As much as 25% of the exposure from the entire examination was contributed by manual ''test'' exposures to set cine radiographic kVp. We recommend use of testing circuits, which determine cine radiographic factors automatically and thus should lower levels of exposure.

  13. Occupational Radiation Exposure from C Arm Fluoroscopy During Common Orthopaedic Surgical Procedures and its Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Samuel, Sumant; Saran, Atul K; Mahajan, M K; Mam, M K

    2015-01-01

    Background: Image intensifiers have become popular due to the concept of minimally invasive surgeries leading to decreasing invasiveness, decreased operative time, and less morbidity. The drawback, however, is an increased risk of radiation exposure to surgeon, patient and theatre staff. These exposures have been of concern due to their potential ability to produce biological effects. The present study was embarked upon to analyse the amount of radiation received by orthopedic surgeons in India using standard precautionary measures and also to bring awareness about the use of image intensifier safety in everyday practice. Materials and Methods: Twelve right-handed male orthopedic surgeons (4 senior consultants, 5 junior consultants and 3 residents) were included in a three month prospective study for radiation exposure measurement with adequate protection measures in all procedures requiring C Arm fluoroscopy. Each surgeon was provided with 5 Thermo Luminescent Dosimeter (TLD) badges which were tagged at the level of neck, chest, gonads and both wrists. Operative time and exposure time of each procedure was recorded. Exposure dose of each badge at the end of the study was obtained and the results were analysed. Results: Mean radiation exposure to all the parts were well within permissible limits. There was a significantly positive correlation between the exposure time and the exposure dose for the left wrist (r=0.735, p<0.01) and right wrist (r=0.58, p<0.05). The dominant hand had the maximum exposure overall. Conclusion: Orthopaedic surgeons are not classified radiation workers. The mean exposure doses to all parts of the body were well within permissible limits. Nothing conclusive, however, can be said about the stochastic effects (chance effects like cancers). Any amount of radiation taken is bound to pose an additional occupational hazard. It is thus desirable that radiation safety precautions should be taken and exposures regularly monitored with at least one

  14. Gene Expression Profiling of Biological Pathway Alterations by Radiation Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kuei-Fang; Weng, Julia Tzu-Ya; Hsu, Paul Wei-Che; Chi, Yu-Hsiang; Chen, Ching-Kai; Liu, Ingrid Y.; Chen, Yi-Cheng; Wu, Lawrence Shih-Hsin

    2014-01-01

    Though damage caused by radiation has been the focus of rigorous research, the mechanisms through which radiation exerts harmful effects on cells are complex and not well-understood. In particular, the influence of low dose radiation exposure on the regulation of genes and pathways remains unclear. In an attempt to investigate the molecular alterations induced by varying doses of radiation, a genome-wide expression analysis was conducted. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were collected from five participants and each sample was subjected to 0.5 Gy, 1 Gy, 2.5 Gy, and 5 Gy of cobalt 60 radiation, followed by array-based expression profiling. Gene set enrichment analysis indicated that the immune system and cancer development pathways appeared to be the major affected targets by radiation exposure. Therefore, 1 Gy radioactive exposure seemed to be a critical threshold dosage. In fact, after 1 Gy radiation exposure, expression levels of several genes including FADD, TNFRSF10B, TNFRSF8, TNFRSF10A, TNFSF10, TNFSF8, CASP1, and CASP4 that are associated with carcinogenesis and metabolic disorders showed significant alterations. Our results suggest that exposure to low-dose radiation may elicit changes in metabolic and immune pathways, potentially increasing the risk of immune dysfunctions and metabolic disorders. PMID:25276823

  15. ULTRAVIOLET PROTECTIVE COMPOUNDS AS A RESPONSE TO ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Life on Earth has evolved adaptations to many environmental stresses over the epochs. One consistent stress has been exposure to ultraviolet radiation. In response to UVR organisms have adapted myriad responses; behavioral, morphological and physiological. Behaviorally, some orga...

  16. Control of excessive lead exposure in radiator repair workers

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-03-01

    In 1988, 83 automotive repair workers with blood lead levels (BLLs) greater than 25 micrograms/dL were reported to state health departments in the seven states that collaborated with CDC's National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) in maintaining registries of elevated BLLs in adults. In 18 (22%) of these 83 persons, BLLs were greater than 50 micrograms/dL. Among automotive repair workers for whom a job category was specified, radiator repair work was the principal source of lead exposure. The major sources of exposure for radiator repair workers are lead fumes generated during soldering and lead dust produced during radiator cleaning. This report summarizes current BLL surveillance data for radiator repair workers and describes three control technologies that are effective in reducing lead exposures in radiator repair shops.

  17. Radiation exposure: Hot legacy of the Cold War

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, E.

    1990-08-03

    The article tells about the routine management of nuclear safety in the U.S.S.R. and, more specifically, about the hazards of long-term exposure to big doses of radiation. Half the workers at the Cheliabinsk site in the Ural Mountains east of Moscow were routinely receiving 100 rem per year in the late 1940s and early 1950s. For comparison, this is about 20 times the maximum annual dose a worker is allowed to get in the United States today. The consequences of the very large doses to workers in the U.S.S.R. are not fully revealed. But the report mentions that 8 to 9% of the staff who began work before 1958 and received high radiation doses (more than 100 rem) die of cancer. In addition, the report says that nearly a quarter of the workers between 1950 and 1952 were suffering from chronic radiation disease. Cancer mortality among severely exposed workers (100 rem and above) was 88% higher than among those who received less than 100 rem.

  18. 78 FR 18350 - Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort AGENCY... an addition to the Special Exposure Cohort (SEC) under the Energy Employees Occupational Illness... of employees included in the Special Exposure Cohort. This designation will become effective on...

  19. 77 FR 76489 - Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort AGENCY... an addition to the Special Exposure Cohort (SEC) under the Energy Employees Occupational Illness... Exposure Cohort. This designation will become effective on January 6, 2013, unless Congress...

  20. 77 FR 58381 - Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-20

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort AGENCY..., as an addition to the Special Exposure Cohort (SEC) under the Energy Employees Occupational Illness... included in the Special Exposure Cohort. This designation will become effective on September 22,...

  1. 75 FR 22410 - Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort AGENCY... Electric Corp., Bloomfield, New Jersey, as an addition to the Special Exposure Cohort (SEC) under the... or more other classes of employees included in the Special Exposure Cohort. This designation...

  2. 75 FR 22410 - Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort AGENCY... Livermore National Laboratory in Livermore, California, as an addition to the Special Exposure Cohort (SEC... of employees in the Special Exposure Cohort. This designation will become effective on May 5,...

  3. 78 FR 64500 - Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-29

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort AGENCY... addition to the Special Exposure Cohort (SEC) under the Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation... included in the Special Exposure Cohort. This designation will become effective on October 30, 2013,...

  4. 75 FR 22409 - Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort AGENCY... the Santa Susana Field Laboratory as an addition to the Special Exposure Cohort (SEC) under the Energy... included in the Special Exposure Cohort. This designation will become effective on May 5, 2010,...

  5. 76 FR 28436 - Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort AGENCY... Chang facility in Albany, Oregon, as an addition to the Special Exposure Cohort (SEC) under the Energy... parameters established for one or more other classes of employees included in the Special Exposure...

  6. 78 FR 64501 - Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-29

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort AGENCY... addition to the Special Exposure Cohort (SEC) under the Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation... Exposure Cohort. This designation will become effective on October 30, 2013, unless Congress...

  7. 78 FR 18351 - Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort AGENCY... addition to the Special Exposure Cohort (SEC) under the Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation... of employees included in the Special Exposure Cohort. This designation will become effective on...

  8. 77 FR 40059 - Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort AGENCY... as the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP), as an addition to the Special Exposure Cohort... parameters established for one or more classes of employees included in the Special Exposure Cohort....

  9. Radiation exposure during travelling in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Omar, M; Hassan, A; Sulaiman, I

    2006-01-01

    Absorbed dose rates in vehicles during travelling by different modes of transport in Malaysia were measured. Radiation levels measured on roads in Peninsular Malaysia were within a broad range, i.e. between 36 and 1560 nGy h(-1). The highest reading, recorded while travelling near monazite and zircon mineral dumps, was 13 times the mean environmental radiation level of Malaysia. It is evident that radioactive material dumps on the roadsides can influence the radiation level on the road. The absorbed dose rates measured while travelling on an ordinary train were between 60 and 350 nGy h(-1). The highest reading was measured when the train passed a tunnel built through a granite rock hill. The measurement during sea travelling by ferries gave the lowest radiation level owing to merely cosmic radiation at the sea level. PMID:16702237

  10. Charged particle radiation exposure of geocentric satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stassinopoulos, E. G.

    1989-01-01

    The near-earth radiation environment is characterized, summarizing published data on trapped and transient charged particles and their potential effects on hardware systems and the crews of manned missions. Topics examined include the role of the magnetosphere, the five radiation domains, cyclic and sporadic variations in the radiation environment, the potential effect of a high-altitude nuclear explosion, NASA empirical models for predicting trapped proton and electron fluxes, and the South Atlantic anomaly and the estimation of flux-free periods. Consideration is given to solar cosmic rays and heavy ions, Galactic cosmic rays, geomagnetic shielding, secondary radiation, the design of shielding systems, variables affecting dose evaluations, and ionizing-radiation doses. Extensive diagrams, graphs, and tables of numerical data are provided.

  11. Radiation exposure for human Mars exploration.

    PubMed

    Simonsen, L C; Wilson, J W; Kim, M H; Cucinotta, F A

    2000-11-01

    One major obstacle to human space exploration is the possible limitations imposed by the adverse effects of long-term exposure to the space environment. Even before human space flight began, the potentially brief exposure of astronauts to the very intense random solar energetic particle events was of great concern. A new challenge appears in deep-space exploration from exposure to the low-intensity heavy-ion flux of the galactic cosmic rays since the missions are of long duration, and accumulated exposures can be high. Because cancer induction rates increase behind low to moderate thicknesses of aluminum shielding, according to available biological data on mammalian exposures to galactic cosmic ray-like ions, aluminum shield requirements for a Mars mission may be prohibitively expensive in terms of mission launch costs. Alternative materials for vehicle construction are under investigation to provide lightweight habitat structures with enhanced shielding properties. In the present paper, updated estimates for astronaut exposures on a Mars mission are presented and shielding properties of alternative materials are compared with aluminum. PMID:11045525

  12. Serum Amyloid A as a Biomarker for Radiation Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Sproull, Mary; Kramp, Tamalee; Tandle, Anita; Shankavaram, Uma; Camphausen, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    There is a need for minimally invasive biomarkers that can accurately and quickly quantify radiation exposure. Radiation-responsive proteins have applications in clinical medicine and for mass population screenings after a nuclear or radiological incident where the level of radiation exposure and exposure pattern complicate medical triage for first responders. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of the acute phase protein serum amyloid A (SAA) as a biomarker for radiation exposure using plasma from irradiated mice. Ten-week-old female C57BL6 mice received a 1–8 Gy single whole-body or partial-body dose from a Pantak X-ray source at a dose rate of 2.28 Gy/min. Plasma was collected by mandibular or cardiac puncture at 6, 24, 48 and 72 h or 1–3 weeks postirradiation. SAA levels were determined using a commercially available ELISA assay. Data was pooled to generate SAA μg/ml threshold values correlating plasma SAA levels with radiation dose. SAA levels were statistically significant over control at all exposures between 2 and 8 Gy at 24 h postirradiation but not at 6, 48 and 72 h or 1–3 weeks postirradiation. SAA levels at 1 Gy were not significantly elevated over control at all time points. Total-body-irradiated (TBI) SAA levels at 24 h were used to generate a dose prediction model that successfully differentiated TBI mice into dose received cohorts of control/1 Gy and ≥2 Gy groups with a high degree of accuracy in a blind study. Dose prediction of partial-body exposures based on the TBI model correlated increasing predictive accuracy with percentage of body exposure to radiation. Our findings indicate that plasma SAA levels might be a useful biomarker for radiation exposure in a variety of total- and partial-body irradiation settings. PMID:26114330

  13. Econometric model for age- and population-dependent radiation exposures

    SciTech Connect

    Sandquist, G.M.; Slaughter, D.M. ); Rogers, V.C.

    1991-01-01

    The economic impact associated with ionizing radiation exposures in a given human population depends on numerous factors including the individual's mean economic status as a function age, the age distribution of the population, the future life expectancy at each age, and the latency period for the occurrence of radiation-induced health effects. A simple mathematical model has been developed that provides an analytical methodology for estimating the societal econometrics associated with radiation effects are to be assessed and compared for economic evaluation.

  14. Some recent issues in low-exposure radiation epidemiology.

    PubMed Central

    MacMahon, B

    1989-01-01

    Three areas of activity in the field of low-level radiation epidemiology have been reviewed. They concern the questions of cancer risk related to antenatal X-ray exposure, occupational radiation exposure, and residence in areas of real or supposed increased levels of radiation. Despite the a priori unlikelihood of useful information developing from studies in any of these areas, such investigations are being pursued, and the results are proving to be stimulating. Much important information will be forthcoming in the near future. PMID:2667975

  15. Effects of parental radiation exposure on developmental instability in grasshoppers

    PubMed Central

    BEASLEY, D. E.; BONISOLI-ALQUATI, A.; WELCH, S. M.; MØLLER, A. P.; MOUSSEAU, T. A.

    2014-01-01

    Mutagenic and epigenetic effects of environmental stressors and their transgenerational consequences are of interest to evolutionary biologists because they can amplify natural genetic variation. We studied the effect of parental exposure to radioactive contamination on offspring development in lesser marsh grasshopper Chorthippus albomarginatus. We used a geometric morphometric approach to measure fluctuating asymmetry (FA), wing shape and wing size. We measured time to sexual maturity to check whether parental exposure to radiation influenced offspring developmental trajectory and tested effects of radiation on hatching success and parental fecundity. Wings were larger in early maturing individuals born to parents from high radiation sites compared to early maturing individuals from low radiation sites. As time to sexual maturity increased, wing size decreased but more sharply in individuals from high radiation sites. Radiation exposure did not significantly affect FA or shape in wings nor did it significantly affect hatching success and fecundity. Overall, parental radiation exposure can adversely affect offspring development and fitness depending on developmental trajectories although the cause of this effect remains unclear. We suggest more direct measures of fitness and the inclusion of replication in future studies to help further our understanding of the relationship between developmental instability, fitness and environmental stress. PMID:22507690

  16. Operational Prototype Development of a Global Aircraft Radiation Exposure Nowcast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mertens, Christopher; Kress, Brian; Wiltberger, Michael; Tobiska, W. Kent; Bouwer, Dave

    Galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and solar energetic particles (SEP) are the primary sources of human exposure to high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation in the atmosphere. High-LET radiation is effective at directly breaking DNA strands in biological tissue, or producing chemically active radicals in tissue that alter the cell function, both of which can lead to cancer or other adverse health effects. A prototype operational nowcast model of air-crew radiation exposure is currently under development and funded by NASA. The model predicts air-crew radiation exposure levels from both GCR and SEP that may accompany solar storms. The new air-crew radiation exposure model is called the Nowcast of Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation for Aviation Safety (NAIRAS) model. NAIRAS will provide global, data-driven, real-time exposure predictions of biologically harmful radiation at aviation altitudes. Observations are utilized from the ground (neutron monitors), from the atmosphere (the NCEP Global Forecast System), and from space (NASA/ACE and NOAA/GOES). Atmospheric observations characterize the overhead mass shielding and the ground-and space-based observations provide boundary conditions on the incident GCR and SEP particle flux distributions for transport and dosimetry calculations. Radiation exposure rates are calculated using the NASA physics-based HZETRN (High Charge (Z) and Energy TRaNsport) code. An overview of the NAIRAS model is given: the concept, design, prototype implementation status, data access, and example results. Issues encountered thus far and known and/or anticipated hurdles to research to operations transition are also discussed.

  17. Risk assessment and management of radiofrequency radiation exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Dabala, Dana; Surducan, Emanoil; Surducan, Vasile; Neamtu, Camelia

    2013-11-13

    Radiofrequency radiation (RFR) industry managers, occupational physicians, security department, and other practitioners must be advised on the basic of biophysics and the health effects of RF electromagnetic fields so as to guide the management of exposure. Information on biophysics of RFR and biological/heath effects is derived from standard texts, literature and clinical experiences. Emergency treatment and ongoing care is outlined, with clinical approach integrating the circumstances of exposure and the patient's symptoms. Experimental risk assessment model in RFR chronic exposure is proposed. Planning for assessment and monitoring exposure, ongoing care, safety measures and work protection are outlining the proper management.

  18. Risk assessment and management of radiofrequency radiation exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dabala, Dana; Surducan, Emanoil; Surducan, Vasile; Neamtu, Camelia

    2013-11-01

    Radiofrequency radiation (RFR) industry managers, occupational physicians, security department, and other practitioners must be advised on the basic of biophysics and the health effects of RF electromagnetic fields so as to guide the management of exposure. Information on biophysics of RFR and biological/heath effects is derived from standard texts, literature and clinical experiences. Emergency treatment and ongoing care is outlined, with clinical approach integrating the circumstances of exposure and the patient's symptoms. Experimental risk assessment model in RFR chronic exposure is proposed. Planning for assessment and monitoring exposure, ongoing care, safety measures and work protection are outlining the proper management.

  19. The effect of exposure duration on the biological activity of mobile telephony radiation.

    PubMed

    Panagopoulos, Dimitris J; Margaritis, Lukas H

    2010-06-17

    In the present experiments we studied the effects of different durations of a single (continuous), daily exposure, ranging from 1 min up to 21 min, to the two established systems of digital mobile telephony radiation that are commonly used in Europe, viz. GSM 900 MHz (Global System for Mobile telecommunications) and DCS 1800 MHz (Digital Cellular System-referred to also as GSM 1800 MHz), on a well-tested biological model, the reproductive capacity of the insect Drosophila melanogaster. The insects were exposed to each type of radiation at an intensity of about 10 microW/cm(2), corresponding to a distance of 20 or 30 cm from the antenna of a DCS 1800 or a GSM 900 mobile phone handset, respectively. At these distances the bioactivity of mobile telephony radiation was found to be at a maximum due to the existence of a "window" of increased bioactivity around this value, as we have shown recently [1-4]. The results show that the reproductive capacity decreases almost linearly with increasing exposure duration to both GSM 900 and DCS 1800 radiation, suggesting that short-term exposures to these radiations have cumulative effects on living organisms. Additionally, our results show again that GSM 900 MHz radiation is slightly more bioactive than DCS 1800 MHz radiation, at the same exposure durations and under equal radiation intensities, as shown in our previous experiments [5]. PMID:20399887

  20. Personalized Cancer Risk Assessments for Space Radiation Exposures.

    PubMed

    Locke, Paul A; Weil, Michael M

    2016-01-01

    Individuals differ in their susceptibility to radiogenic cancers, and there is evidence that this inter-individual susceptibility extends to HZE ion-induced carcinogenesis. Three components of individual risk: sex, age at exposure, and prior tobacco use, are already incorporated into the NASA cancer risk model used to determine safe days in space for US astronauts. Here, we examine other risk factors that could potentially be included in risk calculations. These include personal and family medical history, the presence of pre-malignant cells that could undergo malignant transformation as a consequence of radiation exposure, the results from phenotypic assays of radiosensitivity, heritable genetic polymorphisms associated with radiosensitivity, and postflight monitoring. Inclusion of these additional risk or risk reduction factors has the potential to personalize risk estimates for individual astronauts and could influence the determination of safe days in space. We consider how this type of assessment could be used and explore how the provisions of the federal Genetic Information Non-discrimination Act could impact the collection, dissemination and use of this information by NASA. PMID:26942127

  1. Personalized Cancer Risk Assessments for Space Radiation Exposures

    PubMed Central

    Locke, Paul A.; Weil, Michael M.

    2016-01-01

    Individuals differ in their susceptibility to radiogenic cancers, and there is evidence that this inter-individual susceptibility extends to HZE ion-induced carcinogenesis. Three components of individual risk: sex, age at exposure, and prior tobacco use, are already incorporated into the NASA cancer risk model used to determine safe days in space for US astronauts. Here, we examine other risk factors that could potentially be included in risk calculations. These include personal and family medical history, the presence of pre-malignant cells that could undergo malignant transformation as a consequence of radiation exposure, the results from phenotypic assays of radiosensitivity, heritable genetic polymorphisms associated with radiosensitivity, and postflight monitoring. Inclusion of these additional risk or risk reduction factors has the potential to personalize risk estimates for individual astronauts and could influence the determination of safe days in space. We consider how this type of assessment could be used and explore how the provisions of the federal Genetic Information Non-discrimination Act could impact the collection, dissemination and use of this information by NASA. PMID:26942127

  2. 75 FR 22409 - Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-28

    ... Berkeley National Laboratory in Berkeley, California, as an addition to the Special Exposure Cohort (SEC... Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in Berkeley, California, from August 13, 1942 through December...

  3. MODELING ACUTE EXPOSURE TO SOLAR RADIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    One of the major technical challenges in calculating solar flux on the human form has been the complexity of the surface geometry (i.e., the surface normal vis a vis the incident radiation). The American Cancer Society reports that over 80% of skin cancers occur on the face, he...

  4. Prototype Development of an Operational Global Aircraft Radiation Exposure Nowcast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mertens, C. J.; Tobiska, W.; Bouwer, D.; Kress, B. T.; Wiltberger, M. J.; Solomon, S. C.; Kunches, J.

    2009-12-01

    A prototype operational nowcast model of air-crew radiation exposure is currently under development and funded by NASA. The model predicts air-crew radiation exposure levels from both background galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and solar energetic particle events (SEP) that may accompany solar storms. The new air-crew radiation exposure model is called the Nowcast of Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation for Aviation Safety (NAIRAS) model. NAIRAS will provide global, data-driven, real-time exposure predictions of biologically harmful radiation at aviation altitudes. Observations are utilized from the ground (neutron monitors), from the atmosphere (the NCEP Global Forecast System), and from space (NASA/ACE and NOAA/GOES). Atmospheric observations provide the overhead mass shielding information and the ground- and space-based observations provide boundary conditions on the incident GCR and SEP particle flux distributions for transport and dosimetry calculations. Exposure rates are calculated using the NASA physics-based HZETRN (High Charge (Z) and Energy TRaNsport) code. An overview of the NAIRAS model is given: the concept, design, prototype implementation status, data access, and example results. We also discuss issues encounter thus far as well as anticipated hurdles in the research to operations transition process.

  5. Health Impacts from Acute Radiation Exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Strom, Daniel J.

    2003-09-30

    Absorbed doses above1-2 Gy (100-200 rads) received over a period of a day or less lead to one or another of the acute radiation syndromes. These are the hematopoietic syndrome, the gastrointestinal (GI) syndrome, the cerebrovascular (CV) syndrome, the pulmonary syndrome, or the cutaneous syndrome. The dose that will kill about 50% of the exposed people within 60 days with minimal medical care, LD50-60, is around 4.5 Gy (450 rads) of low-LET radiation measured free in air. The GI syndrome may not be fatal with supportive medical care and growth factors below about 10 Gy (1000 rads), but above this is likely to be fatal. Pulmonary and cutaneous syndromes may or may not be fatal, depending on many factors. The CV syndrome is invariably fatal. Lower acute doses, or protracted doses delivered over days or weeks, may lead to many other health outcomes than death. These include loss of pregnancy, cataract, impaired fertility or temporary or permanent sterility, hair loss, skin ulceration, local tissue necrosis, developmental abnormalities including mental and growth retardation in persons irradiated as children or fetuses, radiation dermatitis, and other symptoms listed in Table 2 on page 12. Children of parents irradiated prior to conception may experience heritable ill-health, that is, genetic changes from their parents. These effects are less strongly expressed than previously thought. Populations irradiated to high doses at high dose rates have increased risk of cancer incidence and mortality, taken as about 10-20% incidence and perhaps 5-10% mortality per sievert of effective dose of any radiation or per gray of whole-body absorbed dose low-LET radiation. Cancer risks for non-uniform irradiation will be less.

  6. [Human behavior in the solar radiation field with reference to ultraviolet exposure].

    PubMed

    Schauberger, G; Keck, G; Cabaj, A

    1992-09-01

    There is a causal relation between solar ultraviolet radiation and skin cancer. For epidemiological investigations, quantification of the UV exposure is essential. To set up a risk assessment for the whole population, a representative survey was performed in Austria. The questionnaire refers to three sectors of everyday life: work, recreation and holidays; in addition the use of solaria is asked about for a further investigation. The UV exposure caused by humans' behaviour in the field of solar radiation was analysed from various demographic aspects. For some subpopulations the UV exposure sustained during work, recreation and holidays was compared. Groups with high occupational UV exposure show a weaker tendency to stay outdoors during leisure time and holidays than groups characterized by high UV exposure in their leisure time, who also prefer sun-intensive activities during holidays. PMID:1399598

  7. Radiation exposure and adverse health effects of interventional cardiology staff.

    PubMed

    Kesavachandran, Chandrasekharan Nair; Haamann, Frank; Nienhaus, Albert

    2013-01-01

    To the best of our knowledge, this chapter constitutes the first systematic review of radiation exposure to eyes, thyroid, and hands for Interventional Cardiology (IC) staff. We have concluded from our review that these anatomical locations are likely to be exposed to radiation as a result of the limited use of personal protective equipment (PPE) among IC staff as shown in Fig. 8. Our review also reveals that, with the exception of three eye exposure cases, the annual radiation dose to eyes, thyroid, and hands among IC staff was within recommended levels and limits. The As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) limit was not achieved in three cases for fingers/hands and four cases for eyes. However, an increased incidence of cataracts were reported for IC staff, and this gives rise to the concern that low-dose or unnoticed exposures may increase the risk of developing cataracts among cardiology staff. Clearly, the formation of cataracts among IC staff may be an issue and should be studied in more depth. Our review also disclosed that the two groups who receive excessive radiation doses (i.e., exceed the recommended limit) are physicians-in-training and junior staff physicians who work in cardiac catheterization laboratories. In particular, more attention should be given to assessing the effects of radiation exposure among IC staff who work in the Asia Pacific countries, because our review indicates that the number of IC procedures performed by IC staff in these countries is higher than for other continents. There is a huge demand for procedures conducted by IC staff in the Asia-Pacific area, for both treating patients and consulting with specialists. Our review also disclosed that recommended limits for per-procedure radiation doses are needed for IC staff. We recommend that such limits be established by the appropriate national and international agencies that are responsible for occupational radiation exposure. Although our review indicates that the current

  8. Savannah River Plant/Savannah River Laboratory radiation exposure report

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, C.D.; Hyman, S.D.; Keisler, L.L. and Co., Aiken, SC . Savannah River Plant); Reeder, D.F.; Jolly, L.; Spoerner, M.T.; Schramm, G.R. and Co., Aiken, SC . Savannah River Lab.)

    1989-01-01

    The protection of worker health and safety is of paramount concern at the Savannah River Site. Since the site is one of the largest nuclear sites in the nation, radiation safety is a key element in the protection program. This report is a compendium of the results in 1988 of the programs at the Savannah River Plant and the Savannah River Laboratory to protect the radiological health of employees. By any measure, the radiation protection performance at this site in 1988 was the best since the beginning of operations. This accomplishment was made possible by the commitment and support at all levels of the organizations to reduce radiation exposures to ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable). The report provides detailed information about the radiation doses received by departments and work groups within these organizations. It also includes exposure data for recent years to allow Plant and Laboratory units to track the effectiveness of their ALARA efforts. Many of the successful practices and methods that reduced radiation exposure are described. A new goal for personnel contamination cases has been established for 1989. Only through continual and innovative efforts to minimize exposures can the goals be met. The radiation protection goals for 1989 and previous years are included in the report. 27 figs., 58 tabs.

  9. Sources of confusion in establishment of radiation exposure guidelines

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, R.G.

    1996-12-31

    There are several factors that induce the many fallacies underlying current radiation protection guidelines, and there is little hope on the horizon that common sense will prevail to override these fallacies. Radiation is looked upon by influential committee members as an absolute hazard to human health. In other words, they believe that all radiation is harmful at any level of exposure! There is no evidence for such a statement. This paper is separated into several major topics, each showing the reasons this philosophy concerning all radiation to be harmful is so misguided.

  10. An Overview of NASA's Risk of Cardiovascular Disease from Radiation Exposure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patel, Zarana S.; Huff, Janice L.; Simonsen, Lisa C.

    2015-01-01

    The association between high doses of radiation exposure and cardiovascular damage is well established. Patients that have undergone radiotherapy for primary cancers of the head and neck and mediastinal regions have shown increased risk of heart and vascular damage and long-term development of radiation-induced heart disease [1]. In addition, recent meta-analyses of epidemiological data from atomic bomb survivors and nuclear industry workers has also shown that acute and chronic radiation exposures is strongly correlated with an increased risk of circulatory disease at doses above 0.5 Sv [2]. However, these analyses are confounded for lower doses by lifestyle factors, such as drinking, smoking, and obesity. The types of radiation found in the space environment are significantly more damaging than those found on Earth and include galactic cosmic radiation (GCR), solar particle events (SPEs), and trapped protons and electrons. In addition to the low-LET data, only a few studies have examined the effects of heavy ion radiation on atherosclerosis, and at lower, space-relevant doses, the association between exposure and cardiovascular pathology is more varied and unclear. Understanding the qualitative differences in biological responses produced by GCR compared to Earth-based radiation is a major focus of space radiation research and is imperative for accurate risk assessment for long duration space missions. Other knowledge gaps for the risk of radiation-induced cardiovascular disease include the existence of a dose threshold, low dose rate effects, and potential synergies with other spaceflight stressors. The Space Radiation Program Element within NASA's Human Research Program (HRP) is managing the research and risk mitigation strategies for these knowledge gaps. In this presentation, we will review the evidence and present an overview of the HRP Risk of Cardiovascular Disease and Other Degenerative Tissue Effects from Radiation Exposure.

  11. A Case Report: Cytogenetic Dosimetry after Accidental Radiation Exposure during (192)Ir Industrial Radiography Testing.

    PubMed

    Beinke, C; Ben-Shlomo, A; Abend, M; Port, M

    2015-07-01

    The accidental gamma radiation exposure of an industrial radiography worker and the cytogenetic examination of the worker's blood lymphocytes are described here. The exposure of the worker was due to a malfunction at the entrance into the depleted uranium-shielding device of a (192)Ir source during operation. Because the source was sealed no additional beta radiation exposure was assumed. The worker's thermoluminescent dosimeter indicated an absorbed dose of 0.078 Sv, which presumably took place in December 2013. No clinical symptoms were reported in the case history after the potential exposure to radiation. Four months after the incident it was decided that biological dosimetry using dicentric chromosome and micronucleus analysis would be performed to follow radiation protection aspects and to clarify the radiation dose uncertainties for the exposed worker. Micronucleus frequency was not increased above the laboratory's control value of micronucleus background frequency of unexposed individuals. However, the observed dicentric frequency (0.003 dicentric/cell) differs significantly from the laboratory's background level of dicentric chromosomes in unexposed individuals (0.0007 dicentric/cell). Dicentric analysis in 2,048 metaphase cells resulted in an estimated dose of no more than 0.181 Gy (95% upper confidence level), not less than 0.014 Gy (95% lower confidence level) and a mean dose of 0.066 Gy (photon-equivalent whole-body exposure) based on interpolation from the laboratory's calibration curve for (60)Co gamma radiation. Since overdispersion of dicentric chromosomes (u = 9.78) indicated a heterogeneous (partial-body) exposure, we applied the Dolphin method and estimated an exposure of 2.1 Sv affecting 21% of the body volume. Because the overdispersion of dicentric chromosomes was caused by only one heavily damaged cell containing two dicentrics, it is possible that this was an incidental finding. In summary, a radiation overexposure of the radiography worker

  12. 77 FR 9250 - Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort AGENCY... Special Exposure Cohort (SEC) under the Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation Program Act of... other classes of employees included in the Special Exposure Cohort. This designation will...

  13. 77 FR 58382 - Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-20

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort AGENCY... Special Exposure Cohort (SEC) under the Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation Program Act of... established for one or more other classes of employees included in the Special Exposure Cohort....

  14. 77 FR 58382 - Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-20

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort AGENCY... Special Exposure Cohort (SEC) under the Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation Program Act of... established for one or more other classes of employees in the Special Exposure Cohort. This designation...

  15. 78 FR 18350 - Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort AGENCY... Exposure Cohort (SEC) under the Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation Program Act of 2000. On... parameters established for one or more other classes of employees included in the Special Exposure...

  16. 77 FR 32641 - Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort AGENCY... the Special Exposure Cohort (SEC) under the Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation Program... established for one or more other classes of employees included in the Special Exposure Cohort....

  17. 78 FR 64501 - Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-29

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort AGENCY... Exposure Cohort (SEC) under the Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation Program Act of 2000. On... of employees included in the Special Exposure Cohort. This designation will become effective...

  18. Retinal damage from long-term exposure to laser radiation.

    PubMed

    Gibbons, W D; Allen, R G

    1977-06-01

    The maculae of rhesus monkeys were exposed to an argon-ion lazer operated in the TEM00 continuous wave mode at a wavelength of 514.5 nm. Both ophthalmoscopic and histopathologic evaluations of exposure sites were obtained. Threshold (ED50) values were obtained for 0.5, 5, 30, 120, and 1,000 sec. exposure times. Presence of minimum visible lesions was assessed ophthalmoscopically at both 1 hour and 24 hours after exposure. With increasing exposure times, a 24 hr. lesion-appearance criterion resulted in ED50 values too low to be consistent with a thermal damage mechanism. In contrast, exposure to neodymium laser radiation at a 1,060 nm. wavelength for 120 sec. produced only ED50 values consistent with those associated with thermal injury. These results suggest that the damage mechanisms for long-duration exposures to visible light may involve photochemical processes initiated by the interaction of visible light with the retinal photopigments. PMID:405344

  19. The radiation exposure compensation act: what is fair?

    PubMed

    Brugge, Doug; Goble, Rob

    2003-01-01

    In 1990 the U.S. Congress passed a law providing compensation to former uranium miners who became ill while the U.S. Government was the sole purchaser of uranium. Ten years later, in 2000, the law was amended to correct widely perceived problems. We reviewed the content of the Radiation Exposure Compensation Act (RECA) laws and regulations, cataloged complaints about the 1990 law, compared the law to the scientific knowledge base in 1990 and in the present, reviewed the 2000 amendments to RECA, and drew lessons about how such compensation programs might be better structured. We concur with popular sentiment that the 1990 law had numerous flaws, the central one being that it failed to compensate many miners who by most other standards would have been deemed deserving. This problem arose through setting exposure criteria very high (at six to 15 times elevated risk), with a disproportionate burden placed on miners who had smoked. The additional burden on smokers was exacerbated by a very stringent definition of smokers (one pack-year in a lifetime). Federal compensation laws should prioritize payment to deserving claimants rather than excluding un-deserving claimants. Thus, a doubling of risk should be an upper limit for setting an eligibility threshold and a lower "significant contributory effect" standard could be considered more appropriate. Uncertainties in exposure and in dose response should be considered and resolved with a bias toward compensation. Beyond setting appropriate criteria, an active effort is needed to inform potentially eligible people and to assist them in qualifying; the eligibility criteria and the requirements for documentation should be appropriate for Native Americans and other cultural groups. Built-in evaluation mechanisms are needed for all compensation programs to assess whether they are meeting their stated objectives. PMID:17208740

  20. Radiation exposure and risk assessment for critical female body organs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atwell, William; Weyland, Mark D.; Hardy, Alva C.

    1991-01-01

    Space radiation exposure limits for astronauts are based on recommendations of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements. These limits now include the age at exposure and sex of the astronaut. A recently-developed computerized anatomical female (CAF) model is discussed in detail. Computer-generated, cross-sectional data are presented to illustrate the completeness of the CAF model. By applying ray-tracing techniques, shield distribution functions have been computed to calculate absorbed dose and dose equivalent values for a variety of critical body organs (e.g., breasts, lungs, thyroid gland, etc.) and mission scenarios. Specific risk assessments, i.e., cancer induction and mortality, are reviewed.

  1. Measures of patient radiation exposure during endoscopic retrograde cholangiography: Beyond fluoroscopy time

    PubMed Central

    Kachaamy, Toufic; Harrison, Edwyn; Pannala, Rahul; Pavlicek, William; Crowell, Michael D; Faigel, Douglas O

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To determine whether fluoroscope time is a good predictor of patient radiation exposure during endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. METHODS: This is a prospective observational study of consecutive patients undergoing endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography in a tertiary care setting. Data related to radiation exposure were collected. The following measures were obtained: Fluoroscopy time (FT), dose area product (DAP) and dose at reference point (DOSERP). Coefficients of determination were calculated to analyze the correlation between FT, DAP and DOSRP. Agreement between FT and DAP/DOSRP was assessed using Bland Altman plots. RESULTS: Four hundred sixty-three data sets were obtained. Fluoroscopy time average was 7.3 min. Fluoroscopy related radiation accounted for 86% of the total DAP while acquisition films related radiation accounted for 14% of the DAP. For any given FT there are wide ranges of DAP and DOSERP and the variability in both increases as fluoroscopy time increases. The coefficient of determination (R2) on the non transformed data for DAP and DOSERP versus FT were respectively 0.416 and 0.554. While fluoroscopy use was the largest contributor to patient radiation exposure during endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERCP), there is a wide variability in DAP and DOSERP that is not accounted for by FT. DAP and DOSERP increase in variability as FT increases. This translates into poor accuracy of FT in predicting DAP and DOSERP at higher radiation doses. CONCLUSION: DAP and DOSERP in addition to FT should be adopted as new ERCP quality measures to estimate patient radiation exposure. PMID:25684958

  2. Radiographer Delivered Fluoroscopy Reduces Radiation Exposure During Endoscopic Urological Procedures

    PubMed Central

    Hennessey, DB; Young, M; Pahuja, A

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The 1999 Ionising Radiation Regulations recommend that medical professionals using ionising radiation should aim to keep exposure as ‘low as reasonably practicable’. Urologists regularly use fluoroscopy during endoscopic surgical procedures. In some institutions, this is delivered by a radiographer whereas in others, it is delivered by the urological surgeon. Objectives To determine if radiographer-delivered fluoroscopy can reduce the exposure to ionising radiation during urological procedures. Methods An analysis of 395 consecutive patients, who underwent endoscopic urological procedures requiring fluoroscopy, was performed simultaneously across two institutions, over a 4 month period. 321 patients were matched and included in the analysis. Results Radiographer delivered fluoroscopy was associated with reduced ionising radiation exposure for retrograde pyelography procedures ED 0.09626 vs. 1.323 mSev, p= 0.0003, and endoscopic stone surgeries ED 0.3066 Vs. 0.5416 mSev, p=0.0039, but not for ureterorenoscopic stone surgeries 0.4880 vs. 0.2213 mSev, p=0.8292. Conclusion Radiographer delivered fluoroscopy could reduce the patient’s exposure to ionising radiation for some urological procedures. PMID:27158158

  3. Reduced exposure to microwave radiation by rats: frequency specific effects

    SciTech Connect

    D'Andrea, J.A.; DeWitt, J.R.; Portuguez, L.M.; Gandhi, O.P.

    1988-01-01

    Previous research has shown that SAR hotspots are induced within the laboratory rat and that the resulting thermal hotspots are not entirely dissipated by bloodflow. Two experiments were conducted to determine if hotspot formation in the body and tail of the rat, which is radiation frequency specific, would have behavioral consequences. In the first experiment rats were placed in a plexiglas cage one side of which, when occupied by the rat, commenced microwave radiation exposure; occupancy of the other side terminated exposure. Groups of rats were tested during a baseline period to determine the naturally preferred side of the cage. Subsequent exposure to 360-MHz, 700-MHz or 2450-MHz microwave radiation was made contingent on preferred-side occupancy. A significant reduction in occupancy of the preferred side of the cage, and hence, microwaves subsequently occurred. Reduced exposure to 360-MHz and 2450-MHz microwaves at 1, 2, 6 and 10 W/kg were significantly different from 700-MHz microwaves. In the second experiment semichronic exposures revealed the threshold for reduced exposure of 2450-MHz microwaves to be located between whole-body SAR's of 2.1 and 2.8 W/kg.

  4. 77 FR 76489 - Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort AGENCY..., Massachusetts, as an addition to the Special Exposure Cohort (SEC) under the Energy Employees Occupational... Cohort. This designation will become effective on January 6, 2013, unless Congress provides...

  5. 76 FR 28436 - Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort AGENCY... Junction Operations Office in Grand Junction, Colorado, as an addition to the Special Exposure Cohort...

  6. 75 FR 22410 - Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort AGENCY... Test Site as an addition to the Special Exposure Cohort (SEC) under the Energy Employees...

  7. 77 FR 2545 - Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort AGENCY... Plant in Amarillo, Texas, as an addition to the Special Exposure Cohort (SEC) under the Energy...

  8. Radiation exposure induces inflammasome pathway activation in immune cells.

    PubMed

    Stoecklein, Veit M; Osuka, Akinori; Ishikawa, Shizu; Lederer, Madeline R; Wanke-Jellinek, Lorenz; Lederer, James A

    2015-02-01

    Radiation exposure induces cell and tissue damage, causing local and systemic inflammatory responses. Because the inflammasome pathway is triggered by cell death and danger-associated molecular patterns, we hypothesized that the inflammasome may signal acute and chronic immune responses to radiation. Using a mouse radiation model, we show that radiation induces a dose-dependent increase in inflammasome activation in macrophages, dendritic cells, NK cells, T cells, and B cells as judged by cleaved caspase-1 detection in cells. Time course analysis showed the appearance of cleaved caspase-1 in cells by day 1 and sustained expression until day 7 after radiation. Also, cells showing inflammasome activation coexpressed the cell surface apoptosis marker annexin V. The role of caspase-1 as a trigger for hematopoietic cell losses after radiation was studied in caspase-1(-/-) mice. We found less radiation-induced cell apoptosis and immune cell loss in caspase-1(-/-) mice than in control mice. Next, we tested whether uric acid might mediate inflammasome activation in cells by treating mice with allopurinol and discovered that allopurinol treatment completely blocked caspase-1 activation in cells. Finally, we demonstrate that radiation-induced caspase-1 activation occurs by a Nod-like receptor family protein 3-independent mechanism because radiation-exposed Nlrp3(-/-) mice showed caspase-1 activation profiles that were indistinguishable from those of wild-type mice. In summary, our data demonstrate that inflammasome activation occurs in many immune cell types following radiation exposure and that allopurinol prevented radiation-induced inflammasome activation. These results suggest that targeting the inflammasome may help control radiation-induced inflammation. PMID:25539818

  9. A meta-analysis of leukaemia risk from protracted exposure to low-dose gamma radiation

    PubMed Central

    Schubauer-Berigan, M K

    2010-01-01

    Context More than 400 000 workers annually receive a measurable radiation dose and may be at increased risk of radiation-induced leukaemia. It is unclear whether leukaemia risk is elevated with protracted, low-dose exposure. Objective We conducted a meta-analysis examining the relationship between protracted low-dose ionising radiation exposure and leukaemia. Data sources Reviews by the National Academies and United Nations provided a summary of informative studies published before 2005. PubMed and Embase databases were searched for additional occupational and environmental studies published between 2005 and 2009. Study selection We selected 23 studies that: (1) examined the association between protracted exposures to ionising radiation and leukaemia excluding chronic lymphocytic subtype; (2) were a cohort or nested case–control design without major bias; (3) reported quantitative estimates of exposure; and (4) conducted exposure–response analyses using relative or excess RR per unit exposure. Methods Studies were further screened to reduce information overlap. Random effects models were developed to summarise between-study variance and obtain an aggregate estimate of the excess RR at 100 mGy. Publication bias was assessed by trim and fill and Rosenthal's file drawer methods. Results We found an ERR at 100 mGy of 0.19 (95% CI 0.07 to 0.32) by modelling results from 10 studies and adjusting for publication bias. Between-study variance was not evident (p=0.99). Conclusions Protracted exposure to low-dose gamma radiation is significantly associated with leukaemia. Our estimate agreed well with the leukaemia risk observed among exposed adults in the Life Span Study (LSS) of atomic bomb survivors, providing increased confidence in the current understanding of leukaemia risk from ionising radiation. However, unlike the estimates obtained from the LSS, our model provides a precise, quantitative summary of the direct estimates of excess risk from studies of

  10. Radiation exposure to the child during cardiac catheterization

    SciTech Connect

    Waldman, J.D.; Rummerfield, P.S.; Gilpin, E.A.; Kirkpatrick, S.E.

    1981-07-01

    Few data are available regarding radiation exposure to children during cardiac catheterization. Using lithium fluoride thermoluminescent dosimeters, radiation exposure was measured during precatheterization chest roentgenography, fluoroscopy (hemodynamic assessment phase of catheterization and cineangiography in 30 infants and children, ages 3 days to 21 years. Dosimeters were placed over the eyes, thyroid, anterior chest, posterior chest, anterior abdomen, posterior abdomen and gonads. Average absorbed chest doses were 24.5 mR during chest roentgenography, 5810 mR during catheterization fluoroscopy and 1592 mR during cineangiography. During the complete catheterization, average doses were 26 mR to the eyes, 431 mR to the thyroid area, 150 mR to the abdomen and 11 mR to the gonads. Radiation exposure during pediatric cardiac catheterization is low to the eyes and gonads but high to the chest and thyroid area. To decrease radiation dosage we suggest: (1) low pulse-rate fluoroscopy; (2) substitution of contrast echocardiography for cineangiography; (3) large-plate abdominal/gonadal shielding; (4) a selective shield for thyroid area; (5) a very small field during catheter manipulation. Minimum radiation consistent with accurate diagnosis is optimal; however, erroneous or incomplete diagnosis is more dangerous than radiation-related hazards.

  11. Radiation exposure to the child during cardiac catheterization

    SciTech Connect

    Waldman, J.D.; Rummerfield, P.S.; Gilpin, E.A.; Kirkpatrick, S.E.

    1981-07-01

    Few data are available regarding radiation exposure to children during cardiac catheterization. Using lithium fluoride thermoluminescent dosimeters, radiation exposure was measured during precatheterization chest roentgenography, fluoroscopy (hemodynamic assessment phase of catheterization) and cineangiography in 30 infants and children, ages 3 days to 21 years. Dosimeters were placed over the eyes, thyroid, anterior chest, posterior chest, anterior abdomen, posterior abdomen and gonads. Average absorbed chest doses were 24.5 mR during chest roentgenography, 5810 mR during catheterization fluoroscopy and 1592 mR during cineangiography. During the complete catheterization, average doses were 26 mR to the eyes, 431 mR to the thyroid area, 150 mR to the abdomen and 11 mR to the gonads. Radiation exposure during pediatric cardiac catheterization is low to the eyes and gonads but high to the chest and thyroid area. To decrease radiation dosage we suggest (1) low pulse-rate fluoroscopy; (2) substitution of contrast echocardiography for cineangiography; (3) large-plate abdominal/gonadal shielding; (4) a selective shield for thyroid area; (5) a very small field during catheter manipulation. Minimum radiation consistent with accurate diagnosis is optimal; however, erroneous or incomplete diagnosis is more dangerous than radiation-related hazards.

  12. Exposure estimate for FD&C colour additives for the US population.

    PubMed

    Doell, Diana L; Folmer, Daniel E; Lee, Hyoung S; Butts, Kyla M; Carberry, Susan E

    2016-05-01

    Dietary exposures to the seven food, drug, and cosmetic (FD&C) colour additives that are approved for general use in food in the United States were estimated for the US population (aged 2 years and older), children (aged 2-5 years) and teenage boys (aged 13-18 years) based on analytical levels of the FD&C colour additives in foods. Approximately 600 foods were chosen for analysis, based on a survey of product labels, for the levels of FD&C colour additives. Dietary exposure was estimated using both 2-day food consumption data from the combined 2007-10 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and 10-14-day food consumption data from the 2007-10 NPD Group, Inc. National Eating Trends - Nutrient Intake Database (NPD NET-NID). Dietary exposure was estimated at the mean and 90th percentile using three different exposure scenarios: low exposure, average exposure and high exposure, to account for the range in the amount of each FD&C colour additive for a given food. For all populations and all exposure scenarios, the highest cumulative eaters-only exposures in food were determined for FD&C Red No. 40, FD&C Yellow No. 5 and FD&C Yellow No. 6. In addition, the eaters-only exposure was estimated for individual food categories in order to determine which food categories contributed the most to the exposure for each FD&C colour additive. Breakfast Cereal, Juice Drinks, Soft Drinks, and Frozen Dairy Desserts/Sherbet (also referred to as Ice Cream, Frozen Yogurt, Sherbet (including Bars, Sticks, Sandwiches)) were the major contributing food categories to exposure for multiple FD&C colour additives for all three populations. PMID:27092991

  13. Assessment of occupational exposure to radiofrequency fields and radiation.

    PubMed

    Cooper, T G; Allen, S G; Blackwell, R P; Litchfield, I; Mann, S M; Pope, J M; van Tongeren, M J A

    2004-01-01

    The use of personal monitors for the assessment of exposure to radiofrequency fields and radiation in potential future epidemiological studies of occupationally exposed populations has been investigated. Data loggers have been developed for use with a commercially available personal monitor and these allowed personal exposure records consisting of time-tagged measurements of electric and magnetic field strength to be accrued over extended periods of the working day. The instrumentation was worn by workers carrying out tasks representative of some of their typical daily activities at a variety of radio sites. The results indicated significant differences in the exposures of workers in various RF environments. A number of measures of exposure have been examined with a view to assessing possible exposure metrics for epidemiological studies. There was generally a good correlation between a given measure of electric field strength and the same measure of magnetic field strength. PMID:15266067

  14. Evaluation of radiation exposure from diagnostic radiology examinations: general recommendations. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-08-01

    A primary goal of the Center for Devices and Radiological Health, FDA, is to optimize the medical radiation that the American public receives by minimizing unnecessary radiation exposure and improving the diagnostic benefit from the necessary exposure. Previous steps toward this goal have included a performance standard for the manufacture and installation of x-ray equipment, quality assurance guidance for the maintenance of the equipment, training in the proper use of the equipment, and selection criteria for x-ray examinations. Recommendations are listed that introduce an additional basic step. They are based in part on comments received from the public.

  15. Radiation exposure of U.S. military individuals.

    PubMed

    Blake, Paul K; Komp, Gregory R

    2014-02-01

    The U.S. military consists of five armed services: the Army, Navy, Marine Corps, Air Force, and Coast Guard. It directly employs 1.4 million active duty military, 1.3 million National Guard and reserve military, and 700,000 civilian individuals. This paper describes the military guidance used to preserve and maintain the health of military personnel while they accomplish necessary and purposeful work in areas where they are exposed to radiation. It also discusses military exposure cohorts and associated radiogenic disease compensation programs administered by the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs, the U.S. Department of Justice, and the U.S. Department of Labor. With a few exceptions, the U.S. military has effectively employed ionizing radiation since it was first introduced during the Spanish-American War in 1898. The U.S military annually monitors 70,000 individuals for occupational radiation exposure: ~2% of its workforce. In recent years, the Departments of the Navy (including the Marine Corps), the Army, and the Air Force all have a low collective dose that remains close to 1 person-Sv annually. Only a few Coast Guard individuals are now routinely monitored for radiation exposure. As with the nuclear industry as a whole, the Naval Reactors program has a higher collective dose than the remainder of the U.S. military. The U.S. military maintains occupational radiation exposure records on over two million individuals from 1945 through the present. These records are controlled in accordance with the Privacy Act of 1974 but are available to affected individuals or their designees and other groups performing sanctioned epidemiology studies.Introduction of Radiation Exposure of U.S. Military Individuals (Video 2:19, http://links.lww.com/HP/A30). PMID:24378502

  16. Radiation Exposure of Abdominal Cone Beam Computed Tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Sailer, Anna M.; Schurink, Geert Willem H.; Wildberger, Joachim E. Graaf, Rick de Zwam, Willem H. van Haan, Michiel W. de Kemerink, Gerrit J. Jeukens, Cécile R. L. P. N.

    2015-02-15

    PurposeTo evaluate patients radiation exposure of abdominal C-arm cone beam computed tomography (CBCT).MethodsThis prospective study was approved by the institutional review board; written, informed consent was waived. Radiation exposure of abdominal CBCT was evaluated in 40 patients who underwent CBCT during endovascular interventions. Dose area product (DAP) of CBCT was documented and effective dose (ED) was estimated based on organ doses using dedicated Monte Carlo simulation software with consideration of X-ray field location and patients’ individual body weight and height. Weight-dependent ED per DAP conversion factors were calculated. CBCT radiation dose was compared to radiation dose of procedural fluoroscopy. CBCT dose-related risk for cancer was assessed.ResultsMean ED of abdominal CBCT was 4.3 mSv (95 % confidence interval [CI] 3.9; 4.8 mSv, range 1.1–7.4 mSv). ED was significantly higher in the upper than in the lower abdomen (p = 0.003) and increased with patients’ weight (r = 0.55, slope = 0.045 mSv/kg, p < 0.001). Radiation exposure of CBCT corresponded to the radiation exposure of on average 7.2 fluoroscopy minutes (95 % CI 5.5; 8.8 min) in the same region of interest. Lifetime risk of exposure related cancer death was 0.033 % or less depending on age and weight.ConclusionsMean ED of abdominal CBCT was 4.3 mSv depending on X-ray field location and body weight.

  17. Influence of materials choice on occupational radiation exposure in ITER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forty, C. B. A.; Firth, J. D.; Butterworth, G. J.

    1998-10-01

    In fission reactor plant,the radiation doses associated with inspection and maintenance of the primary cooling circuit account for a substantial fraction of the collective occupational radiation exposure (ORE). Similarly, it is anticipated that much of the ORE occurring during normal operation of ITER will arise from active deposits in the cooling loop. Using a number of calculation steps ranging from neutron activation analysis, mobilisation and transport modelling and Monte Carlo simulation, estimates for the gamma photon flux and radiation dose fields around a typical `hot-leg' cooling pipe have been made taking SS316,OPTSTAB, MANET-II and F-82H steels as alternative candidate loop materials.

  18. Cancer risk estimation caused by radiation exposure during endovascular procedure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Y. H.; Cho, J. H.; Yun, W. S.; Park, K. H.; Kim, H. G.; Kwon, S. M.

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the radiation exposure dose of patients, as well as staff caused by fluoroscopy for C-arm-assisted vascular surgical operation and to estimate carcinogenic risk due to such exposure dose. The study was conducted in 71 patients (53 men and 18 women) who had undergone vascular surgical intervention at the division of vascular surgery in the University Hospital from November of 2011 to April of 2012. It had used a mobile C-arm device and calculated the radiation exposure dose of patient (dose-area product, DAP). Effective dose was measured by attaching optically stimulated luminescence on the radiation protectors of staff who participates in the surgery to measure the radiation exposure dose of staff during the vascular surgical operation. From the study results, DAP value of patients was 308.7 Gy cm2 in average, and the maximum value was 3085 Gy cm2. When converted to the effective dose, the resulted mean was 6.2 m Gy and the maximum effective dose was 61.7 milliSievert (mSv). The effective dose of staff was 3.85 mSv; while the radiation technician was 1.04 mSv, the nurse was 1.31 mSv. All cancer incidences of operator are corresponding to 2355 persons per 100,000 persons, which deemed 1 of 42 persons is likely to have all cancer incidences. In conclusion, the vascular surgeons should keep the radiation protection for patient, staff, and all participants in the intervention in mind as supervisor of fluoroscopy while trying to understand the effects by radiation by themselves to prevent invisible danger during the intervention and to minimize the harm.

  19. Long-term effects of radiation exposure on health.

    PubMed

    Kamiya, Kenji; Ozasa, Kotaro; Akiba, Suminori; Niwa, Ohstura; Kodama, Kazunori; Takamura, Noboru; Zaharieva, Elena K; Kimura, Yuko; Wakeford, Richard

    2015-08-01

    Late-onset effects of exposure to ionising radiation on the human body have been identified by long-term, large-scale epidemiological studies. The cohort study of Japanese survivors of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki (the Life Span Study) is thought to be the most reliable source of information about these health effects because of the size of the cohort, the exposure of a general population of both sexes and all ages, and the wide range of individually assessed doses. For this reason, the Life Span Study has become fundamental to risk assessment in the radiation protection system of the International Commission on Radiological Protection and other authorities. Radiation exposure increases the risk of cancer throughout life, so continued follow-up of survivors is essential. Overall, survivors have a clear radiation-related excess risk of cancer, and people exposed as children have a higher risk of radiation-induced cancer than those exposed at older ages. At high doses, and possibly at low doses, radiation might increase the risk of cardiovascular disease and some other non-cancer diseases. Hereditary effects in the children of atomic bomb survivors have not been detected. The dose-response relation for cancer at low doses is assumed, for purposes of radiological protection, to be linear without a threshold, but has not been shown definitively. This outstanding issue is not only a problem when dealing appropriately with potential health effects of nuclear accidents, such as at Fukushima and Chernobyl, but is of growing concern in occupational and medical exposure. Therefore, the appropriate dose-response relation for effects of low doses of radiation needs to be established. PMID:26251392

  20. Thyroid Cancer after Childhood Exposure to External Radiation: An Updated Pooled Analysis of 12 Studies.

    PubMed

    Veiga, Lene H S; Holmberg, Erik; Anderson, Harald; Pottern, Linda; Sadetzki, Siegal; Adams, M Jacob; Sakata, Ritsu; Schneider, Arthur B; Inskip, Peter; Bhatti, Parveen; Johansson, Robert; Neta, Gila; Shore, Roy; de Vathaire, Florent; Damber, Lena; Kleinerman, Ruth; Hawkins, Michael M; Tucker, Margaret; Lundell, Marie; Lubin, Jay H

    2016-05-01

    Studies have causally linked external thyroid radiation exposure in childhood with thyroid cancer. In 1995, investigators conducted relative risk analyses of pooled data from seven epidemiologic studies. Doses were mostly <10 Gy, although childhood cancer therapies can result in thyroid doses >50 Gy. We pooled data from 12 studies of thyroid cancer patients who were exposed to radiation in childhood (ages <20 years), more than doubling the data, including 1,070 (927 exposed) thyroid cancers and 5.3 million (3.4 million exposed) person-years. Relative risks increased supralinearly through 2-4 Gy, leveled off between 10-30 Gy and declined thereafter, remaining significantly elevated above 50 Gy. There was a significant relative risk trend for doses <0.10 Gy (P < 0.01), with no departure from linearity (P = 0.36). We observed radiogenic effects for both papillary and nonpapillary tumors. Estimates of excess relative risk per Gy (ERR/Gy) were homogeneous by sex (P = 0.35) and number of radiation treatments (P = 0.84) and increased with decreasing age at the time of exposure. The ERR/Gy estimate was significant within ten years of radiation exposure, 2.76 (95% CI, 0.94-4.98), based on 42 exposed cases, and remained elevated 50 years and more after exposure. Finally, exposure to chemotherapy was significantly associated with thyroid cancer, with results supporting a nonsynergistic (additive) association with radiation. PMID:27128740

  1. Medical management of three workers following a radiation exposure incident

    SciTech Connect

    House, R.A.; Sax, S.E.; Rumack, E.R.; Holness, D.L. )

    1992-01-01

    The medical management of three individuals involved in an exposure incident to whole-body radiation at a nuclear generating plant of a Canadian electrical utility is described. The exposure incident resulted in the two highest whole-body radiation doses ever received in a single event by workers in a Canadian nuclear power plant. The individual whole-body doses (127.4 mSv, 92.0 mSv, 22.4 mSv) were below the threshold for acute radiation sickness but the exposures still presented medical management problems related to assessment and counseling. Serial blood counting and lymphocyte cytogenetic analysis to corroborate the physical dosimetry were performed. All three employees experienced somatic symptoms due to stress and one employee developed post-traumatic stress disorder. This incident indicates that there is a need in such radiation exposure accidents for early and continued counseling of exposed employees to minimize the risk of development of stress-related symptoms.

  2. Performance deficit produced by partial body exposures to space radiation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    On exploratory class missions to other planets, astronauts will be exposed to types of radiation (particles of high energy and charge [HZE particles]) that are not experienced in low earth orbit, where the space shuttle operates. Previous research has shown that exposure to HZE particles can affect...

  3. Pituitary tumors following fallout radiation exposure. [Marshall Islands

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, W.H.; Harper, J.A.; Rittmaster, R.S.; Grimson, R.C.

    1984-08-03

    Two pituitary tumors were diagnosed in a small population of Marshallese accidentally exposed to radioactive fallout in 1954. Endocrinologic findings in the exposed population, are reported and the possible relation of the tumors to radiation exposure and thyroid disease is discussed.

  4. DOE Radiation Exposure Monitoring System (REMS) Data Update

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, Nimi; Hagemeyer, Derek

    2012-05-05

    This slide show presents the 2011 draft data for DOE occupational radiation exposure.Clarification is given on Reporting Data regarding: reporting Total Organ Dose (TOD); reporting Total Skin Dose (TSD), and Total Extremity Dose (TExD) ; and Special individuals reporting.

  5. Radiation exposure of fertile women in medical research studies

    SciTech Connect

    Vetter, R.J.

    1988-08-01

    Fertile women may be exposed to ionizing radiation as human subjects in medical research studies. If the woman is pregnant, such exposures may result in risk to an embryo/fetus. Fertile women may be screened for pregnancy before exposure to ionizing radiation by interview, general examination, or pregnancy test. Use of the sensitive serum pregnancy test has become common because it offers concrete evidence that the woman is not pregnant (more specifically, that an embryo is not implanted). Evidence suggests that risk to the embryo from radiation exposure before organogenesis is extremely low or nonexistent. Further, demonstrated effects on organogenesis are rare or inconclusive at fetal doses below 50 mSv (5 rem). Therefore, there may be some level of radiation exposure below which risk to the fetus may be considered essentially zero, and a serum pregnancy test is unnecessary. This paper reviews the fetal risks and suggests that consideration be given to establishing a limit to the fetus of 0.5 mSv (50 mrem), below which pregnancy screening need not include the use of a serum pregnancy test.

  6. Radiation exposure of aviation crewmembers and cancer.

    PubMed

    Bramlitt, Edward T; Shonka, Joseph J

    2015-01-01

    Crewmembers are exposed to galactic cosmic radiation on every flight and occasionally to solar protons on polar flights. Data are presented showing that the proton occasions are seven times more frequent than generally believed. Crewmembers are also exposed to neutrons and gamma rays from the sun and to gamma rays from terrestrial thunderstorms. Solar neutrons and gamma rays (1) expose the daylight side of Earth, (2) are most intense at lower latitudes, (3) may be as or more frequent than solar protons, and (4) have relativistic energies. The U.S. agency responsible for crewmember safety only considers the galactic component with respect to its recommended 20 mSv y(-1) limit, but it has an estimate for a thunderstorm dose of 30 mSv. In view of overlooked sources, possible over-limit doses, and lack of dosimetry, dose reconstructions are needed. However, using the agency dose estimates and the compensation procedure for U.S. nuclear weapon workers, the probability of crewmember cancers can be at least as likely as not. Ways to improve the quality of dose estimates are suggested, and a worker's compensation program specific to aviation crewmembers is recommended. PMID:25437523

  7. How Galactic Cosmic Ray models affect the estimation of radiation exposure in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mrigakshi, Alankrita Isha; Matthiä, Daniel; Berger, Thomas; Reitz, Günther; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert F.

    2013-03-01

    The radiation environment in space is a major concern for human spaceflight because of the adverse effects of high levels of radiation on astronauts' health. Therefore, it is essential to perform radiation risk assessments already during the concept studies of a manned mission. Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR) have been identified to be one of the primary sources of radiation exposure in space.This work presents an evaluation of the radiation exposure caused by GCR between 1970 and 2011 in near-Earth interplanetary space and at the orbit of the International Space Station (ISS) by making numerical simulations with the Monte-Carlo framework GEANT4. Commonly used GCR models - CREME96, CREME2009 and Badhwar-O'Neill2010 are used to describe the GCR spectra and the differences arising from the application of these different models in terms of absorbed dose and dose equivalent rates are investigated. Additionally, the depth distribution of the dose quantities and the relative contribution of particles with different energies to the total exposure during solar maximum and minimum conditions are studied.The differences in the spectra, described by the models, result in considerable differences in the estimation of the radiation exposure.

  8. Monitoring radiation exposure to medical personnel during percutaneous nephrolithotomy

    SciTech Connect

    Lowe, F.C.; Auster, M.; Beck, T.J.; Chang, R.; Marshall, F.F.

    1986-09-01

    To ascertain radiation exposure to medical personnel during percutaneous nephrolithotomy, lithium fluoride thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) were utilized for the radiographic monitoring of 7 consecutive patients. Average fluoroscopy time per procedure was 27.8 minutes of which 15.1 minutes were for nephrostomy tube insertion and 12.7 minutes were for calculi extraction. The 2 radiologists received 4.5 and 5.1 mrad per procedure, while the 2 urologists received 2.5 and 3.7 mrad. All other ancillary personnel received less than 2.1 mrad per procedure except the anesthesiologists whose mean exposure was 4.7 mrad. By taking appropriate precautions and using the proper equipment, percutaneous nephrolithotomy can be performed with a low level of radiation exposure for all involved physicians and personnel.

  9. Changes in Liver Metabolic Gene Expression from Radiation Exposure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, C. P.; Wotring, Virginia E.

    2011-01-01

    Radiation exposure is one of the unique physiological challenges of human spaceflight that is not encountered on earth. While radiation exposure is known to impart physiological stresses and alter normal function, it is unclear how it specifically affects drug metabolism. A major concern is that the actions of medications used in spaceflight may deviate from the expectations formed from terrestrial use. This concern was investigated at the molecular level by analyzing how gamma radiation exposure affected gene expression in the livers of mice. Three different doses of radiation were administered and after various intervals of recovery time, gene expression was measured with RT-qPCR screening arrays for drug metabolism and DNA repair. After examining the results of 192 genes total from each of 72 mice, 65 genes were found to be significantly affected by at least one of the doses of radiation. In general, the genes affected are involved in the metabolism of drugs with lipid or steroid hormone-like structures, as well as the maintenance of redox homeostasis and repair of DNA damage.

  10. Radiation exposure and safety practices during pediatric central line placement

    PubMed Central

    Saeman, Melody R.; Burkhalter, Lorrie S.; Blackburn, Timothy J.; Murphy, Joseph T.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Pediatric surgeons routinely use fluoroscopy for central venous line (CVL) placement. We examined radiation safety practices and patient/surgeon exposure during fluoroscopic CVL. Methods Fluoroscopic CVL procedures performed by 11 pediatric surgeons in 2012 were reviewed. Fluoroscopic time (FT), patient exposure (mGy), and procedural data were collected. Anthropomorphic phantom simulations were used to calculate scatter and dose (mSv). Surgeons were surveyed regarding safety practices. Results 386 procedures were reviewed. Median FT was 12.8 seconds. Median patient estimated effective dose was 0.13 mSv. Median annual FT per surgeon was 15.4 minutes. Simulations showed no significant difference (p = 0.14) between reported exposures (median 3.5 mGy/min) and the modeled regression exposures from the C-arm default mode (median 3.4 mGy/min). Median calculated surgeon exposure was 1.5 mGy/year. Eight of 11 surgeons responded to the survey. Only three reported 100% lead protection and frequent dosimeter use. Conclusion We found non-standard radiation training, safety practices, and dose monitoring for the 11 surgeons. Based on simulations, the C-arm default setting was typically used instead of low dose. While most CVL procedures have low patient/surgeon doses, every effort should be used to minimize patient and occupational exposure, suggesting the need for formal hands-on training for non-radiologist providers using fluoroscopy. PMID:25837269

  11. Effects upon health of occupational exposure to microwave radiation (radar)

    SciTech Connect

    Robinette, C.D.; Silverman, C.; Jablon, S.

    1980-07-01

    The effects of occupational experience with microwave radiation (radar) on the health of US enlisted Naval personnel were studied in cohorts of approximately 20,000 men with maximum opportunity for exposure (electronic equipment repair) and 20,000 with minimum potential for exposure (equipment operation) who served during the Korean War period. Potential exposure was assessed in terms of occupational duties, length of time in occupation and power of equipment at the time of exposure. Actual exposure to members of each cohort could not be established. Mortality by cause of death, hospitalization during military service, later hospitalization in Veterans Administration (VA) facilities, and VA disability compensation were the health indexes studied, largely through the use of automated record systems. No adverse effects were detected in these indexes that could be attributed to potential microwave radiation exposures during the period 1950-1954. Functional and behavioral changes and ill-defined conditions, such as have been reported as microwave effects, could not be investigated in this study but subgroups of the living study population can be identified for expanded follow-up.

  12. Radiation exposure to angiographers under different fluoroscopic imaging conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Boone, J.M.; Levin, D.C. )

    1991-09-01

    Radiation levels near an imaging chain commonly used in angiography were measured with both a 100- and a 200-mm-thick scatter phantom. The scatter was measured in lines parallel in space to the central ray of the x-ray beam, at lateral distances of 300, 500, and 800 mm. The effects of fluoroscopic kilovoltage and image intensifier magnification mode were also measured. The results indicate that the highest scattered radiation levels occur near the surface of the patient where the x-ray beam enters. Exposure rates were measured in both anteroposterior (AP) and posteroanterior (PA) geometries on a U-arm system. In PA geometry, the highest radiation levels occur below the angiographer's waist, an area well protected by the lead apron. The AP geometry increases the exposure rate to the neck, head, and upper extremities, areas where apron shielding is less effective.

  13. Overview of ICRP Committee 2 'Doses from Radiation Exposure'.

    PubMed

    Harrison, J

    2015-06-01

    Over many years, Committee 2 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has provided sets of dose coefficients to allow users to evaluate equivalent and effective doses for intakes of radionuclides or exposure to external radiation for comparison with dose limits, constraints, and reference levels as recommended by ICRP. Following the 2007 Recommendations, Committee 2 and its task groups are engaged in a substantial programme of work to provide new dose coefficients for various conditions of radiation exposure. The methodology being applied in the calculation of doses can be regarded as state-of-the-art in terms of the biokinetic models used to describe the behaviour of inhaled and ingested radionuclides, and the dosimetric models used to model radiation transport for external and internal exposures. The level of sophistication of these models is greater than required for calculation of the protection quantities with their inherent simplifications and approximations, which were introduced necessarily, for example by the use of radiation and tissue weighting factors. However, ICRP is at the forefront of developments in this area, and its models are used for scientific as well as protection purposes. This overview provides an outline of recent work and future plans, including publications on dose coefficients for adults, children, and in-utero exposures, with new dosimetric phantoms in each case. The Committee has also recently finished a report on radiation exposures of astronauts in space, and is working with members of the other ICRP committees on the development of advice on the use of effective dose. PMID:25816256

  14. Astronaut radiation exposure in low-earth orbit. Part 1. Galactic cosmic radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Letaw, J.R.

    1988-03-31

    In recent years, there has been increasing concern about the radiation doses that will be suffered by astronauts on present-day and future space missions. In order to characterize radiation exposure risks on space missions one requires models of space-radiation environments, codes for transporting the components of ionizing radiation, and procedures for assessing radiation risks of a given exposure. To verify their accuracy, predictions based on these transport results must then be compared with existing dosimetry data. Linear energy transfer (LET) spectra, absorbed dose, and dose equivalent from galactic cosmic radiation and its fragments are presented for four, representative low-earth orbit configurations. The orbits include a high (STS-5IJ) and low (STS-61C) altitude, low-inclination (28.5 degs) flight; a high inclination (49.5 degs) flight (STS-51F); and a polar flight. Results are compared with computations for an exo-magnetospheric flight.

  15. Radiation exposure guidelines for cleanup: Sickness in Mudville

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, R.G.

    1995-12-31

    Interest in retrospective construction of the radiation exposure doses that might possibly be or have been received by workers and members of the Population surrounding a nuclear industrial site continues to gain momentum. The reasons for the increased enthusiasm for decontamination, decommissioning, and environmental restoration (DD&ER) are not so much attributed to realistic cause-effect phenomena but more to a public apprehension based on the current desire to live in a no-risk society. The apprehension is magnified by political and economic interests plus the ever-present litigiousness. Regardless of the reason, it is an exciting field of science, it deals with the environment, which is important to every individual, and it ultimately leads to a more acceptable living condition for the populace involved. Some regulations have caused the cleanup process to essentially stagnate, awaiting the satisfaction of those who are making judgments on how clean is clean. However, there is seemingly little that can be accomplished to circumvent the bureaucratic processes, so a stalemate exists. In addition, the entire DD&ER process has been lucrative, and if one were to balance the weight of documentation that has been produced against the weight of the cleaned up environment to date, the result would be alarming.

  16. Possible future trends of radiation exposure by carbon 14.

    PubMed

    Matthies, M; Paretzke, H G

    1982-01-01

    The possible future trends of the radiation exposure by carbon 14 have been assessed. The individual lifetime doses and the European and global dose commitments were calculated by a specific activity model. A non-linear compartment model was developed so simulate the global cycling of carbon dioxide from the combustion of fossil fuels and of radiocarbon released from nuclear energy facilities until the year 2200. The energy scenarios considered are: (I) logistic growth functions for energy supply with fossil fuels; (II) a high, low and moderate estimate for the extension of nuclear energy (light water reactors). In addition, the influence of the retention of C-14 in the fuel reprocessing plant effluents was tested. For most of the scenarios considered the increase of the specific activity by C-14 releases is more than compensated by the CO2 releases from fossil fuels. Up to 2200 individual lifetime dose commitments for 70 years were found between 0.85 and 0.45 mSv (pre-industrial value: 0.73 mSv). The anthropogenic contributions to the global collective dose commitments until the year 2100 were estimated (for the moderate scenario without retention) at 1.27 X 10(6) man-Sv (11%) from nuclear weapon tests, 3.5 X 10(5) man-Sv (3%) from nuclear power plants, and 6.5 X 10(5) man-Sv (5.6%) from fuel reprocessing facilities. PMID:7111683

  17. Mitigation Strategies for Acute Radiation Exposure during Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, Douglas R.; Epelman, Slava

    2006-01-01

    While there are many potential risks in a Moon or Mars mission, one of the most important and unpredictable is that of crew radiation exposure. The two forms of radiation that impact a mission far from the protective environment of low-earth orbit, are solar particle events (SPE) and galactic cosmic radiation (GCR). The effects of GCR occur as a long-term cumulative dose that results increased longer-term medical risks such as malignancy and neurological degeneration. Unfortunately, relatively little has been published on the medical management of an acute SPE that could potentially endanger the mission and harm the crew. Reanalysis of the largest SPE in August 1972 revealed that the dose rate was significantly higher than previously stated in the literature. The peak dose rate was 9 cGy h(sup -1) which exceeds the low dose-rate criteria for 25 hrs (National Council on Radiation Protection) and 16 hrs (United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation). The bone marrow dose accumulated was 0.8 Gy, which exceeded the 25 and 16 hour criteria and would pose a serious medical risk. Current spacesuits would not provide shielding from the damaging effects for an SPE as large as the 1972 event, as increased shielding from 1-5 grams per square centimeters would do little to shield the bone marrow from exposure. Medical management options for an acute radiation event are discussed based on recommendations from the Department of Homeland Security, Centers for Disease Control and evidence-based scientific literature. The discussion will also consider how to define acute exposure radiation safety limits with respect to exploration-class missions, and to determine the level of care necessary for a crew that may be exposed to an SPE similar to August 1972.

  18. Mitigation Strategies for Acute Radiation Exposure during Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, Douglas R.; Epelman, Slava

    2006-01-01

    While there are many potential risks in a Moon or Mars mission, one of the most important and unpredictable is that of crew radiation exposure. The two forms of radiation that impact a mission far from the protective environment of low-earth orbit, are solar particle events (SPE) and galactic cosmic radiation (GCR). The effects of GCR occur as a long-term cumulative dose that results increased longer-term medical risks such as malignancy and neurological degeneration. Unfortunately, relatively little has been published on the medical management of an acute SPE that could potentially endanger the mission and harm the crew. Reanalysis of the largest SPE in August 1972 revealed that the dose rate was significantly higher than previously stated in the literature. The peak dose rate was 9 cGy h(sup -1) which exceeds the low-dose-rate criteria for 25 hrs (National Council on Radiation Protection) and 16 hrs (United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation). The bone marrow dose accumulated was 0.8 Gy, which exceeded the 25 and 16 hour criteria and would pose a serious medical risk. Current spacesuits would not provide shielding from the damaging effects for an SPE as large as the 1972 event, as increased shielding from 1-5 gm/cm(sup 2) would do little to shield the bone marrow from exposure. Medical management options for an acute radiation event are discussed based on recommendations from the Department of Homeland Security, Centers for Disease Control and evidence-based scientific literature. The discussion will also consider how to define acute exposure radiation safety limits with respect to exploration-class missions, and to determine the level of care necessary for a crew that may be exposed to an SPE similar to August 1972.

  19. Radiation Metabolomics: Identification of Minimally Invasive Urine Biomarkers for Gamma-Radiation Exposure in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Tyburski, John B.; Patterson, Andrew D.; Krausz, Kristopher W.; Slavík, Josef; Fornace, Albert J.; Gonzalez, Frank J.; Idle, Jeffrey R.

    2008-01-01

    Gamma-radiation exposure has both short- and long-term adverse health effects. The threat of modern terrorism places human populations at risk for radiological exposures, yet current medical countermeasures to radiation exposure are limited. Here we describe metabolomics for γ-radiation biodosimetry in a mouse model. Mice were γ-irradiated at doses of 0, 3 and 8 Gy (2.57 Gy/min), and urine samples collected over the first 24 h after exposure were analyzed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography–time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC–TOFMS). Multivariate data were analyzed by orthogonal partial least squares (OPLS). Both 3- and 8-Gy exposures yielded distinct urine metabolomic phenotypes. The top 22 ions for 3 and 8 Gy were analyzed further, including tandem mass spectrometric comparison with authentic standards, revealing that N-hexanoylglycine and β-thymidine are urinary biomarkers of exposure to 3 and 8 Gy, 3-hydroxy-2-methylbenzoic acid 3-O-sulfate is elevated in urine of mice exposed to 3 but not 8 Gy, and taurine is elevated after 8 but not 3 Gy. Gene Expression Dynamics Inspector (GEDI) self-organizing maps showed clear dose–response relationships for subsets of the urine metabolome. This approach is useful for identifying mice exposed to γ radiation and for developing metabolomic strategies for noninvasive radiation biodosimetry in humans. PMID:18582157

  20. Metaphase chromosome aberrations as markers of radiation exposure and dose

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, A.L.; Khan, M.A.; Jostes, R.F.; Cross, F.T.

    1992-10-01

    Chromosome aberration frequency provides the most reliable biological marker of dose for detecting acute accidental radiation exposure. Significant radiation-induced changes in the frequency of chromosome aberrations can be detected at very low doses. Our paper provides information on using molecular chromosome probes ``paints`` to score chromosome damage and illustrates how technical advances make it possible to understand mechanisms involved during formation of chromosome aberrations. In animal studies chromosome aberrations provide a method to relate cellular damage to cellular dose. Using an In vivo/In vitro approach aberrations provided a biological marker of dose from radon progeny exposure which was used to convert WLM to dose in rat tracheal epithelial cells. Injection of Chinese hamsters with {sup 144}Ce which produced a low dose rate exposure of bone marrow to either low-LET radiation increased the sensitivity of the cells to subsequent external exposure to {sup 60}Co. These studies demonstrated the usefulness of chromosome damage as a biological marker of dose and cellular responsiveness.

  1. Metaphase chromosome aberrations as markers of radiation exposure and dose

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, A.L.; Khan, M.A.; Jostes, R.F.; Cross, F.T.

    1992-10-01

    Chromosome aberration frequency provides the most reliable biological marker of dose for detecting acute accidental radiation exposure. Significant radiation-induced changes in the frequency of chromosome aberrations can be detected at very low doses. Our paper provides information on using molecular chromosome probes paints'' to score chromosome damage and illustrates how technical advances make it possible to understand mechanisms involved during formation of chromosome aberrations. In animal studies chromosome aberrations provide a method to relate cellular damage to cellular dose. Using an In vivo/In vitro approach aberrations provided a biological marker of dose from radon progeny exposure which was used to convert WLM to dose in rat tracheal epithelial cells. Injection of Chinese hamsters with [sup 144]Ce which produced a low dose rate exposure of bone marrow to either low-LET radiation increased the sensitivity of the cells to subsequent external exposure to [sup 60]Co. These studies demonstrated the usefulness of chromosome damage as a biological marker of dose and cellular responsiveness.

  2. 76 FR 28436 - Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort AGENCY... Cohort (SEC) under the Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation Program Act of 2000. On April... other classes of employees included in the Special Exposure Cohort. This designation will...

  3. Diagnostic imaging and radiation exposure in inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Zakeri, Nekisa; Pollok, Richard C G

    2016-02-21

    Diagnostic imaging plays a key role in the diagnosis and management of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However due to the relapsing nature of IBD, there is growing concern that IBD patients may be exposed to potentially harmful cumulative levels of ionising radiation in their lifetime, increasing malignant potential in a population already at risk. In this review we explore the proportion of IBD patients exposed to high cumulative radiation doses, the risk factors associated with higher radiation exposures, and we compare conventional diagnostic imaging with newer radiation-free imaging techniques used in the evaluation of patients with IBD. While computed tomography (CT) performs well as an imaging modality for IBD, the effective radiation dose is considerably higher than other abdominal imaging modalities. It is increasingly recognised that CT imaging remains responsible for the majority of diagnostic medical radiation to which IBD patients are exposed. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and small intestine contrast enhanced ultrasonography (SICUS) have now emerged as suitable radiation-free alternatives to CT imaging, with comparable diagnostic accuracy. The routine use of MRI and SICUS for the clinical evaluation of patients with known or suspected small bowel Crohn's disease is to be encouraged wherever possible. More provision is needed for out-of-hours radiation-free imaging modalities to reduce the need for CT. PMID:26900282

  4. Diagnostic imaging and radiation exposure in inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Zakeri, Nekisa; Pollok, Richard CG

    2016-01-01

    Diagnostic imaging plays a key role in the diagnosis and management of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However due to the relapsing nature of IBD, there is growing concern that IBD patients may be exposed to potentially harmful cumulative levels of ionising radiation in their lifetime, increasing malignant potential in a population already at risk. In this review we explore the proportion of IBD patients exposed to high cumulative radiation doses, the risk factors associated with higher radiation exposures, and we compare conventional diagnostic imaging with newer radiation-free imaging techniques used in the evaluation of patients with IBD. While computed tomography (CT) performs well as an imaging modality for IBD, the effective radiation dose is considerably higher than other abdominal imaging modalities. It is increasingly recognised that CT imaging remains responsible for the majority of diagnostic medical radiation to which IBD patients are exposed. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and small intestine contrast enhanced ultrasonography (SICUS) have now emerged as suitable radiation-free alternatives to CT imaging, with comparable diagnostic accuracy. The routine use of MRI and SICUS for the clinical evaluation of patients with known or suspected small bowel Crohn’s disease is to be encouraged wherever possible. More provision is needed for out-of-hours radiation-free imaging modalities to reduce the need for CT. PMID:26900282

  5. Changes in Liver Metabolic Gene Expression from Radiation Exposure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, C. P.; Wotring, V. E.

    2012-01-01

    Increased exposure to radiation is one physiological stressor associated with spaceflight. While known to alter normal physiological function, how radiation affects metabolism of administered medications is unclear. Crew health could be affected if the actions of medications used in spaceflight deviated from expectations formed during terrestrial medication use. Three different doses of gamma radiation (50 mGy - 6.05 Gy) and a sham were administered to groups of 6 mice each, and after various intervals of recovery time, liver gene expression was measured with RT-qPCR arrays for drug metabolism and DNA repair enzymes. Results indicated approx.65 genes of the 190 tested were significantly affected by at least one of the radiation doses. Many of the affected genes are involved in the metabolism of drugs with hydrophobic or steroid-like structures, maintenance of redox homeostasis and repair of DNA damage. Most affected genes returned to near control expression levels by 7 days post-treatment. With 6 Gy exposure, metallothionein expression was 132-fold more than control at the 4 hr time point, and fell at each later time point (11-fold at 24 hrs, and 8-fold at 7 days). In contrast, Cyp17a1 showed a 4-fold elevation at 4 hrs after exposure and remained constant for 7 days.

  6. General Principles of Radiation Protection in Fields of Diagnostic Medical Exposure

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    After the rapid development of medical equipment including CT or PET-CT, radiation doses from medical exposure are now the largest source of man-made radiation exposure. General principles of radiation protection from the hazard of ionizing radiation are summarized as three key words; justification, optimization, and dose limit. Because medical exposure of radiation has unique considerations, diagnostic reference level is generally used as a reference value, instead of dose limits. In Korea, medical radiation exposure has increased rapidly. For medical radiation exposure control, Korea has two separate control systems. Regulation is essential to control medical radiation exposure. Physicians and radiologists must be aware of the radiation risks and benefits associated with medical exposure, and understand and implement the principles of radiation protection for patients. The education of the referring physicians and radiologists is also important. PMID:26908991

  7. Radiation exposure and protection for moon and Mars missions

    SciTech Connect

    MacFarlane, R.E.; Prael, R.E.; Strottman, D.D.; Strniste, G.F.; Feldman, W.C.

    1991-04-01

    A deep space radiation environment of galactic cosmic rays and energetic particles from solar flares imposes stringent requirements for radiation shielding for both personnel and electronic equipment at a moon base or on a Mars expedition. Current Los Alamos capabilities for calculating the effect of such shielding are described, and extensions and validation needed before actual manned deep space missions are launched are outlined. The biological effects of exposure to cosmic-ray ions and to low doses of radiation at low dose rates are poorly understood. Recent Los Alamos work on mutation effects in cells, DNA repair processes, and the analysis of chromosomal aberrations promises to increase our understanding of the basic processes, to provide methods to screen for radiation sensitivity, and to provide advanced dosimetry equipment for space missions.

  8. A reassessment of Galileo radiation exposures in the Jupiter magnetosphere.

    PubMed

    Atwell, William; Townsend, Lawrence; Miller, Thomas; Campbell, Christina

    2005-01-01

    Earlier particle experiments in the 1970s on Pioneer-10 and -11 and Voyager-1 and -2 provided Jupiter flyby particle data, which were used by Divine and Garrett to develop the first Jupiter trapped radiation environment model. This model was used to establish a baseline radiation effects design limit for the Galileo onboard electronics. Recently, Garrett et al. have developed an updated Galileo Interim Radiation Environment (GIRE) model based on Galileo electron data. In this paper, we have used the GIRE model to reassess the computed radiation exposures and dose effects for Galileo. The 34-orbit 'as flown' Galileo trajectory data and the updated GIRE model were used to compute the electron and proton spectra for each of the 34 orbits. The total ionisation doses of electrons and protons have been computed based on a parametric shielding configuration, and these results are compared with previously published results. PMID:16604631

  9. 76 FR 26299 - Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-06

    ... Linde Ceramics Plant in Tonawanda, New York, as an addition to the Special Exposure Cohort (SEC) under... Employees who worked at the Linde Ceramics Plant in Tonawanda, New York, from January 1, 1954...

  10. 76 FR 68459 - Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-04

    ... facility in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, as an addition to the Special Exposure Cohort (SEC) under the Energy... facility in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, during the period from January 1, 1948 through December 31, 1957, for...

  11. 76 FR 3907 - Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-21

    ... Saw and Steel Co., Lockport, New York, as an addition to the Special Exposure Cohort (SEC) under the... Employer employees who worked at Simonds Saw and Steel Co. from January 1, 1948 through December 31,...

  12. Radiation exposure benefit of a lead cap in invasive cardiology

    PubMed Central

    Kuon, E; Birkel, J; Schmitt, M; Dahm, J B

    2003-01-01

    Background: Occupational head exposure to radiation in cardiologists may cause radiation induced cataracts and an increased risk of brain cancer. Objective: To determine the effectiveness of 0.5 mm lead equivalent caps, not previously used in invasive cardiology, in comparison with a 1.0 mm lead equivalent ceiling mounted lead glass screen. Design: An anthropomorphic Alderson-Rando phantom was used to represent the patient. Scatter entrance skin air kerma to the operator position (S-ESAK-O) was measured during fluoroscopy for all standard angulations and the S-ESAK-O per dose–area product (DAP) calculated, as applied to the phantom. Results: Measured mean (SD) left/right anterior oblique angulation ratios of S-ESAK-O without lead devices were 23.1 (10.1), and varied as a function of tube angulation, body height, and angle of incidence. S-ESAK-O/DAP decreased with incremental operator body height by 10 (3)% per 10 cm. A 1.0 mm lead glass shield reduced mean S-ESAK-O/DAP originating from coronary angiography from 1089 (764) to 54 (29) nSv/Gy × cm2. A 0.5 mm lead cap was effective in lowering measured levels to 1.8 (1.1) nSv/Gy × cm2. Both devices together enabled attenuation to 0.5 (0.1) nSv/Gy × cm2. The most advantageous line of vision for protection of the operator’s eyes was ⩾ 60° rightward. Conclusions: Use of 0.5 mm lead caps proved highly effective, attenuating S-ESAK-O to 2.7 (2.0) × 10−3 of baseline, and to 1.2 (1.4) × 10−3 of baseline where there was an additional 1.0 mm lead glass shield. These results could vary according to the x ray systems used, catheterisation protocols, and correct use of radiation protection devices. PMID:12975420

  13. Overview of DOE Radiation Exposure Information Reporting System (REIRS)

    SciTech Connect

    Fix, J.J.; Briscoe, G.J.; Selby, J.M.; Vallario, E.J.

    1981-05-01

    The purpose of the study is to determine the adequacy of the present system, identify any necessary short-term improvements and propose feasible alternatives for an improved system. The study includes topical reports as follows: current Personnel Dosimetry Practices at DOE Facilities; overview of DOE Radiation Exposure Information Reporting System (REIRS); and alternatives to Provide Upgraded Occupational Exposure Record System. This study constitutes the second report and was a joint effort between Battelle Northwest and EG and G, Idaho Falls. EG and G has been responsible for the respository since the fall of 1978.

  14. Factors Related to Radiation Exposure during Lumbar Spine Intervention.

    PubMed

    Choi, Moon Hyung; Choi, Byung Gil; Jung, Seung Eun; Byun, Jae Young

    2016-02-01

    Fluoroscopy guidance is useful to confirm anatomical landmark and needle location for spine intervention; however, it can lead to radiation exposure in patients, physicians, and medical staff. Physicians who used fluoroscopy should be cognizant of radiation exposure and intend to minimize radiation dose. We retrospectively reviewed three lumbar spine intervention procedures (nerve root block, medial branch block, and facet joint block) at our institution between June and December, 2014. We performed 268 procedures on 220 patients and found significant difference in radiation dose between two groups classified by performing physicians. The physician who controlled the fluoroscopy unit directly used significantly shorter fluoroscopy (6 seconds) that resulted in a smaller radiation dose (dose area product [DAP] 0.59 Gy∙cm(2)) than the physician supervising the radiographer controlling the fluoroscopy unit (72 seconds, DAP 5.31 Gy∙cm(2), P < 0.001). The analysis indicates that the difference in fluoroscopy time depends on whether a physician or a radiographer controls the fluoroscopy unit. PMID:26908989

  15. Study Regarding Electromagnetic Radiation Exposure Generated By Mobile Phone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marica, Lucia; Moraru, Luminita

    2011-12-01

    Number of mobile phone users reached to 5 billion subscribers in 2010 [ABI Research, 2010]. A large number of studies illustrated the public concern about adverse effects of mobile phone radiation and possible health hazards. Position of mobile phone use in close proximity to the head leads the main radiation between the hand and the head. Many investigations studying the possible effects of mobile phone exposure, founded no measurable effects of short-term mobile phone radiation, and there was no evidence for the ability to perceive mobile phone EMF in the general population. In this study, field radiation measurements were performed on different brand and different models of mobile phones in active mode, using an EMF RF Radiation Field Strength Power Meter 1 MHz-8 GHz. The study was effectuated on both the 2G and 3G generations phones connected to the providers operating in the frequency range 450 MHz-1800 MHz. There were recorded values in outgoing call and SMS mode, incoming call and SMS mode. Results were compared with ICNIRP guidelines for exposure to general public.

  16. Factors Related to Radiation Exposure during Lumbar Spine Intervention

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Fluoroscopy guidance is useful to confirm anatomical landmark and needle location for spine intervention; however, it can lead to radiation exposure in patients, physicians, and medical staff. Physicians who used fluoroscopy should be cognizant of radiation exposure and intend to minimize radiation dose. We retrospectively reviewed three lumbar spine intervention procedures (nerve root block, medial branch block, and facet joint block) at our institution between June and December, 2014. We performed 268 procedures on 220 patients and found significant difference in radiation dose between two groups classified by performing physicians. The physician who controlled the fluoroscopy unit directly used significantly shorter fluoroscopy (6 seconds) that resulted in a smaller radiation dose (dose area product [DAP] 0.59 Gy∙cm2) than the physician supervising the radiographer controlling the fluoroscopy unit (72 seconds, DAP 5.31 Gy∙cm2, P < 0.001). The analysis indicates that the difference in fluoroscopy time depends on whether a physician or a radiographer controls the fluoroscopy unit. PMID:26908989

  17. Study Regarding Electromagnetic Radiation Exposure Generated By Mobile Phone

    SciTech Connect

    Marica, Lucia; Moraru, Luminita

    2011-12-26

    Number of mobile phone users reached to 5 billion subscribers in 2010 [ABI Research, 2010]. A large number of studies illustrated the public concern about adverse effects of mobile phone radiation and possible health hazards. Position of mobile phone use in close proximity to the head leads the main radiation between the hand and the head. Many investigations studying the possible effects of mobile phone exposure, founded no measurable effects of short-term mobile phone radiation, and there was no evidence for the ability to perceive mobile phone EMF in the general population. In this study, field radiation measurements were performed on different brand and different models of mobile phones in active mode, using an EMF RF Radiation Field Strength Power Meter 1 MHz-8 GHz. The study was effectuated on both the 2G and 3G generations phones connected to the providers operating in the frequency range 450 MHz-1800 MHz. There were recorded values in outgoing call and SMS mode, incoming call and SMS mode. Results were compared with ICNIRP guidelines for exposure to general public.

  18. Advising Japan on Medical Aspects of Radiation Exposure | ORAU

    SciTech Connect

    Wiley, Al; Sugarman, Steve

    2015-03-08

    Because of Japan's March 11, 2011, earthquake and tsunami, the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant suffered catastrophic damage—ultimately leaking dangerously high amounts of radiation that led to the evacuation of more than 80,000 Japanese citizens within a 12-mile radius of the crippled plant. Responding agencies were concerned about the medical impacts of radiation exposure, the effect upon food and water safety and what actions individuals could take to protect themselves. To provide advice and consultation, the physicians and health physicists at REAC/TS were on-call 24/7 and responded to more than 700 inquiries in the days and weeks that followed.

  19. Effects of Radiation Exposure From Cardiac Imaging: How Good Are the Data?

    PubMed Central

    Einstein, Andrew J.

    2012-01-01

    Concerns about medical exposure to ionizing radiation have become heightened in recent years due to rapid growth in procedure volumes and the high radiation doses incurred from some procedures. This article summarizes the evidence base undergirding concerns about radiation exposure in cardiac imaging. After classifying radiation effects, explaining terminology used to quantify the radiation received by patients, and describing typical doses from cardiac imaging procedures, I address the major epidemiological studies having bearing on radiation effects at doses comparable to those received by patients undergoing cardiac imaging. These include studies of atomic bomb survivors, nuclear industry workers, and children exposed in utero to x-rays, all of which have evidenced increased cancer risks at low doses. Additional higher dose epidemiological studies of cohorts exposed to radiation in the context of medical treatment are described and found to be generally compatible with these cardiac-dose-level studies, albeit with exceptions. Using risk projection models developed by the US National Academies that incorporate these data and reflect several evidence-based assumptions, cancer risk from cardiac imaging can be estimated and compared to benefits from imaging. Several ongoing epidemiological studies will provide better understanding of radiation-associated cancer risks. PMID:22300689

  20. [Radiation exposure to personnel in cardiac catheterization laboratories].

    PubMed

    von Boetticher, Heiner; Meenen, Christiane; Lachmund, Jörn; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Engel, Heinz-Jürgen

    2003-01-01

    Radiation exposure in personnel of cardiac catheterization units is based on local dosimetry during patient investigations. In the present study, dose rates were measured at various heights in representative locations, with and without fixed radiation protection shields in place. To determine the effective dose values, TLD measurements were performed using on Alderson phantom to generate radiation scatter and a second phantom in the position of the cardiologist performing the catheterization. Various types of personal radiation protection garment and fixed shields were considered in the calculations. Our results indicate on one hand that good protective standards can be achieved with effective doses below 1 mSv/year under optimized conditions. On the other hand, inappropriate radiation protection equipment can cause substantial increase of radiation doses. Alone the lack of a thyroid shield increases the effective dose of the cardiologist by a factor of 3. For the personnel, effective doses were generally higher than personal doses by a factor between 1.5 and 4.8 depending on the radiation protection situation. PMID:14732954

  1. [CALCULATION OF RADIATION LOADS ON THE ANTHROPOMORPHIC PHANTOM ONBOARD THE SPACE STATION IN THE CASE OF ADDITIONAL SHIELDING].

    PubMed

    Kartashov, D A; Shurshakov, V A

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents the results of calculating doses from space ionizing radiation for a modeled orbital station cabin outfitted with an additional shield aimed to reduce radiation loads on cosmonaut. The shield is a layer with the mass thickness of -6 g/cm2 (mean density = 0.62 g/cm3) that covers the outer cabin wall and consists of wet tissues and towels used by cosmonauts for hygienic purposes. A tissue-equivalent anthropomorphic phantom imitates human body. Doses were calculated for the standard orbit of the International space station (ISS) with consideration of the longitudinal and transverse phantom orientation relative to the wall with or without the additional shield. Calculation of dose distribution in the human body improves prediction of radiation loads. The additional shield reduces radiation exposure of human critical organs by -20% depending on their depth and body spatial orientation in the ISS compartment. PMID:26554132

  2. 47 CFR 15.215 - Additional provisions to the general radiated emission limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... RADIO FREQUENCY DEVICES Intentional Radiators Radiated Emission Limits, Additional Provisions § 15.215... 15.257 provide alternatives to the general radiated emission limits for intentional radiators... § 15.209. In no case shall the level of the unwanted emissions from an intentional radiator...

  3. 47 CFR 15.215 - Additional provisions to the general radiated emission limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... RADIO FREQUENCY DEVICES Intentional Radiators Radiated Emission Limits, Additional Provisions § 15.215... 15.257 provide alternatives to the general radiated emission limits for intentional radiators... § 15.209. In no case shall the level of the unwanted emissions from an intentional radiator...

  4. 47 CFR 15.215 - Additional provisions to the general radiated emission limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... RADIO FREQUENCY DEVICES Intentional Radiators Radiated Emission Limits, Additional Provisions § 15.215... 15.257 provide alternatives to the general radiated emission limits for intentional radiators... § 15.209. In no case shall the level of the unwanted emissions from an intentional radiator...

  5. 47 CFR 15.215 - Additional provisions to the general radiated emission limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... RADIO FREQUENCY DEVICES Intentional Radiators Radiated Emission Limits, Additional Provisions § 15.215... 15.257 provide alternatives to the general radiated emission limits for intentional radiators... § 15.209. In no case shall the level of the unwanted emissions from an intentional radiator...

  6. 47 CFR 15.215 - Additional provisions to the general radiated emission limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... RADIO FREQUENCY DEVICES Intentional Radiators Radiated Emission Limits, Additional Provisions § 15.215... 15.257 provide alternatives to the general radiated emission limits for intentional radiators... § 15.209. In no case shall the level of the unwanted emissions from an intentional radiator...

  7. Radiation exposure and risk assessment for critical female body organs

    SciTech Connect

    Atwell, W.; Weyland, M.D.; Hardy, A.C. NASA, Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX )

    1991-07-01

    Space radiation exposure limits for astronauts are based on recommendations of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements. These limits now include the age at exposure and sex of the astronaut. A recently-developed computerized anatomical female (CAF) model is discussed in detail. Computer-generated, cross-sectional data are presented to illustrate the completeness of the CAF model. By applying ray-tracing techniques, shield distribution functions have been computed to calculate absorbed dose and dose equivalent values for a variety of critical body organs (e.g., breasts, lungs, thyroid gland, etc.) and mission scenarios. Specific risk assessments, i.e., cancer induction and mortality, are reviewed. 13 refs.

  8. Comparison of Mouse Urinary Metabolic Profiles after Exposure to the Inflammatory Stressors γ Radiation and Lipopolysaccharide

    PubMed Central

    Laiakis, Evagelia C.; Hyduke, Daniel R.; Fornace, Albert J.

    2012-01-01

    Metabolomics on easily accessible biofluids has the potential to provide rapid identification and distinction between stressors and inflammatory states. In the event of a radiological event, individuals with underlying medical conditions could present with similar symptoms to radiation poisoning, prominently nausea, diarrhea, vomiting and fever. Metabolomics of radiation exposure in mice has provided valuable biomarkers, and in this study we aimed to identify biomarkers of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exposure to compare and contrast with ionizing radiation. LPS treatment leads to a severe inflammatory response and a cytokine storm, events similar to radiation exposure, and LPS exposure can recapitulate many of the responses seen in sepsis. Urine from control mice, LPS-treated mice, and mice irradiated with 3, 8 and 15 Gy of γ rays was analyzed by LCMS, and markers were extracted using SIMCA-P+ and Random Forests. Markers were validated through tandem mass spectrometry against pure chemicals. Five metabolites, cytosine, cortisol, adenine, O-propanoylcarnitine and isethionic acid, showed increased excretion at 24 h after LPS treatment (P < 0.0001, 0.0393, 0.0393, <0.0001 and 0.0004, respectively). Of these, cytosine, adenine and O-propanoylcarnitine showed specificity to LPS treatment when compared to radiation. On the other hand, increased excretion of cortisol after LPS and radiation treatments indicated a rapid systemic response to inflammatory agents. Isethionic acid excretion, however, showed elevated levels not only after LPS treatment but also after a very high dose of radiation (15 Gy), while additional metabolites showed responsiveness to radiation but not LPS. Metabolomics therefore has the potential to distinguish between different inflammatory responses based on differential ion signatures. It can also provide quick and reliable assessment of medical conditions in a mass casualty radiological scenario and aid in effective triaging. PMID:22128784

  9. Radiation Exposure Alters Expression of Metabolic Enzyme Genes In Mice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wotring, Virginia E.; Mangala, L. S.; Zhang, Y.; Wu, H.

    2010-01-01

    Most pharmaceuticals are metabolized by the liver. The health of the liver, especially the rate of its metabolic enzymes, determines the concentration of circulating drugs as well as the duration of their efficacy. Because of the importance of the liver in drug metabolism it is important to understand the effects of spaceflight on the enzymes of the liver. Exposure to cosmic radiation is one aspect of spaceflight that can be modeled in ground experiments. This study is an effort to examine the effects of adaptive mechanisms that may be triggered by early exposure to low radiation doses. Using procedures approved by the JSC Animal Care & Use Committee, C57 male mice were exposed to Cs-137 in groups: controls, low dose (50 mGy), high dose (6Gy) and a fourth group that received both radiation doses separated by 24 hours. Animals were anesthetized and sacrificed 4 hours after their last radiation exposure. Livers were removed immediately and flash-frozen in liquid nitrogen. Tissue was homogenized, RNA extracted and purified (Absolutely RNA, Agilent). Quality of RNA samples was evaluated (Agilent Bioanalyzer 2100). Complementary DNA was prepared from high-quality RNA samples, and used to run RT-qPCR screening arrays for DNA Repair and Drug Metabolism (SuperArray, SABiosciences/Qiagen; BioRad Cfx96 qPCR System). Of 91 drug metabolism genes examined, expression of 7 was altered by at least one treatment condition. Genes that had elevated expression include those that metabolize promethazine and steroids (4-8-fold), many that reduce oxidation products, and one that reduces heavy metal exposure (greater than 200-fold). Of the 91 DNA repair and general metabolism genes examined, expression of 14 was altered by at least one treatment condition. These gene expression changes are likely homeostatic and could lead to development of new radioprotective countermeasures.

  10. Atomic veterans and their families: responses to radiation exposure.

    PubMed

    Murphy, B C; Ellis, P; Greenberg, S

    1990-07-01

    In-depth interviews with seven atomic veterans and their families indicated powerful psychological effects on all family members from exposure to low-level ionizing radiation. Four themes emerged: the invalidation of their experiences by government and other authority figures; family concerns about genetic effects on future generations; family members' desire to protect each other from fears of physical consequences; and desire to leave a record of their experiences to help prevent future suffering. PMID:2382693

  11. Atomic veterans and their families: Responses to radiation exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, B.C.; Ellis, P.; Greenberg, S. )

    1990-07-01

    In-depth interviews with seven atomic veterans and their families indicated powerful psychological effects on all family members from exposure to low-level ionizing radiation. Four themes emerged: the invalidation of their experiences by government and other authority figures; family concerns about genetic effects on future generations; family members' desire to protect each other from fears of physical consequences; and desire to leave a record of their experiences to help prevent future suffering.

  12. KREAM: Korean Radiation Exposure Assessment Model for Aviation Route Dose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, J.; Dokgo, K.; Choi, E. J.; Kim, K. C.; Kim, H. P.; Cho, K. S. F.

    2014-12-01

    Since Korean Air has begun to use the polar route from Seoul/ICN airport to New York/JFK airport on August 2006, there are explosive needs for the estimation and prediction against cosmic radiation exposure for Korean aircrew and passengers in South Korea from public. To keep pace with those needs of public, Korean government made the law on safety standards and managements of cosmic radiation for the flight attendants and the pilots in 2013. And we have begun to develop our own Korean Radiation Exposure Assessment Model (KREAM) for aviation route dose since last year funded by Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA). GEANT4 model and NRLMSIS 00 model are used for calculation of the energetic particles' transport in the atmosphere and for obtaining the background atmospheric neutral densities depending on altitude. For prediction the radiation exposure in many routes depending on the various space weather effects, we constructed a database from pre-arranged simulations using all possible combinations of R, S, and G, which are the space weather effect scales provided by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). To get the solar energetic particles' spectrum at the 100 km altitude which we set as a top of the atmospheric layers in the KREAM, we use ACE and GOES satellites' proton flux observations. We compare the results between KREAM and the other cosmic radiation estimation programs such as CARI-6M which is provided by the Federal Aviation Agency (FAA). We also validate KREAM's results by comparison with the measurement from Liulin-6K LET spectrometer onboard Korean commercial flights and Korean Air Force reconnaissance flights.

  13. Radiation exposure to the orthopaedic surgeon during periacetabular osteotomy

    PubMed Central

    Daugaard, Henrik; Søballe, Kjeld

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to directly measure the radiation exposure to the orthopaedic surgeon and to measure dose points to the surgeon’s fingers, thyroid gland, and forehead during intraoperative fluoroscopy in periacetabular osteotomy (PAO). In a series of 23 consecutive periacetabular osteotomy procedures, exposure monitoring was carried out using thermo luminescent dosimeters. The effective dose received by the operating surgeon was 0.008 mSv per operation which adds up to a yearly dose of 0.64 mSv from PAO. The median point equivalent dose (mSv) exposure under PAO was 0.009 for the forehead and thyroid gland, 0.045 for the right index finger, and 0.039 for the left index finger. The effective estimated yearly dose received by the operating surgeon was very low. Wearing a lead collar reduces radiation exposure to the thyroid gland while the lead gloves did not protect the surgeon’s fingers. PMID:18958467

  14. Romanian medical exposure to ionising radiation in 2012.

    PubMed

    Girjoaba, O; Cucu, A

    2015-07-01

    Medical exposure, the main source of artificial exposure, shows an increasing trend in the last years, manifested both by increasing the number of examinations with ionising radiation and by increasing the patient dose level. Annual results obtained for medical exposure to ionising radiation based on the data collected from Romanian hospitals are useful for the update of the national database and optimisation of diagnostic procedures in radiology and nuclear medicine. Medical exposure level is expressed in terms of annual collective dose and is evaluated from annual frequencies and the average effective dose per procedure for different types of radiological and nuclear medicine procedures. The Romanian hospitals reported during 2012 a number of 5,505,792 radiological examinations and 17,088 diagnostic procedures of nuclear medicine. Based on the data reported, the average effective doses and their contributions to the collective dose were evaluated. The main contributions to the collective dose of the radiological procedures are registered for CT abdomen and pelvis region, followed by thorax CT and head CT examinations. The next positions are fluoroscopic examination of the thorax and gastrointestinal disease and radiographic examination of the lumbar spine and thorax, which in spite of their low effective dose have an important contribution to the collective dose due to the large number of examinations. For nuclear medicine procedures, major contributions to collective dose are given by bone scintigraphy, followed by PET-CT and thyroid scintigraphy. PMID:25848102

  15. Radiation exposure case management after incorporation of radionuclides.

    PubMed

    Goulko, Guennadi; Dörr, Harald; Meineke, Viktor

    2014-06-01

    The release of radioactive material due to accidents or terroristic actions can result in radioactive contamination of the environment and may lead to intake and incorporation of radionuclides with the consequence of prolonged radiation exposure. In this case, a decision about countermeasures must be carried out as soon as possible to reduce the resulting radiation dose. In order to be prepared for such a scenario, an Assessment and Documentation System has been developed to support the rapid assessment of internal exposures and to assist in decision making. Radionuclide distributions, excretion rates, and resulting exposures have been calculated on the basis of a reference scenario. The documentation of the results in the form of tables and graphs allows the easy and quick interpretation of measurements in terms of exposure and intake. The system in its present status gives information about possibilities of countermeasures; it is the intention of the next steps of development to give advice on the basis of estimated avertable doses. PMID:24776897

  16. Loss of lifetime due to radiation exposure-averaging problems.

    PubMed

    Raicević, J J; Merkle, M; Ehrhardt, J; Ninković, M M

    1997-04-01

    A new method is presented for assessing a years of life lost (YLL) due to stochastic effects caused by the exposure to ionizing radiation. The widely accepted method from the literature uses a ratio of means of two quantities, defining in fact the loss of life as a derived quantity. We start from the real stochastic nature of the quantity (YLL), which enables us to obtain its mean values in a consistent way, using the standard averaging procedures, based on the corresponding joint probability density functions needed in this problem. Our method is mathematically different and produces lower values of average YLL. In this paper we also found certain similarities with the concept of loss of life expectancy among exposure induced deaths (LLE-EID), which is accepted in the recently published UNSCEAR report, where the same quantity is defined as years of life lost per radiation induced case (YLC). Using the same data base, the YLL and the LLE-EID are calculated and compared for the simplest exposure case-the discrete exposure at age a. It is found that LLE-EID overestimates the YLL, and that the magnitude of this overestimation reaches more than 15%, which depends on the effect under consideration. PMID:9119679

  17. Current status of medical radiation exposure in Korea - recent efforts to develop a radiation exposure control system focussed on justification and optimisation.

    PubMed

    Do, K-H; Jung, S E

    2016-06-01

    Radiation exposure from diagnostic medical imaging has increased in Korea. Radiological societies play a key role in radiation safety issues in Korea, including guidelines, accreditation, advocacy, scientific activity, and education. Any medical radiation exposure must be justified, and examinations using ionising radiation must be optimised. Education of referring physicians and radiologists is also important for justification. Medical physicists and radiographers have an important role to play in quality management and optimisation. Regulations are essential to control medical radiation exposure. Therefore, national organisations have made a significant effort to regulate and monitor medical radiation exposure using guidelines, accreditation, and even the law. Medical radiation exposure must be controlled, and this could be achieved by continuous interest from health professionals and organisations. PMID:27026586

  18. 38 CFR 1.17 - Evaluation of studies relating to health effects of radiation exposure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... relating to health effects of radiation exposure. 1.17 Section 1.17 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief... health effects of radiation exposure. (a) From time to time, the Secretary shall publish evaluations of scientific or medical studies relating to the adverse health effects of exposure to ionizing radiation in...

  19. Occupational radiation Exposure at Agreement State-Licensed Materials Facilities, 1997-2010

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research

    2012-07-07

    The purpose of this report is to examine occupational radiation exposures received under Agreement State licensees. As such, this report reflects the occupational radiation exposure data contained in the Radiation Exposure Information and Reporting System (REIRS) database, for 1997 through 2010, from Agreement State-licensed materials facilities.

  20. Relationship of cigarette smoking and radiation exposure to cancer mortality in Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    SciTech Connect

    Prentice, R.L.; Yoshimoto, Y.; Mason, M.W.

    1983-04-01

    Cancer mortality among 40,498 Hiroshima and Nagasaki residents was examined in relation to cigarette smoking habits and estimated atomic bomb radiation exposure level. Relative risk (RR) models that are either multiplicative or additive in the two exposures were emphasized. Most analyses were directed toward all nonhematologic (ANH) cancer, stomach cancer, lung cancer, or digestive tract cancer other than stomach cancer, for which there were, respectively, 1,725, 658, 281, and 338 deaths in the follow-up period for this study. Persons heavily exposed to both cigarette smoke and radiation were found to have significantly lower cancer mortality than multiplicative RR models would suggest for ANH cancer, stomach cancer, and digestive tract cancer other than stomach cancer. Surprisingly, the RR function appeared not only to be submultiplicative for some of these cancer site categories but also may be subadditive. The lung cancer RR function could not be distinguished from either a multiplicative or an additive form. The number of deaths was sufficient to permit some more detailed study of ANH cancer mortality: RR functions appeared to be consistent between males and females, though a paucity of heavy smoking females limits the precision of this comparison. The submultiplicative nature of the RR function mentioned above was particularly pronounced among persons who were relatively young (less than or equal to 30 yr of age) at the time of radiation exposure. The RR function for these younger subjects depends strongly on both radiation and cigarette smoke exposure levels. Implications of these findings are discussed in relation to human carcinogenesis models. As a byproduct, cancer mortality of several sites is significantly related to radiation exposure in this population, after accommodation for the possible confounding effects of cigarette smoking.

  1. Medical mitigation strategies for acute radiation exposure during spaceflight.

    PubMed

    Epelman, Slava; Hamilton, Douglas R

    2006-02-01

    The United States Government has recently refocused their space program on manned missions to the Moon by 2018 and later to Mars. While there are many potential risks associated with exploration-class missions, one of the most serious and unpredictable is the effect of acute space radiation exposure, and the space program must make every reasonable effort to mitigate this risk. The two cosmic sources of radiation that could impact a mission outside the Earth's magnetic field are solar particle events (SPE) and galactic cosmic radiation (GCR). Either can cause acute and chronic medical illness. Numerous researchers are currently examining the ability of GCR exposure to induce the development of genetic changes that lead to malignancies and other delayed effects. However, relatively little has been published on the medical management of an acute SPE event and the potential impact on the mission and crew. This review paper will provide the readers with medical management options for an acute radiation event based on recommendations from the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), Centers for Disease Control (CDC), and evidence-based critical analysis of the scientific literature. It is the goal of this paper to stimulate debate regarding the definition of safety parameters for exploration-class missions to determine the level of medical care necessary to provide for the crew that will undertake such missions. PMID:16491581

  2. Evidence Report: Risk of Cardiovascular Disease and Other Degenerative Tissue Effects from Radiation Exposure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patel, Zarana; Huff, Janice; Saha, Janapriya; Wang, Minli; Blattnig, Steve; Wu, Honglu; Cucinotta, Francis

    2015-01-01

    Occupational radiation exposure from the space environment may result in non-cancer or non-CNS degenerative tissue diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, cataracts, and respiratory or digestive diseases. However, the magnitude of influence and mechanisms of action of radiation leading to these diseases are not well characterized. Radiation and synergistic effects of radiation cause DNA damage, persistent oxidative stress, chronic inflammation, and accelerated tissue aging and degeneration, which may lead to acute or chronic disease of susceptible organ tissues. In particular, cardiovascular pathologies such as atherosclerosis are of major concern following gamma-ray exposure. This provides evidence for possible degenerative tissue effects following exposures to ionizing radiation in the form of the GCR or SPEs expected during long-duration spaceflight. However, the existence of low dose thresholds and dose-rate and radiation quality effects, as well as mechanisms and major risk pathways, are not well-characterized. Degenerative disease risks are difficult to assess because multiple factors, including radiation, are believed to play a role in the etiology of the diseases. As additional evidence is pointing to lower, space-relevant thresholds for these degenerative effects, particularly for cardiovascular disease, additional research with cell and animal studies is required to quantify the magnitude of this risk, understand mechanisms, and determine if additional protection strategies are required.The NASA PEL (Permissive Exposure Limit)s for cataract and cardiovascular risks are based on existing human epidemiology data. Although animal and clinical astronaut data show a significant increase in cataracts following exposure and a reassessment of atomic bomb (A-bomb) data suggests an increase in cardiovascular disease from radiation exposure, additional research is required to fully understand and quantify these adverse outcomes at lower doses (less than 0.5 gray

  3. Summary of ionizing radiation analysis on the Long Duration Exposure Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parnell, T. A.

    1992-01-01

    The ionizing radiation measurements flown on the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) were contained in 15 experiments which utilized passive detectors to pursue objectives in astrophysics and to measure the radiation environment and dosimetric quantities. The spacecraft structure became sufficiently radioactive to permit additional important studies. The induced activity allows extensive radiation mapping in the structure, and independent comparison with experiment dosimetric techniques, and significant studies of secondary effects. The long exposure time, attitude stability, and number and types of measurements produced a unique and critical set of data for low Earth orbit that will not be duplicated for more than a decade. The data allow an unprecedented test, and improvement if required, of models of the radiation environment and the radiation transport methods that are used to calculate the internal radiation and its effects in spacecraft. Results of measurements in the experiments, as well as from radioactivity in the structure, have clearly shown effects from the directional properties of the radiation environment, and progress was made in the dosimetric mapping of LDEF. These measurements have already influenced some Space Station Freedom design requirements. Preliminary results from experiments, reported at this symposium and in earlier papers, show that the 5.8 years exposure considerably enhanced the scientific return of the radiation measurements. The early results give confidence that the experiments will make significant advances in the knowledge of ultra heavy cosmic rays, anomalous cosmic rays, and heavy ions trapped in the radiation belts. Unexpected phenomena were observed, which require explanation. These include stopping iron group ions between the energy ranges anticipated for anomalous and galactic cosmic rays in the LDEF orbit. A surprising concentration of the Be-7 nuclide was discovered on the 'front' surface of LDEF, apparently

  4. Elastomeric Seal Performance after Terrestrial Ultraviolet Radiation Exposure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daniels, Christopher C.; Oravec, Heather A.; Mather, Janice L.; Taylor, Shawn C.; Dunlap, Patrick H.

    2015-01-01

    Ultraviolet radiation was evaluated to determine its negative effects on the performance of elastomeric gas pressure seals. The leak rates of the silicone elastomer S0383-70 O-ring test articles were used to quantify the degradation of the seals after exposure to vacuum-ultraviolet and/or middle-to-near-ultraviolet wavelength radiation. Three groups of seals were exposed in terrestrial facilities to 115-165 nm wavelength radiation, 230-500 nm wavelength radiation, or both spectrums, for an orbital spaceflight equivalent of 125 hours. The leak rates of the silicone elastomer S0383-70 seals were quantified and compared to samples that received no radiation. Each lot contained six samples and statistical t-tests were used to determine the separate and combined influences of exposure to the two wavelength ranges. A comparison of the mean leak rates of samples exposed to 115-165 nm wavelength radiation to the control specimens showed no difference, suggesting that spectrum was not damaging. The 230-500 nm wavelength appeared to be damaging, as the mean leak rates of the specimens exposed to that range of wavelengths, and those exposed to the combined 115-165 nm and 230-500 nm spectrums, were significantly different from the leak rates of the control specimens. Most importantly, the test articles exposed to both wavelength spectrums exhibited mean leak rates two orders of magnitude larger than any other exposed specimens, which suggested that both wavelength spectrums are important when simulating the orbital environment.

  5. Development of a software based automatic exposure control system for use in image guided radiation therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morton, Daniel R.

    Modern image guided radiation therapy involves the use of an isocentrically mounted imaging system to take radiographs of a patient's position before the start of each treatment. Image guidance helps to minimize errors associated with a patients setup, but the radiation dose received by patients from imaging must be managed to ensure no additional risks. The Varian On-Board Imager (OBI) (Varian Medical Systems, Inc., Palo Alto, CA) does not have an automatic exposure control system and therefore requires exposure factors to be manually selected. Without patient specific exposure factors, images may become saturated and require multiple unnecessary exposures. A software based automatic exposure control system has been developed to predict optimal, patient specific exposure factors. The OBI system was modelled in terms of the x-ray tube output and detector response in order to calculate the level of detector saturation for any exposure situation. Digitally reconstructed radiographs are produced via ray-tracing through the patients' volumetric datasets that are acquired for treatment planning. The ray-trace determines the attenuation of the patient and subsequent x-ray spectra incident on the imaging detector. The resulting spectra are used in the detector response model to determine the exposure levels required to minimize detector saturation. Images calculated for various phantoms showed good agreement with the images that were acquired on the OBI. Overall, regions of detector saturation were accurately predicted and the detector response for non-saturated regions in images of an anthropomorphic phantom were calculated to generally be within 5 to 10 % of the measured values. Calculations were performed on patient data and found similar results as the phantom images, with the calculated images being able to determine detector saturation with close agreement to images that were acquired during treatment. Overall, it was shown that the system model and calculation

  6. Effects Of Radiation On Electronics-Additional References

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bouquet, Frank L.

    1988-01-01

    Bibliography abstracts summarizing literature on effects of radiation on new electronic devices. This and second volume cover years 1984 and 1985. Third volume, covers 1982 and 1983 (previously published).

  7. Epidemiological studies on radiation carcinogenesis in human populations following acute exposure: nuclear explosions and medical radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1981-05-01

    The current knowledge of the carcinogenic effect of radiation in man is considered. The discussion is restricted to dose-incidence data in humans, particularly to certain of those epidemiological studies of human populations that are used most frequently for risk estimation for low-dose radiation carcinogenesis in man. Emphasis is placed solely on those surveys concerned with nuclear explosions and medical exposures. (ACR)

  8. Delayed effects of external radiation exposure: a brief history.

    PubMed

    Miller, R W

    1995-11-01

    Within months of Roentgen's discovery of X rays, severe adverse effects were reported, but not well publicized. As a result, over the next two decades, fluoroscope operators suffered lethal skin carcinomas. Later, case reports appeared concerning leukemia in radiation workers, and infants born with severe mental retardation after their mothers had been given pelvic radiotherapy early in pregnancy. Fluoroscopy and radiotherapy for benign disorders continued to be used with abandon until authoritative reports were published on the adverse effects of ionizing radiation by the U.S. NAS-NRC and the UK MRC in 1956. Meanwhile, exposure to the atomic bombs in Japan had occurred and epidemics of delayed effects began to be recognized among the survivors: cataracts (1949), leukemia (1952) and severe mental retardation among newborn infants after intrauterine exposure (1952). No statistically significant excess of germ-cell genetic effects was detected by six clinical measurements (1956), the F1 mortality (1981), cytogenetic studies (1987) or biochemical genetic studies (1988). Somatic cell effects were revealed by long-lasting chromosomal aberrations in peripheral lymphocytes (1968), and somatic cell mutations were found at the glycophorin A locus in erythrocytes (1992). Molecular biology is a likely focus of new studies based on the function of the gene for ataxia telangiectasia (1995), a disorder in which children have severe, even lethal acute radiation reactions when given conventional doses of radiotherapy for lymphoma, to which they are prone. Also, obligate heterozygote female relatives can be studied for increased susceptibility to radiation-induced breast cancer, as suggested by clinical studies. The tumor registries in Hiroshima and Nagasaki now provide incidence data that show the extent of increases in eight common cancers and no increase in eight others (1994). The possibility of very late effects of A-bomb exposure is suggested by recent reports of increased

  9. Simulation of Spatial and Temporal Radiation Exposures for ISS in the South Atlantic Anomaly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Brooke M.; Nealy, John E.; Luetke, Nathan J.; Sandridge, Christopher A.; Qualls, Garry D.

    2004-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) living areas receive the preponderance of ionizing radiation exposure from Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR) and geomagnetically trapped protons. Practically all trapped proton exposure occurs when the ISS passes through the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) region. The fact that this region is in proximity to a trapping mirror point indicates that the proton flux is highly directional. The inherent shielding provided by the ISS structure is represented by a recently-developed CAD model of the current 11-A configuration. Using modeled environment and configuration, trapped proton exposures have been analytically estimated at selected target points within the Service and Lab Modules. The results indicate that the directional flux may lead to substantially different exposure characteristics than the more common analyses that assume an isotropic environment. Additionally, predictive capability of the computational procedure should allow sensitive validation with corresponding on-board directional dosimeters.

  10. Ionizing Radiation Exposure and Basal Cell Carcinoma Pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Li, Changzhao; Athar, Mohammad

    2016-03-01

    This commentary summarizes studies showing risk of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) development in relationship to environmental, occupational and therapeutic exposure to ionizing radiation (IR). BCC, the most common type of human cancer, is driven by the aberrant activation of hedgehog (Hh) signaling. Ptch, a tumor suppressor gene of Hh signaling pathway, and Smoothened play a key role in the development of radiation-induced BCCs in animal models. Epidemiological studies provide evidence that humans exposed to radiation as observed among the long-term, large scale cohorts of atomic bomb survivors, bone marrow transplant recipients, patients with tinea capitis and radiologic workers enhances risk of BCCs. Overall, this risk is higher in Caucasians than other races. People who were exposed early in life develop more BCCs. The enhanced IR correlation with BCC and not other common cutaneous malignancies is intriguing. The mechanism underlying these observations remains undefined. Understanding interactions between radiation-induced signaling pathways and those which drive BCC development may be important in unraveling the mechanism associated with this enhanced risk. Recent studies showed that Vismodegib, a Smoothened inhibitor, is effective in treating radiation-induced BCCs in humans, suggesting that common strategies are required for the intervention of BCCs development irrespective of their etiology. PMID:26930381

  11. Identification of Gene Expression Biomarkers for Predicting Radiation Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Tzu-Pin; Hsu, Yi-Yao; Lai, Liang-Chuan; Tsai, Mong-Hsun; Chuang, Eric Y.

    2014-01-01

    A need for more accurate and reliable radiation dosimetry has become increasingly important due to the possibility of a large-scale radiation emergency resulting from terrorism or nuclear accidents. Although traditional approaches provide accurate measurements, such methods usually require tedious effort and at least two days to complete. Therefore, we provide a new method for rapid prediction of radiation exposure. Eleven microarray datasets were classified into two groups based on their radiation doses and utilized as the training samples. For the two groups, Student's t-tests and resampling tests were used to identify biomarkers, and their gene expression ratios were used to develop a prediction model. The performance of the model was evaluated in four independent datasets, and Ingenuity pathway analysis was performed to characterize the associated biological functions. Our meta-analysis identified 29 biomarkers, showing approximately 90% and 80% accuracy in the training and validation samples. Furthermore, the 29 genes significantly participated in the regulation of cell cycle, and 19 of them are regulated by three well-known radiation-modulated transcription factors: TP53, FOXM1 and ERBB2. In conclusion, this study demonstrates a reliable method for identifying biomarkers across independent studies and high and reproducible prediction accuracy was demonstrated in both internal and external datasets. PMID:25189756

  12. Radiation exposure assessment for portsmouth naval shipyard health studies.

    PubMed

    Daniels, R D; Taulbee, T D; Chen, P

    2004-01-01

    Occupational radiation exposures of 13,475 civilian nuclear shipyard workers were investigated as part of a retrospective mortality study. Estimates of annual, cumulative and collective doses were tabulated for future dose-response analysis. Record sets were assembled and amended through range checks, examination of distributions and inspection. Methods were developed to adjust for administrative overestimates and dose from previous employment. Uncertainties from doses below the recording threshold were estimated. Low-dose protracted radiation exposures from submarine overhaul and repair predominated. Cumulative doses are best approximated by a hybrid log-normal distribution with arithmetic mean and median values of 20.59 and 3.24 mSv, respectively. The distribution is highly skewed with more than half the workers having cumulative doses <10 mSv and >95% having doses <100 mSv. The maximum cumulative dose is estimated at 649.39 mSv from 15 person-years of exposure. The collective dose was 277.42 person-Sv with 96.8% attributed to employment at Portsmouth Naval Shipyard. PMID:15266069

  13. Titanium-Water Thermosyphon Gamma Radiation Exposure and Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanzi, James, L.A; Jaworske, Donald, A.; Goodenow, Debra, A.

    2012-01-01

    Titanium-water thermosyphons are being considered for use in heat rejection systems for fission power systems. Their proximity to the nuclear reactor will result in some gamma irradiation. Noncondensable gas formation from radiation-induced breakdown of water over time may render portions of the thermosyphon condenser inoperable. A series of developmental thermosyphons were operated at nominal operating temperature under accelerated gamma irradiation, with exposures on the same order of magnitude as that expected in 8 years of heat rejection system operation. Temperature data were obtained during exposure at three locations on each thermosyphon: evaporator, condenser, and condenser end cap. Some noncondensable gas was evident; however, thermosyphon performance was not affected because the noncondensable gas was compressed into the fill tube region at the top of the thermosyphon, away from the heat rejecting fin. The trend appeared to be an increasing amount of noncondensable gas formation with increasing gamma irradiation dose. Hydrogen is thought to be the most likely candidate for the noncondensable gas and hydrogen is known to diffuse through grain boundaries. Post-exposure evaluation of one thermosyphon in a vacuum chamber and at temperature revealed that the noncondensable gas diffused out of the thermosyphon over a relatively short period of time. Further research shows a number of experimental and theoretical examples of radiolysis occurring through gamma radiation alone in pure water.

  14. Unusual high exposure to ultraviolet-C radiation.

    PubMed

    Trevisan, Andrea; Piovesan, Stefano; Leonardi, Andrea; Bertocco, Matteo; Nicolosi, Piergiorgio; Pelizzo, Maria Guglielmina; Angelini, Annalisa

    2006-01-01

    UV radiation is known to cause acute and chronic eye and skin damage. The present case report describes a 90 min accidental exposure to UV-C radiation of 26 medical school students. Germicidal lamps were lit due to a malfunctioning of the timer system. Several hours after irradiation exposure, all subjects reported the onset of ocular symptoms, subsequently diagnosed as photokeratitis, and skin damage to the face, scalp and neck. While the ocular symptoms lasted 2-4 days, the sunburn-like condition produced significant erythema followed by deep skin exfoliation. The irradiation was calculated to be approximately 700 mJ cm(-2) absorbed energy, whereas the actual radiation emitted by the lamps was 0.14 mW cm(-2) (the radiometric measurements confirmed these calculi, because the effective irradiance measured from the height of the autopsy table to about 1 m under the UV-C lamp varied from 0.05 to 0.25 mW cm(-2)) but, more likely, the effective irradiance, according to skin phototype and symptoms, was between 50 and 100 mJ cm(-2). The ocular and skin effects produced by such a high irradiation (largely higher than that accepted by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists [ACGIH] threshold limit values [TLVs]) appeared reversible in a relatively short time. PMID:17205632

  15. Cognitive deficits induced by 56Fe radiation exposure.

    PubMed

    Shukitt-Hale, B; Casadesus, G; Cantuti-Castelvetri, I; Rabin, B M; Joseph, J A

    2003-01-01

    Exposing rats to particles of high energy and charge (e.g., 56Fe) disrupts neuronal systems and the behaviors mediated by them; these adverse behavioral and neuronal effects are similar to those seen in aged animals. Because cognition declines with age, and our previous study showed that radiation disrupted Morris water maze spatial learning and memory performance, the present study used an 8-arm radial maze (RAM) to further test the cognitive behavioral consequences of radiation exposure. Control rats or rats exposed to whole-body irradiation with 1.0 Gy of 1 GeV/n high-energy 56Fe particles (delivered at the alternating gradient synchrotron at Brookhaven National Laboratory) were tested nine months following exposure. Radiation adversely affected RAM performance, and the changes seen parallel those of aging. Irradiated animals entered baited arms during the first 4 choices significantly less than did controls, produced their first error sooner, and also tended to make more errors as measured by re-entries into non-baited arms. These results show that irradiation with high-energy particles produces age-like decrements in cognitive behavior that may impair the ability of astronauts to perform critical tasks during long-term space travel beyond the magnetosphere. PMID:12577981

  16. Cognitive deficits induced by 56Fe radiation exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukitt-Hale, B.; Casadesus, G.; Cantuti-Castelvetri, I.; Rabin, B. M.; Joseph, J. A.

    Exposing rats to particles of high energy and charge (e.g., 56Fe) disrupts neuronal systems and the behaviors mediated by them; these adverse behavioral and neuronal effects are similar to those seen in aged animals. Because cognition declines with age, and our previous study showed that radiation disrupted Morris water maze spatial learning and memory performance, the present study used an 8-arm radial maze (RAM) to further test the cognitive behavioral consequences of radiation exposure. Control rats or rats exposed to whole-body irradiation with 1.0 Gy of 1 GeV/n high-energy 56Fe particles (delivered at the alternating gradient synchrotron at Brookhaven National Laboratory) were tested nine months following exposure. Radiation adversely affected RAM performance, and the changes seen parallel those of aging. Irradiated animals entered baited arms during the first 4 choices significantly less than did controls, produced their first error sooner, and also tended to make more errors as measured by re-entries into non-baited arms. These results show that irradiation with high-energy particles produces age-like decrements in cognitive behavior that may impair the ability of astronauts to perform critical tasks during long-term space travel beyond the magnetosphere.

  17. Cognitive deficits induced by 56Fe radiation exposure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shukitt-Hale, B.; Casadesus, G.; Cantuti-Castelvetri, I.; Rabin, B. M.; Joseph, J. A.

    2003-01-01

    Exposing rats to particles of high energy and charge (e.g., 56Fe) disrupts neuronal systems and the behaviors mediated by them; these adverse behavioral and neuronal effects are similar to those seen in aged animals. Because cognition declines with age, and our previous study showed that radiation disrupted Morris water maze spatial learning and memory performance, the present study used an 8-arm radial maze (RAM) to further test the cognitive behavioral consequences of radiation exposure. Control rats or rats exposed to whole-body irradiation with 1.0 Gy of 1 GeV/n high-energy 56Fe particles (delivered at the alternating gradient synchrotron at Brookhaven National Laboratory) were tested nine months following exposure. Radiation adversely affected RAM performance, and the changes seen parallel those of aging. Irradiated animals entered baited arms during the first 4 choices significantly less than did controls, produced their first error sooner, and also tended to make more errors as measured by re-entries into non-baited arms. These results show that irradiation with high-energy particles produces age-like decrements in cognitive behavior that may impair the ability of astronauts to perform critical tasks during long-term space travel beyond the magnetosphere. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd on behalf of COSPAR.

  18. European measurements of aircraft crew exposure to cosmic radiation.

    PubMed

    Menzel, H G; O'Sullivan, D; Beck, P; Bartlett, D

    2000-11-01

    For more than 5 y, the European Commission has supported research into scientific and technical aspects of cosmic-ray dosimetry at flight altitudes in civil radiation. This has been in response to legislation to regard exposure of aircraft crew as occupational, following the recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection in Publication 60. The response to increased public interest and concern, and in anticipation of European and national current work, within a total of three multi-national, multi-partner research contracts, is based on a comprehensive approach including measurements with dosimetric and spectrometric instruments during flights, at high-mountain altitudes, and in a high-energy radiation reference field at CERN, as well as cosmic-ray transport calculations. The work involves scientists in the fields of neutron physics, cosmic-ray physics, and general dosimetry. A detailed set of measurements has been obtained by employing a wide range of detectors on several routes, both on subsonic and supersonic aircraft. Many of the measurements were made simultaneously by several instruments allowing the intercomparison of results. This paper presents a brief overview of results obtained. It demonstrates that the knowledge about radiation fields and on exposure data has been substantially consolidated and that the available data provide an adequate basis for dose assessments of aircraft crew, which will be legally required in the European Union after 13 May 2000. PMID:11045531

  19. Overview of ICRP Committee 2: doses from radiation exposure.

    PubMed

    Harrison, J D; Paquet, F

    2016-06-01

    The focus of the work of Committee 2 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) is the computation of dose coefficients compliant with Publication 103 A set of reference computational phantoms is being developed, based on medical imaging data, and used for radiation transport calculations. Biokinetic models used to describe the behaviour of radionuclides in body tissues are being updated, also leading to changes in organ doses and effective dose coefficients. Dose coefficients for external radiation exposure of adults calculated using the new reference phantoms were issued as Publication 116, jointly with the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements. Forthcoming reports will provide internal dose coefficients for radionuclide inhalation and ingestion by workers, and associated bioassay data. Work is in progress to revise internal dose coefficients for members of the public, and, for the first time, to provide reference values for external exposures of the public. Committee 2 is also working with Committee 3 on dose coefficients for radiopharmaceuticals, and leading a cross-Committee initiative to give advice on the use of effective dose. PMID:26984902

  20. Temporal variation of optimal UV exposure time over Korea: risks and benefits of surface UV radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Y. G.; Koo, J. H.

    2015-12-01

    Solar UV radiation in a wavelength range between 280 to 400 nm has both positive and negative influences on human body. Surface UV radiation is the main natural source of vitamin D, providing the promotion of bone and musculoskeletal health and reducing the risk of a number of cancers and other medical conditions. However, overexposure to surface UV radiation is significantly related with the majority of skin cancer, in addition other negative health effects such as sunburn, skin aging, and some forms of eye cataracts. Therefore, it is important to estimate the optimal UV exposure time, representing a balance between reducing negative health effects and maximizing sufficient vitamin D production. Previous studies calculated erythemal UV and vitamin-D UV from the measured and modelled spectral irradiances, respectively, by weighting CIE Erythema and Vitamin D3 generation functions (Kazantzidis et al., 2009; Fioletov et al., 2010). In particular, McKenzie et al. (2009) suggested the algorithm to estimate vitamin-D production UV from erythemal UV (or UV index) and determined the optimum conditions of UV exposure based on skin type Ⅱ according to the Fitzpatrick (1988). Recently, there are various demands for risks and benefits of surface UV radiation on public health over Korea, thus it is necessary to estimate optimal UV exposure time suitable to skin type of East Asians. This study examined the relationship between erythemally weighted UV (UVEry) and vitamin D weighted UV (UVVitD) over Korea during 2004-2012. The temporal variations of the ratio (UVVitD/UVEry) were also analyzed and the ratio as a function of UV index was applied in estimating the optimal UV exposure time. In summer with high surface UV radiation, short exposure time leaded to sufficient vitamin D and erythema and vice versa in winter. Thus, the balancing time in winter was enough to maximize UV benefits and minimize UV risks.

  1. Elevated blood lead levels from exposure via a radiator workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Treble, R.G.; Thompson, T.S.; Morton, D.N.

    1998-04-01

    Elevated lead levels were discovered in blood samples collected from family members where both the father and the mother worked in a radiator repair workshop. The father and mother were found to have blood lead levels of 2.0 and 0.5 {micro}mol/L, respectively. The father`s blood lead level was just below the Canadian occupational health and safety intervention level. The two children had blood lead levels of 1.0 and 0.8 {micro}mol/L, both of which are in excess of the recommended guideline for intervention in the case of children. The exposure of the two children was possibly due to a combination of pathways including exposure at the workshop itself during visits and also the transportation of lead-containing dust to the home environment.

  2. Full Mission Astronaut Radiation Exposure Assessments for Long Duration Lunar Surface Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adamczyk, Anne M.; Clowdsley, Martha S.; Qualls, Garry D.; Blattnig, Steve B.; Lee, Kerry T.; Fry, Dan J.; Stoffle, Nicholas N.; Simonsen, Lisa C.; Slaba, Tony C.; Walker, Steven A.; Zapp, Edward N.

    2010-01-01

    Risk to astronauts due to ionizing radiation exposure is a primary concern for missions beyond Low Earth Orbit (LEO) and will drive mission architecture requirements, mission timelines, and operational practices. Both galactic cosmic ray (GCR) and solar particle event (SPE) environments pose a risk to astronauts for missions beyond LEO. The GCR environment, which is made up of protons and heavier ions covering a broad energy spectrum, is ever present but varies in intensity with the solar cycle, while SPEs are sporadic events, consisting primarily of protons moving outward through the solar system from the sun. The GCR environment is more penetrating and is more difficult to shield than SPE environments, but lacks the intensity to induce acute effects. Large SPEs are rare, but they could result in a lethal dose, if adequate shielding is not provided. For short missions, radiation risk is dominated by the possibility of a large SPE. Longer missions also require planning for large SPEs; adequate shielding must be provided and operational constraints must allow astronauts to move quickly to shielded locations. The dominant risk for longer missions, however, is GCR exposure, which accumulates over time and can lead to late effects such as cancer. SPE exposure, even low level SPE exposure received in heavily shielded locations, will increase this risk. In addition to GCR and SPE environments, the lunar neutron albedo resulting mainly from the interaction of GCRs with regolith will also contribute to astronaut risk. Full mission exposure assessments were performed for proposed long duration lunar surface mission scenarios. In order to accomplish these assessments, radiation shielding models were developed for a proposed lunar habitat and rover. End-to-End mission exposure assessments were performed by first calculating exposure rates for locations in the habitat, rover, and during extra-vehicular activities (EVA). Subsequently, total mission exposures were evaluated for

  3. Mars Radiation Risk Assessment and Shielding Design for Long-term Exposure to Ionizing Space Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tripathi, Ram K.; Nealy, John E.

    2007-01-01

    NASA is now focused on the agency's vision for space exploration encompassing a broad range of human and robotic missions including missions to Moon, Mars and beyond. As a result, there is a focus on long duration space missions. NASA is committed to the safety of the missions and the crew, and there is an overwhelming emphasis on the reliability issues for space missions and the habitat. The cost-effective design of the spacecraft demands a very stringent requirement on the optimization process. Exposure from the hazards of severe space radiation in deep space and/or long duration missions is a critical design constraint and a potential 'show stopper'. Thus, protection from the hazards of severe space radiation is of paramount importance to the agency's vision. It is envisioned to have long duration human presence on the Moon for deep space exploration. The exposures from ionizing radiation - galactic cosmic radiation and solar particle events - and optimized shield design for a swing-by and a long duration Mars mission have been investigated. It is found that the technology of today is inadequate for safe human missions to Mars, and revolutionary technologies need to be developed for long duration and/or deep space missions. The study will provide a guideline for radiation exposure and protection for long duration missions and career astronauts and their safety.

  4. A different approach to evaluating health effects from radiation exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Bond, V.P.; Sondhaus, C.A.; Feinendegen, L.E.

    1988-01-01

    Absorbed dose D is shown to be a composite variable, the product of the fraction of cells hit (I/sub H/) and the mean /open quotes/dose/close quotes/ (hit size) /ovr z/ to those cells. D is suitable for use with high level (HLE) to radiation and its resulting acute organ effects because, since I/sub H/ = 1.0, D approximates closely enough the mean energy density in the cell as well as in the organ. However, with low-level exposure (LLE) to radiation and its consequent probability of cancer induction from a single cell, stochastic delivery of energy to cells results in a wide distribution of hit sizes z, and the expected mean value, /ovr z/, is constant with exposure. Thus, with LLE, only I/sub H/ varies with D so that the apparent proportionality between /open quotes/dose/close quotes/ and the fraction of cells transformed is misleading. This proportionality therefore does not mean that any (cell) dose, no matter how small, can be lethal. Rather, it means that, in the exposure of a population of individual organisms consisting of the constituent relevant cells, there is a small probabililty of particle-cell interactions which transfer energy. The probability of a cell transforming and initiating a cancer can only be greater than zero if the hit size (/open quotes/dose of energy/close quotes/) to the cell is large enough. Otherwise stated, if the /open quotes/dose/close quotes/ is defined at the proper level of biological organization, namely, the cell and not the organ, only a large dose z to that cell is effective. The above precepts are utilized to develop a drastically different approach to evaluation oif risk from LLE, that holds promise of obviating any requirement for the components of the present system: absorbed organ dose, LET, a standard radiation, REB(Q), dose equivalent and rem. 12 refs., 11 figs.

  5. Delayed effects of external radiation exposure: A brief history

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.W.

    1995-11-01

    Within months of Roentgen`s discovery of X rays, severe adverse effects were reported, but not well publicized. As a result, over the next two decades, fluoroscope operators suffered lethal skin carcinomas. Later, case reports appeared concerning leukemia in radiation workers, and infants born with severe mental retardation after their mothers had been given pelvic radiotherapy early in pregnancy. Fluoroscopy and radiotherapy for benign disorders continued to be used with abandon until authoritative reports were published on the adverse effects of ionizing radiation by the U.S. NAS-NRC and the UK MRC in 1956. Meanwhile, exposure to the atomic bombs in Japan had occurred and epidemics of delayed effects began to be recognized among the survivors: cataracts, leukemia and severe mental retardation among newborn infants after intra-uterine exposure. No statistically significant excess of germ-cell genetic effects was detected by six clinical measurements, the F{sub 1} mortality, cytogenetic studies or biochemical genetic studies. Somatic cell effects were revealed by long-lasting chromosomal aberrations in peripheral lymphocytes, and somatic cell mutations were found at the glycophorin A locus in erythrocytes. Molecular biology is a likely focus of new studies based on the function of the gene for ataxia telangiectasia, a disorder in which children have severe, even lethal acute radiation reactions when given conventional doses of radiotherapy for lymphoma, to which they are prone. The tumor registries in Hiroshima and Nagasaki now provide incidence data that show the extent of increases in eight common cancers and no increase in eight others. The possibility of very late effects of A-bomb exposure is suggested by recent reports of increased frequencies of hyperparathyroidism, parathyroid cancers and certain causes of death other than cancer. 88 refs., 1 fig.

  6. Exposure to galactic cosmic radiation and solar energetic particles.

    PubMed

    O'Sullivan, D

    2007-01-01

    Several investigations of the radiation field at aircraft altitudes have been undertaken during solar cycle 23 which occurred in the period 1993-2003. The radiation field is produced by the passage of galactic cosmic rays and their nuclear reaction products as well as solar energetic particles through the Earth's atmosphere. Galactic cosmic rays reach a maximum intensity when the sun is least active and are at minimum intensity during solar maximum period. During solar maximum an increased number of coronal mass ejections and solar flares produce high energy solar particles which can also penetrate down to aircraft altitudes. It is found that the very complicated field resulting from these processes varies with altitude, latitude and stage of solar cycle. By employing several active and passive detectors, the whole range of radiation types and energies were encompassed. In-flight data was obtained with the co-operation of many airlines and NASA. The EURADOS Aircraft Crew in-flight data base was used for comparison with the predictions of various computer codes. A brief outline of some recent studies of exposure to radiation in Earth orbit will conclude this contribution. PMID:17846031

  7. On the Use of SRIM for Computing Radiation Damage Exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Stoller, Roger E.; Toloczko, Mychailo B.; Was, Gary S.; Certain, Alicia G.; Dwaraknath, S.; Garner, Frank A.

    2013-09-01

    The SRIM (formerly TRIM) Monte Carlo simulation code is widely used to compute a number of parameters relevant to ion beam implantation and ion beam processing of materials. It also has the capability to compute a common radiation damage exposure unit known as atomic displacements per atom (dpa). Since dpa is a standard measure of primary radiation damage production, most researchers who employ ion beams as a tool for inducing radiation damage in materials use SRIM to determine the dpa associated with their irradiations. The use of SRIM for this purpose has been evaluated and comparisons have been made with an internationally-recognized standard definition of dpa, as well as more detailed atomistic simulations of atomic displacement cascades. Differences between the standard and SRIM-based dpa are discussed and recommendations for future usage of SRIM in radiation damage studies are made. In particular, it is recommended that when direct comparisons between ion and neutron data are intended, the Kinchin-Pease option of SRIM should be selected.

  8. Radiation exposure inside reinforced concrete buildings at Nagasaki

    SciTech Connect

    Rhoades, W.A.; Childs, R.L.; Ingersoll, D.T.

    1989-05-01

    The biological effects on the residents of Hiroshima and Nagasaki due to initial-irradiation exposure during the nuclear attacks of World War II was recognized immediately as an important source of information. After the war, an extensive effort gathered data concerning the locations of individuals at the time of the attack and their subsequent medical histories. The data from personnel located in reinforced concrete buildings are particularly significant, since large groups of occupants received radiation injury without complications due to blast and thermal effects. In order to correlate the radiation dose with physiological effects, the dose to each individual must be calculated. Enough information about the construction of the buildings was available after the war to allow a radiation transport model to be constructed, but the accurate calculation of penetration into such large, thick-walled three dimensional structures was beyond the scope of computing technology until recently. Now, the availability of Cray vector computers and the development of a specially-constructed discrete ordinates transport code, TORT, have combined to allow the successful completion of such a study. This document describes the radiation transport calculations and tabulates the resulting doses by source component and individual case location. An extensive uncertainty analysis is also included. These data are to be used in another study as input to a formal statistical analysis, resulting in a new value for the LD50 dose, i.e., the dose at which the mortality risk is 50%. 55 refs., 67 figs., 70 tabs.

  9. On the use of SRIM for computing radiation damage exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoller, R. E.; Toloczko, M. B.; Was, G. S.; Certain, A. G.; Dwaraknath, S.; Garner, F. A.

    2013-09-01

    The SRIM (formerly TRIM) Monte Carlo simulation code is widely used to compute a number of parameters relevant to ion beam implantation and ion beam processing of materials. It also has the capability to compute a common radiation damage exposure unit known as atomic displacements per atom (dpa). Since dpa is a standard measure of primary radiation damage production, most researchers who employ ion beams as a tool for inducing radiation damage in materials use SRIM to determine the dpa associated with their irradiations. The use of SRIM for this purpose has been evaluated and comparisons have been made with an internationally-recognized standard definition of dpa, as well as more detailed atomistic simulations of atomic displacement cascades. Differences between the standard and SRIM-based dpa are discussed and recommendations for future usage of SRIM in radiation damage studies are made. In particular, it is recommended that when direct comparisons between ion and neutron data are intended, the Kinchin-Pease option of SRIM should be selected.

  10. Optical Properties of Thermal Control Coatings After Weathering, Simulated Ascent Heating, and Simulated Space Radiation Exposure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaworske, Donald A.; Tuan, George C.; Westheimer, David T.; Peters, Wanda C.; Kauder, Lonny R.

    2008-01-01

    Spacecraft radiators reject heat to their surroundings and coatings play an important role in this heat rejection. The coatings provide the combined optical properties of low solar absorptance and high infrared emittance. The coatings are applied to the radiator panel in a number of ways, including conventional spraying, plasma spraying, or as an applique. Not designed for a terrestrial weathering environment, the durability of spacecraft paints, coatings, and appliques upon exposure to weathering and subsequent exposure to ascent heating, solar wind, and ultraviolet radiation was studied. In addition to traditional aluminum panels, new isocyanate ester composite panels were exposed for a total of 90 days at the Atmospheric Exposure Site of Kennedy Space Center's (KSC) Beach Corrosion Facility for the purpose of identifying their durability to weathering. Selected panel coupons were subsequently exposed to simulated ascent heating, solar wind, and vacuum ultraviolet (UV) radiation to identify the effect of a simulated space environment on as-weathered surfaces. Optical properties and adhesion testing were used to document the durability of the paints, coatings, and appliques.

  11. Addition Laws for Intensities of Radiation Emerging from Scattering Atmospheres Containing Energy Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikoghossian, A. G.; Kapanadze, N. G.

    2016-03-01

    A group theoretical approach is developed for solving astrophysical radiative transfer problems described in a previous series of papers. Addition laws for observed radiative intensities are derived for the case in which atmospheres not only absorb and scatter radiation incident on them, but radiate themselves because of energy sources contained within them. As an illustration of the application of these laws, several special radiative transfer problems which we believe are of practical interest are discussed.

  12. Prenatal exposure to ionizing radiation and subsequent development of seizures

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, K.; Yoshimaru, H.; Otake, M.; Annegers, J.F.; Schull, W.J. )

    1990-01-01

    Seizures are a frequent sequela of impaired brain development and can be expected to affect more children with radiation-related brain damage than children without such damage. This report deals with the incidence and type of seizures among survivors prenatally exposed to the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and their association with specific stages of prenatal development at the time of irradiation. Fetal radiation dose was assumed to be equal to the dose to the maternal uterus. Seizures here include all references in the clinical record to seizure, epilepsy, or convulsion. Histories of seizures were obtained at biennial routine clinical examinations starting at about the age of 2 years. These clinical records were used to classify seizures as febrile or unprovoked (without precipitating cause). No seizures were ascertained among subjects exposed 0-7 weeks after fertilization at doses higher than 0.10 Gy. The incidence of seizures was highest with irradiation at the eighth through the 15th week after fertilization among subjects with doses exceeding 0.10 Gy and was linearly related to the level of fetal exposure. This obtains for all seizures without regard to the presence of fever or precipitating causes, and for unprovoked seizures. When the 22 cases of severe mental retardation were excluded, the increase in seizures was only suggestively significant and only for unprovoked seizures. After exposure at later stages of development, there was no increase in recorded seizures.

  13. Cognitive function and prenatal exposure to ionizing radiation.

    PubMed

    Schull, W J; Otake, M

    1999-04-01

    It is clear from the many studies of the prenatally exposed survivors of the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki that exposure to ionizing radiation during gestation has harmful effects on the developing human brain, particularly if that exposure occurs at critical stages in the development of the neocortex. Data on a variety of measures of cognitive function, including the occurrence of severe mental retardation as well as variation in the intelligence quotient (IQ) and school performance, show significant effects on those survivors exposed 8-15 weeks and 16-25 weeks after ovulation. Studies of seizures, primarily those without known precipitating cause, also exhibit a radiation effect on those individuals exposed in the first 16 weeks after ovulation. The cellular and molecular events that subtend these abnormalities are still largely unknown although some progress toward an understanding has occurred. For example, magnetic resonance imaging of the brain of some of the mentally retarded survivors has revealed a large region of abnormally situated gray matter, suggesting an abnormality in neuronal migration, but cell killing could also contribute importantly to the effects on cognitive function that have been seen. The retardation of growth in stature observed in individuals exposed in the first and second trimesters of pregnancy suggests that the development of an atypically small head size, without conspicuously impaired cognitive function, may reflect a generalized retardation of growth. PMID:10331523

  14. Prenatal exposure to ionizing radiation and subsequent development of seizures.

    PubMed

    Dunn, K; Yoshimaru, H; Otake, M; Annegers, J F; Schull, W J

    1990-01-01

    Seizures are a frequent sequela of impaired brain development and can be expected to affect more children with radiation-related brain damage than children without such damage. This report deals with the incidence and type of seizures among survivors prenatally exposed to the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and their association with specific stages of prenatal development at the time of irradiation. Fetal radiation dose was assumed to be equal to the dose to the maternal uterus. Seizures here include all references in the clinical record to "seizure," "epilepsy," or "convulsion." Histories of seizures were obtained at biennial routine clinical examinations starting at about the age of 2 years. These clinical records were used to classify seizures as febrile or unprovoked (without precipitating cause). No seizures were ascertained among subjects exposed 0-7 weeks after fertilization at doses higher than 0.10 Gy. The incidence of seizures was highest with irradiation at the eighth through the 15th week after fertilization among subjects with doses exceeding 0.10 Gy and was linearly related to the level of fetal exposure. This obtains for all seizures without regard to the presence of fever or precipitating causes, and for unprovoked seizures. When the 22 cases of severe mental retardation were excluded, the increase in seizures was only suggestively significant and only for unprovoked seizures. After exposure at later stages of development, there was no increase in recorded seizures. PMID:2293744

  15. Radiation exposures for DOE contractor employees-1988. Twenty-first annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Merwin, S. E.; Millet, W. H.; Traub, R. J.

    1990-12-01

    This report is one of a series of annual reports provided by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) summarizing occupational radiation exposures received by DOE and DOE contractor employees. These reports provide an overview of radiation exposures received each year and identify trends in exposures being experienced over the years.

  16. Radiation Exposures for DOE and DOE Contractor Employees - 1989. Twenty-second annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M. H.; Eschbach, P. A.; Harty, R.; Millet, W. H.; Scholes, V. A.

    1992-12-01

    This report is one of a series of annual reports provided by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) summarizing occupational radiation exposures received by DOE and DOE contractor employees. These reports provide an overview of radiation exposures received each year and identify trends in exposures being experienced over the years.

  17. 28 CFR 79.44 - Proof of working level month exposure to radiation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Proof of working level month exposure to radiation. 79.44 Section 79.44 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CLAIMS UNDER THE RADIATION EXPOSURE COMPENSATION ACT Eligibility Criteria for Claims by Uranium Miners § 79.44 Proof of working level month exposure to...

  18. Bystander effects, genomic instability, adaptive response, and cancer risk assessment for radiation and chemical exposures

    SciTech Connect

    Preston, R. Julian . E-mail: preston.julian@epa.gov

    2005-09-01

    There is an increased interest in utilizing mechanistic data in support of the cancer risk assessment process for ionizing radiation and environmental chemical exposures. In this regard, the use of biologically based dose-response models is particularly advocated. The aim is to provide an enhanced basis for describing the nature of the dose-response curve for induced tumors at low levels of exposure. Cellular responses that might influence the nature of the dose-response curve at low exposures are understandably receiving attention. These responses (bystander effects, genomic instability, and adaptive responses) have been studied most extensively for radiation exposures. The former two could result in an enhancement of the tumor response at low doses and the latter could lead to a reduced response compared to that predicted by a linear extrapolation from high dose responses. Bystander responses, whereby cells other than those directly traversed by radiation tracks are damaged, can alter the concept of target cell population per unit dose. Similarly, induced genomic instability can alter the concept of total response to an exposure. There appears to be a role for oxidative damage and cellular signaling in the etiology of these cellular responses. The adaptive response appears to be inducible at very low doses of radiation or of some chemicals and reduces the cellular response to a larger challenge dose. It is currently unclear how these cellular toxic responses might be involved in tumor formation, if indeed they are. In addition, it is not known how widespread they are as regards inducing agents. Thus, their impact on low dose cancer risk remains to be established.

  19. Effect of space relevant radiation exposure on differentiation and mineralization of murine osteoprogenitor cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, Patrick; Hu, Yueyuan; Hellweg, Christine; Baumstark-Khan, Christa; Reitz, Guenther

    Extended exposure to altered gravity conditions like during long-term space flight results in significant bone loss. Exposure to ionizing radiation for cancer therapy causes bone damage and may increase the risk of fractures. Similarly, besides altered gravity conditions, astronauts on exploratory missions beyond low-Earth orbit will be exposed to high-energy heavy ions in addition to proton and photon radiation, although for prolonged periods and at lower doses and dose rates compared with therapy. Space conditions may place astronauts at a greater risk for mission-critical fractures. Until now, little is known about the effects of space radiation on the skeletal system especially on osteoprogenitor cells. Accelerator facilities are used to simulate parts of the radiation environment in space. Heavy ion accelerators therefore could be used to assess radiation risks for astronauts who will be exposed to higher radiation doses e.g. on a Mars mission. The aim of the present study was to determine the biological effects of spaceflight-relevant radiation exposure on the cellular level using murine osteoprogenitor cell lines compared to nonirradiated controls. To gain a deeper understanding of bone cell differenti-ation and mineralization after exposure to heavy ions, we examined gene expression modulation of bone specific transcription factors, osteoblast specific marker genes as well as genes function as coupling factors that link bone resorption to bone formation. We investigated the transcrip-tional modulation of type I collagen (Col I), osteocalcin (Ocn), Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and the bone specific transcription factor Runx2 (Cbfa1). To gain deeper insight into potential cellular mechanisms involved in cellular response after ex-posure to heavy ions, we investigated gene expression modulations after exposure to energetic carbon ions (35 MeV/u, 73.2 keV/µm), iron ions (1000 MeV/u, 150 keV/µm) and lead ions (29 MeV/u, 9600

  20. Clinical distinctions of radiation sickness with exposure of different parts of the human body to radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Nevskaya, G.F.; Abramova, G.M.; Volkova, M.A.; Kavlycheva, Y.V.; Skorik, A.S.; Yurogov, V.V.

    1982-01-12

    The clinical picture of radiation sickness of 139 radiological patients exposed to local irradition of the head, chest, and stomach with efficient doses of 210 rad was examined. It was found that at fractionated local irraditions the clinical symptom-complex of radiation sickness was identifical to that seen as a result of total-body irradiation. During head irradiation the major symptom was headache and during stomach irradiation nausea. The severity level of radiation damage measured with respect to the clinical symptom-complex as a whole with the aid of the bioinformation model was similar during irradiations of the head and stomach, much higher during irradiation of the chest. During head and stomach irradiations the severity level of radiation damage was proportional to the efficient dose. During chest irradiation there was no correlation between the severity level and the exposure to doses of 210 rad.

  1. Average radiation exposure values for three diagnostic radiographic examinations

    SciTech Connect

    Rueter, F.G.; Conway, B.J.; McCrohan, J.L.; Suleiman, O.H. )

    1990-11-01

    National surveys of more than 600 facilities that performed chest, lumbosacral spine, and abdominal examinations were conducted as a part of the Nationwide Evaluation of X-Ray Trends program. Radiation exposures were measured with use of a set of standard phantoms developed by the Center for Devices and Radiological Health of the Food and Drug Administration, U.S. Public Health Service. X-ray equipment parameters, film processing data, and data regarding techniques used were collected. There were no differences in overall posteroanterior chest exposures between hospitals and private practices. Seventy-six percent of hospitals used grids, compared with 33% of private practices. In general, hospitals favored a high tube voltage technique, and private facilities favored a low tube voltage technique. Forty-one percent of private practices and 17% of hospitals underprocessed their film. Underprocessing in hospitals increased from 17% in 1984 to 33% in 1987. Average exposure values for these examinations may be useful as guidelines in meeting some of the new requirements of the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations.

  2. Blue Light and Ultraviolet Radiation Exposure from Infant Phototherapy Equipment.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Iole; Bogi, Andrea; Picciolo, Francesco; Stacchini, Nicola; Buonocore, Giuseppe; Bellieni, Carlo V

    2015-01-01

    Phototherapy is the use of light for reducing the concentration of bilirubin in the body of infants. Although it has become a mainstay since its introduction in 1958, a better understanding of the efficacy and safety of phototherapy applications seems to be necessary for improved clinical practices and outcomes. This study was initiated to evaluate workers' exposure to Optical Radiation from different types of phototherapy devices in clinical use in Italy. During infant phototherapy the staff monitors babies periodically for around 10 min every hour, and fixation of the phototherapy beam light frequently occurs: almost all operators work within 30 cm of the phototherapy source during monitoring procedures, with most of them commonly working at ≤25 cm from the direct or reflected radiation beam. The results of this study suggest that there is a great variability in the spectral emission of equipments investigated, depending on the types of lamps used and some phototherapy equipment exposes operators to blue light photochemical retinal hazard. Some of the equipment investigated presents relevant spectral emission also in the UVA region. Taking into account that the exposure to UV in childhood has been established as an important contributing factor for melanoma risk in adults and considering the high susceptibility to UV-induced skin damage of the newborn, related to his pigmentary traits, the UV exposure of the infant during phototherapy should be "as low as reasonably achievable," considering that it is unnecessary to the therapy. It is recommended that special safety training be provided for the affected employees: in particular, protective eyewear can be necessary during newborn assistance activities carried out in proximity of some sources. The engineering design of phototherapy equipment can be optimized. Specific requirements for photobiological safety of lamps used in the phototherapy equipment should be defined in the safety product standard for such

  3. 48 CFR 952.223-75 - Preservation of individual occupational radiation exposure records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... occupational radiation exposure records. 952.223-75 Section 952.223-75 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Clauses 952.223-75 Preservation of individual occupational radiation exposure records. As prescribed at..., and health into work planning and execution, or 952.223-72, Radiation protection and...

  4. 48 CFR 952.223-75 - Preservation of individual occupational radiation exposure records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... occupational radiation exposure records. 952.223-75 Section 952.223-75 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Clauses 952.223-75 Preservation of individual occupational radiation exposure records. As prescribed at..., and health into work planning and execution, or 952.223-72, Radiation protection and...

  5. 48 CFR 952.223-75 - Preservation of individual occupational radiation exposure records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... occupational radiation exposure records. 952.223-75 Section 952.223-75 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Clauses 952.223-75 Preservation of individual occupational radiation exposure records. As prescribed at..., and health into work planning and execution, or 952.223-72, Radiation protection and...

  6. 28 CFR 79.44 - Proof of working level month exposure to radiation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... radiation. 79.44 Section 79.44 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CLAIMS UNDER THE RADIATION EXPOSURE COMPENSATION ACT Eligibility Criteria for Claims by Uranium Miners § 79.44 Proof of working level month exposure to radiation. (a) If one or more of the sources in § 79.43(a) contain...

  7. 28 CFR 79.44 - Proof of working level month exposure to radiation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... radiation. 79.44 Section 79.44 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CLAIMS UNDER THE RADIATION EXPOSURE COMPENSATION ACT Eligibility Criteria for Claims by Uranium Miners § 79.44 Proof of working level month exposure to radiation. (a) If one or more of the sources in § 79.43(a) contain...

  8. 28 CFR 79.44 - Proof of working level month exposure to radiation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... radiation. 79.44 Section 79.44 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CLAIMS UNDER THE RADIATION EXPOSURE COMPENSATION ACT Eligibility Criteria for Claims by Uranium Miners § 79.44 Proof of working level month exposure to radiation. (a) If one or more of the sources in § 79.43(a) contain...

  9. 28 CFR 79.44 - Proof of working level month exposure to radiation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... radiation. 79.44 Section 79.44 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CLAIMS UNDER THE RADIATION EXPOSURE COMPENSATION ACT Eligibility Criteria for Claims by Uranium Miners § 79.44 Proof of working level month exposure to radiation. (a) If one or more of the sources in § 79.43(a) contain...

  10. 48 CFR 952.223-75 - Preservation of individual occupational radiation exposure records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... occupational radiation exposure records. 952.223-75 Section 952.223-75 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Clauses 952.223-75 Preservation of individual occupational radiation exposure records. As prescribed at..., and health into work planning and execution, or 952.223-72, Radiation protection and...

  11. A suggested limit for population exposure to radiofrequency radiation.

    PubMed

    Cahill, D F

    1983-07-01

    Unlike a number of other nations, the U.S. does not currently have guidelines for the exposure of the public to radiofrequency (RF) radiation. In order to determine whether the current data base was sufficient to support an interim determination of a limit for population exposure to RF radiation (0.5 MHz-100 GHz), a critical and comprehensive review of the available literature on the biological effects of RF radiation was recently completed. In the analysis of this data, a number of simplifying assumptions had to be employed; among them was the use of the specific absorption rate (SAR) as the mass-normalized, frequency-independent measure of RF energy input into biological systems. The biological effects reported in acceptable studies were assessed in terms of their associations with (1) core temperature increases, (2) SAR, (3) SAR as a percentage increase over resting metabolic rate, and (4) direct evidence for human effects. Based on information now available and analyzed from these four perspectives, a conservative SAR threshold value of approx. 0.4 W/kg is apparent. Since the unknowns and uncertainties are potentially significant, one might consider, from the standpoint of prudence, the further application of a safety factor of 10. Given the present state of knowledge, the resultant SAR limit of 0.04 W/kg is, in the author's opinion, unlikely to be associated with the adverse health effects in the general population. This SAR translates into a power density of approximately 200 mu W/cm2 in the human resonant frequency range of 30-300 MHz. PMID:6347972

  12. Acute Radiation Effects Resulting from Exposure to Solar Particle Event-Like Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, Ann; Cengel, Keith

    2012-07-01

    A major solar particle event (SPE) may place astronauts at significant risk for the acute radiation syndrome (ARS), which may be exacerbated when combined with other space flight stressors, such that the mission or crew health may be compromised. The National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI) Center of Acute Radiation Research (CARR) is focused on the assessment of risks of adverse biological effects related to the ARS in animal models exposed to space flight stressors combined with the types of radiation expected during an SPE. As part of this program, FDA-approved drugs that may prevent and/or mitigate ARS symptoms are being evaluated. The CARR studies are focused on the adverse biological effects resulting from exposure to the types of radiation, at the appropriate energies, doses and dose-rates, present during an SPE (and standard reference radiations, gamma rays or electrons). The ARS is a phased syndrome which often includes vomiting and fatigue. Other acute adverse biologic effects of concern are the loss of hematopoietic cells, which can result in compromised bone marrow and immune cell functions. There is also concern for skin damage from high SPE radiation doses, including burns, and resulting immune system dysfunction. Using 3 separate animal model systems (ferrets, mice and pigs), the major ARS biologic endpoints being evaluated are: 1) vomiting/retching and fatigue, 2) hematologic changes (with focus on white blood cells) and immune system changes resulting from exposure to SPE radiation with and without reduced weightbearing conditions, and 3) skin injury and related immune system functions. In all of these areas of research, statistically significant adverse health effects have been observed in animals exposed to SPE-like radiation. Countermeasures for the management of ARS symptoms are being evaluated. New research findings from the past grant year will be discussed. Acknowledgements: This research is supported by the NSBRI Center of Acute

  13. Mesenchymal Stem Cells Retain Their Defining Stem Cell Characteristics After Exposure to Ionizing Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Nicolay, Nils H.; Sommer, Eva; Lopez, Ramon; Wirkner, Ute; Trinh, Thuy; Sisombath, Sonevisay; Debus, Jürgen; Ho, Anthony D.; Saffrich, Rainer; Huber, Peter E.

    2013-12-01

    Purpose: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have the ability to migrate to lesion sites and undergo differentiation into functional tissues. Although this function may be important for tissue regeneration after radiation therapy, the influence of ionizing radiation (IR) on cellular survival and the functional aspects of differentiation and stem cell characteristics of MSCs have remained largely unknown. Methods and Materials: Radiation sensitivity of human primary MSCs from healthy volunteers and primary human fibroblast cells was examined, and cellular morphology, cell cycle effects, apoptosis, and differentiation potential after exposure to IR were assessed. Stem cell gene expression patterns after exposure to IR were studied using gene arrays. Results: MSCs were not more radiosensitive than human primary fibroblasts, whereas there were considerable differences regarding radiation sensitivity within individual MSCs. Cellular morphology, cytoskeletal architecture, and cell motility were not markedly altered by IR. Even after high radiation doses up to 10 Gy, MSCs maintained their differentiation potential. Compared to primary fibroblast cells, MSCs did not show an increase in irradiation-induced apoptosis. Gene expression analyses revealed an upregulation of various genes involved in DNA damage response and DNA repair, but expression of established MSC surface markers appeared only marginally influenced by IR. Conclusions: These data suggest that human MSCs are not more radiosensitive than differentiated primary fibroblasts. In addition, upon photon irradiation, MSCs were able to retain their defining stem cell characteristics both on a functional level and regarding stem cell marker expression.

  14. [The effectiveness of fractionated exposure of sarcoma M-1 to gamma-radiation and fast neutrons].

    PubMed

    Iuzhakov, V V; Sevan'kaeva, L E; Ul'ianenko, S E; Iakovleva, N D; Kuznetsova, M N; Tsyganova, M G; Fomina, N K; Ingel', I E; Lychagin, A A

    2013-01-01

    The effectiveness of fractionated exposure to gamma- and neutron radiation in their separate and combined use on the growth and functional morphology of mutant p53 sarcoma M-1 in rats was studied. Investigation techniques included immunostaining of PCNA and mutant p53 expressing cells, determination of mitotic activity and apoptotic death of tumor cells, as well as computer analysis of microscopic images. The antitumor efficacy of different types of radiation is shown to be determined by different levels of apoptosis induction, reduced proliferation and cellularity. Neutron radiation of the impulse generator has a marked damaging effect on the vasculature and the development of tumor necrosis. Fractionated irradiation at equal daily doses led to the decrease in the relative effectiveness of radio-inactivation of tumor cells. After 9 fractions of irradiation, the calculated value of the RBE of fast neutrons normalized to the input dose of 1 Gy by the coefficient of tumor growth inhibition, a reduced proliferative activity of PCNA and induced apoptosis of tumor cells was 3.4, 3.7 and 3.1, respectively. In the mode of daily superfractionation with splitting the dose in two fractions, the effectiveness of the combined exposure corresponded to the additive effect of gamma- and neutron radiation with a tendency toward synergism. There are reasons to believe that high resistance of sarcoma M-1 to the ionizing radiation impact is due not only to a fraction of hypoxic cells, but also the mutant status of p53 gene. PMID:24450208

  15. Ischemic Heart Disease in Workers at Mayak PA: Latency of Incidence Risk after Radiation Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Simonetto, Cristoforo; Azizova, Tamara V.; Grigoryeva, Evgenia S.; Kaiser, Jan C.; Schöllnberger, Helmut; Eidemüller, Markus

    2014-01-01

    We present an updated analysis of incidence and mortality from atherosclerotic induced ischemic heart diseases in the cohort of workers at the Mayak Production Association (PA). This cohort constitutes one of the most important sources for the assessment of radiation risk. It is exceptional because it comprises information on several other risk factors. While most of the workers have been exposed to external gamma radiation, a large proportion has additionally been exposed to internal radiation from inhaled plutonium. Compared to a previous study by Azizova et al. 2012, the updated dosimetry system MWDS-2008 has been applied and methods of analysis have been revised. We extend the analysis of the significant incidence risk and observe that main detrimental effects of external radiation exposure occur after more than about 30 years. For mortality, significant risk was found in males with an excess relative risk per dose of 0.09 (95% CI: 0.02; 0.16) while risk was insignificant for females. With respect to internal radiation exposure no association to risk could be established. PMID:24828606

  16. 75 FR 51817 - Final Effect of Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-23

    ... Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort AGENCY: National Institute for... from BWX Technologies, Inc., in Lynchburg, Virginia, as an addition to the Special Exposure Cohort (SEC... or more other classes of employees in the Special Exposure Cohort. This designation became...

  17. 77 FR 42500 - Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-19

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort... addition to the Special Exposure Cohort (SEC) under the Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation... more other classes of employees included in the Special Exposure Cohort. The designation published...

  18. Radiation exposure and breast cancer: lessons from Chernobyl.

    PubMed

    Ogrodnik, Aleksandra; Hudon, Tyler W; Nadkarni, Prakash M; Chandawarkar, Rajiv Y

    2013-04-01

    The lessons learned from the Chernobyl disaster have become increasingly important after the second anniversary of the Fukushima, Japan nuclear accident. Historically, data from the Chernobyl reactor accident 27 years ago demonstrated a strong correlation with thyroid cancer, but data on the radiation effects of Chernobyl on breast cancer incidence have remained inconclusive. We reviewed the published literature on the effects of the Chernobyl disaster on breast cancer incidence, using Medline and Scopus from the time of the accident to December of 2010. Our findings indicate limited data and statistical flaws. Other confounding factors, such as discrepancies in data collection, make interpretation of the results from the published literature difficult. Re-analyzing the data reveals that the incidence of breast cancer in Chernobyl-disaster-exposed women could be higher than previously thought. We have learned little of the consequences of radiation exposure at Chernobyl except for its effects on thyroid cancer incidence. Marking the 27th year after the Chernobyl event, this report sheds light on a specific, crucial and understudied aspect of the results of radiation from a gruesome nuclear power plant disaster. PMID:23691737

  19. Monitoring Ionizing Radiation Exposure for Cardiotoxic Effects of Breast Cancer Treatment.

    PubMed

    Murtagh, Gillian; Yu, Zoe; Harrold, Emily; Cooke, Jennie; Keegan, Niamh; Fukuda, Shota; Addetia, Karima; Kim, Jeong Hwan; Spencer, Kirk T; Takeuchi, Masaaki; Kennedy, John; Ward, R Parker; Patel, Amit R; Lang, Roberto M; DeCara, Jeanne M

    2016-05-15

    Serial assessments of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) are customary in patients with breast cancer receiving trastuzumab. Radionuclide angiography (RNA) is often used; however, a typical monitoring schedule could include 5 scans in a year. We evaluated the proportion of imaging-related ionizing radiation attributable to RNA in 115 patients with breast cancer, from 3 medical centers in the United States, Ireland, and Japan, who completed 12 months of trastuzumab treatment. Estimated radiation dose (ERD) was used to calculate exposure associated with imaging procedures spanning the 18 months before and after trastuzumab therapy. In addition, 20 cardiologists and oncologists from participating centers were surveyed for their opinions regarding the contribution of RNA to overall radiation exposure during trastuzumab treatment. When RNA was used to monitor LVEF, the mean ERD from imaging was substantial (34 ± 24.3 mSv), with the majority attributable solely to RNA (24.7 ± 14.8 mSv, 72.6%). Actual ERD associated with RNA in this population differed significantly from the perception in surveyed cardiologists and oncologists; 70% of respondents believed that RNA typically accounted for 0% to 20% of overall radiation exposure from imaging; RNA actually accounted for more than 70% of ERD. In conclusion, RNA was used to monitor LVEF in most patients in this cohort during and after trastuzumab therapy. This significantly increased ERD and accounted for a greater proportion of radiation than that perceived by surveyed physicians. ERD should be taken into account when choosing a method of LVEF surveillance. Alternative techniques that do not use radiation should be strongly considered. PMID:27040573

  20. [The late sequelae of radiation exposure on the nervous system].

    PubMed

    Kholodova, N B; Kuznetsova, G D; Zubovskiĭ, G A; Kazakova, P B; Buklina, S B

    1996-01-01

    Clinical, neuropsychologic, neurophysiologic as well as neuromorphologic (in legal cases) examinations of Chernobyl liquidators were performed. In addition, the study was made of the monkeys exposed to 1,5 Gy radiation. The results obtained testified to the organic character of cerebral damages. They may be characterised as chronic progressive discirculatory-hypoxic syndrome in which disorders of vascular permeability were expressed and dystrophic destructive irreversible alterations of nervous cells occurred. PMID:9012250

  1. Oxidative Lung Damage Resulting from Repeated Exposure to Radiation and Hyperoxia Associated with Space Exploration

    PubMed Central

    Pietrofesa, Ralph A; Turowski, Jason B; Arguiri, Evguenia; Milovanova, Tatyana N; Solomides, Charalambos C; Thom, Stephen R; Christofidou-Solomidou, Melpo

    2013-01-01

    Background Spaceflight missions may require crewmembers to conduct Extravehicular Activities (EVA) for repair, maintenance or scientific purposes. Pre-breathe protocols in preparation for an EVA entail 100% hyperoxia exposure that may last for a few hours (5-8 hours), and may be repeated 2-3 times weekly. Each EVA is associated with additional challenges such as low levels of total body cosmic/galactic radiation exposure that may present a threat to crewmember health and therefore, pose a threat to the success of the mission. We have developed a murine model of combined, hyperoxia and radiation exposure (double-hit) in the context of evaluating countermeasures to oxidative lung damage associated with space flight. In the current study, our objective was to characterize the early and chronic effects of repeated single and double-hit challenge on lung tissue using a novel murine model of repeated exposure to low-level total body radiation and hyperoxia. This is the first study of its kind evaluating lung damage relevant to space exploration in a rodent model. Methods Mouse cohorts (n=5-15/group) were exposed to repeated: a) normoxia; b) >95% O2 (O2); c) 0.25Gy single fraction gamma radiation (IR); or d) a combination of O2 and IR (O2+IR) given 3 times per week for 4 weeks. Lungs were evaluated for oxidative damage, active TGFβ1 levels, cell apoptosis, inflammation, injury, and fibrosis at 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, 16, and 20 weeks post-initiation of exposure. Results Mouse cohorts exposed to all challenge conditions displayed decreased bodyweight compared to untreated controls at 4 and 8 weeks post-challenge initiation. Chronic oxidative lung damage to lipids (malondialdehyde levels), DNA (TUNEL, cleaved Caspase 3, cleaved PARP positivity) leading to apoptotic cell death and to proteins (nitrotyrosine levels) was elevated all treatment groups. Importantly, significant systemic oxidative stress was also noted at the late phase in mouse plasma, BAL fluid, and urine. Importantly

  2. Diet as a factor in behavioral radiation protection following exposure to heavy particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rabin, Bernard M.; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara; Joseph, James; Todd, Paul

    2005-01-01

    Major risks associated with radiation exposures on deep space missions include carcinogenesis due to heavy-particle exposure of cancer-prone tissues and performance decrements due to neurological damage produced by heavy particles. Because exposure to heavy particles can cause oxidative stress, it is possible that antioxidants can be used to mitigate these risks (and possibly some health risks of microgravity). To assess the capacity of antioxidant diets to mitigate the effects of exposure to heavy particles, rats were maintained on antioxidant diets containing 2% blueberry or strawberry extract or a control diet for 8 weeks prior to exposure to 1.5 or 2.0 Gy of accelerated iron particles at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Following irradiation rats were tested on a series of behavioral tasks: amphetamine-induced taste aversion learning, operant responding and spatial learning and memory. The results indicated that the performance of the irradiated rats maintained on the antioxidant diets was, in general, significantly better than that of the control animals, although the effectiveness of the diets ameliorating the radiation-induced deterioration in performance varied as a function of both the specific diet and the specific endpoint. In addition, animals fed antioxidant diets prior to exposure showed reduced heavy particle-induced tumorigenesis one year after exposure compared to the animals fed the control diet. These results suggest that antioxidant diets have the potential to serve as part of a system designed to provide protection to astronauts against the effects of heavy particles on exploratory missions outside the magnetic field of the earth.

  3. The Fate of Patients with Solitary Pulmonary Nodules: Clinical Management and Radiation Exposure Associated

    PubMed Central

    Lumbreras, Blanca; Vilar, José; González-Álvarez, Isabel; Gómez-Sáez, Noemí; Domingo, María L.; Lorente, María F.; Pastor-Valero, María; Hernández-Aguado, Ildefonso

    2016-01-01

    Background The appropriate management of the large number of lung nodules detected during the course of routine medical care presents a challenge. We aimed to evaluate the usual clinical practice in solitary pulmonary nodule (SPN) management and associated radiation exposure. Methods We examined 893 radiology reports of consecutive patients undergoing chest computed tomography (CT) and radiography at two public hospitals in Spain. Information on diagnostic procedures from SPN detection and lung cancer diagnosis was collected prospectively for 18 months. Results More than 20% of patients with SPN detected on either chest radiograph (19.8%) or CT (26.1%) underwent no additional interventions and none developed lung cancer (100% negative predictive value). 346 (72.0%) patients with SPN detected on chest radiograph and 254 (61.5%) patients with SPN detected on CT had additional diagnostic tests and were not diagnosed with lung cancer. In patients undergoing follow-up imaging for SPNs detected on CT median number of additional imaging tests was 3.5 and the mean cumulative effective dose was 24.4 mSv; for those detected on chest radiograph the median number of additional imaging tests was 2.8 and the mean cumulative effective dose was 10.3 mSv. Conclusions Patients who did not have additional interventions were not diagnosed of lung cancer. There was an excessive amount of interventions in a high percentage of patients presenting SPN, which was associated with an excess of radiation exposure. PMID:27392032

  4. Fetal radiation exposure induces testicular cancer in genetically susceptible mice.

    PubMed

    Shetty, Gunapala; Comish, Paul B; Weng, Connie C Y; Matin, Angabin; Meistrich, Marvin L

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT), a common solid tissue malignancy in young men, has been annually increasing at an alarming rate of 3%. Since the majority of testicular cancers are derived from germ cells at the stage of transformation of primordial germ cell (PGC) into gonocytes, the increase has been attributed to maternal/fetal exposures to environmental factors. We examined the effects of an estrogen (diethylstilbestrol, DES), an antiandrogen (flutamide), or radiation on the incidence of testicular germ cell tumors in genetically predisposed 129.MOLF-L1 (L1) congenic mice by exposing them to these agents on days 10.5 and 11.5 of pregnancy. Neither flutamide nor DES produced noticeable increases in testis cancer incidence at 4 weeks of age. In contrast, two doses of 0.8-Gy radiation increased the incidence of TGCT from 45% to 100% in the offspring. The percentage of mice with bilateral tumors, weights of testes with TGCT, and the percentage of tumors that were clearly teratomas were higher in the irradiated mice than in controls, indicating that irradiation induced more aggressive tumors and/or more foci of initiation sites in each testis. This radiation dose did not disrupt spermatogenesis, which was qualitatively normal in tumor-free testes although they were reduced in size. This is the first proof of induction of testicular cancer by an environmental agent and suggests that the male fetus of women exposed to radiation at about 5-6 weeks of pregnancy might have an increased risk of developing testicular cancer. Furthermore, it provides a novel tool for studying the molecular and cellular events of testicular cancer pathogenesis. PMID:22348147

  5. Fetal Radiation Exposure Induces Testicular Cancer in Genetically Susceptible Mice

    PubMed Central

    Shetty, Gunapala; Comish, Paul B.; Weng, Connie C. Y.; Matin, Angabin; Meistrich, Marvin L.

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT), a common solid tissue malignancy in young men, has been annually increasing at an alarming rate of 3%. Since the majority of testicular cancers are derived from germ cells at the stage of transformation of primordial germ cell (PGC) into gonocytes, the increase has been attributed to maternal/fetal exposures to environmental factors. We examined the effects of an estrogen (diethylstilbestrol, DES), an antiandrogen (flutamide), or radiation on the incidence of testicular germ cell tumors in genetically predisposed 129.MOLF-L1 (L1) congenic mice by exposing them to these agents on days 10.5 and 11.5 of pregnancy. Neither flutamide nor DES produced noticeable increases in testis cancer incidence at 4 weeks of age. In contrast, two doses of 0.8-Gy radiation increased the incidence of TGCT from 45% to 100% in the offspring. The percentage of mice with bilateral tumors, weights of testes with TGCT, and the percentage of tumors that were clearly teratomas were higher in the irradiated mice than in controls, indicating that irradiation induced more aggressive tumors and/or more foci of initiation sites in each testis. This radiation dose did not disrupt spermatogenesis, which was qualitatively normal in tumor-free testes although they were reduced in size. This is the first proof of induction of testicular cancer by an environmental agent and suggests that the male fetus of women exposed to radiation at about 5–6 weeks of pregnancy might have an increased risk of developing testicular cancer. Furthermore, it provides a novel tool for studying the molecular and cellular events of testicular cancer pathogenesis. PMID:22348147

  6. Phthalates and other additives in plastics: human exposure and associated health outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Meeker, John D.; Sathyanarayana, Sheela; Swan, Shanna H.

    2009-01-01

    Concern exists over whether additives in plastics to which most people are exposed, such as phthalates, bisphenol A or polybrominated diphenyl ethers, may cause harm to human health by altering endocrine function or through other biological mechanisms. Human data are limited compared with the large body of experimental evidence documenting reproductive or developmental toxicity in relation to these compounds. Here, we discuss the current state of human evidence, as well as future research trends and needs. Because exposure assessment is often a major weakness in epidemiological studies, and in utero exposures to reproductive or developmental toxicants are important, we also provide original data on maternal exposure to phthalates during and after pregnancy (n = 242). Phthalate metabolite concentrations in urine showed weak correlations between pre- and post-natal samples, though the strength of the relationship increased when duration between the two samples decreased. Phthalate metabolite levels also tended to be higher in post-natal samples. In conclusion, there is a great need for more human studies of adverse health effects associated with plastic additives. Recent advances in the measurement of exposure biomarkers hold much promise in improving the epidemiological data, but their utility must be understood to facilitate appropriate study design. PMID:19528058

  7. A Novel Biological Dosimetry Method for Monitoring Occupational Radiation Exposure in Diagnostic and Therapeutic Wards: From Radiation Dosimetry to Biological Effects

    PubMed Central

    Heydarheydari, S.; Haghparast, A.; Eivazi, M.T.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective Professional radiation workers are occupationally exposed to long-term low levels of ionizing radiation. Occupational health hazards from radiation exposure, in a large occupational segment of the population, are of special concern. Biological dosimetry can be performed in addition to physical dosimetry with the aim of individual dose assessment and biological effects. Methods In this biodosimetry study, some hematological parameters have been examined in 40 exposed and 40 control subjects who were matched by gender, age and occupational records (±3 years) in Kermanshah hospitals in Iran (2013-2014). The occupational radiation dose was measured by personal dosimetry device (film badges). The data was analyzed using SPSS V.20 and statistical tests such as two-sided Student’s t-test. Results Exposed subjects had a median exposure of 0.68±1.58 mSv/year by film badge dosimetry. Radiation workers with at least a 10-year record showed lower values of Mean Hemoglobin (Hb) and Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV) compared to the control group (p<0.05). The mean value of Red Blood Cells (RBCs) in personnel working in Radiology departments seemed to show decrease in comparison with other radiation workers. Conclusion Although the radiation absorbed doses were below the permissible limits based on the ICRP, this study showed the role of low-level chronic exposure in decreasing Hb and MCV in the blood of radiation workers with at least 10 years records. Therefore, the findings from the present study suggest that monitoring of hematological parameters of radiation workers can be useful as biological dosimeter, and also the exposed medical personnel should carefully follow the radiation protection instructions and radiation exposure should be minimized as possible. PMID:27026951

  8. Radiation exposures for DOE and DOE contractor employees - 1991. Twenty-fourth annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M.H.; Hui, T.E.; Millet, W.H.; Scholes, V.A.

    1994-11-01

    This is the 24th annual radiation exposure report published by US DOE and its predecessor agencies. This report summarizes the radiation exposures received by both employees and visitors at DOE and COE contractor facilities during 1991. Trends in radiations exposures are evaluated. The significance of the doses is addressed by comparing them to the DOE limits and by correlating the doses to health risks based on risk estimates from expert groups.

  9. The Natural Background Gamma Radiation Exposure in the Metropolitan Area of the Valley of Mexico.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Mary Feild

    Measurements of the natural background radiation have been made at numerous places throughout the world. Very little work in this field has been done in developing countries. In Mexico the natural radiation to which the population is exposed has not been assessed. This dissertation represents a pioneer study in this environmental area. The radiation exposure which occupants within buildings receive as a result of naturally occurring radionuclides present in construction materials is the principal focus. Data were collected between August 1979 and November 1980. Continuous monitoring was done with TLDs placed on site for periods of 3 to 6 months. The instrumentation used for "real-time" measurements was a portable NaI (Tl) scintillation detector. In addition, radiometric measurements were performed on construction materials commonly used in Mexican homes. Based on TLD readings taken within 75 dwellings, the typical indoor exposure for a resident of the study area is 9.2 (mu)Rh('-1). The average reading of the 152 indoor scintillometer surveys was 9.5 (mu)Rh('-1), the outdoor reading 7.5 (mu)Rh('-1). Results of one-way and multi-way analyses of the exposure data to determine the effect due to building materials type, geologic subsoil, age of dwelling, and elevation are also presented. The results of 152 indoor scintillometer surveys are described.

  10. Children’s Exposure to Diagnostic Medical Radiation and Cancer Risk: Epidemiologic and Dosimetric Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Linet, Martha S.; Kim, Kwang pyo; Rajaraman, Preetha

    2009-01-01

    While the etiology of most childhood cancers is largely unknown, epidemiologic studies have consistently found an association between exposure to medical radiation during pregnancy and risk of childhood cancer in offspring. The relation between early life diagnostic radiation exposure and occurrence of pediatric cancer risks is less clear. This review summarizes current and historical estimated doses for common diagnostic radiologic procedures as well as the epidemiologic literature on the role of maternal prenatal, children’s postnatal and parental preconception diagnostic radiologic procedures on subsequent risk of childhood malignancies Risk estimates are presented according to factors such as the year of birth of the child, trimester and medical indication for the procedure, and the number of films taken. The paper also discusses limitations of the methods employed in epidemiologic studies to assess pediatric cancer risks, the effects on clinical practice of the results reported from the epidemiologic studies, and clinical and public health policy implications of the findings. Gaps in understanding and additional research needs are identified. Important research priorities include nationwide surveys to estimate fetal and childhood radiation doses from common diagnostic procedures, and epidemiologic studies to quantify pediatric and lifetime cancer risks from prenatal and early childhood exposures to diagnostic radiography, computed tomography, and fluoroscopically-guided procedures. PMID:19083224

  11. An evaluation of several methods for assessing the effects of occupational exposure to radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, E.S.

    1983-03-01

    Several methods for the analysis of occupational radiation exposure data, including procedures based on Cox's proportional hazards model, are presented and evaluated. Issues of interest include the contribution of an external control, the effective handling of highly skewed exposure data, and the potential for detecting effects in populations occupationally exposed to radiation. Expressions for evaluating the power of various procedures are derived and applied to data from the Hanford population in order to determine power curves for detecting leukemia effects, with both additive and multiplicative linear models being used. It is found that the introduction of an external control can increase power, although not when an overall adjustment factor must be estimated from the data or when death rates for the study population are substantially lower than those for the control population. It is also found that very little power is lost if exposures are grouped. Finally, the power calculations indicate, as expected, that in analyses of occupationally exposed populations, such as the Hanford workers, there is very little chance of detecting radiation effects at the levels of our current estimates. However, power is reasonably good for detecting effects that are 10 to 15 times larger.

  12. Exposure of the mouse perinatal testis to radiation leads to hypospermia at sexual maturity.

    PubMed

    Forand, A; Messiaen, S; Habert, R; Bernardino-Sgherri, J

    2009-03-01

    The first round of mouse spermatogenesis begins from 3 to 4 days after birth through differentiation of gonocytes into spermatogonial-stem cells and type A spermatogonia. Consequently, this step of differentiation may determine generation of the original population of stem cells and the fertility potential of the adult mouse. We aimed to determine the effect of perinatal exposure to ionizing radiation on the testis at the end of the first wave of spermatogenesis and at sexual maturity. Our results show that, radiation sensitivity of the testis substantially decreases from late foetal life to the end of the first week after birth. In addition, partial or full recovery from radiation induced testicular weight loss occurred between the first round of spermatogenesis and sexual maturity, and this was associated with the stimulation of spermatogonial proliferation. Exposure of mice at 17.5 days after conception or at 1 day after birth to gamma-rays decreased the sperm counts at sexual maturity, while exposure of 8 day-old mice had no effect. This suggests that irradiation of late foetal or early neonatal testes has a direct impact on the generation of the neonatal spermatogonial-stem cell pool. PMID:19109333

  13. Occupational Radiation Exposure Analysis of US ITER DCLL TBM

    SciTech Connect

    Merrill, Brad J; Cadwallader, Lee C; Dagher, Mohamad

    2007-08-01

    This report documents an Occupational Radiation Exposure (ORE) analysis that was performed for the US International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) Dual Coolant Lead Lithium (DCLL) Test Blanket Module (TBM). This analysis was performed with the QADMOD dose code for anticipated maintenance activities for this TBM concept and its ancillary systems. The QADMOD code was used to model the PbLi cooling loop of this TBM concept by specifying gamma ray source terms that simulated radioactive material within the piping, valves, heat exchanger, permeator, pump, drain tank, and cold trap of this cooling system. Estimates of the maintenance tasks that will have to be performed and the time required to perform these tasks where developed based on either expert opinion or on industrial maintenance experience for similar technologies. This report details the modeling activity and the calculated doses for the maintenance activities envisioned for the US DCLL TBM.

  14. Radiation exposures during space flight and their measurement.

    PubMed

    Benton, E V; Henke, R P

    1983-01-01

    The paper reviews radiation exposures recorded during space flights of the US and USSR. Most of the data are from manned missions and include discussion of absorbed dose and dose rates as a function of parameters such as altitude, inclination, spacecraft type and shielding. Preliminary data exist on the neutron and HZE-particle component, as well as the LET spectra. For low Earth-orbit missions, the dose encountered is strongly altitude-dependent, with a weaker dependence upon inclination. The doses range from about 6 millirad per day for the Space Transportation System No. 3 flight to about 90 mrad per day for Skylab. The effective quality factor (QF) for the near-Earth orbits and free space has been estimated to be about 1.5 and about 5.5 respectively. Complete shielding from the galactic cosmic rays does not appear practical because of spacecraft weight limitations. PMID:11542745

  15. Radiation Exposure and the Risk of Pediatric Thyroid Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Miyakawa, Megumi

    2014-01-01

    Abstract It has been more than three years since the unprecedentedly massive earthquake and tsunami struck eastern Japan on March 11, 2011, and the large accident occurred at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. To investigate the influence of radiation exposure, thyroid ultrasonography has been provided preliminarily for 360,000 children who lived in Fukushima Prefecture at the time of the accident. As of September 2013, 59 children had been diagnosed with thyroid cancer by fine-needle aspiration cytology, and 34 children had been treated surgically and ultimately diagnosed with papillary thyroid cancer. Here, I would like to describe the characteristics of pediatric thyroid cancer and typical thyroid images obtained by ultrasonography. PMID:25110391

  16. 21st Century Lunar Exploration: Advanced Radiation Exposure Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Brooke; Clowdsley, Martha; Wilson, John; Nealy, John; Luetke, Nathan

    2006-01-01

    On January 14, 2004 President George W Bush outlined a new vision for NASA that has humans venturing back to the moon by 2020. With this ambitious goal, new tools and models have been developed to help define and predict the amount of space radiation astronauts will be exposed to during transit and habitation on the moon. A representative scenario is used that includes a trajectory from LEO to a Lunar Base, and simplified CAD models for the transit and habitat structures. For this study galactic cosmic rays, solar proton events, and trapped electron and proton environments are simulated using new dynamic environment models to generate energetic electron, and light and heavy ion fluences. Detailed calculations are presented to assess the human exposure for transit segments and surface stays.

  17. Human performance analysis of industrial radiography radiation exposure events

    SciTech Connect

    Reece, W.J.; Hill, S.G.

    1995-12-01

    A set of radiation overexposure event reports were reviewed as part of a program to examine human performance in industrial radiography for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Incident records for a seven year period were retrieved from an event database. Ninety-five exposure events were initially categorized and sorted for further analysis. Descriptive models were applied to a subset of severe overexposure events. Modeling included: (1) operational sequence tables to outline the key human actions and interactions with equipment, (2) human reliability event trees, (3) an application of an information processing failures model, and (4) an extrapolated use of the error influences and effects diagram. Results of the modeling analyses provided insights into the industrial radiography task and suggested areas for further action and study to decrease overexposures.

  18. Changes in Liver Metabolic Gene Expression after Radiation Exposure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, C. P.; Wotring, Virginia E.

    2012-01-01

    The health of the liver, especially the rate of its metabolic enzymes, determines the concentration of circulating drugs as well as the duration of their efficacy. Most pharmaceuticals are metabolized by the liver, and clinically-used medication doses are given with normal liver function in mind. A drug overdose can result in the case of a liver that is damaged and removing pharmaceuticals from the circulation at a rate slower than normal. Alternatively, if liver function is elevated and removing drugs from the system more quickly than usual, it would be as if too little drug had been given for effective treatment. Because of the importance of the liver in drug metabolism, we want to understand any effects of spaceflight on the enzymes of the liver. Exposure to cosmic radiation is one aspect of spaceflight that can be modeled in ground experiments.

  19. Preconception exposure to mutagens: medical and other exposures to radiation and chemicals.

    PubMed

    Mulvihill, John J

    2012-07-01

    Contrary to intuition, no environmental exposure has been proved to cause human germ line mutations that manifest as heritable disease in the offspring, not among the children born to survivors of the American atomic bombs in Japan nor in survivors of cancer in childhood, adolescence, or young adulthood who receive intensive chemotherapy, radiotherapy, or both. Even the smallest of recent case series had sufficient statistical power to exclude, with the usual assumptions, an increase as small as 20 % over baseline rates. One positive epidemiologic study of a localized epidemic of Down syndrome in Hungary found an association with periconceptual exposure to a pesticide used in fish farming, trichlorfon. Current population and occupational guidelines to protect against genetic effects of ionizing radiation should continue, with the understanding they are based on extrapolations from mouse experiments and mostly on males. Presently, pre-conceptual counseling for possible germ cell mutation due to the environment can be very reassuring, at least based on, in a sense, the worst-case exposures of cancer survivors. Prudence demands further study. Future work will address the issue with total genomic sequencing and epigenomic analysis. PMID:22752838

  20. ADVISORY ON UPDATED METHODOLOGY FOR ESTIMATING CANCER RISKS FROM EXPOSURE TO IONIZING RADIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Academy of Sciences (NAS) published the Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation (BEIR) committee's report (BEIR VII) on risks from ionizing radiation exposures in 2006. The Committee analyzed the most recent epidemiology from the important exposed cohorts and factor...

  1. Persistent Activation of the Innate Immune Response in Adult Drosophila Following Radiation Exposure During Larval Development

    PubMed Central

    Sudmeier, Lisa J.; Samudrala, Sai-Suma; Howard, Steven P.; Ganetzky, Barry

    2015-01-01

    Cranial radiation therapy (CRT) is an effective treatment for pediatric central nervous system malignancies, but survivors often suffer from neurological and neurocognitive side effects that occur many years after radiation exposure. Although the biological mechanisms underlying these deleterious side effects are incompletely understood, radiation exposure triggers an acute inflammatory response that may evolve into chronic inflammation, offering one avenue of investigation. Recently, we developed a Drosophila model of the neurotoxic side effects of radiation exposure. Here we use this model to investigate the role of the innate immune system in response to radiation exposure. We show that the innate immune response and NF-ĸB target gene expression is activated in the adult Drosophila brain following radiation exposure during larval development, and that this response is sustained in adult flies weeks after radiation exposure. We also present preliminary data suggesting that innate immunity is radioprotective during Drosophila development. Together our data suggest that activation of the innate immune response may be beneficial initially for survival following radiation exposure but result in long-term deleterious consequences, with chronic inflammation leading to impaired neuronal function and viability at later stages. This work lays the foundation for future studies of how the innate immune response is triggered by radiation exposure and its role in mediating the biological responses to radiation. These studies may facilitate the development of strategies to reduce the deleterious side effects of CRT. PMID:26333838

  2. Addition of a hypoxic cell selective cytotoxic agent (mitomycin C or porfiromycin) to Fluosol-DA/carbogen/radiation.

    PubMed

    Holden, S A; Herman, T S; Teicher, B A

    1990-05-01

    In an effort to develop effective combination treatments for use with radiation against solid tumors, the cytotoxic effects of the addition of mitomycin C or porfiromycin on treatment with Fluosol-DA/carbogen (95% O2/5% CO2) breathing and radiation in the FSaIIC tumor system were studied. In vitro mitomycin C and porfiromycin were both preferentially cytotoxic toward hypoxic FSaIIC cells. After in vivo exposure, however, the cytotoxicity of mitomycin C toward single cell tumor suspensions obtained from whole tumors was exponential over the dose range studied, but for porfiromycin a plateau in cell killing was observed. With Fluosol-DA/carbogen breathing and single dose radiation, addition of either mitomycin C or porfiromycin increased the tumor cell kill achieved at 5 Gy by approximately 1.2 and 1.0 logs, respectively. Less effect was seen with addition of the drugs at the 10 and 15 Gy radiation doses. In tumor growth delay experiments, the addition of either mitomycin C or porfiromycin to Fluosol-DA/carbogen breathing and radiation resulted in primarily an additive increase in tumor growth delay. The survival of Hoechst 33342 dye-selected tumor cell subpopulations indicated that Fluosol-DA/carbogen breathing increased the cytotoxicity of radiation (10 Gy) more in the bright cell subpopulation (4-fold) than in the dim cell subpopulation (2-fold) resulting in an overall 4-fold sparing of the dim subpopulation. Mitomycin C and porfiromycin were both more toxic toward the dim cell subpopulations. Addition of mitomycin C or porfiromycin to Fluosol-DA/carbogen breathing and radiation (10 Gy) resulted in a primarily additive effect of the drugs and radiation killing in both tumor cell subpopulations. Thus, with mitomycin C/Fluosol-DA/carbogen and radiation there was a 2-fold sparing of dim cells and with porfiromycin in the combined treatment a 1.6-fold sparing of the dim cell population. Our results indicate that treatment strategies directed against both oxic and

  3. Does Ad Hoc Coronary Intervention Reduce Radiation Exposure? – Analysis of 568 Patients

    PubMed Central

    Truffa, Márcio A. M.; Alves, Gustavo M.P.; Bernardi, Fernando; Esteves Filho, Antonio; Ribeiro, Expedito; Galon, Micheli Z.; Spadaro, André; Kajita, Luiz J.; Arrieta, Raul; Lemos, Pedro A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Advantages and disadvantages of ad hoc percutaneous coronary intervention have been described. However little is known about the radiation exposure of that procedure as compared with the staged intervention. Objective To compare the radiation dose of the ad hoc percutaneous coronary intervention with that of the staged procedure Methods The dose-area product and total Kerma were measured, and the doses of the diagnostic and therapeutic procedures were added. In addition, total fluoroscopic time and number of acquisitions were evaluated. Results A total of 568 consecutive patients were treated with ad hoc percutaneous coronary intervention (n = 320) or staged percutaneous coronary intervention (n = 248). On admission, the ad hoc group had less hypertension (74.1% vs 81.9%; p = 0.035), dyslipidemia (57.8% vs. 67.7%; p = 0.02) and three-vessel disease (38.8% vs. 50.4%; p = 0.015). The ad hoc group was exposed to significantly lower radiation doses, even after baseline characteristic adjustment between both groups. The ad hoc group was exposed to a total dose-area product of 119.7 ± 70.7 Gycm2, while the staged group, to 139.2 ± 75.3 Gycm2 (p < 0.001). Conclusion Ad hoc percutaneous coronary intervention reduced radiation exposure as compared with diagnostic and therapeutic procedures performed at two separate times. PMID:26351982

  4. Radiation Exposure in X-Ray and CT Examinations

    MedlinePlus

    ... procedures. See the X-ray, Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine Radiation Safety page for more information. top of page ... and Radiation Safety X-ray, Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine Radiation Safety Videos related to Radiation Dose in X- ...

  5. Radiation Exposure in Nonvascular Fluoroscopy-Guided Interventional Procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Kloeckner, Roman; Bersch, Anton; Santos, Daniel Pinto dos; Schneider, Jens; Dueber, Christoph; Pitton, Michael Bernhard

    2012-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate the radiation exposure in non-vascular fluoroscopy guided interventions and to search strategies for dose reduction. Materials and Methods: Dose area product (DAP) of 638 consecutive non-vascular interventional procedures of one year were analyzed with respect to different types of interventions; gastrointestinal tract, biliary interventions, embolizations of tumors and hemorrhage. Data was analyzed with special focus on the fluoroscopy doses and frame doses. The third quartiles (Q3) of fluoroscopy dose values were defined in order to set a reference value for our in-hospital practice. Results: Mean fluoroscopy times of gastrostomy, jejunostomy, right and left sided percutaneous biliary drainage, chemoembolization of the liver and embolization due to various hemorrhages were 5.9, 8.6, 13.5, 16.6, 17.4 and 25.2 min, respectively. The respective Q3 total DAP were 52.9, 73.3, 155.1, 308.4, 428.6 and 529.3 Gy*cm{sup 2}. Overall, around 66% of the total DAP originated from the radiographic frames with only 34% of the total DAP applied by fluoroscopy (P < 0.001). The investigators experience had no significant impact on the total DAP applied, most likely since there was no stratification to intervention-complexity. Conclusion: To establish Diagnostic Reference Levels (DRLs), there is a need to establish a registry of radiation dose data for the most commonly performed procedures. Documentation of interventional procedures by fluoroscopy 'grabbing' has the potential to considerably reduce radiation dose applied and should be used instead of radiographic frames whenever possible.

  6. Individual differences in attentional deficits and dopaminergic protein levels following exposure to proton radiation.

    PubMed

    Davis, Catherine M; DeCicco-Skinner, Kathleen L; Roma, Peter G; Hienz, Robert D

    2014-03-01

    To assess the possible neurobehavioral performance risks to astronauts from living in a space radiation environment during long-duration exploration missions, the effects of head-only proton irradiation (150 MeV/n) at low levels (25-50 cGy, approximating an astronaut's exposure during a 2-year planetary mission) were examined in adult male Long-Evans rats performing an analog of the human psychomotor vigilance test (PVT). The rodent version of PVT or rPVT tracks performance variables analogous to the human PVT, including selective attention/inattention, inhibitory control ("impulsivity") and psychomotor speed. Exposure to head-only proton radiation (25, 50, 100 or 200 cGy) disrupted rPVT performance (i.e., decreased accuracy, increased premature responding, elevated lapses in attention and slowed reaction times) over the 250 day testing period. However, the performance decrements only occurred in a subgroup of animals at each exposure level, that is, the severity of the rPVT performance deficit was unrelated to proton exposure level. Analysis of brain tissue from irradiated and control rats indicated that only rats with rPVT performance deficits displayed changes in the levels of the dopamine transporter and, to a lesser extent, the D₂ receptor. Additional animals trained to perform a line discrimination task measuring basic and reversal learning showed no behavioral effects over the same exposure levels, suggesting a specificity of the proton exposure effects to attentional deficits and supporting the rPVT as a sensitive neurobehavioral assay. PMID:24611657

  7. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  8. Vision 20/20: Increased image resolution versus reduced radiation exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Ritman, Erik L.

    2008-06-15

    This is a review of methods, currently and potentially, available for significantly reducing x-ray exposure in medical x-ray imaging. It is stimulated by the radiation exposure implications of the growing use of helical scanning, multislice, x-ray computed tomography for screening, such as for coronary artery atherosclerosis and cancer of the colon and lungs. Screening requires high-throughput imaging with high spatial and contrast resolution to meet the need for high sensitivity and specificity of detection and classification of specific imaged features. To achieve this goal beyond what is currently available with x-ray imaging methods requires increased x-ray exposure, which increases the risk of tissue damage and ultimately cancer development. These consequences limit the utility of current x-ray imaging in screening of at-risk subjects who have not yet developed the clinical symptoms of disease. Current methods for reducing x-ray exposure in x-ray imaging, mostly achieved by increasing sensitivity and specificity of the x-ray detection process, may still have potential for an up-to-tenfold decrease. This could be sufficient for doubling the spatial resolution of x-ray CT while maintaining the current x-ray exposure levels. However, a spatial resolution four times what is currently available might be needed to adequately meet the needs for screening. Consequently, for the proposed need to increase spatial resolution, an additional order of magnitude of reduction of x-ray exposure would be needed just to keep the radiation exposure at current levels. This is conceivably achievable if refraction, rather than the currently used attenuation, of x rays is used to generate the images. Existing methods that have potential for imaging the consequences of refracted x ray in a clinical setting are (1) by imaging the edge enhancement that occurs at the interfaces between adjacent tissues of different refractive indices, or (2) by imaging the changes in interference

  9. Organism/Organic Exposure to Orbital Stresses (OOREOS) Satellite: Radiation Exposure in LEO and Supporting Laboratory Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mattioda, Andrew Lige; Cook, Amanda Marie; Quinn, Richard C.; Elsaesser, Andreas; Ehrenfreund, Pascale; Ricca,Alessandra; Jones, Nykola C.; Hoffman, Soren; Ricco,Antonio

    2014-01-01

    We will present the results from the exposure of the metalloporphyrin iron tetraphenylporphyrin chloride (FeTPPCI), anthraufin (C(sub 14)H(sub 8)(O sub 4) (Anth) and Isoviolanthrene (C(sub 34H sub 18) (IVA) to the outher space environment, measured in situ aboard the Organism/Organic Exposure to Orbital Stresses nanosatellite. The compounds were exposed for a period of 17 months (3700 hours of direct solar exposure) including broad-spectrum solar radiation (approx. 122 nm to the near infrared). The organic films are enclosed in hermetically sealed sample cells that contain one of four astrobiologically relevant microenvironments. Transmission spectra (200-1000 nm) were recorded for each film, at first daily and subsequently every 15 days, along with a solar spectrum and the dark response of the detector array. In addition to analysis via UV-Vis spectroscopy, the laboratory controls were also monitored via infrared and far-UV spectroscopy. The results presented will include the finding that the FeTPPCI and IVA organic films in contact with a humid headspace gas (0.8-2.3%) exhibit faster degradation times, upon irradiation, in comparison with identical films under dry headspaces gases, whereas the Anth thin film exhibited a higher degree of photostability. In the companion laboratory experiments, simulated solar exposure of FeTPI films in contact with either Ar or CO(sub -2):O(sub -2):Ar (10:0.01:1000) headspace gas results in growth of a band in the films infrared spectra at 1961 cm(sup 1). Our assignment of this new spectral feature and the corresponding rational will be presented. The relevance of O/OREOS findings to planetary science, biomarker research, and the photostability of organic materials in astrobiologically relevant environments will also be discussed.

  10. Online educative activities for solar ultraviolet radiation based on measurements of cloud amount and solar exposures.

    PubMed

    Parisi, A V; Downs, N; Turner, J; Amar, A

    2016-09-01

    A set of online activities for children and the community that are based on an integrated real-time solar UV and cloud measurement system are described. These activities use the functionality of the internet to provide an educative tool for school children and the public on the influence of cloud and the angle of the sun above the horizon on the global erythemal UV or sunburning UV, the diffuse erythemal UV, the global UVA (320-400nm) and the vitamin D effective UV. Additionally, the units of UV exposure and UV irradiance are investigated, along with the meaning and calculation of the UV index (UVI). This research will help ensure that children and the general public are better informed about sun safety by improving their personal understanding of the daily and the atmospheric factors that influence solar UV radiation and the solar UV exposures of the various wavebands in the natural environment. The activities may correct common misconceptions of children and the public about UV irradiances and exposure, utilising the widespread reach of the internet to increase the public's awareness of the factors influencing UV irradiances and exposures in order to provide clear information for minimizing UV exposure, while maintaining healthy, outdoor lifestyles. PMID:27450297

  11. Long-Term Differential Changes in Mouse Intestinal Metabolomics after γ and Heavy Ion Radiation Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Prabhjit; Singh, Rajbir; Fornace, Albert J.; Datta, Kamal

    2014-01-01

    Tissue consequences of radiation exposure are dependent on radiation quality and high linear energy transfer (high-LET) radiation, such as heavy ions in space is known to deposit higher energy in tissues and cause greater damage than low-LET γ radiation. While radiation exposure has been linked to intestinal pathologies, there are very few studies on long-term effects of radiation, fewer involved a therapeutically relevant γ radiation dose, and none explored persistent tissue metabolomic alterations after heavy ion space radiation exposure. Using a metabolomics approach, we report long-term metabolomic markers of radiation injury and perturbation of signaling pathways linked to metabolic alterations in mice after heavy ion or γ radiation exposure. Intestinal tissues (C57BL/6J, female, 6 to 8 wks) were analyzed using ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QToF-MS) two months after 2 Gy γ radiation and results were compared to an equitoxic 56Fe (1.6 Gy) radiation dose. The biological relevance of the metabolites was determined using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis, immunoblots, and immunohistochemistry. Metabolic profile analysis showed radiation-type-dependent spatial separation of the groups. Decreased adenine and guanosine and increased inosine and uridine suggested perturbed nucleotide metabolism. While both the radiation types affected amino acid metabolism, the 56Fe radiation preferentially altered dipeptide metabolism. Furthermore, 56Fe radiation caused upregulation of ‘prostanoid biosynthesis’ and ‘eicosanoid signaling’, which are interlinked events related to cellular inflammation and have implications for nutrient absorption and inflammatory bowel disease during space missions and after radiotherapy. In conclusion, our data showed for the first time that metabolomics can not only be used to distinguish between heavy ion and γ radiation exposures, but also as a radiation

  12. 75 FR 51818 - Final Effect of Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-23

    ... Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort AGENCY: National Institute for... Exposure Cohort (SEC) under the Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation Program Act of 2000. On... Exposure Cohort. This designation became effective on August 12, 2010, as provided for under 42...

  13. Non linear processes modulated by low doses of radiation exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mariotti, Luca; Ottolenghi, Andrea; Alloni, Daniele; Babini, Gabriele; Morini, Jacopo; Baiocco, Giorgio

    The perturbation induced by radiation impinging on biological targets can stimulate the activation of several different pathways, spanning from the DNA damage processing to intra/extra -cellular signalling. In the mechanistic investigation of radiobiological damage this complex “system” response (e.g. omics, signalling networks, micro-environmental modifications, etc.) has to be taken into account, shifting from a focus on the DNA molecule solely to a systemic/collective view. An additional complication comes from the finding that the individual response of each of the involved processes is often not linear as a function of the dose. In this context, a systems biology approach to investigate the effects of low dose irradiations on intra/extra-cellular signalling will be presented, where low doses of radiation act as a mild perturbation of a robustly interconnected network. Results obtained through a multi-level investigation of both DNA damage repair processes (e.g. gamma-H2AX response) and of the activation kinetics for intra/extra cellular signalling pathways (e.g. NFkB activation) show that the overall cell response is dominated by non-linear processes - such as negative feedbacks - leading to possible non equilibrium steady states and to a poor signal-to-noise ratio. Together with experimental data of radiation perturbed pathways, different modelling approaches will be also discussed.

  14. Outdoor Exposure to Solar Ultraviolet Radiation and Legislation in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silva, Abel A

    2016-06-01

    The total ozone column of 265 ± 11 Dobson Units in the tropical-equatorial zones and 283 ± 16 Dobson Units in the subtropics of Brazil are among the lowest on Earth, and as a result, the prevalence of skin cancer due to solar ultraviolet radiation is among the highest. Daily erythemal doses in Brazil can be over 7,500 J m. Erythemal dose rates on cloudless days of winter and summer are typically about 0.147 W m and 0.332 W m, respectively. However, radiation enhancement events yielded by clouds have been reported with erythemal dose rates of 0.486 W m. Daily doses of the diffuse component of erythemal radiation have been determined with values of 5,053 J m and diffuse erythemal dose rates of 0.312 W m. Unfortunately, Brazilians still behave in ways that lead to overexposure to the sun. The annual personal ultraviolet radiation ambient dose among Brazilian youths can be about 5.3%. Skin cancer in Brazil is prevalent, with annual rates of 31.6% (non-melanoma) and 1.0% (melanoma). Governmental and non-governmental initiatives have been taken to increase public awareness of photoprotection behaviors. Resolution #56 by the Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária has banned tanning devices in Brazil. In addition, Projects of Law (PL), like PL 3730/2004, propose that the Sistema Único de Saúde should distribute sunscreen to members of the public, while PL 4027/2012 proposes that employers should provide outdoor workers with sunscreen during professional outdoor activities. Similar laws have already been passed in some municipalities. These are presented and discussed in this study. PMID:27115230

  15. 28 CFR Appendix C to Part 79 - Radiation Exposure Compensation Act Offset Worksheet-On Site Participants

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Radiation Exposure Compensation Act... JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CLAIMS UNDER THE RADIATION EXPOSURE COMPENSATION ACT Pt. 79, App. C Appendix C to Part 79—Radiation Exposure Compensation Act Offset Worksheet—On Site Participants Radiation...

  16. 28 CFR Appendix C to Part 79 - Radiation Exposure Compensation Act Offset Worksheet-On Site Participants

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Radiation Exposure Compensation Act... JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CLAIMS UNDER THE RADIATION EXPOSURE COMPENSATION ACT Pt. 79, App. C Appendix C to Part 79—Radiation Exposure Compensation Act Offset Worksheet—On Site Participants Radiation...

  17. 28 CFR Appendix C to Part 79 - Radiation Exposure Compensation Act Offset Worksheet-On Site Participants

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Radiation Exposure Compensation Act... JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CLAIMS UNDER THE RADIATION EXPOSURE COMPENSATION ACT Pt. 79, App. C Appendix C to Part 79—Radiation Exposure Compensation Act Offset Worksheet—On Site Participants Radiation...

  18. 28 CFR Appendix C to Part 79 - Radiation Exposure Compensation Act Offset Worksheet-On Site Participants

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Radiation Exposure Compensation Act... JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CLAIMS UNDER THE RADIATION EXPOSURE COMPENSATION ACT Pt. 79, App. C Appendix C to Part 79—Radiation Exposure Compensation Act Offset Worksheet—On Site Participants Radiation...

  19. Knowledge of outdoor workers on the effects of natural UV radiation and methods of protection against exposure.

    PubMed

    Hault, K; Rönsch, H; Beissert, S; Knuschke, P; Bauer, A

    2016-04-01

    The most important but influenceable risk factor in the development of skin cancer is the unprotected exposure to solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation. In order to assure adequate and effective protection against UV exposure, a level of knowledge about solar radiation and its effects is required. The objective of this study was to assess the knowledge of workers in outdoor professions on the effects of natural UV radiation and methods of protection against exposure. Forty outdoor workers were given a standardized questionnaire designed to ascertain their level of knowledge. The majority of participants knew exposure to solar radiation can be detrimental depending on exposure time. Eighty-three percentage recognized that people working regularly in an outdoor environment may be at risk due to high exposure. Long-sleeved clothing plus headgear and sunscreen containing sun-protecting substances were deemed adequate methods of protection by 83% and 85% respectively. Seventy percentage of the outdoor workers were familiar with the definition of the sun protection factor (SPF), yet only 25% correctly identified the amount of sunscreen needed to achieve the SPF as indicated on the product. A mere 8% of participants knew that symptoms of a sunburn first became apparent 3 h after sun exposure and only 18% were able to accurately gauge the amount of time they could spend in the sun before developing one. Although 30% had heard of the ultraviolet index (UVI), only 13% understood that protecting your skin using additional measures is recommended as of UVI 3. Overall, 30% of the outdoor workers thought themselves sufficiently protected against the harmful effects of the sun. While the participants of this study had a basic fundamental understanding of the effects of solar radiation and methods of protection against exposure, there remains an urgent need for further clarification across all demographic groups. PMID:26995021

  20. 29 CFR 570.57 - Exposure to radioactive substances and to ionizing radiations (Order 6).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Exposure to radioactive substances and to ionizing... to Their Health or Well-Being § 570.57 Exposure to radioactive substances and to ionizing radiations... radioactive substances and to ionizing radiations are particularly hazardous and detrimental to health...

  1. 29 CFR 570.57 - Exposure to radioactive substances and to ionizing radiations (Order 6).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exposure to radioactive substances and to ionizing... to Their Health or Well-Being § 570.57 Exposure to radioactive substances and to ionizing radiations... radioactive substances and to ionizing radiations are particularly hazardous and detrimental to health...

  2. 29 CFR 570.57 - Exposure to radioactive substances and to ionizing radiations (Order 6).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exposure to radioactive substances and to ionizing... to Their Health or Well-Being § 570.57 Exposure to radioactive substances and to ionizing radiations... radioactive substances and to ionizing radiations are particularly hazardous and detrimental to health...

  3. 29 CFR 570.57 - Exposure to radioactive substances and to ionizing radiations (Order 6).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Exposure to radioactive substances and to ionizing... to Their Health or Well-Being § 570.57 Exposure to radioactive substances and to ionizing radiations... radioactive substances and to ionizing radiations are particularly hazardous and detrimental to health...

  4. 29 CFR 570.57 - Exposure to radioactive substances and to ionizing radiations (Order 6).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Exposure to radioactive substances and to ionizing... to Their Health or Well-Being § 570.57 Exposure to radioactive substances and to ionizing radiations... radioactive substances and to ionizing radiations are particularly hazardous and detrimental to health...

  5. 47 CFR 2.1091 - Radiofrequency radiation exposure evaluation: mobile devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Radiofrequency radiation exposure evaluation: mobile devices. 2.1091 Section 2.1091 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL FREQUENCY ALLOCATIONS AND RADIO TREATY MATTERS; GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS Equipment Authorization Procedures Radiofrequency Radiation Exposure...

  6. 10 CFR 35.2070 - Records of surveys for ambient radiation exposure rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Records of surveys for ambient radiation exposure rate. 35.2070 Section 35.2070 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Records § 35.2070 Records of surveys for ambient radiation exposure rate. A licensee shall retain a record...

  7. 10 CFR 35.2070 - Records of surveys for ambient radiation exposure rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Records of surveys for ambient radiation exposure rate. 35.2070 Section 35.2070 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Records § 35.2070 Records of surveys for ambient radiation exposure rate. A licensee shall retain a record...

  8. 10 CFR 35.2070 - Records of surveys for ambient radiation exposure rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Records of surveys for ambient radiation exposure rate. 35.2070 Section 35.2070 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Records § 35.2070 Records of surveys for ambient radiation exposure rate. A licensee shall retain a record...

  9. 10 CFR 35.2070 - Records of surveys for ambient radiation exposure rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Records of surveys for ambient radiation exposure rate. 35.2070 Section 35.2070 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Records § 35.2070 Records of surveys for ambient radiation exposure rate. A licensee shall retain a record...

  10. Radiation exposure of the hands and thyroid gland during percutaneous wiring of wrist and hand procedures.

    PubMed

    Bahari, Syah; Morris, Seamus; Broe, David; Taylor, Colm; Lenehan, Brian; McElwain, John

    2006-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the radiation exposure of the hands and thyroid glands of orthopaedic surgeon and assistant during procedures involving percutaneous wiring of the hand and wrist. The radiation dose to the hand and thyroid glands was prospectively studied from a total of 30 percutaneous hand and wrist procedures. Four thermolucent densitometers were used to measure the radiation exposure. Cases were divided depending on fracture location (ie. wrist, metacarpal, phalangeal) and surgical experience (i.e. Senior House Officer, Registrar, Consultant). Mean radiation exposure in the hand for the surgeon was 0.80 mSv and 0.87 mSv for the assistant. There was a significant difference in the unshielded thyroid group compared to the shielded thyroid group (p < 0.05). The duration and number of exposure decreases with increasing experience. We also found a trend whereas we operate from proximal to distal (wrist to phalangeal), the total direct hand exposure increases. Radiation exposure in the hands and thyroid glands during percutaneous wiring of hand and wrist procedures were within the recommended limit. However, for the junior orthopaedic trainee, the risk of over radiating oneself is higher as the duration and number of exposure increases. We recommended the use of thyroid shield and adherence to the ALARA principle in any fluoroscopic assisted procedures. Routine monitoring of radiation exposure is essential in preventing radiation related disease. PMID:16768265

  11. Fetal Implications of Diagnostic Radiation Exposure During Pregnancy: Evidence-based Recommendations.

    PubMed

    Rimawi, Bassam H; Green, Victoria; Lindsay, Michael

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this article is to review the fetal and long-term implications of diagnostic radiation exposure during pregnancy. Evidence-based recommendations for radiologic imaging modalities utilizing exposure of diagnostic radiation during pregnancy, including conventional screen-film mammography, digital mammography, tomosynthesis, and contrast-enhanced mammography are described. PMID:26982251

  12. Monitoring exposure to atomic bomb radiation by somatic mutation

    SciTech Connect

    Akiyama, Mitoshi; Kyoizumi, Seishi; Kusunoki, Yoichiro

    1996-05-01

    Atomic bomb survivors are a population suitable for studying the relationship between somatic mutation and cancer risk because their exposure doses are relatively well known and their dose responses in terms of cancer risk have also been thoroughly studied. An analysis has been made of erythrocyte glycophorin A (GPA) gene mutations in 1,226 atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The GPA mutation frequency (Mf) increased slightly but significantly with age at the time of measurement and with the number of cigarettes smoked. After adjustment for the effect of smoking, the Mf was significantly higher in males than in females and higher in Hiroshima than in Nagasaki. All of these characteristics of the background GPA Mf were in accord with those of solid tumor incidence obtained from an earlier epidemiological study of A-bomb survivors. Analysis of the dose effect on Mf revealed the doubling dose to be about 1.20 Sv and the minimum dose for detection of a significant increase to be about 0.24 Sv. No significant dose effect for difference in sex, city, or age at the time of bombing was observed. Interestingly, the doubling dose for the GPA Mf approximated that for solid cancer incidence (1.59 Sv). And the minimum dose for detection was not inconsistent with the data for solid cancer incidence. The dose effect was significantly higher in those diagnosed with cancer before or after measurement than in those without a history of cancer. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that somatic mutations are the main cause of excess cancer risk from radiation exposure. 27 refs., 2 figs.

  13. Monitoring exposure to atomic bomb radiation by somatic mutation.

    PubMed

    Akiyama, M; Kyoizumi, S; Kusunoki, Y; Hirai, Y; Tanabe, K; Cologne, J B

    1996-05-01

    Atomic bomb survivors are a population suitable for studying the relationship between somatic mutation and cancer risk because their exposure doses are relatively well known and their dose responses in terms of cancer risk have also been thoroughly studied. An analysis has been made of erythrocyte glycophorin A (GPA) gene mutations in 1,226 atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The GPA mutation frequency (Mf) increased slightly but significantly with age at the time of measurement and with the number of cigarettes smoked. After adjustment for the effect of smoking, the Mf was significantly higher in males than in females and higher in Hiroshima than in Nagasaki. All of these characteristics of the background GPA Mf were in accord with those of solid tumor incidence obtained from an earlier epidemiological study of A-bomb survivors. Analysis of the dose effect on Mf revealed the doubling dose to be about 1.20 Sv and the minimum dose for detection of a significant increase to be about 0.24 Sv. No significant dose effect for difference in sex, city, or age at the time of bombing was observed. Interestingly, the doubling dose for the GPA Mf approximated that for solid cancer incidence (1.59 Sv). And the minimum dose for detection was not inconsistent with the data for solid cancer incidence. The dose effect was significantly higher in those diagnosed with cancer before or after measurement than in those without a history of cancer. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that somatic mutations are the main cause of excess cancer risk from radiation exposure. PMID:8781371

  14. Radiation exposure to human trachea from Xenon-133 procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Prohovnik, I.; Metz, C.D.; Atkins, H.L. ||

    1995-08-01

    The general dosimetry of {sup 133}Xe for human studies is well documented, but the resultant radiation exposure to tracheal tissue is poorly known. This organ is of central relevance because the tracer is primarily eliminated through exhalation. We report actual {sup 133}Xe concentrations in respiratory air during measurement of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF), when the tracer is administered both by inhalation and intravenous injection. Data were collected from 102 patients, with equal gender representation and an age range of 18-82 yr. Most of the patients had subarachnoid hemorrhage or Alzheimer`s disease or were normal control subjects. Average administered doses were 18 {plus_minus} 4 mCi by inhalation and 15 {plus_minus} 3 intravenously. We found average respiratory concentrations of about 1.80 mCi/liter during a 1-min inhalation and 0.74 mCi/liter following intravenous injection of standard doses. These activities drop rapidly: average respiratory concentrations during the second minute are 0.70 mCi/liter for inhalation and 0.19 mCi/liter for intravenous injection and reach negligible levels thereafter. We calculate that the tracheal absorbed dose from {sup 133}Xe procedures is approximately 28 mrad following inhalation and about 11 mrad following intravenous injection. These values reflect the full 11-min exposure, but most of the activity is only present initially. These values will agree with previous estimates and indicate an excellent safety margin. 6 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  15. The effects of internal radiation exposure on cancer mortality in nuclear workers at Rocketdyne/Atomics International.

    PubMed Central

    Ritz, B; Morgenstern, H; Crawford-Brown, D; Young, B

    2000-01-01

    We examined the effects of chronic exposure to radionuclides, primarily uranium and mixed-fission products, on cancer mortality in a retrospective cohort study of workers enrolled in the radiation-monitoring program of a nuclear research and development facility. Between 1950 and 1994, 2,297 workers were monitored for internal radiation exposures, and 441 workers died, 134 (30.4%) of them from cancer as the underlying cause. We calculated internal lung-dose estimates based on urinalysis and whole-body and lung counts reported for individual workers. We examined cancer mortality of workers exposed at different cumulative lung-dose levels using complete risk-set analysis for cohort data, adjusting for age, pay type, time since first radiation monitored, and external radiation. In addition, we examined the potential for confounding due to chemical exposures and smoking, explored whether external radiation exposure modifies the effects of internal exposure, and estimated effects after excluding exposures likely to have been unrelated to disease onset. Dose-response relations were observed for death from hemato- and lymphopoietic cancers and from upper aerodigestive tract cancers, adjusting for age, time since first monitored, pay type, and external (gamma) radiation dose. No association was found for other cancers, including cancers of the lung. Despite the small number of exposed deaths from specific cancer types and possible bias due to measurement error and confounding, the positive findings and strong dose-response gradients observed suggest carcinogenic effects of internal radiation to the upper aerodigestive tract and the blood and lymph system in this occupational cohort. However, causal inferences require replication of our results in other populations or confirmation with an extended follow-up of this cohort. PMID:10964795

  16. Health Effects Associated with Inhalation Exposure to Diesel Emission Generated with and without CeO2 Nano Fuel Additive

    EPA Science Inventory

    Diesel exhaust (DE) exposure induces adverse cardiopulmonary effects. Addition of nano cerium (Ce) oxide additive to diesel fuel (DECe) increases fuel burning efficiency resulting in altered emission characteristics and potentially altered health effects. We hypothesized that inh...

  17. Effects of radiation exposure on SRL 131 composition glass in a steam environment

    SciTech Connect

    Wronkiewicz, D.J.; Bradley, C.R.; Bates, J.K.; Wang, L.M.

    1993-11-01

    Monoliths of SRL 131 borosilicate glass were irradiated in a saturated air-steam environment, at temperatures of 150{degree}C, to examine the effects of radiation on nuclear waste glass behavior. Half of the tests used actinide and Tc-99 doped glass and were exposed to an external ionizing gamma source, while the remaining glass samples were doped only with uranium and were reacted without any external radiation exposure. The effects of radiation exposure on glass alteration and secondary phase formation were determined by comparing the reaction rates and mineral paragenesis of the two sets of samples. All glass samples readily reacted with the water that condensed on their surfaces, producing a smectite clay layer within the first three days of testing. Additional crystalline phases precipitated on the altered glass surface with increasing reaction times, including zeolites, smectite, calcium and sodium silicates, phosphates, evaporitic salts, and uranyl silicates. Similar phases were produced on both the nonirradiated and irradiated samples; however, the quantity of precipitates was increased and the rate of paragenetic sequence development was accelerated in the latter. After 56 days of testing, the smectite layer developed at an average rate of {approximately}0.16 and 0.63 {mu}m/day for the nonirradiated and irradiated samples, respectively. These comparisons indicate that layer development is accelerated approximately four-fold due to the radiation exposure at high glass surface area/liquid volume (SA/V) conditions. This increase apparently occurs in response to the rapid concentration of radiolytic products, including nitric acid, in the thin films of water contacting the sample monoliths.

  18. [Relationship to Carcinogenesis of Repetitive Low-Dose Radiation Exposure].

    PubMed

    Ootsuyama, Akira

    2016-06-01

    We studied the carcinogenic effects caused by repetitive irradiation at a low dose, which has received attention in recent years, and examined the experimental methods used to evaluate radiation-induced carcinogenesis. For this experiment, we selected a mouse with as few autochthonous cancers as possible. Skin cancer was selected as the target for analysis, because it is a rare cancer in mice. Beta-rays were selected as the radiation source. The advantage of using beta-rays is weaker penetration power into tissues, thus protecting organs, such as the digestive and hematogenous organs. The benefit of our experimental method is that only skin cancer requires monitoring, and it is possible to perform long-term experiments. The back skin of mice was exposed repetitively to beta-rays three times a week until the occurrence of cancer or death, and the dose per exposure ranged from 0.5 to 11.8 Gy. With the high-dose range (2.5-11.8 Gy), the latency period and carcinogenic rate were almost the same in each experimental group. When the dose was reduced to 1-1.5 Gy, the latency period increased, but the carcinogenic rate remained. When the dose was further reduced to 0.5 Gy, skin cancer never happened, even though we continued irradiation until death of the last mouse in this group. The lifespan of 0.5 Gy group mice was the same as that of the controls. We showed that the 0.5 Gy dose did not cause cancer, even in mice exposed repetitively throughout their life span, and thus refer to 0.5 Gy as the threshold-like dose. PMID:27302731

  19. Polonium in cigarette smoke and radiation exposure of lungs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, Fernando P.; Oliveira, João M.

    2006-01-01

    Polonium (210Po), the most volatile of naturally-occurring radionuclides in plants, was analysed in three common brands of cigarettes produced in Portugal. The analyses were carried out on the unburned tobacco contained in cigarettes, on the ashes and butts of smoked cigarettes and on the mainstream smoke. 210Po in tobacco displays concentrations ranging from 3 to 37 mBq g-1, depending upon the cigarette brand. The 210Po activity remaining in the solid residue of a smoked cigarette varied from 0.3 to 4.9 mBq per cigarette, and the 210Po in the inhaled smoke varied from 2.6 to 28.9 mBq. In all brands of cigarettes tested, a large fraction of the 210Po content is not inhaled by the smoker and it is released into the atmosphere. Part of it may be inhaled by passive smokers. Depending upon the commercial brand and upon the presence or absence of a filter in the cigarette, 5 to 37 % of the 210Po in the cigarette can be inhaled by the smoker. Taking into account the average 210Po in surface air, the smoker of one pack of twenty cigarettes per day may inhale 50 times 210Po than a non smoker. Cigarette smoke contributes with 1.5 % to the daily rate of 210Po absorption into the blood, 0.39 Bq d-1, and, after systemic circulation it gives rise to a whole body radiation dose in the same proportion. However, in the smoker the deposition of 210Po in the lungs is much more elevated than normal and may originate an enhanced radiation exposure. Estimated dose to the lungs is presented and radiobiological effects of cigarette smoke are discussed.

  20. Effects of exposure to different types of radiation on behaviors mediated by peripheral or central systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rabin, B. M.; Joseph, J. A.; Erat, S.

    1998-01-01

    The effects of exposure to ionizing radiation on behavior may result from effects on peripheral or on central systems. For behavioral endpoints that are mediated by peripheral systems (e.g., radiation-induced conditioned taste aversion or vomiting), the behavioral effects of exposure to heavy particles (56Fe, 600 MeV/n) are qualitatively similar to the effects of exposure to gamma radiation (60Co) and to fission spectrum neutrons. For these endpoints, the only differences between the different types of radiation are in terms of relative behavioral effectiveness. For behavioral endpoints that are mediated by central systems (e.g., amphetamine-induced taste aversion learning), the effects of exposure to 56Fe particles are not seen following exposure to lower LET gamma rays or fission spectrum neutrons. These results indicate that the effects of exposure to heavy particles on behavioral endpoints cannot necessarily be extrapolated from studies using gamma rays, but require the use of heavy particles.

  1. [Estimation of the radiation risk of determined effects of human exposure in space].

    PubMed

    Petrov, V M; Vasina, Iu I; Vlasov, A G; Shurshakov, V A

    2001-01-01

    Subject of the paper is possibility to estimate radiation risk of determined consequences of exposure to solar space rays as a probability of violation of established dose limits. Analysis of specifies of spacecrew exposure to solar space rays in a long-term, particularly interplanetary mission suggests that immediate introduction of the principle in the radiation health policy can result in serious errors, mainly exaggeration, in determination of radiation risk. Proposed are approaches to radiation risk estimation with consideration of the specific of human exposure in space. PMID:11915752

  2. Dermatopathology effects of simulated solar particle event radiation exposure in the porcine model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanzari, Jenine K.; Diffenderfer, Eric S.; Hagan, Sarah; Billings, Paul C.; Gridley, Daila S.; Seykora, John T.; Kennedy, Ann R.; Cengel, Keith A.

    2015-07-01

    The space environment exposes astronauts to risks of acute and chronic exposure to ionizing radiation. Of particular concern is possible exposure to ionizing radiation from a solar particle event (SPE). During an SPE, magnetic disturbances in specific regions of the Sun result in the release of intense bursts of ionizing radiation, primarily consisting of protons that have a highly variable energy spectrum. Thus, SPE events can lead to significant total body radiation exposures to astronauts in space vehicles and especially while performing extravehicular activities. Simulated energy profiles suggest that SPE radiation exposures are likely to be highest in the skin. In the current report, we have used our established miniature pig model system to evaluate the skin toxicity of simulated SPE radiation exposures that closely resemble the energy and fluence profile of the September, 1989 SPE using either conventional radiation (electrons) or proton simulated SPE radiation. Exposure of animals to electron or proton radiation led to dose-dependent increases in epidermal pigmentation, the presence of necrotic keratinocytes at the dermal-epidermal boundary and pigment incontinence, manifested by the presence of melanophages in the derm is upon histological examination. We also observed epidermal hyperplasia and a reduction in vascular density at 30 days following exposure to electron or proton simulated SPE radiation. These results suggest that the doses of electron or proton simulated SPE radiation results in significant skin toxicity that is quantitatively and qualitatively similar. Radiation-induced skin damage is often one of the first clinical signs of both acute and non-acute radiation injury where infection may occur, if not treated. In this report, histopathology analyses of acute radiation-induced skin injury are discussed.

  3. Dermatopathology effects of simulated solar particle event radiation exposure in the porcine model.

    PubMed

    Sanzari, Jenine K; Diffenderfer, Eric S; Hagan, Sarah; Billings, Paul C; Gridley, Daila S; Seykora, John T; Kennedy, Ann R; Cengel, Keith A

    2015-07-01

    The space environment exposes astronauts to risks of acute and chronic exposure to ionizing radiation. Of particular concern is possible exposure to ionizing radiation from a solar particle event (SPE). During an SPE, magnetic disturbances in specific regions of the Sun result in the release of intense bursts of ionizing radiation, primarily consisting of protons that have a highly variable energy spectrum. Thus, SPE events can lead to significant total body radiation exposures to astronauts in space vehicles and especially while performing extravehicular activities. Simulated energy profiles suggest that SPE radiation exposures are likely to be highest in the skin. In the current report, we have used our established miniature pig model system to evaluate the skin toxicity of simulated SPE radiation exposures that closely resemble the energy and fluence profile of the September, 1989 SPE using either conventional radiation (electrons) or proton simulated SPE radiation. Exposure of animals to electron or proton radiation led to dose-dependent increases in epidermal pigmentation, the presence of necrotic keratinocytes at the dermal-epidermal boundary and pigment incontinence, manifested by the presence of melanophages in the derm is upon histological examination. We also observed epidermal hyperplasia and a reduction in vascular density at 30 days following exposure to electron or proton simulated SPE radiation. These results suggest that the doses of electron or proton simulated SPE radiation results in significant skin toxicity that is quantitatively and qualitatively similar. Radiation-induced skin damage is often one of the first clinical signs of both acute and non-acute radiation injury where infection may occur, if not treated. In this report, histopathology analyses of acute radiation-induced skin injury are discussed. PMID:26256624

  4. Dermatopathology effects of simulated solar particle event radiation exposure in the porcine model

    PubMed Central

    Sanzari, Jenine K.; Diffenderfer, Eric S.; Hagan, Sarah; Billings, Paul C.; Gridley, Daila S.; Seykora, John T.; Kennedy, Ann R.; Cengel, Keith A.

    2015-01-01

    The space environment exposes astronauts to risks of acute and chronic exposure to ionizing radiation. Of particular concern is possible exposure to ionizing radiation from a solar particle event (SPE). During an SPE, magnetic disturbances in specific regions of the Sun result in the release of intense bursts of ionizing radiation, primarily consisting of protons that have a highly variable energy spectrum. Thus, SPE events can lead to significant total body radiation exposures to astronauts in space vehicles and especially while performing extravehicular activities. Simulated energy profiles suggest that SPE radiation exposures are likely to be highest in the skin. In the current report, we have used our established miniature pig model system to evaluate the skin toxicity of simulated SPE radiation exposures that closely resemble the energy and fluence profile of the September, 1989 SPE using either conventional radiation (electrons) or proton simulated SPE radiation. Exposure of animals to electron or proton radiation led to dose-dependent increases in epidermal pigmentation, the presence of necrotic keratinocytes at the dermal-epidermal boundary and pigment incontinence, manifested by the presence of melanophages in the dermis upon histological examination. We also observed epidermal hyperplasia and a reduction in vascular density at 30 days following exposure to electron or proton simulated SPE radiation. These results suggest that the doses of electron or proton simulated SPE radiation results in significant skin toxicity that is quantitatively and qualitatively similar. Radiation-induced skin damage is often one of the first clinical signs of both acute and non-acute radiation injury where infection may occur, if not treated. In this report, histopathology analyses of acute radiation-induced skin injury are discussed. PMID:26256624

  5. Late skin damage in rabbits and monkeys after exposure to particulate radiations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergtold, D. S.; Cox, A. B.; Lett, J. T.; Su, C. M.

    1983-01-01

    Preliminary results are reported of experiments on the late effects of exposure to particulate radiations on stem cell populations. Skin biopsies were taken from the ears of rabbits irradiated 2-5 years previously with 530 MeV/amu Ar ions (LET 90 keV/micron), or 365 MeV/amu Ne ions (LET 35 keV micron), and from the chests and inner thighs of rhesus monkeys irradiated 16-18 years previously with 32-MeV protons (LET about 1.2 keV/micron). Skin fibroblast cultures obtained from the biopsy samples in rabbits were observed to undergo dose-dependent decreases in in vitro life span, with estimated survival curves showing the effects of Ar-ion irradiation to be more severe than those of Ne-ion irradiation. In addition, the healing of the biopsy wound was observed to become slower as radiation dose increased. In the monkey, radiation reduced the average number of fibroblasts at the time of cessation of growth in culture. Results thus demonstrate the capacity of skin sampling to reveal stem cell destruction, and have important implications for astronauts and other persons at risk of particle exposure with regard to healing responses to trauma or surgery.

  6. Does iodinated contrast medium amplify DNA damage during exposure to radiation.

    PubMed

    Riley, Peter

    2015-01-01

    There is a recognized increased risk of cancer following exposure of humans to ionizing radiation; this is felt to be most likely due to damage to DNA strands during exposure. Damage to DNA strands can be demonstrated microscopically following exposure to X-rays, and new evidence is emerging that this effect may be compounded by administration of iodinated contrast agents. PMID:26234959

  7. TEMPERATURE REGULATION IN THE UNRESTRAINED RABBIT DURING EXPOSURE TO 600 MHZ RADIOFREQUENCY RADIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Six male New Zealand white rabbits were individually exposed to 600 MHz radiofrequency (RF) radiation for 90 min in a waveguide exposure system at an ambient temperature (Ta) of 20 or 30 C. Immediately after exposure, the rabbit was removed from the exposure chamber and its colon...

  8. Organ radiation exposure with EOS: GATE simulations versus TLD measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clavel, A. H.; Thevenard-Berger, P.; Verdun, F. R.; Létang, J. M.; Darbon, A.

    2016-03-01

    EOS® is an innovative X-ray imaging system allowing the acquisition of two simultaneous images of a patient in the standing position, during the vertical scan of two orthogonal fan beams. This study aimed to compute organs radiation exposure to a patient, in the particular geometry of this system. Two different positions of the patient in the machine were studied, corresponding to postero-anterior plus left lateral projections (PA-LLAT) and antero-posterior plus right lateral projections (AP-RLAT). To achieve this goal, a Monte-Carlo simulation was developed based on a GATE environment. To model the physical properties of the patient, a computational phantom was produced based on computed tomography scan data of an anthropomorphic phantom. The simulations provided several organs doses, which were compared to previously published dose results measured with Thermo Luminescent Detectors (TLD) in the same conditions and with the same phantom. The simulation results showed a good agreement with measured doses at the TLD locations, for both AP-RLAT and PA-LLAT projections. This study also showed that the organ dose assessed only from a sample of locations, rather than considering the whole organ, introduced significant bias, depending on organs and projections.

  9. Prostatic artery embolization: radiation exposure to patients and staff.

    PubMed

    Garzón, W J; Andrade, G; Dubourcq, F; Abud, D G; Bredow, M; Khoury, H J; Kramer, R

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the radiation doses to patients and staff received from the first cases of prostatic artery embolization (PAE) conducted in a public hospital in Recife, Brazil. Five PAE procedures for 5 men diagnosed with benign prostatic hyperplasia were investigated. In order to characterize patient exposure, dosimetric quantities, such as the air kerma-area product (P KA), the cumulative air kerma at the interventional reference point (Ka,r), the number of images, etc, were registered. To evaluate the possibility for deterministic effects, the peak skin dose (PSD) was measured using radiochromic films. For evaluation of personal dose equivalent and effective dose to the medical staff, thermoluminescent dosemeters (TLD-100) were used. The effective dose was estimated using the double dosimetry alghoritm of von Boetticher. The results showed that the mean patient's PSD per procedure was 2674.2 mGy. With regard to the medical staff, the mean, minimum and maximum effective doses estimated per procedure were: 18 μSv, 12 μSv and 21 μSv respectively. High personal equivalent doses were found for the feet, hands and lens of the eye, due to the use of multiple left anterior oblique projections and the improper use of the suspended lead screen and the lead curtain during procedures. PMID:27025551

  10. Radiation exposure in body computed tomography examinations of trauma patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kortesniemi, M.; Kiljunen, T.; Kangasmäki, A.

    2006-06-01

    Multi-slice CT provides an efficient imaging modality for trauma imaging. The purpose of this study was to provide absorbed and effective dose data from CT taking into account the patient size and compare such doses with the standard CT dose quantities based on standard geometry. The CT examination data from abdominal and thoracic scan series were collected from 36 trauma patients. The CTDIvol, DLPw and effective dose were determined, and the influence of patient size was applied as a correction factor to calculated doses. The patient size was estimated from the patient weight as the effective radius based on the analysis from the axial images of abdominal and thoracic regions. The calculated mean CTDIvol, DLPw and effective dose were 15.2 mGy, 431 mGy cm and 6.5 mSv for the thorax scan, and 18.5 mGy, 893 mGy cm and 14.8 mSv for the abdomen scan, respectively. The doses in the thorax and abdomen scans taking the patient size into account were 34% and 9% larger than the standard dose quantities, respectively. The use of patient size in dose estimation is recommended in order to provide realistic data for evaluation of the radiation exposure in CT, especially for paediatric patients and smaller adults.

  11. Measurement of radiation exposure of astronauts by radiochemical techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brodzinski, R. L.

    1972-01-01

    Only two of the fecal specimens collected inflight during the Apollo 15 mission were returned for analysis. Difficulty in obtaining reasonably accurate radiation dose estimates based on the cosmogenic radionuclide content of the specimens was encountered due to the limited sampling. The concentrations of Na-22, K-40, Cr-51, Fe-59, and Cs-137 are reported. The concentrations of 24 major, minor, and trace elements in these two specimens were determined. Most concentrations are typical of those observed previously. Major exceptions are extremely low values for selenium and extraordinarily high values for rare earth elements. The net Po-210 activities in the Apollo 11 and 12 Solar Wind Composition foils and in the Apollo 8 and 12 spacecraft reflective coatings due to lunar exposure have been determined. Equilibrium concentrations of 0.082 + or - 0.012 disintegrations /sq cm sec of Rn-222 in the lunar atmosphere and 0.0238 + or - 0.0035 disintegrations /sq cm sec of Po-210 on the lunar surface have been calculated for Oceanus Procellarum.

  12. Repair effects of exogenous SOD on Bacillus subtilis against gamma radiation exposure.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaoming; Zhang, E; Fang, Liu; Zhang, Jianguo; Zhu, Jie; He, Wei; Luo, Xuegang

    2013-12-01

    Superoxide dismutase (SOD) is an enzyme that removes free radicals from cells in many organisms. In order to further characterize these repair effects and their mechanism when subjected to radiation, Bacillus subtilis cells were exposed to gamma radiation and the cell survival rate, intracellular SOD activity, and DNA double-strand breakage were investigated. Vegetative cells of B. subtilis were irradiated by (60)Co gamma radiation at varying doses and subsequently exposed to varying levels of exogenous SOD. Standard plate-count, xanthine oxidase, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) methods were employed to investigate the repair effects. The results showed that the exogenous SOD could significantly improve cell survival rate and intracellular SOD activity after gamma radiation. The cell survival rate was elevated 30-87 times above levels observed in control samples. Adding exogenous SOD into gamma irradiated cells may dramatically increase intracellular SOD activity (p < 0.01), while percentage of DNA release (PR) values may decrease significantly when cells are treated with SOD. The repair effects were observed to vary with the gamma radiation dose and SOD concentration. These findings suggest that exogenous SOD may have the ability to repair vegetative B. subtilis cell damage after irradiated by gamma radiation. DNA strand scission may also be prevented by addition of SOD. This research contributes to better understanding of protection from the effects of free radicals and their mechanisms, an ongoing process in many organisms that involves the cellular response to gamma radiation, which occurs naturally in soil and water, as well as in unusual cases of high-dosage exposure. PMID:24096311

  13. Contemporary Proton Therapy Systems Adequately Protect Patients from Exposure to Stray Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Newhauser, Wayne D.; Fontenot, Jonas D.; Taddei, Phillip J.; Mirkovic, Dragan; Giebeler, Annelise; Zhang, Rui; Mahajan, Anita; Kornguth, David; Stovall, Marilyn; Yepes, Pablo; Woo, Shiao; Mohan, Radhe

    2010-01-01

    Proton beam therapy has provided safe and effective treatments for a variety of adult cancers. In recent years, there has been increasing interest in utilizing proton therapy for pediatric cancers because it allows better sparing of healthy tissues. Minimizing exposures of normal tissues is especially important in children because they are highly susceptible to consequential late effects, including the development of a radiogenic second cancer, which may occur years or even decades after treatment of the first cancer. While the dosimetric advantage of therapeutic proton beams is well understood, relatively little attention has been paid to the whole-body exposure to stray neutron radiation that is inherent in proton therapy. In this report, we review the physical processes that lead to neutron exposures, discuss the potential for mitigating these exposures using advanced proton beam delivery systems, and present a comparative analysis of predicted second cancer incidence following various external beam therapies. In addition, we discuss uncertainties in the relative biological effectiveness of neutrons for carcinogenesis and the impact that these uncertainties have on second-cancer risk predictions for survivors of adult and childhood cancer who receive proton therapy. PMID:20844607

  14. Contemporary Proton Therapy Systems Adequately Protect Patients from Exposure to Stray Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newhauser, Wayne D.; Fontenot, Jonas D.; Taddei, Phillip J.; Mirkovic, Dragan; Giebeler, Annelise; Zhang, Rui; Mahajan, Anita; Kornguth, David; Stovall, Marilyn; Yepes, Pablo; Woo, Shiao; Mohan, Radhe

    2009-03-01

    Proton beam therapy has provided safe and effective treatments for a variety of adult cancers. In recent years, there has been increasing interest in utilizing proton therapy for pediatric cancers because it allows better sparing of healthy tissues. Minimizing exposures of normal tissues is especially important in children because they are highly susceptible to consequential late effects, including the development of a radiogenic second cancer, which may occur years or even decades after treatment of the first cancer. While the dosimetric advantage of therapeutic proton beams is well understood, relatively little attention has been paid to the whole-body exposure to stray neutron radiation that is inherent in proton therapy. In this report, we review the physical processes that lead to neutron exposures, discuss the potential for mitigating these exposures using advanced proton beam delivery systems, and present a comparative analysis of predicted second cancer incidence following various external beam therapies. In addition, we discuss uncertainties in the relative biological effectiveness of neutrons for carcinogenesis and the impact that these uncertainties have on second-cancer risk predictions for survivors of adult and childhood cancer who receive proton therapy.

  15. Contemporary Proton Therapy Systems Adequately Protect Patients from Exposure to Stray Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Newhauser, Wayne D.; Fontenot, Jonas D.; Taddei, Phillip J.; Mirkovic, Dragan; Giebeler, Annelise; Zhang Rui; Mahajan, Anita; Kornguth, David; Stovall, Marilyn; Woo, Shiao; Mohan, Radhe; Yepes, Pablo

    2009-03-10

    Proton beam therapy has provided safe and effective treatments for a variety of adult cancers. In recent years, there has been increasing interest in utilizing proton therapy for pediatric cancers because it allows better sparing of healthy tissues. Minimizing exposures of normal tissues is especially important in children because they are highly susceptible to consequential late effects, including the development of a radiogenic second cancer, which may occur years or even decades after treatment of the first cancer. While the dosimetric advantage of therapeutic proton beams is well understood, relatively little attention has been paid to the whole-body exposure to stray neutron radiation that is inherent in proton therapy. In this report, we review the physical processes that lead to neutron exposures, discuss the potential for mitigating these exposures using advanced proton beam delivery systems, and present a comparative analysis of predicted second cancer incidence following various external beam therapies. In addition, we discuss uncertainties in the relative biological effectiveness of neutrons for carcinogenesis and the impact that these uncertainties have on second-cancer risk predictions for survivors of adult and childhood cancer who receive proton therapy.

  16. 41 CFR 50-204.21 - Exposure of individuals to radiation in restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... to radiation in restricted areas. 50-204.21 Section 50-204.21 Public Contracts and Property... HEALTH STANDARDS FOR FEDERAL SUPPLY CONTRACTS Radiation Standards § 50-204.21 Exposure of individuals to radiation in restricted areas. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, no employer...

  17. 41 CFR 50-204.21 - Exposure of individuals to radiation in restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... to radiation in restricted areas. 50-204.21 Section 50-204.21 Public Contracts and Property... HEALTH STANDARDS FOR FEDERAL SUPPLY CONTRACTS Radiation Standards § 50-204.21 Exposure of individuals to radiation in restricted areas. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, no employer...

  18. Radiation exposure to the pediatric patient during cardiac catheterization and angiocardiography. Emphasis on the thyroid gland

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, E.C.; Olson, A.P.; Steeg, C.N.; Casarella, W.J.

    1981-07-01

    Thermoluminescent dosimetry was used to measure the radiation exposure to the skin, thyroid and gonads in 50 consecutive pediatric patients undergoing cardiac catheterization and angiocardiography using cine photofluorography. Average exposures were 17.1 R to the skin, 2.3 R to the thyroid and 0.1 R to the gonads. Fluoroscopy accounted for approximately 80% of the skin and thyroid exposure and cine photofluorography for 20-25%. Occasional primary-beam irradiation was the major contributor to gonad exposure. Internal scatter of the incident x-ray beam was primarily responsible for thyroid exposure, so that infants received relatively high exposures; one receiving 7.3 R. The thyroid was not frequently in the primary beam. The significance of high radiation exposure to the thyroid, and in particular its relationship to thyroid carcinoma, are discussed. The results are compared with other series in the literature and relative exposures of cine photofluorography and serial filming are contrasted.

  19. Radiation exposure to the pediatric patient during cardiac catheterization and angiocardiography. Emphasis on the thyroid gland

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, E.C.; Olson, A.P.; Steeg, C.N.; Casarella, W.J.

    1981-07-01

    Thermoluminescent dosimetry was used to measure the radiation exposure to the skin, thyroid and gonads in 50 consecutive pediatric patients undergoing cardiac catheterization and angiocariography using cine photofluorography. Average exposures were 17.1 R to the skin, 2.3 R to the thyroid and 0.1 R to the gonads. Fluoroscopy accounted for approximately 80% of the skin and thyroid exposure and cine photofluorography for 20 to 25%. Occasional primary-beam irradiation was the major contributor to gonad exposure. Internal scatter of the incident x-ray beam was primarily responsible for thyroid exposure, so that infants received relatively high exposures; one receiving 7.3 R. The thyroid was not frequently in the primary beam. The significance of high radiation exposure to the thyroid, and in particular its relationship to thyroid carcinoma, are discussed. The results are compared with other series in the literature and relative exposures of cine photofluorography and serial filming are contrasted.

  20. Genotoxicity Induced by Foetal and Infant Exposure to Magnetic Fields and Modulation of Ionising Radiation Effects

    PubMed Central

    Udroiu, Ion; Antoccia, Antonio; Tanzarella, Caterina; Giuliani, Livio; Pacchierotti, Francesca; Cordelli, Eugenia; Eleuteri, Patrizia; Villani, Paola; Sgura, Antonella

    2015-01-01

    Background Few studies have investigated the toxicity and genotoxicity of extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MF) during prenatal and neonatal development. These phases of life are characterized by cell proliferation and differentiation, which might make them sensitive to environmental stressors. Although in vitro evidences suggest that ELF-MF may modify the effects of ionizing radiation, no research has been conducted so far in vivo on the genotoxic effects of ELF-MF combined with X-rays. Aim and methods Aim of this study was to investigate in somatic and germ cells the effects of chronic ELF-MF exposure from mid gestation until weaning, and any possible modulation produced by ELF-MF exposure on ionizing radiation-induced damage. Mice were exposed to 50 Hz, 65 μT magnetic field, 24 hours/day, for a total of 30 days, starting from 12 days post-conception. Another group was irradiated with 1 Gy X-rays immediately before ELF-MF exposure, other groups were only X-irradiated or sham-exposed. Micronucleus test on blood erythrocytes was performed at multiple times from 1 to 140 days after birth. Additionally, 42 days after birth, genotoxic and cytotoxic effects on male germ cells were assessed by comet assay and flow cytometric analysis. Results ELF-MF exposure had no teratogenic effect and did not affect survival, growth and development. The micronucleus test indicated that ELF-MF induced a slight genotoxic damage only after the maximum exposure time and that this effect faded away in the months following the end of exposure. ELF-MF had no effects on ionizing radiation (IR)-induced genotoxicity in erythrocytes. Differently, ELF–MF appeared to modulate the response of male germ cells to X-rays with an impact on proliferation/differentiation processes. These results point to the importance of tissue specificity and development on the impact of ELF-MF on the early stages of life and indicate the need of further research on the molecular mechanisms underlying

  1. Environmental exposure to asbestos in asbestos cement workers: a case of additional exposure from indiscriminate use of industrial wastes.

    PubMed

    Szeszenia-Dabrowska, N; Wilczyńska, U; Szymczak, W; Laskowicz, K

    1998-01-01

    find explanation of these findings, additional investigations were made. The epidemiological study indicated that all these persons were at the same time subject to non-occupational exposure associated with massive utilization of commonly available asbestos-cement wastes as road surface material. PMID:9753896

  2. Radiation exposure of personnel during intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT): radiation protection aspects.

    PubMed

    Strigari, L; Soriani, A; Landoni, V; Teodoli, S; Bruzzaniti, V; Benassi, M

    2004-09-01

    Intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) is a multidisciplinary procedure which combines two conventional methods of cancer treatment surgery and radiation therapy. The purpose is to deliver a large single dose to the surgically exposed tumor bed while minimizing doses to normal tissues. Intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT) is a technique which allows irradiating the patient directly after the surgical operation using a linear accelerator that can be situated in the operating room. For medical accelerators with energy over 10MeV the need to characterize the neutron spectra for this particular situation arises from the fact that, when neutron spectra is not fully known, it becomes necessary to be more cautious introducing a weight factor wR of 20 (maximum value). This leads to overesteem the equivalent dose due to neutrons and it indicates to introduce additional (mobile) shields for photon and neutrons radiation not easily achievable in an operating room. PMID:15595641

  3. Computer subroutines for estimation of human exposure to radiation in low Earth orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, F. A.; Wilson, J. W.

    1985-01-01

    Computer subroutines to calculate human exposure to trapped radiations in low Earth orbit (LEO) on the basis of a simple approximation of the human geometry by spherical shell shields of varying thickness are presented and detailed. The subroutines calculate the dose to critical body organs and the fraction of exposure limit reached as a function of altitude of orbit, degree of inclination, shield thickness, and days in mission. Exposure rates are compared with current exposure limits.

  4. Proposed alternatives for a DOE-wide occupational radiation exposure information system

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, B.L.; Murphy, D.W.; Fix, J.J.; Selby, J.M.; Vallario, E.J.

    1984-02-01

    The Radiation Exposure Information Reporting System (REIRS) was initiated by the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) in 1968. While the system has provided a general overview of radiation exposures associated with AEC/ERDA/DOE operations and has satisfied the original intent for a central information system, the need for more detailed information has become evident. The alternatives addressed for a radiation exposure information system were no change in current system, clarification of DOE Order for current system, increased summary information from sites, centralized annual individual dose (exposure) system, and annual dose summary and locator files. A majority of the DOE Ad Hoc Committee has concurred to recommend the annual dose summary and locator files (ADSLF). The acceptance of the ADSLF alternative as the DOE-wide radiation exposure system would give DOE added capability and flexibility in responding to requests for information and would reduce the impact on the sites of special survey requests.

  5. External radiation exposure of personnel working with 99mTechnetium.

    PubMed

    Schürnbrand, P; Schicha, H; Thal, H; Emrich, D

    1982-01-01

    Radiation from 99mTc was measured at typical locations in those areas of a nuclear medicine department where approximately 50 Ci 99mTc is used per year. In addition, measurements of shielded and unshielded syringes containing 99mTc-labelled radiopharmaceuticals were carried out. From these data radiation exposure of hands and of the whole body of personnel was calculated, taking into consideration the mean working times in the areas and the times of direct and indirect handling of 99mTc. They were compared with the mean values obtained by personnel dosimetry through quartz fibre pocket dosimeters and TLD finger ring dosimeters. The whole body radiation calculated from local measurements for technicians (163 +/- 15 mR/year) (mean +/- SE) and for physicians (260 +/- 15 mR/year) was very low judged by the maximum permissible dose of 5,000 mrem/year and correlated well with those of personnel dosimetry (165 +/- 15 R and 265 +/- 15 R/year respectively). Although local radiation was rather high during generator elution and while preparing radiopharmaceuticals (13 +/- 1.2 mR/h) the radiation exposure to the hands of the radiochemists measured by the TLD finger ring dosimeter was low (2.6 +/- 0.2 R/year). This was attained by consistently using long distance tools in order to avoid direct contact with 99mTc-containing vials and syringes. The most critical point of radiation exposure in our investigation were the finger tips during injection of 99mTc, when syringe shielding was not used (80-130 mR/injection of 10 mCi). Under our conditions this amounts to 330-560 R/year when a total of 40 Ci is injected by the same physician. This by far exceeds the maximum permissible dose of 60 rem/year. The dose can be reduced extensively to only 2-3 R/year when tungsten shielding of the syringe is consistently used. PMID:7094926

  6. Canadian Cardiovascular Society position statement on radiation exposure from cardiac imaging and interventional procedures.

    PubMed

    Natarajan, Madhu K; Paul, Narinder; Mercuri, Mathew; Waller, Edward J; Leipsic, Jonathon; Traboulsi, Mouhieddin; Banijamali, Hamid S; Benson, Lee; Sheth, Tej N; Simpson, Christopher S; Brydie, Allan; Love, Michael P; Gallo, Richard

    2013-11-01

    Exposure to ionizing radiation is a consequence of many diagnostic and interventional cardiac procedures. Radiation exposure can result in detrimental health effects because of deterministic (eg, skin reaction) and stochastic effects (eg, cancer). However, with the levels experienced during cardiac procedures these risks can be difficult to quantify. Healthcare providers and patients might not fully appreciate radiation-related risks. Though in many cases radiation exposure cannot be avoided, a practice of minimizing exposures to levels "as low as reasonably achievable" (ALARA principle) without compromising the utility of the procedure is encouraged. The purpose of this document is to inform health care providers on the key concepts related to radiation risk from common cardiac procedures and provide specific recommendations on ensuring quality of care. PMID:24035289

  7. Heavy Ion Radiation Exposure Triggered Higher Intestinal Tumor Frequency and Greater β-Catenin Activation than γ Radiation in APCMin/+ Mice

    PubMed Central

    Datta, Kamal; Suman, Shubhankar; Kallakury, Bhaskar V. S.; Fornace, Albert J.

    2013-01-01

    Risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) after exposure to low linear energy transfer (low-LET) radiation such as γ-ray is highlighted by the studies in atom bomb survivors. On the contrary, CRC risk prediction after exposure to high-LET cosmic heavy ion radiation exposure is hindered due to scarcity of in vivo data. Therefore, intestinal tumor frequency, size, cluster, and grade were studied in APCMin/+ mice (n = 20 per group; 6 to 8 wks old; female) 100 to 110 days after exposure to 1.6 or 4 Gy of heavy ion 56Fe radiation (energy: 1000 MeV/nucleon) and results were compared to γ radiation doses of 2 or 5 Gy, which are equitoxic to 1.6 and 4 Gy 56Fe respectively. Due to relevance of lower doses to radiotherapy treatment fractions and space exploration, we followed 2 Gy γ and equitoxic 1.6 Gy 56Fe for comparative analysis of intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) proliferation, differentiation, and β-catenin signaling pathway alterations between the two radiation types using immunoblot, and immunohistochemistry. Relative to controls and γ-ray, intestinal tumor frequency and grade was significantly higher after 56Fe radiation. Additionally, tumor incidence per unit of radiation (per cGy) was also higher after 56Fe radiation relative to γ radiation. Staining for phospho-histone H3, indicative of IEC proliferation, was more and alcian blue staining, indicative of IEC differentiation, was less in 56Fe than γ irradiated samples. Activation of β-catenin was more in 56Fe-irradiated tumor-free and tumor-bearing areas of the intestinal tissues. When considered along with higher levels of cyclin D1, we infer that relative to γ radiation exposure to 56Fe radiation induced markedly reduced differentiation, and increased proliferative index in IEC resulting in increased intestinal tumors of larger size and grade due to preferentially greater activation of β-catenin and its downstream effectors. PMID:23555653

  8. Consumer exposures to anthocyanins from colour additives, colouring foodstuffs and from natural occurrence in foods.

    PubMed

    Tennant, David R; Klingenberg, Andreas

    2016-06-01

    Anthocyanins are responsible for the red/blue colour of grapes, currants, and other fruits and vegetables. They may also be extracted for use as colour additives (E163) or concentrated for use as colouring foods. Consumer exposures have been assessed using data on natural occurrence, use levels and frequencies from food manufacturers and European food consumption data. Intakes from natural occurrence can be up to 4 mg kg bw(-1) day(-1) at the mean and up to 17 mg kg bw(-1) day(-1) for children who are high level consumers of red/black berries and small fruits. High-level intakes for children from food colour and colouring food applications lie in the range 0.3-6.3 mg kg bw(-1) day(-1) and for adults at 0.6-2.8 mg kg bw(-1) day(-1). Exposures from food colour use and colouring foods separately or combined are therefore lower than those from natural occurrence in foods. PMID:27094402

  9. Radiation exposure of air-carrier crew members. 2. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Friedberg, W.; Snyder, L.; Faulkner, D.N.; Darden, E.B.; O Brien, K.

    1992-01-01

    The cosmic radiation environment at air carrier flight altitudes is described and estimates given of the amounts of galactic cosmic radiation received on a wide variety of routes to and from, and within the contiguous United States. Radiation exposure from radioactive air cargo is also considered. Methods are provided to assess health risks from exposure to galactic radiation. On the flights studied, the highest dose of galactic radiation received annually by a crewmember who worked as many as 1,000 block hours a year would be less than half the annual limit recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection for a nonpregnant occupationally exposed adult. The radiation exposure of a pregnant crewmember who worked 70 block hours a month for 5 months would exceed the recommended 2-millisievert pregnancy limit on about one-third of the flights.

  10. The Effects of Gamma and Proton Radiation Exposure on Hematopoietic Cell Counts in the Ferret Model

    PubMed Central

    Sanzari, Jenine K.; Wan, X. Steven; Krigsfeld, Gabriel S.; Wroe, Andrew J.; Gridley, Daila S.; Kennedy, Ann R.

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to total-body radiation induces hematological changes, which can detriment one's immune response to wounds and infection. Here, the decreases in blood cell counts after acute radiation doses of γ-ray or proton radiation exposure, at the doses and dose-rates expected during a solar particle event (SPE), are reported in the ferret model system. Following the exposure to γ-ray or proton radiation, the ferret peripheral total white blood cell (WBC) and lymphocyte counts decreased whereas neutrophil count increased within 3 hours. At 48 hours after irradiation, the WBC, neutrophil, and lymphocyte counts decreased in a dose-dependent manner but were not significantly affected by the radiation type (γ-rays verses protons) or dose rate (0.5 Gy/minute verses 0.5 Gy/hour). The loss of these blood cells could accompany and contribute to the physiological symptoms of the acute radiation syndrome (ARS). PMID:25356435

  11. Failure of Real-time Passive Notification about Radiation Exposure to Influence Physician Ordering Behavior.

    PubMed

    Polen, Lauren A; Rossi, Jennifer K; Berg, Cameron K; Balise, Raymond R; Herfkens, Robert J; Auerbach, Paul S

    2016-01-01

    Objectives  To determine whether real-time passive notification of patient radiation exposure via a computerized physician order entry system would alter the number of computed tomography scans ordered by physicians in the Emergency Department (ED) setting. Methods  When a practitioner ordered a computed tomography scan, a passive notification was immediately and prominently displayed via the computerized physician order entry system. The notification stated the following: the amount of estimated radiation in millisieverts (mSv), the equivalent number of single-view chest radiographs, and equivalent days of average environmental background radiation to which a patient during a specific computed tomography scan would be exposed. The primary outcome was changed in the number of computed tomography scans ordered when comparing data collected before and after the addition of the notification. Results  Before the dosimetry notification ("intervention") was instituted, 1,747 computed tomography scans were performed on patients during 11,709 Emergency Department visits (14.9% computed tomography scan rate). After the intervention had been instituted, 1,827 computed tomography scans were performed on patients during 11,582 Emergency Department patient visits (15.8% computed tomography scan rate). No statistically significant difference was found for all chief complaints combined (p = 0.17), or for any individual chief complaint, between the number of computed tomography scans performed on Emergency Department patients before versus after the intervention. Conclusions  Passive real-time notification of patient radiation exposure displayed in a computerized physician order entry system at the time of computed tomography scan ordering in the Emergency Department did not significantly change the number of ordered scans. PMID:27570716

  12. Failure of Real-time Passive Notification about Radiation Exposure to Influence Physician Ordering Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Polen, Lauren A; Rossi, Jennifer K; Berg, Cameron K; Balise, Raymond R; Herfkens, Robert J

    2016-01-01

    Objectives  To determine whether real-time passive notification of patient radiation exposure via a computerized physician order entry system would alter the number of computed tomography scans ordered by physicians in the Emergency Department (ED) setting. Methods  When a practitioner ordered a computed tomography scan, a passive notification was immediately and prominently displayed via the computerized physician order entry system. The notification stated the following: the amount of estimated radiation in millisieverts (mSv), the equivalent number of single-view chest radiographs, and equivalent days of average environmental background radiation to which a patient during a specific computed tomography scan would be exposed. The primary outcome was changed in the number of computed tomography scans ordered when comparing data collected before and after the addition of the notification. Results  Before the dosimetry notification (“intervention”) was instituted, 1,747 computed tomography scans were performed on patients during 11,709 Emergency Department visits (14.9% computed tomography scan rate). After the intervention had been instituted, 1,827 computed tomography scans were performed on patients during 11,582 Emergency Department patient visits (15.8% computed tomography scan rate). No statistically significant difference was found for all chief complaints combined (p = 0.17), or for any individual chief complaint, between the number of computed tomography scans performed on Emergency Department patients before versus after the intervention. Conclusions  Passive real-time notification of patient radiation exposure displayed in a computerized physician order entry system at the time of computed tomography scan ordering in the Emergency Department did not significantly change the number of ordered scans.  PMID:27570716

  13. Cytotoxic Effects of Temozolomide and Radiation are Additive- and Schedule-Dependent

    SciTech Connect

    Chalmers, Anthony J.; Ruff, Elliot M.; Martindale, Christine; Lovegrove, Nadia; Short, Susan C.

    2009-12-01

    Purpose: Despite aggressive therapy comprising radical radiation and temozolomide (TMZ) chemotherapy, the prognosis for patients with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) remains poor, particularly if tumors express O{sup 6}-methylguanine-DNA-methyltransferase (MGMT). The interactions between radiation and TMZ remain unclear and have important implications for scheduling and for developing strategies to improve outcomes. Methods and Materials: Factors determining the effects of combination therapy on clonogenic survival, cell-cycle checkpoint signaling and DNA repair were investigated in four human glioma cell lines (T98G, U373-MG, UVW, U87-MG). Results: Combining TMZ and radiation yielded additive cytotoxicity, but only when TMZ was delivered 72 h before radiation. Radiosensitization was not observed. TMZ induced G2/M cell-cycle arrest at 48-72 h, coincident with phosphorylation of Chk1 and Chk2. Additive G2/M arrest and Chk1/Chk2 phosphorylation was only observed when TMZ preceded radiation by 72 h. The ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) inhibitor KU-55933 increased radiation sensitivity and delayed repair of radiation-induced DNA breaks, but did not influence TMZ effects. The multiple kinase inhibitor caffeine enhanced the cytotoxicity of chemoradiation and exacerbated DNA damage. Conclusions: TMZ is not a radiosensitizing agent but yields additive cytotoxicity in combination with radiation. Our data indicate that TMZ treatment should commence at least 3 days before radiation to achieve maximum benefit. Activation of G2/M checkpoint signaling by TMZ and radiation has a cytoprotective effect that can be overcome by dual inhibition of ATM and ATR. More specific inhibition of checkpoint signaling will be required to increase treatment efficacy without exacerbating toxicity.

  14. Minimizing occupational and patient radiation exposure using an optimized injection technique

    SciTech Connect

    Holly, A.S.; Stumpf, K.D.; Ortendahl, D.A.; Hattner, R.S.

    1987-12-01

    In an attempt to lower whole-body and hand radiation exposure to the technologist and decrease the number of infiltrated doses, this laboratory instituted a cold start method for radionuclide injection. The authors then compared the radiation dosimetry readings for a period before and after instituting the method. The finger ring exposures and whole-body exposures were compared. The exposure to the technologist's hands was reduced by 56% and to the technologist's body by 28%. Detectable extravasation of the dose was reduced from 64% to 9%. The recommend the use of this technique for all nuclear medicine departments.

  15. Method for minimizing the radiation exposure from scoliosis radiographs. [X ray

    SciTech Connect

    De Smet, A.A.; Fritz, S.L.; Asher, M.A.

    1981-01-01

    The radiation exposure resulting from standard scoliosis radiographs was determined for eighteen adolescent girls. The risk of inducing breast cancer was estimated from the skin-exposure doses. The average skin exposure to the breasts was 59.6 millirads (0.59 mGy) for the anteroposterior radiograph. Assuming a total of twenty-two anteroposterior radiographs during a course of treatment, the cumulative exposure would result in a 1.35% relative increase in the risk of development of breast cancer. By utilizing collimation of the x-ray beam and proper selection of grids, films, and screens, the radiation risk of scoliosis radiographs is minimized.

  16. Analytic Shielding Optimization to Reduce Crew Exposure to Ionizing Radiation Inside Space Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaza, Razvan; Cooper, Tim P.; Hanzo, Arthur; Hussein, Hesham; Jarvis, Kandy S.; Kimble, Ryan; Lee, Kerry T.; Patel, Chirag; Reddell, Brandon D.; Stoffle, Nicholas; Zapp, E. Neal; Shelfer, Tad D.

    2009-01-01

    A sustainable lunar architecture provides capabilities for leveraging out-of-service components for alternate uses. Discarded architecture elements may be used to provide ionizing radiation shielding to the crew habitat in case of a Solar Particle Event. The specific location relative to the vehicle where the additional shielding mass is placed, as corroborated with particularities of the vehicle design, has a large influence on protection gain. This effect is caused by the exponential- like decrease of radiation exposure with shielding mass thickness, which in turn determines that the most benefit from a given amount of shielding mass is obtained by placing it so that it preferentially augments protection in under-shielded areas of the vehicle exposed to the radiation environment. A novel analytic technique to derive an optimal shielding configuration was developed by Lockheed Martin during Design Analysis Cycle 3 (DAC-3) of the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV). [1] Based on a detailed Computer Aided Design (CAD) model of the vehicle including a specific crew positioning scenario, a set of under-shielded vehicle regions can be identified as candidates for placement of additional shielding. Analytic tools are available to allow capturing an idealized supplemental shielding distribution in the CAD environment, which in turn is used as a reference for deriving a realistic shielding configuration from available vehicle components. While the analysis referenced in this communication applies particularly to the Orion vehicle, the general method can be applied to a large range of space exploration vehicles, including but not limited to lunar and Mars architecture components. In addition, the method can be immediately applied for optimization of radiation shielding provided to sensitive electronic components.

  17. 77 FR 60437 - Final Effect of Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-03

    ... Cohort AGENCY: National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), Centers for Disease Control... Modification Center in San Antonio, Texas, as an addition to the Special Exposure Cohort (SEC) under the Energy... established for one or more other classes of employees in the Special Exposure Cohort. This designation...

  18. 75 FR 51817 - Final Effect of Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-23

    ... Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort AGENCY: National Institute for... Cohort (SEC) under the Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation Program Act of 2000. On July 14... in the Special Exposure Cohort. This designation became effective on August 13, 2010, as provided...

  19. 76 FR 72928 - Final Effect of Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-28

    ... Cohort AGENCY: National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), Department of Health and... addition to the Special Exposure Cohort (SEC) under the Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation... Special Exposure Cohort. This designation became effective on November 17, 2011, as provided for under...

  20. 75 FR 51816 - Final Effect of Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-23

    ... Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort AGENCY: National Institute for... Cohort (SEC) under the Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation Program Act of 2000. On July 13... parameters established for one or more other classes of employees included in the Special Exposure...

  1. 78 FR 3897 - Final Effect of Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-17

    ... Cohort AGENCY: National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), Centers for Disease Control... Metals, Inc. facility in West Concord, Massachusetts, as an addition to the Special Exposure Cohort (SEC... established for one or more other classes of employees included in the Special Exposure Cohort....

  2. 78 FR 70949 - Final Effect of Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-27

    ... Cohort AGENCY: National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), Centers for Disease Control... Materials Production Center (FMPC) in Fernald, Ohio, as an addition to the Special Exposure Cohort (SEC... of employees included in the Special Exposure Cohort. This designation became effective on...

  3. 78 FR 70949 - Final Effect of Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-27

    ... Cohort AGENCY: National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), Centers for Disease Control... Plant in Amarillo, Texas, as an addition to the Special Exposure Cohort (SEC) under the Energy Employees... of employees included in the Special Exposure Cohort. This designation became effective on October...

  4. Cumulative Radiation Exposure and Cancer Risk Estimation in Children with Heart Disease

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Jason N.; Hornik, Christoph P.; Li, Jennifer S.; Benjamin, Daniel K.; Yoshizumi, Terry; Reiman, Robert E.; Frush, Donald P.; Hill, Kevin D.

    2014-01-01

    Background Children with heart disease are frequently exposed to imaging examinations using ionizing radiation. Although radiation exposure is potentially carcinogenic, there are limited data on cumulative exposure and the associated cancer risk. We evaluated the cumulative effective dose (ED) of radiation from all radiation examinations to estimate the lifetime attributable risk (LAR) of cancer in children with heart disease. Methods and Results Children ≤6 years of age who had previously undergone 1 of 7 primary surgical procedures for heart disease at a single institution between 2005 and 2010 were eligible. Exposure to radiation-producing examinations was tabulated, and cumulative ED was calculated in millisievert (mSv). These data were used to estimate LAR of cancer above baseline using the approach of the Committee on Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation VII. The cohort included 337 children exposed to 13,932 radiation examinations. Conventional radiographs represented 92% of examinations, while cardiac catheterization and computed tomography accounted for 81% of cumulative exposure. Overall median cumulative ED was 2.7 mSv (range 0.1–76.9 mSv), and the associated LAR of cancer was 0.07% (range 0.001–6.5%). Median LAR of cancer ranged widely depending on surgical complexity (0.006–1.6% for the 7 surgical cohorts) and was twice as high in females per unit exposure (0.04% versus 0.02% per 1 mSv ED for females versus males, respectively; p<0.001). Conclusions Overall radiation exposures in children with heart disease are relatively low, however select cohorts receive significant exposure. Cancer risk estimation highlights the need for limiting radiation dose, particularly for high-exposure modalities. PMID:24914037

  5. Occupational Exposure to Diagnostic Radiology in Workers without Training in Radiation Safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaona, Enrique; Enríquez, Jesús G. Franco

    2004-09-01

    The physicians, technicians, nurses, and others involved in radiation areas constitute the largest group of workers occupationally exposed to man-made sources of radiation. Personnel radiation exposure must be monitored for safety and regulatory considerations, this assessment may need to be made over a period of one month or several months. The purpose of this study was to carry out an exploratory survey of occupational exposures associated with diagnostic radiology. The personnel dosimeters used in this study were thermoluminiscent dosimeters (TLDs). The reported number of monitored workers was 110 of different departments of radiology of the Mexican Republic without education in radiation safety, included general fluoscopic/radiographic imaging, computed tomography and mammography procedures. Physicians and X-ray technologist in diagnostic radiology receive an average annual effective dose of 2.9 mSv with range from 0.18 to 5.64 mSv. The average level of occupational exposures is generally similar to the global average level of natural radiation exposure. The annual global per capita effective dose due to natural radiation sources is 2.4 mSv (UNSCEAR 2000 Report). There is not significant difference between average occupational exposures and natural radiation exposure for p < 0.05.

  6. Physiological responses of macroalga Gracilaria lemaneiformis (Rhodophyta) to UV-B radiation exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Lin; Xiao, Hui; Wang, Ying; Jian, Xiaoyang; Zhang, Zhipeng; Zhang, Huanxin; Tang, Xuexi

    2015-03-01

    This paper aims to evaluate the effects of ultraviolet-B radiation (UVBR) on Gracilaria lemaneiformis, a commercial red macroalga and an important source of agar. To study the in-vitro effect of UVBR on G. lemaneiformis, this plant was cultivated and exposed to photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) at 40 μmol photons/(m2 ·s) and enhanced UVBR (0, 0.36, 0.72, 1.08, 1.44, and 1.80 kJ/(m2 ·d)) for 13 days. The samples were processed for histochemical analysis, and the growth rate, photosynthetic pigment contents, photosynthetic performance, reactive oxygen species levels, membrane permeability, malonyl dialdehyde contents and antioxidant capacity of G. lemaneiformis were investigated. After 13 days of exposure to PAR+UVBR, G. lemaneiformis showed photodamage and photoinhibition of photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll a and phycoerythrin), leading to a decreased photosynthetic efficiency. Further, there was a corresponding decrease in the relative growth rates and depigmentation and partial necrosis of the apical segments were noted after exposure to PAR+UVBR. Additionally, UVBR induced excess production of superoxide radicals and hydrogen peroxide, eliciting a marked cellular membrane damage and antioxidative response.

  7. Evidence Report: Risk of Acute and Late Central Nervous System Effects from Radiation Exposure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Gregory A.; Simonsen, Lisa; Huff, Janice L.

    2016-01-01

    Possible acute and late risks to the central nervous system (CNS) from galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and solar particle events (SPE) are concerns for human exploration of space. Acute CNS risks may include: altered cognitive function, reduced motor function, and behavioral changes, all of which may affect performance and human health. Late CNS risks may include neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), dementia and premature aging. Although detrimental CNS changes are observed in humans treated with high-dose radiation (e.g., gamma rays and 9 protons) for cancer and are supported by experimental evidence showing neurocognitive and behavioral effects in animal models, the significance of these results on the morbidity to astronauts has not been elucidated. There is a lack of human epidemiology data on which to base CNS risk estimates; therefore, risk projection based on scaling to human data, as done for cancer risk, is not possible for CNS risks. Research specific to the spaceflight environment using animal and cell models must be compiled to quantify the magnitude of CNS changes in order to estimate this risk and to establish validity of the current permissible exposure limits (PELs). In addition, the impact of radiation exposure in combination with individual sensitivity or other space flight factors, as well as assessment of the need for biological/pharmaceutical countermeasures, will be considered after further definition of CNS risk occurs.

  8. Surveillance for Radiation-Related Exposures Reported to the National Poison Data System

    PubMed Central

    Law, Royal K.; Martin, Colleen; Bronstein, Alvin; Chang, Arthur; Schier, Joshua

    2013-01-01

    Objective To describe radiation-related exposures of potential public health significance reported to the National Poison Data System (NPDS). Introduction For radiological incidents, collecting surveillance data can identify radiation-related public health significant incidents quickly and enable public health officials to describe the characteristics of the affected population and the magnitude of the health impact which in turn can inform public health decision-making. A survey administered by the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists (CSTE) to state health departments in 2010 assessed the extent of state-level planning for surveillance of radiation-related exposures and incidents: 70%–84% of states reported minimal or no planning completed. One data source for surveillance of radiological exposures and illnesses is regional poison centers (PCs), who receive information requests and reported exposures from healthcare providers and the public. Since 2010, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the American Association of Poison Control Centers (AAPCC) have conducted ongoing surveillance for exposures to radiation and radioactive materials reported from all 57 United States (US) PCs to NPDS, a web-based, national PC reporting database and surveillance system. Methods We collaborated with the American Association of Poison Control Centers (AAPCC), Poisindex® and Thomson Reuters Healthcare to develop an improved coding system for tracking radiation-related exposures reported to US PCs during 2011 and trained PC staff on its usage. We reviewed NPDS data from 1 September 2010 – 30 June 2012 for reported exposures to pharmaceutical or nonpharmaceutical radionuclides; ionizing radiation; radiological or nuclear weapons; or X-ray, alpha, beta, gamma, or neutron radiation. CDC medical toxicology and epidemiology staff reviewed each reported exposure to determine whether it was of potential public health concern (e.g. exposures associated

  9. Radiation Exposure During Uterine Artery Embolization: Effective Measures to Minimize Dose to the Patient

    SciTech Connect

    Scheurig-Muenkler, Christian; Powerski, Maciej J.; Mueller, Johann-Christoph; Kroencke, Thomas J.

    2015-06-15

    PurposeEvaluation of patient radiation exposure during uterine artery embolization (UAE) and literature review to identify techniques minimizing required dose.MethodsA total of 224 of all included 286 (78 %) women underwent UAE according to a standard UAE-protocol (bilateral UAE from unilateral approach using a Rösch inferior mesenteric and a microcatheter, no aortography, no ovarian artery catheterization or embolization) and were analyzed for radiation exposure. Treatment was performed on three different generations of angiography systems: (I) new generation flat-panel detector (N = 108/151); (II) classical image amplifier and pulsed fluoroscopy (N = 79/98); (III) classical image amplifier and continuous fluoroscopy (N = 37/37). Fluoroscopy time (FT) and dose-area product (DAP) were documented. Whenever possible, the following dose-saving measures were applied: optimized source-object, source-image, and object-image distances, pulsed fluoroscopy, angiographic runs in posterior-anterior direction with 0.5 frames per second, no magnification, tight collimation, no additional aortography.ResultsIn a standard bilateral UAE, the use of the new generation flat-panel detector in group I led to a significantly lower DAP of 3,156 cGy × cm{sup 2} (544–45,980) compared with 4,000 cGy × cm{sup 2} (1,400–13,000) in group II (P = 0.033). Both doses were significantly lower than those of group III with 8,547 cGy × cm{sup 2} (3,324–35,729; P < 0.001). Other reasons for dose escalation were longer FT due to difficult anatomy or a large leiomyoma load, additional angiographic runs, supplementary ovarian artery embolization, and obesity.ConclusionsThe use of modern angiographic units with flat panel detectors and strict application of methods of radiation reduction lead to a significantly lower radiation exposure. Target DAP for UAE should be kept below 5,000 cGy × cm{sup 2}.

  10. 77 FR 15759 - Final Effect of Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-16

    ... Ceramics Plant in Tonawanda, New York, as an addition to the Special Exposure Cohort (SEC) under the Energy... to the SEC: All Atomic Weapons Employees who worked in any area at the Linde Ceramics Plant...

  11. Effects of IL-10 haplotype and atomic bomb radiation exposure on gastric cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Tomonori; Ito, Reiko; Cologne, John; Maki, Mayumi; Morishita, Yukari; Nagamura, Hiroko; Sasaki, Keiko; Hayashi, Ikue; Imai, Kazue; Yoshida, Kengo; Kajimura, Junko; Kyoizumi, Seishi; Kusunoki, Yoichiro; Ohishi, Waka; Fujiwara, Saeko; Akahoshi, Masazumi; Nakachi, Kei

    2013-07-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the cancers that reveal increased risk of mortality and incidence in atomic bomb survivors. The incidence of gastric cancer in the Life Span Study cohort of the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) increased with radiation dose (gender-averaged excess relative risk per Gy = 0.28) and remains high more than 65 years after exposure. To assess a possible role of gene-environment interaction, we examined the dose response for gastric cancer incidence based on immunosuppression-related IL-10 genotype, in a cohort study with 200 cancer cases (93 intestinal, 96 diffuse and 11 other types) among 4,690 atomic bomb survivors participating in an immunological substudy. Using a single haplotype block composed of four haplotype-tagging SNPs (comprising the major haplotype allele IL-10-ATTA and the minor haplotype allele IL-10-GGCG, which are categorized by IL-10 polymorphisms at -819A>G and -592T>G, +1177T>C and +1589A>G), multiplicative and additive models for joint effects of radiation and this IL-10 haplotyping were examined. The IL-10 minor haplotype allele(s) was a risk factor for intestinal type gastric cancer but not for diffuse type gastric cancer. Radiation was not associated with intestinal type gastric cancer. In diffuse type gastric cancer, the haplotype-specific excess relative risk (ERR) for radiation was statistically significant only in the major homozygote category of IL-10 (ERR = 0.46/Gy, P = 0.037), whereas estimated ERR for radiation with the minor IL-10 homozygotes was close to 0 and nonsignificant. Thus, the minor IL-10 haplotype might act to reduce the radiation related risk of diffuse-type gastric cancer. The results suggest that this IL-10 haplotyping might be involved in development of radiation-associated gastric cancer of the diffuse type, and that IL-10 haplotypes may explain individual differences in the radiation-related risk of gastric cancer. PMID:23772925

  12. Impact of the Near-Earth Space Environment on Human Radiation Exposure at Commercial Airline Altitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mertens, C. J.; Blattnig, S. R.; Solomon, S. C.; Wiltberger, M. J.; Kunches, J.; Kress, B. T.; Murray, J. J.; Wilson, J. W.

    2005-12-01

    There is a growing concern for the health and safety of commercial aircrew and passengers due to their exposure to ionizing radiation with high linear energy transfer (LET), particularly at high latitudes. The International Commission of Radiobiological Protection (ICRP), the EPA, and the FAA consider the crews of commercial aircraft as radiation workers. The FAA reports that pregnant crew members may run a risk as high as 1.3 per thousand births of severe illness to their children as a result of background radiation exposure. During solar energetic particle (SEP) events, radiation exposure can exceed annual limits, and the number of serious health effects is expected to be quite high if precautions are not taken. Health concerns for frequent-flyer passengers are similar to the health concerns of the crew. There is a need for a capability to monitor background radiations levels at commercial airline altitudes and to provide analytical input for airline operations decisions for altering flight paths and altitudes for the mitigation and reduction of radiation exposure levels during a SEP event. Efforts are currently underway to develop a global, nowcast (real-time) capability for calculating ionizing radiation exposure at commercial airline altitudes. The state-of-the-art in physics-based transport of high energy galactic cosmic ray and solar cosmic ray particles will be presented. Paramount to reliable real-time transport calculations is an accurate and timely specification of the boundary conditions, such as the incident differential energy flux and geomagnetic cutoff rigidity, using a combination of satellite observations and empirical space radiation environment models. However, empirical models of the near-Earth radiation environment can only advance with continued observations and development of physics-based models of the heliosphere and the coupled magnetosphere-ionosphere-thermosphere system. In this paper we also discuss the state-of-the-art in space

  13. Direct modification of bioactive phenothiazines by exposure to laser radiation.

    PubMed

    Pascu, Mihail-Lucian; Nastasa, Viorel; Smarandache, Adriana; Militaru, Andra; Martins, Ana; Viveiros, Miguel; Boni, Mihai; Andrei, Ionut Relu; Pascu, Alexandru; Staicu, Angela; Molnar, Joseph; Fanning, Seamus; Amaral, Leonard

    2011-05-01

    Whereas exposure of combinations of a phenothiazine and bacterium to incoherent UV increases the activity of the phenothiazine, exposure of the phenothiazine alone does not yield an increase of its activity. Because the laser beam energy is greater than that produced by the incoherent UV sources, exposure of phenothiazines to specific lasers may yield molecules with altered activities over that of the unexposed parent. Chlorpromazine, thioridazine and promethazine active against bacteria were exposed to two distinct lasers for varying periods of time. Absorption and fluorescence spectra were conducted prior to and post-exposure and the products of laser exposure evaluated for activity against a Staphylococcus aureus ATCC strain via a disk susceptibility assay. Exposure to lasers alters the absorption/fluorescence spectra of the phenothiazines; reduces the activity of thioridazine against the test bacterium; produces a highly active chlorpromazine compound against the test organism. Exposure of phenothiazines to lasers alters their structure that results in altered activity against a bacterium. This is the first report that lasers can alter the physico-chemico characteristics to the extent that altered bioactivity results. Exposure to lasers is expected to yield compounds that are difficult to make via chemical manipulation methods. A survey of selected patents of interest, even co-lateral for the subject of this article is shortly made. PMID:21517738

  14. Low-dose radiation exposure induces a HIF-1-mediated adaptive and protective metabolic response

    PubMed Central

    Lall, R; Ganapathy, S; Yang, M; Xiao, S; Xu, T; Su, H; Shadfan, M; Asara, J M; Ha, C S; Ben-Sahra, I; Manning, B D; Little, J B; Yuan, Z-M

    2014-01-01

    Because of insufficient understanding of the molecular effects of low levels of radiation exposure, there is a great uncertainty regarding its health risks. We report here that treatment of normal human cells with low-dose radiation induces a metabolic shift from oxidative phosphorylation to aerobic glycolysis resulting in increased radiation resistance. This metabolic change is highlighted by upregulation of genes encoding glucose transporters and enzymes of glycolysis and the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway, concomitant with downregulation of mitochondrial genes, with corresponding changes in metabolic flux through these pathways. Mechanistically, the metabolic reprogramming depends on HIF1α, which is induced specifically by low-dose irradiation linking the metabolic pathway with cellular radiation dose response. Increased glucose flux and radiation resistance from low-dose irradiation are also observed systemically in mice. This highly sensitive metabolic response to low-dose radiation has important implications in understanding and assessing the health risks of radiation exposure. PMID:24583639

  15. Analysis of White Blood Cell Counts in Mice after Gamma- or Proton-Radiation Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Maks, Casey J.; Wan, X. Steven; Ware, Jeffrey H.; Romero-Weaver, Ana L.; Sanzari, Jenine K.; Wilson, Jolaine M.; Rightnar, Steve; Wroe, Andrew J.; Koss, Peter; Gridley, Daila S.; Slater, James M.; Kennedy, Ann R.

    2013-01-01

    In the coming decades human space exploration is expected to move beyond low-Earth orbit. This transition involves increasing mission time and therefore an increased risk of radiation exposure from solar particle event (SPE) radiation. Acute radiation effects after exposure to SPE radiation are of prime importance due to potential mission-threatening consequences. The major objective of this study was to characterize the dose–response relationship for proton and γ radiation delivered at doses up to 2 Gy at high (0.5 Gy/min) and low (0.5 Gy/h) dose rates using white blood cell (WBC) counts as a biological end point. The results demonstrate a dose-dependent decrease in WBC counts in mice exposed to high- and low-dose-rate proton and γ radiation, suggesting that astronauts exposed to SPE-like radiation may experience a significant decrease in circulating leukocytes. PMID:21476859

  16. Analysis of white blood cell counts in mice after gamma- or proton-radiation exposure.

    PubMed

    Maks, Casey J; Wan, X Steven; Ware, Jeffrey H; Romero-Weaver, Ana L; Sanzari, Jenine K; Wilson, Jolaine M; Rightnar, Steve; Wroe, Andrew J; Koss, Peter; Gridley, Daila S; Slater, James M; Kennedy, Ann R

    2011-08-01

    In the coming decades human space exploration is expected to move beyond low-Earth orbit. This transition involves increasing mission time and therefore an increased risk of radiation exposure from solar particle event (SPE) radiation. Acute radiation effects after exposure to SPE radiation are of prime importance due to potential mission-threatening consequences. The major objective of this study was to characterize the dose-response relationship for proton and γ radiation delivered at doses up to 2 Gy at high (0.5 Gy/min) and low (0.5 Gy/h) dose rates using white blood cell (WBC) counts as a biological end point. The results demonstrate a dose-dependent decrease in WBC counts in mice exposed to high- and low-dose-rate proton and γ radiation, suggesting that astronauts exposed to SPE-like radiation may experience a significant decrease in circulating leukocytes. PMID:21476859

  17. Radiation exposure as a possible etiologic factor in hairy cell leukemia (leukemic reticuloendotheliosis).

    PubMed

    Stewart, D J; Keating, M J

    1980-10-01

    The frequency of prior occupational, accidental, or therapeutic radiation exposure was significantly higher for hairy cell leukemia patients than for a control group of solid tumor patients (8/23 vs. 4/56, P < 0.01). Hairy cell leukemia patients were also more frequently involved in occupations at high risk of radiation exposure such as chemist, engineer, physicist, and health care facility worker (7/23 vs. 4/56, P < 0.01). The observation that the incidence of thyroid disorders among hairy cell leukemia patients was also unusually high (5/23 vs. 2/56, P < 0.05) was interpreted as further indirect evidence of excessive radiation exposure. It appears that radiation exposure may be an important contribution factor in the development of some case of hairy cell leukemia. PMID:7417955

  18. Factors modifying the response of large animals to low-intensity radiation exposure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Page, N. P.; Still, E. T.

    1972-01-01

    In assessing the biological response to space radiation, two of the most important modifying factors are dose protraction and dose distribution to the body. Studies are reported in which sheep and swine were used to compare the hematology and lethality response resulting from radiation exposure encountered in a variety of forms, including acute (high dose-rate), chronic (low dose-rate), combinations of acute and chronic, and whether received as a continuous or as fractionated exposure. While sheep and swine are basically similar in response to acute radiation, their sensitivity to chronic irradiation is markedly different. Sheep remain relatively sensitive as the radiation exposure is protracted while swine are more resistant and capable of surviving extremely large doses of chronic irradiation. This response to chronic irradiation correlated well with changes in radiosensitivity and recovery following an acute, sublethal exposure.

  19. IONIZING RADIATION EXPOSURE OF THE POPULATION OF THE U.S.

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report updates information published by the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) in 1987. NCRP reports are considered the authoritative reference for the sources and magnitude of average background exposure to the U.S. population.

  20. Atomic oxygen and ultraviolet radiation mission total exposures for LDEF experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourassa, R. J.; Gillis, J. R.; Rousslang, Ken W.

    1992-01-01

    Atomic oxygen and solar radiation exposures were determined analytically for rows, longerons, and end bays of the LDEF. Calculated atomic oxygen exposures are based on an analytical model that accounts for the effects of thermal molecular velocity, atmospheric temperature, number density, spacecraft velocity, incidence angle, and atmospheric rotation. Results also incorporate variations in solar activity, geomagnetic index, and orbital parameters occurring over the six year flight of the spacecraft. Solar radiation exposure calculations are based on the form factors reported in the Solar Illumination Data Package prepared by NASA Langley. The earth albedo value for these calculations was based on the Nimbus 7 earth radiation data set. Summary charts for both atomic oxygen and solar radiation exposure are presented to facilitate the use of the data generated by LDEF experimenters.

  1. Effect of Radiation Exposure on the Retention of Commercial NAND Flash Memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oldham, Timothy R.; Chen, D.; Friendlich, M.; Carts, M. A.; Seidleck, C. M.; LaBel, K. A.

    2011-01-01

    We have compared the data retention of irradiated commercial NAND flash memories with that of unirradiated controls. Under some circumstanc es, radiation exposure has a significant effect on the retention of f lash memories.

  2. Statistical characterization of radiation doses from external exposures and relevant contributors in Fukushima prefecture.

    PubMed

    Takahara, Shogo; Abe, Tatsuya; Iijima, Masashi; Shimada, Kazumasa; Shiratori, Yoshitake

    2014-10-01

    In areas contaminated by radioactive materials, well designed dose assessment is necessary in order to protect people from radiation exposure and manage the exposure situation appropriately. Probabilistic dose assessment is a useful method for providing a more complete characterization of information on dose distributions in the population and requires statistically characterized data on pathway-relevant contributors. The objective of this paper is to determine statistical features of contributors to external exposures, as well as to identify causes of variabilities of individual doses to the populations living in areas contaminated by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. To achieve these objectives, measurements of individual doses and ambient dose rates, as well as surveys of behavioral patterns, were performed between February and April 2012. These were made with the cooperation of indoor workers, outdoor workers, and pensioners living in Fukushima prefecture. On the basis of these results, statistical analyses were performed in order to identify variabilities of contributors. In addition, a multi-regression analysis was done to explore a significant relationship between individual doses and relevant contributors. Results showed that the ambient dose equivalent rate also distributed with lognormal form, and it had variabilities attributable to the spatial distribution of deposited radionuclides. The distribution form of time spent outdoors depends on the characteristics of occupation, and the distributions for indoor workers and outdoor workers were lognormal and normal, respectively. Results of a multiple-regression analysis suggested that such variabilities of contributors give rise to significant differences in individual doses among the populations. PMID:25162423

  3. Monitoring and Modeling Astronaut Occupational Radiation Exposures in Space: Recent Advances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weyland, Mark; Golightly, Michael

    1999-01-01

    In 1982 astronauts were declared to be radiation workers by OSHA, and as such were subject to the rules and regulations applied to that group. NASA was already aware that space radiation was a hazard to crewmembers and had been studying and monitoring astronaut doses since 1962 at the Johnson Space Center. It was quickly realized NASA would not be able to accomplish all of its goals if the astronauts were subject to the ground based radiation worker limits, and thus received a waiver from OSHA to establish independent limits. As part of the stipulation attached to setting new limits, OSHA included a requirement to perform preflight dose projections for each crew and inform them of the associated risks. Additional requirements included measuring doses from various sources during the flight, making every effort to prevent a crewmember from exceeding the new limits, and keeping all exposures As Low As Reasonably Achievable (a.k.a. ALARA - a common health physics principle). The assembly of the International Space Station (ISS) and its initial manned operations will coincide with the 4-5 year period of high space weather activity at the next maximum in the solar cycle. For the first time in NASA's manned program, US astronauts will be in orbit continuously throughout a solar maximum period. During this period, crews are at risk of significantly increased radiation exposures due to solar particle events and trapped electron belt enhancements following geomagnetic storms. The problem of protecting crews is compounded by the difficulty of providing continuous real-time monitoring over a period of a decade in an era of tightly constrained budgets. In order to prepare for ISS radiological support needs, the NASA Space Radiation Analysis Group and the NOAA Space Environment Center have undertaken a multiyear effort to improve and automate ground-based space weather monitoring systems and real-time radiation analysis tools. These improvements include a coupled, automated

  4. Radiative properties of ceramic metal-halide high intensity discharge lamps containing additives in argon plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cressault, Yann; Teulet, Philippe; Zissis, Georges

    2016-07-01

    The lighting represents a consumption of about 19% of the world electricity production. We are thus searching new effective and environment-friendlier light sources. The ceramic metal-halide high intensity lamps (C-MHL) are one of the options for illuminating very high area. The new C-MHL lamps contain additives species that reduce mercury inside and lead to a richer spectrum in specific spectral intervals, a better colour temperature or colour rendering index. This work is particularly focused on the power radiated by these lamps, estimated using the net emission coefficient, and depending on several additives (calcium, sodium, tungsten, dysprosium, and thallium or strontium iodides). The results show the strong influence of the additives on the power radiated despite of their small quantity in the mixtures and the increase of visible radiation portion in presence of dysprosium.

  5. Corneal thermal damage threshold dependence on the exposure duration for near-infrared laser radiation at 1319 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jiarui; Jiao, Luguang; Chen, Hongxia; Yang, Zaifu; Hu, Xiangjun

    2016-01-01

    The corneal damage effects induced by 1319-nm transitional near-infrared laser have been investigated for years. However, the damage threshold dependence on exposure duration has not been revealed. The in vivo corneal damage thresholds (ED50s) were determined in New Zealand rabbits for 1319-nm laser radiation for exposure durations from 75 ms to 10 s. An additional corneal ED50 was determined at 1338 nm for a 5-ms exposure. The incident corneal irradiance diameter was fixed at 2 mm for all exposure conditions to avoid the influence of spot size on threshold. The ED50s given in terms of the corneal radiant exposure for exposure durations of 5 ms, 75 ms, 0.35 s, 2 s, and 10 s were 39.4, 51.5, 87.2, 156.3, and 311.1 J/cm2, respectively. The 39.4 J/cm2 was derived from the ED50 for 1338 nm (27.0 J/cm2). The ED50s for exposure durations of 75 ms to 10 s were correlated by a power law equation, ED50=128.9t0.36 in J/cm2, where t was the input in the unit of second, with correlation coefficient (R) of 0.997. Enough safe margins existed between the ED50s and the maximum permitted exposures from current laser safety standard.

  6. Characterization of commercial proton exchange membrane materials after exposure to beta and gamma radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Thomson, S.N.; Carson, R.; Muirhead, C.; Li, H.; Castillo, I.; Boniface, H.; Suppiah, S.; Ratnayake, A.; Robinson, J.

    2015-03-15

    Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) type electrolysis cells have a potential use for tritium removal and heavy water upgrading. AECL is currently exposing various commercial PEM materials to both gamma (Cobalt-60 source) and beta (tritiated water) radiation to study the effects of radiation on these materials. This paper summarizes the testing methods and results that have been collected to date. The PEM materials that are or have been exposed to radiation are: Nafion 112, 212, 117 and 1110. Membrane characterization pre- and post- exposure consists of non-destructive inspection (FTIR, SEM/XPS), mechanical (tensile strength, percentage elongation, and modulus), electrical (resistance), or chemical (ion-exchange capacity - IEC). It has appeared that the best characterization techniques to compare exposed versus unexposed membranes were IEC, ultimate tensile strength and percent elongation. These testing techniques are easy and cheap to perform. The non-destructive tests, such as SEM and FTIR did not provide particularly useful information on radiation-induced degradation. Where changes in material properties were measured after radiation exposure, they would be expected to result in poorer cell performance. However, for modest γ-radiation exposure, all membranes showed a slight decrease in cell voltage (better performance). In contrast, the one β-radiation exposed membrane did show the expected increase in cell voltage. The counterintuitive trend for γ-radiation exposed membranes is not yet understood. Based on these preliminary results, it appears that γ- and β-radiation exposures have different effects.

  7. 10 CFR 35.2070 - Records of surveys for ambient radiation exposure rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Records of surveys for ambient radiation exposure rate. 35.2070 Section 35.2070 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Records § 35.2070 Records of surveys for ambient radiation exposure rate. A licensee shall retain a record of each survey required by § 35.70 for 3...

  8. Quantifying lifetime exposure to ultraviolet radiation in the epidemiology of cutaneous malignant melanoma: A pilot study

    SciTech Connect

    Lea, C.S.; Selvin, S. . Dept. of Biomedical and Environmental Health Sciences Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA ); Buffler, P.A. . Dept. of Biomedical and Environmental Health Sciences); Scotto, J. . Biostatistics Branch); Berwick, M. (Cancer Pre

    1992-10-01

    This pilot study uses a unique method to calculate cumulative lifetime exposure to, ultraviolet radiation-b to determine if this refined method would indicate differences in lifetime cumulative UVB exposure between age and sex matched controls. Forty-four age and sex matched cases and controls demonstrated no significant difference in mean cumulative lifetime UVB exposure based on the duration and location of residence. This pilot study suggests that further analysis of the dataset should be conducted to determine if the cumulative lifetime exposure hypothesis is of primary importance regarding the association between UVB exposure and development of cutaneous malignant melanoma.

  9. Risk Perception of Radiation Exposure of Villagers Living Near the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purvis-Roberts, K. L.

    2006-12-01

    environmental impacts on the test site, and physicians who treat those affected by the radiation exposure in the region. A comparison of perceived risk in relation to the environmental data will be discussed in addition to potential ways to communicate actual risk.

  10. Radiation exposure to the eye lens of orthopaedic surgeons during various orthopaedic procedures.

    PubMed

    Romanova, K; Vassileva, J; Alyakov, M

    2015-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the radiation dose to the eye lens of orthopaedic surgeons during various orthopaedic procedures and to make efforts to ensure that radiation protection is optimised. The study was performed for Fractura femoris and Fractura cruris procedures performed in orthopaedic operating theatres, as well as for fractures of wrist, ankle and hand/shoulder performed in the emergency trauma room. The highest mean value of the eye lens dose of 47.2 μSv and higher mean fluoroscopy time of 3 min, as well as the corresponding highest maximum values of 77.1 μSv and 5.0 min were observed for the Fractura femoris procedure performed with the Biplanar 500e fluoroscopy systems. At a normal workload, the estimated mean annual dose values do not exceed the annual occupational dose limit for the lens of eye, but at a heavy workload in the department, this dose limit could be achieved or exceeded. The use of protective lead glasses is recommended as they could reduce the radiation exposure of the lens of the eye. The phantom measurements demonstrated that the use of half-dose mode could additionally reduce dose to the operator's eye lens. PMID:25944961

  11. Minimizing nuclear medicine technologist radiation exposure during 131I-MIBG therapy.

    PubMed

    Turpin, Brian K; Morris, Victoria R; Lemen, Lisa; Weiss, Brian D; Gelfand, Michael J

    2013-02-01

    131I-metaiodobenzylguanidine is a norepinephrine analog that concentrates in adrenergic tissue and has been shown to be an effective radiotherapeutic agent used to treat tumors of neural crest origin, particularly neuroblastoma, a sympathetic nervous system malignancy of children. The purpose of this study was to determine the radiation dose received by nuclear medicine technologists while preparing and administering 131I-metaiodobenzylguanidine therapy dosages, and if any changes could be implemented that would reduce a technologist's dose. The study involves the collection of total whole body doses received by technologists during the treatment of six patients. Patient dosages ranged from 9.25 to 31.1 GBq, with radiation exposures to the nuclear medicine technologists averaging 0.024 μSv per MBq administered to the patient. Subsequently, the doses received by the technologists were analyzed with respect to specific process steps performed during 131I-metaiodobenzylguanidine therapy including package receipt, dosage preparation, and dosage administration. Results show that the largest contribution to the technologist's whole body radiation dose (>83%) is received during the dosage administration process step. After additional shielding was installed for use during the dosage administration process step, technologists' doses decreased 80%. PMID:23287519

  12. Radiation exposure among medical professionals working in the Intensive Care Unit

    PubMed Central

    Siddiqui, Suhail S.; Jha, Ashish; Konar, Nambiraj; Ranganathan, Priya; Deshpande, Deepak D.; Divatia, Jigeeshu V.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims: With the expanding use of diagnostic and therapeutic radiological modalities in critically ill patients, doctors working in Intensive Care Units (ICUs) are increasingly exposed to ionizing radiation. This risk of radiation exposure occurs not only during bedside radiologic procedures, but also when ICU physicians accompany patients to radiology suites. The aim of this study was to quantify levels of radiation exposure among medical professionals working in the ICU. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out prospectively over 6 months in the ICU of a tertiary-referral cancer hospital. Two teams consisting of 4 ICU resident doctors each were instructed to wear thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) during their duty shifts. Standard radiation protection precautions were used throughout the study period. TLDs were also placed in selected areas of the ICU to measure the amount of scattered radiation. TLDs were analyzed at the end of every 3 months. Results: The readings recorded on TLDs placed in the ICU were almost immeasurable. The mean value of residents' radiation exposure was 0.059 mSv, though the highest individual reading approached 0.1 mSv. The projected maximum yearly radiation exposure was 0.4 mSv. Conclusions: If standard radiation safety precautions are followed, the cumulative radiation exposure to ICU resident doctors is well within permissible limits and is not a cause of concern. However, with the increasing use of radiological procedures in the management of critically ill patients, there is a need to repeat such audits periodically to monitor radiation exposure. PMID:25249743

  13. Evaluation of radiation exposure from diagnostic radiology examinations: technique/exposure guides for the craniocaudal projection in mammography. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-08-01

    The publication presents Center for Devices and Radiological Health suggestions for appropriate technique/exposure guides for use with the mammographic craniocaudal projection. This type of projection is the most-commonly used mammographic view and much exposure data is available for it. Even if a facility commonly uses another projection in mammography, problems affecting radiation exposure and image quality with one projection often are problems affecting all projections conducted with a particular x-ray imaging systems. The use of T/E guides to detect and correct the problems with the craniocaudal projection will have a beneficial effect as well on exposure levels and image quality of other projections conducted on the same system.

  14. 38 CFR 3.311 - Claims based on exposure to ionizing radiation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... radiation and shall include the following: (i) All forms of leukemia except chronic lymphatic (lymphocytic) leukemia; (ii) Thyroid cancer; (iii) Breast cancer; (iv) Lung cancer; (v) Bone cancer; (vi) Liver cancer... years after exposure; (ii) Leukemia may become manifest at any time after exposure; (iii)...

  15. SCALING THE PHYSIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF EXPOSURE TO RADIOFREQUENCY ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION: CONSEQUENCES OF BODY SIZE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The authors have demonstrated that a comparative analysis of the physiological effects of exposure of laboratory mammals to radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation (RFR) may be useful in predicting exposure thresholds for humans if the effect is assumed to be due only to heating...

  16. Rays Sting: The Acute Cellular Effects of Ionizing Radiation Exposure.

    PubMed

    Franco, A; Ciccarelli, M; Sorriento, D; Napolitano, L; Fiordelisi, A; Trimarco, B; Durante, M; Iaccarino, G

    2016-05-01

    High-precision radiation therapy is a clinical approach that uses the targeted delivery of ionizing radiation, and the subsequent formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in high proliferative, radiation sensitive cancers. In particular, in thoracic cancer ratdiation treatments, can not avoid a certain amount of cardiac toxicity. Given the low proliferative rate of cardiac myocytes, research has looked at the effect of radiation on endothelial cells and consequent coronary heart disease as the mechanism of ratdiation induced cardiotoxicity. In fact, little is known concerning the direct effect of radiation on mitochondria dynamis in cardiomyocyte. The main effect of ionizing radiation is the production of ROS and recent works have uncovered that they directly participates to pivotal cell function like mitochondrial quality control. In particular ROS seems to act as check point within the cell to promote either mitochondrial biogenesis and survival or mitochondrial damage and apoptosis. Thus, it appears evident that the functional state of the cell, as well as the expression patterns of molecules involved in mitochondrial metabolism may differently modulate mitochondrial fate in response to radiation induced ROS responses. Different molecules have been described to localize to mitochondria and regulate ROS production in response to stress, in particular GRK2. In this review we will discuss the evidences on the cardiac toxicity induced by X ray radiation on cardiomyocytes with emphasis on the role played by mitochondria dynamism. PMID:27326395

  17. New physical model calculates airline crews' radiation exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Colin

    2013-12-01

    Airline pilots and crews, who spend hundreds of hours each year flying at high altitude, are exposed to increased doses of radiation from galactic cosmic rays and solar energy particles, enough that airline crew members are actually considered radiation workers by the International Commission on Radiological Protection.

  18. Rays Sting: The Acute Cellular Effects of Ionizing Radiation Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Franco, A; Ciccarelli, M; Sorriento, D; Napolitano, L; Fiordelisi, A; Trimarco, B; Durante, M; Iaccarino, G

    2016-01-01

    High-precision radiation therapy is a clinical approach that uses the targeted delivery of ionizing radiation, and the subsequent formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in high proliferative, radiation sensitive cancers. In particular, in thoracic cancer ratdiation treatments, can not avoid a certain amount of cardiac toxicity. Given the low proliferative rate of cardiac myocytes, research has looked at the effect of radiation on endothelial cells and consequent coronary heart disease as the mechanism of ratdiation induced cardiotoxicity. In fact, little is known concerning the direct effect of radiation on mitochondria dynamis in cardiomyocyte. The main effect of ionizing radiation is the production of ROS and recent works have uncovered that they directly participates to pivotal cell function like mitochondrial quality control. In particular ROS seems to act as check point within the cell to promote either mitochondrial biogenesis and survival or mitochondrial damage and apoptosis. Thus, it appears evident that the functional state of the cell, as well as the expression patterns of molecules involved in mitochondrial metabolism may differently modulate mitochondrial fate in response to radiation induced ROS responses. Different molecules have been described to localize to mitochondria and regulate ROS production in response to stress, in particular GRK2. In this review we will discuss the evidences on the cardiac toxicity induced by X ray radiation on cardiomyocytes with emphasis on the role played by mitochondria dynamism. PMID:27326395

  19. Patient radiation exposure during transforaminal lumbar endoscopic spine surgery: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Iprenburg, Menno; Wagner, Ralf; Godschalx, Alexander; Telfeian, Albert E

    2016-02-01

    OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to describe patient radiation exposure during single-level transforaminal endoscopic lumbar discectomy procedures at levels L2-5 and L5-S1. METHODS Radiation exposure was monitored in 151 consecutive patients undergoing single-level transforaminal endoscopic lumbar discectomy procedures. Two groups were studied: patients undergoing procedures at the L4-5 level or above and those undergoing an L5-S1 procedure. RESULTS For the discectomy procedures at L4-5 and above, the average duration of fluoroscopy was 38.4 seconds and the mean calculated patient radiation exposure dose was 1.5 mSv. For the L5-S1 procedures, average fluoroscopy time was 54.6 seconds and the mean calculated radiation exposure dose was 2.1 mSv. The average patient radiation exposure dose among these cases represents a 3.5-fold decrease compared with the senior surgeon's first 100 cases. CONCLUSIONS Transforaminal lumbar endoscopic discectomy can be used as a minimally invasive technique for the treatment of lumbar radiculopathy in the setting of a herniated lumbar disc without the significant concern of exposing the patient to harmful doses of radiation. One caveat is that both the surgeon and the patient are likely to be exposed to higher doses of radiation during a surgeon's early experience in minimally invasive endoscopic spine surgery. PMID:26828888

  20. Geomagnetic influence on aircraft radiation exposure during a solar energetic particle event in October 2003

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mertens, Christopher J.; Kress, Brian T.; Wiltberger, Michael; Blattnig, Steve R.; Slaba, Tony S.; Solomon, Stanley C.; Engel, M.

    2010-03-01

    We present initial results from the Nowcast of Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation for Aviation Safety (NAIRAS) model during the Halloween 2003 superstorm. The objective of NAIRAS is to produce global, real-time, data-driven predictions of ionizing radiation for archiving and assessing the biologically harmful radiation exposure levels at commercial airline altitudes. We have conducted a case study of radiation exposure during a high-energy solar energetic particle (SEP) event in October 2003. The purpose of the case study is to quantify the important influences of the storm time and quiet time magnetospheric magnetic field on high-latitude SEP atmospheric radiation exposure. The Halloween 2003 superstorm is an ideal event to study magnetospheric influences on atmospheric radiation exposure since this event was accompanied by a major magnetic storm which was one of the largest of solar cycle 23. We find that neglecting geomagnetic storm effects during SEP events can underestimate the high-latitude radiation exposure from nearly 15% to over a factor of 2, depending on the flight path relative to the magnetosphere open-closed boundary.

  1. Effects of combined radiofrequency radiation exposure on levels of reactive oxygen species in neuronal cells.

    PubMed

    Kang, Kyoung Ah; Lee, Hyung Chul; Lee, Je-Jung; Hong, Mi-Na; Park, Myung-Jin; Lee, Yun-Sil; Choi, Hyung-Do; Kim, Nam; Ko, Young-Gyu; Lee, Jae-Seon

    2014-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of the combined RF radiation (837 MHz CDMA plus 1950 MHz WCDMA) signal on levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) in neuronal cells. Exposure of the combined RF signal was conducted at specific absorption rate values of 2 W/kg of CDMA plus 2 W/kg of WCDMA for 2 h. Co-exposure to combined RF radiation with either H2O2 or menadione was also performed. The experimental exposure groups were incubator control, sham-exposed, combined RF radiation-exposed with or without either H2O2 or menadione groups. The intracellular ROS level was measured by flow cytometry using the fluorescent probe dichlorofluorescein diacetate. Intracellular ROS levels were not consistently affected by combined RF radiation exposure alone in a time-dependent manner in U87, PC12 or SH-SY5Y cells. In neuronal cells exposed to combined RF radiation with either H2O2 or menadione, intracellular ROS levels showed no statically significant alteration compared with exposure to menadione or H2O2 alone. These findings indicate that neither combined RF radiation alone nor combined RF radiation with menadione or H2O2 influences the intracellular ROS level in neuronal cells such as U87, PC12 or SH-SY5Y. PMID:24105709

  2. Minimization of Radiation Exposure due to Computed Tomography in Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Mc Laughlin, Patrick D.; O'Connor, Owen J.; O'Neill, Siobhán B.; Shanahan, Fergus; Maher, Michael M.

    2012-01-01

    Patient awareness and concern regarding the potential health risks from ionizing radiation have peaked recently (Coakley et al., 2011) following widespread press and media coverage of the projected cancer risks from the increasing use of computed tomography (CT) (Berrington et al., 2007). The typical young and educated patient with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) may in particular be conscious of his/her exposure to ionising radiation as a result of diagnostic imaging. Cumulative effective doses (CEDs) in patients with IBD have been reported as being high and are rising, primarily due to the more widespread and repeated use of CT (Desmond et al., 2008). Radiologists, technologists, and referring physicians have a responsibility to firstly counsel their patients accurately regarding the actual risks of ionizing radiation exposure; secondly to limit the use of those imaging modalities which involve ionising radiation to clinical situations where they are likely to change management; thirdly to ensure that a diagnostic quality imaging examination is acquired with lowest possible radiation exposure. In this paper, we synopsize available evidence related to radiation exposure and risk and we report advances in low-dose CT technology and examine the role for alternative imaging modalities such as ultrasonography or magnetic resonance imaging which avoid radiation exposure. PMID:22577571

  3. Developmental effects of exposure to ultraviolet B radiation on the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium olfersi: Mitochondria as a target of environmental UVB radiation.

    PubMed

    de Quadros, Thaline; Schramm, Heloísa; Zeni, Eliane C; Simioni, Carmen; Allodi, Silvana; Müller, Yara M R; Ammar, Dib; Nazari, Evelise M

    2016-10-01

    In South America, increased UVB radiation has become an important environmental issue that is potentially threatening aquatic ecosystems. Considering that species exhibit different degrees of sensitivity to UVB radiation and that embryos are more sensitive than organisms at later life stages, the aim of this study was to characterize the effects of UVB radiation on subcellular compartments of embryos of the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium olfersi. This species lives and reproduces in clear and shallow waters, where UV radiation can fully penetrates. Embryos were irradiated with a UVB 6W lamp for 30min and examined after 1h, 12h, 24h and 48h of exposure. The irradiance of the UVB used simulates the UV radiation that embryos receive in the natural environment. The subcellular compartment most affected by the UVB radiation was the mitochondria, which exhibited a circular shape, a decrease in mitochondrial cristae, rupture of membranes and a morphology compatible with fission. These impairments were observed simultaneously with increased ROS production, just after 1h of UVB exposure. Thus, we investigated proteins related to mitochondrial fission (Drp-1) and fusion (Mfn-1), which are essential to cell maintenance. We found a significant increase in Drp-1 expression at all analyzed time-points and a significant decrease in Mfn-1 expression only after 24h of UVB exposure. Additionally, a decrease in embryonic cell viability was verified via the mitochondrial integrity assay. To conclude, we observed important mitochondrial dysfunctions against the environmental stress caused by UVB radiation. Moreover, the cellular responses found are critical and should not be disregarded, because they impact embryos that can potentially compromise the aquatic ecosystems. PMID:27344016

  4. Radiation exposure of civilian airline crew members and associated biological effects due to the atmospheric ionizing radiation environment.

    PubMed

    De Angelis, G; Caldora, M; Santaquilani, M; Scipione, R; Verdecchia, A

    2001-01-01

    A study, currently in progress, on the radiation exposure and the associated biomedical effects due to the atmospheric ionizing radiation environment for the Italian civilian aviation flight personnel is sketched. After a presentation of the considered data sources, a description of the cohort is given, in terms of criteria for eligibility, and cohort construction, size and composition. Then the protocol for the Italian study is presented: the various ways of investigating the exposure and the health status of past and currently employed aircrew members and follow-up procedures are shown. An overview is given of the data management and processing philosophy with regards to flight routes, radiation dose evaluation along the flight path and exposure matrix building, as adopted in the Italian study. Potential side studies of interest are also shown. PMID:11780613

  5. Cosmic Radiation Exposure of Biological Test Systems During the EXPOSE-E Mission

    PubMed Central

    Hajek, Michael; Bilski, Pawel; Körner, Christine; Vanhavere, Filip; Reitz, Günther

    2012-01-01

    Abstract In the frame of the EXPOSE-E mission on the Columbus external payload facility EuTEF on board the International Space Station, passive thermoluminescence dosimeters were applied to measure the radiation exposure of biological samples. The detectors were located either as stacks next to biological specimens to determine the depth dose distribution or beneath the sample carriers to determine the dose levels for maximum shielding. The maximum mission dose measured in the upper layer of the depth dose part of the experiment amounted to 238±10 mGy, which relates to an average dose rate of 408±16 μGy/d. In these stacks of about 8 mm height, the dose decreased by 5–12% with depth. The maximum dose measured beneath the sample carriers was 215±16 mGy, which amounts to an average dose rate of 368±27 μGy/d. These values are close to those assessed for the interior of the Columbus module and demonstrate the high shielding of the biological experiments within the EXPOSE-E facility. Besides the shielding by the EXPOSE-E hardware itself, additional shielding was experienced by the external structures adjacent to EXPOSE-E, such as EuTEF and Columbus. This led to a dose gradient over the entire exposure area, from 215±16 mGy for the lowest to 121±6 mGy for maximum shielding. Hence, the doses perceived by the biological samples inside EXPOSE-E varied by 70% (from lowest to highest dose). As a consequence of the high shielding, the biological samples were predominantly exposed to galactic cosmic heavy ions, while electrons and a significant fraction of protons of the radiation belts and solar wind did not reach the samples. Key Words: Space radiation—Dosimetry—Passive radiation detectors—Thermoluminescence—EXPOSE-E. Astrobiology 12, 387–392. PMID:22680685

  6. Overview of the Department of Energy's Off-Site Radiation Exposure Review Project (ORERP).

    PubMed

    Church, B W; Wheeler, D L; Campbell, C M; Nutley, R V; Anspaugh, L R

    1990-11-01

    The Off-Site Radiation Exposure Review Project (ORERP) was established by the U.S. Department of Energy to (1) collect, preserve, and disseminate historical data related to radioactive fallout and health effects from nuclear testing, and (2) reconstrut, insofar as possible, the exposures to the off-site public from nuclear testing at the Nevada Test Site and doses to individuals resulting from these exposures. The goals, methods, and example results of the ORERP are presented. PMID:2211109

  7. Overview of the Department of Energy's Off-Site Radiation Exposure Review Project (ORERP)

    SciTech Connect

    Church, B.W.; Wheeler, D.L.; Campbell, C.M.; Nutley, R.V.; Anspaugh, L.R. )

    1990-11-01

    The Off-Site Radiation Exposure Review Project (ORERP) was established by the U.S. Department of Energy to (1) collect, preserve, and disseminate historical data related to radioactive fallout and health effects from nuclear testing, and (2) reconstruct, insofar as possible, the exposures to the off-site public from nuclear testing at the Nevada Test Site and doses to individuals resulting from these exposures. The goals, methods, and example results of the ORERP are presented.

  8. Radiation exposure of eyes, thyroid gland and hands in orthopaedic staff: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Various procedures, especially minimal invasive techniques using fluoroscopy, pose a risk of radiation exposure to orthopaedic staff. Anatomical sites such as the eyes, thyroid glands and hands are more vulnerable to radiation considering the limited use of personal protective devices in the workplace. The objective of the study is to assess the annual mean cumulative and per procedure radiation dose received at anatomical locations like eyes, thyroid glands and hands in orthopaedic staff using systematic review. Methods The review of literature was conducted using systematic search of the database sources like PUBMED and EMBASE using appropriate keywords. The eligibility criteria and the data extraction of literature were based on study design (cohort or cross-sectional study), study population (orthopaedic surgeons or their assistants), exposure (doses of workplace radiation exposure at hands/fingers, eye/forehead, neck/thyroid), language (German and English). The literature search was conducted using a PRISMA checklist and flow chart. Results Forty-two articles were found eligible and included for the review. The results show that radiation doses for the anatomical locations of eye, thyroid gland and hands were lower than the dose levels recommended. But there is a considerable variation of radiation dose received at all three anatomical locations mainly due to different situations including procedures (open and minimally invasive), work experience (junior and senior surgeons),distance from the primary and secondary radiation, and use of personal protective equipments (PPEs). The surgeons receive higher radiation dose during minimally invasive procedures compared to open procedures. Junior surgeons are at higher risk of radiation exposure compared to seniors. PPEs play a significant role in reduction of radiation dose. Conclusions Although the current radiation precautions appear to be adequate based on the low dose radiation, more in-depth studies

  9. Cumulative effects from repeated exposures to ultraviolet radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Kaidbey, K.H.; Kligman, A.M.

    1981-05-01

    Repeated exposures to subliminal doses of UVR, given at 24-hr intervals, resulted in a lowering of the erythema threshold dose. At erythemogenically equivalent doses, UV-A was the most effective and UV-C the least. A similar and more pronounced effect was observed following repeated exposures to subthreshold doses of UV-A and topically applied 8-methoxypsoralen. These findings provide quantitative evidence for the cumulative nature of acute UVR damage in human skin.

  10. The Effect of Exposure to Ultraviolet Radiation in Infancy on Melanoma Risk.

    PubMed

    Gefeller, Olaf; Fiessler, Cornelia; Radespiel-Tröger, Martin; Uter, Wolfgang; Pfahlberg, Annette B

    2016-01-01

    Evidence on the effect of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure in infancy on melanoma risk in later life is scarce. Three recent studies suffering from methodological shortcomings suggested that people born in spring carry a higher melanoma risk. Data from the Bavarian population-based cancer registry on 28374 incident melanoma cases between 2002 and 2012 were analyzed to reexamine this finding. Crude and adjusted analyses - using negative binomial regression models - were performed addressing the relationship. In the crude analysis, the birth months March - May were significantly overrepresented among melanoma cases. However, after additionally adjusting for the birth month distribution of the Bavarian population, the ostensible seasonal effect disappeared. Similar results emerged in all subgroup analyses. Our large registry-based study provides no evidence that people born in spring carry a higher risk for developing melanoma in later life and thus lends no support to the hypothesis of higher UVR-susceptibility during the first months of life. PMID:27577494

  11. A convenient first aid kit for chemical and biological agents and for radiation exposure.

    PubMed

    Vijayaraghavan, R; Bhaskar, A S B; Gautam, Anshoo; Gopalan, N; Singh, A K; Singh, Beer; Flora, S J S

    2012-05-01

    The chemical and biological warfare agents are extremely toxic in nature. They act rapidly even in very small quantities and death may occur in minutes. Hence, physical and medical protection must be provided immediately to save life or avoid serious injury. A first aid kit has thus been developed for providing immediate relief from chemical and biological warfare agents (FAKCBW) with the objective of easy detection, personal decontamination, antidote for chemical warfare agents (like nerve agents, sulphur mustard, phosgene, cyanide, radiation exposure and bacterial agents), along with basic medication aid for pain, fever and inflammation. The kit box also includes a user friendly handbook with a simple standard operating procedure. In addition, the kit is rugged to withstand normal jerks, vibration and is water-proof. PMID:23029921

  12. [External radiation exposure and effective half-life in Lu-177-Dota-Tate therapy].

    PubMed

    Fitschen, Jürgen; Knoop, Bernd O; Behrendt, Rüdiger; Knapp, Wolfram H; Geworski, Lilli

    2011-12-01

    The aim of the study was to estimate the external radiation exposure emitted by the patient to his surroundings after discharge. Being in compliance with legal requirements is especially important when doing multiple therapies. To estimate the effective half-life to be used quite realistically, the individual effective half-lives for 41 patients with 52 therapies were calculated. From the resulting histogram the maximum value was determined to be 100 h. Substituting the physical half-life by this maximum effective half-life results in dose estimates, which are lower but still conservative. In addition, the analysis of dose related parameters for patients who underwent multiple therapies demonstrates that the parameters estimated for the first therapy cannot be transferred to the subsequent ones. PMID:21719263

  13. Radiation processing of thermoplastic starch by blending aromatic additives: Effect of blend composition and radiation parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khandal, Dhriti; Mikus, Pierre-Yves; Dole, Patrice; Coqueret, Xavier

    2013-03-01

    This paper reports on the effects of electron beam (EB) irradiation on poly α-1,4-glucose oligomers (maltodextrins) in the presence of water and of various aromatic additives, as model blends for gaining a better understanding at a molecular level the modifications occurring in amorphous starch-lignin blends submitted to ionizing irradiation for improving the properties of this type of bio-based thermoplastic material. A series of aromatic compounds, namely p-methoxy benzyl alcohol, benzene dimethanol, cinnamyl alcohol and some related carboxylic acids namely cinnamic acid, coumaric acid, and ferulic acid, was thus studied for assessing the ability of each additive to counteract chain scission of the polysaccharide and induce interchain covalent linkages. Gel formation in EB-irradiated blends comprising of maltodextrin was shown to be dependent on three main factors: the type of aromatic additive, presence of glycerol, and irradiation dose. The chain scission versus grafting phenomenon as a function of blend composition and dose were studied using Size Exclusion Chromatography by determining the changes in molecular weight distribution (MWD) from Refractive Index (RI) chromatograms and the presence of aromatic grafts onto the maltodextrin chains from UV chromatograms. The occurrence of crosslinking was quantified by gel fraction measurements allowing for ranking the cross-linking efficiency of the additives. When applying the method to destructurized starch blends, gel formation was also shown to be strongly affected by the moisture content of the sample submitted to irradiation. The results demonstrate the possibility to tune the reactivity of tailored blend for minimizing chain degradation and control the degree of cross-linking.

  14. REDUCTION IN METABOLIC HEAT PRODUCTION DURING EXPOSURE TO RADIO-FREQUENCY RADIATION IN THE RAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Male Sprague-Dawley rats were maintained at an ambient temperature (Ta) of 10 C and exposed to 600 MHz radiofrequency (RF) radiation while metabolic rate (MR) was measured by indirect calorimetry. RF radiation exposures were made in a waveguide-type system which permitted the con...

  15. Effective Patient Education in Medical Imaging: Public Perceptions of Radiation Exposure Risk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ludwig, Rebecca L.; Turner, Lori W.

    2002-01-01

    In a cross-sectional survey of 200 adults, less than half agreed with experts on the risks of radiation exposure; 75-90% thought that medical imaging providers should be highly regulated; and less than one-quarter knew that most radiation damage is not permanent. (SK)

  16. CONSULTATION ON UPDATED METHODOLOGY FOR ESTIMATING CANCER RISKS FROM EXPOSURE TO IONIZING RADIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Academy of Sciences (NAS) expects to publish the Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation (BEIR) committee's report (BEIR VII) on risks from ionizing radiation exposures in calendar year 2005. The committee is expected to have analyzed the most recent epidemiology f...

  17. Is Ionizing Radiation Harmful at any Exposure? An Echo That Continues to Vibrate.

    PubMed

    Azzam, Edouard I; Colangelo, Nicholas W; Domogauer, Jason D; Sharma, Neha; de Toledo, Sonia M

    2016-03-01

    The health risks to humans and non-human biota exposed to low dose ionizing radiation remain ambiguous and are the subject of intense debate. The need to establish risk assessment standards based on the mechanisms underlying low-level radiation exposure has been recognized by regulatory agencies as critical to adequately protect people and to make the most effective use of national resources. Here, the authors briefly review evidence showing that the molecular and biochemical changes induced by low doses of radiation differ from those induced by high doses. In particular, an array of redundant and inter-related mechanisms act in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes to restore DNA integrity following exposures to relatively low doses of sparsely ionizing radiation. Furthermore, the radiation-induced protective mechanisms often overcompensate and minimize the mutagenic potential of the byproducts of normal oxidative metabolism. In contrast to adaptive protection observed at low doses of sparsely ionizing radiation, there is evidence that even a single nuclear traversal by a densely ionizing particle track can trigger harmful effects that spread beyond the traversed cell and induce damaging effects in the nearby bystander cells. In vivo studies examining whether exposure to low dose radiation at younger age modulates the latency of expression of age-related diseases such as cancer, together with studies on the role of genetic susceptibility, will further illuminate the magnitude of risk of exposure to low dose radiation. PMID:26808874

  18. Thyroid cancer after exposure to external radiation: A pooled analysis of seven studies

    SciTech Connect

    Ron, E.; Lubin, J.H.; Pottern, L.M.; Tucker, M.A.; Boice, J.D. Jr.; Shore, R.E.; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko; Modan, B.; Schneider, A.B.

    1995-03-01

    The thyroid gland of children is especially vulnerable to the carcinogenic action of ionizing radiation. To provide insights into various modifying influences on risk, seven major studies with organ doses to individual subjects were evaluated. Five cohort studies (atomic bomb survivors, children treated for tinea capitis, two studies of children irradiated for enlarged tonsils, and infants irradiated for an enlarged thymus gland) and two case-control studies (patients with cervical cancer and childhood cancer) were studied. The combined studies include almost 120,000 people (approximately 58,000 exposed to a wide range of doses and 61,000 nonexposed subjects), nearly 700 thyroid cancers and 3,000,000 person years of follow-up. For persons exposed to radiation before age 15 years, linearity best described the dose response, even down to 0.10 Gy. At the highest doses (>10 Gy), associated with cancer therapy, there appeared to be a decrease or leveling of risk. For childhood exposures, the pooled excess relative risk per Gy (ERR/Gy) was 7.7 (95% CI = 2.1, 28.7) and the excess absolute risk per 10{sup 4} PY Gy (EAR/10{sup 4} PY Gy) was 4.4 (95% CI = 1.9, 10.1). The attributable risk percent (AR%) at 1 Gy was 88%. However, these summary estimates were affected strongly by age at exposure even within this limited age range. The ERR was greater (P = 0.07) for females than males, but the findings from the individual studies were not consistent. The EAR was higher among women, reflecting their higher rate of naturally occurring thyroid cancer. The distribution of ERR over time followed neither a simple multiplicative nor an additive pattern in relation to background occurrence. Only two cases were seen within 5 years of exposure. The ERR began to decline about 30 years after exposure but was still elevated at 40 years. Risk also decreased significantly with increasing age at exposure, with little risk apparent after age 20 years. 56 refs., 5 figs., 8 tabs.

  19. Inferring ultraviolet anatomical exposure patterns while distinguishing the relative contribution of radiation components

    SciTech Connect

    Vuilleumier, Laurent; Milon, Antoine; Vernez, David; Bulliard, Jean-Luc; Moccozet, Laurent

    2013-05-10

    Exposure to solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation is the main causative factor for skin cancer. UV exposure depends on environmental and individual factors, but individual exposure data remain scarce. While ground UV irradiance is monitored via different techniques, it is difficult to translate such observations into human UV exposure or dose because of confounding factors. A multi-disciplinary collaboration developed a model predicting the dose and distribution of UV exposure on the basis of ground irradiation and morphological data. Standard 3D computer graphics techniques were adapted to develop a simulation tool that estimates solar exposure of a virtual manikin depicted as a triangle mesh surface. The amount of solar energy received by various body locations is computed for direct, diffuse and reflected radiation separately. Dosimetric measurements obtained in field conditions were used to assess the model performance. The model predicted exposure to solar UV adequately with a symmetric mean absolute percentage error of 13% and half of the predictions within 17% range of the measurements. Using this tool, solar UV exposure patterns were investigated with respect to the relative contribution of the direct, diffuse and reflected radiation. Exposure doses for various body parts and exposure scenarios of a standing individual were assessed using erythemally-weighted UV ground irradiance data measured in 2009 at Payerne, Switzerland as input. For most anatomical sites, mean daily doses were high (typically 6.2-14.6 Standard Erythemal Dose, SED) and exceeded recommended exposure values. Direct exposure was important during specific periods (e.g. midday during summer), but contributed moderately to the annual dose, ranging from 15 to 24% for vertical and horizontal body parts, respectively. Diffuse irradiation explained about 80% of the cumulative annual exposure dose.

  20. Inferring ultraviolet anatomical exposure patterns while distinguishing the relative contribution of radiation components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vuilleumier, Laurent; Milon, Antoine; Bulliard, Jean-Luc; Moccozet, Laurent; Vernez, David

    2013-05-01

    Exposure to solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation is the main causative factor for skin cancer. UV exposure depends on environmental and individual factors, but individual exposure data remain scarce. While ground UV irradiance is monitored via different techniques, it is difficult to translate such observations into human UV exposure or dose because of confounding factors. A multi-disciplinary collaboration developed a model predicting the dose and distribution of UV exposure on the basis of ground irradiation and morphological data. Standard 3D computer graphics techniques were adapted to develop a simulation tool that estimates solar exposure of a virtual manikin depicted as a triangle mesh surface. The amount of solar energy received by various body locations is computed for direct, diffuse and reflected radiation separately. Dosimetric measurements obtained in field conditions were used to assess the model performance. The model predicted exposure to solar UV adequately with a symmetric mean absolute percentage error of 13% and half of the predictions within 17% range of the measurements. Using this tool, solar UV exposure patterns were investigated with respect to the relative contribution of the direct, diffuse and reflected radiation. Exposure doses for various body parts and exposure scenarios of a standing individual were assessed using erythemally-weighted UV ground irradiance data measured in 2009 at Payerne, Switzerland as input. For most anatomical sites, mean daily doses were high (typically 6.2-14.6 Standard Erythemal Dose, SED) and exceeded recommended exposure values. Direct exposure was important during specific periods (e.g. midday during summer), but contributed moderately to the annual dose, ranging from 15 to 24% for vertical and horizontal body parts, respectively. Diffuse irradiation explained about 80% of the cumulative annual exposure dose.

  1. Modification of silicone sealant to improve gamma radiation resistance, by addition of protective agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Pérez, Giovanni; Burillo, Guillermina

    2013-09-01

    Poly (dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) sealant (SS) was modified with the addition of different protective compounds to conserve its physical-chemical properties during gamma irradiation. 2-Vinyl naphthalene (2-VN), bisphenol-A (BPA) and poly (vinyl carbazole) (PVK) were used to evaluate radiation protection through the crosslinking effect of radiation. The samples were irradiated with doses from 100 kGy to 500 kGy at room temperature in air, with a 60Co gamma source, and the changes in molecular weight, thermal behavior, elastic properties and infrared spectra (FTIR-ATR) absorbance analysis were determined. The molecular weight of unmodified silicone sealant increases with the absorbed dose because of crosslinking as predominant effect. However, the crosslinking effect was inhibited with the addition of protective agent due to the aromatic compounds present. Modified silicone sealant films present better radiation resistance than unmodified system.

  2. Expression of cytoskeletal and matrix genes following exposure to ionizing radiation: Dose-rate effects and protein synthesis requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Woloschak, G.E. |; Felcher, P.; Chang-Liu, Chin-Mei

    1992-12-31

    Experiments were designed to examine the effects of radiation dose-rate and of the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide on expression of cytoskeletal elements ({gamma}- and {beta}-actin and {alpha}-tubulin) and matrix elements (fibronectin) in Syrian hamster embryo cells. Past work from our laboratory had already demonstrated optimum time points and doses for examination of radiation effects on accumulation of specific transcripts. Our results here demonstrated little effect of dose-rate for JANUS fission spectrum neutrons when comparing expression of either {alpha}-tubulin or fibronectin genes. Past work had already documented similar results for expression of actin transcripts. Effects of cycloheximide, however, revealed several interesting and novel findings: (1) Cycloheximide repressed accumulation of {alpha}-tubulin following exposure to high dose-rate neutrons or {gamma} rays; this did not occur following similar low dose-rate exposure (2) Cycloheximide did not affect accumulation of mRNA for actin genes. Cycloheximide abrogated the moderate induction of fibronectin-mRNA which occurred following exposure to {gamma} rays and high dose-rate neutrons. These results suggest a role for labile proteins in the maintenance of {alpha}-tubulin and fibronectin mRNA accumulation following exposure to ionizing radiation. In addition, they suggest that the cellular/molecular response to low dose-rate neutrons may be different from the response to high dose-rate neutrons.

  3. Expression of cytoskeletal and matrix genes following exposure to ionizing radiation: Dose-rate effects and protein synthesis requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Woloschak, G.E. |; Felcher, P.; Chang-Liu, Chin-Mei

    1994-05-01

    Experiments were designed to examine the effects Of radiation dose-rate and of the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide on expression of cytoskeletal elements ({gamma}- and {beta}-actin and {alpha}-tubulin) and matrix elements (fibronectin) in Syrian hamster embryo cells. Past work from our laboratory had already demonstrated optimum time points and doses for examination of radiation effects on accumulation of specific transcripts. Our results here demonstrated little effect of dose-rate for JANUS fission spectrum neutrons when comparing expression of either {alpha}-tubulin or fibronectin genes. Past work had already documented similar results for expression of actin transcripts. Effects of cycloheximide revealed that cycloheximide repressed accumulation of {alpha}-tubulin following exposure to high dose-rate neutrons or {gamma} rays; this did not occur following similar low dose-rate exposure. (2) Cycloheximide did not affect accumulation of MRNA for actin genes; and that cycloheximide abrogated the moderate induction of fibronectin-mRNA which occurred following exposure to {gamma} rays and high dose-rate neutrons. These results suggest a role for labile proteins in the maintenance of {alpha}-tubulin and fibronectin MRNA accumulation following exposure to ionizing radiation. in addition, they suggest that the cellular/molecular response to low dose-rate neutrons may be different from the response to high dose-rate neutrons.

  4. Twinning in the offspring of parents with chronic radiation exposure from nuclear testing in Kazakhstan.

    PubMed

    Mudie, Nadejda Y; Swerdlow, Anthony J; Gusev, Boris I; Schoemaker, Minouk J; Pivina, Ludmila M; Chsherbakova, Svetlana; Mansarina, Almagul; Bauer, Susanne; Jakovlev, Yuri; Apsalikov, Kazbek N

    2010-06-01

    The population of the Semipalatinsk region of Kazakhstan was chronically exposed to radioactive fallout from above-ground nuclear tests conducted during 1949-1956 by the Soviet Union. We investigated the effect of radiation exposure and other factors on risks of twinning overall and of same- and different-sex twinning and hence estimated dizygotic and monozygotic twinning rates in 11,605 deliveries around Semipalatinsk, 141 of which were twin, to 3992 mothers exposed to fallout during 1949-1956. Overall, the same-sex twinning rate was 7.85 [95% confidence interval (CI): 6.24, 9.47] per 1000 and the opposite-sex twinning rate was 4.45 (95% CI: 3.23, 5.67). Twinning rates did not differ significantly between radiation exposure categories, parental age at main radiation exposure, or year of birth. Different-sex, but not same-sex, twinning increased with maternal age (P(trend) = 0.04) but not with other demographic factors and was increased soon after radiation exposure [OR = 4.08 (95% CI: 1.11, 15.07)] for births occurring within 5 years compared with more than 20 years after exposure; this effect was similar in villages with low and high radiation exposure, however, so interpretation is uncertain. PMID:20518662

  5. Initiation-promotion model of tumor prevalence in mice from space radiation exposures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, F. A.; Wilson, J. W.

    1995-01-01

    Exposures in space consist of low-level background components from galactic cosmic rays (GCR), occasional intense-energetic solar-particle events, periodic passes through geomagnetic-trapped radiation, and exposure from possible onboard nuclear-propulsion engines. Risk models for astronaut exposure from such diverse components and modalities must be developed to assure adequate protection in future NASA missions. The low-level background exposures (GCR), including relativistic heavy ions (HZE), will be the ultimate limiting factor for astronaut career exposure. We consider herein a two-mutation, initiation-promotion, radiation-carcinogenesis model in mice in which the initiation stage is represented by a linear kinetics model of cellular repair/misrepair, including the track-structure model for heavy ion action cross-sections. The model is validated by comparison with the harderian gland tumor experiments of Alpen et al. for various ion beams. We apply the initiation-promotion model to exposures from galactic cosmic rays, using models of the cosmic-ray environment and heavy ion transport, and consider the effects of the age of the mice prior to and after the exposure and of the length of time in space on predictions of relative risk. Our results indicate that biophysical models of age-dependent radiation hazard will provide a better understanding of GCR risk than models that rely strictly on estimates of the initial slopes of these radiations.

  6. Initiation-promotion model of tumor prevalence in mice from space radiation exposures.

    PubMed

    Cucinotta, F A; Wilson, J W

    1995-08-01

    Exposures in space consist of low-level background components from galactic cosmic rays (GCR), occasional intense-energetic solar-particle events, periodic passes through geomagnetic-trapped radiation, and exposure from possible onboard nuclear-propulsion engines. Risk models for astronaut exposure from such diverse components and modalities must be developed to assure adequate protection in future NASA missions. The low-level background exposures (GCR), including relativistic heavy ions (HZE), will be the ultimate limiting factor for astronaut career exposure. We consider herein a two-mutation, initiation-promotion, radiation-carcinogenesis model in mice in which the initiation stage is represented by a linear kinetics model of cellular repair/misrepair, including the track-structure model for heavy ion action cross-sections. The model is validated by comparison with the harderian gland tumor experiments of Alpen et al. for various ion beams. We apply the initiation-promotion model to exposures from galactic cosmic rays, using models of the cosmic-ray environment and heavy ion transport, and consider the effects of the age of the mice prior to and after the exposure and of the length of time in space on predictions of relative risk. Our results indicate that biophysical models of age-dependent radiation hazard will provide a better understanding of GCR risk than models that rely strictly on estimates of the initial slopes of these radiations. PMID:7480628

  7. Visual Risk Assessment of Space Radiation Exposure for Future Space Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hussein, Hesham F.; Kim, Myung-Hee; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2006-01-01

    Protecting astronauts from space radiation exposure during an interplanetary mission is an important challenge for mission design and operations. If sufficient protection is not provided near solar maximum, the risk can be significant due to exposure to sporadic solar particle events (SPEs) as well as to the continuous galactic cosmic radiation (GCR). Polyethylene shielded "storm shelters" inside spacecraft have been shown to limit total exposure from a large SPE to a permissible level, preventing acute risks and providing a potential approach to fulfill the ALARA (as low as reasonably achievable) requirement. For accurate predictions of radiation dose to astronauts involved in future space exploration missions, detailed variations of radiation shielding properties are required. Radiation fluences and doses vary considerably across both the spacecraft geometry and the body-shielding distribution. A model using a modern CAD tool ProE(TradeMark), which is the leading engineering design platform at NASA, has been developed to account for these local variations in the radiation distribution. Visual assessment of radiation distribution at different points inside a spacecraft module and in the human body for a given radiation environment are described. Results will ultimately guide in developing requirements for maximal protection for astronauts from space radiation.

  8. Carcinogenesis and low-level ionizing radiation with special reference to lung cancer and exposure to radon daughters

    SciTech Connect

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1982-06-01

    The quantitative estimation of the carcinogenic risk of low-dose, high-LET radiation in the case of exposure to radon daughters and lung-cancer is subject to numerous uncertainties. The greatest of these concerns the parametric values of the dose-response curve. We lack knowledge and an understanding of the dosimetry and the distribution of aggregates of radioactivity that remain localized as hot spots in specific regions of the lungs and the influence on greater or lesser risk of lung cancer per average lung dose than uniformly deposited radiation (NRC76). We have only a limited understanding of the response to exposure to high-LET radiations, such as alpha particles, for which linear risk estimates for low doses are less likely to overestimate the risk, and may, in fact, underestimate the risk (BEIR80). Other uncertainties include the length of the latency period, the RBE for alpha radiation relative to gamma radiation, the period during which the radiation risk is expressed, the risk projection model used - whether absolute or relative - for projecting risk beyond the period of observation, the effect of dose rate and protraction of dose, and the influence of differences in the natural incidence of lung cancer in different populations. In addition, uncertainties are introduced by the biological and life-style risk characteristics of humans, for example, the effect of sex, the effect of age at the time of irradiation and at the time of appearance of the cancer, the influence of length of observation or follow-up of the study populations, and the influence of perhaps the most important confounding bias, cigarette-smoking. The collective influence of these uncertainties is such as to deny great credibility to any estimate of human lung cancer risk and other cancer risk that can be made for low-dose, high-LET radon daughter radiation exposure.

  9. Open-source radiation exposure extraction engine (RE3) for dose monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weisenthal, Samuel; Folio, Les; Derderian, Vana; Summers, Ronald M.; Yao, Jianhua

    2015-03-01

    Our goal was to investigate the feasibility of an open-source, PACS-integrated, DICOM header-based tool that automatically provides granular data for monitoring of CT radiation exposure. To do so, we constructed a radiation exposure extraction engine (RE3) that is seamlessly connected to the PACS using the digital imaging and communications in medicine (DICOM) toolkit (DCMTK) and runs on the fly within the workflow. We evaluated RE3's ability to determine the number of acquisitions and calculate the exposure metric dose length product (DLP) by comparing its output to the vendor dose pages. RE3 output closely correlated to the dose pages for both contiguously acquired exams (R2 =0.9987) and non-contiguously acquired exams (R2 =0.9994). RE3 is an open-source, automated radiation monitoring program to provide study-, series-, and slice-level radiation data.

  10. Risk equivalent of exposure versus dose of radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Bond, V.P.

    1986-01-01

    This report describes a risk analysis study of low-dose irradiation and the resulting biological effects on a cell. The author describes fundamental differences between the effects of high-level exposure (HLE) and low-level exposure (LLE). He stresses that the concept of absorbed dose to an organ is not a dose but a level of effect produced by a particular number of particles. He discusses the confusion between a linear-proportional representation of dose limits and a threshold-curvilinear representation, suggesting that a LLE is a composite of both systems. (TEM)

  11. Exposure to Heavy Ion Radiation Induces Persistent Oxidative Stress in Mouse Intestine

    PubMed Central

    Datta, Kamal; Suman, Shubhankar; Kallakury, Bhaskar V. S.; Fornace, Albert J.

    2012-01-01

    Ionizing radiation-induced oxidative stress is attributed to generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) due to radiolysis of water molecules and is short lived. Persistent oxidative stress has also been observed after radiation exposure and is implicated in the late effects of radiation. The goal of this study was to determine if long-term oxidative stress in freshly isolated mouse intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) is dependent on radiation quality at a dose relevant to fractionated radiotherapy. Mice (C57BL/6J; 6 to 8 weeks; female) were irradiated with 2 Gy of γ-rays, a low-linear energy transfer (LET) radiation, and intestinal tissues and IEC were collected 1 year after radiation exposure. Intracellular ROS, mitochondrial function, and antioxidant activity in IEC were studied by flow cytometry and biochemical assays. Oxidative DNA damage, cell death, and mitogenic activity in IEC were assessed by immunohistochemistry. Effects of γ radiation were compared to 56Fe radiation (iso-toxic dose: 1.6 Gy; energy: 1000 MeV/nucleon; LET: 148 keV/µm), we used as representative of high-LET radiation, since it's one of the important sources of high Z and high energy (HZE) radiation in cosmic rays. Radiation quality affected the level of persistent oxidative stress with higher elevation of intracellular ROS and mitochondrial superoxide in high-LET 56Fe radiation compared to unirradiated controls and γ radiation. NADPH oxidase activity, mitochondrial membrane damage, and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential were greater in 56Fe-irradiated mice. Compared to γ radiation oxidative DNA damage was higher, cell death ratio was unchanged, and mitotic activity was increased after 56Fe radiation. Taken together our results indicate that long-term functional dysregulation of mitochondria and increased NADPH oxidase activity are major contributing factors towards heavy ion radiation-induced persistent oxidative stress in IEC with potential for neoplastic transformation. PMID

  12. Full Mission Astronaut Radiation Exposure Assessments for Long Duration Lunar Surface Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adamczyk, Anne; Clowdsley, Martha; Qualls, Garry; Blattnig, Steve; Lee, Kerry; Fry, Dan; Stoffle, Nicholas; Simonsen, Lisa; Slaba, Tony; Walker, Steven; Zapp, Edward

    2011-01-01

    Risk to astronauts due to ionizing radiation exposure is a primary concern for missions beyond Low Earth Orbit (LEO) and will drive mission architecture requirements, mission timelines, and operational practices. For short missions, radiation risk is dominated by the possibility of a large Solar Particle Event (SPE). Longer duration missions have both SPE and Galactic Cosmic Ray (GCR) risks. SPE exposure can contribute significantly toward cancer induction in combination with GCR. As mission duration increases, mitigation strategies must address the combined risks from SPE and GCR exposure. In this paper, full mission exposure assessments were performed for the proposed long duration lunar surface mission scenarios. In order to accomplish these assessments, previously developed radiation shielding models for a proposed lunar habitat and rover were utilized. End-to-End mission exposure assessments were performed by first calculating exposure rates for locations in the habitat, rover, and during Extra-Vehicular Activities (EVA). Subsequently, total mission exposures were evaluated for the proposed timelines. Mission exposure results, assessed in terms of effective dose, are presented for the proposed timelines and recommendations are made for improved astronaut shielding and safer operational practices.

  13. Data integration reveals key homeostatic mechanisms following low dose radiation exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Tilton, Susan C.; Matzke, Melissa M.; Sowa, Marianne B.; Stenoien, David L.; Weber, Thomas J.; Morgan, William F.; Waters, Katrina M.

    2015-05-15

    The goal of this study was to define pathways regulated by low dose radiation to understand how biological systems respond to subtle perturbations in their environment and prioritize pathways for human health assessment. Using an in vitro 3-D human full thickness skin model, we have examined the temporal response of dermal and epidermal layers to 10 cGy X-ray using transcriptomic, proteomic, phosphoproteomic and metabolomic platforms. Bioinformatics analysis of each dataset independently revealed potential signaling mechanisms affected by low dose radiation, and integrating data shed additional insight into the mechanisms regulating low dose responses in human tissue. We examined direct interactions among datasets (top down approach) and defined several hubs as significant regulators, including transcription factors (YY1, MYC and CREB1), kinases (CDK2, PLK1) and a protease (MMP2). These data indicate a shift in response across time — with an increase in DNA repair, tissue remodeling and repression of cell proliferation acutely (24–72 h). Pathway-based integration (bottom up approach) identified common molecular and pathway responses to low dose radiation, including oxidative stress, nitric oxide signaling and transcriptional regulation through the SP1 factor that would not have been identified by the individual data sets. Significant regulation of key downstream metabolites of nitrative stress was measured within these pathways. Among the features identified in our study, the regulation of MMP2 and SP1 was experimentally validated. Our results demonstrate the advantage of data integration to broadly define the pathways and networks that represent the mechanisms by which complex biological systems respond to perturbation. - Highlights: • Low dose ionizing radiation altered homeostasis in 3D skin tissue model. • Global gene/protein/metabolite data integrated using complementary statistical approaches • Time and location-specific change in matrix regulation

  14. A novel dosimeter for measuring the amount of radiation exposure of surgeons during percutaneous nephrolithotomy: Instadose™

    PubMed Central

    Yuruk, Emrah; Gureser, Gokhan; Tuken, Murat; Ertas, Kasim

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to demonstrate the efficacy of Instadose™, a novel dosimeter designed for radiation workers to provide a measurement of the radiation dose at any time from any computer; to determine the amount of radiation exposure during percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL); and to evaluate the factors that affect the amount of radiation exposed. Material and methods Two experienced surgeons wore Instadose™ on the outer part of their lead aprons during the PNL procedures performed between December 2013 and July 2014. Patient demographics and stone characteristics were noted. Factors affecting radiation dose were determined. Fluoroscopic screening time was compared with the amount of radiation in order to validate the measurements of Instadose™. Results Overall, 51 patients with a mean age of 43.41 ±18.58 (range 1–75) years were enrolled. Male to female ratio was 35/16. The amount of radiation was greater than 0.01mSv in only 19 (37.25%) cases. Stone location complexity (p = 0.380), dilation type (p = 0.584), stone size (p = 0.565), dilation size (p = 0.891) and access number (p = 0.268) were not associated with increased radiation exposure. Instadose™ measurements were correlated with fluoroscopic screening time (r = 0.519, p = 0.001). Conclusions Instadose™ is a useful tool for the measurement of radiation exposure during PNL. The advantage of measuring the amount of radiation exposure after each PNL operation is that it may aid urologists in taking appropriate precautions to minimize the risk of radiation related complications. PMID:27551558

  15. 47 CFR 1.1310 - Radiofrequency radiation exposure limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... frequency range from 100 MHz to 1500 MHz, exposure limits for field strength and power density are also...) Frequency range(MHz) Electric field strength(V/m) Magnetic field strength(A/m) Power density(mW/cm2... equivalent power density Note 1 to Table 1: Occupational/controlled limits apply in situations in...

  16. Indoor exposure to radiation in the case of an outdoorrelease

    SciTech Connect

    Price, Phillip N.; Jayaraman, Buvana

    2006-06-01

    This report quantifies the effectiveness of ''sheltering in place'' in a commercial building in the event of an outdoor radiological release. The indoor exposure to airborne particles is calculated by solving the mass balance equation that accounts for the loss of particles due to deposition, filtration and exhaust. Quantitative estimates of shelter-inplace effectiveness are provided for typical commercial buildings.

  17. Measurement of radiation exposure of astronauts by radiochemical techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brodzinski, R. L.

    1973-01-01

    A cosmic radiation dose to the Apollo 16 crew of 180 + or - 100 mR was calculated from the specific activities of Na-22 and Na-24 in pre and postflight urine specimens. The specific activities of Cr-51 and Co-60 are higher in postflight specimens than in preflight specimens, presumably due to a postflight injection of radiochromium. The Fe-59 and Cs-137 specific activities are also reported and appear to be normal. The radiation doses received by a pilot and a navigator flying a high altitude mission during the solar flare of August 4 to 9, 1972 were calculated from the specific activity of Na-24 in their urine. These values are compared with the expected radiation dose calculated form the known shape and intensity of the proton spectrum. They demonstrate the magnitude of atmospheric shielding.

  18. Examining the Effects of External or Internal Radiation Exposure of Juvenile Mice on Late Morbidity after Infection with Influenza A.

    PubMed

    Misra, Ravi S; Johnston, Carl J; Groves, Angela M; DeDiego, Marta L; St Martin, Joe; Reed, Christina; Hernady, Eric; Miller, Jen-Nie; Love, Tanzy; Finkelstein, Jacob N; Williams, Jacqueline P

    2015-07-01

    A number of investigators have suggested that exposure to low-dose radiation may pose a potentially serious health risk. However, the majority of these studies have focused on the short-term rather than long-term effects of exposure to fixed source radiation, and few have examined the effects of internal contamination. Additionally, very few studies have focused on exposure in juveniles, when organs are still developing and could be more sensitive to the toxic effects of radiation. To specifically address whether early-life radiation injury may affect long-term immune competence, we studied 14-day-old juvenile pups that were either 5 Gy total-body irradiated or injected internally with 50 μCi soluble (137)Cs, then infected with influenza A virus at 26 weeks after exposure. After influenza infection, all groups demonstrated immediate weight loss. We found that externally irradiated, infected animals failed to recover weight relative to age-matched infected controls, but internally (137)Cs contaminated and infected animals had a weight recovery with a similar rate and degree as controls. Externally and internally irradiated mice demonstrated reduced levels of club cell secretory protein (CCSP) message in their lungs after influenza infection. The externally irradiated group did not recover CCSP expression even at the two-week time point after infection. Although the antibody response and viral titers did not appear to be affected by either radiation modality, there was a slight increase in monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 expression in the lungs of externally irradiated animals 14 days after influenza infection, with increased cellular infiltration present. Notably, an increase in the number of regulatory T cells was seen in the mediastinal lymph nodes of irradiated mice relative to uninfected mice. These data confirm the hypothesis that early-life irradiation may have long-term consequences on the immune system, leading to an altered antiviral response

  19. Examining the Effects of External or Internal Radiation Exposure of Juvenile Mice on Late Morbidity after Infection with Influenza A

    PubMed Central

    Misra, Ravi S.; Johnston, Carl J.; Groves, Angela M.; DeDiego, Marta L.; St Martin, Joe; Reed, Christina; Hernady, Eric; Miller, Jen-nie; Love, Tanzy; Finkelstein, Jacob N.; Williams, Jacqueline P.

    2015-01-01

    A number of investigators have suggested that exposure to low-dose radiation may pose a potentially serious health risk. However, the majority of these studies have focused on the short-term rather than long-term effects of exposure to fixed source radiation, and few have examined the effects of internal contamination. Additionally, very few studies have focused on exposure in juveniles, when organs are still developing and could be more sensitive to the toxic effects of radiation. To specifically address whether early-life radiation injury may affect long-term immune competence, we studied 14-day-old juvenile pups that were either 5 Gy total-body irradiated or injected internally with 50 μCi soluble 137Cs, then infected with influenza A virus at 26 weeks after exposure. After influenza infection, all groups demonstrated immediate weight loss. We found that externally irradiated, infected animals failed to recover weight relative to age-matched infected controls, but internally 137Cs contaminated and infected animals had a weight recovery with a similar rate and degree as controls. Externally and internally irradiated mice demonstrated reduced levels of club cell secretory protein (CCSP) message in their lungs after influenza infection. The externally irradiated group did not recover CCSP expression even at the two-week time point after infection. Although the antibody response and viral titers did not appear to be affected by either radiation modality, there was a slight increase in monocyte chemo-attractant protein (MCP)-1 expression in the lungs of externally irradiated animals 14 days after influenza infection, with increased cellular infiltration present. Notably, an increase in the number of regulatory T cells was seen in the mediastinal lymph nodes of irradiated mice relative to uninfected mice. These data confirm the hypothesis that early-life irradiation may have long-term consequences on the immune system, leading to an altered antiviral response. PMID

  20. 10 CFR Appendix A to Part 835 - Derived Air Concentrations (DAC) for Controlling Radiation Exposure to Workers at DOE Facilities

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Derived Air Concentrations (DAC) for Controlling Radiation Exposure to Workers at DOE Facilities A Appendix A to Part 835 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Pt. 835, App. A Appendix A to Part 835—Derived Air Concentrations (DAC) for Controlling Radiation Exposure to Workers at...

  1. 10 CFR 20.2203 - Reports of exposures, radiation levels, and concentrations of radioactive material exceeding the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Reports of exposures, radiation levels, and concentrations of radioactive material exceeding the constraints or limits. 20.2203 Section 20.2203 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Reports § 20.2203 Reports of exposures, radiation levels, and concentrations...

  2. A comparison of quality factors and weighting factors for characterizing astronaut radiation exposures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zapp, Neal; Cucinotta, Frank; Atwell, W.

    2002-01-01

    Radiation exposures are typically characterized by two quantities. The first is the absorbed dose, or the energy deposited per unit mass for specific types of radiation passing through specified materials. The same amount of energy deposited in material by two different types of radiation, however, can result in two different levels of risk. Because of this, for the purpose of radiation protection operations, absorbed dose is modified by a second factor intended to normalize the risk associated with a given exposure. We present here an inter-comparison of methods for this modification. First is the radiation quality factor (Q), as defined by ICRP publication 60. This quantity is related functionally to the unrestricted linear energy transfer (LET) of a given radiation, and is multiplied by the absorbed dose to derive the dose equivalent (H). The second method for modifying absorbed dose is the radiation weighting factor, also given in ICRP-60, or as modified in NCRP report 115. To implement the weighting factor, the absorbed dose resulting from incidence of a particular radiation is multiplied by a factor assigned to that type of radiation, giving the equivalent dose. We compare calculations done based on identical fields of radiation representative of that encountered by the MIR space station, applying each of these two methods. c2002 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Natural Sources of Radiation Exposure and the Teaching of Radioecology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anjos, R. M.; Veiga, R.; Carvalho, C.; Sanches, N.; Estellita, L.; Zanuto, P.; Queiroz, E.; Macario, K.

    2008-01-01

    We have developed an experimental activity that introduces concepts of the natural ionizing radiation and its interaction with our contemporary environment that can be used with students from secondary to college level. The experiment is based on the use of traditional and cheap portable Geiger-Muller detectors as survey meters for "in situ"…

  4. Assessment of radiation exposure from cesium-137 contaminated roads for epidemiological studies in Seoul, Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yun-Keun; Ju, Young-Su; Lee, Won Jin; Hwang, Seung Sik; Yim, Sang-Hyuk; Yoo, Sang-Chul; Lee, Jieon; Choi, Kyung-Hwa; Burm, Eunae; Ha, Mina

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We aimed to assess the radiation exposure for epidemiologic investigation in residents exposed to radiation from roads that were accidentally found to be contaminated with radioactive cesium-137 (137Cs) in Seoul. Methods Using information regarding the frequency and duration of passing via the 137Cs contaminated roads or residing/working near the roads from the questionnaires that were obtained from 8875 residents and the measured radiation doses reported by the Nuclear Safety and Security Commission, we calculated the total cumulative dose of radiation exposure for each person. Results Sixty-three percent of the residents who responded to the questionnaire were considered as ever-exposed and 1% of them had a total cumulative dose of more than 10 mSv. The mean (minimum, maximum) duration of radiation exposure was 4.75 years (0.08, 11.98) and the geometric mean (minimum, maximum) of the total cumulative dose was 0.049 mSv (<0.001, 35.35) in the exposed. Conclusions An individual exposure assessment was performed for an epidemiological study to estimate the health risk among residents living in the vicinity of 137Cs contaminated roads. The average exposure dose in the exposed people was less than 5% of the current guideline. PMID:26184047

  5. Modelling the effects of ionizing radiation on survival of animal population: acute versus chronic exposure.

    PubMed

    Kryshev, A I; Sazykina, T G

    2015-03-01

    The objective of the present paper was application of a model, which was originally developed to simulate chronic ionizing radiation effects in a generic isolated population, to the case of acute exposure, and comparison of the dynamic features of radiation effects on the population survival in cases of acute and chronic exposure. Two modes of exposure were considered: acute exposure (2-35 Gy) and chronic lifetime exposure with the same integrated dose. Calculations were made for a generic mice population; however, the model can be applied for other animals with proper selection of parameter values. In case of acute exposure, in the range 2-11 Gy, the population response was in two phases. During a first phase, there was a depletion in population survival; the second phase was a recovery period due to reparation of damage and biosynthesis of new biomass. Model predictions indicate that a generic mice population, living in ideal conditions, has the potential for recovery (within a mouse lifetime period) from acute exposure with dose up to 10-11 Gy, i.e., the population may recover from doses above an LD50 (6.2 Gy). Following acute doses above 14 Gy, however, the mice population went to extinction without recovery. In contrast, under chronic lifetime exposures (500 days), radiation had little effect on population survival up to integrated doses of 14-15 Gy, so the survival of a population subjected to chronic exposure was much better compared with that after an acute exposure with the same dose. Due to the effect of "wasted radiation", the integrated dose of chronic exposure could be about two times higher than acute dose, producing the same effect on survival. It is concluded that the developed generic population model including the repair of radiation damage can be applied both to acute and chronic modes of exposure; results of calculations for generic mice population are in qualitative agreement with published data on radiation effects in mice. PMID

  6. Out-of-Field Cell Survival Following Exposure to Intensity-Modulated Radiation Fields

    SciTech Connect

    Butterworth, Karl T.; McGarry, Conor K.; Trainor, Colman; O'Sullivan, Joe M.; Hounsell, Alan R.; Prise, Kevin M.

    2011-04-01

    Purpose: To determine the in-field and out-of-field cell survival of cells irradiated with either primary field or scattered radiation in the presence and absence of intercellular communication. Methods and Materials: Cell survival was determined by clonogenic assay in human prostate cancer (DU145) and primary fibroblast (AGO1552) cells following exposure to different field configurations delivered using a 6-MV photon beam produced with a Varian linear accelerator. Results: Nonuniform dose distributions were delivered using a multileaf collimator (MLC) in which half of the cell population was shielded. Clonogenic survival in the shielded region was significantly lower than that predicted from the linear quadratic model. In both cell lines, the out-of-field responses appeared to saturate at 40%-50% survival at a scattered dose of 0.70 Gy in DU-145 cells and 0.24 Gy in AGO1522 cells. There was an approximately eightfold difference in the initial slopes of the out-of-field response compared with the {alpha}-component of the uniform field response. In contrast, cells in the exposed part of the field showed increased survival. These observations were abrogated by direct physical inhibition of cellular communication and by the addition of the inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitor aminoguanidine known to inhibit intercellular bystander effects. Additional studies showed the proportion of cells irradiated and dose delivered to the shielded and exposed regions of the field to impact on response. Conclusions: These data demonstrate out-of-field effects as important determinants of cell survival following exposure to modulated irradiation fields with cellular communication between differentially irradiated cell populations playing an important role. Validation of these observations in additional cell models may facilitate the refinement of existing radiobiological models and the observations considered important determinants of cell survival.

  7. Spatial correlations of daily and weekly maximum day exposure of solar UV radiation in the continental United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, Richard H.; Slusser, James R.

    2003-06-01

    Impacts of UV radiation on humans, plants and animals involve both acute exposures to high levels of UV radiation and chronic exposures to moderate to high levels of UV radiation. However exposure estimates are often limited by the relatively low density of ground-based measurements of solar ultraviolet irradiance. This study relates the spacing of measurements to the accuracy of estimating daily exposure (chronic exposure) and maximum daily exposure over a 7-day interval (acute exposure) to solar UV. 300 nm, 368 nm, and UVB broadband measurements using multi-filter rotating shadow band radiometers and a broadband radiometer were paired by day for locations within a climate region. The variability in exposures in the various wavebands was evaluated using spatial statistics and interpolations made using kriging methods. The spatial correlation of the 300 nm and UVB acute exposures were greater than the correlation for the chronic daily exposures for distances up to 500 km. Conversely, the spatial correlation of the 368 nm acute exposure was greater than that for the chronic daily exposures for distances up to 500 km. A decrease in the variability in the acute over chronic exposure resulted in an improved ability to estimate the acute exposure across the full 1100 km domain. Limitations to the interpolation of 368 nm acute exposure were assumed to be due to local cloud effects on the radiation. Improvements in the ability to interpolate chronic 300 nm, 368 nm, and UVB exposures from the present USDA UVB Climate Network will require longer exposure periods.

  8. Research on the radiation exposure “memory effects” in AlGaAs heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gradoboev, A. V.; Sednev, V. V.

    2015-04-01

    Radiation exposure and long running time cause degradation of semiconductors' structures as well as semiconductors based on these structures. Besides, long running time can be the reason of partial radiation defects annealing. The purpose of the research work is to study the “memory effect” that happens during fast neuron radiation in AlGaAs heterostructures. Objects of the research are Infrared Light Emitting Electrodes (IRED) based on doubled AlGaAs heterostructures. During the experimental research LEDs were preliminarily radiated with fast neutrons, and radiation defects were annealed within the condition of current training with high temperatures, then emission power was measured. The research proved the existence of the “memory effect” that results in radiation stability enhancement with subsequent radiation. Possible mechanisms of the “memory effect” occurrence are under review.

  9. Assessing exposure to granite countertops--Part 1: Radiation.

    PubMed

    Myatt, Theodore A; Allen, Joseph G; Minegishi, Taeko; McCarthy, William B; Stewart, James H; Macintosh, David L; McCarthy, John F

    2010-05-01

    Humans are continuously exposed to low levels of ionizing radiation. Known sources include radon, soil, cosmic rays, medical treatment, food, and building products such as gypsum board and concrete. Little information exists about radiation emissions and associated doses from natural stone finish materials such as granite countertops in homes. To address this knowledge gap, gross radioactivity, gamma ray activity, and dose rate were determined for slabs of granite marketed for use as countertops. Annual effective radiation doses were estimated from measured dose rates and human activity patterns while accounting for the geometry of granite countertops in a model kitchen. Gross radioactivity, gamma activity, and dose rate varied significantly among and within slabs of granite with ranges for median levels at the slab surface of ND to 3000 cpm, ND to 98,000 cpm, and ND to 1.5E-4 mSv/h, respectively. The maximum activity concentrations of the (40)K, (232)Th, and (226)Ra series were 2715, 231, and 450 Bq/kg, respectively. The estimated annual radiation dose from spending 4 h/day in a hypothetical kitchen ranged from 0.005 to 0.18 mSv/a depending on the type of granite. In summary, our results show that the types of granite characterized in this study contain varying levels of radioactive isotopes and that their observed emissions are consistent with those reported in the scientific literature. We also conclude from our analyses that these emissions are likely to be a minor source of external radiation dose when used as countertop material within the home and present a negligible risk to human health. PMID:19707248

  10. Effectiveness of fluorography versus cineangiography at reducing radiation exposure during diagnostic coronary angiography.

    PubMed

    Shah, Binita; Mai, Xingchen; Tummala, Lakshmi; Kliger, Chad; Bangalore, Sripal; Miller, Louis H; Sedlis, Steven P; Feit, Frederick; Liou, Michael; Attubato, Michael; Coppola, John; Slater, James

    2014-04-01

    Coronary angiography is the gold standard for defining obstructive coronary disease. However, radiation exposure remains an unwanted hazard. Patients referred for coronary angiography with abdominal circumference<45 inches and glomerular filtration rate>60 ml/min were randomized to the fluorography (n=25) or cineangiography (n=25) group. Patients in the fluorography group underwent coronary angiography using retrospectively stored fluorography with repeat injection under cineangiography only when needed for better resolution per operator's discretion. Patients in the cineangiography group underwent coronary angiography using routine cineangiography. The primary end point was patient radiation exposure measured by radiochromic film. Secondary end points included the radiation output measurement of kerma-area product and air kerma at the interventional reference point (Ka,r) and operator radiation exposure measured by a dosimeter. Patient radiation exposure (158.2 mGy [76.5 to 210.2] vs 272.5 mGy [163.3 to 314.0], p=0.001), kerma-area product (1,323 μGy·m2 [826 to 1,765] vs 3,451 μGy·m2 [2,464 to 4,818], p<0.001), and Ka,r (175 mGy [112 to 252] vs 558 mGy [313 to 621], p<0.001) were significantly lower in the fluorography compared with cineangiography group (42%, 62%, and 69% relative reduction, respectively). Operator radiation exposure trended in the same direction, although statistically nonsignificant (fluorography 2.35 μGy [1.24 to 6.30] vs cineangiography 5.03 μGy [2.48 to 7.80], p=0.059). In conclusion, the use of fluorography in a select group of patients during coronary angiography, with repeat injection under cineangiography only when needed, was efficacious at reducing patient radiation exposure. PMID:24513469

  11. Cosmic radiation exposure of biological test systems during the EXPOSE-E mission.

    PubMed

    Berger, Thomas; Hajek, Michael; Bilski, Pawel; Körner, Christine; Vanhavere, Filip; Reitz, Günther

    2012-05-01

    In the frame of the EXPOSE-E mission on the Columbus external payload facility EuTEF on board the International Space Station, passive thermoluminescence dosimeters were applied to measure the radiation exposure of biological samples. The detectors were located either as stacks next to biological specimens to determine the depth dose distribution or beneath the sample carriers to determine the dose levels for maximum shielding. The maximum mission dose measured in the upper layer of the depth dose part of the experiment amounted to 238±10 mGy, which relates to an average dose rate of 408±16 μGy/d. In these stacks of about 8 mm height, the dose decreased by 5-12% with depth. The maximum dose measured beneath the sample carriers was 215±16 mGy, which amounts to an average dose rate of 368±27 μGy/d. These values are close to those assessed for the interior of the Columbus module and demonstrate the high shielding of the biological experiments within the EXPOSE-E facility. Besides the shielding by the EXPOSE-E hardware itself, additional shielding was experienced by the external structures adjacent to EXPOSE-E, such as EuTEF and Columbus. This led to a dose gradient over the entire exposure area, from 215±16 mGy for the lowest to 121±6 mGy for maximum shielding. Hence, the doses perceived by the biological samples inside EXPOSE-E varied by 70% (from lowest to highest dose). As a consequence of the high shielding, the biological samples were predominantly exposed to galactic cosmic heavy ions, while electrons and a significant fraction of protons of the radiation belts and solar wind did not reach the samples. PMID:22680685

  12. Minimal Internal Radiation Exposure in Residents Living South of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Disaster

    PubMed Central

    Akiyama, Junichi; Kato, Shigeaki; Tsubokura, Masaharu; Mori, Jinichi; Tanimoto, Tetsuya; Abe, Koichiro; Sakai, Shuji; Hayano, Ryugo; Tokiwa, Michio; Shimmura, Hiroaki

    2015-01-01

    Following the Fukushima nuclear power plant disaster, assessment of internal radiation exposure was indispensable to predict radiation-related health threats to residents of neighboring areas. Although many evaluations of internal radiation in residents living north and west of the crippled Fukushima nuclear power plant are available, there is little information on residents living in areas south of the plant, which were similarly affected by radio-contamination from the disaster. To assess the internal radio-contamination in residents living in affected areas to the south of the plant or who were evacuated into Iwaki city, a whole body counter (WBC) screening program of internal radio-contamination was performed on visitors to the Jyoban hospital in Iwaki city, which experienced less contamination than southern areas adjacent to the nuclear plant. The study included 9,206 volunteer subjects, of whom 6,446 were schoolchildren aged 4–15 years. Measurements began one year after the incident and were carried out over the course of two years. Early in the screening period only two schoolchildren showed Cs-137 levels that were over the detection limit (250 Bq/body), although their Cs-134 levels were below the detection limit (220 Bq/body). Among the 2,760 adults tested, 35 (1.3%) had detectable internal radio-contamination, but only for Cs-137 (range: 250 Bq/body to 859 Bq/body), and not Cs-134. Of these 35 subjects, nearly all (34/35) showed elevated Cs-137 levels only during the first year of the screening. With the exception of potassium 40, no other radionuclides were detected during the screening period. The maximum annual effective dose calculated from the detected Cs-137 levels was 0.029 and 0.028 mSv/year for the schoolchildren and adults, respectively, which is far below the 1 mSv/year limit set by the government of Japan. Although the data for radiation exposure during the most critical first year after the incident are unavailable due to a lack of systemic

  13. Minimal Internal Radiation Exposure in Residents Living South of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Disaster.

    PubMed

    Akiyama, Junichi; Kato, Shigeaki; Tsubokura, Masaharu; Mori, Jinichi; Tanimoto, Tetsuya; Abe, Koichiro; Sakai, Shuji; Hayano, Ryugo; Tokiwa, Michio; Shimmura, Hiroaki

    2015-01-01

    Following the Fukushima nuclear power plant disaster, assessment of internal radiation exposure was indispensable to predict radiation-related health threats to residents of neighboring areas. Although many evaluations of internal radiation in residents living north and west of the crippled Fukushima nuclear power plant are available, there is little information on residents living in areas south of the plant, which were similarly affected by radio-contamination from the disaster. To assess the internal radio-contamination in residents living in affected areas to the south of the plant or who were evacuated into Iwaki city, a whole body counter (WBC) screening program of internal radio-contamination was performed on visitors to the Jyoban hospital in Iwaki city, which experienced less contamination than southern areas adjacent to the nuclear plant. The study included 9,206 volunteer subjects, of whom 6,446 were schoolchildren aged 4-15 years. Measurements began one year after the incident and were carried out over the course of two years. Early in the screening period only two schoolchildren showed Cs-137 levels that were over the detection limit (250 Bq/body), although their Cs-134 levels were below the detection limit (220 Bq/body). Among the 2,760 adults tested, 35 (1.3%) had detectable internal radio-contamination, but only for Cs-137 (range: 250 Bq/body to 859 Bq/body), and not Cs-134. Of these 35 subjects, nearly all (34/35) showed elevated Cs-137 levels only during the first year of the screening. With the exception of potassium 40, no other radionuclides were detected during the screening period. The maximum annual effective dose calculated from the detected Cs-137 levels was 0.029 and 0.028 mSv/year for the schoolchildren and adults, respectively, which is far below the 1 mSv/year limit set by the government of Japan. Although the data for radiation exposure during the most critical first year after the incident are unavailable due to a lack of systemic

  14. 47 CFR 1.1310 - Radiofrequency radiation exposure limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... American National Standards Institute (ANSI) for localized SAR in § 4.2 of “IEEE Standard for Safety Levels with Respect to Human Exposure to Radio Frequency Electromagnetic Fields, 3 kHz to 300 GHz,” ANSI/IEEE... density are also generally based on criteria recommended by the ANSI in § 4.1 of “IEEE Standard for...

  15. 47 CFR 1.1310 - Radiofrequency radiation exposure limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... American National Standards Institute (ANSI) for localized SAR in § 4.2 of “IEEE Standard for Safety Levels with Respect to Human Exposure to Radio Frequency Electromagnetic Fields, 3 kHz to 300 GHz,” ANSI/IEEE... density are also generally based on criteria recommended by the ANSI in § 4.1 of “IEEE Standard for...

  16. Considerations regarding the unintended radiation exposure of the embryo, fetus or nursing child

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    In Commentary No. 7, Misadministration of Radioactive Material in Medicine - Scientific Background (NCRP, 1991), the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) reviewed the misadministration of radioactive material in medicine. In that commentary, the number and variety of nuclear medicine procedures performed in the United States, administered activities and the resulting radiation doses were reviewed. Information on the reported frequency and nature of misadministrations was also summarized, as were the possible deterministic and stochastic effects that might occur as a result of the use in medicine of pharmaceuticals containing radioactive material. In addition, the basis for developing reporting requirements for the unintended administration of radioactive material to patients was also provided. The purpose of this Commentary is: (1) to draw special attention to problems in the protection of the embryo, fetus and nursing child that might result from the use, both externally and internally, of radioactive material in the medical diagnosis and treatment of the mother, and (2) to assist the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in developing requirements appropriate to dealing with the unintended exposure of the embryo, fetus or nursing child as a result of such procedures. The sensitivity of humans during these stages of life justify separate consideration beyond that already given for adults in NCRP Commentary No. 7 (NCRP, 1991).

  17. Light scattering apparatus and method for determining radiation exposure to plastic detectors

    DOEpatents

    Hermes, Robert E.

    2002-01-01

    An improved system and method of analyzing cumulative radiation exposure registered as pits on track etch foils of radiation dosimeters. The light scattering apparatus and method of the present invention increases the speed of analysis while it also provides the ability to analyze exposure levels beyond that which may be properly measured with conventional techniques. Dosimeters often contain small plastic sheets that register accumulated damage when exposed to a radiation source. When the plastic sheet from the dosimeter is chemically etched, a track etch foil is produced wherein pits or holes are created in the plastic. The number of these pits, or holes, per unit of area (pit density) correspond to the amount of cumulative radiation exposure which is being optically measured by the apparatus. To measure the cumulative radiation exposure of a track etch foil a high intensity collimated beam is passed through foil such that the pits and holes within the track etch foil cause a portion of the impinging light beam to become scattered upon exit. The scattered light is focused with a lens, while the primary collimated light beam (unscattered light) is blocked. The scattered light is focused by the lens onto an optical detector capable of registering the optical power of the scattered light which corresponds to the cumulative radiation to which the track etch foil has been exposed.

  18. Body radiation exposure in breast cancer radiotherapy: Impact of breast IMRT and virtual wedge compensation techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Woo, Tony; Pignol, Jean-Philippe . E-mail: Jean-Philippe.Pignol@sw.ca; Rakovitch, Eileen; Vu, Toni; Hicks, Deanna; O'Brien, Peter; Pritchard, Kathleen

    2006-05-01

    Purpose: Recent reports demonstrate a dramatically increased rate of secondary leukemia for breast cancer patients receiving adjuvant high-dose anthracycline and radiotherapy, and that radiation is an independent factor for the development of leukemia. This study aimed to evaluate the radiation body exposure during breast radiotherapy and to characterize the factors associated with an increased exposure. Patients and Methods: In a prospective cohort of 120 women, radiation measurements were taken from four sites on the body at the time of adjuvant breast radiotherapy. Multiple regression analysis was performed to analyze patient and treatment factors associated with the amount of scattered radiation. Results: For standard 50 Gy breast radiotherapy, the minimal dose received by abdominal organs is on average 0.45 Gy, ranging from 0.06 to 1.55 Gy. The use of physical wedges as a compensation technique was the most significant factor associated with increased scattered dose (p < 0.001), resulting in approximately three times more exposure compared with breast intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and dynamic wedge. Conclusions: The amount of radiation that is scattered to a patient's body is consistent with exposure reported to be associated with excess of leukemia. In accordance with the As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) principle, we recommend using breast IMRT or virtual wedging for the radiotherapy of breast cancer receiving high-dose anthracycline chemotherapy.

  19. Radiation Exposure to Staff in Intensive Care Unit with Portable CT Scanner

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Zhichao; Liao, Xuelian; Zhang, Jiangqian; Jia, Lingli

    2016-01-01

    Background. Bedside radiological procedures pose a risk of radiation exposure to ICU staff. The perception of risk may increase the degree of caution among the health care staff and raise new barriers preventing patients from obtaining prompt care. Objective. The aim of this study was to estimate the annual cumulative radiation dose to individual ICU staff. Methods. In this prospective study, forty subjects were required to wear thermoluminescent dosimeter badges during their working hours. The badges were analyzed to determine the exposure after 3 months. Results. A total of 802 radiological procedures were completed at bedside during the study period. The estimated annual dosage to doctors and nurses on average was 0.99 mSv and 0.88 mSv (p < 0.001), respectively. Residents were subjected to the highest radiation exposure (1.04 mSv per year, p = 0.002). The radiation dose was correlated with day shift working hours (r = 0.426; p = 0.006) and length of service (r = −0.403; p < 0.01). Conclusions. With standard precautions, bedside radiological procedures—including portable CT scans—do not expose ICU staff to high dose of ionizing radiation. The level of radiation exposure is related to the daytime working hours and length of service. PMID:27556036

  20. Effects of fetal microwave radiation exposure on offspring behavior in mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yanchun; Li, Zhihui; Gao, Yan; Zhang, Chenggang

    2015-01-01

    The recent rapid development of electronic communication techniques is resulting in a marked increase in exposure of humans to electromagnetic fields (EMFs). This has raised public concerns about the health hazards of long-term environmental EMF exposure for fetuses and children. Some studies have suggested EMF exposure in children could induce nervous system disorders. However, gender-dependent effects of microwave radiation exposure on cognitive dysfunction have not previously been reported. Here we investigated whether in utero exposure to 9.417-GHz microwave throughout gestation (Days 3.5–18) affected behavior, using the open field test (OFT), elevated-plus maze (EPM), tail suspension test (TST), forced swimming test (FST) and Morris water maze (MWM). We found that mice showed less movement in the center of an open field (using the OFT) and in an open arm (using the EPM) after in utero exposure to 9.417-GHz radiation, which suggested that the mice had increased anxiety-related behavior. Mice demonstrated reduced immobility in TST and FST after in utero exposure to 9.417-GHz radiation, which suggested that the mice had decreased depression-related behavior. From the MWM test, we observed that male offspring demonstrated decreased learning and memory, while females were not affected in learning and memory, which suggested that microwaves had gender-dependent effects. In summary, we have provided the first experimental evidence of microwaves inducing gender-dependent effects. PMID:25359903