Science.gov

Sample records for additional reducing equivalents

  1. Effect of primary-zone equivalence ratio and hydrogen addition on exhaust emission in a hydrocarbon-fueled combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norgren, C. T.; Ingebo, R. D.

    1974-01-01

    The effects of reducing the primary-zone equivalence ratio on the exhaust emission levels of oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, and unburned hydrocarbons in experimental hydrocarbon-fueled combustor segments at simulated supersonic cruise and idle conditions were investigated. In addition, the effects of the injection of hydrogen fuel (up to 4 percent of the total weight of fuel) on the stability of the hydrocarbon flame and exhaust emissions were studied and compared with results obtained without hydrogen addition.

  2. Stoichiometry of Reducing Equivalents and Splitting of Water in the Citric Acid Cycle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madeira, Vitor M. C.

    1988-01-01

    Presents a solution to the problem of finding the source of extra reducing equivalents, and accomplishing the stoichiometry of glucose oxidation reactions. Discusses the citric acid cycle and glycolysis. (CW)

  3. Testing for Additivity at Select Mixture Groups of Interest Based on Statistical Equivalence Testing Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Stork, LeAnna M.; Gennings, Chris; Carchman, Richard; Carter, Jr., Walter H.; Pounds, Joel G.; Mumtaz, Moiz

    2006-12-01

    Several assumptions, defined and undefined, are used in the toxicity assessment of chemical mixtures. In scientific practice mixture components in the low-dose region, particularly subthreshold doses, are often assumed to behave additively (i.e., zero interaction) based on heuristic arguments. This assumption has important implications in the practice of risk assessment, but has not been experimentally tested. We have developed methodology to test for additivity in the sense of Berenbaum (Advances in Cancer Research, 1981), based on the statistical equivalence testing literature where the null hypothesis of interaction is rejected for the alternative hypothesis of additivity when data support the claim. The implication of this approach is that conclusions of additivity are made with a false positive rate controlled by the experimenter. The claim of additivity is based on prespecified additivity margins, which are chosen using expert biological judgment such that small deviations from additivity, which are not considered to be biologically important, are not statistically significant. This approach is in contrast to the usual hypothesis-testing framework that assumes additivity in the null hypothesis and rejects when there is significant evidence of interaction. In this scenario, failure to reject may be due to lack of statistical power making the claim of additivity problematic. The proposed method is illustrated in a mixture of five organophosphorus pesticides that were experimentally evaluated alone and at relevant mixing ratios. Motor activity was assessed in adult male rats following acute exposure. Four low-dose mixture groups were evaluated. Evidence of additivity is found in three of the four low-dose mixture groups.The proposed method tests for additivity of the whole mixture and does not take into account subset interactions (e.g., synergistic, antagonistic) that may have occurred and cancelled each other out.

  4. Metabolic evolution of two reducing equivalent-conserving pathways for high-yield succinate production in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xinna; Tan, Zaigao; Xu, Hongtao; Chen, Jing; Tang, Jinlei; Zhang, Xueli

    2014-07-01

    Reducing equivalents are an important cofactor for efficient synthesis of target products. During metabolic evolution to improve succinate production in Escherichia coli strains, two reducing equivalent-conserving pathways were activated to increase succinate yield. The sensitivity of pyruvate dehydrogenase to NADH inhibition was eliminated by three nucleotide mutations in the lpdA gene. Pyruvate dehydrogenase activity increased under anaerobic conditions, which provided additional NADH. The pentose phosphate pathway and transhydrogenase were activated by increased activities of transketolase and soluble transhydrogenase SthA. These data suggest that more carbon flux went through the pentose phosphate pathway, thus leading to production of more reducing equivalent in the form of NADPH, which was then converted to NADH through soluble transhydrogenase for succinate production. Reverse metabolic engineering was further performed in a parent strain, which was not metabolically evolved, to verify the effects of activating these two reducing equivalent-conserving pathways for improving succinate yield. Activating pyruvate dehydrogenase increased succinate yield from 1.12 to 1.31mol/mol, whereas activating the pentose phosphate pathway and transhydrogenase increased succinate yield from 1.12 to 1.33mol/mol. Activating these two pathways in combination led to a succinate yield of 1.5mol/mol (88% of theoretical maximum), suggesting that they exhibited a synergistic effect for improving succinate yield.

  5. Reducing nontemplated 3' nucleotide addition to polynucleotide transcripts

    DOEpatents

    Kao, C. Cheng

    2000-01-01

    Non-template 3' nucleotide addition to a transcript is reduced by transcribing a transcript from a template comprising an ultimate and/or penultimate 5' ribose having a C'2 substituent such as methoxy, which reduces non-template 3' nucleotide addition to the transcript. The methods are shown to be applicable to a wide variety of polymerases, including Taq, T7 RNA polymerase, etc.

  6. Enhancing antioxidant activity of sesamol at frying temperature by addition of additives through reducing volatility

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Additives were evaluated to investigate their effects on volatility of sesamol at frying temperature with the hypothesis that the interaction between an additive and sesamol would reduce sesamol volatility. Twenty-two additive:sesamol combinations were examined by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) un...

  7. Optimal reducibility of all W states equivalent under stochastic local operations and classical communication

    SciTech Connect

    Rana, Swapan; Parashar, Preeti

    2011-11-15

    We show that all multipartite pure states that are stochastic local operation and classical communication (SLOCC) equivalent to the N-qubit W state can be uniquely determined (among arbitrary states) from their bipartite marginals. We also prove that only (N-1) of the bipartite marginals are sufficient and that this is also the optimal number. Thus, contrary to the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) class, W-type states preserve their reducibility under SLOCC. We also study the optimal reducibility of some larger classes of states. The generic Dicke states |GD{sub N}{sup l}> are shown to be optimally determined by their (l+1)-partite marginals. The class of ''G'' states (superposition of W and W) are shown to be optimally determined by just two (N-2)-partite marginals.

  8. Enhanced biological phosphorus removal from wastewater by biomass with different phosphorus contents, Part III: Anaerobic sources of reducing equivalents.

    PubMed

    Schuler, Andrew J; Jenkins, David

    2003-01-01

    Laboratory-scale sequencing batch reactors exhibiting enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) operated at different influent phosphorus/chemical oxygen demand (COD) ratios were analyzed to evaluate possible anaerobic sources of reducing equivalents. Assuming anaerobic glycogen degradation was the sole anaerobic reducing equivalent source, an anaerobic phase carbon balance showed that glycogen-accumulating metabolism (GAM)-dominated systems were nearly carbon-balanced, but that polyphosphate-accumulating metabolism (PAM)-dominated systems had end-anaerobic phase carbon deficits. An anaerobic-phase reducing equivalent balance showed a reducing equivalent excess for the GAM-dominated systems and a deficit for the PAM-dominated systems, suggesting that glycogen degradation was not the sole reducing equivalent source for PAM. Reducing equivalent balances showed that metabolic models including complete anaerobic tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle activity, partial TCA cycle activity, and the glyoxylate bypass could provide the reducing equivalents required in PAM. Metabolic precursors produced in glycolysis, the TCA cycle, or modified versions of the TCA cycle could allow anaerobic growth and account for the PAM carbon deficits. The importance of considering both PAM and GAM activity in evaluating EBPR metabolic models was illustrated.

  9. Metal-Ion Additives Reduce Thermal Expansion Of Polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoakley, Diane M.; St. Clair, Anne K.; Emerson, Burt R., Jr.; Willis, George L.

    1994-01-01

    Polyimides widely used as high-performance polymers because of their excellent thermal stability and toughness. However, their coefficients of thermal expansion (CTE's) greater than those of metals, ceramics, and glasses. Decreasing CTE's of polyimides increase usefulness for aerospace and electronics applications in which dimensional stability required. Additives containing metal ions reduce coefficients of thermal expansion of polyimides. Reductions range from 11 to over 100 percent.

  10. Additional Validity Evidence and Across-Group Equivalency of the "HOPE Teacher Rating Scale"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Scott J.; Gentry, Marcia

    2013-01-01

    The "HOPE Scale" was developed to identify academic and social components of giftedness and talent in elementary-aged students with particular attention to students from low-income and/or culturally diverse families. Based on previous findings, additional research was conducted on revisions made to the "HOPE Scale". Items were added, and 71…

  11. Package Equivalent Reactor Networks as Reduced Order Models for Use with CAPE-OPEN Compliant Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Meeks, E.; Chou, C. -P.; Garratt, T.

    2013-03-31

    Engineering simulations of coal gasifiers are typically performed using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software, where a 3-D representation of the gasifier equipment is used to model the fluid flow in the gasifier and source terms from the coal gasification process are captured using discrete-phase model source terms. Simulations using this approach can be very time consuming, making it difficult to imbed such models into overall system simulations for plant design and optimization. For such system-level designs, process flowsheet software is typically used, such as Aspen Plus® [1], where each component where each component is modeled using a reduced-order model. For advanced power-generation systems, such as integrated gasifier/gas-turbine combined-cycle systems (IGCC), the critical components determining overall process efficiency and emissions are usually the gasifier and combustor. Providing more accurate and more computationally efficient reduced-order models for these components, then, enables much more effective plant-level design optimization and design for control. Based on the CHEMKIN-PRO and ENERGICO software, we have developed an automated methodology for generating an advanced form of reduced-order model for gasifiers and combustors. The reducedorder model offers representation of key unit operations in flowsheet simulations, while allowing simulation that is fast enough to be used in iterative flowsheet calculations. Using high-fidelity fluiddynamics models as input, Reaction Design’s ENERGICO® [2] software can automatically extract equivalent reactor networks (ERNs) from a CFD solution. For the advanced reduced-order concept, we introduce into the ERN a much more detailed kinetics model than can be included practically in the CFD simulation. The state-of-the-art chemistry solver technology within CHEMKIN-PRO allows that to be accomplished while still maintaining a very fast model turn-around time. In this way, the ERN becomes the basis for

  12. Reducing of internal resistance lithium ion battery using glucose addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salim, Andri Pratama; Hafidlullah, Noor; Purwanto, Agus

    2016-02-01

    There are two indicators of battery performance, i.e : capacity and the internal resistance of battery. In this research, the affect of glucose addition to decrease the internal resistance of lithium battery was investigated. The ratio of glucose addition were varied at weight ratio 1%, 3%, and 5% and one mixtures without glucose addition. Lithium ferri phosphate (LiFePO4), polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), acetylene black (AB) and glucose were materials that used in this study. Both of mixtures were mixed in the vacuum mixer until became homogeneous. The slurry was coated on an aluminium foil sheet and the coated thickness was 200 µm. The performance of battery lithium was examined by Eight Channel Battery Analyzer and the Internal resistance was examined by Internal Resistance of Battery Meter. The result from all analyzer were showed that the internal resistance reduced as well as the battery capacity. The best internal resistance value is owned by mixtures with 3wt% ratio glucose addition. It has an internal resistance value about 64 miliohm.

  13. Lignopolymers as viscosity-reducing additives in magnesium oxide suspensions.

    PubMed

    Murray, Lisa R; Gupta, Chetali; Washburn, Newell R; Erk, Kendra A

    2015-12-01

    Lignopolymers are a new class of polymer additives with the capability to be used as dispersants in cementitious pastes. Made with kraft lignin cores and grafted polymer side-chains, the custom-synthesized lignopolymers were examined in terms of the molecular architecture for viscosity reducing potential in inert model suspensions. Lignin-poly(acrylic acid) (LPAA) and lignin-polyacrylamide (LPAm) have been found to vary the rheology of magnesium oxide (MgO) suspensions based on differences in chain architecture and particle-polymer interactions. A commercial comb-polymer polycarboxylate ester was compared to LPAA and LPAm at 2.7 mg/mL, a typical dosage for cement admixtures, as well as 0.25mg/mL. It was found that LPAm was a more effective viscosity reducer than both LPAA and the commercial additive at low concentrations, which was attributed to greater adsorption on the MgO particle surface and increased steric dispersion from PAm side-chain extension. The influence of chain adsorption and grafted side-chain molecular weight on rheology was also tested. PMID:26275503

  14. Lignopolymers as viscosity-reducing additives in magnesium oxide suspensions.

    PubMed

    Murray, Lisa R; Gupta, Chetali; Washburn, Newell R; Erk, Kendra A

    2015-12-01

    Lignopolymers are a new class of polymer additives with the capability to be used as dispersants in cementitious pastes. Made with kraft lignin cores and grafted polymer side-chains, the custom-synthesized lignopolymers were examined in terms of the molecular architecture for viscosity reducing potential in inert model suspensions. Lignin-poly(acrylic acid) (LPAA) and lignin-polyacrylamide (LPAm) have been found to vary the rheology of magnesium oxide (MgO) suspensions based on differences in chain architecture and particle-polymer interactions. A commercial comb-polymer polycarboxylate ester was compared to LPAA and LPAm at 2.7 mg/mL, a typical dosage for cement admixtures, as well as 0.25mg/mL. It was found that LPAm was a more effective viscosity reducer than both LPAA and the commercial additive at low concentrations, which was attributed to greater adsorption on the MgO particle surface and increased steric dispersion from PAm side-chain extension. The influence of chain adsorption and grafted side-chain molecular weight on rheology was also tested.

  15. Hydrogen evolution as a consumption mode of reducing equivalents in green algal fermentation. [Chlamydomonas reinhardii; Chlorella pyrenoidosa; Chlorococcum minutum

    SciTech Connect

    Ohta, S.; Miyamoto, K.; Miura, Y.

    1987-04-01

    Dark anaerobic fermentation in the green algae Chlamydomonas MGA 161, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Chlorella pyrenoidosa, and Chlorococcum minutum was studied. Their isolate, Chlamydomonas MGA 161, was unusual in having high H/sub 2/ but almost no formate. The fermentation pattern in Chlamydomonas MGA 161 was altered by changes in the NaCl or NH/sub 4/Cl concentration. Glycerol formation increased at low (0.1%) and high (7%) NaCl concentrations starch degradation, and formation of ethanol, H/sub 2/, and CO/sub 2/ increased with the addition of NH/sub 4/Cl to above 5 millimolar in N-deficient cells. C. reinhardtii and C.pyrenoidosa exhibited a very similar anaerobic metabolism, forming formate, acetate and ethanol in a ratio of about 2:2:1. C. minimum was also unusual in forming acetate, glycerol, and CO/sub 2/ as its main products, with H/sub 2/, formate, and ethanol being formed in negligible amounts. In the presence of CO, ethanol formation increased twofold in Chlamydomonas MGA 161 and C. reinhardtii, but the fermentation pattern in C. minimum did not change. An experiment with hypophosphite addition showed that dark H/sub 2/ evolution of the Escherichia coli type could be ruled out in Chlamydomonas MGA 161 and C. reinhardtii. Among the green algae investigated, three fermentation types were identified by the distribution pattern of the end products, which reflected the consumption model of reducing equivalents in the cells.

  16. Reduced contraction of skin equivalent engineered using cell sheets cultured in 3D matrices.

    PubMed

    Ng, Kee Woei; Hutmacher, Dietmar Werner

    2006-09-01

    In order to alleviate their extensive contraction, human fibroblast sheets were cultured in combination with three-dimensional matrices (knitted poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) mesh and collagen-hyaluronic acid (CHA) sponge) to form contiguous dermal constructs for tissue engineering a bilayered skin equivalent. The resulting constructs were viable, and supported the development of bilayered skin equivalents which did not contract over the 4-week culture period. When implanted into full-thickness wounds in nude rats, cultured skin equivalents based on PLGA meshes registered a take rate of 100% and showed an extent of wound contraction that was statistically similar to autografts, while wounds grafted with PLGA meshes without cell sheets contracted more than autografts. On the other hand, skin equivalents based on CHA sponges were all sloughed off within 2 weeks of transplantation. In all cell sheet-incorporated specimens, cells from the constructs infiltrated and produced extracellular matrix within the neo-dermis, shown by positive human leukocyte antigen and collagen I expression. This technique offers an alternative approach for scaffold-based tissue engineering to produce mechanically stable grafts with matured neo-tissue.

  17. Reducing Communication in Algebraic Multigrid Using Additive Variants

    SciTech Connect

    Vassilevski, Panayot S.; Yang, Ulrike Meier

    2014-02-12

    Algebraic multigrid (AMG) has proven to be an effective scalable solver on many high performance computers. However, its increasing communication complexity on coarser levels has shown to seriously impact its performance on computers with high communication cost. Moreover, additive AMG variants provide not only increased parallelism as well as decreased numbers of messages per cycle but also generally exhibit slower convergence. Here we present various new additive variants with convergence rates that are significantly improved compared to the classical additive algebraic multigrid method and investigate their potential for decreased communication, and improved communication-computation overlap, features that are essential for good performance on future exascale architectures.

  18. Reducing Communication in Algebraic Multigrid Using Additive Variants

    DOE PAGES

    Vassilevski, Panayot S.; Yang, Ulrike Meier

    2014-02-12

    Algebraic multigrid (AMG) has proven to be an effective scalable solver on many high performance computers. However, its increasing communication complexity on coarser levels has shown to seriously impact its performance on computers with high communication cost. Moreover, additive AMG variants provide not only increased parallelism as well as decreased numbers of messages per cycle but also generally exhibit slower convergence. Here we present various new additive variants with convergence rates that are significantly improved compared to the classical additive algebraic multigrid method and investigate their potential for decreased communication, and improved communication-computation overlap, features that are essential for goodmore » performance on future exascale architectures.« less

  19. Compost addition reduces porosity and chlordecone transfer in soil microstructure.

    PubMed

    Woignier, Thierry; Clostre, Florence; Fernandes, Paula; Rangon, Luc; Soler, Alain; Lesueur-Jannoyer, Magalie

    2016-01-01

    Chlordecone, an organochlorine insecticide, pollutes soils and contaminates crops and water resources and is biomagnified by food chains. As chlordecone is partly trapped in the soil, one possible alternative to decontamination may be to increase its containment in the soil, thereby reducing its diffusion into the environment. Containing the pesticide in the soil could be achieved by adding compost because the pollutant has an affinity for organic matter. We hypothesized that adding compost would also change soil porosity, as well as transport and containment of the pesticide. We measured the pore features and studied the nanoscale structure to assess the effect of adding compost on soil microstructure. We simulated changes in the transport properties (hydraulic conductivity and diffusion) associated with changes in porosity. During compost incubation, the clay microstructure collapsed due to capillary stresses. Simulated data showed that the hydraulic conductivity and diffusion coefficient were reduced by 95 and 70% in the clay microstructure, respectively. Reduced transport properties affected pesticide mobility and thus helped reduce its transfer from the soil to water and to the crop. We propose that the containment effect is due not only to the high affinity of chlordecone for soil organic matter but also to a trapping mechanism in the soil porosity.

  20. Compost addition reduces porosity and chlordecone transfer in soil microstructure.

    PubMed

    Woignier, Thierry; Clostre, Florence; Fernandes, Paula; Rangon, Luc; Soler, Alain; Lesueur-Jannoyer, Magalie

    2016-01-01

    Chlordecone, an organochlorine insecticide, pollutes soils and contaminates crops and water resources and is biomagnified by food chains. As chlordecone is partly trapped in the soil, one possible alternative to decontamination may be to increase its containment in the soil, thereby reducing its diffusion into the environment. Containing the pesticide in the soil could be achieved by adding compost because the pollutant has an affinity for organic matter. We hypothesized that adding compost would also change soil porosity, as well as transport and containment of the pesticide. We measured the pore features and studied the nanoscale structure to assess the effect of adding compost on soil microstructure. We simulated changes in the transport properties (hydraulic conductivity and diffusion) associated with changes in porosity. During compost incubation, the clay microstructure collapsed due to capillary stresses. Simulated data showed that the hydraulic conductivity and diffusion coefficient were reduced by 95 and 70% in the clay microstructure, respectively. Reduced transport properties affected pesticide mobility and thus helped reduce its transfer from the soil to water and to the crop. We propose that the containment effect is due not only to the high affinity of chlordecone for soil organic matter but also to a trapping mechanism in the soil porosity. PMID:26250815

  1. Food additives reducing volatility of antioxidants at frying temperature

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    At frying temperature, antioxidants are lost not only by reaction with radicals formed by oil oxidation, but also by decomposition and evaporation before they are able to exert antioxidant activity. In this study it was hypothesized that an additive that can bind or interact with an antioxidant coul...

  2. Catalytic conjugate additions of geminal bis(sulfone)s: expanding the chemistry of sulfones as simple alkyl anion equivalents.

    PubMed

    Landa, Aitor; Puente, Angel; Santos, J Ignacio; Vera, Silvia; Oiarbide, Mikel; Palomo, Claudio

    2009-11-01

    The value of cyclic gem-bis(sulfone) 4 as a simple alkyl nucleophile equivalent in catalytic C-C bond-forming reactions is demonstrated. The 1,4-type nucleophilic additions of bis(sulfone) 4 to alpha,beta-unsaturated ketones take place by assistance of catalytic guanidine base. On the other hand, pyrrolidines are able to catalyze the conjugate addition of 4 to both enones and enals, likely by means of iminium ion activation. Upon exploration of the best chiral pyrrolidine catalyst, it has been found that the addition of 4 to enals catalyzed by diphenylprolinol silyl ether 10 proceeds with very high enantioselectivity (beta-aryl-substituted enals >95% ee; beta-alkyl substituted enals up to 94% ee; ee = enantiomeric excess). Further reductive desulfonation of adducts gives rise to the corresponding beta-methyl aldehydes, as well as the derived alcohols, acetals, and methyl esters after simple (Mg, MeOH) well-established protocols. Application of the procedure to the synthesis of biologically relevant phenethyl building blocks is shown. Most interestingly, alpha-alkylation of initially obtained bis(sulfone) adducts can be done even with less reactive alkylating reagents, such as long linear-chain or branched-chain alkyl halides. Accordingly, upon the desulfonation process, a general, experimentally simple and highly enantioselective access to beta-branched aldehydes, alcohols, or esters is possible. Further exploration of the method includes the use of chiral alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes derived from citronellal as the Michael acceptor partners. In these instances, the sense of the conjugate addition of 4 is controlled by the chirality of the pyrrolidine catalyst, thus allowing for a stereochemically predictable access to 1,3-dimethyl arrays, such as those present in deoxygenated polyketide-type natural products. The intramolecular variation of this technology by using doubly unsaturated aldehyde-ester 22 illustrated the site selectivity of the procedure and its

  3. Reduced plant uptake of pesticides with biochar additions to soil.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiang-Yang; Ying, Guang-Guo; Kookana, Rai S

    2009-07-01

    We investigated the effectiveness of two types of biochars in reducing the bioavailability of two soil-applied insecticides (chlorpyrifos and carbofuran) to Spring onion (Allium cepa). The biochars prepared from the pyrolysis of Eucalyptus spp. wood chips at 450 and 850 degrees C (BC850) were thoroughly mixed into the soil to achieve 0%, 0.1%, 0.5% and 1% by soil weight. A spring onion crop was grown for 5 wk in the biochar-amended soils spiked with 50 mgkg(-1) of each pesticide. The loss of both pesticides due to degradation and or sequestration in soils decreased significantly with increasing amounts of biochars in soil. Over 35 d, 86-88% of the pesticides were lost from the control soil, whereas it was only 51% of carbofuran and 44% of chlorpyrifos from the soil amended with 1.0% BC850. Despite greater persistence of the pesticide residues in biochar-amended soils, the plant uptake of pesticides decreased markedly with increasing biochar content of the soil. With 1% of BC850 soil amendment, the total plant residues for chlorpyrifos and carbofuran decreased to 10% and 25% of that in the control treatment, respectively. The BC850 was particularly effective in reducing phytoavailability of both pesticides from soil, due to its high affinity for and ability to sequester pesticide residues.

  4. Reduced plant uptake of pesticides with biochar additions to soil.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiang-Yang; Ying, Guang-Guo; Kookana, Rai S

    2009-07-01

    We investigated the effectiveness of two types of biochars in reducing the bioavailability of two soil-applied insecticides (chlorpyrifos and carbofuran) to Spring onion (Allium cepa). The biochars prepared from the pyrolysis of Eucalyptus spp. wood chips at 450 and 850 degrees C (BC850) were thoroughly mixed into the soil to achieve 0%, 0.1%, 0.5% and 1% by soil weight. A spring onion crop was grown for 5 wk in the biochar-amended soils spiked with 50 mgkg(-1) of each pesticide. The loss of both pesticides due to degradation and or sequestration in soils decreased significantly with increasing amounts of biochars in soil. Over 35 d, 86-88% of the pesticides were lost from the control soil, whereas it was only 51% of carbofuran and 44% of chlorpyrifos from the soil amended with 1.0% BC850. Despite greater persistence of the pesticide residues in biochar-amended soils, the plant uptake of pesticides decreased markedly with increasing biochar content of the soil. With 1% of BC850 soil amendment, the total plant residues for chlorpyrifos and carbofuran decreased to 10% and 25% of that in the control treatment, respectively. The BC850 was particularly effective in reducing phytoavailability of both pesticides from soil, due to its high affinity for and ability to sequester pesticide residues. PMID:19419749

  5. Different biochemical mechanisms ensure network-wide balancing of reducing equivalents in microbial metabolism.

    PubMed

    Fuhrer, Tobias; Sauer, Uwe

    2009-04-01

    To sustain growth, the catabolic formation of the redox equivalent NADPH must be balanced with the anabolic demand. The mechanisms that ensure such network-wide balancing, however, are presently not understood. Based on 13C-detected intracellular fluxes, metabolite concentrations, and cofactor specificities for all relevant central metabolic enzymes, we have quantified catabolic NADPH production in Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Paracoccus versutus, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Rhodobacter sphaeroides, Sinorhizobium meliloti, and Zymomonas mobilis. For six species, the estimated NADPH production from glucose catabolism exceeded the requirements for biomass synthesis. Exceptions were P. fluorescens, with balanced rates, and E. coli, with insufficient catabolic production, in which about one-third of the NADPH is supplied via the membrane-bound transhydrogenase PntAB. P. versutus and B. subtilis were the only species that appear to rely on transhydrogenases for balancing NADPH overproduction during growth on glucose. In the other four species, the main but not exclusive redox-balancing mechanism appears to be the dual cofactor specificities of several catabolic enzymes and/or the existence of isoenzymes with distinct cofactor specificities, in particular glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase. An unexpected key finding for all species, except E. coli and B. subtilis, was the lack of cofactor specificity in the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway, which contrasts with the textbook view of the pentose phosphate pathway dehydrogenases as being NADP+ dependent.

  6. An oat bran-based beverage reduce postprandial glycaemia equivalent to yoghurt in healthy overweight subjects.

    PubMed

    Lindström, Cecilia; Voinot, Anne; Forslund, Anna; Holst, Olle; Rascón, Ana; Öste, Rickard; Östman, Elin

    2015-01-01

    An acute meal study was performed to determine postprandial glucose and insulin responses after consumption of two fermented oat bran-based beverages (with and without exopolysaccharides) and yoghurt. This randomized, single-blind, within-subject study included 18 healthy, overweight participants. Four breakfast meals, including a reference meal, were tested; all meals contained 50 g of available carbohydrates, but differed in energy and macronutrient composition. All experimental meals reduced the postprandial glucose response compared with the reference meal. The oat drinks as well as the yoghurt elicited higher early (0-15 min) insulin responses, but the overall insulinaemia were similar to the reference meal. A new food product containing fermented liquid oat bran and milk reduced the postprandial blood glucose response as efficiently as yoghurt after a high-glycaemic index white wheat bread meal, but the presence of microbial exopolysaccharides did not affect the outcome. PMID:26001091

  7. Oxidation of pyruvate, malate, citrate, and cytosolic reducing equivalents by AS-30D hepatoma mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Dietzen, D J; Davis, E J

    1993-08-15

    Mitochondria isolated from normal rat liver and AS-30D hepatoma were concurrently evaluated with regard to their bioenergetic and metabolic properties. AS-30D mitochondria oxidized many NAD-linked respiratory substrates at rates 1.5-4 times faster than those from liver, a fact which contributes to their diminished membrane depolarization on conversion from state 4 to state 3 respiration. AS-30D mitochondria exhibited no signs of a "truncated" Krebs cycle, nor did they oxidize malate preferentially based upon its origin in the cytosol or the mitochondrial matrix. In addition, beta-oxidation in AS-30D mitochondria was not sufficient to suppress respiratory CO2 production and induce pyruvate carboxylation to the extent observed in liver. Finally, AS-30D mitochondria were able to oxidize externally generated NADH in a reconstituted system, but in a manner independent of the transmembrane electrical potential (delta psi), suggesting that the malate-aspartate shuttle is not operable in vivo. This fact may necessitate the adaptations tumor cells make to reoxidize cytosolic NADH through glycolysis even in the presence of adequate oxygen. PMID:8342959

  8. Asymmetric Assembly of All-Carbon Tertiary/Quaternary Nonadjacent Stereocenters through Organocatalytic Conjugate Addition of α-Cyanoacetates to a Methacrylate Equivalent.

    PubMed

    Iriarte, Igor; Vera, Silvia; Badiola, Eider; Mielgo, Antonia; Oiarbide, Mikel; García, Jesús M; Odriozola, José M; Palomo, Claudio

    2016-09-12

    An efficient, highly diastereo- and enantioselective assembly of acyclic carbonyl fragments possessing nonadjacent all-carbon tertiary/quaternary stereoarrays is reported based on a Brønsted base catalyzed Michael addition/α-protonation sequence involving α-cyanoacetates and 2,4-dimethyl-4-hydroxypenten-3-one as novel methacrylate equivalent. PMID:27487331

  9. Using heteroaryl-lithium reagents as hydroxycarbonyl anion equivalents in conjugate addition reactions with (S,S)-(+)-pseudoephedrine as chiral auxiliary; enantioselective synthesis of 3-substituted pyrrolidines.

    PubMed

    Alonso, Beatriz; Ocejo, Marta; Carrillo, Luisa; Vicario, Jose L; Reyes, Efraim; Uria, Uxue

    2013-01-18

    We have developed an efficient protocol for carrying out the stereocontrolled formal conjugate addition of hydroxycarbonyl anion equivalents to α,β-unsaturated carboxylic acid derivatives using (S,S)-(+)-pseudoephedrine as chiral auxiliary, making use of the synthetic equivalence between the heteroaryl moieties and the carboxylate group. This protocol has been applied as key step in the enantioselective synthesis of 3-substituted pyrrolidines in which, after removing the chiral auxiliary, the heteroaryl moiety is converted into a carboxylate group followed by reduction and double nucleophilic displacement. Alternatively, the access to the same type of heterocyclic scaffold but with opposite absolute configuration has also been accomplished by making use of the regio- and diastereoselective conjugate addition of organolithium reagents to α,β,γ,δ-unsaturated amides derived from the same chiral auxiliary followed by chiral auxiliary removal, ozonolysis, and reductive amination/intramolecular nucleophilic displacement sequence.

  10. Testing for Additivity in Chemical Mixtures Using a Fixed-Ratio Ray Design and Statistical Equivalence Testing Methods

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fixed-ratio ray designs have been used for detecting and characterizing interactions of large numbers of chemicals in combination. Single chemical dose-response data are used to predict an “additivity curve” along an environmentally relevant ray. A “mixture curve” is estimated fr...

  11. Determining salt concentrations for equivalent water activity in reduced-sodium cheese by use of a model system.

    PubMed

    Grummer, J; Schoenfuss, T C

    2011-09-01

    The range of sodium chloride (salt)-to-moisture ratio is critical in producing high-quality cheese products. The salt-to-moisture ratio has numerous effects on cheese quality, including controlling water activity (a(w)). Therefore, when attempting to decrease the sodium content of natural cheese it is important to calculate the amount of replacement salts necessary to create the same a(w) as the full-sodium target (when using the same cheese making procedure). Most attempts to decrease sodium using replacement salts have used concentrations too low to create the equivalent a(w) due to the differences in the molecular weight of the replacers compared with salt. This could be because of the desire to minimize off-flavors inherent in the replacement salts, but it complicates the ability to conclude that the replacement salts are the cause of off-flavors such as bitter. The objective of this study was to develop a model system that could be used to measure a(w) directly, without manufacturing cheese, to allow cheese makers to determine the salt and salt replacer concentrations needed to achieve the equivalent a(w) for their existing full-sodium control formulas. All-purpose flour, salt, and salt replacers (potassium chloride, modified potassium chloride, magnesium chloride, and calcium chloride) were blended with butter and water at concentrations that approximated the solids, fat, and moisture contents of typical Cheddar cheese. Salt and salt replacers were applied to the model systems at concentrations predicted by Raoult's law. The a(w) of the model samples was measured on a water activity meter, and concentrations were adjusted using Raoult's law if they differed from those of the full-sodium model. Based on the results determined using the model system, stirred-curd pilot-scale batches of reduced- and full-sodium Cheddar cheese were manufactured in duplicate. Water activity, pH, and gross composition were measured and evaluated statistically by linear mixed model

  12. Potential of aeration flow rate and bio-char addition to reduce greenhouse gas and ammonia emissions during manure composting.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Md Albarune; de Neergaard, Andreas; Jensen, Lars Stoumann

    2014-02-01

    Aeration is an important factor influencing CO2, CH4, N2O and NH3 emissions from the composting process. Both CH4 and N2O are potent greenhouse gases (GHG) of high importance. Here, we examined the effects of high and low aeration rates together with addition of barley straw with and without bio-char on GHG and NH3 emissions from composting cattle slurry and hen manure in small-scale laboratory composters. Depending on treatment, cumulative C losses via CO2 and CH4 emissions accounted for 11.4-22.5% and 0.004-0.2% of initial total carbon, while N losses as N2O and NH3 emissions comprised 0.05-0.1% and 0.8-26.5% of initial total nitrogen, respectively. Decreasing the flow rate reduced cumulative NH3 losses non-significantly (by 88%) but significantly increased CH4 losses (by 51%) from composting of cattle slurry with barley straw. Among the hen manure treatments evaluated, bio-char addition to composting hen manure and barley straw at low flow rates proved most effective in reducing cumulative NH3 and CH4 losses. Addition of bio-char in combination with barley straw to hen manure at both high and low flow rates reduced total GHG emissions (as CO2-equivalents) by 27-32% compared with barley straw addition alone. Comparisons of flow rates showed that low flow could be an alternative strategy for reducing NH3 losses without any significant change in N2O emissions, pointing to the need for well-controlled composting conditions if gaseous emissions are to be minimised.

  13. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  14. Determination of W states equivalent under stochastic local operations and classical communication by their bipartite reduced density matrices with tree form

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xia; Tian, Guo-Jing; Huang, Wei; Wen, Qiao-Yan; Qin, Su-Juan; Gao, Fei

    2014-07-01

    It has been known that, among pure states, N-qubit W states cannot be uniquely determined by their arbitrary (N-1) bipartite reduced density matrices. Parashar and Rana proved that among arbitrary states, (N-1) bipartite reduced density matrices that the pairs of qubits constitute a star graph or a line graph can uniquely determine stochastic local operations and classical communication (SLOCC) equivalent W states, and we generalize this conclusion into tree graph. In this paper, we show that all SLOCC equivalent W states can be uniquely determined (among pure, mixed states) by their (N-1) bipartite reduced density matrices, if the (N-1) pairs of qubits constitute a tree graph on N vertices, where each pair of qubits represents an edge.

  15. Oral delivery of BCG Moreau Rio de Janeiro gives equivalent protection against tuberculosis but with reduced pathology compared to parenteral BCG Danish vaccination.

    PubMed

    Clark, Simon O; Kelly, Dominic L F; Badell, Edgar; Castello-Branco, Luiz Roberto; Aldwell, Frank; Winter, Nathalie; Lewis, David J M; Marsh, Philip D

    2010-10-01

    There is a need for an improved vaccine to better control human tuberculosis (TB), as the only currently available TB vaccine, bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) delivered parenterally, offers variable levels of efficacy. Therefore, recombinant strains expressing additional antigens are being developed alongside alternative routes to parenteral delivery. There is strong evidence that BCG Moreau (RdJ) is a safe and effective vaccine in humans when given by the oral route. This study compared the efficacy of a single oral dose of wild type BCG Moreau Rio de Janeiro (RdJ), or a recombinant RdJ strain expressing Ag85B-ESAT6 fusion protein, formulated with and without lipid to enhance oral delivery, with subcutaneous BCG Danish 1331 and saline control groups in a guinea pig aerosol infection model of pulmonary tuberculosis. Protection was measured as survival at 30 weeks post-challenge and reduced bacterial load and histopathology in lungs and spleen. Results showed that a single oral dose of BCG Moreau (RdJ) or recombinant BCG Moreau (RdJ)-Ag85B-ESAT6, formulated with or without lipid, gave protection equivalent to subcutaneously delivered BCG Danish in the 30 weeks post-challenge survival study. The orally delivered vaccines gave reduced pathology scores in the lungs (three of the four formulations) and spleens (all four formulations) compared to subcutaneously delivered BCG Danish. The oral wild type BCG Moreau (RdJ) in lipid and the unformulated oral wild type BCG Moreau (RdJ) vaccine also gave statistically lower bacterial loads in the lungs and spleens, respectively, compared to subcutaneously delivered BCG Danish. This study provides further evidence to show that lipid formulation does not impair vaccine efficacy and may enhance the delivery and stability of oral vaccines intended for use in countries with poor health infrastructure. Oral delivery also avoids needles (and associated cross-infection risks) and immunisation without the need for specially trained

  16. Promotion of Ni2+ removal by masking toxicity to sulfate-reducing bacteria: addition of citrate.

    PubMed

    Qian, Junwei; Zhu, Xiaoyu; Tao, Yong; Zhou, Yan; He, Xiaohong; Li, Daping

    2015-04-09

    The sulfate-reducing bioprocess is a promising technology for the treatment of heavy metal-containing wastewater. This work was conducted to investigate the possibility of promoting heavy metal removal by the addition of citrate to mask Ni2+ toxicity to sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in batch reactors. SRB growth was completely inhibited in Ni2+-containing medium (1 mM) when lactate served as the sole carbon resource, leading to no sulfate reduction and Ni2+ removal. However, after the addition of citrate, SRB grew well, and sulfate was quickly reduced to sulfide. Simultaneously, the Ni-citrate complex was biodegraded to Ni2+ and acetate. The NiS precipitate was then formed, and Ni2+ was completely removed from the solution. It was suggested that the addition of citrate greatly alleviates Ni2+ toxicity to SRB and improves the removal of Ni2+, which was confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR targeting dissimilatory sulfite reductase (dsrAB) genes. Analysis of the carbon metabolism indicated that lactate instead of acetate served as the electron donor for sulfate reduction. This study offers a potential approach to increase the removal of heavy metals from wastewater in the single stage SRB-based bioprocess.

  17. Promotion of Ni2+ removal by masking toxicity to sulfate-reducing bacteria: addition of citrate.

    PubMed

    Qian, Junwei; Zhu, Xiaoyu; Tao, Yong; Zhou, Yan; He, Xiaohong; Li, Daping

    2015-01-01

    The sulfate-reducing bioprocess is a promising technology for the treatment of heavy metal-containing wastewater. This work was conducted to investigate the possibility of promoting heavy metal removal by the addition of citrate to mask Ni2+ toxicity to sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in batch reactors. SRB growth was completely inhibited in Ni2+-containing medium (1 mM) when lactate served as the sole carbon resource, leading to no sulfate reduction and Ni2+ removal. However, after the addition of citrate, SRB grew well, and sulfate was quickly reduced to sulfide. Simultaneously, the Ni-citrate complex was biodegraded to Ni2+ and acetate. The NiS precipitate was then formed, and Ni2+ was completely removed from the solution. It was suggested that the addition of citrate greatly alleviates Ni2+ toxicity to SRB and improves the removal of Ni2+, which was confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR targeting dissimilatory sulfite reductase (dsrAB) genes. Analysis of the carbon metabolism indicated that lactate instead of acetate served as the electron donor for sulfate reduction. This study offers a potential approach to increase the removal of heavy metals from wastewater in the single stage SRB-based bioprocess. PMID:25860948

  18. Hydrogen sulfide production by sulfate-reducing bacteria utilizing additives eluted from plastic resins.

    PubMed

    Tsuchida, Daisuke; Kajihara, Yusuke; Shimidzu, Nobuhiro; Hamamura, Kengo; Nagase, Makoto

    2011-06-01

    In the present study it was demonstrated that organic additives eluted from plastic resins could be utilized as substrates by sulfate-reducing bacteria. Two laboratory-scale experiments, a microcosm experiment and a leaching experiment, were conducted using polyvinyl chloride (PVC) as a model plastic resin. In the former experiment, the conversion of sulfate to sulfide was evident in microcosms that received plasticized PVC as the sole carbon source, but not in those that received PVC homopolymer. Additionally, dissolved organic carbon accumulated only in microcosms that received plasticized PVC, indicating that the dissolved organic carbon originated from additives. In the leaching experiment, phenol and bisphenol A were found in the leached solutions. These results suggest that the disposal of waste plastics in inert waste landfills may result in the production of H(2)S.

  19. Different additives to enhance the gelation of surimi gel with reduced sodium content.

    PubMed

    Cando, Deysi; Herranz, Beatriz; Borderías, A Javier; Moreno, Helena M

    2016-04-01

    This study tested the effect of adding tetra-sodium pyrophosphate, cystine and lysine as surimi gelation enhancers (Alaska Pollock) in order to reduce the sodium content of gels up to 0.3%. These gels were compared with others that contained 3% NaCl content (the amount typically used for surimi processing). To induce protein gelation, gels were first heated and then set at 5 °C/24 h. Once the physicochemical and rheological properties of the gels were determined, cystine and lysine were found to be the most effective additives improving the characteristics of low NaCl surimi gels. The action of these additives is mainly based on the induction of myofibrillar protein unfolding thus facilitating the formation of the types of bonds needed to establish an appropriate network. It was found that a setting period was needed for gel processing to maximize the effect of the additives.

  20. Different additives to enhance the gelation of surimi gel with reduced sodium content.

    PubMed

    Cando, Deysi; Herranz, Beatriz; Borderías, A Javier; Moreno, Helena M

    2016-04-01

    This study tested the effect of adding tetra-sodium pyrophosphate, cystine and lysine as surimi gelation enhancers (Alaska Pollock) in order to reduce the sodium content of gels up to 0.3%. These gels were compared with others that contained 3% NaCl content (the amount typically used for surimi processing). To induce protein gelation, gels were first heated and then set at 5 °C/24 h. Once the physicochemical and rheological properties of the gels were determined, cystine and lysine were found to be the most effective additives improving the characteristics of low NaCl surimi gels. The action of these additives is mainly based on the induction of myofibrillar protein unfolding thus facilitating the formation of the types of bonds needed to establish an appropriate network. It was found that a setting period was needed for gel processing to maximize the effect of the additives. PMID:26593556

  1. Microplastic moves pollutants and additives to worms, reducing functions linked to health and biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Browne, Mark Anthony; Niven, Stewart J; Galloway, Tamara S; Rowland, Steve J; Thompson, Richard C

    2013-12-01

    Inadequate products, waste management, and policy are struggling to prevent plastic waste from infiltrating ecosystems [1, 2]. Disintegration into smaller pieces means that the abundance of micrometer-sized plastic (microplastic) in habitats has increased [3] and outnumbers larger debris [2, 4]. When ingested by animals, plastic provides a feasible pathway to transfer attached pollutants and additive chemicals into their tissues [5-15]. Despite positive correlations between concentrations of ingested plastic and pollutants in tissues of animals, few, if any, controlled experiments have examined whether ingested plastic transfers pollutants and additives to animals. We exposed lugworms (Arenicola marina) to sand with 5% microplastic that was presorbed with pollutants (nonylphenol and phenanthrene) and additive chemicals (Triclosan and PBDE-47). Microplastic transferred pollutants and additive chemicals into gut tissues of lugworms, causing some biological effects, although clean sand transferred larger concentrations of pollutants into their tissues. Uptake of nonylphenol from PVC or sand reduced the ability of coelomocytes to remove pathogenic bacteria by >60%. Uptake of Triclosan from PVC diminished the ability of worms to engineer sediments and caused mortality, each by >55%, while PVC alone made worms >30% more susceptible to oxidative stress. As global microplastic contamination accelerates, our findings indicate that large concentrations of microplastic and additives can harm ecophysiological functions performed by organisms. PMID:24309271

  2. Microplastic moves pollutants and additives to worms, reducing functions linked to health and biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Browne, Mark Anthony; Niven, Stewart J; Galloway, Tamara S; Rowland, Steve J; Thompson, Richard C

    2013-12-01

    Inadequate products, waste management, and policy are struggling to prevent plastic waste from infiltrating ecosystems [1, 2]. Disintegration into smaller pieces means that the abundance of micrometer-sized plastic (microplastic) in habitats has increased [3] and outnumbers larger debris [2, 4]. When ingested by animals, plastic provides a feasible pathway to transfer attached pollutants and additive chemicals into their tissues [5-15]. Despite positive correlations between concentrations of ingested plastic and pollutants in tissues of animals, few, if any, controlled experiments have examined whether ingested plastic transfers pollutants and additives to animals. We exposed lugworms (Arenicola marina) to sand with 5% microplastic that was presorbed with pollutants (nonylphenol and phenanthrene) and additive chemicals (Triclosan and PBDE-47). Microplastic transferred pollutants and additive chemicals into gut tissues of lugworms, causing some biological effects, although clean sand transferred larger concentrations of pollutants into their tissues. Uptake of nonylphenol from PVC or sand reduced the ability of coelomocytes to remove pathogenic bacteria by >60%. Uptake of Triclosan from PVC diminished the ability of worms to engineer sediments and caused mortality, each by >55%, while PVC alone made worms >30% more susceptible to oxidative stress. As global microplastic contamination accelerates, our findings indicate that large concentrations of microplastic and additives can harm ecophysiological functions performed by organisms.

  3. Linear Energy Transfer Painting With Proton Therapy: A Means of Reducing Radiation Doses With Equivalent Clinical Effectiveness

    SciTech Connect

    Fager, Marcus; Toma-Dasu, Iuliana; Kirk, Maura; Dolney, Derek; Diffenderfer, Eric S.; Vapiwala, Neha; Carabe, Alejandro

    2015-04-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to propose a proton treatment planning method that trades physical dose (D) for dose-averaged linear energy transfer (LET{sub d}) while keeping the radiobiologically weighted dose (D{sub RBE}) to the target the same. Methods and Materials: The target is painted with LET{sub d} by using 2, 4, and 7 fields aimed at the proximal segment of the target (split target planning [STP]). As the LET{sub d} within the target increases with increasing number of fields, D decreases to maintain the D{sub RBE} the same as the conventional treatment planning method by using beams treating the full target (full target planning [FTP]). Results: The LET{sub d} increased 61% for 2-field STP (2STP) compared to FTP, 72% for 4STP, and 82% for 7STP inside the target. This increase in LET{sub d} led to a decrease of D with 5.3 ± 0.6 Gy for 2STP, 4.4 ± 0.7 Gy for 4STP, and 5.3 ± 1.1 Gy for 7STP, keeping the DRBE at 90% of the volume (DRBE, 90) constant to FTP. Conclusions: LET{sub d} painting offers a method to reduce prescribed dose at no cost to the biological effectiveness of the treatment.

  4. Astronomy in the Cloud: Using MapReduce for Image Co-Addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiley, K.; Connolly, A.; Gardner, J.; Krughoff, S.; Balazinska, M.; Howe, B.; Kwon, Y.; Bu, Y.

    2011-03-01

    In the coming decade, astronomical surveys of the sky will generate tens of terabytes of images and detect hundreds of millions of sources every night. The study of these sources will involve computation challenges such as anomaly detection and classification and moving-object tracking. Since such studies benefit from the highest-quality data, methods such as image co-addition, i.e., astrometric registration followed by per-pixel summation, will be a critical preprocessing step prior to scientific investigation. With a requirement that these images be analyzed on a nightly basis to identify moving sources such as potentially hazardous asteroids or transient objects such as supernovae, these data streams present many computational challenges. Given the quantity of data involved, the computational load of these problems can only be addressed by distributing the workload over a large number of nodes. However, the high data throughput demanded by these applications may present scalability challenges for certain storage architectures. One scalable data-processing method that has emerged in recent years is MapReduce, and in this article we focus on its popular open-source implementation called Hadoop. In the Hadoop framework, the data are partitioned among storage attached directly to worker nodes, and the processing workload is scheduled in parallel on the nodes that contain the required input data. A further motivation for using Hadoop is that it allows us to exploit cloud computing resources: i.e., platforms where Hadoop is offered as a service. We report on our experience of implementing a scalable image-processing pipeline for the SDSS imaging database using Hadoop. This multiterabyte imaging data set provides a good testbed for algorithm development, since its scope and structure approximate future surveys. First, we describe MapReduce and how we adapted image co-addition to the MapReduce framework. Then we describe a number of optimizations to our basic approach

  5. Arsenite binding-induced zinc loss from PARP-1 is equivalent to zinc deficiency in reducing PARP-1 activity, leading to inhibition of DNA repair

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Xi; Zhou, Xixi; Du, Libo; Liu, Wenlan; Liu, Yang; Hudson, Laurie G.; Liu, Ke Jian

    2014-01-15

    Inhibition of DNA repair is a recognized mechanism for arsenic enhancement of ultraviolet radiation-induced DNA damage and carcinogenesis. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1), a zinc finger DNA repair protein, has been identified as a sensitive molecular target for arsenic. The zinc finger domains of PARP-1 protein function as a critical structure in DNA recognition and binding. Since cellular poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation capacity has been positively correlated with zinc status in cells, we hypothesize that arsenite binding-induced zinc loss from PARP-1 is equivalent to zinc deficiency in reducing PARP-1 activity, leading to inhibition of DNA repair. To test this hypothesis, we compared the effects of arsenite exposure with zinc deficiency, created by using the membrane-permeable zinc chelator TPEN, on 8-OHdG formation, PARP-1 activity and zinc binding to PARP-1 in HaCat cells. Our results show that arsenite exposure and zinc deficiency had similar effects on PARP-1 protein, whereas supplemental zinc reversed these effects. To investigate the molecular mechanism of zinc loss induced by arsenite, ICP-AES, near UV spectroscopy, fluorescence, and circular dichroism spectroscopy were utilized to examine arsenite binding and occupation of a peptide representing the first zinc finger of PARP-1. We found that arsenite binding as well as zinc loss altered the conformation of zinc finger structure which functionally leads to PARP-1 inhibition. These findings suggest that arsenite binding to PARP-1 protein created similar adverse biological effects as zinc deficiency, which establishes the molecular mechanism for zinc supplementation as a potentially effective treatment to reverse the detrimental outcomes of arsenic exposure. - Highlights: • Arsenite binding is equivalent to zinc deficiency in reducing PARP-1 function. • Zinc reverses arsenic inhibition of PARP-1 activity and enhancement of DNA damage. • Arsenite binding and zinc loss alter the conformation of zinc finger

  6. TECHNICAL BASIS FOR DOE STANDARD 3013 EQUIVALENCY SUPPORTING REDUCED TEMPERATURE STABILIZATION OF OXALATE-DERIVED PLUTONIUM OXIDE PRODUCED BY THE HB-LINE FACILITY AT SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    SciTech Connect

    Duffey, J.; Livingston, R.; Berg, J.; Veirs, D.

    2012-07-02

    The HB-Line (HBL) facility at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is designed to produce high-purity plutonium dioxide (PuO{sub 2}) which is suitable for future use in production of Mixed Oxide (MOX) fuel. The MOX Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF) requires PuO{sub 2} feed to be packaged per the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Standard 3013 (DOE-STD-3013) to comply with the facility's safety basis. The stabilization conditions imposed by DOE-STD-3013 for PuO{sub 2} (i.e., 950 C for 2 hours) preclude use of the HBL PuO{sub 2} in direct fuel fabrication and reduce the value of the HBL product as MFFF feedstock. Consequently, HBL initiated a technical evaluation to define acceptable operating conditions for production of high-purity PuO{sub 2} that fulfills the DOE-STD-3013 criteria for safe storage. The purpose of this document is to demonstrate that within the defined operating conditions, the HBL process will be equivalent for meeting the requirements of the DOE-STD-3013 stabilization process for plutonium-bearing materials from the DOE complex. The proposed 3013 equivalency reduces the prescribed stabilization temperature for high-purity PuO{sub 2} from oxalate precipitation processes from 950 C to 640 C and places a limit of 60% on the relative humidity (RH) at the lowest material temperature. The equivalency is limited to material produced using the HBL established flow sheet, for example, nitric acid anion exchange and Pu(IV) direct strike oxalate precipitation with stabilization at a minimum temperature of 640 C for four hours (h). The product purity must meet the MFFF acceptance criteria of 23,600 {micro}g/g Pu (i.e., 2.1 wt %) total impurities and chloride content less than 250 {micro}g/g of Pu. All other stabilization and packaging criteria identified by DOE-STD-3013-2012 or earlier revisions of the standard apply. Based on the evaluation of test data discussed in this document, the expert judgment of the authors supports packaging the HBL product under a 3013

  7. The addition of whole soy flour to cafeteria diet reduces metabolic risk markers in wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Soybean is termed a functional food because it contains bioactive compounds. However, its effects are not well known under unbalanced diet conditions. This work is aimed at evaluating the effect of adding whole soy flour to a cafeteria diet on intestinal histomorphometry, metabolic risk and toxicity markers in rats. Methods In this study, 30 male adult Wistar rats were used, distributed among three groups (n = 10): AIN-93 M diet, cafeteria diet (CAF) and cafeteria diet with soy flour (CAFS), for 56 days. The following parameters were measured: food intake; weight gain; serum concentrations of triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL-c, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), aspartate (AST) and alanine (ALT) aminotransferases and Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances (TBARS); humidity and lipid fecal content; weight and fat of the liver. The villous height, the crypt depth and the thickness of the duodenal and ileal circular and longitudinal muscle layers of the animals were also measured. Results There was a significant reduction in the food intake in the CAF group. The CAFS showed lower serum concentrations of triglycerides and serum TBARS and a lower percentage of hepatic fat, with a corresponding increase in thickness of the intestinal muscle layers. In the CAF group, an increase in the HbA1c, ALT, lipid excretion, liver TBARS and crypt depth, was observed associated with lower HDL-c and villous height. The addition of soy did not promote any change in these parameters. Conclusions The inclusion of whole soy flour in a high-fat diet may be helpful in reducing some markers of metabolic risk; however, more studies are required to clarify its effects on unbalanced diets. PMID:24119309

  8. NO removal by reducing agents and additives in the selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) process.

    PubMed

    Bae, Sang Wook; Roh, Seon Ah; Kim, Sang Done

    2006-09-01

    The effect of the additives on the selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) reaction has been determined in a three-stage laboratory scale reactor. The optimum reaction temperature is lowered and the reaction temperature window is widened with increasing concentrations of the gas additives (CO, CH4). The optimum reaction temperature is lowered and the maximum NO removal efficiency decreases with increasing the concentration of alcohol additives (CH3OH, C2H5OH). The addition of phenol lowers the optimum reaction temperature about 100-150 degrees C similar to that of the toluene addition. The volatile organic compounds (VOCs: C6H5OH, C7H8) can be utilized in the SNCR process to enhance NO reduction and removed at the same time. A previously proposed simple kinetic model can successfully apply the NO reduction by NH3 and the present additives.

  9. Reducing metal alloy powder costs for use in powder bed fusion additive manufacturing: Improving the economics for production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medina, Fransisco

    Titanium and its associated alloys have been used in industry for over 50 years and have become more popular in the recent decades. Titanium has been most successful in areas where the high strength to weight ratio provides an advantage over aluminum and steels. Other advantages of titanium include biocompatibility and corrosion resistance. Electron Beam Melting (EBM) is an additive manufacturing (AM) technology that has been successfully applied in the manufacturing of titanium components for the aerospace and medical industry with equivalent or better mechanical properties as parts fabricated via more traditional casting and machining methods. As the demand for titanium powder continues to increase, the price also increases. Titanium spheroidized powder from different vendors has a price range from 260/kg-450/kg, other spheroidized alloys such as Niobium can cost as high as $1,200/kg. Alternative titanium powders produced from methods such as the Titanium Hydride-Dehydride (HDH) process and the Armstrong Commercially Pure Titanium (CPTi) process can be fabricated at a fraction of the cost of powders fabricated via gas atomization. The alternative powders can be spheroidized and blended. Current sectors in additive manufacturing such as the medical industry are concerned that there will not be enough spherical powder for production and are seeking other powder options. It is believed the EBM technology can use a blend of spherical and angular powder to build fully dense parts with equal mechanical properties to those produced using traditional powders. Some of the challenges with angular and irregular powders are overcoming the poor flow characteristics and the attainment of the same or better packing densities as spherical powders. The goal of this research is to demonstrate the feasibility of utilizing alternative and lower cost powders in the EBM process. As a result, reducing the cost of the raw material to reduce the overall cost of the product produced with

  10. A family of fuel additives reduces the octane demand of automobile engines

    SciTech Connect

    Weaver, S.L.; Lin, J.J.; Haury, E.J.

    1996-10-01

    A series of proprietary compounds was found to have dramatic octane requirement reducing effects on both the stabilized octane requirement of an engine and the magnitude of octane requirement increase when compared to base gasoline in a variety of gasolines and engines. Combustion chamber deposit removal is not the principal mode of action of these compounds.

  11. Reduced Need of Lubricity Additives in Soybean Oil Blends Under Boundary Lubrication Conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Converging prices of vegetable oils and petroleum, along with increased focus on renewable resources, gave more momentum to vegetable oil lubricants. Boundary lubrication properties of four Extreme Pressure (EP) additive blends in conventional Soy Bean Oil (SBO) and Paraffinic Mineral Oil (PMO) of ...

  12. Additional results on 'Reducing geometric dilution of precision using ridge regression'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, Robert J.

    1990-07-01

    Kelly (1990) presented preliminary results on the feasibility of using ridge regression (RR) to reduce the effects of geometric dilution of precision (GDOP) error inflation in position-fix navigation systems. Recent results indicate that RR will not reduce GDOP bias inflation when biaslike measurement errors last much longer than the aircraft guidance-loop response time. This conclusion precludes the use of RR on navigation systems whose dominant error sources are biaslike; e.g., the GPS selective-availability error source. The simulation results given by Kelly are, however, valid for the conditions defined. Although RR has not yielded a satisfactory solution to the general GDOP problem, it has illuminated the role that multicollinearity plays in navigation signal processors such as the Kalman filter. Bias inflation, initial position guess errors, ridge-parameter selection methodology, and the recursive ridge filter are discussed.

  13. Experimental additions of aluminum sulfate and ammonium nitrate to in situ mesocosms to reduce cyanobacterial biovolume and microcystin concentration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harris, Ted D.; Wilhelm, Frank M.; Graham, Jennifer L.; Loftin, Keith A.

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that nitrogen additions to increase the total nitrogen:total phosphorus (TN:TP) ratio may reduce cyanobacterial biovolume and microcystin concentration in reservoirs. In systems where TP is >100 μg/L, however, nitrogen additions to increase the TN:TP ratio could cause ammonia, nitrate, or nitrite toxicity to terrestrial and aquatic organisms. Reducing phosphorus via aluminum sulfate (alum) may be needed prior to nitrogen additions aimed at increasing the TN:TP ratio. We experimentally tested this sequential management approach in large in situ mesocosms (70.7 m3) to examine effects on cyanobacteria and microcystin concentration. Because alum removes nutrients and most seston from the water column, alum treatment reduced both TN and TP, leaving post-treatment TN:TP ratios similar to pre-treatment ratios. Cyanobacterial biovolume was reduced after alum addition, but the percent composition (i.e., relative) cyanobacterial abundance remained unchanged. A single ammonium nitrate (nitrogen) addition increased the TN:TP ratio 7-fold. After the TN:TP ratio was >50 (by weight), cyanobacterial biovolume and abundance were reduced, and chrysophyte and cryptophyte biovolume and abundance increased compared to the alum treatment. Microcystin was not detectable until the TN:TP ratio was <50. Although both treatments reduced cyanobacteria, only the nitrogen treatment seemed to stimulate energy flow from primary producers to zooplankton, which suggests that combining alum and nitrogen treatments may be a viable in-lake management strategy to reduce cyanobacteria and possibly microcystin concentrations in high-phosphorus systems. Additional studies are needed to define best management practices before combined alum and nitrogen additions are implemented as a reservoir management strategy.

  14. Polymerized fatty acid amine derivatives useful as friction and wear-reducing additives

    SciTech Connect

    Coupland, K.; Smith, C.R.

    1981-02-10

    A hydrocarbon composition having a major portion of a hydrocarbon preferably a lubricating oil such as mineral oil and at least a friction-reducing amount usually 0.01 to 10 weight percent of an amine or amine derivative of a hydrocarbon-soluble polymerized fatty acid e.g. a dimeramine derived from a dicarboxylic acid containing at least 12 carbon atoms such as 9(10)-carboxy stearic acid has improved antifriction and flue economy properties.

  15. Rheological Modification of Reduced Fat Chocolate Induced by the Addition of Limonene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Do, T.-A. Line; Vieira, Joselio; Hargreaves, Jeremy; Wolf, Bettina; Mitchell, John

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this study is to understand how the addition of limonene, a low molecular weight hydrophobic compound, to chocolate, leads to a decrease in the viscosity of molten chocolate. Chocolate is a fat (cocoa butter) based dispersion of solids (sugar, cocoa and milk solids). We showed that, by mixing with cocoa butter, limonene decreases the viscosity of chocolate by decreasing the viscosity of its continuous phase, liquid cocoa butter. To understand the functionality of limonene in decreasing the viscosity of cocoa butter (triacylglyceride melt), additional mixtures of cocoa butter and limonene were prepared and their viscosity was measured. The dependence of the viscosity on the ratio of cocoa butter to limonene analyzed using Kay's equation seems to indicate that limonene mixes with and within the cocoa butter triacylglycerides, diluting the fat and leading to a decrease in the overall fat viscosity.

  16. Recovery of valuable metals from electroplating sludge with reducing additives via vitrification.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ruth; Huang, Kuo-Lin; Lin, Zih-Yi; Wang, Jian-Wen; Lin, Chitsan; Kuo, Yi-Ming

    2013-11-15

    In this study, vitrification was applied to treat Ni-Cu electroplating sludge. The sludge was mixed with additives (limestone:cullet = 4:6) and then heated to 1450 °C. The cooled product could be separated into slag and ingot. An atomic absorption spectrometer was used to determine the metal levels of specimens and toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) tests, whereas the crystalline and surface characteristics were examined using quantitative X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. With a glassy structure, the slag was mainly composed of Ca, Si, and Mg. The TCLP results of slags met the Taiwan regulated standards, suggesting that slag can be used for recycling purposes. With the aid of additives, the crystalline phase of slag was transformed form CaMgSiO4 into CsSiO3. The ingots were mainly composed of Ni (563,000-693,800 mg/kg), Cu (79,900-87,400 mg/kg), and Fe (35,000-43,600 mg/kg) (target metals) due the gravity separation during vitrification. At appropriate additives/sludge ratios (>0.2), >95% of target metals gathered in the ingot as a recoverable form (Ni-Fe alloy). The high Ni level of slag suggests that the ingot can be used as the raw materials for smelters or the additives for steel making. Therefore, the vitrification approach of this study is a promising technology to recover valuable metals from Ni-Cu electroplating sludge.

  17. L-ascorbic acid addition to chitosan reduces body weight in overweight women.

    PubMed

    Jung, Eun Young; Jun, Sung Chul; Chang, Un Jae; Suh, Hyung Joo

    2014-01-01

    Previously, we have found that the addition of L-ascorbic acid to chitosan enhanced the reduction in body weight gain in guinea pigs fed a high-fat diet. We hypothesized that the addition of L-ascorbic acid to chitosan would accelerate the reduction of body weight in humans, similar to the animal model. Overweight subjects administered chitosan with or without L-ascorbic acid for 8 weeks, were assigned to three groups: Control group (N=26, placebo, vehicle only), Chito group (N=27, 3 g/day chitosan), and Chito-vita group (N=27, 3 g/day chitosan plus 2 g/day L-ascorbic acid). The body weights and body mass index (BMI) of the Chito and Chito-vita groups decreased significantly (p<0.05) compared to the Control group. The BMI of the Chito-vita group decreased significantly compared to the Chito group (Chito: -1.0 kg/m2 vs. Chito-vita: -1.6 kg/m2, p<0.05). The results showed that the chitosan enhanced reduction of body weight and BMI was accentuated by the addition of L-ascorbic acid. The fat mass, percentage body fat, body circumference, and skinfold thickness in the Chito and Chito-vita groups decreased more than the Control group; however, these parameters were not significantly different between the three groups. Chitosan combined with L-ascorbic acid may be useful for controlling body weight.

  18. Energy efficient reduced graphene oxide additives: Mechanism of effective lubrication and antiwear properties

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Bhavana; Kumar, N.; Panda, Kalpataru; Dash, S.; Tyagi, A. K.

    2016-01-01

    Optimized concentration of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) in the lube is one of the important factors for effective lubrication of solid body contacts. At sufficiently lower concentration, the lubrication is ineffective and friction/wear is dominated by base oil. In contrast, at sufficiently higher concentration, the rGO sheets aggregates in the oil and weak interlayer sliding characteristic of graphene sheets is no more active for providing lubrication. However, at optimized concentration, friction coefficient and wear is remarkably reduced to 70% and 50%, respectively, as compared to neat oil. Traditionally, such lubrication is described by graphene/graphite particle deposited in contact surfaces that provides lower shear strength of boundary tribofilm. In the present investigation, graphene/graphite tribofilm was absent and existing traditional lubrication mechanism for the reduction of friction and wear is ruled out. It is demonstrated that effective lubrication is possible, if rGO is chemically linked with PEG molecules through hydrogen bonding and PEG intercalated graphene sheets provide sufficiently lower shear strength of freely suspended composite tribofilm under the contact pressure. The work revealed that physical deposition and adsorption of the graphene sheets in the metallic contacts is not necessary for the lubrication. PMID:26725334

  19. Energy efficient reduced graphene oxide additives: Mechanism of effective lubrication and antiwear properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Bhavana; Kumar, N.; Panda, Kalpataru; Dash, S.; Tyagi, A. K.

    2016-01-01

    Optimized concentration of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) in the lube is one of the important factors for effective lubrication of solid body contacts. At sufficiently lower concentration, the lubrication is ineffective and friction/wear is dominated by base oil. In contrast, at sufficiently higher concentration, the rGO sheets aggregates in the oil and weak interlayer sliding characteristic of graphene sheets is no more active for providing lubrication. However, at optimized concentration, friction coefficient and wear is remarkably reduced to 70% and 50%, respectively, as compared to neat oil. Traditionally, such lubrication is described by graphene/graphite particle deposited in contact surfaces that provides lower shear strength of boundary tribofilm. In the present investigation, graphene/graphite tribofilm was absent and existing traditional lubrication mechanism for the reduction of friction and wear is ruled out. It is demonstrated that effective lubrication is possible, if rGO is chemically linked with PEG molecules through hydrogen bonding and PEG intercalated graphene sheets provide sufficiently lower shear strength of freely suspended composite tribofilm under the contact pressure. The work revealed that physical deposition and adsorption of the graphene sheets in the metallic contacts is not necessary for the lubrication.

  20. Numerical study of water entry supercavitating flow around a vertical circular cylinder influenced by turbulent drag-reducing additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, C. X.; Cheng, J. P.; Li, F. C.

    2015-01-01

    This paper attempts to introduce a numerical simulation procedure to simulate water-entry problems influenced by turbulent drag-reducing additives in a viscous incompressible medium. Firstly we performed a numerical investigation on water-entry supercavities in water and turbulent drag-reducing solution at the impact velocity of 28.4 m/s to confirm the accuracy of the numerical method. Based on the verification, projectile entering water and turbulent drag-reducing solution at relatively high velocity of 142.7 m/s (phase transition is considered) is simulated. The cross viscosity equation was adopted to represent the shear-thinning characteristic of aqueous solution of drag-reducing additives. The configuration and dynamic characteristics of water entry supercavity, flow resistance were discussed respectively. It was obtained that the numerical simulation results are in consistence with experimental data. Numerical results show that the supercavity length in drag-reducing solution is larger than one in water and the velocity attenuates faster at high velocity than at low velocity; the influence of drag-reducing solution is more obvious at high impact velocity. Turbulent drag-reducing additives have the great potential for enhancement of supercavity.

  1. Drag reducing effects of polymer additives in a plate heat exchanger for the OTEC system

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, N.; Yoon, S.; Kim, C.; Seo, T.

    1999-07-01

    Experiments were undertaken for a 15kW Alfa-Laval plate heat exchanger utilizing polyethylene oxide as a polymer additive. Concentrations of polymer additives were 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 100, 200 and 400 wppm at 25 C and mass flow rates were 0.6kg/s, 0.7kg/s, 0.8kg/s and 0.9kg/s in normal operating ranges of the plate heat exchanger. The maximum effects of drag reductions were found at 20 wppm polymer concentration and at approximately 0.7kg/s of mass flow rate. The results show that there exist optimum polymer concentration and at approximately 0.7kg/s of mass flow rate. The results show that there exist optimum polymer concentration and mass flow rate for the plate heat exchanger for maximum drag reduction effects. In most cases, drag reduction of approximately 20% has been obtained. It means considerable savings in pumping power for a large size OTEC plant.

  2. PATHOGEN EQUIVALENCY COMMITTEE (PEC)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency created the PEC in 1985 to make recommendations to EPA and State managers on the equivalency of unproven sewage sludge disinfection technologies/processes to either a Process to Significantly Reduce Pathogens (PSRP) or a Process to Further...

  3. Reorganizing Nigeria's Vaccine Supply Chain Reduces Need For Additional Storage Facilities, But More Storage Is Required.

    PubMed

    Shittu, Ekundayo; Harnly, Melissa; Whitaker, Shanta; Miller, Roger

    2016-02-01

    One of the major problems facing Nigeria's vaccine supply chain is the lack of adequate vaccine storage facilities. Despite the introduction of solar-powered refrigerators and the use of new tools to monitor supply levels, this problem persists. Using data on vaccine supply for 2011-14 from Nigeria's National Primary Health Care Development Agency, we created a simulation model to explore the effects of variance in supply and demand on storage capacity requirements. We focused on the segment of the supply chain that moves vaccines inside Nigeria. Our findings suggest that 55 percent more vaccine storage capacity is needed than is currently available. We found that reorganizing the supply chain as proposed by the National Primary Health Care Development Agency could reduce that need to 30 percent more storage. Storage requirements varied by region of the country and vaccine type. The Nigerian government may want to consider the differences in storage requirements by region and vaccine type in its proposed reorganization efforts.

  4. Reorganizing Nigeria's Vaccine Supply Chain Reduces Need For Additional Storage Facilities, But More Storage Is Required.

    PubMed

    Shittu, Ekundayo; Harnly, Melissa; Whitaker, Shanta; Miller, Roger

    2016-02-01

    One of the major problems facing Nigeria's vaccine supply chain is the lack of adequate vaccine storage facilities. Despite the introduction of solar-powered refrigerators and the use of new tools to monitor supply levels, this problem persists. Using data on vaccine supply for 2011-14 from Nigeria's National Primary Health Care Development Agency, we created a simulation model to explore the effects of variance in supply and demand on storage capacity requirements. We focused on the segment of the supply chain that moves vaccines inside Nigeria. Our findings suggest that 55 percent more vaccine storage capacity is needed than is currently available. We found that reorganizing the supply chain as proposed by the National Primary Health Care Development Agency could reduce that need to 30 percent more storage. Storage requirements varied by region of the country and vaccine type. The Nigerian government may want to consider the differences in storage requirements by region and vaccine type in its proposed reorganization efforts. PMID:26858383

  5. Additives to reduce susceptibility of thermosets and thermoplastics to erosion from atomic oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orwoll, Robert A.

    1990-01-01

    Polymeric materials have many attractive features such as light weight, high strength, and broad applicability in the form of films, fibers, and molded objects. In low earth orbit (LEO), these materials, when exposed on the exterior of the spacecraft, have the serious disadvantage of being susceptible to erosion by atomic oxygen (AO). AO is the most common chemical species at LEO altitudes. AO can be an extremely efficient oxidizing agent as was apparent from the extensive erosion of organic films exposed in STS missions. The mechanism for erosion involves the reaction of oxygen atoms at the surface of the substrate to form small molecular species. The susceptibility of polymeric materials varies with their chemical composition. Films with silicon atoms incorporated in the molecular structures have large coefficients of thermal expansion. This limits their utility. In an alternative approach additives were sought that mix physically and form a protective oxide layer when the film is exposed to AO. A large number of organic compounds containing silicon, germanium, or tin atoms were screened. Most were found to have very limited solubility in the polyetherimide (Ultem) films that were being protected from AO. However, one, bis(triphenyl tin) oxide, (BTO), is miscible in Ultem up to about 25 percent. Films of Ultem polyimide containing up to 25 wt percent BTO were prepared by evaporation of solvent from a solution of Ultem and BTO. The effects of AO on these films were simulated in the oxygen atmosphere of a radio frequency glow-discharge chamber. In the second part of this study, atoms were incorporated in epoxy resins. Experiments are in progress to measure the resistance of films of the cured epoxy to AO in the discharge chamber.

  6. Addition of dietary fiber sources to shakes reduces postprandial glycemia and alters food intake.

    PubMed

    Galvão Cândido, Flávia; Silva Ton, Winder Tadeu; Gonçalves Alfenas, Rita de Cássia

    2014-09-15

    Introducción: Obesidad y diabetes de tipo 2 pueden ser controlados por alimentos capaces de modular la ingesta de alimentos y la glucemia. Objetivos: Se investigó si la adición de alimentos fuentes de fibra o fasolamina a batidos puede controlar la ingesta de alimentos y reducir la glucemia posprandial. Métodos: Estudio aleatorizado, simple ciego, de diseño cruzado (ingesta de alimentos:n=22; glucemia:n=10). Cinco batidos con cantidades similares de macronutrientes (C - control batido, SA - salvado de avena batido, L - linaza batido, FB - extracto de frijol blanco batido y PI - harina de plátano no maduro batido) fueron consumidos en cinco días no consecutivos. Las participantes registraron la ingesta de alimentos en las 24 horas subsiguientes. La glucosa en sangre se midió a 0 (inmediatamente antes), 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 y 120 minutos después de la ingestión de cada batido y se calcularon las áreas incrementales bajo las curvas (AIBC). Resultados: En comparación a C, hubo un aumento significativo en la ingesta de fibra después de que el consumo de SA(+17,9g), SL(+19,1g), y PI(+12,6g), y en la grasa después del consumo de SA(+25,4g). Se encontró una reducción no significativa de la ingesta diaria de energía en L (1524kJ, P=0,10) en comparación con C. Hubo una reducción del 43% en el AIBC (P=0,03) en respuesta al consumo PI. Conclusiones: Harina de plátano no maduro reduce la respuesta glucémica posprandial de batidos casi a la mitad. El efecto de salvado de avena y linaza en la ingesta de alimentos requiere mayor investigación en estudios a largo plazo.

  7. How polymer additives reduce the pour point of hydrocarbon solvents containing wax crystals.

    PubMed

    Binks, Bernard P; Fletcher, Paul D I; Roberts, Noel A; Dunkerley, John; Greenfield, Hannah; Mastrangelo, Antonio; Trickett, Kieran

    2015-02-14

    We have investigated how four different pour point depressant (PPD) polymers affect the pour point transition in mixtures of a single pure wax in a solvent. We used either n-eicosane (C20), CH3(CH2)18CH3, n-tetracosane (C24), CH3(CH2)22CH3 or n-hexatriacontane (C36), CH3(CH2)34CH3 as the wax component with either n-heptane or toluene as the solvent component. For all wax-solvent combinations, the measured variation of wax solubility with temperature is well predicted by ideal solution theory. The variation of pour point temperature as a function of the overall wax concentration is quantitatively modelled using the idea that, for each overall wax concentration, the pour point occurs at a temperature at which a critical volume fraction ϕ* of wax crystals has precipitated. Close to the pour point temperature, extraction and examination of the wax crystals show they consist of polydisperse, irregularly-shaped platelets with axial ratios (h/d, where h is the plate thickness and d is the plate long dimension) in the range 0.005-0.05. It is found that the measured ϕ* values corresponding to the pour point transitions are weakly correlated with the wax crystal axial ratios (h/d) for all wax-solvent-PPD polymer combinations. These results indicate that the pour point transition occurs at a volume fraction larger than the value at which the volumes of rotation of the platelet crystals overlap, i.e., 2.5(h/d) < ϕ* < 11(h/d). PPD polymers work, in part, by increasing the wax crystal axial ratio (h/d), thereby increasing ϕ* and reducing the pour point temperature. Since the PPD's ability to modify the wax crystal shape relies on its adsorption to the crystal-solution surface, it is anticipated and observed experimentally that optimum PPD efficacy is correlated with the difference between the wax and the polymer solubility boundary temperatures. This finding and the mechanistic insight gained here provide the basis for a simple and rapid screening test to identify candidate

  8. How polymer additives reduce the pour point of hydrocarbon solvents containing wax crystals.

    PubMed

    Binks, Bernard P; Fletcher, Paul D I; Roberts, Noel A; Dunkerley, John; Greenfield, Hannah; Mastrangelo, Antonio; Trickett, Kieran

    2015-02-14

    We have investigated how four different pour point depressant (PPD) polymers affect the pour point transition in mixtures of a single pure wax in a solvent. We used either n-eicosane (C20), CH3(CH2)18CH3, n-tetracosane (C24), CH3(CH2)22CH3 or n-hexatriacontane (C36), CH3(CH2)34CH3 as the wax component with either n-heptane or toluene as the solvent component. For all wax-solvent combinations, the measured variation of wax solubility with temperature is well predicted by ideal solution theory. The variation of pour point temperature as a function of the overall wax concentration is quantitatively modelled using the idea that, for each overall wax concentration, the pour point occurs at a temperature at which a critical volume fraction ϕ* of wax crystals has precipitated. Close to the pour point temperature, extraction and examination of the wax crystals show they consist of polydisperse, irregularly-shaped platelets with axial ratios (h/d, where h is the plate thickness and d is the plate long dimension) in the range 0.005-0.05. It is found that the measured ϕ* values corresponding to the pour point transitions are weakly correlated with the wax crystal axial ratios (h/d) for all wax-solvent-PPD polymer combinations. These results indicate that the pour point transition occurs at a volume fraction larger than the value at which the volumes of rotation of the platelet crystals overlap, i.e., 2.5(h/d) < ϕ* < 11(h/d). PPD polymers work, in part, by increasing the wax crystal axial ratio (h/d), thereby increasing ϕ* and reducing the pour point temperature. Since the PPD's ability to modify the wax crystal shape relies on its adsorption to the crystal-solution surface, it is anticipated and observed experimentally that optimum PPD efficacy is correlated with the difference between the wax and the polymer solubility boundary temperatures. This finding and the mechanistic insight gained here provide the basis for a simple and rapid screening test to identify candidate

  9. Fentanyl tolerance in the treatment of cancer pain: a case of successful opioid switching from fentanyl to oxycodone at a reduced equivalent dose.

    PubMed

    Sutou, Ichiro; Nakatani, Toshihiko; Hashimoto, Tatsuya; Saito, Yoji

    2015-06-01

    Opioids are not generally deemed to have an analgesic ceiling effect on cancer pain. However, there have been occasional reports of tolerance to opioid development induced by multiple doses of fentanyl. The authors report a case of suspected tolerance to the analgesic effect of opioid, in which an increasing dose of fentanyl failed to relieve the patient's cancer pain symptoms, but opioid switching to oxycodone injections enabled a dose reduction to below the equivalent dose conversion ratio. The patient was a 60-year-old man diagnosed with pancreatic body carcinoma with multiple metastases. The base dose consisted of 12 mg/day of transdermal fentanyl patches (equivalent to 3.6 mg/day, 150 μg/h fentanyl injection), and rescue therapy consisted of 10 mg immediate-release oxycodone powders. Despite the total daily dose of fentanyl reaching 5.6 mg (equivalent to 560 mg oral morphine), the analgesic effect was inadequate; thus, an urgent adjustment was necessary. Due to the moderate dose of fentanyl, the switch to oxycodone injection was done incrementally at a daily dose equivalent to 25% of the fentanyl injection. The total dose of oxycodone was replaced approximately 53.5% of the dose of fentanyl prior to opioid switching.

  10. Establishing Substantial Equivalence: Transcriptomics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baudo, María Marcela; Powers, Stephen J.; Mitchell, Rowan A. C.; Shewry, Peter R.

    Regulatory authorities in Western Europe require transgenic crops to be substantially equivalent to conventionally bred forms if they are to be approved for commercial production. One way to establish substantial equivalence is to compare the transcript profiles of developing grain and other tissues of transgenic and conventionally bred lines, in order to identify any unintended effects of the transformation process. We present detailed protocols for transcriptomic comparisons of developing wheat grain and leaf material, and illustrate their use by reference to our own studies of lines transformed to express additional gluten protein genes controlled by their own endosperm-specific promoters. The results show that the transgenes present in these lines (which included those encoding marker genes) did not have any significant unpredicted effects on the expression of endogenous genes and that the transgenic plants were therefore substantially equivalent to the corresponding parental lines.

  11. Experimental study on the characteristics of ventilated cavitation around an underwater navigating body influenced by turbulent drag-reducing additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, ChenXing; Li, FengChen

    2015-09-01

    In this study, a new control strategy for turbulent drag reduction involving ventilated cavitation is proposed. The configurational and hydrodynamic characteristics of ventilated cavities influenced by turbulent drag-reducing additives were experimentally studied in water tunnel. The test model was fixed in the water tunnel by a strut in the aft-part. Aqueous solutions of CTAC/NaSal (cetyltrimethyl ammonium chloride/sodium salicylate) with weight concentrations of 100, 200, 400 and 600 ppm (part per million), respectively, were injected into the ventilated air cavity from the edge of the cavitator with accurate control by an injection pump. The cavity configurations were recorded by a high-speed CCD camera. The hydrodynamic characteristics of the test model were measured by a six-component balance. Experimental results show that, within the presently tested cases, the lengths of cavity influenced by drag-reducing solution are smaller than normal condition (ventilated cavity) in water, but the asymmetry of the cavity is improved. The drag resisted by the test model is reduced dramatically (the maximum drag reduction can reach to 80%) and the re-entrant jet is more complex after the CTAC solution is injected into the cavity. Turbulent drag-reducing additives have the potential in enhancement of supercavitating asymmetry and further drag reduction.

  12. TECHNICAL BASIS FOR DOE STANDARD 3013 EQUIVALENCY SUPPORTING REDUCED TEMPERATURE STABILIZATION OF OXALATE-DERIVED PLUTONIUM DIOXIDE PRODUCED BY THE HB-LINE FACILITY AT SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    SciTech Connect

    Duffey, J. M.; Livingston, R. R.; Berg, J. M.; Veirs, D. K.

    2013-02-06

    This report documents the technical basis for determining that stabilizing highpurity PuO{sub 2} derived from oxalate precipitation at the SRS HB-Line facility at a minimum of 625 {degree}C for at least four hours in an oxidizing atmosphere is equivalent to stabilizing at a minimum of 950 {degree}C for at least two hours as regards meeting the objectives of stabilization defined by DOE-STD-3013 if the material is handled in a way to prevent excessive absorption of water.

  13. Large-scale Manufacturing of Nanoparticulate-based Lubrication Additives for Improved Energy Efficiency and Reduced Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Erdemir, Ali

    2013-09-26

    This project was funded under the Department of Energy (DOE) Lab Call on Nanomanufacturing for Energy Efficiency and was directed toward the development of novel boron-based nanocolloidal lubrication additives for improving the friction and wear performance of machine components in a wide range of industrial and transportation applications. Argonne's research team concentrated on the scientific and technical aspects of the project, using a range of state-of-the art analytical and tribological test facilities. Argonne has extensive past experience and expertise in working with boron-based solid and liquid lubrication additives, and has intellectual property ownership of several. There were two industrial collaborators in this project: Ashland Oil (represented by its Valvoline subsidiary) and Primet Precision Materials, Inc. (a leading nanomaterials company). There was also a sub-contract with the University of Arkansas. The major objectives of the project were to develop novel boron-based nanocolloidal lubrication additives and to optimize and verify their performance under boundary-lubricated sliding conditions. The project also tackled problems related to colloidal dispersion, larger-scale manufacturing and blending of nano-additives with base carrier oils. Other important issues dealt with in the project were determination of the optimum size and concentration of the particles and compatibility with various base fluids and/or additives. Boron-based particulate additives considered in this project included boric acid (H{sub 3}BO{sub 3}), hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN), boron oxide, and borax. As part of this project, we also explored a hybrid MoS{sub 2} + boric acid formulation approach for more effective lubrication and reported the results. The major motivation behind this work was to reduce energy losses related to friction and wear in a wide spectrum of mechanical systems and thereby reduce our dependence on imported oil. Growing concern over greenhouse gas

  14. Addition of Selenium Nanoparticles to Electrospun Silk Scaffold Improves the Mammalian Cell Activity While Reducing Bacterial Growth.

    PubMed

    Chung, Stanley; Ercan, Batur; Roy, Amit K; Webster, Thomas J

    2016-01-01

    Silk possesses many beneficial wound healing properties, and electrospun scaffolds are especially applicable for skin applications, due to their smaller interstices and higher surface areas. However, purified silk promotes microbial growth. Selenium nanoparticles have shown excellent antibacterial properties and are a novel antimicrobial chemistry. Here, electrospun silk scaffolds were doped with selenium nanoparticles to impart antibacterial properties to the silk scaffolds. Results showed significantly improved bacterial inhibition and mild improvement in human dermal fibroblast metabolic activity. These results suggest that the addition of selenium nanoparticles to electrospun silk is a promising approach to improve wound healing with reduced infection, without relying on antibiotics. PMID:27471473

  15. The addition of GTN to capsaicin cream reduces the discomfort associated with application of capsaicin alone. A volunteer study.

    PubMed

    McCleane, G J; McLaughlin, M

    1998-11-01

    In a double blind, placebo controlled trial of 40 volunteers, the burning discomfort associated with application of capsaicin cream (0.025%) was compared to placebo, GTN cream (1.33%) and to the combination of capsaicin cream (0.025%) plus GTN cream 1.33%. Median VAS for burning pain were 0 for the placebo, GTN and GTN + capsaicin groups and 3 for the capsaicin group after single application of each cream at daily intervals. This study demonstrates that after single application the addition of GTN to capsaicin significantly reduces the burning discomfort associated with application of capsaicin alone.

  16. Addition of Selenium Nanoparticles to Electrospun Silk Scaffold Improves the Mammalian Cell Activity While Reducing Bacterial Growth

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Stanley; Ercan, Batur; Roy, Amit K.; Webster, Thomas J.

    2016-01-01

    Silk possesses many beneficial wound healing properties, and electrospun scaffolds are especially applicable for skin applications, due to their smaller interstices and higher surface areas. However, purified silk promotes microbial growth. Selenium nanoparticles have shown excellent antibacterial properties and are a novel antimicrobial chemistry. Here, electrospun silk scaffolds were doped with selenium nanoparticles to impart antibacterial properties to the silk scaffolds. Results showed significantly improved bacterial inhibition and mild improvement in human dermal fibroblast metabolic activity. These results suggest that the addition of selenium nanoparticles to electrospun silk is a promising approach to improve wound healing with reduced infection, without relying on antibiotics. PMID:27471473

  17. Addition of antioxidant of bamboo leaves (AOB) effectively reduces acrylamide formation in potato crisps and French fries.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu; Chen, Jie; Zhang, Xiaoling; Wu, Xiaoqin; Zhang, Ying

    2007-01-24

    The present study was to demonstrate the efficiency of antioxidant of bamboo leaves (AOB) on the reduction of acrylamide during thermal processing and to summarize the optimal level of AOB applied in potato-based products. Potato crisps and French fries were immersed into different contents of AOB solution, and the frying processing parameters were optimized. The acrylamide content was determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The sensory evaluation was performed in double blind manner. Our results showed that nearly 74.1% and 76.1% of acrylamide in potato crisps and French fries was reduced when the AOB addition ratio was 0.1% and 0.01% (w/w), respectively. The maximum inhibitory rate was achieved when the immersion time was designed as 60 s. Sensory evaluation results showed that the crispness and flavor of potato crisps and French fries processed by AOB solution had no significant difference compared to normal potato matrixes (P > 0.05) when the AOB addition ratio was <0.5% (w/w). These results suggested that AOB could significantly reduce acrylamide formation in potato-based foods and keep original crispness and flavor of potato matrixes. This study could be regarded as a pioneer contribution on the reduction of acrylamide in various foods by natural antioxidants.

  18. Third Trimester Equivalent Alcohol Exposure Reduces Modulation of Glutamatergic Synaptic Transmission by 5-HT1A Receptors in the Rat Hippocampal CA3 Region.

    PubMed

    Morton, Russell A; Valenzuela, C Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Fetal alcohol exposure has been associated with many neuropsychiatric disorders that have been linked to altered serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) signaling, including depression and anxiety. During the first 2 weeks of postnatal life in rodents (equivalent to the third trimester of human pregnancy) 5-HT neurons undergo significant functional maturation and their axons reach target regions in the forebrain (e.g., cortex and hippocampus). The objective of this study was to identify the effects of third trimester ethanol (EtOH) exposure on hippocampal 5-HT signaling. Using EtOH vapor inhalation chambers, we exposed rat pups to EtOH for 4 h/day from postnatal day (P) 2 to P12. The average serum EtOH concentration in the pups was 0.13 ± 0.04 g/dl (legal intoxication limit in humans = 0.08 g/dl). We used brain slices to assess the modulatory actions of 5-HT on field excitatory postsynaptic potentials in the hippocampal CA3 region at P13-P15. Application of the GABAA/glycine receptor antagonist, picrotoxin, caused broadening of field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSPs), an effect that was reversed by application of 5-HT in slices from air exposed rats. However, this effect of 5-HT was absent in EtOH exposed animals. In slices from naïve animals, application of a 5-HT1A receptor antagonist blocked the effect of 5-HT on the fEPSPs recorded in presence of picrotoxin, suggesting that third trimester ethanol exposure acts by inhibiting the function of these receptors. Studies indicate that 5-HT1A receptors play a critical role in the development of hippocampal circuits. Therefore, inhibition of these receptors by third trimester ethanol exposure could contribute to the pathophysiology of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. PMID:27375424

  19. Third Trimester Equivalent Alcohol Exposure Reduces Modulation of Glutamatergic Synaptic Transmission by 5-HT1A Receptors in the Rat Hippocampal CA3 Region

    PubMed Central

    Morton, Russell A.; Valenzuela, C. Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Fetal alcohol exposure has been associated with many neuropsychiatric disorders that have been linked to altered serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) signaling, including depression and anxiety. During the first 2 weeks of postnatal life in rodents (equivalent to the third trimester of human pregnancy) 5-HT neurons undergo significant functional maturation and their axons reach target regions in the forebrain (e.g., cortex and hippocampus). The objective of this study was to identify the effects of third trimester ethanol (EtOH) exposure on hippocampal 5-HT signaling. Using EtOH vapor inhalation chambers, we exposed rat pups to EtOH for 4 h/day from postnatal day (P) 2 to P12. The average serum EtOH concentration in the pups was 0.13 ± 0.04 g/dl (legal intoxication limit in humans = 0.08 g/dl). We used brain slices to assess the modulatory actions of 5-HT on field excitatory postsynaptic potentials in the hippocampal CA3 region at P13-P15. Application of the GABAA/glycine receptor antagonist, picrotoxin, caused broadening of field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSPs), an effect that was reversed by application of 5-HT in slices from air exposed rats. However, this effect of 5-HT was absent in EtOH exposed animals. In slices from naïve animals, application of a 5-HT1A receptor antagonist blocked the effect of 5-HT on the fEPSPs recorded in presence of picrotoxin, suggesting that third trimester ethanol exposure acts by inhibiting the function of these receptors. Studies indicate that 5-HT1A receptors play a critical role in the development of hippocampal circuits. Therefore, inhibition of these receptors by third trimester ethanol exposure could contribute to the pathophysiology of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. PMID:27375424

  20. Equivalence Principle in Cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopeikin, Sergei

    2014-01-01

    We analyse the Einstein equivalence principle (EEP) for a Hubble observer in Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) spacetime. We show that the affine structure of the light cone in the FLRW spacetime should be treated locally in terms of the optical metric gαβ which is not reduced to the Minkowski metric fαβ due to the nonuniform parametrization of the local equations of light propagation with the proper time of the observer's clock. The physical consequence of this difference is that the Doppler shift of radio waves measured locally is affected by the Hubble expansion.

  1. Reference Alloy Waste Form Fabrication and Initiation of Reducing Atmosphere and Reductive Additives Study on Alloy Waste Form Fabrication

    SciTech Connect

    S.M. Frank; T.P. O'Holleran; P.A. Hahn

    2011-09-01

    This report describes the fabrication of two reference alloy waste forms, RAW-1(Re) and RAW-(Tc) using an optimized loading and heating method. The composition of the alloy materials was based on a generalized formulation to process various proposed feed streams resulting from the processing of used fuel. Waste elements are introduced into molten steel during alloy fabrication and, upon solidification, become incorporated into durable iron-based intermetallic phases of the alloy waste form. The first alloy ingot contained surrogate (non-radioactive), transition-metal fission products with rhenium acting as a surrogate for technetium. The second alloy ingot contained the same components as the first ingot, but included radioactive Tc-99 instead of rhenium. Understanding technetium behavior in the waste form is of particular importance due the longevity of Tc-99 and its mobility in the biosphere in the oxide form. RAW-1(Re) and RAW-1(Tc) are currently being used as test specimens in the comprehensive testing program investigating the corrosion and radionuclide release mechanisms of the representative alloy waste form. Also described in this report is the experimental plan to study the effects of reducing atmospheres and reducing additives to the alloy material during fabrication in an attempt to maximize the oxide content of waste streams that can be accommodated in the alloy waste form. Activities described in the experimental plan will be performed in FY12. The first aspect of the experimental plan is to study oxide formation on the alloy by introducing O2 impurities in the melt cover gas or from added oxide impurities in the feed materials. Reducing atmospheres will then be introduced to the melt cover gas in an attempt to minimize oxide formation during alloy fabrication. The second phase of the experimental plan is to investigate melting parameters associated with alloy fabrication to allow the separation of slag and alloy components of the melt.

  2. Gradient equivalent crystal theory.

    PubMed

    Zypman, F R; Ferrante, J

    2006-07-01

    This paper presents an extension of the formalism of equivalent crystal theory (ECT) by introducing an electron density gradient term so that the total model density becomes a more accurate representation of the real local density. Specifically, we allow for the electron density around a lattice site to have directionality, in addition to an average value, as assumed in ECT. We propose that an atom senses its neighbouring density as a weighted sum-the weights given by the its own electronic probability. As a benchmark, the method is used to compute vacancy migration energy curves of iron. These energies are in good agreement with previously published results. PMID:21690822

  3. Addition of bisphosphonate to antibiotic and anti-inflammatory treatment reduces bone resorption in experimental Staphylococcus aureus-induced arthritis.

    PubMed

    Verdrengh, Margareta; Carlsten, Hans; Ohlsson, Claes; Tarkowski, Andrej

    2007-03-01

    Bacterial arthritis is a disease with high morbidity leading to rapidly progressive bone resorption. We have shown earlier that treatment with antibiotics in combination with corticosteroids decreases joint inflammation and mortality but does not significantly affect bone/cartilage destruction of the joints. This study was performed to assess the effect of treatment with bisphosphonate [zoledronic acid (ZA)] in combination with antibiotics and corticosteroids, on the course and outcome of Staphlococcus aureus-induced arthritis. Three days after intravenous inoculation with S. aureus, mice were treated with antibiotics alone, ZA alone, ZA and antibiotics, or ZA combined with antibiotics and corticosteroids, respectively. One group served as controls and received PBS. Clinical assessment of arthritis was performed as well as histological analysis of bone and cartilage destruction in the joints. One femur from each mouse was collected for bone mineral density (BMD) analysis. In addition, serum levels of type I collagen fragments (RatLaps), and osteocalcin, markers for osteoclastic and osteoblastic activity, respectively, were analyzed. Mice treated with ZA and antibiotics or with ZA in combination with antibiotics and corticosteroids lost significantly less in trabecular bone density compared to infected control mice. Furthermore, the addition of corticosteroids to animals treated with ZA and antibiotics, significantly decreased serum levels of RatLaps and osteocalcin, compared to animals treated with ZA and antibiotics or ZA alone. Treatment with bisphosphonates in combination with antimicrobial agents and corticosteroids significantly decreases the activity of osteoclasts in septic arthritis, thereby reducing the risk of skeletal destruction.

  4. Coculture with astrocytes reduces the radiosensitivity of glioblastoma stem-like cells and identifies additional targets for radiosensitization

    PubMed Central

    Rath, Barbara H; Wahba, Amy; Camphausen, Kevin; Tofilon, Philip J

    2015-01-01

    Toward developing a model system for investigating the role of the microenvironment in the radioresistance of glioblastoma (GBM), human glioblastoma stem-like cells (GSCs) were grown in coculture with human astrocytes. Using a trans-well assay, survival analyses showed that astrocytes significantly decreased the radiosensitivity of GSCs compared to standard culture conditions. In addition, when irradiated in coculture, the initial level of radiation-induced γH2AX foci in GSCs was reduced and foci dispersal was enhanced suggesting that the presence of astrocytes influenced the induction and repair of DNA double-strand breaks. These data indicate that astrocytes can decrease the radiosensitivity of GSCs in vitro via a paracrine-based mechanism and further support a role for the microenvironment as a determinant of GBM radioresponse. Chemokine profiling of coculture media identified a number of bioactive molecules not present under standard culture conditions. The gene expression profiles of GSCs grown in coculture were significantly different as compared to GSCs grown alone. These analyses were consistent with an astrocyte-mediated modification in GSC phenotype and, moreover, suggested a number of potential targets for GSC radiosensitization that were unique to coculture conditions. Along these lines, STAT3 was activated in GSCs grown with astrocytes; the JAK/STAT3 inhibitor WP1066 enhanced the radiosensitivity of GSCs under coculture conditions and when grown as orthotopic xenografts. Further, this coculture system may also provide an approach for identifying additional targets for GBM radiosensitization. PMID:26518290

  5. Conducting Polymers: Insights Into Reduced Polyparaphenylene Vinylene Materials via Nucleophilic Addition, Proton Abstraction, and Electron Transfer Reactions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilker, Brian Lee

    Grignard routes were investigated as methods to produce poly paraphenylene vinylene polymers. Because of coupling problems with these reactions, high molecular weight unsubstituted and dimethyl and dimethoxy substituted poly paraphenylene vinylene polymers were prepared via a literature-proven synthetic route: the sodium hydride dehydrochlorination addition polymerization route. Both the Grignard reactions and the sodium hydride method required dichloromethyl compounds monomers. The syntheses of these dichloromethyl monomers were studied extensively. The three high molecular weight poly paraphenylene vinylene polymer systems prepared in this work were charged with the traditional electron transfer reducing agent potassium/naphthalide. They were also charged via the novel nucleophilic addition of n-butyllithium across the alkenes and subjected to proton abstraction charging in the presence of a strong, complexed base mixture of n-butyllithium and potassium-t-butoxide. Conductivities were obtained via standard four point probe techniques. Characterization of these polymers and their quenched anion derivatives was via FTIR and acid titration. Results of these topics are presented and discussed.

  6. Additional Saturday rehabilitation improves functional independence and quality of life and reduces length of stay: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    control group participants. Intervention group participants were 17% more likely to have achieved a clinically significant change in functional independence of 22 FIM points or more (risk ratio (RR) 1.17, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.34) and 18% more likely to have achieved a clinically significant change in health-related quality of life (RR 1.18, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.34) on discharge compared to the control group. There was some maintenance of effect for functional independence and health-related quality of life at 6-month follow-up but not at 12-month follow-up. There was no difference in the number of adverse events between the groups (incidence rate ratio = 0.81, 95% CI 0.61 to 1.08). Conclusions Providing an additional day of rehabilitation improved functional independence and health-related quality of life at discharge and may have reduced length of stay for patients receiving inpatient rehabilitation. Trial registration Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12609000973213 Please see related commentary: http://www.biomedcentral.com/10.1186/1741-7015-11-199. PMID:24228854

  7. Equivalence principles and electromagnetism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ni, W.-T.

    1977-01-01

    The implications of the weak equivalence principles are investigated in detail for electromagnetic systems in a general framework. In particular, it is shown that the universality of free-fall trajectories (Galileo weak equivalence principle) does not imply the validity of the Einstein equivalence principle. However, the Galileo principle plus the universality of free-fall rotation states does imply the Einstein principle.

  8. Employing Lead Thiocyanate Additive to Reduce the Hysteresis and Boost the Fill Factor of Planar Perovskite Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Ke, Weijun; Xiao, Chuanxiao; Wang, Changlei; Saparov, Bayrammurad; Duan, Hsin-Sheng; Zhao, Dewei; Xiao, Zewen; Schulz, Philip; Harvey, Steven P; Liao, Weiqiang; Meng, Weiwei; Yu, Yue; Cimaroli, Alexander J; Jiang, Chun-Sheng; Zhu, Kai; Al-Jassim, Mowafak; Fang, Guojia; Mitzi, David B; Yan, Yanfa

    2016-07-01

    Lead thiocyanate in the perovskite precursor can increase the grain size of a perovskite thin film and reduce the conductivity of the grain boundaries, leading to perovskite solar cells with reduced hysteresis and enhanced fill factor. A planar perovskite solar cell with grain boundary and interface passivation achieves a steady-state efficiency of 18.42%.

  9. Waste Determination Equivalency - 12172

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, Rebecca D.

    2012-07-01

    Secretary of Energy in January of 2006 based on proposed processing techniques with the expectation that it could be revised as new processing capabilities became viable. Once signed, however, it became evident that any changes would require lengthy review and another determination signed by the Secretary of Energy. With the maturation of additional salt removal technologies and the extension of the SWPF start-up date, it becomes necessary to define 'equivalency' to the processes laid out in the original determination. For the purposes of SRS, any waste not processed through Interim Salt Processing must be processed through SWPF or an equivalent process, and therefore a clear statement of the requirements for a process to be equivalent to SWPF becomes necessary. (authors)

  10. PATHOGEN EQUIVALENCY COMMITTEE UPDATE: PFRP EQUIVALENCY DETERMINATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation will:

    Review the mandate of the Pathogen Equivalency Committee
    Review the PEC's current membership of 10
    Discuss how a typical application is evaluated
    Note where information can be found
    List present deliberations/applications and describe t...

  11. Equivalent damage: A critical assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laflen, J. R.; Cook, T. S.

    1982-01-01

    Concepts in equivalent damage were evaluated to determine their applicability to the life prediction of hot path components of aircraft gas turbine engines. Equivalent damage was defined as being those effects which influence the crack initiation life-time beyond the damage that is measured in uniaxial, fully-reversed sinusoidal and isothermal experiments at low homologous temperatures. Three areas of equivalent damage were examined: mean stress, cumulative damage, and multiaxiality. For each area, a literature survey was conducted to aid in selecting the most appropriate theories. Where possible, data correlations were also used in the evaluation process. A set of criteria was developed for ranking the theories in each equivalent damage regime. These criteria considered aspects of engine utilization as well as the theoretical basis and correlative ability of each theory. In addition, consideration was given to the complex nature of the loading cycle at fatigue critical locations of hot path components; this loading includes non-proportional multiaxial stressing, combined temperature and strain fluctuations, and general creep-fatigue interactions. Through applications of selected equivalent damage theories to some suitable data sets it was found that there is insufficient data to allow specific recommendations of preferred theories for general applications. A series of experiments and areas of further investigations were identified.

  12. Optimizing the performance of a reactor by reducing the retention time and addition of glycerin for anaerobically digesting manure

    PubMed Central

    Timmerman, Maikel; Schuman, Els; van Eekert, Miriam; van Riel, Johan

    2015-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion of manure is a widely accepted technology for energy production. However, only a minimal portion of the manure production in the EU is anaerobically digested and occurs predominantly in codigestion plants. There is substantial potential for biogas plants that primarily operate on manure (>90%); however, the methane yields of manure are less compared to coproducts, which is one of the reasons for manure-based biogas plants often being economically non-viable. Therefore, it is essential to begin increasing the efficiency of these biogas plants. This study investigated the effect of decreasing retention time and introducing a moderate amount of glycerin on the biogas production as methods to improve efficiency. An experiment has been conducted with two different manure types in four biogas reactors. The results of the study demonstrated that, first, it was possible to decrease the retention time to 10–15 days; however, the effect on biogas production varied per manure type. Secondly, the biogas production almost triples at a retention time of 15.6 days with an addition of 4% glycerin. The relative production-enhancing effect of glycerin did not vary significantly with both manure types. However, the absolute production-enhancing effect of glycerin differed per manure type since the biogas production per gram VS differed per manure type. Thirdly, the positive effect of the glycerin input declines with shorter retention times. Therefore, the effect of glycerin addition depends on the manure type and retention time. PMID:25401272

  13. Improving high temperature creep resistance of reduced activation steels by addition of nitrogen and intermediate heat treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, W. B.; Zhang, C.; Xia, Z. X.; Yang, Z. G.

    2014-12-01

    In the present study, we report an enhanced high-temperature creep resistance in reduced activation ferrite/martensite (RAFM) steels, by introducing nitrogen (0.035 wt%, M3 steel) and employing a novel intermediate heat treatment I-Q-T (intermediate treatment, quenching and tempering). In comparison with all the control groups, the uniaxial tests of the I-Q-T treated M3 steel showed significant increase in rupture time and decrease in elongation. The microstructures of the samples were further characterized to elucidate the origin of the enhanced creep resistance. It is found that, by introducing nitrogen, the primary TaC particles were refined; by employing the I-Q-T heat treatment, the dispersed fine secondary MX precipitates, as well as the lath subgrains containing high-density dislocations, were increased: all are responsible for the improved creep resistance.

  14. Formula food-reducing diets:A new evidence-based addition to the weight management tool box

    PubMed Central

    Leeds, A R

    2014-01-01

    The changing pattern of obesity-related disease has created a need for a greater range of weight management options for the increasing number of people for whom weight loss and maintenance cannot be addressed by conventional dietary methods. Formula diet weight loss programmes [very low-calorie diets (VLCDs) (400–800 kcal/day) and low-calorie diets (LCDs) (800–1200 kcal/day)] can deliver weight loss at rates of 1–2 kg/week. This rate of weight loss can result in 10–20 kg weight loss in 8–12 weeks. Many health benefits associated with weight reduction seem to require between 10 and 20 kg weight loss. Formula diet programmes can result in weight loss, reduction of liver volume and reduction of visceral fat before bariatric surgery; weight loss before knee joint replacement surgery has also been shown. The benefit of pre-operative weight loss is still under investigation and such practices before bariatric surgery are variable in surgical units across the UK. Weight loss with formula diet in obesity-associated conditions where inflammation is an important component, such as osteoarthritis and psoriasis, has been demonstrated. Maintenance of about 10% of initial bodyweight loss, with symptom improvement in elderly obese people with knee osteoarthritis, has been shown over a period of 4 years. In obese people with psoriasis, weight loss with skin improvement has been maintained for 1 year. Clinical trials are currently underway to examine the merits of an initial weight loss with formula diet in pre-diabetes, in early type 2 diabetes and in insulin-treated type 2 diabetes. Rapid initial weight loss can result in rapid symptom improvement, such as reduced joint pain in osteoarthritis, improved sleep quality in obstructive sleep apnoea, reduced shortness of breath on exertion, reduced peripheral oedema and rapid improvement in metabolic control in diabetes, all changes that are highly motivating and conducive towards compliance. There is also some

  15. Additional treatment of wastewater reduces endocrine disruption in wild fish--a comparative study of tertiary and advanced treatments.

    PubMed

    Baynes, Alice; Green, Christopher; Nicol, Elizabeth; Beresford, Nicola; Kanda, Rakesh; Henshaw, Alan; Churchley, John; Jobling, Susan

    2012-05-15

    Steroid estrogens are thought to be the major cause of feminization (intersex) in wild fish. Widely used wastewater treatment technologies are not effective at removing these contaminants to concentrations thought to be required to protect aquatic wildlife. A number of advanced treatment processes have been proposed to reduce the concentrations of estrogens entering the environment. Before investment is made in such processes, it is imperative that we compare their efficacy in terms of removal of steroid estrogens and their feminizing effects with other treatment options. This study assessed both steroid removal and intersex induction in adult and early life stage fish (roach, Rutilus rutilus). Roach were exposed directly to either secondary (activated sludge process (ASP)), tertiary (sand filtrated (SF)), or advanced (chlorine dioxide (ClO(2)), granular activated charcoal (GAC)) treated effluents for six months. Surprisingly, both the advanced GAC and tertiary SF treatments (but not the ClO(2) treatment) significantly removed the intersex induction associated with the ASP effluent; this was not predicted by the steroid estrogen measurements, which were higher in the tertiary SF than either the GAC or the ClO(2). Therefore our study highlights the importance of using both biological and chemical analysis when assessing new treatment technologies.

  16. Acid-base titrations by stepwise additions of equal volumes of titrant with special reference to automatic titrations-I Theory, discussion of the gran functions, the hofstee method and two proposed methods for calculating equivalence volumes.

    PubMed

    Pehrsson, L; Ingman, F; Johansson, A

    The range of acid stability constants over which the Gran functions are applicable in evaluating acid-base titrations at normal concentrations is studied and found to be quite narrow. Alternatively, the titrations can be evaluated by using non-approximative methods based upon an equation that is derived without making the simplifying assumptions leading to the Gran functions. One such method, introduced by Hofstee, is discussed and the results of a study of the effects of a systematic error in the pH-determinations upon the determination of the equivalence volume are given. Two other non-approximative methods for evaluating acid-base titrations that are particularly suitable for use in automatic titrations of many similar samples are also described. These methods yield correct values of the equivalence volume regardless of a possible systematic error in the pH-values and are particularly useful for titrations of moderately strong and very weak acids (stability constants up to 10(10)-10(11) at 0.01M concentration) where the Gran functions cannot be used.

  17. Neutron dose equivalent meter

    DOEpatents

    Olsher, Richard H.; Hsu, Hsiao-Hua; Casson, William H.; Vasilik, Dennis G.; Kleck, Jeffrey H.; Beverding, Anthony

    1996-01-01

    A neutron dose equivalent detector for measuring neutron dose capable of accurately responding to neutron energies according to published fluence to dose curves. The neutron dose equivalent meter has an inner sphere of polyethylene, with a middle shell overlying the inner sphere, the middle shell comprising RTV.RTM. silicone (organosiloxane) loaded with boron. An outer shell overlies the middle shell and comprises polyethylene loaded with tungsten. The neutron dose equivalent meter defines a channel through the outer shell, the middle shell, and the inner sphere for accepting a neutron counter tube. The outer shell is loaded with tungsten to provide neutron generation, increasing the neutron dose equivalent meter's response sensitivity above 8 MeV.

  18. The Use of Feed Additives to Reduce the Effects of Aflatoxin and Deoxynivalenol on Pig Growth, Organ Health and Immune Status during Chronic Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Weaver, Alexandra C.; See, M. Todd; Hansen, Jeff A.; Kim, Yong B.; De Souza, Anna L. P.; Middleton, Tina F.; Kim, Sung Woo

    2013-01-01

    Three feed additives were tested to improve the growth and health of pigs chronically challenged with aflatoxin (AF) and deoxynivalenol (DON). Gilts (n = 225, 8.8 ± 0.4 kg) were allotted to five treatments: CON (uncontaminated control); MT (contaminated with 150 µg/kg AF and 1100 µg/kg DON); A (MT + a clay additive); B (MT + a clay and dried yeast additive); and C (MT + a clay and yeast culture additive). Average daily gain (ADG) and feed intake (ADFI) were recorded for 42 days, blood collected for immune analysis and tissue samples to measure damage. Feeding mycotoxins tended to decrease ADG and altered the immune system through a tendency to increase monocytes and immunoglobulins. Mycotoxins caused tissue damage in the form of liver bile ductule hyperplasia and karyomegaly. The additives in diets A and B reduced mycotoxin effects on the immune system and the liver and showed some ability to improve growth. The diet C additive played a role in reducing liver damage. Collectively, we conclude that AF and DON can be harmful to the growth and health of pigs consuming mycotoxins chronically. The selected feed additives improved pig health and may play a role in pig growth. PMID:23867763

  19. The use of feed additives to reduce the effects of aflatoxin and deoxynivalenol on pig growth, organ health and immune status during chronic exposure.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Alexandra C; See, M Todd; Hansen, Jeff A; Kim, Yong B; De Souza, Anna L P; Middleton, Teena F; Kim, Sung Woo

    2013-07-01

    Three feed additives were tested to improve the growth and health of pigs chronically challenged with aflatoxin (AF) and deoxynivalenol (DON). Gilts (n = 225, 8.8 ± 0.4 kg) were allotted to five treatments: CON (uncontaminated control); MT (contaminated with 150 µg/kg AF and 1100 µg/kg DON); A (MT + a clay additive); B (MT + a clay and dried yeast additive); and C (MT + a clay and yeast culture additive). Average daily gain (ADG) and feed intake (ADFI) were recorded for 42 days, blood collected for immune analysis and tissue samples to measure damage. Feeding mycotoxins tended to decrease ADG and altered the immune system through a tendency to increase monocytes and immunoglobulins. Mycotoxins caused tissue damage in the form of liver bile ductule hyperplasia and karyomegaly. The additives in diets A and B reduced mycotoxin effects on the immune system and the liver and showed some ability to improve growth. The diet C additive played a role in reducing liver damage. Collectively, we conclude that AF and DON can be harmful to the growth and health of pigs consuming mycotoxins chronically. The selected feed additives improved pig health and may play a role in pig growth.

  20. Equivalence in Ventilation and Indoor Air Quality

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, Max; Walker, Iain; Logue, Jennifer

    2011-08-01

    We ventilate buildings to provide acceptable indoor air quality (IAQ). Ventilation standards (such as American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Enginners [ASHRAE] Standard 62) specify minimum ventilation rates without taking into account the impact of those rates on IAQ. Innovative ventilation management is often a desirable element of reducing energy consumption or improving IAQ or comfort. Variable ventilation is one innovative strategy. To use variable ventilation in a way that meets standards, it is necessary to have a method for determining equivalence in terms of either ventilation or indoor air quality. This study develops methods to calculate either equivalent ventilation or equivalent IAQ. We demonstrate that equivalent ventilation can be used as the basis for dynamic ventilation control, reducing peak load and infiltration of outdoor contaminants. We also show that equivalent IAQ could allow some contaminants to exceed current standards if other contaminants are more stringently controlled.

  1. Synthesis, Characterization, and Tribological Evaluation of TiO2-Reinforced Boron and Nitrogen co-Doped Reduced Graphene Oxide Based Hybrid Nanomaterials as Efficient Antiwear Lubricant Additives.

    PubMed

    Jaiswal, Vinay; Kalyani; Umrao, Sima; Rastogi, Rashmi B; Kumar, Rajesh; Srivastava, Anchal

    2016-05-11

    The microwave-synthesized reduced graphene oxide (MRG), boron-doped reduced graphene oxide (B-MRG), nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxide (N-MRG), boron-nitrogen-co-doped reduced graphene oxide (B-N-MRG), and TiO2-reinforced B-N-MRG (TiO2-B-N-MRG) nanomaterials have been synthesized and characterized by various state-of-the-art techniques, like Raman spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Furthermore, the tribological properties of prepared nanomaterials as antiwear additives in neutral paraffin oil have been evaluated using a four-ball machine at an optimized additive concentration (0.15% w/v). The tribological parameters, like mean wear scar diameter, coefficient of friction, and wear rates, revealed that these nanomaterials have potential to be developed as environmentally friendly sulfated-ash-, phosphorus-, and sulfur-free antiwear lubricant additives. The friction- and wear-reducing behavior of MRG increased upon successive doping of nitrogen, boron, and both nitrogen and boron. Among these additives, B-N-co-doped MRG shows superior tribological behavior in paraffin base oil. Besides this, the load-carrying properties of B-N-co-doped MRG have significantly improved after its reinforcement with TiO2 nanoparticles. A comparative study of the surface morphology of a lubricated track in the presence of various additives has been assessed by SEM and contact-mode atomic force microscopy. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies have proved that the excellent lubrication properties of TiO2-B-N-MRG are due to the in situ formation of a tribofilm composed of boron nitride, adsorbed graphene layers, and tribosintered TiO2 nanoparticles during the tribocontact. Being sulfur-, halogen-, and phosphorus-free, these graphene-based nanomaterials act as green antiwear additives, protecting interacting

  2. Biochar addition to an arsenic contaminated soil increases arsenic concentrations in the pore water but reduces uptake to tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum L.).

    PubMed

    Beesley, Luke; Marmiroli, Marta; Pagano, Luca; Pigoni, Veronica; Fellet, Guido; Fresno, Teresa; Vamerali, Teofilo; Bandiera, Marianna; Marmiroli, Nelson

    2013-06-01

    Arsenic (As) concentrations in soil, soil pore water and plant tissues were evaluated in a pot experiment following the transplantation of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) plantlets to a heavily As contaminated mine soil (~6000 mg kg(-1) pseudo-total As) receiving an orchard prune residue biochar amendment, with and without NPK fertiliser. An in-vitro test was also performed to establish if tomato seeds were able to germinate in various proportions of biochar added to nutrient solution (MS). Biochar significantly increased arsenic concentrations in pore water (500 μg L(-1)-2000 μg L(-1)) whilst root and shoot concentrations were significantly reduced compared to the control without biochar. Fruit As concentrations were very low (<3 μg kg(-1)), indicating minimal toxicity and transfer risk. Fertilisation was required to significantly increase plant biomass above the control after biochar addition whilst plants transplanted to biochar only were heavily stunted and chlorotic. Given that increasing the amount of biochar added to nutrient solution in-vitro reduced seed germination by up to 40%, a lack of balanced nutrient provision from biochar could be concluded. In summary, solubility and mobility of As were increased by biochar addition to this soil, but uptake to plant was reduced, and toxicity-transfer risk was negligible. Therefore leaching rather than food chain transfer appears the most probable immediate consequence of biochar addition to As contaminated soils. PMID:23583727

  3. The Interaction Equivalency Theorem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miyazoe, Terumi; Anderson, Terry

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the key issues regarding The Interaction Equivalency Theorem posited by Anderson (2003a), which consists of the three interaction elements found in formal education courses among teacher, student, and content. It first examines the core concepts of the theorem and argues that two theses of different dimensions can be…

  4. Improved equivalent source theory.

    PubMed

    Umul, Yusuf Z

    2009-08-01

    The equivalent source theorem, which is an important technique in the study of radiation and scattering by apertures, is improved by using the two axioms of the modified theory of physical optics. The method is applied to the problem of radiation of electromagnetic waves by a parallel plate waveguide. The results are investigated numerically.

  5. Five Equivalent d Orbitals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pauling, Linus; McClure, Vance

    1970-01-01

    Amplifies and clarifies a previous paper on pyramidal d orbitals. Discusses two sets of pyramid d orbitals with respect to their maximum bond strength and their symmetry. Authors described the oblate and prolate pentagonal antiprisms arising from the two sets of five equivalent d orbitals. (RR)

  6. Equivalent Colorings with "Maple"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cecil, David R.; Wang, Rongdong

    2005-01-01

    Many counting problems can be modeled as "colorings" and solved by considering symmetries and Polya's cycle index polynomial. This paper presents a "Maple 7" program link http://users.tamuk.edu/kfdrc00/ that, given Polya's cycle index polynomial, determines all possible associated colorings and their partitioning into equivalence classes. These…

  7. Multifunctional Electrochemical Platforms Based on the Michael Addition/Schiff Base Reaction of Polydopamine Modified Reduced Graphene Oxide: Construction and Application.

    PubMed

    Huang, Na; Zhang, Si; Yang, Liuqing; Liu, Meiling; Li, Haitao; Zhang, Youyu; Yao, Shouzhuo

    2015-08-19

    In this paper, a new strategy for the construction of multifunctional electrochemical detection platforms based on the Michael addition/Schiff base reaction of polydopamine modified reduced graphene oxide was first proposed. Inspired by the mussel adhesion proteins, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DA) was selected as a reducing agent to simultaneously reduce graphene oxide and self-polymerize to obtain the polydopamine-reduced graphene oxide (PDA-rGO). The PDA-rGO was then functionalized with thiols and amines by the reaction of thiol/amino groups with quinine groups of PDA-rGO via the Michael addition/Schiff base reaction. Several typical compounds containing thiol and/or amino groups such as 1-[(4-amino)phenylethynyl] ferrocene (Fc-NH2), cysteine (cys), and glucose oxidase (GOx) were selected as the model molecules to anchor on the surface of PDA-rGO using the strategy for construction of multifunctional electrochemical platforms. The experiments revealed that the composite grafted with ferrocene derivative shows excellent catalysis activity toward many electroactive molecules and could be used for individual or simultaneous detection of dopamine hydrochloride (DA) and uric acid (UA), or hydroquinone (HQ) and catechol (CC), while, after grafting of cysteine on PDA-rGO, simultaneous discrimination detection of Pb(2+) and Cd(2+) was realized on the composite modified electrode. In addition, direct electron transfer of GOx can be observed when GOx-PDA-rGO was immobilized on glassy carbon electrode (GCE). When glucose was added into the system, the modified electrode showed excellent electric current response toward glucose. These results inferred that the proposed multifunctional electrochemical platforms could be simply, conveniently, and effectively regulated through changing the anchored recognition or reaction groups. This study would provide a versatile method to design more detection or biosensing platforms through a chemical reaction strategy in the future. PMID

  8. Multifunctional Electrochemical Platforms Based on the Michael Addition/Schiff Base Reaction of Polydopamine Modified Reduced Graphene Oxide: Construction and Application.

    PubMed

    Huang, Na; Zhang, Si; Yang, Liuqing; Liu, Meiling; Li, Haitao; Zhang, Youyu; Yao, Shouzhuo

    2015-08-19

    In this paper, a new strategy for the construction of multifunctional electrochemical detection platforms based on the Michael addition/Schiff base reaction of polydopamine modified reduced graphene oxide was first proposed. Inspired by the mussel adhesion proteins, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DA) was selected as a reducing agent to simultaneously reduce graphene oxide and self-polymerize to obtain the polydopamine-reduced graphene oxide (PDA-rGO). The PDA-rGO was then functionalized with thiols and amines by the reaction of thiol/amino groups with quinine groups of PDA-rGO via the Michael addition/Schiff base reaction. Several typical compounds containing thiol and/or amino groups such as 1-[(4-amino)phenylethynyl] ferrocene (Fc-NH2), cysteine (cys), and glucose oxidase (GOx) were selected as the model molecules to anchor on the surface of PDA-rGO using the strategy for construction of multifunctional electrochemical platforms. The experiments revealed that the composite grafted with ferrocene derivative shows excellent catalysis activity toward many electroactive molecules and could be used for individual or simultaneous detection of dopamine hydrochloride (DA) and uric acid (UA), or hydroquinone (HQ) and catechol (CC), while, after grafting of cysteine on PDA-rGO, simultaneous discrimination detection of Pb(2+) and Cd(2+) was realized on the composite modified electrode. In addition, direct electron transfer of GOx can be observed when GOx-PDA-rGO was immobilized on glassy carbon electrode (GCE). When glucose was added into the system, the modified electrode showed excellent electric current response toward glucose. These results inferred that the proposed multifunctional electrochemical platforms could be simply, conveniently, and effectively regulated through changing the anchored recognition or reaction groups. This study would provide a versatile method to design more detection or biosensing platforms through a chemical reaction strategy in the future.

  9. Establishing Substantial Equivalence: Metabolomics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beale, Michael H.; Ward, Jane L.; Baker, John M.

    Modern ‘metabolomic’ methods allow us to compare levels of many structurally diverse compounds in an automated fashion across a large number of samples. This technology is ideally suited to screening of populations of plants, including trials where the aim is the determination of unintended effects introduced by GM. A number of metabolomic methods have been devised for the determination of substantial equivalence. We have developed a methodology, using [1H]-NMR fingerprinting, for metabolomic screening of plants and have applied it to the study of substantial equivalence of field-grown GM wheat. We describe here the principles and detail of that protocol as applied to the analysis of flour generated from field plots of wheat. Particular emphasis is given to the downstream data processing and comparison of spectra by multivariate analysis, from which conclusions regarding metabolome changes due to the GM can be assessed against the background of natural variation due to environment.

  10. Plutonium 239 Equivalency Calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Wen, J

    2011-05-31

    This document provides the basis for converting actual weapons grade plutonium mass to a plutonium equivalency (PuE) mass of Plutonium 239. The conversion can be accomplished by performing calculations utilizing either: (1) Isotopic conversions factors (CF{sub isotope}), or (2) 30-year-old weapons grade conversion factor (CF{sub 30 yr}) Both of these methods are provided in this document. Material mass and isotopic data are needed to calculate PuE using the isotopic conversion factors, which will provide the actual PuE value at the time of calculation. PuE is the summation of the isotopic masses times their associated isotopic conversion factors for plutonium 239. Isotopic conversion factors are calculated by a normalized equation, relative to Plutonium 239, of specific activity (SA) and cumulated dose inhalation affects based on 50-yr committed effective dose equivalent (CEDE). The isotopic conversion factors for converting weapons grade plutonium to PuE are provided in Table-1. The unit for specific activity (SA) is curies per gram (Ci/g) and the isotopic SA values come from reference [1]. The cumulated dose inhalation effect values in units of rem/Ci are based on 50-yr committed effective dose equivalent (CEDE). A person irradiated by gamma radiation outside the body will receive a dose only during the period of irradiation. However, following an intake by inhalation, some radionuclides persist in the body and irradiate the various tissues for many years. There are three groups CEDE data representing lengths of time of 0.5 (D), 50 (W) and 500 (Y) days, which are in reference [2]. The CEDE values in the (W) group demonstrates the highest dose equivalent value; therefore they are used for the calculation.

  11. Obtaining an equivalent beam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, Thomas G.

    1990-01-01

    In modeling a complex structure the researcher was faced with a component that would have logical appeal if it were modeled as a beam. The structure was a mast of a robot controlled gantry crane. The structure up to this point already had a large number of degrees of freedom, so the idea of conserving grid points by modeling the mast as a beam was attractive. The researcher decided to make a separate problem of of the mast and model it in three dimensions with plates, then extract the equivalent beam properties by setting up the loading to simulate beam-like deformation and constraints. The results could then be used to represent the mast as a beam in the full model. A comparison was made of properties derived from models of different constraints versus manual calculations. The researcher shows that the three-dimensional model is ineffective in trying to conform to the requirements of an equivalent beam representation. If a full 3-D plate model were used in the complete representation of the crane structure, good results would be obtained. Since the attempt is to economize on the size of the model, a better way to achieve the same results is to use substructuring and condense the mast to equivalent end boundary and intermediate mass points.

  12. Post-lumpectomy CT-guided tumor bed delineation for breast boost and partial breast irradiation: Can additional pre- and postoperative imaging reduce interobserver variability?

    PubMed Central

    DEN HARTOGH, MARISKA D.; PHILIPPENS, MARIELLE E.P.; VAN DAM, IRIS E.; KLEYNEN, CATHARINA E.; TERSTEEG, ROBBERT J.H.A.; KOTTE, ALEXIS N.T.J.; VAN VULPEN, MARCO; VAN ASSELEN, BRAM; VAN DEN BONGARD, DESIRÉE H.J.G.

    2015-01-01

    For breast boost radiotherapy or accelerated partial breast irradiation, the tumor bed (TB) is delineated by the radiation oncologist on a planning computed tomography (CT) scan. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the interobserver variability (IOV) of the TB delineation is reduced by providing the radiation oncologist with additional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or CT scans. A total of 14 T1-T2 breast cancer patients underwent a standard planning CT in the supine treatment position following lumpectomy, as well as additional pre- and postoperative imaging in the same position. Post-lumpectomy TBs were independently delineated by four breast radiation oncologists on standard postoperative CT and on CT registered to an additional imaging modality. The additional imaging modalities used were postoperative MRI, preoperative contrast-enhanced (CE)-CT and preoperative CE-MRI. A cavity visualization score (CVS) was assigned to each standard postoperative CT by each observer. In addition, the conformity index (CI), volume and distance between centers of mass (dCOM) of the TB delineations were calculated. On CT, the median CI was 0.57, with a median volume of 22 cm3 and dCOM of 5.1 mm. The addition of postoperative MRI increased the median TB volume significantly to 28 cm3 (P<0.001), while the CI (P=0.176) and dCOM (P=0.110) were not affected. The addition of preoperative CT or MRI increased the TB volume to 26 and 25 cm3, respectively (both P<0.001), while the CI increased to 0.58 and 0.59 (both P<0.001) and the dCOM decreased to 4.7 mm (P=0.004) and 4.6 mm (P=0.001), respectively. In patients with CVS≤3, the median CI was 0.40 on CT, which was significantly increased by all additional imaging modalities, up to 0.52, and was accompanied by a median volume increase up to 6 cm3. In conclusion, the addition of postoperative MRI, preoperative CE-CT or preoperative CE-MRI did not result in a considerable reduction in the IOV in postoperative CT

  13. A simple and efficient method to reduce nontemplated nucleotide addition at the 3 terminus of RNAs transcribed by T7 RNA polymerase.

    PubMed Central

    Kao, C; Zheng, M; Rüdisser, S

    1999-01-01

    DNA templates modified with C2'-methoxyls at the last two nucleotides of the 5' termini dramatically reduced nontemplated nucleotide addition by the T7 RNA polymerase from both single- and double-stranded DNA templates. This strategy was used to generate several different transcripts. Two of the transcripts were demonstrated by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to be unaffected in their sequence. Transcripts produced from the modified templates can be purified with greater ease and should be useful in a number of applications. PMID:10496227

  14. Doped-CuCl2/Al2O3 catalysts for ethylene oxychlorination: Influence of additives on the nature of active phase and reducibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gianolio, D.; Muddada, N. B.; Olsbye, U.; Lamberti, C.

    2012-08-01

    Doped CuCl2/Al2O3 is an industrial catalyst used to produce dichloroethane, key intermediate of the polyvinyl chloride (PVC) chemistry. Using in situ and operando X-ray absorption spectroscopies, combined with laboratory techniques, we succeeded in understanding the nature of the active phase and the role played by most used additives for fluid and fixed beds technologies (LiCl, KCl, CsCl, MgCl2, and LaCl3). Moreover we were able to quantify relative fraction, reducibility and dispersion of Cu-phases adjoining catalytic tests in a pulse reactor. EXAFS and XANES highlighted that all additives contribute more or less efficiently in increasing the fraction of the active species (supported CuCl2). EXAFS directly, UV-vis and IR spectroscopies indirectly proved the formation of mixed salts, when KCl or CsCl are added, so displacing the rate determining step from the CuCl oxidation to the CuCl2 reduction. Fully oxidized catalyst is inactive, so copper in the working catalyst, exhibits a I/II mixed valence state. Coupling the ethylene conversion, measured with a pulse reactor, with XANES spectra collected after interaction with C2H4, we could differentiate the ability of doped samples to be reduced by ethylene. We obtained slightly different results explainable by the different dispersion of the active phase, measured by CO chemisorption.

  15. The role of methanol addition to water samples in reducing analyte adsorption and matrix effects in liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Liu, Yucan; Duan, Jinming; Saint, Christopher P; Mulcahy, Dennis

    2015-04-10

    Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis coupled simply with water filtering before injection has proven to be a simple, economic and time-saving method for analyzing trace-level organic pollutants in aqueous environments. However, the linearity, precision and detection limits of such methods for late-eluting analytes were found to be much poorer than for early-eluting ones due to adsorption of the analytes in the operating system, such as sample vial, flow path and sample loop, creating problems in quantitative analysis. Addition of methanol (MeOH) into water samples as a modifier was shown to be effective in alleviating or even eliminating the negative effect on signal intensity for the late-eluting analytes and at the same time being able to reduce certain matrix effects for real water samples. Based on the maximum detection signal intensity obtained on desorption of the analytes with MeOH addition, the ratio of the detection signal intensity without addition of MeOH to the maximum intensity can be used to evaluate the effectiveness of methanol addition. Accordingly, the values of <50%, 50-80%, 80-120% could be used to indicate strong, medium and no effects, respectively. Based on this concept, an external matrix-matched calibration method with the addition of MeOH has been successfully established for analyzing fifteen pesticides with diverse physico-chemical properties in surface and groundwater with good linearity (r(2): 0.9929-0.9996), precision (intra-day relative standard deviation (RSD): 1.4-10.7%, inter-day RSD: 1.5-9.4%), accuracy (76.9-126.7%) and low limits of detection (0.003-0.028μg/L).

  16. Yerba mate enhances probiotic bacteria growth in vitro but as a feed additive does not reduce Salmonella Enteritidis colonization in vivo.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Gil, Francisco; Diaz-Sanchez, Sandra; Pendleton, Sean; Andino, Ana; Zhang, Nan; Yard, Carrie; Crilly, Nate; Harte, Federico; Hanning, Irene

    2014-02-01

    Yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis) is a tea known to have beneficial effects on human health and antimicrobial activity against some foodborne pathogens. Thus, the application of yerba mate as a feed additive for broiler chickens to reduce Salmonella colonization was evaluated. The first in vitro evaluation was conducted by suspending Salmonella Enteritidis and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in yerba mate extract. The in vivo evaluations were conducted using preventative and horizontal transmission experiments. In all experiments, day-of-hatch chicks were treated with one of the following 1) no treatment (control); 2) ground yerba mate in feed; 3) probiotic treatment (Lactobacillus acidophilus and Pediococcus; 9:1 administered once on day of hatch by gavage); or 4) both yerba mate and probiotic treatments. At d 3, all chicks were challenged with Salmonella Enteritidis (preventative experiment) or 5 of 20 chicks (horizontal transmission experiment). At d 10, all birds were euthanized, weighed, and cecal contents enumerated for Salmonella. For the in vitro evaluation, antimicrobial activity was observed against Salmonella and the same treatment enhanced growth of LAB. For in vivo evaluations, none of the yerba mate treatments significantly reduced Salmonella Enteritidis colonization, whereas the probiotic treatment significantly reduced Salmonella colonization in the horizontal transmission experiment. Yerba mate decreased chicken BW and decreased the performance of the probiotic treatment when used in combination. In conclusion, yerba mate had antimicrobial activity against foodborne pathogens and enhanced the growth of LAB in vitro, but in vivo yerba mate did not decrease Salmonella Enteritidis colonization.

  17. Local unitary equivalence of quantum states and simultaneous orthogonal equivalence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Naihuan; Yang, Min; Zhao, Hui

    2016-06-01

    The correspondence between local unitary equivalence of bipartite quantum states and simultaneous orthogonal equivalence is thoroughly investigated and strengthened. It is proved that local unitary equivalence can be studied through simultaneous similarity under projective orthogonal transformations, and four parametrization independent algorithms are proposed to judge when two density matrices on ℂd1 ⊗ ℂd2 are locally unitary equivalent in connection with trace identities, Kronecker pencils, Albert determinants and Smith normal forms.

  18. Does an additional structured information program during the intensive care unit stay reduce anxiety in ICU patients?: a multicenter randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Communication and information in order to reduce anxiety in the intensive care unit (ICU) has been described as area needing improvement. Therefore, the aim of this trial was to evaluate whether a structured information program that intensifies information given in standard care process reduces anxiety in ICU patients. Methods Multicenter, two-armed, non-blinded, parallel-group randomized controlled trial in hospitals in the cities of Marburg, Halle, and Stuttgart (Germany). The trial was performed in cardiac surgery, general surgery, and internal medicine ICUs. Two-hundred and eleven elective and non-elective ICU patients were enrolled in the study (intervention group, n = 104; control group, n = 107). The experimental intervention comprised a single episode of structured oral information that was given in addition to standard care and covered two main parts: (1) A more standardized part about predefined ICU specific aspects – mainly procedural, sensory and coping information, and (2) an individualized part about fears and questions of the patient. The control group received a non-specific episodic conversation of similar length additional to standard care. Both conversations took place at the beginning of the ICU stay and lasted 10–15 minutes. Study nurses administered both interventions. The primary outcome ICU-related anxiety (CINT-Score, 0–100 pts., higher scores indicate higher anxiety) was assessed after admission to a regular ward. Results The primary outcome could be measured in 82 intervention group participants and 90 control group participants resulting in mean values of 20.4 (SD 14.4) compared to 20.8 (SD 14.7) and a mean difference of −0.2 (CI 95% -4.5 to 4.1). Conclusions A structured information intervention additional to standard care during ICU stay had no demonstrated additional benefit compared to an unspecific communication of similar duration. Reduction of anxiety in ICU patients will probably require more continuous

  19. Establishing Substantial Equivalence: Proteomics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovegrove, Alison; Salt, Louise; Shewry, Peter R.

    Wheat is a major crop in world agriculture and is consumed after processing into a range of food products. It is therefore of great importance to determine the consequences (intended and unintended) of transgenesis in wheat and whether genetically modified lines are substantially equivalent to those produced by conventional plant breeding. Proteomic analysis is one of several approaches which can be used to address these questions. Two-dimensional PAGE (2D PAGE) remains the most widely available method for proteomic analysis, but is notoriously difficult to reproduce between laboratories. We therefore describe methods which have been developed as standard operating procedures in our laboratory to ensure the reproducibility of proteomic analyses of wheat using 2D PAGE analysis of grain proteins.

  20. Ezetimibe reduces plaque inflammation in a rabbit model of atherosclerosis and inhibits monocyte migration in addition to its lipid-lowering effect

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Garre, D; Muñoz-Pacheco, P; González-Rubio, ML; Aragoncillo, P; Granados, R; Fernández-Cruz, A

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose: Ezetimibe, a selective inhibitor of intestinal cholesterol absorption, might also suppress inflammatory components of atherogenesis. We have studied the effects of ezetimibe on two characteristics of atherosclerotic plaques (infiltrate and fibrosis) and on expression of inflammatory genes in a rabbit model of accelerated atherosclerosis. Experimental approach: Femoral atherosclerosis was induced by a combination of endothelial desiccation and atherogenic diet. Animals were randomized to ezetimibe (0.6 mg·kg−1·day−1), simvastatin (5 mg·kg−1·day−1), ezetimibe plus simvastatin or no treatment, still on atherogenic diet. A control group of rabbits received normolipidemic diet. Key results: Rabbits fed the normolipidemic diet showed normal plasma lipid levels. Either the normolipidemic diet or drug treatment reduced the intima/media ratio (normolipidemic diet: 22%, ezetimibe: 13%, simvastatin: 27%, ezetimibe + simvastatin: 28%), compared with rabbits with atherosclerosis. Ezetimibe also decreased macrophage content and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 expression in atherosclerotic lesions. Furthermore, ezetimibe reduced the increased activity of nuclear factor κB in peripheral blood leucocytes and plasma C-reactive protein levels in rabbits with atherosclerosis. In THP-1 cells, ezetimibe decreased monocyte chemoattractant protein-1-induced monocyte migration. Importantly, the combination of ezetimibe with simvastatin was associated with a more significant reduction in plaque monocyte/macrophage content and some proinflammatory markers than observed with each drug alone. Conclusions and implications: Ezetimibe had beneficial effects both on atherosclerosis progression and plaque stabilization and showed additional anti-atherogenic benefits when combined with simvastatin. Its effect on monocyte migration provides a potentially beneficial action, in addition to its effects on lipids. PMID:19222481

  1. TOXIC EQUIVALENCY APPROACH FOR DIOXINS: AN EXAMPLE OF DOSE ADDITIVITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD; dioxin) is often called the most toxic man-made compound. However, it is but the prototype for a family of structurally related compounds which have a common mechanism of action, induce a common spectrum of biological responses, and are...

  2. Refinement of the Microstructure of Sn-Ag-Bi-In Solder, by Addition of SiC Nanoparticles, to Reduce Electromigration Damage Under High Electric Current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Youngseok; Nagao, Shijo; Sugahara, Tohru; Suganuma, Katsuaki; Ueshima, Minoru; Albrecht, Hans-Juergen; Wilke, Klaus; Strogies, Joerg

    2014-12-01

    The trends of miniaturization, multi-functionality, and high performance in advanced electronic devices require higher densities of I/O gates and reduced area of soldering of interconnections. This increases the electric current density flowing through the interconnections, increasing the risk of interconnection failure caused by electromigration (EM). Accelerated directional atomic diffusion in solder materials under high current induces substantial growth of intermetallic compounds (IMCs) at the anode, and also void and crack formation at the cathode. In the work discussed in this paper, addition of SiC nanoparticles to Sn-Ag-Bi-In (SABI) lead-free solder refined its microstructure and improved its EM reliability under high current stress. Electron backscattering diffraction analysis revealed that the added SiC nanoparticles refined solder grain size after typical reflow. Under current stress, SABI joints with added nano-SiC had lifetimes almost twice as long as those without. Comparison of results from high-temperature aging revealed direct current affected evolution of the microstructure. Observations of IMC growth indicated that diffusion of Cu in the SiC composite solder may not have been reduced. During current flow, however, only narrow voids were formed in solder containing SiC, thus preventing the current crowding caused by bulky voids in the solder without SiC.

  3. Treatment with Tacrolimus and Sirolimus Reveals No Additional Adverse Effects on Human Islets In Vitro Compared to Each Drug Alone but They Are Reduced by Adding Glucocorticoids

    PubMed Central

    Kloster-Jensen, Kristine; Sahraoui, Afaf; Vethe, Nils Tore; Korsgren, Olle; Bergan, Stein; Foss, Aksel; Scholz, Hanne

    2016-01-01

    Tacrolimus and sirolimus are important immunosuppressive drugs used in human islet transplantation; however, they are linked to detrimental effects on islets and reduction of long-term graft function. Few studies investigate the direct effects of these drugs combined in parallel with single drug exposure. Human islets were treated with or without tacrolimus (30 μg/L), sirolimus (30 μg/L), or a combination thereof for 24 hrs. Islet function as well as apoptosis was assessed by glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) and Cell Death ELISA. Proinflammatory cytokines were analysed by qRT-PCR and Bio-Plex. Islets exposed to the combination of sirolimus and tacrolimus were treated with or without methylprednisolone (1000 μg/L) and the expression of the proinflammatory cytokines was investigated. We found the following: (i) No additive reduction in function and viability in islets existed when tacrolimus and sirolimus were combined compared to the single drug. (ii) Increased expression of proinflammatory cytokines mRNA and protein levels in islets took place. (iii) Methylprednisolone significantly decreased the proinflammatory response in islets induced by the drug combination. Although human islets are prone to direct toxic effect of tacrolimus and sirolimus, we found no additive effects of the drug combination. Short-term exposure of glucocorticoids could effectively reduce the proinflammatory response in human islets induced by the combination of tacrolimus and sirolimus. PMID:26885529

  4. Addition of low concentrations of an ionic liquid to a base oil reduces friction over multiple length scales: a combined nano- and macrotribology investigation.

    PubMed

    Li, Hua; Somers, Anthony E; Howlett, Patrick C; Rutland, Mark W; Forsyth, Maria; Atkin, Rob

    2016-03-01

    The efficacy of ionic liquids (ILs) as lubricant additives to a model base oil has been probed at the nanoscale and macroscale as a function of IL concentration using the same materials. Silica surfaces lubricated with mixtures of the IL trihexyl(tetradecyl)phosphonium bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl)phosphinate and hexadecane are probed using atomic force microscopy (AFM) (nanoscale) and ball-on-disc tribometer (macroscale). At both length scales the pure IL is a much more effective lubricant than hexadecane. At the nanoscale, 2.0 mol% IL (and above) in hexadecane lubricates the silica as well as the pure IL due to the formation of a robust IL boundary layer that separates the sliding surfaces. At the macroscale the lubrication is highly load dependent; at low loads all the mixtures lubricate as effectively as the pure IL, whereas at higher loads rather high concentrations are required to provide IL like lubrication. Wear is also pronounced at high loads, for all cases except the pure IL, and a tribofilm is formed. Together, the nano- and macroscales results reveal that the IL is an effective lubricant additive - it reduces friction - in both the boundary regime at the nanoscale and mixed regime at the macroscale.

  5. Combination Therapy with Losartan and Pioglitazone Additively Reduces Renal Oxidative and Nitrative Stress Induced by Chronic High Fat, Sucrose, and Sodium Intake

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Xiang; Zhang, Yan; Wu, Hai-bing; Li, Fang-xia; Zhang, Dao-you; Su, Qing

    2012-01-01

    We recently showed that combination therapy with losartan and pioglitazone provided synergistic effects compared with monotherapy in improving lesions of renal structure and function in Sprague-Dawley rats fed with a high-fat, high-sodium diet and 20% sucrose solution. This study was designed to explore the underlying mechanisms of additive renoprotection provided by combination therapy. Losartan, pioglitazone, and their combination were orally administered for 8 weeks. The increased level of renal malondialdehyde and expression of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase subunit p47phox and nitrotyrosine as well as the decreased total superoxide dismutase activity and copper, zinc-superoxide dismutase expression were tangible evidence for the presence of oxidative and nitrative stress in the kidney of model rats. Treatment with both drugs, individually and in combination, improved these abnormal changes. Combination therapy showed synergistic effects in reducing malondialdehyde level, p47phox, and nitrotyrosine expression to almost the normal level compared with monotherapy. All these results suggest that the additive renoprotection provided by combination therapy might be attributed to a further reduction of oxidative and nitrative stress. PMID:23213350

  6. Deriving bio-equivalents from in vitro bioassays: assessment of existing uncertainties and strategies to improve accuracy and reporting.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Martin; Vermeirssen, Etiënne L M; Buchinger, Sebastian; Behr, Maximilian; Magdeburg, Axel; Oehlmann, Jörg

    2013-08-01

    Bio-equivalents (e.g., 17β-estradiol or dioxin equivalents) are commonly employed to quantify the in vitro effects of complex human or environmental samples. However, there is no generally accepted data analysis strategy for estimating and reporting bio-equivalents. Therefore, the aims of the present study are to 1) identify common mathematical models for the derivation of bio-equivalents from the literature, 2) assess the ability of those models to correctly predict bio-equivalents, and 3) propose measures to reduce uncertainty in their calculation and reporting. We compiled a database of 234 publications that report bio-equivalents. From the database, we extracted 3 data analysis strategies commonly used to estimate bio-equivalents. These models are based on linear or nonlinear interpolation, and the comparison of effect concentrations (ECX ). To assess their accuracy, we employed simulated data sets in different scenarios. The results indicate that all models lead to a considerable misestimation of bio-equivalents if certain mathematical assumptions (e.g., goodness of fit, parallelism of dose-response curves) are violated. However, nonlinear interpolation is most suitable to predict bio-equivalents from single-point estimates. Regardless of the model, subsequent linear extrapolation of bio-equivalents generates additional inaccuracy if the prerequisite of parallel dose-response curves is not met. When all these factors are taken into consideration, it becomes clear that data analysis introduces considerable uncertainty in the derived bio-equivalents. To improve accuracy and transparency of bio-equivalents, we propose a novel data analysis strategy and a checklist for reporting Minimum Information about Bio-equivalent ESTimates (MIBEST).

  7. Kinin B1 receptor antagonism is equally efficient as angiotensin receptor 1 antagonism in reducing renal fibrosis in experimental obstructive nephropathy, but is not additive

    PubMed Central

    Huart, Antoine; Klein, Julie; Gonzalez, Julien; Buffin-Meyer, Bénédicte; Neau, Eric; Delage, Christine; Calise, Denis; Ribes, David; Schanstra, Joost P.; Bascands, Jean-Loup

    2015-01-01

    Background: Renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis is the pathological hallmark of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Currently, inhibitors of the renin–angiotensin system (RAS) remain the sole therapy in human displaying antifibrotic properties. Further antifibrotic molecules are needed. We have recently reported that the delayed blockade of the bradykinin B1 receptor (B1R) reduced the development of fibrosis in two animal models of renal fibrosis. The usefulness of new drugs also resides in outperforming the gold standards and eventually being additive or complementary to existing therapies. Methods: In this study we compared the efficacy of a B1R antagonist (B1Ra) with that of an angiotensin type 1 receptor antagonist (AT1a) in the unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) model of renal fibrosis and determined whether bi-therapy presented higher efficacy than any of the drugs alone. Results: B1R antagonism was as efficient as the gold-standard AT1a treatment. However, bitherapy did not improve the antifibrotic effects at the protein level. We sought for the reason of the absence of this additive effect by studying the expression of a panel of genes involved in the fibrotic process. Interestingly, at the molecular level the different drugs targeted different players of fibrosis that, however, in this severe model did not result in improved reduction of fibrosis at the protein level. Conclusions: As the B1R is induced specifically in the diseased organ and thus potentially displays low side effects it might be an interesting alternative in cases of poor tolerability to RAS inhibitors. PMID:25698969

  8. Capacitors with low equivalent series resistance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleig, Patrick Franz (Inventor); Lakeman, Charles D. E. (Inventor); Fuge, Mark (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    An electric double layer capacitor (EDLC) in a coin or button cell configuration having low equivalent series resistance (ESR). The capacitor comprises mesh or other porous metal that is attached via conducting adhesive to one or both the current collectors. The mesh is embedded into the surface of the adjacent electrode, thereby reducing the interfacial resistance between the electrode and the current collector, thus reducing the ESR of the capacitor.

  9. Equivalence Principle and Gravitational Redshift

    SciTech Connect

    Hohensee, Michael A.; Chu, Steven; Mueller, Holger; Peters, Achim

    2011-04-15

    We investigate leading order deviations from general relativity that violate the Einstein equivalence principle in the gravitational standard model extension. We show that redshift experiments based on matter waves and clock comparisons are equivalent to one another. Consideration of torsion balance tests, along with matter-wave, microwave, optical, and Moessbauer clock tests, yields comprehensive limits on spin-independent Einstein equivalence principle-violating standard model extension terms at the 10{sup -6} level.

  10. Estimating equivalence with quantile regression

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cade, B.S.

    2011-01-01

    Equivalence testing and corresponding confidence interval estimates are used to provide more enlightened statistical statements about parameter estimates by relating them to intervals of effect sizes deemed to be of scientific or practical importance rather than just to an effect size of zero. Equivalence tests and confidence interval estimates are based on a null hypothesis that a parameter estimate is either outside (inequivalence hypothesis) or inside (equivalence hypothesis) an equivalence region, depending on the question of interest and assignment of risk. The former approach, often referred to as bioequivalence testing, is often used in regulatory settings because it reverses the burden of proof compared to a standard test of significance, following a precautionary principle for environmental protection. Unfortunately, many applications of equivalence testing focus on establishing average equivalence by estimating differences in means of distributions that do not have homogeneous variances. I discuss how to compare equivalence across quantiles of distributions using confidence intervals on quantile regression estimates that detect differences in heterogeneous distributions missed by focusing on means. I used one-tailed confidence intervals based on inequivalence hypotheses in a two-group treatment-control design for estimating bioequivalence of arsenic concentrations in soils at an old ammunition testing site and bioequivalence of vegetation biomass at a reclaimed mining site. Two-tailed confidence intervals based both on inequivalence and equivalence hypotheses were used to examine quantile equivalence for negligible trends over time for a continuous exponential model of amphibian abundance. ?? 2011 by the Ecological Society of America.

  11. Inhaled corticosteroids: potency, dose equivalence and therapeutic index

    PubMed Central

    Daley-Yates, Peter T

    2015-01-01

    Glucocorticosteroids are a group of structurally related molecules that includes natural hormones and synthetic drugs with a wide range of anti-inflammatory potencies. For synthetic corticosteroid analogues it is commonly assumed that the therapeutic index cannot be improved by increasing their glucocorticoid receptor binding affinity. The validity of this assumption, particularly for inhaled corticosteroids, has not been fully explored. Inhaled corticosteroids exert their anti-inflammatory activity locally in the airways, and hence this can be dissociated from their potential to cause systemic adverse effects. The molecular structural features that increase glucocorticoid receptor binding affinity and selectivity drive topical anti-inflammatory activity. However, in addition, these structural modifications also result in physicochemical and pharmacokinetic changes that can enhance targeting to the airways and reduce systemic exposure. As a consequence, potency and therapeutic index can be correlated. However, this consideration is not reflected in asthma treatment guidelines that classify inhaled corticosteroid formulations as low-, mid- and high dose, and imbed a simple dose equivalence approach where potency is not considered to affect the therapeutic index. This article describes the relationship between potency and therapeutic index, and concludes that higher potency can potentially improve the therapeutic index. Therefore, both efficacy and safety should be considered when classifying inhaled corticosteroid regimens in terms of dose equivalence. The historical approach to dose equivalence in asthma treatment guidelines is not appropriate for the wider range of molecules, potencies and device/formulations now available. A more robust method is needed that incorporates pharmacological principles. PMID:25808113

  12. Behavioral deficits induced by third-trimester equivalent alcohol exposure in male C57BL/6J mice are not associated with reduced adult hippocampal neurogenesis but are still rescued with voluntary exercise.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, G F; Bucko, P J; Miller, D S; DeAngelis, R S; Krebs, C P; Rhodes, J S

    2016-11-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure can produce permanent alterations in brain structure and profound behavioral deficits. Mouse models can help discover mechanisms and identify potentially useful interventions. This study examined long-term influences of either a single or repeated alcohol exposure during the third-trimester equivalent on survival of new neurons in the hippocampus, behavioral performance on the Passive avoidance and Rotarod tasks, and the potential role of exercise as a therapeutic intervention. C57BL/6J male mice received either saline or 5g/kg ethanol split into two s.c. injections, two hours apart, on postnatal day (PD)7 (Experiment 1) or on PD5, 7 and 9 (Experiment 2). All mice were weaned on PD21 and received either a running wheel or remained sedentary from PD35-PD80/81. From PD36-45, mice received i.p. injections of 50mg/kg bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) to label dividing cells. Behavioral testing occurred between PD72-79. Number of surviving BrdU+ cells and immature neurons (doublecortin; DCX+) was measured at PD80-81. Alcohol did not affect number of BrdU+ or DCX+ cells in either experiment. Running significantly increased number of BrdU+ and DCX+ cells in both treatment groups. Alcohol-induced deficits on Rotarod performance and acquisition of the Passive avoidance task (Day 1) were evident only in Experiment 2 and running rescued these deficits. These data suggest neonatal alcohol exposure does not result in long-term impairments in adult hippocampal neurogenesis in the mouse model. Three doses of ethanol were necessary to induce behavioral deficits. Finally, the mechanisms by which exercise ameliorated the neonatal alcohol induced behavioral deficits remain unknown. PMID:27491590

  13. Saponification equivalent of dasamula taila.

    PubMed

    Saxena, R B

    1994-07-01

    Saponification equivalent values of Dasamula taila are very useful for the technical and analytical work. It gives the mean molecular weight of the glycerides and acids present in Dasamula Taila. Saponification equivalent values of Dasamula taila are reported in different packings.

  14. SAPONIFICATION EQUIVALENT OF DASAMULA TAILA

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, R. B.

    1994-01-01

    Saponification equivalent values of Dasamula taila are very useful for the technical and analytical work. It gives the mean molecular weight of the glycerides and acids present in Dasamula Taila. Saponification equivalent values of Dasamula taila are reported in different packings. PMID:22556683

  15. Reduced Number of Transitional and Naive B Cells in Addition to Decreased BAFF Levels in Response to the T Cell Independent Immunogen Pneumovax®23.

    PubMed

    Roth, Alena; Glaesener, Stephanie; Schütz, Katharina; Meyer-Bahlburg, Almut

    2016-01-01

    Protective immunity against T cell independent (TI) antigens such as Streptococcus pneumoniae is characterized by antibody production of B cells induced by the combined activation of T cell independent type 1 and type 2 antigens in the absence of direct T cell help. In mice, the main players in TI immune responses have been well defined as marginal zone (MZ) B cells and B-1 cells. However, the existence of human equivalents to these B cell subsets and the nature of the human B cell compartment involved in the immune reaction remain elusive. We therefore analyzed the effect of a TI antigen on the B cell compartment through immunization of healthy individuals with the pneumococcal polysaccharide (PnPS)-based vaccine Pneumovax®23, and subsequent characterization of B cell subpopulations. Our data demonstrates a transient decrease of transitional and naïve B cells, with a concomitant increase of IgA+ but not IgM+ or IgG+ memory B cells and a predominant generation of PnPS-specific IgA+ producing plasma cells. No alterations could be detected in T cells, or proposed human B-1 and MZ B cell equivalents. Consistent with the idea of a TI immune response, antigen-specific memory responses could not be observed. Finally, BAFF, which is supposed to drive class switching to IgA, was unexpectedly found to be decreased in serum in response to Pneumovax®23. Our results demonstrate that a characteristic TI response induced by Pneumovax®23 is associated with distinct phenotypical and functional changes within the B cell compartment. Those modulations occur in the absence of any modulations of T cells and without the development of a specific memory response.

  16. Reduced Number of Transitional and Naive B Cells in Addition to Decreased BAFF Levels in Response to the T Cell Independent Immunogen Pneumovax®23

    PubMed Central

    Roth, Alena; Glaesener, Stephanie; Schütz, Katharina; Meyer-Bahlburg, Almut

    2016-01-01

    Protective immunity against T cell independent (TI) antigens such as Streptococcus pneumoniae is characterized by antibody production of B cells induced by the combined activation of T cell independent type 1 and type 2 antigens in the absence of direct T cell help. In mice, the main players in TI immune responses have been well defined as marginal zone (MZ) B cells and B-1 cells. However, the existence of human equivalents to these B cell subsets and the nature of the human B cell compartment involved in the immune reaction remain elusive. We therefore analyzed the effect of a TI antigen on the B cell compartment through immunization of healthy individuals with the pneumococcal polysaccharide (PnPS)-based vaccine Pneumovax®23, and subsequent characterization of B cell subpopulations. Our data demonstrates a transient decrease of transitional and naïve B cells, with a concomitant increase of IgA+ but not IgM+ or IgG+ memory B cells and a predominant generation of PnPS-specific IgA+ producing plasma cells. No alterations could be detected in T cells, or proposed human B-1 and MZ B cell equivalents. Consistent with the idea of a TI immune response, antigen-specific memory responses could not be observed. Finally, BAFF, which is supposed to drive class switching to IgA, was unexpectedly found to be decreased in serum in response to Pneumovax®23. Our results demonstrate that a characteristic TI response induced by Pneumovax®23 is associated with distinct phenotypical and functional changes within the B cell compartment. Those modulations occur in the absence of any modulations of T cells and without the development of a specific memory response. PMID:27031098

  17. Addition of sub-anaesthetic dose of ketamine reduces gag reflex during propofol based sedation for upper gastrointestinal endoscopy: A prospective randomised double-blind study

    PubMed Central

    Tandon, Manish; Pandey, Vijay Kant; Dubey, Gaurav Kumar; Pandey, Chandra Kant; Wadhwa, Nitya

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims: Gag reflex is unwanted during upper gastrointestinal endoscopy (UGIE). Experimental studies have demonstrated that N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonism prevents gag reflex. We conducted a study to determine if sub-anaesthetic doses of ketamine, added to propofol, reduce the incidence of gag reflex. Methods: This prospective, randomised, double-blind and placebo-controlled study was done in a tertiary care hospital. A total of 270 patients undergoing UGIE, were randomised to propofol (P) group (n = 135) or propofol plus ketamine (PK) group (n = 135). All patients received propofol boluses titrated to Ramsay sedation score of not <4. Patients in PK group in addition received ketamine, 0.15 mg/kg immediately before the first-propofol dose. Top-up doses of propofol were given as required. Stata 11 software (StataCorp.) was used to calculate the proportion of patients with gag reflex and the corresponding relative risk. Propofol consumed and time to recovery in the two groups was compared using Student's t-test and Cox proportional hazards regression respectively. Results: Significantly, fewer patients in the PK group had gag reflex compared to the P group (3 vs. 23, risk ratio = 0.214, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.07-0.62; P = 0.005). The incidence of hypotension (6 vs. 16, risk ratio = 0.519, 95% CI = 0.25-1.038; P = 0.06), number of required airway manoeuvres (4 vs. 19, risk ratio = 0.32, 95% CI = 0.13-0.74; P = 0.014), median time to recovery (4 min vs. 5 min, hazard ratio = 1.311, 95% CI = 1.029-1.671; P = 0.028) and propofol dose administered (152 mg vs. 167 mg, 95% CI = 4.74-24.55; P = 0.004) was also less in the PK group compared to the P group. Conclusion: Ketamine in sub-anaesthetic dose decreases gag reflex during UGIE. PMID:25197112

  18. Psychotropic dose equivalence in Japan.

    PubMed

    Inada, Toshiya; Inagaki, Ataru

    2015-08-01

    Psychotropic dose equivalence is an important concept when estimating the approximate psychotropic doses patients receive, and deciding on the approximate titration dose when switching from one psychotropic agent to another. It is also useful from a research viewpoint when defining and extracting specific subgroups of subjects. Unification of various agents into a single standard agent facilitates easier analytical comparisons. On the basis of differences in psychopharmacological prescription features, those of available psychotropic agents and their approved doses, and racial differences between Japan and other countries, psychotropic dose equivalency tables designed specifically for Japanese patients have been widely used in Japan since 1998. Here we introduce dose equivalency tables for: (i) antipsychotics; (ii) antiparkinsonian agents; (iii) antidepressants; and (iv) anxiolytics, sedatives and hypnotics available in Japan. Equivalent doses for the therapeutic effects of individual psychotropic compounds were determined principally on the basis of randomized controlled trials conducted in Japan and consensus among dose equivalency tables reported previously by psychopharmacological experts. As these tables are intended to merely suggest approximate standard values, physicians should use them with discretion. Updated information of psychotropic dose equivalence in Japan is available at http://www.jsprs.org/en/equivalence.tables/. [Correction added on 8 July 2015, after first online publication: A link to the updated information has been added.].

  19. Equivalence-Equivalence: Matching Stimuli with Same Discriminative Functions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpentier, Franck; Smeets, Paul M.; Barnes-Holmes, Dermot

    2004-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that after being trained on A-B and A-C match-to-sample tasks, adults match not only same-class B and C stimuli (equivalence) but also BC compounds with same-class elements and with different-class elements (BC-BC). The assumption was that the BC-BC performances are based on matching equivalence and nonequivalence…

  20. Quantum mechanics from an equivalence principle

    SciTech Connect

    Faraggi, A.E.; Matone, M.

    1997-05-15

    The authors show that requiring diffeomorphic equivalence for one-dimensional stationary states implies that the reduced action S{sub 0} satisfies the quantum Hamilton-Jacobi equation with the Planck constant playing the role of a covariantizing parameter. The construction shows the existence of a fundamental initial condition which is strictly related to the Moebius symmetry of the Legendre transform and to its involutive character. The universal nature of the initial condition implies the Schroedinger equation in any dimension.

  1. Reducing the diameters of computer networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bokhari, S. H.; Raza, A. D.

    1986-01-01

    Three methods of reducing the diameters of computer networks by adding additional processor to processor links under the constraint that no more than one I/O port be added to each processor are discussed. This is equivalent to adding edges to a given graph under the constraint that the degree of any node be increased, at most, by one.

  2. Optical metrics and projective equivalence

    SciTech Connect

    Casey, Stephen; Dunajski, Maciej; Gibbons, Gary; Warnick, Claude

    2011-04-15

    Trajectories of light rays in a static spacetime are described by unparametrized geodesics of the Riemannian optical metric associated with the Lorentzian spacetime metric. We investigate the uniqueness of this structure and demonstrate that two different observers, moving relative to one another, who both see the Universe as static may determine the geometry of the light rays differently. More specifically, we classify Lorentzian metrics admitting more than one hyper-surface orthogonal timelike Killing vector and analyze the projective equivalence of the resulting optical metrics. These metrics are shown to be projectively equivalent up to diffeomorphism if the static Killing vectors generate a group SL(2,R), but not projectively equivalent in general. We also consider the cosmological C metrics in Einstein-Maxwell theory and demonstrate that optical metrics corresponding to different values of the cosmological constant are projectively equivalent.

  3. Equivalency Theory and Distance Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonson, Michael

    1999-01-01

    Discusses distance education and the need for an accepted theory. Highlights include theories of independent study; theory of industrialization of teaching; theory of interaction and communication; and equivalency theory that is based on local control, personalized instruction, and telecommunications. (LRW)

  4. The equivalent fundamental-mode source

    SciTech Connect

    Spriggs, G.D.; Busch, R.D.; Sakurai, Takeshi; Okajima, Shigeaki

    1997-02-01

    In 1960, Hansen analyzed the problem of assembling fissionable material in the presence of a weak neutron source. Using point kinetics, he defined the weak source condition and analyzed the consequences of delayed initiation during ramp reactivity additions. Although not clearly stated in Hansen`s work, the neutron source strength that appears in the weak source condition corresponds to the equivalent fundamental-mode source. In this work, we describe the concept of an equivalent fundamental-mode source and we derive a deterministic expression for a factor, g*, that converts any arbitrary source distribution to an equivalent fundamental-mode source. We also demonstrate a simplified method for calculating g* in subcritical systems. And finally, we present a new experimental method that can be employed to measure the equivalent fundamental-mode source strength in a multiplying assembly. We demonstrate the method on the zero-power, XIX-1 assembly at the Fast Critical Assembly (FCA) Facility, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI).

  5. Addition of a dairy rich milk fat globule membrane to a high-saturated fat meal reduces the postprandial insulinaemic and inflammatory response in overweight and obese adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Overweight, obesity, metabolic syndrome (MetS), and postprandial inflammation are all independent risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). To reduce CVD risk, palm oil has become a common substitute for both hydrogenated unsaturated fats, that contain trans fatty acids, and animal ...

  6. Efficacy of additional psychosocial intervention in reducing low birth weight and preterm birth in teenage pregnancy: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Sukhato, Kanokporn; Wongrathanandha, Chathaya; Thakkinstian, Ammarin; Dellow, Alan; Horsuwansak, Pornpot; Anothaisintawee, Thunyarat

    2015-10-01

    This systematic review aimed to assess the efficacy of psychosocial interventions in reducing risk of low birth weight (LBW) and preterm birth (PTB) in teenage pregnancy. Relevant studies were identified from Medline, Scopus, CINAHL, and CENTRAL databases. Randomized controlled trials investigating effect of psychosocial interventions on risk of LBW and PTB, compared to routine antenatal care (ANC) were eligible. Relative risks (RR) of LBW and PTB were pooled using inverse variance method. Mean differences of birth weight (BW) between intervention and control groups were pooled using unstandardized mean difference (USMD). Five studies were included in the review. Compared with routine ANC, psychosocial interventions significantly reduced risk of LBW by 40% (95%CI: 8%,62%) but not for PTB (pooled RR = 0.67, 95%CI: 0.42,1.05). Mean BW of the intervention group was significantly higher than that of the control group with USMD of 200.63 g (95% CI: 21.02, 380.25). Results of our study suggest that psychosocial interventions significantly reduced risk of LBW in teenage pregnancy.

  7. Stimulation of sulfate-reducing bacteria in lake water from a former open-pit mine through addition of organic wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Castro, J.M.; Wielinga, B.W.; Gannon, J.E.; Moore, J.N.

    1999-03-01

    A method to improve water quality in a lake occupying a former open-pit mine was evaluated in a laboratory-scale study. Untreated pit lake water contained high levels of sulfate, iron, and arsenic and was mildly acidic ({approximately} pH 6). Varying amounts of two locally available organic waste products were added to pit water and maintained in microcosms under anoxic conditions. In selected microcosms, populations of sulfate-reducing bacteria increased with time; sulfide was generated by sulfate reduction; sulfate, iron, and arsenic concentrations approached zero; and pH approached neutrality. Best results were obtained with intermediate amounts of waste potato skin.

  8. Reduced toxicological activity of cigarette smoke by the addition of ammonia magnesium phosphate to the paper of an electrically heated cigarette: subchronic inhalation toxicology.

    PubMed

    Moennikes, O; Vanscheeuwijck, P M; Friedrichs, B; Anskeit, E; Patskan, G J

    2008-05-01

    Cigarette smoke is a complex chemical mixture that causes a variety of diseases, such as lung cancer. With the electrically heated cigarette smoking system (EHCSS), temperatures are applied to the tobacco below those found in conventional cigarettes, resulting in less combustion, reduced yields of some smoke constituents, and decreased activity in some standard toxicological tests. The first generation of electrically heated cigarettes (EHC) also resulted in increased formaldehyde yields; therefore, a second generation of EHC was developed with ammonium magnesium phosphate (AMP) in the cigarette paper in part to address this increase. The toxicological activity of mainstream smoke from these two generations of EHC and of a conventional reference cigarette was investigated in two studies in rats: a standard 90-day inhalation toxicity study and a 35-day inhalation study focusing on lung inflammation. Many of the typical smoke exposure-related changes were found to be less pronounced after exposure to smoke from the second-generation EHC with AMP than to smoke from the first-generation EHC or the conventional reference cigarette, when compared on a particulate matter or nicotine basis. Differences between the EHC without AMP and the conventional reference cigarette were not as prominent. Overall, AMP incorporated in the EHC cigarette paper reduced the inhalation toxicity of the EHCSS more than expected based on the observed reduction in aldehyde yields. PMID:18464053

  9. Teleparallel equivalent of Lovelock gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, P. A.; Vásquez, Yerko

    2015-12-01

    There is a growing interest in modified gravity theories based on torsion, as these theories exhibit interesting cosmological implications. In this work inspired by the teleparallel formulation of general relativity, we present its extension to Lovelock gravity known as the most natural extension of general relativity in higher-dimensional space-times. First, we review the teleparallel equivalent of general relativity and Gauss-Bonnet gravity, and then we construct the teleparallel equivalent of Lovelock gravity. In order to achieve this goal, we use the vielbein and the connection without imposing the Weitzenböck connection. Then, we extract the teleparallel formulation of the theory by setting the curvature to null.

  10. The addition of a Buttiauxella sp. phytase to lactating sow diets deficient in phosphorus and calcium reduces weight loss and improves nutrient digestibility.

    PubMed

    Wealleans, A L; Bold, R M; Dersjant-Li, Y; Awati, A

    2015-11-01

    Improving the efficiency of P use by pigs is especially important for lactating sows, whose metabolic requirements for P and Ca are high. The effect of a sp. phytase on lactating sow performance and nutrient digestibility was investigated using the combined data set for 6 studies. Treatments included a nutritionally adequate positive control diet (PC), a negative control diet (NC; with an average reduction of 0.16% available phosphorous and 0.15% Ca vs. PC), and NC supplemented with a sp. phytase at 250, 500, 1,000 or 2,000 phytase unit (FTU)/kg, respectively. Phosphorus and Ca deficiency in the NC resulted in significantly higher BW loss compared with the PC. All phytase treatments maintained BW loss at the same level as the PC. Increasing doses of phytase significantly ( < 0.05) reduced sow BW loss and increased energy intake, with improvements most apparent in sows older than parity 5. The positive effects on BW and energy intake were not observed in first-parity sows. This may be a consequence of fewer first parity sows in the data set. The apparent total tract digestibility of DM, OM, and CP were not affected by phytase supplementation. Digestible P and Ca were significantly improved (linear, < 0.0001; quadratic, < 0.0001) by increasing the dose of phytase supplementation. Significantly lower apparent total tract digestibility of energy, Ca, and P was found in the NC treatment vs. the PC treatment, whereas no significant differences were found between phytase treatment and the PC treatment. In conclusion, phytase supplementation at a level of 250 FTU/kg can replace 0.16% available phosphorous and 0.15% Ca; however, increasing the phytase dose can further reduce BW loss in sows fed P- and Ca- deficient diets.

  11. Children's Equivalence Judgments: Crossmapping Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mix, Kelly S.

    2008-01-01

    Preschoolers made numerical comparisons between sets with varying degrees of shared surface similarity. When surface similarity was pitted against numerical equivalence (i.e., crossmapping), children made fewer number matches than when surface similarity was neutral (i.e, all sets contained the same objects). Only children who understood the…

  12. Meaning Equivalence and Linguistic Expression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akhmanova, Olga; Marcenko, A. N.

    This manual discusses recent research in the field of semantics. It was prepared as part of a series of books to be used in connection with a course of advanced study for experienced philologists and teachers. The Introduction and Part One are based mainly on the 1971-1972 course of lectures on Meaning Equivalence by Akhmanova, and discuss the…

  13. Acquired Equivalence Changes Stimulus Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meeter, M.; Shohamy, D.; Myers, C. E.

    2009-01-01

    Acquired equivalence is a paradigm in which generalization is increased between two superficially dissimilar stimuli (or antecedents) that have previously been associated with similar outcomes (or consequents). Several possible mechanisms have been proposed, including changes in stimulus representations, either in the form of added associations or…

  14. Expanding the Interaction Equivalency Theorem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Brenda Cecilia Padilla; Armellini, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    Although interaction is recognised as a key element for learning, its incorporation in online courses can be challenging. The interaction equivalency theorem provides guidelines: Meaningful learning can be supported as long as one of three types of interactions (learner-content, learner-teacher and learner-learner) is present at a high level. This…

  15. Multiple Functions in Equivalence Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McVeigh, Brian; Keenan, Mickey

    2009-01-01

    Four experiments examined the effects of training a "drawing" response to each of three stimuli in a 5-member equivalence class. In Experiment 1 the stimuli were an arbitrary word, a shape, or a mathematical symbol. Subjects then were trained to draw a separate component of a stickman at each of the 3 stimuli. Subsequent tests for function…

  16. USEPA PATHOGEN EQUIVALENCY COMMITTEE RETREAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Pathogen Equivalency Committee held its retreat from September 20-21, 2005 at Hueston Woods State Park in College Corner, Ohio. This presentation will update the PEC’s membership on emerging pathogens, analytical methods, disinfection techniques, risk analysis, preparat...

  17. Equivalence theorem and infrared divergences

    SciTech Connect

    Torma, T.

    1996-08-01

    We look at the equivalence theorem as a statement about the absence of polynomial infrared divergences when {ital m}{sub {ital W}}{r_arrow}0. We prove their absence in a truncated toy model and conjecture that, if they exist at all, they are due to couplings between light particles. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  18. Addition of transversus abdominis plane block to patient controlled analgesia for laparoscopic high anterior resection improves analgesia, reduces opioid requirement and expedites recovery of bowel function

    PubMed Central

    Ris, F; Findlay, JM; Hompes, R; Rashid, A; Warwick, J; Cunningham, C; Jones, O; Crabtree, N

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Opioid sparing in postoperative pain management appears key in colorectal enhanced recovery. Transversus abdominis plane (TAP) blocks offer such an effect. This study aimed to quantify this effect on pain, opioid use and recovery of bowel function after laparoscopic high anterior resection. Methods This was a retrospective analysis of prospective data on 68 patients. Patients received an epidural (n=24), intravenous morphine patient controlled analgesia (PCA, n=22) or TAP blocks plus PCA (n=22) determined by anaesthetist preference. Outcome measures were numerical pain scores (0–3), cumulative intravenous morphine dose and time to recovery of bowel function (passage of flatus or stool). Results There were no differences in patient characteristics, complications or extraction site. The TAP block group had lower pain scores (0.7 vs 1.36, p<0.001) and morphine requirements (8mg vs 15mg, p=0.01) than the group receiving PCA alone at 12 hours and 24 hours. Earlier passage of flatus (2.0 vs 2.7 vs 3.4 days, p=0.002), stool (3.1 vs 4.1 vs 5.5 days, p=0.04) and earlier discharge (4 vs 5 vs 6 days, p=0.02) were also seen. Conclusions Use of TAP blocks was found to reduce pain and morphine use compared with PCA, expedite recovery of bowel function compared with PCA and epidural, and expedite hospital discharge compared with epidural. PMID:25350178

  19. Nature helps: food addition of micronized coconut and onion reduced worm load in horses and sheep and increased body weight in sheep.

    PubMed

    Jatzlau, Antje; Abdel-Ghaffar, Fathy; Gliem, Günter; Mehlhorn, Heinz

    2014-01-01

    Intense laboratory tests on experimentally infected mice and rats had shown that a mixture of micronized onions and coconut pulp decreases substantially (until disappearance) the worm load (trematodes, cestodes and nematodes) after oral uptake. As a consequence, feeding experiments of naturally infected sheep had been done in Egypt, in Saudi Arabia, and in Germany, which showed that treated animals grow up much better than untreated ones. The mean gain of body weight per animal was up to 6 kg within 4 weeks compared to untreated ones. These experiments were repeated again in the present study with naturally infected sheep and horses in Germany. Two types of professionally produced forage had been used: (1) mixture of 40% micronized onions, 40% coconut flakes, and 20% glucose besides sugar beet treacle; (2) mixture of 25% coconut flakes, 25% micronized onions, and 50% of the so-called muesli forage of Fa. Höveler, Dormagen, Germany consisting of some oils plus 20 different plant extracts and several vitamins. All experiments showed that feeding for 10 days led either to the full disappearance of the previously existing worm load or at least to an enormous reduction. When comparing the body weights of infected sheep before the start of the feeding and 4 weeks later, it was found that there was an increase of 5-8 kg (mean 7.5 kg) body weight in each treated animal, while nontreated ones had only weight increases between 0 and 5 kg (mean 2.37 kg). In the case of the horse treatment, the worm load decreased so enormously that mostly only single eggs or larvae were found in those horses that had accepted the onion-coconut food addition.

  20. Measurement equivalence in mixed mode surveys.

    PubMed

    Hox, Joop J; De Leeuw, Edith D; Zijlmans, Eva A O

    2015-01-01

    Surveys increasingly use mixed mode data collection (e.g., combining face-to-face and web) because this controls costs and helps to maintain good response rates. However, a combination of different survey modes in one study, be it cross-sectional or longitudinal, can lead to different kinds of measurement errors. For example, respondents in a face-to-face survey or a web survey may interpret the same question differently, and might give a different answer, just because of the way the question is presented. This effect of survey mode on the question-answer process is called measurement mode effect. This study develops methodological and statistical tools to identify the existence and size of mode effects in a mixed mode survey. In addition, it assesses the size and importance of mode effects in measurement instruments using a specific mixed mode panel survey (Netherlands Kinship Panel Study). Most measurement instruments in the NKPS are multi-item scales, therefore confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) will be used as the main analysis tool, using propensity score methods to correct for selection effects. The results show that the NKPS scales by and large have measurement equivalence, but in most cases only partial measurement equivalence. Controlling for respondent differences on demographic variables, and on scale scores from the previous uni-mode measurement occasion, tends to improve measurement equivalence, but not for all scales. The discussion ends with a review of the implications of our results for analyses employing these scales.

  1. Measurement equivalence in mixed mode surveys

    PubMed Central

    Hox, Joop J.; De Leeuw, Edith D.; Zijlmans, Eva A. O.

    2015-01-01

    Surveys increasingly use mixed mode data collection (e.g., combining face-to-face and web) because this controls costs and helps to maintain good response rates. However, a combination of different survey modes in one study, be it cross-sectional or longitudinal, can lead to different kinds of measurement errors. For example, respondents in a face-to-face survey or a web survey may interpret the same question differently, and might give a different answer, just because of the way the question is presented. This effect of survey mode on the question-answer process is called measurement mode effect. This study develops methodological and statistical tools to identify the existence and size of mode effects in a mixed mode survey. In addition, it assesses the size and importance of mode effects in measurement instruments using a specific mixed mode panel survey (Netherlands Kinship Panel Study). Most measurement instruments in the NKPS are multi-item scales, therefore confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) will be used as the main analysis tool, using propensity score methods to correct for selection effects. The results show that the NKPS scales by and large have measurement equivalence, but in most cases only partial measurement equivalence. Controlling for respondent differences on demographic variables, and on scale scores from the previous uni-mode measurement occasion, tends to improve measurement equivalence, but not for all scales. The discussion ends with a review of the implications of our results for analyses employing these scales. PMID:25699002

  2. Simulated Response of a Tissue-equivalent Proportional Counter on the Surface of Mars.

    PubMed

    Northum, Jeremy D; Guetersloh, Stephen B; Braby, Leslie A; Ford, John R

    2015-10-01

    Uncertainties persist regarding the assessment of the carcinogenic risk associated with galactic cosmic ray (GCR) exposure during a mission to Mars. The GCR spectrum peaks in the range of 300(-1) MeV n to 700 MeV n(-1) and is comprised of elemental ions from H to Ni. While Fe ions represent only 0.03% of the GCR spectrum in terms of particle abundance, they are responsible for nearly 30% of the dose equivalent in free space. Because of this, radiation biology studies focusing on understanding the biological effects of GCR exposure generally use Fe ions. Acting as a thin shield, the Martian atmosphere alters the GCR spectrum in a manner that significantly reduces the importance of Fe ions. Additionally, albedo particles emanating from the regolith complicate the radiation environment. The present study uses the Monte Carlo code FLUKA to simulate the response of a tissue-equivalent proportional counter on the surface of Mars to produce dosimetry quantities and microdosimetry distributions. The dose equivalent rate on the surface of Mars was found to be 0.18 Sv y(-1) with an average quality factor of 2.9 and a dose mean lineal energy of 18.4 keV μm(-1). Additionally, albedo neutrons were found to account for 25% of the dose equivalent. It is anticipated that these data will provide relevant starting points for use in future risk assessment and mission planning studies.

  3. Simulated Response of a Tissue-equivalent Proportional Counter on the Surface of Mars.

    PubMed

    Northum, Jeremy D; Guetersloh, Stephen B; Braby, Leslie A; Ford, John R

    2015-10-01

    Uncertainties persist regarding the assessment of the carcinogenic risk associated with galactic cosmic ray (GCR) exposure during a mission to Mars. The GCR spectrum peaks in the range of 300(-1) MeV n to 700 MeV n(-1) and is comprised of elemental ions from H to Ni. While Fe ions represent only 0.03% of the GCR spectrum in terms of particle abundance, they are responsible for nearly 30% of the dose equivalent in free space. Because of this, radiation biology studies focusing on understanding the biological effects of GCR exposure generally use Fe ions. Acting as a thin shield, the Martian atmosphere alters the GCR spectrum in a manner that significantly reduces the importance of Fe ions. Additionally, albedo particles emanating from the regolith complicate the radiation environment. The present study uses the Monte Carlo code FLUKA to simulate the response of a tissue-equivalent proportional counter on the surface of Mars to produce dosimetry quantities and microdosimetry distributions. The dose equivalent rate on the surface of Mars was found to be 0.18 Sv y(-1) with an average quality factor of 2.9 and a dose mean lineal energy of 18.4 keV μm(-1). Additionally, albedo neutrons were found to account for 25% of the dose equivalent. It is anticipated that these data will provide relevant starting points for use in future risk assessment and mission planning studies. PMID:26313586

  4. Dark matter and the equivalence principle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frieman, Joshua A.; Gradwohl, Ben-Ami

    1991-01-01

    If the dark matter in galaxies and clusters is nonbaryonic, it can interact with additional long-range fields that are invisible to experimental tests of the equivalence principle. The astrophysical and cosmological implications of a long-range force coupled only to the dark matter are discussed and rather tight constraints on its strength are found. If the force is repulsive (attractive), the masses of galaxy groups and clusters (and the mean density of the universe inferred from them) have been systematically underestimated (overestimated). Such an interaction also has unusual implications for the growth of large-scale structure.

  5. Thévenin equivalence in disorderless quantum networks

    SciTech Connect

    Cain, C. A.; Wu, C. H.

    2015-01-14

    We outline the procedure of extending the Thévenin equivalence principle for classical electric circuits to reducing Aharonov-Bohm-based quantum networks into equivalent models. With examples, we show from first principles how the requirements are related to the electron band structure's Fermi level and the lattice spacing of the network. Quantum networks of varying degrees of coupling strength from four basic classifications of single and double entangled loops sharing symmetry and highly correlated band structures are used to demonstrate the concept. We show the limitations of how the principle may be applied. Several classes of examples are given and their equivalent forms are shown.

  6. Equivalent Imperfections In Arched Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dallemule, Marian

    2015-09-01

    There are currently three design methods to verify the in-plane buckling of an arched structure: substitute member method, the method of equivalent imperfection with recommendations for arched bridges, and the equivalent unique global and local initial imperfection method (EUGLI), which uses the critical elastic buckling mode as an imperfection. The latter method is included in the EN 1993-1-1 cl. 5.3.2 (11) since 2002; however, to this day it is neither utilized in the design practice nor is it incorporated in ordinary structural analysis software. The main purpose of this article is to show the application of the proposed methods in a step-by-step manner to the numerical example considered and to compare these design methods for various arched structures. Verification of the in-plane buckling of an arch is explained in detail.

  7. The Stanford equivalence principle program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Worden, Paul W., Jr.; Everitt, C. W. Francis; Bye, M.

    1989-01-01

    The Stanford Equivalence Principle Program (Worden, Jr. 1983) is intended to test the uniqueness of free fall to the ultimate possible accuracy. The program is being conducted in two phases: first, a ground-based version of the experiment, which should have a sensitivity to differences in rate of fall of one part in 10(exp 12); followed by an orbital experiment with a sensitivity of one part in 10(exp 17) or better. The ground-based experiment, although a sensitive equivalence principle test in its own right, is being used for technology development for the orbital experiment. A secondary goal of the experiment is a search for exotic forces. The instrument is very well suited for this search, which would be conducted mostly with the ground-based apparatus. The short range predicted for these forces means that forces originating in the Earth would not be detectable in orbit. But detection of Yukawa-type exotic forces from a nearby large satellite (such as Space Station) is feasible, and gives a very sensitive and controllable test for little more effort than the orbiting equivalence principle test itself.

  8. Functional classes and equivalence relations

    PubMed Central

    Sidman, Murray; Wynne, Constance K.; Maguire, Russell W.; Barnes, Thomas

    1989-01-01

    Three adult subjects were taught a set of two-choice simultaneous discriminations, with three positive and three negative stimuli; all possible combinations of positive and negative stimuli yielded nine different pairs. The discriminations were repeatedly reversed and rereversed, the former positive stimuli becoming negative and the former negative stimuli becoming positive. With all subjects, a reversal of the contingencies for one pair of stimuli became sufficient to change their responses to all of the other pairs. The reversals had produced functional stimulus classes. Then, all subjects showed conditional discriminations emerging between members of a functional class; given a sample from one class and comparisons from both classes, they selected the comparison that was in the same class as the sample. Next, 2 of the subjects showed that the within-class conditional relations possessed the symmetric and transitive properties of equivalence relations; after having been taught to relate new stimuli to existing class members, the subjects then matched other class members to the new stimuli. Subsequent tests of two-choice discriminations showed that the conditional discriminations had transferred functional class membership to the new stimuli. The 3rd subject, who did not show equivalence relations among functional class members, was also found to have lost the within-class conditional relations after the equivalence tests. PMID:16812597

  9. Information Leakage from Logically Equivalent Frames

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sher, Shlomi; McKenzie, Craig R. M.

    2006-01-01

    Framing effects are said to occur when equivalent frames lead to different choices. However, the equivalence in question has been incompletely conceptualized. In a new normative analysis of framing effects, we complete the conceptualization by introducing the notion of information equivalence. Information equivalence obtains when no…

  10. Equivalence principle in Chameleon models .

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraiselburd, L.; Landau, S.; Salgado, M.; Sudarsky, D.

    Most theories that predict time and/or space variation of fundamental constants also predict violations of the Weak Equivalence Principle (WEP). Khoury and Weltmann proposed the chameleon model in 2004 and claimed that this model avoids experimental bounds on WEP. We present a contrasting view based on an approximate calculation of the two body problem for the chameleon field and show that the force depends on the test body composition. Furthermore, we compare the prediction of the force on a test body with Eötvös type experiments and find that the chameleon field effect cannot account for current bounds.

  11. Food additives

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Michael

    1974-01-01

    Food additives are discussed from the food technology point of view. The reasons for their use are summarized: (1) to protect food from chemical and microbiological attack; (2) to even out seasonal supplies; (3) to improve their eating quality; (4) to improve their nutritional value. The various types of food additives are considered, e.g. colours, flavours, emulsifiers, bread and flour additives, preservatives, and nutritional additives. The paper concludes with consideration of those circumstances in which the use of additives is (a) justified and (b) unjustified. PMID:4467857

  12. Breaking of Ensemble Equivalence in Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Squartini, Tiziano; de Mol, Joey; den Hollander, Frank; Garlaschelli, Diego

    2015-12-01

    It is generally believed that, in the thermodynamic limit, the microcanonical description as a function of energy coincides with the canonical description as a function of temperature. However, various examples of systems for which the microcanonical and canonical ensembles are not equivalent have been identified. A complete theory of this intriguing phenomenon is still missing. Here we show that ensemble nonequivalence can manifest itself also in random graphs with topological constraints. We find that, while graphs with a given number of links are ensemble equivalent, graphs with a given degree sequence are not. This result holds irrespective of whether the energy is nonadditive (as in unipartite graphs) or additive (as in bipartite graphs). In contrast with previous expectations, our results show that (1) physically, nonequivalence can be induced by an extensive number of local constraints, and not necessarily by long-range interactions or nonadditivity, (2) mathematically, nonequivalence is determined by a different large-deviation behavior of microcanonical and canonical probabilities for a single microstate, and not necessarily for almost all microstates. The latter criterion, which is entirely local, is not restricted to networks and holds in general.

  13. Electroweak Vortices and Gauge Equivalence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDowell, Samuel W.; Törnkvist, Ola

    Vortex configurations in the electroweak gauge theory are investigated. Two gauge-inequivalent solutions of the field equations, the Z and W vortices, have previously been found. They correspond to embeddings of the Abelian Nielsen-Olesen vortex solution into a U(1) subgroup of SU(2)×U(1). It is shown here that any electroweak vortex solution can be mapped into a solution of the same energy with a vanishing upper component of the Higgs field. The correspondence is a gauge equivalence for all vortex solutions except those for which the winding numbers of the upper and lower Higgs components add to zero. This class of solutions, which includes the W vortex, corresponds to a singular solution in the one-component gauge. The results, combined with numerical investigations, provide an argument against the existence of other vortex solutions in the gauge-Higgs sector of the Standard Model.

  14. Equivalent crystal theory of alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozzolo, Guillermo; Ferrante, John

    1991-01-01

    Equivalent Crystal Theory (ECT) is a new, semi-empirical approach to calculating the energetics of a solid with defects. The theory has successfully reproduced surface energies in metals and semiconductors. The theory of binary alloys to date, both with first-principles and semi-empirical models, has not been very successful in predicting the energetics of alloys. This procedure is used to predict the heats of formation, cohesive energy, and lattice parameter of binary alloys of Cu, Ni, Al, Ag, Au, Pd, and Pt as functions of composition. The procedure accurately reproduces the heats of formation versus composition curves for a variety of binary alloys. The results are then compared with other approaches such as the embedded atom and lattice parameters of alloys from pure metal properties more accurately than Vegard's law is presented.

  15. [The false equivalent Galeazzi in children].

    PubMed

    Marzouki, A; Elibrahimi, A; Elmrini, A; Boutayeb, F

    2009-02-01

    We report the case of a false Galeazzi equivalent in children. This injury is characterised by an epiphyseal detachment of the distal extremity of the ulna rather than a distal radio-ulnar dislocation. A 16-year-old patient was injured in a fall from a bike. Radiographs showed a fracture of the radial shaft with anterior angulation, together with a type II Salter-Harris epiphyseal injury at the level of the distal ulna. We were unable to perform a closed reduction under general anesthesia due to interposition of periosteum at the fracture site. Thus surgical management was the only option, which consisted of removing the offending periosteum and performing osteosynthesis of the radial shaft fracture with a plate, and the epiphyseal detachment with pins. After 10 months, we noted no bone growth disturbance, or any reduced mobility of the wrist. We will continue the follow-up to monitor bone growth disturbance of the distal extremity of the ulna.

  16. Classroom Activities for Introducing Equivalence Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandt, Jim

    2013-01-01

    Equivalence relations and partitions are two interconnected ideas that play important roles in advanced mathematics. While students encounter the informal notion of equivalence in many courses, the formal definition of an equivalence relation is typically introduced in a junior level transition-to-proof course. This paper reports the results of a…

  17. 46 CFR 110.20-1 - Equivalents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Equivalents. 110.20-1 Section 110.20-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING GENERAL PROVISIONS Equivalents... engineering evaluations and tests to demonstrate the equivalence of the substitute....

  18. 46 CFR 110.20-1 - Equivalents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Equivalents. 110.20-1 Section 110.20-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING GENERAL PROVISIONS Equivalents... engineering evaluations and tests to demonstrate the equivalence of the substitute....

  19. 46 CFR 110.20-1 - Equivalents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Equivalents. 110.20-1 Section 110.20-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING GENERAL PROVISIONS Equivalents... engineering evaluations and tests to demonstrate the equivalence of the substitute....

  20. 46 CFR 110.20-1 - Equivalents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Equivalents. 110.20-1 Section 110.20-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING GENERAL PROVISIONS Equivalents... engineering evaluations and tests to demonstrate the equivalence of the substitute....

  1. Stimulus Equivalence: Testing Sidman's (2000) Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minster, Sara Tepaeru; Jones, Max; Elliffe, Douglas; Muthukumaraswamy, Suresh D.

    2006-01-01

    Sidman's (2000) theory regarding the origin of equivalence relations predicts that a reinforcing stimulus common to distinct equivalence classes must drop out of the equivalence relations. This prediction was tested in the present study by arranging class-specific reinforcers, R1 and R2, following correct responding on the prerequisite conditional…

  2. 46 CFR 110.20-1 - Equivalents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Equivalents. 110.20-1 Section 110.20-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING GENERAL PROVISIONS Equivalents... engineering evaluations and tests to demonstrate the equivalence of the substitute....

  3. Snow water equivalent determination by microwave radiometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, A. T. C.; Foster, J. L.; Hall, D. K.; Rango, A.; Hartline, B. K.

    1981-01-01

    One of the most important parameters for accurate snowmelt runoff prediction is snow water equivalent (SWE) which is contentionally monitored using observations made at widely scattered points in or around specific watersheds. Remote sensors which provide data with better spatial and temporal coverage can be used to improve the SWE estimates. Microwave radiation, which can penetrate through a snowpack, may be used to infer the SWE. Calculations made from a microscopic scattering model were used to simulate the effect of varying SWE on the microwave brightness temperature. Data obtained from truck mounted, airborne and spaceborne systems from various test sites were studied. The simulated SWE compares favorable with the measured SWE. In addition, whether the underlying soil is frozen or thawed can be discriminated successfully on the basis of the polarization of the microwave radiation.

  4. Oral Supplementation with a Special Additive of Retinyl Palmitate and Alpha Tocopherol Reduces Growth Retardation in Young Pancreatic Duct Ligated Pigs Used as a Model for Children Suffering from Exocrine Pancreatic Insufficiency

    PubMed Central

    Mößeler, Anne; Schmicke, Marion; Höltershinken, Martin; Beyerbach, Martin; Kamphues, Josef

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic exocrine insufficiency (PEI) is a disease of diverse aetiology—e.g., majority of patients suffering from cystic fibrosis (CF) show PEI congenitally. Malnutrition and malabsorption of nutrients impair growth and nutritional status. As reduced fat digestion leads to a deficiency of fat-soluble vitamins the supplementation is standard, but absorption is a critical point in PEI-patients. The pancreatic duct ligated (PL) pig is an established model for PEI in humans and has been proven to be a suitable model to compare different vitamin additives for supplementation. In a former study, PEI caused distinct growth retardation in young piglets, but did not affect growth in older ones. Our study hypothesised that this age-dependent effect is caused by exhausted body reserves of fat-soluble vitamins and, therefore, extra supply reduces growth retardation. PEI was induced by PL at the age of seven (PL-7) or 16 weeks (PL-16). Controls (C) underwent a sham surgery. Some PL-7 pigs (PL-7 + Vit) were fed a special vitamin additive. PEI reduced the mean final body weight (kg) at 26 weeks of age significantly with lower effect in PL-16-pigs (C:117; PL-7:49.5; PL-7 + Vit:77.1; PL-16:96.4). Extra vitamin supply resulted in an increased growth and normalised serum concentration of alpha-tocopherol, underlining the importance of special supplementation in PEI-patients. PMID:27690005

  5. The transfer of Cfunc contextual control through equivalence relations.

    PubMed

    Perez, William F; Fidalgo, Adriana P; Kovac, Roberta; Nico, Yara C

    2015-05-01

    Derived relational responding is affected by contextual stimuli (Cfunc) that select specific stimulus functions. The present study investigated the transfer of Cfunc contextual control through equivalence relations by evaluating both (a) the maintenance of Cfunc contextual control after the expansion of a relational network, and (b) the establishment of novel contextual stimuli by the transfer of Cfunc contextual control through equivalence relations. Initially, equivalence relations were established and contingencies were arranged so that colors functioned as Cfunc stimuli controlling participants' key-pressing responses in the presence of any stimulus from a three-member equivalence network. To investigate the first research question, the three-member equivalence relations were expanded to five members and the novel members were presented with the Cfunc stimuli in the key-pressing task. To address the second goal of this study, the colors (Cfunc) were established as equivalent to certain line patterns. The transfer of contextual cue function (Cfunc) was tested replacing the colored backgrounds with line patterns in the key-pressing task. Results suggest that the Cfunc contextual control was transferred to novel stimuli that were added to the relational network. In addition, the line patterns indirectly acquired the contextual cue function (Cfunc) initially established for the colored backgrounds. The conceptual and applied implications of Cfunc contextual control are discussed. PMID:25892218

  6. The transfer of Cfunc contextual control through equivalence relations.

    PubMed

    Perez, William F; Fidalgo, Adriana P; Kovac, Roberta; Nico, Yara C

    2015-05-01

    Derived relational responding is affected by contextual stimuli (Cfunc) that select specific stimulus functions. The present study investigated the transfer of Cfunc contextual control through equivalence relations by evaluating both (a) the maintenance of Cfunc contextual control after the expansion of a relational network, and (b) the establishment of novel contextual stimuli by the transfer of Cfunc contextual control through equivalence relations. Initially, equivalence relations were established and contingencies were arranged so that colors functioned as Cfunc stimuli controlling participants' key-pressing responses in the presence of any stimulus from a three-member equivalence network. To investigate the first research question, the three-member equivalence relations were expanded to five members and the novel members were presented with the Cfunc stimuli in the key-pressing task. To address the second goal of this study, the colors (Cfunc) were established as equivalent to certain line patterns. The transfer of contextual cue function (Cfunc) was tested replacing the colored backgrounds with line patterns in the key-pressing task. Results suggest that the Cfunc contextual control was transferred to novel stimuli that were added to the relational network. In addition, the line patterns indirectly acquired the contextual cue function (Cfunc) initially established for the colored backgrounds. The conceptual and applied implications of Cfunc contextual control are discussed.

  7. A study protocol of a randomised controlled trial incorporating a health economic analysis to investigate if additional allied health services for rehabilitation reduce length of stay without compromising patient outcomes

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Reducing patient length of stay is a high priority for health service providers. Preliminary information suggests additional Saturday rehabilitation services could reduce the time a patient stays in hospital by three days. This large trial will examine if providing additional physiotherapy and occupational therapy services on a Saturday reduces health care costs, and improves the health of hospital inpatients receiving rehabilitation compared to the usual Monday to Friday service. We will also investigate the cost effectiveness and patient outcomes of such a service. Methods/Design A randomised controlled trial will evaluate the effect of providing additional physiotherapy and occupational therapy for rehabilitation. Seven hundred and twelve patients receiving inpatient rehabilitation at two metropolitan sites will be randomly allocated to the intervention group or control group. The control group will receive usual care physiotherapy and occupational therapy from Monday to Friday while the intervention group will receive the same amount of rehabilitation as the control group Monday to Friday plus a full physiotherapy and occupational therapy service on Saturday. The primary outcomes will be patient length of stay, quality of life (EuroQol questionnaire), the Functional Independence Measure (FIM), and health utilization and cost data. Secondary outcomes will assess clinical outcomes relevant to the goals of therapy: the 10 metre walk test, the timed up and go test, the Personal Care Participation Assessment and Resource Tool (PC PART), and the modified motor assessment scale. Blinded assessors will assess outcomes at admission and discharge, and follow up data on quality of life, function and health care costs will be collected at 6 and 12 months after discharge. Between group differences will be analysed with analysis of covariance using baseline measures as the covariate. A health economic analysis will be carried out alongside the randomised

  8. 40 CFR 125.60 - Primary or equivalent treatment requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Modifying the Secondary Treatment Requirements Under Section 301(h) of the Clean Water Act § 125.60 Primary... will be based on the definition of excessive I&I in 40 CFR 35.2005(b)(16) plus the additional criterion... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Primary or equivalent...

  9. 21 CFR 610.9 - Equivalent methods and processes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) BIOLOGICS GENERAL BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS STANDARDS General Provisions § 610.9 Equivalent methods and processes... conducted as required in this part or in the additional standards for specific biological products in parts... of the safety, purity, potency, and effectiveness of the biological product equal to or greater...

  10. 21 CFR 610.9 - Equivalent methods and processes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) BIOLOGICS GENERAL BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS STANDARDS General Provisions § 610.9 Equivalent methods and processes... conducted as required in this part or in the additional standards for specific biological products in parts... of the safety, purity, potency, and effectiveness of the biological product equal to or greater...

  11. 21 CFR 610.9 - Equivalent methods and processes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) BIOLOGICS GENERAL BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS STANDARDS General Provisions § 610.9 Equivalent methods and processes... conducted as required in this part or in the additional standards for specific biological products in parts... of the safety, purity, potency, and effectiveness of the biological product equal to or greater...

  12. 40 CFR 125.60 - Primary or equivalent treatment requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... will be based on the definition of excessive I&I in 40 CFR 35.2005(b)(16) plus the additional criterion... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Primary or equivalent treatment... Modifying the Secondary Treatment Requirements Under Section 301(h) of the Clean Water Act § 125.60...

  13. Metabolic equivalents during scooter exercise.

    PubMed

    Kijima, Akira; Arimoto, Morio; Muramatsu, Shigeru

    2007-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the metabolic equivalents (METs) for scooter exercise (riding a scooter, scootering) and to examine the energy expenditure and the heart rate response, so that the results can be used in health promotion activities. Eighteen young adults (10 males and 8 females) participated in scootering on a treadmill at three different speeds for six minutes each. Before, during, and after the exercise, pulmonary ventilation, oxygen uptake (VO(2)), carbon dioxide product, respiratory exchange ratio (R), and heart rate (HR) were measured. These measurements kept steady states from the 3rd to 6th minute of each different speed session. The MET values acquired during scootering at 80 m.min(-1), 110 m.min(-1), and 140 m.min(-1) were 3.9, 4.3, and 5.0, respectively. Calculated using VO(2) (ml.kg(-1).min(-1))x[4.0+R], the energy consumption for scootering at each speed was 67.0+/-10.6, 73.3+/-10.2, and 84.8+/-7.9 cal.kg(-1).min(-1), respectively. The regression equation between scootering speed (X, m.min(-1)) and VO(2) (Y, ml.kg(-1).min(-1)) is Y=0.062X+8.655, and the regression equation between HR (X, beats.min(-1)) and VO(2)reserve (Y, %) is Y=0.458X-11.264. These equations can be applied to both females and males. Thus, scootering at 80 to 140 m.min(-1) might not be sufficient to improve the cardiorespiratory fitness of young male adults similar to the participants, but it may contribute many healthy benefits to most female adults and even male adults, and improve their health and fitness at the faster speeds.

  14. Equivalent source mapping of lunar magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toyoshima, M.; Shibuya, H.

    2007-12-01

    JAXA (Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency) shall launch the SELENE (SELenological and ENgineering Explorer) spacecraft this autumn. Amongst many instruments, it has a magnetometer (LMAG: Lunar MAGnetomter) which will measure the magnetic field on the orbit around the Moon. The nominal orbit of the SELENE is about 100km in altitudes for 1 year observation. Although the extended mission is still not determined, LMAG team is requesting a low altitude (less than 50km) observation, if the remaining fuel allows. We are preparing data processing software for the mission. Here, we report an objective scheme for mapping the lunar crustal magnetic field from the orbital measurement data of unequal altitudes. In this study, the magnetic field is restored by solving a linear inverse-problem determining the sources distributed on the lunar surface to satisfy the observational data, which is known as the equivalent source method. Our scheme has three features improving the method: First, the source calculation is performed simultaneously with detrending. Second, magnetic charges (magnetic monopoles) are used as the equivalent sources. It reduces the density of the sources for the same smoothness in produced field, comparing to the dipole sauces. Third, the number of sources is taken large enough to avoid the problem of configuration of the sources, instead the damped least square assuming the strength of each charge is similar to the next one, and the smoothness factor is determined by minimizing Akaike's Bayesian Information Criterion (ABIC). It guarantees the objectivity of the calculation, in other words, there is no adjustable parameter which may depend of the researcher dealing the data analyses. For testing the scheme, we apply this method to the Lunar Prospector magnetometer data, and provide magnetic field map in the region centered at several regions of strong crustal field including the Reiner Gamma anomaly. The stability of the method and the resolution of the anomaly

  15. It Pays to Be Organized: Organizing Arithmetic Practice around Equivalent Values Facilitates Understanding of Math Equivalence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeil, Nicole M.; Chesney, Dana L.; Matthews, Percival G.; Fyfe, Emily R.; Petersen, Lori A.; Dunwiddie, April E.; Wheeler, Mary C.

    2012-01-01

    This experiment tested the hypothesis that organizing arithmetic fact practice by equivalent values facilitates children's understanding of math equivalence. Children (M age = 8 years 6 months, N = 104) were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 practice conditions: (a) equivalent values, in which problems were grouped by equivalent sums (e.g., 3 + 4 = 7, 2…

  16. Simulation of Sound Propagating over Soft Surface Using the Equivalent Source Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ocansey, Daniel Teye

    Noise generated by large explosions at military bases causes discomfort to residents living in the vicinity, for up to 20km away. This noise explosion has strong low-frequency content and can travel over long distances. Most of the theoretical and experimental work that have been done to study and reduce this type of noise involved the use of barriers and sound proofing the residential houses. In this thesis, we consider the application of reducing the acoustic noise by shaping the landscape. The solution of this problem is difficult due to the semi-infinite domain, especially in the case of soft ground. To overcome the difficulty of calculating a faraway acoustic field for an undulating soft surface, we use the Equivalent Source Method (ESM) as a generalization of the image source method which is applicable to flat surfaces only. Additional sources are used to account for the undulation, and their amplitudes and phases and locations are determined by solving a least-square problem derived from the boundary conditions. The method then estimates the pressure field using superposition of the effect of the equivalent sources. In short, the acoustic field caused by a source above an impedance plane is computed by using a superposition of equivalent point sources located along a line in the mirror space below the plane. A special notation is derived to simplify this formulation. To account for finite impedance, we incorporate a integral introduced by Ochmann which represent additional sources located at complex location paraxial to the image source. This integral is known to be convergent for acceptable impedance. The boundary conditions are then updated as to reflect the influence of the Ochamann term, and the matrices involved in the least-squares solution now have six additional terms. The proposed method is then applied to a sinusoidally varying surface. To simplify the calculation, the positions of the equivalent sources are postulated to be a small distances below

  17. Equivalent circuit for postcoupler stabilization in a drift tube linac

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grespan, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    Postcouplers (PCs) are devices used in order to reduce the effect of perturbations on the operating mode of a drift tube linac (DTL), using the resonant coupling stabilization method. In this article an equivalent circuit for a DTL equipped with PCs is presented, together with a 3D simulation analysis, which can explain the principle of postcoupler stabilization and define a new tuning strategy for DTL cavities. The PC tuning procedure based on the equivalent circuit and on frequency measurements has been tested and validated with measurements on the Linac4 DTL aluminum model, present at CERN.

  18. Is it efficient to co-compost and co-vermicompost green waste with biochar and/or clay to reduce CO2 emissions? A short-term laboratory experiment on (vermi)composts with additives.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barthod, Justine; Rumpel, Cornélia; Paradelo, Remigio; Dignac, Marie-France

    2016-04-01

    Intensive farming practices can lead to a depletion of soil organic matter, negatively impacting important soil properties such as structural stability, fertility and C storage. The addition of organic amendments such as compost and vermicompost, rich in carbon, helps maintaining soil organic matter levels or restoring degraded soils. Composting and vermicomposting are based on stabilization of organic matter through the mineralization of easily decomposable organic matter compounds, therefore releasing greenhouse gases, including CO2. The aim of this study was to evaluate the global potential reduction of such emissions by the use of additives (2:1 clay and/or biochar): during (vermi)composting processes and after use of the final products as soil amendments. We hypothesized that the interactions between the additives and organic matter may lead to carbon stabilization and that such interactions may be enhanced by the presence of worms (Eisenia). We added in different proportions clay (25% or 50%), biochar (10%) and a mixture of biochar (10%) with clay (25%) to pre-composted green waste. The CO2 emissions of the composting and vermicomposting processes were measured during 21 days. After that, the amendments were added to a loamy cambisol soil and the CO2 emissions were monitored during 30 days of a laboratory experiment. The most efficient treatments in terms of reducing global CO2 emissions were the co-vermicomposting process with 25% clay followed by co-composting with 50% clay and with 10% biochar plus 25% clay. In this treatment (vermicompost with 25% clay), the carbon emissions were decreased by up to 44% compared to regular compost. Addition of biochar reduced CO2 emissions only during composting. Co-composting with biochar could be a promising avenue to limit global CO2 emissions whereas in presence of worms clay additions are better suited. These findings suggest that the presence of worms increased the formation of organo-mineral associations and thus C

  19. Phosphazene additives

    DOEpatents

    Harrup, Mason K; Rollins, Harry W

    2013-11-26

    An additive comprising a phosphazene compound that has at least two reactive functional groups and at least one capping functional group bonded to phosphorus atoms of the phosphazene compound. One of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with cellulose and the other of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with a resin, such as an amine resin of a polycarboxylic acid resin. The at least one capping functional group is selected from the group consisting of a short chain ether group, an alkoxy group, or an aryloxy group. Also disclosed are an additive-resin admixture, a method of treating a wood product, and a wood product.

  20. Potlining Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolf Keller

    2004-08-10

    In this project, a concept to improve the performance of aluminum production cells by introducing potlining additives was examined and tested. Boron oxide was added to cathode blocks, and titanium was dissolved in the metal pool; this resulted in the formation of titanium diboride and caused the molten aluminum to wet the carbonaceous cathode surface. Such wetting reportedly leads to operational improvements and extended cell life. In addition, boron oxide suppresses cyanide formation. This final report presents and discusses the results of this project. Substantial economic benefits for the practical implementation of the technology are projected, especially for modern cells with graphitized blocks. For example, with an energy savings of about 5% and an increase in pot life from 1500 to 2500 days, a cost savings of $ 0.023 per pound of aluminum produced is projected for a 200 kA pot.

  1. Constructing equivalent effective chiral Lagrangians: A systematic approach

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, K. ); Pantziris, A. . Department of Physics Brooklyn College of the City University of New York, Brooklyn, New York . Center for Nuclear Theory)

    1991-01-01

    We demonstrate a systematic method of constructing physically equivalent effective chiral Lagrangians based on the symmetry properties of low-energy hadron physics. We start by building the most general Lagrangian describing pion-nucleon systems within the chiral SU(2){sub {ital L}}{times}SU(2){sub {ital R}} context. The symmetry is then enlarged to include additional Goldstone bosons such as the axion of the Peccei-Quinn symmetry. The vector and axial-vector mesons are introduced in the context of a gauge chiral model for completeness. We work out explicitly a specific example of the equivalence of effective Lagrangian models for the nucleon-nucleon-axion bremsstrahlung process.

  2. 21 CFR 26.9 - Equivalence determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... RECOGNITION OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM AUDIT REPORTS... Specific Sector Provisions for Pharmaceutical Good Manufacturing Practices § 26.9 Equivalence...

  3. 21 CFR 26.9 - Equivalence determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... RECOGNITION OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM AUDIT REPORTS... Specific Sector Provisions for Pharmaceutical Good Manufacturing Practices § 26.9 Equivalence...

  4. 21 CFR 26.6 - Equivalence assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM AUDIT REPORTS... Specific Sector Provisions for Pharmaceutical Good Manufacturing Practices § 26.6 Equivalence...

  5. 21 CFR 26.6 - Equivalence assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM AUDIT REPORTS... Specific Sector Provisions for Pharmaceutical Good Manufacturing Practices § 26.6 Equivalence...

  6. 21 CFR 26.9 - Equivalence determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... RECOGNITION OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM AUDIT REPORTS... Specific Sector Provisions for Pharmaceutical Good Manufacturing Practices § 26.9 Equivalence...

  7. 21 CFR 26.6 - Equivalence assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM AUDIT REPORTS... Specific Sector Provisions for Pharmaceutical Good Manufacturing Practices § 26.6 Equivalence...

  8. Wave propagation in equivalent continuums representing truss lattice materials

    SciTech Connect

    Messner, Mark C.; Barham, Matthew I.; Kumar, Mukul; Barton, Nathan R.

    2015-07-29

    Stiffness scales linearly with density in stretch-dominated lattice meta-materials offering the possibility of very light yet very stiff structures. Current additive manufacturing techniques can assemble structures consisting of these lattice materials, but the design of such structures will require accurate, efficient simulation techniques. Equivalent continuum models have several advantages over discrete truss models of stretch dominated lattices, including computational efficiency and ease of model construction. However, the development an equivalent model suitable for representing the dynamic response of a periodic truss is complicated by microinertial effects. This paper derives a dynamic equivalent continuum model for periodic truss structures and verifies it against detailed finite element simulations. The model must incorporate microinertial effects to accurately reproduce long-wavelength characteristics of the response such as anisotropic elastic soundspeeds. The formulation presented here also improves upon previous work by preserving equilibrium at truss joints for affine lattice deformation and by improving numerical stability by eliminating vertices in the effective yield surface.

  9. Asymptotically Jλ -statistical equivalent sequences of weight g

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savaş, Ekrem

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents the following definition which is a natural combination of the definition for asymptotically equivalent of weight g, J -statistically limit, and λ - statistical convergence, where g :ℕ →[0 , ∞ ) is a function satisfying g (n) → ∞ and g(n) ↛ 0. The two nonnegative sequences x = (xk) and y = (yk) are said to be asymptotically Jg -statistical equivalent of weight g to multiple L provided that for every ɛ > 0, and δ > 0, {n ∈ℕ : 1/g (λn) |{k ∈In:|x/k yk -L | ≥ɛ }| ≥δ }∈J , (denoted by x ˜SλL(I) g y ) and simply asymptotically Jg -statistical equivalent of weight g if L = 1. In addition, we shall also present some inclusion theorems.

  10. Evaluation of lead equivalence of patient and hardware materials in medical diagnostic x-ray shielding.

    PubMed

    Okunade, Akintunde Akangbe

    2005-02-01

    In the estimation of additional shielding requirements for primary beam apart from that provided by patient and hardware in the x-ray beam, there is the need to distinguish between attenuation and hardening properties of materials in comparison. In this work, numerical comparison of attenuation and hardening properties of phantom (Lucite, soft tissue, water) and hardware (aluminum and steel) materials with those of lead have been carried out. Results presented show that the shielding affordable by lead attenuation equivalent thicknesses (LAE) and lead hardening equivalent thicknesses (LHE) is not strictly equivalent to that affordable by thicknesses of substitutes (phantom materials, aluminum and steel) when there are differences in attenuation and hardening properties. Even though beams through LAE that are not "exact" have equal exposure values, the half value layers are higher than those through thicknesses of lead substitutes. Example calculations show that the use of lead thickness (LAE) that are not "exact" to account for the shielding afforded by the thickness of the patient (water phantom) produces lesser reduction of the primary radiation level in the area indicated for shielding. The "exact" LAE that will reduce the primary radiation level equally as the patient and radiographic table may be higher by close to 20% or more of that which is not "exact." PMID:15654244

  11. 33 CFR 106.130 - Equivalents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Equivalents. 106.130 Section 106.130 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARINE SECURITY: OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) FACILITIES General § 106.130 Equivalents. For any...

  12. 33 CFR 159.19 - Testing equivalency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Testing equivalency. 159.19 Section 159.19 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Certification Procedures § 159.19 Testing equivalency. (a) If a...

  13. 33 CFR 159.19 - Testing equivalency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Testing equivalency. 159.19 Section 159.19 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Certification Procedures § 159.19 Testing equivalency. (a) If a...

  14. 33 CFR 105.135 - Equivalents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Equivalents. 105.135 Section 105.135 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: FACILITIES General § 105.135 Equivalents. For any measure required by this part,...

  15. 33 CFR 104.135 - Equivalents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Equivalents. 104.135 Section 104.135 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: VESSELS General § 104.135 Equivalents. For any measure required by this part, the...

  16. 46 CFR 169.109 - Equivalents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Equivalents. 169.109 Section 169.109 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS General Provisions § 169.109 Equivalents. Substitutes for a fitting, appliance, apparatus, or equipment, may...

  17. 46 CFR 169.109 - Equivalents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Equivalents. 169.109 Section 169.109 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS General Provisions § 169.109 Equivalents. Substitutes for a fitting, appliance, apparatus, or equipment, may...

  18. 46 CFR 169.109 - Equivalents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Equivalents. 169.109 Section 169.109 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS General Provisions § 169.109 Equivalents. Substitutes for a fitting, appliance, apparatus, or equipment, may...

  19. 46 CFR 169.109 - Equivalents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Equivalents. 169.109 Section 169.109 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS General Provisions § 169.109 Equivalents. Substitutes for a fitting, appliance, apparatus, or equipment, may...

  20. 46 CFR 169.109 - Equivalents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Equivalents. 169.109 Section 169.109 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS General Provisions § 169.109 Equivalents. Substitutes for a fitting, appliance, apparatus, or equipment, may...

  1. Equivalent Mass of a Coil Spring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruby, Lawrence

    2000-01-01

    Finds that first-year college students can understand in detail the origin of the equivalent mass. Provides both a simple calculation derivation of this result as well as a noncalculus derivation. Argues that for every soft spring, the equivalent mass should be somewhere between m0/3 and m0/2. (CCM)

  2. 49 CFR 38.2 - Equivalent facilitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Equivalent facilitation. 38.2 Section 38.2 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES General § 38.2 Equivalent facilitation. Departures from...

  3. 46 CFR 114.540 - Equivalents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... equivalence of the substitute. (b) The Commandant may accept compliance by a high speed craft with the provisions of the International Maritime Organization (IMO) “Code of Safety for High Speed Craft” as an... approve a novel lifesaving appliance or arrangement as an equivalent if it has performance...

  4. 46 CFR 175.540 - Equivalents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Organization (IMO) “Code of Safety for High Speed Craft” as an equivalent to compliance with applicable... IMO Resolution A. 520(13) (incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR 175.600); or (2) Has successfully... corporate structure of a vessel's company when determining the acceptability of an equivalent...

  5. Mania and Behavioral Equivalents: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturmey, Peter; Laud, Rinita B.; Cooper, Christopher L.; Matson, Johnny L.; Fodstad, Jill C.

    2010-01-01

    Previous research has failed to address the possibility of behavioral equivalents in people with ID and mania. The relationship between a measure of mania and possible behavioral equivalents was assessed in 693 adults, most with severe or profound ID, living in a large residential setting. The mania subscale of the DASH-II proved to be a…

  6. 7 CFR 1030.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Equivalent price. 1030.54 Section 1030.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Class Prices § 1030.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54....

  7. 7 CFR 1001.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Equivalent price. 1001.54 Section 1001.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Class Prices § 1001.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Producer Price Differential...

  8. 7 CFR 1033.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Equivalent price. 1033.54 Section 1033.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Class Prices § 1033.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Producer Price Differential...

  9. 7 CFR 1000.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Equivalent price. 1000.54 Section 1000.54 Agriculture... Prices § 1000.54 Equivalent price. If for any reason a price or pricing constituent required for computing the prices described in § 1000.50 is not available, the market administrator shall use a price...

  10. 7 CFR 1126.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Equivalent price. 1126.54 Section 1126.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Class Prices § 1126.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Producer Price Differential...

  11. 7 CFR 1124.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Equivalent price. 1124.54 Section 1124.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Regulating Handling Class Prices § 1124.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Producer Price Differential...

  12. 7 CFR 1006.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Equivalent price. 1006.54 Section 1006.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Class Prices § 1006.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Uniform Prices...

  13. 7 CFR 1131.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Equivalent price. 1131.54 Section 1131.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Class Prices § 1131.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Uniform Prices...

  14. 7 CFR 1005.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Equivalent price. 1005.54 Section 1005.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Class Prices § 1005.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Uniform Prices...

  15. 7 CFR 1007.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Equivalent price. 1007.54 Section 1007.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Class Prices § 1007.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Uniform Prices...

  16. 7 CFR 1032.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Equivalent price. 1032.54 Section 1032.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Class Prices § 1032.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Producer Price Differential...

  17. 46 CFR 154.32 - Equivalents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Equivalents. 154.32 Section 154.32 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES General § 154.32 Equivalents. (a) A vessel that fails...

  18. 33 CFR 106.130 - Equivalents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Equivalents. 106.130 Section 106.130 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARINE SECURITY: OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) FACILITIES General § 106.130 Equivalents. For any...

  19. 33 CFR 106.130 - Equivalents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Equivalents. 106.130 Section 106.130 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARINE SECURITY: OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) FACILITIES General § 106.130 Equivalents. For any...

  20. Equivalency Programmes (EPs) for Promoting Lifelong Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haddad, Caroline, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    Equivalency programmes (EPs) refers to alternative education programmes that are equivalent to the formal education system in terms of curriculum and certification, policy support mechanisms, mode of delivery, staff training, and other support activities such as monitoring, evaluation and assessment. The development of EPs is potentially an…

  1. The effectiveness of selected feed and water additives for reducing Salmonella spp. of public health importance in broiler chickens: a systematic review, meta-analysis, and meta-regression approach.

    PubMed

    Totton, Sarah C; Farrar, Ashley M; Wilkins, Wendy; Bucher, Oliver; Waddell, Lisa A; Wilhelm, Barbara J; McEwen, Scott A; Rajić, Andrijana

    2012-10-01

    Eating inappropriately prepared poultry meat is a major cause of foodborne salmonellosis. Our objectives were to determine the efficacy of feed and water additives (other than competitive exclusion and antimicrobials) on reducing Salmonella prevalence or concentration in broiler chickens using systematic review-meta-analysis and to explore sources of heterogeneity found in the meta-analysis through meta-regression. Six electronic databases were searched (Current Contents (1999-2009), Agricola (1924-2009), MEDLINE (1860-2009), Scopus (1960-2009), Centre for Agricultural Bioscience (CAB) (1913-2009), and CAB Global Health (1971-2009)), five topic experts were contacted, and the bibliographies of review articles and a topic-relevant textbook were manually searched to identify all relevant research. Study inclusion criteria comprised: English-language primary research investigating the effects of feed and water additives on the Salmonella prevalence or concentration in broiler chickens. Data extraction and study methodological assessment were conducted by two reviewers independently using pretested forms. Seventy challenge studies (n=910 unique treatment-control comparisons), seven controlled studies (n=154), and one quasi-experiment (n=1) met the inclusion criteria. Compared to an assumed control group prevalence of 44 of 1000 broilers, random-effects meta-analysis indicated that the Salmonella cecal colonization in groups with prebiotics (fructooligosaccharide, lactose, whey, dried milk, lactulose, lactosucrose, sucrose, maltose, mannanoligosaccharide) added to feed or water was 15 out of 1000 broilers; with lactose added to feed or water it was 10 out of 1000 broilers; with experimental chlorate product (ECP) added to feed or water it was 21 out of 1000. For ECP the concentration of Salmonella in the ceca was decreased by 0.61 log(10)cfu/g in the treated group compared to the control group. Significant heterogeneity (Cochran's Q-statistic p≤0.10) was observed

  2. Ambient Dose Equivalent measured at the Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia Department of Nuclear Medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Avila, O.; Torres-Ulloa, C. L.; Medina, L. A.; Trujillo-Zamudio, F. E.; Gamboa de Buen, I.; Buenfil, A. E.; Brandan, M. E.

    2010-12-07

    Ambient dose equivalent values were determined in several sites at the Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia, Departmento de Medicina Nuclear, using TLD-100 and TLD-900 thermoluminescent dosemeters. Additionally, ambient dose equivalent was measured at a corridor outside the hospitalization room for patients treated with {sup 137}Cs brachytherapy. Dosemeter calibration was performed at the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Laboratorio de Metrologia, to known {sup 137}Cs gamma radiation air kerma. Radionuclides considered for this study are {sup 131}I, {sup 18}F, {sup 67}Ga, {sup 99m}Tc, {sup 111}In, {sup 201}Tl and {sup 137}Cs, with main gamma energies between 93 and 662 keV. Dosemeters were placed during a five month period in the nuclear medicine rooms (containing gamma-cameras), injection corridor, patient waiting areas, PET/CT study room, hot lab, waste storage room and corridors next to the hospitalization rooms for patients treated with {sup 131}I and {sup 137}Cs. High dose values were found at the waste storage room, outside corridor of {sup 137}Cs brachytherapy patients and PET/CT area. Ambient dose equivalent rate obtained for the {sup 137}Cs brachytherapy corridor is equal to (18.51{+-}0.02)x10{sup -3} mSv/h. Sites with minimum doses are the gamma camera rooms, having ambient dose equivalent rates equal to (0.05{+-}0.03)x10{sup -3} mSv/h. Recommendations have been given to the Department authorities so that further actions are taken to reduce doses at high dose sites in order to comply with the ALARA principle (as low as reasonably achievable).

  3. 78 FR 67360 - Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods: Designation of Five New Equivalent Methods

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-12

    ... March 6, 2009. The monitors are commercially available from the applicant, Thermo Fisher Scientific, Air... AGENCY Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods: Designation of Five New Equivalent... of the designation of five new equivalent methods for monitoring ambient air quality. SUMMARY:...

  4. 77 FR 55832 - Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods: Designation of a New Equivalent Method

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-11

    ... made under the provisions of 40 CFR part 53, as ] amended on August 31, 2011 (76 FR 54326-54341). The... AGENCY Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods: Designation of a New Equivalent Method AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency. ACTION: Notice of the designation of a new equivalent method...

  5. Technical note: Equivalent genomic models with a residual polygenic effect.

    PubMed

    Liu, Z; Goddard, M E; Hayes, B J; Reinhardt, F; Reents, R

    2016-03-01

    Routine genomic evaluations in animal breeding are usually based on either a BLUP with genomic relationship matrix (GBLUP) or single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) BLUP model. For a multi-step genomic evaluation, these 2 alternative genomic models were proven to give equivalent predictions for genomic reference animals. The model equivalence was verified also for young genotyped animals without phenotypes. Due to incomplete linkage disequilibrium of SNP markers to genes or causal mutations responsible for genetic inheritance of quantitative traits, SNP markers cannot explain all the genetic variance. A residual polygenic effect is normally fitted in the genomic model to account for the incomplete linkage disequilibrium. In this study, we start by showing the proof that the multi-step GBLUP and SNP BLUP models are equivalent for the reference animals, when they have a residual polygenic effect included. Second, the equivalence of both multi-step genomic models with a residual polygenic effect was also verified for young genotyped animals without phenotypes. Additionally, we derived formulas to convert genomic estimated breeding values of the GBLUP model to its components, direct genomic values and residual polygenic effect. Third, we made a proof that the equivalence of these 2 genomic models with a residual polygenic effect holds also for single-step genomic evaluation. Both the single-step GBLUP and SNP BLUP models lead to equal prediction for genotyped animals with phenotypes (e.g., reference animals), as well as for (young) genotyped animals without phenotypes. Finally, these 2 single-step genomic models with a residual polygenic effect were proven to be equivalent for estimation of SNP effects, too. PMID:26723117

  6. Motor equivalence during multi-finger accurate force production

    PubMed Central

    Mattos, Daniela; Schöner, Gregor; Zatsiorsky, Vladimir M.; Latash, Mark L.

    2014-01-01

    We explored stability of multi-finger cyclical accurate force production action by analysis of responses to small perturbations applied to one of the fingers and inter-cycle analysis of variance. Healthy subjects performed two versions of the cyclical task, with and without an explicit target. The “inverse piano” apparatus was used to lift/lower a finger by 1 cm over 0.5 s; the subjects were always instructed to perform the task as accurate as they could at all times. Deviations in the spaces of finger forces and modes (hypothetical commands to individual fingers) were quantified in directions that did not change total force (motor equivalent) and in directions that changed the total force (non-motor equivalent). Motor equivalent deviations started immediately with the perturbation and increased progressively with time. After a sequence of lifting-lowering perturbations leading to the initial conditions, motor equivalent deviations were dominating. These phenomena were less pronounced for analysis performed with respect to the total moment of force with respect to an axis parallel to the forearm/hand. Analysis of inter-cycle variance showed consistently higher variance in a subspace that did not change the total force as compared to the variance that affected total force. We interpret the results as reflections of task-specific stability of the redundant multi-finger system. Large motor equivalent deviations suggest that reactions of the neuromotor system to a perturbation involve large changes of neural commands that do not affect salient performance variables, even during actions with the purpose to correct those salient variables. Consistency of the analyses of motor equivalence and variance analysis provides additional support for the idea of task-specific stability ensured at a neural level. PMID:25344311

  7. Motor equivalence during multi-finger accurate force production.

    PubMed

    Mattos, Daniela; Schöner, Gregor; Zatsiorsky, Vladimir M; Latash, Mark L

    2015-02-01

    We explored stability of multi-finger cyclical accurate force production action by analysis of responses to small perturbations applied to one of the fingers and inter-cycle analysis of variance. Healthy subjects performed two versions of the cyclical task, with and without an explicit target. The "inverse piano" apparatus was used to lift/lower a finger by 1 cm over 0.5 s; the subjects were always instructed to perform the task as accurate as they could at all times. Deviations in the spaces of finger forces and modes (hypothetical commands to individual fingers) were quantified in directions that did not change total force (motor equivalent) and in directions that changed the total force (non-motor equivalent). Motor equivalent deviations started immediately with the perturbation and increased progressively with time. After a sequence of lifting-lowering perturbations leading to the initial conditions, motor equivalent deviations were dominating. These phenomena were less pronounced for analysis performed with respect to the total moment of force with respect to an axis parallel to the forearm/hand. Analysis of inter-cycle variance showed consistently higher variance in a subspace that did not change the total force as compared to the variance that affected total force. We interpret the results as reflections of task-specific stability of the redundant multi-finger system. Large motor equivalent deviations suggest that reactions of the neuromotor system to a perturbation involve large changes in neural commands that do not affect salient performance variables, even during actions with the purpose to correct those salient variables. Consistency of the analyses of motor equivalence and variance analysis provides additional support for the idea of task-specific stability ensured at a neural level. PMID:25344311

  8. Technical note: Equivalent genomic models with a residual polygenic effect.

    PubMed

    Liu, Z; Goddard, M E; Hayes, B J; Reinhardt, F; Reents, R

    2016-03-01

    Routine genomic evaluations in animal breeding are usually based on either a BLUP with genomic relationship matrix (GBLUP) or single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) BLUP model. For a multi-step genomic evaluation, these 2 alternative genomic models were proven to give equivalent predictions for genomic reference animals. The model equivalence was verified also for young genotyped animals without phenotypes. Due to incomplete linkage disequilibrium of SNP markers to genes or causal mutations responsible for genetic inheritance of quantitative traits, SNP markers cannot explain all the genetic variance. A residual polygenic effect is normally fitted in the genomic model to account for the incomplete linkage disequilibrium. In this study, we start by showing the proof that the multi-step GBLUP and SNP BLUP models are equivalent for the reference animals, when they have a residual polygenic effect included. Second, the equivalence of both multi-step genomic models with a residual polygenic effect was also verified for young genotyped animals without phenotypes. Additionally, we derived formulas to convert genomic estimated breeding values of the GBLUP model to its components, direct genomic values and residual polygenic effect. Third, we made a proof that the equivalence of these 2 genomic models with a residual polygenic effect holds also for single-step genomic evaluation. Both the single-step GBLUP and SNP BLUP models lead to equal prediction for genotyped animals with phenotypes (e.g., reference animals), as well as for (young) genotyped animals without phenotypes. Finally, these 2 single-step genomic models with a residual polygenic effect were proven to be equivalent for estimation of SNP effects, too.

  9. Equivalency testing of ultraviolet disinfection for wastewater reclamation

    SciTech Connect

    Oppenheimer, J.A.; Jacangelo, J.G.; Laine, J.M.

    1996-11-01

    UV light disinfection was shown to continuously provide microbial inactivation equivalent to chlorine while reducing the formation of known carcinogenic disinfection by-products and the formation of chronic whole effluent toxicity. This was the first study to demonstrate UV`s performance relative to chlorination over an extended timeframe at a full-scale facility treating to meet the most stringent California reclamation standards.

  10. Addition of a dairy fraction rich in milk fat globule membrane to a high-saturated fat meal reduces the postprandial insulinaemic and inflammatory response in overweight and obese adults.

    PubMed

    Demmer, Elieke; Van Loan, Marta D; Rivera, Nancy; Rogers, Tara S; Gertz, Erik R; German, J Bruce; Smilowitz, Jennifer T; Zivkovic, Angela M

    2016-01-01

    Meals high in SFA, particularly palmitate, are associated with postprandial inflammation and insulin resistance. Milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) has anti-inflammatory properties that may attenuate the negative effects of SFA-rich meals. Our objective was to examine the postprandial metabolic and inflammatory response to a high-fat meal composed of palm oil (PO) compared with PO with an added dairy fraction rich in MFGM (PO+MFGM) in overweight and obese men and women (n 36) in a randomised, double-blinded, cross-over trial. Participants consumed two isoenergetic high-fat meals composed of a smoothie enriched with PO with v. without a cream-derived complex milk lipid fraction ( dairy fraction rich in MFGM) separated by a washout of 1-2 weeks. Serum cytokines, adhesion molecules, cortisol and markers of inflammation were measured at fasting, and at 1, 3 and 6 h postprandially. Glucose, insulin and lipid profiles were analysed in plasma. Consumption of the PO + MFGM v. PO meal resulted in lower total cholesterol (P = 0·021), LDL-cholesterol (P = 0·046), soluble intracellular adhesion molecule (P = 0·005) and insulin (P = 0·005) incremental AUC, and increased IL-10 (P = 0·013). Individuals with high baseline C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations (≥3 mg/l, n 17) had higher (P = 0·030) insulin at 1 h after the PO meal than individuals with CRP concentrations <3 mg/l (n 19). The addition of MFGM attenuated this difference between CRP groups. The addition of a dairy fraction rich in MFGM attenuated the negative effects of a high-SFA meal by reducing postprandial cholesterol, inflammatory markers and insulin response in overweight and obese individuals, particularly in those with elevated CRP. PMID:27313850

  11. Equivalent circuit with complex physical constants and equivalent-parameters-expressed dissipation factors of piezoelectric materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yu; Wen, Yu-Mei; Li, Ping

    2006-06-01

    The equivalent circuit with complex physical constants for a piezoelectric ceramic in thickness mode is established. In the equivalent circuit, electric components (equivalent circuit parameters) are connected to real and imaginary parts of complex physical coefficients of piezoelectric materials. Based on definitions of dissipation factors, three of them (dielectric, elastic and piezoelectric dissipation factors) are represented by equivalent circuit parameters. Since the equivalent circuit parameters are detectable, the dissipation factors can be easily obtained. In the experiments, the temperature and the stress responses of the three dissipation factors are measured.

  12. Smog control fuel additives

    SciTech Connect

    Lundby, W.

    1993-06-29

    A method is described of controlling, reducing or eliminating, ozone and related smog resulting from photochemical reactions between ozone and automotive or industrial gases comprising the addition of iodine or compounds of iodine to hydrocarbon-base fuels prior to or during combustion in an amount of about 1 part iodine per 240 to 10,000,000 parts fuel, by weight, to be accomplished by: (a) the addition of these inhibitors during or after the refining or manufacturing process of liquid fuels; (b) the production of these inhibitors for addition into fuel tanks, such as automotive or industrial tanks; or (c) the addition of these inhibitors into combustion chambers of equipment utilizing solid fuels for the purpose of reducing ozone.

  13. Relating equivalence relations to equivalence relations: A relational framing model of complex human functioning

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, Dermot; Hegarty, Neil; Smeets, Paul M.

    1997-01-01

    The current study aimed to develop a behavior-analytic model of analogical reasoning. In Experiments 1 and 2 subjects (adults and children) were trained and tested for the formation of four, three-member equivalence relations using a delayed matching-to-sample procedure. All subjects (Experiments 1 and 2) were exposed to tests that examined relations between equivalence and non-equivalence relations. For example, on an equivalence-equivalence relation test, the complex sample B1/C1 and the two complex comparisons B3/C3 and B3/C4 were used, and on a nonequivalence-nonequivalence relation test the complex sample B1/C2 was presented with the same two comparisons. All subjects consistently related equivalence relations to equivalence relations and nonequivalence relations to nonequivalence relations (e.g., picked B3/C3 in the presence of B1/C1 and picked B3/C4 in the presence of B1/C2). In Experiment 3, the equivalence responding, the equivalence-equivalence responding, and the nonequivalence-nonequivalence responding was successfully brought under contextual control. Finally, it was shown that the contextual cues could function successfully as comparisons, and the complex samples and comparisons could function successfully as contextual cues and samples, respectively. These data extend the equivalence paradigm and contribute to a behaviour-analytic interpretation of analogical reasoning and complex human functioning, in general. PMID:22477120

  14. 46 CFR 114.540 - Equivalents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... approve a novel lifesaving appliance or arrangement as an equivalent if it has performance characteristics... Acceptance of Prototype Novel Life-Saving Appliances and Arrangements”; or (2) Has successfully undergone...

  15. 21 CFR 26.9 - Equivalence determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... RECOGNITION OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM AUDIT REPORTS, AND CERTAIN MEDICAL DEVICE PRODUCT EVALUATION REPORTS: UNITED STATES AND THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITY Specific Sector Provisions for Pharmaceutical Good Manufacturing Practices § 26.9 Equivalence...

  16. 21 CFR 26.9 - Equivalence determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL MUTUAL RECOGNITION OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM AUDIT REPORTS... Specific Sector Provisions for Pharmaceutical Good Manufacturing Practices § 26.9 Equivalence...

  17. 21 CFR 26.6 - Equivalence assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL MUTUAL RECOGNITION OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM AUDIT REPORTS... Specific Sector Provisions for Pharmaceutical Good Manufacturing Practices § 26.6 Equivalence...

  18. Equivalence relations and the reinforcement contingency.

    PubMed

    Sidman, M

    2000-07-01

    Where do equivalence relations come from? One possible answer is that they arise directly from the reinforcement contingency. That is to say, a reinforcement contingency produces two types of outcome: (a) 2-, 3-, 4-, 5-, or n-term units of analysis that are known, respectively, as operant reinforcement, simple discrimination, conditional discrimination, second-order conditional discrimination, and so on; and (b) equivalence relations that consist of ordered pairs of all positive elements that participate in the contingency. This conception of the origin of equivalence relations leads to a number of new and verifiable ways of conceptualizing equivalence relations and, more generally, the stimulus control of operant behavior. The theory is also capable of experimental disproof.

  19. 36 CFR 1194.5 - Equivalent facilitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... COMPLIANCE BOARD ELECTRONIC AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY ACCESSIBILITY STANDARDS General § 1194.5 Equivalent facilitation. Nothing in this part is intended to prevent the use of designs or technologies as alternatives...

  20. [Therapeutic equivalence of the new oral anticoagulants].

    PubMed

    Moreno Villar, A; Nacle López, I; Barbero Hernández, M J; Lizan Tudela, L

    2015-10-01

    In an attempt to minimize the economic impact due to the incorporation of innovative drugs, health authorities have promoted and supported the evaluation and market positioning of drugs, as equivalent therapeutic alternatives. This issue has recently gained importance, possibly due to the current economic crisis. The equivalent therapeutic alternatives are justified by the need to compete on price, and by the authorities recommendation to establish therapeutic equivalence, price and financing of medicinal products at the same time. The establishment of the new oral anticoagulants and the equivalent therapeutic alternatives is a problematic issue if it is based on the absence of direct comparisons between different drugs and the questionable methodology used in the current indirect comparisons. Currently, it is difficult to determine when a new oral anticoagulant is more recommendable than others, but efforts are being made in order to propose alternatives for the decision based on patient characteristics. PMID:26146035

  1. REFractions: The Representing Equivalent Fractions Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Stephen I.

    2014-01-01

    Stephen Tucker presents a fractions game that addresses a range of fraction concepts including equivalence and computation. The REFractions game also improves students' fluency with representing, comparing and adding fractions.

  2. Distinguishing Provenance Equivalence of Earth Science Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilmes, Curt; Yesha, Ye; Halem, M.

    2010-01-01

    Reproducibility of scientific research relies on accurate and precise citation of data and the provenance of that data. Earth science data are often the result of applying complex data transformation and analysis workflows to vast quantities of data. Provenance information of data processing is used for a variety of purposes, including understanding the process and auditing as well as reproducibility. Certain provenance information is essential for producing scientifically equivalent data. Capturing and representing that provenance information and assigning identifiers suitable for precisely distinguishing data granules and datasets is needed for accurate comparisons. This paper discusses scientific equivalence and essential provenance for scientific reproducibility. We use the example of an operational earth science data processing system to illustrate the application of the technique of cascading digital signatures or hash chains to precisely identify sets of granules and as provenance equivalence identifiers to distinguish data made in an an equivalent manner.

  3. Inelastic diffraction and equivalence of states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malecki, A.

    1991-09-01

    A new approach to diffraction, based on the concept of equivalent states, is applied to the inclusive inelastic scattering. Differences from the classical description of Good and Walker are pointed out.

  4. Dark matter and the equivalence principle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frieman, Joshua A.; Gradwohl, Ben-Ami

    1993-01-01

    A survey is presented of the current understanding of dark matter invoked by astrophysical theory and cosmology. Einstein's equivalence principle asserts that local measurements cannot distinguish a system at rest in a gravitational field from one that is in uniform acceleration in empty space. Recent test-methods for the equivalence principle are presently discussed as bases for testing of dark matter scenarios involving the long-range forces between either baryonic or nonbaryonic dark matter and ordinary matter.

  5. Multilingual energy dictionary. [Equivalents in 6 languages

    SciTech Connect

    Isaacs, A.

    1981-01-01

    This dictionary covers 1600 entries - ranging from oil well to synthetic natural gas and waste heat recovery - that cover both concepts and equipment, providing the equivalents of the most-important energy terms in six languages: English, French, German, Italian, Portuguese, and Spanish. Each term is listed six times - under each language, with all five foreign equivalents - permitting easy translation among all six languages. Separate entries are also given for British and American English where usage differs in the two countries.

  6. The endotopism semigroups of an equivalence relation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhuchok, Yu V; Toichkina, E A

    2014-05-31

    In this work we investigate six types of endotopism semigroups for a given equivalence relation. Necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of all such endotopisms are presented. Conditions for the regularity and coregularity of each of the endotopism semigroups of a given type are established. The notion of the endotype of a binary relation with respect to its endotopisms is introduced and the endotype of an arbitrary equivalence relation is calculated. Bibliography: 26 titles.

  7. On equivalent characterizations of convexity of functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gkioulekas, Eleftherios

    2013-04-01

    A detailed development of the theory of convex functions, not often found in complete form in most textbooks, is given. We adopt the strict secant line definition as the definitive definition of convexity. We then show that for differentiable functions, this definition becomes logically equivalent with the first derivative monotonicity definition and the tangent line definition. Consequently, for differentiable functions, all three characterizations are logically equivalent.

  8. The Physical Mirror Equivalence for the Local

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cacciatori, Sergio Luigi; Compagnoni, Marco; Guerra, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we consider the total space of the canonical bundle of and we use a proposal by Hosono, together with results of Seidel and Auroux-Katzarkov-Orlov, to deduce the physical mirror equivalence between and the derived Fukaya category of its mirror which assigns the expected central charge to BPS states. By construction, our equivalence is compatible with the mirror map relating the complex and the Kähler moduli spaces and with the computation of Gromov-Witten invariants.

  9. Equivalent Circuits as Related to Ionic Systems

    PubMed Central

    Finkelstein, Alan; Mauro, Alexander

    1963-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to clarify the relationship between certain “equivalent circuits” and the fundamental flux equations of Nernst and Planck. It is shown that as a direct algebraic consequence of these equations one may construct two types of equivalent circuits for a homogeneous (charged or uncharged) membrane. The one, which we term the “pure electrical equivalent circuit,” correctly predicts all of the electrical properties of the membrane for both steady and transient states. The other, which we call the “mixed equivalent circuit,” predicts the steady state I, Ψ characteristics of the membrane and the steady state ionic fluxes; it is not applicable to non-steady state properties or measurements. We emphasize that with regard to the portrayal of the physical basis of the properties of a homogeneous membrane, the mixed equivalent circuit can be misleading. This is particularly significant because this same circuit can also be used to depict a mosaic membrane, in which case the circuit gives a realistic pictorialization of the physical origin of the membrane properties. It is hoped that our analysis will be of aid to workers in electrophysiology who make use of equivalent circuit terminology in discussing the behavior of the plasma membrane. PMID:19431324

  10. Equivalence Relations, Contextual Control, and Naming

    PubMed Central

    Randell, Tom; Remington, Bob

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports two experiments that investigated the role of verbal behavior in the emergence and generalization of contextually controlled equivalence classes. During both experiments, participants were trained with two different combinations of the same easily nameable, yet formally unrelated, pictorial stimuli. Match-to-sample baselines for eight four-member classes were established under the contextual control of two colors. In the presence of one color, conditional relations were established between stimuli whose normative names rhymed. In the presence of the other color, conditional relations were established between stimuli whose normative names did not rhyme. Although, during Experiment 1, all participants demonstrated equivalence classes involving rhyming stimuli, none demonstrated the formation of nonrhyme equivalence classes. To investigate this finding, Experiment 2 evaluated whether participants would demonstrate both rhyme and nonrhyme equivalence classes given more extensive exposure to the experimental contingencies. All participants demonstrated contextually controlled rhyme and nonrhyme equivalence classes, although rhyme classes were demonstrated with greater facility than nonrhyme classes. Results indicate that visual stimuli are named, that verbal bases for stimulus classification can affect the emergence of contextually controlled equivalence classes, and that untrained contextually controlled conditional discriminations involving novel stimuli can emerge on the basis of participants' verbal behavior. PMID:17191757

  11. Generalization of Equivalent Crystal Theory to Include Angular Dependence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrante, John; Zypman, Fredy R.

    2004-01-01

    In the original Equivalent Crystal Theory, each atomic site in the real crystal is assigned an equivalent lattice constant, in general different from the ground state one. This parameter corresponds to a local compression or expansion of the lattice. The basic method considers these volumetric transformations and, in addition, introduces the possibility that the reference lattice is anisotropically distorted. These distortions however, were introduced ad-hoc. In this work, we generalize the original Equivalent Crystal Theory by systematically introducing site-dependent directional distortions of the lattice, whose corresponding distortions account for the dependence of the energy on anisotropic local density variations. This is done in the spirit of the original framework, but including a gradient term in the density. This approach is introduced to correct a deficiency in the original Equivalent Crystal Theory and other semiempirical methods in quantitatively obtaining the correct ratios of the surface energies of low index planes of cubic metals (100), (110), and (111). We develop here the basic framework, and apply it to the calculation of Fe (110) and Fe (111) surface energy formation. The results, compared with first principles calculations, show an improvement over previous semiempirical approaches.

  12. Addition to thermized milk of Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris M104, a wild, novel nisin a-producing strain, replaces the natural antilisterial activity of the autochthonous raw milk microbiota reduced by thermization.

    PubMed

    Lianou, Alexandra; Samelis, John

    2014-08-01

    Recent research has shown that mild milk thermization treatments routinely used in traditional Greek cheese production are efficient to inactivate Listeria monocytogenes and other pathogenic or undesirable bacteria, but they also inactivate a great part of the autochthonous antagonistic microbiota of raw milk. Therefore, in this study, the antilisterial activity of raw or thermized (63°C, 30 s) milk in the presence or absence of Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris M104, a wild, novel, nisin A-producing (Nis-A+) raw milk isolate, was assessed. Bulk milk samples were taken from a local cheese plant before or after thermization and were inoculated with a five-strain cocktail of L. monocytogenes (approximately 4 log CFU/ml) or with the cocktail, as above, plus the Nis-A+ strain (approximately 6 log CFU/ml) as a bioprotective culture. Heat-sterilized (121°C, 5 min) raw milk inoculated with L. monocytogenes was used as a control treatment. All milk samples were incubated at 37°C for 6 h and then at 18°C for an additional 66 h. L. monocytogenes grew abundantly (>8 log CFU/ml) in heat-sterilized milk, whereas its growth was completely inhibited in all raw milk samples. Conversely, in thermized milk, L. monocytogenes increased by 2 log CFU/ml in the absence of strain M104, whereas its growth was completely inhibited in the presence of strain M104. Furthermore, nisin activity was detected only in milk samples inoculated with strain M104. Thus, postthermal supplementation of thermized bulk milk with bioprotective L. lactis subsp. cremoris cultures replaces the natural antilisterial activity of raw milk reduced by thermization.

  13. Addition to thermized milk of Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris M104, a wild, novel nisin a-producing strain, replaces the natural antilisterial activity of the autochthonous raw milk microbiota reduced by thermization.

    PubMed

    Lianou, Alexandra; Samelis, John

    2014-08-01

    Recent research has shown that mild milk thermization treatments routinely used in traditional Greek cheese production are efficient to inactivate Listeria monocytogenes and other pathogenic or undesirable bacteria, but they also inactivate a great part of the autochthonous antagonistic microbiota of raw milk. Therefore, in this study, the antilisterial activity of raw or thermized (63°C, 30 s) milk in the presence or absence of Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris M104, a wild, novel, nisin A-producing (Nis-A+) raw milk isolate, was assessed. Bulk milk samples were taken from a local cheese plant before or after thermization and were inoculated with a five-strain cocktail of L. monocytogenes (approximately 4 log CFU/ml) or with the cocktail, as above, plus the Nis-A+ strain (approximately 6 log CFU/ml) as a bioprotective culture. Heat-sterilized (121°C, 5 min) raw milk inoculated with L. monocytogenes was used as a control treatment. All milk samples were incubated at 37°C for 6 h and then at 18°C for an additional 66 h. L. monocytogenes grew abundantly (>8 log CFU/ml) in heat-sterilized milk, whereas its growth was completely inhibited in all raw milk samples. Conversely, in thermized milk, L. monocytogenes increased by 2 log CFU/ml in the absence of strain M104, whereas its growth was completely inhibited in the presence of strain M104. Furthermore, nisin activity was detected only in milk samples inoculated with strain M104. Thus, postthermal supplementation of thermized bulk milk with bioprotective L. lactis subsp. cremoris cultures replaces the natural antilisterial activity of raw milk reduced by thermization. PMID:25198589

  14. Stimulus equivalence: testing Sidman's (2000) theory.

    PubMed

    Minster, Sara Tepaeru; Jones, Max; Elliffe, Douglas; Muthukumaraswamy, Suresh D

    2006-05-01

    Sidman's (2000) theory regarding the origin of equivalence relations predicts that a reinforcing stimulus common to distinct equivalence classes must drop out of the equivalence relations. This prediction was tested in the present study by arranging class-specific reinforcers, R1 and R2, following correct responding on the prerequisite conditional discriminations (Ax-Bx, Cx-Bx) for two stimulus classes, A1B1C1 and A2B2C2. A class-common reinforcer, R3, was presented following correct responding on the prerequisite conditional discriminations for a further two stimulus classes, A3B3C3 and A4B4C4. Sidman's theory predicts reinforcer inclusion within Classes 1 and 2 only, given this training arrangement. Experiment 1 tested for the emergence of four equivalence classes and of stimulus-reinforcer and reinforcer-stimulus relations in each class. Four of the 6 subjects demonstrated the reinforcer-based relations in all four equivalence classes, rather than in only those classes with a class-specific reinforcer, as Sidman's theory predicts. One of the remaining 2 subjects showed the reinforcer-based relations in three of the four classes. Experiment 2 extended these findings to document the emergence of interclass matching relations based on the common reinforcer R3, in 5 of 6 subjects, such that a Class 3 sample occasioned the selection of a Class 4 sample when the Class 3 comparison was absent, and similarly, a Class 4 sample occasioned the selection of a Class 3 comparison when the Class 4 comparison was absent. These interclass relations emerged despite the simultaneous maintenance of Class 3 and 4 baseline conditional discriminations, so that the Class 3 and 4 stimuli and reinforcer simultaneously were, and were not, part of a single larger equivalence class. These data are irreconcilable with Sidman's theory, and question the utility of the application of the equivalence relation in describing derived stimulus relations.

  15. Voigt equivalent widths and spectral-bin single-line transmittances: Exact expansions and the MODTRAN®5 implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berk, Alexander

    2013-03-01

    Exact expansions for Voigt line-shape total, line-tail and spectral bin equivalent widths and for Voigt finite spectral bin single-line transmittances have been derived in terms of optical depth dependent exponentially-scaled modified Bessel functions of integer order and optical depth independent Fourier integral coefficients. The series are convergent for the full range of Voigt line-shapes, from pure Doppler to pure Lorentzian. In the Lorentz limit, the expansion reduces to the Ladenburg and Reiche function for the total equivalent width. Analytic expressions are derived for the first 8 Fourier coefficients for pure Lorentzian lines, for pure Doppler lines and for Voigt lines with at most moderate Doppler dependence. A strong-line limit sum rule on the Fourier coefficients is enforced to define an additional Fourier coefficient and to optimize convergence of the truncated expansion. The moderate Doppler dependence scenario is applicable to and has been implemented in the MODTRAN5 atmospheric band model radiative transfer software. Finite-bin transmittances computed with the truncated expansions reduce transmittance residuals compared to the former Rodgers-Williams equivalent width based approach by ∼2 orders of magnitude.

  16. Morita equivalence and spectral triples on noncommutative orbifolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harju, Antti J.

    2016-08-01

    Let G be a finite group. Noncommutative geometry of unital G-algebras is studied. A geometric structure is determined by a spectral triple on the crossed product algebra associated with the group action. This structure is to be viewed as a representative of a noncommutative orbifold. Based on a study of classical orbifold groupoids, a Morita equivalence for the crossed product spectral triples is developed. Noncommutative orbifolds are Morita equivalence classes of the crossed product spectral triples. As a special case of this Morita theory one can study freeness of the G-action on the noncommutative level. In the case of a free action, the crossed product formalism reduced to the usual spectral triple formalism on the algebra of G-invariant functions.

  17. The Assessment of Effective Dose Equivalent Using Personnel Dosimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xie

    From January 1994, U.S. nuclear plants must develop a technically rigorous approach for determining the effective dose equivalent for their work forces. This dissertation explains concepts associated with effective dose equivalent and describes how to assess effective dose equivalent by using conventional personnel dosimetry measurements. A Monte Carlo computer code, MCNP, was used to calculate photon transport through a model of the human body. Published mathematical phantoms of the human adult male and female were used to simulate irradiation from a variety of external radiation sources in order to calculate organ and tissue doses, as well as effective dose equivalent using weighting factors from ICRP Publication 26. The radiation sources considered were broad parallel photon beams incident on the body from 91 different angles and isotropic point sources located at 234 different locations in contact with or near the body. Monoenergetic photons of 0.08, 0.3, and 1.0 MeV were considered for both sources. Personnel dosimeters were simulated on the surface of the body and exposed to with the same sources. From these data, the influence of dosimeter position on dosimeter response was investigated. Different algorithms for assessing effective dose equivalent from personnel dosimeter responses were proposed and evaluated. The results indicate that the current single-badge approach is satisfactory for most common exposure situations encountered in nuclear plants, but additional conversion factors may be used when more accurate results become desirable. For uncommon exposures involving source situated at the back of the body or source located overhead, the current approach of using multi-badges and assigning the highest dose is overly conservative and unnecessarily expensive. For these uncommon exposures, a new algorithm, based on two dosimeters, one on the front of the body and another one on the back of the body, has been shown to yield conservative assessment of

  18. 26 CFR 514.22 - Dividends received by persons not entitled to reduced rate of tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., shall withhold an additional amount of French tax equivalent to the French tax which would have been... decision) minus the 15 percent which has been withheld at the source. (2) By a fiduciary or partnership. A... representative, a dividend from sources within France from which French tax has been withheld at the reduced...

  19. Negotiating for more: the multiple equivalent simultaneous offer.

    PubMed

    Heller, Richard E

    2014-02-01

    Whether a doctor, professional baseball manager, or a politician, having successful negotiation skills is a critical part of being a leader. Building upon prior journal articles on negotiation strategy, the author presents the concept of the multiple equivalent simultaneous offer (MESO). The concept of a MESO is straightforward: as opposed to making a single offer, make multiple offers with several variables. Each offer alters the different variables, such that the end result of each offer is equivalent from the perspective of the party making the offer. Research has found several advantages to the use of MESOs. For example, using MESOs, an offer was more likely to be accepted, and the counterparty was more likely to be satisfied with the negotiated deal. Additional benefits have been documented as well, underscoring why a prepared radiology business leader should understand the theory and practice of MESO. PMID:24042029

  20. Negotiating for more: the multiple equivalent simultaneous offer.

    PubMed

    Heller, Richard E

    2014-02-01

    Whether a doctor, professional baseball manager, or a politician, having successful negotiation skills is a critical part of being a leader. Building upon prior journal articles on negotiation strategy, the author presents the concept of the multiple equivalent simultaneous offer (MESO). The concept of a MESO is straightforward: as opposed to making a single offer, make multiple offers with several variables. Each offer alters the different variables, such that the end result of each offer is equivalent from the perspective of the party making the offer. Research has found several advantages to the use of MESOs. For example, using MESOs, an offer was more likely to be accepted, and the counterparty was more likely to be satisfied with the negotiated deal. Additional benefits have been documented as well, underscoring why a prepared radiology business leader should understand the theory and practice of MESO.

  1. The New Wind Chill Equivalent Temperature Chart.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osczevski, Randall; Bluestein, Maurice

    2005-10-01

    The formula used in the U.S. and Canada to express the combined effect of wind and low temperature on how cold it feels was changed in November 2001. Many had felt that the old formula for equivalent temperature, derived in the 1960s from Siple and Passel's flawed but quite useful Wind Chill Index, unnecessarily exaggerated the severity of the weather. The new formula is based on a mathematical model of heat flow from the upwind side of a head-sized cylinder moving at walking speed into the wind. The paper details the assumptions that were made in generating the new wind chill charts. It also points out weaknesses in the concept of wind chill equivalent temperature, including its steady-state character and a seemingly paradoxical effect of the internal thermal resistance of the cylinder on comfort and equivalent temperature. Some improvements and alternatives are suggested.

  2. Equivalent magnetization over the World Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyment, J.; Hamoudi, M.; Choi, Y.; Thebault, E.; Quesnel, Y.; Roest, W. R.; Lesur, V.

    2012-12-01

    In another presentation (Hamoudi et al., this meeting), we present the construction of a new candidate for the World Digital Magnetic Anomaly Map (WDMAM) over oceanic areas. This map is based on: (a) a more realistic forward modeling of the marine magnetic anomalies which includes remanent magnetization vectors taking into account the age and motion of the oceanic lithosphere; (b) evaluation of the equivalent magnetization by comparison of the synthetic and observed anomalies along ship tracks; and (c) adjustment of the synthetic anomaly maps using this equivalent magnetization prior to merging with the observed anomalies. A by-product of this approach is a global distribution of equivalent magnetization over the World's Ocean. Note that, because no global basement map exists for the oceanic areas, we assume a uniform, 5 km-deep and 1 km-thick magnetized layer for the forward model. The resulting equivalent magnetization is therefore relative to this over-simplistic magnetic source. A first observation is that, within the hypotheses of the forward model, the average equivalent magnetization is about 3 A/m, a value which compares well with the Natural Remanent Magnetization (NRM) measured on ancient basalt samples. As expected, the mid-ocean ridges are marked by stronger equivalent magnetizations, an observation which reflects both the stronger NRM measured at ridge axes and their shallower bathymetry (not taken into account in our forward model). More interesting is the observation of significant along-axis variations. In the North Atlantic Ocean, the Kolbeinsey and Reykjanes ridges around Iceland are marked by a very strong equivalent magnetization and the Azores Plateau by a strong one as well.. Again this may reflect the combined effect of shallower seafloor, thicker and/or more magnetized basaltic layer at hotspots. In contrast, the areas between 45 and 55°N and between 0 and 10°N (Equatorial FZ) correspond to a weak equivalent magnetization. Further south

  3. System Equivalent for Real Time Digital Simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Xi

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of this research is to develop a method of making system equivalents for the Real Time Digital Simulator (RTDS), which should enhance its capability of simulating large power systems. The proposed equivalent combines a Frequency Dependent Network Equivalent (FDNE) for the high frequency electromagnetic transients and a Transient Stability Analysis (TSA) type simulation block for the electromechanical transients. The frequency dependent characteristic for FDNE is obtained by curve-fitting frequency domain admittance characteristics using the Vector Fitting method. An approach for approximating the frequency dependent characteristic of large power networks from readily available typical power-flow data is also introduced. A new scheme of incorporating TSA solution in RTDS is proposed. This report shows how the TSA algorithm can be adapted to a real time platform. The validity of this method is confirmed with examples, including the study of a multi in-feed HVDC system based network.

  4. Equivalence between XY and dimerized models

    SciTech Connect

    Campos Venuti, Lorenzo; Roncaglia, Marco

    2010-06-15

    The spin-1/2 chain with XY anisotropic coupling in the plane and the XX isotropic dimerized chain are shown to be equivalent in the bulk. For finite systems, we prove that the equivalence is exact in given parity sectors, after taking care of the precise boundary conditions. The proof is given constructively by finding unitary transformations that map the models onto each other. Moreover, we considerably generalized our mapping and showed that even in the case of fully site-dependent couplings the XY chain can be mapped onto an XX model. This result has potential application in the study of disordered systems.

  5. Quantum test of the equivalence principle and space-time aboard the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Jason; Chiow, Sheng-wey; Yu, Nan; Müller, Holger

    2016-02-01

    We describe the Quantum Test of the Equivalence principle and Space Time (QTEST), a concept for an atom interferometry mission on the International Space Station (ISS). The primary science objective of the mission is a test of Einstein’s equivalence principle with two rubidium isotope gases at a precision of better than 10-15, a 100-fold improvement over the current limit on equivalence principle violations, and over 1,000,000 fold improvement over similar quantum experiments demonstrated in laboratories. Distinct from the classical tests is the use of quantum wave packets and their expected large spatial separation in the QTEST experiment. This dual species atom interferometer experiment will also be sensitive to time-dependent equivalence principle violations that would be signatures for ultralight dark-matter particles. In addition, QTEST will be able to perform photon recoil measurements to better than 10-11 precision. This improves upon terrestrial experiments by a factor of 100, enabling an accurate test of the standard model of particle physics and contributing to mass measurement, in the proposed new international system of units (SI), with significantly improved precision. The predicted high measurement precision of QTEST comes from the microgravity environment on ISS, offering extended free fall times in a well-controlled environment. QTEST plans to use high-flux, dual-species atom sources, and advanced cooling schemes, for N > 106 non-condensed atoms of each species at temperatures below 1 nK. Suppression of systematic errors by use of symmetric interferometer configurations and rejection of common-mode errors drives the QTEST design. It uses Bragg interferometry with a single laser beam at the ‘magic’ wavelength, where the two isotopes have the same polarizability, for mitigating sensitivities to vibrations and laser noise, imaging detection for correcting cloud initial conditions and maintaining contrast, modulation of the atomic hyperfine states

  6. High School Equivalency Testing in Arizona. Forum: Responding to Changes in High School Equivalency Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Sheryl

    2015-01-01

    For decades, the state of Arizona has used the General Educational Development (GED) Test to award the Arizona High School Equivalency (HSE) Diploma, as the GED Test was the only test available, recognized and accepted in the United States as the measure by which adults could demonstrate the educational attainment equivalent to high school…

  7. 77 FR 60985 - Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods: Designation of Three New Equivalent Methods

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-05

    ... 53, as amended on August 31, 2011 (76 FR 54326-54341). The new equivalent methods are automated... beta radiation attenuation. The newly designated equivalent methods are identified as follows: EQPM-0912-204, ``Teledyne Model 602 Beta\\PLUS\\ Particle Measurement System'' and ``SWAM 5a Dual...

  8. Electrophysiological Correlates of Stimulus Equivalence Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haimson, Barry; Wilkinson, Krista M.; Rosenquist, Celia; Ouimet, Carolyn; McIlvane, William J.

    2009-01-01

    Research reported here concerns neural processes relating to stimulus equivalence class formation. In Experiment 1, two types of word pairs were presented successively to normally capable adults. In one type, the words had related usage in English (e.g., uncle, aunt). In the other, the two words were not typically related in their usage (e.g.,…

  9. Equivalent weight of humic acid from peat

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pommer, A.M.; Breger, I.A.

    1960-01-01

    By means of discontinuous titration, the equivalent weight of humic acid isolated from a peat was found to increase from 144 to 183 between the third and fifty-second day after the humic acid was dissolved. Infra-red studies showed that the material had probably condensed with loss of carbonyl groups. ?? 1960.

  10. Pseudo-Equivalent Groups and Linking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haberman, Shelby J.

    2015-01-01

    Adjustment by minimum discriminant information provides an approach to linking test forms in the case of a nonequivalent groups design with no satisfactory common items. This approach employs background information on individual examinees in each administration so that weighted samples of examinees form pseudo-equivalent groups in the sense that…

  11. Procedures for Determining the Equivalence of Measures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunivant, Noel

    Eight different methods are reviewed for determining whether two or more tests are equivalent measures. These methods vary in restrictiveness from the Wilks-Votaw test of compound symmetry (which requires that all means, variances, and covariances are equal), to Joreskog's theory of congeneric tests (which requires only that the tests are measures…

  12. Angular Momentum Eigenstates for Equivalent Electrons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuttle, E. R.; Calvert, J. B.

    1981-01-01

    Simple and efficient methods for adding angular momenta and for finding angular momentum eigenstates for systems of equivalent electrons are developed. Several different common representations are used in specific examples. The material is suitable for a graduate course in quantum mechanics. (SK)

  13. 33 CFR 155.120 - Equivalents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Equivalents. 155.120 Section 155.120 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION PREVENTION REGULATIONS FOR VESSELS General § 155.120...

  14. 33 CFR 155.120 - Equivalents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Equivalents. 155.120 Section 155.120 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION PREVENTION REGULATIONS FOR VESSELS General § 155.120...

  15. 33 CFR 155.120 - Equivalents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Equivalents. 155.120 Section 155.120 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION PREVENTION REGULATIONS FOR VESSELS General § 155.120...

  16. 33 CFR 155.120 - Equivalents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Equivalents. 155.120 Section 155.120 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION PREVENTION REGULATIONS FOR VESSELS General § 155.120...

  17. 33 CFR 155.120 - Equivalents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Equivalents. 155.120 Section 155.120 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION PREVENTION REGULATIONS FOR VESSELS General § 155.120...

  18. CP Violation, Neutral Currents, and Weak Equivalence

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Fitch, V. L.

    1972-03-23

    Within the past few months two excellent summaries of the state of our knowledge of the weak interactions have been presented. Correspondingly, we will not attempt a comprehensive review but instead concentrate this discussion on the status of CP violation, the question of the neutral currents, and the weak equivalence principle.

  19. 21 CFR 26.39 - Equivalence assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Equivalence assessment. 26.39 Section 26.39 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL MUTUAL RECOGNITION OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM AUDIT...

  20. 21 CFR 26.39 - Equivalence assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Equivalence assessment. 26.39 Section 26.39 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL MUTUAL RECOGNITION OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM AUDIT...

  1. AN UPDATE ON TECHNOLOGIES SEEKING PFRP EQUIVALENCY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation will: 1) Review the mandate of the Pathogen Equivalency Committee (PEC), 2) Review the PEC's current membership (of 10), 3) Discuss how a typical application is evaluated, 4) Note where information can be found by those interested in applying to the PEC, 5) List...

  2. Equivalence Relations, Contextual Control, and Naming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randell, Tom; Remington, Bob

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports two experiments that investigated the role of verbal behavior in the emergence and generalization of contextually controlled equivalence classes. During both experiments, participants were trained with two different combinations of the same easily nameable, yet formally unrelated, pictorial stimuli. Match-to-sample baselines for…

  3. HOW TO PASS HIGH SCHOOL EQUIVALENCY EXAMINATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KLAGSBRUN, FRANCINE, ED.

    ORGANIZED INTO A FIVE-DAY STUDY PLAN, ALLOWING ONE DAY'S STUDY TO EACH PART OF THE EQUIVALENCY EXAMINATION (SPELLING AND GRAMMAR, SOCIAL STUDIES, SCIENCE, LITERATURE, AND MATHEMATICS), THIS BOOK PROVIDES SAMPLE TESTS AND ANSWER SHEETS, A TEST SCORE RECORD AND SELF EVALUATION PROFILE, AND SUPPLEMENTARY TESTS FOR EACH SUBJECT. THE EXAMINEE CAN ORDER…

  4. Spin-Gravity Interactions and Equivalence Principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obukhov, Yu. N.; Silenko, A. J.; Teryaev, O. V.

    2016-02-01

    The spin-gravity interactions imply the new manifestation of the equivalence principle leading to the absence of gravitoelectric and anomalous gravitomagnetic moments for fermions. This property is still valid in the presence of the space-time torsion due to the covariance arguments. The experimental bounds for the torsion, which may be extracted from modern co-magnetometer experiments, are discussed.

  5. 20 CFR 404.1526 - Medical equivalence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Medical equivalence. 404.1526 Section 404.1526 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Medical Considerations § 404.1526...

  6. 20 CFR 404.1526 - Medical equivalence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Medical equivalence. 404.1526 Section 404.1526 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Medical Considerations § 404.1526...

  7. 20 CFR 404.1526 - Medical equivalence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Medical equivalence. 404.1526 Section 404.1526 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Medical Considerations § 404.1526...

  8. 20 CFR 404.1526 - Medical equivalence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Medical equivalence. 404.1526 Section 404.1526 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Medical Considerations § 404.1526...

  9. 20 CFR 404.1526 - Medical equivalence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Medical equivalence. 404.1526 Section 404.1526 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Medical Considerations § 404.1526...

  10. Reading adn Auditory-Visual Equivalences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sidman, Murray

    1971-01-01

    A retarded boy, unable to read orally or with comprehension, was taught to match spoken to printed words and was then capable of reading comprehension (matching printed words to picture) and oral reading (naming printed words aloud), demonstrating that certain learned auditory-visual equivalences are sufficient prerequisites for reading…

  11. 33 CFR 67.01-30 - Equivalents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Equivalents. 67.01-30 Section 67.01-30 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION AIDS TO NAVIGATION ON ARTIFICIAL ISLANDS AND FIXED STRUCTURES General Requirements §...

  12. A quality index for equivalent uniform dose

    PubMed Central

    Henríquez, Francisco Cutanda; Castrillón, Silvia Vargas

    2011-01-01

    Equivalent uniform dose (EUD) is the absorbed dose that, when homogeneously given to a tumor, yields the same mean surviving clonogen number as the given non-homogeneous irradiation. EUD is used as an evaluation tool under the assumption that two plans with the same value of EUD are equivalent, and their biological effect on the tumor (clonogen survival) would be the same as the one of a homogeneous irradiation of absorbed dose EUD. In this work, this assumption has been studied, and a figure of merit of its applicability has been obtained. Distributions of surviving clonogen number for homogeneous and non-homogeneous irradiations are found to be different even if their mean values are the same, the figure of merit being greater when there is a wider difference, and the equivalence assumption being less valid. Therefore, EUD can be closer to a uniform dose for some cases than for other ones (high α values, extreme heterogeneity), and the accuracy of the radiobiological indices obtained for evaluation, could be affected. Results show that the equivalence is very sensitive to the choice of radiobiological parameters, and this conclusion has been derived from mathematical properties of EUD. PMID:21897557

  13. 21 CFR 26.6 - Equivalence assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Equivalence assessment. 26.6 Section 26.6 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL MUTUAL RECOGNITION... inspection reports), joint training, and joint inspections for the purpose of assessing regulatory...

  14. Equivalent physical models and formulation of equivalent source layer in high-resolution EEG imaging.

    PubMed

    Yao, Dezhong; He, Bin

    2003-11-01

    In high-resolution EEG imaging, both equivalent dipole layer (EDL) and equivalent charge layer (ECL) assumed to be located just above the cortical surface have been proposed as high-resolution imaging modalities or as intermediate steps to estimate the epicortical potential. Presented here are the equivalent physical models of these two equivalent source layers (ESL) which show that the strength of EDL is proportional to the surface potential of the layer when the outside of the layer is filled with an insulator, and that the strength of ECL is the normal current of the layer when the outside is filled with a perfect conductor. Based on these equivalent physical models, closed solutions of ECL and EDL corresponding to a dipole enclosed by a spherical layer are given. These results provide the theoretical basis of ESL applications in high-resolution EEG mapping.

  15. Absorbed Dose and Dose Equivalent Calculations for Modeling Effective Dose

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welton, Andrew; Lee, Kerry

    2010-01-01

    While in orbit, Astronauts are exposed to a much higher dose of ionizing radiation than when on the ground. It is important to model how shielding designs on spacecraft reduce radiation effective dose pre-flight, and determine whether or not a danger to humans is presented. However, in order to calculate effective dose, dose equivalent calculations are needed. Dose equivalent takes into account an absorbed dose of radiation and the biological effectiveness of ionizing radiation. This is important in preventing long-term, stochastic radiation effects in humans spending time in space. Monte carlo simulations run with the particle transport code FLUKA, give absorbed and equivalent dose data for relevant shielding. The shielding geometry used in the dose calculations is a layered slab design, consisting of aluminum, polyethylene, and water. Water is used to simulate the soft tissues that compose the human body. The results obtained will provide information on how the shielding performs with many thicknesses of each material in the slab. This allows them to be directly applicable to modern spacecraft shielding geometries.

  16. Quasi-equivalent viruses: a paradigm for protein assemblies.

    PubMed

    Johnson, J E; Speir, J A

    1997-06-27

    The structure and assembly of icosahedral virus capsids composed of one or more gene products and displaying quasi-equivalent subunit associations are discussed at three levels. The principles of quasi-equivalence and the related geodesic dome formation are first discussed conceptually and the geometric basis for their construction from two-dimensional assembly units is reviewed. The consequences for such an assembly when three-dimensional protein subunits are the associating components are then discussed with the coordinates of cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV) used to generate hypothetical structures in approximate agreement with the conceptual models presented in the first section. Biophysical, molecular genetic, and atomic structural data for CCMV are then reviewed, related to each other, and incorporated into an assembly model for CCMV that is discussed with respect to the modular, chemical nature of the viral subunit structure. The concepts of quasi-equivalence are then examined in some larger virus structures containing multiple subunit types and auxiliary proteins and the need for additional control points in their assembly are considered. The conclusion suggests that some viral assembly principles are limited paradigms for protein associations occurring in the broader range of cell biology including signal transduction, interaction of transcription factors and protein trafficking. PMID:9223631

  17. Quantitative equivalence between polymer nanocomposites and thin polymer films.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Amitabh; Yang, Hoichang; Li, Chunzhao; Cho, Kilwon; Benicewicz, Brian C; Kumar, Sanat K; Schadler, Linda S

    2005-09-01

    The thermomechanical responses of polymers, which provide limitations to their practical use, are favourably altered by the addition of trace amounts of a nanofiller. However, the resulting changes in polymer properties are poorly understood, primarily due to the non-uniform spatial distribution of nanoparticles. Here we show that the thermomechanical properties of 'polymer nanocomposites' are quantitatively equivalent to the well-documented case of planar polymer films. We quantify this equivalence by drawing a direct analogy between film thickness and an appropriate experimental interparticle spacing. We show that the changes in glass-transition temperature with decreasing interparticle spacing for two filler surface treatments are quantitatively equivalent to the corresponding thin-film data with a non-wetting and a wetting polymer-particle interface. Our results offer new insights into the role of confinement on the glass transition, and we conclude that the mere presence of regions of modified mobility in the vicinity of the particle surfaces, that is, a simple two-layer model, is insufficient to explain our results. Rather, we conjecture that the glass-transition process requires that the interphase regions surrounding different particles interact. PMID:16086021

  18. Equivalent plate modeling for conceptual design of aircraft wing structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giles, Gary L.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes an analysis method that generates conceptual-level design data for aircraft wing structures. A key requirement is that this data must be produced in a timely manner so that is can be used effectively by multidisciplinary synthesis codes for performing systems studies. Such a capability is being developed by enhancing an equivalent plate structural analysis computer code to provide a more comprehensive, robust and user-friendly analysis tool. The paper focuses on recent enhancements to the Equivalent Laminated Plate Solution (ELAPS) analysis code that significantly expands the modeling capability and improves the accuracy of results. Modeling additions include use of out-of-plane plate segments for representing winglets and advanced wing concepts such as C-wings along with a new capability for modeling the internal rib and spar structure. The accuracy of calculated results is improved by including transverse shear effects in the formulation and by using multiple sets of assumed displacement functions in the analysis. Typical results are presented to demonstrate these new features. Example configurations include a C-wing transport aircraft, a representative fighter wing and a blended-wing-body transport. These applications are intended to demonstrate and quantify the benefits of using equivalent plate modeling of wing structures during conceptual design.

  19. The formation of visual stimulus equivalences in children.

    PubMed Central

    Lazar, R M; Davis-Lang, D; Sanchez, L

    1984-01-01

    Four normal children were presented a series of matching-to-sample tasks, using five sets of visual stimuli designated A, B, C, D, and E. Stimulus equivalences were established by matching stimuli from one set to those from another set. Each set consisted of three stimuli, so matching set A to set D meant that each stimulus in set A served as a sample with all three stimuli in set D as comparisons. Subjects were first taught AD and DC matching and were then able to perform AC/CA matching without additional training. After ED was taught directly, CE/EC and AE/EA performances emerged. Following CB training, three new equivalences were demonstrated: AB/BA, EB/BE, and DB/BD. Oral naming of each stimulus showed that subjects had not assigned a common label to stimuli in the same class, indicating that naming is not necessary for the formation of stimulus equivalences. The absence of response mediation suggests that matching to sample can form direct stimulus-stimulus associations. The data also provide support for the notion that generative performances are outcomes of existing stimulus-control relationships. PMID:6736856

  20. Local equivalence, surface-code states, and matroids

    SciTech Connect

    Sarvepalli, Pradeep; Raussendorf, Robert

    2010-08-15

    Recently, Ji et al. disproved the local-unitary-local Clifford (LU-LC) conjecture and showed that the local unitary (LU) and local Clifford (LC) equivalence classes of the stabilizer states are not always the same. Despite the fact that this settles the LU-LC conjecture, a sufficient condition for stabilizer states that violate the LU-LC conjecture is not known. In this paper, we investigate further the properties of stabilizer states with respect to local equivalence. Our first result shows that there exist infinitely many stabilizer states that violate the LU-LC conjecture. In particular, we show that for all numbers of qubits n{>=}28, there exist distance-two stabilizer states which are counterexamples to the LU-LC conjecture. We prove that, for all odd n{>=}195, there exist stabilizer states with distance greater than two that are LU equivalent but not LC equivalent. Two important classes of stabilizer states that are of great interest in quantum computation are the cluster states and stabilizer states of the surface codes. We show that, under some minimal restrictions, both these classes of states preclude any counterexamples. In this context, we also show that the associated surface codes do not have any encoded non-Clifford transversal gates. We characterize the Calderbank-Shor-Steane (CSS) surface-code states in terms of a class of minor closed binary matroids. In addition to making a connection to an important open problem in binary matroid theory, this characterization does in some cases provide an efficient test for CSS states that are not counterexamples.

  1. Typicality effects in contingency-shaped generalized equivalence classes.

    PubMed Central

    Galizio, Mark; Stewart, Katherine L; Pilgrim, Carol

    2004-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted using match-to-sample methodologies in an effort to model lexical classes, which include both arbitrary and perceptual relations between class members. Training in both experiments used a one-to-many mapping procedure with nonsense syllables as samples and eight sets of abstract stimuli as comparisons. These abstract stimuli differed along a number of dimensions, four of which were critical to the experimenter-defined class membership. Stimuli in some comparison sets included only one of the class-defining features, but stimuli in other sets included two, three, or all four of the critical features. After mastery of the baseline training, three types of probe tests were conducted: symmetry, transitivity/equivalence, and novel probe tests in which the training nonsense syllables served as samples, and comparisons were novel abstract stimuli that included one or more of the class-defining features. Symmetry and transitivity/equivalence probe tests showed that the stimuli used in training became members of equivalence classes. The novel stimuli also became class members on the basis of inclusion of any of the critical features. Thus these probe tests revealed the formation of open-ended generalized equivalence classes. In addition, typicality effects were observed such that comparison sets with more critical features were learned with fewer errors, responded to more rapidly, and judged to be better exemplars of the class. Contingency-shaped stimulus classes established through a match-to-sample procedure thus show several important behavioral similarities to natural lexical categories. PMID:15693522

  2. Representing Identity and Equivalence for Scientific Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wickett, K. M.; Sacchi, S.; Dubin, D.; Renear, A. H.

    2012-12-01

    Matters of equivalence and identity are central to the stewardship of scientific data. In order to properly prepare for and manage the curation, preservation and sharing of digitally-encoded data, data stewards must be able to characterize and assess the relationships holding between data-carrying digital resources. However, identity-related questions about resources and their information content may not be straightforward to answer: for example, what exactly does it mean to say that two files contain the same data, but in different formats? Information content is frequently distinguished from particular representations, but there is no adequately developed shared understanding of what this really means and how the relationship between content and its representations hold. The Data Concepts group at the Center for Informatics Research in Science and Scholarship (CIRSS), University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign, is developing a logic-based framework of fundamental concepts related to scientific data to support curation and integration. One project goal is to develop precise accounts of information resources carrying the same data. We present two complementary conceptual models for information representation: the Basic Representation Model (BRM) and the Systematic Assertion Model (SAM). We show how these models provide an analytical account of digitally-encoded scientific data and a precise understanding of identity and equivalence. The Basic Representation Model identifies the core entities and relationships involved in representing information carried by digital objects. In BRM, digital objects are symbol structures that express propositional content, and stand in layered encoding relationships. For example, an RDF description may be serialized as either XML or N3, and those expressions in turn may be encoded as either UTF-8 or UTF-16 sequences. Defining this encoding stack reveals distinctions necessary for a precise account of identity and equivalence

  3. Phenylethynyl Containing Reactive Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G., Jr. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Phenylethynyl containing reactive additives were prepared from aromatic diamine, containing phenylethvnvl groups and various ratios of phthalic anhydride and 4-phenylethynviphthalic anhydride in glacial acetic acid to form the imide in one step or in N-methyl-2-pvrrolidinone to form the amide acid intermediate. The reactive additives were mixed in various amounts (10% to 90%) with oligomers containing either terminal or pendent phenylethynyl groups (or both) to reduce the melt viscosity and thereby enhance processability. Upon thermal cure, the additives react and become chemically incorporated into the matrix and effect an increase in crosslink density relative to that of the host resin. This resultant increase in crosslink density has advantageous consequences on the cured resin properties such as higher glass transition temperature and higher modulus as compared to that of the host resin.

  4. Performance of low pressure tissue equivalent chambers and a new method for parameterizing the dose equivalent

    SciTech Connect

    Eisen, Y.; Vasilik, D.G.; Brake, R.J.; Erkkila, B.H.; Littlejohn, G.J.

    1986-09-01

    The performance of spherical tissue equivalent chambers with equivalent diameters between 0.5 and 2..mu.. was tested experimentally using monoenergetic and polyenergetic neutron sources in the energy region of 10 keV to 14.5 MeV. Theoretical calculations were performed in order to obtain a simple algorithm for deriving the dose equivalent from the measured data. The algorithm relates the number of recoil particles to the dose equivalent, rather than having a one-to-one correspondence between the lineal energy and the linear energy transfer of the recoil particles. The calculations took into account neutron interactions with hydrogen atoms in the chamber wall as well as in the gas, and also the finite energy resolution determined by both the detector and the electronic system. Qualitatively, the calculations well dscribe the experimental results. The algorithm that was developed determines the neutron dose equivalent, from the data of the 0.5..mu.. chamber, to better than +-20% over the energy range of 30 keV to 14.5 MeV. The same algorithm also determines the dose equivalent from the data of the 2..mu.. chamber to better than +-20% over the energy of 70 keV to 14.5 MeV. The efficiency of the chambers is low and has an average value of 330 counts per mrem, or equivalently about 0.2 c/s per mrem/h. This efficiency enables the measurement of dose equivalent rates only above 100 mrem/h for an integration period of 3 seconds. However, integrated dose equivalents can be mesured as low as 0.1 mrem.

  5. Satellite Test of the Equivalence Principle (STEP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Worden, Paul

    1994-01-01

    This grant provided support for the STEP (Satellite Test of the Equivalence Principle) program between October 1991 and September 1993. STEP, previously supported by NASA under Grant NAG8-837 'A Satellite Test of the Equivalence Principle,' was selected by the European Space Agency for a Phase A study as a candidate for ESA's next medium size mission (M2). STEP was conceived as a joint NASA/ESA mission with equal participation by both agencies. ESA's contribution to the program would be the spacecraft; NASA would provide the launcher and half of the instrument, while the other half of the instrument would be provided by various European agencies. STEP was in competition with three other programs, INTEGRAL, PRISMA, and MARSNET. The final selection of a single mission for M2 took place in April 1993. STEP was not selected for M2 but made a very close second. The program is continuing in modified form.

  6. Quantitative and methodological aspects of stimulus equivalence.

    PubMed

    O'mara, H

    1991-01-01

    The number of different ways of linking stimuli in the training phase of a conditional discrimination procedure designed to teach equivalence relations has hitherto been underestimated. An algorithm from graph theory that produces the correct number of such different ways is given. The establishment of equivalence relations requires transitive stimulus control. A misconception in a previous analysis of the conditions necessary for demonstrating transitive stimulus control is indicated. This misconception concerns responding in an unreinforced test trial to a negative rather than a positive comparison stimulus. Such behavior cannot be attributed to discriminative control by degree of association with reinforcement if the negative comparison stimulus has been less associated with reinforcement than the positive comparison stimulus in an antecedent training phase.

  7. Equivalent dynamic model of DEMES rotary joint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jianwen; Wang, Shu; Xing, Zhiguang; McCoul, David; Niu, Junyang; Huang, Bo; Liu, Liwu; Leng, Jinsong

    2016-07-01

    The dielectric elastomer minimum energy structure (DEMES) can realize large angular deformations by a small voltage-induced strain of the dielectric elastomer (DE), so it is a suitable candidate to make a rotary joint for a soft robot. Dynamic analysis is necessary for some applications, but the dynamic response of DEMESs is difficult to model because of the complicated morphology and viscoelasticity of the DE film. In this paper, a method composed of theoretical analysis and experimental measurement is presented to model the dynamic response of a DEMES rotary joint under an alternating voltage. Based on measurements of equivalent driving force and damping of the DEMES, the model can be derived. Some experiments were carried out to validate the equivalent dynamic model. The maximum angle error between model and experiment is greater than ten degrees, but it is acceptable to predict angular velocity of the DEMES, therefore, it can be applied in feedforward–feedback compound control.

  8. Anomalies, equivalence and renormalization of cosmological frames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrero-Valea, Mario

    2016-05-01

    We study the question of whether two frames of a given physical theory are equivalent or not in the presence of quantum corrections. By using field theory arguments, we claim that equivalence is broken in the presence of anomalous symmetries in one of the frames. This is particularized to the case of the relation between the Einstein and Jordan frames in scalar-tensor theories used to describe early Universe dynamics. Although in this case a regularization that cancels the anomaly exists, the renormalized theory always develops a nonvanishing contribution to the S matrix that is present only in the Jordan frame, promoting the different frames to different physical theories that must be UV completed in a different way.

  9. Physicochemical equivalence of chloroquine phosphate tablets.

    PubMed

    Bamiro, O A; Odeniyi, M A; Idowu, O B; Jaiyeoba, K T

    2004-12-01

    Seven brands of chloroquine phosphate tablets sourced from different retail outlets in the South-West Nigerian market were analysed in order to determine their physicochemical equivalence. The assessment parameters included uniformity of weight, friability, crushing strength, disintegration and dissolution tests and chemical assay of the tablets. All the brands passed the British Pharmacopoeia tests for weight uniformity, disintegration time and dissolution rate. Two brands, C and E passed the minimum criterion for crushing strength, four brands passed the friability test and two brands exceeded the specified amount of active drug content for chloroquine tablets. Only one brand C out of the seven brands that were analysed passed all the BP quality specifications. Hence none of the seven brands analysed could said to be physically and chemically equivalent. This study highlights the need for constant market monitoring of new products in order to ascertain their quality. PMID:15977447

  10. Are All Wrong FCI Answers Equivalent?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dedic, Helena; Rosenfield, Steven; Lasry, Nathaniel

    2010-10-01

    The Force Concept Inventory (FCI) has been efficiently used to assess conceptual learning in mechanics. Each FCI question has one Newtonian answer and four wrong answers (distracters). Researchers and practitioners most frequently use measures of total score to assess learning. Yet, are all wrong answers equivalent? We conducted Latent Markov Chain Modeling (LMCM) analyses of all choices (right and wrong) on a subset of four FCI questions. LMCM assesses whether there are groups of students sharing similar patterns of responses. We infer that students sharing similar patterns also share similar reasoning. Our results show seven reasoning-groups. LMCM also computes probabilities of transition from one reasoning-group to another after instruction. Examining transitions between groups, we note a clear hierarchy. Groups at the top of the hierarchy are comprised of students that use Newtonian thinking more consistently but also choose certain wrong answers more frequently; suggesting that not all wrong answers are equivalent.

  11. Explosive materials equivalency, test methods and evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koger, D. M.; Mcintyre, F. L.

    1980-01-01

    Attention is given to concepts of explosive equivalency of energetic materials based on specific airblast parameters. A description is provided of a wide bandwidth high accuracy instrumentation system which has been used extensively in obtaining pressure time profiles of energetic materials. The object of the considered test method is to determine the maximum output from the detonation of explosive materials in terms of airblast overpressure and positive impulse. The measured pressure and impulse values are compared with known characteristics of hemispherical TNT data to determine the equivalency of the test material in relation to TNT. An investigation shows that meaningful comparisons between various explosives and a standard reference material such as TNT should be based upon the same parameters. The tests should be conducted under the same conditions.

  12. Failure to observe untested derived stimulus relations in extinction: implications for understanding stimulus-equivalence formation.

    PubMed

    Doughty, Adam H; Leake, Lesley W; Stoudemire, M Lee

    2014-11-01

    Wilson and Hayes (1996) and Doughty, Kastner, and Bismark (2011) observed resurgence of past equivalence relations when newer equivalence relations were punished or extinguished, respectively. Their findings support the notion that deriving stimulus relations is a form of operant behavior. Although there is consensus regarding the operant nature of deriving untrained stimulus relations, the necessary and sufficient conditions that establish these relations remain unclear. For example, in the aforementioned work, the resurgent equivalence relations were tested earlier in each study. The present research investigated whether this resurgence of equivalence relations requires their initial testing. In Experiment 1, college students received arbitrary matching-to-sample training in Phase 1. After these baseline discriminations were established, equivalence testing was omitted. In Phase 2, four 4-member equivalence classes were established that were inconsistent with the Phase-1 training. These Phase-2 relations then were extinguished to test whether the equivalence relations consistent with Phase-1 training would occur. Unlike in earlier research, these untested relations did not occur reliably. This finding was replicated in Experiment 2, and additional tests of stimulus relatedness did not reveal any evidence of derived stimulus relations consistent with the Phase-1 training. The present research extends other findings suggesting that the equivalence-testing context helps establish these stimulus classes.

  13. Failure to observe untested derived stimulus relations in extinction: implications for understanding stimulus-equivalence formation.

    PubMed

    Doughty, Adam H; Leake, Lesley W; Stoudemire, M Lee

    2014-11-01

    Wilson and Hayes (1996) and Doughty, Kastner, and Bismark (2011) observed resurgence of past equivalence relations when newer equivalence relations were punished or extinguished, respectively. Their findings support the notion that deriving stimulus relations is a form of operant behavior. Although there is consensus regarding the operant nature of deriving untrained stimulus relations, the necessary and sufficient conditions that establish these relations remain unclear. For example, in the aforementioned work, the resurgent equivalence relations were tested earlier in each study. The present research investigated whether this resurgence of equivalence relations requires their initial testing. In Experiment 1, college students received arbitrary matching-to-sample training in Phase 1. After these baseline discriminations were established, equivalence testing was omitted. In Phase 2, four 4-member equivalence classes were established that were inconsistent with the Phase-1 training. These Phase-2 relations then were extinguished to test whether the equivalence relations consistent with Phase-1 training would occur. Unlike in earlier research, these untested relations did not occur reliably. This finding was replicated in Experiment 2, and additional tests of stimulus relatedness did not reveal any evidence of derived stimulus relations consistent with the Phase-1 training. The present research extends other findings suggesting that the equivalence-testing context helps establish these stimulus classes. PMID:25306940

  14. Global equivalent magnetization of the oceanic lithosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyment, J.; Choi, Y.; Hamoudi, M.; Lesur, V.; Thebault, E.

    2015-11-01

    As a by-product of the construction of a new World Digital Magnetic Anomaly Map over oceanic areas, we use an original approach based on the global forward modeling of seafloor spreading magnetic anomalies and their comparison to the available marine magnetic data to derive the first map of the equivalent magnetization over the World's ocean. This map reveals consistent patterns related to the age of the oceanic lithosphere, the spreading rate at which it was formed, and the presence of mantle thermal anomalies which affects seafloor spreading and the resulting lithosphere. As for the age, the equivalent magnetization decreases significantly during the first 10-15 Myr after its formation, probably due to the alteration of crustal magnetic minerals under pervasive hydrothermal alteration, then increases regularly between 20 and 70 Ma, reflecting variations in the field strength or source effects such as the acquisition of a secondary magnetization. As for the spreading rate, the equivalent magnetization is twice as strong in areas formed at fast rate than in those formed at slow rate, with a threshold at ∼40 km/Myr, in agreement with an independent global analysis of the amplitude of Anomaly 25. This result, combined with those from the study of the anomalous skewness of marine magnetic anomalies, allows building a unified model for the magnetic structure of normal oceanic lithosphere as a function of spreading rate. Finally, specific areas affected by thermal mantle anomalies at the time of their formation exhibit peculiar equivalent magnetization signatures, such as the cold Australian-Antarctic Discordance, marked by a lower magnetization, and several hotspots, marked by a high magnetization.

  15. Equivalent Circuit Modeling of Hysteresis Motors

    SciTech Connect

    Nitao, J J; Scharlemann, E T; Kirkendall, B A

    2009-08-31

    We performed a literature review and found that many equivalent circuit models of hysteresis motors in use today are incorrect. The model by Miyairi and Kataoka (1965) is the correct one. We extended the model by transforming it to quadrature coordinates, amenable to circuit or digital simulation. 'Hunting' is an oscillatory phenomenon often observed in hysteresis motors. While several works have attempted to model the phenomenon with some partial success, we present a new complete model that predicts hunting from first principles.

  16. The Otto-engine-equivalent vehicle concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dowdy, M. W.; Couch, M. D.

    1978-01-01

    A vehicle comparison methodology based on the Otto-Engine Equivalent (OEE) vehicle concept is described. As an illustration of this methodology, the concept is used to make projections of the fuel economy potential of passenger cars using various alternative power systems. Sensitivities of OEE vehicle results to assumptions made in the calculational procedure are discussed. Factors considered include engine torque boundary, rear axle ratio, performance criteria, engine transient response, and transmission shift logic.

  17. Water equivalence of polymer gel dosimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sellakumar, P.; James Jebaseelan Samuel, E.; Supe, Sanjay S.

    2007-07-01

    To evaluate the water equivalence and radiation transport properties of polymer gel dosimeters over the wide range of photon and electron energies 14 different types of polymer gels were considered. Their water equivalence was evaluated in terms of effective atomic number ( Zeff), electron density ( ρe), photon mass attenuation coefficient ( μ/ρ), photon mass energy absorption coefficient ( μen/ρ) and total stopping power (S/ρ)tot of electrons using the XCOM and the ESTAR database. The study showed that the effective atomic number of polymer gels were very close ( <1%) to that of water except PAGAT, MAGAT and NIPAM which had the variation of 3%, 2% and 3%, respectively. The value of μ/ρ and μen/ρ for all polymer gels were in close agreement ( <1%) with that of water beyond 80 keV. The value of (S/ρ)tot of electrons in polymer gel dosimeters were within 1% agreement with that of water. From the study we conclude that at lower energy ( <80 keV) the polymer gel dosimeters cannot be considered water equivalent and study has to be carried out before using the polymer gel for clinical application.

  18. TNT equivalency of M10 propellant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcintyre, F. L.; Price, P.

    1978-01-01

    Peak, side-on blast overpressure and scaled, positive impulse have been measured for M10 single-perforated propellant, web size 0.018 inches, using configurations that simulate the handling of bulk material during processing and shipment. Quantities of 11.34, 22.7, 45.4, and 65.8 kg were tested in orthorhombic shipping containers and fiberboard boxes. High explosive equivalency values for each test series were obtained as a function of scaled distance by comparison to known pressure, arrival time and impulse characteristics for hemispherical TNT surface bursts. The equivalencies were found to depend significantly on scaled distance, with higher values of 150-100 percent (pressure) and 350-125 percent (positive impulse) for the extremes within the range from 1.19 to 3.57 m/cube root of kg. Equivalencies as low as 60-140 percent (pressure) and 30-75 percent (positive impulse) were obtained in the range of 7.14 to 15.8 m/cube root of kg. Within experimental error, both peak pressure and positive impulse scaled as a function of charge weight for all quantities tested in the orthorhombic configuration.

  19. Semantic relatedness for evaluation of course equivalencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Beibei

    Semantic relatedness, or its inverse, semantic distance, measures the degree of closeness between two pieces of text determined by their meaning. Related work typically measures semantics based on a sparse knowledge base such as WordNet or Cyc that requires intensive manual efforts to build and maintain. Other work is based on a corpus such as the Brown corpus, or more recently, Wikipedia. This dissertation proposes two approaches to applying semantic relatedness to the problem of suggesting transfer course equivalencies. Two course descriptions are given as input to feed the proposed algorithms, which output a value that can be used to help determine if the courses are equivalent. The first proposed approach uses traditional knowledge sources such as WordNet and corpora for courses from multiple fields of study. The second approach uses Wikipedia, the openly-editable encyclopedia, and it focuses on courses from a technical field such as Computer Science. This work shows that it is promising to adapt semantic relatedness to the education field for matching equivalencies between transfer courses. A semantic relatedness measure using traditional knowledge sources such as WordNet performs relatively well on non-technical courses. However, due to the "knowledge acquisition bottleneck," such a resource is not ideal for technical courses, which use an extensive and growing set of technical terms. To address the problem, this work proposes a Wikipedia-based approach which is later shown to be more correlated to human judgment compared to previous work.

  20. Equivalent gravity modes - An interim evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindzen, R. S.; Hong, S.

    1972-01-01

    The behavior of the main solar semidiurnal tidal mode in a dissipative atmosphere is studied both in a rotating spherical atmosphere and by means of the equivalent gravity mode approximation. Coefficients are chosen to crudely simulate the effects of molecular viscosity and conductivity. Major findings are: (1) Below 130 km, where friction is unimportant, equivalent gravity mode results are, for all practical purposes, identical to those at the equator obtained from a spherical calculation. (2) Above 130 km amplitudes over the equator obtained from the spherical calculation are about 30 percent smaller than those obtained from the equivalent gravity mode calculations. Also, there is a 15 deg (1/2 hour) difference in phase. (3) The amplitude reduction over the equator, is associated with a broadening of the latitude distribution of amplitude for the oscillatory pressure and temperature fields within the thermosphere. There is also significant variation of phase with latitude within the thermosphere. Associated with the above variations are significant changes in the latitude distribution of horizontal velocity within the thermosphere.

  1. Microwave Radar Retrieval of Snow Water Equivalent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yueh, S. H.; Rott, H.; Nagler, T. F.; Cline, D. W.; Duguay, C. R.; Essery, R.; Etchevers, P.; Hajnsek, I.; Kern, M.; Macelloni, G.; Malnes, E.; Pulliainen, J. T.; Tsang, L.; Xu, X.; Marshall, H.; Elder, K.

    2010-12-01

    Fresh water stored in snow on land is an important component of the global water cycle. In many regions of the world it is vital to health and commerce. To make global observations of snow water equivalent (SWE), the Cold Regions Hydrology High Resolution Observatory (CoReH2O) candidate mission based on X- and Ku-band synthetic aperture radar (SAR) technologies is currently going through the Phase-A study, sponsored by the European Space Agency. In addition, the Snow and Cold Land Processes (SCLP) mission, also based on the dual-frequency SAR concept, was one of the satellite missions recommended for future NASA implementation. The frequency range for the CoReH2O and SCLP microwave radar, chosen to optimize the sensitivity to volumetric snowpack properties, is 8-18 GHz (X- and Ku-bands). The overall radar SWE measurement principle has been demonstrated by measurements in 1980s-1990s and more recently the NASA Cold Land Processes Experiments in Colorado and Alaska, 2006-2008, the SARALPS-2007 and Helisnow-2008 campaigns in Europe. Ku-band has the capability to estimate SWE in shallow snowpacks, while X-band provides greater penetration for deeper snow. A dual-polarization (VV and VH) SAR will enable discrimination of the radar backscatter into volume and background vegetation/surface components, while the dual frequency design offers the capability of resolving a wide range of snow depths and snow grains. The baseline CoReH2O algorithm statistically minimizes the differences between radar measurements and radiative transfer model for snowpack. The performance of the retrieval algorithm has been studied with Ku- and X-band backscatter data measured by ground-based scatterometers at test sites in the Austrian Alps. The algorithm has also been applied to the airborne POLSCAT and satellite TerraSAR-X data acquired for the CLPX-II Kuparuk River Study Site in the tundra region of northern Alaska. The comparison with the field measurements reveals a RMSE of 0.7 cm for SWE

  2. 'Equivalence of care' in prison medicine: is equivalence of process the right measure of equity?

    PubMed

    Charles, Anna; Draper, Heather

    2012-04-01

    In recent years, the principle of equivalence has been accepted in many countries as the standard against which healthcare provision for prisoners should be measured. There are several ways in which this principle can be interpreted, but current policy in the UK and elsewhere seems to focus on the measurement and achievement of equivalence in the process of healthcare provision. We argue that it is not appropriate to apply this interpretation to all aspects of prisoner healthcare, as it does not necessarily address the challenges inherent to the prisoner population and prison setting. Consequently equivalence of health outcomes should also be considered alongside processes in the interests of providing healthcare in prison that is equivalent to that outside prison.

  3. Sensory characterisation and consumer acceptability of potassium chloride and sunflower oil addition in small-caliber non-acid fermented sausages with a reduced content of sodium chloride and fat.

    PubMed

    Mora-Gallego, Héctor; Guàrdia, Maria Dolors; Serra, Xavier; Gou, Pere; Arnau, Jacint

    2016-02-01

    The effect of the simultaneous reduction of fat proportion (from 20% to 10% and 7%) and added salt (from 2.5% to 1.5%) and the subsequent addition of 0.64% KCl and sunflower oil (1.5% and 3.0%) on the physicochemical, instrumental colour and texture, sensory properties and consumer acceptability of small caliber non-acid fermented sausages (fuet type) was studied. This simultaneous reduction of fat and salt increased weight loss, moisture, water activity (aw), redness, instrumental texture parameters (hardness, chewiness and cohesiveness), sensory attributes (darkness, hardness, elasticity) and the consumer acceptability. The subsequent addition of 0.64% KCl to the leanest batch decreased the aw and barely affected instrumental texture parameters and consumer acceptability. Subsequent sunflower oil addition decreased hardness, chewiness and cohesiveness and increased crumbliness and oil flavour which may decrease the consumer acceptability. The simultaneous reduction of fat and NaCl with the addition of 0.64% KCl was the preferred option by the consumers.

  4. Sensory characterisation and consumer acceptability of potassium chloride and sunflower oil addition in small-caliber non-acid fermented sausages with a reduced content of sodium chloride and fat.

    PubMed

    Mora-Gallego, Héctor; Guàrdia, Maria Dolors; Serra, Xavier; Gou, Pere; Arnau, Jacint

    2016-02-01

    The effect of the simultaneous reduction of fat proportion (from 20% to 10% and 7%) and added salt (from 2.5% to 1.5%) and the subsequent addition of 0.64% KCl and sunflower oil (1.5% and 3.0%) on the physicochemical, instrumental colour and texture, sensory properties and consumer acceptability of small caliber non-acid fermented sausages (fuet type) was studied. This simultaneous reduction of fat and salt increased weight loss, moisture, water activity (aw), redness, instrumental texture parameters (hardness, chewiness and cohesiveness), sensory attributes (darkness, hardness, elasticity) and the consumer acceptability. The subsequent addition of 0.64% KCl to the leanest batch decreased the aw and barely affected instrumental texture parameters and consumer acceptability. Subsequent sunflower oil addition decreased hardness, chewiness and cohesiveness and increased crumbliness and oil flavour which may decrease the consumer acceptability. The simultaneous reduction of fat and NaCl with the addition of 0.64% KCl was the preferred option by the consumers. PMID:26497101

  5. Equivalent Structures on Sets: Equivalence Classes, Partitions and Fiber Structures of Functions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamdan, May

    2006-01-01

    This study reports on how students can be led to make meaningful connections between such structures on a set as a partition, the set of equivalence classes determined by an equivalence relation and the fiber structure of a function on that set (i.e., the set of preimages of all sets {b} for b in the range of the function). In this paper, I first…

  6. Addition of a UL5 helicase-primase subunit point mutation eliminates bursal-thymic atrophy of Marek's disease virus ∆Meq recombinant virus but reduces vaccinal protection.

    PubMed

    Hildebrandt, Evin; Dunn, John R; Cheng, Hans H

    2015-01-01

    Marek's disease virus (MDV) is an oncogenic alphaherpesvirus and the causative agent of Marek's disease (MD), characterized by immunosuppression, paralysis, nerve enlargement and induction of T-cell lymphomas in chickens. Despite widespread usage of vaccines since the 1970s to control MD, more virulent field strains of MDV have emerged that overcome vaccinal protection, necessitating the development of new and more protective MD vaccines. The ∆Meq virus, a recombinant Md5 strain MDV lacking the viral oncogene Meq, is one candidate MD vaccine with great potential but unfortunately it also causes bursal-thymic atrophy (BTA) in maternal antibody negative chickens, raising concerns that impede commercial use as a vaccine. Previously, we identified a point mutation within UL5 that reduced in vivo replication in attenuated viruses. We proposed that introduction of the UL5 point mutation into the ∆Meq virus would reduce in vivo replication and eliminate BTA yet potentially retain high protective abilities. In birds, the ∆Meq+UL5 recombinant MDV had reduced replication compared to the original ∆Meq virus, while weights of lymphoid organs indicated that ∆Meq+UL5 did not induce BTA, supporting the hypothesis that reduction of in vivo replication would also abolish BTA. Vaccine trials of the ∆Meq+UL5 virus compared to other ∆Meq-based viruses and commercial vaccines show that, while the ∆Meq+UL5 does provide vaccinal protection, this protection was also reduced compared to the original ∆Meq virus. Therefore, it appears that a very delicate balance is required between levels of replication able to induce high vaccinal protection, yet not so high as to induce BTA.

  7. Comments on "Functional equivalence between radial basis function networks and fuzzy inference systems".

    PubMed

    Anderson, H C; Lotfi, A; Westphal, L C; Jang, J R

    1998-01-01

    The above paper claims that under a set of minor restrictions radial basis function networks and fuzzy inference systems are functionally equivalent. The purpose of this letter is to show that this set of restrictions is incomplete and that, when it is completed, the said functional equivalence applies only to a small range of fuzzy inference systems. In addition, a modified set of restrictions is proposed which is applicable for a much wider range of fuzzy inference systems.

  8. Survival of free and microencapsulated Bifidobacterium: effect of honey addition.

    PubMed

    Favarin, Luciana; Laureano-Melo, Roberto; Luchese, Rosa Helena

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of honey addition on the viability of free and emulsion encapsulated cells of two strains of Bifidobacterium that underwent simulation of human upper gastrointestinal transit. In the control condition, without honey, free cells were drastically reduced after exposure to gastrointestinal conditions. The reduction was more pronounced with Bifidobacterium J7 of human origin. On the other hand, when cells were encapsulated, the viability reduction was higher for strain Bifidobacterium Bb12. The microencapsulation improved the viability maintenance of both Bifidobacterium strains, in recommended amounts for probiotic activity, after exposure to simulated gastrointestinal conditions. Moreover, suspending free cells of both Bifidobacterium strains in honey solutions resulted in a protective effect, equivalent to the plain microencapsulation with sodium alginate 3%. It is concluded that microencapsulation and the addition of honey improved the ability of Bifidobacterium to tolerate gastrointestinal conditions in vitro. PMID:25775038

  9. Ambient Dose Equivalent measured at the Instituto Nacional de Cancerología Department of Nuclear Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ávila, O.; Torres-Ulloa, C. L.; Medina, L. A.; Trujillo-Zamudio, F. E.; de Buen, I. Gamboa; Buenfil, A. E.; Brandan, M. E.

    2010-12-01

    Ambient dose equivalent values were determined in several sites at the Instituto Nacional de Cancerología, Departmento de Medicina Nuclear, using TLD-100 and TLD-900 thermoluminescent dosemeters. Additionally, ambient dose equivalent was measured at a corridor outside the hospitalization room for patients treated with 137Cs brachytherapy. Dosemeter calibration was performed at the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Laboratorio de Metrología, to known 137Cs gamma radiation air kerma. Radionuclides considered for this study are 131I, 18F, 67Ga, 99mTc, 111In, 201Tl and 137Cs, with main gamma energies between 93 and 662 keV. Dosemeters were placed during a five month period in the nuclear medicine rooms (containing gamma-cameras), injection corridor, patient waiting areas, PET/CT study room, hot lab, waste storage room and corridors next to the hospitalization rooms for patients treated with 131I and 137Cs. High dose values were found at the waste storage room, outside corridor of 137Cs brachytherapy patients and PET/CT area. Ambient dose equivalent rate obtained for the 137Cs brachytherapy corridor is equal to (18.51±0.02)×10-3 mSv/h. Sites with minimum doses are the gamma camera rooms, having ambient dose equivalent rates equal to (0.05±0.03)×10-3 mSv/h. Recommendations have been given to the Department authorities so that further actions are taken to reduce doses at high dose sites in order to comply with the ALARA principle (as low as reasonably achievable).

  10. Mechanical equivalent of quantum heat engines.

    PubMed

    Arnaud, Jacques; Chusseau, Laurent; Philippe, Fabrice

    2008-06-01

    Quantum heat engines employ as working agents multilevel systems instead of classical gases. We show that under some conditions quantum heat engines are equivalent to a series of reservoirs at different altitudes containing balls of various weights. A cycle consists of picking up at random a ball from one reservoir and carrying it to the next, thereby performing or absorbing some work. In particular, quantum heat engines, employing two-level atoms as working agents, are modeled by reservoirs containing balls of weight 0 or 1. The mechanical model helps us prove that the maximum efficiency of quantum heat engines is the Carnot efficiency. Heat pumps and negative temperatures are considered.

  11. Tissue equivalent proportional counter neutron monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.C.; Strode, J.N.

    1980-06-01

    The Tissue Equivalent Proportional Counter (TEPC) is a sensitive area monitoring instrument that can be used either in place at fixed locations or as a portable neutron exposure measuring device. The system monitors low levels of neutron radiation exposure and has the capability of accurately measuring neutron exposure rates as low as 0.1 mrem/hr. The computerized analysis system calculates the quality factor which is important for situations where the neutron to gamma ratio may vary significantly and irregularly such as in fuel fabrication or handling facilities.

  12. The equivalence principle in a quantum world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bjerrum-Bohr, N. E. J.; Donoghue, John F.; El-Menoufi, Basem Kamal; Holstein, Barry R.; Planté, Ludovic; Vanhove, Pierre

    2015-09-01

    We show how modern methods can be applied to quantum gravity at low energy. We test how quantum corrections challenge the classical framework behind the equivalence principle (EP), for instance through introduction of nonlocality from quantum physics, embodied in the uncertainty principle. When the energy is small, we now have the tools to address this conflict explicitly. Despite the violation of some classical concepts, the EP continues to provide the core of the quantum gravity framework through the symmetry — general coordinate invariance — that is used to organize the effective field theory (EFT).

  13. Galilean Equivalence for Galactic Dark Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kesden, Michael; Kamionkowski, Marc

    2006-09-01

    Satellite galaxies are tidally disrupted as they orbit the Milky Way. If dark matter (DM) experiences a stronger self-attraction than baryons, stars will preferentially gain rather than lose energy during tidal disruption, leading to an enhancement in the trailing compared to the leading tidal stream. The Sgr dwarf galaxy is seen to have roughly equal streams, challenging models in which DM and baryons accelerate differently by more than 10%. Future observations and a better understanding of DM distribution should allow detection of equivalence violation at the percent level.

  14. Gravitational leptogenesis, C, CP and strong equivalence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, Jamie I.; Shore, Graham M.

    2015-02-01

    The origin of matter-antimatter asymmetry is one of the most important outstanding problems at the interface of particle physics and cosmology. Gravitational leptogenesis (baryogenesis) provides a possible mechanism through explicit couplings of spacetime curvature to appropriate lepton (or baryon) currents. In this paper, the idea that these strong equivalence principle violating interactions could be generated automatically through quantum loop effects in curved spacetime is explored, focusing on the realisation of the discrete symmetries C, CP and CPT which must be broken to induce matter-antimatter asymmetry. The related issue of quantum corrections to the dispersion relation for neutrino propagation in curved spacetime is considered within a fully covariant framework.

  15. Toxic equivalence factors, problems and limitations.

    PubMed

    Neumann, H G

    1996-01-01

    It is a particular problem to set tolerance levels for mixtures containing chemicals classified as carcinogens. In the case of chlorinated dioxin and furan congeners, 'toxicity equivalence factors' (TEFs) were introduced. This concept has problems in itself and cannot be readily transferred to other mixtures, such as those of monocyclic nitroarenes in wastes of trinitrotoluene (TNT)-based explosives. The difficulties in finding suitable endpoints to compare the components are discussed (methaemoglobin formation; quantitative structure-activity relationships; mutagenicity; carcinogenicity). An alternative approach for the development tolerance levels in this instance is based on results obtained by measuring haemoglobin adducts as biomarkers of the most prevalent mixture components in humans.

  16. Zonal Dynamic Equivalents Based on the Concept of Relative Electrical Distance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrawal, Rimjhim; Dhadbanjan, Thukaram

    2013-05-01

    Abstract: This article presents a systematic approach to construct the zonal dynamic equivalents of a large-power system based on the concept of relative electrical distance (RED). The task of dynamic equivalencing is to eliminate the full model of the external system and replace it with an equivalent model, which has dynamic characteristics close enough to the full model. The dynamic equivalent models are used for large-scale power system offline transient stability analysis with large disturbance. Dynamic equivalencing also helps in reducing the computation burden and memory requirements in wide area monitoring system (WAMS) for online stability assessment. The procedure is illustrated on IEEE 39 bus system and on a practical 205 bus system consisting of three zones of Indian Southern grid, where an equivalent of a zone has been constructed. The simulation results of the original system and equivalent system are compared. The proposed approach is also compared with the existing Ward equivalent method and the results are found to be similar. The simulation results show that the developed equivalent system has close accuracy in representing the dynamic characteristics of the original system.

  17. Large-Strain Time-Temperature Equivalence and Adiabatic Heating of Polyethylene

    SciTech Connect

    Furmanski, Jevan; Brown, Eric; Cady, Carl M.

    2012-06-06

    Time-temperature equivalence is a well-known phenomenon in time-dependent material response, where rapid events at a moderate temperature are indistinguishable from some occurring at modest rates but elevated temperatures. However, there is as-yet little elucidation of how well this equivalence holds for substantial plastic strains. In this work, we demonstrate time-temperature equivalence over a large range in a previously studied high-density polyethylene formulation (HDPE). At strain-rates exceeding 0.1/s, adiabatic heating confounds the comparison of nominally isothermal material response, apparently violating time-temperature equivalence. Strain-rate jumps can be employed to access the instantaneous true strain rate without heating. Adiabatic heating effects were isolated by comparing a locus of isothermal instantaneous flow stress measurements from strain-rate jumps up to 1/s with the predicted equivalent states at 0.01/s and 0.001/s in compression. Excellent agreement between the isothermal jump condition locus and the quasi-static tests was observed up to 50% strain, yielding one effective isothermal plastic response for each material for a given time-temperature equivalent state. These results imply that time-temperature equivalence can be effectively used to predict the deformation response of polymers during extreme mechanical events (large strain and high strain-rate) from measurements taken at reduced temperatures and nominal strain-rates in the laboratory.

  18. Future Change of Snow Water Equivalent over Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hara, M.; Kawase, H.; Kimura, F.; Fujita, M.; Ma, X.

    2012-12-01

    Western side of Honshu Island and Hokkaido Island in Japan are ones of the heaviest snowfall areas in the world. Although a heavy snowfall often brings disaster, snow is one of the major sources for agriculture, industrial, and house-use in Japan. Even during the winter, the monthly mean of the surface air temperature often exceeds 0 C in large parts of the heavy snow areas along the Sea of Japan. Thus, snow cover may be seriously reduced in these areas as a result of the global warming, which is caused by an increase in greenhouse gases. The change in seasonal march of snow water equivalent, e.g., snowmelt season and amount will strongly influence to social-economic activities. We performed a series of numerical experiments including present and future climate simulations and much-snow and less-snow cases using a regional climate model. Pseudo-Global-Warming (PGW) method (Kimura and Kitoh, 2008) is applied for the future climate simulations. MIROC 3.2 medres 2070s output under IPCC SRES A2 scenario and 1990s output under 20c3m scenario used for PGW method. The precipitation, snow depth, and surface air temperature of the hindcast simulations show good agreement with the AMeDAS station data. In much-snow cases, The decreasing rate of maximum total snow water equivalent over Japan due to climate change was 49%. Main cause of the decrease of the total snow water equivalent is the air temperature rise due to global climate change. The difference in the precipitation amount between the present and the future simulations is small.

  19. Functional equivalence and spatial path memory.

    PubMed

    Lyon, Don R; Gunzelmann, Glenn M

    2011-11-01

    Loomis, Klatzky, Avraamides, Lippa and Golledge ( 2007 ) suggest that, when it comes to spatial information, verbal description and perceptual experience are nearly functionally equivalent with respect to the cognitive representations they produce. We tested this idea for the case of spatial memory for complex paths. Paths consisted entirely of unit-length segments followed by 90-degree turns, thus assuring that a path could be described with equal precision using either an egocentric verbal description or a virtual self-motion experience. The verbal description was analogous to driving directions (e.g., turn left and go one block, then turn right, etc.) except in three dimensions (allowing rotation followed by up or down movement). Virtual self-motion was depicted as first-person travel through a 3D grid of featureless corridors. Comparison of these two conditions produced a result that may be surprising to some, but nevertheless appears to support the notion of functional equivalence: Virtual self-motion does not produce better path memory than verbal description, when care is taken to present equally precise path information. This result holds for even very complex paths and despite evidence from proximity-based interference that the memory representation of the path is spatial.

  20. Equivalence of trans paths in ion channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez, Juan; Hajek, Bruce

    2006-04-01

    We explore stochastic models for the study of ion transport in biological cells. Analysis of these models explains and explores an interesting feature of ion transport observed by biophysicists. Namely, the average time it takes ions to cross certain ion channels is the same in either direction, even if there is an electric potential difference across the channels. It is shown for simple single ion models that the distribution of a path (i.e., the history of location versus time) of an ion crossing the channel in one direction has the same distribution as the time-reversed path of an ion crossing the channel in the reverse direction. Therefore, not only is the mean duration of these paths equal, but other measures, such as the variance of passage time or the mean time a path spends within a specified section of the channel, are also the same for both directions of traversal. The feature is also explored for channels with interacting ions. If a system of interacting ions is in reversible equilibrium (net flux is zero), then the equivalence of the left-to-right trans paths with the time-reversed right-to-left trans paths still holds. However, if the system is in equilibrium, but not reversible equilibrium, then such equivalence need not hold.

  1. Investigating Starburst Galaxy Emission Line Equivalent Widths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meskhidze, Helen; Richardson, Chris T.

    2016-01-01

    Modeling star forming galaxies with spectral synthesis codes allows us to study the gas conditions and excitation mechanisms that are necessary to reproduce high ionization emission lines in both local and high-z galaxies. Our study uses the locally optimally-emitting clouds model to develop an atlas of starburst galaxy emission line equivalent widths. Specifically, we address the following question: What physical conditions are necessary to produce strong high ionization emission lines assuming photoionization via starlight? Here we present the results of our photoionization simulations: an atlas spanning 15 orders of magnitude in ionizing flux and 10 orders of magnitude in hydrogen density that tracks over 150 emission lines ranging from the UV to the near IR. Each simulation grid contains ~1.5x104 photoionization models calculated by supplying a spectral energy distribution, grain content, and chemical abundances. Specifically, we will be discussing the effects on the emission line equivalent widths of varying the metallicity of the cloud, Z = 0.2 Z⊙ to Z = 5.0 Z⊙, and varying the star-formation history, using the instantaneous and continuous evolution tracks and the newly released Starburst99 Geneva rotation tracks.

  2. Equivalent Relaxations of Optimal Power Flow

    SciTech Connect

    Bose, S; Low, SH; Teeraratkul, T; Hassibi, B

    2015-03-01

    Several convex relaxations of the optimal power flow (OPF) problem have recently been developed using both bus injection models and branch flow models. In this paper, we prove relations among three convex relaxations: a semidefinite relaxation that computes a full matrix, a chordal relaxation based on a chordal extension of the network graph, and a second-order cone relaxation that computes the smallest partial matrix. We prove a bijection between the feasible sets of the OPF in the bus injection model and the branch flow model, establishing the equivalence of these two models and their second-order cone relaxations. Our results imply that, for radial networks, all these relaxations are equivalent and one should always solve the second-order cone relaxation. For mesh networks, the semidefinite relaxation and the chordal relaxation are equally tight and both are strictly tighter than the second-order cone relaxation. Therefore, for mesh networks, one should either solve the chordal relaxation or the SOCP relaxation, trading off tightness and the required computational effort. Simulations are used to illustrate these results.

  3. Ignition Delay of Combustible Materials in Normoxic Equivalent Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McAllister, Sara; Fernandez-Pello, Carlos; Ruff, Gary; Urban, David

    2009-01-01

    Material flammability is an important factor in determining the pressure and composition (fraction of oxygen and nitrogen) of the atmosphere in the habitable volume of exploration vehicles and habitats. The method chosen in this work to quantify the flammability of a material is by its ease of ignition. The ignition delay time was defined as the time it takes a combustible material to ignite after it has been exposed to an external heat flux. Previous work in the Forced Ignition and Spread Test (FIST) apparatus has shown that the ignition delay in the currently proposed space exploration atmosphere (approximately 58.6 kPa and32% oxygen concentration) is reduced by 27% compared to the standard atmosphere used in the Space Shuttle and Space Station. In order to determine whether there is a safer environment in terms of material flammability, a series of piloted ignition delay tests using polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) was conducted in the FIST apparatus to extend the work over a range of possible exploration atmospheres. The exploration atmospheres considered were the normoxic equivalents, i.e. reduced pressure conditions with a constant partial pressure of oxygen. The ignition delay time was seen to decrease as the pressure was reduced along the normoxic curve. The minimum ignition delay observed in the normoxic equivalent environments was nearly 30% lower than in standard atmospheric conditions. The ignition delay in the proposed exploration atmosphere is only slightly larger than this minimum. Interms of material flammability, normoxic environments with a higher pressure relative to the proposed pressure would be desired.

  4. An equivalent body surface charge model representing three-dimensional bioelectrical activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    He, B.; Chernyak, Y. B.; Cohen, R. J.

    1995-01-01

    A new surface-source model has been developed to account for the bioelectrical potential on the body surface. A single-layer surface-charge model on the body surface has been developed to equivalently represent bioelectrical sources inside the body. The boundary conditions on the body surface are discussed in relation to the surface-charge in a half-space conductive medium. The equivalent body surface-charge is shown to be proportional to the normal component of the electric field on the body surface just outside the body. The spatial resolution of the equivalent surface-charge distribution appears intermediate between those of the body surface potential distribution and the body surface Laplacian distribution. An analytic relationship between the equivalent surface-charge and the surface Laplacian of the potential was found for a half-space conductive medium. The effects of finite spatial sampling and noise on the reconstruction of the equivalent surface-charge were evaluated by computer simulations. It was found through computer simulations that the reconstruction of the equivalent body surface-charge from the body surface Laplacian distribution is very stable against noise and finite spatial sampling. The present results suggest that the equivalent body surface-charge model may provide an additional insight to our understanding of bioelectric phenomena.

  5. Acid Rain Analysis by Standard Addition Titration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ophardt, Charles E.

    1985-01-01

    The standard addition titration is a precise and rapid method for the determination of the acidity in rain or snow samples. The method requires use of a standard buret, a pH meter, and Gran's plot to determine the equivalence point. Experimental procedures used and typical results obtained are presented. (JN)

  6. Numerical Simulation on Open Wellbore Shrinkage and Casing Equivalent Stress in Bedded Salt Rock Stratum

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jianjun

    2013-01-01

    Most salt rock has interbed of mudstone in China. Owing to the enormous difference of mechanical properties between the mudstone interbed and salt rock, the stress-strain and creep behaviors of salt rock are significantly influenced by neighboring mudstone interbed. In order to identify the rules of wellbore shrinkage and casings equivalent stress in bedded salt rock stratum, three-dimensional finite difference models were established. The effects of thickness and elasticity modulus of mudstone interbed on the open wellbore shrinkage and equivalent stress of casing after cementing operation were studied, respectively. The results indicate that the shrinkage of open wellbore and equivalent stress of casings decreases with the increase of mudstone interbed thickness. The increasing of elasticity modulus will reduce the shrinkage of open wellbore and casing equivalent stress. Research results can provide the scientific basis for the design of mud density and casing strength. PMID:24198726

  7. Numerical simulation on open wellbore shrinkage and casing equivalent stress in bedded salt rock stratum.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jianjun; Zhang, Linzhi; Zhao, Jinzhou

    2013-01-01

    Most salt rock has interbed of mudstone in China. Owing to the enormous difference of mechanical properties between the mudstone interbed and salt rock, the stress-strain and creep behaviors of salt rock are significantly influenced by neighboring mudstone interbed. In order to identify the rules of wellbore shrinkage and casings equivalent stress in bedded salt rock stratum, three-dimensional finite difference models were established. The effects of thickness and elasticity modulus of mudstone interbed on the open wellbore shrinkage and equivalent stress of casing after cementing operation were studied, respectively. The results indicate that the shrinkage of open wellbore and equivalent stress of casings decreases with the increase of mudstone interbed thickness. The increasing of elasticity modulus will reduce the shrinkage of open wellbore and casing equivalent stress. Research results can provide the scientific basis for the design of mud density and casing strength.

  8. Fringing field suppression for liquid crystal gratings using equivalent capacitance configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Lei; Xia, Jun; Zhang, Xiaobing; Xie, Yi; Kang, Mingwu; Zhang, Qiuzhi

    2014-10-01

    A liquid crystal grating with high spatial frequency and equivalent capacitance configuration is proposed, where two layers of periodical ground electrodes are interlaced and aligned with the addressing electrodes. The equivalent capacitance configuration can reduce the fringing field effect efficiently owing to the generated electric field resisting the fringing field and redistributing the equivalent voltage exerting on the liquid crystal layer. The phase modulation depth and far-field diffraction patterns both for conventional and novel configurations were simulated. The results show that phase modulation is greatly enhanced and the maximum diffraction efficiency for a sinusoidal phase grating is 33.86%, which indicates that the equivalent capacitance configuration provides a good solution for suppressing the fringing field effect.

  9. The relationship between stimulus equivalence and verbal behavior

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Genae A.; Chase, Philip N.

    1991-01-01

    Despite the apparent similarity between stimulus equivalence and verbal behavior, these phenomena have been described in different terms. With different terminologies for each phenomenon, the precise nature of their relationship is difficult to determine. To explore this relationship, this paper first defines stimulus equivalence using a synthesis of the mathematical definition of the equivalence relation and Sidman and Tailby's (1982) definition. Selected examples of stimulus equivalence are then described as verbal behavior using Skinner's (1957) terminology. The paper then cites instances of verbal behavior that cannot be described as stimulus equivalence and considers whether there are instances of stimulus equivalence that cannot be described as verbal behavior. PMID:22477634

  10. Addition of porphyrins to cigarette filters to reduce the levels of benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) and tobacco-specific N-nitrosamines (TSNAs) in mainstream cigarette smoke.

    PubMed

    Wang, Changguo; Dai, Ya; Feng, Guanglin; He, Rong; Yang, Wenmin; Li, Dongliang; Zhou, Xuezheng; Zhu, Lijun; Tan, Lanlan

    2011-07-13

    Tobacco-specific N-nitrosamines (TSNAs) and benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) in mainstream cigarette smoke (MSS) cause smoking-related diseases and environmental pollution. Porphyrins were added to cigarette filters to reduce B[a]P (porphyrins A-E) and TSNAs (porphyrin F) in MSS. The porphyrin-B[a]P and porphyrin F-TSNAs (N'-nitrosoanabasine (NAB), N'-nitrosoanatabine (NAT), 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), and N-nitrosonornicotine (NNN)) interactions were investigated by fluorescence quenching and UV-visible spectroscopy. The correlation coefficients were 0.987-0.997 (B[a]P) and 0.994-0.999 (TSNAs), and the binding constants were (1.67-5.02) × 10(5) (B[a]P) and 3.42 × 10(3)-1.40 × 10(4) (TSNAs). Up to 36.72% of B[a]P and 46.67% of the TSNAs were eliminated from MSS, with greater reductions when more porphyrin was included in the filter. With the same mass of porphyrin in the filter, the reduction trend for B[a]P by porphyrins A-E was A > B > C > D > E. The reduction trend for TSNAs by porphyrin F was NNN > NAB > NNK > NAT. The porphyrin mode of action is possibly through strong π-π interactions.

  11. DENSE PHASE REBURN COMBUSTION SYSTEM (DPRCS) DEMONSTRATION ON A 154 MWE TANGENTIAL FURNACE: ADDITIONAL AREA OF INTEREST-TO DEVELOP AND DEMONSTRATE AN IN-FURNACE MULTI-POLLUTANT REDUCTION TECHNOLOGY TO REDUCE NOx, SO2 & Hg

    SciTech Connect

    Allen C. Wiley; Steven Castagnero; Geoff Green; Kevin Davis; David White

    2004-03-01

    Semi-dense phase pneumatic delivery and injection of calcium and sodium sorbents, and microfine powdered coal, at various sidewall elevations of an online operating coal-fired power plant, was investigated for the express purpose of developing an in-furnace, economic multi-pollutant reduction methodology for NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2} & Hg. The 154 MWe tangentially-fired furnace that was selected for a full-scale demonstration, was recently retrofitted for NO{sub x} reduction with a high velocity rotating-opposed over-fire air system. The ROFA system, a Mobotec USA technology, has a proven track record of breaking up laminar flow along furnace walls, thereby enhancing the mix of all constituents of combustion. The knowledge gained from injecting sorbents and micronized coal into well mixed combustion gases with significant improvement in particulate retention time, should serve well the goals of an in-furnace multi-pollutant reduction technology; that of reducing back-end cleanup costs on a wide variety of pollutants, on a cost per ton basis, by first accomplishing significant in-furnace reductions of all pollutants.

  12. Experimental Search for a Violation of Einstein's Equivalence Principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abercrombie, Michael; Archibald, Adam; Madziwa-Nussinov, Tsitsi; Wagoner, Kasey; Cowsik, Ramanath

    2015-04-01

    The Equivalence Principle (EP) states that a gravitational field is locally equivalent to a uniformly accelerated reference frame, and it is this idea that Einstein's Theory of General Relativity (GR) is largely based upon. A direct consequence of the EP is the universality of free fall; that is, all objects, regardless of their composition, fall at the same rate in a given gravitational field. Motivated by theoretical attempts to unify GR with the Standard Model that predict possible violations of the universality of free fall, we have developed an Eötvös-type torsion balance experiment capable of testing the EP at unprecedented sensitivities. Using a balance configured as a composition dipole with an azimuthally symmetric mass distribution, a violation of the EP would cause a diurnal modulation of the balance orientation in response to the gravitational field produced by the Sun. To monitor the torsion balance we use a multi-slit auto-collimating optical level capable of measuring angular displacements on the scale of nanoradians. The recent relocation of our experiment to an isolated bunker built into a hillside at the Tyson Research Facility reduces the seismic and thermal noise in our measurements.

  13. Fully characterization of an active optical filter based on an equivalent-phase-shifted DFB-SOA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Ye; Li, Ming; Shi, Nuannuan; Tang, Jian; Sun, Shuqian; Zhang, Lihong; Li, Wei; Zhu, Ninghua

    2016-10-01

    A fully characterization of an active optical filter based on an equivalent-phase-shifted DFB-SOA has been theoretically analyzed and experimentally demonstrated in this paper. By employing an optical vector network analyzer (OVNA), transmission characteristics of the equivalent-phase-shifted DFB-SOA are obtained. The influences of driven current on transmission characteristics of the equivalent-phase-shifted DFB-SOA are also investigated. In addition to the advantage of integration, the proposed equivalent-phase-shifted DFB-SOA also shows significant application in design of photonic devices for all-optical signal processing and computing.

  14. Equivalent magnetization over the World's Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyment, J.; Choi, Y.; Hamoudi, M.; Erwan, T.; Lesur, V.

    2014-12-01

    As a by-product of our recent work to build a candidate model over the oceans for the World Digital Magnetic Anomaly Map (WDMAM) version 2, we derived global distributions of the equivalent magnetization in oceanic domains. In a first step, we use classic point source forward modeling on a spherical Earth to build a forward model of the marine magnetic anomalies at sea-surface. We estimate magnetization vectors using the age map of the ocean floor, the relative plate motions, the apparent polar wander path for Africa, and a geomagnetic reversal time scale. As magnetized source geometry, we assume 1 km-thick layer bearing a 10 A/m magnetization following the topography of the oceanic basement as defined by the bathymetry and sedimentary thickness. Adding a present-day geomagnetic field model allows the computation of our initial magnetic anomaly model. In a second step, we adjust this model to the existing marine magnetic anomaly data, in order to make it consistent with these data. To do so, we extract synthetic magnetic along the ship tracks for which real data are available and we compare quantitatively the measured and computed anomalies on 100, 200 or 400 km-long sliding windows (depending the spreading rate). Among the possible comparison criteria, we discard the maximal range - too dependent on local values - and the correlation and coherency - the geographical adjustment between model and data being not accurate enough - to favor the standard deviation around the mean value. The ratio between the standard deviations of data and model on each sliding window represent an estimate of the magnetization ratio causing the anomalies, which we interpolate to adjust the initial magnetic anomaly model to the data and therefore compute a final model to be included in our WDMAM candidate over the oceanic regions lacking data. The above ratio, after division by the magnetization of 10 A/m used in the model, represents an estimate of the equivalent magnetization under the

  15. Modulation of stratum corneum lipid composition and organization of human skin equivalents by specific medium supplements.

    PubMed

    Thakoersing, Varsha S; van Smeden, Jeroen; Boiten, Walter A; Gooris, Gert S; Mulder, Aat A; Vreeken, Rob J; El Ghalbzouri, Abdoelwaheb; Bouwstra, Joke A

    2015-09-01

    Our in-house human skin equivalents contain all stratum corneum (SC) barrier lipid classes, but have a reduced level of free fatty acids (FAs), of which a part is mono-unsaturated. These differences lead to an altered SC lipid organization and thereby a reduced barrier function compared to human skin. In this study, we aimed to improve the SC FA composition and, consequently, the SC lipid organization of the Leiden epidermal model (LEM) by specific medium supplements. The standard FA mixture (consisting of palmitic, linoleic and arachidonic acids) supplemented to the medium was modified, by replacing protonated palmitic acid with deuterated palmitic acid or by the addition of deuterated arachidic acid to the mixture, to determine whether FAs are taken up from the medium and are incorporated into SC of LEM. Furthermore, supplementation of the total FA mixture or that of palmitic acid alone was increased four times to examine whether this improves the SC FA composition and lipid organization of LEM. The results demonstrate that the deuterated FAs are taken up into LEMs and are subsequently elongated and incorporated in their SC. However, a fourfold increase in palmitic acid supplementation does not change the SC FA composition or lipid organization of LEM. Increasing the concentration of the total FA mixture in the medium resulted in a decreased level of very long chain FAs and an increased level of mono-unsaturated FAs, which lead to deteriorated SC lipid properties. These results indicate that SC lipid properties can be modulated by specific medium supplements.

  16. Disentangling signaling gradients generated by equivalent sources.

    PubMed

    Rappaport, Noa; Barkai, Naama

    2012-03-01

    Yeast cells approach a mating partner by polarizing along a gradient of mating pheromones that are secreted by cells of the opposite mating type. The Bar1 protease is secreted by a-cells and, paradoxically, degrades the α-factor pheromones which are produced by cells of the opposite mating type and trigger mating in a-cells. This degradation may assist in the recovery from pheromone signaling but has also been shown to play a positive role in mating. Previous studies suggested that widely diffusing protease can bias the pheromone gradient towards the closest secreting cell. Here, we show that restricting the Bar1 protease to the secreting cell itself, preventing its wide diffusion, facilitates discrimination between equivalent mating partners. This may be mostly relevant during spore germination, where most mating events occur in nature.

  17. Equivalent damage validation by variable cluster analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drago, Carlo; Ferlito, Rachele; Zucconi, Maria

    2016-06-01

    The main aim of this work is to perform a clustering analysis on the damage relieved in the old center of L'Aquila after the earthquake occurred on April 6, 2009 and to validate an Indicator of Equivalent Damage ED that summarizes the information reported on the AeDES card regarding the level of damage and their extension on the surface of the buildings. In particular we used a sample of 13442 masonry buildings located in an area characterized by a Macroseismic Intensity equal to 8 [1]. The aim is to ensure the coherence between the clusters and its hierarchy identified in the data of damage detected and in the data of the ED elaborated.

  18. Expressivism, Relativism, and the Analytic Equivalence Test.

    PubMed

    Frápolli, Maria J; Villanueva, Neftalí

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to show that, pace (Field, 2009), MacFarlane's assessment relativism and expressivism should be sharply distinguished. We do so by arguing that relativism and expressivism exemplify two very different approaches to context-dependence. Relativism, on the one hand, shares with other contemporary approaches a bottom-up, building block, model, while expressivism is part of a different tradition, one that might include Lewis' epistemic contextualism and Frege's content individuation, with which it shares an organic model to deal with context-dependence. The building-block model and the organic model, and thus relativism and expressivism, are set apart with the aid of a particular test: only the building-block model is compatible with the idea that there might be analytically equivalent, and yet different, propositions. PMID:26635690

  19. Phenomenological approaches of inflation and their equivalence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boubekeur, Lotfi; Giusarma, Elena; Mena, Olga; Ramírez, Héctor

    2015-04-01

    In this work, we analyze two possible alternative and model-independent approaches to describe the inflationary period. The first one assumes a general equation of state during inflation due to Mukhanov, while the second one is based on the slow-roll hierarchy suggested by Hoffman and Turner. We find that, remarkably, the two approaches are equivalent from the observational viewpoint, as they single out the same areas in the parameter space, and agree with the inflationary attractors where successful inflation occurs. Rephrased in terms of the familiar picture of a slowly rolling, canonically normalized scalar field, the resulting inflaton excursions in these two approaches are almost identical. Furthermore, once the Galactic dust polarization data from Planck are included in the numerical fits, inflaton excursions can safely take sub-Planckian values.

  20. Expressivism, Relativism, and the Analytic Equivalence Test

    PubMed Central

    Frápolli, Maria J.; Villanueva, Neftalí

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to show that, pace (Field, 2009), MacFarlane’s assessment relativism and expressivism should be sharply distinguished. We do so by arguing that relativism and expressivism exemplify two very different approaches to context-dependence. Relativism, on the one hand, shares with other contemporary approaches a bottom–up, building block, model, while expressivism is part of a different tradition, one that might include Lewis’ epistemic contextualism and Frege’s content individuation, with which it shares an organic model to deal with context-dependence. The building-block model and the organic model, and thus relativism and expressivism, are set apart with the aid of a particular test: only the building-block model is compatible with the idea that there might be analytically equivalent, and yet different, propositions. PMID:26635690

  1. Equivalence of topological insulators and superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz, Gerardo; Cobanera, Emilio

    Systems of free fermions are classified by symmetry, space dimensionality, and topological properties described by K-homology. We show that by taking a many-body/Fock space viewpoint it becomes possible to establish equivalences of topological insulators and superconductors in terms of duality transformations. These mappings connect topologically inequivalent systems of fermions, jumping across entries in existent classification tables, because of the phenomenon of symmetry transmutation by which a symmetry and its dual partner have identical algebraic properties but very different physical interpretations and electromagnetic response. Since our analysis extends to interacting fermion systems we also briefly discuss some such applications. To illustrate main concepts we will present dual superconducting partners of paradigmatic models, such as the Haldane Chern insulator as well as a quantum spin Hall effect graphene model.

  2. Torsion Balance Test of Einstein's Equivalence Principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abercrombie, Michael; Archibald, Adam; Nussinov, Tsitsi; Wagoner, Kasey; Cowsik, Ramanath

    2016-03-01

    We have developed a torsion balance experiment to test the equivalence principle (EP) which follows the solar attractor approach pioneered by Dicke in the early 1960s. By monitoring the response of a balance arranged as a composition dipole with an azimuthally symmetric mass distribution to the gravitational field produced by the Sun, we search for a diurnal modulation of the balance which would indicate a violation of the EP. Since reporting on the status of this experiment last year, the instrument has begun collecting data at a remote underground site. This talk will cover the design and fundamental sensitivity of the balance, and present the results of preliminary analysis of over 1200 hours of data.

  3. Klein factors and Fermi-Bose equivalence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Taejin

    2016-06-01

    Generalizing the kink operator of the Heisenberg spin 1/2 model, we construct a set of Klein factors explicitly such that (1+1)-dimensional fermion theories with an arbitrary number of species are mapped onto the corresponding boson theories with the same number of species and vice versa. The actions for the resultant theories do not possess a nontrivial Klein factor. With this set of Klein factors, we are also able to map the simple boundary states, such as the Neumann and the Dirichlet boundary states, of the fermion (boson) theory onto those of the boson (fermion) theory. Applications of the Fermi-Bose equivalence with the constructed Klein factors to well-known (1+1)-dimensional theories have been discussed.

  4. Water equivalent phantom materials for 192Ir brachytherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoenfeld, Andreas A.; Harder, Dietrich; Poppe, Björn; Chofor, Ndimofor

    2015-12-01

    the results of the dose simulations and the values of the linear attenuation coefficient, μ, over a large energy range, the balanced content of inorganic additives in a phantom material is regarded as the key feature, providing water equivalence with regard to the attenuation of the primary photons, the release of low-energy photons by Compton scattering, and their attenuation by a combination of the photoelectric and Compton effects.

  5. Personal Dose Equivalent Conversion Coefficients For Photons To 1 GEV

    SciTech Connect

    Veinot, K. G.; Hertel, N. E.

    2010-09-27

    The personal dose equivalent, H{sub p}(d), is the quantity recommended by the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) to be used as an approximation of the protection quantity Effective Dose when performing personal dosemeter calibrations. The personal dose equivalent can be defined for any location and depth within the body. Typically, the location of interest is the trunk where personal dosemeters are usually worn and in this instance a suitable approximation is a 30 cm X 30 cm X 15 cm slab-type phantom. For this condition the personal dose equivalent is denoted as H{sub p,slab}(d) and the depths, d, are taken to be 0.007 cm for non-penetrating and 1 cm for penetrating radiation. In operational radiation protection a third depth, 0.3 cm, is used to approximate the dose to the lens of the eye. A number of conversion coefficients for photons are available for incident energies up to several MeV, however, data to higher energies are limited. In this work conversion coefficients up to 1 GeV have been calculated for H{sub p,slab}(10) and H{sub p,slab}(3) using both the kerma approximation and by tracking secondary charged particles. For H{sub p}(0.07) the conversion coefficients were calculated, but only to 10 MeV due to computational limitations. Additionally, conversions from air kerma to H{sub p,slab}(d) have been determined and are reported. The conversion coefficients were determined for discrete incident energies, but analytical fits of the coefficients over the energy range are provided. Since the inclusion of air can influence the production of secondary charged particles incident on the face of the phantom conversion coefficients have been determined both in vacuo and with the source and slab immersed within a sphere in air. The conversion coefficients for the personal dose equivalent are compared to the appropriate protection quantity, calculated according to the recommendations of the latest International Commission on

  6. Degeneracy relations in QCD and the equivalence of two systematic all-orders methods for setting the renormalization scale

    SciTech Connect

    Bi, Huan -Yu; Wu, Xing -Gang; Ma, Yang; Ma, Hong -Hao; Brodsky, Stanley J.; Mojaza, Matin

    2015-06-26

    The Principle of Maximum Conformality (PMC) eliminates QCD renormalization scale-setting uncertainties using fundamental renormalization group methods. The resulting scale-fixed pQCD predictions are independent of the choice of renormalization scheme and show rapid convergence. The coefficients of the scale-fixed couplings are identical to the corresponding conformal series with zero β-function. Two all-orders methods for systematically implementing the PMC-scale setting procedure for existing high order calculations are discussed in this article. One implementation is based on the PMC-BLM correspondence (PMC-I); the other, more recent, method (PMC-II) uses the Rδ-scheme, a systematic generalization of the minimal subtraction renormalization scheme. Both approaches satisfy all of the principles of the renormalization group and lead to scale-fixed and scheme-independent predictions at each finite order. In this work, we show that PMC-I and PMC-II scale-setting methods are in practice equivalent to each other. We illustrate this equivalence for the four-loop calculations of the annihilation ratio Re+e and the Higgs partial width I'(H→bb¯). Both methods lead to the same resummed (‘conformal’) series up to all orders. The small scale differences between the two approaches are reduced as additional renormalization group {βi}-terms in the pQCD expansion are taken into account. In addition, we show that special degeneracy relations, which underly the equivalence of the two PMC approaches and the resulting conformal features of the pQCD series, are in fact general properties of non-Abelian gauge theory.

  7. Lowered Humidity Produces Human Epidermal Equivalents with Enhanced Barrier Properties

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Richard; Celli, Anna; Crumrine, Debra; Hupe, Melanie; Adame, Lillian C.; Pennypacker, Sally D.; Park, Kyungho; Uchida, Yoshikazu; Feingold, Kenneth R.; Elias, Peter M.; Ilic, Dusko

    2015-01-01

    Multilayered human keratinocyte cultures increasingly are used to model human epidermis. Until now, studies utilizing human epidermal equivalents (HEEs) have been limited because previous preparations do not establish a normal epidermal permeability barrier. In this report, we show that reducing environmental humidity to 50% relative humidity yields HEEs that closely match human postnatal epidermis and have enhanced repair of the permeability barrier. These cultures display low transepidermal water loss and possess a calcium and pH gradient that resembles those seen in human epidermis. These cultures upregulate glucosylceramide synthase and make normal-appearing lipid lamellar bilayers. The epidermal permeability barrier of these cultures can be perturbed, using the identical tools previously described for human skin, and recover in the same time course seen during in vivo barrier recovery. These cultures will be useful for basic and applied studies on epidermal barrier function. PMID:24803151

  8. Elementary equivalence of Chevalley groups over local rings

    SciTech Connect

    Bunina, Elena I

    2010-05-11

    It is proved that (elementary) Chevalley groups over local rings with invertible 2 are elementarily equivalent if and only if their types and weight lattices coincide and the initial rings are elementarily equivalent. Bibliography: 25 titles.

  9. FROM CONCEPT TO EQUIVALENCY: THE 503 REGULATIONS AND THE PATHOGEN EQUIVALENCY COMMITTEE (PAPER)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Since its creation in 1985, the Pathogen Equivalency Committee (PEC) has been reviewing innovative and alternative sludge disinfection technologies with regards to their abilities to protect human health and the environment. The PEC is charged to make recommendations on whether t...

  10. FROM CONCEPT TO EQUIVALENCY: THE 503 REGULATIONS AND THE PATHOGEN EQUIVALENCY COMMITTEE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Since its creation in 1985, the Pathogen Equivalency Committee (PEC) has been reviewing innovative and alternative sludge disinfection technologies with regards to their abilities to protect human health and the environment. The PEC is charged to make recommendations on whether t...

  11. Optimizing Equivalence-Based Instruction: Effects of Training Protocols on Equivalence Class Formation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fienup, Daniel M.; Wright, Nicole A.; Fields, Lanny

    2015-01-01

    Two experiments evaluated the effects of the simple-to-complex and simultaneous training protocols on the formation of academically relevant equivalence classes. The simple-to-complex protocol intersperses derived relations probes with training baseline relations. The simultaneous protocol conducts all training trials and test trials in separate…

  12. High School Equivalency Testing in Washington. Forum: Responding to Changes in High School Equivalency Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerr, Jon

    2015-01-01

    In 2013, as new high school equivalency exams were being developed and implemented across the nation and states were deciding which test was best for their population, Washington state identified the need to adopt the most rigorous test so that preparation to take it would equip students with the skills to be able to move directly from adult…

  13. An equivalent fluid/equivalent medium approach for the numerical simulation of coastal landslides propagation: theory and case studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzanti, P.; Bozzano, F.

    2009-11-01

    Coastal and subaqueous landslides can be very dangerous phenomena since they are characterised by the additional risk of induced tsunamis, unlike their completely-subaerial counterparts. Numerical modelling of landslides propagation is a key step in forecasting the consequences of landslides. In this paper, a novel approach named Equivalent Fluid/Equivalent Medium (EFEM) has been developed. It adapts common numerical models and software that were originally designed for subaerial landslides in order to simulate the propagation of combined subaerial-subaqueous and completely-subaqueous landslides. Drag and buoyancy forces, the loss of energy at the landslide-water impact and peculiar mechanisms like hydroplaning can be suitably simulated by this approach; furthermore, the change in properties of the landslide's mass, which is encountered at the transition from the subaerial to the submerged environment, can be taken into account. The approach has been tested by modelling two documented coastal landslides (a debris flow and a rock slide at Lake Albano) using the DAN-W code. The results, which were achieved from the back-analyses, demonstrate the efficacy of the approach to simulate the propagation of different types of coastal landslides.

  14. 21 CFR 26.46 - Listing of additional CAB's.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL MUTUAL RECOGNITION OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM AUDIT REPORTS... operational period, additional conformity assessment bodies (CAB's) will be considered for equivalence...

  15. 21 CFR 26.46 - Listing of additional CAB's.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL MUTUAL RECOGNITION OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM AUDIT REPORTS... operational period, additional conformity assessment bodies (CAB's) will be considered for equivalence...

  16. Reasons for the Decalage between Identity Conservation and Equivalence Conservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, Ron

    1983-01-01

    Two experiments investigated which of two factors is responsible for decalage between Piaget's equivalence and identity conservation tasks. Performance of 78 primary school students between 57 and 79 months of age was compared on equivalence and identity tasks and a third task, equivalence I, which retains transitivity requirement of Piaget's task…

  17. 7 CFR 987.105 - Whole equivalent of pitted dates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Whole equivalent of pitted dates. For the purposes of this part, the whole date equivalent weight of pitted dates shall be determined by dividing the weight of the pitted dates by 0.83. Identification and... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Whole equivalent of pitted dates. 987.105 Section...

  18. 7 CFR 987.105 - Whole equivalent of pitted dates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Whole equivalent of pitted dates. For the purposes of this part, the whole date equivalent weight of pitted dates shall be determined by dividing the weight of the pitted dates by 0.83. Identification and... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Whole equivalent of pitted dates. 987.105 Section...

  19. 7 CFR 987.105 - Whole equivalent of pitted dates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Whole equivalent of pitted dates. For the purposes of this part, the whole date equivalent weight of pitted dates shall be determined by dividing the weight of the pitted dates by 0.83. Identification and... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Whole equivalent of pitted dates. 987.105 Section...

  20. 7 CFR 987.105 - Whole equivalent of pitted dates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Whole equivalent of pitted dates. For the purposes of this part, the whole date equivalent weight of pitted dates shall be determined by dividing the weight of the pitted dates by 0.83. Identification and... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Whole equivalent of pitted dates. 987.105 Section...

  1. 7 CFR 987.105 - Whole equivalent of pitted dates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Whole equivalent of pitted dates. For the purposes of this part, the whole date equivalent weight of pitted dates shall be determined by dividing the weight of the pitted dates by 0.83. Identification and... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Whole equivalent of pitted dates. 987.105 Section...

  2. Equivalent Circuits For AC-Impedance Analysis Of Corrosion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danford, M. D.

    1992-01-01

    Report presents investigation of equivalent circuits for ac-impedance analysis of corrosion. Impedance between specimen and electrolyte measured as function of frequency. Data used to characterize corrosion electrochemical system in terms of equivalent circuit. Eleven resistor/capacitor equivalent-circuit models were analyzed.

  3. 46 CFR Appendix A to Part 154 - Equivalent Stress

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Equivalent Stress A Appendix A to Part 154 Shipping...—Equivalent Stress I. Equivalent stress (σ c) is calculated by the following formula or another formula... normal stress in “x” direction. σy=total normal stress in “y” direction. τxy=total shear stress in...

  4. 46 CFR Appendix A to Part 154 - Equivalent Stress

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Equivalent Stress A Appendix A to Part 154 Shipping...—Equivalent Stress I. Equivalent stress (σ c) is calculated by the following formula or another formula... normal stress in “x” direction. σy=total normal stress in “y” direction. τxy=total shear stress in...

  5. 46 CFR Appendix A to Part 154 - Equivalent Stress

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Equivalent Stress A Appendix A to Part 154 Shipping...—Equivalent Stress I. Equivalent stress (σ c) is calculated by the following formula or another formula... normal stress in “x” direction. σy=total normal stress in “y” direction. τxy=total shear stress in...

  6. 46 CFR Appendix A to Part 154 - Equivalent Stress

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Equivalent Stress A Appendix A to Part 154 Shipping...—Equivalent Stress I. Equivalent stress (σ c) is calculated by the following formula or another formula... normal stress in “x” direction. σy=total normal stress in “y” direction. τxy=total shear stress in...

  7. 46 CFR Appendix A to Part 154 - Equivalent Stress

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Equivalent Stress A Appendix A to Part 154 Shipping...—Equivalent Stress I. Equivalent stress (σ c) is calculated by the following formula or another formula... normal stress in “x” direction. σy=total normal stress in “y” direction. τxy=total shear stress in...

  8. An improved equivalent simulation model for CMOS integrated Hall plates.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yue; Pan, Hong-Bin

    2011-01-01

    An improved equivalent simulation model for a CMOS-integrated Hall plate is described in this paper. Compared with existing models, this model covers voltage dependent non-linear effects, geometrical effects, temperature effects and packaging stress influences, and only includes a small number of physical and technological parameters. In addition, the structure of this model is relatively simple, consisting of a passive network with eight non-linear resistances, four current-controlled voltage sources and four parasitic capacitances. The model has been written in Verilog-A hardware description language and it performed successfully in a Cadence Spectre simulator. The model's simulation results are in good agreement with the classic experimental results reported in the literature.

  9. An Improved Equivalent Simulation Model for CMOS Integrated Hall Plates

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yue; Pan, Hong-Bin

    2011-01-01

    An improved equivalent simulation model for a CMOS-integrated Hall plate is described in this paper. Compared with existing models, this model covers voltage dependent non-linear effects, geometrical effects, temperature effects and packaging stress influences, and only includes a small number of physical and technological parameters. In addition, the structure of this model is relatively simple, consisting of a passive network with eight non-linear resistances, four current-controlled voltage sources and four parasitic capacitances. The model has been written in Verilog-A hardware description language and it performed successfully in a Cadence Spectre simulator. The model’s simulation results are in good agreement with the classic experimental results reported in the literature. PMID:22163955

  10. Comparison of monovalent glycoprotein B with bivalent gB/pp65 (GP83) vaccine for congenital cytomegalovirus infection in a guinea pig model: Inclusion of GP83 reduces gB antibody response but both vaccine approaches provide equivalent protection against pup mortality.

    PubMed

    Swanson, Elizabeth C; Gillis, Pete; Hernandez-Alvarado, Nelmary; Fernández-Alarcón, Claudia; Schmit, Megan; Zabeli, Jason C; Wussow, Felix; Diamond, Don J; Schleiss, Mark R

    2015-07-31

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) subunit vaccine candidates include glycoprotein B (gB), and phosphoprotein ppUL83 (pp65). Using a guinea pig cytomegalovirus (GPCMV) model, this study compared immunogenicity, pregnancy outcome, and congenital viral infection following pre-pregnancy immunization with a three-dose series of modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA)-vectored vaccines consisting either of gB administered alone, or simultaneously with a pp65 homolog (GP83)-expressing vaccine. Vaccinated and control dams were challenged at midgestation with salivary gland-adapted GPCMV. Comparisons included ELISA and neutralizing antibody responses, maternal viral load, pup mortality, and congenital infection rates. Strikingly, ELISA and neutralization titers were significantly lower in the gB/GP83 combined vaccine group than in the gB group. However, both vaccines protected against pup mortality (63.2% in controls vs. 11.4% and 13.9% in gB and gB/GP83 combination groups, respectively; p<0.0001). Reductions in pup viral load were noted for both vaccine groups compared to control, but preconception vaccination resulted in a significant reduction in GPCMV transmission only in the monovalent gB group (26/44, 59% v. 27/34, 79% in controls; p<0.05). We conclude that, using the MVA platform, the addition of GP83 to a gB subunit vaccine interferes with antibody responses and diminishes protection against congenital GPCMV infection, but does not decrease protection against pup mortality. PMID:26079615

  11. Tests of the weak equivalence principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speake, C. C.; Will, C. M.

    2012-09-01

    The Einstein equivalence principle is the foundation for general relativity and all metric theories of gravity. Of its three tenets—the equality of acceleration of test bodies, or weak equivalence principle; the validity of Lorentz invariance in local freely falling frames; and the position invariance of local physical laws—the weak equivalence principle has played the most important role historically, and continues to be a focus of intense theoretical and experimental investigation. From the probably apocryphal 16th century demonstrations by Galileo at Pisa's leaning tower to the sensitive torsion-balance measurements of today (both pictured on the cover of this issue), this principle, dubbed WEP, has been crucial to the development of gravitation theory. The universality of the rate of acceleration of all types of matter in a gravitational field can be taken as evidence that gravitation is fundamentally determined by the geometry, or metric, of spacetime. Newton began his magnum opus 'The Principia' with a discussion of WEP and his experiments to verify it, while Einstein took WEP for granted in his construction of general relativity, never once referring to the epochal experiments by Baron Eötvös. The classic 1964 experiment of Roll, Krotkov and Dicke ushered in the modern era of high-precision tests, and the search for a 'fifth force' during the late 1980s (instigated, ironically, by purported anomalies in Eötvös's old data) caused the enterprise to pivot from pure tests of the foundation of GR to searches for new physics beyond the standard model of the non-gravitational interactions. Today, the next generation of experimental tests of WEP are being prepared for launch or are being developed, with the goal of reaching unprecedented levels of sensitivity, in search of signatures of interactions inspired by string theory, extra dimensions and other concepts from the world of high-energy physics. At the same time observations continue using lunar laser

  12. Implementation of an Analytical Model for Leakage Neutron Equivalent Dose in a Proton Radiotherapy Planning System

    PubMed Central

    Eley, John; Newhauser, Wayne; Homann, Kenneth; Howell, Rebecca; Schneider, Christopher; Durante, Marco; Bert, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Equivalent dose from neutrons produced during proton radiotherapy increases the predicted risk of radiogenic late effects. However, out-of-field neutron dose is not taken into account by commercial proton radiotherapy treatment planning systems. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility of implementing an analytical model to calculate leakage neutron equivalent dose in a treatment planning system. Passive scattering proton treatment plans were created for a water phantom and for a patient. For both the phantom and patient, the neutron equivalent doses were small but non-negligible and extended far beyond the therapeutic field. The time required for neutron equivalent dose calculation was 1.6 times longer than that required for proton dose calculation, with a total calculation time of less than 1 h on one processor for both treatment plans. Our results demonstrate that it is feasible to predict neutron equivalent dose distributions using an analytical dose algorithm for individual patients with irregular surfaces and internal tissue heterogeneities. Eventually, personalized estimates of neutron equivalent dose to organs far from the treatment field may guide clinicians to create treatment plans that reduce the risk of late effects. PMID:25768061

  13. [Methodology for superiority versus equivalence and non-inferior clinical studies. A practical review].

    PubMed

    Rosas-Peralta, Martin; Santos-Martínez, Luis Efrén; Magaña-Serrano, José Antonio; Valencia-Sánchez, Jesús Salvador; Garrido-Garduño, Martin; Pérez-Rodríguez, Gilberto

    2016-01-01

    Physicians should always remember that a negative result in a superiority trial never would prove that the therapies under research are equivalent; more often, there may be a risk of type 2 (false negative) error. Equivalence and not inferiority studies demand high standards to provide reliable results. Physicians should take into account above all that the equivalence margins tend to be too large to be clinically significant and that the claim of equivalence can be misleading if a study has not been conducted at a sufficiently high level. In addition, physicians must be a bit skeptical of judgments that do not include the basic requirements of information, including the definition and justification of the equivalence margin, the calculation of the size of the sample bearing in mind this margin, the presentation of both analysis (intention-to-treat and by protocol), and provide confidence intervals for the results. Equivalence and inferiority studies are not indicated in certain areas. If one follows the required strict adherence to the specific methodology, such studies can provide new and important knowledge.

  14. Challenging a culture of racial equivalence.

    PubMed

    Song, Miri

    2014-03-01

    We live at a time when our understandings and conceptualizations of 'racism' are often highly imprecise, broad, and used to describe a wide range of racialized phenomena. In this article, I raise some important questions about how the term racism is used and understood in contemporary British society by drawing on some recent cases of alleged racism in football and politics, many of which have been played out via new media technologies. A broader understanding of racism, through the use of the term 'racialization', has been helpful in articulating a more nuanced and complex understanding of racial incidents, especially of people's (often ambivalent) beliefs and behaviours. However, the growing emphasis upon 'racialization' has led to a conceptualization of racism which increasingly involves multiple perpetrators, victims, and practices without enough consideration of how and why particular interactions and practices constitute racism as such. The trend toward a growing culture of racial equivalence is worrying, as it denudes the idea of racism of its historical basis, severity and power. These frequent and commonplace assertions of racism in the public sphere paradoxically end up trivializing and homogenizing quite different forms of racialized interactions. I conclude that we need to retain the term 'racism', but we need to differentiate more clearly between 'racism' (as an historical and structured system of domination) from the broader notion of 'racialization'.

  15. Testing the equivalence principle with atomic interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrmann, Sven; Dittus, Hansjörg; Lämmerzahl, Claus; pre="the" post=""> QUANTUS,

    2012-09-01

    The weak equivalence principle (WEP), that is, the universality of free fall, states that all point-like neutral particles in a gravitational field fall in the same way. This is the basis of the geometrization of the gravitational interaction. Together with further requirements on the behavior of point particles, light propagation and clocks one can show that gravity is modeled by a Riemannian geometry. Since in the quantum domain all objects are extended, it is not clear whether the notion of a WEP in the quantum domain makes sense at all. We show that for matter wave interferometry the notion of WEP still can be given a meaning. We give a short overview over schemes which allows a violation of the WEP and emphasize that there are also schemes which show that there might be violations of the WEP in the quantum regime which are not present classically. This makes a test of the WEP with quantum matter necessary. We also give a brief outline of the efforts made for testing the WEP with interferometry with cold atoms in the Bremen drop tower carried out by the QUANTUS and PRIMUS collaboration.

  16. An instance of spurious equivalence relations

    PubMed Central

    Stikeleather, Gregory; Sidman, Murray

    1990-01-01

    Four normal children learned conditional discriminations that had upper-case or lower-case Greek letters as comparison stimuli, and dictated letter names as samples. Experimental stimuli were three pairs of letters; within each pair, an upper- and a lower-case letter were conditionally related to the same dictated sample. Four control stimuli, also upper- and lower-case letters, were each conditionally related to a different dictated sample. Conditional-discrimination tests for equivalence used the upper- and lower-case letters both as samples and comparisons. Untaught conditional relations between the upper- and lower-case members of each experimental stimulus pair were expected to emerge on the basis of their previously established relations to a common sample. The emergence of conditional relations between control stimuli, however, would have suggested an artifact. In test trials with the experimental stimuli as samples and comparisons, new conditional discriminations emerged as expected with all four children. With two of the children, however, consistent discriminations also emerged between control stimuli. Evidence suggested that uncontrolled features of the program for teaching the children the baseline conditional discriminations might have been responsible for the emergence of untaught conditional relations. PMID:22477599

  17. Symmetry, Equivalence and Self-Assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douglas, Jack

    2006-03-01

    Molecular self-assembly at equilibrium is central to the formation of many biological structures and the emulation of this process through the creation of synthetic counterparts offers great promise for nanofabrication. The central problems in this field are an understanding of how the symmetry of the interacting particles encodes the geometrical structure of the organized structure and the nature of the thermodynamic transitions involved. Our approach is inspired by the self-assembly of actin, tubulin and icosahedral structures of plant and animal viruses. We observe chain, membrane,`nanotube' and hollow icosahedron structures using `equivalent' particles exhibiting an interplay between directional (dipolar and multi-polar) interactions and short-range (van der Waals) interactions. Specifically, a dipolar potential (continuous rotational symmetry) gives rise to chain formation, while potentials having discrete rotational symmetries (e.g., square quadrupole or triangular ring of dipoles) led to the self-organization of nanotube and icosahedral structures with some resemblance to tubulin and icosahedral viruses. The simulations are compared to theoretical models of molecular self-assembly, especially in the case of dipolar fluids where the corresponding analytic theory of equilibrium polymerization is well developed. These computations give insights into the design elements required for the development of synthetic systems exhibiting this type of organization.

  18. The Equivalence of Time and Gravitational Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barukčića, Ilija

    The relationship between energy, time and space is still not solved in an appropriate manner. According to Newton's concept of time and space, both have to be taken as absolute. If we follow Leibniz and his arguments, space and time are relative. Since Einstein's theory of relativity we know at least that energy, time and space are deeply related. Albert Einstein originally predicted that time is nothing absolute but something relative, time changes and can change. Especially, time and gravitational field are related somehow even in detail if we still don't know how. According to the gravitational time dilation, the lower the gravitational potential, the more slowly time passes and vice versa. Somehow, it appears to be that the behaviour of time is directly linked to the behaviour of the gravitational field. The aim of this publication is to work out the interior logic between time and gravitational field and to make the proof that time is equivalent to the gravitational field and vice versa.

  19. Contextual control of emergent equivalence relations.

    PubMed

    Bush, K M; Sidman, M; de Rose, T

    1989-01-01

    Three college students in Experiment 1 and 1 student in Experiment 2 learned visual conditional discriminations under contextual control by tones; the visual comparison stimulus that was correct with a given sample stimulus depended on whether a high tone or a low tone was present. Two of the subjects in Experiment 1 then demonstrated the emergence of two sets of contextually controlled three-member classes of equivalent stimuli, and the subject in Experiment 2 showed the emergence of contextually controlled four-member classes; the class membership of each stimulus varied as a function of the tones. Class membership was demonstrated by the subjects' performance of new conditional discriminations that they had never been taught directly. In Experiment 2, the procedures were intended to ensure that the tones exerted second-order conditional control and did not simply form compounds with each of the visual stimuli, but the subject's verbal description of the tasks suggested that this intention might not have been successful. It could not be ascertained, therefore, whether the tones exerted contextual control as independent second-order conditional stimuli or simply as common elements of auditory-visual stimulus compounds.

  20. Macrostate equivalence of two general ensembles and specific relative entropies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Takashi

    2016-08-01

    The two criteria of ensemble equivalence, i.e., macrostate equivalence and measure equivalence, are investigated for a general pair of states. Macrostate equivalence implies the two ensembles are indistinguishable by the measurement of macroscopic quantities obeying the large-deviation principle, and measure equivalence means that the specific relative entropy of these two states vanishes in the thermodynamic limit. It is shown that measure equivalence implies a macrostate equivalence for a general pair of states by deriving an inequality connecting the large-deviation rate functions to the specific relative Renyi entropies. The result is applicable to both quantum and classical systems. As applications, a sufficient condition for thermalization, the time scale of quantum dynamics of macrovariables, and the second law with strict irreversibility in a quantum quench are discussed.

  1. Macrostate equivalence of two general ensembles and specific relative entropies.

    PubMed

    Mori, Takashi

    2016-08-01

    The two criteria of ensemble equivalence, i.e., macrostate equivalence and measure equivalence, are investigated for a general pair of states. Macrostate equivalence implies the two ensembles are indistinguishable by the measurement of macroscopic quantities obeying the large-deviation principle, and measure equivalence means that the specific relative entropy of these two states vanishes in the thermodynamic limit. It is shown that measure equivalence implies a macrostate equivalence for a general pair of states by deriving an inequality connecting the large-deviation rate functions to the specific relative Renyi entropies. The result is applicable to both quantum and classical systems. As applications, a sufficient condition for thermalization, the time scale of quantum dynamics of macrovariables, and the second law with strict irreversibility in a quantum quench are discussed. PMID:27627225

  2. Equivalent width evaluation methods for Doppler, Lorentz, and Voigt profiles.

    PubMed

    Habib, Abdel Aziz M; Rammah, Yasser S

    2014-01-01

    An accurate technique has been developed to calculate the equivalent width of absorption lines. The calculations have been carried out for the pure Doppler and pure Lorentz limiting forms of the equivalent width. A novel expression for the equivalent width for Lorentz profile is given from direct integration of the line profile. The more general case of a Voigt profile leads to an analytical formula that permits a rapid estimate of the equivalent width for a wide range of maximum optical depths. The reliability of the approach is verified using a numerical application calculating the equivalent width for nickel resonance lines at 232.0 and 352.3 nm from atomic absorption (AA) measurements. The dependence of equivalent width on the number density of absorbing atoms is also provided. The results obtained for the equivalent width for the Voigt profile were compared with the data in the available literature obtained by different approaches. PMID:24480275

  3. A restricted proof that the weak equivalence principle implies the Einstein equivalence principle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lightman, A. P.; Lee, D. L.

    1973-01-01

    Schiff has conjectured that the weak equivalence principle (WEP) implies the Einstein equivalence principle (EEP). A proof is presented of Schiff's conjecture, restricted to: (1) test bodies made of electromagnetically interacting point particles, that fall from rest in a static, spherically symmetric gravitational field; (2) theories of gravity within a certain broad class - a class that includes almost all complete relativistic theories that have been found in the literature, but with each theory truncated to contain only point particles plus electromagnetic and gravitational fields. The proof shows that every nonmentric theory in the class (every theory that violates EEP) must violate WEP. A formula is derived for the magnitude of the violation. It is shown that WEP is a powerful theoretical and experimental tool for constraining the manner in which gravity couples to electromagnetism in gravitation theories.

  4. APPLYING TO THE PEC: A CASE HISTORY - A WALK THROUGH THE PROCEDURE FOR APPLYING FOR EQUIVALENCY USING A RECENT CANDIDATE AS A TRUE EXAMPLE.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA's Pathogen Equivalency Committee (PEC) is entrusted by its Office of Water to critically evaluate innovative and alternative sludge disinfection processes and make recommendations about their Process to Significantly Reduce Pathogens (PSRP) or Process to Further Reduce ...

  5. Addition of multiple limiting resources reduces grassland diversity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Niche dimensionality is the most general theoretical explanation for biodiversity: more niches allow for more ecological tradeoffs between species and thus greater opportunities for coexistence. Resource competition theory predicts that removing resource limitations, by increasing resource availabil...

  6. 40 CFR 80.1415 - How are equivalence values assigned to renewable fuel?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... renewable fuel? 80.1415 Section 80.1415 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Renewable Fuel Standard § 80.1415 How are equivalence values assigned to renewable fuel? (a)(1) Each gallon of a renewable fuel, or...

  7. Arithmetic Practice Can Be Modified to Promote Understanding of Mathematical Equivalence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeil, Nicole M.; Fyfe, Emily R.; Dunwiddie, April E.

    2015-01-01

    This experiment tested if a modified version of arithmetic practice facilitates understanding of math equivalence. Children within 2nd-grade classrooms (N = 166) were randomly assigned to practice single-digit addition facts using 1 of 2 workbooks. In the control workbook, problems were presented in the traditional "operations = answer"…

  8. Benefits of Practicing 4 = 2 + 2: Nontraditional Problem Formats Facilitate Children's Understanding of Mathematical Equivalence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeil, Nicole M.; Fyfe, Emily R.; Petersen, Lori A.; Dunwiddie, April E.; Brletic-Shipley, Heather

    2011-01-01

    This study examined whether practice with arithmetic problems presented in a nontraditional problem format improves understanding of mathematical equivalence. Children (M age = 8;0; N = 90) were randomly assigned to practice addition in one of three conditions: (a) traditional, in which problems were presented in the traditional "operations on…

  9. Principle of Spacetime and Black Hole Equivalence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Tianxi

    2016-06-01

    Modelling the universe without relying on a set of hypothetical entities (HEs) to explain observations and overcome problems and difficulties is essential to developing a physical cosmology. The well-known big bang cosmology, widely accepted as the standard model, stands on two fundamentals, which are Einstein’s general relativity (GR) that describes the effect of matter on spacetime and the cosmological principle (CP) of spacetime isotropy and homogeneity. The field equation of GR along with the Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) metric of spacetime derived from CP generates the Friedmann equation (FE) that governs the development and dynamics of the universe. The big bang theory has made impressive successes in explaining the universe, but still has problems and solutions of them rely on an increasing number of HEs such as inflation, dark matter, dark energy, and so on. Recently, the author has developed a new cosmological model called black hole universe, which, instead of making many those hypotheses, only includes a new single postulate (or a new principle) to the cosmology - Principle of Spacetime and Black Hole Equivalence (SBHEP) - to explain all the existing observations of the universe and overcome all the existing problems in conventional cosmologies. This study thoroughly demonstrates how this newly developed black hole universe model, which therefore stands on the three fundamentals (GR, CP, and SBHEP), can fully explain the universe as well as easily conquer the difficulties according to the well-developed physics, thus, neither needing any other hypotheses nor existing any unsolved difficulties. This work was supported by NSF/REU (Grant #: PHY-1263253) at Alabama A & M University.

  10. Critique of the equivalent air altitude model.

    PubMed

    Conkin, Johnny; Wessel, James H

    2008-10-01

    The adverse effects of hypoxic hypoxia include acute mountain sickness (AMS), high altitude pulmonary edema, and high altitude cerebral edema. It has long been assumed that those manifestations are directly related to reduction in the inspired partial pressure of oxygen (P(I)O2). This assumption underlies the equivalent air altitude (EAA) model, which holds that combinations of barometric pressure (P(B)) and inspired fraction of O2 (F(I)O2) that produce the same P(I)O2 will result in identical physiological responses. However, a growing body of evidence seems to indicate that different combinations of P(B) and P(I)O2 may produce different responses to the same P(I)O2. To investigate this question with respect to AMS, we conducted a search of the literature using the terms hypobaric hypoxia, normobaric hypoxia, and hypobaric normoxia. The results suggest that the EAA model provides only an approximate description of isohypoxia, and that P(B) has an independent effect on hypoxia and AMS. A historical report from 1956 and 15 reports from 1983 to 2005 compare the same hypoxic P(I)O2 at different P(B) with respect to the development of hypoxia and AMS. These data provide evidence for an independent effect of P(B) on hypoxia and AMS, and thereby invalidate EAA as an ideal model of isohypoxia. Refinement of the EAA model is needed, in particular for applications to high altitude where supplemental O2 is inadequate to prevent hypoxic hypoxia. Adjustment through probabilistic statistical modeling to match the current limited experimental observations is one approach to a better isohypoxic model. PMID:18856188

  11. Adaptive h -refinement for reduced-order models: ADAPTIVE h -refinement for reduced-order models

    DOE PAGES

    Carlberg, Kevin T.

    2014-11-05

    Our work presents a method to adaptively refine reduced-order models a posteriori without requiring additional full-order-model solves. The technique is analogous to mesh-adaptive h-refinement: it enriches the reduced-basis space online by ‘splitting’ a given basis vector into several vectors with disjoint support. The splitting scheme is defined by a tree structure constructed offline via recursive k-means clustering of the state variables using snapshot data. This method identifies the vectors to split online using a dual-weighted-residual approach that aims to reduce error in an output quantity of interest. The resulting method generates a hierarchy of subspaces online without requiring large-scale operationsmore » or full-order-model solves. Furthermore, it enables the reduced-order model to satisfy any prescribed error tolerance regardless of its original fidelity, as a completely refined reduced-order model is mathematically equivalent to the original full-order model. Experiments on a parameterized inviscid Burgers equation highlight the ability of the method to capture phenomena (e.g., moving shocks) not contained in the span of the original reduced basis.« less

  12. Equivalence of equations describing trace element distribution during equilibrium partial melting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Consolmagno, G. J.; Drake, M. J.

    1976-01-01

    It is shown that four equations used for calculating the evolution of trace-element abundances during equilibrium partial melting are mathematically equivalent. The equations include those of Hertogen and Gijbels (1976), Shaw (1970), Schilling (1971), and O'Nions and Clarke (1972). The general form to which all these equations reduce is presented, and an analysis is performed to demonstrate their mathematical equivalence. It is noted that the utility of the general equation flows from the nature of equilibrium (i.e., the final state is independent of the path by which that state is attained).

  13. Degeneracy relations in QCD and the equivalence of two systematic all-orders methods for setting the renormalization scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bi, Huan-Yu; Wu, Xing-Gang; Ma, Yang; Ma, Hong-Hao; Brodsky, Stanley J.; Mojaza, Matin

    2015-09-01

    The Principle of Maximum Conformality (PMC) eliminates QCD renormalization scale-setting uncertainties using fundamental renormalization group methods. The resulting scale-fixed pQCD predictions are independent of the choice of renormalization scheme and show rapid convergence. The coefficients of the scale-fixed couplings are identical to the corresponding conformal series with zero β-function. Two all-orders methods for systematically implementing the PMC-scale setting procedure for existing high order calculations are discussed in this article. One implementation is based on the PMC-BLM correspondence (PMC-I); the other, more recent, method (PMC-II) uses the Rδ-scheme, a systematic generalization of the minimal subtraction renormalization scheme. Both approaches satisfy all of the principles of the renormalization group and lead to scale-fixed and scheme-independent predictions at each finite order. In this work, we show that PMC-I and PMC-II scale-setting methods are in practice equivalent to each other. We illustrate this equivalence for the four-loop calculations of the annihilation ratio Re+e- and the Higgs partial width Γ (H → b b bar). Both methods lead to the same resummed ('conformal') series up to all orders. The small scale differences between the two approaches are reduced as additional renormalization group {βi }-terms in the pQCD expansion are taken into account. We also show that special degeneracy relations, which underly the equivalence of the two PMC approaches and the resulting conformal features of the pQCD series, are in fact general properties of non-Abelian gauge theory.

  14. Determination of lead equivalent values according to IEC 61331-1:2014—Report and short guidelines for testing laboratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Büermann, L.

    2016-09-01

    Materials used for the production of protective devices against diagnostic medical X-radiation described in the international standard IEC 61331-3 need to be specified in terms of their lead attenuation equivalent thickness according to the methods described in IEC 61331-1. In May 2014 the IEC published the second edition of these standards which contain improved methods for the determination of attenuation ratios and the corresponding lead attenuation equivalent thicknesses of lead-reduced or lead-free materials. These methods include the measurement of scattered photons behind the protective material which were hitherto neglected but are becoming more important because of the increasing use of lead-reduced or even lead-free materials. They can offer the same protective effect but are up to 20% lighter and also easier to dispose of. The new method is based on attenuation ratios measured with the so-called ``inverse broad beam condition''. Since the corresponding measurement procedure is new and in some respects more complex than the methods used in the past, it was regarded as being helpful to have a description of how such measurements can reliably be performed. This technical report describes in detail the attenuation ratio measurements and corresponding procedures for the lead equivalent determinations of sample materials using the method with the inverse broad beam condition as carried out at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB). PTB still offers material testing and certification for the German responsible notified body. In addition to the description of the measurements at PTB, a short technical guide is provided for testing laboratories which intend to establish this kind of protective material certification. The guide includes technical recommendations for the testing equipment like X-ray facilities, reference lead sheets and radiation detectors; special procedures for the determination of the lead attenuation equivalent thickness; their

  15. Increased presence of monounsaturated fatty acids in the stratum corneum of human skin equivalents.

    PubMed

    Thakoersing, Varsha S; van Smeden, Jeroen; Mulder, Aat A; Vreeken, Rob J; El Ghalbzouri, Abdoelwaheb; Bouwstra, Joke A

    2013-01-01

    Previous results showed that our in-house human skin equivalents (HSEs) differ in their stratum corneum (SC) lipid organization compared with human SC. To elucidate the cause of the altered SC lipid organization in the HSEs, a recently developed liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry method was used to study the free fatty acid (FFA) and ceramide composition in detail. In addition, the SC lipid composition of the HSEs and human skin was examined quantitatively with high-performance thin-layer chromatography. Our results reveal that all our HSEs have an increased presence of monounsaturated FFAs compared with human SC. Moreover, the HSEs display the presence of ceramide species with a monounsaturated acyl chain, which are not detected in human SC. All HSEs also exhibit an altered expression of stearoyl-CoA desaturase, the enzyme that converts saturated FFAs to monounsaturated FFAs. Furthermore, the HSEs show the presence of 12 ceramide subclasses, similar to native human SC. However, the HSEs have increased levels of ceramides EOS and EOH and ceramide species with short total carbon chains and a reduced FFA level compared with human SC. The presence of unsaturated lipid chains in HSE offers new opportunities to mimic the lipid properties of human SC more closely.

  16. Quantifying the Effects of Wildfire Severity on Snow Water Equivalent in the Sierra Nevada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, A.; Cunningham, S.; Sodergren, C.; Anzelc, J.; Cate, N.; Arya, V.

    2015-12-01

    Snowpack in the Sierra Nevada is a crucial component of the California water supply. Climate change effects on forest ecosystems in this region have reduced snowpack and resulted in earlier snowmelt. Wildfire frequency and severity in the Sierra Nevada have also increased, due to higher temperatures, drought, and a legacy of fire suppression policies leading to fuel loads augmented beyond the historic range of variability. These combined factors have the potential to severely impact California water supply. Using 2014 California Basin Characterization Model (BCM) climate data and automated classification of various Landsat imagery, this study geospatially quantified the effects of low, moderate, and high- severity wildfire on snowpack and snow water equivalent (SWE) in the Sierra Nevada. An assessment of modeled SWE data were also conducted to examine its usefulness in better understanding areas effected by wildfire. Results indicate little to no significant change in post-fire SWE for high and moderate severity wildfire, however, delineated a significant decrease in post-fire SWE in the low severity wildfire. Additionally, tests show little no significant change in fractional snow cover post-fire. This use of remote sensing and modeled data will assist in decision and policy making related to management of forest ecosystems and water resources within the Sierra Nevada.

  17. Speech enhancement using an equivalent source inverse filtering-based microphone array.

    PubMed

    Bai, Mingsian R; Hur, Kur-Nan; Liu, Ying-Ting

    2010-03-01

    This paper presents a microphone array technique aimed at enhancing speech quality in a reverberant environment. This technique is based on the central idea of single-input-multiple-output equivalent source inverse filtering (SIMO-ESIF). The inverse filters required by the time-domain processing in the technique serve two purposes: de-reverberation and noise reduction. The proposed approach could be useful in telecommunication applications such as automotive hands-free systems, where noise-corrupted speech signal generally needs to be enhanced. SIMO-ESIF can be further enhanced against uncertainties and perturbations by including an adaptive generalized side-lobe canceller. The system is implemented and validated experimentally in a car. As indicated by numerous performance measures, the proposed system proved effective in reducing noise in human speech without significantly compromising the speech quality. In addition, listening tests were conducted to assess the subjective performance of the proposed system, with results processed by using the analysis of variance and a post hoc Fisher's least significant difference (LSD) test to assess the pairwise difference between the noise reduction (NR) algorithms.

  18. Combining Passive Microwave and Optical Data to Estimate Snow Water Equivalent in Afghanistan's Hindu Kush

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dozier, J.; Bair, N.; Calfa, A. A.; Skalka, C.; Tolle, K.; Bongard, J.

    2015-12-01

    The task is to estimate spatiotemporally distributed estimates of snow water equivalent (SWE) in snow-dominated mountain environments, including those that lack on-the-ground measurements such as the Hindu Kush range in Afghanistan. During the snow season, we can use two measurements: (1) passive microwave estimates of SWE, which generally underestimate in the mountains; (2) fractional snow-covered area from MODIS. Once the snow has melted, we can reconstruct the accumulated SWE back to the last significant snowfall by calculating the energy used in melt. The reconstructed SWE values provide a training set for predictions from the passive microwave SWE and snow-covered area. We examine several machine learning methods—regression-boosted decision trees, bagged trees, neural networks, and genetic programming—to estimate SWE. All methods work reasonably well, with R2 values greater than 0.8. Predictors built with multiple years of data reduce the bias that usually appears if we predict one year from just one other year's training set. Genetic programming tends to produce results that additionally provide physical insight. Adding precipitation estimates from the Global Precipitation Measurements mission is in progress.

  19. A Brief Spanish-English Equivalent Version of the Boston Naming Test: A Project FRONTIER Study

    PubMed Central

    Jahn, Danielle R.; Mauer, Cortney B.; Menon, Chloe V.; Edwards, Melissa L.; Dressel, Jeffrey A.; O'Bryant, Sid E.

    2013-01-01

    The Boston Naming Test is a neuropsychological measure of confrontation naming, short forms of which can be advantageous with various populations. The purpose of this study was to establish a Spanish-English equivalent version of the BNT using item response theory. Data were analyzed from 380 Project FRONTIER participants; 27 items differed between groups and were removed from the measure. Additionally, 18 items did not differ between groups but were poor items. The current 15-item Spanish-English equivalent version of the BNT offers significant advantages. Future work is required to validate the diagnostic utility of the instrument in various settings and populations. PMID:23998641

  20. An equivalent viscoelastic model for rock mass with parallel joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jianchun; Ma, Guowei; Zhao, Jian

    2010-03-01

    An equivalent viscoelastic medium model is proposed for rock mass with parallel joints. A concept of "virtual wave source (VWS)" is proposed to take into account the wave reflections between the joints. The equivalent model can be effectively applied to analyze longitudinal wave propagation through discontinuous media with parallel joints. Parameters in the equivalent viscoelastic model are derived analytically based on longitudinal wave propagation across a single rock joint. The proposed model is then verified by applying identical incident waves to the discontinuous and equivalent viscoelastic media at one end to compare the output waves at the other end. When the wavelength of the incident wave is sufficiently long compared to the joint spacing, the effect of the VWS on wave propagation in rock mass is prominent. The results from the equivalent viscoelastic medium model are very similar to those determined from the displacement discontinuity method. Frequency dependence and joint spacing effect on the equivalent viscoelastic model and the VWS method are discussed.

  1. Response of a tissue equivalent proportional counter to neutrons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badhwar, G. D.; Robbins, D. E.; Gibbons, F.; Braby, L. A.

    2002-01-01

    The absorbed dose as a function of lineal energy was measured at the CERN-EC Reference-field Facility (CERF) using a 512-channel tissue equivalent proportional counter (TEPC), and neutron dose equivalent response evaluated. Although there are some differences, the measured dose equivalent is in agreement with that measured by the 16-channel HANDI tissue equivalent counter. Comparison of TEPC measurements with those made by a silicon solid-state detector for low linear energy transfer particles produced by the same beam, is presented. The measurements show that about 4% of dose equivalent is delivered by particles heavier than protons generated in the conducting tissue equivalent plastic. c2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. State-space reduction and equivalence class sampling for a molecular self-assembly model.

    PubMed

    Packwood, Daniel M; Han, Patrick; Hitosugi, Taro

    2016-07-01

    Direct simulation of a model with a large state space will generate enormous volumes of data, much of which is not relevant to the questions under study. In this paper, we consider a molecular self-assembly model as a typical example of a large state-space model, and present a method for selectively retrieving 'target information' from this model. This method partitions the state space into equivalence classes, as identified by an appropriate equivalence relation. The set of equivalence classes H, which serves as a reduced state space, contains none of the superfluous information of the original model. After construction and characterization of a Markov chain with state space H, the target information is efficiently retrieved via Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling. This approach represents a new breed of simulation techniques which are highly optimized for studying molecular self-assembly and, moreover, serves as a valuable guideline for analysis of other large state-space models. PMID:27493765

  3. Measurement of cardiopulmonary performance during acute exposure to a 2440-m equivalent atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levitan, B. M.; Bungo, M. W.

    1982-01-01

    Each of 20 subjects (ranging in age from 18 to 38 years, 15 being male, five female) was given two Bruce Protocol symptom-limited maximum treadmill stress tests, breathing sea-level compressed air (20.9% O2) for one test and a 2440-m equivalent (15.5% O2) for the other. A significant difference was found to exist between measured VO2 max (p less than 0.0002) and exercise time (p less than 0.0004) for the two conditions. No significant differences were observed in heart rate or the recovery time to a respiratory quotient of less than 1. Hemoglobin saturation, as measured by an ear oximeter, averaged 95% for sea-level and 91% for the 2440-m equivalent gases. These results support a 2440-m equivalent contingency atmosphere in the Space Shuttle prior to donning a low-pressure suit for the purpose reducing nitrogen washout times.

  4. State-space reduction and equivalence class sampling for a molecular self-assembly model

    PubMed Central

    Han, Patrick; Hitosugi, Taro

    2016-01-01

    Direct simulation of a model with a large state space will generate enormous volumes of data, much of which is not relevant to the questions under study. In this paper, we consider a molecular self-assembly model as a typical example of a large state-space model, and present a method for selectively retrieving ‘target information’ from this model. This method partitions the state space into equivalence classes, as identified by an appropriate equivalence relation. The set of equivalence classes H, which serves as a reduced state space, contains none of the superfluous information of the original model. After construction and characterization of a Markov chain with state space H, the target information is efficiently retrieved via Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling. This approach represents a new breed of simulation techniques which are highly optimized for studying molecular self-assembly and, moreover, serves as a valuable guideline for analysis of other large state-space models. PMID:27493765

  5. Additional Drive Circuitry for Piezoelectric Screw Motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smythe, Robert; Palmer, Dean; Gursel, Yekta; Reder, Leonard; Savedra, Raymond

    2004-01-01

    Modules of additional drive circuitry have been developed to enhance the functionality of a family of commercially available positioning motors (Picomotor . or equivalent) that provide linear motion controllable, in principle, to within increments .30 nm. A motor of this type includes a piezoelectric actuator that turns a screw. Unlike traditional piezoelectrically actuated mechanisms, a motor of this type does not rely on the piezoelectric transducer to hold position: the screw does not turn except when the drive signal is applied to the actuator.

  6. Lubricating additive for drilling muds

    SciTech Connect

    Gutierrez, A.; Brois, S. J.; Brownawell, D. W.; Walker, T. O.

    1985-01-01

    Aqueous drilling fluids containing a minor amount of an additive composition featuring oxazolines of C/sub 1/-C/sub 30/ alkylthioglycolic acid. Such fluids are especially useful where reduced torque drilling fluids are needed. Another embodiment of this invention relates to a method of drilling utilizing the above-described fluids.

  7. Equivalent Plate Analysis of Aircraft Wing with Discrete Source Damage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krishnamurthy, T.; Mason, Brian H.

    2006-01-01

    An equivalent plate procedure is developed to provide a computationally efficient means of matching the stiffness and frequencies of flight vehicle wing structures for prescribed loading conditions. First, the equivalent plate is used to match the stiffness of a stiffened panel without damage and the stiffness of a stiffened panel with damage. For both stiffened panels, the equivalent plate models reproduce the deformation of a corresponding detailed model exactly for the given loading conditions. Once the stiffness was matched, the equivalent plate models were then used to predict the frequencies of the panels. Two analytical procedures using the lumped-mass matrix were used to match the first five frequencies of the corresponding detailed model. In both the procedures, the lumped-mass matrix for the equivalent plate is constructed by multiplying the diagonal terms of the consistent-mass matrix by a proportionality constant. In the first procedure, the proportionality constant is selected such that the total mass of the equivalent plate is equal to that of the detailed model. In the second method, the proportionality constant is selected to minimize the sum of the squares of the errors in a set of pre-selected frequencies between the equivalent plate model and the detailed model. The equivalent plate models reproduced the fundamental first frequency accurately in both the methods. It is observed that changing only the mass distribution in the equivalent plate model did not provide enough flexibility to match all of the frequencies.

  8. Estimating Equivalency of Explosives Through A Thermochemical Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Maienschein, J L

    2002-07-08

    The Cheetah thermochemical computer code provides an accurate method for estimating the TNT equivalency of any explosive, evaluated either with respect to peak pressure or the quasi-static pressure at long time in a confined volume. Cheetah calculates the detonation energy and heat of combustion for virtually any explosive (pure or formulation). Comparing the detonation energy for an explosive with that of TNT allows estimation of the TNT equivalency with respect to peak pressure, while comparison of the heat of combustion allows estimation of TNT equivalency with respect to quasi-static pressure. We discuss the methodology, present results for many explosives, and show comparisons with equivalency data from other sources.

  9. 49 CFR 538.8 - Gallon Equivalents for Gaseous Fuels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION MANUFACTURING INCENTIVES FOR ALTERNATIVE FUEL... Measurements for Gaseous Fuels per 100 Standard Cubic Feet Fuel Gallon equivalent measurement...

  10. 49 CFR 538.8 - Gallon Equivalents for Gaseous Fuels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION MANUFACTURING INCENTIVES FOR ALTERNATIVE FUEL... Measurements for Gaseous Fuels per 100 Standard Cubic Feet Fuel Gallon equivalent measurement...

  11. 49 CFR 538.8 - Gallon Equivalents for Gaseous Fuels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION MANUFACTURING INCENTIVES FOR ALTERNATIVE FUEL... Measurements for Gaseous Fuels per 100 Standard Cubic Feet Fuel Gallon equivalent measurement...

  12. 49 CFR 538.8 - Gallon Equivalents for Gaseous Fuels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION MANUFACTURING INCENTIVES FOR ALTERNATIVE FUEL... Measurements for Gaseous Fuels per 100 Standard Cubic Feet Fuel Gallon equivalent measurement...

  13. 49 CFR 538.8 - Gallon Equivalents for Gaseous Fuels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION MANUFACTURING INCENTIVES FOR ALTERNATIVE FUEL... Measurements for Gaseous Fuels per 100 Standard Cubic Feet Fuel Gallon equivalent measurement...

  14. Electro-optical equivalent calibration technology for high-energy laser energy meters.

    PubMed

    Wei, Ji Feng; Chang, Yan; Sun, Li Qun; Zhang, Kai; Hu, Xiao Yang; Zhang, Wei

    2016-04-01

    Electro-optical equivalent calibration with high calibration power and high equivalence is particularly well-suited to the calibration of high-energy laser energy meters. A large amount of energy is reserved during this process, however, which continues to radiate after power-off. This study measured the radiation efficiency of a halogen tungsten lamp during power-on and after power-off in order to calculate the total energy irradiated by a lamp until the high-energy laser energy meter reaches thermal equilibrium. A calibration system was designed based on the measurement results, and the calibration equivalence of the system was analyzed in detail. Results show that measurement precision is significantly affected by the absorption factor of the absorption chamber and by heat loss in the energy meter. Calibration precision is successfully improved by enhancing the equivalent power and reducing power-on time. The electro-optical equivalent calibration system, measurement uncertainty of which was evaluated as 2.4% (k = 2), was used to calibrate a graphite-cone-absorption-cavity absolute energy meter, yielding a calibration coefficient of 1.009 and measurement uncertainty of 3.5% (k = 2). A water-absorption-type high-energy laser energy meter with measurement uncertainty of 4.8% (k = 2) was considered the reference standard, and compared to the energy meter calibrated in this study, yielded a correction factor of 0.995 (standard deviation of 1.4%). PMID:27131714

  15. Electro-optical equivalent calibration technology for high-energy laser energy meters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Ji Feng; Chang, Yan; Sun, Li Qun; Zhang, Kai; Hu, Xiao Yang; Zhang, Wei

    2016-04-01

    Electro-optical equivalent calibration with high calibration power and high equivalence is particularly well-suited to the calibration of high-energy laser energy meters. A large amount of energy is reserved during this process, however, which continues to radiate after power-off. This study measured the radiation efficiency of a halogen tungsten lamp during power-on and after power-off in order to calculate the total energy irradiated by a lamp until the high-energy laser energy meter reaches thermal equilibrium. A calibration system was designed based on the measurement results, and the calibration equivalence of the system was analyzed in detail. Results show that measurement precision is significantly affected by the absorption factor of the absorption chamber and by heat loss in the energy meter. Calibration precision is successfully improved by enhancing the equivalent power and reducing power-on time. The electro-optical equivalent calibration system, measurement uncertainty of which was evaluated as 2.4% (k = 2), was used to calibrate a graphite-cone-absorption-cavity absolute energy meter, yielding a calibration coefficient of 1.009 and measurement uncertainty of 3.5% (k = 2). A water-absorption-type high-energy laser energy meter with measurement uncertainty of 4.8% (k = 2) was considered the reference standard, and compared to the energy meter calibrated in this study, yielded a correction factor of 0.995 (standard deviation of 1.4%).

  16. Comparison of Alternative Equivalent Circuits of Induction Motor with Real Machine Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradna, J.; Bauer, J.; Fligl, S.; Hlinovsky, V.

    The algorithms based on separated control of the motor flux and torque is used in order to gain the maximum performance from the induction machine. To push the efficiency and dynamics limits of the IM to its limits mostly FOC or DTC control strategies are used. Both are based on the knowledge of the hardly measurable variable-machine flux. To obtain the information about inner machine flux models based on the machine equivalent circuit are mostly used. Therefore the accuracy of the equivalent circuits has direct influence on the accuracy of the machine control. To reduce the complexity of the mathematical model the resistances and inductances are concentrated to one component and three phase winding is assumed to be symmetrical. In order to design control strategy for the induction motor, system equations and equivalent circuit must be established at first. This paper examines and compares some of the issues of adequate machine modeling and attempts to provide a firmer basis for selection of an appropriate model and to confirm or disprove the equivalence of different approaches. The results of the IM model run up are then compared to the results obtained from the measurements on the real machine and the equivalency is discussed.

  17. Electro-optical equivalent calibration technology for high-energy laser energy meters.

    PubMed

    Wei, Ji Feng; Chang, Yan; Sun, Li Qun; Zhang, Kai; Hu, Xiao Yang; Zhang, Wei

    2016-04-01

    Electro-optical equivalent calibration with high calibration power and high equivalence is particularly well-suited to the calibration of high-energy laser energy meters. A large amount of energy is reserved during this process, however, which continues to radiate after power-off. This study measured the radiation efficiency of a halogen tungsten lamp during power-on and after power-off in order to calculate the total energy irradiated by a lamp until the high-energy laser energy meter reaches thermal equilibrium. A calibration system was designed based on the measurement results, and the calibration equivalence of the system was analyzed in detail. Results show that measurement precision is significantly affected by the absorption factor of the absorption chamber and by heat loss in the energy meter. Calibration precision is successfully improved by enhancing the equivalent power and reducing power-on time. The electro-optical equivalent calibration system, measurement uncertainty of which was evaluated as 2.4% (k = 2), was used to calibrate a graphite-cone-absorption-cavity absolute energy meter, yielding a calibration coefficient of 1.009 and measurement uncertainty of 3.5% (k = 2). A water-absorption-type high-energy laser energy meter with measurement uncertainty of 4.8% (k = 2) was considered the reference standard, and compared to the energy meter calibrated in this study, yielded a correction factor of 0.995 (standard deviation of 1.4%).

  18. Postflame reaction chemistry of dichloromethane: Variations in equivalence ratio and temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Sgro, L.A.; Koshland, C.P.; Lucas, D.; Sawyer, R.F.

    2000-03-01

    The authors report on the destruction pathways and byproduct formation of dichloromethane (CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}) in conditions typical of incinerator postflame regions (injection temperature = 900--1,200 K; equivalence ratio = 0.6, 0.9, 1.0, 1.1; residence time = 0.28--0.35 s). This is the first study to independently vary equivalence ratio and temperature, and evaluate their impacts on byproduct yield and destruction efficiency. The authors inject 750 ppm CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2} into postflame combustion products and measure byproducts with extractive FTIR spectroscopy. They use a detailed chemical kinetic mechanism and reaction rate analysis to predict the changes in reaction pathways as a function of equivalence ratio. The predictions for major products and several intermediate species compare well with experiments; the largest disparities are an underprediction of phosgene (CCl{sub 2}O) and an overprediction of methyl chloride (CH{sub 3}Cl). Both the experiment and the numerical predictions show increased destruction at lower equivalence ratios. However, the experiments reveal increased levels of stable chlorinated organics at lower equivalence ratios, opposite to the numerical prediction. The authors discuss reasons for this discrepancy and implications of these results for designing control strategies to promote full conversion to HCl and to reduce chlorinated byproduct emissions.

  19. Equivalent Sensor Radiance Generation and Remote Sensing from Model Parameters. Part 1; Equivalent Sensor Radiance Formulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wind, Galina; DaSilva, Arlindo M.; Norris, Peter M.; Platnick, Steven E.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we describe a general procedure for calculating equivalent sensor radiances from variables output from a global atmospheric forecast model. In order to take proper account of the discrepancies between model resolution and sensor footprint the algorithm takes explicit account of the model subgrid variability, in particular its description of the probably density function of total water (vapor and cloud condensate.) The equivalent sensor radiances are then substituted into an operational remote sensing algorithm processing chain to produce a variety of remote sensing products that would normally be produced from actual sensor output. This output can then be used for a wide variety of purposes such as model parameter verification, remote sensing algorithm validation, testing of new retrieval methods and future sensor studies. We show a specific implementation using the GEOS-5 model, the MODIS instrument and the MODIS Adaptive Processing System (MODAPS) Data Collection 5.1 operational remote sensing cloud algorithm processing chain (including the cloud mask, cloud top properties and cloud optical and microphysical properties products.) We focus on clouds and cloud/aerosol interactions, because they are very important to model development and improvement.

  20. Effects of selected materials and geometries on the beta dose equivalent rate in a tissue equivalent phantom immersed in infinite clouds of 133Xe.

    PubMed

    Piltingsrud, H V; Gels, G L

    1986-06-01

    Most calculations of dose equivalent (D.E.) rates at 70-micron tissue depths in tissue equivalent (T.E.) phantoms from infinite clouds (radius exceeds maximum beta range in air) of 133Xe do not consider the possible effects of clothing overlays. Consequently, a series of measurements were made using a 1-mm-thick plastic scintillation detector assembly mounted in a tissue equivalent (T.E.) phantom with an overlay of 70 micron of T.E. material. This assembly was placed in an infinite cloud containing a known concentration of 133Xe. Material samples were placed at selected distances from the detector phantom, both individually and in various combinations. Pulse-height spectra resulting from beta radiations were converted to relative D.E. rates at a 70-micron tissue depth. The relative D.E. rates were reduced from values with no clothing cover by as little as 45% when placing a single thin nylon cloth 1 cm from the phantom, to 94% for a T-shirt material plus wool material plus denim placed 1/2, 1 and 3 cm, respectively, from the phantom. The results indicate that even loosely fitting clothing can have an important effect on reducing the D.E. rate. Close-fitting clothing appears to provide better protection.

  1. Effects of selected materials and geometries on the beta dose equivalent rate in a tissue equivalent phantom immersed in infinite clouds of 133Xe.

    PubMed

    Piltingsrud, H V; Gels, G L

    1986-06-01

    Most calculations of dose equivalent (D.E.) rates at 70-micron tissue depths in tissue equivalent (T.E.) phantoms from infinite clouds (radius exceeds maximum beta range in air) of 133Xe do not consider the possible effects of clothing overlays. Consequently, a series of measurements were made using a 1-mm-thick plastic scintillation detector assembly mounted in a tissue equivalent (T.E.) phantom with an overlay of 70 micron of T.E. material. This assembly was placed in an infinite cloud containing a known concentration of 133Xe. Material samples were placed at selected distances from the detector phantom, both individually and in various combinations. Pulse-height spectra resulting from beta radiations were converted to relative D.E. rates at a 70-micron tissue depth. The relative D.E. rates were reduced from values with no clothing cover by as little as 45% when placing a single thin nylon cloth 1 cm from the phantom, to 94% for a T-shirt material plus wool material plus denim placed 1/2, 1 and 3 cm, respectively, from the phantom. The results indicate that even loosely fitting clothing can have an important effect on reducing the D.E. rate. Close-fitting clothing appears to provide better protection. PMID:3710789

  2. Effects of selected materials and geometries on the beta dose equivalent rate in a tissue equivalent phantom immersed in infinite clouds of 133Xe

    SciTech Connect

    Piltingsrud, H.V.; Gels, G.L.

    1986-06-01

    Most calculations of dose equivalent (D.E.) rates at 70-micron tissue depths in tissue equivalent (T.E.) phantoms from infinite clouds (radius exceeds maximum beta range in air) of /sup 133/Xe do not consider the possible effects of clothing overlays. Consequently, a series of measurements were made using a 1-mm-thick plastic scintillation detector assembly mounted in a tissue equivalent (T.E.) phantom with an overlay of 70 micron of T.E. material. This assembly was placed in an infinite cloud containing a known concentration of /sup 133/Xe. Material samples were placed at selected distances from the detector phantom, both individually and in various combinations. Pulse-height spectra resulting from beta radiations were converted to relative D.E. rates at a 70-micron tissue depth. The relative D.E. rates were reduced from values with no clothing cover by as little as 45% when placing a single thin nylon cloth 1 cm from the phantom, to 94% for a T-shirt material plus wool material plus denim placed 1/2, 1 and 3 cm, respectively, from the phantom. The results indicate that even loosely fitting clothing can have an important effect on reducing the D.E. rate. Close-fitting clothing appears to provide better protection.

  3. Mesoscale symmetries explain dynamical equivalence of food webs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aufderheide, Helge; Rudolf, Lars; Gross, Thilo

    2012-10-01

    A goal of complex system research is to identify the dynamical implications of network structure. While early results focused mainly on local or global structural properties, there is now growing interest in mesoscale structures that comprise more than one node but not the whole network. A central challenge is to discover under what conditions the occurrence of a specific mesoscale motif already allows conclusions on the dynamics of a network as a whole. In this paper, we investigate the dynamics of ecological food webs, complex heterogeneous networks of interacting populations. Generalizing the results of MacArthur and Sánchez-García (2009 Phys. Rev. E 80 26117), we show that certain mesoscale symmetries imply the existence of localized dynamical modes. If these modes are unstable the occurrence of the corresponding mesoscale motif implies dynamical instability regardless of the structure of the embedding network. In contrast, if the mode is stable it means that the symmetry can be exploited to reduce the number of nodes in the model, without changing the dynamics of the system. This result explains a previously observed dynamical equivalence between food webs containing a different number of species.

  4. Unitary equivalent classes of one-dimensional quantum walks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohno, Hiromichi

    2016-09-01

    This study investigates unitary equivalent classes of one-dimensional quantum walks. We prove that one-dimensional quantum walks are unitary equivalent to quantum walks of Ambainis type and that translation-invariant one-dimensional quantum walks are Szegedy walks. We also present a necessary and sufficient condition for a one-dimensional quantum walk to be a Szegedy walk.

  5. 30 CFR 70.206 - Approved sampling devices; equivalent concentrations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... concentrations. 70.206 Section 70.206 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... § 70.206 Approved sampling devices; equivalent concentrations. The concentration of respirable dust... concentration to an equivalent concentration as measured with an MRE instrument. To convert a concentration...

  6. 30 CFR 70.206 - Approved sampling devices; equivalent concentrations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... concentrations. 70.206 Section 70.206 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... § 70.206 Approved sampling devices; equivalent concentrations. The concentration of respirable dust... concentration to an equivalent concentration as measured with an MRE instrument. To convert a concentration...

  7. 30 CFR 70.206 - Approved sampling devices; equivalent concentrations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... concentrations. 70.206 Section 70.206 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... § 70.206 Approved sampling devices; equivalent concentrations. The concentration of respirable dust... concentration to an equivalent concentration as measured with an MRE instrument. To convert a concentration...

  8. 30 CFR 70.206 - Approved sampling devices; equivalent concentrations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... concentrations. 70.206 Section 70.206 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... § 70.206 Approved sampling devices; equivalent concentrations. The concentration of respirable dust... concentration to an equivalent concentration as measured with an MRE instrument. To convert a concentration...

  9. 30 CFR 70.206 - Approved sampling devices; equivalent concentrations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... concentrations. 70.206 Section 70.206 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... § 70.206 Approved sampling devices; equivalent concentrations. The concentration of respirable dust... concentration to an equivalent concentration as measured with an MRE instrument. To convert a concentration...

  10. 33 CFR 101.130 - Equivalent security measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Equivalent security measures. 101... MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: GENERAL General § 101.130 Equivalent security measures. (a) For any measure required by part 104, 105, or 106 of this subchapter, the owner or operator may substitute...

  11. Mechanical Equivalent of Heat--Software for a Thermistor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boleman, Michael

    2008-01-01

    The Mechanical Equivalent of Heat Apparatus from PASCO scientific provides the means for doing a simple experiment to determine the mechanical equivalent of heat, "J." A necessary step of this experiment is to determine the temperature of an aluminum cylinder. By measuring the resistance of a thermistor embedded in the cylinder, one is able to…

  12. Assessment Battery for Communication: Development of Two Equivalent Forms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosco, Francesca M.; Angeleri, Romina; Zuffranieri, Marco; Bara, Bruno G.; Sacco, Katiuscia

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to develop and test two equivalent forms of the Assessment Battery for Communication (ABaCo), a tool for evaluating pragmatic abilities in patients with neuropsychological and psychiatric disorders. The equivalent forms were created using the data from a sample of 390 children, then tested in a sample of 30 patients with…

  13. 40 CFR 133.105 - Treatment equivalent to secondary treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Treatment equivalent to secondary treatment. 133.105 Section 133.105 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS SECONDARY TREATMENT REGULATION § 133.105 Treatment equivalent to secondary...

  14. 40 CFR 63.469 - Equivalent methods of control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Equivalent methods of control. 63.469... (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Halogenated Solvent Cleaning § 63.469 Equivalent methods of control. Upon written...

  15. 40 CFR 60.623 - Equivalent equipment and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Equivalent equipment and procedures. 60... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Petroleum Dry Cleaners § 60.623 Equivalent equipment and procedures. (a) Upon written application from any person,...

  16. 40 CFR 63.469 - Equivalent methods of control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Equivalent methods of control. 63.469... (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Halogenated Solvent Cleaning § 63.469 Equivalent methods of control. Upon written...

  17. 40 CFR 60.623 - Equivalent equipment and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Equivalent equipment and procedures. 60... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Petroleum Dry Cleaners § 60.623 Equivalent equipment and procedures. (a) Upon written application from any person,...

  18. Equivalent source modeling of the main field using Magsat data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Progress is reported on software development for equivalent dipole source modeling of the main magnetic field. This includes a spatial statistical output capability, a subroutine to compute the equivalent spherical harmonic representation from the dipole distribution, and capability to plot the global locations of the dipoles and the values of the source magnetization.

  19. Neutron detector simultaneously measures fluence and dose equivalent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dvorak, R. F.; Dyer, N. C.

    1967-01-01

    Neutron detector acts as both an area monitoring instrument and a criticality dosimeter by simultaneously measuring dose equivalent and fluence. The fluence is determined by activation of six foils one inch below the surface of the moderator. Dose equivalent is determined from activation of three interlocked foils at the center of the moderator.

  20. Nodal Structure and the Partitioning of Equivalence Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fields, Lanny; Watanabe-Rose, Mari

    2008-01-01

    By definition, all of the stimuli in an equivalence class have to be functionally interchangeable with each other. The present experiment, however, demonstrated that this was not the case when using post-class-formation dual-option response transfer tests. With college students, two 4-node 6-member equivalence classes with nodal structures of…

  1. Teaching Brain-Behavior Relations Economically with Stimulus Equivalence Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fienup, Daniel M.; Covey, Daniel P.; Critchfield, Thomas S.

    2010-01-01

    Instructional interventions based on stimulus equivalence provide learners with the opportunity to acquire skills that are not directly taught, thereby improving the efficiency of instructional efforts. The present report describes a study in which equivalence-based instruction was used to teach college students facts regarding brain anatomy and…

  2. 33 CFR 101.130 - Equivalent security measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Equivalent security measures. 101.130 Section 101.130 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: GENERAL General § 101.130 Equivalent security measures. (a) For...

  3. Some equivalences between the auxiliary field method and envelope theory

    SciTech Connect

    Buisseret, Fabien; Semay, Claude; Silvestre-Brac, Bernard

    2009-03-15

    The auxiliary field method has been recently proposed as an efficient technique to compute analytical approximate solutions of eigenequations in quantum mechanics. We show that the auxiliary field method is completely equivalent to the envelope theory, which is another well-known procedure to analytically solve eigenequations, although relying on different principles a priori. This equivalence leads to a deeper understanding of both frameworks.

  4. 49 CFR 37.105 - Equivalent service standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Equivalent service standard. 37.105 Section 37.105 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation TRANSPORTATION SERVICES FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES (ADA) Acquisition of Accessible Vehicles by Private Entities § 37.105 Equivalent service...

  5. Assessing Measurement Equivalence in Ordered-Categorical Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elosua, Paula

    2011-01-01

    Assessing measurement equivalence in the framework of the common factor linear models (CFL) is known as factorial invariance. This methodology is used to evaluate the equivalence among the parameters of a measurement model among different groups. However, when dichotomous, Likert, or ordered responses are used, one of the assumptions of the CFL is…

  6. Probability of Equivalence Formation: Familiar Stimuli and Training Sequence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arntzen, Erik

    2004-01-01

    The present study was conducted to show how responding in accord with equivalence relations changes as a function of position of familiar stimuli, pictures, and with the use of nonsense syllables in an MTO-training structure. Fifty college students were tested for responding in accord with equivalence in an AB, CB, DB, and EB training structure.…

  7. 40 CFR 133.105 - Treatment equivalent to secondary treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Treatment equivalent to secondary treatment. 133.105 Section 133.105 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS SECONDARY TREATMENT REGULATION § 133.105 Treatment equivalent to secondary...

  8. 40 CFR 133.105 - Treatment equivalent to secondary treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Treatment equivalent to secondary treatment. 133.105 Section 133.105 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS SECONDARY TREATMENT REGULATION § 133.105 Treatment equivalent to secondary...

  9. 40 CFR 133.105 - Treatment equivalent to secondary treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Treatment equivalent to secondary treatment. 133.105 Section 133.105 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS SECONDARY TREATMENT REGULATION § 133.105 Treatment equivalent to secondary...

  10. 26 CFR 1.871-15 - Treatment of dividend equivalents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Treatment of dividend equivalents. 1.871-15 Section 1.871-15 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME... Treatment of dividend equivalents. (a) through (c) (d) Specified NPCs—(1) Specified NPCs before January...

  11. 40 CFR 133.105 - Treatment equivalent to secondary treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Treatment equivalent to secondary treatment. 133.105 Section 133.105 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS SECONDARY TREATMENT REGULATION § 133.105 Treatment equivalent to secondary...

  12. 43 CFR 426.11 - Class 1 equivalency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... equivalency determinations have been made, individual landowners with land classified as 2 or 3 for... measured in terms of net income per acre (reflecting both productivity and costs of production). The... farm income will be the measure of productivity to establish equivalency factors reflecting the...

  13. 43 CFR 426.11 - Class 1 equivalency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... equivalency determinations have been made, individual landowners with land classified as 2 or 3 for... measured in terms of net income per acre (reflecting both productivity and costs of production). The... farm income will be the measure of productivity to establish equivalency factors reflecting the...

  14. Time-temperature equivalence in Martensite tempering

    SciTech Connect

    Hackenberg, Robert E.; Thomas, Grant A.; Speer, John G.; Matlock, David K.; Krauss, George

    2008-06-16

    The relationship between time and temperature is of great consequence in many materials-related processes including the tempering of martensite. In 1945, Hollomon and Jaffe quantified the 'degree of tempering' as a function of both tempering time, t, and tempering temperature, T, using the expression, T(log t + c). Here, c is thought to be a material constant and appears to decrease linearly with increasing carbon content. The Hollomon-Jaffe tempering parameter is frequently cited in the literature. This work reviews the original derivation of the tempering parameter concept, and presents the use of the characteristics diffusion distance as an alternative time-temperature relationship during martensite tempering. During the tempering of martensite, interstitial carbon atoms diffuse to form carbides. In addition, austenite decomposes, dislocations and grain boundaries rearrange, associated with iron self diffusion. Since these are all diffusional processes, it is reasonable to expect the degree of tempering to relate to the extent of diffusion.

  15. Equivalence relations in individuals with language limitations and mental retardation.

    PubMed Central

    O'Donnell, Jennifer; Saunders, Kathryn J

    2003-01-01

    The study of equivalence relations exhibited by individuals with mental retardation and language limitations holds the promise of providing information of both theoretical and practical significance. We reviewed the equivalence literature with this population, defined in terms of subjects having moderate, severe, or profound mental retardation. The literature includes 55 such individuals, most of whom showed positive outcomes on equivalence tests. The results to date suggest that naming skills are not necessary for positive equivalence test outcomes. Thus far, however, relatively few subjects with minimal language have been studied. Moreover, we suggest that the scientific contributions of studies in this area would be enhanced with better documentation of language skills and other subject characteristics. With recent advances in laboratory procedures for establishing the baseline performances necessary for equivalence tests, this research area is poised for rapid growth. PMID:13677612

  16. [Equivalence classes formation applied to learning musical notes].

    PubMed

    Escuer Acín, Emilio; García García, Andrés; Bohórquez Zayas, Cristóbal; Gutiérrez Domínguez, Maria Teresa

    2006-02-01

    Three experiments involving training and application of equivalence classes were carried out. In the first of them, with 6-6 years old children, and applying the equivalence classes logic to musical symbols and sounds learning, the necessary relations to build three equivalence classes (do, mi, sol) of five members each were acquired. In second and third experiments, five and seven equivalence classes (musical notes) of five member each were obtained. Six and a half years old children and one 17 years old Down syndrome diagnosed child took part in them, respectively. Results highlight the theoretical meaning of equivalence classes as explanation of human symbolic behavior, as the educational incomes of improving learning of basic elements in artistic skills.

  17. A Particle Batch Smoother Approach to Snow Water Equivalent Estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margulis, Steven A.; Girotto, Manuela; Cortes, Gonzalo; Durand, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a newly proposed data assimilation method for historical snow water equivalent SWE estimation using remotely sensed fractional snow-covered area fSCA. The newly proposed approach consists of a particle batch smoother (PBS), which is compared to a previously applied Kalman-based ensemble batch smoother (EnBS) approach. The methods were applied over the 27-yr Landsat 5 record at snow pillow and snow course in situ verification sites in the American River basin in the Sierra Nevada (United States). This basin is more densely vegetated and thus more challenging for SWE estimation than the previous applications of the EnBS. Both data assimilation methods provided significant improvement over the prior (modeling only) estimates, with both able to significantly reduce prior SWE biases. The prior RMSE values at the snow pillow and snow course sites were reduced by 68%-82% and 60%-68%, respectively, when applying the data assimilation methods. This result is encouraging for a basin like the American where the moderate to high forest cover will necessarily obscure more of the snow-covered ground surface than in previously examined, less-vegetated basins. The PBS generally outperformed the EnBS: for snow pillows the PBSRMSE was approx.54%of that seen in the EnBS, while for snow courses the PBSRMSE was approx.79%of the EnBS. Sensitivity tests show relative insensitivity for both the PBS and EnBS results to ensemble size and fSCA measurement error, but a higher sensitivity for the EnBS to the mean prior precipitation input, especially in the case where significant prior biases exist.

  18. A toxic equivalency factor scale for polychlorinated dibenzofurans

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tysklind, M.; Tillitt, D.; Eriksson, L.; Lundgren, K.; Rappe, C.

    1994-01-01

    The ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) induction of 20 polychiorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) was examined in the H4IIE rat hepatoma cell bioassay. The selection of the compounds tested was based on a multivariate chemical characterization laying the groundwork for covering the whole chemical series of PCDFs. The EROD induction potency was found to vary in ED50 values from 25 to 100,000,000 pg/mg, i.e., nearly seven orders of magnitude. The response of the bioassay was calibrated against the 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, enabling the corresponding toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) to be calculated. In order to establish a quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) for the TEF values, 37 physicochemical descriptor variables were used to chemically characterize the 87 tetra- to octachlorinated PCDFs. Using partial least-squares modeling on a training set of 10 congeners, a QSAR model with sound predictive power was obtained. The QSAR model was validated with a validation set of additional 10 congeners. The predicted TEFs indicate that a large number of congeners are potent EROD inducers.

  19. A New Formulation of Equivalent Effective Stratospheric Chlorine (EESC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, P. A.; Daniel, J. S.; Waugh, D. W.; Nash, E. R.

    2007-01-01

    Equivalent effective stratospheric chlorine (EESC) is a convenient parameter to quantify the effects of halogens (chlorine and bromine) on ozone depletion in the stratosphere. We show and discuss a new formulation of EESC that now includes the effects of age-of-air dependent fractional release values and an age-of-air spectrum. This new formulation provides quantitative estimates of EESC that can be directly related to inorganic chlorine and bromine throughout the stratosphere. Using this EESC formulation, we estimate that human-produced ozone depleting substances will recover to 1980 levels in 2041 in the midlatitudes, and 2067 over Antarctica. These recovery dates are based upon the assumption that the international agreements for regulating ozone-depleting substances are adhered to. In addition to recovery dates, we also estimate the uncertainties in the estimated time of recovery. The midlatitude recovery of 2041 has a 95% confidence uncertainty from 2028 to 2049, while the 2067 Antarctic recovery has a 95% confidence uncertainty from 2056 to 2078. The principal uncertainties are from the estimated mean age-of-air, and the assumption that the mean age-of-air and fractional release values are time independent. Using other model estimates of age decrease due to climate change, we estimate that midlatitude recovery may be accelerated from 2041 to 2031.

  20. An angular dependent neutron effective-dose-equivalent dosimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veinot, Kenneth Guy

    The effective-dose-equivalent (EDE) is a strong function of angular orientation in a radiation field. Detection systems that attempt to measure the EDE directly would be desirable. Historically, dosimeters have been designed to respond as isotropically as possible in a radiation field. However, since the EDE is strongly dependent upon the incident angle of the radiation, past designs are no longer desirable for personal radiation dosimetry. In addition, the EDE is a function of incident neutron energy. CR-39 foils are commonly used neutron detectors. Neutrons produce tracks in CR-39 (allyl diglycol polycarbonate) detectors over a wide energy range. Through chemical or electrochemical etching, these tracks can be enlarged and counted. From this track count, the fluence of neutrons incident on the CR-39 foils may be inferred. Thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) are another method of neutron detection. Both of these detectors have angular response properties. In the present work, calculations of EDE were compared to calculations and measurements of the angular responses of CR-39 and TLD neutron dosimeters. The measurements used a variety of neutron sources, each with its own characteristic energy spectrum. This research resulted in a neutron personal dosimeter prototype whose angular response properties resembled the angular response of EDE.