Science.gov

Sample records for additional reducing equivalents

  1. Effect of primary-zone equivalence ratio and hydrogen addition on exhaust emission in a hydrocarbon-fueled combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norgren, C. T.; Ingebo, R. D.

    1974-01-01

    The effects of reducing the primary-zone equivalence ratio on the exhaust emission levels of oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, and unburned hydrocarbons in experimental hydrocarbon-fueled combustor segments at simulated supersonic cruise and idle conditions were investigated. In addition, the effects of the injection of hydrogen fuel (up to 4 percent of the total weight of fuel) on the stability of the hydrocarbon flame and exhaust emissions were studied and compared with results obtained without hydrogen addition.

  2. Stoichiometry of Reducing Equivalents and Splitting of Water in the Citric Acid Cycle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madeira, Vitor M. C.

    1988-01-01

    Presents a solution to the problem of finding the source of extra reducing equivalents, and accomplishing the stoichiometry of glucose oxidation reactions. Discusses the citric acid cycle and glycolysis. (CW)

  3. Testing for Additivity at Select Mixture Groups of Interest Based on Statistical Equivalence Testing Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Stork, LeAnna M.; Gennings, Chris; Carchman, Richard; Carter, Jr., Walter H.; Pounds, Joel G.; Mumtaz, Moiz

    2006-12-01

    Several assumptions, defined and undefined, are used in the toxicity assessment of chemical mixtures. In scientific practice mixture components in the low-dose region, particularly subthreshold doses, are often assumed to behave additively (i.e., zero interaction) based on heuristic arguments. This assumption has important implications in the practice of risk assessment, but has not been experimentally tested. We have developed methodology to test for additivity in the sense of Berenbaum (Advances in Cancer Research, 1981), based on the statistical equivalence testing literature where the null hypothesis of interaction is rejected for the alternative hypothesis of additivity when data support the claim. The implication of this approach is that conclusions of additivity are made with a false positive rate controlled by the experimenter. The claim of additivity is based on prespecified additivity margins, which are chosen using expert biological judgment such that small deviations from additivity, which are not considered to be biologically important, are not statistically significant. This approach is in contrast to the usual hypothesis-testing framework that assumes additivity in the null hypothesis and rejects when there is significant evidence of interaction. In this scenario, failure to reject may be due to lack of statistical power making the claim of additivity problematic. The proposed method is illustrated in a mixture of five organophosphorus pesticides that were experimentally evaluated alone and at relevant mixing ratios. Motor activity was assessed in adult male rats following acute exposure. Four low-dose mixture groups were evaluated. Evidence of additivity is found in three of the four low-dose mixture groups.The proposed method tests for additivity of the whole mixture and does not take into account subset interactions (e.g., synergistic, antagonistic) that may have occurred and cancelled each other out.

  4. Equivalence of time and aperture domain additive noise in ultrasound coherence

    PubMed Central

    Bottenus, Nick B.; Trahey, Gregg E.

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasonic echoes backscattered from diffuse media, recorded by an array transducer and appropriately focused, demonstrate coherence predicted by the van Cittert–Zernike theorem. Additive noise signals from off-axis scattering, reverberation, phase aberration, and electronic (thermal) noise can all superimpose incoherent or partially coherent signals onto the recorded echoes, altering the measured coherence. An expression is derived to describe the effect of uncorrelated random channel noise in terms of the noise-to-signal ratio. Equivalent descriptions are made in the aperture dimension to describe uncorrelated magnitude and phase apodizations of the array. Binary apodization is specifically described as an example of magnitude apodization and adjustments are presented to minimize the artifacts caused by finite signal length. The effects of additive noise are explored in short-lag spatial coherence imaging, an image formation technique that integrates the calculated coherence curve of acquired signals up to a small fraction of the array length for each lateral and axial location. A derivation of the expected contrast as a function of noise-to-signal ratio is provided and validation is performed in simulation. PMID:25618045

  5. Reducing nontemplated 3' nucleotide addition to polynucleotide transcripts

    DOEpatents

    Kao, C. Cheng

    2000-01-01

    Non-template 3' nucleotide addition to a transcript is reduced by transcribing a transcript from a template comprising an ultimate and/or penultimate 5' ribose having a C'2 substituent such as methoxy, which reduces non-template 3' nucleotide addition to the transcript. The methods are shown to be applicable to a wide variety of polymerases, including Taq, T7 RNA polymerase, etc.

  6. Extracts from presumed "reduced harm" cigarettes induce equivalent or greater toxicity in antigen-presenting cells.

    PubMed

    Vassallo, Robert; Wang, Lei; Hirano, Yoshimi; Walters, Paula; Grill, Diane

    2015-09-01

    The tobacco industry has promoted certain cigarette products with claims that their use may be less harmful to the smoker as they purportedly deliver lower amounts of toxic chemicals compared to conventional cigarettes. This study was designed to compare the relative antigen presenting cellular toxicity of Eclipse, a presumed reduced exposure product (PREP) cigarette, when compared with the reference research 3R4F cigarettes (Kentucky University). Utilizing a murine macrophage cell line, murine bone marrow derived dendritic cells (DCs) and human monocyte-derived DCs incubated with extracts generated from Eclipse and Kentucky reference 3R4F cigarettes, we determined the relative toxic effects of the different cigarette smoke extracts on cellular viability, oxidative stress, T-helper-1 (Th-1) polarizing cytokine production and general gene expression. Eclipse and 3R4F cigarette smoke extracts induced equivalent oxidatively-mediated cellular heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) protein levels in macrophages and DCs. Cellular viability determination demonstrated greater induction of cell death by apoptosis and necrosis by Eclipse extracts in DCs. The production of the key Th-1 polarizing cytokine interleukin-12 (IL-12) by activated DCs or macrophages was suppressed to an equivalent or greater extent by Eclipse extracts. Microarray studies performed on bone marrow derived murine DCs incubated with Eclispe or 3R4F cigarette extracts showed identical genotoxic profiles. These studies imply that presumed reduced harm Eclipse cigarettes induce equivalent or greater antigen presenting cell dysfunction relative to 3R4F cigarettes and illustrate the importance of independent validation and testing of similar products claimed to be associated with reduced toxicity relative to other cigarettes. PMID:26169828

  7. Optimal reducibility of all W states equivalent under stochastic local operations and classical communication

    SciTech Connect

    Rana, Swapan; Parashar, Preeti

    2011-11-15

    We show that all multipartite pure states that are stochastic local operation and classical communication (SLOCC) equivalent to the N-qubit W state can be uniquely determined (among arbitrary states) from their bipartite marginals. We also prove that only (N-1) of the bipartite marginals are sufficient and that this is also the optimal number. Thus, contrary to the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) class, W-type states preserve their reducibility under SLOCC. We also study the optimal reducibility of some larger classes of states. The generic Dicke states |GD{sub N}{sup l}> are shown to be optimally determined by their (l+1)-partite marginals. The class of ''G'' states (superposition of W and W) are shown to be optimally determined by just two (N-2)-partite marginals.

  8. Physical properties of Malaysian cocoa butter as affected by addition of milkfat and cocoa butter equivalent.

    PubMed

    Sabariah, S; Ali, A R; Chong, C L

    1998-05-01

    Commercial samples of Malaysian cocoa butter (MCB), anhydrous milkfat (AMF), high melting fraction milkfat42 (HMF42) and cocoa butter equivalent (CBE) were blended in binary and ternary blends. All the fats were then evaluated for their solid fat content, thermal analyses and polymorphic stability. MCB possessed the highest solid followed by CBE, HMF42 and AMF. Data on thermal analyses showed that eutectic interaction was more noticeable when AMF and HMF42 were present in the MCB and CBE system. Moreover, X-ray diffraction patterns also showed that AMF and HMF42 exhibit the presence of beta' polymorph while MCB and CBE exhibit beta polymorph. PMID:10616663

  9. Metal-Ion Additives Reduce Thermal Expansion Of Polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoakley, Diane M.; St. Clair, Anne K.; Emerson, Burt R., Jr.; Willis, George L.

    1994-01-01

    Polyimides widely used as high-performance polymers because of their excellent thermal stability and toughness. However, their coefficients of thermal expansion (CTE's) greater than those of metals, ceramics, and glasses. Decreasing CTE's of polyimides increase usefulness for aerospace and electronics applications in which dimensional stability required. Additives containing metal ions reduce coefficients of thermal expansion of polyimides. Reductions range from 11 to over 100 percent.

  10. Amide enolate additions to acylsilanes: in situ generation of unusual and stereoselective homoenolate equivalents.

    PubMed

    Lettan, Robert B; Galliford, Chris V; Woodward, Chase C; Scheidt, Karl A

    2009-07-01

    The synthesis of beta-hydroxy carbonyl compounds is an important goal due to their prevalence in bioactive molecules. A novel approach to construct these structural motifs involves the multicomponent reaction of acylsilanes, amides, and electrophiles. The addition of amide enolates to acylsilanes generates beta-silyloxy homoenolate reactivity by undergoing a 1,2-Brook rearrangement. These unique nucleophiles formed in situ can then undergo addition to alkyl halides, aldehydes, ketones, and imines. The gamma-amino-beta-hydroxy amide products derived from the addition of these homoenolates to N-diphenylphosphinyl imines are generated with excellent diastereoselectivity (> or = 20:1) and can be efficiently converted to highly valuable gamma-lactams. Finally, the use of optically active amide enolates delivers beta-hydroxy amide products with high levels of diastereoselectivity (> or = 10:1). PMID:19505076

  11. Additional Validity Evidence and Across-Group Equivalency of the "HOPE Teacher Rating Scale"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Scott J.; Gentry, Marcia

    2013-01-01

    The "HOPE Scale" was developed to identify academic and social components of giftedness and talent in elementary-aged students with particular attention to students from low-income and/or culturally diverse families. Based on previous findings, additional research was conducted on revisions made to the "HOPE Scale". Items were added, and 71…

  12. Reducing viscosity of coal-liquefaction products with additives

    SciTech Connect

    Chao, T.S.; Kutta H.W.; Smith, A.C. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    A research program to investigate the cause of high viscosity of coal liquefaction products and to improve this critical property was carried out at Harvey Technical Center under the joint sponsorship by Electric Power Research Institute and Atlantic Richfield Company. Prior to this joint program an in-house project was also initiated by Atlantic Richfield to determine causes and remedies for high viscosity of coal liquefaction products. One result of these programs is the discovery that certain chemical compounds, when used at concentrations of 1 to 10%, are effective in reducing the melt viscosity and softening temperature of these coal liquefaction products. These compounds can be divided into two groups, reactive and unreactive additives. Acids, anhydrides, amides and epoxides fall in the reactive group, while pyrrolidines and compounds belonging to the chemical classes of amides, phosphoramides, lactams and ketones belong to the unreactive additives. This paper summarizes findings on this subject and explains the mechanism of action involved.

  13. Reducing of internal resistance lithium ion battery using glucose addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salim, Andri Pratama; Hafidlullah, Noor; Purwanto, Agus

    2016-02-01

    There are two indicators of battery performance, i.e : capacity and the internal resistance of battery. In this research, the affect of glucose addition to decrease the internal resistance of lithium battery was investigated. The ratio of glucose addition were varied at weight ratio 1%, 3%, and 5% and one mixtures without glucose addition. Lithium ferri phosphate (LiFePO4), polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), acetylene black (AB) and glucose were materials that used in this study. Both of mixtures were mixed in the vacuum mixer until became homogeneous. The slurry was coated on an aluminium foil sheet and the coated thickness was 200 µm. The performance of battery lithium was examined by Eight Channel Battery Analyzer and the Internal resistance was examined by Internal Resistance of Battery Meter. The result from all analyzer were showed that the internal resistance reduced as well as the battery capacity. The best internal resistance value is owned by mixtures with 3wt% ratio glucose addition. It has an internal resistance value about 64 miliohm.

  14. Lignopolymers as viscosity-reducing additives in magnesium oxide suspensions.

    PubMed

    Murray, Lisa R; Gupta, Chetali; Washburn, Newell R; Erk, Kendra A

    2015-12-01

    Lignopolymers are a new class of polymer additives with the capability to be used as dispersants in cementitious pastes. Made with kraft lignin cores and grafted polymer side-chains, the custom-synthesized lignopolymers were examined in terms of the molecular architecture for viscosity reducing potential in inert model suspensions. Lignin-poly(acrylic acid) (LPAA) and lignin-polyacrylamide (LPAm) have been found to vary the rheology of magnesium oxide (MgO) suspensions based on differences in chain architecture and particle-polymer interactions. A commercial comb-polymer polycarboxylate ester was compared to LPAA and LPAm at 2.7 mg/mL, a typical dosage for cement admixtures, as well as 0.25mg/mL. It was found that LPAm was a more effective viscosity reducer than both LPAA and the commercial additive at low concentrations, which was attributed to greater adsorption on the MgO particle surface and increased steric dispersion from PAm side-chain extension. The influence of chain adsorption and grafted side-chain molecular weight on rheology was also tested. PMID:26275503

  15. Package Equivalent Reactor Networks as Reduced Order Models for Use with CAPE-OPEN Compliant Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Meeks, E.; Chou, C. -P.; Garratt, T.

    2013-03-31

    Engineering simulations of coal gasifiers are typically performed using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software, where a 3-D representation of the gasifier equipment is used to model the fluid flow in the gasifier and source terms from the coal gasification process are captured using discrete-phase model source terms. Simulations using this approach can be very time consuming, making it difficult to imbed such models into overall system simulations for plant design and optimization. For such system-level designs, process flowsheet software is typically used, such as Aspen Plus® [1], where each component where each component is modeled using a reduced-order model. For advanced power-generation systems, such as integrated gasifier/gas-turbine combined-cycle systems (IGCC), the critical components determining overall process efficiency and emissions are usually the gasifier and combustor. Providing more accurate and more computationally efficient reduced-order models for these components, then, enables much more effective plant-level design optimization and design for control. Based on the CHEMKIN-PRO and ENERGICO software, we have developed an automated methodology for generating an advanced form of reduced-order model for gasifiers and combustors. The reducedorder model offers representation of key unit operations in flowsheet simulations, while allowing simulation that is fast enough to be used in iterative flowsheet calculations. Using high-fidelity fluiddynamics models as input, Reaction Design’s ENERGICO® [2] software can automatically extract equivalent reactor networks (ERNs) from a CFD solution. For the advanced reduced-order concept, we introduce into the ERN a much more detailed kinetics model than can be included practically in the CFD simulation. The state-of-the-art chemistry solver technology within CHEMKIN-PRO allows that to be accomplished while still maintaining a very fast model turn-around time. In this way, the ERN becomes the basis for

  16. Hydrogen evolution as a consumption mode of reducing equivalents in green algal fermentation. [Chlamydomonas reinhardii; Chlorella pyrenoidosa; Chlorococcum minutum

    SciTech Connect

    Ohta, S.; Miyamoto, K.; Miura, Y.

    1987-04-01

    Dark anaerobic fermentation in the green algae Chlamydomonas MGA 161, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Chlorella pyrenoidosa, and Chlorococcum minutum was studied. Their isolate, Chlamydomonas MGA 161, was unusual in having high H/sub 2/ but almost no formate. The fermentation pattern in Chlamydomonas MGA 161 was altered by changes in the NaCl or NH/sub 4/Cl concentration. Glycerol formation increased at low (0.1%) and high (7%) NaCl concentrations starch degradation, and formation of ethanol, H/sub 2/, and CO/sub 2/ increased with the addition of NH/sub 4/Cl to above 5 millimolar in N-deficient cells. C. reinhardtii and C.pyrenoidosa exhibited a very similar anaerobic metabolism, forming formate, acetate and ethanol in a ratio of about 2:2:1. C. minimum was also unusual in forming acetate, glycerol, and CO/sub 2/ as its main products, with H/sub 2/, formate, and ethanol being formed in negligible amounts. In the presence of CO, ethanol formation increased twofold in Chlamydomonas MGA 161 and C. reinhardtii, but the fermentation pattern in C. minimum did not change. An experiment with hypophosphite addition showed that dark H/sub 2/ evolution of the Escherichia coli type could be ruled out in Chlamydomonas MGA 161 and C. reinhardtii. Among the green algae investigated, three fermentation types were identified by the distribution pattern of the end products, which reflected the consumption model of reducing equivalents in the cells.

  17. Reducing Communication in Algebraic Multigrid Using Additive Variants

    SciTech Connect

    Vassilevski, Panayot S.; Yang, Ulrike Meier

    2014-02-12

    Algebraic multigrid (AMG) has proven to be an effective scalable solver on many high performance computers. However, its increasing communication complexity on coarser levels has shown to seriously impact its performance on computers with high communication cost. Moreover, additive AMG variants provide not only increased parallelism as well as decreased numbers of messages per cycle but also generally exhibit slower convergence. Here we present various new additive variants with convergence rates that are significantly improved compared to the classical additive algebraic multigrid method and investigate their potential for decreased communication, and improved communication-computation overlap, features that are essential for good performance on future exascale architectures.

  18. Compost addition reduces porosity and chlordecone transfer in soil microstructure.

    PubMed

    Woignier, Thierry; Clostre, Florence; Fernandes, Paula; Rangon, Luc; Soler, Alain; Lesueur-Jannoyer, Magalie

    2016-01-01

    Chlordecone, an organochlorine insecticide, pollutes soils and contaminates crops and water resources and is biomagnified by food chains. As chlordecone is partly trapped in the soil, one possible alternative to decontamination may be to increase its containment in the soil, thereby reducing its diffusion into the environment. Containing the pesticide in the soil could be achieved by adding compost because the pollutant has an affinity for organic matter. We hypothesized that adding compost would also change soil porosity, as well as transport and containment of the pesticide. We measured the pore features and studied the nanoscale structure to assess the effect of adding compost on soil microstructure. We simulated changes in the transport properties (hydraulic conductivity and diffusion) associated with changes in porosity. During compost incubation, the clay microstructure collapsed due to capillary stresses. Simulated data showed that the hydraulic conductivity and diffusion coefficient were reduced by 95 and 70% in the clay microstructure, respectively. Reduced transport properties affected pesticide mobility and thus helped reduce its transfer from the soil to water and to the crop. We propose that the containment effect is due not only to the high affinity of chlordecone for soil organic matter but also to a trapping mechanism in the soil porosity. PMID:26250815

  19. Reducing Communication in Algebraic Multigrid Using Additive Variants

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Vassilevski, Panayot S.; Yang, Ulrike Meier

    2014-02-12

    Algebraic multigrid (AMG) has proven to be an effective scalable solver on many high performance computers. However, its increasing communication complexity on coarser levels has shown to seriously impact its performance on computers with high communication cost. Moreover, additive AMG variants provide not only increased parallelism as well as decreased numbers of messages per cycle but also generally exhibit slower convergence. Here we present various new additive variants with convergence rates that are significantly improved compared to the classical additive algebraic multigrid method and investigate their potential for decreased communication, and improved communication-computation overlap, features that are essential for goodmore » performance on future exascale architectures.« less

  20. Food additives reducing volatility of antioxidants at frying temperature

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    At frying temperature, antioxidants are lost not only by reaction with radicals formed by oil oxidation, but also by decomposition and evaporation before they are able to exert antioxidant activity. In this study it was hypothesized that an additive that can bind or interact with an antioxidant coul...

  1. Reduced plant uptake of pesticides with biochar additions to soil.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiang-Yang; Ying, Guang-Guo; Kookana, Rai S

    2009-07-01

    We investigated the effectiveness of two types of biochars in reducing the bioavailability of two soil-applied insecticides (chlorpyrifos and carbofuran) to Spring onion (Allium cepa). The biochars prepared from the pyrolysis of Eucalyptus spp. wood chips at 450 and 850 degrees C (BC850) were thoroughly mixed into the soil to achieve 0%, 0.1%, 0.5% and 1% by soil weight. A spring onion crop was grown for 5 wk in the biochar-amended soils spiked with 50 mgkg(-1) of each pesticide. The loss of both pesticides due to degradation and or sequestration in soils decreased significantly with increasing amounts of biochars in soil. Over 35 d, 86-88% of the pesticides were lost from the control soil, whereas it was only 51% of carbofuran and 44% of chlorpyrifos from the soil amended with 1.0% BC850. Despite greater persistence of the pesticide residues in biochar-amended soils, the plant uptake of pesticides decreased markedly with increasing biochar content of the soil. With 1% of BC850 soil amendment, the total plant residues for chlorpyrifos and carbofuran decreased to 10% and 25% of that in the control treatment, respectively. The BC850 was particularly effective in reducing phytoavailability of both pesticides from soil, due to its high affinity for and ability to sequester pesticide residues. PMID:19419749

  2. Asymmetric Assembly of All-Carbon Tertiary/Quaternary Nonadjacent Stereocenters through Organocatalytic Conjugate Addition of α-Cyanoacetates to a Methacrylate Equivalent.

    PubMed

    Iriarte, Igor; Vera, Silvia; Badiola, Eider; Mielgo, Antonia; Oiarbide, Mikel; García, Jesús M; Odriozola, José M; Palomo, Claudio

    2016-09-12

    An efficient, highly diastereo- and enantioselective assembly of acyclic carbonyl fragments possessing nonadjacent all-carbon tertiary/quaternary stereoarrays is reported based on a Brønsted base catalyzed Michael addition/α-protonation sequence involving α-cyanoacetates and 2,4-dimethyl-4-hydroxypenten-3-one as novel methacrylate equivalent. PMID:27487331

  3. Testing for Additivity in Chemical Mixtures Using a Fixed-Ratio Ray Design and Statistical Equivalence Testing Methods

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fixed-ratio ray designs have been used for detecting and characterizing interactions of large numbers of chemicals in combination. Single chemical dose-response data are used to predict an “additivity curve” along an environmentally relevant ray. A “mixture curve” is estimated fr...

  4. Determining salt concentrations for equivalent water activity in reduced-sodium cheese by use of a model system.

    PubMed

    Grummer, J; Schoenfuss, T C

    2011-09-01

    The range of sodium chloride (salt)-to-moisture ratio is critical in producing high-quality cheese products. The salt-to-moisture ratio has numerous effects on cheese quality, including controlling water activity (a(w)). Therefore, when attempting to decrease the sodium content of natural cheese it is important to calculate the amount of replacement salts necessary to create the same a(w) as the full-sodium target (when using the same cheese making procedure). Most attempts to decrease sodium using replacement salts have used concentrations too low to create the equivalent a(w) due to the differences in the molecular weight of the replacers compared with salt. This could be because of the desire to minimize off-flavors inherent in the replacement salts, but it complicates the ability to conclude that the replacement salts are the cause of off-flavors such as bitter. The objective of this study was to develop a model system that could be used to measure a(w) directly, without manufacturing cheese, to allow cheese makers to determine the salt and salt replacer concentrations needed to achieve the equivalent a(w) for their existing full-sodium control formulas. All-purpose flour, salt, and salt replacers (potassium chloride, modified potassium chloride, magnesium chloride, and calcium chloride) were blended with butter and water at concentrations that approximated the solids, fat, and moisture contents of typical Cheddar cheese. Salt and salt replacers were applied to the model systems at concentrations predicted by Raoult's law. The a(w) of the model samples was measured on a water activity meter, and concentrations were adjusted using Raoult's law if they differed from those of the full-sodium model. Based on the results determined using the model system, stirred-curd pilot-scale batches of reduced- and full-sodium Cheddar cheese were manufactured in duplicate. Water activity, pH, and gross composition were measured and evaluated statistically by linear mixed model

  5. Potential of aeration flow rate and bio-char addition to reduce greenhouse gas and ammonia emissions during manure composting.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Md Albarune; de Neergaard, Andreas; Jensen, Lars Stoumann

    2014-02-01

    Aeration is an important factor influencing CO2, CH4, N2O and NH3 emissions from the composting process. Both CH4 and N2O are potent greenhouse gases (GHG) of high importance. Here, we examined the effects of high and low aeration rates together with addition of barley straw with and without bio-char on GHG and NH3 emissions from composting cattle slurry and hen manure in small-scale laboratory composters. Depending on treatment, cumulative C losses via CO2 and CH4 emissions accounted for 11.4-22.5% and 0.004-0.2% of initial total carbon, while N losses as N2O and NH3 emissions comprised 0.05-0.1% and 0.8-26.5% of initial total nitrogen, respectively. Decreasing the flow rate reduced cumulative NH3 losses non-significantly (by 88%) but significantly increased CH4 losses (by 51%) from composting of cattle slurry with barley straw. Among the hen manure treatments evaluated, bio-char addition to composting hen manure and barley straw at low flow rates proved most effective in reducing cumulative NH3 and CH4 losses. Addition of bio-char in combination with barley straw to hen manure at both high and low flow rates reduced total GHG emissions (as CO2-equivalents) by 27-32% compared with barley straw addition alone. Comparisons of flow rates showed that low flow could be an alternative strategy for reducing NH3 losses without any significant change in N2O emissions, pointing to the need for well-controlled composting conditions if gaseous emissions are to be minimised. PMID:24210550

  6. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  7. Determination of W states equivalent under stochastic local operations and classical communication by their bipartite reduced density matrices with tree form

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xia; Tian, Guo-Jing; Huang, Wei; Wen, Qiao-Yan; Qin, Su-Juan; Gao, Fei

    2014-07-01

    It has been known that, among pure states, N-qubit W states cannot be uniquely determined by their arbitrary (N-1) bipartite reduced density matrices. Parashar and Rana proved that among arbitrary states, (N-1) bipartite reduced density matrices that the pairs of qubits constitute a star graph or a line graph can uniquely determine stochastic local operations and classical communication (SLOCC) equivalent W states, and we generalize this conclusion into tree graph. In this paper, we show that all SLOCC equivalent W states can be uniquely determined (among pure, mixed states) by their (N-1) bipartite reduced density matrices, if the (N-1) pairs of qubits constitute a tree graph on N vertices, where each pair of qubits represents an edge.

  8. Jerusalem artichoke mitochondria can export reducing equivalents in the form of malate as a result of D-lactate uptake and metabolism.

    PubMed

    de Bari, Lidia; Valenti, Daniela; Pizzuto, Roberto; Paventi, Gianluca; Atlante, Anna; Passarella, Salvatore

    2005-10-01

    We found that as a result of d-lactate uptake and metabolism by Jerusalem artichoke mitochondria, reducing equivalents were exported from the mitochondrial matrix to the exterior in the form of malate. The rate of malate efflux, as measured photometrically using NADP+ and malic enzyme, depended on the rate of transport across the mitochondrial membrane. It showed saturation characteristics (K(m) = 5 mM; V(max) = 9 nmol/min mg of mitochondrial protein) and was inhibited by non-penetrant compounds. We conclude that reducing equivalent export from mitochondria is due to the occurrence of a putative d-lactate/malate antiporter which differs from other mitochondrial carriers, as shown by the different inhibitor sensitivity. PMID:16129093

  9. Promotion of Ni2+ Removal by Masking Toxicity to Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria: Addition of Citrate

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Junwei; Zhu, Xiaoyu; Tao, Yong; Zhou, Yan; He, Xiaohong; Li, Daping

    2015-01-01

    The sulfate-reducing bioprocess is a promising technology for the treatment of heavy metal-containing wastewater. This work was conducted to investigate the possibility of promoting heavy metal removal by the addition of citrate to mask Ni2+ toxicity to sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in batch reactors. SRB growth was completely inhibited in Ni2+-containing medium (1 mM) when lactate served as the sole carbon resource, leading to no sulfate reduction and Ni2+ removal. However, after the addition of citrate, SRB grew well, and sulfate was quickly reduced to sulfide. Simultaneously, the Ni-citrate complex was biodegraded to Ni2+ and acetate. The NiS precipitate was then formed, and Ni2+ was completely removed from the solution. It was suggested that the addition of citrate greatly alleviates Ni2+ toxicity to SRB and improves the removal of Ni2+, which was confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR targeting dissimilatory sulfite reductase (dsrAB) genes. Analysis of the carbon metabolism indicated that lactate instead of acetate served as the electron donor for sulfate reduction. This study offers a potential approach to increase the removal of heavy metals from wastewater in the single stage SRB-based bioprocess. PMID:25860948

  10. Different additives to enhance the gelation of surimi gel with reduced sodium content.

    PubMed

    Cando, Deysi; Herranz, Beatriz; Borderías, A Javier; Moreno, Helena M

    2016-04-01

    This study tested the effect of adding tetra-sodium pyrophosphate, cystine and lysine as surimi gelation enhancers (Alaska Pollock) in order to reduce the sodium content of gels up to 0.3%. These gels were compared with others that contained 3% NaCl content (the amount typically used for surimi processing). To induce protein gelation, gels were first heated and then set at 5 °C/24 h. Once the physicochemical and rheological properties of the gels were determined, cystine and lysine were found to be the most effective additives improving the characteristics of low NaCl surimi gels. The action of these additives is mainly based on the induction of myofibrillar protein unfolding thus facilitating the formation of the types of bonds needed to establish an appropriate network. It was found that a setting period was needed for gel processing to maximize the effect of the additives. PMID:26593556

  11. Hydrogen sulfide production by sulfate-reducing bacteria utilizing additives eluted from plastic resins.

    PubMed

    Tsuchida, Daisuke; Kajihara, Yusuke; Shimidzu, Nobuhiro; Hamamura, Kengo; Nagase, Makoto

    2011-06-01

    In the present study it was demonstrated that organic additives eluted from plastic resins could be utilized as substrates by sulfate-reducing bacteria. Two laboratory-scale experiments, a microcosm experiment and a leaching experiment, were conducted using polyvinyl chloride (PVC) as a model plastic resin. In the former experiment, the conversion of sulfate to sulfide was evident in microcosms that received plasticized PVC as the sole carbon source, but not in those that received PVC homopolymer. Additionally, dissolved organic carbon accumulated only in microcosms that received plasticized PVC, indicating that the dissolved organic carbon originated from additives. In the leaching experiment, phenol and bisphenol A were found in the leached solutions. These results suggest that the disposal of waste plastics in inert waste landfills may result in the production of H(2)S. PMID:21135024

  12. Microplastic moves pollutants and additives to worms, reducing functions linked to health and biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Browne, Mark Anthony; Niven, Stewart J; Galloway, Tamara S; Rowland, Steve J; Thompson, Richard C

    2013-12-01

    Inadequate products, waste management, and policy are struggling to prevent plastic waste from infiltrating ecosystems [1, 2]. Disintegration into smaller pieces means that the abundance of micrometer-sized plastic (microplastic) in habitats has increased [3] and outnumbers larger debris [2, 4]. When ingested by animals, plastic provides a feasible pathway to transfer attached pollutants and additive chemicals into their tissues [5-15]. Despite positive correlations between concentrations of ingested plastic and pollutants in tissues of animals, few, if any, controlled experiments have examined whether ingested plastic transfers pollutants and additives to animals. We exposed lugworms (Arenicola marina) to sand with 5% microplastic that was presorbed with pollutants (nonylphenol and phenanthrene) and additive chemicals (Triclosan and PBDE-47). Microplastic transferred pollutants and additive chemicals into gut tissues of lugworms, causing some biological effects, although clean sand transferred larger concentrations of pollutants into their tissues. Uptake of nonylphenol from PVC or sand reduced the ability of coelomocytes to remove pathogenic bacteria by >60%. Uptake of Triclosan from PVC diminished the ability of worms to engineer sediments and caused mortality, each by >55%, while PVC alone made worms >30% more susceptible to oxidative stress. As global microplastic contamination accelerates, our findings indicate that large concentrations of microplastic and additives can harm ecophysiological functions performed by organisms. PMID:24309271

  13. Astronomy in the Cloud: Using MapReduce for Image Co-Addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiley, K.; Connolly, A.; Gardner, J.; Krughoff, S.; Balazinska, M.; Howe, B.; Kwon, Y.; Bu, Y.

    2011-03-01

    In the coming decade, astronomical surveys of the sky will generate tens of terabytes of images and detect hundreds of millions of sources every night. The study of these sources will involve computation challenges such as anomaly detection and classification and moving-object tracking. Since such studies benefit from the highest-quality data, methods such as image co-addition, i.e., astrometric registration followed by per-pixel summation, will be a critical preprocessing step prior to scientific investigation. With a requirement that these images be analyzed on a nightly basis to identify moving sources such as potentially hazardous asteroids or transient objects such as supernovae, these data streams present many computational challenges. Given the quantity of data involved, the computational load of these problems can only be addressed by distributing the workload over a large number of nodes. However, the high data throughput demanded by these applications may present scalability challenges for certain storage architectures. One scalable data-processing method that has emerged in recent years is MapReduce, and in this article we focus on its popular open-source implementation called Hadoop. In the Hadoop framework, the data are partitioned among storage attached directly to worker nodes, and the processing workload is scheduled in parallel on the nodes that contain the required input data. A further motivation for using Hadoop is that it allows us to exploit cloud computing resources: i.e., platforms where Hadoop is offered as a service. We report on our experience of implementing a scalable image-processing pipeline for the SDSS imaging database using Hadoop. This multiterabyte imaging data set provides a good testbed for algorithm development, since its scope and structure approximate future surveys. First, we describe MapReduce and how we adapted image co-addition to the MapReduce framework. Then we describe a number of optimizations to our basic approach

  14. Reducing the ordering temperature of CoPt nanoparticles by B additive

    SciTech Connect

    Khemjeen, Yutthaya; Pinitsoontorn, Supree Chompoosor, Apiwat; Maensiri, Santi

    2014-08-07

    We reported the effect of boron addition on magnetic properties and structure of CoPt nanoparticles prepared by a polyol method. The magnetic property measurement showed that the CoPt-B sample exhibited a much larger coercivity compared to the sample without B additive at the same annealing temperature. Transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy revealed that the average particle size was about 2 nm for the as-synthesized sample with the ratio of Co and Pt close to 1:1. After annealing, the particle sizes increased but the composition was maintained. The phase transformation of the nanoparticles versus temperature was investigated using a combination of X-ray diffraction and in-situ X-ray absorption analysis. It was shown that the phase transition temperature at which the nanoparticles change from the disordered A1 phase to the ordered L1{sub 0} phase occurs at temperature of 600 °C. We concluded that boron additives could reduce the ordering temperature of CoPt of about 100 °C.

  15. Linear Energy Transfer Painting With Proton Therapy: A Means of Reducing Radiation Doses With Equivalent Clinical Effectiveness

    SciTech Connect

    Fager, Marcus; Toma-Dasu, Iuliana; Kirk, Maura; Dolney, Derek; Diffenderfer, Eric S.; Vapiwala, Neha; Carabe, Alejandro

    2015-04-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to propose a proton treatment planning method that trades physical dose (D) for dose-averaged linear energy transfer (LET{sub d}) while keeping the radiobiologically weighted dose (D{sub RBE}) to the target the same. Methods and Materials: The target is painted with LET{sub d} by using 2, 4, and 7 fields aimed at the proximal segment of the target (split target planning [STP]). As the LET{sub d} within the target increases with increasing number of fields, D decreases to maintain the D{sub RBE} the same as the conventional treatment planning method by using beams treating the full target (full target planning [FTP]). Results: The LET{sub d} increased 61% for 2-field STP (2STP) compared to FTP, 72% for 4STP, and 82% for 7STP inside the target. This increase in LET{sub d} led to a decrease of D with 5.3 ± 0.6 Gy for 2STP, 4.4 ± 0.7 Gy for 4STP, and 5.3 ± 1.1 Gy for 7STP, keeping the DRBE at 90% of the volume (DRBE, 90) constant to FTP. Conclusions: LET{sub d} painting offers a method to reduce prescribed dose at no cost to the biological effectiveness of the treatment.

  16. Arsenite binding-induced zinc loss from PARP-1 is equivalent to zinc deficiency in reducing PARP-1 activity, leading to inhibition of DNA repair

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Xi; Zhou, Xixi; Du, Libo; Liu, Wenlan; Liu, Yang; Hudson, Laurie G.; Liu, Ke Jian

    2014-01-15

    Inhibition of DNA repair is a recognized mechanism for arsenic enhancement of ultraviolet radiation-induced DNA damage and carcinogenesis. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1), a zinc finger DNA repair protein, has been identified as a sensitive molecular target for arsenic. The zinc finger domains of PARP-1 protein function as a critical structure in DNA recognition and binding. Since cellular poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation capacity has been positively correlated with zinc status in cells, we hypothesize that arsenite binding-induced zinc loss from PARP-1 is equivalent to zinc deficiency in reducing PARP-1 activity, leading to inhibition of DNA repair. To test this hypothesis, we compared the effects of arsenite exposure with zinc deficiency, created by using the membrane-permeable zinc chelator TPEN, on 8-OHdG formation, PARP-1 activity and zinc binding to PARP-1 in HaCat cells. Our results show that arsenite exposure and zinc deficiency had similar effects on PARP-1 protein, whereas supplemental zinc reversed these effects. To investigate the molecular mechanism of zinc loss induced by arsenite, ICP-AES, near UV spectroscopy, fluorescence, and circular dichroism spectroscopy were utilized to examine arsenite binding and occupation of a peptide representing the first zinc finger of PARP-1. We found that arsenite binding as well as zinc loss altered the conformation of zinc finger structure which functionally leads to PARP-1 inhibition. These findings suggest that arsenite binding to PARP-1 protein created similar adverse biological effects as zinc deficiency, which establishes the molecular mechanism for zinc supplementation as a potentially effective treatment to reverse the detrimental outcomes of arsenic exposure. - Highlights: • Arsenite binding is equivalent to zinc deficiency in reducing PARP-1 function. • Zinc reverses arsenic inhibition of PARP-1 activity and enhancement of DNA damage. • Arsenite binding and zinc loss alter the conformation of zinc finger

  17. The addition of whole soy flour to cafeteria diet reduces metabolic risk markers in wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Soybean is termed a functional food because it contains bioactive compounds. However, its effects are not well known under unbalanced diet conditions. This work is aimed at evaluating the effect of adding whole soy flour to a cafeteria diet on intestinal histomorphometry, metabolic risk and toxicity markers in rats. Methods In this study, 30 male adult Wistar rats were used, distributed among three groups (n = 10): AIN-93 M diet, cafeteria diet (CAF) and cafeteria diet with soy flour (CAFS), for 56 days. The following parameters were measured: food intake; weight gain; serum concentrations of triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL-c, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), aspartate (AST) and alanine (ALT) aminotransferases and Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances (TBARS); humidity and lipid fecal content; weight and fat of the liver. The villous height, the crypt depth and the thickness of the duodenal and ileal circular and longitudinal muscle layers of the animals were also measured. Results There was a significant reduction in the food intake in the CAF group. The CAFS showed lower serum concentrations of triglycerides and serum TBARS and a lower percentage of hepatic fat, with a corresponding increase in thickness of the intestinal muscle layers. In the CAF group, an increase in the HbA1c, ALT, lipid excretion, liver TBARS and crypt depth, was observed associated with lower HDL-c and villous height. The addition of soy did not promote any change in these parameters. Conclusions The inclusion of whole soy flour in a high-fat diet may be helpful in reducing some markers of metabolic risk; however, more studies are required to clarify its effects on unbalanced diets. PMID:24119309

  18. TECHNICAL BASIS FOR DOE STANDARD 3013 EQUIVALENCY SUPPORTING REDUCED TEMPERATURE STABILIZATION OF OXALATE-DERIVED PLUTONIUM OXIDE PRODUCED BY THE HB-LINE FACILITY AT SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    SciTech Connect

    Duffey, J.; Livingston, R.; Berg, J.; Veirs, D.

    2012-07-02

    The HB-Line (HBL) facility at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is designed to produce high-purity plutonium dioxide (PuO{sub 2}) which is suitable for future use in production of Mixed Oxide (MOX) fuel. The MOX Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF) requires PuO{sub 2} feed to be packaged per the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Standard 3013 (DOE-STD-3013) to comply with the facility's safety basis. The stabilization conditions imposed by DOE-STD-3013 for PuO{sub 2} (i.e., 950 C for 2 hours) preclude use of the HBL PuO{sub 2} in direct fuel fabrication and reduce the value of the HBL product as MFFF feedstock. Consequently, HBL initiated a technical evaluation to define acceptable operating conditions for production of high-purity PuO{sub 2} that fulfills the DOE-STD-3013 criteria for safe storage. The purpose of this document is to demonstrate that within the defined operating conditions, the HBL process will be equivalent for meeting the requirements of the DOE-STD-3013 stabilization process for plutonium-bearing materials from the DOE complex. The proposed 3013 equivalency reduces the prescribed stabilization temperature for high-purity PuO{sub 2} from oxalate precipitation processes from 950 C to 640 C and places a limit of 60% on the relative humidity (RH) at the lowest material temperature. The equivalency is limited to material produced using the HBL established flow sheet, for example, nitric acid anion exchange and Pu(IV) direct strike oxalate precipitation with stabilization at a minimum temperature of 640 C for four hours (h). The product purity must meet the MFFF acceptance criteria of 23,600 {micro}g/g Pu (i.e., 2.1 wt %) total impurities and chloride content less than 250 {micro}g/g of Pu. All other stabilization and packaging criteria identified by DOE-STD-3013-2012 or earlier revisions of the standard apply. Based on the evaluation of test data discussed in this document, the expert judgment of the authors supports packaging the HBL product under a 3013

  19. Reducing metal alloy powder costs for use in powder bed fusion additive manufacturing: Improving the economics for production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medina, Fransisco

    Titanium and its associated alloys have been used in industry for over 50 years and have become more popular in the recent decades. Titanium has been most successful in areas where the high strength to weight ratio provides an advantage over aluminum and steels. Other advantages of titanium include biocompatibility and corrosion resistance. Electron Beam Melting (EBM) is an additive manufacturing (AM) technology that has been successfully applied in the manufacturing of titanium components for the aerospace and medical industry with equivalent or better mechanical properties as parts fabricated via more traditional casting and machining methods. As the demand for titanium powder continues to increase, the price also increases. Titanium spheroidized powder from different vendors has a price range from 260/kg-450/kg, other spheroidized alloys such as Niobium can cost as high as $1,200/kg. Alternative titanium powders produced from methods such as the Titanium Hydride-Dehydride (HDH) process and the Armstrong Commercially Pure Titanium (CPTi) process can be fabricated at a fraction of the cost of powders fabricated via gas atomization. The alternative powders can be spheroidized and blended. Current sectors in additive manufacturing such as the medical industry are concerned that there will not be enough spherical powder for production and are seeking other powder options. It is believed the EBM technology can use a blend of spherical and angular powder to build fully dense parts with equal mechanical properties to those produced using traditional powders. Some of the challenges with angular and irregular powders are overcoming the poor flow characteristics and the attainment of the same or better packing densities as spherical powders. The goal of this research is to demonstrate the feasibility of utilizing alternative and lower cost powders in the EBM process. As a result, reducing the cost of the raw material to reduce the overall cost of the product produced with

  20. Reduced Need of Lubricity Additives in Soybean Oil Blends Under Boundary Lubrication Conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Converging prices of vegetable oils and petroleum, along with increased focus on renewable resources, gave more momentum to vegetable oil lubricants. Boundary lubrication properties of four Extreme Pressure (EP) additive blends in conventional Soy Bean Oil (SBO) and Paraffinic Mineral Oil (PMO) of ...

  1. Experimental additions of aluminum sulfate and ammonium nitrate to in situ mesocosms to reduce cyanobacterial biovolume and microcystin concentration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harris, Ted D.; Wilhelm, Frank M.; Graham, Jennifer L.; Loftin, Keith A.

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that nitrogen additions to increase the total nitrogen:total phosphorus (TN:TP) ratio may reduce cyanobacterial biovolume and microcystin concentration in reservoirs. In systems where TP is >100 μg/L, however, nitrogen additions to increase the TN:TP ratio could cause ammonia, nitrate, or nitrite toxicity to terrestrial and aquatic organisms. Reducing phosphorus via aluminum sulfate (alum) may be needed prior to nitrogen additions aimed at increasing the TN:TP ratio. We experimentally tested this sequential management approach in large in situ mesocosms (70.7 m3) to examine effects on cyanobacteria and microcystin concentration. Because alum removes nutrients and most seston from the water column, alum treatment reduced both TN and TP, leaving post-treatment TN:TP ratios similar to pre-treatment ratios. Cyanobacterial biovolume was reduced after alum addition, but the percent composition (i.e., relative) cyanobacterial abundance remained unchanged. A single ammonium nitrate (nitrogen) addition increased the TN:TP ratio 7-fold. After the TN:TP ratio was >50 (by weight), cyanobacterial biovolume and abundance were reduced, and chrysophyte and cryptophyte biovolume and abundance increased compared to the alum treatment. Microcystin was not detectable until the TN:TP ratio was <50. Although both treatments reduced cyanobacteria, only the nitrogen treatment seemed to stimulate energy flow from primary producers to zooplankton, which suggests that combining alum and nitrogen treatments may be a viable in-lake management strategy to reduce cyanobacteria and possibly microcystin concentrations in high-phosphorus systems. Additional studies are needed to define best management practices before combined alum and nitrogen additions are implemented as a reservoir management strategy.

  2. Reducing the matrix effects in chemical analysis: fusion of isotope dilution and standard addition methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagliano, Enea; Meija, Juris

    2016-04-01

    The combination of isotope dilution and mass spectrometry has become an ubiquitous tool of chemical analysis. Often perceived as one of the most accurate methods of chemical analysis, it is not without shortcomings. Current isotope dilution equations are not capable of fully addressing one of the key problems encountered in chemical analysis: the possible effect of sample matrix on measured isotope ratios. The method of standard addition does compensate for the effect of sample matrix by making sure that all measured solutions have identical composition. While it is impossible to attain such condition in traditional isotope dilution, we present equations which allow for matrix-matching between all measured solutions by fusion of isotope dilution and standard addition methods.

  3. Rheological Modification of Reduced Fat Chocolate Induced by the Addition of Limonene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Do, T.-A. Line; Vieira, Joselio; Hargreaves, Jeremy; Wolf, Bettina; Mitchell, John

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this study is to understand how the addition of limonene, a low molecular weight hydrophobic compound, to chocolate, leads to a decrease in the viscosity of molten chocolate. Chocolate is a fat (cocoa butter) based dispersion of solids (sugar, cocoa and milk solids). We showed that, by mixing with cocoa butter, limonene decreases the viscosity of chocolate by decreasing the viscosity of its continuous phase, liquid cocoa butter. To understand the functionality of limonene in decreasing the viscosity of cocoa butter (triacylglyceride melt), additional mixtures of cocoa butter and limonene were prepared and their viscosity was measured. The dependence of the viscosity on the ratio of cocoa butter to limonene analyzed using Kay's equation seems to indicate that limonene mixes with and within the cocoa butter triacylglycerides, diluting the fat and leading to a decrease in the overall fat viscosity.

  4. Energy efficient reduced graphene oxide additives: Mechanism of effective lubrication and antiwear properties

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Bhavana; Kumar, N.; Panda, Kalpataru; Dash, S.; Tyagi, A. K.

    2016-01-01

    Optimized concentration of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) in the lube is one of the important factors for effective lubrication of solid body contacts. At sufficiently lower concentration, the lubrication is ineffective and friction/wear is dominated by base oil. In contrast, at sufficiently higher concentration, the rGO sheets aggregates in the oil and weak interlayer sliding characteristic of graphene sheets is no more active for providing lubrication. However, at optimized concentration, friction coefficient and wear is remarkably reduced to 70% and 50%, respectively, as compared to neat oil. Traditionally, such lubrication is described by graphene/graphite particle deposited in contact surfaces that provides lower shear strength of boundary tribofilm. In the present investigation, graphene/graphite tribofilm was absent and existing traditional lubrication mechanism for the reduction of friction and wear is ruled out. It is demonstrated that effective lubrication is possible, if rGO is chemically linked with PEG molecules through hydrogen bonding and PEG intercalated graphene sheets provide sufficiently lower shear strength of freely suspended composite tribofilm under the contact pressure. The work revealed that physical deposition and adsorption of the graphene sheets in the metallic contacts is not necessary for the lubrication. PMID:26725334

  5. Energy efficient reduced graphene oxide additives: Mechanism of effective lubrication and antiwear properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Bhavana; Kumar, N.; Panda, Kalpataru; Dash, S.; Tyagi, A. K.

    2016-01-01

    Optimized concentration of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) in the lube is one of the important factors for effective lubrication of solid body contacts. At sufficiently lower concentration, the lubrication is ineffective and friction/wear is dominated by base oil. In contrast, at sufficiently higher concentration, the rGO sheets aggregates in the oil and weak interlayer sliding characteristic of graphene sheets is no more active for providing lubrication. However, at optimized concentration, friction coefficient and wear is remarkably reduced to 70% and 50%, respectively, as compared to neat oil. Traditionally, such lubrication is described by graphene/graphite particle deposited in contact surfaces that provides lower shear strength of boundary tribofilm. In the present investigation, graphene/graphite tribofilm was absent and existing traditional lubrication mechanism for the reduction of friction and wear is ruled out. It is demonstrated that effective lubrication is possible, if rGO is chemically linked with PEG molecules through hydrogen bonding and PEG intercalated graphene sheets provide sufficiently lower shear strength of freely suspended composite tribofilm under the contact pressure. The work revealed that physical deposition and adsorption of the graphene sheets in the metallic contacts is not necessary for the lubrication.

  6. Numerical study of water entry supercavitating flow around a vertical circular cylinder influenced by turbulent drag-reducing additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, C. X.; Cheng, J. P.; Li, F. C.

    2015-01-01

    This paper attempts to introduce a numerical simulation procedure to simulate water-entry problems influenced by turbulent drag-reducing additives in a viscous incompressible medium. Firstly we performed a numerical investigation on water-entry supercavities in water and turbulent drag-reducing solution at the impact velocity of 28.4 m/s to confirm the accuracy of the numerical method. Based on the verification, projectile entering water and turbulent drag-reducing solution at relatively high velocity of 142.7 m/s (phase transition is considered) is simulated. The cross viscosity equation was adopted to represent the shear-thinning characteristic of aqueous solution of drag-reducing additives. The configuration and dynamic characteristics of water entry supercavity, flow resistance were discussed respectively. It was obtained that the numerical simulation results are in consistence with experimental data. Numerical results show that the supercavity length in drag-reducing solution is larger than one in water and the velocity attenuates faster at high velocity than at low velocity; the influence of drag-reducing solution is more obvious at high impact velocity. Turbulent drag-reducing additives have the great potential for enhancement of supercavity.

  7. Stereoselective reaction of 2-carboxythioesters-1,3-dithiane with nitroalkenes: an organocatalytic strategy for the asymmetric addition of a glyoxylate anion equivalent.

    PubMed

    Massolo, Elisabetta; Benaglia, Maurizio; Genoni, Andrea; Annunziata, Rita; Celentano, Giuseppe; Gaggero, Nicoletta

    2015-05-28

    An efficient organocatalytic methodology has been developed to perform the stereoselective addition of 2-carboxythioesters-1,3-dithiane to nitroalkenes. Under mild reaction conditions γ-nitro-β-aryl-α-keto esters with up to 92% ee were obtained, realizing a formal catalytic stereoselective conjugate addition of the glyoxylate anion synthon. The reaction products are versatile starting materials for further synthetic transformations; for example, the simultaneous reduction of the nitro group and removal of the dithiane ring was accomplished, allowing the preparation of a GABAB receptor agonist baclofen. PMID:25883074

  8. Additional sensory information reduces body sway of individuals with anterior cruciate ligament injury.

    PubMed

    Bonfim, Thatia Regina; Grossi, Débora Bevilaqua; Paccola, Cleber Antonio Jansen; Barela, José Angelo

    2008-08-29

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the additional sensory information could improve postural control in individuals with unilateral anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. Twenty-eight individuals with unilateral ACL injury (mean age 23.6, 26 males, 2 females) and 28 healthy young control subjects (mean age 22.1 years, 26 males, 2 females) participated in this study. Postural control was evaluated with subjects single-leg standing on a force platform with eyes closed under two sensory conditions: normal sensory information and light touch to a stationary bar (applied force below 1N). Three trials of 30s were performed in each single-leg stance and in each sensory condition. Mean sway amplitude and predominant frequency of center of pressure were calculated for both anterior-posterior and medial-lateral directions. Individuals with ACL injury showed greater mean sway amplitude than healthy control individuals even though the predominant frequency was similar for both groups. Additional sensory information improved postural control performance in individuals with ACL injury and healthy control, with a greater effect observed for the ACL group. Based on these results, we suggest that reduction in postural control performance in individuals with ACL injury would be due to the reduction of sensory information provided by the ACL, but when sensory information is enhanced, postural control performance improves. These results have implications for novel approaches to improve stability in individuals with ACL injury. PMID:18582536

  9. Reducing model uncertainty effects in flexible manipulators through the addition of passive damping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alberts, T. E.

    1987-01-01

    An important issue in the control of practical systems is the effect of model uncertainty on closed loop performance. This is of particular concern when flexible structures are to be controlled, due to the fact that states associated with higher frequency vibration modes are truncated in order to make the control problem tractable. Digital simulations of a single-link manipulator system are employed to demonstrate that passive damping added to the flexible member reduces adverse effects associated with model uncertainty. A controller was designed based on a model including only one flexible mode. This controller was applied to larger order systems to evaluate the effects of modal truncation. Simulations using a Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) design assuming full state feedback illustrate the effect of control spillover. Simulations of a system using output feedback illustrate the destabilizing effect of observation spillover. The simulations reveal that the system with passive damping is less susceptible to these effects than the untreated case.

  10. Arsenite binding-induced zinc loss from PARP-1 is equivalent to zinc deficiency in reducing PARP-1 activity, leading to inhibition of DNA repair.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xi; Zhou, Xixi; Du, Libo; Liu, Wenlan; Liu, Yang; Hudson, Laurie G; Liu, Ke Jian

    2014-01-15

    Inhibition of DNA repair is a recognized mechanism for arsenic enhancement of ultraviolet radiation-induced DNA damage and carcinogenesis. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1), a zinc finger DNA repair protein, has been identified as a sensitive molecular target for arsenic. The zinc finger domains of PARP-1 protein function as a critical structure in DNA recognition and binding. Since cellular poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation capacity has been positively correlated with zinc status in cells, we hypothesize that arsenite binding-induced zinc loss from PARP-1 is equivalent to zinc deficiency in reducing PARP-1 activity, leading to inhibition of DNA repair. To test this hypothesis, we compared the effects of arsenite exposure with zinc deficiency, created by using the membrane-permeable zinc chelator TPEN, on 8-OHdG formation, PARP-1 activity and zinc binding to PARP-1 in HaCat cells. Our results show that arsenite exposure and zinc deficiency had similar effects on PARP-1 protein, whereas supplemental zinc reversed these effects. To investigate the molecular mechanism of zinc loss induced by arsenite, ICP-AES, near UV spectroscopy, fluorescence, and circular dichroism spectroscopy were utilized to examine arsenite binding and occupation of a peptide representing the first zinc finger of PARP-1. We found that arsenite binding as well as zinc loss altered the conformation of zinc finger structure which functionally leads to PARP-1 inhibition. These findings suggest that arsenite binding to PARP-1 protein created similar adverse biological effects as zinc deficiency, which establishes the molecular mechanism for zinc supplementation as a potentially effective treatment to reverse the detrimental outcomes of arsenic exposure. PMID:24275069

  11. Effects of reduced pressure and additives on streamers in white oil in long point-plane gap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dung, N. V.; Høidalen, H. K.; Linhjell, D.; Lundgaard, L. E.; Unge, M.

    2013-06-01

    Recent experiments show that modern dielectric liquids behave differently from traditional mineral oil, particularly with respect to breakdown voltages for lightning impulse. This paper describes an experimental investigation addressing underlying reasons for this. The influences of reduced pressure and additives on streamers in white oil were investigated under both positive and negative polarities using an 8 cm long point-plane gap. Reduced pressure significantly accelerates streamers, thus increasing stopping length and reducing both breakdown and acceleration voltages. With increasing applied voltage, different typical propagation modes of streamers were recorded for both polarities. A low ionization potential additive strongly affects positive streamers. It significantly changes streamer velocity and reduces the breakdown voltage but increases the acceleration voltage where breakdown streamer velocity increases drastically. Adding an electron scavenger influences streamers of both polarities, but it mainly increases the velocity of negative streamers and results in a reduction of both the breakdown and the acceleration voltages. The propagation mechanisms of streamers are also discussed.

  12. Reorganizing Nigeria's Vaccine Supply Chain Reduces Need For Additional Storage Facilities, But More Storage Is Required.

    PubMed

    Shittu, Ekundayo; Harnly, Melissa; Whitaker, Shanta; Miller, Roger

    2016-02-01

    One of the major problems facing Nigeria's vaccine supply chain is the lack of adequate vaccine storage facilities. Despite the introduction of solar-powered refrigerators and the use of new tools to monitor supply levels, this problem persists. Using data on vaccine supply for 2011-14 from Nigeria's National Primary Health Care Development Agency, we created a simulation model to explore the effects of variance in supply and demand on storage capacity requirements. We focused on the segment of the supply chain that moves vaccines inside Nigeria. Our findings suggest that 55 percent more vaccine storage capacity is needed than is currently available. We found that reorganizing the supply chain as proposed by the National Primary Health Care Development Agency could reduce that need to 30 percent more storage. Storage requirements varied by region of the country and vaccine type. The Nigerian government may want to consider the differences in storage requirements by region and vaccine type in its proposed reorganization efforts. PMID:26858383

  13. Longevity and effectiveness of aluminum addition to reduce sediment phosphorus release and restore lake water quality.

    PubMed

    Huser, Brian J; Egemose, Sara; Harper, Harvey; Hupfer, Michael; Jensen, Henning; Pilgrim, Keith M; Reitzel, Kasper; Rydin, Emil; Futter, Martyn

    2016-06-15

    114 lakes treated with aluminum (Al) salts to reduce internal phosphorus (P) loading were analyzed to identify factors driving longevity of post-treatment water quality improvements. Lakes varied greatly in morphology, applied Al dose, and other factors that may have affected overall treatment effectiveness. Treatment longevity based on declines in epilimnetic total P (TP) concentration averaged 11 years for all lakes (range of 0-45 years). When longevity estimates were used for lakes with improved conditions through the end of measurements, average longevity increased to 15 years. Significant differences in treatment longevity between deeper, stratified lakes (mean 21 years) and shallow, polymictic lakes (mean 5.7 years) were detected, indicating factors related to lake morphology are important for treatment success. A decision tree developed using a partition model suggested Al dose, Osgood index (OI, a morphological index), and watershed to lake area ratio (related to hydraulic residence time, WA:LA) were the most important variables determining treatment longevity. Multiple linear regression showed that Al dose, WA:LA, and OI explained 47, 32 and 3% respectively of the variation in treatment longevity. Other variables (too data limited to include in the analysis) also appeared to be of importance, including sediment P content to Al dose ratios and the presence of benthic feeding fish in shallow, polymictic lakes. PMID:26250754

  14. Additives to reduce susceptibility of thermosets and thermoplastics to erosion from atomic oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orwoll, Robert A.

    1990-01-01

    Polymeric materials have many attractive features such as light weight, high strength, and broad applicability in the form of films, fibers, and molded objects. In low earth orbit (LEO), these materials, when exposed on the exterior of the spacecraft, have the serious disadvantage of being susceptible to erosion by atomic oxygen (AO). AO is the most common chemical species at LEO altitudes. AO can be an extremely efficient oxidizing agent as was apparent from the extensive erosion of organic films exposed in STS missions. The mechanism for erosion involves the reaction of oxygen atoms at the surface of the substrate to form small molecular species. The susceptibility of polymeric materials varies with their chemical composition. Films with silicon atoms incorporated in the molecular structures have large coefficients of thermal expansion. This limits their utility. In an alternative approach additives were sought that mix physically and form a protective oxide layer when the film is exposed to AO. A large number of organic compounds containing silicon, germanium, or tin atoms were screened. Most were found to have very limited solubility in the polyetherimide (Ultem) films that were being protected from AO. However, one, bis(triphenyl tin) oxide, (BTO), is miscible in Ultem up to about 25 percent. Films of Ultem polyimide containing up to 25 wt percent BTO were prepared by evaporation of solvent from a solution of Ultem and BTO. The effects of AO on these films were simulated in the oxygen atmosphere of a radio frequency glow-discharge chamber. In the second part of this study, atoms were incorporated in epoxy resins. Experiments are in progress to measure the resistance of films of the cured epoxy to AO in the discharge chamber.

  15. PATHOGEN EQUIVALENCY COMMITTEE (PEC)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency created the PEC in 1985 to make recommendations to EPA and State managers on the equivalency of unproven sewage sludge disinfection technologies/processes to either a Process to Significantly Reduce Pathogens (PSRP) or a Process to Further...

  16. Establishing Substantial Equivalence: Transcriptomics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baudo, María Marcela; Powers, Stephen J.; Mitchell, Rowan A. C.; Shewry, Peter R.

    Regulatory authorities in Western Europe require transgenic crops to be substantially equivalent to conventionally bred forms if they are to be approved for commercial production. One way to establish substantial equivalence is to compare the transcript profiles of developing grain and other tissues of transgenic and conventionally bred lines, in order to identify any unintended effects of the transformation process. We present detailed protocols for transcriptomic comparisons of developing wheat grain and leaf material, and illustrate their use by reference to our own studies of lines transformed to express additional gluten protein genes controlled by their own endosperm-specific promoters. The results show that the transgenes present in these lines (which included those encoding marker genes) did not have any significant unpredicted effects on the expression of endogenous genes and that the transgenic plants were therefore substantially equivalent to the corresponding parental lines.

  17. Experimental study on the characteristics of ventilated cavitation around an underwater navigating body influenced by turbulent drag-reducing additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, ChenXing; Li, FengChen

    2015-09-01

    In this study, a new control strategy for turbulent drag reduction involving ventilated cavitation is proposed. The configurational and hydrodynamic characteristics of ventilated cavities influenced by turbulent drag-reducing additives were experimentally studied in water tunnel. The test model was fixed in the water tunnel by a strut in the aft-part. Aqueous solutions of CTAC/NaSal (cetyltrimethyl ammonium chloride/sodium salicylate) with weight concentrations of 100, 200, 400 and 600 ppm (part per million), respectively, were injected into the ventilated air cavity from the edge of the cavitator with accurate control by an injection pump. The cavity configurations were recorded by a high-speed CCD camera. The hydrodynamic characteristics of the test model were measured by a six-component balance. Experimental results show that, within the presently tested cases, the lengths of cavity influenced by drag-reducing solution are smaller than normal condition (ventilated cavity) in water, but the asymmetry of the cavity is improved. The drag resisted by the test model is reduced dramatically (the maximum drag reduction can reach to 80%) and the re-entrant jet is more complex after the CTAC solution is injected into the cavity. Turbulent drag-reducing additives have the potential in enhancement of supercavitating asymmetry and further drag reduction.

  18. TECHNICAL BASIS FOR DOE STANDARD 3013 EQUIVALENCY SUPPORTING REDUCED TEMPERATURE STABILIZATION OF OXALATE-DERIVED PLUTONIUM DIOXIDE PRODUCED BY THE HB-LINE FACILITY AT SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    SciTech Connect

    Duffey, J. M.; Livingston, R. R.; Berg, J. M.; Veirs, D. K.

    2013-02-06

    This report documents the technical basis for determining that stabilizing highpurity PuO{sub 2} derived from oxalate precipitation at the SRS HB-Line facility at a minimum of 625 {degree}C for at least four hours in an oxidizing atmosphere is equivalent to stabilizing at a minimum of 950 {degree}C for at least two hours as regards meeting the objectives of stabilization defined by DOE-STD-3013 if the material is handled in a way to prevent excessive absorption of water.

  19. Large-scale Manufacturing of Nanoparticulate-based Lubrication Additives for Improved Energy Efficiency and Reduced Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Erdemir, Ali

    2013-09-26

    This project was funded under the Department of Energy (DOE) Lab Call on Nanomanufacturing for Energy Efficiency and was directed toward the development of novel boron-based nanocolloidal lubrication additives for improving the friction and wear performance of machine components in a wide range of industrial and transportation applications. Argonne's research team concentrated on the scientific and technical aspects of the project, using a range of state-of-the art analytical and tribological test facilities. Argonne has extensive past experience and expertise in working with boron-based solid and liquid lubrication additives, and has intellectual property ownership of several. There were two industrial collaborators in this project: Ashland Oil (represented by its Valvoline subsidiary) and Primet Precision Materials, Inc. (a leading nanomaterials company). There was also a sub-contract with the University of Arkansas. The major objectives of the project were to develop novel boron-based nanocolloidal lubrication additives and to optimize and verify their performance under boundary-lubricated sliding conditions. The project also tackled problems related to colloidal dispersion, larger-scale manufacturing and blending of nano-additives with base carrier oils. Other important issues dealt with in the project were determination of the optimum size and concentration of the particles and compatibility with various base fluids and/or additives. Boron-based particulate additives considered in this project included boric acid (H{sub 3}BO{sub 3}), hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN), boron oxide, and borax. As part of this project, we also explored a hybrid MoS{sub 2} + boric acid formulation approach for more effective lubrication and reported the results. The major motivation behind this work was to reduce energy losses related to friction and wear in a wide spectrum of mechanical systems and thereby reduce our dependence on imported oil. Growing concern over greenhouse gas

  20. Reducing Dangerous Effects of Unsymmetrical Dimethylhydrazine as a Liquid Propellant by Addition of Hydroxyethylhydrazine—Part I: Physical Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keshavarz, Mohammad Hossein; Ramadan, Alireza; Mousaviazar, Ali; Zali, Abbas; Esmaeilpour, Karim; Atabaki, Fariborz; Shokrolahi, Arash

    2011-01-01

    In this work, the effect of low volatile hydroxyethylhydrazine (HEH) as a solute on unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine (UDMH) has been studied in order to reduce harmful effects of UDMH vapors. Desirable physical properties of binary mixtures UDMH/HEH have been measured and compared to pure UDMH. These properties include boiling point, viscosity, density, and vapor pressure that are important for using binary mixtures of UDMH/HEH as less dangerous liquid propellants. Due to the formation of strong hydrogen bonding between UDMH and HEH, the volatility of UDMH has been reduced appreciably upon the addition of HEH. It is indicated that the measured physical properties may deviate significantly compared to corresponding predicted values. Binary mixtures of UDMH/HEH can also react spontaneously in contact with nitrogen tetroxide (NTO) and red fuming nitric acid (RFNA), so they can be called hypergolic propellants.

  1. The mechanism of alkene addition to a nickel bis(dithiolene) complex: the role of the reduced metal complex.

    PubMed

    Dang, Li; Shibl, Mohamed F; Yang, Xinzheng; Alak, Aiman; Harrison, Daniel J; Fekl, Ulrich; Brothers, Edward N; Hall, Michael B

    2012-03-14

    The binding of an alkene by Ni(tfd)(2) [tfd = S(2)C(2)(CF(3))(2)] is one of the most intriguing ligand-based reactions. In the presence of the anionic, reduced metal complex, the primary product is an interligand adduct, while in the absence of the anion, dihydrodithiins and metal complex decomposition products are preferred. New kinetic (global analysis) and computational (DFT) data explain the crucial role of the anion in suppressing decomposition and catalyzing the formation of the interligand product through a dimetallic complex that appears to catalyze alkene addition across the Ni-S bond, leading to a lower barrier for the interligand adduct. PMID:22364208

  2. Addition of Selenium Nanoparticles to Electrospun Silk Scaffold Improves the Mammalian Cell Activity While Reducing Bacterial Growth

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Stanley; Ercan, Batur; Roy, Amit K.; Webster, Thomas J.

    2016-01-01

    Silk possesses many beneficial wound healing properties, and electrospun scaffolds are especially applicable for skin applications, due to their smaller interstices and higher surface areas. However, purified silk promotes microbial growth. Selenium nanoparticles have shown excellent antibacterial properties and are a novel antimicrobial chemistry. Here, electrospun silk scaffolds were doped with selenium nanoparticles to impart antibacterial properties to the silk scaffolds. Results showed significantly improved bacterial inhibition and mild improvement in human dermal fibroblast metabolic activity. These results suggest that the addition of selenium nanoparticles to electrospun silk is a promising approach to improve wound healing with reduced infection, without relying on antibiotics. PMID:27471473

  3. Metal beta-diketonate chelates as emissions-reducing fuel additives and a lanthanide-containing polymeric selective sorbent

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, E.J.

    1985-01-01

    Metal chelates of the anion of H(tod), 2,2,7-trimethyl-3,5-octanedione, have been synthesized and studied for use as emissions-reducing fuel additives. The thermal stability and volatility of complexes containing Co(III), Ni(II), Mn(II) and Ce(IV) were examined. These metal complexes exhibit very high solubilities in solvents such as n-hexane and are unusually volatile and thermally stable compounds. The structure of Cu(tod)/sub 2/ was determined by x-ray crystallography. Tests using Mn(tod)/sub 3/, Cu(tod)/sub 2/ and Ce(tod)/sub 4/ as fuel additives for gasoline engines indicated that dissolution of Mn(tod)/sub 3/ in test fuels can lower carbon monoxide levels in exhaust gas. The total hydrocarbon concentration and the relative concentrations of twenty hydrocarbon compounds in the exhaust were unaffected by the addition of these fuel additives to test fuel. A new porous polymer sorbent material has been developed which exhibits large breakthrough volumes for nucleophilic compounds. A styrene-divinylbenzene copolymer was modified such that fluorinated beta-diketone moieties were bonded to the phenyl rings in the polymer. Europium(III) ions were then incorporated in the modified polmer by complexation with the bound ligands. This study showed that the Eu(III)-containing polymer can retain nucleophilic species, such as aldehydes and ketones, when used as a trapping sorbent in air analysis. Apparently the retention of these compounds occurs via complexation with immobilized Eu(III) ions. The retention is thermally reversible, which allows sorbed compounds to be desorbed for gas chromatographic analysis.

  4. Using a Non-Equivalent Groups Quasi Experimental Design to Reduce Internal Validity Threats to Claims Made by Math and Science K-12 Teacher Recruitment Programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moin, Laura

    2009-10-01

    The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act national policy established in 2009 calls for ``meaningful data'' that demonstrate educational improvements, including the recruitment of high-quality teachers. The scant data available and the low credibility of many K-12 math/science teacher recruitment program evaluations remain the major barriers for the identification of effective recruitment strategies. Our study presents a methodology to better evaluate the impact of recruitment programs on increasing participants' interest in teaching careers. The research capitalizes on the use of several control groups and presents a non-equivalent groups quasi-experimental evaluation design that produces program effect claims with higher internal validity than claims generated by current program evaluations. With this method that compares responses to a teaching career interest question from undergraduates all along a continuum from just attending an information session to participating (or not) in the recruitment program, we were able to compare the effect of the program in increasing participants' interest in teaching careers versus the evolution of the same interest but in the absence of the program. We were also able to make suggestions for program improvement and further research. While our findings may not apply to other K-12 math/science teacher recruitment programs, we believe that our evaluation methodology does and will contribute to conduct stronger program evaluations. In so doing, our evaluation procedure may inform recruitment program designers and policy makers.

  5. Reference Alloy Waste Form Fabrication and Initiation of Reducing Atmosphere and Reductive Additives Study on Alloy Waste Form Fabrication

    SciTech Connect

    S.M. Frank; T.P. O'Holleran; P.A. Hahn

    2011-09-01

    This report describes the fabrication of two reference alloy waste forms, RAW-1(Re) and RAW-(Tc) using an optimized loading and heating method. The composition of the alloy materials was based on a generalized formulation to process various proposed feed streams resulting from the processing of used fuel. Waste elements are introduced into molten steel during alloy fabrication and, upon solidification, become incorporated into durable iron-based intermetallic phases of the alloy waste form. The first alloy ingot contained surrogate (non-radioactive), transition-metal fission products with rhenium acting as a surrogate for technetium. The second alloy ingot contained the same components as the first ingot, but included radioactive Tc-99 instead of rhenium. Understanding technetium behavior in the waste form is of particular importance due the longevity of Tc-99 and its mobility in the biosphere in the oxide form. RAW-1(Re) and RAW-1(Tc) are currently being used as test specimens in the comprehensive testing program investigating the corrosion and radionuclide release mechanisms of the representative alloy waste form. Also described in this report is the experimental plan to study the effects of reducing atmospheres and reducing additives to the alloy material during fabrication in an attempt to maximize the oxide content of waste streams that can be accommodated in the alloy waste form. Activities described in the experimental plan will be performed in FY12. The first aspect of the experimental plan is to study oxide formation on the alloy by introducing O2 impurities in the melt cover gas or from added oxide impurities in the feed materials. Reducing atmospheres will then be introduced to the melt cover gas in an attempt to minimize oxide formation during alloy fabrication. The second phase of the experimental plan is to investigate melting parameters associated with alloy fabrication to allow the separation of slag and alloy components of the melt.

  6. The effect of small additional elements on the precipitation of reduced activation Fe9Cr2W steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibayama, T.; Kimura, A.; Kayano, H.

    1996-10-01

    In order to study effects of small additional elements on precipitation of reduced activation Fe9Cr2W steels were irradiated up to 60 dpa at 693 K, 698 K and 733 K in FFTF. Micro-voids were observed in both materials of Fe9Cr2W with or without boron, the density of micro-voids in the steel with boron is larger than without boron, and the mean size of micro-voids is smaller than that without boron. However void swelling was less than 1%. Many precipitates were found to be M 23C 6 which consists of mainly Cr. Several precipitates which were Ti rich including Si and W were also observed at grain boundary at 733 K. Several Y 2O 3 particles was observed in an yttrium containing alloy. No precipitation including Al was observed in an Al containing alloy. Ti addition decreased precipitation of Ta-rich M 6C in 9Cr and 12Cr steels in this irradiation condition.

  7. Coculture with astrocytes reduces the radiosensitivity of glioblastoma stem-like cells and identifies additional targets for radiosensitization

    PubMed Central

    Rath, Barbara H; Wahba, Amy; Camphausen, Kevin; Tofilon, Philip J

    2015-01-01

    Toward developing a model system for investigating the role of the microenvironment in the radioresistance of glioblastoma (GBM), human glioblastoma stem-like cells (GSCs) were grown in coculture with human astrocytes. Using a trans-well assay, survival analyses showed that astrocytes significantly decreased the radiosensitivity of GSCs compared to standard culture conditions. In addition, when irradiated in coculture, the initial level of radiation-induced γH2AX foci in GSCs was reduced and foci dispersal was enhanced suggesting that the presence of astrocytes influenced the induction and repair of DNA double-strand breaks. These data indicate that astrocytes can decrease the radiosensitivity of GSCs in vitro via a paracrine-based mechanism and further support a role for the microenvironment as a determinant of GBM radioresponse. Chemokine profiling of coculture media identified a number of bioactive molecules not present under standard culture conditions. The gene expression profiles of GSCs grown in coculture were significantly different as compared to GSCs grown alone. These analyses were consistent with an astrocyte-mediated modification in GSC phenotype and, moreover, suggested a number of potential targets for GSC radiosensitization that were unique to coculture conditions. Along these lines, STAT3 was activated in GSCs grown with astrocytes; the JAK/STAT3 inhibitor WP1066 enhanced the radiosensitivity of GSCs under coculture conditions and when grown as orthotopic xenografts. Further, this coculture system may also provide an approach for identifying additional targets for GBM radiosensitization. PMID:26518290

  8. Third Trimester Equivalent Alcohol Exposure Reduces Modulation of Glutamatergic Synaptic Transmission by 5-HT1A Receptors in the Rat Hippocampal CA3 Region

    PubMed Central

    Morton, Russell A.; Valenzuela, C. Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Fetal alcohol exposure has been associated with many neuropsychiatric disorders that have been linked to altered serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) signaling, including depression and anxiety. During the first 2 weeks of postnatal life in rodents (equivalent to the third trimester of human pregnancy) 5-HT neurons undergo significant functional maturation and their axons reach target regions in the forebrain (e.g., cortex and hippocampus). The objective of this study was to identify the effects of third trimester ethanol (EtOH) exposure on hippocampal 5-HT signaling. Using EtOH vapor inhalation chambers, we exposed rat pups to EtOH for 4 h/day from postnatal day (P) 2 to P12. The average serum EtOH concentration in the pups was 0.13 ± 0.04 g/dl (legal intoxication limit in humans = 0.08 g/dl). We used brain slices to assess the modulatory actions of 5-HT on field excitatory postsynaptic potentials in the hippocampal CA3 region at P13-P15. Application of the GABAA/glycine receptor antagonist, picrotoxin, caused broadening of field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSPs), an effect that was reversed by application of 5-HT in slices from air exposed rats. However, this effect of 5-HT was absent in EtOH exposed animals. In slices from naïve animals, application of a 5-HT1A receptor antagonist blocked the effect of 5-HT on the fEPSPs recorded in presence of picrotoxin, suggesting that third trimester ethanol exposure acts by inhibiting the function of these receptors. Studies indicate that 5-HT1A receptors play a critical role in the development of hippocampal circuits. Therefore, inhibition of these receptors by third trimester ethanol exposure could contribute to the pathophysiology of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. PMID:27375424

  9. Third Trimester Equivalent Alcohol Exposure Reduces Modulation of Glutamatergic Synaptic Transmission by 5-HT1A Receptors in the Rat Hippocampal CA3 Region.

    PubMed

    Morton, Russell A; Valenzuela, C Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Fetal alcohol exposure has been associated with many neuropsychiatric disorders that have been linked to altered serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) signaling, including depression and anxiety. During the first 2 weeks of postnatal life in rodents (equivalent to the third trimester of human pregnancy) 5-HT neurons undergo significant functional maturation and their axons reach target regions in the forebrain (e.g., cortex and hippocampus). The objective of this study was to identify the effects of third trimester ethanol (EtOH) exposure on hippocampal 5-HT signaling. Using EtOH vapor inhalation chambers, we exposed rat pups to EtOH for 4 h/day from postnatal day (P) 2 to P12. The average serum EtOH concentration in the pups was 0.13 ± 0.04 g/dl (legal intoxication limit in humans = 0.08 g/dl). We used brain slices to assess the modulatory actions of 5-HT on field excitatory postsynaptic potentials in the hippocampal CA3 region at P13-P15. Application of the GABAA/glycine receptor antagonist, picrotoxin, caused broadening of field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSPs), an effect that was reversed by application of 5-HT in slices from air exposed rats. However, this effect of 5-HT was absent in EtOH exposed animals. In slices from naïve animals, application of a 5-HT1A receptor antagonist blocked the effect of 5-HT on the fEPSPs recorded in presence of picrotoxin, suggesting that third trimester ethanol exposure acts by inhibiting the function of these receptors. Studies indicate that 5-HT1A receptors play a critical role in the development of hippocampal circuits. Therefore, inhibition of these receptors by third trimester ethanol exposure could contribute to the pathophysiology of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. PMID:27375424

  10. Sodium Benzoate, a Metabolite of Cinnamon and a Food Additive, Reduces Microglial and Astroglial Inflammatory Responses1

    PubMed Central

    Brahmachari, Saurav; Jana, Arundhati; Pahan, Kalipada

    2010-01-01

    Upon activation, microglia and astrocytes produce a number of proinflammatory molecules that participate in the pathophysiology of several neurodegenerative disorders. This study explores the anti-inflammatory property of cinnamon metabolite sodium benzoate (NaB) in microglia and astrocytes. NaB, but not sodium formate, was found to inhibit LPS-induced expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS), proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-1β) and surface markers (CD11b, CD11c, and CD68) in mouse microglia. Similarly, NaB also inhibited fibrillar amyloid β (Aβ)-, prion peptide-, double-stranded RNA (polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid)-, HIV-1 Tat-, 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium+-, IL-1β-, and IL-12 p402-induced microglial expression of iNOS. In addition to microglia, NaB also suppressed the expression of iNOS in mouse peritoneal macrophages and primary human astrocytes. Inhibition of NF-κB activation by NaB suggests that NaB exerts its anti-inflammatory effect through the inhibition of NF-κB. Although NaB reduced the level of cholesterol in vivo in mice, reversal of the inhibitory effect of NaB on iNOS expression, and NF-κB activation by hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA, mevalonate, and farnesyl pyrophosphate, but not cholesterol and ubiquinone, suggests that depletion of intermediates, but not end products, of the mevalonate pathway is involved in the antiinflammatory effect of NaB. Furthermore, we demonstrate that an inhibitor of p21ras farnesyl protein transferase suppressed the expression of iNOS, that activation of p21ras alone was sufficient to induce the expression of iNOS, and that NaB suppressed the activation of p21ras in microglia. These results highlight a novel anti-inflammatory role of NaB via modulation of the mevalonate pathway and p21ras. PMID:19812204

  11. Additional Saturday rehabilitation improves functional independence and quality of life and reduces length of stay: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    control group participants. Intervention group participants were 17% more likely to have achieved a clinically significant change in functional independence of 22 FIM points or more (risk ratio (RR) 1.17, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.34) and 18% more likely to have achieved a clinically significant change in health-related quality of life (RR 1.18, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.34) on discharge compared to the control group. There was some maintenance of effect for functional independence and health-related quality of life at 6-month follow-up but not at 12-month follow-up. There was no difference in the number of adverse events between the groups (incidence rate ratio = 0.81, 95% CI 0.61 to 1.08). Conclusions Providing an additional day of rehabilitation improved functional independence and health-related quality of life at discharge and may have reduced length of stay for patients receiving inpatient rehabilitation. Trial registration Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12609000973213 Please see related commentary: http://www.biomedcentral.com/10.1186/1741-7015-11-199. PMID:24228854

  12. Employing Lead Thiocyanate Additive to Reduce the Hysteresis and Boost the Fill Factor of Planar Perovskite Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Ke, Weijun; Xiao, Chuanxiao; Wang, Changlei; Saparov, Bayrammurad; Duan, Hsin-Sheng; Zhao, Dewei; Xiao, Zewen; Schulz, Philip; Harvey, Steven P; Liao, Weiqiang; Meng, Weiwei; Yu, Yue; Cimaroli, Alexander J; Jiang, Chun-Sheng; Zhu, Kai; Al-Jassim, Mowafak; Fang, Guojia; Mitzi, David B; Yan, Yanfa

    2016-07-01

    Lead thiocyanate in the perovskite precursor can increase the grain size of a perovskite thin film and reduce the conductivity of the grain boundaries, leading to perovskite solar cells with reduced hysteresis and enhanced fill factor. A planar perovskite solar cell with grain boundary and interface passivation achieves a steady-state efficiency of 18.42%. PMID:27145346

  13. Carbon Addition Interacts with Water Availability to Reduce Invasive Forb Establishment in a Semi-arid Grassland

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increases in nitrogen (N) availability can favor fast-growing invasive species over slow-growing native species. One way to reduce N availability is to add labile C to the soil, which can lead to microbial immobilization of plant available N, and reduce the success of invasive species. This method h...

  14. XM02 is superior to placebo and equivalent to Neupogen™ in reducing the duration of severe neutropenia and the incidence of febrile neutropenia in cycle 1 in breast cancer patients receiving docetaxel/doxorubicin chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    del Giglio, A; Eniu, A; Ganea-Motan, D; Topuzov, E; Lubenau, H

    2008-01-01

    Background Recombinant granulocyte colony-stimulating factors (G-CSFs) such as Filgrastim are used to treat chemotherapy-induced neutropenia. We investigated a new G-CSF, XM02, and compared it to Neupogen™ after myelotoxic chemotherapy in breast cancer (BC) patients. Methods A total of 348 patients with BC receiving docetaxel/doxorubicin chemotherapy were randomised to treatment with daily injections (subcutaneous 5 μg/kg/day) for at least 5 days and a maximum of 14 days in each cycle of XM02 (n = 140), Neupogen™ (n = 136) or placebo (n = 72). The primary endpoint was the duration of severe neutropenia (DSN) in cycle 1. Results The mean DSN in cycle 1 was 1.1, 1.1, and 3.9 days in the XM02, Neupogen™, and placebo group, respectively. Superiority of XM02 over placebo and equivalence of XM02 with Neupogen™ could be demonstrated. Toxicities were similar between XM02 and Neupogen™. Conclusion XM02 was superior to placebo and equivalent to Neupogen™ in reducing DSN after myelotoxic chemotherapy. Trial Registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN02270769 PMID:19014494

  15. Equivalence principles and electromagnetism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ni, W.-T.

    1977-01-01

    The implications of the weak equivalence principles are investigated in detail for electromagnetic systems in a general framework. In particular, it is shown that the universality of free-fall trajectories (Galileo weak equivalence principle) does not imply the validity of the Einstein equivalence principle. However, the Galileo principle plus the universality of free-fall rotation states does imply the Einstein principle.

  16. 22 CFR 19.10-5 - Reduced annuity with additional survivor annuity to spouse or former spouse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... effective prior to the principal's retirement, shall be reduced as necessary by PER/ER/RET after the... the regular survivor annuity because the participant is required to pay it's full cost by deduction... principal's full annuity counting any supplemental annuity or recomputation of annuity because of...

  17. 22 CFR 19.10-5 - Reduced annuity with additional survivor annuity to spouse or former spouse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... effective prior to the principal's retirement, shall be reduced as necessary by PER/ER/RET after the... the regular survivor annuity because the participant is required to pay it's full cost by deduction... principal's full annuity counting any supplemental annuity or recomputation of annuity because of...

  18. 22 CFR 19.10-5 - Reduced annuity with additional survivor annuity to spouse or former spouse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... effective prior to the principal's retirement, shall be reduced as necessary by PER/ER/RET after the... the regular survivor annuity because the participant is required to pay it's full cost by deduction... principal's full annuity counting any supplemental annuity or recomputation of annuity because of...

  19. 22 CFR 19.10-5 - Reduced annuity with additional survivor annuity to spouse or former spouse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... effective prior to the principal's retirement, shall be reduced as necessary by PER/ER/RET after the... the regular survivor annuity because the participant is required to pay it's full cost by deduction... principal's full annuity counting any supplemental annuity or recomputation of annuity because of...

  20. 22 CFR 19.10-5 - Reduced annuity with additional survivor annuity to spouse or former spouse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... effective prior to the principal's retirement, shall be reduced as necessary by PER/ER/RET after the... the regular survivor annuity because the participant is required to pay it's full cost by deduction... principal's full annuity counting any supplemental annuity or recomputation of annuity because of...

  1. Turbulence structure of drag-reducing surfactant solution in two-dimensional channel with additional heat transfer enhancement method

    SciTech Connect

    Li, P.W.; Daisaka, H.; Kawaguchi, Y.; Yabe, A.; Hishida, K.; Maeda, M.

    1999-07-01

    The turbulent characteristics of a surfactant water solution in changing from drag-reducing flow to turbulent flow inside a two-dimensional smooth channel and in changing from turbulent flow to drag-reducing flow in the same channel with a mesh plug were investigated through LDV measurement in this study. The mesh plug was used to exert high shear stress to destroy micelle structures in the surfactant solution so that turbulence could be produced for better heat transfer. The two-component LDV system was installed on a movable platform, which could be moved streamwise of the flow to measure the two-dimensional velocity at different stations downstream from the mesh plug. The surfactant tested was Cetyltrimethyl ammonium chloride (C{sub 16}H{sub 33}N(CH{sub 3}){sub 3}Cl, abbreviated as CTAC). Local tap water was used as solvent and same weight concentration of sodium salicylate was used as the counter-ion material. The investigation of turbulent parameters for the drag-reducing flow with increasing Reynolds number showed that when the Reynolds number exceeded the drag-reducing region, the turbulent character was the same as that of water. The turbulent parameters of surfactant flow downstream the mesh plug showed that the high heat transfer region had the same turbulent intensity as that of water flow. As the critical Reynolds number was approached, it became easier to obtain such a turbulent region by mesh plug. In such cases, the mesh helped to create high wall shear stress and therefore to destroy the super-ordered structures of rod-like micelles for introducing turbulence. However, it was found that the turbulent intensities of the velocity gradually decreased to the same as those of drag-reducing flow downstream from the mesh because the mesh plug only produced a local high shear stress.

  2. Process Drama: The Use of Affective Space to Reduce Language Anxiety in the Additional Language Learning Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piazzoli, Erika

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a research project designed to find out what happens when process drama strategies are applied to an advanced level of additional language learning. In order to answer this question, the author designed and facilitated six process drama workshops as part of a third-year course of Italian at a university in Brisbane, Australia.…

  3. Apparent anti-Woodward-Hoffmann addition to a nickel bis(dithiolene) complex: the reaction mechanism involves reduced, dimetallic intermediates.

    PubMed

    Dang, Li; Shibl, Mohamed F; Yang, Xinzheng; Harrison, Daniel J; Alak, Aiman; Lough, Alan J; Fekl, Ulrich; Brothers, Edward N; Hall, Michael B

    2013-04-01

    Nickel dithiolene complexes have been proposed as electrocatalysts for alkene purification. Recent studies of the ligand-based reactions of Ni(tfd)2 (tfd = S2C2(CF3)2) and its anion [Ni(tfd)2](-) with alkenes (ethylene and 1-hexene) showed that in the absence of the anion, the reaction proceeds most rapidly to form the intraligand adduct, which decomposes by releasing a substituted dihydrodithiin. However, the presence of the anion increases the rate of formation of the stable cis-interligand adduct, and decreases the rate of dihydrodithiin formation and decomposition. In spite of both computational and experimental studies, the mechanism, especially the role of the anion, remained somewhat elusive. We are now providing a combined experimental and computational study that addresses the mechanism and explains the role of the anion. A kinetic study (global analysis) for the reaction of 1-hexene is reported, which supports the following mechanism: (1) reversible intraligand addition, (2) oxidation of the intraligand addition product prior to decomposition, and (3) interligand adduct formation catalyzed by Ni(tfd)2(-). Density functional theory (DFT) calculations were performed on the Ni(tfd)2/Ni(tfd)2(-)/ethylene system to shed light on the selectivity of adduct formation in the absence of anion and on the mechanism in which Ni(tfd)2(-) shifts the reaction from intraligand addition to interligand addition. Computational results show that in the neutral system the free energy of activation for intraligand addition is lower than that for interligand addition, in agreement with the experimental results. The computations predict that the anion enhances the rate of the cis-interligand adduct formation by forming a dimetallic complex with the neutral complex. The [(Ni(tfd)2)2](-) dimetallic complex then coordinates ethylene and isomerizes to form a Ni,S-bound ethylene complex, which then rapidly isomerizes to the stable interligand adduct but not to the intraligand adduct

  4. Waste Determination Equivalency - 12172

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, Rebecca D.

    2012-07-01

    Secretary of Energy in January of 2006 based on proposed processing techniques with the expectation that it could be revised as new processing capabilities became viable. Once signed, however, it became evident that any changes would require lengthy review and another determination signed by the Secretary of Energy. With the maturation of additional salt removal technologies and the extension of the SWPF start-up date, it becomes necessary to define 'equivalency' to the processes laid out in the original determination. For the purposes of SRS, any waste not processed through Interim Salt Processing must be processed through SWPF or an equivalent process, and therefore a clear statement of the requirements for a process to be equivalent to SWPF becomes necessary. (authors)

  5. PATHOGEN EQUIVALENCY COMMITTEE UPDATE: PFRP EQUIVALENCY DETERMINATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation will:

    Review the mandate of the Pathogen Equivalency Committee
    Review the PEC's current membership of 10
    Discuss how a typical application is evaluated
    Note where information can be found
    List present deliberations/applications and describe t...

  6. Optimizing the performance of a reactor by reducing the retention time and addition of glycerin for anaerobically digesting manure

    PubMed Central

    Timmerman, Maikel; Schuman, Els; van Eekert, Miriam; van Riel, Johan

    2015-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion of manure is a widely accepted technology for energy production. However, only a minimal portion of the manure production in the EU is anaerobically digested and occurs predominantly in codigestion plants. There is substantial potential for biogas plants that primarily operate on manure (>90%); however, the methane yields of manure are less compared to coproducts, which is one of the reasons for manure-based biogas plants often being economically non-viable. Therefore, it is essential to begin increasing the efficiency of these biogas plants. This study investigated the effect of decreasing retention time and introducing a moderate amount of glycerin on the biogas production as methods to improve efficiency. An experiment has been conducted with two different manure types in four biogas reactors. The results of the study demonstrated that, first, it was possible to decrease the retention time to 10–15 days; however, the effect on biogas production varied per manure type. Secondly, the biogas production almost triples at a retention time of 15.6 days with an addition of 4% glycerin. The relative production-enhancing effect of glycerin did not vary significantly with both manure types. However, the absolute production-enhancing effect of glycerin differed per manure type since the biogas production per gram VS differed per manure type. Thirdly, the positive effect of the glycerin input declines with shorter retention times. Therefore, the effect of glycerin addition depends on the manure type and retention time. PMID:25401272

  7. Equivalence of Dirac formulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joyce, William P.; Martin, Jeremy G.

    2002-06-01

    We construct general Dirac theories in both ⊗ ℓ(3, 1) and ⊗ ℓ(1, 3) using a first order left acting Dirac operator. Any two such theories are equivalent provided they have the same dimension. We also show that every 16- or 8-dimensional real Dirac theory in ℓ(3, 1) is equivalent to some (complex) Dirac theory in ⊗ ℓ(1, 3). As an immediate consequence of this we have that the Hestenes and original Dirac formulations are equivalent.

  8. Improving high temperature creep resistance of reduced activation steels by addition of nitrogen and intermediate heat treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, W. B.; Zhang, C.; Xia, Z. X.; Yang, Z. G.

    2014-12-01

    In the present study, we report an enhanced high-temperature creep resistance in reduced activation ferrite/martensite (RAFM) steels, by introducing nitrogen (0.035 wt%, M3 steel) and employing a novel intermediate heat treatment I-Q-T (intermediate treatment, quenching and tempering). In comparison with all the control groups, the uniaxial tests of the I-Q-T treated M3 steel showed significant increase in rupture time and decrease in elongation. The microstructures of the samples were further characterized to elucidate the origin of the enhanced creep resistance. It is found that, by introducing nitrogen, the primary TaC particles were refined; by employing the I-Q-T heat treatment, the dispersed fine secondary MX precipitates, as well as the lath subgrains containing high-density dislocations, were increased: all are responsible for the improved creep resistance.

  9. Anaerobic Oxidation of n-Dodecane by an Addition Reaction in a Sulfate-Reducing Bacterial Enrichment Culture

    PubMed Central

    Kropp, Kevin G.; Davidova, Irene A.; Suflita, Joseph M.

    2000-01-01

    We identified trace metabolites produced during the anaerobic biodegradation of H26- and D26-n-dodecane by an enrichment culture that mineralizes these compounds in a sulfate-dependent fashion. The metabolites are dodecylsuccinic acids that, in the case of the perdeuterated substrate, retain all of the deuterium atoms. The deuterium retention and the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry fragmentation patterns of the derivatized metabolites suggest that they are formed by C—H or C—D addition across the double bond of fumarate. As trimethylsilyl esters, two nearly coeluting metabolites of equal abundance with nearly identical mass spectra were detected from each of H26- and D26-dodecane, but as methyl esters, only a single metabolite peak was detected for each parent substrate. An authentic standard of protonated n-dodecylsuccinic acid that was synthesized and derivatized by the two methods had the same fragmentation patterns as the metabolites of H26-dodecane. However, the standard gave only a single peak for each ester type and gas chromatographic retention times different from those of the derivatized metabolites. This suggests that the succinyl moiety in the dodecylsuccinic acid metabolites is attached not at the terminal methyl group of the alkane but at a subterminal position. The detection of two equally abundant trimethylsilyl-esterified metabolites in culture extracts suggests that the analysis is resolving diastereomers which have the succinyl moiety located at the same subterminal carbon in two different absolute configurations. Alternatively, there may be more than one methylene group in the alkane that undergoes the proposed fumarate addition reaction, giving at least two structural isomers in equal amounts. PMID:11097919

  10. Equivalent damage: A critical assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laflen, J. R.; Cook, T. S.

    1982-01-01

    Concepts in equivalent damage were evaluated to determine their applicability to the life prediction of hot path components of aircraft gas turbine engines. Equivalent damage was defined as being those effects which influence the crack initiation life-time beyond the damage that is measured in uniaxial, fully-reversed sinusoidal and isothermal experiments at low homologous temperatures. Three areas of equivalent damage were examined: mean stress, cumulative damage, and multiaxiality. For each area, a literature survey was conducted to aid in selecting the most appropriate theories. Where possible, data correlations were also used in the evaluation process. A set of criteria was developed for ranking the theories in each equivalent damage regime. These criteria considered aspects of engine utilization as well as the theoretical basis and correlative ability of each theory. In addition, consideration was given to the complex nature of the loading cycle at fatigue critical locations of hot path components; this loading includes non-proportional multiaxial stressing, combined temperature and strain fluctuations, and general creep-fatigue interactions. Through applications of selected equivalent damage theories to some suitable data sets it was found that there is insufficient data to allow specific recommendations of preferred theories for general applications. A series of experiments and areas of further investigations were identified.

  11. Additional treatment of wastewater reduces endocrine disruption in wild fish--a comparative study of tertiary and advanced treatments.

    PubMed

    Baynes, Alice; Green, Christopher; Nicol, Elizabeth; Beresford, Nicola; Kanda, Rakesh; Henshaw, Alan; Churchley, John; Jobling, Susan

    2012-05-15

    Steroid estrogens are thought to be the major cause of feminization (intersex) in wild fish. Widely used wastewater treatment technologies are not effective at removing these contaminants to concentrations thought to be required to protect aquatic wildlife. A number of advanced treatment processes have been proposed to reduce the concentrations of estrogens entering the environment. Before investment is made in such processes, it is imperative that we compare their efficacy in terms of removal of steroid estrogens and their feminizing effects with other treatment options. This study assessed both steroid removal and intersex induction in adult and early life stage fish (roach, Rutilus rutilus). Roach were exposed directly to either secondary (activated sludge process (ASP)), tertiary (sand filtrated (SF)), or advanced (chlorine dioxide (ClO(2)), granular activated charcoal (GAC)) treated effluents for six months. Surprisingly, both the advanced GAC and tertiary SF treatments (but not the ClO(2) treatment) significantly removed the intersex induction associated with the ASP effluent; this was not predicted by the steroid estrogen measurements, which were higher in the tertiary SF than either the GAC or the ClO(2). Therefore our study highlights the importance of using both biological and chemical analysis when assessing new treatment technologies. PMID:22500691

  12. The Use of Feed Additives to Reduce the Effects of Aflatoxin and Deoxynivalenol on Pig Growth, Organ Health and Immune Status during Chronic Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Weaver, Alexandra C.; See, M. Todd; Hansen, Jeff A.; Kim, Yong B.; De Souza, Anna L. P.; Middleton, Tina F.; Kim, Sung Woo

    2013-01-01

    Three feed additives were tested to improve the growth and health of pigs chronically challenged with aflatoxin (AF) and deoxynivalenol (DON). Gilts (n = 225, 8.8 ± 0.4 kg) were allotted to five treatments: CON (uncontaminated control); MT (contaminated with 150 µg/kg AF and 1100 µg/kg DON); A (MT + a clay additive); B (MT + a clay and dried yeast additive); and C (MT + a clay and yeast culture additive). Average daily gain (ADG) and feed intake (ADFI) were recorded for 42 days, blood collected for immune analysis and tissue samples to measure damage. Feeding mycotoxins tended to decrease ADG and altered the immune system through a tendency to increase monocytes and immunoglobulins. Mycotoxins caused tissue damage in the form of liver bile ductule hyperplasia and karyomegaly. The additives in diets A and B reduced mycotoxin effects on the immune system and the liver and showed some ability to improve growth. The diet C additive played a role in reducing liver damage. Collectively, we conclude that AF and DON can be harmful to the growth and health of pigs consuming mycotoxins chronically. The selected feed additives improved pig health and may play a role in pig growth. PMID:23867763

  13. Equivalent Neutral Wind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, W. Timothy; Tang, Wenqing

    1996-01-01

    The definition of equivalent neutral wind and the rationale for using it as the geophysical product of a spaceborne scatterometer are reviewed. The differences between equivalent neutral wind and actual wind, which are caused by atmospheric density stratification, are demonstrated with measurements at selected locations. A method of computing this parameter from ship and buoy measurements is described and some common fallacies in accounting for the effects of atmospheric stratification on wind shear are discussed. The computer code for the model to derive equivalent neutral wind is provided.

  14. Neutron dose equivalent meter

    DOEpatents

    Olsher, Richard H.; Hsu, Hsiao-Hua; Casson, William H.; Vasilik, Dennis G.; Kleck, Jeffrey H.; Beverding, Anthony

    1996-01-01

    A neutron dose equivalent detector for measuring neutron dose capable of accurately responding to neutron energies according to published fluence to dose curves. The neutron dose equivalent meter has an inner sphere of polyethylene, with a middle shell overlying the inner sphere, the middle shell comprising RTV.RTM. silicone (organosiloxane) loaded with boron. An outer shell overlies the middle shell and comprises polyethylene loaded with tungsten. The neutron dose equivalent meter defines a channel through the outer shell, the middle shell, and the inner sphere for accepting a neutron counter tube. The outer shell is loaded with tungsten to provide neutron generation, increasing the neutron dose equivalent meter's response sensitivity above 8 MeV.

  15. Equivalence in Ventilation and Indoor Air Quality

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, Max; Walker, Iain; Logue, Jennifer

    2011-08-01

    We ventilate buildings to provide acceptable indoor air quality (IAQ). Ventilation standards (such as American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Enginners [ASHRAE] Standard 62) specify minimum ventilation rates without taking into account the impact of those rates on IAQ. Innovative ventilation management is often a desirable element of reducing energy consumption or improving IAQ or comfort. Variable ventilation is one innovative strategy. To use variable ventilation in a way that meets standards, it is necessary to have a method for determining equivalence in terms of either ventilation or indoor air quality. This study develops methods to calculate either equivalent ventilation or equivalent IAQ. We demonstrate that equivalent ventilation can be used as the basis for dynamic ventilation control, reducing peak load and infiltration of outdoor contaminants. We also show that equivalent IAQ could allow some contaminants to exceed current standards if other contaminants are more stringently controlled.

  16. Synthesis, Characterization, and Tribological Evaluation of TiO2-Reinforced Boron and Nitrogen co-Doped Reduced Graphene Oxide Based Hybrid Nanomaterials as Efficient Antiwear Lubricant Additives.

    PubMed

    Jaiswal, Vinay; Kalyani; Umrao, Sima; Rastogi, Rashmi B; Kumar, Rajesh; Srivastava, Anchal

    2016-05-11

    The microwave-synthesized reduced graphene oxide (MRG), boron-doped reduced graphene oxide (B-MRG), nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxide (N-MRG), boron-nitrogen-co-doped reduced graphene oxide (B-N-MRG), and TiO2-reinforced B-N-MRG (TiO2-B-N-MRG) nanomaterials have been synthesized and characterized by various state-of-the-art techniques, like Raman spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Furthermore, the tribological properties of prepared nanomaterials as antiwear additives in neutral paraffin oil have been evaluated using a four-ball machine at an optimized additive concentration (0.15% w/v). The tribological parameters, like mean wear scar diameter, coefficient of friction, and wear rates, revealed that these nanomaterials have potential to be developed as environmentally friendly sulfated-ash-, phosphorus-, and sulfur-free antiwear lubricant additives. The friction- and wear-reducing behavior of MRG increased upon successive doping of nitrogen, boron, and both nitrogen and boron. Among these additives, B-N-co-doped MRG shows superior tribological behavior in paraffin base oil. Besides this, the load-carrying properties of B-N-co-doped MRG have significantly improved after its reinforcement with TiO2 nanoparticles. A comparative study of the surface morphology of a lubricated track in the presence of various additives has been assessed by SEM and contact-mode atomic force microscopy. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies have proved that the excellent lubrication properties of TiO2-B-N-MRG are due to the in situ formation of a tribofilm composed of boron nitride, adsorbed graphene layers, and tribosintered TiO2 nanoparticles during the tribocontact. Being sulfur-, halogen-, and phosphorus-free, these graphene-based nanomaterials act as green antiwear additives, protecting interacting

  17. Reducing Dangerous Effects of Unsymmetrical Dimethyl Hydrazine as a Liquid Propellant by Addition of Hydroxyethylhydrazine, Part II, Performance with Several Oxidizers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keshavarz, Mohammad Hossein; Ramadan, Alireza; Mousaviazar, Ali; Zali, Abbas; Shokrollahi, Arash

    2011-07-01

    This work continues the study of suitable binary liquid mixtures of unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine (UDMH) and hydroxyethylhydrazine (HEH) to reduce the harmful effects of pure UDMH. The synthesized HEH was mixed with UDMH up to 40 wt% of HEH to study the performance and properties of binary liquid mixtures of UDMH/HEH. The existence of strong hydrogen bonding between HEH and UDMH provides low-volatile mixtures of these hydrazine derivatives. The addition of HEH significantly reduces the vapor pressure of UDMH, thus reducing the known UDMH health risk to inhalation exposure. Specific impulse was used to study performance of binary mixture UDMH/HEH with respect to pure UDMH. A binary mixture of UDMH/HEH reacts spontaneously in contact with nitrogen tetroxide, red fuming nitric acid (RFNA), and inhibited red fuming nitric acid (IRFNA).

  18. Multifunctional Electrochemical Platforms Based on the Michael Addition/Schiff Base Reaction of Polydopamine Modified Reduced Graphene Oxide: Construction and Application.

    PubMed

    Huang, Na; Zhang, Si; Yang, Liuqing; Liu, Meiling; Li, Haitao; Zhang, Youyu; Yao, Shouzhuo

    2015-08-19

    In this paper, a new strategy for the construction of multifunctional electrochemical detection platforms based on the Michael addition/Schiff base reaction of polydopamine modified reduced graphene oxide was first proposed. Inspired by the mussel adhesion proteins, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DA) was selected as a reducing agent to simultaneously reduce graphene oxide and self-polymerize to obtain the polydopamine-reduced graphene oxide (PDA-rGO). The PDA-rGO was then functionalized with thiols and amines by the reaction of thiol/amino groups with quinine groups of PDA-rGO via the Michael addition/Schiff base reaction. Several typical compounds containing thiol and/or amino groups such as 1-[(4-amino)phenylethynyl] ferrocene (Fc-NH2), cysteine (cys), and glucose oxidase (GOx) were selected as the model molecules to anchor on the surface of PDA-rGO using the strategy for construction of multifunctional electrochemical platforms. The experiments revealed that the composite grafted with ferrocene derivative shows excellent catalysis activity toward many electroactive molecules and could be used for individual or simultaneous detection of dopamine hydrochloride (DA) and uric acid (UA), or hydroquinone (HQ) and catechol (CC), while, after grafting of cysteine on PDA-rGO, simultaneous discrimination detection of Pb(2+) and Cd(2+) was realized on the composite modified electrode. In addition, direct electron transfer of GOx can be observed when GOx-PDA-rGO was immobilized on glassy carbon electrode (GCE). When glucose was added into the system, the modified electrode showed excellent electric current response toward glucose. These results inferred that the proposed multifunctional electrochemical platforms could be simply, conveniently, and effectively regulated through changing the anchored recognition or reaction groups. This study would provide a versatile method to design more detection or biosensing platforms through a chemical reaction strategy in the future. PMID

  19. Control of membrane fouling with the addition of a nanoporous zeolite membrane fouling reducer to the submerged hollow fiber membrane bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Park, Chul-Hwi; Park, Jun-Won; Han, Gee-Bong

    2016-10-14

    The membrane fouling control via the addition of nanoporous zeolite membrane fouling reducer (Z-MFR) to the submerged membrane bioreactor (MBR) was investigated. Using scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive X-ray (SEM/EDX) analysis techniques, the characteristics of fouling on a hollow fiber membrane surface were also analyzed. The addition of Z-MFR to the MBR led to the adsorption of foulants and the flocculation of mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSSs), which resulted in substantially enhancing the membrane filterability. The critical flux values obtained from the sewage mixed liquors of 3400 mg L(-1) at the effective dosage rate of 0.03 mg Z-MFR mg(-1) MLSS was 85 L m(-2) h(-1) (LMH), which was enhanced by 42%. The transmembrane pressure (TMP) variation under the operating conditions of 30 LMH with 3500 mg MLSS L(-1) showed that the addition of Z-MFR extended the time required to reach the critical flux of 0.32 bar by 2.6-fold longer than the control. Thus, due to the hybrid functions of adsorbing foulants and precipitating colloidal substances with the addition of Z-MFR, a decrease in the foulant amount and an improvement of sludge flocculation have been attained simultaneously. As a result, the membrane fouling control was achieved effectively with the addition of the Z-MFR. PMID:27399266

  20. The Interaction Equivalency Theorem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miyazoe, Terumi; Anderson, Terry

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the key issues regarding The Interaction Equivalency Theorem posited by Anderson (2003a), which consists of the three interaction elements found in formal education courses among teacher, student, and content. It first examines the core concepts of the theorem and argues that two theses of different dimensions can be…

  1. Equivalent Colorings with "Maple"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cecil, David R.; Wang, Rongdong

    2005-01-01

    Many counting problems can be modeled as "colorings" and solved by considering symmetries and Polya's cycle index polynomial. This paper presents a "Maple 7" program link http://users.tamuk.edu/kfdrc00/ that, given Polya's cycle index polynomial, determines all possible associated colorings and their partitioning into equivalence classes. These…

  2. Five Equivalent d Orbitals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pauling, Linus; McClure, Vance

    1970-01-01

    Amplifies and clarifies a previous paper on pyramidal d orbitals. Discusses two sets of pyramid d orbitals with respect to their maximum bond strength and their symmetry. Authors described the oblate and prolate pentagonal antiprisms arising from the two sets of five equivalent d orbitals. (RR)

  3. Post-lumpectomy CT-guided tumor bed delineation for breast boost and partial breast irradiation: Can additional pre- and postoperative imaging reduce interobserver variability?

    PubMed Central

    DEN HARTOGH, MARISKA D.; PHILIPPENS, MARIELLE E.P.; VAN DAM, IRIS E.; KLEYNEN, CATHARINA E.; TERSTEEG, ROBBERT J.H.A.; KOTTE, ALEXIS N.T.J.; VAN VULPEN, MARCO; VAN ASSELEN, BRAM; VAN DEN BONGARD, DESIRÉE H.J.G.

    2015-01-01

    For breast boost radiotherapy or accelerated partial breast irradiation, the tumor bed (TB) is delineated by the radiation oncologist on a planning computed tomography (CT) scan. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the interobserver variability (IOV) of the TB delineation is reduced by providing the radiation oncologist with additional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or CT scans. A total of 14 T1-T2 breast cancer patients underwent a standard planning CT in the supine treatment position following lumpectomy, as well as additional pre- and postoperative imaging in the same position. Post-lumpectomy TBs were independently delineated by four breast radiation oncologists on standard postoperative CT and on CT registered to an additional imaging modality. The additional imaging modalities used were postoperative MRI, preoperative contrast-enhanced (CE)-CT and preoperative CE-MRI. A cavity visualization score (CVS) was assigned to each standard postoperative CT by each observer. In addition, the conformity index (CI), volume and distance between centers of mass (dCOM) of the TB delineations were calculated. On CT, the median CI was 0.57, with a median volume of 22 cm3 and dCOM of 5.1 mm. The addition of postoperative MRI increased the median TB volume significantly to 28 cm3 (P<0.001), while the CI (P=0.176) and dCOM (P=0.110) were not affected. The addition of preoperative CT or MRI increased the TB volume to 26 and 25 cm3, respectively (both P<0.001), while the CI increased to 0.58 and 0.59 (both P<0.001) and the dCOM decreased to 4.7 mm (P=0.004) and 4.6 mm (P=0.001), respectively. In patients with CVS≤3, the median CI was 0.40 on CT, which was significantly increased by all additional imaging modalities, up to 0.52, and was accompanied by a median volume increase up to 6 cm3. In conclusion, the addition of postoperative MRI, preoperative CE-CT or preoperative CE-MRI did not result in a considerable reduction in the IOV in postoperative CT

  4. A simple and efficient method to reduce nontemplated nucleotide addition at the 3 terminus of RNAs transcribed by T7 RNA polymerase.

    PubMed Central

    Kao, C; Zheng, M; Rüdisser, S

    1999-01-01

    DNA templates modified with C2'-methoxyls at the last two nucleotides of the 5' termini dramatically reduced nontemplated nucleotide addition by the T7 RNA polymerase from both single- and double-stranded DNA templates. This strategy was used to generate several different transcripts. Two of the transcripts were demonstrated by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to be unaffected in their sequence. Transcripts produced from the modified templates can be purified with greater ease and should be useful in a number of applications. PMID:10496227

  5. Doped-CuCl2/Al2O3 catalysts for ethylene oxychlorination: Influence of additives on the nature of active phase and reducibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gianolio, D.; Muddada, N. B.; Olsbye, U.; Lamberti, C.

    2012-08-01

    Doped CuCl2/Al2O3 is an industrial catalyst used to produce dichloroethane, key intermediate of the polyvinyl chloride (PVC) chemistry. Using in situ and operando X-ray absorption spectroscopies, combined with laboratory techniques, we succeeded in understanding the nature of the active phase and the role played by most used additives for fluid and fixed beds technologies (LiCl, KCl, CsCl, MgCl2, and LaCl3). Moreover we were able to quantify relative fraction, reducibility and dispersion of Cu-phases adjoining catalytic tests in a pulse reactor. EXAFS and XANES highlighted that all additives contribute more or less efficiently in increasing the fraction of the active species (supported CuCl2). EXAFS directly, UV-vis and IR spectroscopies indirectly proved the formation of mixed salts, when KCl or CsCl are added, so displacing the rate determining step from the CuCl oxidation to the CuCl2 reduction. Fully oxidized catalyst is inactive, so copper in the working catalyst, exhibits a I/II mixed valence state. Coupling the ethylene conversion, measured with a pulse reactor, with XANES spectra collected after interaction with C2H4, we could differentiate the ability of doped samples to be reduced by ethylene. We obtained slightly different results explainable by the different dispersion of the active phase, measured by CO chemisorption.

  6. Establishing Substantial Equivalence: Metabolomics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beale, Michael H.; Ward, Jane L.; Baker, John M.

    Modern ‘metabolomic’ methods allow us to compare levels of many structurally diverse compounds in an automated fashion across a large number of samples. This technology is ideally suited to screening of populations of plants, including trials where the aim is the determination of unintended effects introduced by GM. A number of metabolomic methods have been devised for the determination of substantial equivalence. We have developed a methodology, using [1H]-NMR fingerprinting, for metabolomic screening of plants and have applied it to the study of substantial equivalence of field-grown GM wheat. We describe here the principles and detail of that protocol as applied to the analysis of flour generated from field plots of wheat. Particular emphasis is given to the downstream data processing and comparison of spectra by multivariate analysis, from which conclusions regarding metabolome changes due to the GM can be assessed against the background of natural variation due to environment.

  7. The role of methanol addition to water samples in reducing analyte adsorption and matrix effects in liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Liu, Yucan; Duan, Jinming; Saint, Christopher P; Mulcahy, Dennis

    2015-04-10

    Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis coupled simply with water filtering before injection has proven to be a simple, economic and time-saving method for analyzing trace-level organic pollutants in aqueous environments. However, the linearity, precision and detection limits of such methods for late-eluting analytes were found to be much poorer than for early-eluting ones due to adsorption of the analytes in the operating system, such as sample vial, flow path and sample loop, creating problems in quantitative analysis. Addition of methanol (MeOH) into water samples as a modifier was shown to be effective in alleviating or even eliminating the negative effect on signal intensity for the late-eluting analytes and at the same time being able to reduce certain matrix effects for real water samples. Based on the maximum detection signal intensity obtained on desorption of the analytes with MeOH addition, the ratio of the detection signal intensity without addition of MeOH to the maximum intensity can be used to evaluate the effectiveness of methanol addition. Accordingly, the values of <50%, 50-80%, 80-120% could be used to indicate strong, medium and no effects, respectively. Based on this concept, an external matrix-matched calibration method with the addition of MeOH has been successfully established for analyzing fifteen pesticides with diverse physico-chemical properties in surface and groundwater with good linearity (r(2): 0.9929-0.9996), precision (intra-day relative standard deviation (RSD): 1.4-10.7%, inter-day RSD: 1.5-9.4%), accuracy (76.9-126.7%) and low limits of detection (0.003-0.028μg/L). PMID:25748540

  8. Plutonium 239 Equivalency Calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Wen, J

    2011-05-31

    This document provides the basis for converting actual weapons grade plutonium mass to a plutonium equivalency (PuE) mass of Plutonium 239. The conversion can be accomplished by performing calculations utilizing either: (1) Isotopic conversions factors (CF{sub isotope}), or (2) 30-year-old weapons grade conversion factor (CF{sub 30 yr}) Both of these methods are provided in this document. Material mass and isotopic data are needed to calculate PuE using the isotopic conversion factors, which will provide the actual PuE value at the time of calculation. PuE is the summation of the isotopic masses times their associated isotopic conversion factors for plutonium 239. Isotopic conversion factors are calculated by a normalized equation, relative to Plutonium 239, of specific activity (SA) and cumulated dose inhalation affects based on 50-yr committed effective dose equivalent (CEDE). The isotopic conversion factors for converting weapons grade plutonium to PuE are provided in Table-1. The unit for specific activity (SA) is curies per gram (Ci/g) and the isotopic SA values come from reference [1]. The cumulated dose inhalation effect values in units of rem/Ci are based on 50-yr committed effective dose equivalent (CEDE). A person irradiated by gamma radiation outside the body will receive a dose only during the period of irradiation. However, following an intake by inhalation, some radionuclides persist in the body and irradiate the various tissues for many years. There are three groups CEDE data representing lengths of time of 0.5 (D), 50 (W) and 500 (Y) days, which are in reference [2]. The CEDE values in the (W) group demonstrates the highest dose equivalent value; therefore they are used for the calculation.

  9. Yerba mate enhances probiotic bacteria growth in vitro but as a feed additive does not reduce Salmonella Enteritidis colonization in vivo.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Gil, Francisco; Diaz-Sanchez, Sandra; Pendleton, Sean; Andino, Ana; Zhang, Nan; Yard, Carrie; Crilly, Nate; Harte, Federico; Hanning, Irene

    2014-02-01

    Yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis) is a tea known to have beneficial effects on human health and antimicrobial activity against some foodborne pathogens. Thus, the application of yerba mate as a feed additive for broiler chickens to reduce Salmonella colonization was evaluated. The first in vitro evaluation was conducted by suspending Salmonella Enteritidis and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in yerba mate extract. The in vivo evaluations were conducted using preventative and horizontal transmission experiments. In all experiments, day-of-hatch chicks were treated with one of the following 1) no treatment (control); 2) ground yerba mate in feed; 3) probiotic treatment (Lactobacillus acidophilus and Pediococcus; 9:1 administered once on day of hatch by gavage); or 4) both yerba mate and probiotic treatments. At d 3, all chicks were challenged with Salmonella Enteritidis (preventative experiment) or 5 of 20 chicks (horizontal transmission experiment). At d 10, all birds were euthanized, weighed, and cecal contents enumerated for Salmonella. For the in vitro evaluation, antimicrobial activity was observed against Salmonella and the same treatment enhanced growth of LAB. For in vivo evaluations, none of the yerba mate treatments significantly reduced Salmonella Enteritidis colonization, whereas the probiotic treatment significantly reduced Salmonella colonization in the horizontal transmission experiment. Yerba mate decreased chicken BW and decreased the performance of the probiotic treatment when used in combination. In conclusion, yerba mate had antimicrobial activity against foodborne pathogens and enhanced the growth of LAB in vitro, but in vivo yerba mate did not decrease Salmonella Enteritidis colonization. PMID:24570466

  10. Comments on TNT Equivalence

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, P.W.

    1994-07-01

    The term ``TNT Equivalence`` is used throughout the explosives and related industries to compare the effects of the output of a given explosive to that of TNT. This is done for technical design reasons in scaling calculation such as for the prediction of blast waves, craters, and structural response, and is also used as a basis for government regulations controlling the shipping, handling and storage of explosive materials, as well as for the siting and design of explosive facilities. TNT equivalence is determined experimentally by several different types of tests, the most common of which include: plate dent, ballistic mortar, trauzl, sand crush, and air blast. All of these tests do not necessarily measure the same output property of the sample explosive. As examples of this, some tests depend simply upon the CJ pressure, some depend upon the PV work in the CJ zone and in the Taylor wave behind the CJ plane, some are functions of the total work which includes that from secondary combustion in the air mixing region of the fireball and are acutely effected by the shape of the pressure-time profile of the wave. Some of the tests incorporate systematic errors which are not readily apparent, and which have a profound effect upon skewing the resultant data. Further, some of the tests produce different TNT Equivalents for the same explosive which are a function of the conditions at which the test is run. This paper describes the various tests used, discusses the results of each test and makes detailed commentary on what the test is actually measuring, how the results may be interpreted, and if and how these results can be predicted by first principals based calculations. Extensive data bases are referred to throughout the paper and used in examples for each point in the commentaries.

  11. Refinement of the Microstructure of Sn-Ag-Bi-In Solder, by Addition of SiC Nanoparticles, to Reduce Electromigration Damage Under High Electric Current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Youngseok; Nagao, Shijo; Sugahara, Tohru; Suganuma, Katsuaki; Ueshima, Minoru; Albrecht, Hans-Juergen; Wilke, Klaus; Strogies, Joerg

    2014-12-01

    The trends of miniaturization, multi-functionality, and high performance in advanced electronic devices require higher densities of I/O gates and reduced area of soldering of interconnections. This increases the electric current density flowing through the interconnections, increasing the risk of interconnection failure caused by electromigration (EM). Accelerated directional atomic diffusion in solder materials under high current induces substantial growth of intermetallic compounds (IMCs) at the anode, and also void and crack formation at the cathode. In the work discussed in this paper, addition of SiC nanoparticles to Sn-Ag-Bi-In (SABI) lead-free solder refined its microstructure and improved its EM reliability under high current stress. Electron backscattering diffraction analysis revealed that the added SiC nanoparticles refined solder grain size after typical reflow. Under current stress, SABI joints with added nano-SiC had lifetimes almost twice as long as those without. Comparison of results from high-temperature aging revealed direct current affected evolution of the microstructure. Observations of IMC growth indicated that diffusion of Cu in the SiC composite solder may not have been reduced. During current flow, however, only narrow voids were formed in solder containing SiC, thus preventing the current crowding caused by bulky voids in the solder without SiC.

  12. Addition of low concentrations of an ionic liquid to a base oil reduces friction over multiple length scales: a combined nano- and macrotribology investigation.

    PubMed

    Li, Hua; Somers, Anthony E; Howlett, Patrick C; Rutland, Mark W; Forsyth, Maria; Atkin, Rob

    2016-03-01

    The efficacy of ionic liquids (ILs) as lubricant additives to a model base oil has been probed at the nanoscale and macroscale as a function of IL concentration using the same materials. Silica surfaces lubricated with mixtures of the IL trihexyl(tetradecyl)phosphonium bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl)phosphinate and hexadecane are probed using atomic force microscopy (AFM) (nanoscale) and ball-on-disc tribometer (macroscale). At both length scales the pure IL is a much more effective lubricant than hexadecane. At the nanoscale, 2.0 mol% IL (and above) in hexadecane lubricates the silica as well as the pure IL due to the formation of a robust IL boundary layer that separates the sliding surfaces. At the macroscale the lubrication is highly load dependent; at low loads all the mixtures lubricate as effectively as the pure IL, whereas at higher loads rather high concentrations are required to provide IL like lubrication. Wear is also pronounced at high loads, for all cases except the pure IL, and a tribofilm is formed. Together, the nano- and macroscales results reveal that the IL is an effective lubricant additive - it reduces friction - in both the boundary regime at the nanoscale and mixed regime at the macroscale. PMID:26865399

  13. Local unitary equivalence of quantum states and simultaneous orthogonal equivalence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Naihuan; Yang, Min; Zhao, Hui

    2016-06-01

    The correspondence between local unitary equivalence of bipartite quantum states and simultaneous orthogonal equivalence is thoroughly investigated and strengthened. It is proved that local unitary equivalence can be studied through simultaneous similarity under projective orthogonal transformations, and four parametrization independent algorithms are proposed to judge when two density matrices on ℂd1 ⊗ ℂd2 are locally unitary equivalent in connection with trace identities, Kronecker pencils, Albert determinants and Smith normal forms.

  14. TOXIC EQUIVALENCY APPROACH FOR DIOXINS: AN EXAMPLE OF DOSE ADDITIVITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD; dioxin) is often called the most toxic man-made compound. However, it is but the prototype for a family of structurally related compounds which have a common mechanism of action, induce a common spectrum of biological responses, and are...

  15. Establishing Substantial Equivalence: Proteomics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovegrove, Alison; Salt, Louise; Shewry, Peter R.

    Wheat is a major crop in world agriculture and is consumed after processing into a range of food products. It is therefore of great importance to determine the consequences (intended and unintended) of transgenesis in wheat and whether genetically modified lines are substantially equivalent to those produced by conventional plant breeding. Proteomic analysis is one of several approaches which can be used to address these questions. Two-dimensional PAGE (2D PAGE) remains the most widely available method for proteomic analysis, but is notoriously difficult to reproduce between laboratories. We therefore describe methods which have been developed as standard operating procedures in our laboratory to ensure the reproducibility of proteomic analyses of wheat using 2D PAGE analysis of grain proteins.

  16. Intra-Articular Corticosteroids in Addition to Exercise for Reducing Pain Sensitivity in Knee Osteoarthritis: Exploratory Outcome from a Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Soriano-Maldonado, Alberto; Klokker, Louise; Bartholdy, Cecilie; Bandak, Elisabeth; Ellegaard, Karen; Bliddal, Henning; Henriksen, Marius

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess the effects of one intra-articular corticosteroid injection two weeks prior to an exercise-based intervention program for reducing pain sensitivity in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Design Randomized, masked, parallel, placebo-controlled trial involving 100 participants with clinical and radiographic knee OA that were randomized to one intra-articular injection on the knee with either 1 ml of 40 mg/ml methylprednisolone (corticosteroid) dissolved in 4 ml lidocaine (10 mg/ml) or 1 ml isotonic saline (placebo) mixed with 4 ml lidocaine (10 mg/ml). Two weeks after the injections all participants undertook a 12-week supervised exercise program. Main outcomes were changes from baseline in pressure-pain sensitivity (pressure-pain threshold [PPT] and temporal summation [TS]) assessed using cuff pressure algometry on the calf. These were exploratory outcomes from a randomized controlled trial. Results A total of 100 patients were randomized to receive either corticosteroid (n = 50) or placebo (n = 50); 45 and 44, respectively, completed the trial. Four participants had missing values for PPT and one for TS at baseline; thus modified intention-to-treat populations were analyzed. The mean group difference in changes from baseline at week 14 was 0.6 kPa (95% CI: -1.7 to 2.8; P = 0.626) for PPT and 384 mm×sec (95% CI: -2980 to 3750; P = 0.821) for TS. Conclusions These results suggest that adding intra-articular corticosteroid injection 2 weeks prior to an exercise program does not provide additional benefits compared to placebo in reducing pain sensitivity in patients with knee OA. Trial Registration EU clinical trials (EudraCT): 2012-002607-18 PMID:26871954

  17. Kinin B1 receptor antagonism is equally efficient as angiotensin receptor 1 antagonism in reducing renal fibrosis in experimental obstructive nephropathy, but is not additive

    PubMed Central

    Huart, Antoine; Klein, Julie; Gonzalez, Julien; Buffin-Meyer, Bénédicte; Neau, Eric; Delage, Christine; Calise, Denis; Ribes, David; Schanstra, Joost P.; Bascands, Jean-Loup

    2015-01-01

    Background: Renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis is the pathological hallmark of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Currently, inhibitors of the renin–angiotensin system (RAS) remain the sole therapy in human displaying antifibrotic properties. Further antifibrotic molecules are needed. We have recently reported that the delayed blockade of the bradykinin B1 receptor (B1R) reduced the development of fibrosis in two animal models of renal fibrosis. The usefulness of new drugs also resides in outperforming the gold standards and eventually being additive or complementary to existing therapies. Methods: In this study we compared the efficacy of a B1R antagonist (B1Ra) with that of an angiotensin type 1 receptor antagonist (AT1a) in the unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) model of renal fibrosis and determined whether bi-therapy presented higher efficacy than any of the drugs alone. Results: B1R antagonism was as efficient as the gold-standard AT1a treatment. However, bitherapy did not improve the antifibrotic effects at the protein level. We sought for the reason of the absence of this additive effect by studying the expression of a panel of genes involved in the fibrotic process. Interestingly, at the molecular level the different drugs targeted different players of fibrosis that, however, in this severe model did not result in improved reduction of fibrosis at the protein level. Conclusions: As the B1R is induced specifically in the diseased organ and thus potentially displays low side effects it might be an interesting alternative in cases of poor tolerability to RAS inhibitors. PMID:25698969

  18. The addition of sirolimus to the graft-versus-host disease prophylaxis regimen in reduced intensity allogeneic stem cell transplantation for lymphoma: a multicentre randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Armand, Philippe; Kim, Haesook T; Sainvil, Marie-Michele; Lange, Paulina B; Giardino, Angela A; Bachanova, Veronika; Devine, Steven M; Waller, Edmund K; Jagirdar, Neera; Herrera, Alex F; Cutler, Corey; Ho, Vincent T; Koreth, John; Alyea, Edwin P; McAfee, Steven L; Soiffer, Robert J; Chen, Yi-Bin; Antin, Joseph H

    2016-04-01

    Inhibition of the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway has clinical activity in lymphoma. The mTOR inhibitor sirolimus has been used in the prevention and treatment of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) after allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). A retrospective study suggested that patients with lymphoma undergoing reduced intensity conditioning (RIC) HSCT who received sirolimus as part of their GVHD prophylaxis regimen had a lower rate of relapse. We therefore performed a multicentre randomized trial comparing tacrolimus, sirolimus and methotrexate to standard regimens in adult patients undergoing RIC HSCT for lymphoma in order to assess the possible benefit of sirolimus on HSCT outcome. 139 patients were randomized. There was no difference overall in 2-year overall survival, progression-free survival, relapse, non-relapse mortality or chronic GVHD. However, the sirolimus-containing arm had a significantly lower incidence of grade II-IV acute GVHD (9% vs. 25%, P = 0·015), which was more marked for unrelated donor grafts. In conclusion, the addition of sirolimus for GVHD prophylaxis in RIC HSCT is associated with no increased overall toxicity and a lower risk of acute GVHD, although it does not improve survival; this regimen is an acceptable option for GVHD prevention in RIC HSCT. This trial is registered at clinicaltrials.gov (NCT00928018). PMID:26729448

  19. Equivalence of superspace groups

    PubMed Central

    van Smaalen, Sander; Campbell, Branton J.; Stokes, Harold T.

    2013-01-01

    An algorithm is presented which determines the equivalence of two settings of a (3 + d)-dimensional superspace group (d = 1, 2, 3). The algorithm has been implemented as a web tool on , providing the transformation of any user-given superspace group to the standard setting of this superspace group in . It is shown how the standard setting of a superspace group can be directly obtained by an appropriate transformation of the external-space lattice vectors (the basic structure unit cell) and a transformation of the internal-space lattice vectors (new modulation wavevectors are linear combinations of old modulation wavevectors plus a three-dimensional reciprocal-lattice vector). The need for non-standard settings in some cases and the desirability of employing standard settings of superspace groups in other cases are illustrated by an analysis of the symmetries of a series of compounds, comparing published and standard settings and the transformations between them. A compilation is provided of standard settings of compounds with two- and three-dimensional modulations. The problem of settings of superspace groups is discussed for incommensurate composite crystals and for chiral superspace groups. PMID:23250064

  20. Stability of functional equivalence and stimulus equivalence: effects of baseline reversals.

    PubMed Central

    Wirth, Oliver; Chase, Philip N

    2002-01-01

    Functional equivalence and stimulus equivalence classes were established, reversed, and tested for stability with college students. Functional stimulus classes were established using a task in which students were trained to say nonsense words in the presence of arbitrarily assigned sets of symbols. Computer-controlled speech-recognition technology was used to record and analyze students' vocal responses for accuracy. After the establishment of stimulus classes was demonstrated with a transfer-of-function test, the effects of reversing selected baseline simple discriminations were assessed during an additional transfer-of-function test and a follow-up test that occurred several weeks later. With the same students, stimulus equivalence classes were established and demonstrated with computerized matching-to-sample procedures. The effects of reversing selected baseline conditional discriminations also were assessed during a postreversal equivalence test and a follow-up test. Both functional stimulus classes and stimulus equivalence were sensitive to contingency reversals, but the reversals with stimulus equivalence closses affected stimulus class organization whereas reversals with functional stimulus classes did not. Follow-up performances were largely consistent with the original baseline contingencies. The similarities and differences between stimulus equivalence and functional equivalence are related to the specific contingencies that select responding in the presence of the stimuli that form the classes. PMID:11831781

  1. Capacitors with low equivalent series resistance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleig, Patrick Franz (Inventor); Lakeman, Charles D. E. (Inventor); Fuge, Mark (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    An electric double layer capacitor (EDLC) in a coin or button cell configuration having low equivalent series resistance (ESR). The capacitor comprises mesh or other porous metal that is attached via conducting adhesive to one or both the current collectors. The mesh is embedded into the surface of the adjacent electrode, thereby reducing the interfacial resistance between the electrode and the current collector, thus reducing the ESR of the capacitor.

  2. Biomonitoring Equivalents for triclosan.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Kannan; Gagné, Michelle; Nong, Andy; Aylward, Lesa L; Hays, Sean M

    2010-10-01

    Recent efforts worldwide have resulted in a growing database of measured concentrations of chemicals in blood and urine samples taken from the general population. However, few tools exist to assist in the interpretation of the measured values in a health risk context. Biomonitoring Equivalents (BEs) are defined as the concentration or range of concentrations of a chemical or its metabolite(s) in a biological medium (blood, urine, or other medium) consistent with an existing health-based exposure guideline, and are derived by integrating available data on pharmacokinetics with existing chemical risk assessments. This study reviews available health-based exposure guidance values for triclosan based on recent evaluations from the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA), the European Commission's Scientific Committee on Consumer Products (EC SCCP) and the Australian National Industrial Chemicals Notification and Assessment Scheme (NICNAS). BE values corresponding to the reference dose (RfD) or margin of safety (MOS) targets from these agencies were derived based on kinetic data (urinary excretion and plasma clearance) from human studies and measured blood concentration data in animal studies. Estimated BE values for urinary total triclosan (free plus conjugates) corresponding to the US EPA RfD and the EC-identified margin of safety target from the NOAEL are 6.4 and 2.6 mg/L, respectively (corresponding to 8.3 and 3.3mg/g creatinine, respectively). Plasma BE values corresponding to the US EPA, EC, and Australian NICNAS values are 0.3, 0.9, and 0.4 mg/L, respectively. These values may be used as screening tools for evaluation of population biomonitoring data for triclosan in a risk assessment context. PMID:20541577

  3. Reduced Number of Transitional and Naive B Cells in Addition to Decreased BAFF Levels in Response to the T Cell Independent Immunogen Pneumovax®23

    PubMed Central

    Roth, Alena; Glaesener, Stephanie; Schütz, Katharina; Meyer-Bahlburg, Almut

    2016-01-01

    Protective immunity against T cell independent (TI) antigens such as Streptococcus pneumoniae is characterized by antibody production of B cells induced by the combined activation of T cell independent type 1 and type 2 antigens in the absence of direct T cell help. In mice, the main players in TI immune responses have been well defined as marginal zone (MZ) B cells and B-1 cells. However, the existence of human equivalents to these B cell subsets and the nature of the human B cell compartment involved in the immune reaction remain elusive. We therefore analyzed the effect of a TI antigen on the B cell compartment through immunization of healthy individuals with the pneumococcal polysaccharide (PnPS)-based vaccine Pneumovax®23, and subsequent characterization of B cell subpopulations. Our data demonstrates a transient decrease of transitional and naïve B cells, with a concomitant increase of IgA+ but not IgM+ or IgG+ memory B cells and a predominant generation of PnPS-specific IgA+ producing plasma cells. No alterations could be detected in T cells, or proposed human B-1 and MZ B cell equivalents. Consistent with the idea of a TI immune response, antigen-specific memory responses could not be observed. Finally, BAFF, which is supposed to drive class switching to IgA, was unexpectedly found to be decreased in serum in response to Pneumovax®23. Our results demonstrate that a characteristic TI response induced by Pneumovax®23 is associated with distinct phenotypical and functional changes within the B cell compartment. Those modulations occur in the absence of any modulations of T cells and without the development of a specific memory response. PMID:27031098

  4. Equivalence Principle and Gravitational Redshift

    SciTech Connect

    Hohensee, Michael A.; Chu, Steven; Mueller, Holger; Peters, Achim

    2011-04-15

    We investigate leading order deviations from general relativity that violate the Einstein equivalence principle in the gravitational standard model extension. We show that redshift experiments based on matter waves and clock comparisons are equivalent to one another. Consideration of torsion balance tests, along with matter-wave, microwave, optical, and Moessbauer clock tests, yields comprehensive limits on spin-independent Einstein equivalence principle-violating standard model extension terms at the 10{sup -6} level.

  5. Behavioral deficits induced by third-trimester equivalent alcohol exposure in male C57BL/6J mice are not associated with reduced adult hippocampal neurogenesis but are still rescued with voluntary exercise.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, G F; Bucko, P J; Miller, D S; DeAngelis, R S; Krebs, C P; Rhodes, J S

    2016-11-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure can produce permanent alterations in brain structure and profound behavioral deficits. Mouse models can help discover mechanisms and identify potentially useful interventions. This study examined long-term influences of either a single or repeated alcohol exposure during the third-trimester equivalent on survival of new neurons in the hippocampus, behavioral performance on the Passive avoidance and Rotarod tasks, and the potential role of exercise as a therapeutic intervention. C57BL/6J male mice received either saline or 5g/kg ethanol split into two s.c. injections, two hours apart, on postnatal day (PD)7 (Experiment 1) or on PD5, 7 and 9 (Experiment 2). All mice were weaned on PD21 and received either a running wheel or remained sedentary from PD35-PD80/81. From PD36-45, mice received i.p. injections of 50mg/kg bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) to label dividing cells. Behavioral testing occurred between PD72-79. Number of surviving BrdU+ cells and immature neurons (doublecortin; DCX+) was measured at PD80-81. Alcohol did not affect number of BrdU+ or DCX+ cells in either experiment. Running significantly increased number of BrdU+ and DCX+ cells in both treatment groups. Alcohol-induced deficits on Rotarod performance and acquisition of the Passive avoidance task (Day 1) were evident only in Experiment 2 and running rescued these deficits. These data suggest neonatal alcohol exposure does not result in long-term impairments in adult hippocampal neurogenesis in the mouse model. Three doses of ethanol were necessary to induce behavioral deficits. Finally, the mechanisms by which exercise ameliorated the neonatal alcohol induced behavioral deficits remain unknown. PMID:27491590

  6. Inhaled corticosteroids: potency, dose equivalence and therapeutic index

    PubMed Central

    Daley-Yates, Peter T

    2015-01-01

    Glucocorticosteroids are a group of structurally related molecules that includes natural hormones and synthetic drugs with a wide range of anti-inflammatory potencies. For synthetic corticosteroid analogues it is commonly assumed that the therapeutic index cannot be improved by increasing their glucocorticoid receptor binding affinity. The validity of this assumption, particularly for inhaled corticosteroids, has not been fully explored. Inhaled corticosteroids exert their anti-inflammatory activity locally in the airways, and hence this can be dissociated from their potential to cause systemic adverse effects. The molecular structural features that increase glucocorticoid receptor binding affinity and selectivity drive topical anti-inflammatory activity. However, in addition, these structural modifications also result in physicochemical and pharmacokinetic changes that can enhance targeting to the airways and reduce systemic exposure. As a consequence, potency and therapeutic index can be correlated. However, this consideration is not reflected in asthma treatment guidelines that classify inhaled corticosteroid formulations as low-, mid- and high dose, and imbed a simple dose equivalence approach where potency is not considered to affect the therapeutic index. This article describes the relationship between potency and therapeutic index, and concludes that higher potency can potentially improve the therapeutic index. Therefore, both efficacy and safety should be considered when classifying inhaled corticosteroid regimens in terms of dose equivalence. The historical approach to dose equivalence in asthma treatment guidelines is not appropriate for the wider range of molecules, potencies and device/formulations now available. A more robust method is needed that incorporates pharmacological principles. PMID:25808113

  7. Estimating equivalence with quantile regression.

    PubMed

    Cade, Brian S

    2011-01-01

    Equivalence testing and corresponding confidence interval estimates are used to provide more enlightened statistical statements about parameter estimates by relating them to intervals of effect sizes deemed to be of scientific or practical importance rather than just to an effect size of zero. Equivalence tests and confidence interval estimates are based on a null hypothesis that a parameter estimate is either outside (inequivalence hypothesis) or inside (equivalence hypothesis) an equivalence region, depending on the question of interest and assignment of risk. The former approach, often referred to as bioequivalence testing, is often used in regulatory settings because it reverses the burden of proof compared to a standard test of significance, following a precautionary principle for environmental protection. Unfortunately, many applications of equivalence testing focus on establishing average equivalence by estimating differences in means of distributions that do not have homogeneous variances. I discuss how to compare equivalence across quantiles of distributions using confidence intervals on quantile regression estimates that detect differences in heterogeneous distributions missed by focusing on means. I used one-tailed confidence intervals based on inequivalence hypotheses in a two-group treatment-control design for estimating bioequivalence of arsenic concentrations in soils at an old ammunition testing site and bioequivalence of vegetation biomass at a reclaimed mining site. Two-tailed confidence intervals based both on inequivalence and equivalence hypotheses were used to examine quantile equivalence for negligible trends over time for a continuous exponential model of amphibian abundance. PMID:21516905

  8. Reducing the diameters of computer networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bokhari, S. H.; Raza, A. D.

    1986-01-01

    Three methods of reducing the diameters of computer networks by adding additional processor to processor links under the constraint that no more than one I/O port be added to each processor are discussed. This is equivalent to adding edges to a given graph under the constraint that the degree of any node be increased, at most, by one.

  9. 40 CFR 61.66 - Equivalent equipment and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... satisfaction to be equivalent in terms of reducing vinyl chloride emissions to the atmosphere to those... (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Vinyl Chloride § 61.66 Equivalent equipment and procedures. Upon written application from an owner or...

  10. 40 CFR 61.66 - Equivalent equipment and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... satisfaction to be equivalent in terms of reducing vinyl chloride emissions to the atmosphere to those... (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Vinyl Chloride § 61.66 Equivalent equipment and procedures. Upon written application from an owner or...

  11. 40 CFR 61.66 - Equivalent equipment and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... satisfaction to be equivalent in terms of reducing vinyl chloride emissions to the atmosphere to those... (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Vinyl Chloride § 61.66 Equivalent equipment and procedures. Upon written application from an owner or...

  12. 40 CFR 61.66 - Equivalent equipment and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... satisfaction to be equivalent in terms of reducing vinyl chloride emissions to the atmosphere to those... (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Vinyl Chloride § 61.66 Equivalent equipment and procedures. Upon written application from an owner or...

  13. 40 CFR 61.66 - Equivalent equipment and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... satisfaction to be equivalent in terms of reducing vinyl chloride emissions to the atmosphere to those... (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Vinyl Chloride § 61.66 Equivalent equipment and procedures. Upon written application from an owner or...

  14. Quantum mechanics from an equivalence principle

    SciTech Connect

    Faraggi, A.E.; Matone, M.

    1997-05-15

    The authors show that requiring diffeomorphic equivalence for one-dimensional stationary states implies that the reduced action S{sub 0} satisfies the quantum Hamilton-Jacobi equation with the Planck constant playing the role of a covariantizing parameter. The construction shows the existence of a fundamental initial condition which is strictly related to the Moebius symmetry of the Legendre transform and to its involutive character. The universal nature of the initial condition implies the Schroedinger equation in any dimension.

  15. Addition of a dairy rich milk fat globule membrane to a high-saturated fat meal reduces the postprandial insulinaemic and inflammatory response in overweight and obese adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Overweight, obesity, metabolic syndrome (MetS), and postprandial inflammation are all independent risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). To reduce CVD risk, palm oil has become a common substitute for both hydrogenated unsaturated fats, that contain trans fatty acids, and animal ...

  16. Electrophysiological Correlates of Stimulus Equivalence Processes

    PubMed Central

    Haimson, Barry; Wilkinson, Krista M; Rosenquist, Celia; Ouimet, Carolyn; McIlvane, William J

    2009-01-01

    Research reported here concerns neural processes relating to stimulus equivalence class formation. In Experiment 1, two types of word pairs were presented successively to normally capable adults. In one type, the words had related usage in English (e.g., uncle, aunt). In the other, the two words were not typically related in their usage (e.g., wrist, corn). For pairs of both types, event-related cortical potentials were recorded during and immediately after the presentation of the second word. The obtained waveforms differentiated these two types of pairs. For the unrelated pairs, the waveforms were significantly more negative about 400 ms after the second word was presented, thus replicating the “N400” phenomenon of the cognitive neuroscience literature. In addition, there was a strong positive-tending wave form difference post-stimulus presentation (peaked at about 500 ms) that also differentiated the unrelated from related stimulus pairs. In Experiment 2, the procedures were extended to study arbitrary stimulus–stimulus relations established via matching-to-sample training. Participants were experimentally naïve adults. Sample stimuli (Set A) were trigrams, and comparison stimuli (Sets B, C, D, E, and F) were nonrepresentative forms. Behavioral tests evaluated potentially emergent equivalence relations (i.e., BD, DF, CE, etc.). All participants exhibited classes consistent with the arbitrary matching training. They were also exposed also to an event-related potential procedure like that used in Experiment 1. Some received the ERP procedure before equivalence tests and some after. Only those participants who received ERP procedures after equivalence tests exhibited robust N400 differentiation initially. The positivity observed in Experiment 1 was absent for all participants. These results support speculations that equivalence tests may provide contextual support for the formation of equivalence classes including those that emerge gradually during testing

  17. Psychotropic dose equivalence in Japan.

    PubMed

    Inada, Toshiya; Inagaki, Ataru

    2015-08-01

    Psychotropic dose equivalence is an important concept when estimating the approximate psychotropic doses patients receive, and deciding on the approximate titration dose when switching from one psychotropic agent to another. It is also useful from a research viewpoint when defining and extracting specific subgroups of subjects. Unification of various agents into a single standard agent facilitates easier analytical comparisons. On the basis of differences in psychopharmacological prescription features, those of available psychotropic agents and their approved doses, and racial differences between Japan and other countries, psychotropic dose equivalency tables designed specifically for Japanese patients have been widely used in Japan since 1998. Here we introduce dose equivalency tables for: (i) antipsychotics; (ii) antiparkinsonian agents; (iii) antidepressants; and (iv) anxiolytics, sedatives and hypnotics available in Japan. Equivalent doses for the therapeutic effects of individual psychotropic compounds were determined principally on the basis of randomized controlled trials conducted in Japan and consensus among dose equivalency tables reported previously by psychopharmacological experts. As these tables are intended to merely suggest approximate standard values, physicians should use them with discretion. Updated information of psychotropic dose equivalence in Japan is available at http://www.jsprs.org/en/equivalence.tables/. [Correction added on 8 July 2015, after first online publication: A link to the updated information has been added.]. PMID:25601291

  18. Equivalence-Equivalence: Matching Stimuli with Same Discriminative Functions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpentier, Franck; Smeets, Paul M.; Barnes-Holmes, Dermot

    2004-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that after being trained on A-B and A-C match-to-sample tasks, adults match not only same-class B and C stimuli (equivalence) but also BC compounds with same-class elements and with different-class elements (BC-BC). The assumption was that the BC-BC performances are based on matching equivalence and nonequivalence…

  19. Equivalency Theory and Distance Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonson, Michael

    1999-01-01

    Discusses distance education and the need for an accepted theory. Highlights include theories of independent study; theory of industrialization of teaching; theory of interaction and communication; and equivalency theory that is based on local control, personalized instruction, and telecommunications. (LRW)

  20. Optical metrics and projective equivalence

    SciTech Connect

    Casey, Stephen; Dunajski, Maciej; Gibbons, Gary; Warnick, Claude

    2011-04-15

    Trajectories of light rays in a static spacetime are described by unparametrized geodesics of the Riemannian optical metric associated with the Lorentzian spacetime metric. We investigate the uniqueness of this structure and demonstrate that two different observers, moving relative to one another, who both see the Universe as static may determine the geometry of the light rays differently. More specifically, we classify Lorentzian metrics admitting more than one hyper-surface orthogonal timelike Killing vector and analyze the projective equivalence of the resulting optical metrics. These metrics are shown to be projectively equivalent up to diffeomorphism if the static Killing vectors generate a group SL(2,R), but not projectively equivalent in general. We also consider the cosmological C metrics in Einstein-Maxwell theory and demonstrate that optical metrics corresponding to different values of the cosmological constant are projectively equivalent.

  1. Stimulation of sulfate-reducing bacteria in lake water from a former open-pit mine through addition of organic wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Castro, J.M.; Wielinga, B.W.; Gannon, J.E.; Moore, J.N.

    1999-03-01

    A method to improve water quality in a lake occupying a former open-pit mine was evaluated in a laboratory-scale study. Untreated pit lake water contained high levels of sulfate, iron, and arsenic and was mildly acidic ({approximately} pH 6). Varying amounts of two locally available organic waste products were added to pit water and maintained in microcosms under anoxic conditions. In selected microcosms, populations of sulfate-reducing bacteria increased with time; sulfide was generated by sulfate reduction; sulfate, iron, and arsenic concentrations approached zero; and pH approached neutrality. Best results were obtained with intermediate amounts of waste potato skin.

  2. Reduced Cardiac Contractile Force Due to Sympathovagal Dysfunction Mediates the Additive Hypotensive Effects of Limited-Access Regimens of Ethanol and Clonidine in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    PubMed Central

    El-Mas, Mahmoud M.

    2010-01-01

    Our previous attempts to investigate the long-term hemodynamic interaction between ethanol and clonidine in telemetered spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) were hampered by the lack of a sustained hypotensive response to continuous clonidine exposure. This limitation was circumvented when we adopted a limited-access clonidine (8:30 AM–4:30 PM) paradigm in a recent study. The latter paradigm was employed here to evaluate the ethanol-clonidine interaction and possible roles of myocardial function and autonomic control in this interaction. Changes in blood pressure (BP), heart rate, maximum rate of rise in BP wave (+dP/dtmax), and spectral cardiovascular autonomic profiles were measured by radiotelemetry in pair-fed SHRs receiving clonidine (150 μg/kg/day), ethanol [2.5% (w/v)], or their combination during the day for 12 weeks. Ethanol or clonidine elicited long-term decreases in BP, and their combination caused additive hypotensive response. Significant reductions in +dP/dtmax were observed upon concurrent treatment with ethanol and clonidine, in contrast to no effect for individual treatment. In addition, the combined treatment increased the high-frequency (HF) spectral band of interbeat interval (IBI-HFnu, 0.75–3 Hz) and decreased low-frequency (IBI-LFnu, 0.2–0.75 Hz) bands and IBILF/HF ratios. Clonidine-evoked reductions in plasma and urine norepinephrine and BP-LF spectral power (measure of vasomotor sympathetic tone) were not affected by ethanol. In conclusion, concurrent treatment with ethanol and clonidine shifts the sympathovagal balance toward parasympathetic dominance and elicits exaggerated hypotension as a result of a reduction in cardiac contractile force. PMID:20864507

  3. On equivalent resistance of electrical circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kagan, Mikhail

    2015-01-01

    While the standard (introductory physics) way of computing the equivalent resistance of nontrivial electrical circuits is based on Kirchhoff's rules, there is a mathematically and conceptually simpler approach, called the method of nodal potentials, whose basic variables are the values of the electric potential at the circuit's nodes. In this paper, we review the method of nodal potentials and illustrate it using the Wheatstone bridge as an example. We then derive a closed-form expression for the equivalent resistance of a generic circuit, which we apply to a few sample circuits. The result unveils a curious interplay between electrical circuits, matrix algebra, and graph theory and its applications to computer science. The paper is written at a level accessible by undergraduate students who are familiar with matrix arithmetic. Additional proofs and technical details are provided in appendices.

  4. Addition of citrate to Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans cultures enables precipitate-free growth at elevated pH and reduces ferric inhibition.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaozheng; Mercado, Roel; Kernan, Timothy; West, Alan C; Banta, Scott

    2014-10-01

    Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans is an acidophilic chemolithoautotroph that is important in biomining and other biotechnological operations. The cells are able to oxidize inorganic iron, but the insolubility and product inhibition by Fe(3+) complicates characterization of these cultures. Here we explore the growth kinetics of A. ferrooxidans in iron-based medium in a pH range from 1.6 to 2.2. It was found that as the pH was increased from 1.6 to 2.0, the maintenance coefficient decreased while both the growth kinetics and maximum cell yield increased in the precipitate-free, low Fe(2+) concentration medium. In higher iron media a similar trend was observed at low pH, but the formation of precipitates at higher pH (2.0) hampered cell growth and lowered the specific growth rate and maximum cell yield. In order to eliminate ferric precipitates, chelating agents were introduced into the medium. Citric acid was found to be relatively non-toxic and did not appear to interfere with iron oxidation at a maximum concentration of 70 mM. Inclusion of citric acid prevented precipitation and A. ferrooxidans growth parameters resumed their trends as a function of pH. The addition of citrate also decreased the apparent substrate saturation constant (KS ) indicating a reduction in the competitive inhibition of growth by ferric ions. These results indicate that continuous cultures of A. ferrooxidans in the presence of citrate at elevated pH will enable enhanced cell yields and productivities. This will be critical as these cells are used in the development of new biotechnological applications such as electrofuel production. PMID:24771134

  5. Sievert, gray and dose equivalent.

    PubMed

    Pfalzner, P M

    1983-12-01

    The concepts of physical quantity and physical units of measurement are presented. The relations between quantities, the names and symbols for SI (International System) base units, derived units and special names of SI units are illustrated. From the definition of the radiation quantity dose equivalent, the SI unit for this quantity is shown to be dimensionally identical with the joule per kilogram. The sievert (Sv) is the special (restricted) name for the SI unit of the quantity dose equivalent, with 1 Sv = 1 J/kg. PMID:6668293

  6. Expanding the Interaction Equivalency Theorem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Brenda Cecilia Padilla; Armellini, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    Although interaction is recognised as a key element for learning, its incorporation in online courses can be challenging. The interaction equivalency theorem provides guidelines: Meaningful learning can be supported as long as one of three types of interactions (learner-content, learner-teacher and learner-learner) is present at a high level. This…

  7. Acquired Equivalence Changes Stimulus Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meeter, M.; Shohamy, D.; Myers, C. E.

    2009-01-01

    Acquired equivalence is a paradigm in which generalization is increased between two superficially dissimilar stimuli (or antecedents) that have previously been associated with similar outcomes (or consequents). Several possible mechanisms have been proposed, including changes in stimulus representations, either in the form of added associations or…

  8. USEPA PATHOGEN EQUIVALENCY COMMITTEE RETREAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Pathogen Equivalency Committee held its retreat from September 20-21, 2005 at Hueston Woods State Park in College Corner, Ohio. This presentation will update the PEC’s membership on emerging pathogens, analytical methods, disinfection techniques, risk analysis, preparat...

  9. Equivalence to the Minimum Qualifications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Academic Senate for California Community Colleges, 2006

    2006-01-01

    In 1988 the Community College Reform Act (AB 1725) began a phase out of credentials in favor of a process for establishing minimum qualifications and the determination of equivalencies that are at least equal to the state-adopted minimum qualifications for a particular discipline. According to Education Code sections 87359 and 87360, someone…

  10. Multiple Functions in Equivalence Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McVeigh, Brian; Keenan, Mickey

    2009-01-01

    Four experiments examined the effects of training a "drawing" response to each of three stimuli in a 5-member equivalence class. In Experiment 1 the stimuli were an arbitrary word, a shape, or a mathematical symbol. Subjects then were trained to draw a separate component of a stickman at each of the 3 stimuli. Subsequent tests for function…

  11. Children's Equivalence Judgments: Crossmapping Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mix, Kelly S.

    2008-01-01

    Preschoolers made numerical comparisons between sets with varying degrees of shared surface similarity. When surface similarity was pitted against numerical equivalence (i.e., crossmapping), children made fewer number matches than when surface similarity was neutral (i.e, all sets contained the same objects). Only children who understood the…

  12. Equivalence to the Minimum Qualifications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Community Colleges, Sacramento. Academic Senate.

    Assembly Bill (AB) 1725 provides for the hiring of faculty who do not meet the precise letter of the minimum qualifications, provided that the governing board of an institution determines that an applicant possesses qualifications that are at least equivalent. In order to make these determinations, each district must have and use an equivalency…

  13. Equivalence theorem and infrared divergences

    SciTech Connect

    Torma, T.

    1996-08-01

    We look at the equivalence theorem as a statement about the absence of polynomial infrared divergences when {ital m}{sub {ital W}}{r_arrow}0. We prove their absence in a truncated toy model and conjecture that, if they exist at all, they are due to couplings between light particles. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  14. Experiencing Equivalence but Organizing Order

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asghari, Amir H.

    2009-01-01

    The notion of equivalence relation is arguably one of the most fundamental ideas of mathematics. Accordingly, it plays an important role in teaching mathematics at all levels, whether explicitly or implicitly. Our success in introducing this notion for its own sake or as a means to teach other mathematical concepts, however, depends largely on our…

  15. Simulated Response of a Tissue-equivalent Proportional Counter on the Surface of Mars.

    PubMed

    Northum, Jeremy D; Guetersloh, Stephen B; Braby, Leslie A; Ford, John R

    2015-10-01

    Uncertainties persist regarding the assessment of the carcinogenic risk associated with galactic cosmic ray (GCR) exposure during a mission to Mars. The GCR spectrum peaks in the range of 300(-1) MeV n to 700 MeV n(-1) and is comprised of elemental ions from H to Ni. While Fe ions represent only 0.03% of the GCR spectrum in terms of particle abundance, they are responsible for nearly 30% of the dose equivalent in free space. Because of this, radiation biology studies focusing on understanding the biological effects of GCR exposure generally use Fe ions. Acting as a thin shield, the Martian atmosphere alters the GCR spectrum in a manner that significantly reduces the importance of Fe ions. Additionally, albedo particles emanating from the regolith complicate the radiation environment. The present study uses the Monte Carlo code FLUKA to simulate the response of a tissue-equivalent proportional counter on the surface of Mars to produce dosimetry quantities and microdosimetry distributions. The dose equivalent rate on the surface of Mars was found to be 0.18 Sv y(-1) with an average quality factor of 2.9 and a dose mean lineal energy of 18.4 keV μm(-1). Additionally, albedo neutrons were found to account for 25% of the dose equivalent. It is anticipated that these data will provide relevant starting points for use in future risk assessment and mission planning studies. PMID:26313586

  16. Rallian "equivalent" cylinders reconsidered: comparisons with literal compartments.

    PubMed

    Goldfinger, M D

    2005-06-01

    In Rall's "equivalent" cylinder morphological-to-electrical transformation, neuronal arborizations are reduced to single unbranched core-conductors. The conventional assumption that such an "equivalent" reconstructs the electrical properties of the fibers it represents was tested directly; electrical properties and responses of "equivalent" cylinders were compared with those of their literal branch constituents for fibers with a single symmetrical bifurcation. The numerical solution methods were validated independently by their accurate reconstruction of the responses of an analog circuit configured with compartmental architecture to solve the cable equation for passive fibers with a symmetrical bifurcation. In passive fibers, "equivalent" cylinders misestimated the spatial distribution of voltage amplitudes and steady-state input resistance, partly due to the lack of axial current bifurcation. In active fibers with a single propagating action potential, the spatial distributions of point-to-point conduction velocity values (measured in meters/second) for a literal branch point differed significantly from those of their "equivalent" cylinders. "Equivalent" cylinders also underestimated the diameter-dependent delay in propagation through the branch point and branches, due to the larger "equivalent" diameter. Corrections to the "equivalent" cylinder did not reconcile differences between "equivalent" and literal models. However, "equivalent" and literal branch fibers had the same (a) steady-state resistance "looking into" an isolated symmetrical branch point and (b) geometry-independent point-to-point propagation velocity when measured in space constants per millisecond except within +/-1 space constant from the geometrical inhomogeneity. In summary, Rall's "equivalent" cylinders did not accurately reconstruct all passive or active electrophysiological properties and responses of their literal compartments. For the modeling of individual neurons, the requirement of

  17. Dark matter and the equivalence principle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frieman, Joshua A.; Gradwohl, Ben-Ami

    1991-01-01

    If the dark matter in galaxies and clusters is nonbaryonic, it can interact with additional long-range fields that are invisible to experimental tests of the equivalence principle. The astrophysical and cosmological implications of a long-range force coupled only to the dark matter are discussed and rather tight constraints on its strength are found. If the force is repulsive (attractive), the masses of galaxy groups and clusters (and the mean density of the universe inferred from them) have been systematically underestimated (overestimated). Such an interaction also has unusual implications for the growth of large-scale structure.

  18. Thévenin equivalence in disorderless quantum networks

    SciTech Connect

    Cain, C. A.; Wu, C. H.

    2015-01-14

    We outline the procedure of extending the Thévenin equivalence principle for classical electric circuits to reducing Aharonov-Bohm-based quantum networks into equivalent models. With examples, we show from first principles how the requirements are related to the electron band structure's Fermi level and the lattice spacing of the network. Quantum networks of varying degrees of coupling strength from four basic classifications of single and double entangled loops sharing symmetry and highly correlated band structures are used to demonstrate the concept. We show the limitations of how the principle may be applied. Several classes of examples are given and their equivalent forms are shown.

  19. Equivalent Imperfections In Arched Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dallemule, Marian

    2015-09-01

    There are currently three design methods to verify the in-plane buckling of an arched structure: substitute member method, the method of equivalent imperfection with recommendations for arched bridges, and the equivalent unique global and local initial imperfection method (EUGLI), which uses the critical elastic buckling mode as an imperfection. The latter method is included in the EN 1993-1-1 cl. 5.3.2 (11) since 2002; however, to this day it is neither utilized in the design practice nor is it incorporated in ordinary structural analysis software. The main purpose of this article is to show the application of the proposed methods in a step-by-step manner to the numerical example considered and to compare these design methods for various arched structures. Verification of the in-plane buckling of an arch is explained in detail.

  20. Planck Constant Determination from Power Equivalence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newell, David B.

    2000-04-01

    Equating mechanical to electrical power links the kilogram, the meter, and the second to the practical realizations of the ohm and the volt derived from the quantum Hall and the Josephson effects, yielding an SI determination of the Planck constant. The NIST watt balance uses this power equivalence principle, and in 1998 measured the Planck constant with a combined relative standard uncertainty of 8.7 x 10-8, the most accurate determination to date. The next generation of the NIST watt balance is now being assembled. Modification to the experimental facilities have been made to reduce the uncertainty components from vibrations and electromagnetic interference. A vacuum chamber has been installed to reduce the uncertainty components associated with performing the experiment in air. Most of the apparatus is in place and diagnostic testing of the balance should begin this year. Once a combined relative standard uncertainty of one part in 10-8 has been reached, the power equivalence principle can be used to monitor the possible drift in the artifact mass standard, the kilogram, and provide an accurate alternative definition of mass in terms of fundamental constants. *Electricity Division, Electronics and Electrical Engineering Laboratory, Technology Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce. Contribution of the National Institute of Standards and Technology, not subject to copyright in the U.S.

  1. Information Leakage from Logically Equivalent Frames

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sher, Shlomi; McKenzie, Craig R. M.

    2006-01-01

    Framing effects are said to occur when equivalent frames lead to different choices. However, the equivalence in question has been incompletely conceptualized. In a new normative analysis of framing effects, we complete the conceptualization by introducing the notion of information equivalence. Information equivalence obtains when no…

  2. Food additives

    MedlinePlus

    Food additives are substances that become part of a food product when they are added during the processing or making of that food. "Direct" food additives are often added during processing to: Add nutrients ...

  3. Food additives

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Michael

    1974-01-01

    Food additives are discussed from the food technology point of view. The reasons for their use are summarized: (1) to protect food from chemical and microbiological attack; (2) to even out seasonal supplies; (3) to improve their eating quality; (4) to improve their nutritional value. The various types of food additives are considered, e.g. colours, flavours, emulsifiers, bread and flour additives, preservatives, and nutritional additives. The paper concludes with consideration of those circumstances in which the use of additives is (a) justified and (b) unjustified. PMID:4467857

  4. On Vasyliunas's equivalent conductivity formalism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pontius, D. H., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    The Vasyliunas's (1972) equivalent conductivity formalism (ECF) for representing the coupling of the ionosphere and the magnetosphere is discussed, and a new, simpler, derivation is presented of the ECF, in which certain of the underlying assumptions and their implications are made transparent. The derivation presented indicates that the only role of the ions in the ECF is to insure quasi-neutrality. It is shown that the ECF is not as robust as usually assumed and that caution must be used to insure that reasonable results are obtained.

  5. Effect of primary-zone equivalence ratio on pollutant formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Claus, R. W.

    1979-01-01

    Test were conducted to determine the effect of primary-zone equivalence ratio on the formation of smoke and other gaseous pollutants in an experimental can combustor. Several fuel injection techniques were examined at primary-zone equivalence ratios from 0.8 to 2.0. The main emphasis was on reducing fuel-rich-combustion smoke levels. Two of the four fuel injection configurations studied produced smoke levels below a smoke number of 20 at a primary-zone equivalence ratio of about 1.7. As the fuel mixing and atomization were recorded at primary-zone equivalence ratios as high as 2.0. The gaseous emissions of unburned hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and oxides of nitrogen were quite sensitive to the fuel injection configuration as well as to the primary-zone equilvalence ratio.

  6. Speed analyses of stimulus equivalence.

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, T J; Chase, P N

    1996-01-01

    The functional substitutability of stimuli in equivalence classes was examined through analyses of the speed of college students' accurate responding. After training subjects to respond to 18 conditional relations, subjects' accuracy and speed of accurate responding were compared across trial types (baseline, symmetry, transitivity, and combined transitivity and symmetry) and nodal distance (one- through five-node transitive and combined transitive and symmetric relations). Differences in accuracy across nodal distance and trial type were significant only on the first tests of equivalence, whereas differences in speed were significant even after extended testing. Response speed was inversely related to the number of nodes on which the tested relations were based. Significant differences in response speed were also found across trial types, except between transitivity and combined trials. To determine the generality of these comparisons, three groups of subjects were included: An instructed group was given an instruction that specified the interchangeability of stimuli related through training; a queried group was queried about the basis for test-trial responding: and a standard group was neither instructed nor queried. There were no significant differences among groups. These results suggest the use of response speed and response accuracy to measure the strength of matching relations. PMID:8636663

  7. Therapeutic equivalents in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Benson, M D

    2001-01-01

    With increasing debate over the rising expenses of health care, a variety of cost-saving measures has been attempted over the years. Use of primary care physicians as "gate keepers," reduction in the length of hospital stays, and pushing women toward vaginal birth after Cesarean section have all been utilized despite on going issues with patient satisfaction and even safety. One remarkable success in stretching health-care dollars that has often been overlooked is the prescription of therapeutic equivalents, or generic drugs. Although available on a limited basis for decades, off-brand manufacture of pharmaceuticals with identical active ingredients as those of the branded drug received a large boost through Congressional legislation in 1984 with the Hatch-Waxman Act. "Fast-track" FDA approval was initiated by Congress to introduce competition into the marketplace for drugs whose patients had expired. While giving close scrutiny to the manufacturing process and requiring the same level of regulatory supervision for factors such as bioavailability and shelf life, the Hatch-Waxman Act removed the burden and expense from generic manufacturers of proving the safety and efficacy all over again of a previously FDA-approved drug. With less than a 20% market share of all prescribed drugs in 1984, the generic drug industry has captured roughly 44% of the market in recent years while accounting for only 8% of expenditures on prescription medication. The prescription of therapeutic equivalents is one method of keeping health care costs down without compromising patient satisfaction or safety. PMID:11374660

  8. Validation Of Equivalent Viscous Damping Methodologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaquer Araujo, Xavier; Fransen, S. H. J. A.; Germes, S.; Thiry, N.

    2012-07-01

    An important step in the design and verification process of spacecraft structures is the coupled dynamic analysis with the launch vehicle in the low-frequency domain. To obtain accurate predictions of the satellite’s dynamic environment it is essential that the damping of the system is correctly defined and taken into account within the resolution methodologies for the Coupled Loads Analysis (CLA). When working with finite element models, the materials’ damping is characterized by structural damping ratios. In addition, most of the load cases present in the CLA are transient excitations so the resolution of the equations of motion must be done in the time domain. Unfortunately, transient analyses cannot be carried out using structural damping models. Thus, a transformation from a structural to a viscous damping characterization is necessary. Nevertheless, this transformation is not trivial. There exist many methodologies aiming at computing an equivalent viscous damping matrix of the system so it can be used in transient analyses. This paper describes the results obtained in the validation of equivalent viscous damping methodologies used in the European Space Agency. This work permitted to identify the limitations of these methodologies and to come up with an enhanced methodology that predicts more reliable results.

  9. Breaking of Ensemble Equivalence in Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Squartini, Tiziano; de Mol, Joey; den Hollander, Frank; Garlaschelli, Diego

    2015-12-01

    It is generally believed that, in the thermodynamic limit, the microcanonical description as a function of energy coincides with the canonical description as a function of temperature. However, various examples of systems for which the microcanonical and canonical ensembles are not equivalent have been identified. A complete theory of this intriguing phenomenon is still missing. Here we show that ensemble nonequivalence can manifest itself also in random graphs with topological constraints. We find that, while graphs with a given number of links are ensemble equivalent, graphs with a given degree sequence are not. This result holds irrespective of whether the energy is nonadditive (as in unipartite graphs) or additive (as in bipartite graphs). In contrast with previous expectations, our results show that (1) physically, nonequivalence can be induced by an extensive number of local constraints, and not necessarily by long-range interactions or nonadditivity, (2) mathematically, nonequivalence is determined by a different large-deviation behavior of microcanonical and canonical probabilities for a single microstate, and not necessarily for almost all microstates. The latter criterion, which is entirely local, is not restricted to networks and holds in general.

  10. Equivalent crystal theory of alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozzolo, Guillermo; Ferrante, John

    1991-01-01

    Equivalent Crystal Theory (ECT) is a new, semi-empirical approach to calculating the energetics of a solid with defects. The theory has successfully reproduced surface energies in metals and semiconductors. The theory of binary alloys to date, both with first-principles and semi-empirical models, has not been very successful in predicting the energetics of alloys. This procedure is used to predict the heats of formation, cohesive energy, and lattice parameter of binary alloys of Cu, Ni, Al, Ag, Au, Pd, and Pt as functions of composition. The procedure accurately reproduces the heats of formation versus composition curves for a variety of binary alloys. The results are then compared with other approaches such as the embedded atom and lattice parameters of alloys from pure metal properties more accurately than Vegard's law is presented.

  11. A study protocol of a randomised controlled trial incorporating a health economic analysis to investigate if additional allied health services for rehabilitation reduce length of stay without compromising patient outcomes

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Reducing patient length of stay is a high priority for health service providers. Preliminary information suggests additional Saturday rehabilitation services could reduce the time a patient stays in hospital by three days. This large trial will examine if providing additional physiotherapy and occupational therapy services on a Saturday reduces health care costs, and improves the health of hospital inpatients receiving rehabilitation compared to the usual Monday to Friday service. We will also investigate the cost effectiveness and patient outcomes of such a service. Methods/Design A randomised controlled trial will evaluate the effect of providing additional physiotherapy and occupational therapy for rehabilitation. Seven hundred and twelve patients receiving inpatient rehabilitation at two metropolitan sites will be randomly allocated to the intervention group or control group. The control group will receive usual care physiotherapy and occupational therapy from Monday to Friday while the intervention group will receive the same amount of rehabilitation as the control group Monday to Friday plus a full physiotherapy and occupational therapy service on Saturday. The primary outcomes will be patient length of stay, quality of life (EuroQol questionnaire), the Functional Independence Measure (FIM), and health utilization and cost data. Secondary outcomes will assess clinical outcomes relevant to the goals of therapy: the 10 metre walk test, the timed up and go test, the Personal Care Participation Assessment and Resource Tool (PC PART), and the modified motor assessment scale. Blinded assessors will assess outcomes at admission and discharge, and follow up data on quality of life, function and health care costs will be collected at 6 and 12 months after discharge. Between group differences will be analysed with analysis of covariance using baseline measures as the covariate. A health economic analysis will be carried out alongside the randomised

  12. Multiband signal reconstruction for random equivalent sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Y. J.; Liu, C. J.

    2014-10-01

    The random equivalent sampling (RES) is a sampling approach that can be applied to capture high speed repetitive signals with a sampling rate that is much lower than the Nyquist rate. However, the uneven random distribution of the time interval between the excitation pulse and the signal degrades the signal reconstruction performance. For sparse multiband signal sampling, the compressed sensing (CS) based signal reconstruction algorithm can tease out the band supports with overwhelming probability and reduce the impact of uneven random distribution in RES. In this paper, the mathematical model of RES behavior is constructed in the frequency domain. Based on the constructed mathematical model, the band supports of signal can be determined. Experimental results demonstrate that, for a signal with unknown sparse multiband, the proposed CS-based signal reconstruction algorithm is feasible, and the CS reconstruction algorithm outperforms the traditional RES signal reconstruction method.

  13. Multiband signal reconstruction for random equivalent sampling.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Y J; Liu, C J

    2014-10-01

    The random equivalent sampling (RES) is a sampling approach that can be applied to capture high speed repetitive signals with a sampling rate that is much lower than the Nyquist rate. However, the uneven random distribution of the time interval between the excitation pulse and the signal degrades the signal reconstruction performance. For sparse multiband signal sampling, the compressed sensing (CS) based signal reconstruction algorithm can tease out the band supports with overwhelming probability and reduce the impact of uneven random distribution in RES. In this paper, the mathematical model of RES behavior is constructed in the frequency domain. Based on the constructed mathematical model, the band supports of signal can be determined. Experimental results demonstrate that, for a signal with unknown sparse multiband, the proposed CS-based signal reconstruction algorithm is feasible, and the CS reconstruction algorithm outperforms the traditional RES signal reconstruction method. PMID:25362458

  14. Light WIMPs and Equivalent Neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steigman, Gary; Nollett, Kenneth M.

    Very light WIMPs (χ), thermal relics that annihilate late in the early Universe, change the energy and entropy densities at BBN and at recombination. BBN, in combination with the CMB, can remove some of the degeneracies among light WIMPs and equivalent neutrinos, constraining the existence and properties of each. Depending on the nature of the light WIMP (Majorana or Dirac fermion, real or complex scalar) the joint BBN + CMB analyses set lower bounds to mχ in the range 0.5 - 5 MeV (mχ/me ≲1 - 10), and they identify best fit values for mχ in the range 5 - 10 MeV. The joint BBN + CMB analysis finds a best fit value for the number of equivalent neutrinos, ΔNν ≈ 0.65, nearly independent of the nature of the WIMP. In the absence of a light WIMP (mχ ≲20 MeV), Neff = 3.05(1 + ΔNν/3). In this case, there is excellent agreement between BBN and the CMB, but the joint fit reveals ΔNν = 0.40 ± 0.17, disfavoring standard big bang nucleosynthesis (SBBN) (ΔNν = 0) at ∼ 2.4 σ, as well as a sterile neutrino (ΔNν = 1) at ∼ 3.5 σ. The best BBN + CMB joint fit disfavors the absence of dark radiation (ΔNν = 0 at ∼ 95% confidence), while allowing for the presence of a sterile neutrino (ΔNν = 1 at ≲1 σ). For all cases considered here, the lithium problem persists. These results, presented at the TAUP 2013 Conference, are based on Nollett & Steigman [14].

  15. Multi-port frequency dependent network equivalents for the EMTP

    SciTech Connect

    Morched, A.S.; Ottevangers, J.H.; Marti, L. )

    1993-07-01

    A method is developed to reduce large power systems to single and multi-port frequency dependent equivalents. These equivalents consist of simple RLC modules that faithfully reproduce the frequency characteristics of the network. The method is implemented in the EMTP and has been extensively tested at Ontario Hydro. The implementation involves a pre-processor program to generate the model: the Frequency Dependent Equivalent (FDNE), and a EMTP time step loop module to calculate the transient response. The use of the FDNE results in major reductions in computer time and is especially beneficial for multi-case statistical EMTP studies. An example showing the accuracy and efficiency of the FDNE when used to reduce a large 500 kV network is presented.

  16. Equivalent Hamiltonian for the Lee model

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, H. F.

    2008-03-15

    Using the techniques of quasi-Hermitian quantum mechanics and quantum field theory we use a similarity transformation to construct an equivalent Hermitian Hamiltonian for the Lee model. In the field theory confined to the V/N{theta} sector it effectively decouples V, replacing the three-point interaction of the original Lee model by an additional mass term for the V particle and a four-point interaction between N and {theta}. While the construction is originally motivated by the regime where the bare coupling becomes imaginary, leading to a ghost, it applies equally to the standard Hermitian regime where the bare coupling is real. In that case the similarity transformation becomes a unitary transformation.

  17. Snow water equivalent determination by microwave radiometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, A. T. C.; Foster, J. L.; Hall, D. K.; Rango, A.; Hartline, B. K.

    1981-01-01

    One of the most important parameters for accurate snowmelt runoff prediction is snow water equivalent (SWE) which is contentionally monitored using observations made at widely scattered points in or around specific watersheds. Remote sensors which provide data with better spatial and temporal coverage can be used to improve the SWE estimates. Microwave radiation, which can penetrate through a snowpack, may be used to infer the SWE. Calculations made from a microscopic scattering model were used to simulate the effect of varying SWE on the microwave brightness temperature. Data obtained from truck mounted, airborne and spaceborne systems from various test sites were studied. The simulated SWE compares favorable with the measured SWE. In addition, whether the underlying soil is frozen or thawed can be discriminated successfully on the basis of the polarization of the microwave radiation.

  18. Food additives.

    PubMed

    Berglund, F

    1978-01-01

    The use of additives to food fulfils many purposes, as shown by the index issued by the Codex Committee on Food Additives: Acids, bases and salts; Preservatives, Antioxidants and antioxidant synergists; Anticaking agents; Colours; Emulfifiers; Thickening agents; Flour-treatment agents; Extraction solvents; Carrier solvents; Flavours (synthetic); Flavour enhancers; Non-nutritive sweeteners; Processing aids; Enzyme preparations. Many additives occur naturally in foods, but this does not exclude toxicity at higher levels. Some food additives are nutrients, or even essential nutritents, e.g. NaCl. Examples are known of food additives causing toxicity in man even when used according to regulations, e.g. cobalt in beer. In other instances, poisoning has been due to carry-over, e.g. by nitrate in cheese whey - when used for artificial feed for infants. Poisonings also occur as the result of the permitted substance being added at too high levels, by accident or carelessness, e.g. nitrite in fish. Finally, there are examples of hypersensitivity to food additives, e.g. to tartrazine and other food colours. The toxicological evaluation, based on animal feeding studies, may be complicated by impurities, e.g. orthotoluene-sulfonamide in saccharin; by transformation or disappearance of the additive in food processing in storage, e.g. bisulfite in raisins; by reaction products with food constituents, e.g. formation of ethylurethane from diethyl pyrocarbonate; by metabolic transformation products, e.g. formation in the gut of cyclohexylamine from cyclamate. Metabolic end products may differ in experimental animals and in man: guanylic acid and inosinic acid are metabolized to allantoin in the rat but to uric acid in man. The magnitude of the safety margin in man of the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) is not identical to the "safety factor" used when calculating the ADI. The symptoms of Chinese Restaurant Syndrome, although not hazardous, furthermore illustrate that the whole ADI

  19. 46 CFR 110.20-1 - Equivalents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Equivalents. 110.20-1 Section 110.20-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING GENERAL PROVISIONS Equivalents... engineering evaluations and tests to demonstrate the equivalence of the substitute....

  20. 46 CFR 110.20-1 - Equivalents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Equivalents. 110.20-1 Section 110.20-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING GENERAL PROVISIONS Equivalents... engineering evaluations and tests to demonstrate the equivalence of the substitute....

  1. 46 CFR 110.20-1 - Equivalents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Equivalents. 110.20-1 Section 110.20-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING GENERAL PROVISIONS Equivalents... engineering evaluations and tests to demonstrate the equivalence of the substitute....

  2. 21 CFR 26.6 - Equivalence assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Equivalence assessment. 26.6 Section 26.6 Food and... Specific Sector Provisions for Pharmaceutical Good Manufacturing Practices § 26.6 Equivalence assessment... or processes. (c) The equivalence assessment shall include information exchanges...

  3. 21 CFR 26.39 - Equivalence assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Equivalence assessment. 26.39 Section 26.39 Food... Specific Sector Provisions for Medical Devices § 26.39 Equivalence assessment. (a) In the final 6 months of the transition period, the parties shall proceed to a joint assessment of the equivalence of...

  4. 21 CFR 26.39 - Equivalence assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Equivalence assessment. 26.39 Section 26.39 Food... Specific Sector Provisions for Medical Devices § 26.39 Equivalence assessment. (a) In the final 6 months of the transition period, the parties shall proceed to a joint assessment of the equivalence of...

  5. 21 CFR 26.6 - Equivalence assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Equivalence assessment. 26.6 Section 26.6 Food and... Specific Sector Provisions for Pharmaceutical Good Manufacturing Practices § 26.6 Equivalence assessment... or processes. (c) The equivalence assessment shall include information exchanges...

  6. Equivalency Testing in Development of Health Practitioners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Margaret A.

    1974-01-01

    A faculty must think effectivelyto build a congruent meaningful equivalency testing effort as an intimate part of its curriculum. No faculty should feel embarrassed if its conclusion, after careful assessment, is that it cannot or should not offer equivalency testing. Each faculty should study equivalency testing and its feasibility. (Author/AJ)

  7. Classroom Activities for Introducing Equivalence Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandt, Jim

    2013-01-01

    Equivalence relations and partitions are two interconnected ideas that play important roles in advanced mathematics. While students encounter the informal notion of equivalence in many courses, the formal definition of an equivalence relation is typically introduced in a junior level transition-to-proof course. This paper reports the results of a…

  8. 46 CFR 110.20-1 - Equivalents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Equivalents. 110.20-1 Section 110.20-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING GENERAL PROVISIONS Equivalents... engineering evaluations and tests to demonstrate the equivalence of the substitute....

  9. 46 CFR 110.20-1 - Equivalents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Equivalents. 110.20-1 Section 110.20-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING GENERAL PROVISIONS Equivalents... engineering evaluations and tests to demonstrate the equivalence of the substitute....

  10. Equivalents dynamiques pour l'etude de la stabilite transitoire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Aouni, Wassil

    Today's transient stability (TS) studies are a necessary tool to predict power systems behavior after the occurring of huge faults (ex: short-circuit, generator's lost, etc.). These studies allow us to plan the necessary actions to take in order to maintain the required levels of availability and quality of the electricity production. However, because of the fast increase of the size and the complexity of the power systems, these (TS) studies require higher duration and efforts for their calculations to be processed. The problem of this thesis is therefore: How to reduce the (TS) programs duration and calculation efforts while keeping the precision of their results? In order to resolve this problem, an initial literature review was performed. This literature review allowed us to notice that power systems reduction techniques used to decrease duration of (TS) simulation programs were designed long time ago. These techniques have the common goal of reducing the (TS) simulation duration and effort while keeping the same original power system dynamic behavior. This literature review leaded us also to choose a four steps power system reduction method: In the first step, the power system internal and external zones are chosen. In the second step the power system external zone generators able to be aggregated together are identified using the slow coherency method in addition to a time domain (TS) simulation. In the third step, dynamic parameters of the equivalent reduced network machines are derived using the structure preserving method which has the advantage of being useful for both classical and detailed power systems models. In the fourth step, the equivalent power system admittance matrix is processed using Zhukov method. The method proposed to resolve the problem of this thesis was afterwards implemented under Matlab(c) functions format. These aggregation functions were validated in the case of (TS) and (SIME) programs for the two following test network: " New

  11. 26 CFR 514.22 - Dividends received by persons not entitled to reduced rate of tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Contracting State in the collection of taxes covered by the convention. (b) Additional French tax to be... dividend from which French tax has been withheld at the reduced rate of 15 percent, who is a nominee or..., shall withhold an additional amount of French tax equivalent to the French tax which would have...

  12. 26 CFR 514.22 - Dividends received by persons not entitled to reduced rate of tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Contracting State in the collection of taxes covered by the convention. (b) Additional French tax to be... dividend from which French tax has been withheld at the reduced rate of 15 percent, who is a nominee or..., shall withhold an additional amount of French tax equivalent to the French tax which would have...

  13. 26 CFR 514.22 - Dividends received by persons not entitled to reduced rate of tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Contracting State in the collection of taxes covered by the convention. (b) Additional French tax to be... dividend from which French tax has been withheld at the reduced rate of 15 percent, who is a nominee or..., shall withhold an additional amount of French tax equivalent to the French tax which would have...

  14. 26 CFR 514.22 - Dividends received by persons not entitled to reduced rate of tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Contracting State in the collection of taxes covered by the convention. (b) Additional French tax to be... dividend from which French tax has been withheld at the reduced rate of 15 percent, who is a nominee or..., shall withhold an additional amount of French tax equivalent to the French tax which would have...

  15. 26 CFR 514.22 - Dividends received by persons not entitled to reduced rate of tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Contracting State in the collection of taxes covered by the convention. (b) Additional French tax to be... dividend from which French tax has been withheld at the reduced rate of 15 percent, who is a nominee or..., shall withhold an additional amount of French tax equivalent to the French tax which would have...

  16. Is it efficient to co-compost and co-vermicompost green waste with biochar and/or clay to reduce CO2 emissions? A short-term laboratory experiment on (vermi)composts with additives.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barthod, Justine; Rumpel, Cornélia; Paradelo, Remigio; Dignac, Marie-France

    2016-04-01

    Intensive farming practices can lead to a depletion of soil organic matter, negatively impacting important soil properties such as structural stability, fertility and C storage. The addition of organic amendments such as compost and vermicompost, rich in carbon, helps maintaining soil organic matter levels or restoring degraded soils. Composting and vermicomposting are based on stabilization of organic matter through the mineralization of easily decomposable organic matter compounds, therefore releasing greenhouse gases, including CO2. The aim of this study was to evaluate the global potential reduction of such emissions by the use of additives (2:1 clay and/or biochar): during (vermi)composting processes and after use of the final products as soil amendments. We hypothesized that the interactions between the additives and organic matter may lead to carbon stabilization and that such interactions may be enhanced by the presence of worms (Eisenia). We added in different proportions clay (25% or 50%), biochar (10%) and a mixture of biochar (10%) with clay (25%) to pre-composted green waste. The CO2 emissions of the composting and vermicomposting processes were measured during 21 days. After that, the amendments were added to a loamy cambisol soil and the CO2 emissions were monitored during 30 days of a laboratory experiment. The most efficient treatments in terms of reducing global CO2 emissions were the co-vermicomposting process with 25% clay followed by co-composting with 50% clay and with 10% biochar plus 25% clay. In this treatment (vermicompost with 25% clay), the carbon emissions were decreased by up to 44% compared to regular compost. Addition of biochar reduced CO2 emissions only during composting. Co-composting with biochar could be a promising avenue to limit global CO2 emissions whereas in presence of worms clay additions are better suited. These findings suggest that the presence of worms increased the formation of organo-mineral associations and thus C

  17. Potlining Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolf Keller

    2004-08-10

    In this project, a concept to improve the performance of aluminum production cells by introducing potlining additives was examined and tested. Boron oxide was added to cathode blocks, and titanium was dissolved in the metal pool; this resulted in the formation of titanium diboride and caused the molten aluminum to wet the carbonaceous cathode surface. Such wetting reportedly leads to operational improvements and extended cell life. In addition, boron oxide suppresses cyanide formation. This final report presents and discusses the results of this project. Substantial economic benefits for the practical implementation of the technology are projected, especially for modern cells with graphitized blocks. For example, with an energy savings of about 5% and an increase in pot life from 1500 to 2500 days, a cost savings of $ 0.023 per pound of aluminum produced is projected for a 200 kA pot.

  18. Phosphazene additives

    SciTech Connect

    Harrup, Mason K; Rollins, Harry W

    2013-11-26

    An additive comprising a phosphazene compound that has at least two reactive functional groups and at least one capping functional group bonded to phosphorus atoms of the phosphazene compound. One of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with cellulose and the other of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with a resin, such as an amine resin of a polycarboxylic acid resin. The at least one capping functional group is selected from the group consisting of a short chain ether group, an alkoxy group, or an aryloxy group. Also disclosed are an additive-resin admixture, a method of treating a wood product, and a wood product.

  19. A Test of the Discrimination Account in Equivalence Class Formation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Ting; McHugh, Louise A.; Whelan, Robert

    2012-01-01

    An equivalence class is typically established when a subject is taught a set of interrelated conditional discriminations with physically unrelated stimuli and additional, untaught, conditional discriminations are then demonstrated. Interestingly, and perhaps counter-intuitively, the relations among the stimuli within such a class are not…

  20. 21 CFR 610.9 - Equivalent methods and processes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) BIOLOGICS GENERAL BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS STANDARDS General Provisions § 610.9 Equivalent methods and processes... conducted as required in this part or in the additional standards for specific biological products in parts... of the safety, purity, potency, and effectiveness of the biological product equal to or greater...

  1. 21 CFR 610.9 - Equivalent methods and processes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) BIOLOGICS GENERAL BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS STANDARDS General Provisions § 610.9 Equivalent methods and processes... conducted as required in this part or in the additional standards for specific biological products in parts... of the safety, purity, potency, and effectiveness of the biological product equal to or greater...

  2. 21 CFR 610.9 - Equivalent methods and processes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) BIOLOGICS GENERAL BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS STANDARDS General Provisions § 610.9 Equivalent methods and processes... conducted as required in this part or in the additional standards for specific biological products in parts... of the safety, purity, potency, and effectiveness of the biological product equal to or greater...

  3. 21 CFR 610.9 - Equivalent methods and processes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) BIOLOGICS GENERAL BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS STANDARDS General Provisions § 610.9 Equivalent methods and processes... conducted as required in this part or in the additional standards for specific biological products in parts... of the safety, purity, potency, and effectiveness of the biological product equal to or greater...

  4. 21 CFR 610.9 - Equivalent methods and processes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) BIOLOGICS GENERAL BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS STANDARDS General Provisions § 610.9 Equivalent methods and processes... conducted as required in this part or in the additional standards for specific biological products in parts... of the safety, purity, potency, and effectiveness of the biological product equal to or greater...

  5. 40 CFR 125.60 - Primary or equivalent treatment requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Modifying the Secondary Treatment Requirements Under Section 301(h) of the Clean Water Act § 125.60 Primary... will be based on the definition of excessive I&I in 40 CFR 35.2005(b)(16) plus the additional criterion... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Primary or equivalent...

  6. 40 CFR 125.60 - Primary or equivalent treatment requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Modifying the Secondary Treatment Requirements Under Section 301(h) of the Clean Water Act § 125.60 Primary... will be based on the definition of excessive I&I in 40 CFR 35.2005(b)(16) plus the additional criterion... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Primary or equivalent...

  7. 40 CFR 125.60 - Primary or equivalent treatment requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Modifying the Secondary Treatment Requirements Under Section 301(h) of the Clean Water Act § 125.60 Primary... will be based on the definition of excessive I&I in 40 CFR 35.2005(b)(16) plus the additional criterion... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Primary or equivalent...

  8. 40 CFR 125.60 - Primary or equivalent treatment requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Modifying the Secondary Treatment Requirements Under Section 301(h) of the Clean Water Act § 125.60 Primary... will be based on the definition of excessive I&I in 40 CFR 35.2005(b)(16) plus the additional criterion... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Primary or equivalent...

  9. Mo-Fe catalysts supported on activated carbon for synthesis of liquid fuels by the Fischer-Tropsch process: effect of Mo addition on reducibility, activity, and hydrocarbon selectivity

    SciTech Connect

    Wenping Ma; Edwin L. Kugler; James Wright; Dady B. Dadyburjor

    2006-12-15

    The effects of Mo loading (0-12 wt %) on the properties of activated-carbon- (AC-) supported Fe-Cu-K catalysts and their performance for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis are studied. Physicochemical properties studied include particle size, reducibility, and dispersion, and catalytic properties include activity, selectivity, and stability. Catalysts were characterized by N{sub 2} adsorption, energy-dispersive spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), H{sub 2} temperature-programmed reduction (TPR), and CO chemisorption. Catalyst performance was studied at 310-320{sup o}C, 2.2 MPa, 3 Nl/g-cat/h, and H{sub 2}/CO = 0.9. Reaction results in a fixed-bed reactor show that addition of 6% Mo into the Fe-Cu-K/AC catalyst improves catalyst stability without sacrificing activity, but activity is suppressed dramatically on a 12% Mo-loaded catalyst. Detectable hydrocarbons of C{sub 1} to C{sub 34} are produced on the Fe-Cu-K/AC catalysts with or without Mo. However, the addition of Mo results in the production of more CH{sub 4} and less C{sub 5+} hydrocarbons. The Mo promoter greatly enhances secondary reactions of olefins, leading to a large amount of internal olefins (i.e., other than 1-olefins) in the product. TPR shows that a strong interaction between Fe and Mo oxides is present, and the extent of reduction of Fe is suppressed after addition of Mo to the Fe-Cu-K catalyst. CO-chemisorption and XRD studies show increased iron dispersion and decreased particle size of the iron carbide and iron oxide after the addition of Mo. Segregation of iron active sites, thereby preventing them from agglomerating, and a larger number of active sites on the 6% Mo catalyst are possible reasons for the improved stability and higher activity of Mo-promoted catalysts. 54 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs.

  10. It Pays to Be Organized: Organizing Arithmetic Practice around Equivalent Values Facilitates Understanding of Math Equivalence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeil, Nicole M.; Chesney, Dana L.; Matthews, Percival G.; Fyfe, Emily R.; Petersen, Lori A.; Dunwiddie, April E.; Wheeler, Mary C.

    2012-01-01

    This experiment tested the hypothesis that organizing arithmetic fact practice by equivalent values facilitates children's understanding of math equivalence. Children (M age = 8 years 6 months, N = 104) were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 practice conditions: (a) equivalent values, in which problems were grouped by equivalent sums (e.g., 3 + 4 = 7, 2…

  11. Integration time in space experiments to test the equivalence principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nobili, A. M.; Pegna, R.; Shao, M.; Turyshev, S. G.; Catastini, G.; Anselmi, A.; Spero, R.; Doravari, S.; Comandi, G. L.; Lucchesi, D. M.; De Michele, A.

    2014-02-01

    The integration time required by space experiments to perform high accuracy tests of the universality of free fall and the weak equivalence principle is a crucial issue. It is inversely proportional to the square of the acceleration to be measured, which is extremely small; the duration of the mission is a severe limitation and experiments in space lack repeatability. An exceedingly long integration time can therefore rule out a mission target. We have evaluated the integration time due to thermal noise from gas damping, Johnson noise and eddy currents—which are independent of the signal frequency—and to internal damping, which is known to decrease with increasing frequency. It is found that at low frequencies thermal noise from internal damping dominates. In the "Galileo Galilei" proposed space experiment to test the equivalence principle to 10-17 the rapid rotation of the satellite (1 Hz) up-converts the signal to a frequency region where thermal noise from internal damping is lower than gas damping and only a factor 2 higher than Johnson noise, with a total integration time of 2.4 to 3.5 hours even in a very conservative estimate. With an adequate readout and additional care in reducing systematics the test could be improved by another order of magnitude, close to 10-18, requiring a hundred times longer—still affordable—integration time of 10 to 14.6 days. μSCOPE, a similar room temperature mission under construction by the French space agency to be launched in 2015, aims at a 10-15 test with an estimated integration time of 1.4 days. Space tests using cold atoms and atom interferometry have been proposed to be performed on the space station (Q-WEP, to 10-14) and on a dedicated mission (STE-QUEST, to 10-15 like μSCOPE). In this case integration is required in order to reduce single shot noise. European Space Agency funded studies report an integration time of several months and a few years respectively.

  12. Effects of Optical Blur Reduction on Equivalent Intrinsic Blur

    PubMed Central

    Valeshabad, Ali Kord; Wanek, Justin; McAnany, J. Jason; Shahidi, Mahnaz

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To determine the effect of optical blur reduction on equivalent intrinsic blur, an estimate of the blur within the visual system, by comparing optical and equivalent intrinsic blur before and after adaptive optics (AO) correction of wavefront error. Methods Twelve visually normal individuals (age; 31 ± 12 years) participated in this study. Equivalent intrinsic blur (σint) was derived using a previously described model. Optical blur (σopt) due to high-order aberrations was quantified by Shack-Hartmann aberrometry and minimized using AO correction of wavefront error. Results σopt and σint were significantly reduced and visual acuity (VA) was significantly improved after AO correction (P ≤ 0.004). Reductions in σopt and σint were linearly dependent on the values before AO correction (r ≥ 0.94, P ≤ 0.002). The reduction in σint was greater than the reduction in σopt, although it was marginally significant (P = 0.05). σint after AO correlated significantly with σint before AO (r = 0.92, P < 0.001) and the two parameters were related linearly with a slope of 0.46. Conclusions Reduction in equivalent intrinsic blur was greater than the reduction in optical blur due to AO correction of wavefront error. This finding implies that VA in subjects with high equivalent intrinsic blur can be improved beyond that expected from the reduction in optical blur alone. PMID:25785538

  13. 21 CFR 26.6 - Equivalence assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM AUDIT REPORTS... Specific Sector Provisions for Pharmaceutical Good Manufacturing Practices § 26.6 Equivalence...

  14. 21 CFR 26.9 - Equivalence determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... RECOGNITION OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM AUDIT REPORTS... Specific Sector Provisions for Pharmaceutical Good Manufacturing Practices § 26.9 Equivalence...

  15. PACCE: Perl Algorithm to Compute Continuum and Equivalent Widths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riffel, Rogério; Borges Vale, Tibério

    2011-05-01

    We present Perl Algorithm to Compute continuum and Equivalent Widths (pacce). We describe the methods used in the computations and the requirements for its usage. We compare the measurements made with pacce and "manual" ones made using iraf splot task. These tests show that for SSP models the equivalent widths strengths are very similar (differences <0.2A) for both measurements. In real stellar spectra, the correlation between both values is still very good, but with differences of up to 0.5A. pacce is also able to determine mean continuum and continuum at line center values, which are helpful in stellar population studies. In addition, it is also able to compute the uncertainties in the equivalent widths using photon statistics.

  16. Asymptotically Jλ -statistical equivalent sequences of weight g

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savaş, Ekrem

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents the following definition which is a natural combination of the definition for asymptotically equivalent of weight g, J -statistically limit, and λ - statistical convergence, where g :ℕ →[0 , ∞ ) is a function satisfying g (n) → ∞ and g(n) ↛ 0. The two nonnegative sequences x = (xk) and y = (yk) are said to be asymptotically Jg -statistical equivalent of weight g to multiple L provided that for every ɛ > 0, and δ > 0, {n ∈ℕ : 1/g (λn) |{k ∈In:|x/k yk -L | ≥ɛ }| ≥δ }∈J , (denoted by x ˜SλL(I) g y ) and simply asymptotically Jg -statistical equivalent of weight g if L = 1. In addition, we shall also present some inclusion theorems.

  17. Wave propagation in equivalent continuums representing truss lattice materials

    SciTech Connect

    Messner, Mark C.; Barham, Matthew I.; Kumar, Mukul; Barton, Nathan R.

    2015-07-29

    Stiffness scales linearly with density in stretch-dominated lattice meta-materials offering the possibility of very light yet very stiff structures. Current additive manufacturing techniques can assemble structures consisting of these lattice materials, but the design of such structures will require accurate, efficient simulation techniques. Equivalent continuum models have several advantages over discrete truss models of stretch dominated lattices, including computational efficiency and ease of model construction. However, the development an equivalent model suitable for representing the dynamic response of a periodic truss is complicated by microinertial effects. This paper derives a dynamic equivalent continuum model for periodic truss structures and verifies it against detailed finite element simulations. The model must incorporate microinertial effects to accurately reproduce long-wavelength characteristics of the response such as anisotropic elastic soundspeeds. The formulation presented here also improves upon previous work by preserving equilibrium at truss joints for affine lattice deformation and by improving numerical stability by eliminating vertices in the effective yield surface.

  18. Pooling Morphometric Estimates: A Statistical Equivalence Approach.

    PubMed

    Pardoe, Heath R; Cutter, Gary R; Alter, Rachel; Hiess, Rebecca Kucharsky; Semmelroch, Mira; Parker, Donna; Farquharson, Shawna; Jackson, Graeme D; Kuzniecky, Ruben

    2016-01-01

    Changes in hardware or image-processing settings are a common issue for large multicenter studies. To pool MRI data acquired under these changed conditions, it is necessary to demonstrate that the changes do not affect MRI-based measurements. In these circumstances, classical inference testing is inappropriate because it is designed to detect differences, not prove similarity. We used a method known as statistical equivalence testing to address this limitation. Equivalence testing was carried out on 3 datasets: (1) cortical thickness and automated hippocampal volume estimates obtained from healthy individuals imaged using different multichannel head coils; (2) manual hippocampal volumetry obtained using two readers; and (3) corpus callosum area estimates obtained using an automated method with manual cleanup carried out by two readers. Equivalence testing was carried out using the "two one-sided tests" (TOST) approach. Power analyses of the TOST were used to estimate sample sizes required for well-powered equivalence testing analyses. Mean and standard deviation estimates from the automated hippocampal volume dataset were used to carry out an example power analysis. Cortical thickness values were found to be equivalent over 61% of the cortex when different head coils were used (q < .05, false discovery rate correction). Automated hippocampal volume estimates obtained using the same two coils were statistically equivalent (TOST P = 4.28 × 10(-15) ). Manual hippocampal volume estimates obtained using two readers were not statistically equivalent (TOST P = .97). The use of different readers to carry out limited correction of automated corpus callosum segmentations yielded equivalent area estimates (TOST P = 1.28 × 10(-14) ). Power analysis of simulated and automated hippocampal volume data demonstrated that the equivalence margin affects the number of subjects required for well-powered equivalence tests. We have presented a statistical method for determining if

  19. VERSE - Virtual Equivalent Real-time Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zheng, Yang; Martin, Bryan J.; Villaume, Nathaniel

    2005-01-01

    Distributed real-time simulations provide important timing validation and hardware in the- loop results for the spacecraft flight software development cycle. Occasionally, the need for higher fidelity modeling and more comprehensive debugging capabilities - combined with a limited amount of computational resources - calls for a non real-time simulation environment that mimics the real-time environment. By creating a non real-time environment that accommodates simulations and flight software designed for a multi-CPU real-time system, we can save development time, cut mission costs, and reduce the likelihood of errors. This paper presents such a solution: Virtual Equivalent Real-time Simulation Environment (VERSE). VERSE turns the real-time operating system RTAI (Real-time Application Interface) into an event driven simulator that runs in virtual real time. Designed to keep the original RTAI architecture as intact as possible, and therefore inheriting RTAI's many capabilities, VERSE was implemented with remarkably little change to the RTAI source code. This small footprint together with use of the same API allows users to easily run the same application in both real-time and virtual time environments. VERSE has been used to build a workstation testbed for NASA's Space Interferometry Mission (SIM PlanetQuest) instrument flight software. With its flexible simulation controls and inexpensive setup and replication costs, VERSE will become an invaluable tool in future mission development.

  20. Addition of a dairy fraction rich in milk fat globule membrane to a high-saturated fat meal reduces the postprandial insulinaemic and inflammatory response in overweight and obese adults.

    PubMed

    Demmer, Elieke; Van Loan, Marta D; Rivera, Nancy; Rogers, Tara S; Gertz, Erik R; German, J Bruce; Smilowitz, Jennifer T; Zivkovic, Angela M

    2016-01-01

    Meals high in SFA, particularly palmitate, are associated with postprandial inflammation and insulin resistance. Milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) has anti-inflammatory properties that may attenuate the negative effects of SFA-rich meals. Our objective was to examine the postprandial metabolic and inflammatory response to a high-fat meal composed of palm oil (PO) compared with PO with an added dairy fraction rich in MFGM (PO+MFGM) in overweight and obese men and women (n 36) in a randomised, double-blinded, cross-over trial. Participants consumed two isoenergetic high-fat meals composed of a smoothie enriched with PO with v. without a cream-derived complex milk lipid fraction ( dairy fraction rich in MFGM) separated by a washout of 1-2 weeks. Serum cytokines, adhesion molecules, cortisol and markers of inflammation were measured at fasting, and at 1, 3 and 6 h postprandially. Glucose, insulin and lipid profiles were analysed in plasma. Consumption of the PO + MFGM v. PO meal resulted in lower total cholesterol (P = 0·021), LDL-cholesterol (P = 0·046), soluble intracellular adhesion molecule (P = 0·005) and insulin (P = 0·005) incremental AUC, and increased IL-10 (P = 0·013). Individuals with high baseline C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations (≥3 mg/l, n 17) had higher (P = 0·030) insulin at 1 h after the PO meal than individuals with CRP concentrations <3 mg/l (n 19). The addition of MFGM attenuated this difference between CRP groups. The addition of a dairy fraction rich in MFGM attenuated the negative effects of a high-SFA meal by reducing postprandial cholesterol, inflammatory markers and insulin response in overweight and obese individuals, particularly in those with elevated CRP. PMID:27313850

  1. 7 CFR 1126.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Equivalent price. 1126.54 Section 1126.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Class Prices § 1126.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Producer Price Differential...

  2. 7 CFR 1006.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Equivalent price. 1006.54 Section 1006.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Class Prices § 1006.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Uniform Prices...

  3. 7 CFR 1033.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Equivalent price. 1033.54 Section 1033.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Class Prices § 1033.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Producer Price Differential...

  4. 7 CFR 1032.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Equivalent price. 1032.54 Section 1032.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Class Prices § 1032.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Producer Price Differential...

  5. 7 CFR 1000.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Equivalent price. 1000.54 Section 1000.54 Agriculture... Prices § 1000.54 Equivalent price. If for any reason a price or pricing constituent required for computing the prices described in § 1000.50 is not available, the market administrator shall use a price...

  6. 7 CFR 1131.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Equivalent price. 1131.54 Section 1131.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Class Prices § 1131.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Uniform Prices...

  7. 7 CFR 1030.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Equivalent price. 1030.54 Section 1030.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Class Prices § 1030.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54....

  8. 7 CFR 1007.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Equivalent price. 1007.54 Section 1007.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Class Prices § 1007.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Uniform Prices...

  9. 7 CFR 1124.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Equivalent price. 1124.54 Section 1124.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Regulating Handling Class Prices § 1124.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Producer Price Differential...

  10. 7 CFR 1001.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Equivalent price. 1001.54 Section 1001.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Class Prices § 1001.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Producer Price Differential...

  11. 7 CFR 1005.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Equivalent price. 1005.54 Section 1005.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Class Prices § 1005.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Uniform Prices...

  12. 33 CFR 106.130 - Equivalents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Equivalents. 106.130 Section 106.130 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARINE SECURITY: OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) FACILITIES General § 106.130 Equivalents. For any...

  13. 33 CFR 106.130 - Equivalents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Equivalents. 106.130 Section 106.130 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARINE SECURITY: OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) FACILITIES General § 106.130 Equivalents. For any...

  14. 46 CFR 114.540 - Equivalents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... equivalence of the substitute. (b) The Commandant may accept compliance by a high speed craft with the provisions of the International Maritime Organization (IMO) “Code of Safety for High Speed Craft” as an... approve a novel lifesaving appliance or arrangement as an equivalent if it has performance...

  15. 46 CFR 175.540 - Equivalents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Commandant may accept compliance by a high speed craft with the provisions of the International Maritime Organization (IMO) “Code of Safety for High Speed Craft” as an equivalent to compliance with applicable... lifesaving appliance or arrangement as an equivalent if it has performance characteristics at...

  16. 33 CFR 106.130 - Equivalents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Equivalents. 106.130 Section 106.130 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARINE SECURITY: OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) FACILITIES General § 106.130 Equivalents. For any...

  17. 7 CFR 1030.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Equivalent price. 1030.54 Section 1030.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Class Prices § 1030.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54....

  18. 7 CFR 1033.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Equivalent price. 1033.54 Section 1033.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Handling Class Prices § 1033.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Producer Price Differential...

  19. 7 CFR 1124.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Equivalent price. 1124.54 Section 1124.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Regulating Handling Class Prices § 1124.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Producer Price Differential...

  20. 7 CFR 1131.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Equivalent price. 1131.54 Section 1131.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Handling Class Prices § 1131.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Uniform Prices...

  1. 7 CFR 1033.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Equivalent price. 1033.54 Section 1033.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Handling Class Prices § 1033.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Producer Price Differential...

  2. 7 CFR 1006.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Equivalent price. 1006.54 Section 1006.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Handling Class Prices § 1006.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Uniform Prices...

  3. 7 CFR 1007.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Equivalent price. 1007.54 Section 1007.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Handling Class Prices § 1007.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Uniform Prices...

  4. 7 CFR 1033.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Equivalent price. 1033.54 Section 1033.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Class Prices § 1033.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Producer Price Differential...

  5. 7 CFR 1001.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Equivalent price. 1001.54 Section 1001.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Handling Class Prices § 1001.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Producer Price Differential...

  6. 7 CFR 1000.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Equivalent price. 1000.54 Section 1000.54 Agriculture... Prices § 1000.54 Equivalent price. If for any reason a price or pricing constituent required for computing the prices described in § 1000.50 is not available, the market administrator shall use a price...

  7. 7 CFR 1007.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Equivalent price. 1007.54 Section 1007.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Handling Class Prices § 1007.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Uniform Prices...

  8. 7 CFR 1131.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Equivalent price. 1131.54 Section 1131.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Class Prices § 1131.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Uniform Prices...

  9. 7 CFR 1007.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Equivalent price. 1007.54 Section 1007.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Class Prices § 1007.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Uniform Prices...

  10. 7 CFR 1001.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Equivalent price. 1001.54 Section 1001.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Class Prices § 1001.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Producer Price Differential...

  11. 7 CFR 1030.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Equivalent price. 1030.54 Section 1030.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Handling Class Prices § 1030.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54....

  12. 7 CFR 1126.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Equivalent price. 1126.54 Section 1126.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Handling Class Prices § 1126.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Producer Price Differential...

  13. 7 CFR 1126.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Equivalent price. 1126.54 Section 1126.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Class Prices § 1126.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Producer Price Differential...

  14. 7 CFR 1006.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Equivalent price. 1006.54 Section 1006.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Class Prices § 1006.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Uniform Prices...

  15. 7 CFR 1007.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Equivalent price. 1007.54 Section 1007.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Class Prices § 1007.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Uniform Prices...

  16. 7 CFR 1006.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Equivalent price. 1006.54 Section 1006.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Handling Class Prices § 1006.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Uniform Prices...

  17. 7 CFR 1032.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Equivalent price. 1032.54 Section 1032.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Class Prices § 1032.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Producer Price Differential...

  18. 7 CFR 1000.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Equivalent price. 1000.54 Section 1000.54 Agriculture... Prices § 1000.54 Equivalent price. If for any reason a price or pricing constituent required for computing the prices described in § 1000.50 is not available, the market administrator shall use a price...

  19. 7 CFR 1126.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Equivalent price. 1126.54 Section 1126.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Handling Class Prices § 1126.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Producer Price Differential...

  20. 7 CFR 1126.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Equivalent price. 1126.54 Section 1126.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Class Prices § 1126.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Producer Price Differential...

  1. 7 CFR 1001.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Equivalent price. 1001.54 Section 1001.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Handling Class Prices § 1001.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Producer Price Differential...

  2. 7 CFR 1000.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Equivalent price. 1000.54 Section 1000.54 Agriculture... Prices § 1000.54 Equivalent price. If for any reason a price or pricing constituent required for computing the prices described in § 1000.50 is not available, the market administrator shall use a price...

  3. 7 CFR 1032.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Equivalent price. 1032.54 Section 1032.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Handling Class Prices § 1032.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Producer Price Differential...

  4. 7 CFR 1001.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Equivalent price. 1001.54 Section 1001.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Class Prices § 1001.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Producer Price Differential...

  5. 7 CFR 1006.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Equivalent price. 1006.54 Section 1006.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Class Prices § 1006.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Uniform Prices...

  6. 7 CFR 1124.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Equivalent price. 1124.54 Section 1124.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Regulating Handling Class Prices § 1124.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Producer Price Differential...

  7. 7 CFR 1030.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Equivalent price. 1030.54 Section 1030.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Handling Class Prices § 1030.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54....

  8. 7 CFR 1124.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Equivalent price. 1124.54 Section 1124.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Regulating Handling Class Prices § 1124.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Producer Price Differential...

  9. 7 CFR 1033.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Equivalent price. 1033.54 Section 1033.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Class Prices § 1033.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Producer Price Differential...

  10. 7 CFR 1131.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Equivalent price. 1131.54 Section 1131.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Handling Class Prices § 1131.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Uniform Prices...

  11. 7 CFR 1124.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Equivalent price. 1124.54 Section 1124.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Regulating Handling Class Prices § 1124.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Producer Price Differential...

  12. 7 CFR 1000.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Equivalent price. 1000.54 Section 1000.54 Agriculture... Prices § 1000.54 Equivalent price. If for any reason a price or pricing constituent required for computing the prices described in § 1000.50 is not available, the market administrator shall use a price...

  13. 7 CFR 1032.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Equivalent price. 1032.54 Section 1032.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Class Prices § 1032.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Producer Price Differential...

  14. 7 CFR 1030.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Equivalent price. 1030.54 Section 1030.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Class Prices § 1030.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54....

  15. 7 CFR 1032.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Equivalent price. 1032.54 Section 1032.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Handling Class Prices § 1032.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Producer Price Differential...

  16. 7 CFR 1131.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Equivalent price. 1131.54 Section 1131.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Class Prices § 1131.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Uniform Prices...

  17. 33 CFR 159.19 - Testing equivalency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Testing equivalency. 159.19 Section 159.19 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Certification Procedures § 159.19 Testing equivalency. (a) If a...

  18. Equivalent Mass of a Coil Spring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruby, Lawrence

    2000-01-01

    Finds that first-year college students can understand in detail the origin of the equivalent mass. Provides both a simple calculation derivation of this result as well as a noncalculus derivation. Argues that for every soft spring, the equivalent mass should be somewhere between m0/3 and m0/2. (CCM)

  19. 29 CFR 825.215 - Equivalent position.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Equivalent position. 825.215 Section 825.215 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Employee Leave Entitlements Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.215 Equivalent position. (a)...

  20. 46 CFR 169.109 - Equivalents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Equivalents. 169.109 Section 169.109 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS General Provisions § 169.109 Equivalents. Substitutes for a fitting, appliance, apparatus, or equipment, may...

  1. 46 CFR 169.109 - Equivalents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Equivalents. 169.109 Section 169.109 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS General Provisions § 169.109 Equivalents. Substitutes for a fitting, appliance, apparatus, or equipment, may...

  2. 46 CFR 169.109 - Equivalents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Equivalents. 169.109 Section 169.109 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS General Provisions § 169.109 Equivalents. Substitutes for a fitting, appliance, apparatus, or equipment, may...

  3. 46 CFR 169.109 - Equivalents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Equivalents. 169.109 Section 169.109 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS General Provisions § 169.109 Equivalents. Substitutes for a fitting, appliance, apparatus, or equipment, may...

  4. 46 CFR 169.109 - Equivalents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Equivalents. 169.109 Section 169.109 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS General Provisions § 169.109 Equivalents. Substitutes for a fitting, appliance, apparatus, or equipment, may...

  5. 46 CFR 170.010 - Equivalents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Equivalents. 170.010 Section 170.010 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY STABILITY REQUIREMENTS FOR ALL INSPECTED VESSELS General Provisions § 170.010 Equivalents. Substitutions for fittings,...

  6. Ambient Dose Equivalent measured at the Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia Department of Nuclear Medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Avila, O.; Torres-Ulloa, C. L.; Medina, L. A.; Trujillo-Zamudio, F. E.; Gamboa de Buen, I.; Buenfil, A. E.; Brandan, M. E.

    2010-12-07

    Ambient dose equivalent values were determined in several sites at the Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia, Departmento de Medicina Nuclear, using TLD-100 and TLD-900 thermoluminescent dosemeters. Additionally, ambient dose equivalent was measured at a corridor outside the hospitalization room for patients treated with {sup 137}Cs brachytherapy. Dosemeter calibration was performed at the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Laboratorio de Metrologia, to known {sup 137}Cs gamma radiation air kerma. Radionuclides considered for this study are {sup 131}I, {sup 18}F, {sup 67}Ga, {sup 99m}Tc, {sup 111}In, {sup 201}Tl and {sup 137}Cs, with main gamma energies between 93 and 662 keV. Dosemeters were placed during a five month period in the nuclear medicine rooms (containing gamma-cameras), injection corridor, patient waiting areas, PET/CT study room, hot lab, waste storage room and corridors next to the hospitalization rooms for patients treated with {sup 131}I and {sup 137}Cs. High dose values were found at the waste storage room, outside corridor of {sup 137}Cs brachytherapy patients and PET/CT area. Ambient dose equivalent rate obtained for the {sup 137}Cs brachytherapy corridor is equal to (18.51{+-}0.02)x10{sup -3} mSv/h. Sites with minimum doses are the gamma camera rooms, having ambient dose equivalent rates equal to (0.05{+-}0.03)x10{sup -3} mSv/h. Recommendations have been given to the Department authorities so that further actions are taken to reduce doses at high dose sites in order to comply with the ALARA principle (as low as reasonably achievable).

  7. Smog control fuel additives

    SciTech Connect

    Lundby, W.

    1993-06-29

    A method is described of controlling, reducing or eliminating, ozone and related smog resulting from photochemical reactions between ozone and automotive or industrial gases comprising the addition of iodine or compounds of iodine to hydrocarbon-base fuels prior to or during combustion in an amount of about 1 part iodine per 240 to 10,000,000 parts fuel, by weight, to be accomplished by: (a) the addition of these inhibitors during or after the refining or manufacturing process of liquid fuels; (b) the production of these inhibitors for addition into fuel tanks, such as automotive or industrial tanks; or (c) the addition of these inhibitors into combustion chambers of equipment utilizing solid fuels for the purpose of reducing ozone.

  8. Equivalency testing of ultraviolet disinfection for wastewater reclamation

    SciTech Connect

    Oppenheimer, J.A.; Jacangelo, J.G.; Laine, J.M.

    1996-11-01

    UV light disinfection was shown to continuously provide microbial inactivation equivalent to chlorine while reducing the formation of known carcinogenic disinfection by-products and the formation of chronic whole effluent toxicity. This was the first study to demonstrate UV`s performance relative to chlorination over an extended timeframe at a full-scale facility treating to meet the most stringent California reclamation standards.

  9. Equivalence-Equivalence Responding: Training Conditions Involved in Obtaining a Stable Baseline Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Andres; Bohorquez, Cristobal; Perez, Vicente; Gutierrez, Maria Teresa; Gomez, Jesus; Luciano, Carmen; Wilson, Kelly

    2008-01-01

    Recent research has focused on the variables associated with equivalence-equivalence responding, in which participants match pairs of equivalent or nonequivalent stimuli. One such variable is the presence of response competition from nonarbitrary (physical) relational response options. In the current analysis, the experimenters examined the effect…

  10. 77 FR 55832 - Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods: Designation of a New Equivalent Method

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-11

    ... made under the provisions of 40 CFR part 53, as ] amended on August 31, 2011 (76 FR 54326-54341). The... AGENCY Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods: Designation of a New Equivalent Method AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency. ACTION: Notice of the designation of a new equivalent method...

  11. 77 FR 60985 - Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods: Designation of Three New Equivalent Methods

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-05

    ... 53, as amended on August 31, 2011 (76 FR 54326-54341). The new equivalent methods are automated... AGENCY Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods: Designation of Three New Equivalent Methods AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency. ACTION: Notice of the designation of three new...

  12. Matching Derived Functionally-Same Stimulus Relations: Equivalence-Equivalence and Classical Analogies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpentier, Franck; Smeets, Paul M.; Barnes-Holmes, Dermot; Stewart, Ian

    2004-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that, after being trained on A-B and A-C matching tasks, subjects match not only functionally-same B and C stimuli (stimulus equivalence), but also BC compounds with same-class elements and BC compounds with different-class elements (equivalence-equivalence). Similar performances are required in classical analogies (a :…

  13. Motor equivalence during multi-finger accurate force production

    PubMed Central

    Mattos, Daniela; Schöner, Gregor; Zatsiorsky, Vladimir M.; Latash, Mark L.

    2014-01-01

    We explored stability of multi-finger cyclical accurate force production action by analysis of responses to small perturbations applied to one of the fingers and inter-cycle analysis of variance. Healthy subjects performed two versions of the cyclical task, with and without an explicit target. The “inverse piano” apparatus was used to lift/lower a finger by 1 cm over 0.5 s; the subjects were always instructed to perform the task as accurate as they could at all times. Deviations in the spaces of finger forces and modes (hypothetical commands to individual fingers) were quantified in directions that did not change total force (motor equivalent) and in directions that changed the total force (non-motor equivalent). Motor equivalent deviations started immediately with the perturbation and increased progressively with time. After a sequence of lifting-lowering perturbations leading to the initial conditions, motor equivalent deviations were dominating. These phenomena were less pronounced for analysis performed with respect to the total moment of force with respect to an axis parallel to the forearm/hand. Analysis of inter-cycle variance showed consistently higher variance in a subspace that did not change the total force as compared to the variance that affected total force. We interpret the results as reflections of task-specific stability of the redundant multi-finger system. Large motor equivalent deviations suggest that reactions of the neuromotor system to a perturbation involve large changes of neural commands that do not affect salient performance variables, even during actions with the purpose to correct those salient variables. Consistency of the analyses of motor equivalence and variance analysis provides additional support for the idea of task-specific stability ensured at a neural level. PMID:25344311

  14. Algebraic method for finding equivalence groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bihlo, Alexander; Dos Santos Cardoso-Bihlo, Elsa; Popovych, Roman O.

    2015-06-01

    The algebraic method for computing the complete point symmetry group of a system of differential equations is extended to finding the complete equivalence group of a class of such systems. The extended method uses the knowledge of the corresponding equivalence algebra. Two versions of the method are presented, where the first involves the automorphism group of this algebra and the second is based on a list of its megaideals. We illustrate the megaideal-based version of the method with the computation of the complete equivalence group of a class of nonlinear wave equations with applications in nonlinear elasticity.

  15. Addition to thermized milk of Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris M104, a wild, novel nisin a-producing strain, replaces the natural antilisterial activity of the autochthonous raw milk microbiota reduced by thermization.

    PubMed

    Lianou, Alexandra; Samelis, John

    2014-08-01

    Recent research has shown that mild milk thermization treatments routinely used in traditional Greek cheese production are efficient to inactivate Listeria monocytogenes and other pathogenic or undesirable bacteria, but they also inactivate a great part of the autochthonous antagonistic microbiota of raw milk. Therefore, in this study, the antilisterial activity of raw or thermized (63°C, 30 s) milk in the presence or absence of Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris M104, a wild, novel, nisin A-producing (Nis-A+) raw milk isolate, was assessed. Bulk milk samples were taken from a local cheese plant before or after thermization and were inoculated with a five-strain cocktail of L. monocytogenes (approximately 4 log CFU/ml) or with the cocktail, as above, plus the Nis-A+ strain (approximately 6 log CFU/ml) as a bioprotective culture. Heat-sterilized (121°C, 5 min) raw milk inoculated with L. monocytogenes was used as a control treatment. All milk samples were incubated at 37°C for 6 h and then at 18°C for an additional 66 h. L. monocytogenes grew abundantly (>8 log CFU/ml) in heat-sterilized milk, whereas its growth was completely inhibited in all raw milk samples. Conversely, in thermized milk, L. monocytogenes increased by 2 log CFU/ml in the absence of strain M104, whereas its growth was completely inhibited in the presence of strain M104. Furthermore, nisin activity was detected only in milk samples inoculated with strain M104. Thus, postthermal supplementation of thermized bulk milk with bioprotective L. lactis subsp. cremoris cultures replaces the natural antilisterial activity of raw milk reduced by thermization. PMID:25198589

  16. Predicting the extension of equivalence classes from primary generalization gradients: the merger of equivalence classes and perceptual classes.

    PubMed Central

    Fields, L; Reeve, K F; Adams, B J; Brown, J L; Verhave, T

    1997-01-01

    In Experiment 1, 6 college students were given generalization tests using 25 line lengths as samples with a long line, a short line, and a "neither" option as comparisons. The neither option was to be used if a sample did not go with the other comparisons. Then, four-member equivalence classes were formed. Class 1 included three nonsense words and the short line. Class 2 included three other nonsense words and the long line. After repeating the generalization test for line length, additional tests were conducted using members of the equivalence classes (i.e., nonsense words and lines) as comparisons and intermediate-length lines as samples. All Class 2 comparisons were selected in the presence of the test lines that also evoked the selection of the long line in the generalization test that had been given before equivalence class formation. Class 1 yielded complementary findings. Thus, the preclass primary generalization gradient predicted which test lines acted as members of each equivalence class. Regardless of using comparisons that were nonsense words or lines, the post-class-formation gradients overlapped, showing the substitutability of class members. Experiment 2 assessed the discriminability of the intermediate-length test lines from the Class 1 (shortest) and Class 2 (longest) lines. The test lines that functioned as members of an equivalence class were discriminable from the line that was a member of the same class by training. Thus, these test lines also acted as members of a dimensionally defined class of "long" or "short" lines. Extension of an equivalence class, then, involved its merger with a dimensionally defined class, which converted a close-ended class to an open-ended class. These data suggest a means of predicting class membership in naturally occurring categories. PMID:9241863

  17. Relating equivalence relations to equivalence relations: A relational framing model of complex human functioning

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, Dermot; Hegarty, Neil; Smeets, Paul M.

    1997-01-01

    The current study aimed to develop a behavior-analytic model of analogical reasoning. In Experiments 1 and 2 subjects (adults and children) were trained and tested for the formation of four, three-member equivalence relations using a delayed matching-to-sample procedure. All subjects (Experiments 1 and 2) were exposed to tests that examined relations between equivalence and non-equivalence relations. For example, on an equivalence-equivalence relation test, the complex sample B1/C1 and the two complex comparisons B3/C3 and B3/C4 were used, and on a nonequivalence-nonequivalence relation test the complex sample B1/C2 was presented with the same two comparisons. All subjects consistently related equivalence relations to equivalence relations and nonequivalence relations to nonequivalence relations (e.g., picked B3/C3 in the presence of B1/C1 and picked B3/C4 in the presence of B1/C2). In Experiment 3, the equivalence responding, the equivalence-equivalence responding, and the nonequivalence-nonequivalence responding was successfully brought under contextual control. Finally, it was shown that the contextual cues could function successfully as comparisons, and the complex samples and comparisons could function successfully as contextual cues and samples, respectively. These data extend the equivalence paradigm and contribute to a behaviour-analytic interpretation of analogical reasoning and complex human functioning, in general. PMID:22477120

  18. REFractions: The Representing Equivalent Fractions Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Stephen I.

    2014-01-01

    Stephen Tucker presents a fractions game that addresses a range of fraction concepts including equivalence and computation. The REFractions game also improves students' fluency with representing, comparing and adding fractions.

  19. SUPPORT FOR REFERENCE AND EQUIVALENCY PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Federal Reference Methods (FRMs) and Federal Equivalent Methods (FEMs) form the backbone of the EPA's national monitoring strategy. They are the measurement methodologies that define attainment of a National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS). As knowledge and technology adva...

  20. Distinguishing Provenance Equivalence of Earth Science Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilmes, Curt; Yesha, Ye; Halem, M.

    2010-01-01

    Reproducibility of scientific research relies on accurate and precise citation of data and the provenance of that data. Earth science data are often the result of applying complex data transformation and analysis workflows to vast quantities of data. Provenance information of data processing is used for a variety of purposes, including understanding the process and auditing as well as reproducibility. Certain provenance information is essential for producing scientifically equivalent data. Capturing and representing that provenance information and assigning identifiers suitable for precisely distinguishing data granules and datasets is needed for accurate comparisons. This paper discusses scientific equivalence and essential provenance for scientific reproducibility. We use the example of an operational earth science data processing system to illustrate the application of the technique of cascading digital signatures or hash chains to precisely identify sets of granules and as provenance equivalence identifiers to distinguish data made in an an equivalent manner.

  1. The endotopism semigroups of an equivalence relation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhuchok, Yu V; Toichkina, E A

    2014-05-31

    In this work we investigate six types of endotopism semigroups for a given equivalence relation. Necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of all such endotopisms are presented. Conditions for the regularity and coregularity of each of the endotopism semigroups of a given type are established. The notion of the endotype of a binary relation with respect to its endotopisms is introduced and the endotype of an arbitrary equivalence relation is calculated. Bibliography: 26 titles.

  2. Dark matter and the equivalence principle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frieman, Joshua A.; Gradwohl, Ben-Ami

    1993-01-01

    A survey is presented of the current understanding of dark matter invoked by astrophysical theory and cosmology. Einstein's equivalence principle asserts that local measurements cannot distinguish a system at rest in a gravitational field from one that is in uniform acceleration in empty space. Recent test-methods for the equivalence principle are presently discussed as bases for testing of dark matter scenarios involving the long-range forces between either baryonic or nonbaryonic dark matter and ordinary matter.

  3. Generalization of Equivalent Crystal Theory to Include Angular Dependence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrante, John; Zypman, Fredy R.

    2004-01-01

    In the original Equivalent Crystal Theory, each atomic site in the real crystal is assigned an equivalent lattice constant, in general different from the ground state one. This parameter corresponds to a local compression or expansion of the lattice. The basic method considers these volumetric transformations and, in addition, introduces the possibility that the reference lattice is anisotropically distorted. These distortions however, were introduced ad-hoc. In this work, we generalize the original Equivalent Crystal Theory by systematically introducing site-dependent directional distortions of the lattice, whose corresponding distortions account for the dependence of the energy on anisotropic local density variations. This is done in the spirit of the original framework, but including a gradient term in the density. This approach is introduced to correct a deficiency in the original Equivalent Crystal Theory and other semiempirical methods in quantitatively obtaining the correct ratios of the surface energies of low index planes of cubic metals (100), (110), and (111). We develop here the basic framework, and apply it to the calculation of Fe (110) and Fe (111) surface energy formation. The results, compared with first principles calculations, show an improvement over previous semiempirical approaches.

  4. Equivalence Relations, Contextual Control, and Naming

    PubMed Central

    Randell, Tom; Remington, Bob

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports two experiments that investigated the role of verbal behavior in the emergence and generalization of contextually controlled equivalence classes. During both experiments, participants were trained with two different combinations of the same easily nameable, yet formally unrelated, pictorial stimuli. Match-to-sample baselines for eight four-member classes were established under the contextual control of two colors. In the presence of one color, conditional relations were established between stimuli whose normative names rhymed. In the presence of the other color, conditional relations were established between stimuli whose normative names did not rhyme. Although, during Experiment 1, all participants demonstrated equivalence classes involving rhyming stimuli, none demonstrated the formation of nonrhyme equivalence classes. To investigate this finding, Experiment 2 evaluated whether participants would demonstrate both rhyme and nonrhyme equivalence classes given more extensive exposure to the experimental contingencies. All participants demonstrated contextually controlled rhyme and nonrhyme equivalence classes, although rhyme classes were demonstrated with greater facility than nonrhyme classes. Results indicate that visual stimuli are named, that verbal bases for stimulus classification can affect the emergence of contextually controlled equivalence classes, and that untrained contextually controlled conditional discriminations involving novel stimuli can emerge on the basis of participants' verbal behavior. PMID:17191757

  5. Demonstrating Ignition Hydrodynamic Equivalence in Cryogenic DT Implosions on OMEGA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goncharov, V. N.

    2013-10-01

    Demonstrating ignition hydrodynamic equivalence is one of the primary goals of direct-drive cryogenic implosions on OMEGA. It requires the shell reaching implosion velocities > 3.5 × 107 cm/s while maintaining the fuel adiabat below 3 and keeping the shell from breaking up as a result of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability. The cryogenic targets used for implosions on OMEGA are 860- μm-outer-diam CD shells filled with DT fuel. The shell thickness varies between 5 and 12 μm, and DT ice thickness between 40 and 65 μm. Experimental results demonstrate, however, that neutron-averaged areal density in excess of 80% and yields above 25% of 1-D predicted values are obtained if the fuel adiabat > 3.5 and shell in-flight aspect ratio (IFAR) is below 22. As the IFAR exceeds this value, the shell breaks up and the areal density and yield are reduced. Identifying the main source of shell nonuniformities that lead to performance degradation in low-adiabat designs is one of the main efforts of OMEGA cryogenic campaign. This talk will summarize progress in cryogenic target implosions over the last year and review the effect of target debris, early-time laser shinethrough, and fuel-pusher roughness on target performance. In addition, the effect of cross-beam energy transfer (a major source of hydroefficiency degradation in a direct-drive implosions) and its mitigation strategies (including high- Z ablator layers, beam zooming, and laser wavelength shifts) will be discussed. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944.

  6. Voigt equivalent widths and spectral-bin single-line transmittances: Exact expansions and the MODTRAN®5 implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berk, Alexander

    2013-03-01

    Exact expansions for Voigt line-shape total, line-tail and spectral bin equivalent widths and for Voigt finite spectral bin single-line transmittances have been derived in terms of optical depth dependent exponentially-scaled modified Bessel functions of integer order and optical depth independent Fourier integral coefficients. The series are convergent for the full range of Voigt line-shapes, from pure Doppler to pure Lorentzian. In the Lorentz limit, the expansion reduces to the Ladenburg and Reiche function for the total equivalent width. Analytic expressions are derived for the first 8 Fourier coefficients for pure Lorentzian lines, for pure Doppler lines and for Voigt lines with at most moderate Doppler dependence. A strong-line limit sum rule on the Fourier coefficients is enforced to define an additional Fourier coefficient and to optimize convergence of the truncated expansion. The moderate Doppler dependence scenario is applicable to and has been implemented in the MODTRAN5 atmospheric band model radiative transfer software. Finite-bin transmittances computed with the truncated expansions reduce transmittance residuals compared to the former Rodgers-Williams equivalent width based approach by ∼2 orders of magnitude.

  7. Morita equivalence and spectral triples on noncommutative orbifolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harju, Antti J.

    2016-08-01

    Let G be a finite group. Noncommutative geometry of unital G-algebras is studied. A geometric structure is determined by a spectral triple on the crossed product algebra associated with the group action. This structure is to be viewed as a representative of a noncommutative orbifold. Based on a study of classical orbifold groupoids, a Morita equivalence for the crossed product spectral triples is developed. Noncommutative orbifolds are Morita equivalence classes of the crossed product spectral triples. As a special case of this Morita theory one can study freeness of the G-action on the noncommutative level. In the case of a free action, the crossed product formalism reduced to the usual spectral triple formalism on the algebra of G-invariant functions.

  8. The Assessment of Effective Dose Equivalent Using Personnel Dosimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xie

    From January 1994, U.S. nuclear plants must develop a technically rigorous approach for determining the effective dose equivalent for their work forces. This dissertation explains concepts associated with effective dose equivalent and describes how to assess effective dose equivalent by using conventional personnel dosimetry measurements. A Monte Carlo computer code, MCNP, was used to calculate photon transport through a model of the human body. Published mathematical phantoms of the human adult male and female were used to simulate irradiation from a variety of external radiation sources in order to calculate organ and tissue doses, as well as effective dose equivalent using weighting factors from ICRP Publication 26. The radiation sources considered were broad parallel photon beams incident on the body from 91 different angles and isotropic point sources located at 234 different locations in contact with or near the body. Monoenergetic photons of 0.08, 0.3, and 1.0 MeV were considered for both sources. Personnel dosimeters were simulated on the surface of the body and exposed to with the same sources. From these data, the influence of dosimeter position on dosimeter response was investigated. Different algorithms for assessing effective dose equivalent from personnel dosimeter responses were proposed and evaluated. The results indicate that the current single-badge approach is satisfactory for most common exposure situations encountered in nuclear plants, but additional conversion factors may be used when more accurate results become desirable. For uncommon exposures involving source situated at the back of the body or source located overhead, the current approach of using multi-badges and assigning the highest dose is overly conservative and unnecessarily expensive. For these uncommon exposures, a new algorithm, based on two dosimeters, one on the front of the body and another one on the back of the body, has been shown to yield conservative assessment of

  9. Negotiating for more: the multiple equivalent simultaneous offer.

    PubMed

    Heller, Richard E

    2014-02-01

    Whether a doctor, professional baseball manager, or a politician, having successful negotiation skills is a critical part of being a leader. Building upon prior journal articles on negotiation strategy, the author presents the concept of the multiple equivalent simultaneous offer (MESO). The concept of a MESO is straightforward: as opposed to making a single offer, make multiple offers with several variables. Each offer alters the different variables, such that the end result of each offer is equivalent from the perspective of the party making the offer. Research has found several advantages to the use of MESOs. For example, using MESOs, an offer was more likely to be accepted, and the counterparty was more likely to be satisfied with the negotiated deal. Additional benefits have been documented as well, underscoring why a prepared radiology business leader should understand the theory and practice of MESO. PMID:24042029

  10. The New Wind Chill Equivalent Temperature Chart.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osczevski, Randall; Bluestein, Maurice

    2005-10-01

    The formula used in the U.S. and Canada to express the combined effect of wind and low temperature on how cold it feels was changed in November 2001. Many had felt that the old formula for equivalent temperature, derived in the 1960s from Siple and Passel's flawed but quite useful Wind Chill Index, unnecessarily exaggerated the severity of the weather. The new formula is based on a mathematical model of heat flow from the upwind side of a head-sized cylinder moving at walking speed into the wind. The paper details the assumptions that were made in generating the new wind chill charts. It also points out weaknesses in the concept of wind chill equivalent temperature, including its steady-state character and a seemingly paradoxical effect of the internal thermal resistance of the cylinder on comfort and equivalent temperature. Some improvements and alternatives are suggested.

  11. Equivalent magnetization over the World Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyment, J.; Hamoudi, M.; Choi, Y.; Thebault, E.; Quesnel, Y.; Roest, W. R.; Lesur, V.

    2012-12-01

    In another presentation (Hamoudi et al., this meeting), we present the construction of a new candidate for the World Digital Magnetic Anomaly Map (WDMAM) over oceanic areas. This map is based on: (a) a more realistic forward modeling of the marine magnetic anomalies which includes remanent magnetization vectors taking into account the age and motion of the oceanic lithosphere; (b) evaluation of the equivalent magnetization by comparison of the synthetic and observed anomalies along ship tracks; and (c) adjustment of the synthetic anomaly maps using this equivalent magnetization prior to merging with the observed anomalies. A by-product of this approach is a global distribution of equivalent magnetization over the World's Ocean. Note that, because no global basement map exists for the oceanic areas, we assume a uniform, 5 km-deep and 1 km-thick magnetized layer for the forward model. The resulting equivalent magnetization is therefore relative to this over-simplistic magnetic source. A first observation is that, within the hypotheses of the forward model, the average equivalent magnetization is about 3 A/m, a value which compares well with the Natural Remanent Magnetization (NRM) measured on ancient basalt samples. As expected, the mid-ocean ridges are marked by stronger equivalent magnetizations, an observation which reflects both the stronger NRM measured at ridge axes and their shallower bathymetry (not taken into account in our forward model). More interesting is the observation of significant along-axis variations. In the North Atlantic Ocean, the Kolbeinsey and Reykjanes ridges around Iceland are marked by a very strong equivalent magnetization and the Azores Plateau by a strong one as well.. Again this may reflect the combined effect of shallower seafloor, thicker and/or more magnetized basaltic layer at hotspots. In contrast, the areas between 45 and 55°N and between 0 and 10°N (Equatorial FZ) correspond to a weak equivalent magnetization. Further south

  12. Equivalent source current formulation in impedance tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilmoniemi, Risto J.; Ahlfors, Seppo P.

    1994-04-01

    Changes in the conductivity distribution of a body modify the electromagnetic field due to injected current in the same way as an equivalent source current distribution J(sup eq)(r) does. In the limit of small perturbations, it is shown that J(sup eq)(r) = Sigma(sup 1)(r)E(sup 0)(r), where Sigma(sup 1)(r) is a deviation in the conductivity and E(sup 0)(r) is the non-perturbed electric field. A model experiment demonstrates how a conductivity anomaly can be located using the minimum-norm estimate of the equivalent currents. The minimum-norm solution for small perturbation Sigma(sup 1)(r) is derived as well. The equivalent-source formulation allows the direct application of biomagnetic and bioelectric source-determination methods to conductivity imaging.

  13. Equivalence between XY and dimerized models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campos Venuti, Lorenzo; Roncaglia, Marco

    2010-06-01

    The spin-1/2 chain with XY anisotropic coupling in the plane and the XX isotropic dimerized chain are shown to be equivalent in the bulk. For finite systems, we prove that the equivalence is exact in given parity sectors, after taking care of the precise boundary conditions. The proof is given constructively by finding unitary transformations that map the models onto each other. Moreover, we considerably generalized our mapping and showed that even in the case of fully site-dependent couplings the XY chain can be mapped onto an XX model. This result has potential application in the study of disordered systems.

  14. Quantum test of the equivalence principle and space-time aboard the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Jason; Chiow, Sheng-wey; Yu, Nan; Müller, Holger

    2016-02-01

    We describe the Quantum Test of the Equivalence principle and Space Time (QTEST), a concept for an atom interferometry mission on the International Space Station (ISS). The primary science objective of the mission is a test of Einstein’s equivalence principle with two rubidium isotope gases at a precision of better than 10-15, a 100-fold improvement over the current limit on equivalence principle violations, and over 1,000,000 fold improvement over similar quantum experiments demonstrated in laboratories. Distinct from the classical tests is the use of quantum wave packets and their expected large spatial separation in the QTEST experiment. This dual species atom interferometer experiment will also be sensitive to time-dependent equivalence principle violations that would be signatures for ultralight dark-matter particles. In addition, QTEST will be able to perform photon recoil measurements to better than 10-11 precision. This improves upon terrestrial experiments by a factor of 100, enabling an accurate test of the standard model of particle physics and contributing to mass measurement, in the proposed new international system of units (SI), with significantly improved precision. The predicted high measurement precision of QTEST comes from the microgravity environment on ISS, offering extended free fall times in a well-controlled environment. QTEST plans to use high-flux, dual-species atom sources, and advanced cooling schemes, for N > 106 non-condensed atoms of each species at temperatures below 1 nK. Suppression of systematic errors by use of symmetric interferometer configurations and rejection of common-mode errors drives the QTEST design. It uses Bragg interferometry with a single laser beam at the ‘magic’ wavelength, where the two isotopes have the same polarizability, for mitigating sensitivities to vibrations and laser noise, imaging detection for correcting cloud initial conditions and maintaining contrast, modulation of the atomic hyperfine states

  15. High School Equivalency Testing in Arizona. Forum: Responding to Changes in High School Equivalency Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Sheryl

    2015-01-01

    For decades, the state of Arizona has used the General Educational Development (GED) Test to award the Arizona High School Equivalency (HSE) Diploma, as the GED Test was the only test available, recognized and accepted in the United States as the measure by which adults could demonstrate the educational attainment equivalent to high school…

  16. Phenylethynyl Containing Reactive Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G., Jr. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Phenylethynyl containing reactive additives were prepared from aromatic diamine, containing phenylethvnvl groups and various ratios of phthalic anhydride and 4-phenylethynviphthalic anhydride in glacial acetic acid to form the imide in one step or in N-methyl-2-pvrrolidinone to form the amide acid intermediate. The reactive additives were mixed in various amounts (10% to 90%) with oligomers containing either terminal or pendent phenylethynyl groups (or both) to reduce the melt viscosity and thereby enhance processability. Upon thermal cure, the additives react and become chemically incorporated into the matrix and effect an increase in crosslink density relative to that of the host resin. This resultant increase in crosslink density has advantageous consequences on the cured resin properties such as higher glass transition temperature and higher modulus as compared to that of the host resin.

  17. 21 CFR 26.9 - Equivalence determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Equivalence determination. 26.9 Section 26.9 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL MUTUAL RECOGNITION OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM AUDIT...

  18. 33 CFR 157.07 - Equivalents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CFR 30.15-1, of a design or an equipment to fulfill a requirement in this part, except an operational... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Equivalents. 157.07 Section 157.07 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED)...

  19. 33 CFR 157.07 - Equivalents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... CFR 30.15-1, of a design or an equipment to fulfill a requirement in this part, except an operational... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Equivalents. 157.07 Section 157.07 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED)...

  20. 33 CFR 157.07 - Equivalents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CFR 30.15-1, of a design or an equipment to fulfill a requirement in this part, except an operational... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Equivalents. 157.07 Section 157.07 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED)...

  1. 33 CFR 157.07 - Equivalents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... CFR 30.15-1, of a design or an equipment to fulfill a requirement in this part, except an operational... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Equivalents. 157.07 Section 157.07 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED)...

  2. 33 CFR 157.07 - Equivalents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... CFR 30.15-1, of a design or an equipment to fulfill a requirement in this part, except an operational... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Equivalents. 157.07 Section 157.07 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED)...

  3. 21 CFR 26.39 - Equivalence assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... RECOGNITION OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM AUDIT REPORTS, AND CERTAIN MEDICAL DEVICE PRODUCT EVALUATION REPORTS: UNITED STATES AND THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITY Specific Sector Provisions for Medical Devices § 26.39 Equivalence assessment. (a) In the final 6 months...

  4. 21 CFR 26.39 - Equivalence assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... RECOGNITION OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM AUDIT REPORTS, AND CERTAIN MEDICAL DEVICE PRODUCT EVALUATION REPORTS: UNITED STATES AND THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITY Specific Sector Provisions for Medical Devices § 26.39 Equivalence assessment. (a) In the final 6 months...

  5. HOW TO PASS HIGH SCHOOL EQUIVALENCY EXAMINATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KLAGSBRUN, FRANCINE, ED.

    ORGANIZED INTO A FIVE-DAY STUDY PLAN, ALLOWING ONE DAY'S STUDY TO EACH PART OF THE EQUIVALENCY EXAMINATION (SPELLING AND GRAMMAR, SOCIAL STUDIES, SCIENCE, LITERATURE, AND MATHEMATICS), THIS BOOK PROVIDES SAMPLE TESTS AND ANSWER SHEETS, A TEST SCORE RECORD AND SELF EVALUATION PROFILE, AND SUPPLEMENTARY TESTS FOR EACH SUBJECT. THE EXAMINEE CAN ORDER…

  6. CP Violation, Neutral Currents, and Weak Equivalence

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Fitch, V. L.

    1972-03-23

    Within the past few months two excellent summaries of the state of our knowledge of the weak interactions have been presented. Correspondingly, we will not attempt a comprehensive review but instead concentrate this discussion on the status of CP violation, the question of the neutral currents, and the weak equivalence principle.

  7. Procedures for Determining the Equivalence of Measures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunivant, Noel

    Eight different methods are reviewed for determining whether two or more tests are equivalent measures. These methods vary in restrictiveness from the Wilks-Votaw test of compound symmetry (which requires that all means, variances, and covariances are equal), to Joreskog's theory of congeneric tests (which requires only that the tests are measures…

  8. 33 CFR 67.01-30 - Equivalents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Equivalents. 67.01-30 Section 67.01-30 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION AIDS TO NAVIGATION ON ARTIFICIAL ISLANDS AND FIXED STRUCTURES General Requirements §...

  9. 33 CFR 67.01-30 - Equivalents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Equivalents. 67.01-30 Section 67.01-30 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION AIDS TO NAVIGATION ON ARTIFICIAL ISLANDS AND FIXED STRUCTURES General Requirements §...

  10. 33 CFR 67.01-30 - Equivalents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Equivalents. 67.01-30 Section 67.01-30 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION AIDS TO NAVIGATION ON ARTIFICIAL ISLANDS AND FIXED STRUCTURES General Requirements §...

  11. 33 CFR 67.01-30 - Equivalents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Equivalents. 67.01-30 Section 67.01-30 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION AIDS TO NAVIGATION ON ARTIFICIAL ISLANDS AND FIXED STRUCTURES General Requirements §...

  12. 33 CFR 67.01-30 - Equivalents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Equivalents. 67.01-30 Section 67.01-30 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION AIDS TO NAVIGATION ON ARTIFICIAL ISLANDS AND FIXED STRUCTURES General Requirements §...

  13. Spin-Gravity Interactions and Equivalence Principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obukhov, Yu. N.; Silenko, A. J.; Teryaev, O. V.

    2016-02-01

    The spin-gravity interactions imply the new manifestation of the equivalence principle leading to the absence of gravitoelectric and anomalous gravitomagnetic moments for fermions. This property is still valid in the presence of the space-time torsion due to the covariance arguments. The experimental bounds for the torsion, which may be extracted from modern co-magnetometer experiments, are discussed.

  14. 46 CFR 175.540 - Equivalents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Safety Management (ISM) Code (IMO Resolution A.741(18)) for the purpose of determining that an equivalent safety management system is in place on board a vessel. The Commandant will consider the size and..., appliance, apparatus, equipment, calculation, information, or test, which provides a level of...

  15. 46 CFR 175.540 - Equivalents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Safety Management (ISM) Code (IMO Resolution A.741(18)) for the purpose of determining that an equivalent safety management system is in place on board a vessel. The Commandant will consider the size and..., appliance, apparatus, equipment, calculation, information, or test, which provides a level of...

  16. 46 CFR 175.540 - Equivalents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Safety Management (ISM) Code (IMO Resolution A.741(18)) for the purpose of determining that an equivalent safety management system is in place on board a vessel. The Commandant will consider the size and..., appliance, apparatus, equipment, calculation, information, or test, which provides a level of...

  17. Electrophysiological Correlates of Stimulus Equivalence Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haimson, Barry; Wilkinson, Krista M.; Rosenquist, Celia; Ouimet, Carolyn; McIlvane, William J.

    2009-01-01

    Research reported here concerns neural processes relating to stimulus equivalence class formation. In Experiment 1, two types of word pairs were presented successively to normally capable adults. In one type, the words had related usage in English (e.g., uncle, aunt). In the other, the two words were not typically related in their usage (e.g.,…

  18. Are Letter Detection and Proofreading Tasks Equivalent?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saint-Aubin, Jean; Losier, Marie-Claire; Roy, Macha; Lawrence, Mike

    2015-01-01

    When readers search for misspellings in a proofreading task or for a letter in a letter detection task, they are more likely to omit function words than content words. However, with misspelled words, previous findings for the letter detection task were mixed. In two experiments, the authors tested the functional equivalence of both tasks. Results…

  19. 33 CFR 155.120 - Equivalents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Equivalents. 155.120 Section 155.120 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION PREVENTION REGULATIONS FOR VESSELS General § 155.120...

  20. 33 CFR 155.120 - Equivalents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Equivalents. 155.120 Section 155.120 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION PREVENTION REGULATIONS FOR VESSELS General § 155.120...

  1. 33 CFR 155.120 - Equivalents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Equivalents. 155.120 Section 155.120 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION PREVENTION REGULATIONS FOR VESSELS General § 155.120...

  2. Reading adn Auditory-Visual Equivalences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sidman, Murray

    1971-01-01

    A retarded boy, unable to read orally or with comprehension, was taught to match spoken to printed words and was then capable of reading comprehension (matching printed words to picture) and oral reading (naming printed words aloud), demonstrating that certain learned auditory-visual equivalences are sufficient prerequisites for reading…

  3. 21 CFR 26.6 - Equivalence assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Equivalence assessment. 26.6 Section 26.6 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL MUTUAL RECOGNITION OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM AUDIT...

  4. Pseudo-Equivalent Groups and Linking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haberman, Shelby J.

    2015-01-01

    Adjustment by minimum discriminant information provides an approach to linking test forms in the case of a nonequivalent groups design with no satisfactory common items. This approach employs background information on individual examinees in each administration so that weighted samples of examinees form pseudo-equivalent groups in the sense that…

  5. AN UPDATE ON TECHNOLOGIES SEEKING PFRP EQUIVALENCY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation will: 1) Review the mandate of the Pathogen Equivalency Committee (PEC), 2) Review the PEC's current membership (of 10), 3) Discuss how a typical application is evaluated, 4) Note where information can be found by those interested in applying to the PEC, 5) List...

  6. Structural Equivalence in a Journal Network.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doreian, Patrick; Fararo, Thomas J.

    1985-01-01

    Techniques used in contemporary social network analysis are applied to citation data for a network of journals from three time periods--1970/71, 1975/76, 1980/81. Blocks or positions in journal network based on structural equivalence correspond closely to categorization by aims and objectives. Hypotheses concerning journal networks are advanced.…

  7. 33 CFR 155.120 - Equivalents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Equivalents. 155.120 Section 155.120 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION PREVENTION REGULATIONS FOR VESSELS General § 155.120...

  8. 36 CFR 1194.5 - Equivalent facilitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Equivalent facilitation. 1194.5 Section 1194.5 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD ELECTRONIC AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY ACCESSIBILITY STANDARDS General § 1194.5...

  9. 36 CFR 1192.2 - Equivalent facilitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the procedure set forth in 49 CFR 37.7. ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Equivalent facilitation. 1192.2 Section 1192.2 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION...

  10. 36 CFR 1192.2 - Equivalent facilitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the procedure set forth in 49 CFR 37.7. ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Equivalent facilitation. 1192.2 Section 1192.2 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION...

  11. 36 CFR 1194.5 - Equivalent facilitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Equivalent facilitation. 1194.5 Section 1194.5 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD ELECTRONIC AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY ACCESSIBILITY STANDARDS General § 1194.5...

  12. 36 CFR 1192.2 - Equivalent facilitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the procedure set forth in 49 CFR 37.7. ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Equivalent facilitation. 1192.2 Section 1192.2 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION...

  13. 36 CFR 1192.2 - Equivalent facilitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the procedure set forth in 49 CFR 37.7. ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Equivalent facilitation. 1192.2 Section 1192.2 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION...

  14. 36 CFR 1194.5 - Equivalent facilitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Equivalent facilitation. 1194.5 Section 1194.5 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD ELECTRONIC AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY ACCESSIBILITY STANDARDS General § 1194.5...

  15. 36 CFR 1192.2 - Equivalent facilitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the procedure set forth in 49 CFR 37.7. ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Equivalent facilitation. 1192.2 Section 1192.2 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION...

  16. 36 CFR 1194.5 - Equivalent facilitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Equivalent facilitation. 1194.5 Section 1194.5 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD ELECTRONIC AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY ACCESSIBILITY STANDARDS General § 1194.5...

  17. 36 CFR 1194.5 - Equivalent facilitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Equivalent facilitation. 1194.5 Section 1194.5 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD ELECTRONIC AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY ACCESSIBILITY STANDARDS General § 1194.5...

  18. 20 CFR 404.1526 - Medical equivalence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Medical equivalence. 404.1526 Section 404.1526 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Medical Considerations § 404.1526...

  19. 20 CFR 404.1526 - Medical equivalence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Medical equivalence. 404.1526 Section 404.1526 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Medical Considerations § 404.1526...

  20. 20 CFR 404.1526 - Medical equivalence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Medical equivalence. 404.1526 Section 404.1526 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Medical Considerations § 404.1526...

  1. 20 CFR 404.1526 - Medical equivalence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Medical equivalence. 404.1526 Section 404.1526 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Medical Considerations § 404.1526...

  2. 20 CFR 404.1526 - Medical equivalence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Medical equivalence. 404.1526 Section 404.1526 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Medical Considerations § 404.1526...

  3. Identifiability and Equivalence of GLLIRM Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Revuelta, Javier

    2009-01-01

    The generalized logit-linear item response model (GLLIRM) is a linearly constrained nominal categories model (NCM) that computes the scale and intercept parameters for categories as a weighted sum of basic parameters. This paper addresses the problems of the identifiability of the basic parameters and the equivalence between different GLLIRM…

  4. 46 CFR 175.540 - Equivalents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... lifesaving appliance or arrangement as an equivalent if it has performance characteristics at least... IMO Resolution A. 520(13) (incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR 175.600); or (2) Has successfully... Safety Management (ISM) Code (IMO Resolution A.741(18)) for the purpose of determining that an...

  5. Equivalent weight of humic acid from peat

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pommer, A.M.; Breger, I.A.

    1960-01-01

    By means of discontinuous titration, the equivalent weight of humic acid isolated from a peat was found to increase from 144 to 183 between the third and fifty-second day after the humic acid was dissolved. Infra-red studies showed that the material had probably condensed with loss of carbonyl groups. ?? 1960.

  6. SUPPORT FOR USEPA'S PATHOGEN EQUIVALENCY COMMITTEE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation will discuss recommended and new resources for the USEPA's Pathogen Equivalency Committee including: 1) Committee's creation in 1985 and its purpose 2) Drexel University Professor Chuck Haas' 2001 report (Assessment of the PEC Process) and its findings 3) NAS/NR...

  7. 7 CFR 1005.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Equivalent price. 1005.54 Section 1005.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE APPALACHIAN MARKETING AREA Order...

  8. 7 CFR 1005.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Equivalent price. 1005.54 Section 1005.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE APPALACHIAN MARKETING AREA Order...

  9. 7 CFR 1005.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Equivalent price. 1005.54 Section 1005.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE APPALACHIAN MARKETING AREA Order...

  10. 7 CFR 1005.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Equivalent price. 1005.54 Section 1005.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE APPALACHIAN MARKETING AREA Order...

  11. 33 CFR 155.120 - Equivalents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Equivalents. 155.120 Section 155.120 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION PREVENTION REGULATIONS FOR VESSELS General § 155.120...

  12. Absorbed Dose and Dose Equivalent Calculations for Modeling Effective Dose

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welton, Andrew; Lee, Kerry

    2010-01-01

    While in orbit, Astronauts are exposed to a much higher dose of ionizing radiation than when on the ground. It is important to model how shielding designs on spacecraft reduce radiation effective dose pre-flight, and determine whether or not a danger to humans is presented. However, in order to calculate effective dose, dose equivalent calculations are needed. Dose equivalent takes into account an absorbed dose of radiation and the biological effectiveness of ionizing radiation. This is important in preventing long-term, stochastic radiation effects in humans spending time in space. Monte carlo simulations run with the particle transport code FLUKA, give absorbed and equivalent dose data for relevant shielding. The shielding geometry used in the dose calculations is a layered slab design, consisting of aluminum, polyethylene, and water. Water is used to simulate the soft tissues that compose the human body. The results obtained will provide information on how the shielding performs with many thicknesses of each material in the slab. This allows them to be directly applicable to modern spacecraft shielding geometries.

  13. pacce: Perl algorithm to compute continuum and equivalent widths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riffel, Rogério; Borges Vale, Tibério

    2011-08-01

    We present Perl Algorithm to Compute continuum and Equivalent Widths ( pacce). We describe the methods used in the computations and the requirements for its usage. We compare the measurements made with pacce and "manual" ones made using iraf splot task. These tests show that for synthetic simple stellar population (SSP) models the equivalent widths strengths are very similar (differences ≲0.2 Å) for both measurements. In real stellar spectra, the correlation between both values is still very good, but with differences of up to 0.5 Å. pacce is also able to determine mean continuum and continuum at line center values, which are helpful in stellar population studies. In addition, it is also able to compute the uncertainties in the equivalent widths using photon statistics. The code is made available for the community through the web at http://www.if.ufrgs.br/~riffel/software.html .

  14. Quasi-equivalent viruses: a paradigm for protein assemblies.

    PubMed

    Johnson, J E; Speir, J A

    1997-06-27

    The structure and assembly of icosahedral virus capsids composed of one or more gene products and displaying quasi-equivalent subunit associations are discussed at three levels. The principles of quasi-equivalence and the related geodesic dome formation are first discussed conceptually and the geometric basis for their construction from two-dimensional assembly units is reviewed. The consequences for such an assembly when three-dimensional protein subunits are the associating components are then discussed with the coordinates of cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV) used to generate hypothetical structures in approximate agreement with the conceptual models presented in the first section. Biophysical, molecular genetic, and atomic structural data for CCMV are then reviewed, related to each other, and incorporated into an assembly model for CCMV that is discussed with respect to the modular, chemical nature of the viral subunit structure. The concepts of quasi-equivalence are then examined in some larger virus structures containing multiple subunit types and auxiliary proteins and the need for additional control points in their assembly are considered. The conclusion suggests that some viral assembly principles are limited paradigms for protein associations occurring in the broader range of cell biology including signal transduction, interaction of transcription factors and protein trafficking. PMID:9223631

  15. Wave propagation in equivalent continuums representing truss lattice materials

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Messner, Mark C.; Barham, Matthew I.; Kumar, Mukul; Barton, Nathan R.

    2015-07-29

    Stiffness scales linearly with density in stretch-dominated lattice meta-materials offering the possibility of very light yet very stiff structures. Current additive manufacturing techniques can assemble structures consisting of these lattice materials, but the design of such structures will require accurate, efficient simulation techniques. Equivalent continuum models have several advantages over discrete truss models of stretch dominated lattices, including computational efficiency and ease of model construction. However, the development an equivalent model suitable for representing the dynamic response of a periodic truss is complicated by microinertial effects. This paper derives a dynamic equivalent continuum model for periodic truss structures and verifiesmore » it against detailed finite element simulations. The model must incorporate microinertial effects to accurately reproduce long-wavelength characteristics of the response such as anisotropic elastic soundspeeds. The formulation presented here also improves upon previous work by preserving equilibrium at truss joints for affine lattice deformation and by improving numerical stability by eliminating vertices in the effective yield surface.« less

  16. Equivalent plate modeling for conceptual design of aircraft wing structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giles, Gary L.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes an analysis method that generates conceptual-level design data for aircraft wing structures. A key requirement is that this data must be produced in a timely manner so that is can be used effectively by multidisciplinary synthesis codes for performing systems studies. Such a capability is being developed by enhancing an equivalent plate structural analysis computer code to provide a more comprehensive, robust and user-friendly analysis tool. The paper focuses on recent enhancements to the Equivalent Laminated Plate Solution (ELAPS) analysis code that significantly expands the modeling capability and improves the accuracy of results. Modeling additions include use of out-of-plane plate segments for representing winglets and advanced wing concepts such as C-wings along with a new capability for modeling the internal rib and spar structure. The accuracy of calculated results is improved by including transverse shear effects in the formulation and by using multiple sets of assumed displacement functions in the analysis. Typical results are presented to demonstrate these new features. Example configurations include a C-wing transport aircraft, a representative fighter wing and a blended-wing-body transport. These applications are intended to demonstrate and quantify the benefits of using equivalent plate modeling of wing structures during conceptual design.

  17. Sensory characterisation and consumer acceptability of potassium chloride and sunflower oil addition in small-caliber non-acid fermented sausages with a reduced content of sodium chloride and fat.

    PubMed

    Mora-Gallego, Héctor; Guàrdia, Maria Dolors; Serra, Xavier; Gou, Pere; Arnau, Jacint

    2016-02-01

    The effect of the simultaneous reduction of fat proportion (from 20% to 10% and 7%) and added salt (from 2.5% to 1.5%) and the subsequent addition of 0.64% KCl and sunflower oil (1.5% and 3.0%) on the physicochemical, instrumental colour and texture, sensory properties and consumer acceptability of small caliber non-acid fermented sausages (fuet type) was studied. This simultaneous reduction of fat and salt increased weight loss, moisture, water activity (aw), redness, instrumental texture parameters (hardness, chewiness and cohesiveness), sensory attributes (darkness, hardness, elasticity) and the consumer acceptability. The subsequent addition of 0.64% KCl to the leanest batch decreased the aw and barely affected instrumental texture parameters and consumer acceptability. Subsequent sunflower oil addition decreased hardness, chewiness and cohesiveness and increased crumbliness and oil flavour which may decrease the consumer acceptability. The simultaneous reduction of fat and NaCl with the addition of 0.64% KCl was the preferred option by the consumers. PMID:26497101

  18. Addition of a UL5 helicase-primase subunit point mutation eliminates bursal-thymic atrophy of Marek's disease virus ∆Meq recombinant virus but reduces vaccinal protection.

    PubMed

    Hildebrandt, Evin; Dunn, John R; Cheng, Hans H

    2015-01-01

    Marek's disease virus (MDV) is an oncogenic alphaherpesvirus and the causative agent of Marek's disease (MD), characterized by immunosuppression, paralysis, nerve enlargement and induction of T-cell lymphomas in chickens. Despite widespread usage of vaccines since the 1970s to control MD, more virulent field strains of MDV have emerged that overcome vaccinal protection, necessitating the development of new and more protective MD vaccines. The ∆Meq virus, a recombinant Md5 strain MDV lacking the viral oncogene Meq, is one candidate MD vaccine with great potential but unfortunately it also causes bursal-thymic atrophy (BTA) in maternal antibody negative chickens, raising concerns that impede commercial use as a vaccine. Previously, we identified a point mutation within UL5 that reduced in vivo replication in attenuated viruses. We proposed that introduction of the UL5 point mutation into the ∆Meq virus would reduce in vivo replication and eliminate BTA yet potentially retain high protective abilities. In birds, the ∆Meq+UL5 recombinant MDV had reduced replication compared to the original ∆Meq virus, while weights of lymphoid organs indicated that ∆Meq+UL5 did not induce BTA, supporting the hypothesis that reduction of in vivo replication would also abolish BTA. Vaccine trials of the ∆Meq+UL5 virus compared to other ∆Meq-based viruses and commercial vaccines show that, while the ∆Meq+UL5 does provide vaccinal protection, this protection was also reduced compared to the original ∆Meq virus. Therefore, it appears that a very delicate balance is required between levels of replication able to induce high vaccinal protection, yet not so high as to induce BTA. PMID:25968878

  19. Local equivalence, surface-code states, and matroids

    SciTech Connect

    Sarvepalli, Pradeep; Raussendorf, Robert

    2010-08-15

    Recently, Ji et al. disproved the local-unitary-local Clifford (LU-LC) conjecture and showed that the local unitary (LU) and local Clifford (LC) equivalence classes of the stabilizer states are not always the same. Despite the fact that this settles the LU-LC conjecture, a sufficient condition for stabilizer states that violate the LU-LC conjecture is not known. In this paper, we investigate further the properties of stabilizer states with respect to local equivalence. Our first result shows that there exist infinitely many stabilizer states that violate the LU-LC conjecture. In particular, we show that for all numbers of qubits n{>=}28, there exist distance-two stabilizer states which are counterexamples to the LU-LC conjecture. We prove that, for all odd n{>=}195, there exist stabilizer states with distance greater than two that are LU equivalent but not LC equivalent. Two important classes of stabilizer states that are of great interest in quantum computation are the cluster states and stabilizer states of the surface codes. We show that, under some minimal restrictions, both these classes of states preclude any counterexamples. In this context, we also show that the associated surface codes do not have any encoded non-Clifford transversal gates. We characterize the Calderbank-Shor-Steane (CSS) surface-code states in terms of a class of minor closed binary matroids. In addition to making a connection to an important open problem in binary matroid theory, this characterization does in some cases provide an efficient test for CSS states that are not counterexamples.

  20. Representing Identity and Equivalence for Scientific Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wickett, K. M.; Sacchi, S.; Dubin, D.; Renear, A. H.

    2012-12-01

    Matters of equivalence and identity are central to the stewardship of scientific data. In order to properly prepare for and manage the curation, preservation and sharing of digitally-encoded data, data stewards must be able to characterize and assess the relationships holding between data-carrying digital resources. However, identity-related questions about resources and their information content may not be straightforward to answer: for example, what exactly does it mean to say that two files contain the same data, but in different formats? Information content is frequently distinguished from particular representations, but there is no adequately developed shared understanding of what this really means and how the relationship between content and its representations hold. The Data Concepts group at the Center for Informatics Research in Science and Scholarship (CIRSS), University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign, is developing a logic-based framework of fundamental concepts related to scientific data to support curation and integration. One project goal is to develop precise accounts of information resources carrying the same data. We present two complementary conceptual models for information representation: the Basic Representation Model (BRM) and the Systematic Assertion Model (SAM). We show how these models provide an analytical account of digitally-encoded scientific data and a precise understanding of identity and equivalence. The Basic Representation Model identifies the core entities and relationships involved in representing information carried by digital objects. In BRM, digital objects are symbol structures that express propositional content, and stand in layered encoding relationships. For example, an RDF description may be serialized as either XML or N3, and those expressions in turn may be encoded as either UTF-8 or UTF-16 sequences. Defining this encoding stack reveals distinctions necessary for a precise account of identity and equivalence

  1. Performance of low pressure tissue equivalent chambers and a new method for parameterizing the dose equivalent

    SciTech Connect

    Eisen, Y.; Vasilik, D.G.; Brake, R.J.; Erkkila, B.H.; Littlejohn, G.J.

    1986-09-01

    The performance of spherical tissue equivalent chambers with equivalent diameters between 0.5 and 2..mu.. was tested experimentally using monoenergetic and polyenergetic neutron sources in the energy region of 10 keV to 14.5 MeV. Theoretical calculations were performed in order to obtain a simple algorithm for deriving the dose equivalent from the measured data. The algorithm relates the number of recoil particles to the dose equivalent, rather than having a one-to-one correspondence between the lineal energy and the linear energy transfer of the recoil particles. The calculations took into account neutron interactions with hydrogen atoms in the chamber wall as well as in the gas, and also the finite energy resolution determined by both the detector and the electronic system. Qualitatively, the calculations well dscribe the experimental results. The algorithm that was developed determines the neutron dose equivalent, from the data of the 0.5..mu.. chamber, to better than +-20% over the energy range of 30 keV to 14.5 MeV. The same algorithm also determines the dose equivalent from the data of the 2..mu.. chamber to better than +-20% over the energy of 70 keV to 14.5 MeV. The efficiency of the chambers is low and has an average value of 330 counts per mrem, or equivalently about 0.2 c/s per mrem/h. This efficiency enables the measurement of dose equivalent rates only above 100 mrem/h for an integration period of 3 seconds. However, integrated dose equivalents can be mesured as low as 0.1 mrem.

  2. Modified Equivalent Circuit for Organic Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossain, Nazmul

    In this work a newly fabricated organic solar cell based on a composite of fullerene derivative [6,6]-phenyl-C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) and regioregular poly (3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) with an added interfacial layer of AgOx in between the PEDOT:PSS layer and the ITO layer is investigated. Previous equivalent circuit models are discussed and an equivalent circuit model is proposed for the fabricated device. Incorporation of the AgOx interfacial layer shows an increase in fill factor (by 33%) and power conversion efficiency (by 28%). Moreover proper correlation has been achieved between the experimental and simulated I-V plots. The simulation shows that device characteristics can be explained with accuracy by the proposed model.

  3. Scaling Laws for Hydrodynamically Equivalent Implosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murakami, Masakatsu

    2001-10-01

    The EPOC (equivalent physics of confinement) scenario for the proof of principle of high gain inertial confinement fusion is presented, where the key concept "hydrodynamically equivalent implosions" plays a crucial role. Scaling laws on the target and confinement parameters are derived by applying the Lie group analysis to the PDE (partially differential equations) chain of the hydrodynamic system. It turns out that the conventional scaling law based on adiabatic approximation significantly differs from one which takes such energy transport effect as electron heat conduction into account. Confinement plasma parameters of the hot spot such as the central temperature and the areal mass density at peak compression are obtained with a self-similar solution for spherical implosions.

  4. Anomalies, equivalence and renormalization of cosmological frames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrero-Valea, Mario

    2016-05-01

    We study the question of whether two frames of a given physical theory are equivalent or not in the presence of quantum corrections. By using field theory arguments, we claim that equivalence is broken in the presence of anomalous symmetries in one of the frames. This is particularized to the case of the relation between the Einstein and Jordan frames in scalar-tensor theories used to describe early Universe dynamics. Although in this case a regularization that cancels the anomaly exists, the renormalized theory always develops a nonvanishing contribution to the S matrix that is present only in the Jordan frame, promoting the different frames to different physical theories that must be UV completed in a different way.

  5. Are All Wrong FCI Answers Equivalent?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dedic, Helena; Rosenfield, Steven; Lasry, Nathaniel

    2010-10-01

    The Force Concept Inventory (FCI) has been efficiently used to assess conceptual learning in mechanics. Each FCI question has one Newtonian answer and four wrong answers (distracters). Researchers and practitioners most frequently use measures of total score to assess learning. Yet, are all wrong answers equivalent? We conducted Latent Markov Chain Modeling (LMCM) analyses of all choices (right and wrong) on a subset of four FCI questions. LMCM assesses whether there are groups of students sharing similar patterns of responses. We infer that students sharing similar patterns also share similar reasoning. Our results show seven reasoning-groups. LMCM also computes probabilities of transition from one reasoning-group to another after instruction. Examining transitions between groups, we note a clear hierarchy. Groups at the top of the hierarchy are comprised of students that use Newtonian thinking more consistently but also choose certain wrong answers more frequently; suggesting that not all wrong answers are equivalent.

  6. Explosive materials equivalency, test methods and evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koger, D. M.; Mcintyre, F. L.

    1980-01-01

    Attention is given to concepts of explosive equivalency of energetic materials based on specific airblast parameters. A description is provided of a wide bandwidth high accuracy instrumentation system which has been used extensively in obtaining pressure time profiles of energetic materials. The object of the considered test method is to determine the maximum output from the detonation of explosive materials in terms of airblast overpressure and positive impulse. The measured pressure and impulse values are compared with known characteristics of hemispherical TNT data to determine the equivalency of the test material in relation to TNT. An investigation shows that meaningful comparisons between various explosives and a standard reference material such as TNT should be based upon the same parameters. The tests should be conducted under the same conditions.

  7. Minimal information to determine affine shape equivalence.

    PubMed

    Wagemans, J; Van Gool, L; Lamote, C; Foster, D H

    2000-04-01

    Participants judged the affine equivalence of 2 simultaneously presented 4-point patterns. Performance level (d') varied between 1.5 and 2.7, depending on the information available for solving the correspondence problem (insufficient in Experiment 1a, superfluous in Experiment 1b, and minimal in Experiments 1c, 2a, 2b) and on the exposure time (unlimited in Experiments 1 and 2a and 500 ms in Experiment 2b), but it did not vary much with the complexity of the affine transformation (rotation and slant in Experiment 1 and same plus tilt in Experiment 2). Performance in Experiment 3 was lower with 3-point patterns than with 4-point patterns, whereas blocking the trials according to the affine transformation parameters had little effect. Determining affine shape equivalence with minimal-information displays is based on a fast assessment of qualitatively or quasi-invariant properties such as convexity/ concavity, parallelism, and collinearity. PMID:10811156

  8. Satellite Test of the Equivalence Principle (STEP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Worden, Paul

    1994-01-01

    This grant provided support for the STEP (Satellite Test of the Equivalence Principle) program between October 1991 and September 1993. STEP, previously supported by NASA under Grant NAG8-837 'A Satellite Test of the Equivalence Principle,' was selected by the European Space Agency for a Phase A study as a candidate for ESA's next medium size mission (M2). STEP was conceived as a joint NASA/ESA mission with equal participation by both agencies. ESA's contribution to the program would be the spacecraft; NASA would provide the launcher and half of the instrument, while the other half of the instrument would be provided by various European agencies. STEP was in competition with three other programs, INTEGRAL, PRISMA, and MARSNET. The final selection of a single mission for M2 took place in April 1993. STEP was not selected for M2 but made a very close second. The program is continuing in modified form.

  9. Equivalent dynamic model of DEMES rotary joint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jianwen; Wang, Shu; Xing, Zhiguang; McCoul, David; Niu, Junyang; Huang, Bo; Liu, Liwu; Leng, Jinsong

    2016-07-01

    The dielectric elastomer minimum energy structure (DEMES) can realize large angular deformations by a small voltage-induced strain of the dielectric elastomer (DE), so it is a suitable candidate to make a rotary joint for a soft robot. Dynamic analysis is necessary for some applications, but the dynamic response of DEMESs is difficult to model because of the complicated morphology and viscoelasticity of the DE film. In this paper, a method composed of theoretical analysis and experimental measurement is presented to model the dynamic response of a DEMES rotary joint under an alternating voltage. Based on measurements of equivalent driving force and damping of the DEMES, the model can be derived. Some experiments were carried out to validate the equivalent dynamic model. The maximum angle error between model and experiment is greater than ten degrees, but it is acceptable to predict angular velocity of the DEMES, therefore, it can be applied in feedforward–feedback compound control.

  10. Equivalent impedance of a rough interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuk, N. P.; Tret'iakov, O. A.

    1987-10-01

    An equivalent-impedance (EI) dyad is constructed for a rough and plane (on the average) interface dividing two plane-stratified magnetodielectric media. Its characteristics are related to those of a smooth surface and to the scattering properties of the roughnesses. It is shown that the Hermitian part of an EI dyad is formed through field scattering by roughnesses into the propagating natural modes of the regular medium.

  11. Equivalent Circuit Modeling of Hysteresis Motors

    SciTech Connect

    Nitao, J J; Scharlemann, E T; Kirkendall, B A

    2009-08-31

    We performed a literature review and found that many equivalent circuit models of hysteresis motors in use today are incorrect. The model by Miyairi and Kataoka (1965) is the correct one. We extended the model by transforming it to quadrature coordinates, amenable to circuit or digital simulation. 'Hunting' is an oscillatory phenomenon often observed in hysteresis motors. While several works have attempted to model the phenomenon with some partial success, we present a new complete model that predicts hunting from first principles.

  12. Global equivalent magnetization of the oceanic lithosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyment, J.; Choi, Y.; Hamoudi, M.; Lesur, V.; Thebault, E.

    2015-11-01

    As a by-product of the construction of a new World Digital Magnetic Anomaly Map over oceanic areas, we use an original approach based on the global forward modeling of seafloor spreading magnetic anomalies and their comparison to the available marine magnetic data to derive the first map of the equivalent magnetization over the World's ocean. This map reveals consistent patterns related to the age of the oceanic lithosphere, the spreading rate at which it was formed, and the presence of mantle thermal anomalies which affects seafloor spreading and the resulting lithosphere. As for the age, the equivalent magnetization decreases significantly during the first 10-15 Myr after its formation, probably due to the alteration of crustal magnetic minerals under pervasive hydrothermal alteration, then increases regularly between 20 and 70 Ma, reflecting variations in the field strength or source effects such as the acquisition of a secondary magnetization. As for the spreading rate, the equivalent magnetization is twice as strong in areas formed at fast rate than in those formed at slow rate, with a threshold at ∼40 km/Myr, in agreement with an independent global analysis of the amplitude of Anomaly 25. This result, combined with those from the study of the anomalous skewness of marine magnetic anomalies, allows building a unified model for the magnetic structure of normal oceanic lithosphere as a function of spreading rate. Finally, specific areas affected by thermal mantle anomalies at the time of their formation exhibit peculiar equivalent magnetization signatures, such as the cold Australian-Antarctic Discordance, marked by a lower magnetization, and several hotspots, marked by a high magnetization.

  13. The Otto-engine-equivalent vehicle concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dowdy, M. W.; Couch, M. D.

    1978-01-01

    A vehicle comparison methodology based on the Otto-Engine Equivalent (OEE) vehicle concept is described. As an illustration of this methodology, the concept is used to make projections of the fuel economy potential of passenger cars using various alternative power systems. Sensitivities of OEE vehicle results to assumptions made in the calculational procedure are discussed. Factors considered include engine torque boundary, rear axle ratio, performance criteria, engine transient response, and transmission shift logic.

  14. Dioxin equivalency: Challenge to dose extrapolation

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, J.F. Jr.; Silkworth, J.B.

    1995-12-31

    Extensive research has shown that all biological effects of dioxin-like agents are mediated via a single biochemical target, the Ah receptor (AhR), and that the relative biologic potencies of such agents in any given system, coupled with their exposure levels, may be described in terms of toxic equivalents (TEQ). It has also shown that the TEQ sources include not only chlorinated species such as the dioxins (PCDDs), PCDFs, and coplanar PCBs, but also non-chlorinated substances such as the PAHs of wood smoke, the AhR agonists of cooked meat, and the indolocarbazol (ICZ) derived from cruciferous vegetables. Humans have probably had elevated exposures to these non-chlorinated TEQ sources ever since the discoveries of fire, cooking, and the culinary use of Brassica spp. Recent assays of CYP1A2 induction show that these ``natural`` or ``traditional`` AhR agonists are contributing 50--100 times as much to average human TEQ exposures as do the chlorinated xenobiotics. Currently, the safe doses of the xenobiotic TEQ sources are estimated from their NOAELs and large extrapolation factors, derived from arbitrary mathematical models, whereas the NOAELs themselves are regarded as the safe doses for the TEQs of traditional dietary components. Available scientific data can neither support nor refute either approach to assessing the health risk of an individual chemical substance. However, if two substances be toxicologically equivalent, then their TEQ-adjusted health risks must also be equivalent, and the same dose extrapolation procedure should be used for both.

  15. Semantic relatedness for evaluation of course equivalencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Beibei

    Semantic relatedness, or its inverse, semantic distance, measures the degree of closeness between two pieces of text determined by their meaning. Related work typically measures semantics based on a sparse knowledge base such as WordNet or Cyc that requires intensive manual efforts to build and maintain. Other work is based on a corpus such as the Brown corpus, or more recently, Wikipedia. This dissertation proposes two approaches to applying semantic relatedness to the problem of suggesting transfer course equivalencies. Two course descriptions are given as input to feed the proposed algorithms, which output a value that can be used to help determine if the courses are equivalent. The first proposed approach uses traditional knowledge sources such as WordNet and corpora for courses from multiple fields of study. The second approach uses Wikipedia, the openly-editable encyclopedia, and it focuses on courses from a technical field such as Computer Science. This work shows that it is promising to adapt semantic relatedness to the education field for matching equivalencies between transfer courses. A semantic relatedness measure using traditional knowledge sources such as WordNet performs relatively well on non-technical courses. However, due to the "knowledge acquisition bottleneck," such a resource is not ideal for technical courses, which use an extensive and growing set of technical terms. To address the problem, this work proposes a Wikipedia-based approach which is later shown to be more correlated to human judgment compared to previous work.

  16. TNT equivalency of M10 propellant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcintyre, F. L.; Price, P.

    1978-01-01

    Peak, side-on blast overpressure and scaled, positive impulse have been measured for M10 single-perforated propellant, web size 0.018 inches, using configurations that simulate the handling of bulk material during processing and shipment. Quantities of 11.34, 22.7, 45.4, and 65.8 kg were tested in orthorhombic shipping containers and fiberboard boxes. High explosive equivalency values for each test series were obtained as a function of scaled distance by comparison to known pressure, arrival time and impulse characteristics for hemispherical TNT surface bursts. The equivalencies were found to depend significantly on scaled distance, with higher values of 150-100 percent (pressure) and 350-125 percent (positive impulse) for the extremes within the range from 1.19 to 3.57 m/cube root of kg. Equivalencies as low as 60-140 percent (pressure) and 30-75 percent (positive impulse) were obtained in the range of 7.14 to 15.8 m/cube root of kg. Within experimental error, both peak pressure and positive impulse scaled as a function of charge weight for all quantities tested in the orthorhombic configuration.

  17. Probing Quantum Violations of the Equivalence Principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adunas, G. Z.; Rodriguez-Milla, E.; Ahluwalia, D. V.

    2001-02-01

    The joint realm of quantum mechanics and general-relativistic description of gravitation is becoming increasingly accessible to terrestrial experiments and observations. In this essay we study the emerging indications of the violation of equivalence principle (VEP). While the solar neutrino anomaly may find its natural explanation in a VEP, the statistically significant discrepancy observed in the gravitationally induced phases of neutron interferometry seems to be the first indication of a VEP. However, such a view would seem immediately challenged by the atomic interferometry results. The latter experiments see no indications of VEP, in apparent contradiction to the neutron interferometry results. Here we show that these, and related torsion pendulum experiments, probe different aspects of gravity; and that current experimental techniques, when coupled to the solar-neutrino data, may be able to explore quantum mechanically induced violations of the equivalence principle. We predict quantum violation of the equivalence principle (qVEP) for next generation of atomic interferometry experiments. The prediction entails comparing free fall of two different linear superpositions of Cesium atomic states.

  18. The neutron dose equivalent evaluation and shielding at the maze entrance of a Varian Clinac 23EX treatment room

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Xudong; Esquivel, Carlos; Nes, Elena; Shi Chengyu; Papanikolaou, Nikos; Charlton, Michael

    2011-03-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the neutron and photon dose equivalent rate (H{sub n,D} and H{sub G}) at the outer maze entrance and the adjacent treatment console area after the installation of a Varian Clinac 23EX accelerator with a higher beam energy than its predecessor. The evaluation was based on measurements and comparison with several empirical calculations. The effectiveness of borated polyethylene (BPE) boards, as a maze wall lining material, on neutron dose and photon dose reduction is also reported. Methods: A single energy Varian 6 MV photon linear accelerator (linac) was replaced with a Varian Clinac 23EX accelerator capable of producing 18 MV photons in a vault originally designed for the former accelerator. In order to evaluate and redesign the shielding of the vault, the neutron dose equivalent H{sub n,D} was measured using an Andersson-Braun neutron Rem meter and the photon dose equivalent H{sub G} was measured using a Geiger Mueller and an ion chamber {gamma}-ray survey meter at the outer maze entrance. The measurement data were compared to semiempirical calculations such as the Kersey method, the modified Kersey method, and a newly proposed method by Falcao et al. Additional measurements were taken after BPE boards were installed on the maze walls as a neutron absorption lining material. Results: With the gantry head tilted close to the inner maze entrance and with the jaws closed, both neutron dose equivalent and photon dose equivalent reached their maximum. Compared to the measurement results, the Kersey method overestimates the neutron dose equivalent H{sub n,D} by about two to four times (calculation/measurement ratio{approx_equal}2.4-3.8). Falcao's method largely overestimates the H{sub n,D} (calculation/measurement ratio{approx_equal}3.9-5.5). The modified Kersey method has a calculation to measurement ratio about 0.6-0.9. The photon dose equivalent calculation including McGinley's capture gamma dose equivalent equation estimates about 77%-98% of the

  19. General covariance, artificial gauge freedom and empirical equivalence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitts, James Brian

    often reformulate a theory to install additional fields and new gauge symmetries preserving empirical content. Post-positivist philosophers might judge the result a distinct and inferior theory, but physicists consider it a perhaps superior formulation of the same theory. Evidently a step back from naive realism towards mathematical-empirical equivalence is appropriate for physical ontology and theory individuation. Artificial gauge freedom licenses a generalized Kretschmann objection, but the clock field case suggests a resolution.

  20. Additive effects of cilnidipine, an L-/N-type calcium channel blocker, and an angiotensin II receptor blocker on reducing cardiorenal damage in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty rats with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Mori, Yutaka; Aritomi, Shizuka; Niinuma, Kazumi; Nakamura, Tarou; Matsuura, Kenichi; Yokoyama, Junichi; Utsunomiya, Kazunori

    2014-01-01

    Cilnidipine (Cil), which is an L-/N-type calcium channel blocker (CCB), has been known to provide renal protection by decreasing the activity of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and the renin-angiotensin system. In this study, we compared the effects of the combination of Cil and amlodipine (Aml), which is an L-type CCB, with an angiotensin (Ang) II receptor blocker on diabetic cardiorenal damage in spontaneously type 2 diabetic rats. Seventeen-week-old Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty rats were randomly assigned to receive Cil, Aml, valsartan (Val), Cil + Val, Aml + Val, or a vehicle (eight rats per group) for 22 weeks. Antihypertensive potencies were nearly equal among the CCB monotherapy groups and the combination therapy groups. The lowering of blood pressure by either treatment did not significantly affect the glycemic variables. However, exacerbations of renal and heart failure were significantly suppressed in rats administered Cil or Val, and additional suppression was observed in those administered Cil + Val. Although Val increased the renin-Ang system, Aml + Val treatment resulted in additional increases in these parameters, while Cil + Val did not show such effects. Furthermore, Cil increased the ratio of Ang-(1-7) to Ang-I, despite the fact that Val and Aml + Val decreased the Ang-(1-7) levels. These actions of Cil + Val might be due to their synergistic inhibitory effect on the activity of the SNS, and on aldosterone secretion through N-type calcium channel antagonism and Ang II receptor type 1 antagonism. Thus, Cil may inhibit the progression of cardiorenal disease in type 2 diabetes patients by acting as an N-type CCB and inhibiting the aldosterone secretion and SNS activation when these drugs were administered in combination with an Ang II receptor blocker. PMID:24970998

  1. Ambient Dose Equivalent measured at the Instituto Nacional de Cancerología Department of Nuclear Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ávila, O.; Torres-Ulloa, C. L.; Medina, L. A.; Trujillo-Zamudio, F. E.; de Buen, I. Gamboa; Buenfil, A. E.; Brandan, M. E.

    2010-12-01

    Ambient dose equivalent values were determined in several sites at the Instituto Nacional de Cancerología, Departmento de Medicina Nuclear, using TLD-100 and TLD-900 thermoluminescent dosemeters. Additionally, ambient dose equivalent was measured at a corridor outside the hospitalization room for patients treated with 137Cs brachytherapy. Dosemeter calibration was performed at the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Laboratorio de Metrología, to known 137Cs gamma radiation air kerma. Radionuclides considered for this study are 131I, 18F, 67Ga, 99mTc, 111In, 201Tl and 137Cs, with main gamma energies between 93 and 662 keV. Dosemeters were placed during a five month period in the nuclear medicine rooms (containing gamma-cameras), injection corridor, patient waiting areas, PET/CT study room, hot lab, waste storage room and corridors next to the hospitalization rooms for patients treated with 131I and 137Cs. High dose values were found at the waste storage room, outside corridor of 137Cs brachytherapy patients and PET/CT area. Ambient dose equivalent rate obtained for the 137Cs brachytherapy corridor is equal to (18.51±0.02)×10-3 mSv/h. Sites with minimum doses are the gamma camera rooms, having ambient dose equivalent rates equal to (0.05±0.03)×10-3 mSv/h. Recommendations have been given to the Department authorities so that further actions are taken to reduce doses at high dose sites in order to comply with the ALARA principle (as low as reasonably achievable).

  2. DENSE PHASE REBURN COMBUSTION SYSTEM (DPRCS) DEMONSTRATION ON A 154 MWE TANGENTIAL FURNACE: ADDITIONAL AREA OF INTEREST-TO DEVELOP AND DEMONSTRATE AN IN-FURNACE MULTI-POLLUTANT REDUCTION TECHNOLOGY TO REDUCE NOx, SO2 & Hg

    SciTech Connect

    Allen C. Wiley; Steven Castagnero; Geoff Green; Kevin Davis; David White

    2004-03-01

    Semi-dense phase pneumatic delivery and injection of calcium and sodium sorbents, and microfine powdered coal, at various sidewall elevations of an online operating coal-fired power plant, was investigated for the express purpose of developing an in-furnace, economic multi-pollutant reduction methodology for NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2} & Hg. The 154 MWe tangentially-fired furnace that was selected for a full-scale demonstration, was recently retrofitted for NO{sub x} reduction with a high velocity rotating-opposed over-fire air system. The ROFA system, a Mobotec USA technology, has a proven track record of breaking up laminar flow along furnace walls, thereby enhancing the mix of all constituents of combustion. The knowledge gained from injecting sorbents and micronized coal into well mixed combustion gases with significant improvement in particulate retention time, should serve well the goals of an in-furnace multi-pollutant reduction technology; that of reducing back-end cleanup costs on a wide variety of pollutants, on a cost per ton basis, by first accomplishing significant in-furnace reductions of all pollutants.

  3. 48 CFR 52.227-16 - Additional Data Requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., Rights in Data—General clause or other equivalent included in this contract) specified elsewhere in this... other equivalent included in this contract is applicable to all data ordered under this Additional Data..., or data which are specifically identified in this contract as not subject to this clause. (c)...

  4. 48 CFR 52.227-16 - Additional Data Requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., Rights in Data—General clause or other equivalent included in this contract) specified elsewhere in this... other equivalent included in this contract is applicable to all data ordered under this Additional Data..., or data which are specifically identified in this contract as not subject to this clause. (c)...

  5. 48 CFR 52.227-16 - Additional Data Requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., Rights in Data—General clause or other equivalent included in this contract) specified elsewhere in this... other equivalent included in this contract is applicable to all data ordered under this Additional Data..., or data which are specifically identified in this contract as not subject to this clause. (c)...

  6. 48 CFR 52.227-16 - Additional Data Requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., Rights in Data—General clause or other equivalent included in this contract) specified elsewhere in this... other equivalent included in this contract is applicable to all data ordered under this Additional Data..., or data which are specifically identified in this contract as not subject to this clause. (c)...

  7. Acid Rain Analysis by Standard Addition Titration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ophardt, Charles E.

    1985-01-01

    The standard addition titration is a precise and rapid method for the determination of the acidity in rain or snow samples. The method requires use of a standard buret, a pH meter, and Gran's plot to determine the equivalence point. Experimental procedures used and typical results obtained are presented. (JN)

  8. Toxic equivalence factors, problems and limitations.

    PubMed

    Neumann, H G

    1996-01-01

    It is a particular problem to set tolerance levels for mixtures containing chemicals classified as carcinogens. In the case of chlorinated dioxin and furan congeners, 'toxicity equivalence factors' (TEFs) were introduced. This concept has problems in itself and cannot be readily transferred to other mixtures, such as those of monocyclic nitroarenes in wastes of trinitrotoluene (TNT)-based explosives. The difficulties in finding suitable endpoints to compare the components are discussed (methaemoglobin formation; quantitative structure-activity relationships; mutagenicity; carcinogenicity). An alternative approach for the development tolerance levels in this instance is based on results obtained by measuring haemoglobin adducts as biomarkers of the most prevalent mixture components in humans. PMID:9119314

  9. Tissue equivalent proportional counter neutron monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.C.; Strode, J.N.

    1980-06-01

    The Tissue Equivalent Proportional Counter (TEPC) is a sensitive area monitoring instrument that can be used either in place at fixed locations or as a portable neutron exposure measuring device. The system monitors low levels of neutron radiation exposure and has the capability of accurately measuring neutron exposure rates as low as 0.1 mrem/hr. The computerized analysis system calculates the quality factor which is important for situations where the neutron to gamma ratio may vary significantly and irregularly such as in fuel fabrication or handling facilities.

  10. The equivalence principle in a quantum world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bjerrum-Bohr, N. E. J.; Donoghue, John F.; El-Menoufi, Basem Kamal; Holstein, Barry R.; Planté, Ludovic; Vanhove, Pierre

    2015-09-01

    We show how modern methods can be applied to quantum gravity at low energy. We test how quantum corrections challenge the classical framework behind the equivalence principle (EP), for instance through introduction of nonlocality from quantum physics, embodied in the uncertainty principle. When the energy is small, we now have the tools to address this conflict explicitly. Despite the violation of some classical concepts, the EP continues to provide the core of the quantum gravity framework through the symmetry — general coordinate invariance — that is used to organize the effective field theory (EFT).

  11. Mechanical equivalent of quantum heat engines.

    PubMed

    Arnaud, Jacques; Chusseau, Laurent; Philippe, Fabrice

    2008-06-01

    Quantum heat engines employ as working agents multilevel systems instead of classical gases. We show that under some conditions quantum heat engines are equivalent to a series of reservoirs at different altitudes containing balls of various weights. A cycle consists of picking up at random a ball from one reservoir and carrying it to the next, thereby performing or absorbing some work. In particular, quantum heat engines, employing two-level atoms as working agents, are modeled by reservoirs containing balls of weight 0 or 1. The mechanical model helps us prove that the maximum efficiency of quantum heat engines is the Carnot efficiency. Heat pumps and negative temperatures are considered. PMID:18643212

  12. Periodic equivalence ratio modulation method and apparatus for controlling combustion instability

    DOEpatents

    Richards, George A.; Janus, Michael C.; Griffith, Richard A.

    2000-01-01

    The periodic equivalence ratio modulation (PERM) method and apparatus significantly reduces and/or eliminates unstable conditions within a combustion chamber. The method involves modulating the equivalence ratio for the combustion device, such that the combustion device periodically operates outside of an identified unstable oscillation region. The equivalence ratio is modulated between preselected reference points, according to the shape of the oscillation region and operating parameters of the system. Preferably, the equivalence ratio is modulated from a first stable condition to a second stable condition, and, alternatively, the equivalence ratio is modulated from a stable condition to an unstable condition. The method is further applicable to multi-nozzle combustor designs, whereby individual nozzles are alternately modulated from stable to unstable conditions. Periodic equivalence ratio modulation (PERM) is accomplished by active control involving periodic, low frequency fuel modulation, whereby low frequency fuel pulses are injected into the main fuel delivery. Importantly, the fuel pulses are injected at a rate so as not to affect the desired time-average equivalence ratio for the combustion device.

  13. Large-Strain Time-Temperature Equivalence and Adiabatic Heating of Polyethylene

    SciTech Connect

    Furmanski, Jevan; Brown, Eric; Cady, Carl M.

    2012-06-06

    Time-temperature equivalence is a well-known phenomenon in time-dependent material response, where rapid events at a moderate temperature are indistinguishable from some occurring at modest rates but elevated temperatures. However, there is as-yet little elucidation of how well this equivalence holds for substantial plastic strains. In this work, we demonstrate time-temperature equivalence over a large range in a previously studied high-density polyethylene formulation (HDPE). At strain-rates exceeding 0.1/s, adiabatic heating confounds the comparison of nominally isothermal material response, apparently violating time-temperature equivalence. Strain-rate jumps can be employed to access the instantaneous true strain rate without heating. Adiabatic heating effects were isolated by comparing a locus of isothermal instantaneous flow stress measurements from strain-rate jumps up to 1/s with the predicted equivalent states at 0.01/s and 0.001/s in compression. Excellent agreement between the isothermal jump condition locus and the quasi-static tests was observed up to 50% strain, yielding one effective isothermal plastic response for each material for a given time-temperature equivalent state. These results imply that time-temperature equivalence can be effectively used to predict the deformation response of polymers during extreme mechanical events (large strain and high strain-rate) from measurements taken at reduced temperatures and nominal strain-rates in the laboratory.

  14. Periodic equivalence ratio modulation method and apparatus for controlling combustion instability

    SciTech Connect

    Richards, George A.; Janus, Michael C.; Griffith, Richard A.

    1998-12-01

    The periodic equivalence ratio modulation (PERM) method and apparatus significantly reduces and/or eliminates unstable conditions within a combustion chamber. The method involves modulating the equivalence ratio for the combustion device, such that the combustion device periodically operates outside of an identified unstable oscillation region. The equivalence ratio is modulated between preselected reference points, according to the shape of the oscillation region and operating parameters of the system. Preferably, the equivalence ratio is modulated from a first stable condition to a second stable condition, and, alternatively, the equivalence ratio is modulated from a stable condition to an unstable condition. The method is further applicable to multi-nozzle combustor designs, whereby individual nozzles are alternately modulated from stable to unstable conditions. Periodic equivalence ratio modulation (PERM) is accomplished by active control involving periodic, low frequency fuel modulation, whereby low frequency fuel pulses are injected into the main fuel delivery. Importantly, the fuel pulses are injected at a rate so as not to affect the desired time-average equivalence ratio for the combustion device.

  15. Zonal Dynamic Equivalents Based on the Concept of Relative Electrical Distance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrawal, Rimjhim; Dhadbanjan, Thukaram

    2013-05-01

    Abstract: This article presents a systematic approach to construct the zonal dynamic equivalents of a large-power system based on the concept of relative electrical distance (RED). The task of dynamic equivalencing is to eliminate the full model of the external system and replace it with an equivalent model, which has dynamic characteristics close enough to the full model. The dynamic equivalent models are used for large-scale power system offline transient stability analysis with large disturbance. Dynamic equivalencing also helps in reducing the computation burden and memory requirements in wide area monitoring system (WAMS) for online stability assessment. The procedure is illustrated on IEEE 39 bus system and on a practical 205 bus system consisting of three zones of Indian Southern grid, where an equivalent of a zone has been constructed. The simulation results of the original system and equivalent system are compared. The proposed approach is also compared with the existing Ward equivalent method and the results are found to be similar. The simulation results show that the developed equivalent system has close accuracy in representing the dynamic characteristics of the original system.

  16. Nitrogen addition increases fecundity in the desert shrub Sarcobatus vermiculatus.

    PubMed

    Drenovsky, R E; Richards, J H

    2005-04-01

    Nutrients, in addition to water, limit desert primary productivity, but nutrient limitations to fecundity and seed quality in desert ecosystems have received little attention. Reduced seed production and quality may affect recruitment, population, and community processes. At the Mono Basin, CA, USA where the alkaline, sandy soil has very low availability of N, P, and most other nutrients, seed production, recruitment, and dominance of the desert shrub Sarcobatus vermiculatus decrease over a dune successional sequence. Concurrently, Sarcobatus leaf N, P, and Ca/Mg ratio decline from early to later successional dunes. At two later successional dune sites, we fertilized adult Sarcobatus shrubs for 2 years and determined which nutrient(s) limited growth, seed production, and seed quality. We also tested whether nutrient addition at these older sites made these fitness-related variables equivalent to a younger, high-fecundity site. Nitrogen addition, alone, increased Sarcobatus leaf N, growth, and seed production per shoot module. Any treatment including P, Ca, Mg, or micronutrients but not N had an insignificant effect on growth and fecundity. Nitrogen addition also increased filled seed weight, a predictor of potential seedling survival, at one of the sites. Nitrogen-limited seed production and seed mass may reduce Sarcobatus fitness and contribute to the observed successional changes in plant community composition in this alkaline desert ecosystem. PMID:15690179

  17. Prednisolone versus dexamethasone in croup: a randomised equivalence trial

    PubMed Central

    Sparrow, A; Geelhoed, G

    2006-01-01

    Background Croup remains a common respiratory problem presenting to emergency departments. A single oral treatment of oral dexamethasone results in improved outcome. Prednisolone has similar pharmacokinetic properties and has a significant advantage in that it is commercially available in liquid preparations. Objective To ascertain whether a single oral dose of prednisolone was equivalent to a single oral dose of dexamethasone (matched for potency) in children with mild to moderate croup. Design A double blind, randomised, controlled equivalence trial Setting Tertiary paediatric emergency department. Patients 133 children aged 3 to 142 months presenting with mild to moderate croup. Interventions Children received either a single oral dose of dexamethasone 0.15 mg/kg or single oral dose of prednisolone 1 mg/kg. Outcome The main outcome measure was unscheduled re‐presentation to medical care as determined by telephone follow up at 7 to 10 days. Croup score, adrenaline (epinephrine) use, time spent in the emergency department, and duration of croup and viral symptoms were secondary outcome measures. Results Children treated with prednisolone were more likely to re‐present: 19 of 65 children (29%) reattended medical care compared with 5 of 68 (7%) from the dexamethasone group. The confidence intervals around this 22% difference in outcome were 8% to 35%, outside the 0% to 7.5% range of equivalence. There were no significant differences in other outcome measures. Conclusion A single oral dose of prednisolone is less effective than a single oral dose of dexamethasone in reducing unscheduled re‐presentation to medical care in children with mild to moderate croup. PMID:16624882

  18. Ignition Delay of Combustible Materials in Normoxic Equivalent Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McAllister, Sara; Fernandez-Pello, Carlos; Ruff, Gary; Urban, David

    2009-01-01

    Material flammability is an important factor in determining the pressure and composition (fraction of oxygen and nitrogen) of the atmosphere in the habitable volume of exploration vehicles and habitats. The method chosen in this work to quantify the flammability of a material is by its ease of ignition. The ignition delay time was defined as the time it takes a combustible material to ignite after it has been exposed to an external heat flux. Previous work in the Forced Ignition and Spread Test (FIST) apparatus has shown that the ignition delay in the currently proposed space exploration atmosphere (approximately 58.6 kPa and32% oxygen concentration) is reduced by 27% compared to the standard atmosphere used in the Space Shuttle and Space Station. In order to determine whether there is a safer environment in terms of material flammability, a series of piloted ignition delay tests using polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) was conducted in the FIST apparatus to extend the work over a range of possible exploration atmospheres. The exploration atmospheres considered were the normoxic equivalents, i.e. reduced pressure conditions with a constant partial pressure of oxygen. The ignition delay time was seen to decrease as the pressure was reduced along the normoxic curve. The minimum ignition delay observed in the normoxic equivalent environments was nearly 30% lower than in standard atmospheric conditions. The ignition delay in the proposed exploration atmosphere is only slightly larger than this minimum. Interms of material flammability, normoxic environments with a higher pressure relative to the proposed pressure would be desired.

  19. An equivalent body surface charge model representing three-dimensional bioelectrical activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    He, B.; Chernyak, Y. B.; Cohen, R. J.

    1995-01-01

    A new surface-source model has been developed to account for the bioelectrical potential on the body surface. A single-layer surface-charge model on the body surface has been developed to equivalently represent bioelectrical sources inside the body. The boundary conditions on the body surface are discussed in relation to the surface-charge in a half-space conductive medium. The equivalent body surface-charge is shown to be proportional to the normal component of the electric field on the body surface just outside the body. The spatial resolution of the equivalent surface-charge distribution appears intermediate between those of the body surface potential distribution and the body surface Laplacian distribution. An analytic relationship between the equivalent surface-charge and the surface Laplacian of the potential was found for a half-space conductive medium. The effects of finite spatial sampling and noise on the reconstruction of the equivalent surface-charge were evaluated by computer simulations. It was found through computer simulations that the reconstruction of the equivalent body surface-charge from the body surface Laplacian distribution is very stable against noise and finite spatial sampling. The present results suggest that the equivalent body surface-charge model may provide an additional insight to our understanding of bioelectric phenomena.

  20. Numerical Simulation on Open Wellbore Shrinkage and Casing Equivalent Stress in Bedded Salt Rock Stratum

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jianjun

    2013-01-01

    Most salt rock has interbed of mudstone in China. Owing to the enormous difference of mechanical properties between the mudstone interbed and salt rock, the stress-strain and creep behaviors of salt rock are significantly influenced by neighboring mudstone interbed. In order to identify the rules of wellbore shrinkage and casings equivalent stress in bedded salt rock stratum, three-dimensional finite difference models were established. The effects of thickness and elasticity modulus of mudstone interbed on the open wellbore shrinkage and equivalent stress of casing after cementing operation were studied, respectively. The results indicate that the shrinkage of open wellbore and equivalent stress of casings decreases with the increase of mudstone interbed thickness. The increasing of elasticity modulus will reduce the shrinkage of open wellbore and casing equivalent stress. Research results can provide the scientific basis for the design of mud density and casing strength. PMID:24198726

  1. Quantum Heat Machines Equivalence, Work Extraction beyond Markovianity, and Strong Coupling via Heat Exchangers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uzdin, Raam; Levy, Amikam; Kosloff, Ronnie

    2016-04-01

    Various engine types are thermodynamically equivalent in the quantum limit of small 'engine action'. Our previous derivation of the equivalence is restricted to Markovian heat baths and to implicit classical work repository (e.g., laser light in the semi-classical approximation). In this paper all the components, baths, batteries, and engine, are explicitly taken into account. To neatly treat non-Markovian dynamics we use mediating particles that function as a heat exchanger. We find that on top of the previously observed equivalence there is a higher degree of equivalence that cannot be achieved in the Markovian regime. Next we focus on the energy transfer to the work repository. A condition for zero entropy increase in the work repository is given. Moreover, it is shown that in the strong coupling regime it is possible to charge a battery with energy while reducing its entropy at the same time.

  2. Structural analysis of artificial skin equivalents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, Robert; Marx, Ulrich; Walles, Heike; Schober, Lena

    2011-06-01

    Artificial skin equivalents ASEs based on primary fibroblasts and keratinocytes show a high batch variance in their structural and morphological characteristics. Due to biological fluctuations and variable donor age, the growth processes of 3D tissue structure show a non constant quality. Since theses ASEs are used as testing system for chemicals, pharmaceuticals or cosmetics it is of major interest to know detailed and significant characteristics about each individual ASE. Until now, the microscopic analysis process is based on the destructive preparation of histologies allowing only the characterization on a random basis. In this study we present analytical methods to characterise each individual ASE by Optical Coherence Tomography OCT in combination with image processing tools. Therefore, we developed a fully automated OCT device, that performs automatic measurements of microtiter plates MTPs holing the ASEs in a sterile environment. We developed image processing algorithms to characterize the surface structure which may function as an indicator for defects in the epidermal stratum corneum. Further, we analysed the tomographic morphological structure of the ASEs. The results show, that variances in the growth state as well different collagen formation is detectable. In combination with dynamic threshold levels, we found, that OCT is a well suited technology for automatically characterizing artificial skin equivalents and may partly substitute the preparation of histologies.

  3. Equivalent Relaxations of Optimal Power Flow

    SciTech Connect

    Bose, S; Low, SH; Teeraratkul, T; Hassibi, B

    2015-03-01

    Several convex relaxations of the optimal power flow (OPF) problem have recently been developed using both bus injection models and branch flow models. In this paper, we prove relations among three convex relaxations: a semidefinite relaxation that computes a full matrix, a chordal relaxation based on a chordal extension of the network graph, and a second-order cone relaxation that computes the smallest partial matrix. We prove a bijection between the feasible sets of the OPF in the bus injection model and the branch flow model, establishing the equivalence of these two models and their second-order cone relaxations. Our results imply that, for radial networks, all these relaxations are equivalent and one should always solve the second-order cone relaxation. For mesh networks, the semidefinite relaxation and the chordal relaxation are equally tight and both are strictly tighter than the second-order cone relaxation. Therefore, for mesh networks, one should either solve the chordal relaxation or the SOCP relaxation, trading off tightness and the required computational effort. Simulations are used to illustrate these results.

  4. Equivalence of topological insulators and superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cobanera, Emilio; Ortiz, Gerardo

    2015-10-01

    Systems of free fermions are classified by symmetry, space dimensionality, and topological properties described by K homology. Those systems belonging to different classes are inequivalent. In contrast, we show that by taking a many-body/Fock-space viewpoint it becomes possible to establish equivalences of topological insulators and superconductors in terms of duality transformations. These mappings connect topologically inequivalent systems of fermions, jumping across entries in existent classification tables, because of the phenomenon of symmetry transmutation by which a symmetry and its dual partner have identical algebraic properties but very different physical interpretations. To constrain our study to established classification tables, we define and characterize mathematically Gaussian dualities as dualities mapping free fermions to free fermions (and interacting to interacting). By introducing a large, flexible class of Gaussian dualities we show that any insulator is dual to a superconductor, and that fermionic edge modes are dual to Majorana edge modes, that is, the Gaussian dualities of this paper preserve the bulk-boundary correspondence. Transmutation of relevant symmetries, particle number, translation, and time reversal is also investigated in detail. As illustrative examples, we show the duality equivalence of the dimerized Peierls chain and the Majorana chain of Kitaev, and a two-dimensional Kekulé-type topological insulator, including graphene as a special instance in coupling space, dual to a p -wave superconductor. Since our analysis extends to interacting fermion systems, we also briefly discuss some such applications.

  5. Equivalence of trans paths in ion channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez, Juan; Hajek, Bruce

    2006-04-01

    We explore stochastic models for the study of ion transport in biological cells. Analysis of these models explains and explores an interesting feature of ion transport observed by biophysicists. Namely, the average time it takes ions to cross certain ion channels is the same in either direction, even if there is an electric potential difference across the channels. It is shown for simple single ion models that the distribution of a path (i.e., the history of location versus time) of an ion crossing the channel in one direction has the same distribution as the time-reversed path of an ion crossing the channel in the reverse direction. Therefore, not only is the mean duration of these paths equal, but other measures, such as the variance of passage time or the mean time a path spends within a specified section of the channel, are also the same for both directions of traversal. The feature is also explored for channels with interacting ions. If a system of interacting ions is in reversible equilibrium (net flux is zero), then the equivalence of the left-to-right trans paths with the time-reversed right-to-left trans paths still holds. However, if the system is in equilibrium, but not reversible equilibrium, then such equivalence need not hold.

  6. Investigating Starburst Galaxy Emission Line Equivalent Widths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meskhidze, Helen; Richardson, Chris T.

    2016-01-01

    Modeling star forming galaxies with spectral synthesis codes allows us to study the gas conditions and excitation mechanisms that are necessary to reproduce high ionization emission lines in both local and high-z galaxies. Our study uses the locally optimally-emitting clouds model to develop an atlas of starburst galaxy emission line equivalent widths. Specifically, we address the following question: What physical conditions are necessary to produce strong high ionization emission lines assuming photoionization via starlight? Here we present the results of our photoionization simulations: an atlas spanning 15 orders of magnitude in ionizing flux and 10 orders of magnitude in hydrogen density that tracks over 150 emission lines ranging from the UV to the near IR. Each simulation grid contains ~1.5x104 photoionization models calculated by supplying a spectral energy distribution, grain content, and chemical abundances. Specifically, we will be discussing the effects on the emission line equivalent widths of varying the metallicity of the cloud, Z = 0.2 Z⊙ to Z = 5.0 Z⊙, and varying the star-formation history, using the instantaneous and continuous evolution tracks and the newly released Starburst99 Geneva rotation tracks.

  7. How many invariant polynomials are needed to decide local unitary equivalence of qubit states?

    SciTech Connect

    Maciążek, Tomasz; Oszmaniec, Michał

    2013-09-15

    Given L-qubit states with the fixed spectra of reduced one-qubit density matrices, we find a formula for the minimal number of invariant polynomials needed for solving local unitary (LU) equivalence problem, that is, problem of deciding if two states can be connected by local unitary operations. Interestingly, this number is not the same for every collection of the spectra. Some spectra require less polynomials to solve LU equivalence problem than others. The result is obtained using geometric methods, i.e., by calculating the dimensions of reduced spaces, stemming from the symplectic reduction procedure.

  8. Experimental Search for a Violation of Einstein's Equivalence Principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abercrombie, Michael; Archibald, Adam; Madziwa-Nussinov, Tsitsi; Wagoner, Kasey; Cowsik, Ramanath

    2015-04-01

    The Equivalence Principle (EP) states that a gravitational field is locally equivalent to a uniformly accelerated reference frame, and it is this idea that Einstein's Theory of General Relativity (GR) is largely based upon. A direct consequence of the EP is the universality of free fall; that is, all objects, regardless of their composition, fall at the same rate in a given gravitational field. Motivated by theoretical attempts to unify GR with the Standard Model that predict possible violations of the universality of free fall, we have developed an Eötvös-type torsion balance experiment capable of testing the EP at unprecedented sensitivities. Using a balance configured as a composition dipole with an azimuthally symmetric mass distribution, a violation of the EP would cause a diurnal modulation of the balance orientation in response to the gravitational field produced by the Sun. To monitor the torsion balance we use a multi-slit auto-collimating optical level capable of measuring angular displacements on the scale of nanoradians. The recent relocation of our experiment to an isolated bunker built into a hillside at the Tyson Research Facility reduces the seismic and thermal noise in our measurements.

  9. Degeneracy relations in QCD and the equivalence of two systematic all-orders methods for setting the renormalization scale

    SciTech Connect

    Bi, Huan -Yu; Wu, Xing -Gang; Ma, Yang; Ma, Hong -Hao; Brodsky, Stanley J.; Mojaza, Matin

    2015-06-26

    The Principle of Maximum Conformality (PMC) eliminates QCD renormalization scale-setting uncertainties using fundamental renormalization group methods. The resulting scale-fixed pQCD predictions are independent of the choice of renormalization scheme and show rapid convergence. The coefficients of the scale-fixed couplings are identical to the corresponding conformal series with zero β-function. Two all-orders methods for systematically implementing the PMC-scale setting procedure for existing high order calculations are discussed in this article. One implementation is based on the PMC-BLM correspondence (PMC-I); the other, more recent, method (PMC-II) uses the Rδ-scheme, a systematic generalization of the minimal subtraction renormalization scheme. Both approaches satisfy all of the principles of the renormalization group and lead to scale-fixed and scheme-independent predictions at each finite order. In this work, we show that PMC-I and PMC-II scale-setting methods are in practice equivalent to each other. We illustrate this equivalence for the four-loop calculations of the annihilation ratio Re+e and the Higgs partial width I'(H→bb¯). Both methods lead to the same resummed (‘conformal’) series up to all orders. The small scale differences between the two approaches are reduced as additional renormalization group {βi}-terms in the pQCD expansion are taken into account. In addition, we show that special degeneracy relations, which underly the equivalence of the two PMC approaches and the resulting conformal features of the pQCD series, are in fact general properties of non-Abelian gauge theory.

  10. Equivalent magnetization over the World's Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyment, J.; Choi, Y.; Hamoudi, M.; Erwan, T.; Lesur, V.

    2014-12-01

    As a by-product of our recent work to build a candidate model over the oceans for the World Digital Magnetic Anomaly Map (WDMAM) version 2, we derived global distributions of the equivalent magnetization in oceanic domains. In a first step, we use classic point source forward modeling on a spherical Earth to build a forward model of the marine magnetic anomalies at sea-surface. We estimate magnetization vectors using the age map of the ocean floor, the relative plate motions, the apparent polar wander path for Africa, and a geomagnetic reversal time scale. As magnetized source geometry, we assume 1 km-thick layer bearing a 10 A/m magnetization following the topography of the oceanic basement as defined by the bathymetry and sedimentary thickness. Adding a present-day geomagnetic field model allows the computation of our initial magnetic anomaly model. In a second step, we adjust this model to the existing marine magnetic anomaly data, in order to make it consistent with these data. To do so, we extract synthetic magnetic along the ship tracks for which real data are available and we compare quantitatively the measured and computed anomalies on 100, 200 or 400 km-long sliding windows (depending the spreading rate). Among the possible comparison criteria, we discard the maximal range - too dependent on local values - and the correlation and coherency - the geographical adjustment between model and data being not accurate enough - to favor the standard deviation around the mean value. The ratio between the standard deviations of data and model on each sliding window represent an estimate of the magnetization ratio causing the anomalies, which we interpolate to adjust the initial magnetic anomaly model to the data and therefore compute a final model to be included in our WDMAM candidate over the oceanic regions lacking data. The above ratio, after division by the magnetization of 10 A/m used in the model, represents an estimate of the equivalent magnetization under the

  11. Personal Dose Equivalent Conversion Coefficients For Photons To 1 GEV

    SciTech Connect

    Veinot, K. G.; Hertel, N. E.

    2010-09-27

    The personal dose equivalent, H{sub p}(d), is the quantity recommended by the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) to be used as an approximation of the protection quantity Effective Dose when performing personal dosemeter calibrations. The personal dose equivalent can be defined for any location and depth within the body. Typically, the location of interest is the trunk where personal dosemeters are usually worn and in this instance a suitable approximation is a 30 cm X 30 cm X 15 cm slab-type phantom. For this condition the personal dose equivalent is denoted as H{sub p,slab}(d) and the depths, d, are taken to be 0.007 cm for non-penetrating and 1 cm for penetrating radiation. In operational radiation protection a third depth, 0.3 cm, is used to approximate the dose to the lens of the eye. A number of conversion coefficients for photons are available for incident energies up to several MeV, however, data to higher energies are limited. In this work conversion coefficients up to 1 GeV have been calculated for H{sub p,slab}(10) and H{sub p,slab}(3) using both the kerma approximation and by tracking secondary charged particles. For H{sub p}(0.07) the conversion coefficients were calculated, but only to 10 MeV due to computational limitations. Additionally, conversions from air kerma to H{sub p,slab}(d) have been determined and are reported. The conversion coefficients were determined for discrete incident energies, but analytical fits of the coefficients over the energy range are provided. Since the inclusion of air can influence the production of secondary charged particles incident on the face of the phantom conversion coefficients have been determined both in vacuo and with the source and slab immersed within a sphere in air. The conversion coefficients for the personal dose equivalent are compared to the appropriate protection quantity, calculated according to the recommendations of the latest International Commission on

  12. Water equivalent phantom materials for (192)Ir brachytherapy.

    PubMed

    Schoenfeld, Andreas A; Harder, Dietrich; Poppe, Björn; Chofor, Ndimofor

    2015-12-21

    by the results of the dose simulations and the values of the linear attenuation coefficient, μ, over a large energy range, the balanced content of inorganic additives in a phantom material is regarded as the key feature, providing water equivalence with regard to the attenuation of the primary photons, the release of low-energy photons by Compton scattering, and their attenuation by a combination of the photoelectric and Compton effects. PMID:26579946

  13. Water equivalent phantom materials for 192Ir brachytherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoenfeld, Andreas A.; Harder, Dietrich; Poppe, Björn; Chofor, Ndimofor

    2015-12-01

    the results of the dose simulations and the values of the linear attenuation coefficient, μ, over a large energy range, the balanced content of inorganic additives in a phantom material is regarded as the key feature, providing water equivalence with regard to the attenuation of the primary photons, the release of low-energy photons by Compton scattering, and their attenuation by a combination of the photoelectric and Compton effects.

  14. Expressivism, Relativism, and the Analytic Equivalence Test.

    PubMed

    Frápolli, Maria J; Villanueva, Neftalí

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to show that, pace (Field, 2009), MacFarlane's assessment relativism and expressivism should be sharply distinguished. We do so by arguing that relativism and expressivism exemplify two very different approaches to context-dependence. Relativism, on the one hand, shares with other contemporary approaches a bottom-up, building block, model, while expressivism is part of a different tradition, one that might include Lewis' epistemic contextualism and Frege's content individuation, with which it shares an organic model to deal with context-dependence. The building-block model and the organic model, and thus relativism and expressivism, are set apart with the aid of a particular test: only the building-block model is compatible with the idea that there might be analytically equivalent, and yet different, propositions. PMID:26635690

  15. Torsion Balance Test of Einstein's Equivalence Principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abercrombie, Michael; Archibald, Adam; Nussinov, Tsitsi; Wagoner, Kasey; Cowsik, Ramanath

    2016-03-01

    We have developed a torsion balance experiment to test the equivalence principle (EP) which follows the solar attractor approach pioneered by Dicke in the early 1960s. By monitoring the response of a balance arranged as a composition dipole with an azimuthally symmetric mass distribution to the gravitational field produced by the Sun, we search for a diurnal modulation of the balance which would indicate a violation of the EP. Since reporting on the status of this experiment last year, the instrument has begun collecting data at a remote underground site. This talk will cover the design and fundamental sensitivity of the balance, and present the results of preliminary analysis of over 1200 hours of data.

  16. Phenomenological approaches of inflation and their equivalence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boubekeur, Lotfi; Giusarma, Elena; Mena, Olga; Ramírez, Héctor

    2015-04-01

    In this work, we analyze two possible alternative and model-independent approaches to describe the inflationary period. The first one assumes a general equation of state during inflation due to Mukhanov, while the second one is based on the slow-roll hierarchy suggested by Hoffman and Turner. We find that, remarkably, the two approaches are equivalent from the observational viewpoint, as they single out the same areas in the parameter space, and agree with the inflationary attractors where successful inflation occurs. Rephrased in terms of the familiar picture of a slowly rolling, canonically normalized scalar field, the resulting inflaton excursions in these two approaches are almost identical. Furthermore, once the Galactic dust polarization data from Planck are included in the numerical fits, inflaton excursions can safely take sub-Planckian values.

  17. Equivalent damage validation by variable cluster analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drago, Carlo; Ferlito, Rachele; Zucconi, Maria

    2016-06-01

    The main aim of this work is to perform a clustering analysis on the damage relieved in the old center of L'Aquila after the earthquake occurred on April 6, 2009 and to validate an Indicator of Equivalent Damage ED that summarizes the information reported on the AeDES card regarding the level of damage and their extension on the surface of the buildings. In particular we used a sample of 13442 masonry buildings located in an area characterized by a Macroseismic Intensity equal to 8 [1]. The aim is to ensure the coherence between the clusters and its hierarchy identified in the data of damage detected and in the data of the ED elaborated.

  18. Levothyroxine sodium tablets: chemical equivalence and bioequivalence.

    PubMed

    Curry, S H; Gums, J G; Williams, L L; Curry, R W; Wolfson, B B

    1988-01-01

    Two brands of levothyroxine sodium tablets were compared in vivo for bioequivalence in a double-blind, randomized study. The tablets were identical in levothyroxine content. Evaluation was by means of triiodothyronine (uptake), tetraiodothyronine, free thyroxine index, total triiodothyronine by radioimmunoassay, and thyroid-stimulating hormone measurements. No differences in clinical response were found in a study with a high statistical power. It was concluded that the two brands were bioequivalent because of chemical equivalence, use of micronized levothyroxine powder in tablet production with at least one of the brands, and scrupulous attention to quality control during the manufacturing process, all of which contributed to assurance of homogeneity of the products and close adherence (+/- five percent) to the claimed potency. PMID:3046889

  19. Klein factors and Fermi-Bose equivalence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Taejin

    2016-06-01

    Generalizing the kink operator of the Heisenberg spin 1/2 model, we construct a set of Klein factors explicitly such that (1+1)-dimensional fermion theories with an arbitrary number of species are mapped onto the corresponding boson theories with the same number of species and vice versa. The actions for the resultant theories do not possess a nontrivial Klein factor. With this set of Klein factors, we are also able to map the simple boundary states, such as the Neumann and the Dirichlet boundary states, of the fermion (boson) theory onto those of the boson (fermion) theory. Applications of the Fermi-Bose equivalence with the constructed Klein factors to well-known (1+1)-dimensional theories have been discussed.

  20. Expressivism, Relativism, and the Analytic Equivalence Test

    PubMed Central

    Frápolli, Maria J.; Villanueva, Neftalí

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to show that, pace (Field, 2009), MacFarlane’s assessment relativism and expressivism should be sharply distinguished. We do so by arguing that relativism and expressivism exemplify two very different approaches to context-dependence. Relativism, on the one hand, shares with other contemporary approaches a bottom–up, building block, model, while expressivism is part of a different tradition, one that might include Lewis’ epistemic contextualism and Frege’s content individuation, with which it shares an organic model to deal with context-dependence. The building-block model and the organic model, and thus relativism and expressivism, are set apart with the aid of a particular test: only the building-block model is compatible with the idea that there might be analytically equivalent, and yet different, propositions. PMID:26635690

  1. Equivalence of topological insulators and superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz, Gerardo; Cobanera, Emilio

    Systems of free fermions are classified by symmetry, space dimensionality, and topological properties described by K-homology. We show that by taking a many-body/Fock space viewpoint it becomes possible to establish equivalences of topological insulators and superconductors in terms of duality transformations. These mappings connect topologically inequivalent systems of fermions, jumping across entries in existent classification tables, because of the phenomenon of symmetry transmutation by which a symmetry and its dual partner have identical algebraic properties but very different physical interpretations and electromagnetic response. Since our analysis extends to interacting fermion systems we also briefly discuss some such applications. To illustrate main concepts we will present dual superconducting partners of paradigmatic models, such as the Haldane Chern insulator as well as a quantum spin Hall effect graphene model.

  2. Lowered Humidity Produces Human Epidermal Equivalents with Enhanced Barrier Properties

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Richard; Celli, Anna; Crumrine, Debra; Hupe, Melanie; Adame, Lillian C.; Pennypacker, Sally D.; Park, Kyungho; Uchida, Yoshikazu; Feingold, Kenneth R.; Elias, Peter M.; Ilic, Dusko

    2015-01-01

    Multilayered human keratinocyte cultures increasingly are used to model human epidermis. Until now, studies utilizing human epidermal equivalents (HEEs) have been limited because previous preparations do not establish a normal epidermal permeability barrier. In this report, we show that reducing environmental humidity to 50% relative humidity yields HEEs that closely match human postnatal epidermis and have enhanced repair of the permeability barrier. These cultures display low transepidermal water loss and possess a calcium and pH gradient that resembles those seen in human epidermis. These cultures upregulate glucosylceramide synthase and make normal-appearing lipid lamellar bilayers. The epidermal permeability barrier of these cultures can be perturbed, using the identical tools previously described for human skin, and recover in the same time course seen during in vivo barrier recovery. These cultures will be useful for basic and applied studies on epidermal barrier function. PMID:24803151

  3. Elementary equivalence of Chevalley groups over local rings

    SciTech Connect

    Bunina, Elena I

    2010-05-11

    It is proved that (elementary) Chevalley groups over local rings with invertible 2 are elementarily equivalent if and only if their types and weight lattices coincide and the initial rings are elementarily equivalent. Bibliography: 25 titles.

  4. Optimizing Equivalence-Based Instruction: Effects of Training Protocols on Equivalence Class Formation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fienup, Daniel M.; Wright, Nicole A.; Fields, Lanny

    2015-01-01

    Two experiments evaluated the effects of the simple-to-complex and simultaneous training protocols on the formation of academically relevant equivalence classes. The simple-to-complex protocol intersperses derived relations probes with training baseline relations. The simultaneous protocol conducts all training trials and test trials in separate…

  5. 77 FR 32632 - Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods: Designation of Three New Equivalent Methods

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-01

    ...Notice is hereby given that the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has designated, in accordance with 40 CFR Part 53, three new equivalent methods: One for measuring concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and two for measuring concentrations of lead (Pb) in the ambient...

  6. 78 FR 67360 - Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods: Designation of Five New Equivalent Methods

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-12

    ... 31, 2011 (76 FR 54326-54341). Two of the new equivalent methods for PM are automated monitoring... meteorological sensor. With or without optional ESTEL analog inputs/outputs, serial link: 1 RS-232/422; USB port... inlet and zero check enabled; sample permeation dryer. Serial link: 2 RS-232; USB port; Ethernet...

  7. High School Equivalency Testing in Washington. Forum: Responding to Changes in High School Equivalency Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerr, Jon

    2015-01-01

    In 2013, as new high school equivalency exams were being developed and implemented across the nation and states were deciding which test was best for their population, Washington state identified the need to adopt the most rigorous test so that preparation to take it would equip students with the skills to be able to move directly from adult…

  8. FROM CONCEPT TO EQUIVALENCY: THE 503 REGULATIONS AND THE PATHOGEN EQUIVALENCY COMMITTEE (PAPER)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Since its creation in 1985, the Pathogen Equivalency Committee (PEC) has been reviewing innovative and alternative sludge disinfection technologies with regards to their abilities to protect human health and the environment. The PEC is charged to make recommendations on whether t...

  9. FROM CONCEPT TO EQUIVALENCY: THE 503 REGULATIONS AND THE PATHOGEN EQUIVALENCY COMMITTEE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Since its creation in 1985, the Pathogen Equivalency Committee (PEC) has been reviewing innovative and alternative sludge disinfection technologies with regards to their abilities to protect human health and the environment. The PEC is charged to make recommendations on whether t...

  10. Determination and analysis of torsion equivalent stress-equivalent strain relation of low carbon alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jing; Jiang, Gongfeng; Yu, Xiutao; Deng, Tianhua; Zhang, Yiliang

    2008-11-01

    Typical pressure vessel materials' torsion equivalent stress-equivalent strain relationships under large deformation condition are researched in this paper. Because the length and the diameter of the specimen may change under uniaxial tension, it's impossible to make effective measurement and analysis for the mechanical properties of the specimen, especially after the necking. The form and cross-section size of cylindrical specimen do not change in torsion test, so that the large strain's constitutive relationship is more accurate than that obtained from an axial tension test. So that cylindrical specimen's torsion test is attempted to obtain the shear stress-shear strain curves of typical pressure vessel materials 16MnR and Q235. Consider that the stress is non-homogeneous in the cross-section of cylindrical specimen, thin wall tube specimen is also used in the torsion test, and the maximum differences between cylindrical specimen's results and thin-wall tube's are 10% and 13% respectively. Tension true stress-true strain curves, torsion equivalent stress-equivalent strain curves are also compared in this paper and the results showed that description of the torsion constitutive relationship is more complete than that of tension. At last, constitutive equations are fitted and the mathematical representations are obtained.

  11. Comparison of monovalent glycoprotein B with bivalent gB/pp65 (GP83) vaccine for congenital cytomegalovirus infection in a guinea pig model: Inclusion of GP83 reduces gB antibody response but both vaccine approaches provide equivalent protection against pup mortality.

    PubMed

    Swanson, Elizabeth C; Gillis, Pete; Hernandez-Alvarado, Nelmary; Fernández-Alarcón, Claudia; Schmit, Megan; Zabeli, Jason C; Wussow, Felix; Diamond, Don J; Schleiss, Mark R

    2015-07-31

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) subunit vaccine candidates include glycoprotein B (gB), and phosphoprotein ppUL83 (pp65). Using a guinea pig cytomegalovirus (GPCMV) model, this study compared immunogenicity, pregnancy outcome, and congenital viral infection following pre-pregnancy immunization with a three-dose series of modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA)-vectored vaccines consisting either of gB administered alone, or simultaneously with a pp65 homolog (GP83)-expressing vaccine. Vaccinated and control dams were challenged at midgestation with salivary gland-adapted GPCMV. Comparisons included ELISA and neutralizing antibody responses, maternal viral load, pup mortality, and congenital infection rates. Strikingly, ELISA and neutralization titers were significantly lower in the gB/GP83 combined vaccine group than in the gB group. However, both vaccines protected against pup mortality (63.2% in controls vs. 11.4% and 13.9% in gB and gB/GP83 combination groups, respectively; p<0.0001). Reductions in pup viral load were noted for both vaccine groups compared to control, but preconception vaccination resulted in a significant reduction in GPCMV transmission only in the monovalent gB group (26/44, 59% v. 27/34, 79% in controls; p<0.05). We conclude that, using the MVA platform, the addition of GP83 to a gB subunit vaccine interferes with antibody responses and diminishes protection against congenital GPCMV infection, but does not decrease protection against pup mortality. PMID:26079615

  12. 12 CFR 28.15 - Capital equivalency deposits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Capital equivalency deposits. 28.15 Section 28... ACTIVITIES Federal Branches and Agencies of Foreign Banks § 28.15 Capital equivalency deposits. (a) Capital... provided by the OCC, a foreign bank's capital equivalency deposits (CED) must consist of: (i)...

  13. 7 CFR 987.105 - Whole equivalent of pitted dates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Whole equivalent of pitted dates. For the purposes of this part, the whole date equivalent weight of pitted dates shall be determined by dividing the weight of the pitted dates by 0.83. Identification and... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Whole equivalent of pitted dates. 987.105 Section...

  14. 7 CFR 987.105 - Whole equivalent of pitted dates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Whole equivalent of pitted dates. For the purposes of this part, the whole date equivalent weight of pitted dates shall be determined by dividing the weight of the pitted dates by 0.83. Identification and... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Whole equivalent of pitted dates. 987.105 Section...

  15. 7 CFR 987.105 - Whole equivalent of pitted dates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Whole equivalent of pitted dates. For the purposes of this part, the whole date equivalent weight of pitted dates shall be determined by dividing the weight of the pitted dates by 0.83. Identification and... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Whole equivalent of pitted dates. 987.105 Section...

  16. 7 CFR 987.105 - Whole equivalent of pitted dates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Whole equivalent of pitted dates. For the purposes of this part, the whole date equivalent weight of pitted dates shall be determined by dividing the weight of the pitted dates by 0.83. Identification and... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Whole equivalent of pitted dates. 987.105 Section...

  17. 7 CFR 987.105 - Whole equivalent of pitted dates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Whole equivalent of pitted dates. For the purposes of this part, the whole date equivalent weight of pitted dates shall be determined by dividing the weight of the pitted dates by 0.83. Identification and... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Whole equivalent of pitted dates. 987.105 Section...

  18. 49 CFR 391.33 - Equivalent of road test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Equivalent of road test. 391.33 Section 391.33... AND LONGER COMBINATION VEHICLE (LCV) DRIVER INSTRUCTORS Tests § 391.33 Equivalent of road test. (a) In place of, and as equivalent to, the road test required by § 391.31, a person who seeks to drive...

  19. 49 CFR 391.33 - Equivalent of road test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Equivalent of road test. 391.33 Section 391.33... AND LONGER COMBINATION VEHICLE (LCV) DRIVER INSTRUCTORS Tests § 391.33 Equivalent of road test. (a) In place of, and as equivalent to, the road test required by § 391.31, a person who seeks to drive...

  20. 49 CFR 391.33 - Equivalent of road test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Equivalent of road test. 391.33 Section 391.33... AND LONGER COMBINATION VEHICLE (LCV) DRIVER INSTRUCTORS Tests § 391.33 Equivalent of road test. (a) In place of, and as equivalent to, the road test required by § 391.31, a person who seeks to drive...

  1. 49 CFR 391.33 - Equivalent of road test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Equivalent of road test. 391.33 Section 391.33... AND LONGER COMBINATION VEHICLE (LCV) DRIVER INSTRUCTORS Tests § 391.33 Equivalent of road test. (a) In place of, and as equivalent to, the road test required by § 391.31, a person who seeks to drive...

  2. 49 CFR 391.33 - Equivalent of road test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Equivalent of road test. 391.33 Section 391.33... AND LONGER COMBINATION VEHICLE (LCV) DRIVER INSTRUCTORS Tests § 391.33 Equivalent of road test. (a) In place of, and as equivalent to, the road test required by § 391.31, a person who seeks to drive...

  3. 12 CFR 28.15 - Capital equivalency deposits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Capital equivalency deposits. 28.15 Section 28.15 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY INTERNATIONAL BANKING ACTIVITIES Federal Branches and Agencies of Foreign Banks § 28.15 Capital equivalency deposits. (a) Capital equivalency deposits—(1) General....

  4. 46 CFR Appendix A to Part 154 - Equivalent Stress

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Equivalent Stress A Appendix A to Part 154 Shipping...—Equivalent Stress I. Equivalent stress (σ c) is calculated by the following formula or another formula... normal stress in “x” direction. σy=total normal stress in “y” direction. τxy=total shear stress in...

  5. 46 CFR Appendix A to Part 154 - Equivalent Stress

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Equivalent Stress A Appendix A to Part 154 Shipping...—Equivalent Stress I. Equivalent stress (σ c) is calculated by the following formula or another formula... normal stress in “x” direction. σy=total normal stress in “y” direction. τxy=total shear stress in...

  6. Reasons for the Decalage between Identity Conservation and Equivalence Conservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, Ron

    1983-01-01

    Two experiments investigated which of two factors is responsible for decalage between Piaget's equivalence and identity conservation tasks. Performance of 78 primary school students between 57 and 79 months of age was compared on equivalence and identity tasks and a third task, equivalence I, which retains transitivity requirement of Piaget's task…

  7. When Do Additional Distractors Reduce the Attentional Blink?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kawahara, Jun-ichiro

    2009-01-01

    When 2 targets are embedded in a rapid serial visual presentation stream of distractors, perception of the second target is impaired when the intertarget lag is relatively short (less than 500 ms). Stimuli concurrently presented with the stream can affect this phenomenon, which is called attentional blink (AB). Previous studies have yielded…

  8. Implementation of an analytical model for leakage neutron equivalent dose in a proton radiotherapy planning system.

    PubMed

    Eley, John; Newhauser, Wayne; Homann, Kenneth; Howell, Rebecca; Schneider, Christopher; Durante, Marco; Bert, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Equivalent dose from neutrons produced during proton radiotherapy increases the predicted risk of radiogenic late effects. However, out-of-field neutron dose is not taken into account by commercial proton radiotherapy treatment planning systems. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility of implementing an analytical model to calculate leakage neutron equivalent dose in a treatment planning system. Passive scattering proton treatment plans were created for a water phantom and for a patient. For both the phantom and patient, the neutron equivalent doses were small but non-negligible and extended far beyond the therapeutic field. The time required for neutron equivalent dose calculation was 1.6 times longer than that required for proton dose calculation, with a total calculation time of less than 1 h on one processor for both treatment plans. Our results demonstrate that it is feasible to predict neutron equivalent dose distributions using an analytical dose algorithm for individual patients with irregular surfaces and internal tissue heterogeneities. Eventually, personalized estimates of neutron equivalent dose to organs far from the treatment field may guide clinicians to create treatment plans that reduce the risk of late effects. PMID:25768061

  9. Implementation of an Analytical Model for Leakage Neutron Equivalent Dose in a Proton Radiotherapy Planning System

    PubMed Central

    Eley, John; Newhauser, Wayne; Homann, Kenneth; Howell, Rebecca; Schneider, Christopher; Durante, Marco; Bert, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Equivalent dose from neutrons produced during proton radiotherapy increases the predicted risk of radiogenic late effects. However, out-of-field neutron dose is not taken into account by commercial proton radiotherapy treatment planning systems. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility of implementing an analytical model to calculate leakage neutron equivalent dose in a treatment planning system. Passive scattering proton treatment plans were created for a water phantom and for a patient. For both the phantom and patient, the neutron equivalent doses were small but non-negligible and extended far beyond the therapeutic field. The time required for neutron equivalent dose calculation was 1.6 times longer than that required for proton dose calculation, with a total calculation time of less than 1 h on one processor for both treatment plans. Our results demonstrate that it is feasible to predict neutron equivalent dose distributions using an analytical dose algorithm for individual patients with irregular surfaces and internal tissue heterogeneities. Eventually, personalized estimates of neutron equivalent dose to organs far from the treatment field may guide clinicians to create treatment plans that reduce the risk of late effects. PMID:25768061

  10. Optics of progressive addition lenses.

    PubMed

    Sheedy, J E; Buri, M; Bailey, I L; Azus, J; Borish, I M

    1987-02-01

    The optical characteristics of the major progressive addition lenses were measured using an automated lensometer with a specially designed lens holder to simulate eye rotation. Measurements were made every 3 degrees (about 1.5 mm) and graphs of isospherical equivalent lines and isocylinder lines were developed. Generally the near zone of these lenses is narrower and lower than in bifocal or trifocal lenses. Distinct differences exist between the various progressive lenses. The width of the near zone, rate of power progression, amount of unwanted cylinder (level with the distance center), and clarity of the distance zone are compared for the various lenses. The optical measurements demonstrate an apparent trade-off between the size of the cylinder-free area of the lens and the amount of the cylinder. PMID:3826294

  11. Tests of the weak equivalence principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speake, C. C.; Will, C. M.

    2012-09-01

    The Einstein equivalence principle is the foundation for general relativity and all metric theories of gravity. Of its three tenets—the equality of acceleration of test bodies, or weak equivalence principle; the validity of Lorentz invariance in local freely falling frames; and the position invariance of local physical laws—the weak equivalence principle has played the most important role historically, and continues to be a focus of intense theoretical and experimental investigation. From the probably apocryphal 16th century demonstrations by Galileo at Pisa's leaning tower to the sensitive torsion-balance measurements of today (both pictured on the cover of this issue), this principle, dubbed WEP, has been crucial to the development of gravitation theory. The universality of the rate of acceleration of all types of matter in a gravitational field can be taken as evidence that gravitation is fundamentally determined by the geometry, or metric, of spacetime. Newton began his magnum opus 'The Principia' with a discussion of WEP and his experiments to verify it, while Einstein took WEP for granted in his construction of general relativity, never once referring to the epochal experiments by Baron Eötvös. The classic 1964 experiment of Roll, Krotkov and Dicke ushered in the modern era of high-precision tests, and the search for a 'fifth force' during the late 1980s (instigated, ironically, by purported anomalies in Eötvös's old data) caused the enterprise to pivot from pure tests of the foundation of GR to searches for new physics beyond the standard model of the non-gravitational interactions. Today, the next generation of experimental tests of WEP are being prepared for launch or are being developed, with the goal of reaching unprecedented levels of sensitivity, in search of signatures of interactions inspired by string theory, extra dimensions and other concepts from the world of high-energy physics. At the same time observations continue using lunar laser

  12. Adaptive h -refinement for reduced-order models: ADAPTIVE h -refinement for reduced-order models

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Carlberg, Kevin T.

    2014-11-05

    Our work presents a method to adaptively refine reduced-order models a posteriori without requiring additional full-order-model solves. The technique is analogous to mesh-adaptive h-refinement: it enriches the reduced-basis space online by ‘splitting’ a given basis vector into several vectors with disjoint support. The splitting scheme is defined by a tree structure constructed offline via recursive k-means clustering of the state variables using snapshot data. This method identifies the vectors to split online using a dual-weighted-residual approach that aims to reduce error in an output quantity of interest. The resulting method generates a hierarchy of subspaces online without requiring large-scale operationsmore » or full-order-model solves. Furthermore, it enables the reduced-order model to satisfy any prescribed error tolerance regardless of its original fidelity, as a completely refined reduced-order model is mathematically equivalent to the original full-order model. Experiments on a parameterized inviscid Burgers equation highlight the ability of the method to capture phenomena (e.g., moving shocks) not contained in the span of the original reduced basis.« less

  13. APPLYING TO THE PEC: A CASE HISTORY - A WALK THROUGH THE PROCEDURE FOR APPLYING FOR EQUIVALENCY USING A RECENT CANDIDATE AS A TRUE EXAMPLE.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA's Pathogen Equivalency Committee (PEC) is entrusted by its Office of Water to critically evaluate innovative and alternative sludge disinfection processes and make recommendations about their Process to Significantly Reduce Pathogens (PSRP) or Process to Further Reduce ...

  14. [Methodology for superiority versus equivalence and non-inferior clinical studies. A practical review].

    PubMed

    Rosas-Peralta, Martin; Santos-Martínez, Luis Efrén; Magaña-Serrano, José Antonio; Valencia-Sánchez, Jesús Salvador; Garrido-Garduño, Martin; Pérez-Rodríguez, Gilberto

    2016-01-01

    Physicians should always remember that a negative result in a superiority trial never would prove that the therapies under research are equivalent; more often, there may be a risk of type 2 (false negative) error. Equivalence and not inferiority studies demand high standards to provide reliable results. Physicians should take into account above all that the equivalence margins tend to be too large to be clinically significant and that the claim of equivalence can be misleading if a study has not been conducted at a sufficiently high level. In addition, physicians must be a bit skeptical of judgments that do not include the basic requirements of information, including the definition and justification of the equivalence margin, the calculation of the size of the sample bearing in mind this margin, the presentation of both analysis (intention-to-treat and by protocol), and provide confidence intervals for the results. Equivalence and inferiority studies are not indicated in certain areas. If one follows the required strict adherence to the specific methodology, such studies can provide new and important knowledge. PMID:27100981

  15. Testing the equivalence principle with atomic interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrmann, Sven; Dittus, Hansjörg; Lämmerzahl, Claus; pre="the" post=""> QUANTUS,

    2012-09-01

    The weak equivalence principle (WEP), that is, the universality of free fall, states that all point-like neutral particles in a gravitational field fall in the same way. This is the basis of the geometrization of the gravitational interaction. Together with further requirements on the behavior of point particles, light propagation and clocks one can show that gravity is modeled by a Riemannian geometry. Since in the quantum domain all objects are extended, it is not clear whether the notion of a WEP in the quantum domain makes sense at all. We show that for matter wave interferometry the notion of WEP still can be given a meaning. We give a short overview over schemes which allows a violation of the WEP and emphasize that there are also schemes which show that there might be violations of the WEP in the quantum regime which are not present classically. This makes a test of the WEP with quantum matter necessary. We also give a brief outline of the efforts made for testing the WEP with interferometry with cold atoms in the Bremen drop tower carried out by the QUANTUS and PRIMUS collaboration.

  16. Enuresis: a functional equivalent of a fetish.

    PubMed

    Calef, V; Weinshel, E M; Renik, O; Mayer, E L

    1980-01-01

    The split in the ego between consciousness and unconsciousness which sometimes eventuates in fetishism can also be clinically manifested in sleep disturbances, depersonalization, dejà vu and a variety of alterations in the sense of reality. It is suggested that this same split comprises the central dynamic mechanism in enuresis. The sleep disturbance which accompanies enuresis involves a confusion between waking and sleeping, sometimes taking the form of a dream that one is awake. Three patients(adult males) revealed in the course of their analyses that they suffered from childhood enuresis accompanied by a sleep disturbance. Milder forms of sleep disturbances persisted into adult life. In these analyses, certain perceptual distortions, difficulties in the sense of reality, and between fantasy and reality, confusions between waking and sleeping, could all be linked to the functional split between consciousness and unconsciousness and eventually to disavowal of the female genitals. The enuresis represented a functional equivalent of the fetish (and it may be that the urinary stream itself actually served as a fetish). Psychological test data from nine enuretic boys were examined as well. This material clearly demonstrated that these boys wished to deny the differences between males and females, that they suffered from sleep disturbances and that they confused reality and fantasy, sleeping and waking. The combined data suggest the existence of a functional split in the ego used in the service of defence, the product of a regressive fixation and a reinstatement of an archaic mode of thought. PMID:7440069

  17. Symmetry, Equivalence and Self-Assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douglas, Jack

    2006-03-01

    Molecular self-assembly at equilibrium is central to the formation of many biological structures and the emulation of this process through the creation of synthetic counterparts offers great promise for nanofabrication. The central problems in this field are an understanding of how the symmetry of the interacting particles encodes the geometrical structure of the organized structure and the nature of the thermodynamic transitions involved. Our approach is inspired by the self-assembly of actin, tubulin and icosahedral structures of plant and animal viruses. We observe chain, membrane,`nanotube' and hollow icosahedron structures using `equivalent' particles exhibiting an interplay between directional (dipolar and multi-polar) interactions and short-range (van der Waals) interactions. Specifically, a dipolar potential (continuous rotational symmetry) gives rise to chain formation, while potentials having discrete rotational symmetries (e.g., square quadrupole or triangular ring of dipoles) led to the self-organization of nanotube and icosahedral structures with some resemblance to tubulin and icosahedral viruses. The simulations are compared to theoretical models of molecular self-assembly, especially in the case of dipolar fluids where the corresponding analytic theory of equilibrium polymerization is well developed. These computations give insights into the design elements required for the development of synthetic systems exhibiting this type of organization.

  18. Challenging a culture of racial equivalence.

    PubMed

    Song, Miri

    2014-03-01

    We live at a time when our understandings and conceptualizations of 'racism' are often highly imprecise, broad, and used to describe a wide range of racialized phenomena. In this article, I raise some important questions about how the term racism is used and understood in contemporary British society by drawing on some recent cases of alleged racism in football and politics, many of which have been played out via new media technologies. A broader understanding of racism, through the use of the term 'racialization', has been helpful in articulating a more nuanced and complex understanding of racial incidents, especially of people's (often ambivalent) beliefs and behaviours. However, the growing emphasis upon 'racialization' has led to a conceptualization of racism which increasingly involves multiple perpetrators, victims, and practices without enough consideration of how and why particular interactions and practices constitute racism as such. The trend toward a growing culture of racial equivalence is worrying, as it denudes the idea of racism of its historical basis, severity and power. These frequent and commonplace assertions of racism in the public sphere paradoxically end up trivializing and homogenizing quite different forms of racialized interactions. I conclude that we need to retain the term 'racism', but we need to differentiate more clearly between 'racism' (as an historical and structured system of domination) from the broader notion of 'racialization'. PMID:24697716

  19. Dynamical ensembles equivalence in fluid mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallavotti, G.

    1997-02-01

    An attempt to put together various theoretical, mathematical, or experimental results recently developed in apparently unrelated subjects. Namely Ruelle's (1980) approach to turbulence, the body of Nosé-Hoover type of molecular dynamics experiments, (Evans and Morriss, 1990; Evans et al., 1993; Bonetto et al., 1996), mathematical results on Lyapunov exponents (the pairing rule, Dressler (1988) and Dettman and Morriss (1995)) and experimental results on them (Sarman et al., 1992; Bohr et al., 1996), theoretical as well as mathematical results on fluctuations, Frisch and Parisi (1984) (multifractality), and Gallavoti and Cohen (1995) (chaotic hypothesis). The key idea that we try to clarify is that of “dynamical ensembles”, as a generalization of the classical “equilibrium ensembles”, arguing that they should be identified with the SRB distributions and that they share several properties with the classical ensembles. Most of the results invoked here did not deal directly with the Navier-Stokes equations and yet they seem to have a lot to do with them (as we shall argue): here the discussion will focus on the Navier-Stokes and dissipative Euler equations with the aim of proposing several experiments apt to test the equivalence of dynamical ensembles and the chaotic hypothesis. The ideas developed, to a great extent, from the efforts put in interpreting the experimental results in (Bonetto et al., 1996).

  20. Asymptotic unitary equivalence in C*-algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, H.; Niu, Z.

    2015-07-01

    Let C = C( X) be the unital C*-algebra of all continuous functions on a finite CW complex X and let A be a unital simple C*-algebra with tracial rank at most one. We show that two unital monomorphisms φ, ψ: C → A are asymptotically unitarily equivalent, i.e., there exists a continuous path of unitaries { u t : t ∈ [0, 1)} ⊂ A such that lim t→1 u* t φ( f) u t = ψ( f) for all f ∈ C( X) if and only if [ φ] = [ ψ] in KK( C, A), τ ◦ φ = τ ◦ ψ for all τ ∈ T( A), and φ † = ψ †, where T( A) is the simplex of tracial states of A and φ †, ψ †: U ∞( C)/ DU ∞( C) → U ∞( A)/ DU ∞( A) are the induced homomorphisms and where U ∞( A) = ∪ k=1 ∞ U( M k ( A)) and U ∞(C) = ∪ k=1 ∞ ( M k ( C)) are usual infinite unitary groups, respectively, and DU ∞( A) and DU ∞( C) are the commutator subgroups of U ∞( A) and U ∞( C), respectively. We actually prove a more general result for the case in which C is any general unital AH-algebra.

  1. Equivalent width evaluation methods for Doppler, Lorentz, and Voigt profiles.

    PubMed

    Habib, Abdel Aziz M; Rammah, Yasser S

    2014-01-01

    An accurate technique has been developed to calculate the equivalent width of absorption lines. The calculations have been carried out for the pure Doppler and pure Lorentz limiting forms of the equivalent width. A novel expression for the equivalent width for Lorentz profile is given from direct integration of the line profile. The more general case of a Voigt profile leads to an analytical formula that permits a rapid estimate of the equivalent width for a wide range of maximum optical depths. The reliability of the approach is verified using a numerical application calculating the equivalent width for nickel resonance lines at 232.0 and 352.3 nm from atomic absorption (AA) measurements. The dependence of equivalent width on the number density of absorbing atoms is also provided. The results obtained for the equivalent width for the Voigt profile were compared with the data in the available literature obtained by different approaches. PMID:24480275

  2. Macrostate equivalence of two general ensembles and specific relative entropies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Takashi

    2016-08-01

    The two criteria of ensemble equivalence, i.e., macrostate equivalence and measure equivalence, are investigated for a general pair of states. Macrostate equivalence implies the two ensembles are indistinguishable by the measurement of macroscopic quantities obeying the large-deviation principle, and measure equivalence means that the specific relative entropy of these two states vanishes in the thermodynamic limit. It is shown that measure equivalence implies a macrostate equivalence for a general pair of states by deriving an inequality connecting the large-deviation rate functions to the specific relative Renyi entropies. The result is applicable to both quantum and classical systems. As applications, a sufficient condition for thermalization, the time scale of quantum dynamics of macrovariables, and the second law with strict irreversibility in a quantum quench are discussed.

  3. An analytic model of neutron ambient dose equivalent and equivalent dose for proton radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Rui; Pérez-Andújar, Angélica; Fontenot, Jonas D; Taddei, Phillip J; Newhauser, Wayne D

    2010-01-01

    Stray neutrons generated in passively scattered proton therapy are of concern because they increase the risk that a patient will develop a second cancer. Several investigations characterized stray neutrons in proton therapy using experimental measurements and Monte Carlo simulations, but capabilities of analytical methods to predict neutron exposures are less well developed. The goal of this study was to develop a new analytical model to calculate neutron ambient dose equivalent in air and equivalent dose in phantom based on Monte Carlo modeling of a passively scattered proton therapy unit. The accuracy of the new analytical model is superior to a previous analytical model and comparable to the accuracy of typical Monte Carlo simulations and measurements. Predictions from the new analytical model agreed reasonably well with corresponding values predicted by a Monte Carlo code using an anthropomorphic phantom. PMID:21076197

  4. A restricted proof that the weak equivalence principle implies the Einstein equivalence principle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lightman, A. P.; Lee, D. L.

    1973-01-01

    Schiff has conjectured that the weak equivalence principle (WEP) implies the Einstein equivalence principle (EEP). A proof is presented of Schiff's conjecture, restricted to: (1) test bodies made of electromagnetically interacting point particles, that fall from rest in a static, spherically symmetric gravitational field; (2) theories of gravity within a certain broad class - a class that includes almost all complete relativistic theories that have been found in the literature, but with each theory truncated to contain only point particles plus electromagnetic and gravitational fields. The proof shows that every nonmentric theory in the class (every theory that violates EEP) must violate WEP. A formula is derived for the magnitude of the violation. It is shown that WEP is a powerful theoretical and experimental tool for constraining the manner in which gravity couples to electromagnetism in gravitation theories.

  5. An Equivalent cross-section Framework for improving computational efficiency in Distributed Hydrologic Modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Urooj; Tuteja, Narendra; Ajami, Hoori; Sharma, Ashish

    2014-05-01

    While the potential uses and benefits of distributed catchment simulation models is undeniable, their practical usage is often hindered by the computational resources they demand. To reduce the computational time/effort in distributed hydrological modelling, a new approach of modelling over an equivalent cross-section is investigated where topographical and physiographic properties of first-order sub-basins are aggregated to constitute modelling elements. To formulate an equivalent cross-section, a homogenization test is conducted to assess the loss in accuracy when averaging topographic and physiographic variables, i.e. length, slope, soil depth and soil type. The homogenization test indicates that the accuracy lost in weighting the soil type is greatest, therefore it needs to be weighted in a systematic manner to formulate equivalent cross-sections. If the soil type remains the same within the sub-basin, a single equivalent cross-section is formulated for the entire sub-basin. If the soil type follows a specific pattern, i.e. different soil types near the centre of the river, middle of hillslope and ridge line, three equivalent cross-sections (left bank, right bank and head water) are required. If the soil types are complex and do not follow any specific pattern, multiple equivalent cross-sections are required based on the number of soil types. The equivalent cross-sections are formulated for a series of first order sub-basins by implementing different weighting methods of topographic and physiographic variables of landforms within the entire or part of a hillslope. The formulated equivalent cross-sections are then simulated using a 2-dimensional, Richards' equation based distributed hydrological model. The simulated fluxes are multiplied by the weighted area of each equivalent cross-section to calculate the total fluxes from the sub-basins. The simulated fluxes include horizontal flow, transpiration, soil evaporation, deep drainage and soil moisture. To assess

  6. 42 CFR 440.335 - Benchmark-equivalent health benefits coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...) Prescription drugs. (8) Mental health benefits. (c) * * * (1) In addition to the types of benefits of this...-benchmark plans described in 45 CFR 156.100. ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Benchmark-equivalent health benefits coverage....

  7. Arithmetic Practice Can Be Modified to Promote Understanding of Mathematical Equivalence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeil, Nicole M.; Fyfe, Emily R.; Dunwiddie, April E.

    2015-01-01

    This experiment tested if a modified version of arithmetic practice facilitates understanding of math equivalence. Children within 2nd-grade classrooms (N = 166) were randomly assigned to practice single-digit addition facts using 1 of 2 workbooks. In the control workbook, problems were presented in the traditional "operations = answer"…

  8. 40 CFR 80.1115 - How are equivalence values assigned to renewable fuel?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... coprocessing a renewable crude with fossil fuels in a hydrotreater, shall have an equivalence value of 1.7. (6... renewable fuel? 80.1115 Section 80.1115 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Renewable Fuel Standard § 80.1115...

  9. 40 CFR 80.1115 - How are equivalence values assigned to renewable fuel?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... coprocessing a renewable crude with fossil fuels in a hydrotreater, shall have an equivalence value of 1.7. (6... renewable fuel? 80.1115 Section 80.1115 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Renewable Fuel Standard § 80.1115...

  10. 40 CFR 80.1115 - How are equivalence values assigned to renewable fuel?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... coprocessing a renewable crude with fossil fuels in a hydrotreater, shall have an equivalence value of 1.7. (6... renewable fuel? 80.1115 Section 80.1115 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Renewable Fuel Standard § 80.1115...

  11. 40 CFR 80.1115 - How are equivalence values assigned to renewable fuel?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... renewable fuel? 80.1115 Section 80.1115 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Renewable Fuel Standard § 80.1115 How are equivalence values assigned to renewable fuel? (a)(1) Each gallon of a renewable fuel shall...

  12. 40 CFR 80.1115 - How are equivalence values assigned to renewable fuel?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... renewable fuel? 80.1115 Section 80.1115 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Renewable Fuel Standard § 80.1115 How are equivalence values assigned to renewable fuel? (a)(1) Each gallon of a renewable fuel shall...

  13. Degeneracy relations in QCD and the equivalence of two systematic all-orders methods for setting the renormalization scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bi, Huan-Yu; Wu, Xing-Gang; Ma, Yang; Ma, Hong-Hao; Brodsky, Stanley J.; Mojaza, Matin

    2015-09-01

    The Principle of Maximum Conformality (PMC) eliminates QCD renormalization scale-setting uncertainties using fundamental renormalization group methods. The resulting scale-fixed pQCD predictions are independent of the choice of renormalization scheme and show rapid convergence. The coefficients of the scale-fixed couplings are identical to the corresponding conformal series with zero β-function. Two all-orders methods for systematically implementing the PMC-scale setting procedure for existing high order calculations are discussed in this article. One implementation is based on the PMC-BLM correspondence (PMC-I); the other, more recent, method (PMC-II) uses the Rδ-scheme, a systematic generalization of the minimal subtraction renormalization scheme. Both approaches satisfy all of the principles of the renormalization group and lead to scale-fixed and scheme-independent predictions at each finite order. In this work, we show that PMC-I and PMC-II scale-setting methods are in practice equivalent to each other. We illustrate this equivalence for the four-loop calculations of the annihilation ratio Re+e- and the Higgs partial width Γ (H → b b bar). Both methods lead to the same resummed ('conformal') series up to all orders. The small scale differences between the two approaches are reduced as additional renormalization group {βi }-terms in the pQCD expansion are taken into account. We also show that special degeneracy relations, which underly the equivalence of the two PMC approaches and the resulting conformal features of the pQCD series, are in fact general properties of non-Abelian gauge theory.

  14. Equivalence of equations describing trace element distribution during equilibrium partial melting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Consolmagno, G. J.; Drake, M. J.

    1976-01-01

    It is shown that four equations used for calculating the evolution of trace-element abundances during equilibrium partial melting are mathematically equivalent. The equations include those of Hertogen and Gijbels (1976), Shaw (1970), Schilling (1971), and O'Nions and Clarke (1972). The general form to which all these equations reduce is presented, and an analysis is performed to demonstrate their mathematical equivalence. It is noted that the utility of the general equation flows from the nature of equilibrium (i.e., the final state is independent of the path by which that state is attained).

  15. Principle of Spacetime and Black Hole Equivalence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Tianxi

    2016-06-01

    Modelling the universe without relying on a set of hypothetical entities (HEs) to explain observations and overcome problems and difficulties is essential to developing a physical cosmology. The well-known big bang cosmology, widely accepted as the standard model, stands on two fundamentals, which are Einstein’s general relativity (GR) that describes the effect of matter on spacetime and the cosmological principle (CP) of spacetime isotropy and homogeneity. The field equation of GR along with the Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) metric of spacetime derived from CP generates the Friedmann equation (FE) that governs the development and dynamics of the universe. The big bang theory has made impressive successes in explaining the universe, but still has problems and solutions of them rely on an increasing number of HEs such as inflation, dark matter, dark energy, and so on. Recently, the author has developed a new cosmological model called black hole universe, which, instead of making many those hypotheses, only includes a new single postulate (or a new principle) to the cosmology - Principle of Spacetime and Black Hole Equivalence (SBHEP) - to explain all the existing observations of the universe and overcome all the existing problems in conventional cosmologies. This study thoroughly demonstrates how this newly developed black hole universe model, which therefore stands on the three fundamentals (GR, CP, and SBHEP), can fully explain the universe as well as easily conquer the difficulties according to the well-developed physics, thus, neither needing any other hypotheses nor existing any unsolved difficulties. This work was supported by NSF/REU (Grant #: PHY-1263253) at Alabama A & M University.

  16. Mass, Special Relativity and the Equivalence Principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vayenas, Constantinos G.; Souentie, Stamatios N.-A.

    The equivalence principle states that inertial mass of a particle, i.e. the ratio of force and acceleration, is equal to the gravitational mass, i.e. equal to the quantity responsible for the gravitational force. Special relativity dictates that this inertial or gravitational mass of a particle equals γ3 m o where m o is the rest mass of the particle and γ(=(1-v2/c2)-1/2) is the Lorentz factor. The latter is unbound when the particle velocity relative to a laboratory observer approaches the speed of light c. This is a well-known result for linear motions and, using instantaneous frames of reference, is shown here to be valid also for arbitrary particle motion. Thus it is the gravitational mass γ3 m o, rather than the relativistic mass, γm o, defined from Einstein's famous E = γm o c 2 which must be used in Newton's gravitational law. This difference is totally negligible for non-relativistic velocities, e.g. v < 0. 1c, but can become quite important when v approaches c. Thus special relativity coupled with Newton's gravitational law dictates that the gravitational attraction becomes much stronger under relativistic conditions than that expected from the simple Newton's gravitational law using the rest, m o, or relativistic mass, γm o of the particles involved. This is consistent with the expectation, based on general relativity, that Newton's gravitational law when used with rest or the relativistic masses, may not be valid under highly relativistic conditions. The implications are quite significant for fast subatomic particles.

  17. Additional Drive Circuitry for Piezoelectric Screw Motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smythe, Robert; Palmer, Dean; Gursel, Yekta; Reder, Leonard; Savedra, Raymond

    2004-01-01

    Modules of additional drive circuitry have been developed to enhance the functionality of a family of commercially available positioning motors (Picomotor . or equivalent) that provide linear motion controllable, in principle, to within increments .30 nm. A motor of this type includes a piezoelectric actuator that turns a screw. Unlike traditional piezoelectrically actuated mechanisms, a motor of this type does not rely on the piezoelectric transducer to hold position: the screw does not turn except when the drive signal is applied to the actuator.

  18. Measurement of neutron ambient dose equivalent in passive carbon-ion and proton radiotherapies

    SciTech Connect

    Yonai, Shunsuke; Matsufuji, Naruhiro; Kanai, Tatsuaki; Matsui, Yuki; Matsushita, Kaoru; Yamashita, Haruo; Numano, Masumi; Sakae, Takeji; Terunuma, Toshiyuki; Nishio, Teiji; Kohno, Ryosuke; Akagi, Takashi

    2008-11-15

    Secondary neutron ambient dose equivalents per the treatment absorbed dose in passive carbon-ion and proton radiotherapies were measured using a rem meter, WENDI-II at two carbon-ion radiotherapy facilities and four proton radiotherapy facilities in Japan. Our measured results showed that (1) neutron ambient dose equivalent in carbon-ion radiotherapy is lower than that in proton radiotherapy, and (2) the difference to the measured neutron ambient dose equivalents among the facilities is within a factor of 3 depending on the operational beam setting used at the facility and the arrangement of the beam line, regardless of the method for making a laterally uniform irradiation field: the double scattering method or the single-ring wobbling method. The reoptimization of the beam line in passive particle radiotherapy is an effective way to reduce the risk of secondary cancer because installing an adjustable precollimator and designing the beam line devices with consideration of their material, thickness and location, etc., can significantly reduce the neutron exposure. It was also found that the neutron ambient dose equivalent in passive particle radiotherapy is equal to or less than that in the photon radiotherapy. This result means that not only scanning particle radiotherapy but also passive particle radiotherapy can provide reduced exposure to normal tissues around the target volume without an accompanied increase in total body dose.

  19. Combining Passive Microwave and Optical Data to Estimate Snow Water Equivalent in Afghanistan's Hindu Kush

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dozier, J.; Bair, N.; Calfa, A. A.; Skalka, C.; Tolle, K.; Bongard, J.

    2015-12-01

    The task is to estimate spatiotemporally distributed estimates of snow water equivalent (SWE) in snow-dominated mountain environments, including those that lack on-the-ground measurements such as the Hindu Kush range in Afghanistan. During the snow season, we can use two measurements: (1) passive microwave estimates of SWE, which generally underestimate in the mountains; (2) fractional snow-covered area from MODIS. Once the snow has melted, we can reconstruct the accumulated SWE back to the last significant snowfall by calculating the energy used in melt. The reconstructed SWE values provide a training set for predictions from the passive microwave SWE and snow-covered area. We examine several machine learning methods—regression-boosted decision trees, bagged trees, neural networks, and genetic programming—to estimate SWE. All methods work reasonably well, with R2 values greater than 0.8. Predictors built with multiple years of data reduce the bias that usually appears if we predict one year from just one other year's training set. Genetic programming tends to produce results that additionally provide physical insight. Adding precipitation estimates from the Global Precipitation Measurements mission is in progress.

  20. Speech enhancement using an equivalent source inverse filtering-based microphone array.

    PubMed

    Bai, Mingsian R; Hur, Kur-Nan; Liu, Ying-Ting

    2010-03-01

    This paper presents a microphone array technique aimed at enhancing speech quality in a reverberant environment. This technique is based on the central idea of single-input-multiple-output equivalent source inverse filtering (SIMO-ESIF). The inverse filters required by the time-domain processing in the technique serve two purposes: de-reverberation and noise reduction. The proposed approach could be useful in telecommunication applications such as automotive hands-free systems, where noise-corrupted speech signal generally needs to be enhanced. SIMO-ESIF can be further enhanced against uncertainties and perturbations by including an adaptive generalized side-lobe canceller. The system is implemented and validated experimentally in a car. As indicated by numerous performance measures, the proposed system proved effective in reducing noise in human speech without significantly compromising the speech quality. In addition, listening tests were conducted to assess the subjective performance of the proposed system, with results processed by using the analysis of variance and a post hoc Fisher's least significant difference (LSD) test to assess the pairwise difference between the noise reduction (NR) algorithms. PMID:20329837