Science.gov

Sample records for additional research efforts

  1. Structured additive distributional regression for analysing landings per unit effort in fisheries research.

    PubMed

    Mamouridis, Valeria; Klein, Nadja; Kneib, Thomas; Cadarso Suarez, Carmen; Maynou, Francesc

    2017-01-01

    We analysed the landings per unit effort (LPUE) from the Barcelona trawl fleet targeting the red shrimp (Aristeus antennatus) using novel Bayesian structured additive distributional regression to gain a better understanding of the dynamics and determinants of variation in LPUE. The data set, covering a time span of 17 years, includes fleet-dependent variables (e.g. the number of trips performed by vessels), temporal variables (inter- and intra-annual variability) and environmental variables (the North Atlantic Oscillation index). Based on structured additive distributional regression, we evaluate (i) the gain in replacing purely linear predictors by additive predictors including nonlinear effects of continuous covariates, (ii) the inclusion of vessel-specific effects based on either fixed or random effects, (iii) different types of distributions for the response, and (iv) the potential gain in not only modelling the location but also the scale/shape parameter of these distributions. Our findings support that flexible model variants are indeed able to improve the fit considerably and that additional insights can be gained. Tools to select within several model specifications and assumptions are discussed in detail as well.

  2. Stepping up research efforts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) – Agricultural Research Service (ARS) is the principal in-house research agency within the USDA. The USDA-ARS provides research for finding solutions to agricultural problems. The Hydraulic Engineering Research Unit (HERU) within the USDA-ARS prov...

  3. UV RESEARCH - FUNDED AND IN HOUSE EFFORTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Risk Management research Laboratory (NRMRL) has performed or funded limited in-house and extramural research on the disinfection of CCL listed organisms using ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. In addition, multiple extramural efforts have been funded to assess operation...

  4. NASA OSMA NDE Program Additive Manufacturing Foundational Effort

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waller, Jess; Walker, James; Burke, Eric; Wells, Douglas; Nichols, Charles

    2016-01-01

    NASA is providing key leadership in an international effort linking NASA and non-NASA resources to speed adoption of additive manufacturing (AM) to meet NASA's mission goals. Participants include industry, NASA's space partners, other government agencies, standards organizations and academia. Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) is identified as a universal need for all aspects of additive manufacturing.

  5. Patterns of Research Effort in Birds

    PubMed Central

    Ducatez, Simon; Lefebvre, Louis

    2014-01-01

    Between species differences in research effort can lead to biases in our global view of evolution, ecology and conservation. The increase in meta-taxonomic comparative analyses on birds underlines the need to better address how research effort is distributed in this class. Methods have been developed to choose which species should be studied to obtain unbiased comparative data sets, but a precise and global knowledge of research effort is required to be able to properly apply them. We address this issue by providing a data set of research effort (number of papers from 1978 to 2008 in the Zoological Record database) estimates for the 10 064 species of birds. We then test whether research effort is associated with phylogeny, geography and eleven different life history and ecological traits. We show that phylogeny accounts for a large proportion of the variance, while geographic range and all the tested traits are also significant contributors to research effort variance. We identify avian taxa that are under- and overstudied and address the importance of research effort biases in evaluating vulnerability to extinction, with non-threatened species studied twice as much as threatened ones. Our research effort data set covering the entire class Aves provides a tool for researchers to incorporate this potential confounding variable in comparative analyses. PMID:24587149

  6. Update on research software citation efforts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Alice

    2017-01-01

    Research software citation has received a lot of attention the past few years, as evidenced by numerous efforts that have discussed it, including WSSSPE, Force11 Software Citation Working Group, the Center for Open Science's Transparency and Openness Promotion (TOP) Guidelines, a workshop on Engineering Academic Software, and the CodeMeta project. This presentation briefly covers recent broad efforts to improve research transparency across disciplines through software availability and citation, and the Software Citation Principles that have recently been published as a result of the work done through Force11.

  7. Summary of NDE of additive manufacturing efforts in NASA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waller, Jess M.; Saulsberry, Regor L.; Parker, Bradford H.; Hodges, Kenneth L.; Burke, Eric R.; Taminger, Karen M.

    2015-03-01

    One of the major obstacles slowing the acceptance of parts made by additive manufacturing (AM) in NASA applications is the lack of a broadly accepted materials and process quality systems; and more specifically, the lack of adequate nondestructive evaluation (NDE) processes integrated into AM. Matching voluntary consensus standards are also needed to control the consistency of input materials, process equipment, process methods, finished part properties, and how those properties are characterized. As for nondestructive characterization, procedures are needed to interrogate features unique to parts made by AM, such as fine-scale porosity, deeply embedded flaws, complex part geometry, and intricate internal features. The NDE methods developed must be tailored to meet materials, design and test requirements encountered throughout the part life cycle, whether during process optimization, real-time process monitoring, finished part qualification and certification (especially of flight hardware), or in situ health monitoring. Restated, individualized process/product-specific NDE methods are needed to satisfy NASA's various quality assurance requirements. To date, only limited data have been acquired by NASA on parts made by AM. This paper summarizes the NASA AM effort, highlights available NDE data, and outlines the approach NASA is taking to apply NDE to its various AM efforts.

  8. Summary of NDE of Additive Manufacturing Efforts in NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waller, Jess; Saulsberry, Regor; Parker, Bradford; Hodges, Kenneth; Burke, Eric; Taminger, Karen

    2014-01-01

    (1) General Rationale for Additive Manufacturing (AM): (a) Operate under a 'design-to-constraint' paradigm, make parts too complicated to fabricate otherwise, (b) Reduce weight by 20 percent with monolithic parts, (c) Reduce waste (green manufacturing), (e) Eliminate reliance on Original Equipment Manufacturers for critical spares, and (f) Extend life of in-service parts by innovative repair methods; (2) NASA OSMA NDE of AM State-of-the-Discipline Report; (3) Overview of NASA AM Efforts at Various Centers: (a) Analytical Tools, (b) Ground-Based Fabrication (c) Space-Based Fabrication; and (d) Center Activity Summaries; (4) Overview of NASA NDE data to date on AM parts; and (5) Gap Analysis/Recommendations for NDE of AM.

  9. Green Roof Research through EPA's Regional Applied Research Effort

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) Regional Applied Research Effort (RARE) allows the Regions of the EPA to choose research projects to be performed in partnership with EPA’s Office of Research and Development (ORD). Over the last decade, several green roo...

  10. Green Roof Research through EPA's Regional Applied Research Effort - slides

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) Regional Applied Research Effort (RARE) allows the Regions of the EPA to choose research projects to be performed in partnership with EPA’s Office of Research and Development (ORD). Over the last decade, several green roof projects...

  11. Using individual interest and conscientiousness to predict academic effort: Additive, synergistic, or compensatory effects?

    PubMed

    Trautwein, Ulrich; Lüdtke, Oliver; Nagy, Nicole; Lenski, Anna; Niggli, Alois; Schnyder, Inge

    2015-07-01

    Although both conscientiousness and domain-specific interest are believed to be major determinants of academic effort, they have rarely been brought together in empirical studies. In the present research, it was hypothesized that both interest and conscientiousness uniquely predict academic effort and statistically interact with each other to predict academic effort. In 4 studies with 2,557, 415, 1,025, and 1,531 students, respectively, conscientiousness and interest meaningfully and uniquely predicted academic effort. In addition, conscientiousness interacted with interest in a compensatory pattern, indicating that conscientiousness is especially important when a student finds a school subject uninteresting and that domain-specific interest plays a particularly important role for students low in conscientiousness.

  12. Case Studies in Describing Scientific Research Efforts as Linked Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gandara, A.; Villanueva-Rosales, N.; Gates, A.

    2013-12-01

    The Web is growing with numerous scientific resources, prompting increased efforts in information management to consider integration and exchange of scientific resources. Scientists have many options to share scientific resources on the Web; however, existing options provide limited support to scientists in annotating and relating research resources resulting from a scientific research effort. Moreover, there is no systematic approach to documenting scientific research and sharing it on the Web. This research proposes the Collect-Annotate-Refine-Publish (CARP) Methodology as an approach for guiding documentation of scientific research on the Semantic Web as scientific collections. Scientific collections are structured descriptions about scientific research that make scientific results accessible based on context. In addition, scientific collections enhance the Linked Data data space and can be queried by machines. Three case studies were conducted on research efforts at the Cyber-ShARE Research Center of Excellence in order to assess the effectiveness of the methodology to create scientific collections. The case studies exposed the challenges and benefits of leveraging the Semantic Web and Linked Data data space to facilitate access, integration and processing of Web-accessible scientific resources and research documentation. As such, we present the case study findings and lessons learned in documenting scientific research using CARP.

  13. Regionally Applied Research Efforts (RARE) Report titled " ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The traditional methodology for health risk assessment used by the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is based on the use of exposure assumptions (e.g. exposure duration, food ingestion rate, body weight, etc.) that represent the entire American population, either as a central tendency exposure (e.g. average, median) or as a reasonable maximum exposure (e.g. 95% upper confidence limit). Unfortunately, EPA lacked exposure information for assessing health risks for New England regional tribes sustaining a tribal subsistence way of life. As a riverine tribe, the Penobscot culture and traditions are inextricably tied to the Penobscot River watershed. It is through hunting, fishing, trapping, gathering and making baskets, pottery, moccasins, birch-bark canoes and other traditional practices that the Penobscot culture and people are sustained. The Penobscot River receives a variety of pollutant discharges leaving the Penobscot Indian Nation (PIN) questioning the ecological health and water quality of the river and how this may affect the practices that sustain their way of life. The objectives of this Regional Applied Research Effort (RARE) study were to: (1) Develop culturally sensitive methodologies for assessing the potential level of exposure to contaminants that Penobscot Indian Nation tribal members may have from maintaining tribal sustenance practices; (2) Conduct field surveys and laboratory analysis on targeted flora and fauna for chemical expo

  14. Community Efforts Bringing Research on Learning to the Geosciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manduca, C. A.; Mogk, D. W.; Kastens, K. A.

    2009-12-01

    synthesis of research on learning in the geosciences is currently expanding the interdisciplinary base for research on geoscience teaching and learning through the collaborative development of papers addressing spatial thinking, geologic time, complex systems, and learning in the field. Participants in this project include anthropologists and philosophers in addition to geologists, oceanographers, atmospheric scientists, education researches and psychologists. The project is currently seeking commentators to respond to an initial set of papers and has initiated the Earth and Mind blog as a mechanism for increased discussion and community interaction. This project builds on the GSA special volume ‘Earth and Mind’ which included writing by geoscience researchers, psychologists and education researchers addressing how we teach and learn about the Earth. These community efforts are an essential aspect of scientific research supporting discussion and synthesis of results and generation of new questions. The breadth of participants in this community indicates the importance of the work within and beyond the geosciences and is an indicator of its robustness.

  15. Making Life Easier with Effort: Basic Findings and Applied Research on Response Effort.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friman, Patrick C.; Poling, Alan

    1995-01-01

    This paper summarizes basic research on response effort in diverse applied areas including deceleration of aberrant behavior, attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder, oral habits, littering, and problem solving. The paper concludes that response effort as an independent variable has potent effects, and research exploring the applied benefits of…

  16. Assessing Organizational Efforts to Mobilize Research Knowledge in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qi, Jie; Levin, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a framework for evaluating efforts by organizations to share research as exemplified on their websites, then reports the result of an evaluation of these efforts in 100 organizations. The result shows that the overall research sharing efforts of these organizations are modest and not well aligned to evidence on effective…

  17. School Districts as Partners in Research Efforts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muñoz, Marco A.; Rodosky, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    When researchers are focused on improving teaching-and-learning domains that match the school district's strategic plan, not only focusing on their own research agenda, they yield powerful results that can be useful for guiding processes of improving student learning.

  18. Making life easier with effort: Basic findings and applied research on response effort

    PubMed Central

    Friman, Patrick C.; Poling, Alan

    1995-01-01

    Early basic research showed that increases in required response effort (or force) produced effects that resembled those produced by punishment. A recent study by Alling and Poling determined some subtle differences between the two behavior-change strategies, but also confirmed that increasing required effort is an effective response-reduction procedure with enduring effects. In this paper we summarize basic research on response effort and explore the role of effort in diverse applied areas including deceleration of aberrant behavior, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, oral habits, health care appointment keeping, littering, indexes of functional disability, and problem solving. We conclude that renewed interest in response effort as an independent variable is justified because of its potent effects and because the political constraints imposed on punishment- and reinforcement-based procedures have yet to be imposed on procedures that entail manipulations of response effort. PMID:16795886

  19. Making life easier with effort: Basic findings and applied research on response effort.

    PubMed

    Friman, P C

    1995-01-01

    Early basic research showed that increases in required response effort (or force) produced effects that resembled those produced by punishment. A recent study by Alling and Poling determined some subtle differences between the two behavior-change strategies, but also confirmed that increasing required effort is an effective response-reduction procedure with enduring effects. In this paper we summarize basic research on response effort and explore the role of effort in diverse applied areas including deceleration of aberrant behavior, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, oral habits, health care appointment keeping, littering, indexes of functional disability, and problem solving. We conclude that renewed interest in response effort as an independent variable is justified because of its potent effects and because the political constraints imposed on punishment- and reinforcement-based procedures have yet to be imposed on procedures that entail manipulations of response effort.

  20. Research effort aims at floating production technology

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-08-17

    This paper reports that a 3 year research and development program on floating production systems (FPS), instigated by the Royal Norwegian Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (NTNF), has refined and qualified technologies for North Sea and arctic conditions. The FPS 2000 program, which cost 58 million kroner ($10 million), concentrated mainly on mooring systems and pipeline technology, along with new system concepts and cost reduction measures. More than 30 projects have been completed within the scheme. The anchoring and positioning project concentrates on developing methods for simulating behavior of mooring systems for large volume structures in deep water. It also seeks ways to determine efficiency of dynamic positioning thrusters under extreme conditions.

  1. Overview of the Langley subsonic research effort on SCR configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coe, P. L., Jr.; Thomas, J. D.; Huffman, J. K.; Weston, R. P.; Schoonover, W. E., Jr.; Gentry, C. L., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Recent advances achieved in the subsonic aerodynamics of low aspect ratio, highly swept wing designs are summarized. The most significant of these advances was the development of leading edge deflection concepts which effectively reduce leading edge flow separation. The improved flow attachment results in substantial improvements in low speed performance, significant delay of longitudinal pitch up, increased trailing edge flap effectiveness, and increased lateral control capability. Various additional theoretical and/or experimental studies are considered which, in conjunction with the leading edge deflection studies, form the basis for future subsonic research effort.

  2. Assessing country-level efforts to link research to action.

    PubMed Central

    Lavis, John N.; Lomas, Jonathan; Hamid, Maimunah; Sewankambo, Nelson K.

    2006-01-01

    We developed a framework for assessing country-level efforts to link research to action. The framework has four elements. The first element assesses the general climate (how those who fund research, universities, researchers and users of research support or place value on efforts to link research to action). The second element addresses the production of research (how priority setting ensures that users' needs are identified and how scoping reviews, systematic reviews and single studies are undertaken to address these needs). The third element addresses the mix of four clusters of activities used to link research to action. These include push efforts (how strategies are used to support action based on the messages arising from research), efforts to facilitate "user pull" (how "one-stop shopping" is provided for optimally packaged high-quality reviews either alone or as part of a national electronic library for health, how these reviews are profiled during "teachable moments" such as intense media coverage, and how rapid-response units meet users' needs for the best research), "user pull" efforts undertaken by those who use research (how users assess their capacity to use research and how structures and processes are changed to support the use of research) and exchange efforts (how meaningful partnerships between researchers and users help them to jointly ask and answer relevant questions). The fourth element addresses approaches to evaluation (how support is provided for rigorous evaluations of efforts to link research to action). PMID:16917649

  3. Defense Additive Manufacturing: DOD Needs to Systematically Track Department-wide 3D Printing Efforts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    Clip Additively Manufactured • The Navy installed a 3D printer aboard the USS Essex to demonstrate the ability to additively develop and produce...desired result and vision to have the capability on the fleet. These officials stated that the Navy plans to install 3D printers on two additional...DEFENSE ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING DOD Needs to Systematically Track Department-wide 3D Printing Efforts Report to

  4. Overview of NASA Magnet and Linear Alternator Research Efforts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geng, Steven M.; Schwarze, Gene E.; Nieda, Janis M.

    2005-01-01

    The Department of Energy, Lockheed Martin, Stirling Technology Company, and NASA Glenn Research Center are developing a high-efficiency, 110 watt Stirling Radioisotope Generator (SRG110) for NASA Space Science missions. NASA Glenn is conducting in-house research on rare earth permanent magnets and on linear alternators to assist in developing a free-piston Stirling convertor for the SRG110 and for developing advanced technology. The permanent magnet research efforts include magnet characterization, short-term magnet aging tests, and long-term magnet aging tests. Linear alternator research efforts have begun just recently at GRC with the characterization of a moving iron type linear alternator using GRC's alternator test rig. This paper reports on the progress and future plans of GRC's magnet and linear alternator research efforts.

  5. Overview of NASA Magnet and Linear Alternator Research Efforts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, Steven M.; Niedra, Janis M.; Schwarze, Gene E.

    2005-02-01

    The Department of Energy, Lockheed Martin, Stirling Technology Company, and NASA Glenn Research Center are developing a high-efficiency, 110 watt Stirling Radioisotope Generator (SRG110) for NASA Space Science missions. NASA Glenn is conducting in-house research on rare earth permanent magnets and on linear alternators to assist in developing a free-piston Stirling convertor for the SRG110 and for developing advanced technology. The permanent magnet research efforts include magnet characterization, short-term magnet aging tests, and long-term magnet aging tests. Linear alternator research efforts have begun just recently at GRC with the characterization of a moving iron type linear alternator using GRC's alternator test rig. This paper reports on the progress and future plans of GRC's magnet and linear alternator research efforts.

  6. Researchers Rebuild their Effort to Rebuild the Internet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jeffrey R.

    2008-01-01

    Reinveting the Internet is not easy. Researchers working on a federally supported effort to design a replacement recently had to go back to the drawing board. They now think the best way to do it is to try several "best ways" instead of searching for just one--and to invite help from social scientists rather than just self-described computer…

  7. Physics Education Research efforts to promote diversity: Challenges and opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brahmia, Suzanne

    2015-04-01

    We begin this talk with a brief description of the gender and ethnic diversity of the physics community. We then discuss several current efforts within Physics Education Research that have the potential to further our understanding of issues surrounding underrepresentation. These efforts include research into (1) the role of community and strategies for developing effective communities; (2) physics identity and self-efficacy; (3) the affordances that students from underrepresented groups bring to physics learning; (4) socioeconomics and its impact on mathematization. One of the challenges to conducting this research is the relatively small proportion of underrepresented minority students in current physics classes, and the small number of women in physics and engineering majors. In collaboration with Stephen Kanim, New Mexico State University.

  8. Creep and fatigue research efforts on advanced materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gayda, John

    1990-01-01

    Two of the more important materials problems encountered in turbine blades of aircraft engines are creep and fatigue. To withstand these high-temperature phenomena, modern engines utilize single-crystal, nickel-base superalloys as the material of choice in critical applications. This paper will present recent research activities at NASA's Lewis Research Center on single-crystal blading material, related to creep and fatique. The goal of these research efforts is to improve the understanding of microstructure-property relationships and thereby guide material development.

  9. Creep and fatigue research efforts on advanced materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gayda, John

    1987-01-01

    Two of the more important materials problems encountered in turbine blades of aircraft engines are creep and fatigue. To withstand these high-temperature phenomena modern engines utilize single-crystal, nickel-based superalloys as the material of choice in critical applications. Recent research activities at Lewis on single-crystal blading material as well as future research initiatives on metal matrix composites related to creep and fatigue are discussed. The goal of these research efforts is improving the understanding of microstructure-property relationships and thereby guide material development.

  10. DOD Financial Management: Additional Efforts Needed to Improve Audit Readiness of Navy Military Pay and Other Related Activities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    DOD FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT Additional Efforts Needed to Improve Audit Readiness of Navy Military Pay and Other Related...REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2015 to 00-00-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE DOD Financial Management: Additional Efforts Needed to Improve Audit ...Additional Efforts Needed to Improve Audit Readiness of Navy Military Pay and Other Related Activities Why GAO Did This Study DOD continues to work

  11. Evaluating U.S. medical schools' efforts to educate faculty researchers on research integrity and research misconduct policies and procedures.

    PubMed

    Titus, Sandra Larsen

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines how well U.S. medical school institutions are doing to promote research integrity. It is an important question to ask in order to determine whether there are sufficient and adequate protections in place to protect the U.S. Public Health Service's (PHS) resources devoted to medical research. This paper focuses on 5,100 medical school researchers' knowledge of what constitutes research misconduct as well as their willingness to report it to the research integrity officer (RIO) and educate their Ph.D. trainees. We learned that 5.6% of researchers could correctly distinguish seven or more of the nine scenarios that depicted likely research misconduct, as defined by the PHS regulations, from scenarios describing other ethical issues. Instead, researchers had expansive definitions and often inappropriately identified infractions such as conflicts of interest, Institutional Review Board (IRB) violations, and other breaches in ethical standards to be research misconduct. In addition, researchers who correctly identified four instances of likely research misconduct in the test items were highly unlikely to report their observations to a RIO. Researchers also provided insight on the factors they believe influence their decision making process of whether to report research misconduct. In addition, this paper also reports on the guidance that faculty said they provided their trainees on research misconduct issues. We conclude with a discussion and recommendations on what institutional leaders might consider doing in order to enhance their research integrity efforts and protect their institution's reputation.

  12. Department of Energy Efforts to Promote Universal Adherence to the IAEA Additional Protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Killinger, Mark H.; Hansen, Linda H.; Kovacic, Don N.; VanSickle, Matthew; Apt, Kenneth E.

    2009-10-06

    Entry-into-force of the U.S. Additional Protocol (AP) in January 2009 continues to demonstrate the ongoing commitment by the United States to promote universal adherence to the AP. The AP is a critical tool for improving the International Atomic Energy Agency’s (IAEA) capabilities to detect undeclared activities that indicate a clandestine nuclear weapons program. This is because States Parties are required to provide information about, and access to, nuclear fuel cycle activities beyond their traditional safeguards reporting requirements. As part of the U.S. AP Implementation Act and Senate Resolution of Ratification, the Administration is required to report annually to Congress on measures taken to achieve the adoption of the AP in non-nuclear weapon states, as well as assistance to the IAEA to promote the effective implementation of APs in those states. A key U.S. effort in this area is being managed by the International Nuclear Safeguards and Engagement Program (INSEP) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Through new and existing bilateral cooperation agreements, INSEP has initiated technical assistance projects for AP implementation with selected non-weapon states. States with which INSEP is currently cooperating include Vietnam and Thailand, with Indonesia, Algeria, Morocco, and other countries as possible future collaborators in the area of AP implementation. The INSEP collaborative model begins with a joint assessment with our partners to identify specific needs they may have regarding entering the AP into force and any impediments to successful implementation. An action plan is then developed detailing and prioritizing the necessary joint activities. Such assistance may include: advice on developing legal frameworks and regulatory documents; workshops to promote understanding of AP requirements; training to determine possible declarable activities; assistance in developing a system to collect and submit declarations; performing industry outreach to

  13. Phytopthora ramorum in Belgium: 2002 survey results and research efforts.

    PubMed

    Heungens, K; Crepel, C; Inghelbrecht, S; Maes, M

    2003-01-01

    Phytophthora ramorum is a new and aggressive Phytophthora species that causes leaf blight and dieback symptoms on Viburnum and Rhododendron plants in Europe. A variant of this fungus is responsible for Sudden Oak Death (SOD) in California and Oregon. In Europe, problems so far are mostly restricted to nursery plants of Rhododendron and Viburnum while in the US, the fungus has been isolated from over 20 host species and is responsible for massive killing of oak trees (mostly Quercus agrifolia and Lithocarpus densiflorus) in forest and park settings. The potential for infection of native tree species in Europe and the recent detection of the fungus in nurseries of several European countries has lead to the implementation of EU emergency phytosanitary measures. As a result, most European countries have conducted surveys and are doing research as part of risk assessment efforts. The first part of this paper focuses on the plant diagnoses of the 2002 survey of P. ramorum in Belgian nurseries. The data from the survey indicates P. ramorum is present in Belgium at similar rates as in the neighbouring countries, in an apparent random distribution. The second part of this paper describes research results relating to the in vitro effect of oomycete fungicides on P. ramorum, Rhododendron cultivar susceptibility, the determination of the leaf infection site, and pathogen survival. Some fungicides had excellent in vitro activity against P. ramorum and should be tested further on plants. Use of host resistance as a control strategy may be limited as little difference in cultivar sensitivity was observed. Infection studies showed that wounds and the lower sides of the leaves are most susceptible to infection. Once the pathogen gets inside, it can survive well on detached leaves, especially when they are kept cool and moist. These data can contribute to management decisions of P. ramorum at the level of nurseries as well as the government.

  14. Present and Future Automotive Composite Materials Research Efforts at DOE

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, C.D.

    1999-07-03

    Automobiles of the future will be forced to travel fi.uther on a tank of fuel while discharging lower levels of pollutants. Currently, the United States uses in excess of 16.4 million barrels of petroleum per day. Sixty-six percent of that petroleum is used in the transportation of people and goods. Automobiles currently account for just under two-thirds of the nation's gasoline consumptio~ and about one-third of the total United States energy usage. [1] By improving transportation related fiel efficiency, the United States can lessen the impact that emissions have on our environment and provide a cleaner environment for fiture generations. In 1992, The Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Transportation Materials completed a comprehensive program plan entitled, The Lightweight MateriaIs (LWko Multi-Year Program Plan, for the development of technologies aimed at reducing vehicle mass [2]. This plan was followed in 1997 by the more comprehensive Office of Advanced Automotive Technologies research and development plan titled, Energy Eficient Vehicles for a Cleaner Environment [3] which outlines the department's plans for developing more efficient vehicles during the next ~een years. Both plans identi~ potential applications, technology needs, and R&D priorities. The goal of the Lightweight Materials Program is to develop materials and primary processing methods for the fabrication of lighter weight components which can be incorporated into automotive systems. These technologies are intended to reduce vehicle weight, increase fuel efficiency and decrease emissions. The Lightweight Materials program is jointly managed by the Department of Energy(DOE) and the United States Automotive Materials Partnership (USAMP). Composite materiak program work is coordinated by cooperative research efforts between the DOE and the Automotive Composites Consortium (ACC).

  15. Global unbalance in seaweed production, research effort and biotechnology markets.

    PubMed

    Mazarrasa, Inés; Olsen, Ylva S; Mayol, Eva; Marbà, Núria; Duarte, Carlos M

    2014-01-01

    Exploitation of the world's oceans is rapidly growing as evidenced by a booming patent market of marine products including seaweed, a resource that is easily accessible without sophisticated bioprospecting technology and that has a high level of domestication globally. The investment in research effort on seaweed aquaculture has recently been identified to be the main force for the development of a biotechnology market of seaweed-derived products and is a more important driver than the capacity of seaweed production. Here, we examined seaweed patent registrations between 1980 and 2009 to assess the growth rate of seaweed biotechnology, its geographic distribution and the types of applications patented. We compare this growth with scientific investment in seaweed aquaculture and with the market of seaweed production. We found that both the seaweed patenting market and the rate of scientific publications are rapidly growing (11% and 16.8% per year respectively) since 1990. The patent market is highly geographically skewed (95% of all registrations belonging to ten countries and the top two holding 65% of the total) compared to the distribution of scientific output among countries (60% of all scientific publications belonging to ten countries and the top two countries holding a 21%), but more homogeneously distributed than the production market (with a 99.8% belonging to the top ten countries, and a 71% to the top two). Food industry was the dominant application for both the patent registrations (37.7%) and the scientific publications (21%) followed in both cases by agriculture and aquaculture applications. This result is consistent with the seaweed taxa most represented. Kelp, which was the target taxa for 47% of the patent registrations, is a traditional ingredient in Asian food and Gracilaria and Ulva, which were the focus of 15% and 13% of the scientific publications respectively, that are also used in more sophisticated applications such as cosmetics, chemical

  16. Supreme Court Decision Could Help Efforts to Block Animal Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaschik, Scott

    1991-01-01

    A decision in the case involving the "Silver Spring Monkeys" and National Institutes of Health research left open the possibility of suing the federal agency in state courts, possibly making it easier for animal-rights groups to block some animal research. However, the ruling addresses only a narrow jurisdictional question. (MSE)

  17. Student Effort in and Perceived Benefits from Undergraduate Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salsman, Nicholas; Dulaney, Cynthia L.; Chinta, Ravi; Zascavage, Victoria; Joshi, Hem

    2013-01-01

    The benefits of student engagement in undergraduate research are well-recognized by many higher education institutions. Increased emphasis on undergraduate research in these institutions has taken many forms resulting in considerable differences across institutions ranging from "light touch" to "heavy duty" involvement of…

  18. The Cossack Ranger II Seismograph, Research And Outreach Efforts.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husebye, E. S.; Fedorenko, Y. V.; Pilgaev, S. V.; Matveeva, T. S.

    2006-12-01

    Earthquake monitoring is a highly desirable endaveour among seismologists but far from easy in practise. The reason for this is 3-fold; costly instrumentation, colleagues who dislike competition in network operations and running costs in terms of data transfer, storage and analysis. However, developments in recent years have off- set technical obstacles of the above kinds thus allowing for personal or small institution seismometry albeit the human factor remains. Anyway, a conventional SP-seismometer costs at least 2000 dollars while a complete 3-component seismograph may well cost 10000 dollars. However, a geophone-based 3-component seismograph may cost less than 2000 dollars but still have a performance matching that of a conventional station. The largest worry is normally not the one-time instrument expenses but operational and maintenance costs over say a 5-years time span. A solution here is socalled Seis Schooloperations implying that stations are deployed close to schools having good 'rocky' sites and permanent Internet access. Such sites are not necessarily optimum regarding ambient noise but on the other hand offer free data transfer to Hub and dedicated teachers taking care of the station operation. We have deployed small seismograph networks based on the above design and operational principles both in Norway and Karelia (NW Russia) as part of national outreach efforts. Noteworthy; recordings from these networks have proved useful in advanced wavefield analysis. A number of countries are economically poor but rich in earthquake activities. In other words, can hardly afford adequate monitoring of local seismicity. An interesting undertaking here is the SENSES project in Bulgaria supported by the "NATO Science for Peace and Security Programme' including 25 seismograph stations deployed nation-wide at sites close to local high schools. The close cooperation with these schools will ensure modest operational costs but also strengthen local outreach efforts in

  19. DOE Automotive Composite Materials Research: Present and Future Efforts

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, C.D.

    1999-08-10

    One method of increasing automotive energy efficiency is through mass reduction of structural components by the incorporation of composite materials. Significant use of glass reinforced polymers as structural components could yield a 20--30% reduction in vehicle weight while the use of carbon fiber reinforced materials could yield a 40--60% reduction in mass. Specific areas of research for lightweighting automotive components are listed, along with research needs for each of these categories: (1) low mass metals; (2) polymer composites; and (3) ceramic materials.

  20. A Mathematical Model for Assessing Target Vulnerability Research Efforts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-10-31

    Boeing Co. ATTN: Document Control for A. Chabai ATTN: K. Friddell ATTN: Document Control for W. Herrmann ATTN: Aerospace Library ATTN: Document Control...K. Kreyenhagen ATTN: OSI/ NED ATTN: Library ATTN: S. Shuster Department of the Interior Bureau of Mines California Research & Technology, Inc. ATTN

  1. Research on Children's Environmental Programmatic Efforts Pertaining to Fatherhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagan, Jay

    2007-01-01

    Programmatic initiatives for fathers have grown rapidly in early childhood settings during the past decade. This article reviews the research literature on attitudes about father involvement in programs, patterns of father involvement, studies about program development, outcome studies, and correlates of father involvement in programs.…

  2. Aerospace Plane Technology, Research and Development Efforts in Europe

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-07-25

    developed by 2005. The official also said that Saenger II development would follow between 2015 and 2020. A Federal Ministry for Research and Technology...degrees Fahrenheit. NASP’S first flight is scheduled for 1997, which is still ahead of HOTOL’S first planned flight in 2000 and Saenger II’s in 2015 ...completing the project by 2015 . The milestones do not include scramjet technology, which, according to Avions Marcel Dassault-Breguet Aviation officials

  3. The CITARS effort by the environmental research institute of Michigan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malila, W. A.; Rice, D. P.; Cicone, R. C.

    1975-01-01

    The objectives of the research task for crop identification technology assessment for remote sensing are outlined. Data gathered by the Landsat 1 multispectral scanner over the U.S. Corn Belt during 1973 is described, and procedures for recognition processing of the data is discussed in detail. The major crops of prime interest were corn and soybeans; they were recognized with different levels of accuracy throughout the growing season, but particularly during late August. Wheat was the major crop of interest in early June.

  4. United States Research and Development effort on ITER magnet tasks

    DOE PAGES

    Martovetsky, Nicolai N.; Reierson, Wayne T.

    2011-01-22

    This study presents the status of research and development (R&D) magnet tasks that are being performed in support of the U.S. ITER Project Office (USIPO) commitment to provide a central solenoid assembly and toroidal field conductor for the ITER machine to be constructed in Cadarache, France. The following development tasks are presented: winding development, inlets and outlets development, internal and bus joints development and testing, insulation development and qualification, vacuum-pressure impregnation, bus supports, and intermodule structure and materials characterization.

  5. Community-Engaged Strategies to Promote Relevance of Research Capacity-Building Efforts Targeting Community Organizations

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Jennifer; Miller, Stephania T.; Joosten, Yvonne; Elzey, Jared D.; Israel, Tiffany; King, Christine; Luther, Patrick; Vaughn, Yolanda; Wilkins, Consuelo H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The study goal is to highlight strategies for promoting relevance of research capacity-building efforts targeting community organizations (CO)s. Methods Two community partners, representing two COs, were invited to participate in CO research development trainings, Community Research Forums (Forum)s. Their contributions were documented via Forum document review. Forum participants, representatives from other COs, completed post-Forum surveys to identify additional training needs and rate Forum impact relative to their training expectations. A content-based analysis and descriptive statistics were used to summarize needs assessment- and impact-related survey responses, respectively. Results Community partners were involved in eight Forum-related activities including marketing (planning), facilitation (implementation), and manuscript co-authorship (dissemination). Eighty-one individuals, representing 55 COs, attended the Forums. Needs assessment responses revealed a desire for additional assistance with existing Forum topics (e.g., defining research priorities) and a need for new ones (e.g., promoting organizational buy-in for research). Ninety-one percent of participants agreed that the Forum demonstrated the value of research to COs and how to create a research agenda. Conclusions Including community partners in all Forum phases ensured that CO perspectives were integrated throughout. Post-forum needs and impact assessment results will help in tailoring, where needed, future training topics and strategies, respectively. PMID:25951171

  6. Analysis of international efforts in energy research and development

    SciTech Connect

    Rezaiyan, A.J.; Gill, R.T.

    1995-09-01

    Research and experimental development comprise innovative and creative work undertaken systematically to increase the stock of knowledge of science, engineering, and society. This knowledge reserve is used to improve living conditions and standards, including economic growth. Research and development (R&D) expenditures are useful measures of the scale and direction of technological innovation within a country, industry, or scientific field. Administrators concerned with economic growth and performance rely on R&D statistics as one possible type of indicator of technological change. R&D statistics are an essential tool in many government programs and evaluations (OECD 1993). The objective of the analysis was to identify and evaluate R&D funding sources, levels, and trends in the energy sectors of selected industrialized countries (Australia, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom, United States) and the European Union (EU). Fossil fuel technologies, particularly fuel cells and advanced gas turbines, were the focus of the analysis, whose results are presented in this report.

  7. Group-effort Applied Research: Expanding Opportunities for Undergraduate Research through Original, Class-Based Research Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Sean D.; Teter, Ken

    2014-01-01

    Undergraduate research clearly enriches the educational development of participating students, but these experiences are limited by the inherent inefficiency of the standard one student-one mentor model for undergraduate research. Group-effort applied research (GEAR) was developed as a strategy to provide substantial numbers of undergraduates with…

  8. Human Capital: Additional Actions Needed to Enhance DOD’s Efforts to Address Mental Health Care Stigma

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-01

    stress disorder or traumatic brain injury. Additionally, the Defense Suicide Prevention Office reports through the Executive Director of the Office of...Efforts to Address Mental Health Care Stigma Why GAO Did This Study A 2010 DOD task force on suicide prevention concluded that stigma—the negative...Representatives A 2010 Department of Defense (DOD) Task Force on the Prevention of Suicide by Members of the Armed Forces concluded that

  9. Unmanned Aircraft Systems: Additional Actions Needed to Improve Management and Integration of DOD Efforts to Support Warfighter Needs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-11-01

    Services, House of Representatives UNMANNED AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS Additional Actions Needed to Improve Management and Integration of DOD Efforts to...Armed Services, House of Representatives The Department of Defense’s (DOD) use of unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) continues to increase. In 2000...unmanned aircraft systems This is a work of the U.S. government and is not subject to copyright protection in the United States. It may be reproduced

  10. Research efforts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ziegler, M. G.

    1983-01-01

    Conjugated catecholamines, deconjugation of catecholamines in cerbrospinal fluid or urine, the relationship of plasma norepinephrine to levels of severe stress, and catecholamine clearance rates are discussed.

  11. Diversity patterns, research trends and mismatches of the investigative efforts to amphibian conservation in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Campos, Felipe S; Brito, Daniel; Solé, Mirco

    2014-12-01

    The number of papers on biology of amphibians has increased in the recent years. A detailed overview of the publications on amphibians can be very useful in assessing the status of our knowledge about this taxonomic group. Due to the large number of articles published, we aimed to assess the scientific contribution of herpetological researches carried out between the years 2001 and 2010 on Brazilian amphibians, considering the diversity patterns, the threats and the research topics that have been published most often. We applied scientometric attention indexes in the reviewed studies from seven scientific databases. To examine the relationship between the numbers of species recorded locally and regionally at different spatial scales, we used an additive partitioning of diversity in three hierarchical levels (i.e., states, geographic regions and biomes). We evaluated 892 articles and 914 species, which showed that 65 % of the total diversity of Brazilian amphibian species was represented by the beta diversity among the biomes. We identified many differences in the allocation of research efforts for taxonomic groups, threats categories, geographic regions, and research topics, highlighting the main research trends conducted and the priority themes for investigation of further papers on Brazilian amphibians.

  12. A Semantic Web-Based Methodology for Describing Scientific Research Efforts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gandara, Aida

    2013-01-01

    Scientists produce research resources that are useful to future research and innovative efforts. In a typical scientific scenario, the results created by a collaborative team often include numerous artifacts, observations and relationships relevant to research findings, such as programs that generate data, parameters that impact outputs, workflows…

  13. Asphalt and asphalt additives. Transportation research record

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    Contents: use of asphalt emulsions for in-place recycling: oregon experience; gap-graded cold asphalt concrete: benefits of polymer-modified asphalt cement and fibers; cold in-place recycling for rehabilitation and widening of low-volume flexible pavements in indiana; in situ cold recycling of bituminous pavements with polymer-modified high float emulsions; evaluation of new generation of antistripping additives; correlation between performance-related characteristics of asphalt cement and its physicochemical parameters using corbett's fractions and hpgc; reaction rates and hardening susceptibilities as determined from pressure oxygen vessel aging of asphalts; evaluation of aging characteristics of asphalts by using tfot and rtfot at different temperature levels; summary of asphalt additive performance at selected sites; relating asphalt absorption to properties of asphalt cement and aggregate; study of the effectiveness of styrene-butadiene rubber latex in hot mix asphalt mixes; stability of straight and polymer-modified asphalts.

  14. Correlates of Research Effort in Carnivores: Body Size, Range Size and Diet Matter

    PubMed Central

    Brooke, Zoe M.; Bielby, Jon; Nambiar, Kate; Carbone, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Given the budgetary restrictions on scientific research and the increasing need to better inform conservation actions, it is important to identify the patterns and causes of biases in research effort. We combine bibliometric information from a literature review of almost 16,500 peer-reviewed publications on a well-known group of 286 species, the Order Carnivora, with global datasets on species' life history and ecological traits to explore patterns in research effort. Our study explores how species' characteristics influenced the degree to which they were studied (measured as the number of publications). We identified a wide variation in intensity of research effort at both Family and Species levels, with some of the least studied being those which may need protection in future. Our findings hint at the complex role of human perspectives in setting research agendas. We found that better-studied species tended to be large-bodied and have a large geographic range whilst omnivory had a negative relationship with research effort. IUCN threat status did not exhibit a strong relationship with research effort which suggests that the conservation needs of individual species are not major drivers of research interest. This work is the first to use a combination of bibliometric analysis and biological data to quantify and interpret gaps in research knowledge across an entire Order. Our results could be combined with other resources, such as Biodiversity Action Plans, to prioritise and co-ordinate future research effort, whilst our methods can be applied across many scientific disciplines to describe knowledge gaps. PMID:24695422

  15. Correlates of research effort in carnivores: body size, range size and diet matter.

    PubMed

    Brooke, Zoe M; Bielby, Jon; Nambiar, Kate; Carbone, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Given the budgetary restrictions on scientific research and the increasing need to better inform conservation actions, it is important to identify the patterns and causes of biases in research effort. We combine bibliometric information from a literature review of almost 16,500 peer-reviewed publications on a well-known group of 286 species, the Order Carnivora, with global datasets on species' life history and ecological traits to explore patterns in research effort. Our study explores how species' characteristics influenced the degree to which they were studied (measured as the number of publications). We identified a wide variation in intensity of research effort at both Family and Species levels, with some of the least studied being those which may need protection in future. Our findings hint at the complex role of human perspectives in setting research agendas. We found that better-studied species tended to be large-bodied and have a large geographic range whilst omnivory had a negative relationship with research effort. IUCN threat status did not exhibit a strong relationship with research effort which suggests that the conservation needs of individual species are not major drivers of research interest. This work is the first to use a combination of bibliometric analysis and biological data to quantify and interpret gaps in research knowledge across an entire Order. Our results could be combined with other resources, such as Biodiversity Action Plans, to prioritise and co-ordinate future research effort, whilst our methods can be applied across many scientific disciplines to describe knowledge gaps.

  16. Group-effort applied research: expanding opportunities for undergraduate research through original, class-based research projects.

    PubMed

    Moore, Sean D; Teter, Ken

    2014-01-01

    Undergraduate research clearly enriches the educational development of participating students, but these experiences are limited by the inherent inefficiency of the standard one student-one mentor model for undergraduate research. Group-effort applied research (GEAR) was developed as a strategy to provide substantial numbers of undergraduates with meaningful research experiences. The GEAR curriculum delivers concept-driven lecture material and provides hands-on training in the context of an active research project from the instructor's laboratory. Because GEAR is structured as a class, participating students benefit from intensive, supervised research training that involves a built-in network of peer support and abundant contact with faculty mentors. The class format also ensures a relatively standardized and consistent research experience. Furthermore, meaningful progress toward a research objective can be achieved more readily with GEAR than with the traditional one student-one mentor model of undergraduate research because sporadic mistakes by individuals in the class are overshadowed by the successes of the group as a whole. Three separate GEAR classes involving three distinct research projects have been offered to date. In this article, we provide an overview of the GEAR format and review some of the recurring themes for GEAR instruction. We propose GEAR can serve as a template to expand student opportunities for life science research without sacrificing the quality of the mentored research experience.

  17. Basic and Applied Materials Science Research Efforts at MSFC Germane to NASA Goals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Presently, a number of investigations are ongoing that blend basic research with engineering applications in support of NASA goals. These include (1) "Pore Formation and Mobility (PFMI) " An ISS Glovebox Investigation" NASA Selected Project - 400-34-3D; (2) "Interactions Between Rotating Bodies" Center Director's Discretionary Fund (CDDF) Project - 279-62-00-16; (3) "Molybdenum - Rhenium (Mo-Re) Alloys for Nuclear Fuel Containment" TD Collaboration - 800-11-02; (4) "Fabrication of Alumina - Metal Composites for Propulsion Components" ED Collaboration - 090-50-10; (5) "Radiation Shielding for Deep-Space Missions" SD Effort; (6) "Other Research". In brief, "Pore Formation and Mobility" is an experiment to be conducted in the ISS Microgravity Science Glovebox that will systematically investigate the development, movement, and interactions of bubbles (porosity) during the controlled directional solidification of a transparent material. In addition to promoting our general knowledge of porosity physics, this work will serve as a guide to future ISS experiments utilizing metal alloys. "Interactions Between Rotating Bodies" is a CDDF sponsored project that is critically examining, through theory and experiment, claims of "new" physics relating to gravity modification and electric field effects. "Molybdenum - Rhenium Alloys for Nuclear Fuel Containment" is a TD collaboration in support of nuclear propulsion. Mo-Re alloys are being evaluated and developed for nuclear fuel containment. "Fabrication of Alumina - Metal Composites for Propulsion Components" is an ED collaboration with the intent of increasing strength and decreasing weight of metal engine components through the incorporation of nanometer-sized alumina fibers. "Radiation Shielding for Deep-Space Missions" is an SD effort aimed at minimizing the health risk from radiation to human space voyagers; work to date has been primarily programmatic but experiments to develop hydrogen-rich materials for shielding are

  18. Panel Calls for More University Research in National Effort to Stop spread of AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, David L.

    1986-01-01

    An interagency committee recommends more university and industry involvement in efforts to stop the spread of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and find a cure, and encourages increased federal funding and assurances that funding will be ongoing for both basic biological and AIDS research. (MSE)

  19. Status of DOE efforts to renew acceptance of foreign research reactor spent nuclear fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Head, C.R.

    1997-08-01

    This presentation summarizes the efforts being made by the Department of Energy to renew acceptance of spent nuclear fuel shipments from foreign research reactors. The author reviews the actions undertaken in this process in a fairly chronological manner, through the present time, as well as the development of an environmental impact statement to support the proposed actions.

  20. Recent Efforts in Communications Research and Technology at the Glenn Research Center in Support of NASA's Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miranda, Felix A.

    2015-01-01

    As it has done in the past, NASA is currently engaged in furthering the frontiers of space and planetary exploration. The effectiveness in gathering the desired science data in the amount and quality required to perform this pioneering work relies heavily on the communications capabilities of the spacecraft and space platforms being considered to enable future missions. Accordingly, the continuous improvement and development of radiofrequency and optical communications systems are fundamental to prevent communications to become the limiting factor for space explorations. This presentation will discuss some of the research and technology development efforts currently underway at the NASA Glenn Research Center in the radio frequency (RF) and Optical Communications. Examples of work conducted in-house and also in collaboration with academia, industry, and other government agencies (OGA) in areas such as antenna technology, power amplifiers, radio frequency (RF) wave propagation through Earths atmosphere, ultra-sensitive receivers, thin films ferroelectric-based tunable components, among others, will be presented. In addition, the role of these and other related RF technologies in enabling the NASA next generation space communications architecture will be also discussed.

  1. The Minority Aging Research Study: ongoing efforts to obtain brain donation in African Americans without dementia.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Lisa L; Shah, Raj C; Aggarwal, Neelum T; Bennett, David A; Schneider, Julie A

    2012-07-01

    The Minority Aging Research Study (MARS) is a longitudinal, epidemiologic cohort study of decline in cognitive function and risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD) in older African Americans, with brain donation after death added as an optional component for those willing to consider organ donation. In this manuscript, we first summarize the study design and methods of MARS. We then provide details of ongoing efforts to achieve neuropathologic data on over 100 African Americans participating in MARS and in three other clinical-pathologic cohort studies at Rush University Medical Center. The results examine strategies for recruiting and consenting African Americans without dementia; (2) efforts to maintain high rates of follow-up participation; (3) strategies for achieving high rates of agreement to brain donation; and (4) the methodology of obtaining rapid brain autopsy at death. The implications of these efforts are discussed.

  2. Aerodynamic research efforts at SERI wind energy research center at Rocky Flats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tangler, J. L.

    1985-03-01

    Performance prediction and enhancement of horizontal axis wind turbines (HAWT) are discussed. A general purpose blade-element/momentum code was developed for rapid parametric studies and for use in annual energy calculations. A post-stall airfoil data synthesization routine accounts for blade aspect ratio effects. A version of the performance code provides better determination of dynamic stall effects on blade loads and performance as influenced by machine yaw angle, unsteady winds, tower shadow, and wind shear. For detailed wind turbine blade optimization, a more sophisticated lifting-surface/prescribed-wake analysis was developed. This code is a transfer of state-of-the-art helicopter theory into a wind turbine design analysis. Airfoil design effort is directed toward satisfying the need to tailor airfoil characteristics specifically for HAWT's. The design criteria and status of this effort are presented.

  3. Child Effortful Control, Teacher-Student Relationships, and Achievement in Academically At-Risk Children: Additive and Interactive Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liew, Jeffrey; Chen, Qi; Hughes, Jan N.

    2010-01-01

    The joint contributions of child effortful control (using inhibitory control and task accuracy as behavioral indices) and positive teacher-student relationships at first grade on reading and mathematics achievement at second grade were examined in 761 children who were predominantly from low-income and ethnic minority backgrounds and assessed to…

  4. Best Practices of Collaboration in Arctic Research: How to Succeed, or Fail, in Cross-Disciplinary Efforts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiggins, H. V.

    2014-12-01

    The rapid physical and social changes currently underway in the Arctic - and changes in the way in which we study and manage the region - require coordinated research efforts to improve our understanding of the Arctic's physical, biological, and social systems. At the same time, policy-makers and Arctic communities need decision-support tools and synthesized information to respond and adapt to the "new arctic". There are enormous challenges, however, in collaboration among the disparate groups of people needed for such efforts. A carefully planned strategic approach is required to bridge the scientific disciplinary and organizational boundaries, foster cooperation between local communities and science programs, and effectively communicate between scientists and policy-makers. Efforts must draw on bodies of knowledge from project management, strategic planning, organizational development, group dynamics, and other fields. In addition, collaborations between scientific disciplines face challenges unique to scientific culture. This poster presentation will discuss best practices of building and sustaining networks of people to catalyze successful cross-disciplinary activities. Specific examples and case studies - both successes and failures - will be presented that draw on several projects at the Arctic Research Consortium of the U.S. (ARCUS; www.arcus.org), a nonprofit membership organization composed of universities and institutions that have a substantial commitment to research in the Arctic.

  5. Major Research Efforts of the Law School Admission Council. Law School Admission Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Frederick M.; Evans, Franklin R.

    Research conducted by the Law School Admission Council since the development of the Law School Admission Test (LSAT) in 1948 is described. An overview of the research topics is provided, and relevant published reports are cited in 61 footnotes. The following topics of study are discussed: (1) use and validity of traditional predictors of law…

  6. The First Big Wave of Astronomy Education Research Dissertations and Some Directions for Future Research Efforts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slater, Timothy F.

    2008-01-01

    The past several years have presented the astronomy education research community with a host of foundational research dissertations in the teaching and learning of astronomy. These PhD candidates have been studying the impact of instructional innovations on student learning and systematically validating astronomy learning assessment instruments,…

  7. GLOBAL CHANGE RESEARCH NEWS #10: MULTIAGENCY, MULTINATIONAL GLOBAL CHANGE RESEARCH EFFORT IN THE UPPER SAN PEDRO BASIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    This edition reports on a multiagency, multinational global-change research effort that seeks to evaluate the consequences of natural and human-induced changes in semi-arid environments. The Semi-Arid Land-Surface-Atmosphere Program ("SALSA") is focused on the environmentally sen...

  8. Child Effortful Control, Teacher-student Relationships, and Achievement in Academically At-risk Children: Additive and Interactive Effects.

    PubMed

    Liew, Jeffrey; Chen, Qi; Hughes, Jan N

    2010-01-01

    The joint contributions of child effortful control (using inhibitory control and task accuracy as behavioral indices) and positive teacher-student relationships at first grade on reading and mathematics achievement at second grade were examined in 761 children who were predominantly from low-income and ethnic minority backgrounds and assessed to be academically at-risk at entry to first grade. Analyses accounted for clustering effects, covariates, baselines of effortful control measures, and prior levels of achievement. Even with such conservative statistical controls, interactive effects were found for task accuracy and positive teacher-student relationships on future achievement. Results suggest that task accuracy served as a protective factor so that children with high task accuracy performed well academically despite not having positive teacher-student relationships. Further, positive teacher-student relationships served as a compensatory factor so that children with low task accuracy performed just as well as those with high task accuracy if they were paired with a positive and supportive teacher. Importantly, results indicate that the influence of positive teacher-student relationships on future achievement was most pronounced for students with low effortful control on tasks that require fine motor skills, accuracy, and attention-related skills. Study results have implications for narrowing achievement disparities for academically at-risk children.

  9. Child Effortful Control, Teacher-student Relationships, and Achievement in Academically At-risk Children: Additive and Interactive Effects

    PubMed Central

    Liew, Jeffrey; Chen, Qi; Hughes, Jan N.

    2009-01-01

    The joint contributions of child effortful control (using inhibitory control and task accuracy as behavioral indices) and positive teacher-student relationships at first grade on reading and mathematics achievement at second grade were examined in 761 children who were predominantly from low-income and ethnic minority backgrounds and assessed to be academically at-risk at entry to first grade. Analyses accounted for clustering effects, covariates, baselines of effortful control measures, and prior levels of achievement. Even with such conservative statistical controls, interactive effects were found for task accuracy and positive teacher-student relationships on future achievement. Results suggest that task accuracy served as a protective factor so that children with high task accuracy performed well academically despite not having positive teacher-student relationships. Further, positive teacher-student relationships served as a compensatory factor so that children with low task accuracy performed just as well as those with high task accuracy if they were paired with a positive and supportive teacher. Importantly, results indicate that the influence of positive teacher-student relationships on future achievement was most pronounced for students with low effortful control on tasks that require fine motor skills, accuracy, and attention-related skills. Study results have implications for narrowing achievement disparities for academically at-risk children. PMID:20161421

  10. Recent research efforts in the area of biotechnology for fuels and chemicals: Poster session papers

    SciTech Connect

    Antonopoulos, A.A.; Grohmann, K.

    1992-09-01

    This report presents research presented at the poster session of the Symposium covering a wide spectrum of current biotechnological research activities. Research focused mostly on ethanol production and methane generation from biomass material via microbial processing, as well as on enhanced hydrogen yield from algae. Several of the posters dealt with the pretreatment of cellulosic materials, and enzyme production/characterization, while a good number of papers displayed research efforts on bioremediation, photosynthesis, production of various useful chemicals from biomass by bioprocessing, and on other miscellaneous subjects. One of the papers treated a very interesting topic of cellulose-cellulase complexes. Many of the poster papers are included in this volume, and a synopsis of all the poster/papers presented is the subject of this article.

  11. Recent research efforts in the area of biotechnology for fuels and chemicals: Poster session papers

    SciTech Connect

    Antonopoulos, A.A. ); Grohmann, K. )

    1992-01-01

    This report presents research presented at the poster session of the Symposium covering a wide spectrum of current biotechnological research activities. Research focused mostly on ethanol production and methane generation from biomass material via microbial processing, as well as on enhanced hydrogen yield from algae. Several of the posters dealt with the pretreatment of cellulosic materials, and enzyme production/characterization, while a good number of papers displayed research efforts on bioremediation, photosynthesis, production of various useful chemicals from biomass by bioprocessing, and on other miscellaneous subjects. One of the papers treated a very interesting topic of cellulose-cellulase complexes. Many of the poster papers are included in this volume, and a synopsis of all the poster/papers presented is the subject of this article.

  12. Producing Snow Extent and Snow Water Equivalent Information for Climate Research Purposes - ESA DUE Globsnow Effort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luojus, Kari; Pulliainen, Jouni; Rott, Helmut; Nagler, Thomas; Solberg, Rune; Wiesmann, Andreas; Derksen, Chris; Metsämäki, Sari; Malnes, Eirik; Bojkov, Bojan

    2010-05-01

    The European Space Agency (ESA) Data User Element (DUE) funded GlobSnow project aims at creating a global database of snow parameters for climate research purposes. The main objective is to create a long term dataset on two essential snow parameters. The project will provide information concerning the areal extent of snow (SE) on a global scale and snow water equivalent (SWE) for the Northern Hemisphere. Both products will include the end product derived from the satellite data along with accuracy information for each snow parameter. The temporal span of the SE product will be 15 years and the span for the SWE product will be 30 years. A key improvement of the snow products, when compared with the currently available data sets, will be the inclusion of a statistically derived accuracy estimate accompanying each SE or SWE estimate (on a pixel level). In addition to the SE and SWE time-series, an operational near-real time (NRT) snow information service will be implemented. The service will provide daily snow maps for hydrological, meteorological, and climate research purposes. The snow products will be based on data acquired from optical and passive microwave-based spaceborne sensors combined with ground-based weather station observations. The work was initiated in November 2008, and is being coordinated by the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI). Other project partners involved are NR (Norwegian Computing Centre), ENVEO IT GmbH, GAMMA Remote Sensing AG, Finnish Environment Institute (SYKE), Environment Canada (EC) and Northern Research Institute (Norut). Extensive algorithm evaluation efforts were carried out for the candidate SWE and SE algorithms during 2009 using ground truth data gathered from Canada, Scandinavia, Russia and the Alps. The acquired evaluation results have enabled the selection of the algorithms to be utilized for the GlobSnow SE and SWE products. The SWE product is derived using the FMI Algorithm and the SE product is a combination of NR and

  13. Extremity war injuries: collaborative efforts in research, host nation care, and disaster preparedness.

    PubMed

    Pollak, Andrew N; Ficke, Col James R

    2010-01-01

    The fourth annual Extremity War Injuries (EWI) Symposium addressed ongoing challenges and opportunities in the management of combat-related musculoskeletal injury. The symposium, which also examined host-nation care and disaster preparedness and response, defined opportunities for synergy between several organizations with similar missions and goals. Within the Department of Defense, the Orthopaedic Extremity Trauma Research Program (OETRP) has funded basic research related to a series of protocols first identified and validated at prior EWI symposia. A well-funded clinical research arm of OETRP has been developed to help translate and validate research advances from each of the protocols. The Armed Forces Institute for Regenerative Medicine, a consortium of academic research institutions, employs a tissue-engineering approach to EWI challenges, particularly with regard to tissue loss. Programs within the National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases and throughout the National Institutes of Health have also expanded tissue-engineering efforts by emphasizing robust mechanistic basic science programs. Much of the clinical care delivered by US military medical personnel and nongovernmental agencies has been to host-nation populations; coordinating delivery to maximize the number of injured who receive care requires understanding of the breadth and scope of resources available within the war zone. Similarly, providing the most comprehensive care to the greatest number of injured in the context of domestic mass casualty requires discussion and planning by all groups involved.

  14. Unfinished business: efforts to define dual-use research of bioterrorism concern.

    PubMed

    Zmorzynska, Anna; Suk, Jonathan E; Biederbick, Walter; Maidhof, Heinrich; Sasse, Julia; Semenza, Jan C; Hunger, Iris

    2011-12-01

    Biotechnological research poses a special security problem because of the duality between beneficial use and misuse. In order to find a balance between regulating potentially dangerous research and assuring scientific advancement, a number of assessments have tried to define which types of research are especially open to misuse and should therefore be considered dual-use research of special concern requiring rigorous oversight. So far, there has been no common understanding of what such activities are. Here we present a review of 27 assessments focusing on biological dual-use issues published between 1997 and 2008. Dual-use research activities identified by these assessments as being of special concern were compiled and compared. Moreover, from these 27 assessments, the primary research publications explicitly identified as examples of concerning research activities were extracted and analyzed. We extracted a core list of 11 activities of special concern and show that this list does not match with the reasons why primary research publications were identified as being of special concern. Additionally, we note that the 11 activities identified are not easily conducted or replicated, and therefore the likelihood of their being used in a high-tech mass casualty bioterrorism event should be reevaluated.

  15. Research of the Project Management Education Effort in a Comprehensive Electrical Machinery Enterprise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okamoto, Kazuhiko; Nagashima, Shigeo

    This paper describes the research regarding to the project management education effort in Hitachi, comprehensive electrical machinery enterprise. The project management education system has been offered to the following 4 ranks; project staffs, project leaders, project managers, and program managers. The contents of these courses include knowledge, capability, and application. This paper is proposing the spiral model education system to educate all 4 courses. This spiral model has the revolving function for the rank-up and the repeated enhancing function. This spiral model has following 4 steps, the member analysis, education, evaluation and applications. The business and the education have been coordinated to achieve a success of project. This paper also describes the contents and its importance of the project member evaluation.

  16. NDE research efforts at the FAA Center for Aviation Systems Reliability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Donald O.; Brasche, Lisa J. H.

    1992-01-01

    The Federal Aviation Administration-Center for Aviation Systems Reliability (FAA-CASR), a part of the Institute for Physical Research and Technology at Iowa State University, began operation in the Fall of 1990 with funding from the FAA. The mission of the FAA-CASR is to develop quantitative nondestructive evaluation (NDE) methods for aircraft structures and materials including prototype instrumentation, software, techniques, and procedures and to develop and maintain comprehensive education and training programs in aviation specific inspection procedures and practices. To accomplish this mission, FAA-CASR brings together resources from universities, government, and industry to develop a comprehensive approach to problems specific to the aviation industry. The problem areas are targeted by the FAA, aviation manufacturers, the airline industry and other members of the aviation business community. This consortium approach ensures that the focus of the efforts is on relevant problems and also facilitates effective transfer of the results to industry.

  17. Integrating Personalized Medicine in the Canadian Environment: Efforts Facilitating Oncology Clinical Research.

    PubMed

    Syme, Rachel; Carleton, Bruce; Leyens, Lada; Richer, Etienne

    2015-01-01

    There is currently a rapid evolution of clinical practices based on the introduction of patient stratification and molecular diagnosis that is likely to improve health outcomes. Building on a strong research base, complemented by strong support from clinicians and health authorities, the oncology field is at the forefront of this evolution. Yet, clinical research is still facing many challenges that need to be addressed in order to conduct necessary studies and effectively translate medical breakthroughs based on personalized medicine into standards of care. Leveraging its universal health care system and on resources developed to support oncology clinical research, Canada is well positioned to join the international efforts deployed to address these challenges. Available resources include a broad range of structures and funding mechanisms, ranging from direct clinical trial support to post-marketing surveillance. Here, we propose a clinical model for the introduction of innovation for precision medicine in oncology that starts with patients' and clinicians' unmet needs to initiate a cycle of discovery, validation, translation and sustainability development.

  18. Theoretical Foundations and a Research Agenda to Validate Measures of Intercultural Effort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowd, Alicia C.; Sawatzky, Misty; Korn, Randi

    2011-01-01

    The concept of "student effort" is foundational to such commonly used assessments of institutional effectiveness as the National Survey of Student Engagement (NSSE) and the Community College Survey of Student Engagement (CCSSE). However, the current measure of student effort omits intercultural effort, which is particularly salient to the academic…

  19. Leopard (Panthera pardus) status, distribution, and the research efforts across its range

    PubMed Central

    Gerngross, Peter; Lemeris Jr., Joseph R.; Schoonover, Rebecca F.; Anco, Corey; Breitenmoser-Würsten, Christine; Durant, Sarah M.; Farhadinia, Mohammad S.; Henschel, Philipp; Kamler, Jan F.; Laguardia, Alice; Rostro-García, Susana; Stein, Andrew B.; Dollar, Luke

    2016-01-01

    The leopard’s (Panthera pardus) broad geographic range, remarkable adaptability, and secretive nature have contributed to a misconception that this species might not be severely threatened across its range. We find that not only are several subspecies and regional populations critically endangered but also the overall range loss is greater than the average for terrestrial large carnivores. To assess the leopard’s status, we compile 6,000 records at 2,500 locations from over 1,300 sources on its historic (post 1750) and current distribution. We map the species across Africa and Asia, delineating areas where the species is confirmed present, is possibly present, is possibly extinct or is almost certainly extinct. The leopard now occupies 25–37% of its historic range, but this obscures important differences between subspecies. Of the nine recognized subspecies, three (P. p. pardus, fusca, and saxicolor) account for 97% of the leopard’s extant range while another three (P. p. orientalis, nimr, and japonensis) have each lost as much as 98% of their historic range. Isolation, small patch sizes, and few remaining patches further threaten the six subspecies that each have less than 100,000 km2 of extant range. Approximately 17% of extant leopard range is protected, although some endangered subspecies have far less. We found that while leopard research was increasing, research effort was primarily on the subspecies with the most remaining range whereas subspecies that are most in need of urgent attention were neglected. PMID:27168983

  20. NIOSH research efforts to prevent musculoskeletal disorders in the healthcare industry.

    PubMed

    Waters, Thomas; Collins, James; Galinsky, Traci; Caruso, Claire

    2006-01-01

    Healthcare workers, including orthopaedic nurses, face a number of risk factors in the workplace for musculoskeletal disorders such as back and shoulder injuries. These disorders are associated with excessive back and shoulder loading due to manual patient handling, applying excessive forces during pushing and/or pulling of objects, required use of awkward postures during patient care, and working long hours and shiftwork. No healthcare workers are immune from injury because workers in all clinical areas are exposed to occupational risk factors, including hospitals, nursing homes, emergency services, critical care, operating rooms, orthopaedic units, and home healthcare environments. This article includes a summary of the scientific efforts of the researchers and their partners at the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) in evaluating and developing the best practice recommendations for reducing risk of these disorders for exposed workers. The studies conducted by NIOSH researchers and their partners approach the problem from a variety of perspectives, ranging from comprehensive epidemiological studies examining the effectiveness of implementation of a safe patient handling and movement program to laboratory studies evaluating the biomechanical stress associated with using patient handling equipment, and education training programs for use in schools of nursing to educate new workers about safe work practices. Results of these studies have provided scientific evidence that significant occupational risks for musculoskeletal disorders exist and that effective interventions are available to reduce the risk for these workers.

  1. Leopard (Panthera pardus) status, distribution, and the research efforts across its range.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Andrew P; Gerngross, Peter; Lemeris, Joseph R; Schoonover, Rebecca F; Anco, Corey; Breitenmoser-Würsten, Christine; Durant, Sarah M; Farhadinia, Mohammad S; Henschel, Philipp; Kamler, Jan F; Laguardia, Alice; Rostro-García, Susana; Stein, Andrew B; Dollar, Luke

    2016-01-01

    The leopard's (Panthera pardus) broad geographic range, remarkable adaptability, and secretive nature have contributed to a misconception that this species might not be severely threatened across its range. We find that not only are several subspecies and regional populations critically endangered but also the overall range loss is greater than the average for terrestrial large carnivores. To assess the leopard's status, we compile 6,000 records at 2,500 locations from over 1,300 sources on its historic (post 1750) and current distribution. We map the species across Africa and Asia, delineating areas where the species is confirmed present, is possibly present, is possibly extinct or is almost certainly extinct. The leopard now occupies 25-37% of its historic range, but this obscures important differences between subspecies. Of the nine recognized subspecies, three (P. p. pardus, fusca, and saxicolor) account for 97% of the leopard's extant range while another three (P. p. orientalis, nimr, and japonensis) have each lost as much as 98% of their historic range. Isolation, small patch sizes, and few remaining patches further threaten the six subspecies that each have less than 100,000 km(2) of extant range. Approximately 17% of extant leopard range is protected, although some endangered subspecies have far less. We found that while leopard research was increasing, research effort was primarily on the subspecies with the most remaining range whereas subspecies that are most in need of urgent attention were neglected.

  2. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  3. NASA/Drexel program. [research effort in large-scale technical programs management for application to urban problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The results are reported of the NASA/Drexel research effort which was conducted in two separate phases. The initial phase stressed exploration of the problem from the point of view of three primary research areas and the building of a multidisciplinary team. The final phase consisted of a clinical demonstration program in which the research associates consulted with the County Executive of New Castle County, Delaware, to aid in solving actual problems confronting the County Government. The three primary research areas of the initial phase are identified as technology, management science, and behavioral science. Five specific projects which made up the research effort are treated separately. A final section contains the conclusions drawn from total research effort as well as from the specific projects.

  4. [Evolving 5-Fluorouracil Therapy to Achieve Enhanced Efficacy-Past and Current Efforts of Researchers].

    PubMed

    Maehara, Yoshihiko; Oki, Eiji; Saeki, Hiroshi; Tokunaga, Eriko; Kitao, Hiroyuki; Iimori, Makoto; Niimi, Shinichiro; Kataoka, Yuki; Emi, Yasunori; Kakeji, Yoshihiro; Baba, Hideo; Shirasaka, Tetsuhiko

    2016-07-01

    5-fluorouracil(5-FU)therapy has advanced greatly over the past 50 years, achieving enhanced therapeutic effects and reduced adverse effects. By taking advantage of the metabolism of 5-FU, researchers have made efforts to develop prodrugs, combination drug products, and combination therapy regimens via biochemical modulation(BCM)with alteration of the drug metabolism. Examples include the advent of the prodrug tegafur(FT), followed by tegafur-uracil(UFT)and tegafurgimeracil- potassium oxonate(S-1)as combined products based on BCM. In the current standard treatment for gastrointestinal cancers, anticancer 5-FU derivatives serve as a platform for combination regimens with other cytotoxic agents or molecular- targeted drugs. To provide further improvements in anticancer therapy outcomes, novel molecular-targeted agents, immune checkpoint inhibitors, and other drugs are being developed, but 5-FU remains an attractive target that shows further potential for increased efficacy. In the future, the evolution of anticancer therapy with 5-FU derivatives is expected to continue via a variety of approaches.

  5. A synopsis of Langley Research Center's lidar effort for the 1986 FIRE IFO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alvarez, Jose M.; Mccormick, M. P.; Moore, J. D.; Hunt, W. H.; Rouse, B. R.; Poole, L. R.; Poole, B. D.

    1990-01-01

    The lidar data obtained by the Langley Aircraft Lidar in October 1986 in Wisconsin is being reduced in a transparent, simple fashion and will be published in its reduced form in a NASA Reference Publication (RP). This reduced data will also be submitted to the FIRE data archives. Some of this reduced data will be presented at the FIRE FSET Workshop to acquaint the science team with the data format to be used in the archive and the upcoming catalog contained in the RP. A new method was utilized in Wisconsin for obtain the depolarization ratio of aerosols. This method involves using a half-wave plate to calibrate the lidar under field conditions. The theory behind this technique will be presented at this workshop as well as some of the lidar calibration results. The lidar calibration will be utilized in interpreting some of the dual polarization lidar data obtained during the IFO in Wisconsin. Some of these data are also discussed. A continuous wave laser lab-type lidar simulator was constructed during the previous year. One of the primary reasons for the construction of the simulator was to attempt dual-polarization lidar-like calibrations under laboratory, rather than field conditions. The data collected by this system was used to experimentally check and thus, inspire confidence in the algorithms being used to interpret the lidar data obtained in the field. A computer program which simulates noisy lidar data was used as a part of this effort in order to obtain some feel for the noise in the inversion parameters as a function of noise in the actual measurements. The lidar simulation will be described in addition to presenting some of the lab-generated calibration data.

  6. Evaluation of a workshop to improve community involvement in community-based participatory research efforts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Community based participatory research (CBPR) is a collaborative approach to research that has gained attention in health and public health research. Community members and researchers partnering in a CBPR project recognized the need for community education about the research process and research eth...

  7. Managing Sales Efforts. PACE Revised. Level 2. Unit 14. Research & Development Series No. 240BB14.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashmore, M. Catherine; Pritz, Sandra G.

    This unit on managing sales efforts in a small business, the 14th in a series of 18 modules, is on the second level of the revised PACE (Program for Acquiring Competence in Entrepreneurship) comprehensive curriculum. Geared to advanced secondary and beginning postsecondary or adult students, the modules provide an opportunity to learn about and…

  8. Suicide Prevention: Efforts To Increase Research and Education in Palliative Care. Report to Congressional Requesters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Health, Education, and Human Services Div.

    Currently, the extent of palliative care instruction varies considerably across and within the three major phases of the physician education and training process. This analysis of current educational efforts in palliative care is based on information obtained from a survey conducted of all United States medical schools, surveys conducted on United…

  9. Managing Sales Efforts. PACE Revised. Level 1. Unit 14. Research & Development Series No. 240AB14.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashmore, M. Catherine; Pritz, Sandra G.

    This lesson on managing sales efforts, the 14th in a series of 18 units, is part of the first level of a comprehensive entrepreneurship curriculum entitled: A Program for Acquiring Competence in Entrepreneurship (PACE). (Designed for use by secondary students, the first level of PACE introduces students to the concepts involved in entrepreneurship…

  10. Maximizing industry benefit through cooperation between federal, state and private-sector floricultural research efforts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    he USDA-ARS Greenhouse Production Research Group was established to provide a federally funded research emphasis on greenhouse crop production. It has focused on broad production issues (nutrition, water management, and energy conservation) by coordinating research between in-house researchers, Uni...

  11. I just want my research credit: frequency of suboptimal effort in a non-clinical healthy undergraduate sample.

    PubMed

    DeRight, Jonathan; Jorgensen, Randall S

    2015-01-01

    Although performance validity testing is becoming fairly routine in clinical settings, research protocols involving neuropsychological tests infrequently include assessments of performance validity. The current study utilized an embedded measure of effort over two administrations of CNS Vital Signs to determine the frequency of poor effort in non-clinical healthy undergraduate students participating in a research study for course credit. Results indicate that more than 1 in 10 college students participating in a cognitive test battery for research showed test scores consistent with inadequate effort, which was associated with poor performance on testing across many domains. This conclusion was supported by poor performance on many other subtests. Healthy college students with suboptimal effort (n = 11) had an overall score in the 15th percentile on average compared to the 48th percentile in the rest of the students (n = 66). Those who failed validity indicators on the baseline administration were more likely to fail validity indicators on the repeat administration. Those who were tested in the morning were also more likely to fail validity indicators. The current study provides evidence for the potential limitations of conducting research using neuropsychological tests with healthy college student volunteers in the absence of performance validity testing. Revised college-level cutoffs are proposed.

  12. Ecuador's Efforts to Raise Its Research Profile: The Prometeo Program Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Hoof, Hubert B.

    2015-01-01

    Ecuador's government understands that capable research universities can help in solving the country's pressing socio-economic problems. However, research capabilities and research productivity in its national universities have historically been low, as professors primarily teach and often do not have the inclination, the ability, or the time to do…

  13. Partnership with informal education learning centers to develop hands-on activities for research outreach efforts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Courville, Z.; Haynes, R.; DeFrancis, G.; Koh, S.; Ringelberg, D.

    2012-12-01

    Outreach informed by scientific research plays an important role in fostering interest in science by making science and scientists accessible, fun, and interesting. Developing an interest in science in young, elementary-aged students through outreach is a rewarding endeavor for researchers, in that audiences are usually receptive, requirements for broader impacts are met, and bonds are formed between researchers and members of their local and surrounding communities. Promoting such interest among young students is imperative not only for an individual researcher's own self interest, but also for the strength of American science and innovation moving forward, and is the responsibility of the current generation of scientists. Developing genuine and successful inquiry-based, hands-on activities for elementary-aged students is outside the expertise of many researchers. Partnering with an informal education learning center (i.e. science museum or after-school program) provides researchers with the expertise they might be lacking in such endeavors. Here, we present a series of polar-, engineering- and microbiology-themed hands-on activities that have been developed by researchers at a government lab in partnership with a local science museum. Through a series of workshops, the science education staff at the museum provided researchers with background and instruction on inquiry and hands-on activities, and then collaborated with the researchers to develop activities which were later demonstrated at the museum to museum-goers. Education staff provided feedback about the presentation of the activities for further refinement. The program provided an opportunity for researchers to develop fun, on-target and age-appropriate science activities for elementary-aged students, an audience for outreach, and enabled general public audiences the chance to interact with researchers and scientists in an informal setting.

  14. Theory Building through Qualitative Research: Marshalling Opportunities to Advance Cancer Screening Efforts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hay, Jennifer L.; Craddock Lee, Simon J.

    2009-01-01

    Many researchers lack the resources, time, and/or expertise to include qualitative strategies in their research. In recent years, substantive progress has been made among qualitative methodologists themselves to codify and systematize concept construction and typologies in qualitatively derived theory. These authors discuss the work of Rena Pasick…

  15. Comparative community case studies as research tools: A national effort to support local sustainability planning

    EPA Science Inventory

    The provisioning of aquatic ecosystem goods and services (EGS) is a key concept in USEPA Office of Research and Development research programs. This is a national issue, yet many decisions affecting EGS sustainability are made at the local level where decisions can have substanti...

  16. Anatomy of an organizational change effort at the Lewis Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hawker, James R.; Dali, Richard S.

    1988-01-01

    By 1979, after a long decline following the end of the Apollo program, the Lewis Research Center found its very existence endangered because it was not doing the kind of research that could attract funding at the time. New management under Andrew J. Stofan applied a program of strategic planning, participative management, and consensus decision making. A corporate-cultural change was effected which enabled Lewis to commit itself to four fundable research and development projects. Morale-building and training programs which were essential to this change are described.

  17. Pan Eurasian EXperiment (PEEX) - towards a new multinational environment and climate research effort in Eurasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petäjä, Tuukka; Kulmala, Markku; Lappalainen, Hanna; Sipilä, Mikko; Sorvari, Sanna; Alekseychik, Pavel; Paramonov, Mikhail; Kerminen, Veli-Matti; Zilitinkevich, Sergej

    2013-04-01

    Boreal forests are a substantial source of greenhouse gases, biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) and natural aerosols, the critical atmospheric components related to climate change processes. A large fraction of boreal forests of the world is situated in Siberian region. Representative measurements of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) concentrations, BVOC emissions and aerosols production from Siberian are of special importance when estimating global budgets of climate change relevant factors. The scope of a new concept of the Pan Eurasian Experiment (PEEX) is to set up a process for planning of a large-scale, long-term, coordinated observations and modeling experiment in the Pan Eurasian region, especially to cover ground base, airborne and satellite observations together with global and regional models to find out different forcing and feedback mechanisms in the changing climate. University of Helsinki together with Finnish Meteorological institute are organizing the Pan-Eurasian Experiment and to gather all the European and Russian key players in the field of climate and Earth system science to plan the future research activities in the Pan-Eurasian region. In the European scale PEEX is part of the JPI Climate Fast Track Activity 1.3. "Changing cryosphere in the climate system - from observations to climate modeling". PEEX research topics are closely related the NordForsk's Top Research Initiative CRAICC - Cryosphere - atmosphere interaction in the changing Arctic climate. PEEX is also a central part of the ongoing the Finnish Cultural Foundation - Earth System modeling Working Group activity (2012-2013). PEEX scientific aims and future actions to develop Pan Eurasian research infrastructure can be linked to several EC and ESA funded activities aiming to develop next generation research infrastructures and data products: EU-FP7-ACTRIS-I3-project (Aerosols, Clouds, and Trace gases Research InfraStructure Network-project 2011-2015); ICOS a research

  18. Using Evidence-Based Parenting Programs to Advance CDC Efforts in Child Maltreatment Prevention. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valle, Linda Anne; Whitaker, Daniel J.; Lutzker, John R.; Filene, Jill H.; Wyatt, Jennifer M.; Cephas, Kendell C.; Hoover, D. Michele

    2004-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recognize child maltreatment as a serious public health problem with extensive short- and long-term health effects. In addition to the immediate physical and emotional effects of maltreatment, children who have experienced abuse and neglect are at increased risk of adverse health effects and…

  19. Collaboration in Arctic Research: Best Practices to Build and Sustain Successful Cross- and Trans-disciplinary Efforts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiggins, H. V.; Rich, R. H.

    2015-12-01

    The rapid physical and social changes currently underway in the Arctic - and changes in the way in which we study and manage the region -- require coordinated research efforts to improve our understanding of the Arctic's physical, biological, and social systems and the implications of change at many scales. At the same time, policy-makers and Arctic communities need decision-support tools and synthesized information to respond and adapt to the "new Arctic". There are enormous challenges, however, in collaboration among the disparate groups of people needed for such efforts. A carefully planned strategic approach is required to bridge the scientific disciplinary and organizational boundaries, foster cooperation between local communities and science programs, and effectively communicate between scientists and policy-makers. Efforts must draw on bodies of knowledge from project management, strategic planning, organizational development, and group dynamics. This poster presentation will discuss best practices of building and sustaining networks of people to catalyze successful cross-disciplinary activities. Specific examples and case studies - both successes and failures -- will be presented that draw on several projects at the Arctic Research Consortium of the U.S. (ARCUS; www.arcus.org), a nonprofit membership organization composed of universities and institutions that have a substantial commitment to research in the Arctic.

  20. Center Partnerships: a Vehicle for integrating MSIs into Mainstream Research and Technology Efforts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonner, C. E.; Black, S. M.

    2008-05-01

    Norfolk State University, a historically black university in Norfolk, VA, has established a number of fruitful research and education partnerships with a wide range of domestic research universities over the last ten years. These partnerships have been the result of the combination of a number of well established research collaborations developed by faculty in Materials Science and Engineering and their colleagues at University of Virginia, Purdue, Cornell, Georgia Tech, and the University of Washington. In this presentation, we will describe the formation of these partnerships, including the process and challenges of their formation and the benefits to both groups that these types of relations can produce for the students, faculty, and institutions. We will use examples from our own experience both successful and unsuccessful to describe a framework under which small MSIs and Research I institutions can form mutually beneficial relations that maximize the capabilities of the participating institutions and opportunities for the students and faculty to impact the science, engineering, and technology and the culture of STEM training and practice.

  1. Discovering "What's Innovative": The Challenge of Evaluating Education Research and Development Efforts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yin, Robert K.; Hackett, Edward J.; Chubin, Daryl E.

    2008-01-01

    National Science Foundation's (NSF's) MSP Program seeks foremost "to improve student outcomes in high-quality mathematics and science by all students, at all pre-K-12 levels". The MSP Program, consisting of a portfolio of funded projects, in part positions itself as a research and development (R&D) program. This study has addressed the need to…

  2. Untied Efforts: The Challenges for Improved Research, Extension and Education Linkages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eneyew, Adugna

    2013-01-01

    Ethiopian agriculture is characterized by smallholders farming whose access to modern technology and basic education is very limited. Research, extension, education and farmers are the main pillars of agricultural knowledge systems and their effectiveness largely depends on strong linkage among each other. However, the existing…

  3. Research, Public Policymaking, and Knowledge-Translation Processes: Canadian Efforts to Build Bridges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavis, John N.

    2006-01-01

    Public policymakers must contend with a particular set of institutional arrangements that govern what can be done to address any given issue, pressure from a variety of interest groups about what they would like to see done to address any given issue, and a range of ideas (including research evidence) about how best to address any given issue.…

  4. An Ongoing Effort to Incorporate Undergraduate Research Across the Geoscience Curriculum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eves, R.; Lohrengel, C. F.; Colberg, M. R.

    2006-12-01

    Because capstone experiences and senior research projects have a significant value added component, the geoscience faculty at Southern Utah University (SUU) began incorporating them into the curriculum in the fall of 2000. A project-based laboratory was introduced into the upper level sedimentology/stratigraphy course that gave students an opportunity to complete independent research and formally present it at a campus scholarship day. The success of this initial experiment in one course lead to the incorporation of project- based laboratories in paleontology, structural geology, mineralogy, and igneous/metamorphic petrology. Since three instructors are involved, the project-based approach is slightly different in each case, however the common denominators remain the same; directed student research, compilation and interpretation of real data, and presentation of those data to a live audience of, at a minimum, their classmates. The success of this experiment seems to have been mixed. Some curricula are just better suited for activities that encourage inquiry- and project-based learning, while others are less easily connected to this approach. We have learned much from these experiments, the most important being that they create significant opportunities for SUU geoscience students. The experiments have now expanded with research opportunities being incorporated at all levels. Many of the projects end with presentations at regional and national professional meetings. The dramatically improved quality of our senior-level capstone projects has also lead to numerous peer-reviewed publications. The longer we are involved with these projects, the more the students anticipate, and better prepare themselves to participate.

  5. Current Research on Methamphetamine: Epidemiology, Medical and Psychiatric Effects, Treatment, and Harm Reduction Efforts

    PubMed Central

    Radfar, Seyed Ramin; Rawson, Richard A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Methamphetamine (MA) which is known as “shisheh” in Iran is a drug that widely is used in many parts of the world and it is near to a decade that is available for the most drug users and has a considerable prevalence of use. Due to high abuse prevalence and very new challenging phenomenon, it is very important that researchers and treatment providers become more familiar with different aspects of MA. Discussion It has multiple neurobiological impacts on the nervous system, some of which are transitory and some longer lasting. MA activates the reward system of the brain and produces effects that are highly reinforcing, which can lead to abuse and dependence. Routes of administration that produce rapid onset of the drug’s effects (i.e., smoking and injection) are likely to lead to more rapid addiction and more medical and psychiatric effects. No effective pharmacotherapies have been developed for the treatment of MA dependence; although, this is an area of very active research. Several behavioral treatments have been shown to reduce MA use, but better treatments are needed. Conclusion Harm reduction strategies for non-treatment seeking MA users are needed to reduce the risk of human immunodeficiency virus and other medical risks. The research agenda for MA is substantial, with development of effective pharmacotherapies as one of the most important priorities. Appropriate and effective response for prevention, treatment and harm reduction services due to increasing problems regarding MA in Iran and some other countries in the region. PMID:25984282

  6. Towards a community effort to identify ethical principles for research in hydrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montanari, Alberto

    2010-05-01

    The hydrological community in Europe is growing rapidly in both size and, more importantly, scientific relevance and integrity. The Hydrological Sciences (HS) Division of EGU actively is promoting the above development by identifying research targets, stimulating the involvement of young scientists and managing a scientific open access journal based on a public peer review process. The management of the Division itself and the organisation of the General Assembly are carried out transparently, with the aim to seek an improved involvement of top and young scientists, with a bottom up approach. I believe the HS community is animated by a strong enthusiasm which, however, is not adequately supported by economical funding. In my opinion this is a major problem which HS should consider and discuss. The relevance of the societal and environmental problems dealt with by hydrologists, in a professional way and with exceptional scientific skills, is without doubt and therefore the limited amount of funding is not justified in practice. In my opinion, in order to refine the structure of the HS community, and promote its visibility, we should formally identify HS ethical principles for research in environmental science. The principles should highlight the role of hydrology as well as the ethical and scientific solidity of the HS community. Establishing ethical principles is even more important in view of the transparent approach HS is adopting for reviewing and publishing contributions and in view of the increasing need to transparently prove how public funding for research is administered. Establishing ethical principles for hydrology is not a trivial task. Hydrology is characterised by a relevant uncertainty in data, models and parameters. Hydrology is also relying on a large variety of approaches, ranging from statistical to physically based. The purpose of this poster is to present a collection of ethical principles for scientific research presented by the literature and

  7. Research efforts to control highly pathogenic arenaviruses: a summary of the progress and gaps.

    PubMed

    Kerber, R; Reindl, S; Romanowski, V; Gómez, R M; Ogbaini-Emovon, E; Günther, S; ter Meulen, J

    2015-03-01

    Significant progress has been made in the past 10 years in unraveling the molecular biology of highly pathogenic arenaviruses that are endemic in several West African countries (Lassa fever virus) and in some regions of South America (Argentine and Bolivian hemorrhagic fever viruses). While this has resulted in proof-of-concept studies of novel vaccine candidates in non-human primates and in the discovery of several novel antiviral small molecule drug candidates, none of them has been tested in the clinic to date. The recent Ebola outbreak in West Africa has demonstrated very clearly that there is an urgent need to develop the prophylactic and therapeutic armamentarium against viral hemorrhagic fever viruses as part of a global preparedness for future epidemics. As it pertains to this goal, the present article summarizes the current knowledge of highly pathogenic arenaviruses and identifies opportunities for translational research.

  8. Source Noise Modeling Efforts for Fan Noise in NASA Research Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huff, Dennis L.

    2006-01-01

    There has been considerable progress made in fan noise prediction over the past 15 years. NASA has conducted and sponsored research that has improved both tone and broadband fan noise prediction methods. This presentation highlights progress in these areas with emphasis on rotor/stator interaction noise sources. Tone noise predictions are presented for an advanced prediction code called "LINFLUX". Comparisons with data are" included for individual fan duct modes. There has also been considerable work developing new fan broadband noise prediction codes and validation data from wind tunnel model tests. Results from several code validation exercises are presented that show improvement of predicted sound power levels. A summary is included with recommendations for future work.

  9. Additive/Subtractive Manufacturing Research and Development in Europe

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-12-01

    century played key roles in the successful outcomes of both World War II and the Cold War, sparing the world the twin horrors of fascism and...92 IVF Industrial Research and Development Corporation...MetalCopy™ at the IVF ...........................................................................................................................10 2.6. The

  10. Marine research in Greece and the additional Greek marine research centres: Progress and present situation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haritonidis, S.

    1995-03-01

    Greece, as is known, has a coastline of 17 000 km, and over 2000 small and large islands. As expected, the quest of humankind for new sources of matter and energy has been focussed on the sea, with fishery being its primary interest. A number of philosophers and scientists have been involved in the study of this vast ecosystem since ancient times (Aristotle). The political, social and geographical upheavals witnessed in the Greek area, have, however resulted in bringing all these activities to a halt. The first contemporary research work commenced at the end of the 18th century/beginning of the 19th — with marine flora and fauna as its starting point. The first investigations had, of course, been limited to random collections of marine material done in the frame of international exploratory expeditions. Studies became more systematic by the end of the 19th and beginning of the 20th century, with priority being given to the animal kingdom (fish, molluscs, etc.). Investigation of the marine phytobenthos (macrophyceae, phytoplankton) was to follow. The past 40 years research has been more extensive, not limited only to biogeographical evaluations, but also having expanded to physiological and ecological levels. The relevant institutes of Greek universities have all the while watched and contributed to this effort. Today, this kind of research is being supported by the N.M.R.C., the Center of Marine Research, University of Crete, and two research boats which sail the Greek seas. In the ever-changing world, the study of marine flora and fauna has certainly made great progress; however, there are still two big problems to be faced. The first deals with increasing pollution of the seas, the second, with the difficulties in finding and affording adequate financial resources that would enable a more detailed and complete execution of this research work.

  11. Biogen's portfolio and research efforts in multiple sclerosis: an interview with Dr Ralph Kern.

    PubMed

    Kern, Ralph

    2017-02-01

    Ralph Kern speaks to Laura Dormer, Commissioning Editor: Dr Ralph Kern is Senior Vice President and Head of Worldwide Medical at Biogen in Cambridge, MA, USA. In this role, he oversees Biogen's global therapeutic, regional and country medical teams, global medical operations, as well as medical research and scientific communications functions. Prior to joining Biogen, he was head of the Neuroscience Medical Unit at Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation and held various medical and commercial leadership roles at Genzyme Corporation. Prior to joining industry, he was a consultant neurologist at Mount Sinai Hospital and the University Health Network in Toronto, Ontario and was head of the neurology postgraduate academic program at the University of Toronto. Ralph completed neurology postgraduate training at McGill University and completed a masters of health administration from the Institute for Health Policy, Management and Evaluation at the University of Toronto. He is a member of the College of Physicians and Surgeons of Ontario and the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada.

  12. Collaboration in Arctic Research: Best Practices to Build and Sustain Successful Cross- and Trans-disciplinary Efforts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiggins, H. V.; Fox, S. E.

    2013-12-01

    The rapid changes currently underway in the Arctic require coordinated research efforts to improve our understanding of the Arctic's physical, biological, and social systems and the implications of change at the global scale. At the same time, policy-makers and Arctic communities need decision-support tools and synthesized information to respond and adapt to the 'new arctic'. There are enormous challenges, however, in collaboration among the disparate groups of people needed for such an effort. A carefully planned strategic approach is required to bridge the scientific disciplinary and organizational boundaries, foster cooperation between local communities and science programs, and effectively communicate between scientists and policy-makers. This poster presentation will discuss best practices of building and sustaining networks of people to catalyze successful cross-disciplinary activities. Specific examples and case studies will be presented that draw on several projects currently underway at the Arctic Research Consortium of the U.S. (ARCUS), a nonprofit membership organization composed of universities and institutions that have a substantial commitment to research in the Arctic.

  13. Additional Research Needs to Support the GENII Biosphere Models

    SciTech Connect

    Napier, Bruce A.; Snyder, Sandra F.; Arimescu, Carmen

    2013-11-30

    In the course of evaluating the current parameter needs for the GENII Version 2 code (Snyder et al. 2013), areas of possible improvement for both the data and the underlying models have been identified. As the data review was implemented, PNNL staff identified areas where the models can be improved both to accommodate the locally significant pathways identified and also to incorporate newer models. The areas are general data needs for the existing models and improved formulations for the pathway models. It is recommended that priorities be set by NRC staff to guide selection of the most useful improvements in a cost-effective manner. Suggestions are made based on relatively easy and inexpensive changes, and longer-term more costly studies. In the short term, there are several improved model formulations that could be applied to the GENII suite of codes to make them more generally useful. • Implementation of the separation of the translocation and weathering processes • Implementation of an improved model for carbon-14 from non-atmospheric sources • Implementation of radon exposure pathways models • Development of a KML processor for the output report generator module data that are calculated on a grid that could be superimposed upon digital maps for easier presentation and display • Implementation of marine mammal models (manatees, seals, walrus, whales, etc.). Data needs in the longer term require extensive (and potentially expensive) research. Before picking any one radionuclide or food type, NRC staff should perform an in-house review of current and anticipated environmental analyses to select “dominant” radionuclides of interest to allow setting of cost-effective priorities for radionuclide- and pathway-specific research. These include • soil-to-plant uptake studies for oranges and other citrus fruits, and • Development of models for evaluation of radionuclide concentration in highly-processed foods such as oils and sugars. Finally, renewed

  14. 76 FR 34639 - Notice of Proposed Additional Information Collection: Advisory Committee and Research and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-14

    ... Notice of Proposed Additional Information Collection: Advisory Committee and Research and Promotion... approved information collection of the Advisory Committee and Research and Promotion Background Information... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Advisory Committee and Research and Promotion Background Information....

  15. A comparison of the additional protocols of the five nuclear weapon states and the ensuing safeguards benefits to international nonproliferation efforts

    SciTech Connect

    Uribe, Eva C; Sandoval, M Analisa; Sandoval, Marisa N; Boyer, Brian D; Leitch, Rosalyn M

    2009-01-01

    With the 6 January 2009 entry into force of the Additional Protocol by the United States of America, all five declared Nuclear Weapon States that are part of the Nonproliferation Treaty have signed, ratified, and put into force the Additional Protocol. This paper makes a comparison of the strengths and weaknesses of the five Additional Protocols in force by the five Nuclear Weapon States with respect to the benefits to international nonproliferation aims. This paper also documents the added safeguards burden to the five declared Nuclear Weapon States that these Additional Protocols put on the states with respect to access to their civilian nuclear programs and the hosting of complementary access activities as part of the Additional Protocol.

  16. Recent Efforts in Advanced High Frequency Communications at the Glenn Research Center in Support of NASA Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miranda, Felix A.

    2015-01-01

    This presentation will discuss research and technology development work at the NASA Glenn Research Center in advanced frequency communications in support of NASAs mission. An overview of the work conducted in-house and also in collaboration with academia, industry, and other government agencies (OGA) in areas such as antenna technology, power amplifiers, radio frequency (RF) wave propagation through Earths atmosphere, ultra-sensitive receivers, among others, will be presented. In addition, the role of these and other related RF technologies in enabling the NASA next generation space communications architecture will be also discussed.

  17. Effortful echolalia.

    PubMed

    Hadano, K; Nakamura, H; Hamanaka, T

    1998-02-01

    We report three cases of effortful echolalia in patients with cerebral infarction. The clinical picture of speech disturbance is associated with Type 1 Transcortical Motor Aphasia (TCMA, Goldstein, 1915). The patients always spoke nonfluently with loss of speech initiative, dysarthria, dysprosody, agrammatism, and increased effort and were unable to repeat sentences longer than those containing four or six words. In conversation, they first repeated a few words spoken to them, and then produced self initiated speech. The initial repetition as well as the subsequent self initiated speech, which were realized equally laboriously, can be regarded as mitigated echolalia (Pick, 1924). They were always aware of their own echolalia and tried to control it without effect. These cases demonstrate that neither the ability to repeat nor fluent speech are always necessary for echolalia. The possibility that a lesion in the left medial frontal lobe, including the supplementary motor area, plays an important role in effortful echolalia is discussed.

  18. Analysis of the research and development effort in the private sector to reduce energy consumption in irrigated agriculture

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, E.A.; Cone, B.W.

    1980-09-01

    Manufacturers of irrigation equipment perform research and development in an effort to improve or maintain their position in a very competitive market. The market forces and conditions that create the intense competition and provide incentive for invention are described. Particular emphasis is placed on the market force of increased energy costs, but the analysis is developed from the perspective that energy is but one of many inputs to agricultural production. The analysis is based upon published literature, patent activity profiles, microeconomic theory, and conversations with many representatives of the irrigation industry. The published literature provides an understanding of the historical development of irrigation technology, a description of the industry's structure, and various data, which were important for the quantitative analyses. The patent activity profiles, obtained from the US Patent Office, provided details of patent activity within the irrigation industry over the past decade. Microeconomic theory was used to estimate industry-wide research and development expenditures on energy-conserving products. The results of these analyses were then compared with the insights gained from conversations with the industry representatives.

  19. Documentary effort.

    PubMed

    2006-01-01

    This spring, Virtua Health, the largest health system in Southern New Jersey, launched an innovative campaign aimed at raising overall awareness of its facilities by documenting real-life patients undergoing a variety of experiences (e.g., breast cancer, high-risk pregnancy, spine surgery, and minimally-invasive knee replacement surgery). The effort, called "The Virtua Experience" became a 30-minute hospital documentary that aired on Philadelphia's NBC affiliate this summer.

  20. NASA Efforts on Nanotechnology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miranda, Felix A.

    2003-01-01

    An overview of the field of nanotechnology within the theme of "New efforts in Nanotechnology Research," will be presented. NASA's interest, requirements and current efforts in this emerging field will be discussed. In particular, NASA efforts to develop nanoelectronic devices, fuel cells, and other applications of interest using this novel technology by collaborating with academia will be addressed. Progress on current collaborations in this area with the University of Puerto Rico will be highlighted.

  1. 48 CFR 1852.235-74 - Additional Reports of Work-Research and Development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...-Research and Development. 1852.235-74 Section 1852.235-74 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL... Provisions and Clauses 1852.235-74 Additional Reports of Work—Research and Development. As prescribed in 1835.070(e), insert a clause substantially the same as the following: Additional Reports of...

  2. 48 CFR 1852.235-74 - Additional Reports of Work-Research and Development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...-Research and Development. 1852.235-74 Section 1852.235-74 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL... Provisions and Clauses 1852.235-74 Additional Reports of Work—Research and Development. As prescribed in 1835.070(e), insert a clause substantially the same as the following: Additional Reports of...

  3. 48 CFR 1852.235-74 - Additional Reports of Work-Research and Development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...-Research and Development. 1852.235-74 Section 1852.235-74 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL... Provisions and Clauses 1852.235-74 Additional Reports of Work—Research and Development. As prescribed in 1835.070(e), insert a clause substantially the same as the following: Additional Reports of...

  4. 48 CFR 1852.235-74 - Additional Reports of Work-Research and Development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...-Research and Development. 1852.235-74 Section 1852.235-74 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL... Provisions and Clauses 1852.235-74 Additional Reports of Work—Research and Development. As prescribed in 1835.070(e), insert a clause substantially the same as the following: Additional Reports of...

  5. 48 CFR 1852.235-74 - Additional Reports of Work-Research and Development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...-Research and Development. 1852.235-74 Section 1852.235-74 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL... Provisions and Clauses 1852.235-74 Additional Reports of Work—Research and Development. As prescribed in 1835.070(e), insert a clause substantially the same as the following: Additional Reports of...

  6. PLANNED INTEGRATION OF MEASUREMENT AND SURVEY DATA FROM THE DEARS WITH LOCAL AND REGIONAL RESEARCH EFFORTS: PRELIMINARY DATA FINDINGS AND OBSERVATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Canadian-US Border Air Quality Studies represent collaborative research being performed by both parties. This abstract details the efforts of the Detroit Exposure and Aerosol Research Study (DEARS) to work collaboratively in this regards. A discussion of the collaborations ...

  7. A Tool to Assess and Compare Knowledge Mobilization Efforts of Faculties of Education, Research Brokering Organizations, Ministries of Education, and School Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    There are few tools that exist to measure knowledge mobilization (KMb), the process of connecting research to policy and practice across diverse organizations and sectors. This article reports on a comparison of KMb efforts of 105 educational organizations: faculties of education (N = 21), research brokering organizations (N = 44), school…

  8. 76 FR 14562 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Additional Requirements for Market Research

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-16

    ... 52 RIN 9000-AL50 Federal Acquisition Regulation; Additional Requirements for Market Research AGENCY... interim rule amending the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) to implement section 826, Market Research... items engages in market research as necessary before making purchases. DATES: Effective Date: April...

  9. Effort in Multitasking: Local and Global Assessment of Effort.

    PubMed

    Kiesel, Andrea; Dignath, David

    2017-01-01

    When performing multiple tasks in succession, self-organization of task order might be superior compared to external-controlled task schedules, because self-organization allows optimizing processing modes and thus reduces switch costs, and it increases commitment to task goals. However, self-organization is an additional executive control process that is not required if task order is externally specified and as such it is considered as time-consuming and effortful. To compare self-organized and externally controlled task scheduling, we suggest assessing global subjective and objectives measures of effort in addition to local performance measures. In our new experimental approach, we combined characteristics of dual tasking settings and task switching settings and compared local and global measures of effort in a condition with free choice of task sequence and a condition with cued task sequence. In a multi-tasking environment, participants chose the task order while the task requirement of the not-yet-performed task remained the same. This task preview allowed participants to work on the previously non-chosen items in parallel and resulted in faster responses and fewer errors in task switch trials than in task repetition trials. The free-choice group profited more from this task preview than the cued group when considering local performance measures. Nevertheless, the free-choice group invested more effort than the cued group when considering global measures. Thus, self-organization in task scheduling seems to be effortful even in conditions in which it is beneficiary for task processing. In a second experiment, we reduced the possibility of task preview for the not-yet-performed tasks in order to hinder efficient self-organization. Here neither local nor global measures revealed substantial differences between the free-choice and a cued task sequence condition. Based on the results of both experiments, we suggest that global assessment of effort in addition to

  10. Effort in Multitasking: Local and Global Assessment of Effort

    PubMed Central

    Kiesel, Andrea; Dignath, David

    2017-01-01

    When performing multiple tasks in succession, self-organization of task order might be superior compared to external-controlled task schedules, because self-organization allows optimizing processing modes and thus reduces switch costs, and it increases commitment to task goals. However, self-organization is an additional executive control process that is not required if task order is externally specified and as such it is considered as time-consuming and effortful. To compare self-organized and externally controlled task scheduling, we suggest assessing global subjective and objectives measures of effort in addition to local performance measures. In our new experimental approach, we combined characteristics of dual tasking settings and task switching settings and compared local and global measures of effort in a condition with free choice of task sequence and a condition with cued task sequence. In a multi-tasking environment, participants chose the task order while the task requirement of the not-yet-performed task remained the same. This task preview allowed participants to work on the previously non-chosen items in parallel and resulted in faster responses and fewer errors in task switch trials than in task repetition trials. The free-choice group profited more from this task preview than the cued group when considering local performance measures. Nevertheless, the free-choice group invested more effort than the cued group when considering global measures. Thus, self-organization in task scheduling seems to be effortful even in conditions in which it is beneficiary for task processing. In a second experiment, we reduced the possibility of task preview for the not-yet-performed tasks in order to hinder efficient self-organization. Here neither local nor global measures revealed substantial differences between the free-choice and a cued task sequence condition. Based on the results of both experiments, we suggest that global assessment of effort in addition to

  11. Submerged Medium Voltage Cable Systems at Nuclear Power Plants. A Review of Research Efforts Relevant to Aging Mechanisms and Condition Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Jason; Bernstein, Robert; White, II, Gregory Von; Glover, Steven F.; Neely, Jason C.; Pena, Gary; Williamson, Kenneth Martin; Zutavern, Fred J.; Gelbard, Fred

    2015-03-01

    , nuclear systems, and statistics. An objective of this research program is to perform a l iterature r eview to gather a body of knowledge on prior research projects, technical papers, and literature related to cable degradation in a submerged environment. In addition, the information gathered from the literature review will be employed to gain insights for developing an aging coefficient, and to determine which condition monitoring techniques are capable of tracking cable degradation in a submerged environment. Moreover, the information gathered from the l iterature r eview will also be used to determine which approach or approaches are best suited to develop test methods for accelerated aging and condition m onitoring of medium voltage cables. In summary of this initial effort, s ignificant work has been performed on submerged cable insulation degradation; however, there is a lack of uniform theories and acceptance of chemical and physical pathways. This lack of fundamental understanding is coupled with the inability to make predictive statements about material performance in wet or submerged environments. S elect condition monitoring methods known to the industry are discussed in this report and a dditional co ndition monitoring methods were added in this effort based on recommendations from the Nuclear Energy Standards Coordinating Collaborative and available literature. This NUREG review provides additional clarity on the use of condition monitoring methods t o detect water - related damage to medium voltage cable and new methods and approaches proposed in academia and industry. In order t o ensure continued improvement in the efficacy of a cable condition monitoring program, continued research and development (R&D) efforts are necessary. R&D efforts should complement operations, iteratively improving condition monitoring policies, procedures and outcomes. Ideally, field and laboratory data enable improved understanding of material science which in turn inform s the

  12. A Case of Successful Teaching Policy: Connecticut's Long-Term Efforts To Improve Teaching and Learning. A Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Suzanne M.; Darling-Hammond, Linda; Berry, Barnett

    In this monograph, the authors describe Connecticut's long-term efforts to implement a comprehensive set of teaching quality policies to support improved student learning. The authors begin by describing the 15-year evolution of policies designed to recruit, prepare, and support teachers, while also creating greater accountability for the…

  13. 40 CFR 26.304 - Additional protections for pregnant women and fetuses involved in observational research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... women and fetuses involved in observational research. 26.304 Section 26.304 Protection of Environment... Protections for Pregnant Women and Fetuses Involved as Subjects in Observational Research Conducted or Supported by EPA § 26.304 Additional protections for pregnant women and fetuses involved in...

  14. 40 CFR 26.304 - Additional protections for pregnant women and fetuses involved in observational research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... women and fetuses involved in observational research. 26.304 Section 26.304 Protection of Environment... Protections for Pregnant Women and Fetuses Involved as Subjects in Observational Research Conducted or Supported by EPA § 26.304 Additional protections for pregnant women and fetuses involved in...

  15. 40 CFR 26.304 - Additional protections for pregnant women and fetuses involved in observational research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... women and fetuses involved in observational research. 26.304 Section 26.304 Protection of Environment... Protections for Pregnant Women and Fetuses Involved as Subjects in Observational Research Conducted or Supported by EPA § 26.304 Additional protections for pregnant women and fetuses involved in...

  16. 40 CFR 26.304 - Additional protections for pregnant women and fetuses involved in observational research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... women and fetuses involved in observational research. 26.304 Section 26.304 Protection of Environment... Protections for Pregnant Women and Fetuses Involved as Subjects in Observational Research Conducted or Supported by EPA § 26.304 Additional protections for pregnant women and fetuses involved in...

  17. 40 CFR 26.304 - Additional protections for pregnant women and fetuses involved in observational research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... women and fetuses involved in observational research. 26.304 Section 26.304 Protection of Environment... Protections for Pregnant Women and Fetuses Involved as Subjects in Observational Research Conducted or Supported by EPA § 26.304 Additional protections for pregnant women and fetuses involved in...

  18. Using the Networked Fire Chief for ego-depletion research: measuring dynamic decision-making effort and performance.

    PubMed

    Barber, Larissa K; Smit, Brandon W

    2014-01-01

    This study replicated ego-depletion predictions from the self-control literature in a computer simulation task that requires ongoing decision-making in relation to constantly changing environmental information: the Network Fire Chief (NFC). Ego-depletion led to decreased self-regulatory effort, but not performance, on the NFC task. These effects were also buffered by task enjoyment so that individuals who enjoyed the dynamic decision-making task did not experience ego-depletion effects. These findings confirm that past ego-depletion effects on decision-making are not limited to static or isolated decision-making tasks and can be extended to dynamic, naturalistic decision-making processes more common to naturalistic settings. Furthermore, the NFC simulation provides a methodological mechanism for independently measuring effort and performance when studying ego-depletion.

  19. [The Emerging Voices for Global Health Initiative: an intensive capacity-building effort for young researchers from the South].

    PubMed

    Hercot, D; Keugoung, B; Zerbo, A; Appelmans, A; Van Damme, W

    2012-01-01

    Researchers from developing countries, French-speaking nations in particular, are underrepresented in the international biomedical and health literature. Various initiatives seek to address this problem. This article presents the experience of the Emerging Voices for Global Health (EV4GH) program. This initiative provided 52 young researchers from developing countries with intensive skills and content training, with an assortment of complementary components: training in scientific writing and presenting skills, immersion in global health and health systems research, an innovative presentation of their work at the 52nd colloquium of the Institute of Tropical Medicine in Antwerp, and an active role in the first Global Symposium on Health Systems Research, supervised by a team of experienced researchers/coaches who supported them in the publication of a scientific essay. This approach targeting researchers in developing countries and combining the development of skills and knowledge through the publication process, merits reproduction and encouragement. Young researchers from developing countries should not miss out on the second version of this program in October 2012 in Beijing, China.

  20. A Manpower, Budget, Structure, Synergism (MBSS) Model for the Comparison of US-Soviet Military-Space Research Efforts.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-08-01

    CHAPTER 1 1It has been said that the major invention of Thomas Alva Edison was unpatentable - ramely "Organized Research". Edison believed that research...Library HC336.25.K79.) 4 9Eugene Zaleski, "Planning and Financing of Research and Development in the USSR" in Kruze-Vaucienne and Thomas , Soviet Science...0.0 Source: L Lubrane and J Berg, "Academy Scientists in the USA and USSR: Background Characteristics, Institutional and Regional Mobility" in Thomas

  1. Implications of the HIV/AIDS Prevention Research Synthesis Project for the efforts of state, territorial, and local health departments.

    PubMed

    Scofield, Julie M; Smith, Raymond A

    2002-07-01

    State, territorial and local health departments have responsibility for all three of the HIV/AIDS Prevention Research Synthesis (PRS) project's intervention categories: behavioral, social, and policy. These health departments may be aided by the PRS project in a number of ways. These ways include the provision of information on scientifically proven interventions; the determination of sociodemographic categories underrepresented in research; the promotion of consistent methodologies and standards for reporting findings; and the fostering of greater engagement with HIV prevention research among program staff. Further development of the PRS project can enhance and expand these benefits, although the project must be sure to keep practical applications in mind.

  2. A Review of Research on the Literacy of Students with Visual Impairments and Additional Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Amy T.; Pogrund, Rona L.

    2009-01-01

    Research on the development of literacy in children with visual impairments and additional disabilities is minimal even though these children make up approximately 65% of the population of children with visual impairments. This article reports on emerging themes that were explored after a review of the literature revealed nine literacy studies…

  3. Cancer Control Research Training for Native Researchers: A Model for Development of Additional Native Researcher Training Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Thomas M.; Dunn, Esther; Tom-Orme, Lillian; Joe, Jennie

    2005-01-01

    Several social and biological scientists who have Native status are engaged in productive research careers, but the encouragement that has been offered to Native students to formulate career goals devoted to cancer etiology or cancer control in Native peoples has had limited success. Hence, the Native Researchers' Cancer Control Training Program…

  4. NCI Awards 18 Grants to Continue the Early Detection Research Network (EDRN) Biomarkers Effort | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The NCI has awarded 18 grants to continue the Early Detection Research Network (EDRN), a national infrastructure that supports the integrated development, validation, and clinical application of biomarkers for the early detection of cancer. The awards fund 7 Biomarker Developmental Laboratories, 8 Clinical Validation Centers, 2 Biomarker Reference Laboratories, and a Data Management and Coordinating Center (DMCC). |

  5. The complex nature of mixed farming systems requires multidimensional actions supported by integrative research and development efforts.

    PubMed

    González-García, E; Gourdine, J L; Alexandre, G; Archimède, H; Vaarst, M

    2012-05-01

    Mixed farming systems (MFS) have demonstrated some success by focusing on the use of integrative and holistic mechanisms, and rationally building on and using the natural and local resource base without exhausting it, while enhancing biodiversity, optimizing complementarities between crops and animal systems and finally increasing opportunities in rural livelihoods. Focusing our analysis and discussion on field experiences and empirical knowledge in the Caribbean islands, this paper discusses the opportunities for a change needed in current MFS research-development philosophy. The importance of shifting from fragile/specialized production systems to MFS under current global conditions is argued with an emphasis on the case of Small Islands Developing States (SIDS) and the Caribbean. Particular vulnerable characteristics as well as the potential and constraints of SIDS and their agricultural sectors are described, while revealing the opportunities for the 'richness' of the natural and local resources to support authentic and less dependent production system strategies. Examples are provided of the use of natural grasses, legumes, crop residues and agro-industrial by-products. We analyse the requirement for a change in research strategies and initiatives through the development of a complex but necessary multi-/inter-/trans-disciplinary teamwork spirit. We stress as essential the collaboration and active participation of local and regional actors, stakeholders and end-users in the identification of research priorities, as well as the generation, exchange and dissemination of knowledge and technology innovations, while strengthening the leadership roles in the conduct of integrative and participative research and development projects.

  6. Soviet Espionage Effort Have Targeted U.S. Research Libraries and Staffs since 1962, FBI Charges in Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Judith Axler

    1988-01-01

    Soviet intelligence agents have been collecting scientific and technical documents in research libraries to identify emerging technology before its components become classified or restricted. Librarians are also recruited as spies. However, asking librarians to identify suspicious library users would violate ethics and intellectual freedom. (MSE)

  7. Biomedical Big Data Training Collaborative (BBDTC): An effort to bridge the talent gap in biomedical science and research.

    PubMed

    Purawat, Shweta; Cowart, Charles; Amaro, Rommie E; Altintas, Ilkay

    2016-06-01

    The BBDTC (https://biobigdata.ucsd.edu) is a community-oriented platform to encourage high-quality knowledge dissemination with the aim of growing a well-informed biomedical big data community through collaborative efforts on training and education. The BBDTC collaborative is an e-learning platform that supports the biomedical community to access, develop and deploy open training materials. The BBDTC supports Big Data skill training for biomedical scientists at all levels, and from varied backgrounds. The natural hierarchy of courses allows them to be broken into and handled as modules. Modules can be reused in the context of multiple courses and reshuffled, producing a new and different, dynamic course called a playlist. Users may create playlists to suit their learning requirements and share it with individual users or the wider public. BBDTC leverages the maturity and design of the HUBzero content-management platform for delivering educational content. To facilitate the migration of existing content, the BBDTC supports importing and exporting course material from the edX platform. Migration tools will be extended in the future to support other platforms. Hands-on training software packages, i.e., toolboxes, are supported through Amazon EC2 and Virtualbox virtualization technologies, and they are available as: (i) downloadable lightweight Virtualbox Images providing a standardized software tool environment with software packages and test data on their personal machines, and (ii) remotely accessible Amazon EC2 Virtual Machines for accessing biomedical big data tools and scalable big data experiments. At the moment, the BBDTC site contains three open Biomedical big data training courses with lecture contents, videos and hands-on training utilizing VM toolboxes, covering diverse topics. The courses have enhanced the hands-on learning environment by providing structured content that users can use at their own pace. A four course biomedical big data series is planned

  8. Biomedical Big Data Training Collaborative (BBDTC): An effort to bridge the talent gap in biomedical science and research

    PubMed Central

    Purawat, Shweta; Cowart, Charles; Amaro, Rommie E.; Altintas, Ilkay

    2016-01-01

    The BBDTC (https://biobigdata.ucsd.edu) is a community-oriented platform to encourage high-quality knowledge dissemination with the aim of growing a well-informed biomedical big data community through collaborative efforts on training and education. The BBDTC collaborative is an e-learning platform that supports the biomedical community to access, develop and deploy open training materials. The BBDTC supports Big Data skill training for biomedical scientists at all levels, and from varied backgrounds. The natural hierarchy of courses allows them to be broken into and handled as modules. Modules can be reused in the context of multiple courses and reshuffled, producing a new and different, dynamic course called a playlist. Users may create playlists to suit their learning requirements and share it with individual users or the wider public. BBDTC leverages the maturity and design of the HUBzero content-management platform for delivering educational content. To facilitate the migration of existing content, the BBDTC supports importing and exporting course material from the edX platform. Migration tools will be extended in the future to support other platforms. Hands-on training software packages, i.e., toolboxes, are supported through Amazon EC2 and Virtualbox virtualization technologies, and they are available as: (i) downloadable lightweight Virtualbox Images providing a standardized software tool environment with software packages and test data on their personal machines, and (ii) remotely accessible Amazon EC2 Virtual Machines for accessing biomedical big data tools and scalable big data experiments. At the moment, the BBDTC site contains three open Biomedical big data training courses with lecture contents, videos and hands-on training utilizing VM toolboxes, covering diverse topics. The courses have enhanced the hands-on learning environment by providing structured content that users can use at their own pace. A four course biomedical big data series is planned

  9. Primary research efforts on exploring the commercial possibilities of thin film growth and materials purification in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The progress made on research programs in the 1987 to 1988 year is reported. The research is aimed at producing thin film semiconductors and superconductor materials in space. Sophisticated vacuum chambers and equipment were attained for the epitaxial thin film growth of semiconductors, metals and superconductors. In order to grow the best possible epitaxial films at the lowest possible temperatures on earth, materials are being isoelectronically doped during growth. It was found that isoelectrically doped film shows the highest mobility in comparison with films grown at optimal temperatures. Success was also attained in growing epitaxial films of InSb on sapphire which show promise for infrared sensitive devices in the III-V semiconductor system.

  10. Hedgehog Signaling Pathway Database: a repository of current annotation efforts and resources for the Hh research community.

    PubMed

    Hervold, Kieran; Martin, Andrew; Kirkpatrick, Roger A; Mc Kenna, Paul F; Ramirez-Weber, F A

    2007-01-01

    The Hedgehog Signaling Pathway Database is a curated repository of information pertaining to the Hedgehog developmental pathway. It was designed to provide centralized access to a wide range of relevant information in an organism-agnostic manner. Data are provided for all genes and gene targets known to be involved in the Hh pathway across various organisms. The data provided include DNA and protein sequences as well as domain structure motifs. All known human diseases associated with the Hh pathway are indexed including experimental data on therapeutic agents and their molecular targets. Hh researchers will find useful information on relevant protocols, tissue cell lines and reagents used in current Hh research projects. Curated content is also provided for publications, grants and patents relating to the Hh pathway. The database can be accessed at http://www.hedgehog.sfsu.edu.

  11. Start Up Research Effort in Fluid Mechanics. Advanced Methods for Acoustic and Thrust Benefits for Aircraft Engine Nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Samuel G.; Gilinsky, Mikhail M.

    1997-01-01

    In accordance with the project plan for the report period in the proposal titled above, HU and FML teams investigated two sets of concepts for reduction of noise and improvement in efficiency for jet exhaust nozzles of aircraft engines and screws for mixers, fans, propellers and boats. The main achievements in the report period are: (a) Publication of the paper in the AIAA Journal, which described our concepts and some results. (b) The Award in the Civil Research and Development Foundation (CRDF) competition. This 2 year grant for Hampton University (HU) and Central AeroHydrodynamic Institute (TSAGI, Moscow, Russia) supports the research implementation under the current NASA FAR grant. (c) Selection for funding by NASA HQ review panel of the Partnership Awards Concept Paper. This two year grant also will support our current FAR grant. (d) Publication of a Mobius Strip concept in NASA Technical Briefs, June, 1996, and a great interest of many industrial companies in this invention. Successful experimental results with the Mobius shaped screw for mixers, which save more than 30% of the electric power by comparison with the standard screws. Creation of the scientific-popular video-film which can be used for commercial and educational purposes. (e) Organization work, joint meetings and discussions of the NASA LARC JNL Team and HU professors and administration for the solution of actual problems and effective work of the Fluid Mechanics Laboratory at Hampton University. In this report the main designs are enumerated. It also contains for both concept sets: (1) the statement of the problem for each design, some results, publications, inventions, patents, our vision for continuation of this research, and (2) present and expected problems in the future.

  12. Identifying Factors Influencing Pancreatic Cancer Management to Inform Quality Improvement Efforts and Future Research: A Scoping Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Gagliardi, Anna R; Soong, Daniel; Gallinger, Steven

    2016-02-01

    Pancreatic cancer (PC) patients appear to receive suboptimal care. We conducted a systematic review to identify factors that influence PC management which are amenable to quality improvement. MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the references of eligible studies were searched from 1996 to July 2014. Two authors independently selected and reviewed eligible studies. Identified factors were mapped onto a framework of determinants of care delivery and outcomes. Methodological quality of studies was assessed using Downs and Black criteria. Most of the 33 eligible studies were population-based observational studies conducted in the United States. Patient (age, socioeconomic status, race) and institutional (case volume, academic status) factors influence care delivery and outcomes (complications, mortality, readmission, survival). Two studies implemented interventions to improve quality of care (centralization to high-volume hospitals, multidisciplinary care). One study examined system determinants (referral wait times). No studies examined the influence of guideline or provider characteristics. The overall lack of health services research in PC is striking. Factors and interventions identified here can be used to plan PC quality improvement programs. Further research is needed to explore the influence of guideline and provider factors on PC management and evaluate the impact of quality improvement interventions.

  13. Review of the nutritional implications of farmers' markets and community gardens: a call for evaluation and research efforts.

    PubMed

    McCormack, Lacey Arneson; Laska, Melissa Nelson; Larson, Nicole I; Story, Mary

    2010-03-01

    The development and promotion of farmers' markets and community gardens is growing in popularity as a strategy to increase community-wide fruit and vegetable consumption. Despite large numbers of farmers' markets and community gardens in the United States, as well as widespread enthusiasm for their use as a health promotion tool, little is known about their influence on dietary intake. This review examines the current scientific literature on the implications of farmers' market programs and community gardens on nutrition-related outcomes in adults. Studies published between January 1980 and January 2009 were identified via PubMed and Agricola database searches and by examining reference lists from relevant studies. Studies were included in this review if they took place in the United States and qualitatively or quantitatively examined nutrition-related outcomes, including dietary intake; attitudes and beliefs regarding buying, preparing, or eating fruits and vegetables; and behaviors and perceptions related to obtaining produce from a farmers' market or community garden. Studies focusing on garden-based youth programs were excluded. In total, 16 studies were identified for inclusion in this review. Seven studies focused on the impact of farmers' market nutrition programs for Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children participants, five focused on the influence of farmers' market programs for seniors, and four focused on community gardens. Findings from this review reveal that few well-designed research studies (eg, those incorporating control groups) utilizing valid and reliable dietary assessment methods to evaluate the influence of farmers' markets and community gardens on nutrition-related outcomes have been completed. Recommendations for future research on the dietary influences of farmers' markets and community gardens are provided.

  14. Industry research on the use and effects of levulinic acid: a case study in cigarette additives.

    PubMed

    Keithly, Lois; Ferris Wayne, Geoffrey; Cullen, Doris M; Connolly, Gregory N

    2005-10-01

    Public health officials and tobacco researchers have raised concerns about the possible contributions of additives to the toxicity of cigarettes. However, little attention has been given to the process whereby additives promote initiation and addiction. Levulinic acid is a known cigarette additive. Review of internal tobacco industry documents indicates that levulinic acid was used to increase nicotine yields while enhancing perceptions of smoothness and mildness. Levulinic acid reduces the pH of cigarette smoke and desensitizes the upper respiratory tract, increasing the potential for cigarette smoke to be inhaled deeper into the lungs. Levulinic acid also may enhance the binding of nicotine to neurons that ordinarily would be unresponsive to nicotine. These findings held particular interest in the internal development of ultralight and so-called reduced-exposure cigarette prototypes. Industry studies found significantly increased peak plasma nicotine levels in smokers of ultralight cigarettes following addition of levulinic acid. Further, internal studies observed changes in mainstream and sidestream smoke composition that may present increased health risks. The use of levulinic acid illustrates the need for regulatory authority over tobacco products as well as better understanding of the role of additives in cigarettes and other tobacco products.

  15. Chimpanzee research and conservation in Bossou and the Nimba Mountains: a long-term international collaborative effort in West Africa.

    PubMed

    Granier, Nicolas

    2016-07-01

    The Nimba Mountains are a West African Natural World Heritage site located in the range of the Guineo-equatorial evergreen rainforest, renowned for its rich biodiversity with a high level of endemism. In 1976, Yukimaru Sugiyama from Kyoto University initiated the long-term study of chimpanzees at Bossou, a Guinean village situated 5 km from the northern foothills of Nimba. This Japanese initiative has provided key discoveries and insights on our closest living evolutionary relatives over the 40 past years, and has grown to become an international collaboration with a research focus extended to adjacent chimpanzee communities. The present paper describes a mid-term behavioral and ecological study on wild chimpanzees populating the southern slope of the Nimba Mountains, conducted in the framework of this collaborative project. It aimed to assess the status and ecological requirements of chimpanzees in order to formulate purpose-built actions for their conservation. We estimated a density of 0.46 chimpanzee per km(2) using nest count methods from line transects. We used logistic and Poisson regressions to investigate basic ecological characteristics of chimpanzees in relation to habitat composition and structure, topography and seasonality. We performed an in-depth analysis of their nesting and feeding behaviors, and identified important components of their diet; we also recorded their year-round ranging patterns. Our findings highlight the importance of old secondary forest and high-altitude habitats for these chimpanzees. We discuss the results in the light of other studies from the perspective of the conservation of the species and its natural habitat.

  16. Contaminated Sediment Management in Dam Removals and River Restoration Efforts: Critical Need for Research and Policy Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, J. E.

    2015-12-01

    Over 1,000 U.S. dams have been removed (1975-2015) for reasons including obsolescence, liability concerns, water quality upgrades, fisheries, or ecosystem enhancements. Contaminated sediment can significantly complicate the approval process, cost, and timeline of a dam removal, or stop it entirely. In a dam removal, reservoir sediment changes from a sink to a source of contaminants. Recently, the Sierra Club sued to stop the removal of a large dam in Ohio because of the potential impact of phosphate releases on toxic algal blooms in Lake Erie. Heavy metals, PCBs, PAHs, pesticides, and petroleum hydrocarbons can be present in reservoir sediments. In a non-dam removal scenario, reservoir management tools range from "no action" to dredging, dewatering and removal, or sediment capping. But it is not clear how these reservoir management techniques apply to dam removals. Case studies show typically >80% of the reservoir sediment is eventually eroded, precluding sediment capping as a containment option. However, the released contaminants are diluted by mixing with "clean" sediment and are transported to different physio-chemical environments which may immobilize or biodegrade the contaminants. Poorly understood options include phased drawdown/reseeding the former reservoir to contain sediments, diking contaminant "hot spots," and addressing contaminant stratigraphy (where historical use created "hot layers" in the reservoir sediment). Research and policy development needs include: (1) assessment methods based on synergistic effects of multiple contaminants being present; (2) ways to translate the pre-removal contaminant concentrations to post-removal health risks downstream; (3) evaluation of management practices for contaminant "hot spots" and "hot layers;" (4) tools to forecast the presence of contaminated sediment using easily accessible information; and (5) ways to limit liability risk for organizations participating in dam removals involving contaminated sediment.

  17. Targeted Alpha Therapy: The US DOE Tri-Lab (ORNL, BNL, LANL) Research Effort to Provide Accelerator-Produced 225Ac for Radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    John, Kevin

    2017-01-01

    Targeted radiotherapy is an emerging discipline of cancer therapy that exploits the biochemical differences between normal cells and cancer cells to selectively deliver a lethal dose of radiation to cancer cells, while leaving healthy cells relatively unperturbed. A broad overview of targeted alpha therapy including isotope production methods, and associated isotope production facility needs, will be provided. A more general overview of the US Department of Energy Isotope Program's Tri-Lab (ORNL, BNL, LANL) Research Effort to Provide Accelerator-Produced 225Ac for Radiotherapy will also be presented focusing on the accelerator-production of 225Ac and final product isolation methodologies for medical applications.

  18. Formative and summative evaluation efforts for the Teacher Enhancement Institute conducted at the NASA Langley Research Center, summer 1994

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, Randal D.

    1994-01-01

    The Teacher Enhancement Institute (TEI) at NASA Langley Research Center was developed in response to Executive Order 12821 which mandates national laboratories to 'assist in the mathematics and science education of our Nation's students, teachers, parents, and the public by establishing programs at their agency to provide for training elementary and secondary school teachers to improve their knowledge of mathematics and science. Such programs, to the maximum extent possible, shall involve partnerships with universities, state and local elementary and secondary school authorities, corporations and community based organizations'. The faculty worked closely with one another and the invited speakers to insure that the sessions supported the objectives. Speakers were informed of the objectives and given guidance concerning form and function for the session. Faculty members monitored sessions to assist speakers and to provide a quality control function. Faculty provided feedback to speakers concerning general objective accomplishment. Participant comments were also provided when applicable. Post TEI surveys asked for specific comments about each TEI session. During the second of the two, two week institutes, daily critiques were provided to the participants for their reflection. This seemed to provide much improved feedback to speakers and faculty because the sessions were fresh in each participant's mind. Between sessions one and two, some changes were made to the program as a result of the formative evaluation process. Those changes, though, were minor in nature and comprised what may be called 'fine tuning' a well conceived and implemented program. After the objectives were written, an assessment instrument was developed to test the accomplishment of the objectives. This instrument was actually two surveys, one given before the TEI and one given after the TEI. In using such a series, it was expected that changes in the participants induced by attendance at TEI may be

  19. Does the model of additive effect in placebo research still hold true? A narrative review

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Bettina; Weger, Ulrich; Heusser, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Personalised and contextualised care has been turned into a major demand by people involved in healthcare suggesting to move toward person-centred medicine. The assessment of person-centred medicine can be most effectively achieved if treatments are investigated using ‘with versus without’ person-centredness or integrative study designs. However, this assumes that the components of an integrative or person-centred intervention have an additive relationship to produce the total effect. Beecher’s model of additivity assumes an additive relation between placebo and drug effects and is thus presenting an arithmetic summation. So far, no review has been carried out assessing the validity of the additive model, which is to be questioned and more closely investigated in this review. Initial searches for primary studies were undertaken in July 2016 using Pubmed and Google Scholar. In order to find matching publications of similar magnitude for the comparison part of this review, corresponding matches for all included reviews were sought. A total of 22 reviews and 3 clinical and experimental studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The results pointed to the following factors actively questioning the additive model: interactions of various effects, trial design, conditioning, context effects and factors, neurobiological factors, mechanism of action, statistical factors, intervention-specific factors (alcohol, caffeine), side-effects and type of intervention. All but one of the closely assessed publications was questioning the additive model. A closer examination of study design is necessary. An attempt in a more systematic approach geared towards solutions could be a suggestion for future research in this field. PMID:28321318

  20. International aerospaceplane efforts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindley, Charles A.

    1992-01-01

    Although the U.S. began the first reusable space booster effort in the late 1950's, it is no longer an exclusive field. All of the technologically advanced nations, and several groups of nations, have one or more reusable booster efforts in progress. A listing of the entries in the field is presented. The list is somewhat misleading, because it includes both fully reusable and partially reusable boosters, both manned and unmanned, and both flight test and operational proposals. Additionally, not all of the projects are funded, and only a few of the projects will survive. The most likely candidates are the following: France/ESA, Germany/ESA, Great Britain/ESA/(USSR), USSR(past), and Japan. A discussion of the preceding projects is provided.

  1. Cognitive effort: A neuroeconomic approach

    PubMed Central

    Braver, Todd S.

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive effort has been implicated in numerous theories regarding normal and aberrant behavior and the physiological response to engagement with demanding tasks. Yet, despite broad interest, no unifying, operational definition of cognitive effort itself has been proposed. Here, we argue that the most intuitive and epistemologically valuable treatment is in terms of effort-based decision-making, and advocate a neuroeconomics-focused research strategy. We first outline psychological and neuroscientific theories of cognitive effort. Then we describe the benefits of a neuroeconomic research strategy, highlighting how it affords greater inferential traction than do traditional markers of cognitive effort, including self-reports and physiologic markers of autonomic arousal. Finally, we sketch a future series of studies that can leverage the full potential of the neuroeconomic approach toward understanding the cognitive and neural mechanisms that give rise to phenomenal, subjective cognitive effort. PMID:25673005

  2. Research Effort in Atmospheric Propagation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    velocity and air mean free path on wire microthermal measurements was reported. The results were that the procedure of calibrating a microthermal ...molecular mean free path is larger can increase the error another 4%. A discussion of refractive index spectra obtained from airborne microthermal

  3. Techniques of Assessing Mental Effort.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cennamo, Katherine S.

    The search for techniques to increase the effort that learners invest in video-based instruction has been hindered by the limitations of the instruments used to assess the construct of mental effort. Several researchers have noted the confusion of terms in the field that refer to the cognitive resources devoted to processing the stimulus. In this…

  4. Navy superconductivity efforts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gubser, D. U.

    1990-01-01

    Both the new high temperature superconductors (HTS) and the low temperature superconductors (LTS) are important components of Navy's total plan to integrate superconductivity into field operational systems. Fundamental research is an important component of the total Navy program and focuses on the HTS materials. Power applications (ship propulsion, etc.) use LTS materials while space applications (MMW electronics, etc.) use HTS materials. The Space Experiment being conducted at NRL will involve space flight testing of HTS devices built by industry and will demonstrate the ability to engineer and space qualify these devices for systems use. Another important component of the Navy's effort is the development of Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) magnetometers. This program will use LTS materials initially, but plans to implement HTS materials as soon as possible. Hybrid HTS/LTS systems are probable in many applications. A review of the status of the Navy's HTS materials research is given as well as an update on the Navy's development efforts in superconductivity, with particular emphasis on the related SDIO sponsored program on HTS applications.

  5. Navy superconductivity efforts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gubser, D. U.

    1990-04-01

    Both the new high temperature superconductors (HTS) and the low temperature superconductors (LTS) are important components of Navy's total plan to integrate superconductivity into field operational systems. Fundamental research is an important component of the total Navy program and focuses on the HTS materials. Power applications (ship propulsion, etc.) use LTS materials while space applications (MMW electronics, etc.) use HTS materials. The Space Experiment being conducted at NRL will involve space flight testing of HTS devices built by industry and will demonstrate the ability to engineer and space qualify these devices for systems use. Another important component of the Navy's effort is the development of Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) magnetometers. This program will use LTS materials initially, but plans to implement HTS materials as soon as possible. Hybrid HTS/LTS systems are probable in many applications. A review of the status of the Navy's HTS materials research is given as well as an update on the Navy's development efforts in superconductivity, with particular emphasis on the related SDIO sponsored program on HTS applications.

  6. Populating a Control Point Database: A cooperative effort between the USGS, Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center and the Grand Canyon Youth Organization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, K. M.; Fritzinger, C.; Wharton, E.

    2004-12-01

    The Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center measures the effects of Glen Canyon Dam operations on the resources along the Colorado River from Glen Canyon Dam to Lake Mead in support of the Grand Canyon Adaptive Management Program. Control points are integral for geo-referencing the myriad of data collected in the Grand Canyon including aerial photography, topographic and bathymetric data used for classification and change-detection analysis of physical, biologic and cultural resources. The survey department has compiled a list of 870 control points installed by various organizations needing to establish a consistent reference for data collected at field sites along the 240 mile stretch of Colorado River in the Grand Canyon. This list is the foundation for the Control Point Database established primarily for researchers, to locate control points and independently geo-reference collected field data. The database has the potential to be a valuable mapping tool for assisting researchers to easily locate a control point and reduce the occurrance of unknowingly installing new control points within close proximity of an existing control point. The database is missing photographs and accurate site description information. Current site descriptions do not accurately define the location of the point but refer to the project that used the point, or some other interesting fact associated with the point. The Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center (GCMRC) resolved this problem by turning the data collection effort into an educational exercise for the participants of the Grand Canyon Youth organization. Grand Canyon Youth is a non-profit organization providing experiential education for middle and high school aged youth. GCMRC and the Grand Canyon Youth formed a partnership where GCMRC provided the logistical support, equipment, and training to conduct the field work, and the Grand Canyon Youth provided the time and personnel to complete the field work. Two data

  7. Where are the young men in HIV prevention efforts? Comments on HIV prevention programs and research from young men who sex with men in Los Angeles county.

    PubMed

    Holloway, Ian W; Cederbaum, Julie A; Ajayi, Antonette; Shoptaw, Steven

    2012-12-01

    Despite increasing rates of HIV infection among young men who have sex with men (YMSM), only a minority participate in formal HIV prevention efforts. Semi-structured mixed-methods interviews were conducted with a diverse sample of YMSM (N = 100, M(age) = 25.0 years) in Los Angeles, California, to identify facilitators and barriers to participation in HIV prevention programs. Summative content analyses were used to evaluate transcribed field notes from these interviews. Results showed that 28.0 % of all participants had previously attended an HIV prevention program, and that 21.3 % of those who were also asked if they had ever participated in any research pertaining to HIV prevention had done so. A significantly higher percentage of those who had participated in HIV prevention programs had been tested for HIV in the past 6 months compared to those who had not (p < .05). The most frequently mentioned barriers to participation in such a program were being too busy to attend (12.0 %), not perceiving themselves to be at risk for HIV infection (14.0 %), and believing that they already knew everything they needed to know about HIV transmission (23.0 %). YMSM suggested that future interventions should use technology (e.g., the Internet, mobile devices), engage their social networks, and highlight HIV prevention as a means for community connection. Collectively, these results provide some explanations for why YMSM account for a minority of HIV prevention program participants and offer possible directions for future HIV prevention efforts that target YMSM.

  8. PowerPoint Presentations: A Creative Addition to the Research Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Alan E.

    2003-01-01

    Contends that the requirement of a PowerPoint presentation as part of the research process would benefit students in the following ways: learning how to conduct research; starting their research project sooner; honing presentation and public speaking skills; improving cooperative and social skills; and enhancing technology skills. Outlines the…

  9. Statement Summarizing Research Findings on the Issue of the Relationship Between Food-Additive-Free Diets and Hyperkinesis in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipton, Morris; Wender, Esther

    The National Advisory Committee on Hyperkinesis and Food Additives paper summarized some research findings on the issue of the relationship between food-additive-free diets and hyperkinesis in children. Based on several challenge studies, it is concluded that the evidence generally refutes Dr. B. F. Feingold's claim that artificial colorings in…

  10. 34 CFR 660.32 - What additional selection criteria does the Secretary use for an application for a research...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... use for an application for a research project, a survey, or a study? 660.32 Section 660.32 Education..., DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH AND STUDIES PROGRAM How Does the Secretary Make a Grant... project, a survey, or a study? In addition to the criteria referred to in § 660.31, the...

  11. 34 CFR 660.32 - What additional selection criteria does the Secretary use for an application for a research...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... use for an application for a research project, a survey, or a study? 660.32 Section 660.32 Education..., DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH AND STUDIES PROGRAM How Does the Secretary Make a Grant? § 660.32 What additional selection criteria does the Secretary use for an application for a...

  12. Defining an additivity framework for mixture research in inducible whole-cell biosensors

    PubMed Central

    Martin-Betancor, K.; Ritz, C.; Fernández-Piñas, F.; Leganés, F.; Rodea-Palomares, I.

    2015-01-01

    A novel additivity framework for mixture effect modelling in the context of whole cell inducible biosensors has been mathematically developed and implemented in R. The proposed method is a multivariate extension of the effective dose (EDp) concept. Specifically, the extension accounts for differential maximal effects among analytes and response inhibition beyond the maximum permissive concentrations. This allows a multivariate extension of Loewe additivity, enabling direct application in a biphasic dose-response framework. The proposed additivity definition was validated, and its applicability illustrated by studying the response of the cyanobacterial biosensor Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 pBG2120 to binary mixtures of Zn, Cu, Cd, Ag, Co and Hg. The novel method allowed by the first time to model complete dose-response profiles of an inducible whole cell biosensor to mixtures. In addition, the approach also allowed identification and quantification of departures from additivity (interactions) among analytes. The biosensor was found to respond in a near additive way to heavy metal mixtures except when Hg, Co and Ag were present, in which case strong interactions occurred. The method is a useful contribution for the whole cell biosensors discipline and related areas allowing to perform appropriate assessment of mixture effects in non-monotonic dose-response frameworks PMID:26606975

  13. Perception of effort in Exercise Science: Definition, measurement and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Pageaux, Benjamin

    2016-11-01

    Perception of effort, also known as perceived exertion or sense of effort, can be described as a cognitive feeling of work associated with voluntary actions. The aim of the present review is to provide an overview of what is perception of effort in Exercise Science. Due to the addition of sensations other than effort in its definition, the neurophysiology of perceived exertion remains poorly understood. As humans have the ability to dissociate effort from other sensations related to physical exercise, the need to use a narrower definition is emphasised. Consequently, a definition and some brief guidelines for its measurement are provided. Finally, an overview of the models present in the literature aiming to explain its neurophysiology, and some perspectives for future research are offered.

  14. Research on the additives to reduce radioactive pollutants in the building materials containing fly ash.

    PubMed

    He, Deng-liang; Yin, Guang-fu; Dong, Fa-qin; Liu, Lai-bao; Luo, Ya-jun

    2010-05-15

    Several kinds of functional additives such as barite, zeolite, ferric oxide, gypsum, and high alumina cement were introduced to prepare a low-radiation cement-based composite to reduce radioactive pollutants contained in fly ash. The effect of content and granularity of the functional additives on the release of radioactive pollutants were investigated. Composites were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Scan electron microscopy. The results indicate that the radioactive pollutants contained in the fly ash can be reduced by adding a proper amount of zeolite, ferric oxide, gypsum, and high alumina cement. The release of radon from fly ash decreases with a decrease in the granularity of additives. Compared with traditional cement-based composite containing fly ash, the release of radon can be reduced 64.8% in these composites, and the release of gamma-ray is decreased 45%. Based on the microstructure and phase analysis, we think that by added functional additives, there are favorable to form self-absorption of radioactivity in the interior composites. This cement-based composite will conducive to fly ash are large-scale applied in the field of building materials.

  15. Changes to English as an Additional Language Writers' Research Articles: From Spoken to Written Register

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koyalan, Aylin; Mumford, Simon

    2011-01-01

    The process of writing journal articles is increasingly being seen as a collaborative process, especially where the authors are English as an Additional Language (EAL) academics. This study examines the changes made in terms of register to EAL writers' journal articles by a native-speaker writing centre advisor at a private university in Turkey.…

  16. Research on EHN additive on the diesel engine combustion characteristics in plateau environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Zhixin; Li, Ruoting; Wang, Xiancheng; Hu, Chuan

    2017-03-01

    Aiming at the combustion deterioration problem of diesel engine in plateau environment, a bench test was carried out for the effects of EHN additive on combustion characteristics of the diesel engine with intake pressure of 0.68 kPa. Test results showed that with the full load working condition of 1 400 r/min: Cylinder pressure and pressure uprising rate decreased with EHN additive added in, mechanical load on the engine could be relieved; peak value of the heat release rate decreased and its occurrence advanced, ignition delay and combustion duration were shortened; cylinder temperature and exhaust gas temperature declined, thermal load on the engine could be relieved, output torque increased while specific oil consumption decreased, and effective thermal efficiency of diesel engine increased.

  17. EarthScope's Plate Boundary Observatory in Alaska: Building on Existing Infrastructure to Provide a Platform for Integrated Research and Hazard-monitoring Efforts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyce, E. S.; Bierma, R. M.; Willoughby, H.; Feaux, K.; Mattioli, G. S.; Enders, M.; Busby, R. W.

    2014-12-01

    EarthScope's geodetic component in Alaska, the UNAVCO-operated Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) network, includes 139 continuous GPS sites and 41 supporting telemetry relays. These are spread across a vast area, from northern AK to the Aleutians. Forty-five of these stations were installed or have been upgraded in cooperation with various partner agencies and currently provide data collection and transmission for more than one group. Leveraging existing infrastructure normally has multiple benefits, such as easier permitting requirements and costs savings through reduced overall construction and maintenance expenses. At some sites, PBO-AK power and communications systems have additional capacity beyond that which is needed for reliable acquisition of GPS data. Where permits allow, such stations could serve as platforms for additional instrumentation or real-time observing needs. With the expansion of the Transportable Array (TA) into Alaska, there is increased interest to leverage existing EarthScope resources for station co-location and telemetry integration. Because of the complexity and difficulty of long-term O&M at PBO sites, however, actual integration of GPS and seismic equipment must be considered on a case-by-case basis. UNAVCO currently operates two integrated GPS/seismic stations in collaboration with the Alaska Earthquake Center, and three with the Alaska Volcano Observatory. By the end of 2014, PBO and TA plan to install another four integrated and/or co-located geodetic and seismic systems. While three of these are designed around existing PBO stations, one will be a completely new TA installation, providing PBO with an opportunity to expand geodetic data collection in Alaska within the limited operations and maintenance phase of the project. We will present some of the design considerations, outcomes, and lessons learned from past and ongoing projects to integrate seismometers and other instrumentation at PBO-Alaska stations. Developing the PBO

  18. 34 CFR 660.32 - What additional selection criteria does the Secretary use for an application for a research...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What additional selection criteria does the Secretary use for an application for a research project, a survey, or a study? 660.32 Section 660.32 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY...

  19. Perceptions of State Legislators and Higher Education Administrators Regarding Government Relations Efforts by Land-Grant, Research-Extensive, and Major University Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avery, Richard Owen

    2012-01-01

    Public university systems and institutions actively engage in legislative relations efforts with elected representatives who comprise state legislative bodies. Historically, the primary impetus for fostering legislative relations was to leverage appropriations. Funding issues remain an important component of higher education's interactions…

  20. Berkeley's New Approach to Global Engagement: Early and Current Efforts to Become More International. Research & Occasional Paper Series: CSHE.12.15

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dirks, Nicholas B.; Gilman, Nils

    2015-01-01

    This essay discusses past and current thinking about the globalization of higher education (from a U.S. point of view in particular) and a new model we are attempting to develop at the University of California, Berkeley. This essay begins with a brief narrative of the historical evolution of efforts to internationalize education, from the…

  1. Addressing Social Issues in the Classroom and Beyond: The Pedagogical Efforts of Pioneers in the Field. Research in Curriculum and Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Totten, Samuel, Ed.; Pedersen, Jon, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    Addressing Social Issues in the Classroom and Beyond: The Pedagogical Efforts of Pioneers in the Field is comprised of essays that delineate the genesis and evolution of the thought and work of pioneers in the field of social issues and education. The authors (many of whom, themselves, are noted professors of education and who have done…

  2. Where Are the Young Men in HIV Prevention Efforts? Comments on HIV Prevention Programs and Research from Young Men Who Sex with Men in Los Angeles County

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holloway, Ian W.; Cederbaum, Julie A.; Ajayi, Antonette; Shoptaw, Steven

    2012-01-01

    Despite increasing rates of HIV infection among young men who have sex with men (YMSM), only a minority participate in formal HIV prevention efforts. Semi-structured mixed-methods interviews were conducted with a diverse sample of YMSM (N = 100, M[subscript age] = 25.0 years) in Los Angeles, California, to identify facilitators and barriers to…

  3. CRYPTOSPORIDIUM SOURCE TRACKING TO ENHANCE SOURCE WATER PROTECTION IMPLEMENTATION IN THE POTOMAC RIVER WATERSHED: A REGIONAL APPLIED RESEARCH EFFORTS (RARE) PROJECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Potomac River watershed is a critical drinking water supply for the Washington DC metropolitan area. In 2004, the Drinking Water Source Protection Partnership (DWSPP) was formed to help coordinate efforts by local drinking water utilities and government agencies to protect th...

  4. Swedish nuclear waste efforts

    SciTech Connect

    Rydberg, J.

    1981-09-01

    After the introduction of a law prohibiting the start-up of any new nuclear power plant until the utility had shown that the waste produced by the plant could be taken care of in an absolutely safe way, the Swedish nuclear utilities in December 1976 embarked on the Nuclear Fuel Safety Project, which in November 1977 presented a first report, Handling of Spent Nuclear Fuel and Final Storage of Vitrified Waste (KBS-I), and in November 1978 a second report, Handling and Final Storage of Unreprocessed Spent Nuclear Fuel (KBS II). These summary reports were supported by 120 technical reports prepared by 450 experts. The project engaged 70 private and governmental institutions at a total cost of US $15 million. The KBS-I and KBS-II reports are summarized in this document, as are also continued waste research efforts carried out by KBS, SKBF, PRAV, ASEA and other Swedish organizations. The KBS reports describe all steps (except reprocessing) in handling chain from removal from a reactor of spent fuel elements until their radioactive waste products are finally disposed of, in canisters, in an underground granite depository. The KBS concept relies on engineered multibarrier systems in combination with final storage in thoroughly investigated stable geologic formations. This report also briefly describes other activities carried out by the nuclear industry, namely, the construction of a central storage facility for spent fuel elements (to be in operation by 1985), a repository for reactor waste (to be in operation by 1988), and an intermediate storage facility for vitrified high-level waste (to be in operation by 1990). The R and D activities are updated to September 1981.

  5. Greek research reactor performance characteristics after addition of beryllium reflector and LEU fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Deen, J.R.; Snelgrove, J.L.; Papastergiou, C.

    1992-12-31

    The GRR-1 is a 5-MW pool-type, light-water-moderated and-cooled reactor fueled with MTR-type fuel elements. Recently received Be reflector blocks will soon be added to the core to add additional reactivity until fresh LEU fuel arrives. REBUS-3 xy fuel cycle analyses, using burnup dependent cross sections, were performed to assist in fuel management decisions for the water- and Be-reflected HEU nonequilibrium cores. Cross sections generated by EPRI-CELL have been benchmarked to identical VIM Monte Carlo models. The size of the Be-reflected LEU core has been reduced to 30 elements compared to 35 for the HEU water-reflected core, and an equilibrium cycle calculation has been performed.

  6. Greek research reactor performance characteristics after addition of beryllium reflector and LEU fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Deen, J.R.; Snelgrove, J.L. ); Papastergiou, C. )

    1992-01-01

    The GRR-1 is a 5-MW pool-type, light-water-moderated and-cooled reactor fueled with MTR-type fuel elements. Recently received Be reflector blocks will soon be added to the core to add additional reactivity until fresh LEU fuel arrives. REBUS-3 xy fuel cycle analyses, using burnup dependent cross sections, were performed to assist in fuel management decisions for the water- and Be-reflected HEU nonequilibrium cores. Cross sections generated by EPRI-CELL have been benchmarked to identical VIM Monte Carlo models. The size of the Be-reflected LEU core has been reduced to 30 elements compared to 35 for the HEU water-reflected core, and an equilibrium cycle calculation has been performed.

  7. ASME Code Efforts Supporting HTGRs

    SciTech Connect

    D.K. Morton

    2012-09-01

    In 1999, an international collaborative initiative for the development of advanced (Generation IV) reactors was started. The idea behind this effort was to bring nuclear energy closer to the needs of sustainability, to increase proliferation resistance, and to support concepts able to produce energy (both electricity and process heat) at competitive costs. The U.S. Department of Energy has supported this effort by pursuing the development of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant, a high temperature gas-cooled reactor. This support has included research and development of pertinent data, initial regulatory discussions, and engineering support of various codes and standards development. This report discusses the various applicable American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) codes and standards that are being developed to support these high temperature gascooled reactors during construction and operation. ASME is aggressively pursuing these codes and standards to support an international effort to build the next generation of advanced reactors so that all can benefit.

  8. ASME Code Efforts Supporting HTGRs

    SciTech Connect

    D.K. Morton

    2011-09-01

    In 1999, an international collaborative initiative for the development of advanced (Generation IV) reactors was started. The idea behind this effort was to bring nuclear energy closer to the needs of sustainability, to increase proliferation resistance, and to support concepts able to produce energy (both electricity and process heat) at competitive costs. The U.S. Department of Energy has supported this effort by pursuing the development of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant, a high temperature gas-cooled reactor. This support has included research and development of pertinent data, initial regulatory discussions, and engineering support of various codes and standards development. This report discusses the various applicable American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) codes and standards that are being developed to support these high temperature gascooled reactors during construction and operation. ASME is aggressively pursuing these codes and standards to support an international effort to build the next generation of advanced reactors so that all can benefit.

  9. ASME Code Efforts Supporting HTGRs

    SciTech Connect

    D.K. Morton

    2010-09-01

    In 1999, an international collaborative initiative for the development of advanced (Generation IV) reactors was started. The idea behind this effort was to bring nuclear energy closer to the needs of sustainability, to increase proliferation resistance, and to support concepts able to produce energy (both electricity and process heat) at competitive costs. The U.S. Department of Energy has supported this effort by pursuing the development of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant, a high temperature gas-cooled reactor. This support has included research and development of pertinent data, initial regulatory discussions, and engineering support of various codes and standards development. This report discusses the various applicable American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) codes and standards that are being developed to support these high temperature gascooled reactors during construction and operation. ASME is aggressively pursuing these codes and standards to support an international effort to build the next generation of advanced reactors so that all can benefit.

  10. Dopamine, behavioral economics, and effort.

    PubMed

    Salamone, John D; Correa, Merce; Farrar, Andrew M; Nunes, Eric J; Pardo, Marta

    2009-01-01

    There are numerous problems with the hypothesis that brain dopamine (DA) systems, particularly in the nucleus accumbens, directly mediate the rewarding or primary motivational characteristics of natural stimuli such as food. Research and theory related to the functions of mesolimbic DA are undergoing a substantial conceptual restructuring, with the traditional emphasis on hedonia and primary reward yielding to other concepts and lines of inquiry. The present review is focused upon the involvement of nucleus accumbens DA in behavioral activation and effort-related processes. Viewed from the framework of behavioral economics, the effects of accumbens DA depletions and antagonism on food-reinforced behavior are highly dependent upon the work requirements of the instrumental task, and DA depleted rats are more sensitive to increases in response costs (i.e., ratio requirements). Moreover, interference with accumbens DA transmission exerts a powerful influence over effort-related choice behavior. Rats with accumbens DA depletions or antagonism reallocate their instrumental behavior away from food-reinforced tasks that have high response requirements, and instead these rats select a less-effortful type of food-seeking behavior. Nucleus accumbens DA and adenosine interact in the regulation of effort-related functions, and other brain structures (anterior cingulate cortex, amygdala, ventral pallidum) also are involved. Studies of the brain systems regulating effort-based processes may have implications for understanding drug abuse, as well as energy-related disorders such as psychomotor slowing, fatigue or anergia in depression and other neurological disorders.

  11. Dopamine, Behavioral Economics, and Effort

    PubMed Central

    Salamone, John D.; Correa, Merce; Farrar, Andrew M.; Nunes, Eric J.; Pardo, Marta

    2009-01-01

    There are numerous problems with the hypothesis that brain dopamine (DA) systems, particularly in the nucleus accumbens, directly mediate the rewarding or primary motivational characteristics of natural stimuli such as food. Research and theory related to the functions of mesolimbic DA are undergoing a substantial conceptual restructuring, with the traditional emphasis on hedonia and primary reward yielding to other concepts and lines of inquiry. The present review is focused upon the involvement of nucleus accumbens DA in behavioral activation and effort-related processes. Viewed from the framework of behavioral economics, the effects of accumbens DA depletions and antagonism on food-reinforced behavior are highly dependent upon the work requirements of the instrumental task, and DA depleted rats are more sensitive to increases in response costs (i.e., ratio requirements). Moreover, interference with accumbens DA transmission exerts a powerful influence over effort-related choice behavior. Rats with accumbens DA depletions or antagonism reallocate their instrumental behavior away from food-reinforced tasks that have high response requirements, and instead these rats select a less-effortful type of food-seeking behavior. Nucleus accumbens DA and adenosine interact in the regulation of effort-related functions, and other brain structures (anterior cingulate cortex, amygdala, ventral pallidum) also are involved. Studies of the brain systems regulating effort-based processes may have implications for understanding drug abuse, as well as energy-related disorders such as psychomotor slowing, fatigue or anergia in depression and other neurological disorders. PMID:19826615

  12. The Ideal Promotion Effort.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Edward L.

    The ideal promotional effort for an educational television (ETV) station is dependent on a professional approach to the problem. This means that each ETV station should employ a public relations manager and should keep him informed about all major station decisions. The Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) has a campaign of its own to bring attention…

  13. Assessing Public Relations Efforts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slocum, Doris; Johnson, T. Earle, Jr.

    1977-01-01

    The need to establish goals and objectives for public relations activities is discussed, followed by descriptions of several evaluation techniques for public relations programs. The continuous education of faculty regarding costs and logistics of publicity, and long-term continuity in the public relations effort are stressed as essential elements…

  14. Telecommunications: Additional Federal Efforts Could Help Advance Digital Television Transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-11-01

    The transition to broadcast digital television(DTV) will provide new television services and the improved picture quality of 'high definition television'. It will also allow some portions of the radiofrequency spectrum used for broadcasting to be returned for public safety and commercial uses. The Congress set December 2006 as the target date for completing the DTV transition and turning the analog broadcast signals. However, this date can be extended if fewer than 85 percent of households in a market are able to receive the digital signals. GAO (General Accounting Office) was asked to assess issues related to the DTV transition.

  15. Creating supportive nutrition environments for population health impact and health equity: an overview of the Nutrition and Obesity Policy Research and Evaluation Network's efforts.

    PubMed

    Blanck, Heidi M; Kim, Sonia A

    2012-09-01

    Childhood obesity is a major threat to individual health and society overall. Policies that support healthier food and beverage choices have been endorsed by many decision makers. These policies may reach a large proportion of the population or in some circumstances aim to reduce nutrition disparities to ensure health equity. The Nutrition and Obesity Policy Research and Evaluation Network (NOPREN) evaluates policy as a tool to improve food and beverage environments where Americans live, work, play, and learn. The network aspires to address research and evaluation gaps related to relevant policies, create standardized research tools, and help build the evidence base of effective policy solutions for childhood obesity prevention with a focus on reach, equity, cost effectiveness, and sustainability.

  16. Biotechnology: The U.S. Department of Agriculture's Biotechnology Research Efforts. Briefing Report. To the Chairman, Committee on Science and Technology, House of Representatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.

    Information pertaining to biotechnology research that was funded in whole or in part by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) is presented in this report. Findings obtained from state agricultural experimental stations and colleges of veterinary medicine are discussed in 11 appendices. These include: (1) information on USDA's biotechnology…

  17. United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service 1996 annual report wetlands research related to the Pen Branch restoration effort on the Savannah River site

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, E.A.; Kolka, R.K.; Trettin, C.C.

    1997-01-01

    This report documents the role of the USDA Forest Service and their collaborators (SRTC, SREL, and several universities) in wetlands monitoring and research on the Savannah River Site. This report describes the rationales, methods, and results (when available) of these studies and summarizes and integrates the available information through 1996.

  18. A patient database application for Hereditary Deafness Epidemiology and Clinical Research (H.E.A.R.): an effort for standardization in multiple languages.

    PubMed

    Pfister, Markus; Akyildiz, Serdar; Gunhan, Ovunc; Maassen, Marcus; Rodriguez, Jorge Jesus; Zenner, Hans-Peter; Apaydin, Fazil

    2003-02-01

    One of the most challenging and neglected issues in medicine is the effective recording of the data obtained from the patients. The "European Work Group on the Genetics of Hearing Impairment," which has been working since 1996, proposed a few questionnaires to collect data regarding the phenotype, ENT findings, audiological examination findings and other special investigations. In this study, a computerized patient database application named "Izmir H.E.A.R version 1.0," written in Delphi 4.0 for Windows for recording the patients with hearing problems, is presented. The application consists of a modular form, including information about identity, genetic condition, proband query, audiology and vestibular tests, phenotype, pedigree and special examinations, which allows data entry on all these issues. It has been developed by using the guidelines of Hereditary Deafness Epidemiology and Clinical Research (H.E.A.R.) and by the experience gained within the last 10 years by the authors. The target population of the program is the ENT clinicians, audiologists, epidemiologists, geneticists and researchers in the field. The main idea is to create a program serving the needs of both the daily routine work and research purposes and to distribute this program to the above-mentioned specialists, to encourage them to try the first version and to find a standard and/or better way to collect data. For this reason, the program aims to be multilingual, and the currently available languages are English, German, Spanish and Turkish.

  19. Cassini launch contingency effort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yale; O'Neil, John M.; McGrath, Brian E.; Heyler, Gene A.; Brenza, Pete T.

    2002-01-01

    On 15 October 1997 at 4:43 AM EDT, the Cassini spacecraft was successfully launched on a Titan IVB/Centaur on a mission to explore the Saturnian system. It carried three Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) and 117 Light Weight Radioisotope Heater Units (LWRHUs). As part of the joint National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)/U.S. Department of Energy (DoE) safety effort, a contingency plan was prepared to address the unlikely events of an accidental suborbital reentry or out-of-orbital reentry. The objective of the plan was to develop procedures to predict, within hours, the Earth impact footprints (EIFs) for the nuclear heat sources released during the atmospheric reentry. The footprint predictions would be used in subsequent notification and recovery efforts. As part of a multi-agency team, The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) had the responsibility to predict the EIFs of the heat sources after a reentry, given the heat sources' release conditions from the main spacecraft. (No ablation burn-through of the heat sources' aeroshells was expected, as a result of earlier testing.) JHU/APL's other role was to predict the time of reentry from a potential orbital decay. The tools used were a three degree-of-freedom trajectory code, a database of aerodynamic coefficients for the heat sources, secure links to obtain tracking data, and a high fidelity special perturbation orbit integrator code to predict time of spacecraft reentry from orbital decay. In the weeks and days prior to launch, all the codes and procedures were exercised. Notional EIFs were derived from hypothetical reentry conditions. EIFs predicted by JHU/APL were compared to those by JPL and US SPACECOM, and were found to be in good agreement. The reentry time from orbital decay for a booster rocket for the Russian Progress M-36 freighter, a cargo ship for the Mir space station, was predicted to within 5 minutes more than two hours before reentry. For the

  20. Breckinridge Project, initial effort

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    1982-09-01

    Report III, Volume 1 contains those specifications numbered A through J, as follows: General Specifications (A); Specifications for Pressure Vessels (C); Specifications for Tanks (D); Specifications for Exchangers (E); Specifications for Fired Heaters (F); Specifications for Pumps and Drivers (G); and Specifications for Instrumentation (J). The standard specifications of Bechtel Petroleum Incorporated have been amended as necessary to reflect the specific requirements of the Breckinridge Project, and the more stringent specifications of Ashland Synthetic Fuels, Inc. These standard specifications are available to the Initial Effort (Phase Zero) work performed by all contractors and subcontractors. Report III, Volume 1 also contains the unique specifications prepared for Plants 8, 15, and 27. These specifications will be substantially reviewed during Phase I of the project, and modified as necessary for use during the engineering, procurement, and construction of this project.

  1. The influence of music on mental effort and driving performance.

    PubMed

    Ünal, Ayça Berfu; Steg, Linda; Epstude, Kai

    2012-09-01

    The current research examined the influence of loud music on driving performance, and whether mental effort mediated this effect. Participants (N=69) drove in a driving simulator either with or without listening to music. In order to test whether music would have similar effects on driving performance in different situations, we manipulated the simulated traffic environment such that the driving context consisted of both complex and monotonous driving situations. In addition, we systematically kept track of drivers' mental load by making the participants verbally report their mental effort at certain moments while driving. We found that listening to music increased mental effort while driving, irrespective of the driving situation being complex or monotonous, providing support to the general assumption that music can be a distracting auditory stimulus while driving. However, drivers who listened to music performed as well as the drivers who did not listen to music, indicating that music did not impair their driving performance. Importantly, the increases in mental effort while listening to music pointed out that drivers try to regulate their mental effort as a cognitive compensatory strategy to deal with task demands. Interestingly, we observed significant improvements in driving performance in two of the driving situations. It seems like mental effort might mediate the effect of music on driving performance in situations requiring sustained attention. Other process variables, such as arousal and boredom, should also be incorporated to study designs in order to reveal more on the nature of how music affects driving.

  2. The effects of sleep loss on capacity and effort

    PubMed Central

    Engle-Friedman, Mindy

    2014-01-01

    Sleep loss appears to affect the capacity for performance and access to energetic resources. This paper reviews research examining the physical substrates referred to as resource capacity, the role of sleep in protecting that capacity and the reaction of the system as it attempts to respond with effort to overcome the limitations on capacity caused by sleep loss. Effort is the extent to which an organism will exert itself beyond basic levels of functioning or attempt alternative strategies to maintain performance. The purpose of this review is to bring together research across sleep disciplines to clarify the substrates that constitute and influence capacity for performance, consider how the loss of sleep influences access to those resources, examine cortical, physiological, perceptual, behavioral and subjective effort responses and consider how these responses reflect a system reacting to changes in the resource environment. When sleep deprived, the ability to perform tasks that require additional energy is impaired and the ability of the system to overcome the deficiencies caused by sleep loss is limited. Taking on tasks that require effort including school work, meal preparation, pulling off the road to nap when driving drowsy appear to be more challenging during sleep loss. Sleep loss impacts the effort-related choices we make and those choices may influence our health and safety. PMID:26483932

  3. NREL and SDG&E Collaboration to Support SDG&E Grid and Storage Efforts: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-14-562

    SciTech Connect

    Baggu, Murali

    2017-01-01

    This project will enable effective utilization of high penetration of photovoltaics (PV) in islanded microgrids, increasing overall system efficiency, decreased fuel costs and resiliency of the overall system to help meet the SunShot goals of enhancing system integration methods to increase penetration of PV. National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) will collaborate with San Diego Gas & Electric (SDG&E) to provide research and testing support to address their needs in energy storage sizing and placement, Integrated Test Facility (ITF) development, Real Time Digital Simulator (RTDS) Modeling and simulation support at ITF, Visualization and Virtual connection to Energy Systems Integration Facility (ESIF), and microgrid simulation and testing areas. Specifically in this project a real microgrid scenario with high penetration of PV (existing in SDG&E territory) is tested in the ESIF laboratory. Multiple control cases for firming PV using storage in a microgrid scenario will be investigated and tested in the laboratory setup.

  4. Development of the SIOPE DIPG network, registry and imaging repository: a collaborative effort to optimize research into a rare and lethal disease.

    PubMed

    Veldhuijzen van Zanten, Sophie E M; Baugh, Joshua; Chaney, Brooklyn; De Jongh, Dennis; Sanchez Aliaga, Esther; Barkhof, Frederik; Noltes, Johan; De Wolf, Ruben; Van Dijk, Jet; Cannarozzo, Antonio; Damen-Korbijn, Carin M; Lieverst, Jan A; Colditz, Niclas; Hoffmann, Marion; Warmuth-Metz, Monika; Bison, Brigitte; Jones, David T W; Sturm, Dominik; Gielen, Gerrit H; Jones, Chris; Hulleman, Esther; Calmon, Raphael; Castel, David; Varlet, Pascale; Giraud, Géraldine; Slavc, Irene; Van Gool, Stefaan; Jacobs, Sandra; Jadrijevic-Cvrlje, Filip; Sumerauer, David; Nysom, Karsten; Pentikainen, Virve; Kivivuori, Sanna-Maria; Leblond, Pierre; Entz-Werle, Natasha; von Bueren, Andre O; Kattamis, Antonis; Hargrave, Darren R; Hauser, Péter; Garami, Miklos; Thorarinsdottir, Halldora K; Pears, Jane; Gandola, Lorenza; Rutkauskiene, Giedre; Janssens, Geert O; Torsvik, Ingrid K; Perek-Polnik, Marta; Gil-da-Costa, Maria J; Zheludkova, Olga; Shats, Liudmila; Deak, Ladislav; Kitanovski, Lidija; Cruz, Ofelia; Morales La Madrid, Andres; Holm, Stefan; Gerber, Nicolas; Kebudi, Rejin; Grundy, Richard; Lopez-Aguilar, Enrique; Zapata-Tarres, Marta; Emmerik, John; Hayden, Tim; Bailey, Simon; Biassoni, Veronica; Massimino, Maura; Grill, Jacques; Vandertop, William P; Kaspers, Gertjan J L; Fouladi, Maryam; Kramm, Christof M; van Vuurden, Dannis G

    2017-01-21

    Diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) is a rare and deadly childhood malignancy. After 40 years of mostly single-center, often non-randomized trials with variable patient inclusions, there has been no improvement in survival. It is therefore time for international collaboration in DIPG research, to provide new hope for children, parents and medical professionals fighting DIPG. In a first step towards collaboration, in 2011, a network of biologists and clinicians working in the field of DIPG was established within the European Society for Paediatric Oncology (SIOPE) Brain Tumour Group: the SIOPE DIPG Network. By bringing together biomedical professionals and parents as patient representatives, several collaborative DIPG-related projects have been realized. With help from experts in the fields of information technology, and legal advisors, an international, web-based comprehensive database was developed, The SIOPE DIPG Registry and Imaging Repository, to centrally collect data of DIPG patients. As for April 2016, clinical data as well as MR-scans of 694 patients have been entered into the SIOPE DIPG Registry/Imaging Repository. The median progression free survival is 6.0 months (95% Confidence Interval (CI) 5.6-6.4 months) and the median overall survival is 11.0 months (95% CI 10.5-11.5 months). At two and five years post-diagnosis, 10 and 2% of patients are alive, respectively. The establishment of the SIOPE DIPG Network and SIOPE DIPG Registry means a paradigm shift towards collaborative research into DIPG. This is seen as an essential first step towards understanding the disease, improving care and (ultimately) cure for children with DIPG.

  5. Organization of research team for nano-associated safety assessment in effort to study nanotoxicology of zinc oxide and silica nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yu-Ri; Park, Sung Ha; Lee, Jong-Kwon; Jeong, Jayoung; Kim, Ja Hei; Meang, Eun-Ho; Yoon, Tae Hyun; Lim, Seok Tae; Oh, Jae-Min; An, Seong Soo A; Kim, Meyoung-Kon

    2014-01-01

    Currently, products made with nanomaterials are used widely, especially in biology, bio-technologies, and medical areas. However, limited investigations on potential toxicities of nanomaterials are available. Hence, diverse and systemic toxicological data with new methods for nanomaterials are needed. In order to investigate the nanotoxicology of nanoparticles (NPs), the Research Team for Nano-Associated Safety Assessment (RT-NASA) was organized in three parts and launched. Each part focused on different contents of research directions: investigators in part I were responsible for the efficient management and international cooperation on nano-safety studies; investigators in part II performed the toxicity evaluations on target organs such as assessment of genotoxicity, immunotoxicity, or skin penetration; and investigators in part III evaluated the toxicokinetics of NPs with newly developed techniques for toxicokinetic analyses and methods for estimating nanotoxicity. The RT-NASA study was carried out in six steps: need assessment, physicochemical property, toxicity evaluation, toxicokinetics, peer review, and risk communication. During the need assessment step, consumer responses were analyzed based on sex, age, education level, and household income. Different sizes of zinc oxide and silica NPs were purchased and coated with citrate, L-serine, and L-arginine in order to modify surface charges (eight different NPs), and each of the NPs were characterized by various techniques, for example, zeta potentials, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Evaluation of the “no observed adverse effect level” and systemic toxicities of all NPs were performed by thorough evaluation steps and the toxicokinetics step, which included in vivo studies with zinc oxide and silica NPs. A peer review committee was organized to evaluate and verify the reliability of toxicity tests, and the risk communication step was also needed to convey the current

  6. What role can child-care settings play in obesity prevention? A review of the evidence and call for research efforts.

    PubMed

    Larson, Nicole; Ward, Dianne S; Neelon, Sara Benjamin; Story, Mary

    2011-09-01

    Given the widespread use of out-of-home child care and an all-time high prevalence of obesity among US preschool-aged children, it is imperative to consider the opportunities that child-care facilities may provide to reduce childhood obesity. This review examines the scientific literature on state regulations, practices and policies, and interventions for promoting healthy eating and physical activity, and for preventing obesity in preschool-aged children attending child care. Research published between January 2000 and July 2010 was identified by searching PubMed and MEDLINE databases, and by examining the bibliographies of relevant studies. Although the review focused on US child-care settings, interventions implemented in international settings were also included. In total, 42 studies were identified for inclusion in this review: four reviews of state regulations, 18 studies of child-care practices and policies that may influence eating or physical activity behaviors, two studies of parental perceptions and practices relevant to obesity prevention, and 18 evaluated interventions. Findings from this review reveal that most states lack strong regulations for child-care settings related to healthy eating and physical activity. Recent assessments of child-care settings suggest opportunities for improving the nutritional quality of food provided to children, the time children are engaged in physical activity, and caregivers' promotion of children's health behaviors and use of health education resources. A limited number of interventions have been designed to address these concerns, and only two interventions have successfully demonstrated an effect on child weight status. Recommendations are provided for future research addressing opportunities to prevent obesity in child-care settings.

  7. Sorption and modeling for pervaporation of ethanol/water solutions. Phase 2. (Final research effort report). Final report 16 Nov 87-15 Feb 90

    SciTech Connect

    Belfort, G.; Cao, M.Y.; Sengupta, A.

    1990-02-01

    Ethanol is an important commodity chemical that has a number of industrial and commercial uses. One of the potential applications is as fuel blend for automobiles. Based on the desire for better air quality, the president of the United States has recently initiated a drive for using ethanol as a fuel additive for automobiles in the 1990's. The purpose of the study was to advance pervaporation technology to permit energy-efficient separation of ethanol/water mixtures. One polymer, polytrimethyl 1-propyne (PTMSP), exhibited the highest selectivity (14.1) with intermediate ethanol permeation flux (V(sub w) = 0.184 kg/sq m h) compared with the many different apolar polymer materials that were cast and tested for their ability to separate ethanol and water using the pervaporation process. Another polymer, polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF), exhibited reverse behavior with an intermediate selectivity (3.5) and a high flux (V(sub w) = 1.135 kg/sq m h). An unusual membrane with a high selectivity (12.5) and flux (0.425 kg/sq m h) was obtained by combining these two polymers into a composite membrane, PTMSP-PVDF. An economic analysis of a dual pervaporation plant gave a final operating cost of $0.45/gal of 99.9 percent ethanol using the performance of the PTMSP-PVDF membrane.

  8. Shaking up the future of Hispanic students in rural southwest Arizona: A collaborative research/teaching effort creating a bridge between students and the geosciences.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conway, M. F.; Croxen, F.; Garrett, M.

    2002-12-01

    Arizona Western College, Yuma, Arizona, serves the largely Hispanic population of rural southwestern Arizona. The majority of our students are first-generation college students who frequently lack strong educational role models. We are constructing a geoscience education program for recruiting and mentoring Hispanic and Native American students from Yuma and La Paz counties, Arizona. This program will be structured around faculty-mentored, undergraduate research on the seismicity and related geologic phenomenon of the Salton Trough of southeastern California and northern Mexico. Yuma-area students are well-suited for this program, because they have strong footholds in the cultures and languages of the region. Our chief goal is to provide educational opportunities in geoscience for historically underrepresented minorities of southern Arizona and California. Ultimately, this should lead to leadership roles in the geoscience for Hispanics in the largely Hispanic communities of the desert southwest. Importantly, this geoscience education program has the support and collaboration of science educators from across the educational spectrum in southern Arizona and California, and northern Mexico.

  9. Enhancing atmospheric mercury research in China to improve the current understanding of the global mercury cycle: the need for urgent and closely coordinated efforts.

    PubMed

    Ci, Zhijia; Zhang, Xiaoshan; Wang, Zhangwei

    2012-06-05

    The current understanding of the global mercury (Hg) cycle remains uncertain because Hg behavior in the environment is very complicated. The special property of Hg causes the atmosphere to be the most important medium for worldwide dispersion and transformation. The source and fate of atmospheric Hg and its interaction with the surface environment are the essential topics in the global Hg cycle. Recent declining measurement trends of Hg in the atmosphere are in apparent conflict with the increasing trends in global anthropogenic Hg emissions. As the single largest country contributor of anthropogenic Hg emission, China's role in the global Hg cycle will become more and more important in the context of the decreasing man-made Hg emission from developed regions. However, much less Hg information in China is available. As a global pollutant which undergoes long-range transport and is persistence in the environment, increasing Hg knowledge in China could not only promote the Hg regulation in this country but also improve the understanding of the fundamental of the global Hg cycle and further push the abatement of this toxin on a global scale. Then the atmospheric Hg research in China may be a breakthrough for improving the current understanding of the global Hg cycle. However, due to the complex behavior of Hg in the atmosphere, a deeper understanding of the atmospheric Hg cycle in China needs greater cooperation across fields.

  10. The second European interdisciplinary Ewing sarcoma research summit – A joint effort to deconstructing the multiple layers of a complex disease

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Despite multimodal treatment, long term outcome for patients with Ewing sarcoma is still poor. The second “European interdisciplinary Ewing sarcoma research summit” assembled a large group of scientific experts in the field to discuss their latest unpublished findings on the way to the identification of novel therapeutic targets and strategies. Ewing sarcoma is characterized by a quiet genome with presence of an EWSR1-ETS gene rearrangement as the only and defining genetic aberration. RNA-sequencing of recently described Ewing-like sarcomas with variant translocations identified them as biologically distinct diseases. Various presentations adressed mechanisms of EWS-ETS fusion protein activities with a focus on EWS-FLI1. Data were presented shedding light on the molecular underpinnings of genetic permissiveness to this disease uncovering interaction of EWS-FLI1 with recently discovered susceptibility loci. Epigenetic context as a consequence of the interaction between the oncoprotein, cell type, developmental stage, and tissue microenvironment emerged as dominant theme in the discussion of the molecular pathogenesis and inter- and intra-tumor heterogeneity of Ewing sarcoma, and the difficulty to generate animal models faithfully recapitulating the human disease. The problem of preclinical development of biologically targeted therapeutics was discussed and promising perspectives were offered from the study of novel in vitro models. Finally, it was concluded that in order to facilitate rapid pre-clinical and clinical development of novel therapies in Ewing sarcoma, the community needs a platform to maintain knowledge of unpublished results, systems and models used in drug testing and to continue the open dialogue initiated at the first two Ewing sarcoma summits. PMID:26802024

  11. The second European interdisciplinary Ewing sarcoma research summit--A joint effort to deconstructing the multiple layers of a complex disease.

    PubMed

    Kovar, Heinrich; Amatruda, James; Brunet, Erika; Burdach, Stefan; Cidre-Aranaz, Florencia; de Alava, Enrique; Dirksen, Uta; van der Ent, Wietske; Grohar, Patrick; Grünewald, Thomas G P; Helman, Lee; Houghton, Peter; Iljin, Kristiina; Korsching, Eberhard; Ladanyi, Marc; Lawlor, Elizabeth; Lessnick, Stephen; Ludwig, Joseph; Meltzer, Paul; Metzler, Markus; Mora, Jaume; Moriggl, Richard; Nakamura, Takuro; Papamarkou, Theodore; Radic Sarikas, Branka; Rédini, Francoise; Richter, Guenther H S; Rossig, Claudia; Schadler, Keri; Schäfer, Beat W; Scotlandi, Katia; Sheffield, Nathan C; Shelat, Anang; Snaar-Jagalska, Ewa; Sorensen, Poul; Stegmaier, Kimberly; Stewart, Elizabeth; Sweet-Cordero, Alejandro; Szuhai, Karoly; Tirado, Oscar M; Tirode, Franck; Toretsky, Jeffrey; Tsafou, Kalliopi; Üren, Aykut; Zinovyev, Andrei; Delattre, Olivier

    2016-02-23

    Despite multimodal treatment, long term outcome for patients with Ewing sarcoma is still poor. The second "European interdisciplinary Ewing sarcoma research summit" assembled a large group of scientific experts in the field to discuss their latest unpublished findings on the way to the identification of novel therapeutic targets and strategies. Ewing sarcoma is characterized by a quiet genome with presence of an EWSR1-ETS gene rearrangement as the only and defining genetic aberration. RNA-sequencing of recently described Ewing-like sarcomas with variant translocations identified them as biologically distinct diseases. Various presentations adressed mechanisms of EWS-ETS fusion protein activities with a focus on EWS-FLI1. Data were presented shedding light on the molecular underpinnings of genetic permissiveness to this disease uncovering interaction of EWS-FLI1 with recently discovered susceptibility loci. Epigenetic context as a consequence of the interaction between the oncoprotein, cell type, developmental stage, and tissue microenvironment emerged as dominant theme in the discussion of the molecular pathogenesis and inter- and intra-tumor heterogeneity of Ewing sarcoma, and the difficulty to generate animal models faithfully recapitulating the human disease. The problem of preclinical development of biologically targeted therapeutics was discussed and promising perspectives were offered from the study of novel in vitro models. Finally, it was concluded that in order to facilitate rapid pre-clinical and clinical development of novel therapies in Ewing sarcoma, the community needs a platform to maintain knowledge of unpublished results, systems and models used in drug testing and to continue the open dialogue initiated at the first two Ewing sarcoma summits.

  12. A Concentrated Effort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lum, Lydia

    2010-01-01

    For years, New York health-care providers have treated Asian-Americans afflicted by serious, even life-threatening illnesses with ever-increasing frequency. Many doctors in the nation's largest city agreed that Asians seemed particularly at risk for specific health problems, but there was neither research nor statistics supporting physician…

  13. Worldwide effort against smoking.

    PubMed

    1986-07-01

    The 39th World Health Assembly, which met in May 1986, recognized the escalating health problem of smoking-related diseases and affirmed that tobacco smoking and its use in other forms are incompatible with the attainment of "Health for All by the Year 2000." If properly implemented, antismoking campaigns can decrease the prevalence of smoking. Nations as a whole must work toward changing smoking habits, and governments must support these efforts by officially stating their stand against smoking. Over 60 countries have introduced legislation affecting smoking. The variety of policies range from adopting a health education program designed to increase peoples' awareness of its dangers to increasing taxes to deter smoking by increasing tobacco prices. Each country must adopt an antismoking campaign which works most effectively within the cultural parameters of the society. Other smoking policies include: printed warnings on cigarette packages; health messages via radio, television, mobile teams, pamphlets, health workers, clinic walls, and newspapers; prohibition of smoking in public areas and transportation; prohibition of all advertisement of cigarettes and tobacco; and the establishment of upper limits of tar and nicotine content in cigarettes. The tobacco industry spends about $2000 million annually on worldwide advertising. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), controlling this overabundance of tobacco advertisements is a major priority in preventing the spread of smoking. Cigarette and tobacco advertising can be controlled to varying degrees, e.g., over a dozen countries have enacted a total ban on advertising on television or radio, a mandatory health warning must accompany advertisements in other countries, and tobacco companies often are prohibited from sponsoring sports events. Imposing a substantial tax on cigarettes is one of the most effective means to deter smoking. However, raising taxes and banning advertisements is not enough because

  14. Disrupting the supplementary motor area makes physical effort appear less effortful.

    PubMed

    Zénon, Alexandre; Sidibé, Mariam; Olivier, Etienne

    2015-06-10

    The perception of physical effort is relatively unaffected by the suppression of sensory afferences, indicating that this function relies mostly on the processing of the central motor command. Neural signals in the supplementary motor area (SMA) correlate with the intensity of effort, suggesting that the motor signal involved in effort perception could originate from this area, but experimental evidence supporting this view is still lacking. Here, we tested this hypothesis by disrupting neural activity in SMA, in primary motor cortex (M1), or in a control site by means of continuous theta-burst transcranial magnetic stimulation, while measuring effort perception during grip forces of different intensities. After each grip force exertion, participants had the opportunity to either accept or refuse to replicate the same effort for varying amounts of reward. In addition to the subjective rating of perceived exertion, effort perception was estimated on the basis of the acceptance rate, the effort replication accuracy, the influence of the effort exerted in trial t on trial t+1, and pupil dilation. We found that disruption of SMA activity, but not of M1, led to a consistent decrease in effort perception, whatever the measure used to assess it. Accordingly, we modeled effort perception in a structural equation model and found that only SMA disruption led to a significant alteration of effort perception. These findings indicate that effort perception relies on the processing of a signal originating from motor-related neural circuits upstream of M1 and that SMA is a key node of this network.

  15. Do people with schizophrenia have difficulty anticipating pleasure, engaging in effortful behavior, or both?

    PubMed

    Gard, David E; Sanchez, Amy H; Cooper, Kathryn; Fisher, Melissa; Garrett, Coleman; Vinogradov, Sophia

    2014-11-01

    Motivation deficits are common in schizophrenia, but little is known about underlying mechanisms, or the specific goals that people with schizophrenia set in daily life. Using neurobiological heuristics of pleasure anticipation and effort assessment, we examined the quality of activities and goals of 47 people with and 41 people without schizophrenia, utilizing ecological momentary assessment. Participants were provided cell phones and called 4 times a day for 7 days, and were asked about their current activities and anticipation of upcoming goals. Activities and goals were later coded by independent raters on pleasure and effort. In line with recent laboratory findings on effort computation deficits in schizophrenia, relative to healthy participants, people with schizophrenia reported engaging in less effortful activities and setting less effortful goals, which were related to patient functioning. In addition, patients showed some inaccuracy in estimating how difficult an effortful goal would be, which in turn was associated with lower neurocognition. In contrast to previous research, people with schizophrenia engaged in activities and set goals that were more pleasure-based, and anticipated goals as being more pleasurable than controls. Thus, this study provided evidence for difficulty with effortful behavior and not anticipation of pleasure. These findings may have psychosocial treatment implications, focusing on effort assessment or effort expenditure. For example, to help people with schizophrenia engage in more meaningful goal pursuits, treatment providers may leverage low-effort pleasurable goals by helping patients to break down larger, more complex goals into smaller, lower-effort steps that are associated with specific pleasurable rewards.

  16. Is Effort Praise Motivational? The Role of Beliefs in the Effort-Ability Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Shui-fong; Yim, Pui-shan; Ng, Yee-lam

    2008-01-01

    In two studies, we investigated how beliefs in the effort-ability relationship moderated the effects of effort praise on student motivation. Study 1 showed that the more the participants believed that effort and ability were related positively (the positive rule) versus related negatively (the inverse rule), the more they would have positive…

  17. Would You Recommend Your Institution's Effort-Reporting Process to Others? Determining Best Practices in Effort-Reporting Compliance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitaker, Ashley E.

    2015-01-01

    Effort-reporting compliance at higher education institutions was examined to discern best practices from those that would recommend their effort-reporting process. Data were derived from a survey of effort administrators--the research administrators responsible for the effort-reporting compliance program at their respective higher education…

  18. Learning Presence: Additional Research on a New Conceptual Element within the Community of Inquiry (CoI) Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shea, Peter; Hayes, Suzanne; Smith, Sedef Uzuner; Vickers, Jason; Bidjerano, Temi; Pickett, Alexandra; Gozza-Cohen, Mary; Wilde, Jane; Jian, Shoubang

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an empirical study grounded in the Community of Inquiry framework (Garrison, Anderson Archer, 2000) and employs quantitative content analysis of student discourse and other artifacts of learning in online courses in an effort to enhance and improve the framework and offer practical implications for online education. As a…

  19. Research Guides Mayo Clinic's Recruitment, Retention Efforts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nayar, Veena R.; Morrey, Michael A.; Schneider, Kenneth J.; Purrington, Anne W.; Wilshusen, Laurie L.; Mullen, Michael P.; Seltman, Kent D.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses a collaborative study between Mayo Clinic's departments of human resources and marketing to identify the factors that influence candidates' decisions to accept or decline job offers and the reasons behind staff resignations. Study aimed to increase the effectiveness of employee recruitment advertising, streamline its interviewing…

  20. Breckinridge Project, initial effort

    SciTech Connect

    1982-01-01

    Report V, Volume 4 provides descriptions, data, and drawings pertaining to Instrument and Plant Air Systems (Plant 36), Telecommunication Systems (Plant 37), Inert Gas Systems (Plant 38), Purge and Flush Oil Systems (Plant 39), Site Development and Roads (Plant 40), Buildings (Plant 41), Solid Waste Management (Plant 42), and Landfill (Plant 44). Instrument and Plant Air Systems (Plant 36) includes all equipment and piping necessary to supply instrument and utility air to the process plants and offsite facilities. Telecommunication Systems (Plant 37) includes the equipment and wiring for: communication throughout the facility; communication between plant data processing systems and offsite computing facilities; and communication with transportation carriers. Inert Gas Systems (Plant 38) provides high purity and low purity nitrogen streams for plant startup and normal operation. Purge and Flush Oil Systems (Plant 39) provides purge and flush oils to various plants. Site Development and Roads (Plant 40) provides site leveling, the addition of roads, fencing, and drainage, and the placement of fills, pilings, footings, and foundations for plants. Buildings (Plant 41) provides buildings for equipment and for personnel, including utilities, lighting, sanitary facilities, heating, air conditioning, and ventilation. Solid Waste Management (Plant 42) identifies, characterizes, segregates, and transports the various types of solid wastes to either Landfill (Plant 44) or outside disposal sites. Landfill (Plant 44) provides disposal of both nonhazardous and hazardous solid wastes. Information is included (as applicable) for each of the eight plants described.

  1. Breckinridge Project, initial effort

    SciTech Connect

    1982-01-01

    The project cogeneration plant supplies electric power, process steam and treated boiler feedwater for use by the project plants. The plant consists of multiple turbine generators and steam generators connected to a common main steam header. The major plant systems which are required to produce steam, electrical power and treated feedwater are discussed individually. The systems are: steam, steam generator, steam generator fuel, condensate and feedwater deaeration, condensate and blowdown collection, cooling water, boiler feedwater treatment, coal handling, ash handling (fly ash and bottom ash), electrical, and control system. The plant description is based on the Phase Zero design basis established for Plant 31 in July of 1980 and the steam/condensate balance as presented on Drawing 31-E-B-1. Updating of steam requirements as more refined process information becomes available has generated some changes in the steam balance. Boiler operation with these updated requirements is reflected on Drawing 31-D-B-1A. The major impact of updating has been that less 600 psig steam generated within the process units requires more extraction steam from the turbine generators to close the 600 psig steam balance. Since the 900 psig steam generation from the boilers was fixed at 1,200,000 lb/hr, the additional extraction steam required to close the 600 psig steam balance decreased the quantity of electrical power available from the turbine generators. In the next phase of engineering work, the production of 600 psig steam will be augmented by increasing convection bank steam generation in the Plant 3 fired heaters by 140,000 to 150,000 lb/hr. This modification will allow full rated power generation from the turbine generators.

  2. Breckinridge Project, initial effort

    SciTech Connect

    1982-01-01

    This report presents an overview of the Breckinridge Project and summarizes the results achieved during the development phase of the project performed under a Cooperative Agreement with the United States Department of Energy. The Breckinridge Project provides for the design, construction and operation of a 50,000 barrel per day coal liquefaction facility in Breckinridge County, Kentucky. The development of the basic technology used in the Breckinridge Project dates back to the late 1950's and the invention by Hydrocarbon Research, Inc., (HRI) of the ebullated-bed reactor and the H-OIL process. The H-COAL process is based on the H-OIL technology. This coal liquefaction process produces clean low-sulfur petroleum substitutes suitable for most types of hydrocarbon-based fuel and chemical uses regardless of the sulfur content of the coal. A large H-COAL Pilot Plant in operation at Catlettsburg, Kentucky, is converting 220 tons of coal per day into 600 barrels of distillate products by catalytic hydrogenation. The estimated capital cost of the commercial facility is $3.17 billion, and the associated out-of-pocket operating cost is $18 per barrel, both in January 1981 dollars. Financial analysis shows the project to be an attractive investment under certain leveraged conditions which are possible through the assistance of the Synthetic Fuels Corporation. Ashland Synthetic Fuels, Inc. is currently working with the Synthetic Fuels Corporation and potential partners to develop financing for the commercial venture. Critical permits are being obtained and an Environmental Impact Statement is being prepared pursuant to initiating site preparation in early 1983. Commercial operations are expected to start up in early 1988.

  3. Respiratory effort from the photoplethysmogram.

    PubMed

    Addison, Paul S

    2017-03-01

    The potential for a simple, non-invasive measure of respiratory effort based on the pulse oximeter signal - the photoplethysmogram or 'pleth' - was investigated in a pilot study. Several parameters were developed based on a variety of manifestations of respiratory effort in the signal, including modulation changes in amplitude, baseline, frequency and pulse transit times, as well as distinct baseline signal shifts. Thirteen candidate parameters were investigated using data from healthy volunteers. Each volunteer underwent a series of controlled respiratory effort maneuvers at various set flow resistances and respiratory rates. Six oximeter probes were tested at various body sites. In all, over three thousand pleth-based effort-airway pressure (EP) curves were generated across the various airway constrictions, respiratory efforts, respiratory rates, subjects, probe sites, and the candidate parameters considered. Regression analysis was performed to determine the existence of positive monotonic relationships between the respiratory effort parameters and resulting airway pressures. Six of the candidate parameters investigated exhibited a distinct positive relationship (p<0.001 across all probes tested) with increasing upper airway pressure repeatable across the range of respiratory rates and flow constrictions studied. These were: the three fundamental modulations in amplitude (AM-Effort), baseline (BM-Effort) and respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA-Effort); two pulse transit time modulations - one using a pulse oximeter probe and an ECG (P2E-Effort) and the other using two pulse oximeter probes placed at different peripheral body sites (P2-Effort); and baseline shifts in heart rate, (BL-HR-Effort). In conclusion, a clear monotonic relationship was found between several pleth-based parameters and imposed respiratory loadings at the mouth across a range of respiratory rates and flow constrictions. The results suggest that the pleth may provide a measure of changing upper

  4. Piloting the Post-Entry Language Assessment: Outcomes from a New System for Supporting Research Candidates with English as an Additional Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tynan, Liz; Johns, Kellie

    2015-01-01

    The Post-Entry Language Assessment (PELA) was introduced by the James Cook University Graduate Research School in February 2013 as a pilot programme to test a new mechanism for initiating post-enrolment support for research degree candidates who have English as an additional language. Language ability does not necessarily, on its own, predict…

  5. Additive Manufactured Product Integrity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waller, Jess; Wells, Doug; James, Steve; Nichols, Charles

    2017-01-01

    NASA is providing key leadership in an international effort linking NASA and non-NASA resources to speed adoption of additive manufacturing (AM) to meet NASA's mission goals. Participants include industry, NASA's space partners, other government agencies, standards organizations and academia. Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) is identified as a universal need for all aspects of additive manufacturing.

  6. ATR NATIONAL SCIENTIFIC USER FACILITY INSTRUMENTATION ENHANCEMENT EFFORTS

    SciTech Connect

    Joy L. Rempe; Mitchell K. Meyer

    2009-04-01

    A key component of the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) National Scientific User Facility (NSUF) effort is to enhance instrumentation techniques available to users conducting irradiation tests in this unique facility. In particular, development of sensors capable of providing ‘real-time’ measurements of key irradiation parameters is emphasized because of their potential to offer increased fidelity data and reduced post-test examination costs. This paper describes the strategy for identifying new instrumentation needed for ATR irradiations and the program underway to develop and evaluate new sensors to address these needs. Accomplishments from this program are illustrated by describing several new sensors now available to users of the ATR NSUF. In addition, progress is reported on current research efforts to provide users improved in-pile instrumentation.

  7. Unconscious Reward Cues Increase Invested Effort, but Do Not Change Speed-Accuracy Tradeoffs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bijleveld, Erik; Custers, Ruud; Aarts, Henk

    2010-01-01

    While both conscious and unconscious reward cues enhance effort to work on a task, previous research also suggests that conscious rewards may additionally affect speed-accuracy tradeoffs. Based on this idea, two experiments explored whether reward cues that are presented above (supraliminal) or below (subliminal) the threshold of conscious…

  8. Qualitative Evaluation of Health Information Exchange Efforts

    PubMed Central

    Ash, Joan S.; Guappone, Kenneth P.

    2007-01-01

    Because most health information exchange (HIE) initiatives are as yet immature, formative evaluation is recommended so that what is learned through evaluation can be immediately applied to assist in HIE development efforts. Qualitative methods can be especially useful for formative evaluation because they can guide ongoing HIE growth while taking context into consideration. This paper describes important HIE-related research questions and outlines appropriate qualitative research techniques for addressing them. PMID:17904914

  9. Learning Environment and Student Effort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopland, Arnt O.; Nyhus, Ole Henning

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between satisfaction with learning environment and student effort, both in class and with homework assignments. Design/methodology/approach: The authors use data from a nationwide and compulsory survey to analyze the relationship between learning environment and student effort. The…

  10. Grading System and Student Effort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paredes, Valentina

    2017-01-01

    Several papers have proposed that the grading system affects students' incentives to exert effort. In particular, the previous literature has compared student effort under relative and absolute grading systems, but the results are mixed and the implications of the models have not been empirically tested. In this paper, I build a model where…

  11. Measuring Developmental Levels of Understanding of Ability and Effort.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Arden T.; Nicholls, John G.

    Discussed are research methods used to measure developmental changes in children's reasoning about ability. While adults generally differentiate ability, effort, luck, and task difficulty as causes for success and failure, children progressively think that effort or outcome is ability (level 1), that effort is the cause of performance outcomes…

  12. Combining "real effort" with induced effort costs: the ball-catching task.

    PubMed

    Gächter, Simon; Huang, Lingbo; Sefton, Martin

    2016-01-01

    We introduce the "ball-catching task", a novel computerized task, which combines a tangible action ("catching balls") with induced material cost of effort. The central feature of the ball-catching task is that it allows researchers to manipulate the cost of effort function as well as the production function, which permits quantitative predictions on effort provision. In an experiment with piece-rate incentives we find that the comparative static and the point predictions on effort provision are remarkably accurate. We also present experimental findings from three classic experiments, namely, team production, gift exchange and tournament, using the task. All of the results are closely in line with the stylized facts from experiments using purely induced values. We conclude that the ball-catching task combines the advantages of real effort tasks with the use of induced values, which is useful for theory-testing purposes as well as for applications.

  13. Development and Qualification of a Specialized Gas Turbine Test Stand to Research the Potential Benefits of Nanocatalyst Fuel Additives

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-01

    71 ix LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1. Activation Energy Affect on Residence Time (from Davis...altered on a molecular level in order to achieve higher catalytic energies or increase operating ranges. The use of nanocatalysts as a means of...stored fuel. Anti- oxidants can also act to inhibit the formation of peroxide compounds. 3. Static dissipater additives reduce the effects of static

  14. English as an Additional Language--A Genealogy of Language-in-Education Policies and Reflections on Research Trajectories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Constant

    2016-01-01

    The school population in England is linguistically diverse; according to official data, over one million pupils do not speak English as their first language. All teachers are expected to support English as an additional language (EAL) development as part of their professional responsibility. At the same time, there has been little specific…

  15. Theory of atomic additivity in molecular hyperpolizabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baird, James K.

    1987-01-01

    Hyperpolarizability is a function of frequency. This is called dispersion. Because of the Kramers-Kronig relations, researchers expect that a material that is dispersing light is also absorbing it. Where there is both dispersion and absorption, the molecular polarizabilities are complex functions of the frequency. This led researchers to consider atomic additivity in both the real and imaginary parts of the ordinary and hyperpolarizabilities. This effort is desirable not only from a theoretical point of view, but also because of the existence of a large body of complex refractive index data, which may be used to test the additivity principle with the complex valued ordinary dipole polarizability.

  16. Adding value in additive manufacturing: researchers in the United Kingdom and Europe look to 3D printing for customization.

    PubMed

    Banks, Jim

    2013-01-01

    Having already made a big impact in the medical sector, three-dimensional (3-D) printing technology continues to push the boundaries of cost efficiency, convenience, and customization. It has transformed some aspects of medical device production. However, expectations of the technology are often exaggerated in the media, so we spoke to leading researchers in the field about its practical applications and what can be expected in the near future.

  17. EA Shuttle Document Retention Effort

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, Howard A.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the effort of code EA at Johnson Space Center (JSC) to identify and acquire databases and documents from the space shuttle program that are adjudged important for retention after the retirement of the space shuttle.

  18. A synopsis of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) investment in additive manufacture and what challenges remain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maher, Michael; Smith, Adrien; Margiotta, Jesse

    2014-03-01

    DARPA's interest in additive manufacture dates back to the mid-80s with seedling programs that developed the foundational knowledge and equipment that led to the Solid Freeform Fabrication program in 1990. The drivers for this program included reducing development times by enabling "tool-less" manufacturing as well as integration of design and fabrication tools. DARPA consistently pushed the boundaries of additive manufacture with follow-on programs that expanded the material suite available for 3-D printing as well as new processes that expanded the technology's capability base. Programs such as the Mesoscopic Integrated Conformal Electronics (MICE) program incorporated functionality to the manufacturing processes through direct write of electronics. DARPA's investment in additive manufacture continues to this day but the focus has changed. DARPA's early investments were focused on developing and demonstrating the technology's capabilities. Now that the technology has been demonstrated, there is serious interest in taking advantage of the attributes unique to the processing methodology (such as customization and new design possibilities) for producing production parts. Accordingly, today's investment at DARPA addresses the systematic barriers to implementation rather than the technology itself. The Open Manufacturing program is enabling rapid qualification of new technologies for the manufacturing environment through the development of new modeling and informatics tools. While the technology is becoming more mainstream, there are plenty of challenges that need to be addressed. And as the technology continues to mature, the agency will continue to look for those "DARPA-hard" challenges that enable revolutionary changes in capability and performance for the Department of Defense.

  19. Heart rate variability related to effort at work.

    PubMed

    Uusitalo, Arja; Mets, Terhi; Martinmäki, Kaisu; Mauno, Saija; Kinnunen, Ulla; Rusko, Heikki

    2011-11-01

    Changes in autonomic nervous system function have been related to work stress induced increases in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Our purpose was to examine whether various heart rate variability (HRV) measures and new HRV-based relaxation measures are related to self-reported chronic work stress and daily emotions. The relaxation measures are based on neural network modelling of individual baseline heart rate and HRV information. Nineteen healthy hospital workers were studied during two work days during the same work period. Daytime, work time and night time heart rate, as well as physical activity were recorded. An effort-reward imbalance (ERI) questionnaire was used to assess chronic work stress. The emotions of stress, irritation and satisfaction were assessed six times during both days. Seventeen subjects had an ERI ratio over 1, indicating imbalance between effort and reward, that is, chronic work stress. Of the daily emotions, satisfaction was the predominant emotion. The daytime relaxation percentage was higher on Day 2 than on Day 1 (4 ± 6% vs. 2 ± 3%, p < 0.05) and the night time relaxation (43 ± 30%) was significantly higher than daytime or work time relaxation on the both Days. Chronic work stress correlated with the vagal activity index of HRV. However, effort at work had many HRV correlates: the higher the work effort the lower daytime HRV and relaxation time. Emotions at work were also correlated with work time (stress and satisfaction) and night time (irritation) HRV. These results indicate that daily emotions at work and chronic work stress, especially effort, is associated with cardiac autonomic function. Neural network modelling of individual heart rate and HRV information may provide additional information in stress research in field conditions.

  20. Research Summary of an Additive Manufacturing Technology for the Fabrication of 3D Composites with Tailored Internal Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, Larry R.; Riddick, Jaret C.

    2014-01-01

    A novel additive manufacturing technology is used to create micro-composites, which can be tailored for specific end-use applications. The Field-Aided Laminar Composite (FALCom) process uses specifically focused electric fields to align nano- to micro-sized particles into chain-like structures, which are referred to as pseudo-fibers. These pseudo-fibers are then immediately frozen into place by incident ultraviolet radiation on the photopolymer matrix. The pseudo-fibers are arranged by design, and they are used to create three-dimensional composite structures. Multiple filler materials have been evaluated for use in the FALCom system; however, this report describes aluminum micro-particles that are aligned and oriented in an acrylic photopolymer matrix. A description of the technology and a review of experimental processing are shown, and conclusions, as well as, future work are discussed.

  1. NIST Efforts to Quality-Assure Gunpowder Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacCrehan, William A.; Reardon, Michelle R.

    2000-01-01

    In the past few years, the National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST) has been promoting the idea of quantitatively determining the additives in smokeless gunpowder using micellar capillary electrophoresis as a means of investigating the criminal use of hand guns and pipe bombs. As a part of this effort, we have evaluated both supercritical fluid and ultrasonic solvent extractions for the quantitative recovery of nitroglycerin (NG), diphenylamine (DPA), N-nitrosodiphenylamine (NnDPA), and ethyl centralite (EC) from gunpowder. Recoveries were evaluated by repeat extraction and matrix spiking experiments. The final extraction protocol provides greater than 95 percent recoveries. To help other researches validate their own analytical method for additive determinations, NIST is exploring the development of a standard reference material, Additives in Smokeless Gunpowder. The evaluated method is being applied to two double-base (NG-containing) powders, one stabilized with diphenylamine and the other with ethyl centralite. As part of this reference material development effort, we are conducting an interlaboratory comparison exercise among the forensic and military gunpowder measurement community.

  2. Additive Manufacturing Modeling and Simulation A Literature Review for Electron Beam Free Form Fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seufzer, William J.

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing is coming into industrial use and has several desirable attributes. Control of the deposition remains a complex challenge, and so this literature review was initiated to capture current modeling efforts in the field of additive manufacturing. This paper summarizes about 10 years of modeling and simulation related to both welding and additive manufacturing. The goals were to learn who is doing what in modeling and simulation, to summarize various approaches taken to create models, and to identify research gaps. Later sections in the report summarize implications for closed-loop-control of the process, implications for local research efforts, and implications for local modeling efforts.

  3. Tropical Tropospheric Ozone from SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere ADditional Ozonesondes) Network: A Project for Satellite Research, Process Studies, Education

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Anne M.; Witte, Jacquelyn C.; Oltmans, Samuel J.; Schmidlin, Francis J.; Coetzee, G. J. R.; Hoegger, Bruno; Kirchhoff, V. W. J. H.; Ogawa, Toshihiro; Kawakami, Shuji; Posny, Francoise

    2002-01-01

    The first climatological overview of total, stratospheric and tropospheric ozone in the southern hemisphere tropical and subtropics is based on ozone sounding data from 10 sites comprising the Southern Hemisphere Additional OZonesondes (SHADOZ) network. The period covered is 1998-2000. Observations were made over: Ascension Island; Nairobi, Kenya; Irene, South Africa; Reunion Island; Watukosek, Java; Fiji; Tahiti; American Samoa; San Cristobal, Galapagos; Natal, Brazil. Campaign data were collected on a trans-Atlantic oceanographic cruise and during SAFARI-2000 in Zambia. The ozone data, with simultaneous temperature profiles to approx. 7 hPa and relative humidity to approx. 200 hPa, reside at: . SHADOZ ozone time-series and profiles give a perspective on tropical total, stratospheric and tropospheric ozone. Prominent features are highly variable tropospheric ozone and a zonal wave-one pattern in total (and tropospheric) column ozone. Total, stratospheric and tropospheric column ozone amounts peak between August and November and are lowest between March and May. Tropospheric ozone variability over the Indian and Pacific Ocean displays influences of the Indian Ocean Dipole and convective mixing. Pollution transport from Africa and South America is a seasonal feature. Tropospheric ozone seasonality over the Atlantic Basin shows effects of regional subsidence and recirculation as well as biomass burning. Dynamical and chemical influences appear to be of comparable magnitude though model studies are needed to quantify this.

  4. NRC; Smog control efforts off mark

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-06

    This paper reports that the National Research Council says the U.S. regulatory programs to control smog may have been misdirected the past 20 years, and more emphasis needs to be placed on limiting nitrogen oxide emissions. An NRC study the ozone control efforts have focused mainly on controlling volatile organic compounds (VOC) emissions. However, in many parts of the country controlling emissions of nitrogen oxides would be more effective, it the, noting VOCs and nitrogen oxides are precursors of ozone.

  5. Supercomputer and cluster performance modeling and analysis efforts:2004-2006.

    SciTech Connect

    Sturtevant, Judith E.; Ganti, Anand; Meyer, Harold Edward; Stevenson, Joel O.; Benner, Robert E., Jr.; Goudy, Susan Phelps; Doerfler, Douglas W.; Domino, Stefan Paul; Taylor, Mark A.; Malins, Robert Joseph; Scott, Ryan T.; Barnette, Daniel Wayne; Rajan, Mahesh; Ang, James Alfred; Black, Amalia Rebecca; Laub, Thomas William; Vaughan, Courtenay Thomas; Franke, Brian Claude

    2007-02-01

    This report describes efforts by the Performance Modeling and Analysis Team to investigate performance characteristics of Sandia's engineering and scientific applications on the ASC capability and advanced architecture supercomputers, and Sandia's capacity Linux clusters. Efforts to model various aspects of these computers are also discussed. The goals of these efforts are to quantify and compare Sandia's supercomputer and cluster performance characteristics; to reveal strengths and weaknesses in such systems; and to predict performance characteristics of, and provide guidelines for, future acquisitions and follow-on systems. Described herein are the results obtained from running benchmarks and applications to extract performance characteristics and comparisons, as well as modeling efforts, obtained during the time period 2004-2006. The format of the report, with hypertext links to numerous additional documents, purposefully minimizes the document size needed to disseminate the extensive results from our research.

  6. Food additives

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Michael

    1974-01-01

    Food additives are discussed from the food technology point of view. The reasons for their use are summarized: (1) to protect food from chemical and microbiological attack; (2) to even out seasonal supplies; (3) to improve their eating quality; (4) to improve their nutritional value. The various types of food additives are considered, e.g. colours, flavours, emulsifiers, bread and flour additives, preservatives, and nutritional additives. The paper concludes with consideration of those circumstances in which the use of additives is (a) justified and (b) unjustified. PMID:4467857

  7. Food additives and preschool children.

    PubMed

    Martyn, Danika M; McNulty, Breige A; Nugent, Anne P; Gibney, Michael J

    2013-02-01

    Food additives have been used throughout history to perform specific functions in foods. A comprehensive framework of legislation is in place within Europe to control the use of additives in the food supply and ensure they pose no risk to human health. Further to this, exposure assessments are regularly carried out to monitor population intakes and verify that intakes are not above acceptable levels (acceptable daily intakes). Young children may have a higher dietary exposure to chemicals than adults due to a combination of rapid growth rates and distinct food intake patterns. For this reason, exposure assessments are particularly important in this age group. The paper will review the use of additives and exposure assessment methods and examine factors that affect dietary exposure by young children. One of the most widely investigated unfavourable health effects associated with food additive intake in preschool-aged children are suggested adverse behavioural effects. Research that has examined this relationship has reported a variety of responses, with many noting an increase in hyperactivity as reported by parents but not when assessed using objective examiners. This review has examined the experimental approaches used in such studies and suggests that efforts are needed to standardise objective methods of measuring behaviour in preschool children. Further to this, a more holistic approach to examining food additive intakes by preschool children is advisable, where overall exposure is considered rather than focusing solely on behavioural effects and possibly examining intakes of food additives other than food colours.

  8. Increasing Expectations for Student Effort.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schilling, Karen Maitland; Schilling, Karl L.

    1999-01-01

    States that few higher education institutions have publicly articulated clear expectations of the knowledge and skills students are to attain. Describes gap between student and faculty expectations for academic effort. Reports that what is required in students' first semester appears to play a strong role in shaping the time investments made in…

  9. Effort, success, and nonuse determine arm choice.

    PubMed

    Schweighofer, Nicolas; Xiao, Yupeng; Kim, Sujin; Yoshioka, Toshinori; Gordon, James; Osu, Rieko

    2015-07-01

    How do humans choose one arm or the other to reach single targets in front of the body? Current theories of reward-driven decisionmaking predict that choice results from a comparison of "action values," which are the expected rewards for possible actions in a given state. In addition, current theories of motor control predict that in planning arm movements, humans minimize an expected motor cost that balances motor effort and endpoint accuracy. Here, we test the hypotheses that arm choice is determined by comparison of action values comprising expected effort and expected task success for each arm, as well as a handedness bias. Right-handed subjects, in either a large or small target condition, were first instructed to use each hand in turn to shoot through an array of targets and then to choose either hand to shoot through the same targets. Effort was estimated via inverse kinematics and dynamics. A mixed-effects logistic-regression analysis showed that, as predicted, both expected effort and expected success predicted choice, as did arm use in the preceding trial. Finally, individual parameter estimation showed that the handedness bias correlated with mean difference between right- and left-arm success, leading to overall lower use of the left arm. We discuss our results in light of arm nonuse in individuals' poststroke.

  10. Mapping Fishing Effort through AIS Data

    PubMed Central

    Natale, Fabrizio; Gibin, Maurizio; Alessandrini, Alfredo; Vespe, Michele; Paulrud, Anton

    2015-01-01

    Several research initiatives have been undertaken to map fishing effort at high spatial resolution using the Vessel Monitoring System (VMS). An alternative to the VMS is represented by the Automatic Identification System (AIS), which in the EU became compulsory in May 2014 for all fishing vessels of length above 15 meters. The aim of this paper is to assess the uptake of the AIS in the EU fishing fleet and the feasibility of producing a map of fishing effort with high spatial and temporal resolution at European scale. After analysing a large AIS dataset for the period January-August 2014 and covering most of the EU waters, we show that AIS was adopted by around 75% of EU fishing vessels above 15 meters of length. Using the Swedish fleet as a case study, we developed a method to identify fishing activity based on the analysis of individual vessels’ speed profiles and produce a high resolution map of fishing effort based on AIS data. The method was validated using detailed logbook data and proved to be sufficiently accurate and computationally efficient to identify fishing grounds and effort in the case of trawlers, which represent the largest portion of the EU fishing fleet above 15 meters of length. Issues still to be addressed before extending the exercise to the entire EU fleet are the assessment of coverage levels of the AIS data for all EU waters and the identification of fishing activity in the case of vessels other than trawlers. PMID:26098430

  11. Relationship effort, satisfaction, and stability: differences across union type.

    PubMed

    Shafer, Kevin; Jensen, Todd M; Larson, Jeffry H

    2014-04-01

    Relationship satisfaction and stability are two commonly studied outcomes in marriage and family research. Majority of studies address socio demographic variability and differences across union type in these outcomes. We extend this literature by addressing how the amount of effort one puts into their relationship is associated with stability and satisfaction. Specifically, we focus on how effort impacts these measures of quality in four union types: premarital cohabitation, first marriage, post-divorce cohabitation, and second marriage following divorce. Furthermore, we make union type comparisons in the strength of effort's association with satisfaction and stability. Using data from 8,006 respondents in the Relationship Evaluation Survey, our results show that effort was strongly and positively associated with satisfaction and stability in all four unions. Although effort is more strongly associated with satisfaction in first marriage than cohabiting relationships, no union type differences in the role of effort on stability were observed. Clinical and research implications of these findings are discussed.

  12. The Telemetry Agile Manufacturing Effort

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, K.D.

    1995-01-01

    The Telemetry Agile Manufacturing Effort (TAME) is an agile enterprising demonstration sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE). The project experimented with new approaches to product realization and assessed their impacts on performance, cost, flow time, and agility. The purpose of the project was to design the electrical and mechanical features of an integrated telemetry processor, establish the manufacturing processes, and produce an initial production lot of two to six units. This paper outlines the major methodologies utilized by the TAME, describes the accomplishments that can be attributed to each methodology, and finally, examines the lessons learned and explores the opportunities for improvement associated with the overall effort. The areas for improvement are discussed relative to an ideal vision of the future for agile enterprises. By the end of the experiment, the TAME reduced production flow time by approximately 50% and life cycle cost by more than 30%. Product performance was improved compared with conventional DOE production approaches.

  13. Final Report on the NCAR VTMX Effort

    SciTech Connect

    Parsons, David; Pinto, James; Brown, William; Cohen, Stephen; Morley, Bruce

    2007-02-13

    The NCAR effort is primarily focused on the analysis of a diverse suite of measurements taken at the southern end of the Salt Lake City Valley within the Jordan Narrows. These measurements include wind profiler, surface, lidar, radiosonde, multi-layered tether-sonde and sodar measurements. We are also collaborating with other VTMX investigators through linking our measurements within the Jordan Narrows with their investigations. The instrumentation was provided to interested VTMX investigators and was used extensively. Thus the NCAR data set played a large role in the results of the overall experiment. Our work under this proposal includes analysis of the observations, mesoscale modeling efforts in support of our VTMX analysis and general instrumentation development aimed at improving the measurement of vertical transport and mixing under stable conditions. This report is subdivided by research objectives.

  14. Food additives

    MedlinePlus

    ... or natural. Natural food additives include: Herbs or spices to add flavor to foods Vinegar for pickling ... Certain colors improve the appearance of foods. Many spices, as well as natural and man-made flavors, ...

  15. New Horizons Launch Contingency Effort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yale; Lear, Matthew H.; McGrath, Brian E.; Heyler, Gene A.; Takashima, Naruhisa; Owings, W. Donald

    2007-01-01

    On 19 January 2006 at 2:00 PM EST, the NASA New Horizons spacecraft (SC) was launched from the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS), FL, onboard an Atlas V 551/Centaur/STAR™ 48B launch vehicle (LV) on a mission to explore the Pluto Charon planetary system and possibly other Kuiper Belt Objects. It carried a single Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG). As part of the joint NASA/US Department of Energy (DOE) safety effort, contingency plans were prepared to address the unlikely events of launch accidents leading to a near-pad impact, a suborbital reentry, an orbital reentry, or a heliocentric orbit. As the implementing organization. The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) had expanded roles in the New Horizons launch contingency effort over those for the Cassini mission and Mars Exploration Rovers missions. The expanded tasks included participation in the Radiological Control Center (RADCC) at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC), preparation of contingency plans, coordination of space tracking assets, improved aerodynamics characterization of the RTG's 18 General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules, and development of spacecraft and RTG reentry breakup analysis tools. Other JHU/APL tasks were prediction of the Earth impact footprints (ElFs) for the GPHS modules released during the atmospheric reentry (for purposes of notification and recovery), prediction of the time of SC reentry from a potential orbital decay, pre-launch dissemination of ballistic coefficients of various possible reentry configurations, and launch support of an Emergency Operations Center (EOC) on the JHU/APL campus. For the New Horizons launch, JHU/APL personnel at the RADCC and at the EOC were ready to implement any real-time launch contingency activities. A successful New Horizons launch and interplanetary injection precluded any further contingency actions. The New Horizons launch contingency was an interagency effort by several organizations. This paper

  16. Implementing Successful Geoscience Education and Outreach Efforts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braile, L. W.

    2004-12-01

    Successful geoscience Education and Outreach (E&O) efforts associated with a research program benefit from effective planning and a commitment by scientists/researchers to become more knowledgeable about and involved in education. Several suggested strategies have evolved based on experience in Earth science E&O with K-16 educators and students during the past 10 years. E&O programs and materials should be developed at appropriate levels ("start from where they're at") and utilize information, skills and topics that are most relevant to students and teachers. Hands-on and inquiry-based activities that teach or reinforce fundamental science understanding and skills, while introducing new topics, results and discoveries, are particularly effective. It is useful to design materials that can provide for a range of time commitment, level of technical skills, and effort, so that introductory to in-depth curriculum units can be implemented. Use of the Internet and working with teachers can be effective methods for dissemination and taking advantage of a "multiplying factor". Obtaining feedback and evaluation of the programs and developed materials, and connecting the materials to national or state education standards are also highly recommended. Most importantly, scientists should become more involved in the science education community. Attending and presenting papers at appropriate science education sessions or workshops, or state or national science teacher meetings (the annual National Science Teachers Association convention is an excellent place to start) can be a significant educational experience for the scientist/researcher. Effective geoscience E&O programs have significant potential for enhancing K-16 education and scientific literacy, and can help attract students to the sciences. Perhaps surprisingly, these efforts have substantial positive impact on the scientist/researcher as well.

  17. 20 CFR 632.123 - Maintenance of effort.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Maintenance of effort. 632.123 Section 632.123 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR INDIAN AND NATIVE... effort. (a) Funds provided under this Act shall only be used for activities which are in addition...

  18. [Trends in the utilization of food additives].

    PubMed

    Szűcs, Viktória; Bánáti, Diána

    2013-11-17

    The frequent media reports on food additives weakened consumers' trust in food producers and food control authorities as well. Furthermore, consumers' uncertainty is also raised by the fact that they obtain their information from inadequate, mistrustful sources and, therefore, consumers might avoid the consumption of certain foodstuffs. While food producers may react by replacing artificial components by natural ones, they try to emphasize the favourable characteristics of their products. The authors describe the main trends and efforts related to food additives. On the basis of the overview it can be concluded that - besides taking into consideration consumers' needs - product development and research directions are promising. Food producers' efforts may help to restore consumer confidence and trust and they may help them to have informed choice.

  19. Institutional Effects of Strategic Efforts at Community Enrichment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mawhinney, Hanne B.

    1994-01-01

    Prepares the way for an institutional analysis of strategic interventions for collaboration, drawing on recent research by Crowson, Boyd, and other organizational theorists. Using a framework of institutional propositions, analyzes strategic efforts to promote collaborative efforts to enhance students' life chances in a Canadian high school, as…

  20. Assessing the Army Power and Energy Efforts for the Warfighter

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    Stirling devices), and a considerable effort on chemical storage batteries. Not until recently has the effort broadened to include alternative sources of...Neal A. Pollard, and Robert V. Tuohy, Hicks & Associates, Inc., Tyson’s Corner, VA., 2004. 34 National Research Council, Science and Technology for

  1. Does Effort Still Count?: More on What Makes the Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zinn, Tracy E.; Magnotti, John F.; Marchuk, Kimberly; Schultz, Bridget S.; Luther, Andrew; Varfolomeeva, Veronika

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has examined differences between students and faculty regarding the weight of effort in assigning grades. Here, students and faculty responded to questions regarding the relative weight of performance and effort on final grades and what letter grades faculty should assign across different types of courses. The authors asked these…

  2. Improving Results for Children and Families: Linking Collaborative Services with School Reform Efforts. National Invitational Conference Proceedings (Washington, DC, January 26-27, 1999). Research in Educational Policy: Local, National, and Global Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Margaret C., Ed.; Boyd, William Lowe, Ed.

    These papers were presented at a 1999 conference that examined expert, practitioner, and community based knowledge and perceptions about factors that facilitate or inhibit successful multilevel partnerships to improve education and other important results for children and families by connecting collaborative services with education reform efforts.…

  3. APS Education and Diversity Efforts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prestridge, Katherine; Hodapp, Theodore

    2015-11-01

    American Physical Society (APS) has a wide range of education and diversity programs and activities, including programs that improve physics education, increase diversity, provide outreach to the public, and impact public policy. We present the latest programs spearheaded by the Committee on the Status of Women in Physics (CSWP), with highlights from other diversity and education efforts. The CSWP is working to increase the fraction of women in physics, understand and implement solutions for gender-specific issues, enhance professional development opportunities for women in physics, and remedy issues that impact gender inequality in physics. The Conferences for Undergraduate Women in Physics, Professional Skills Development Workshops, and our new Professional Skills program for students and postdocs are all working towards meeting these goals. The CSWP also has site visit and conversation visit programs, where department chairs request that the APS assess the climate for women in their departments or facilitate climate discussions. APS also has two significant programs to increase participation by underrepresented minorities (URM). The newest program, the APS National Mentoring Community, is working to provide mentoring to URM undergraduates, and the APS Bridge Program is an established effort that is dramatically increasing the number of URM PhDs in physics.

  4. MEMS packaging efforts at Sandia National Laboratories.

    SciTech Connect

    Custer, Jonathan Sloane

    2003-02-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has programs covering a broad range of MEMS technologies from LIGA to bulk to surface micromachining. These MEMS technologies are being considered for an equally broad range of applications, including sensors, actuators, optics, and microfluidics. As these technologies have moved from the research to the prototype product stage, packaging has been required to develop new capabilities to integrated MEMS and other technologies into functional microsystems. This paper discusses several of Sandia's MEMS packaging efforts, focusing mainly on inserting Sandia's SUMMIT V (5-level polysilicon) surface micromachining technology into fieldable microsystems.

  5. Research of the Additional Losses Occurring in Optical Fiber at its Multiple Bends in the Range Waves 1310nm, 1550nm and 1625nm Long

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yurchenko, A. V.; Gorlov, N. I.; Alkina, A. D.; Mekhtiev, A. D.; Kovtun, A. A.

    2016-01-01

    Article is devoted to research of the additional losses occurring in the optical fiber at its multiple bends in the range waves of 1310 nanometers, 1550 nanometers and 1625 nanometers long. Article is directed on creation of the external factors methods which allow to estimate and eliminate negative influence. The automated way of calculation of losses at a bend is developed. Results of scientific researches are used by engineers of “Kazaktelekom” AS for practical definition of losses service conditions. For modeling the Wolfram|Alpha environment — the knowledge base and a set of computing algorithms was chosen. The greatest losses are noted on wavelength 1310nm and 1625nm. All dependences are nonlinear. Losses with each following excess are multiplicative.

  6. Potlining Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolf Keller

    2004-08-10

    In this project, a concept to improve the performance of aluminum production cells by introducing potlining additives was examined and tested. Boron oxide was added to cathode blocks, and titanium was dissolved in the metal pool; this resulted in the formation of titanium diboride and caused the molten aluminum to wet the carbonaceous cathode surface. Such wetting reportedly leads to operational improvements and extended cell life. In addition, boron oxide suppresses cyanide formation. This final report presents and discusses the results of this project. Substantial economic benefits for the practical implementation of the technology are projected, especially for modern cells with graphitized blocks. For example, with an energy savings of about 5% and an increase in pot life from 1500 to 2500 days, a cost savings of $ 0.023 per pound of aluminum produced is projected for a 200 kA pot.

  7. Phosphazene additives

    DOEpatents

    Harrup, Mason K; Rollins, Harry W

    2013-11-26

    An additive comprising a phosphazene compound that has at least two reactive functional groups and at least one capping functional group bonded to phosphorus atoms of the phosphazene compound. One of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with cellulose and the other of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with a resin, such as an amine resin of a polycarboxylic acid resin. The at least one capping functional group is selected from the group consisting of a short chain ether group, an alkoxy group, or an aryloxy group. Also disclosed are an additive-resin admixture, a method of treating a wood product, and a wood product.

  8. Effect of Social Influence on Effort-Allocation for Monetary Rewards

    PubMed Central

    Gilman, Jodi M.; Treadway, Michael T.; Curran, Max T.; Calderon, Vanessa; Evins, A. Eden

    2015-01-01

    Though decades of research have shown that people are highly influenced by peers, few studies have directly assessed how the value of social conformity is weighed against other types of costs and benefits. Using an effort-based decision-making paradigm with a novel social influence manipulation, we measured how social influence affected individuals’ decisions to allocate effort for monetary rewards during trials with either high or low probability of receiving a reward. We found that information about the effort-allocation of peers modulated participant choices, specifically during conditions of low probability of obtaining a reward. This suggests that peer influence affects effort-based choices to obtain rewards especially under conditions of risk. This study provides evidence that people value social conformity in addition to other costs and benefits when allocating effort, and suggests that neuroeconomic studies that assess trade-offs between effort and reward should consider social environment as a factor that can influence decision-making. PMID:25961725

  9. Linking International Cancer Screening Efforts

    Cancer.gov

    Drs. Sudha Sivaram and Steve Taplin speak at the International Cancer Screening Network (ICSN) Meeting, which brings together individuals involved in cancer screening research and cancer screening programs from the ICSN’s member countries.

  10. Advancing efforts to address youth violence involvement.

    PubMed

    Weist, M D; Cooley-Quille, M

    2001-06-01

    Discusses the increased public attention on violence-related problems among youth and the concomitant increased diversity in research. Youth violence involvement is a complex construct that includes violence experienced in multiple settings (home, school, neighborhood) and in multiple forms (as victims, witnesses, perpetrators, and through family members, friends, and the media). Potential impacts of such violence involvement are considerable, including increased internalizing and externalizing behaviors among youth and future problems in school adjustment and life-course development. This introductory article reviews key dimensions of youth-related violence, describes an American Psychological Association Task Force (Division 12) developed to advance relevant research, and presents examples of national resources and efforts that attempt to address this critical public health issue.

  11. Neurocomputational mechanisms underlying subjective valuation of effort costs

    PubMed Central

    Giehl, Kathrin; Sillence, Annie

    2017-01-01

    In everyday life, we have to decide whether it is worth exerting effort to obtain rewards. Effort can be experienced in different domains, with some tasks requiring significant cognitive demand and others being more physically effortful. The motivation to exert effort for reward is highly subjective and varies considerably across the different domains of behaviour. However, very little is known about the computational or neural basis of how different effort costs are subjectively weighed against rewards. Is there a common, domain-general system of brain areas that evaluates all costs and benefits? Here, we used computational modelling and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine the mechanisms underlying value processing in both the cognitive and physical domains. Participants were trained on two novel tasks that parametrically varied either cognitive or physical effort. During fMRI, participants indicated their preferences between a fixed low-effort/low-reward option and a variable higher-effort/higher-reward offer for each effort domain. Critically, reward devaluation by both cognitive and physical effort was subserved by a common network of areas, including the dorsomedial and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, the intraparietal sulcus, and the anterior insula. Activity within these domain-general areas also covaried negatively with reward and positively with effort, suggesting an integration of these parameters within these areas. Additionally, the amygdala appeared to play a unique, domain-specific role in processing the value of rewards associated with cognitive effort. These results are the first to reveal the neurocomputational mechanisms underlying subjective cost–benefit valuation across different domains of effort and provide insight into the multidimensional nature of motivation. PMID:28234892

  12. Neurocomputational mechanisms underlying subjective valuation of effort costs.

    PubMed

    Chong, Trevor T-J; Apps, Matthew; Giehl, Kathrin; Sillence, Annie; Grima, Laura L; Husain, Masud

    2017-02-01

    In everyday life, we have to decide whether it is worth exerting effort to obtain rewards. Effort can be experienced in different domains, with some tasks requiring significant cognitive demand and others being more physically effortful. The motivation to exert effort for reward is highly subjective and varies considerably across the different domains of behaviour. However, very little is known about the computational or neural basis of how different effort costs are subjectively weighed against rewards. Is there a common, domain-general system of brain areas that evaluates all costs and benefits? Here, we used computational modelling and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine the mechanisms underlying value processing in both the cognitive and physical domains. Participants were trained on two novel tasks that parametrically varied either cognitive or physical effort. During fMRI, participants indicated their preferences between a fixed low-effort/low-reward option and a variable higher-effort/higher-reward offer for each effort domain. Critically, reward devaluation by both cognitive and physical effort was subserved by a common network of areas, including the dorsomedial and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, the intraparietal sulcus, and the anterior insula. Activity within these domain-general areas also covaried negatively with reward and positively with effort, suggesting an integration of these parameters within these areas. Additionally, the amygdala appeared to play a unique, domain-specific role in processing the value of rewards associated with cognitive effort. These results are the first to reveal the neurocomputational mechanisms underlying subjective cost-benefit valuation across different domains of effort and provide insight into the multidimensional nature of motivation.

  13. Hiding effort to gain a competitive advantage: Evidence from China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Li; Heyman, Gail D

    2016-06-06

    Previous studies with Western populations have shown that adolescents' tendency to downplay their academic effort is affected by two kinds of motives: ability-related motives (e.g., to appear competent) and social approval motives (e.g., to be popular). In this research, we test for the presence of additional competition-related motives in China, a culture placing strong emphasis on academic competition. Study 1 (N = 150) showed that, in response to a scenario in which a hard-working high-school junior hid effort from classmates, the most highly endorsed explanation was "to influence others to work less hard to maintain a competitive advantage." Study 2 (N = 174) revealed that competition-related explanations were endorsed relatively more often when the speaker and audience had similar academic rankings. This tendency was most evident when both speaker and audience were top performers, and when this was the case, participants' desire to demonstrate superiority over others was a positive predictor of endorsement of competition-related motives. Study 3 (N = 137) verified that competition-related motives were more strongly endorsed among Chinese participants than U.S.

  14. Identification of bacteria synthesizing ribosomal RNA in response to uranium addition during biostimulation at the Rifle, CO Integrated Field Research site

    SciTech Connect

    McGuinness, Lora R.; Wilkins, Michael J.; Williams, Kenneth H.; Long, Philip E.; Kerkhof, Lee J.; Boyanov, Maxim I.

    2015-09-18

    Understanding which organisms are capable of reducing uranium at historically contaminated sites provides crucial information needed to evaluate treatment options and outcomes. One approach is determination of the bacteria which directly respond to uranium addition. In this research, uranium amendments were made to groundwater samples from a site of ongoing biostimulation with acetate. The active microbes in the planktonic phase were deduced by monitoring ribosomes production via RT-PCR. The results indicated several microorganisms were synthesizing ribosomes in proportion with uranium amendment up to 2 μM. Concentrations of U (VI) >2 μM were generally found to inhibit ribosome synthesis. Two active bacteria responding to uranium addition in the field were close relatives of Desulfobacter postgateii and Geobacter bemidjiensis. Since RNA content often increases with growth rate, our findings suggest it is possible to rapidly elucidate active bacteria responding to the addition of uranium in field samples and provides a more targeted approach to stimulate specific populations to enhance radionuclide reduction in contaminated sites.

  15. Identification of bacteria synthesizing ribosomal RNA in response to uranium addition during biostimulation at the Rifle, CO Integrated Field Research site

    DOE PAGES

    McGuinness, Lora R.; Wilkins, Michael J.; Williams, Kenneth H.; ...

    2015-09-18

    Understanding which organisms are capable of reducing uranium at historically contaminated sites provides crucial information needed to evaluate treatment options and outcomes. One approach is determination of the bacteria which directly respond to uranium addition. In this research, uranium amendments were made to groundwater samples from a site of ongoing biostimulation with acetate. The active microbes in the planktonic phase were deduced by monitoring ribosomes production via RT-PCR. The results indicated several microorganisms were synthesizing ribosomes in proportion with uranium amendment up to 2 μM. Concentrations of U (VI) >2 μM were generally found to inhibit ribosome synthesis. Two activemore » bacteria responding to uranium addition in the field were close relatives of Desulfobacter postgateii and Geobacter bemidjiensis. Since RNA content often increases with growth rate, our findings suggest it is possible to rapidly elucidate active bacteria responding to the addition of uranium in field samples and provides a more targeted approach to stimulate specific populations to enhance radionuclide reduction in contaminated sites.« less

  16. Current efforts and future prospects in the development of live mycobacteria as vaccines.

    PubMed

    Ng, Tony W; Saavedra-Ávila, Noemí A; Kennedy, Steven C; Carreño, Leandro J; Porcelli, Steven A

    2015-01-01

    The development of more effective vaccines against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) remains a major goal in the effort to reduce the enormous global burden of disease caused by this pathogen. Whole-cell vaccines based on live mycobacteria with attenuated virulence represent an appealing approach, providing broad antigen exposure and intrinsic adjuvant properties to prime durable immune responses. However, designing vaccine strains with an optimal balance between attenuation and immunogenicity has proven to be extremely challenging. Recent basic and clinical research efforts have broadened our understanding of Mtb pathogenesis and created numerous new vaccine candidates that have been designed to overcome different aspects of immune evasion by Mtb. In this review, we provide an overview of the current efforts to create improved vaccines against tuberculosis based on modifications of live attenuated mycobacteria. In addition, we discuss the use of such vaccine strains as vectors for stimulating protective immunity against other infectious diseases and cancers.

  17. Whooping crane recovery: Progress through research

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carpenter, J.W.; Smith, D.G.

    1988-01-01

    Cooperative efforts of the Canadian Wildlife Service (CWS), U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS), Wood Buffalo National Park in Canada, and Patuxent Wildlife Research Center have established a captive flock of whooping cranes, and at least two additional wild populations. Efforts have focused on research, habitat protection, law enforcement, and conservation education programs.

  18. Polylactides in additive biomanufacturing.

    PubMed

    Poh, Patrina S P; Chhaya, Mohit P; Wunner, Felix M; De-Juan-Pardo, Elena M; Schilling, Arndt F; Schantz, Jan-Thorsten; van Griensven, Martijn; Hutmacher, Dietmar W

    2016-12-15

    New advanced manufacturing technologies under the alias of additive biomanufacturing allow the design and fabrication of a range of products from pre-operative models, cutting guides and medical devices to scaffolds. The process of printing in 3 dimensions of cells, extracellular matrix (ECM) and biomaterials (bioinks, powders, etc.) to generate in vitro and/or in vivo tissue analogue structures has been termed bioprinting. To further advance in additive biomanufacturing, there are many aspects that we can learn from the wider additive manufacturing (AM) industry, which have progressed tremendously since its introduction into the manufacturing sector. First, this review gives an overview of additive manufacturing and both industry and academia efforts in addressing specific challenges in the AM technologies to drive toward AM-enabled industrial revolution. After which, considerations of poly(lactides) as a biomaterial in additive biomanufacturing are discussed. Challenges in wider additive biomanufacturing field are discussed in terms of (a) biomaterials; (b) computer-aided design, engineering and manufacturing; (c) AM and additive biomanufacturing printers hardware; and (d) system integration. Finally, the outlook for additive biomanufacturing was discussed.

  19. [International regulation of ethics committees on biomedical research as protection mechanisms for people: analysis of the Additional Protocol to the Convention on Human Rights and Biomedicine, concerning Biomedical Research of the Council of Europe].

    PubMed

    de Lecuona, Itziar

    2013-01-01

    The article explores and analyses the content of the Council of Europe's Additional Protocol to the Convention on Human Rights and Biomedicine concerning Biomedical Research regarding the standard legal instrument in biomedical research, issued by an international organization with leadership in bioethics. This implies ethics committees are mechanisms of protection of humans in biomedical research and not mere bureaucratic agencies and that a sound inescapable international regulatory framework exists for States to regulate biomedical research. The methodology used focuses on the analysis of the background, the context in which it is made and the nature and scope of the Protocol. It also identifies and analyses the characteristics and functions of ethics committees in biomedical research and, in particular, the information that should be provided to this bodies to develop their functions previously, during and at the end of research projects. This analysis will provide guidelines, suggestions and conclusions for the awareness and training of members of these committees in order to influence the daily practice. This paper may also be of interest to legal practitioners who work in different areas of biomedical research. From this practical perspective, the article examines the legal treatment of the Protocol to meet new challenges and classic issues in research: the treatment of human biological samples, the use of placebos, avoiding double standards, human vulnerability, undue influence and conflicts of interest, among others. Also, from a critical view, this work links the legal responses to develop work procedures that are required for an effective performance of the functions assigned of ethics committees in biomedical research. An existing international legal response that lacks doctrinal standards and provides little support should, however, serve as a guide and standard to develop actions that allow ethics committees -as key bodies for States- to advance in

  20. Rain Hampers Tsunami Relief Efforts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    The cleanup and relief efforts from the recent tsunamis continue in coastal communities that were ravaged by the waves all across the Indian Ocean. Heavy rains have further complicated the matter and added to the misery in parts of eastern Sri Lanka. Between December 28, 2004, and January 5, 2005, up to 10 to 15 inches of rain may have fallen along the southeast coast of the island, and as much as 20 inches (red areas) fell just offshore. This rainfall map was created by the TRMM-based, near-real time Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (MPA) at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, which monitors rainfall over the global tropics. The map shows that many other regions around the Indian Ocean were also affected by the rains, including Malaysia and parts of Sumatra. The heaviest rains fell on December 31 and January 4. The rains were likely the result of a combination of the northeast monsoon interacting with the topography and an active phase of what is known as the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) (or 30-60 day oscillation). The MJO is a large-scale disturbance that propagates eastward from the Indian Ocean into the West Pacific Ocean, bringing extended periods of unsettled weather with it. Individual convective complexes within the MJO can last on the order of a day. TRMM is a joint mission between NASA and the Japanese space agency JAXA. NASA image produced by Hal Pierce (SSAI/NASA GSFC) and caption by Steve Lang (SSAI/NASA GSFC).

  1. Quadratic Programming for Allocating Control Effort

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Gurkirpal

    2005-01-01

    A computer program calculates an optimal allocation of control effort in a system that includes redundant control actuators. The program implements an iterative (but otherwise single-stage) algorithm of the quadratic-programming type. In general, in the quadratic-programming problem, one seeks the values of a set of variables that minimize a quadratic cost function, subject to a set of linear equality and inequality constraints. In this program, the cost function combines control effort (typically quantified in terms of energy or fuel consumed) and control residuals (differences between commanded and sensed values of variables to be controlled). In comparison with prior control-allocation software, this program offers approximately equal accuracy but much greater computational efficiency. In addition, this program offers flexibility, robustness to actuation failures, and a capability for selective enforcement of control requirements. The computational efficiency of this program makes it suitable for such complex, real-time applications as controlling redundant aircraft actuators or redundant spacecraft thrusters. The program is written in the C language for execution in a UNIX operating system.

  2. Reminiscing about 15 years of interoperability efforts

    DOE PAGES

    Van de Sompel, Herbert; Nelson, Michael L.

    2015-11-01

    Over the past fifteen years, our perspective on tackling information interoperability problems for web-based scholarship has evolved significantly. In this opinion piece, we look back at three efforts that we have been involved in that aptly illustrate this evolution: OAI-PMH, OAI-ORE, and Memento. Understanding that no interoperability specification is neutral, we attempt to characterize the perspectives and technical toolkits that provided the basis for these endeavors. With that regard, we consider repository-centric and web-centric interoperability perspectives, and the use of a Linked Data or a REST/HATEAOS technology stack, respectively. In addition, we lament the lack of interoperability across nodes thatmore » play a role in web-based scholarship, but end on a constructive note with some ideas regarding a possible path forward.« less

  3. Reminiscing about 15 years of interoperability efforts

    SciTech Connect

    Van de Sompel, Herbert; Nelson, Michael L.

    2015-11-01

    Over the past fifteen years, our perspective on tackling information interoperability problems for web-based scholarship has evolved significantly. In this opinion piece, we look back at three efforts that we have been involved in that aptly illustrate this evolution: OAI-PMH, OAI-ORE, and Memento. Understanding that no interoperability specification is neutral, we attempt to characterize the perspectives and technical toolkits that provided the basis for these endeavors. With that regard, we consider repository-centric and web-centric interoperability perspectives, and the use of a Linked Data or a REST/HATEAOS technology stack, respectively. In addition, we lament the lack of interoperability across nodes that play a role in web-based scholarship, but end on a constructive note with some ideas regarding a possible path forward.

  4. It takes some effort. How minimal physical effort reduces consumption volume.

    PubMed

    Brunner, Thomas A

    2013-12-01

    Plenty of studies have demonstrated that effort influences food choice. However, few have been conducted to analyze the effect of effort on consumption volume. Moreover, the few studies that have measured consumption volume all have strong limitations. The goal of the present paper is to disentangle confounding variables in earlier research and to rule out various alternative explanations. In a tasting setting focusing on snacking behavior, either unwrapping a food product or grabbing it with sugar tongs was enough to significantly reduce consumption, regardless of whether an unhealthy or healthy food item was used. Hardly any cognitive resources seem to be necessary for the effect to occur, as cognitive load did not affect the findings. In light of obesity being a pressing concern, these findings might be valuable for individuals as well as for the food industry.

  5. Two groups challenge US acid rain efforts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-11-01

    In its report, Acid Rain Invades Our National Parks, the National Parks and Conservation Association (NPCA) says acid rain is being detected at all 27 national park monitoring sites. In 1980, 87 national parks expressed concern in a NPCA survey over acid rain. Repolled in 1986, more than half of the respondents reported that no research on acid rain was under way. The NPCA report concludes that the alarm that was sounded in 1980 fell largely on deaf ears, and calls for the structural and scientific reorganization of the National Park Service. The National Audubon Society shares NPCA's dissatisfaction with federal efforts to tackle the problem of acid rain and has taken testing into its own hands. Through its Citizens Acid Rain Monitoring Network, Audubon volunteers have collected readings of acidity at 64 monitoring stations in 31 states since July.

  6. Procedures and Concepts of EPA's Ongoing Sensor Evaluation Efforts

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this research effort was to develop an understanding of what technology might prove valuable in conducting the next generation of air monitoring. Upon their discovery, such technologies were obtained in collaboration with inventors and commercial and research orga...

  7. Standardization efforts in IP telephony

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sengodan, Senthil; Bansal, Raj

    1999-11-01

    The recent interest in IP telephony has led to a tremendous increase of standardization activities in the area. The three main standards bodies in the area of IP telephony are the International Telecommunication Union's (ITU-T) Study Group (SG) 16, the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) and the European Telecommunication Standards Institute's (ETSI) TIPHON project. In addition, forums such as the International Multimedia Teleconferencing Consortium (IMTC), the Intelligent Network Forum (INF), the International Softswitch Consortium (ISC), the Electronic Computer Telephony Forum (ECTF), and the MIT's Internet Telephony Consortium (ITC) are looking into various other aspects that aim at the growth of this industry. This paper describes the main tasks (completed and in progress) undertaken by these organizations. In describing such work, an overview of the underlying technology is also provided.

  8. Tobacco control efforts in Europe.

    PubMed

    Britton, John; Bogdanovica, Ilze

    2013-05-04

    Smoking is prevalent across Europe, but the severity and stage of the smoking epidemic, and policy responses to it, vary substantially between countries. Much progress is now being made in prohibition of paid-for advertising and in promotion of smoke-free policies, but mass media campaigns are widely underused, provision of services for smokers trying to quit is generally poor, and price policies are undermined by licit and illicit cheap supplies. Monitoring of prevalence is inadequate in many countries, as is investment in research and capacity to address this largest avoidable cause of death and disability across Europe. However, grounds for optimism are provided by progress in implementation of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, and in the development of a new generation of nicotine-containing devices that could enable more widespread adoption of harm-reduction strategies. The effect of commercial vested interests has been and remains a major barrier to progress.

  9. Dopamine does double duty in motivating cognitive effort

    PubMed Central

    Westbrook, Andrew; Braver, Todd S.

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive control is subjectively costly, suggesting that engagement is modulated in relationship to incentive state. Dopamine appears to play key roles. In particular, dopamine may mediate cognitive effort by two broad classes of functions: 1) modulating the functional parameters of working memory circuits subserving effortful cognition, and 2) mediating value-learning and decision-making about effortful cognitive action. Here we tie together these two lines of research, proposing how dopamine serves “double duty”, translating incentive information into cognitive motivation. PMID:26889810

  10. Inefficient Effort Allocation and Negative Symptoms in Individuals with Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, Julie M.; Treadway, Michael T.; Bennett, Melanie E.; Blanchard, Jack J.

    2016-01-01

    Negative symptoms like avolition and anhedonia are thought to involve difficulties with reward processing and motivation. The current study aimed to replicate and extend prior findings that individuals with schizophrenia display reduced willingness to expend effort for rewards and that such reduced effort is associated with negative symptoms, poor functioning, and cognitive impairment. The present study compared the effortful decision making of individuals with schizophrenia (n = 48) and healthy controls (n = 27) on the Effort Expenditure for Rewards Task (EEfRT). Individuals with schizophrenia chose a smaller proportion of hard tasks than healthy controls across all probability and reward levels with the exception of trials with a 12% probability and low or medium reward magnitude wherein both groups chose similarly few hard tasks. Contrary to expectations, in individuals with schizophrenia, greater negative symptoms were associated with making more effortful choices. Effortful decision making was unrelated to positive symptoms, depression, cognition, and functioning in individuals with schizophrenia. Our results are consistent with prior findings that revealed a pattern of inefficient decision making in individuals with schizophrenia relative to healthy controls. However the results did not support the hypothesized association of negative symptoms and reduced effort in schizophrenia and highlight prior inconsistencies in this literature. Future research is needed to understand what factors may be related to diminished effortful decision making in schizophrenia and the clinical significance of such performance deficits. PMID:26763628

  11. Motivation and effort in individuals with social anhedonia.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Julie M; Treadway, Michael T; Blanchard, Jack J

    2015-06-01

    It has been proposed that anhedonia may, in part, reflect difficulties in reward processing and effortful decision making. The current study aimed to replicate previous findings of effortful decision making deficits associated with elevated anhedonia and expand upon these findings by investigating whether these decision making deficits are specific to elevated social anhedonia or are also associated with elevated positive schizotypy characteristics. The current study compared controls (n=40) to individuals elevated on social anhedonia (n=30), and individuals elevated on perceptual aberration/magical ideation (n=30) on the Effort Expenditure for Rewards Task (EEfRT). Across groups, participants chose a higher proportion of hard tasks with increasing probability of reward and reward magnitude, demonstrating sensitivity to probability and reward values. Contrary to our expectations, when the probability of reward was most uncertain (50% probability), at low and medium reward values, the social anhedonia group demonstrated more effortful decision making than either individuals high in positive schizotypy or controls. The positive schizotypy group only differed from controls (making less effortful choices than controls) when reward probability was lowest (12%) and the magnitude of reward was the smallest. Our results suggest that social anhedonia is related to intact motivation and effort for monetary rewards, but that individuals with this characteristic display a unique and perhaps inefficient pattern of effort allocation when the probability of reward is most uncertain. Future research is needed to better understand effortful decision making and the processing of reward across a range of individual difference characteristics.

  12. Measuring collections effort improves cash performance.

    PubMed

    Shutts, Joe

    2009-09-01

    Having a satisfied work force can lead to an improved collections effort. Hiring the right people and training them ensures employee engagement. Measuring collections effort and offering incentives is key to revenue cycle success.

  13. [Delayed post effort muscle soreness].

    PubMed

    Coudreuse, J M; Dupont, P; Nicol, C

    2004-08-01

    Muscle intolerance to exercise may result from different processes. Diagnosis involves confirming first the source of pain, then potential pathological myalgia. Delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS), commonly referred as tiredness, occurs frequently in sport. DOMS usually develops 12-48 h after intensive and/or unusual eccentric muscle action. Symptoms usually involve the quadriceps muscle group but may also affect the hamstring and triceps surae groups. The muscles are sensitive to palpation, contraction and passive stretch. Acidosis, muscle spasm and microlesions in both connective and muscle tissues may explain the symptoms. However, inflammation appears to be the most common explanation. Interestingly, there is strong evidence that the progression of the exercise-induced muscle injury proceeds no further in the absence of inflammation. Even though unpleasant, DOMS should not be considered as an indicator of muscle damage but, rather, a sign of the regenerative process, which is well known to contribute to the increased muscle mass. DOMS can be associated with decreased proprioception and range of motion, as well as maximal force and activation. DOMS disappears 2-10 days before complete functional recovery. This painless period is ripe for additional joint injuries. Similarly, if some treatments are well known to attenuate DOMS, none has been demonstrated to accelerate either structural or functional recovery. In terms of the role of the inflammatory process, these treatments might even delay overall recovery.

  14. Overview 2003 of NASA Multi-D Stirling Convertor Code Development and DOE and NASA Stirling Regenerator R and D Efforts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tew, Roy; Ibrahim, Mounir; Simon, Terry; Mantell, Susan; Gedeon, David; Qiu, Songgang; Wood, Gary

    2004-01-01

    This paper win report on continuation through the third year of a NASA grant for multi-dimensional Stirling CFD code development and validation; continuation through the third and final year of a Department of Energy, Golden Field Office (DOE), regenerator research effort and a NASA grant for continuation of the effort through two additional years; and a new NASA Research Award for design, microfabrication and testing of a "Next Generation Stirling Engine Regenerator." Cleveland State University (CSU) is the lead organization for all three efforts, with the University of Minnesota (UMN) and Gedeon Associates as subcontractors. The Stirling Technology Company and Sun power, Inc. acted as unfunded consultants or participants through the third years of both the NASA multi-D code development and DOE regenerator research efforts; they win both be subcontractors on the new regenerator microfabrication contract.

  15. Pupil size variations correlate with physical effort perception.

    PubMed

    Zénon, Alexandre; Sidibé, Mariam; Olivier, Etienne

    2014-01-01

    It has long been established that the pupil diameter increases during mental activities in proportion to the difficulty of the task at hand. However, it is still unclear whether this relationship between the pupil size and effort applies also to physical effort. In order to address this issue, we asked healthy volunteers to perform a power grip task, at varied intensity, while evaluating their effort both implicitly and explicitly, and while concurrently monitoring their pupil size. Each trial started with a contraction of imposed intensity, under the control of a continuous visual feedback. Upon completion of the contraction, participants had to choose whether to replicate, without feedback, the first contraction for a variable monetary reward, or whether to skip this step and go directly to the next trial. The rate of acceptance of effort replication and the amount of force exerted during the replication were used as implicit measures of the perception of the effort exerted during the first contraction. In addition, the participants were asked to rate on an analog scale, their explicit perception of the effort for each intensity condition. We found that pupil diameter increased during physical effort and that the magnitude of this response reflected not only the actual intensity of the contraction but also the subjects' perception of the effort. This finding indicates that the pupil size signals the level of effort invested in a task, irrespective of whether it is physical or mental. It also helps refining the potential brain circuits involved since the results of the current study imply a convergence of mental and physical effort information at some level along this pathway.

  16. Sodium intake reduction efforts in Lebanon

    PubMed Central

    Almedawar, Mohamad M.; Nasreddine, Lara; Olabi, Ammar; Hamade, Haya; Awad, Elie; Toufeili, Imad; Arnaout, Samir

    2015-01-01

    Sodium intake reduction efforts in Lebanon are quite recent and have just started to take effect on the national level. Starting out from an academic institution, the Lebanese Action on Sodium and Health (LASH) campaign was established to counter the increasing prevalence of hypertension and associated adverse health effects. The campaign’s strategy was based on four pillars: research, health communication, advocacy, and monitoring. The LASH group set out with determining: baseline sodium intake of the population, main sources of sodium intake, and the knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors (KAB) of the population as a situation analysis that prompts for action. This gave LASH tangible evidence of the magnitude of the problem and the need for the government, the food industry, and the consumers, to be mobilized to take part in devising a solution. Currently, Lebanon is at a stage of technically working to reduce the sodium content in the major sources of sodium, namely local bread and bread-like products. The next steps will include implementation of a plan for monitoring industry compliance, while studying other food targets, including dairy products and processed meat. Meanwhile, the health communication plan is ongoing and the Salt Awareness Week is celebrated every year with media appearances of LASH researchers to raise the issue to the public eye. PMID:26090328

  17. Making a difference: Ten case studies of DSM/IRP interactive efforts and related advocacy group activities

    SciTech Connect

    English, M.; Schexnayder, S.; Altman, J.; Schweitzer, M.

    1994-03-01

    This report discusses the activities of organizations that seek to promote integrated resource planning and aggressive, cost-effective demand-side management by utilities. The activities of such groups -- here called energy efficiency advocacy groups (EEAGs) -- are examined in ten detailed am studies. Nine of the cases involve some form of interactive effort between investor-owned electric utilities and non-utility to develop policies, plans, or programs cooperatively. Many but not all of the interactive efforts examined are formal collaboratives. In addition, all ten cases include discussion of other EEAG activities, such as coalition-building, research, participation in statewide energy planning, and intervention in regulatory proceedings.

  18. The effect of sleep loss on next day effort.

    PubMed

    Engle-Friedman, Mindy; Riela, Suzanne; Golan, Rama; Ventuneac, Ana M; Davis, Christine M; Jefferson, Angela D; Major, Donna

    2003-06-01

    The study had two primary objectives. The first was to determine whether sleep loss results in a preference for tasks demanding minimal effort. The second was to evaluate the quality of performance when participants, under conditions of sleep loss, have control over task demands. In experiment 1, using a repeated-measures design, 50 undergraduate college students were evaluated, following one night of no sleep loss and one night of sleep loss. The Math Effort Task (MET) presented addition problems via computer. Participants were able to select additions at one of five levels of difficulty. Less-demanding problems were selected and more additions were solved correctly when the participants were subject to sleep loss. In experiment 2, 58 undergraduate college students were randomly assigned to a no sleep deprivation or a sleep deprivation condition. Sleep-deprived participants selected less-demanding problems on the MET. Percentage correct on the MET was equivalent for both the non-sleep-deprived and sleep-deprived groups. On a task selection question, the sleep-deprived participants also selected significantly less-demanding non-academic tasks. Increased sleepiness, fatigue, and reaction time were associated with the selection of less difficult tasks. Both groups of participants reported equivalent effort expenditures; sleep-deprived participants did not perceive a reduction in effort. These studies demonstrate that sleep loss results in the choice of low-effort behavior that helps maintain accurate responding.

  19. RBANS embedded measures of suboptimal effort in dementia: effort scale has a lower failure rate than the effort index.

    PubMed

    Burton, Rachel L; Enright, Joe; O'Connell, Megan E; Lanting, Shawnda; Morgan, Debra

    2015-02-01

    The importance of evaluating effort in neuropsychological assessments has been widely acknowledged, but measuring effort in the context of dementia remains challenging due to the impact of dementia severity on effort measure scores. Two embedded measures have been developed for the repeatable battery for the assessment of neuropsychological status (RBANS; Randolph, C., Tierney, M. C., Mohr, E., & Chase, T. N. (1998). The repeatable battery for the assessment of neuropsychological status (RBANS): Preliminary clinical validity. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 20 (3), 310-319): the Effort Index (EI; Silverberg, N. D., Wertheimer, J. C., & Fichtenberg, N. L. (2007). An effort index for the repeatable battery for the assessment of neuropsychological status (RBANS). Clinical Neuropsychologist, 21 (5), 841-854) and the Effort Scale (ES; Novitski, J., Steele, S., Karantzoulis, S., & Randolph, C. (2012). The repeatable battery for the assessment of neuropsychological status effort scale. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 27 (2), 190-195). We explored failure rates on these effort measures in a non-litigating mixed dementia sample (N = 145). Failure rate on the EI was high (48%) and associated with dementia severity. In contrast, failure on the ES was 14% but differed based on type of dementia. ES failure was low (4%) when dementia was due to Alzheimer disease (AD), but high (31%) for non-AD dementias. These data raise concerns about use of the RBANS embedded effort measures in dementia evaluations.

  20. Cognitive dissonance in children: justification of effort or contrast?

    PubMed

    Alessandri, Jérôme; Darcheville, Jean-Claude; Zentall, Thomas R

    2008-06-01

    Justification of effort is a form of cognitive dissonance in which the subjective value of an outcome is directly related to the effort that went into obtaining it. However, it is likely that in social contexts (such as the requirements for joining a group) an inference can be made (perhaps incorrectly) that an outcome that requires greater effort to obtain in fact has greater value. Here we present evidence that a cognitive dissonance effect can be found in children under conditions that offer better control for the social value of the outcome. This effect is quite similar to contrast effects that recently have been studied in animals. We suggest that contrast between the effort required to obtain the outcome and the outcome itself provides a more parsimonious account of this phenomenon and perhaps other related cognitive dissonance phenomena as well. Research will be needed to identify cognitive dissonance processes that are different from contrast effects of this kind.

  1. COMBINED MEASUREMENTS WITH THREE-DIMENSIONAL DESIGN INFORMATION VERIFICATION SYSTEM AND GAMMA RAY IMAGING - A COLLABORATIVE EFFORT BETWEEN OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY, LAWRENCE LIVERMORE NATIONAL LABORATORY, AND THE JOINT RESEARCH CENTER AT ISPRA

    SciTech Connect

    Mihailescu, L; Vetter, K; Ruhter, W; Chivers, D; Dreicer, M; Coates, C; Smith, S; Hines, J; Caiado, A R; Sequeira, V; Fiocco, M; Goncalves, J G

    2006-06-14

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) have jointly performed tests to demonstrate combined measurements with a three-dimensional (3D) design information verification (DIV) system and a gamma-ray imager for potential safeguard applications. The 3D DIV system was made available by the European Commission's Joint Research Center to ORNL under a collaborative project between the U.S. Department of Energy and the European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM). The system is able to create 3D maps of rooms and objects and of identifying changes in positions and modifications with a precision on the order of millimeters. The gamma ray imaging system consists of a 4{pi} field-of-view Compton imaging system which has two fully operational DSSD (Double-Sided Segment Detector) High-Purity Germanium (HPGe) detectors developed at LLNL. The Compton imaging instrument not only provides imaging capabilities, but provides excellent energy resolution which enables the identification of radioisotopes and nuclear materials. Joint Research Center was responsible to merge gamma-ray images with the 3D range maps. The results of preliminary first measurements performed at LLNL demonstrate, for the first time, mapping of panoramic gamma-ray images into 3D range data.

  2. NREL Quickens its Tech Transfer Efforts

    SciTech Connect

    Lammers, H.

    2012-02-01

    Innovations and 'aha' movements in renewable energy and energy efficiency, while exciting in the lab, only truly live up to their promise once they find a place in homes or business. Late last year President Obama issued a directive to all federal agencies to increase their efforts to transfer technologies to the private sector in order to achieve greater societal and economic impacts of federal research investments. The president's call to action includes efforts to establish technology transfer goals and to measure progress, to engage in efforts to increase the speed of technology transfer and to enhance local and regional innovation partnerships. But, even before the White House began its initiative to restructure the commercialization process, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory had a major effort underway designed to increase the speed and impact of technology transfer activities and had already made sure its innovations had a streamlined path to the private sector. For the last three years, NREL has been actively setting commercialization goals and tracking progress against those goals. For example, NREL sought to triple the number of innovations over a five-year period that began in 2009. Through best practices associated with inventor engagement, education and collaboration, NREL quadrupled the number of innovations in just three years. Similar progress has been made in patenting, licensing transactions, income generation and rewards to inventors. 'NREL is known nationally for our cutting-edge research and companies know to call us when they are ready to collaborate,' William Farris, vice president for commercialization and technology transfer, said. 'Once a team is ready to dive in, they don't want be mired in paperwork. We've worked to make our process for licensing NREL technology faster; it now takes less than 60 days for us to come to an agreement and start work with a company interested in our research.' While NREL maintains a robust patent

  3. Perceived distributed effort in team ball sports.

    PubMed

    Beniscelli, Violeta; Tenenbaum, Gershon; Schinke, Robert Joel; Torregrosa, Miquel

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we explored the multifaceted concept of perceived mental and physical effort in team sport contexts where athletes must invest individual and shared efforts to reach a common goal. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a convenience sample of 15 Catalan professional coaches (3 women and 12 men, 3 each from the following sports: volleyball, basketball, handball, soccer, and water polo) to gain their views of three perceived effort-related dimensions: physical, psychological, and tactical. From a theoretical thematic analysis, it was found that the perception of effort is closely related to how effort is distributed within the team. Moreover, coaches viewed physical effort in relation to the frequency and intensity of the players' involvement in the game. They identified psychological effort in situations where players pay attention to proper cues, and manage emotions under difficult circumstances. Tactical effort addressed the decision-making process of players and how they fulfilled their roles while taking into account the actions of their teammates and opponents. Based on these findings, a model of perceived distributed effort was developed, which delineates the elements that compose each of the aforementioned dimensions. Implications of perceived distributed effort in team coordination and shared mental models are discussed.

  4. X-Ray absorption in homogeneous catalysis research: the iron-catalyzed Michael addition reaction by XAS, RIXS and multi-dimensional spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Matthias; Gastl, Christoph

    2010-06-07

    A survey over X-ray absorption methods in homogeneous catalysis research is given with the example of the iron-catalyzed Michael addition reaction. A thorough investigation of the catalytic cycle was possible by combination of conventional X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) and multi-dimensional spectroscopy. The catalytically active compound formed in the first step of the Michael reaction of methyl vinyl ketone with 2-oxocyclopentanecarboxylate (1) could be elucidated in situ by RIXS spectroscopy, and the reduced catalytic activity of FeCl(3) x 6 H(2)O (2) compared to Fe(ClO(4))(3) x 9 H(2)O (3) could be further explained by the formation of a [Fe(III)Cl(4)(-)](3)[Fe(III)(1-H)(2)(H(2)O)(2)(+)][H(+)](2) complex. Chloride was identified as catalyst poison with a combined XAS-UV/vis study, which revealed that Cl(-) binds quantitatively to the available iron centers that are deactivated by formation of [FeCl(4)(-)]. Operando studies in the course of the reaction of methyl vinyl ketone with 1 by combined XAS-Raman spectroscopy allowed the exclusion of changes in the oxidation state and the octahedral geometry at the iron site; a reaction order of two with respect to methyl vinyl ketone and a rate constant of k = 1.413 min(-2) were determined by analysis of the C=C and C=O vibration band. Finally, a dedicated experimental set-up for three-dimensional spectroscopic studies (XAS, UV/vis and Raman) of homogeneous catalytic reactions under laboratory conditions, which emerged from the discussed investigations, is presented.

  5. Food packaging cues influence taste perception and increase effort provision for a recommended snack product in children.

    PubMed

    Enax, Laura; Weber, Bernd; Ahlers, Maren; Kaiser, Ulrike; Diethelm, Katharina; Holtkamp, Dominik; Faupel, Ulya; Holzmüller, Hartmut H; Kersting, Mathilde

    2015-01-01

    Food marketing research shows that child-directed marketing cues have pronounced effects on food preferences and consumption, but are most often placed on products with low nutritional quality. Effects of child-directed marketing strategies for healthy food products remain to be studied in more detail. Previous research suggests that effort provision explains additional variance in food choice. This study investigated the effects of packaging cues on explicit preferences and effort provision for healthy food items in elementary school children. Each of 179 children rated three, objectively identical, recommended yogurt-cereal-fruit snacks presented with different packaging cues. Packaging cues included a plain label, a label focusing on health aspects of the product, and a label that additionally included unknown cartoon characters. The children were asked to state the subjective taste-pleasantness of the respective food items. We also used a novel approach to measure effort provision for food items in children, namely handgrip strength. Results show that packaging cues significantly induce a taste-placebo effect in 88% of the children, i.e., differences in taste ratings for objectively identical products. Taste ratings were highest for the child-directed product that included cartoon characters. Also, applied effort to receive the child-directed product was significantly higher. Our results confirm the positive effect of child-directed marketing strategies also for healthy snack food products. Using handgrip strength as a measure to determine the amount of effort children are willing to provide for a product may explain additional variance in food choice and might prove to be a promising additional research tool for field studies and the assessment of public policy interventions.

  6. Food packaging cues influence taste perception and increase effort provision for a recommended snack product in children

    PubMed Central

    Enax, Laura; Weber, Bernd; Ahlers, Maren; Kaiser, Ulrike; Diethelm, Katharina; Holtkamp, Dominik; Faupel, Ulya; Holzmüller, Hartmut H.; Kersting, Mathilde

    2015-01-01

    Food marketing research shows that child-directed marketing cues have pronounced effects on food preferences and consumption, but are most often placed on products with low nutritional quality. Effects of child-directed marketing strategies for healthy food products remain to be studied in more detail. Previous research suggests that effort provision explains additional variance in food choice. This study investigated the effects of packaging cues on explicit preferences and effort provision for healthy food items in elementary school children. Each of 179 children rated three, objectively identical, recommended yogurt-cereal-fruit snacks presented with different packaging cues. Packaging cues included a plain label, a label focusing on health aspects of the product, and a label that additionally included unknown cartoon characters. The children were asked to state the subjective taste-pleasantness of the respective food items. We also used a novel approach to measure effort provision for food items in children, namely handgrip strength. Results show that packaging cues significantly induce a taste-placebo effect in 88% of the children, i.e., differences in taste ratings for objectively identical products. Taste ratings were highest for the child-directed product that included cartoon characters. Also, applied effort to receive the child-directed product was significantly higher. Our results confirm the positive effect of child-directed marketing strategies also for healthy snack food products. Using handgrip strength as a measure to determine the amount of effort children are willing to provide for a product may explain additional variance in food choice and might prove to be a promising additional research tool for field studies and the assessment of public policy interventions. PMID:26191012

  7. Reducing Bureaucratic Accretion in Government and University Procedures for Sponsored Research. New Approaches in Process and Additional Areas for Attention. Proceedings of a Hearing, June 5, 1985. Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC. Government-University-Industry Research Roundtable.

    On June 5, 1985, the Government-University-Industry Research Roundtable conducted a hearing designed to be the first step in what will be a continuing process by the Research Roundtable of seeking ways to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the sponsored research system. The goal of the hearing was to identify ways to simplify the system…

  8. Brief Self-Report Scales Assessing Life History Dimensions of Mating and Parenting Effort.

    PubMed

    Kruger, Daniel J

    2017-01-01

    Life history theory (LHT) is a powerful evolutionary framework for understanding physiological, psychological, and behavioral variation both between and within species. Researchers and theorists are increasingly integrating LHT into evolutionary psychology, as it provides a strong foundation for research across many topical areas. Human life history variation has been represented in psychological and behavioral research in several ways, including indicators of conditions in the developmental environment, indicators of conditions in the current environment, and indicators of maturation and life milestones (e.g., menarche, initial sexual activity, first pregnancy), and in self-report survey scale measures. Survey scale measures have included constructs such as time perspective and future discounting, although the most widely used index is a constellation of indicators assessing the K-factor, thought to index general life history speed (from fast to slow). The current project examined the utility of two brief self-report survey measures assessing the life history dimensions of mating effort and parenting effort with a large undergraduate sample in the United States. Consistent with the theory, items reflected two inversely related dimensions. In regressions including the K-factor, the Mating Effort Scale proved to be a powerful predictor of other constructs and indicators related to life history variation. The Parenting Effort Scale had less predictive power overall, although it explained unique variance across several constructs and was the only unique predictor of the number of long-term (serious and committed) relationships. These scales may be valuable additions to self-report survey research projects examining life history variation.

  9. Effort on homework in grades 5-9: development, motivational antecedents, and the association with effort on classwork.

    PubMed

    Trautwein, Ulrich; Lüdtke, Oliver; Kastens, Claudia; Köller, Olaf

    2006-01-01

    In 2 studies, an expectancy-value framework was applied to investigate effort expended on mathematics homework. In Study 1 (2,712 students in grades 5, 7, and 9; mean age=13.37 years), lower homework effort was found in higher grades. The effects of intrinsic value on homework effort were higher in the older cohorts, whereas the effects of the expectancy component were lower. In Study 2 (571 students in grades 8 and 9; mean age=14.72), an expanded expectancy-value framework was found to explain both homework and classwork variables. The means for effort and value were lower for homework than for classwork; these differences were partly moderated by students' conscientiousness. The implications of homework behavior and motivation for developmental research are highlighted.

  10. Productive and Ineffective Efforts: How Student Effort in High School Mathematics Relates to College Calculus Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, M.D.; Sonnert, G.; Sadler, P.M.

    2014-01-01

    Relativizing the popular belief that student effort is the key to success, this article finds that effort in the most advanced mathematics course in US high schools is not consistently associated with college calculus performance. We distinguish two types of student effort: productive and ineffective efforts. Whereas the former carries the…

  11. Obtaining information by dynamic (effortful) touching

    PubMed Central

    Turvey, M. T.; Carello, Claudia

    2011-01-01

    Dynamic touching is effortful touching. It entails deformation of muscles and fascia and activation of the embedded mechanoreceptors, as when an object is supported and moved by the body. It is realized as exploratory activities that can vary widely in spatial and temporal extents (a momentary heft, an extended walk). Research has revealed the potential of dynamic touching for obtaining non-visual information about the body (e.g. limb orientation), attachments to the body (e.g. an object's height and width) and the relation of the body both to attachments (e.g. hand's location on a grasped object) and surrounding surfaces (e.g. places and their distances). Invariants over the exploratory activity (e.g. moments of a wielded object's mass distribution) seem to ground this ‘information about’. The conception of a haptic medium as a nested tensegrity structure has been proposed to express the obtained information realized by myofascia deformation, by its invariants and transformations. The tensegrity proposal rationalizes the relative indifference of dynamic touch to the site of mechanical contact (hand, foot, torso or probe) and the overtness of exploratory activity. It also provides a framework for dynamic touching's fractal nature, and the finding that its degree of fractality may matter to its accomplishments. PMID:21969694

  12. Sustainability Characterization for Additive Manufacturing

    PubMed Central

    Mani, Mahesh; Lyons, Kevin W; Gupta, SK

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) has the potential to create geometrically complex parts that require a high degree of customization, using less material and producing less waste. Recent studies have shown that AM can be an economically viable option for use by the industry, yet there are some inherent challenges associated with AM for wider acceptance. The lack of standards in AM impedes its use for parts production since industries primarily depend on established standards in processes and material selection to ensure the consistency and quality. Inability to compare AM performance against traditional manufacturing methods can be a barrier for implementing AM processes. AM process sustainability has become a driver due to growing environmental concerns for manufacturing. This has reinforced the importance to understand and characterize AM processes for sustainability. Process characterization for sustainability will help close the gaps for comparing AM performance to traditional manufacturing methods. Based on a literature review, this paper first examines the potential environmental impacts of AM. A methodology for sustainability characterization of AM is then proposed to serve as a resource for the community to benchmark AM processes for sustainability. Next, research perspectives are discussed along with relevant standardization efforts. PMID:26601038

  13. Sustainability Characterization for Additive Manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Mani, Mahesh; Lyons, Kevin W; Gupta, S K

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) has the potential to create geometrically complex parts that require a high degree of customization, using less material and producing less waste. Recent studies have shown that AM can be an economically viable option for use by the industry, yet there are some inherent challenges associated with AM for wider acceptance. The lack of standards in AM impedes its use for parts production since industries primarily depend on established standards in processes and material selection to ensure the consistency and quality. Inability to compare AM performance against traditional manufacturing methods can be a barrier for implementing AM processes. AM process sustainability has become a driver due to growing environmental concerns for manufacturing. This has reinforced the importance to understand and characterize AM processes for sustainability. Process characterization for sustainability will help close the gaps for comparing AM performance to traditional manufacturing methods. Based on a literature review, this paper first examines the potential environmental impacts of AM. A methodology for sustainability characterization of AM is then proposed to serve as a resource for the community to benchmark AM processes for sustainability. Next, research perspectives are discussed along with relevant standardization efforts.

  14. 7 CFR 1944.671 - Equal opportunity requirements and outreach efforts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Equal opportunity requirements and outreach efforts... § 1944.671 Equal opportunity requirements and outreach efforts. The policies and regulations contained in... addition, the HPG grantee is required to address an outreach effort in their program. The amount...

  15. Is the coefficient of variation a valid measure for detecting sincerity of effort of grip strength?

    PubMed

    Shechtman, Orit

    1999-01-01

    The wide use of the coefficient of variation in detecting sincerity of effort is puzzling since existing research findings regarding its effectiveness are contradictory. The lack of empirical support in the literature raises the question of whether or not the coefficient of variation is a valid measure for detecting sincerity of effort. Many clinicians, especially those who use a computer software to calculate the coefficient of variation, may not understand how the coefficient of variation is derived and what it is based on. The coefficient of variation is a measure of relative variability and would be used correctly only if the average and the standard deviation of grip strength trials increased proportionally. This case study, however, demonstrated that the average and standard deviation of grip strength are independent. Thus, the coefficient of variation is not a valid measure of sincerity of effort. In addition, this study indicated that the coefficient of variation may be inflated in individuals after carpal tunnel release surgery. The author, therefore, cautions clinicians against the use of the coefficient of variation as a measure of sincerity of effort especially in injured individuals with compromised hand strength.

  16. Origins of Effortful Control: Infant and Parent Contributions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gartstein, Maria A.; Bridgett, David J.; Young, Brandi N.; Panksepp, Jaak; Power, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Effortful control (EC) refers to the ability to inhibit a dominant response to perform a subdominant one and has been shown as protective against a myriad of difficulties. Research examining precursors of EC has been limited to date, and in this study, infancy contributors to toddler EC were examined. Specifically, parent/family background…

  17. Attachment and Effortful Control: Relationships With Maladjustment in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heylen, Joke; Vasey, Michael W.; Dujardin, Adinda; Vandevivere, Eva; Braet, Caroline; De Raedt, Rudi; Bosmans, Guy

    2017-01-01

    Based on former research, it can be assumed that attachment relationships provide a context in which children develop both the effortful control (EC) capacity and the repertoire of responses to regulate distress. Both are important to understand children's (mal)adjustment. While the latter assumption has been supported in several studies, less is…

  18. Efforts to Define College Readiness in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patelis, Thanos; Camara, Wayne; Wiley, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Presented at the 11th International Conference on Education (ICE) in 2009. This presentation provides an overview of the College Board and its efforts to develop college readiness indicators. The information provided includes a conceptual overview of the indicators and the research and development components in the development and validation of…

  19. Efforts to Develop a 300°C Solder

    SciTech Connect

    Norann, Randy A

    2015-01-25

    This paper covers the efforts made to find a 300°C electrical solder solution for geothermal well monitoring and logging tools by Perma Works LLC. This paper covers: why a high temperature solder is needed, what makes for a good solder, testing flux, testing conductive epoxy and testing intermetallic bonds. Future areas of research are suggested.

  20. Shopping Effort Classification: Implications for Segmenting the College Student Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Robert E.; Palmer, John C.; Eidson, Vicky; Griswold, Melissa

    2011-01-01

    Market segmentation strategies based on levels of consumer shopping effort have long been utilized by marketing professionals. Such strategies can be beneficial in assisting marketers with development of appropriate marketing mix variables for segments. However, these types of strategies have not been assessed by researchers examining segmentation…

  1. Children's Effortful Control and Academic Achievement: Mediation through Social Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valiente, Carlos; Eisenberg, Nancy; Haugen, Rg; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Hofer, Claire; Liew, Jeffrey; Kupfer, Anne

    2011-01-01

    Research Findings: The purpose of this study was to test the premise that children's effortful control (EC) is prospectively related to their academic achievement and to specify mechanisms through which EC is related to academic success. We used data from 214 children (M age at Time 1 [T1] = 73 months) to test whether social functioning (e.g.,…

  2. Visual Cues and Listening Effort: Individual Variability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Picou, Erin M.; Ricketts, Todd A; Hornsby, Benjamin W. Y.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of visual cues on listening effort as well as whether predictive variables such as working memory capacity (WMC) and lipreading ability affect the magnitude of listening effort. Method: Twenty participants with normal hearing were tested using a paired-associates recall task in 2 conditions (quiet and noise) and…

  3. The Effect of Age on Listening Effort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Degeest, Sofie; Keppler, Hannah; Corthals, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of age on listening effort. Method: A dual-task paradigm was used to evaluate listening effort in different conditions of background noise. Sixty adults ranging in age from 20 to 77 years were included. A primary speech-recognition task and a secondary memory task were performed…

  4. Attention, effort, and fatigue: Neuropsychological perspectives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Ronald A.; Odonnell, Brian F.

    1988-01-01

    Models of attention, effort, and fatigue are reviewed. Methods are discussed for measuring these phenomena from a neuropsychological and psychophysiological perspective. The following methodologies are included: (1) the autonomic measurement of cognitive effort and quality of encoding; (2) serial assessment approaches to neurophysiological assessment; and (3) the assessment of subjective reports of fatigue using multidimensional ratings and their relationship to neurobehavioral measures.

  5. NASA cryogenic fluid management space experiment efforts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glover, Daniel

    1991-01-01

    A history of technological development for subcritical cryogenic fluid management (CFM) through space experiments is given for the period 1960 to 1990. Space experiments with liquid hydrogen were conducted in the early 1960s. Efforts since then have consisted of studies and designs of potential space experiments. A chronology of CFM space experiments and design efforts is included.

  6. Listening Effort with Cochlear Implant Simulations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pals, Carina; Sarampalis, Anastasios; Baskent, Deniz

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Fitting a cochlear implant (CI) for optimal speech perception does not necessarily optimize listening effort. This study aimed to show that listening effort may change between CI processing conditions for which speech intelligibility remains constant. Method: Nineteen normal-hearing participants listened to CI simulations with varying…

  7. 42 CFR 67.22 - Additional conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... AGENCY FOR HEALTH CARE POLICY AND RESEARCH GRANTS AND CONTRACTS Research Grants for Health Services Research, Evaluation, Demonstration, and Dissemination Projects § 67.22 Additional conditions....

  8. International Conference on Recent Research and Development in Vocational Education (Adelaide, South Australia, Australia, March 12-19, 1989). Additional Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    TAFE National Centre for Research and Development, Payneham (Australia).

    The conference recorded in this document covered a wide variety of themes and consisted of keynote addresses, research presentations, and workshops. The following keynote addresses are include: "Some Recent TAFE National Centre Research and Development in Australian Vocational Education" (Hall); "Vocational Teacher Education:…

  9. The Moderating Effect of Success Importance on the Relationship Between Listening Demand and Listening Effort.

    PubMed

    Richter, Michael

    2016-01-01

    A common element of the psychophysiological research on listening effort is the focus on listening demand as determinant of effort. The article discusses preceding studies and theorizing on effort to show that the link between listening demand and listening effort is moderated by various variables. Moreover, I will present a recent study that examined the joint effect of listening demand and success importance on effort-related cardiovascular reactivity in an auditory discrimination task. Results for pre-ejection period reactivity-an indicator of sympathetic activity-supported the hypothesis that the relationship between listening demand and listening effort is moderated by other variables: Pre-ejection period reactivity was higher in the high-demand-high-success-importance condition than in the other three conditions. This new finding as well as the findings of previous research on effort suggest that a broader perspective on the determinants of listening effort is warranted.

  10. Improving Collaboration by Standardization Efforts in Systems Biology

    PubMed Central

    Dräger, Andreas; Palsson, Bernhard Ø.

    2014-01-01

    Collaborative genome-scale reconstruction endeavors of metabolic networks would not be possible without a common, standardized formal representation of these systems. The ability to precisely define biological building blocks together with their dynamic behavior has even been considered a prerequisite for upcoming synthetic biology approaches. Driven by the requirements of such ambitious research goals, standardization itself has become an active field of research on nearly all levels of granularity in biology. In addition to the originally envisaged exchange of computational models and tool interoperability, new standards have been suggested for an unambiguous graphical display of biological phenomena, to annotate, archive, as well as to rank models, and to describe execution and the outcomes of simulation experiments. The spectrum now even covers the interaction of entire neurons in the brain, three-dimensional motions, and the description of pharmacometric studies. Thereby, the mathematical description of systems and approaches for their (repeated) simulation are clearly separated from each other and also from their graphical representation. Minimum information definitions constitute guidelines and common operation protocols in order to ensure reproducibility of findings and a unified knowledge representation. Central database infrastructures have been established that provide the scientific community with persistent links from model annotations to online resources. A rich variety of open-source software tools thrives for all data formats, often supporting a multitude of programing languages. Regular meetings and workshops of developers and users lead to continuous improvement and ongoing development of these standardization efforts. This article gives a brief overview about the current state of the growing number of operation protocols, mark-up languages, graphical descriptions, and fundamental software support with relevance to systems biology. PMID:25538939

  11. An examination of athletes' self-efficacy and strength training effort during an entire off-season.

    PubMed

    Gilson, Todd A; Cisco Reyes, G F; Curnock, Lindsey E

    2012-02-01

    Over the past 30-plus years in which self-efficacy (or confidence at a task) has been researched, findings have shown that in almost every domain of human functioning, self-efficacy positively relates to effort, persistence, and other adaptive behaviors. However, in the past decade, new research postulating that too much self-efficacy can lead to complacency and a subsequent downturn in behavior or performance has also experienced resurgence in the literature. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to test these opposing viewpoints regarding self-efficacy and effort for Division I athletes in a strength and conditioning domain over off-season training, a procedure yet to be undertaken. Subjects (N = 99), from 4 different sports (M(ag)e = 20.0 years, SD = 1.2 years), completed self-efficacy and effort measures at 4 distinct time points during off-season training. In addition, strength and conditioning coaches also rated each subject's effort--at each time point--so that a more valid measure of this construct could be attained. Results were analyzed using a multilevel approach and revealed that self-efficacy was positively, and significantly, related to the current effort that athletes exerted in strength training sessions. Consequently, practitioners are advised to structure strength and conditioning training sessions and the overall environment in ways that will positively impact the 4 proven sources of self-efficacy.

  12. Tabulated pressure measurements of a NASA supercritical-wing research airplane model with and without fuselage area-rule additions at Mach 0.25 to 1.00

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, C. D.; Bartlett, D. W.

    1972-01-01

    Basic pressure measurements were made on a 0.087-scale model of a supercritical wing research airplane in the Langley 8 foot transonic pressure tunnel at Mach numbers from 0.25 to 1.00 to determine the effects on the local aerodynamic loads over the wing and rear fuselage of area-rule additions to the sides of the fuselage. In addition, pressure measurements over the surface of the area-rule additions themselves were obtained at angles of sideslip of approximately - 5 deg, 0 deg, and 5 deg to aid in the structural design of the additions. Except for representative figures, results are presented in tabular form without analysis.

  13. Information Management System for Site Remediation Efforts.

    PubMed

    Laha; Mukherjee; Nebhrajani

    2000-05-01

    / Environmental regulatory agencies are responsible for protecting human health and the environment in their constituencies. Their responsibilities include the identification, evaluation, and cleanup of contaminated sites. Leaking underground storage tanks (USTs) constitute a major source of subsurface and groundwater contamination. A significant portion of a regulatory body's efforts may be directed toward the management of UST-contaminated sites. In order to manage remedial sites effectively, vast quantities of information must be maintained, including analytical dataon chemical contaminants, remedial design features, and performance details. Currently, most regulatory agencies maintain such information manually. This makes it difficult to manage the data effectively. Some agencies have introduced automated record-keeping systems. However, the ad hoc approach in these endeavors makes it difficult to efficiently analyze, disseminate, and utilize the data. This paper identifies the information requirements for UST-contaminated site management at the Waste Cleanup Section of the Department of Environmental Resources Management in Dade County, Florida. It presents a viable design for an information management system to meet these requirements. The proposed solution is based on a back-end relational database management system with relevant tools for sophisticated data analysis and data mining. The database is designed with all tables in the third normal form to ensure data integrity, flexible access, and efficient query processing. In addition to all standard reports required by the agency, the system provides answers to ad hoc queries that are typically difficult to answer under the existing system. The database also serves as a repository of information for a decision support system to aid engineering design and risk analysis. The system may be integrated with a geographic information system for effective presentation and dissemination of spatial data.

  14. Maternal immunization efforts of the National Institutes of Health.

    PubMed

    Rubin, Fran A; Koso-Thomas, Marion; Isaacs, Maggie Brewinski; Piper, Jeanna; Read, Jennifer; Nesin, Mirjana

    2015-11-25

    Over the last 35 years, efforts at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) to protect mothers and their infants against infectious diseases have involved a bench-to-bedside approach. Basic and translational research that provided a foundation for clinical trials of vaccines in pregnancy include natural history and vaccine antigen identification studies. Development of laboratory assays and reagents have been funded by NIAID; these are critical for the advancement of vaccine candidates through the preclinical and clinical steps along the maternal immunization research pathway to support vaccine efficacy. Animal models of maternal immunization have been developed to evaluate efficacy of vaccine candidates. Clinical studies required development of maternal immunization protocols to address specific pregnancy related issues, for enrollment and safety assessment of mothers and their infants. NIH has organized and participated in meetings, workshops and other collaborative efforts with partners have advanced maternal immunization efforts. Partners have included many institutes and offices at NIH as well as other Department of Health and Human Services agencies and offices (Food and Drug Administration, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Vaccine Program Office), World Health Organization, academic investigators, Biotech and pharmaceutical companies, and nonprofit organizations such as the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. These research and development partnership are essential for advancing maternal immunization. Continued efforts are needed to promote maternal immunization to protect pregnant women and their infants against vaccine-preventable infectious disease, especially in resource-limited settings where the burden of infections is high.

  15. Programming effort analysis of the ELLPACK language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, J. R.

    1978-01-01

    ELLPACK is a problem statement language and system for elliptic partial differential equations which is implemented by a FORTRAN preprocessor. ELLPACK's principal purpose is as a tool for the performance evaluation of software. However, it is used here as an example with which to study the programming effort required for problem solving. It is obvious that problem statement languages can reduce programming effort tremendously; the goal is to quantify this somewhat. This is done by analyzing the lengths and effort (as measured by Halstead's software science technique) of various approaches to solving these problems.

  16. Defense Health Care: Additional Efforts Needed to Ensure Compliance with Personality Disorder Separation Requirements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-10-01

    Health Care Page 21 GAO-09-31 DOD Personality Disorder Separations List of Congressional Addressees The Honorable Carl Levin Chairman The...Separations The Honorable Ken Salazar United States Senate The Honorable Bernard Sanders United States Senate Page 23 GAO-09-31 DOD Personality

  17. Report: Additional Efforts Needed to Improve EPA’s Oversight of Assistance Agreements

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Report #2002-P-00018, September 30, 2002. Although EPA developed corrective actions to improve oversight controls for assistance agreements, a number of EPA OIG, Agency, and GAO reviews determined that oversight continued to be a weakness.

  18. VA Disability Benefits: Additional Planning Would Enhance Efforts to Improve the Timeliness of Appeals Decisions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-03-01

    and is not subject to copyright protection in the United States. The published product may be reproduced and distributed in its entirety without...Results Act, GAO/GGD-96-118 (Washington, D.C.: June 1996). 8Simon Blackburn, Sarah Ryerson, Leigh Weiss, Sarah Wilson, and Carter Wood , Insights into...expedite appeals resolutions, it also contains various protections for veterans that are intended to address stakeholders’ concerns about fairness

  19. VA Health Care. Additional Efforts to Better Assess Joint Ventures Needed

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    Kans. Okla. Minn. Iowa Mo. Ark. La. Ill. Miss. Ind. Ky. Tenn. Ala. Ga. S.C. N.C. Va. Ohio N.H. Mass. Mich . Calif. Wash. Wis. N.Y. Maine Vt. W.Va...train VA personnel in a variety of areas, including basic life support and advanced cardiac life support. Finally, VA officials and academic

  20. Effort-reward imbalance and burnout among nurses.

    PubMed

    Bakker, A B; Killmer, C H; Siegrist, J; Schaufeli, W B

    2000-04-01

    This study among a sample of 204 German nurses tested the hypothesis that an imbalance of high extrinsic efforts spent (i.e. job demands) and low extrinsic rewards obtained (e.g. poor promotion prospects) are associated with the burnout syndrome: the depletion of nurses' emotional resources. The results of a series of analyses of variances confirmed this hypothesis, by showing that those nurses who experienced an effort-reward imbalance (ERI) reported higher levels on two of the three core dimensions of burnout (i.e. emotional exhaustion and depersonalization) than those who did not experience such an imbalance. Moreover - as additionally hypothesized - significant interaction effects indicated that burnout (i.e. emotional exhaustion and reduced personal accomplishment) was particularly prevalent among those nurses who experienced ERI and put relatively high intrinsic effort into their jobs, as reflected by their strong tendency to be personally in control over job conditions.

  1. A metabolic measure of mental effort.

    PubMed

    Fairclough, Stephen H; Houston, Kim

    2004-04-01

    Previous studies have operationalised mental effort via various indices of psychophysiology, particularly cardiovascular measures. Metabolic measures represent a complementary approach wherein mental effort investment is explicitly linked to the process of energy mobilisation. The purpose of this study was to contrast cardiovascular variables (heart rate, 0.1 Hz component of heart rate variability) with a metabolic measure (blood glucose) of mental effort. Twenty-nine participants were exposed to Stroop stimuli over a 45 min period under two conditions: (a) congruent (i.e. 100% congruent Stroop stimuli); and (b) incongruent (i.e. 100% incongruent Stroop stimuli). Performance, blood glucose, cardiovascular activity and subjective mood were measured. The results indicated that blood glucose levels were sensitive to both Stroop and time-on-task variables, whilst cardiovascular measures were only sensitive to the latter. There was also evidence of an association between blood glucose levels and response accuracy. The implications of these findings for the operationalisation of mental effort are discussed.

  2. 48 CFR 35.009 - Subcontracting research and development effort.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... the best scientific and technological sources, it is important that the contractor not subcontract technical or scientific work without the contracting officer's advance knowledge. During the negotiation...

  3. Computational Efforts in Support of Advanced Coal Research

    SciTech Connect

    Suljo Linic

    2006-08-17

    The focus in this project was to employ first principles computational methods to study the underlying molecular elementary processes that govern hydrogen diffusion through Pd membranes as well as the elementary processes that govern the CO- and S-poisoning of these membranes. Our computational methodology integrated a multiscale hierarchical modeling approach, wherein a molecular understanding of the interactions between various species is gained from ab-initio quantum chemical Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations, while a mesoscopic statistical mechanical model like Kinetic Monte Carlo is employed to predict the key macroscopic membrane properties such as permeability. The key developments are: (1) We have coupled systematically the ab initio calculations with Kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) simulations to model hydrogen diffusion through the Pd based-membranes. The predicted tracer diffusivity of hydrogen atoms through the bulk of Pd lattice from KMC simulations are in excellent agreement with experiments. (2) The KMC simulations of dissociative adsorption of H{sub 2} over Pd(111) surface indicates that for thin membranes (less than 10{micro} thick), the diffusion of hydrogen from surface to the first subsurface layer is rate limiting. (3) Sulfur poisons the Pd surface by altering the electronic structure of the Pd atoms in the vicinity of the S atom. The KMC simulations indicate that increasing sulfur coverage drastically reduces the hydrogen coverage on the Pd surface and hence the driving force for diffusion through the membrane.

  4. Saker falcon research and conservation efforts in Mongolia, 1997

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellis, D.H.; Tsengeg, Pu; Whitlock, P.L.

    1998-01-01

    This past summer. our small field team followed a 4000 km route through central and eastern Mongolia. Even though there was a population crash underway for picas (Ochotona sp.) and voles (Microtus sp.). we found 38 new saker nests and visited 60 eyries found in previous years. Many of the former eyries were unoccupied. Others were occupied but without young. Productivity was good at eyries with large young. and southeastern Mongolia seemed unaffected by food shortages. The main goal for 1997 was to create new eyries and enlarge. stabilise. or otherwise alter marginal eyries. \\Ve created 65 eyries as follows: 8 on wooden powerlines or telephone supports, 8 on metal power line towers, 3 in trees, 3 on boulders, 11 on cliffs, 17 on abandoned buildings, 9 on metal geological survey towers, and 6 on miscellaneous structures. \\Ve also enlarged or repaired three establishedeyries and did minor repairs on several others. Lesser accomplishments include what may be the first observation of siblicide for the saker falcon (please contact us immediately if you have other records of sakerchicks attacking or killing their nest mates) and the description of a new saker flight display. We also documented an unusual golden eagle eyrie containing the remains of nearly 30 foxes, several predatory birds, and a number of gazelle. In 1998. we plan to return to Mongolia to see how many of our 'fake eyries' attracted falcons. Our work in 1997 was supported by Mr. Howell. another philanthropist (anonymous) and the Institute of Raptor Studies.

  5. The Importance of Synthesis: A Suggestion for International Research Efforts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akasofu, Syun-Ichi

    2007-06-01

    In a scientific discipline, it is common to deal with a system that consists of many elements or subsystems. Most of us engage in the study of system components and their elements by dividing and subdividing them, leading to the trend of infinite specialization. However, at a certain point during the course of the development of a scientific discipline, a grand synthesis enables the distillation and coalescence of disparate results into a coherent understanding of the system as a whole.

  6. Research on complex turbulent flows at the UW (overall effort)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gessner, F. B.

    1987-01-01

    Development of a pressure-strain model, an algebraic stress model, and wall functions appropriate for flows with spanwise variations in the local wall shear stress are accomplished. Furthermore, a hot-wire measurement technique was also developed for determining the local mean velocity and Reynolds stresses in a complex flow. Experiments were performed on supersonic and subsonic turbulent flow in a square duct, flow about a strut-endwall, flow within a transition duct, and on co-flowing annular jets with swirl. All results are presented in a viewgraph format.

  7. New global change research effort launched in Latin America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McClain, Michael E.; Galarraga, Remigio H.

    Latin America's mountains extend in a nearly unbroken chain from Mexico to Chile and reach elevations above 6000 m.The valleys of these mountains have seen the evolution of diverse and unique ecosystems, as well as the development of several of the region's most celebrated pre-Columbian civilizations.Today these same valleys contain some of Earth's most rapidly changing landscapes, as urban and agricultural frontiers expand and historical land use changes in response to new pressures from economic globalization.These valleys also face poorly understood threats linked to global climate change.

  8. USEPA'S RESEARCH EFFORTS IN SMALL DRINKING WATER TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Currently, in the United States there are approximately 50,000 small community and 130,000 non-community systems providing water to over 25 million people. The drinking water treatment systems at these locations are not always adequate to comply with current and pending regulati...

  9. Council Coordination of Federal Invasive Species Efforts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-08-01

    Chris Dionigi, Assistant Director, Domestic Policy National Invasive Species Council Coordination of Federal Invasive Species Efforts Report...REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE CouncilCoordination of Federal Invasive Species Efforts 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b...ADDRESS(ES) National Invasive Species Council (NISC) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS

  10. Assessing the Value of Additional Years of Schooling for the Non-Academically Inclined. Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth. Research Report 38

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dockery, Alfred Michael

    2005-01-01

    In this report data from the 1995 Year 9 Cohort of the Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY) is used along with a variety of empirical approaches to assess the benefits of additional years of schooling for various groups of youth conditional upon their estimated propensity to engage in further schooling. Background material is provided…

  11. Determination of the Composition and Quantity of Phthalate Ester Additives in PVC Children's Toys. Greenpeace Research Laboratories Technical Note 06/97.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stringer, Ruth; Labounskaia, Irina; Santillo, David; Johnston, Paul; Siddorn, John; Stephenson, Angela

    Polyvinyl chloride (vinyl or PVC) is widely used in toys and other children's products. This study, conducted by Greenpeace, examined the composition and quantity of phthalate ester additives in children's PVC toys, used to give the toys added flexibility. Drawn from 17 countries, a total of 71 toys designed to be chewed by babies and young…

  12. International Outreach in Africa - Complementary Efforts Using Common Cyberinfrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoksas, T.; Almeida, W. G.; Pandya, R.; Bruintjes, R.; Foote, B.; Heck, S.; Herrmann, S.; Hoswell, E.; Konate, M.; Kucera, P.; Laing, A.; Lamptey, B.; Moncrieff, M.; Ramamurthy, M.; Roberts, R.; Traore, A.; Spangler, T.; Warner, T.; Weingroff, M.; Ribeiro, N. A.; Soares, E.; Nascimento, A.; Lona, J.; Real, J. C.

    2008-05-01

    For the past few years, the U.S. Unidata Program Center (Unidata, a program in UCAR) and Brazil's Centro de Previsão de Tempo e Estudos Climáticos (CPTEC, a division of INPE) have collaborated in outreach efforts where free-and-open exchange of hydro-meteorological data and the provision of free analysis/visualization tools are helping to build a hemispheric community where data, tools, and best practices in education and research are shared. Data sharing capabilities are being provided by Unidata's Internet Data Distribution (IDD) system, a community-based effort that has been the primary source of real-time meteorological data in the U.S. university community for over a decade. Unidata-CPTEC efforts have resulted in the creation of the Brazilian peer of the North American IDD, the IDD-Brasil, a data sharing network that has extended access to real-time data to over 15 institutions in South America and most recently countries in West Africa and the African Sahel. UCAR and CPTEC are involved in separate, but philosophically-related and complementary outreach efforts in Africa: UCAR has embarked on an effort, The UCAR Africa Initiative, whose goal is assisting in building sustainable atmospheric-sciences capacity in Africa. CPTEC is collaborating with national weather services in three West African countries, universities in Brazil and Portugal, and one private Portuguese company in SICLIMAD, a project aimed at contributing to sustainable development in West Africa. This presentation will provide an overview of the efforts being undertaken as part of The UCAR Africa Initiative; an overview and update on CPTEC's efforts in SICLIMAD; and explore avenues for greater collaboration on African issues and endeavors.

  13. A compendium of computational fluid dynamics at the Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Through numerous summary examples, the scope and general nature of the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) effort at Langley is identified. These summaries will help inform researchers in CFD and line management at Langley of the overall effort. In addition to the inhouse efforts, out of house CFD work supported by Langley through industrial contracts and university grants are included. Researchers were encouraged to include summaries of work in preliminary and tentative states of development as well as current research approaching definitive results.

  14. Identification of Bacteria Synthesizing Ribosomal RNA in Response to Uranium Addition During Biostimulation at the Rifle, CO Integrated Field Research Site.

    PubMed

    McGuinness, Lora R; Wilkins, Michael J; Williams, Kenneth H; Long, Philip E; Kerkhof, Lee J

    2015-01-01

    Understanding which organisms are capable of reducing uranium at historically contaminated sites provides crucial information needed to evaluate treatment options and outcomes. One approach is determination of the bacteria which directly respond to uranium addition. In this study, uranium amendments were made to groundwater samples from a site of ongoing biostimulation with acetate. The active microbes in the planktonic phase were deduced by monitoring ribosomes production via RT-PCR. The results indicated several microorganisms were synthesizing ribosomes in proportion with uranium amendment up to 2 μM. Concentrations of U (VI) >2 μM were generally found to inhibit ribosome synthesis. Two active bacteria responding to uranium addition in the field were close relatives of Desulfobacter postgateii and Geobacter bemidjiensis. Since RNA content often increases with growth rate, our findings suggest it is possible to rapidly elucidate active bacteria responding to the addition of uranium in field samples and provides a more targeted approach to stimulate specific populations to enhance radionuclide reduction in contaminated sites.

  15. Identification of Bacteria Synthesizing Ribosomal RNA in Response to Uranium Addition During Biostimulation at the Rifle, CO Integrated Field Research Site

    PubMed Central

    McGuinness, Lora R.; Wilkins, Michael J.; Williams, Kenneth H.; Long, Philip E.; Kerkhof, Lee J.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding which organisms are capable of reducing uranium at historically contaminated sites provides crucial information needed to evaluate treatment options and outcomes. One approach is determination of the bacteria which directly respond to uranium addition. In this study, uranium amendments were made to groundwater samples from a site of ongoing biostimulation with acetate. The active microbes in the planktonic phase were deduced by monitoring ribosomes production via RT-PCR. The results indicated several microorganisms were synthesizing ribosomes in proportion with uranium amendment up to 2 μM. Concentrations of U (VI) >2 μM were generally found to inhibit ribosome synthesis. Two active bacteria responding to uranium addition in the field were close relatives of Desulfobacter postgateii and Geobacter bemidjiensis. Since RNA content often increases with growth rate, our findings suggest it is possible to rapidly elucidate active bacteria responding to the addition of uranium in field samples and provides a more targeted approach to stimulate specific populations to enhance radionuclide reduction in contaminated sites. PMID:26382047

  16. Breaking the Double-Edged Sword of Effort/Trying Hard: Developmental Equilibrium and Longitudinal Relations among Effort, Achievement, and Academic Self-Concept

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, Herbert W.; Pekrun, Reinhard; Lichtenfeld, Stephanie; Guo, Jiesi; Arens, A. Katrin; Murayama, Kou

    2016-01-01

    Ever since the classic research of Nicholls (1976) and others, effort has been recognized as a double-edged sword: while it might enhance achievement, it undermines academic self-concept (ASC). However, there has not been a thorough evaluation of the longitudinal reciprocal effects of effort, ASC, and achievement, in the context of modern…

  17. Vocal effort and voice handicap among teachers.

    PubMed

    Sampaio, Márcio Cardoso; dos Reis, Eduardo José Farias Borges; Carvalho, Fernando Martins; Porto, Lauro Antonio; Araújo, Tânia Maria

    2012-11-01

    The relationship between voice handicap and professional vocal effort was investigated among teachers in a cross-sectional study of census nature on 4496 teachers within the public elementary education network in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. Voice handicap (the outcome of interest) was evaluated using the Voice Handicap Index 10. The main exposure, the lifetime vocal effort index, was obtained as the product of the number of years working as a teacher multiplied by the mean weekly working hours. The prevalence of voice handicap was 28.8% among teachers with high professional vocal effort and 21.3% among those with acceptable vocal effort, thus yielding a crude prevalence ratio (PR) of 1.36 (95% confidence interval [CI]=1.14-1.61). In the final logistic model, the prevalence of voice handicap was statistically associated with the professional vocal effort index (PR=1.47; 95% CI=1.19-1.82), adjusted according to sex, microphone availability in the classroom, excessive noise, pressure from the school management, heartburn, and rhinitis.

  18. Cooperative efforts by industry and government to develop geothermal resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, D. R.

    1974-01-01

    The Federal government's current plans for participation in the geothermal field appear to affect four major areas of interest: (1) resources exploration and assessment, (2) resources utilization projects, (3) advanced research and technology, and (4) environmental, legal, and institutional research. Private industry is also actively involved in these same areas of interest. Because of lack of coordination and communication between the private and public sector, it appears that there will be considerable duplication of effort, and, in some cases, serious conflict. It is also likely that this lack of coordination and communication may result in lack of effort in some key areas. Close coordination and communication between government and industry may resolve some of the major problems that are clearly evident.

  19. Pediatric pharmacology: current efforts and future goals to improve clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Krekels, Elke H J; Tibboel, Dick; Knibbe, Catherijne A J

    2015-01-01

    Interest in pediatric pharmacology has increased over the past two decades. With few exceptions, research efforts are currently, however, still limited to pharmacokinetic (PK) queries on single drugs in a limited number of subjects. It is now time to move forward and integrate and generalize the PK information that is currently available more efficiently across different drugs and different populations. Additionally, for pediatric patients to truly benefit from pharmacological research efforts, the knowledge that is obtained in these studies needs to be translated into dosing recommendations that are subsequently prospectively evaluated in adequately powered randomized clinical trials. Finally, as drug effects and safety are the result of both PK and pharmacodynamic (PD) processes and as developmental changes may occur in both processes, it is essential for PK studies to be followed-up by PD studies when dose-adjustments based on PKs alone have been proven insufficient. In this report, examples illustrating this approach are provided. As PD studies in children are generally more complicated to perform than PK studies, this is where a big challenge in pediatric pharmacological research still lies.

  20. The role of cognitive effort in subjective reward devaluation and risky decision-making

    PubMed Central

    Apps, Matthew A J; Grima, Laura L; Manohar, Sanjay; Husain, Masud

    2015-01-01

    Motivation is underpinned by cost-benefit valuations where costs—such as physical effort or outcome risk—are subjectively weighed against available rewards. However, in many environments risks pertain not to the variance of outcomes, but to variance in the possible levels of effort required to obtain rewards (effort risks). Moreover, motivation is often guided by the extent to which cognitive—not physical—effort devalues rewards (effort discounting). Yet, very little is known about the mechanisms that underpin the influence of cognitive effort risks or discounting on motivation. We used two cost-benefit decision-making tasks to probe subjective sensitivity to cognitive effort (number of shifts of spatial attention) and to effort risks. Our results show that shifts of spatial attention when monitoring rapidly presented visual stimuli are perceived as effortful and devalue rewards. Additionally, most people are risk-averse, preferring safe, known amounts of effort over risky offers. However, there was no correlation between their effort and risk sensitivity. We show for the first time that people are averse to variance in the possible amount of cognitive effort to be exerted. These results suggest that cognitive effort sensitivity and risk sensitivity are underpinned by distinct psychological and neurobiological mechanisms. PMID:26586084

  1. The role of cognitive effort in subjective reward devaluation and risky decision-making.

    PubMed

    Apps, Matthew A J; Grima, Laura L; Manohar, Sanjay; Husain, Masud

    2015-11-20

    Motivation is underpinned by cost-benefit valuations where costs-such as physical effort or outcome risk-are subjectively weighed against available rewards. However, in many environments risks pertain not to the variance of outcomes, but to variance in the possible levels of effort required to obtain rewards (effort risks). Moreover, motivation is often guided by the extent to which cognitive-not physical-effort devalues rewards (effort discounting). Yet, very little is known about the mechanisms that underpin the influence of cognitive effort risks or discounting on motivation. We used two cost-benefit decision-making tasks to probe subjective sensitivity to cognitive effort (number of shifts of spatial attention) and to effort risks. Our results show that shifts of spatial attention when monitoring rapidly presented visual stimuli are perceived as effortful and devalue rewards. Additionally, most people are risk-averse, preferring safe, known amounts of effort over risky offers. However, there was no correlation between their effort and risk sensitivity. We show for the first time that people are averse to variance in the possible amount of cognitive effort to be exerted. These results suggest that cognitive effort sensitivity and risk sensitivity are underpinned by distinct psychological and neurobiological mechanisms.

  2. The moderating effects of school climate on bullying prevention efforts.

    PubMed

    Low, Sabina; Van Ryzin, Mark

    2014-09-01

    Bullying prevention efforts have yielded mixed effects over the last 20 years. Program effectiveness is driven by a number of factors (e.g., program elements and implementation), but there remains a dearth of understanding regarding the role of school climate on the impact of bullying prevention programs. This gap is surprising, given research suggesting that bullying problems and climate are strongly related. The current study examines the moderating role of school climate on the impacts of a stand-alone bullying prevention curriculum. In addition, the current study examined 2 different dimensions of school climate across both student and staff perceptions. Data for this study were derived from a Steps to Respect (STR) randomized efficacy trial that was conducted in 33 elementary schools over a 1-year period. Schools were randomly assigned to intervention or wait-listed control condition. Outcome measures (pre-to-post) were obtained from (a) all school staff, (b) a randomly selected subset of 3rd-5th grade teachers in each school, and (c) all students in classrooms of selected teachers. Multilevel analyses revealed that psychosocial climate was strongly related to reductions in bullying-related attitudes and behaviors. Intervention status yielded only 1 significant main effect, although, STR schools with positive psychosocial climate at baseline had less victimization at posttest. Policies/administrative commitment to bullying were related to reduced perpetration among all schools. Findings suggest positive psychosocial climate (from both staff and student perspective) plays a foundational role in bullying prevention, and can optimize effects of stand-alone programs.

  3. The special effort processing of FGGE data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The basic FGGE level IIb data set was enhanced. It focused on removing deficiencies in the objective methods of quality assurance, removing efficiencies in certain types of operationally produced satellite soundings, and removing deficiencies in certain types of operationally produced cloud tracked winds. The Special Effort was a joint NASA-NOAA-University of Wisconsin effort. The University of Wisconsin installed an interactive McIDAS capability on the Amdahl computer at the Goddard Laboratory of Atmospheric Sciences (GLAS) with one interactive video terminal at Goddard and the other at the World Weather Building. With this interactive capability a joint processing effort was undertaken to reprocess certain FGGE data sets. NOAA produced a specially edited data set for the special observing periods (SOPs) of FGGE. NASA produced an enhanced satellite sounding data set for the SOPs while the University of Wisconsin produced an enhanced cloud tracked wind set from the Japanese geostationary satellite images.

  4. Effects of C-additions on ecosystem processes in the Serengeti: The role of grazing mammals and implications for global change research

    SciTech Connect

    Wilsey, B.J.; McNaughton, S.J. )

    1994-06-01

    Increases in atmospheric CO[sub 2] are predicted to cause an increase in the C:N ratio of plant substrates entering the soil organic matter pool. We experimentally increased soil C:N ratios by adding 40 g C/m[sup 2] as sucrose (metabolic C) or cellulose (structural C) in short-, mid-, and tall-grass plots in the Serengeti Ecosystem, and measured plant productivity, plant nutrient uptake rates, and mineralization rates. Experimental treatments also included fencing to exclude grazing and additions of 40 g N/m[sup 2] as urea to simulate a urine hit from an average-sized ungulate. Productivity was only 60% of controls in C-addition plots, and was similar for sucrose and cellulose. However, this response was not observed in the short-grass site, an area of relatively low rainfall and high fertility. These results support the role of a plant-microbe negative feedback mechanism on plant growth in which increased C to microbes results in increased immobilization, reduced plant uptake, and lowered plant growth.

  5. Bringing You the Moon: Lunar Education Efforts of the Center for Lunar Science and Education

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaner, A. J.; Shupla, C.; Shipp, S.; Allen, J.; Kring, D. A.; Halligan, E.; LaConte, K.

    2012-01-01

    The Center for Lunar Science and Exploration (CLSE), a collaboration between the Lunar and Planetary Institute and NASA's Johnson Space Center, is one of seven member teams of the NASA Lunar Science Institute. In addition to research and exploration activities, the CLSE team is deeply invested in education and public outreach. Overarching goals of CLSE education are to strengthen the future science workforce, attract and retain students in STEM disciplines, and develop advocates for lunar exploration. The team's efforts have resulted in a variety of programs and products, including the creation of a variety of Lunar Traveling Exhibits and the High School Lunar Research Project, featured at http://www.lpi.usra.edu/nlsi/education/.

  6. Cognitive Effort Is Modulated Outside of the Explicit Awareness of Conflict Frequency: Evidence From Pupillometry.

    PubMed

    Diede, Nathaniel T; Bugg, Julie M

    2017-01-09

    Classic theories of cognitive control conceptualized controlled processes as slow, strategic, and willful, with automatic processes being fast and effortless. The context-specific proportion compatibility (CSPC) effect, the reduction in the compatibility effect in a context (e.g., location) associated with a high relative to low likelihood of conflict, challenged classic theories by demonstrating fast and flexible control that appears to operate outside of conscious awareness. Two theoretical questions yet to be addressed are whether the CSPC effect is accompanied by context-dependent variation in effort, and whether the exertion of effort depends on explicit awareness of context-specific task demands. To address these questions, pupil diameter was measured during a CSPC paradigm. Stimuli were randomly presented in either a mostly compatible location or a mostly incompatible location. Replicating prior research, the CSPC effect was found. The novel finding was that pupil diameter was greater in the mostly incompatible location compared to the mostly compatible location, despite participants' lack of awareness of context-specific task demands. Additionally, this difference occurred regardless of trial type or a preceding switch in location. These patterns support the view that context (location) dictates selection of optimal attentional settings in the CSPC paradigm, and varying levels of effort and performance accompany these settings. Theoretically, these patterns imply that cognitive control may operate fast, flexibly, and outside of awareness, but not effortlessly. (PsycINFO Database Record

  7. EFFECTIVENESS AND SAFETY OF STRATEGIES FOR OIL SPILL BIOREMEDIATION: POTENTIAL AND LIMITATION, LABORATORY TO FIELD (RESEARCH BRIEF)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Several important additional research efforts were identified during the development of test systems and protocols for assessing the effectiveness and environmental safety of oil spill commercial bioremediation agents (CBAs). Research that examined CBA efficacy issues included: (...

  8. Research Roadmaps

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    These Roadmaps identify scientific gaps that inform the National Research Programs in the development of their Strategic Research Action Plans. EPA expects to use this approach to integrate existing research efforts and to identify needed work.

  9. Statistical Modeling Efforts for Headspace Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Weaver, Brian Phillip

    2016-03-17

    The purpose of this document is to describe the statistical modeling effort for gas concentrations in WIPP storage containers. The concentration (in ppm) of CO2 in the headspace volume of standard waste box (SWB) 68685 is shown. A Bayesian approach and an adaptive Metropolis-Hastings algorithm were used.

  10. Instruction Emphasizing Effort Improves Physics Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Daoquan

    2012-01-01

    Effectively using strategies to solve complex problems is an important educational goal and is implicated in successful academic performance. However, people often do not spontaneously use the effective strategies unless they are motivated to do so. The present study was designed to test whether educating students about the importance of effort in…

  11. Mental Effort in Mobility Route Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinsen, Harald; Tellevik, Jon Magne; Elmerskog, Bengt; Storlilokken, Magnar

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the mental effort required to monitor landmarks and the effect of the type of route on mobility-route training. The results revealed that the features of landmarks and competence in travel were significantly related, indicating that some environmental factors related to height and width are more easily learned when people can…

  12. Revolutionary Educational Reform Efforts in Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulston, Rolland G.

    1975-01-01

    The author briefly examines how educational reform attempts in Cuba since 1959 have taken place and how they have been related to social, economic, and political change efforts in the society at large. The Cuban educational system makes a significant contrast against the failure which characterizes the other Latin American educational systems.…

  13. School Trips: Are They Worth the Effort?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Even the most basic of school trips will require booking places, arranging transport, writing to parents, collecting payments, planning activities, producing worksheets and, of course, endless risk assessments. It always leaves teachers wondering: "is it really worth all this effort?" Robert Johnston believes that every teacher should…

  14. Philanthropies Add Weight to "i3" Effort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robelen, Erik W.; McNeil, Michele

    2010-01-01

    The author reports on a new effort by 12 major education philanthropies that aims to dovetail with the Education Department's "i3" agenda, raising complex issues. The decision by a dozen major education grantmakers to team up on an initiative designed to dovetail with the federal "Investing in Innovation" grant competition is being seen by…

  15. Report: hospitals need more sophisticated planning efforts.

    PubMed

    Anderson, H J

    1990-09-20

    Sophisticated planning efforts are increasing among hospitals. However, hospital planners and marketers still have far to go before they can match their counterparts in industry. This is according to a report on hospital planning recently released by the Society for Healthcare Planning and Marketing of the American Hospital Association, Chicago.

  16. Testosterone and reproductive effort in male primates.

    PubMed

    Muller, Martin N

    2016-09-08

    Considerable evidence suggests that the steroid hormone testosterone mediates major life-history trade-offs in vertebrates, promoting mating effort at the expense of parenting effort or survival. Observations from a range of wild primates support the "Challenge Hypothesis," which posits that variation in male testosterone is more closely associated with aggressive mating competition than with reproductive physiology. In both seasonally and non-seasonally breeding species, males increase testosterone production primarily when competing for fecund females. In species where males compete to maintain long-term access to females, testosterone increases when males are threatened with losing access to females, rather than during mating periods. And when male status is linked to mating success, and dependent on aggression, high-ranking males normally maintain higher testosterone levels than subordinates, particularly when dominance hierarchies are unstable. Trade-offs between parenting effort and mating effort appear to be weak in most primates, because direct investment in the form of infant transport and provisioning is rare. Instead, infant protection is the primary form of paternal investment in the order. Testosterone does not inhibit this form of investment, which relies on male aggression. Testosterone has a wide range of effects in primates that plausibly function to support male competitive behavior. These include psychological effects related to dominance striving, analgesic effects, and effects on the development and maintenance of the armaments and adornments that males employ in mating competition.

  17. Economic Woes May Hurt Colleges' Green Efforts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Scott

    2008-01-01

    Recent events on Wall Street raise a complicated question: Will the financial crisis help or hurt colleges' sustainability efforts? Both are possible. In this article, the author discusses how the Wall Street meltdown may hurt colleges' green initiatives. However, advocates of sustainability see an opportunity to change the conversation. A…

  18. Mentoring interdisciplinary undergraduate students via a team effort.

    PubMed

    Karsai, Istvan; Knisley, Jeff; Knisley, Debra; Yampolsky, Lev; Godbole, Anant

    2011-01-01

    We describe how a team approach that we developed as a mentoring strategy can be used to recruit, advance, and guide students to be more interested in the interdisciplinary field of mathematical biology, and lead to success in undergraduate research in this field. Students are introduced to research in their first semester via lab rotations. Their participation in the research of four faculty members-two from biology and two from mathematics-gives them a first-hand overview of research in quantitative biology and also some initial experience in research itself. However, one of the primary goals of the lab rotation experience is that of developing teams of students and faculty that combine mathematics and statistics with biology and the life sciences, teams that subsequently mentor undergraduate research in genuine interdisciplinary environments. Thus, the team concept serves not only as a means of establishing interdisciplinary research, but also as a means of incorporating new students into existing research efforts that will then track those students into meaningful research of their own. We report how the team concept is used to support undergraduate research in mathematical biology and what types of team-building strategies have worked for us.

  19. Mentoring Interdisciplinary Undergraduate Students via a Team Effort

    PubMed Central

    Karsai, Istvan; Knisley, Jeff; Knisley, Debra; Yampolsky, Lev; Godbole, Anant

    2011-01-01

    We describe how a team approach that we developed as a mentoring strategy can be used to recruit, advance, and guide students to be more interested in the interdisciplinary field of mathematical biology, and lead to success in undergraduate research in this field. Students are introduced to research in their first semester via lab rotations. Their participation in the research of four faculty members—two from biology and two from mathematics—gives them a first-hand overview of research in quantitative biology and also some initial experience in research itself. However, one of the primary goals of the lab rotation experience is that of developing teams of students and faculty that combine mathematics and statistics with biology and the life sciences, teams that subsequently mentor undergraduate research in genuine interdisciplinary environments. Thus, the team concept serves not only as a means of establishing interdisciplinary research, but also as a means of incorporating new students into existing research efforts that will then track those students into meaningful research of their own. We report how the team concept is used to support undergraduate research in mathematical biology and what types of team-building strategies have worked for us. PMID:21885821

  20. The road to heaven is paved with effort: Perceived effort amplifies moral judgment.

    PubMed

    Bigman, Yochanan E; Tamir, Maya

    2016-12-01

    If good intentions pave the road to hell, what paves the road to heaven? We propose that moral judgments are based, in part, on the degree of effort exerted in performing the immoral or moral act. Because effort can serve as an index of goal importance, greater effort in performing immoral acts would lead to more negative judgments, whereas greater effort in performing moral acts would lead to more positive judgments. In support of these ideas, we found that perceived effort intensified judgments of both immoral (Studies 1-2) and moral (Studies 2-7) agents. The effect of effort on judgment was independent of the outcome (Study 3) and of perceptions of the outcome extremity (Study 6). Furthermore, the effect of effort on judgment was mediated by perceived goal importance (Studies 4-6), even when controlling for perceived intentions (Studies 5-6). Finally, we demonstrate that perceived effort can influence actual behavior, such as the assignment of monetary rewards (Study 7). We discuss the possible implications of effort as a causal motivational factor in moral judgment and social retribution. (PsycINFO Database Record

  1. Laser Additive Manufacturing of Magnetic Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikler, C. V.; Chaudhary, V.; Borkar, T.; Soni, V.; Jaeger, D.; Chen, X.; Contieri, R.; Ramanujan, R. V.; Banerjee, R.

    2017-03-01

    While laser additive manufacturing is becoming increasingly important in the context of next-generation manufacturing technologies, most current research efforts focus on optimizing process parameters for the processing of mature alloys for structural applications (primarily stainless steels, titanium base, and nickel base alloys) from pre-alloyed powder feedstocks to achieve properties superior to conventionally processed counterparts. However, laser additive manufacturing or processing can also be applied to functional materials. This article focuses on the use of directed energy deposition-based additive manufacturing technologies, such as the laser engineered net shaping (LENS™) process, to deposit magnetic alloys. Three case studies are presented: Fe-30 at.%Ni, permalloys of the type Ni-Fe-V and Ni-Fe-Mo, and Fe-Si-B-Cu-Nb (derived from Finemet) alloys. All these alloys have been processed from a blend of elemental powders used as the feedstock, and their resultant microstructures, phase formation, and magnetic properties are discussed in this paper. Although these alloys were produced from a blend of elemental powders, they exhibited relatively uniform microstructures and comparable magnetic properties to those of their conventionally processed counterparts.

  2. Detecting sincerity of effort: a summary of methods and approaches.

    PubMed

    Lechner, D E; Bradbury, S F; Bradley, L A

    1998-08-01

    Despite the widespread use of methods that are supposed to detect the sincerity of patients' efforts in clinical assessment, little has been written summarizing the literature that addresses the reliability and validity of measurements obtained with these methods. The purpose of this article is to review the literature on the reliability and validity of scores for Waddell's nonorganic signs, descriptions of pain behavior and symptom magnification, coefficients of variation, correlations between musculoskeletal evaluation and function, grip measurements, and the relationship between heart rate and pain intensity. The authors of the articles reviewed conclude that none of these methods have been examined adequately. Some of these methods, such as Waddell's nonorganic signs, were not developed for the purpose of detecting sincerity of effort. Clinicians are encouraged to critically read the literature addressing these methods. With further research, some of the discussed methods may prove useful. Until such research is reported in the peer-reviewed literature, however, clinicians should avoid basing evaluation of sincerity of effort on these tests. Therapists are encouraged, instead, to use a biobehavioral approach to better understand and address the complex factors underlying delayed recovery.

  3. Repeated-sprint and effort ability in rugby league players.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Rich D; Gabbett, Tim J

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this study was to (a) investigate the influence of tackling on repeated-sprint performance; (b) determine whether repeated-sprint ability (RSA) and repeated-effort ability (REA) are 2 distinct qualities; and (c) assess the test-retest reliability of repeated-sprint and repeated-effort tests in rugby league. Twelve rugby league players performed a repeated-sprint (12 × 20-m sprints performed on a 20-second cycle) and a repeated-effort (12 × 20-m sprints with intermittent tackling, performed on a 20-second cycle) test 7 days apart. The test-retest reliability of these tests was also established. Heart rate and rating of perceived exertion were recorded throughout the tests. There was a significantly greater (p ≤ 0.05) and large effect size (ES) differences for total sprint time (ES = 1.19), average heart rate (ES = 1.64), peak heart rate (ES = 1.35), and perceived exertion (ES = 3.39) for the repeated-effort test compared with the repeated-sprint test. A large difference (ES = 1.02, p = 0.06) was detected for percentage decrement between the 2 tests. No significant relationship was found between the repeated-sprint and repeated-effort tests for any of the dependent variables. Both tests proved reliable, with total sprint time being the most reliable method of assessing performance. This study demonstrates that the addition of tackling significantly increases the physiological response to repeated-sprint exercise and reduces repeated-sprint performance in rugby league players. Furthermore, RSA and REA appear to be 2 distinct qualities that can be reliably assessed with total time being the most reliable measure of performance.

  4. New technology emphasizes international offshore effort

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-01

    While the offshore industry is focusing its major development efforts on the deeper waters of the US Gulf, West Africa and Brazil, technology has not stood still in the world`s many other established and frontier offshore development areas. These selected items drawn from contributions by UK companies and a major joint-venture development in Eastern Canada emphasize this effort. Included here are: (1) announcement of a major six-field, 3 Tcf gas development off Nova Scotia`s Sable Island and award of two drilling contracts; (2) a comprehensive study of mobile production units in the UK by Smith Rea Energy Analysts; (3) four applications of an option to high-pressure swivels on an FPSO with multiple subsea inlet lines; (4) a contract to supply a DC bus drive for 17 ESPs on Texaco`s Captain field; and (5) review of an environmental study of the Falkland Islands in preparation for exploration activity.

  5. Does software design complexity affect maintenance effort?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Epping, Andreas; Lott, Christopher M.

    1994-01-01

    The design complexity of a software system may be characterized within a refinement level (e.g., data flow among modules), or between refinement levels (e.g., traceability between the specification and the design). We analyzed an existing set of data from NASA's Software Engineering Laboratory to test whether changing software modules with high design complexity requires more personnel effort than changing modules with low design complexity. By analyzing variables singly, we identified strong correlations between software design complexity and change effort for error corrections performed during the maintenance phase. By analyzing variables in combination, we found patterns which identify modules in which error corrections were costly to perform during the acceptance test phase.

  6. Counternarcotic Efforts in the Southern Cone: Argentina

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-15

    in supporting international counter- narcotic actions. The epilogue stresses the need to change some aspects of the U.S. life-style to avoid losing the...Argentina is giving its best effort in supporting international countornarcotic actions. The epilogue in Chapter IV, stresses the need to change sono...International Narcotics Convention of 1961 which calls for the prohibition on coca chewing, but did not change its policy concerning the implemontation

  7. Materials characterization on efforts for ablative materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tytula, Thomas P.; Schad, Kristin C.; Swann, Myles H.

    1992-01-01

    Experimental efforts to develop a new procedure to measure char depth in carbon phenolic nozzle material are described. Using a Shor Type D Durometer, hardness profiles were mapped across post fired sample blocks and specimens from a fired rocket nozzle. Linear regression was used to estimate the char depth. Results are compared to those obtained from computed tomography in a comparative experiment. There was no significant difference in the depth estimates obtained by the two methods.

  8. Assessing Post Conflict State Building Efforts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    economic growth, and democratization). Success does not just depend on inputs but also in how the resources are employed and the susceptibility of the...broader effort to promote political and economic reforms with the objective of transforming a society emerging from conflict into one at peace with...establishing public security and the rule of law, facilitating political transition, rebuilding infrastructure, and jumpstarting economic recovery. These

  9. Joint SatOPS Compatibility Efforts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Danford

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's (GSFC) participation in the interagency cooperation committee, the Joint SatOps Compatibility Committee (JSCC), and the compatible Sat 2 efforts. Part of GSFC's participation in the JSCC is to work with the Goddard Mission Systems Evolution Center (GMSEC) to provides a publish/subscribe framework to enable rapid integration of commercially available satellite control products.

  10. New addition curing polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frimer, Aryeh A.; Cavano, Paul

    1991-01-01

    In an attempt to improve the thermal-oxidative stability (TOS) of PMR-type polymers, the use of 1,4-phenylenebis (phenylmaleic anhydride) PPMA, was evaluated. Two series of nadic end-capped addition curing polyimides were prepared by imidizing PPMA with either 4,4'-methylene dianiline or p-phenylenediamine. The first resulted in improved solubility and increased resin flow while the latter yielded a compression molded neat resin sample with a T(sub g) of 408 C, close to 70 C higher than PME-15. The performance of these materials in long term weight loss studies was below that of PMR-15, independent of post-cure conditions. These results can be rationalized in terms of the thermal lability of the pendant phenyl groups and the incomplete imidization of the sterically congested PPMA. The preparation of model compounds as well as future research directions are discussed.

  11. Thermal Decomposition of RP-2 with Stabilizing Additives

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-01

    RP-2 are that the allowed sulfur content is much lower in RP-2 (0.1 mg/kg, compared to 30 mg/kg in RP-1), the allowed olefin concentration is lower...28,30-35 decahydronaphthalene (decalin), 33,35 and benzyl alcohol . 28,36-38 In related work, a major research effort initiated by the U.S. Air Force...additives (e.g., benzyl alcohol ). We would also like to test the effect of different reactor materials, particularly copper, on the thermal stability of

  12. Let's Go to the Zoo: Guiding Elementary Students through Research; Ladders of Collaboration; Information Literacy and Assessment: Web Resources Too Good To Miss; Top Secret: Collaborative Efforts Really Do Make a Difference; What Is Collaboration to You?; Volunteering for Information Literacy; Getting an Early Start on Using Technology for Research; Collaborations: Working with Restrictions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Futch, Lynn; Asper, Vicki; Repman, Judi; Tschamler, Addie; Thomas, Melody; Kearns, Jodi; Farmer, Lesley S. J.; Buzzeo, Toni

    2002-01-01

    Includes eight articles that address the role of the elementary school librarian in developing information literacy, focusing on collaboration between media specialists and classroom teachers. Highlights include student research, including a research planning sheet; Web resources on information literacy and assessment; and helping students use…

  13. Cultivating a Teacher Community of Practice for Sustainable Professional Development: Beyond Planned Efforts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mak, Barley; Pun, Shuk-Han

    2015-01-01

    This ethnographic study-cum-action research documents the cultivation of a community of practice for sustainable professional development among a group of 18 teachers of English as second language in Hong Kong through a series of planned efforts over 10?months. By juxtaposing the theory-driven planned efforts and the spontaneous actions and…

  14. Overview of NASA MSFC and UAH Space Weather Modeling and Data Efforts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, Linda Neergaard

    2016-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center, along with its industry and academia neighbors, has a long history of space environment model development and testing. Space weather efforts include research, testing, model development, environment definition, anomaly investigation, and operational support. This presentation will highlight a few of the current space weather activities being performed at Marshall and through collaborative efforts with University of Alabama in Huntsville scientists.

  15. The Role of Student-Teacher Ratio in Parents' Perceptions of Schools' Engagement Efforts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Raymond J.; Elbaum, Batya

    2014-01-01

    Research suggests a positive relationship between schools' efforts to engage parents and parents' involvement in their child's education. The authors investigated school socioeconomic status, school size, grade level, and student-teacher ratio as predictors of schools' efforts to engage parents of students receiving special education services. The…

  16. Educational Outreach Efforts at the NNDC

    SciTech Connect

    Holden, N.E.

    2014-06-15

    Isotopes and nuclides are important in our everyday life. The general public and most students are never exposed to the concepts of stable and radioactive isotopes/nuclides. The National Nuclear Data Center (NNDC) is involved in an international project to develop a Periodic Table of the Isotopes for the educational community to illustrate the importance of isotopes and nuclides in understanding the world around us. This effort should aid teachers in introducing these concepts to students from the high school to the graduate school level.

  17. Educational Outreach Efforts at the NNDC

    SciTech Connect

    Holden, N. E.

    2014-06-01

    We found that isotopes and nuclides are important in our everyday life. The general public and most students are never exposed to the concepts of stable and radioactive isotopes/nuclides. The National Nuclear Data Center (NNDC) is involved in an international project to develop a Periodic Table of the Isotopes for the educational community to illustrate the importance of isotopes and nuclides in understanding the world around us. Our effort should aid teachers in introducing these concepts to students from the high school to the graduate school level.

  18. Multipartite Entanglement Detection with Minimal Effort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knips, Lukas; Schwemmer, Christian; Klein, Nico; Wieśniak, Marcin; Weinfurter, Harald

    2016-11-01

    Certifying entanglement of a multipartite state is generally considered a demanding task. Since an N qubit state is parametrized by 4N-1 real numbers, one might naively expect that the measurement effort of generic entanglement detection also scales exponentially with N . Here, we introduce a general scheme to construct efficient witnesses requiring a constant number of measurements independent of the number of qubits for states like, e.g., Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states, cluster states, and Dicke states. For four qubits, we apply this novel method to experimental realizations of the aforementioned states and prove genuine four-partite entanglement with two measurement settings only.

  19. Coercion and polio eradication efforts in Moradabad

    PubMed Central

    Rentmeester, Christy A; Dasgupta, Rajib; Feemster, Kristen A; Packard, Randall M

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the problem of vaccine coercion as reported in Moradabad, India. We offer commentary and critical analysis on ethical complexities at the intersection of global public health and regional political strife and relate them to broader vaccine goals. We draw upon a historical example from malaria vaccine efforts, focusing specifically on ethical and health justice issues expressed through the use of coercion in vaccine administration. We suggest how coercion is indicative of failed leadership in public health and consider community-based collaborations as models for cultivating local investment and trust in vaccination campaigns and for success in global public health initiatives. PMID:24401293

  20. Soldier Data Tag Study Effort. Appendices,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-06-10

    84-C-0146 on ,.a. SOLDIER DATA TAG " -:.,r .* STUDY EFFORT I T IT t APPENDICES to U.S. Army Soldier Support Center ATZI /ODS (Mr. Occhialini) Fort...SUPPORT CENTER * P2 DEN HARRISON, IN 46216 11 -:NG QVFZF N UAE AND ADORESS i REPORT DATE ATZI --DDS (MR. OCCHIALINI) JN 13 WAMSEROF PAGES 7-4 .’,kT N...Memorandum ATZI -DDS (14 Sep. 83) Subject: Input Requirements for SDT Cost/Benefits Analysis (CBA) , To Ch, Ofc of Analysis Spt From C, SDT, Date 5 Oct. 83

  1. Further Evidence Concerning the Effects of Perceptions of Effort and Ability on Achievement Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rest, Stanley; And Others

    1973-01-01

    Three experiments were reported based on the findings that perceived effort expenditure and level of ability, in addition to achievement outcome, are determinants of reward and punishment in achievement-related contexts. (Author/KM)

  2. Chair Talk: Resources to Maximize Administrative Efforts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDonald, H.; Chan, M. A.; Bierly, E. W.; Manduca, C. A.; Ormand, C. J.

    2009-12-01

    Earth science department chairs are generally scientists who have little/no formal administrative training. The common rotation of faculty members in three-six year cycles distributes the heavy leadership responsibilities but involves little preparation beforehand to deal with budgets, fundraising, personnel issues, confrontations, and crises. The amount of information exchange and support upon exit and handoff to the next chair is variable. Resources for chairs include workshops, meetings (ranging from annual meetings of geoscience chairs to monthly meetings of small groups of chairs from various disciplines on a campus), discussions, and online resources. These resources, some of which we designed in the past several years, provide information and support for chairs, help them share best practices, and reduce time spent “reinventing the wheel”. Most of these resources involve groups of chairs in our discipline who meet together. The AGU Board of Heads and Chairs of Earth and Space Science Departments offers annual one-day workshops at the Fall AGU meeting. The specific topics vary from year to year; they have included goals and roles of heads and chairs, fundraising and Advisory Boards, student recruitment, interdisciplinarity, dual-career couples, and undergraduate research. The workshop provides ample opportunities for open discussion. Annual one-two day meetings of groups of geoscience department chairs (e.g., research universities in a particular region) provide an opportunity for chairs to share specific data about their departments (e.g., salaries, graduate student stipends, information about facilities) and discuss strategies. At the College of William and Mary, a small group of chairs meets monthly throughout the year; each session includes time for open discussion as well as a more structured discussion on a particular topic (e.g., merit review, development and fundraising, mentoring early career faculty and the tenure process, leadership styles

  3. Diagnostic accuracy of a bayesian latent group analysis for the detection of malingering-related poor effort.

    PubMed

    Ortega, Alonso; Labrenz, Stephan; Markowitsch, Hans J; Piefke, Martina

    2013-01-01

    In the last decade, different statistical techniques have been introduced to improve assessment of malingering-related poor effort. In this context, we have recently shown preliminary evidence that a Bayesian latent group model may help to optimize classification accuracy using a simulation research design. In the present study, we conducted two analyses. Firstly, we evaluated how accurately this Bayesian approach can distinguish between participants answering in an honest way (honest response group) and participants feigning cognitive impairment (experimental malingering group). Secondly, we tested the accuracy of our model in the differentiation between patients who had real cognitive deficits (cognitively impaired group) and participants who belonged to the experimental malingering group. All Bayesian analyses were conducted using the raw scores of a visual recognition forced-choice task (2AFC), the Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM, Trial 2), and the Word Memory Test (WMT, primary effort subtests). The first analysis showed 100% accuracy for the Bayesian model in distinguishing participants of both groups with all effort measures. The second analysis showed outstanding overall accuracy of the Bayesian model when estimates were obtained from the 2AFC and the TOMM raw scores. Diagnostic accuracy of the Bayesian model diminished when using the WMT total raw scores. Despite, overall diagnostic accuracy can still be considered excellent. The most plausible explanation for this decrement is the low performance in verbal recognition and fluency tasks of some patients of the cognitively impaired group. Additionally, the Bayesian model provides individual estimates, p(zi |D), of examinees' effort levels. In conclusion, both high classification accuracy levels and Bayesian individual estimates of effort may be very useful for clinicians when assessing for effort in medico-legal settings.

  4. Adverse health effects of high-effort/low-reward conditions.

    PubMed

    Siegrist, J

    1996-01-01

    In addition to the person-environment fit model (J. R. French, R. D. Caplan, & R. V. Harrison, 1982) and the demand-control model (R. A. Karasek & T. Theorell, 1990), a third theoretical concept is proposed to assess adverse health effects of stressful experience at work: the effort-reward imbalance model. The focus of this model is on reciprocity of exchange in occupational life where high-cost/low-gain conditions are considered particularly stressful. Variables measuring low reward in terms of low status control (e.g., lack of promotion prospects, job insecurity) in association with high extrinsic (e.g., work pressure) or intrinsic (personal coping pattern, e.g., high need for control) effort independently predict new cardiovascular events in a prospective study on blue-collar men. Furthermore, these variables partly explain prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors (hypertension, atherogenic lipids) in 2 independent studies. Studying adverse health effects of high-effort/low-reward conditions seems well justified, especially in view of recent developments of the labor market.

  5. Scientometrics of drug discovery efforts: pain-related molecular targets.

    PubMed

    Kissin, Igor

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to make a scientometric assessment of drug discovery efforts centered on pain-related molecular targets. The following scientometric indices were used: the popularity index, representing the share of articles (or patents) on a specific topic among all articles (or patents) on pain over the same 5-year period; the index of change, representing the change in the number of articles (or patents) on a topic from one 5-year period to the next; the index of expectations, representing the ratio of the number of all types of articles on a topic in the top 20 journals relative to the number of articles in all (>5,000) biomedical journals covered by PubMed over a 5-year period; the total number of articles representing Phase I-III trials of investigational drugs over a 5-year period; and the trial balance index, a ratio of Phase I-II publications to Phase III publications. Articles (PubMed database) and patents (US Patent and Trademark Office database) on 17 topics related to pain mechanisms were assessed during six 5-year periods from 1984 to 2013. During the most recent 5-year period (2009-2013), seven of 17 topics have demonstrated high research activity (purinergic receptors, serotonin, transient receptor potential channels, cytokines, gamma aminobutyric acid, glutamate, and protein kinases). However, even with these seven topics, the index of expectations decreased or did not change compared with the 2004-2008 period. In addition, publications representing Phase I-III trials of investigational drugs (2009-2013) did not indicate great enthusiasm on the part of the pharmaceutical industry regarding drugs specifically designed for treatment of pain. A promising development related to the new tool of molecular targeting, ie, monoclonal antibodies, for pain treatment has not yet resulted in real success. This approach has not yet demonstrated clinical effectiveness (at least with nerve growth factor) much beyond conventional analgesics, when its

  6. Scientometrics of drug discovery efforts: pain-related molecular targets

    PubMed Central

    Kissin, Igor

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to make a scientometric assessment of drug discovery efforts centered on pain-related molecular targets. The following scientometric indices were used: the popularity index, representing the share of articles (or patents) on a specific topic among all articles (or patents) on pain over the same 5-year period; the index of change, representing the change in the number of articles (or patents) on a topic from one 5-year period to the next; the index of expectations, representing the ratio of the number of all types of articles on a topic in the top 20 journals relative to the number of articles in all (>5,000) biomedical journals covered by PubMed over a 5-year period; the total number of articles representing Phase I–III trials of investigational drugs over a 5-year period; and the trial balance index, a ratio of Phase I–II publications to Phase III publications. Articles (PubMed database) and patents (US Patent and Trademark Office database) on 17 topics related to pain mechanisms were assessed during six 5-year periods from 1984 to 2013. During the most recent 5-year period (2009–2013), seven of 17 topics have demonstrated high research activity (purinergic receptors, serotonin, transient receptor potential channels, cytokines, gamma aminobutyric acid, glutamate, and protein kinases). However, even with these seven topics, the index of expectations decreased or did not change compared with the 2004–2008 period. In addition, publications representing Phase I–III trials of investigational drugs (2009–2013) did not indicate great enthusiasm on the part of the pharmaceutical industry regarding drugs specifically designed for treatment of pain. A promising development related to the new tool of molecular targeting, ie, monoclonal antibodies, for pain treatment has not yet resulted in real success. This approach has not yet demonstrated clinical effectiveness (at least with nerve growth factor) much beyond conventional analgesics

  7. Respiration and Reproductive Effort in Xanthium canadense

    PubMed Central

    KINUGASA, TOSHIHIKO; HIKOSAKA, KOUKI; HIROSE, TADAKI

    2005-01-01

    • Background and Aims The proportion of resources devoted to reproduction in the plant is called the reproductive effort (RE), which is most commonly expressed as the proportion of reproductive biomass to total plant biomass production (REW). Reproductive yield is the outcome of photosynthates allocated to reproductive structures minus subsequent respiratory consumption for construction and maintenance of reproductive structures. Thus, REW can differ from RE in terms of photosynthates allocated to reproductive structures (REP). • Methods Dry mass growth and respiration of vegetative and reproductive organs were measured in Xanthium canadense and the amount of photosynthates and its partitioning to dry mass growth and respiratory consumption were determined. Differences between REW and REP were analysed in terms of growth and maintenance respiration. • Key Results The fraction of allocated photosynthates that was consumed by respiration was smaller in the reproductive organ than in the vegetative organs. Consequently, REP was smaller than REW. The smaller respiratory consumption in the reproductive organ resulted from its shorter period of existence and a seasonal decline in temperature, as well as a slower rate of maintenance respiration, although the fraction of photosynthates consumed by growth respiration was larger than in the vegetative organs. • Conclusions Reproductive effort in terms of photosynthates (REP) was smaller than that in terms of biomass (REW). This difference resulted from respiratory consumption for maintenance, which was far smaller in the reproductive organ than in vegetative organs. PMID:15837721

  8. Regional Effort to Deploy Clean Coal Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Gerald Hill; Kenneth Nemeth; Gary Garrett; Kimberly Sams

    2009-01-31

    The Southern States Energy Board's (SSEB) 'Regional Effort to Deploy Clean Coal Technologies' program began on June 1, 2003, and was completed on January 31, 2009. The project proved beneficial in providing state decision-makers with information that assisted them in removing barriers or implementing incentives to deploy clean coal technologies. This was accomplished through two specific tasks: (1) domestic energy security and diversity; and (2) the energy-water interface. Milestones accomplished during the project period are: (1) Presentations to Annual Meetings of SSEB Members, Associate Member Meetings, and the Gasification Technologies Council. (2) Energy: Water reports - (A) Regional Efforts to Deploy Clean Coal Technologies: Impacts and Implications for Water Supply and Quality. June 2004. (B) Energy-Water Interface Challenges: Coal Bed Methane and Mine Pool Water Characterization in the Southern States Region. 2004. (C) Freshwater Availability and Constraints on Thermoelectric Power Generation in the Southeast U.S. June 2008. (3) Blackwater Interactive Tabletop Exercise - Decatur, Georgia April 2007. (4) Blackwater Report: Blackwater: Energy and Water Interdependency Issues: Best Practices and Lessons Learned. August 2007. (5) Blackwater Report: BLACKWATER: Energy Water Interdependency Issues REPORT SUMMARY. April 2008.

  9. Freeway and arterial management effort in Washington state

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, L.N. )

    1989-11-01

    Traffic congestion and personal mobility preservation are the most challenging issues facing transportation professionals. From Phoenix to San Francisco to Washington, D.C., citizens are identifying transportation as their number one concern, outweighing issues such as pollution, overpopulation, unemployment, and crime. In the state of Washington, particularly in the greater Seattle area, congestion is likewise a major concern. In order to address the mobility problems facing the urban areas of Washington, the state initiated a new transportation research and implementation program in October 1987. The program is called Freeway and Arterial Management Effort (FAME). The focus of the program is discussed by the author.

  10. V and V Efforts of Auroral Precipitation Models: Preliminary Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zheng, Yihua; Kuznetsova, Masha; Rastaetter, Lutz; Hesse, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Auroral precipitation models have been valuable both in terms of space weather applications and space science research. Yet very limited testing has been performed regarding model performance. A variety of auroral models are available, including empirical models that are parameterized by geomagnetic indices or upstream solar wind conditions, now casting models that are based on satellite observations, or those derived from physics-based, coupled global models. In this presentation, we will show our preliminary results regarding V&V efforts of some of the models.

  11. Sidoarjo mudflow phenomenon and its mitigation efforts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wibowo, H. T.; Williams, V.

    2009-12-01

    Hot mud first erupted in Siring village, Porong, Sidoarjo May 29th 2006. The mud first appeared approximately 200 meters from Banjarpanji-1 gas-drilling well. The mud volume increased day by day, from 5000 cubic meters per day on June 2006 to 50,000 cubic meters per day during the last of 2006, and then increased to 100,000-120,000 cubic meters per day during 2007. Flow still continues at a high rate. Moreover, as the water content has gone down, the clast content has gone up. Consequently, there is now the threat of large amounts of solid material being erupted throughout the area. Also, there is the issue of subsurface collapse and ground surface subsidence. The Indonesian government has set up a permanent team to support communities affected by the mudflow that has swamped a number of villages near LUSI. Toll roads, railway tracks and factories also have been submerged and over 35,000 people have been displaced to date. The Sidoarjo Mudflow Mitigation Agency [SMMA, BPLS (Indonesia)] replaces a temporary team called National Team PSLS which was installed for seven months and ended their work on 7 April 2007. BPLS was set up by Presidential Regulation No. 14 / 2007, and it will have to cover the costs related to the social impact of the disaster, especially outside the swamped area. BPLS is the central government institution designated to handle the disaster by coordination with both the drilling company and local (provincial and district) governments. It takes a comprehensive, integrated and holistic approach for its mission and challenges. Those are: 1) How to stop the mudflow, 2) How to mitigate the impacts of the mudflow, and 3) How to minimize the social, economic, environmental impacts, and infrastructure impacts. The mudflow mitigation efforts were constrained by dynamic geology conditions, as well as resistance to certain measures by residents of impacted areas. Giant dykes were built to retain the spreading mud, and the mudflow from the main vent was

  12. Children's Sleep and Academic Achievement: The Moderating Role of Effortful Control.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Anjolii; Berger, Rebecca; Valiente, Carlos; Eisenberg, Nancy; VanSchyndel, Sarah; Tao, Chun; Spinrad, Tracy L; Doane, Leah D; Thompson, Marilyn S; Silva, Kassondra M; Southworth, Jody

    2017-03-01

    Poor sleep is thought to interfere with children's learning and academic achievement (AA). However, existing research and theory indicate there are factors that may mitigate the academic risk associated with poor sleep. The purpose of this study was to examine the moderating role of children's effortful control (EC) on the relation between sleep and AA in young children. One hundred and three 4.5- to 7-year-olds (M = 5.98 years, SD = 0.61) wore a wrist-based actigraph for five continuous weekday nights. Teachers and coders reported on children's EC. EC was also assessed with a computer-based task at school. Additionally, we obtained a standardized measure of children's AA. There was a positive main effect of sleep efficiency to AA. Several relations between sleep and AA were moderated by EC and examination of the simple slopes indicated that the negative relation between sleep and AA was only significant at low levels of EC.

  13. The Status of HIV Prevention Efforts for Women in Correctional Facilities

    PubMed Central

    LeBlanc, Tanya Telfair; Reid, Laurie C.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract In the United States, women are a significant proportion of the correctional population. Women also account for an increasing proportion of newly diagnosed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) cases. When compared with white women, black women have higher incarceration rates and represent more of the newly diagnosed HIV cases. Correctional facilities offer an opportunity to provide women with HIV testing and prevention services so that they will know their status and receive HIV/sexually transmitted disease (STD) risk-reduction counseling and other preventive services. In this report, we describe incarcerated population statistics and HIV surveillance epidemiology for women. We also describe HIV prevention activities undertaken by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention. Additional research, program development, and implementation are needed to improve HIV prevention efforts for high-risk women. PMID:24116966

  14. Disabilities Seen Complicating Anti-Obesity Efforts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, Christina A.

    2007-01-01

    A sedentary lifestyle and too much tasty but high-calorie food are fattening America's children to an alarming degree, doctors and researchers agree. Now, some researchers are trying to determine how that trend affects children with disabilities. Children with disabilities are just as tempted by food and the lure of television as those without…

  15. Biomedical Masters Program: Local Joint Effort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1976

    1976-01-01

    Describes a part-time master's program in biomedical science initiated by the Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases in Maryland and administered by Hood College. Coursework consists mainly of biology and biochemistry and prepares students for biomedical research. (MLH)

  16. Automatic and Effortful Processes in Memory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hasher, Lynn; Zacks, Rose T.

    1979-01-01

    Research on memory performance in children, the elderly, and individuals under stress is integrated with research on memory performance in college students. Assumptions include: (1) variation in attentional capacity within and between individuals, and (2) encoding operations vary in attentional requirements. Most of the data support the framework.…

  17. Government-Backed Salt Reduction Efforts Could Deliver Big Health Pay Day

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162976.html Government-Backed Salt Reduction Efforts Could Deliver Big Health Pay Day Researchers estimate a 10 percent cut in salt could save millions worldwide from heart disease To ...

  18. Perfectionism and Effort-Related Cardiac Activity: Do Perfectionists Try Harder?

    PubMed

    Harper, Kelly L; Eddington, Kari M; Silvia, Paul J

    2016-01-01

    Do perfectionists try harder? Previous research on perfectionism and effort has used self-report items and task performance as indicators of effort. The current study investigated whether individual differences in perfectionism predicted effort-related cardiac activity during a mental effort task. Based on past research that suggests adaptive perfectionism is associated with higher effort, it was hypothesized that self-oriented perfectionism (SOP) would predict increased effort on the task. One hundred and eleven college students completed the Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale (MPS) and a self-paced parity task in which they received a small cash reward (3 cents) for each correct response. Impedance cardiography was used to assess autonomic reactivity, and regression models tested whether SOP and socially prescribed perfectionism (SPP) explained autonomic reactivity. Overall, participants showed both sympathetic (faster pre-ejection period; PEP) and parasympathetic activation (elevated high-frequency heart rate variability; HRV) during the task, reflecting higher effort and engagement. Contrary to predictions, individual differences in perfectionism did not moderate cardiac reactivity. These findings draw attention to the importance of assessing physiological components of effort and motivation directly rather than inferring them from task performance or self-reported effort.

  19. Perfectionism and Effort-Related Cardiac Activity: Do Perfectionists Try Harder?

    PubMed Central

    Harper, Kelly L.; Eddington, Kari M.; Silvia, Paul J.

    2016-01-01

    Do perfectionists try harder? Previous research on perfectionism and effort has used self-report items and task performance as indicators of effort. The current study investigated whether individual differences in perfectionism predicted effort-related cardiac activity during a mental effort task. Based on past research that suggests adaptive perfectionism is associated with higher effort, it was hypothesized that self-oriented perfectionism (SOP) would predict increased effort on the task. One hundred and eleven college students completed the Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale (MPS) and a self-paced parity task in which they received a small cash reward (3 cents) for each correct response. Impedance cardiography was used to assess autonomic reactivity, and regression models tested whether SOP and socially prescribed perfectionism (SPP) explained autonomic reactivity. Overall, participants showed both sympathetic (faster pre-ejection period; PEP) and parasympathetic activation (elevated high-frequency heart rate variability; HRV) during the task, reflecting higher effort and engagement. Contrary to predictions, individual differences in perfectionism did not moderate cardiac reactivity. These findings draw attention to the importance of assessing physiological components of effort and motivation directly rather than inferring them from task performance or self-reported effort. PMID:27483467

  20. Separate and overlapping brain areas encode subjective value during delay and effort discounting.

    PubMed

    Massar, Stijn A A; Libedinsky, Camilo; Weiyan, Chee; Huettel, Scott A; Chee, Michael W L

    2015-10-15

    Making decisions about rewards that involve delay or effort requires the integration of value and cost information. The brain areas recruited in this integration have been well characterized for delay discounting. However only a few studies have investigated how effort costs are integrated into value signals to eventually determine choice. In contrast to previous studies that have evaluated fMRI signals related to physical effort, we used a task that focused on cognitive effort. Participants discounted the value of delayed and effortful rewards. The value of cognitively effortful rewards was represented in the anterior portion of the inferior frontal gyrus and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Additionally, the value of the chosen option was encoded in the anterior cingulate cortex, caudate, and cerebellum. While most brain regions showed no significant dissociation between effort discounting and delay discounting, the ACC was significantly more activated in effort compared to delay discounting tasks. Finally, overlapping regions within the right orbitofrontal cortex and lateral temporal and parietal cortices encoded the value of the chosen option during both delay and effort discounting tasks. These results indicate that encoding of rewards discounted by cognitive effort and delay involves partially dissociable brain areas, but a common representation of chosen value is present in the orbitofrontal, temporal and parietal cortices.

  1. Mars Exploration Rovers Launch Contingency Efforts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGrath, Brian E.; Frostbutter, David A.; Parthasarathy, Karungulam N.; Heyler, Gene A.; Chang, Yale

    2004-02-01

    On 10 June 2003 at 1:58 p.m. Eastern Daylight Time (EDT) and 7 July 2003 at 11:18 p.m. EDT, two separate spacecraft/rovers were successfully launched to Mars atop a Delta II 7925 and Delta II 7925H, respectively. Each spacecraft/rover carried eight Light Weight Radioisotope Heater Units (LWRHUs) for thermal conditioning of electronics during the cold Martian nights. As a part of the joint National Aeronautics and Space Administration/U. S. Department of Energy safety effort, a contingency plan was prepared to address the unlikely events of an accidental suborbital reentry or out-of-orbit reentry. The objective of the contingency plan was to develop and implement procedures to predict, within the first hour, the probable Earth Impact Footprints (EIFs) for the LWRHUs or other possible spacecraft debris after an accidental reentry. No ablation burn-through of the heat sources' aeroshells was expected, as a result of earlier testing. Any predictions would be used in subsequent notification and recovery efforts. The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, as part of a multi-agency team, was responsible for prediction of the EIFs, and the time of reentry from a potential orbital decay. The tools used to predict the EIFs included a Three-Degree-of-Freedom (3DOF) trajectory simulation code, a Six-Degree-of-Freedom (6DOF) code, a database of aerodynamic coefficients for the LWRHUs and other spacecraft debris, secure links to obtain tracking data, and a high fidelity special perturbation orbit integrator code to predict time of spacecraft reentry from orbital decay. This paper will discuss the contingency plan and process, as well as highlight the improvements made to the analytical tools. Improvements to the 3DOF, aerodynamic database, and orbit integrator and inclusion of the 6DOF have significantly enhanced the prediction capabilities. In the days before launch, the trajectory simulation codes were exercised and predictions of hypothetical EIFs were produced

  2. Research Publications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yarbrough, Cornelia, Comp.

    1994-01-01

    Asserts that research can provide a cutting edge for the profession and essential information for teachers as they plan new instructional strategies, evaluation techniques, and advocacy efforts. Presents an annotated bibliography of 17 items related to music education research. (ACM)

  3. Different forces, same consequence: conscientiousness and competence beliefs are independent predictors of academic effort and achievement.

    PubMed

    Trautwein, Ulrich; Lüdtke, Oliver; Roberts, Brent W; Schnyder, Inge; Niggli, Alois

    2009-12-01

    Conscientiousness and domain-specific competence beliefs are known to be highly important predictors of academic effort and achievement. Given their basis in distinct research traditions, however, these constructs have rarely been examined simultaneously. Three studies with 571, 415, and 1,535 students, respectively, found a moderate association between conscientiousness and competence beliefs. Both conscientiousness and competence beliefs meaningfully predicted academic effort, irrespective of how academic effort was measured (single-measurement questionnaire or diary data). The associations of competence beliefs with academic effort were highly domain specific, whereas conscientiousness was predictive of academic effort across a wide range of academic subjects. Conscientiousness and competence beliefs were also associated with academic achievement. Figural and verbal reasoning ability, although associated with academic achievement, only loosely predicted academic effort.

  4. Piezoelectric and electromagnetic respiratory effort energy harvesters.

    PubMed

    Shahhaidar, Ehsaneh; Padasdao, Bryson; Romine, R; Stickley, C; Boric-Lubecke, Olga

    2013-01-01

    The movements of the torso due to normal breathing could be harvested as an alternative, and renewable power source for an ultra-low power electronic device. The same output signal could also be recorded as a physiological signal containing information about breathing, thus enabling self-powered wearable biosensors/harvesters. In this paper, the selection criteria for such a biosensor, optimization procedure, trade-offs, and challenges as a sensor and harvester are presented. The empirical data obtained from testing different modules on a mechanical torso and a human subject demonstrated that an electromagnetic generator could be used as an unobtrusive self-powered medical sensor by harvesting more power, offering reasonable amount of output voltage for rectification purposes, and detecting respiratory effort.

  5. The NOAA-NASA CZCS Reanalysis Effort

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregg, Watson W.; Conkright, Margarita E.; OReilly, John E.; Patt, Frederick S.; Wang, Meng-Hua; Yoder, James; Casey-McCabe, Nancy; Koblinsky, Chester J. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Satellite observations of global ocean chlorophyll span over two decades. However, incompatibilities between processing algorithms prevent us from quantifying natural variability. We applied a comprehensive reanalysis to the Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) archive, called the NOAA-NASA CZCS Reanalysis (NCR) Effort. NCR consisted of 1) algorithm improvement (AI), where CZCS processing algorithms were improved using modernized atmospheric correction and bio-optical algorithms, and 2) blending, where in situ data were incorporated into the CZCS AI to minimize residual errors. The results indicated major improvement over the previously available CZCS archive. Global spatial and seasonal patterns of NCR chlorophyll indicated remarkable correspondence with modern sensors, suggesting compatibility. The NCR permits quantitative analyses of interannual and interdecadal trends in global ocean chlorophyll.

  6. Directed-energy process technology efforts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, P.

    1985-01-01

    A summary of directed-energy process technology for solar cells was presented. This technology is defined as directing energy or mass to specific areas on solar cells to produce a desired effect in contrast to exposing a cell to a thermal or mass flow environment. Some of these second generation processing techniques are: ion implantation; microwave-enhanced chemical vapor deposition; rapid thermal processing; and the use of lasers for cutting, assisting in metallization, assisting in deposition, and drive-in of liquid dopants. Advantages of directed energy techniques are: surface heating resulting in the bulk of the cell material being cooler and unchanged; better process control yields; better junction profiles, junction depths, and metal sintering; lower energy consumption during processing and smaller factory space requirements. These advantages should result in higher-efficiency cells at lower costs. The results of the numerous contracted efforts were presented as well as the application potentials of these new technologies.

  7. Prioritizing earthquake and tsunami alerting efforts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, R. M.; Allen, S.; Aranha, M. A.; Chung, A. I.; Hellweg, M.; Henson, I. H.; Melgar, D.; Neuhauser, D. S.; Nof, R. N.; Strauss, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    The timeline of hazards associated with earthquakes ranges from seconds for the strong shaking at the epicenter, to minutes for strong shaking at more distant locations in big quakes, to tens of minutes for a local tsunami. Earthquake and tsunami warning systems must therefore include very fast initial alerts, while also taking advantage of available time in bigger and tsunami-generating quakes. At the UC Berkeley Seismological Laboratory we are developing a suite of algorithms to provide the fullest possible information about earthquake shaking and tsunami inundation from seconds to minutes after a quake. The E-larmS algorithm uses the P-wave to rapidly detect an earthquake and issue a warning. It is currently issuing alerts to test users in as little as 3 sec after the origin time. Development of a new waveform detector may lead to even faster alerts. G-larmS uses permanent deformation estimates from GNSS stations to estimate the geometry and extent of rupture underway providing more accurate ground shaking estimates in big (M>~7) earthquakes. It performed well in the M6.0 2014 Napa earthquake. T-larmS is a new algorithm designed to extend alert capabilities to tsunami inundation. Rapid estimates of source characteristics for subduction zones event can not only be used to warn of the shaking hazard, but also the local tsunami inundation hazard. These algorithms are being developed, implemented and tested with a focus on the western US, but are also now being tested in other parts of the world including Israel, Turkey, Korea and Chile. Beta users in the Bay Area are receiving the alerts and beginning to implement automated actions. They also provide feedback on users needs, which has led to the development of the MyEEW smartphone app. This app allows beta users to receive the alerts on their cell phones. All these efforts feed into our ongoing assessment of directions and priorities for future development and implementation efforts.

  8. International Collaboration Enhances Cancer Screening Efforts

    Cancer.gov

    CGH is working with the International Agency for Research on CancerExit Disclaimer (IARC) and the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) on the ESTAMPA Study, a multi-centric study of cervical cancer screening and triage with HPV testing.

  9. Masked first name priming increases effort-related cardiovascular reactivity.

    PubMed

    Silvia, Paul J; Jones, Hannah C; Kelly, Casey S; Zibaie, Alireza

    2011-06-01

    Recent research on motivational intensity has shown that explicit manipulations of self-focused attention (e.g., mirrors and video cameras) increase effort-related cardiovascular responses during active coping. An experiment examined whether masked first name priming, an implicit manipulation of self-focused attention, had similar effects. Participants (n=52 young adults) performed a self-paced cognitive task, in which they were told to get as many trials correct as possible within 5min. During the task, the participant's first name was primed for 0%, 33%, 67%, or 100% of the trials. First name priming, regardless of its frequency, significantly increased cardiovascular reactivity, particularly systolic blood pressure (SBP) reactivity. Furthermore, the priming manipulation interacted with individual differences in trait self-focus: trait self-focus predicted higher SBP reactivity in the 0% condition, but first name priming eliminated the effects of individual differences. Implications for self-awareness research and for the emerging interest in priming effects on effort are considered.

  10. Fuel additive programs at crossroads of regulation, market dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Adler, K.

    1998-01-01

    Fuel additive manufacturers, gasoline marketers and automakers seem to be forgetting about the power of the marketplace in their efforts to use additives to help reduce emissions and improve vehicle performance. Recall that the port fuel injector (PFI) and intake valve deposit (IVD) problems of the 1980s were addressed quickly by the fuels industry. In just a few months after the PFID problem surfaced, additive makers had detergents on the market, and fuel marketers followed up with an effective advertising campaign. Formal regulations came about a decade later. The solution to the BMW IVD problem was similar. BMW provided an enticing incentive for oil companies to differentiate through better additives and many did. Contrast those developments with the command-and-control approach that has been in effect since January 1995. EPA`s additive rule is working almost to perfection - if adherence to strict rules is considered. All gasolines in the US are additized, and a wide variety of packages have been developed that meet the regulatory standards. But by the measure of real-world performance, the circumstances can look quite different. And with industry finalizing a better IVD test and conducting research into the need for a combustion chamber deposit (CCD) regulation, now may be the time to limit the regulatory approach and let refiners and additive suppliers return to creating products that target excellence instead of regulatory minimums.

  11. Altering Effort Costs in Parkinson's Disease with Noninvasive Cortical Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Salimpour, Yousef; Mari, Zoltan K.

    2015-01-01

    noninvasive cortical stimulation. In addition to reducing effort costs associated with the affected arm, the cortical stimulation also improved clinical motor symptoms of the disease. PMID:26338339

  12. Effect of concurrent training, flexible nonlinear periodization, and maximal-effort cycling on strength and power.

    PubMed

    McNamara, John M; Stearne, David J

    2013-06-01

    Although there is considerable research on concurrent training, none has integrated flexible nonlinear periodization and maximal-effort cycling in the same design. The purpose of this investigation was to test outcome measures of strength and power using a pretest-posttest randomized groups design. A strength and endurance (SE) group was compared with a strength, endurance, and maximal-effort cycling (SEC) group. Both groups used a flexible nonlinear periodization design. Thirteen male and 7 female students (mean ± SD: age, 22.5 ± 4.1 years; height, 173.5 ± 12.4 cm; weight, 79.4 ± 20.2 kg; strength training experience, 2.4 ± 2.2 years) participated in this study. Groups were not matched for age, height, weight, strength training experience, or sex, but were randomly assigned to an SE (n = 10) or SEC (n = 10) group. All training was completed within 45 minutes, twice per week (Monday and Wednesday), over 12 consecutive weeks. Both groups were assigned 6.75 total hours of aerobic conditioning, and 13.5 hours of free weight and machine exercises totaling 3,188 repetitions ranging from 5 to 20 repetition maximums. The SEC group performed 2 cycling intervals per workout ranging from 10 to 45 seconds. Pretest and posttest measures included chest press and standing broad jump. Analysis of variance showed that there were no significant differences between the SE and SEC groups on measures of chest press or standing broad jump performance (p, not significant). Paired sample t-tests (p = 0.05) showed significant improvement in strength and power in all groups (pretest to posttest), except for SE jump performance (p, not significant). In conclusion, adding maximal-effort cycling does not provide additional strength or power benefits to a concurrent flexible nonlinear training program. However, an exercise professional can take confidence that a concurrent flexible nonlinear training program can increase strength and power in healthy individuals.

  13. Classification accuracy of multiple visual spatial measures in the detection of suspect effort.

    PubMed

    Whiteside, Douglas; Wald, Danielle; Busse, Michelle

    2011-02-01

    A wide variety of cognitive measures, particularly memory measures, have been studied for their ability to detect suspect effort, or biased responding on neuropsychological assessment instruments. However, visual spatial measures have received less attention. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the classification accuracy of several commonly used visual spatial measures, including the Judgment of Line Orientation Test, the Benton Facial Recognition Test, the Hooper Visual Organization Test, and the Rey Complex Figure Test-Copy and Recognition trials. Participants included 491 consecutive referrals who participated in a comprehensive neuropsychological assessment and met study criteria. Participants were divided into two groups identified as either unbiased responding (UR, N = 415) or biased responding (BR, N = 30) based on their performance on two measures of effort. The remaining participants (N = 46) had discrepant performance on the symptom validity measures and were excluded from further analysis. The groups differed significantly on all measures. Additionally, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis indicated all of the measures had acceptable classification accuracy, but a measure combining scores from all of the measures had excellent classification accuracy. Results indicated that various cut-off scores on the measures could be used depending on the context of the evaluation. Suggested cut-off scores for the measures had sensitivity levels of approximately 32-46%, when specificity was at least 87%. When combined, the measures suggested cut-off scores had sensitivity increase to 57% while maintaining the same level of specificity (87%). The results were discussed in the context of research advocating the use of multiple measures of effort.

  14. Breaking the double-edged sword of effort/trying hard: Developmental equilibrium and longitudinal relations among effort, achievement, and academic self-concept.

    PubMed

    Marsh, Herbert W; Pekrun, Reinhard; Lichtenfeld, Stephanie; Guo, Jiesi; Arens, A Katrin; Murayama, Kou

    2016-08-01

    Ever since the classic research of Nicholls (1976) and others, effort has been recognized as a double-edged sword: while it might enhance achievement, it undermines academic self-concept (ASC). However, there has not been a thorough evaluation of the longitudinal reciprocal effects of effort, ASC, and achievement, in the context of modern self-concept theory and statistical methodology. Nor have there been developmental equilibrium tests of whether these effects are consistent across the potentially volatile early-to-middle adolescence. Hence, focusing on mathematics, we evaluate reciprocal effects models (REMs) over the first 4 years of secondary school (grades 5-8), relating effort, achievement (test scores and school grades), ASC, and ASC × Effort interactions for a representative sample of 3,144 German students (Mage = 11.75 years at Wave 1). ASC, effort, and achievement were positively correlated at each wave, and there was a clear pattern of positive reciprocal positive effects among ASC, test scores, and school grades-each contributing to the other, after controlling for the prior effects of all others. There was an asymmetrical pattern of effects for effort that is consistent with the double-edged sword premise: prior school grades had positive effects on subsequent effort, but prior effort had nonsignificant or negative effects on subsequent grades and ASC. However, on the basis of a synergistic application of new theory and methodology, we predicted and found a significant ASC × Effort interaction, such that prior effort had more positive effects on subsequent ASC and school grades when prior ASC was high-thus providing a key to breaking the double-edged sword. (PsycINFO Database Record

  15. Achieving National Unity of Effort in Cyber

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-16

    Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers, which includes functions referred to as the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority ( ICANN ) Supervises the...economy is what enables the rest of U.S. power. In addition, the FCA should partner 50 with existing civilian organizations (e.g. ICANN , ITU, IETF and

  16. STEM Education Efforts in the Ares Projects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doreswamy, Rajiv; Armstrong, Robert C.

    2010-01-01

    According to the National Science Foundation, of the more than 4 million first university degrees awarded in science and engineering in 2006, students in China earned about 21%, those in the European Union earned about 19%, and those in the United States earned about 11%. Statistics like these are of great interest to NASA's Ares Projects, which are responsible for building the rockets for the U.S. Constellation Program to send humans beyond low-Earth orbit. Science, technology, engineering, and mathematics students are essential for the long-term sustainability of any space program. Since the Projects creation, the Ares Outreach Team has used a variety of STEM-related media, methods, and materials to engage students, educators, and the general public in Constellation's mission. Like Project Apollo, the nation s exploration destinations and the vehicles used to get there can inspire students to learn more about STEM. Ares has been particularly active in public outreach to schools in Northern Alabama; on the Internet via outreach and grade-specific educational materials; and in more informal social media settings such as YouTube and Facebook. These combined efforts remain integral to America s space program, regardless of its future direction.

  17. 24 CFR 103.325 - Termination of conciliation efforts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Termination of conciliation efforts... conciliation efforts. (a) HUD may terminate its efforts to conciliate the complaint if the respondent fails or refuses to confer with HUD; the aggrieved person or the respondent fail to make a good faith effort...

  18. Closing the Achievement Gap: Four States' Efforts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wixom, Micah Ann

    2015-01-01

    The achievement gap separating economically disadvantaged students from their more advantaged peers disproportionately affects students of color and has been the focus of discussion, research and controversy for more than 40 years. While the gap between black and white students narrowed considerably from the 1950s to the 1980s, that gap has…

  19. Modeling and Evaluating Pilot Performance in NextGen: Review of and Recommendations Regarding Pilot Modeling Efforts, Architectures, and Validation Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wickens, Christopher; Sebok, Angelia; Keller, John; Peters, Steve; Small, Ronald; Hutchins, Shaun; Algarin, Liana; Gore, Brian Francis; Hooey, Becky Lee; Foyle, David C.

    2013-01-01

    NextGen operations are associated with a variety of changes to the national airspace system (NAS) including changes to the allocation of roles and responsibilities among operators and automation, the use of new technologies and automation, additional information presented on the flight deck, and the entire concept of operations (ConOps). In the transition to NextGen airspace, aviation and air operations designers need to consider the implications of design or system changes on human performance and the potential for error. To ensure continued safety of the NAS, it will be necessary for researchers to evaluate design concepts and potential NextGen scenarios well before implementation. One approach for such evaluations is through human performance modeling. Human performance models (HPMs) provide effective tools for predicting and evaluating operator performance in systems. HPMs offer significant advantages over empirical, human-in-the-loop testing in that (1) they allow detailed analyses of systems that have not yet been built, (2) they offer great flexibility for extensive data collection, (3) they do not require experimental participants, and thus can offer cost and time savings. HPMs differ in their ability to predict performance and safety with NextGen procedures, equipment and ConOps. Models also vary in terms of how they approach human performance (e.g., some focus on cognitive processing, others focus on discrete tasks performed by a human, while others consider perceptual processes), and in terms of their associated validation efforts. The objectives of this research effort were to support the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) in identifying HPMs that are appropriate for predicting pilot performance in NextGen operations, to provide guidance on how to evaluate the quality of different models, and to identify gaps in pilot performance modeling research, that could guide future research opportunities. This research effort is intended to help the FAA

  20. Additive Similarity Trees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sattath, Shmuel; Tversky, Amos

    1977-01-01

    Tree representations of similarity data are investigated. Hierarchical clustering is critically examined, and a more general procedure, called the additive tree, is presented. The additive tree representation is then compared to multidimensional scaling. (Author/JKS)

  1. Cognitive Load and Listening Effort: Concepts and Age-Related Considerations.

    PubMed

    Lemke, Ulrike; Besser, Jana

    2016-01-01

    Listening effort has been recognized as an important dimension of everyday listening, especially with regard to the comprehension of spoken language. At constant levels of comprehension performance, the level of effort exerted and perceived during listening can differ considerably across listeners and situations. In this article, listening effort is used as an umbrella term for two different types of effort that can arise during listening. One of these types is processing effort, which is used to denote the utilization of "extra" mental processing resources in listening conditions that are adverse for an individual. A conceptual description is introduced how processing effort could be defined in terms of situational influences, the listener's auditory and cognitive resources, and the listener's personal state. Also, the proposed relationship between processing effort and subjectively perceived listening effort is discussed. Notably, previous research has shown that the availability of mental resources, as well as the ability to use them efficiently, changes over the course of adult aging. These common age-related changes in cognitive abilities and their neurocognitive organization are discussed in the context of the presented concept, especially regarding situations in which listening effort may be increased for older people.

  2. Comparison of cardiovascular response to combined static-dynamic effort, postprandial dynamic effort and dynamic effort alone in patients with chronic ischemic heart disease

    SciTech Connect

    Hung, J.; McKillip, J.; Savin, W.; Magder, S.; Kraus, R.; Houston, N.; Goris, M.; Haskell, W.; DeBusk, R.

    1982-06-01

    The cardiovascular responses to combined static-dynamic effort, postprandial dynamic effort and dynamic effort alone were evaluated by upright bicycle ergometry during equilibrium-gated blood pool scintigraphy in 24 men, mean age 59 +/- 8 years, with chronic ischemic heart disease. Combined static-dynamic effort and the postprandial state elicited a peak cardiovascular response similar to that of dynamic effort alone. Heart rate, intraarterial systolic and diastolic pressures, rate-pressure product and ejection fraction were similar for the three test conditions at the onset of ischemia and at peak effort. The prevalence and extent of exercise-induced ischemic left ventricular dysfunction, ST-segment depression, angina pectoris and ventricular ectopic activity were also similar during the three test conditions. Direct and indirect measurements of systolic and diastolic blood pressure were highly correlated. The onset of ischemic ST-segment depression and angina pectoris correlated as strongly with heart rate alone as with the rate-pressure product during all three test conditions. The cardiovascular response to combined static-dynamic effort and to postprandial dynamic effort becomes more similar to that of dynamic effort alone as dynamic effort reaches a symptom limit. If significant ischemic and arrhythmic abnormalities are absent during symptom-limited dynamic exercise testing, they are unlikely to appear during combined static-dynamic or postprandial dynamic effort.

  3. Rapid Solidification and Phase Transformations in Additive Manufactured Materials

    DOE PAGES

    Asle Zaeem, Mohsen; Clarke, Amy Jean

    2016-01-14

    Within the past few years, additive manufacturing (AM) has emerged as a promising manufacturing technique to enable the production of complex engineering structures with high efficiency and accuracy. Among the important factors establishing AM as a sustainable manufacturing process is the ability to control the microstructures and properties of AM products. In most AM processes, such as laser sintering (LS), laser melting (LM), and laser metal deposition (LMD), rapid solidification and high-temperature phase transformations play primary roles in determining nano- and microstructures, and consequently the mechanical and other properties of AM products. This topic of JOM is dedicated to summarizingmore » the current research efforts in the area of rapid solidification and phase transformations in additively manufactured materials. Finally, a brief summary follows below of 10 journal articles in this topic.« less

  4. Rapid Solidification and Phase Transformations in Additive Manufactured Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Asle Zaeem, Mohsen; Clarke, Amy Jean

    2016-01-14

    Within the past few years, additive manufacturing (AM) has emerged as a promising manufacturing technique to enable the production of complex engineering structures with high efficiency and accuracy. Among the important factors establishing AM as a sustainable manufacturing process is the ability to control the microstructures and properties of AM products. In most AM processes, such as laser sintering (LS), laser melting (LM), and laser metal deposition (LMD), rapid solidification and high-temperature phase transformations play primary roles in determining nano- and microstructures, and consequently the mechanical and other properties of AM products. This topic of JOM is dedicated to summarizing the current research efforts in the area of rapid solidification and phase transformations in additively manufactured materials. Finally, a brief summary follows below of 10 journal articles in this topic.

  5. Factors influencing the publishing efforts of graduate students in nursing.

    PubMed

    Whitley, G G; Oddi, L F; Terrell, D

    1998-04-01

    The purposes of this study were to identify factors influencing publication efforts of graduate students in nursing and determine the extent to which graduate students' scholarly activities contribute to the creation and dissemination of knowledge in nursing, as evidenced by publication in a professional journal. Authors of articles in Nursing Research were surveyed to assess their status as graduate students during the conceptualization, development, and publication of nursing research studies. The sample consisted of 633 authors of manuscripts published in Nursing Research from 1987 to 1991. The study design was descriptive. A survey questionnaire elicited data on graduate student status and factors that influenced the initiation and completion of the project. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistical techniques. The results of the study suggest that graduate students in nursing make important contributions to the advancement and dissemination of nursing knowledge. Factors that influence graduate students to engage in the process include academic requirements (e.g., thesis, dissertation, coursework), faculty involvement and support, and the ability to self-select the research topic.

  6. Database development in toxicogenomics: issues and efforts.

    PubMed Central

    Mattes, William B; Pettit, Syril D; Sansone, Susanna-Assunta; Bushel, Pierre R; Waters, Michael D

    2004-01-01

    The marriage of toxicology and genomics has created not only opportunities but also novel informatics challenges. As with the larger field of gene expression analysis, toxicogenomics faces the problems of probe annotation and data comparison across different array platforms. Toxicogenomics studies are generally built on standard toxicology studies generating biological end point data, and as such, one goal of toxicogenomics is to detect relationships between changes in gene expression and in those biological parameters. These challenges are best addressed through data collection into a well-designed toxicogenomics database. A successful publicly accessible toxicogenomics database will serve as a repository for data sharing and as a resource for analysis, data mining, and discussion. It will offer a vehicle for harmonizing nomenclature and analytical approaches and serve as a reference for regulatory organizations to evaluate toxicogenomics data submitted as part of registrations. Such a database would capture the experimental context of in vivo studies with great fidelity such that the dynamics of the dose response could be probed statistically with confidence. This review presents the collaborative efforts between the European Molecular Biology Laboratory-European Bioinformatics Institute ArrayExpress, the International Life Sciences Institute Health and Environmental Science Institute, and the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences National Center for Toxigenomics Chemical Effects in Biological Systems knowledge base. The goal of this collaboration is to establish public infrastructure on an international scale and examine other developments aimed at establishing toxicogenomics databases. In this review we discuss several issues common to such databases: the requirement for identifying minimal descriptors to represent the experiment, the demand for standardizing data storage and exchange formats, the challenge of creating standardized nomenclature

  7. VLTI-UT vibrations effort and performances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poupar, Sébastien; Haguenauer, Pierre; Alonso, Jaime; Schuhler, Nicolas; Henriquez, Juan-Pablo; Berger, Jean-Philippe; Bourget, Pierre; Brillant, Stephane; Castillo, Roberto; Gitton, Philippe; Gonte, Frederic; Di Lieto, Nicola; Lizon, Jean-Louis; Merand, Antoine; Woillez, Julien

    2014-07-01

    The ESO Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI) using the Unit Telescope (UT) was strongly affected by vibrations since the first observations. Investigation by ESO on that subject had started in 2007, with a considerable effort since mid 2008. An important number of investigations on various sub-systems (On telescope: Guiding, Passive supports, Train Coude, insulation of electronics cabinets; On Instruments: dedicated campaign on each instruments with a special attention on the ones equipped with Close Cycle Cooler) were realized. Vibrations were not only recorded and analyzed using the usual accelerometers but also using on use sub-systems as InfRared Image Sensor (IRIS) and Multiple Applications Curvature Adaptive Optics (MACAO) and using a specific tool developed for vibrations measurements Mirror vibrAtion Metrology systeM for the Unit Telescope (MAMMUT). Those tools and systems have been used in order to improve the knowledge on telescope by finding sources. The sources whenever it was possible were damped. As known for years, instruments are still the principal sources of vibrations, for the majority of the UT. A special test in which 2 UTs instruments were completely shut down was realized to determine the minimum Optical Path Length (OPL) achievable. Vibrations is now a part of the instruments interface document and during the installation of any new instrument (KMOS) or system (AOF) a test campaign is realized. As a result some modifications (damping of CCC) can be asked in case of non-compliance. To ensure good operational conditions, levels of vibrations are regularly recorded to control any environmental change.

  8. Holographic data storage: rebirthing a commercialization effort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Ken; Ayres, Mark; Sissom, Brad; Askham, Fred

    2014-02-01

    The realization of a commercial holographic data storage device has remained elusive for many decades. The most recent efforts were by InPhase Technologies between 2001 and 2009 resulting in 52 functioning prototypes capable of 300GB/disk and 20MB/s transfer rates. Despite being the world's first fully functional holographic drives, the primary competitor to holographic archive storage at that time, LTO, had already achieved 800GB and 120MB/in 2008; and by 2010, LTO had achieved 1.5TB and 140MB/s. This left InPhase at a competitive disadvantage to LTO archive solutions despite other strengths such as robustness, random access, and longer-term archive lifetime. Looking into the future, holographic data storage must be highly competitive with tape in three critical areas: cost/TB, capacity/footprint, and transfer rate. If this can be achieved, holographic data storage would become a superior solution given the low latencies and overall robustness to propel it into being the archive storage front-runner. New technology advancements by Akonia Holographics have enabled the potential for ultra-high capacity holographic storage devices that are capable of world record bit densities of over 2Tbit/in2, 200-300MB/s transfer rates, and a media cost less than $10/TB in the next 5 years. A demonstration platform based on these new advances has been designed and is currently being built by Akonia to progressively demonstrate bit densities of 2Tb/in2, 4Tb/in2, and 8Tb/in2 over the next year.

  9. 1996 Design effort for IFMIF HEBT

    SciTech Connect

    Blind, B.

    1997-01-01

    The paper details the 1996 design effort for the IFMIF HEBT. Following a brief overview, it lists the primary requirements for the beam at the target, describes the design approach and design tools used, introduces the beamline modules, gives the results achieved with the design at this stage, points out possible improvements and gives the names and computer locations of the TRACE3-D and PARMILA files that sum up the design work. The design does not fully meet specifications in regards to the flatness of the distribution at the target. With further work, including if necessary some backup options, the flatness specifications may be realized. It is not proposed that the specifications, namely flatness to {+-}5% and higher-intensity ridges that are no more than 15% above average, be changed at this time. The design also does not meet the requirement that the modules of all beamlines should operate at the same settings. However, the goal of using identical components and operational procedures has been met and only minor returning is needed to produce very similar beam distributions from all beamlines. Significant further work is required in the following areas: TRACE3-D designs and PARMILA runs must be made for the beams coming from accelerators No. 3 and No. 4. Transport of 30-MeV and 35-MeV beams to the targets and beam dump must be studied. Comprehensive error studies must be made. These must result in tolerance specifications and may require design iterations. Detailed interfacing with target-spot instrumentation is required. This instrumentation must be able to check all aspects of the specifications.

  10. Mindfulness training affects attention--or is it attentional effort?

    PubMed

    Jensen, Christian Gaden; Vangkilde, Signe; Frokjaer, Vibe; Hasselbalch, Steen G

    2012-02-01

    Improvements in attentional performance are at the core of proposed mechanisms for stress reduction in mindfulness meditation practices. However, this claim can be questioned because no previous studies have actively manipulated test effort in control groups and controlled for effects of stress reduction per se. In a blinded design, 48 young, healthy meditation novices were randomly assigned to a mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR), nonmindfulness stress reduction (NMSR), or inactive control group. At posttest, inactive controls were randomly split into nonincentive and incentive controls, the latter receiving a financial reward to improve attentional performance. Pre- and postintervention, 5 validated attention paradigms were employed along with self-report scales on mindfulness and perceived stress and saliva cortisol samples to measure physiological stress. Attentional effects of MBSR, NMSR, and the financial incentive were comparable or significantly larger in the incentive group on all reaction-time-based measures. However, selective attention in the MBSR group improved significantly more than in any other group. Similarly, only the MBSR intervention improved the threshold for conscious perception and visual working memory capacity. Furthermore, stress-reducing effects of MBSR were supported because those in the MBSR group showed significantly less perceived and physiological stress while increasing their mindfulness levels significantly. We argue that MBSR may contribute uniquely to attentional improvements but that further research focusing on non-reaction-time-based measures and outcomes less confounded by test effort is needed. Critically, our data demonstrate that previously observed improvements of attention after MBSR may be seriously confounded by test effort and nonmindfulness stress reduction.

  11. Standardization Efforts of Digital Pathology in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Rojo, Marcial García; Daniel, Christel; Schrader, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Background: EURO-TELEPATH is a European COST Action IC0604. It started in 2007 and will end in November 2011. Its main objectives are evaluating and validating the common technological framework and communication standards required to access, transmit, and manage digital medical records by pathologists and other medical specialties in a networked environment. Business Modelling: Working Group 1, “Business Modelling in Pathology,” has designed main pathology processes – Frozen Study, Formalin Fixed Specimen Study, Telepathology, Cytology, and Autopsy – using Business Process Modelling Notation (BPMN). Informatics Standards in Pathology: Working Group 2 has been dedicated to promoting the application of informatics standards in pathology, collaborating with Integrating Healthcare Enterprise (IHE), Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM), Health Level Seven (HL7), and other standardization bodies. Conclusion: Health terminology standardization research has become a topic of great interest. Future research work should focus on standardizing automatic image analysis and tissue microarrays imaging. PMID:21987588

  12. Technology Against Terrorism: The Federal Effort

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-07-01

    the battlefield 7 months to isolate the Legionnaires ’ disease Le- threat. However, some of the detection research gionella pneumophila bacterium when...building housing the Off ice of Technology Assessment. change in national policy that would incorporate a more proactive approach in dealing with...technologies that could be useful in the battle against interface between humans and machines ), manage- terrorism. The study was approved by OTA’s ment

  13. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, J. R.; St. Clair, T. L.; Burks, H. D.; Stoakley, D. M.

    1987-01-01

    A method has been found for enhancing the melt flow of thermoplastic polyimides during processing. A high molecular weight 422 copoly(amic acid) or copolyimide was fused with approximately 0.05 to 5 pct by weight of a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive, and this melt was studied by capillary rheometry. Excellent flow and improved composite properties on graphite resulted from the addition of a PMDA-aniline additive to LARC-TPI. Solution viscosity studies imply that amic acid additives temporarily lower molecular weight and, hence, enlarge the processing window. Thus, compositions containing the additive have a lower melt viscosity for a longer time than those unmodified.

  14. [Food additives and healthiness].

    PubMed

    Heinonen, Marina

    2014-01-01

    Additives are used for improving food structure or preventing its spoilage, for example. Many substances used as additives are also naturally present in food. The safety of additives is evaluated according to commonly agreed principles. If high concentrations of an additive cause adverse health effects for humans, a limit of acceptable daily intake (ADI) is set for it. An additive is a risk only when ADI is exceeded. The healthiness of food is measured on the basis of nutrient density and scientifically proven effects.

  15. Motor effort alters changes of mind in sensorimotor decision making.

    PubMed

    Burk, Diana; Ingram, James N; Franklin, David W; Shadlen, Michael N; Wolpert, Daniel M

    2014-01-01

    After committing to an action, a decision-maker can change their mind to revise the action. Such changes of mind can even occur when the stream of information that led to the action is curtailed at movement onset. This is explained by the time delays in sensory processing and motor planning which lead to a component at the end of the sensory stream that can only be processed after initiation. Such post-initiation processing can explain the pattern of changes of mind by asserting an accumulation of additional evidence to a criterion level, termed change-of-mind bound. Here we test the hypothesis that physical effort associated with the movement required to change one's mind affects the level of the change-of-mind bound and the time for post-initiation deliberation. We varied the effort required to change from one choice target to another in a reaching movement by varying the geometry of the choice targets or by applying a force field between the targets. We show that there is a reduction in the frequency of change of mind when the separation of the choice targets would require a larger excursion of the hand from the initial to the opposite choice. The reduction is best explained by an increase in the evidence required for changes of mind and a reduced time period of integration after the initial decision. Thus the criteria to revise an initial choice is sensitive to energetic costs.

  16. [Limitation of the therapeutic effort in pediatric intensive care].

    PubMed

    Morales, V Gonzalo

    2015-01-01

    Pediatric intensive care is a relatively new medical specialty, which has experienced significant technological advances in recent years. These developments have led to a prolongation of the dying process, with additional suffering for patients and their families, creating complex situations, and often causing a painful life extension. The term, limitation of the therapeutic effort refers to the adequacy and/or proportionality of the treatment, trying to avoid obstinacy and futility. The English literature does not talk about limitation of treatments, but instead the terms, withholding or withdrawal of life-sustaining treatment, are used. The removal or the non-installation of certain life support measures and the absence of CPR are the types of limitation most used. Also, there is evidence of insufficient medical training in bioethics, which is essential, as most doctors in the PICU discuss and make decisions regarding the end of life without the opinion of bioethicists. This article attempts to review the current status of knowledge concerning the limitation of therapeutic efforts to support pediatric clinical work.

  17. The addition of rituximab to fludarabine and cyclophosphamide chemotherapy results in a significant improvement in overall survival in patients with newly diagnosed mantle cell lymphoma: results of a randomized UK National Cancer Research Institute trial

    PubMed Central

    Rule, Simon; Smith, Paul; Johnson, Peter W.M.; Bolam, Simon; Follows, George; Gambell, Joanne; Hillmen, Peter; Jack, Andrew; Johnson, Stephen; Kirkwood, Amy A; Kruger, Anton; Pocock, Christopher; Seymour, John F.; Toncheva, Milena; Walewski, Jan; Linch, David

    2016-01-01

    Mantle cell lymphoma is an incurable and generally aggressive lymphoma that is more common in elderly patients. Whilst a number of different chemotherapeutic regimens are active in this disease, there is no established gold standard therapy. Rituximab has been used widely to good effect in B-cell malignancies but there is no evidence that it improves outcomes when added to chemotherapy in this disease. We performed a randomized, open-label, multicenter study looking at the addition of rituximab to the standard chemotherapy regimen of fludarabine and cyclophosphamide in patients with newly diagnosed mantle cell lymphoma. A total of 370 patients were randomized. With a median follow up of six years, rituximab improved the median progression-free survival from 14.9 to 29.8 months (P<0.001) and overall survival from 37.0 to 44.5 months (P=0.005). This equates to absolute differences of 9.0% and 22.1% for overall and progression-free survival, respectively, at two years. Overall response rates were similar, but complete response rates were significantly higher in the rituximab arm: 52.7% vs. 39.9% (P=0.014). There was no clinically significant additional toxicity observed with the addition of rituximab. Overall, approximately 18% of patients died of non-lymphomatous causes, most commonly infections. The addition of rituximab to fludarabine and cyclophosphamide chemotherapy significantly improves outcomes in patients with mantle cell lymphoma. However, these regimens have significant late toxicity and should be used with caution. This trial has been registered (ISRCTN81133184 and clinicaltrials.gov:00641095) and is supported by the UK National Cancer Research Network. PMID:26611473

  18. The addition of rituximab to fludarabine and cyclophosphamide chemotherapy results in a significant improvement in overall survival in patients with newly diagnosed mantle cell lymphoma: results of a randomized UK National Cancer Research Institute trial.

    PubMed

    Rule, Simon; Smith, Paul; Johnson, Peter W M; Bolam, Simon; Follows, George; Gambell, Joanne; Hillmen, Peter; Jack, Andrew; Johnson, Stephen; Kirkwood, Amy A; Kruger, Anton; Pocock, Christopher; Seymour, John F; Toncheva, Milena; Walewski, Jan; Linch, David

    2016-02-01

    Mantle cell lymphoma is an incurable and generally aggressive lymphoma that is more common in elderly patients. Whilst a number of different chemotherapeutic regimens are active in this disease, there is no established gold standard therapy. Rituximab has been used widely to good effect in B-cell malignancies but there is no evidence that it improves outcomes when added to chemotherapy in this disease. We performed a randomized, open-label, multicenter study looking at the addition of rituximab to the standard chemotherapy regimen of fludarabine and cyclophosphamide in patients with newly diagnosed mantle cell lymphoma. A total of 370 patients were randomized. With a median follow up of six years, rituximab improved the median progression-free survival from 14.9 to 29.8 months (P<0.001) and overall survival from 37.0 to 44.5 months (P=0.005). This equates to absolute differences of 9.0% and 22.1% for overall and progression-free survival, respectively, at two years. Overall response rates were similar, but complete response rates were significantly higher in the rituximab arm: 52.7% vs. 39.9% (P=0.014). There was no clinically significant additional toxicity observed with the addition of rituximab. Overall, approximately 18% of patients died of non-lymphomatous causes, most commonly infections. The addition of rituximab to fludarabine and cyclophosphamide chemotherapy significantly improves outcomes in patients with mantle cell lymphoma. However, these regimens have significant late toxicity and should be used with caution. This trial has been registered (ISRCTN81133184 and clinicaltrials.gov:00641095) and is supported by the UK National Cancer Research Network.

  19. Bupropion Increases Selection of High Effort Activity in Rats Tested on a Progressive Ratio/Chow Feeding Choice Procedure: Implications for Treatment of Effort-Related Motivational Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Randall, Patrick A.; Lee, Christie A.; Podurgiel, Samantha J.; Hart, Evan; Yohn, Samantha E.; Jones, Myles; Rowland, Margaret; López-Cruz, Laura; Correa, Mercè

    2015-01-01

    Background: Depression and related disorders are characterized by deficits in behavioral activation, exertion of effort, and other psychomotor/motivational dysfunctions. Depressed patients show alterations in effort-related decision making and a bias towards selection of low effort activities. It has been suggested that animal tests of effort-related decision making could be useful as models of motivational dysfunctions seen in psychopathology. Methods: Because clinical studies have suggested that inhibition of catecholamine uptake may be a useful strategy for treatment of effort-related motivational symptoms, the present research assessed the ability of bupropion to increase work output in rats responding on a test of effort-related decision-making (ie, a progressive ratio/chow feeding choice task). With this task, rats can choose between working for a preferred food (high-carbohydrate pellets) by lever pressing on a progressive ratio schedule vs obtaining a less preferred laboratory chow that is freely available in the chamber. Results: Bupropion (10.0–40.0 mg/kg intraperitoneal) significantly increased all measures of progressive ratio lever pressing, but decreased chow intake. These effects were greatest in animals with low baseline levels of work output on the progressive ratio schedule. Because accumbens dopamine is implicated in effort-related processes, the effects of bupropion on markers of accumbens dopamine transmission were examined. Bupropion elevated extracellular dopamine levels in accumbens core as measured by microdialysis and increased phosphorylated dopamine and cyclic-AMP related phosphoprotein 32 kDaltons (pDARPP-32) immunoreactivity in a manner consistent with D1 and D2 receptor stimulation. Conclusion: The ability of bupropion to increase exertion of effort in instrumental behavior may have implications for the pathophysiology and treatment of effort-related motivational symptoms in humans. PMID:25575584

  20. Executable Architecture Research at Old Dominion University

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tolk, Andreas; Shuman, Edwin A.; Garcia, Johnny J.

    2011-01-01

    Executable Architectures allow the evaluation of system architectures not only regarding their static, but also their dynamic behavior. However, the systems engineering community do not agree on a common formal specification of executable architectures. To close this gap and identify necessary elements of an executable architecture, a modeling language, and a modeling formalism is topic of ongoing PhD research. In addition, systems are generally defined and applied in an operational context to provide capabilities and enable missions. To maximize the benefits of executable architectures, a second PhD effort introduces the idea of creating an executable context in addition to the executable architecture. The results move the validation of architectures from the current information domain into the knowledge domain and improve the reliability of such validation efforts. The paper presents research and results of both doctoral research efforts and puts them into a common context of state-of-the-art of systems engineering methods supporting more agility.

  1. A collaborative report on the synthesis of subsurface data from the Deepwater Horizon response effort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsons, A. R.; Cross, S. L.; Joint Analysis Group (Jag)Surface; Sub-Surface Oceanography, Oil; Dispersant Data

    2010-12-01

    The combined response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill has generated a substantial collection of multi-disciplinary oceanographic data that have undergone initial quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) and are publicly available. Physical and biogeochemical measurements used to track the extent and fate of deep subsurface hydrocarbons, have been reviewed and assembled by the Joint Analysis Group (JAG - full membership at http://ecowatch.ncddc.noaa.gov/jag/membership.html). The assembled dataset is hosted on a JAG website (http://ecowatch.ncddc.noaa.gov/jag)) and is archived at the NOAA National Oceanographic Data Center (http://www.nodc.noaa.gov/General/DeepwaterHorizon/support.html ). The JAG is a collaborative team of scientists from federal, academic and industrial organizations tasked with providing rapid response analysis of data. Initial analysis and reports on the subsurface expression of the Deepwater spill focused on the data collected between 1,000 to 1,500 m depth. The data assembled by the JAG includes more than 1100 hydrographic casts, 3500 chemical analyses of hydrocarbon concentrations, dissolved oxygen, fluorescence, and 2500 laser in situ scattering and transmissometery (LISST) suspended particle size distribution and concentration measurements. The JAG reports on preliminary data analyses are also publicly available through the JAG website. This presentation highlights some initial analyses and results from the subsurface hydrocarbon signature. In addition details on the data collection effort, QA/QC procedure, and available formats will be provided to support continued public access for research purposes. The JAG wishes to acknowledge and thank the scientists and crews of the research vessels for their efforts to collect the data that are included in this presentation.

  2. Consolidating newborn screening efforts in the Asia Pacific region : Networking and shared education.

    PubMed

    Padilla, Carmencita David; Therrell, Bradford L

    2012-01-01

    Many of the countries in the Asia Pacific Region, particularly those with depressed and developing economies, are just initiating newborn screening programs for selected metabolic and other congenital disorders. The cultural, geographic, language, and economic differences that exist throughout the region add to the challenges of developing sustainable newborn screening systems. There are currently more developing programs than developed programs within the region. Newborn screening activities in the Asia Pacific Region are particularly important since births there account for approximately half of the world's births. To date, there have been two workshops to facilitate formation of the Asia Pacific Newborn Screening Collaboratives. The 1st Workshop on Consolidating Newborn Screening Efforts in the Asia Pacific Region occurred in Cebu, Philippines, on March 30-April 1, 2008, as a satellite meeting to the 7th Asia Pacific Conference on Human Genetics. The second workshop was held on June 4-5, 2010, in Manila, Philippines. Workshop participants included key policy-makers, service providers, researchers, and consumer advocates from 11 countries with 50% or less newborn screening coverage. Expert lectures included experiences in the United States and the Netherlands, international quality assurance activities and ongoing and potential research activities. Additional meeting support was provided by the U.S. National Institutes of Health, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the U.S. National Newborn Screening and Genetics Resource Center, the International Society for Neonatal Screening, and the March of Dimes. As part of both meeting activities, participants shared individual experiences in program implementation with formal updates of screening information for each country. This report reviews the activities and country reports from two Workshops on Consolidating Newborn Screening Efforts in the Asia Pacific Region with emphasis on the second workshop. It

  3. Additive Layer Manufacturing for Launcher's Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilanova, J.; Romera, P.; Lasagni, F.; Zorrilla, A.; Perinan, A.

    2014-06-01

    In the next years the European space industry has the challenge of maintaining its competitiveness in launch vehicles (LV) production, due to the growth of competition worldwide. It has to assure its position developing new applied technologies. In this field the effort is focussed on the production of short series of customized products, like payloads, flight components or launcher parts. ALM (Additive Layer Manufacturing) could be a powerful tool that offers new competitiveness factors for this industry, comprising a set of emerging technologies that are becoming a competitor to forming, casting and machining as well as being utilised directly as a complementary alternative.Originally used for prototypes and models, now ALM becomes a very useful technology capable to fabricate functional parts for the space industrial sector. Its demands on rapid technologies are different to "earth" industries, and they aren't so easily satisfied because space is a field with different requirements depending on its application: launchers, reusable vehicles, satellites, probes, low gravity researches, manned spacecraft, or even moon and planetary exploration.This paper reports on the ALM potential applications, under ESA requirements, exploring the challenges and possibilities for its use in the launchers market, trying to answer two basic questions: the first one, whether ALM is a mature technology to be ready for its use as flight hardware; and the second one, if it can be used to reduce the product cycle, and consequently, the development, production and operational costs.

  4. Trait Anticipatory Pleasure Predicts Effort Expenditure for Reward

    PubMed Central

    Geaney, Joachim T.; Treadway, Michael T.; Smillie, Luke D.

    2015-01-01

    Research in motivation and emotion has been increasingly influenced by the perspective that processes underpinning the motivated approach of rewarding goals are distinct from those underpinning enjoyment during reward consummation. This distinction recently inspired the construction of the Temporal Experience of Pleasure Scale (TEPS), a self-report measure that distinguishes trait anticipatory pleasure (pre-reward feelings of desire) from consummatory pleasure (feelings of enjoyment and gratification upon reward attainment). In a university community sample (N = 97), we examined the TEPS subscales as predictors of (1) the willingness to expend effort for monetary rewards, and (2) affective responses to a pleasant mood induction procedure. Results showed that both anticipatory pleasure and a well-known trait measure of reward motivation predicted effort-expenditure for rewards when the probability of being rewarded was relatively low. Against expectations, consummatory pleasure was unrelated to induced pleasant affect. Taken together, our findings provide support for the validity of the TEPS anticipatory pleasure scale, but not the consummatory pleasure scale. PMID:26115223

  5. Life Science Professional Societies Expand Undergraduate Education Efforts.

    PubMed

    Matyas, Marsha Lakes; Ruedi, Elizabeth A; Engen, Katie; Chang, Amy L

    2017-01-01

    The Vision and Change in Undergraduate Biology Education reports cite the critical role of professional societies in undergraduate life science education and, since 2008, have called for the increased involvement of professional societies in support of undergraduate education. Our study explored the level of support being provided by societies for undergraduate education and documented changes in support during the Vision and Change era. Society representatives responded to a survey on programs, awards, meetings, membership, teaching resources, publications, staffing, finances, evaluation, and collaborations that address undergraduate faculty and students. A longitudinal comparison group of societies responded to surveys in both 2008 and 2014. Results indicate that life science professional societies are extensively engaged in undergraduate education in their fields, setting standards for their discipline, providing vetted education resources, engaging students in both research and education, and enhancing professional development and recognition/status for educators. Societies are devoting funding and staff to these efforts and engaging volunteer leadership. Longitudinal comparison group responses indicate there have been significant and quantifiable expansions of undergraduate efforts in many areas since 2008. These indicators can serve as a baseline for defining, aligning, and measuring how professional societies can promote sustainable, evidence-based support of undergraduate education initiatives.

  6. Collaborative Efforts Driving Progress in Pediatric Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Zwaan, C. Michel; Kolb, Edward A.; Reinhardt, Dirk; Abrahamsson, Jonas; Adachi, Souichi; Aplenc, Richard; De Bont, Eveline S.J.M.; De Moerloose, Barbara; Dworzak, Michael; Gibson, Brenda E.S.; Hasle, Henrik; Leverger, Guy; Locatelli, Franco; Ragu, Christine; Ribeiro, Raul C.; Rizzari, Carmelo; Rubnitz, Jeffrey E.; Smith, Owen P.; Sung, Lillian; Tomizawa, Daisuke; van den Heuvel-Eibrink, Marry M.; Creutzig, Ursula; Kaspers, Gertjan J.L.

    2015-01-01

    Diagnosis, treatment, response monitoring, and outcome of pediatric acute myeloid leukemia (AML) have made enormous progress during the past decades. Because AML is a rare type of childhood cancer, with an incidence of approximately seven occurrences per 1 million children annually, national and international collaborative efforts have evolved. This overview describes these efforts and includes a summary of the history and contributions of each of the main collaborative pediatric AML groups worldwide. The focus is on translational and clinical research, which includes past, current, and future clinical trials. Separate sections concern acute promyelocytic leukemia, myeloid leukemia of Down syndrome, and relapsed AML. A plethora of novel antileukemic agents that have emerged, including new classes of drugs, are summarized as well. Finally, an important aspect of the treatment of pediatric AML—supportive care—and late effects are discussed. The future is bright, with a wide range of emerging innovative therapies and with more and more international collaboration that ultimately aim to cure all children with AML, with fewer adverse effects and without late effects. PMID:26304895

  7. Life Science Professional Societies Expand Undergraduate Education Efforts

    PubMed Central

    Matyas, Marsha Lakes; Ruedi, Elizabeth A.; Engen, Katie; Chang, Amy L.

    2017-01-01

    The Vision and Change in Undergraduate Biology Education reports cite the critical role of professional societies in undergraduate life science education and, since 2008, have called for the increased involvement of professional societies in support of undergraduate education. Our study explored the level of support being provided by societies for undergraduate education and documented changes in support during the Vision and Change era. Society representatives responded to a survey on programs, awards, meetings, membership, teaching resources, publications, staffing, finances, evaluation, and collaborations that address undergraduate faculty and students. A longitudinal comparison group of societies responded to surveys in both 2008 and 2014. Results indicate that life science professional societies are extensively engaged in undergraduate education in their fields, setting standards for their discipline, providing vetted education resources, engaging students in both research and education, and enhancing professional development and recognition/status for educators. Societies are devoting funding and staff to these efforts and engaging volunteer leadership. Longitudinal comparison group responses indicate there have been significant and quantifiable expansions of undergraduate efforts in many areas since 2008. These indicators can serve as a baseline for defining, aligning, and measuring how professional societies can promote sustainable, evidence-based support of undergraduate education initiatives. PMID:28130272

  8. Site Protection Efforts at the AURA Observatory in Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, R. Chris; Sanhueza, Pedro; Smith, Malcolm G.

    2016-10-01

    The AURA Observatory site in northern Chile, which includes Cerro Tololo and Cerro Pachon, has been operational for over 50 years now, facing a variety of challenges to its long-term future. The site now hosts over 20 operational telescopes, ranging from small projects with 0.4m telescopes to the Blanco 4m, the SOAR 4.1m, and the 8m Gemini-South telescopes. In addition, we have recently begun the construction of the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) on the summit of Cerro Pachon. We summarize our efforts over the past 20-30 years to highlight the importance of site protection through education and public outreach as well as through more recent promotion of IDA certifications in the region and support for the World Heritage initiatives described by others in this conference.

  9. A Coordinated Effort to Address Space Weather and Environment Needs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minow, Joe; Spann, James F.; Edward, David L.; Burns, Howard D.; Gallagher, Dennis; Xapos, Mike; DeGroh, Kim

    2010-01-01

    The growing need for coordination of the many aspects of space environments is directly related to our increasing dependence on space assets. An obvious result is that there is a need for a coordinated effort to organize and make accessible the increasing number of space environment products that include space environment models and observations, material testing, and forecasting tools. This paper outlines a concept to establish a NASA-level Applied Spaceflight Environments (ASE) office that will provide coordination and funding for sustained multi-program support in three technical areas; (1) natural environments characterization and modeling, (2) environmental effects on materials and systems, (3) and operational and forecasting space environments modeling. Additionally the ASE office will serve as an entry point of contact for external users who wish to take advantage of data and assets associated with space environments, including space weather.

  10. Overview 2004 of NASA-Stirling Convertor CFD Model Development and Regenerator R and D Efforts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tew, Roy C.; Dyson, Rodger W.; Wilson, Scott D.; Demko, Rikako

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports on accomplishments in 2004 in (1) development of Stirling-convertor CFD models at NASA Glenn and via a NASA grant, (2) a Stirling regenerator-research effort being conducted via a NASA grant (a follow-on effort to an earlier DOE contract), and (3) a regenerator-microfabrication contract for development of a "next-generation Stirling regenerator." Cleveland State University is the lead organization for all three grant/contractual efforts, with the University of Minnesota and Gedeon Associates as subcontractors. Also, the Stirling Technology Company and Sunpower, Inc. are both involved in all three efforts, either as funded or unfunded participants. International Mezzo Technologies of Baton Rouge, Louisiana is the regenerator fabricator for the regenerator-microfabrication contract. Results of the efforts in these three areas are summarized.

  11. Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathematics Teaching, 1973

    1973-01-01

    Implications for teachers from Piagetian-oriented piagetian-oriented research on problem solving reported in an article by Eleanor Duckworth are presented. Edward de Bono's Children Solve Problems,'' a collection of examples, is also discussed. (MS)

  12. Recent Development Efforts for Military Airships

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-11-01

    the The cover shows a U.S. Navy MZ-3A manned airship landing at Lake Front Airport, New Orleans, Loui provide support for the Deepwater Unified Command...airship. The Navy has no announced plans to deploy the MZ-3A over- seas, but it was used to help monitor the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of...2003 to 2006, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency pursued a program called the Hybrid Ultra -Large Aircraft (HULA), or Walrus, with the goal

  13. Efforts to make and apply humanized yeast

    PubMed Central

    Laurent, Jon M.; Young, Jonathan H.; Kachroo, Aashiq H.

    2016-01-01

    Despite a billion years of divergent evolution, the baker’s yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has long proven to be an invaluable model organism for studying human biology. Given its tractability and ease of genetic manipulation, along with extensive genetic conservation with humans, it is perhaps no surprise that researchers have been able to expand its utility by expressing human proteins in yeast, or by humanizing specific yeast amino acids, proteins or even entire pathways. These methods are increasingly being scaled in throughput, further enabling the detailed investigation of human biology and disease-specific variations of human genes in a simplified model organism. PMID:26462863

  14. Maximizing Research and Development Resources: Identifying and Testing "Load-Bearing Conditions" for Educational Technology Innovations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iriti, Jennifer; Bickel, William; Schunn, Christian; Stein, Mary Kay

    2016-01-01

    Education innovations often have a complicated set of assumptions about the contexts in which they are implemented, which may not be explicit. Education technology innovations in particular may have additional technical and cultural assumptions. As a result, education technology research and development efforts as well as scaling efforts can be…

  15. Water Requirements for Energy Production Technologies: A Collaborative Effort to Support Integrated Resource Planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Averyt, K.; Macknick, J.; Participants in The WaterEnergy Workshop

    2010-12-01

    Global, national and regional concerns are emerging about the capacity of available water resources to meet increasing energy demands posed by a growing population—particularly as water availability is expected to shift as a result of a warming climate. For the same reasons, the use of both non-traditional water resources and water transport is expected to increase, creating greater demand for energy to move and treat water. Integrated planning efforts designed to avoid collisions between water and energy resource management decisions require consistent data outlining both the water requirements for energy development, and the energy required to move and treat water. Here we present the results of a collaborative, interagency effort to compile, assess, and outline consumptive uses of water associated with different parts of the energy generation process. A consistent set of data is important to support integrated modeling efforts in support of decision making and planning. The leaders of several efforts occurring in parallel to collate water use data converged at a workshop held in August 2010. The participants shared estimates of water use related to the major water-consuming steps of all the energy production processes currently operating in the U.S., and those expected to be online in the future. Discussions also addressed underlying data assumptions, data reliability concerns, and regional variability in reported ranges of values. Participants identified key data gaps, determining whether outside expert engagement could fill the gaps, or if additional research was required. The team collaborated after the meeting to fill in the data gaps utilizing institutional knowledge from a wide variety of agencies. The end result is a compilation of best estimates of the water requirements for energy production, as agreed to by the expert participants at the workshop and subsequent interactions. One key informational gap emerging from the workshop is the need to

  16. Results and current status of the NPARC alliance validation effort

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Towne, Charles E.; Jones, Ralph R.

    1996-01-01

    The NPARC Alliance is a partnership between the NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC) and the USAF Arnold Engineering Development Center (AEDC) dedicated to the establishment of a national CFD capability, centered on the NPARC Navier-Stokes computer program. The three main tasks of the Alliance are user support, code development, and validation. The present paper is a status report on the validation effort. It describes the validation approach being taken by the Alliance. Representative results are presented for laminar and turbulent flat plate boundary layers, a supersonic axisymmetric jet, and a glancing shock/turbulent boundary layer interaction. Cases scheduled to be run in the future are also listed. The archive of validation cases is described, including information on how to access it via the Internet.

  17. US Department of Energy's Efforts in Intelligent Processing Equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peavy, Richard D.; Mcfarland, Janet C.

    1992-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) uses intelligent processing equipment (IPE) technologies to conduct research and development and manufacturing for energy and nuclear weapons programs. This paper highlights several significant IPE efforts underway in DOE. IPE technologies are essential to the accomplishment of DOE's missions, because of the need for small lot production, precision, and accuracy in manufacturing, hazardous waste management, and protection of the environment and the safety and health of the workforce and public. Applications of IPE technologies include environmental remediation and waste handling, advanced manufacturing, and automation of tasks carried out in hazardous areas. DOE laboratories have several key programs that integrate robotics, sensor, and control technologies. These programs embody a considerable technical capability that also may be used to enhance U.S. industrial competitiveness. DOE encourages closer cooperation with U.S. industrial partners based on mutual benefits. This paper briefly describes technology transfer mechanisms available for industrial involvement.

  18. Effort Drivers Estimation for Brazilian Geographically Distributed Software Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almeida, Ana Carina M.; Souza, Renata; Aquino, Gibeon; Meira, Silvio

    To meet the requirements of today’s fast paced markets, it is important to develop projects on time and with the minimum use of resources. A good estimate is the key to achieve this goal. Several companies have started to work with geographically distributed teams due to cost reduction and time-to-market. Some researchers indicate that this approach introduces new challenges, because the teams work in different time zones and have possible differences in culture and language. It is already known that the multisite development increases the software cycle time. Data from 15 DSD projects from 10 distinct companies were collected. The analysis shows drivers that impact significantly the total effort planned to develop systems using DSD approach in Brazil.

  19. Exploring the Identity-Theft Prevention Efforts of Consumers in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Jacquelyne L.

    2011-01-01

    Identity theft is quite expensive and devastating for victims; unfortunately, it is also a rapidly growing crime. Much of the prior research on identity theft has focused on legislative efforts that may prevent the crime. However, limited research exists on what consumers perceive as identity prevention and the measures they take to prevent…

  20. Effort-Based Decision Making: A Novel Approach for Assessing Motivation in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Green, Michael F.; Horan, William P.; Barch, Deanna M.; Gold, James M.

    2015-01-01

    Because negative symptoms, including motivational deficits, are a critical unmet need in schizophrenia, there are many ongoing efforts to develop new pharmacological and psychosocial interventions for these impairments. A common challenge of these studies involves how to evaluate and select optimal endpoints. Currently, all studies of negative symptoms in schizophrenia depend on ratings from clinician-conducted interviews. Effort-based decision-making tasks may provide a more objective, and perhaps more sensitive, endpoint for trials of motivational negative symptoms. These tasks assess how much effort a person is willing to exert for a given level of reward. This area has been well-studied with animal models of effort and motivation, and effort-based decision-making tasks have been adapted for use in humans. Very recently, several studies have examined physical and cognitive types of effort-based decision-making tasks in cross-sectional studies of schizophrenia, providing evidence for effort-related impairment in this illness. This article covers the theoretical background on effort-based decision-making tasks to provide a context for the subsequent articles in this theme section. In addition, we review the existing literature of studies using these tasks in schizophrenia, consider some practical challenges in adapting them for use in clinical trials in schizophrenia, and discuss interpretive challenges that are central to these types of tasks. PMID:26089350

  1. Effort-Based Decision Making: A Novel Approach for Assessing Motivation in Schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Green, Michael F; Horan, William P; Barch, Deanna M; Gold, James M

    2015-09-01

    Because negative symptoms, including motivational deficits, are a critical unmet need in schizophrenia, there are many ongoing efforts to develop new pharmacological and psychosocial interventions for these impairments. A common challenge of these studies involves how to evaluate and select optimal endpoints. Currently, all studies of negative symptoms in schizophrenia depend on ratings from clinician-conducted interviews. Effort-based decision-making tasks may provide a more objective, and perhaps more sensitive, endpoint for trials of motivational negative symptoms. These tasks assess how much effort a person is willing to exert for a given level of reward. This area has been well-studied with animal models of effort and motivation, and effort-based decision-making tasks have been adapted for use in humans. Very recently, several studies have examined physical and cognitive types of effort-based decision-making tasks in cross-sectional studies of schizophrenia, providing evidence for effort-related impairment in this illness. This article covers the theoretical background on effort-based decision-making tasks to provide a context for the subsequent articles in this theme section. In addition, we review the existing literature of studies using these tasks in schizophrenia, consider some practical challenges in adapting them for use in clinical trials in schizophrenia, and discuss interpretive challenges that are central to these types of tasks.

  2. Physical, emotional, and cognitive effort discounting in gain and loss situations.

    PubMed

    Nishiyama, Ryoji

    2016-04-01

    Evidence suggests that factors associated with obtaining a reward, such as the probability of receiving it, or temporal delays, could influence the reward's subjective value. Several studies have suggested that increasing the effort required decreases the subjective value of a reward. Nevertheless, the nature of effort that results in discounting, discounting in a loss situation, and individual consistency in effort aversion across different types of effort have all remained unclear. Therefore, the present study examined whether physical, emotional, and cognitive efforts induce discounting of subjective reward value under two hypothetical situations. In the gain situation, participants made a choice about engaging in effortful work to obtain a reward, whereas in the loss situation they paid a reward to another person to do the work. The results demonstrated that increasing physical, emotional, and cognitive effort caused discounting of the subjective reward value in both situations. Additionally, the results suggested a relatively high degree of individual consistency in effort aversion in each situation, and a moderate degree of consistency across the two situations.

  3. Maternal sensitivity and latency to positive emotion following challenge: pathways through effortful control.

    PubMed

    Conway, Anne; McDonough, Susan C; Mackenzie, Michael; Miller, Alison; Dayton, Carolyn; Rosenblum, Katherine; Muzik, Maria; Sameroff, Arnold

    2014-01-01

    The ability to self-generate positive emotions is an important component of emotion regulation. In this study, we focus on children's latency to express positive emotions following challenging situations and assess whether this ability operates through early maternal sensitivity and children's effortful control. Longitudinal relations between maternal sensitivity, infant negative affect, effortful control, and latency to positive emotion following challenge were examined in 156 children who were 33 months of age. Structural equation models supported the hypothesis that maternal sensitivity during infancy predicted better effortful control and, in turn, shorter latencies to positive emotions following challenge at 33 months. Directions for future research are discussed.

  4. Prejudice toward individuals with obesity: Evidence for a pro-effort bias.

    PubMed

    Beames, Joanne R; Black, Melissa J; Vartanian, Lenny R

    2016-06-01

    Three studies examined the role of causal beliefs in weight stigma in order to better understand people's evaluations of individuals with obesity. Participants viewed weight-related information about a target individual and evaluated that target on various dimensions. Study 1 showed that offset effort information (i.e., information about effort to lose weight) had a greater impact on participants' evaluations of individuals with obesity than did other causal information, such as onset control and offset ability. Study 2 extended this finding by demonstrating that the duration of effort invested to lose weight is also important in determining participants' evaluations of individuals with obesity. Study 3 replicated the effect of effort (albeit in terms of effort to maintain a healthy lifestyle) on evaluations of individuals without obesity. Furthermore, in all 3 studies, disgust mediated the association between perceived effort and desire for social distance from the target. These findings highlight a key role for effort and disgust in weight stigma, and suggest that the negative evaluations of individuals with obesity might in part reflect a pro-effort bias. The present research has important implications for strategies to reduce weight stigma, and may even inform strategies to reduce social stigma beyond obesity, such as drug addiction. (PsycINFO Database Record

  5. Effort cost computation in schizophrenia: a commentary on the recent literature.

    PubMed

    Gold, James M; Waltz, James A; Frank, Michael J

    2015-12-01

    The cognitive and affective factors implicated in the motivational impairments seen in many people with schizophrenia remain poorly understood. Many research groups have done studies in the past 2 years examining the role of effort-cost computations driven by the hypothesis that overestimation of the cost of effort involved in volitional behavior might underlie the reduction in goal-directed behavior seen in some people with schizophrenia. The goal of this review is to assess the available evidence and the interpretative ambiguities that remain to be addressed by further studies. There is a clear preponderance of evidence suggesting that people with schizophrenia demonstrate altered effort allocation by failing to make high-effort response choices to maximize reward. The evidence relating altered effort allocation to the severity of negative symptoms is mixed. It remains for future work to determine the precise mechanisms implicated in altered effort allocation with two prominent possibilities: that patients 1) overestimate the cost of effort or 2) underestimate the value of potential awards. Other mechanisms that need to be investigated include the potential contributions of other impairments associated with the illness that increase the cost of effort. Furthermore, it is possible that accurate value representations fail to invigorate behavior. Although questions remain, evidence available to date suggests that the study of cost/benefit decision making may shed new light on the motivational impairments seen in many people with schizophrenia.

  6. Life After Research Misconduct.

    PubMed

    Galbraith, Kyle L

    2017-02-01

    Research misconduct is a serious violation of a scientific community's ethical standards. Scientists who commit research misconduct typically face corrective actions from employers and funding agencies, as well as significant professional stigma. Unfortunately, there is little systematic data about the post-misconduct career of these guilty parties. Through a review of Office of Research Integrity (ORI) case summaries, I identified a pool of 284 researchers who engaged in research misconduct and were subject to ORI corrective actions. To assess the prevalence of post-misconduct research activities for these scientists, I searched publicly available databases and online resources for evidence of post-misconduct research activities (such as publications and federal research support). The data demonstrate that researchers often receive second chances as researchers, with indicators of post-misconduct research activities identified for 134 (47.18%) of the offending researchers. In addition, those researchers have received more than US$123 million in federal support for their post-misconduct research efforts.

  7. Additional insights. Commentary on “the musical stroop effect: opening a new avenue to research on automatisms” by l. Grégoire, P. Perruchet, and B. Poulin-Charronnat (Experimental Psychology, 2013, vol. 60, pp. 269–278).

    PubMed

    Akiva-Kabiri, Lilach; Henik, Avishai

    2014-01-01

    In their paper "The Musical Stroop Effect: Opening a New Avenue to Research on Automatisms," Grégoire, Perruchet, and Poulin-Charronnat (2013) use a musical Stroop-like task to demonstrate the automaticity of musical note naming in musicians. In addition, the authors suggest that music training can serve as a tool in order to study the acquisition of automaticity. In the following commentary, we aim to address three main issues concerning the paper by Grégoire et al. (2013). First, we will suggest some additional interpretations of the results; specifically, we will relate to the association between music and space. Second, we will discuss a methodological issue dealing with interference, facilitation, and the role of the neutral condition. We suggest that the study by Grégoire et al. (2013) lacks a proper neutral condition and thus it is impossible to assert that the congruency effect is interference based. Third, we will discuss the authors' suggestion of using the musical Stroop effect as a tool for studying automatism. We consider the practical relevance of music training as a tool for studying the acquisition of automaticity by pointing out that music training is highly heterogeneous.

  8. MACCS2 development and verification efforts

    SciTech Connect

    Young, M.; Chanin, D.

    1997-03-01

    MACCS2 represents a major enhancement of the capabilities of its predecessor MACCS, the MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System. MACCS, released in 1987, was developed to estimate the potential impacts to the surrounding public of severe accidents at nuclear power plants. The principal phenomena considered in MACCS/MACCS2 are atmospheric transport and deposition under time-variant meteorology, short-term and long-term mitigative actions and exposure pathways, deterministic and stochastic health effects, and economic costs. MACCS2 was developed as a general-purpose analytical tool applicable to diverse reactor and nonreactor facilities. The MACCS2 package includes three primary enhancements: (1) a more flexible emergency response model, (2) an expanded library of radionuclides, and (3) a semidynamic food-chain model. In addition, errors that had been identified in MACCS version1.5.11.1 were corrected, including an error that prevented the code from providing intermediate-phase results. MACCS2 version 1.10 beta test was released to the beta-test group in May, 1995. In addition, the University of New Mexico (UNM) has completed an independent verification study of the code package. Since the beta-test release of MACCS2 version 1.10, a number of minor errors have been identified and corrected, and a number of enhancements have been added to the code package. The code enhancements added since the beta-test release of version 1.10 include: (1) an option to allow the user to input the {sigma}{sub y} and {sigma}{sub z} plume expansion parameters in a table-lookup form for incremental downwind distances, (2) an option to define different initial dimensions for up to four segments of a release, (3) an enhancement to the COMIDA2 food-chain model preprocessor to allow the user to supply externally calculated tables of tritium food-chain dose per unit deposition on farmland to support analyses of tritium releases, and (4) the capability to calculate direction-dependent doses.

  9. The middle manager role in energy company environmental efforts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischhoff, Maya E.

    2005-12-01

    This research examines the internal organizational processes determining corporate environmental action. Corporations have a tremendous environmental impact, yet relatively little is known about how employees within them view and work on these issues. The research focused on middle managers, a level of the company whose value is often questioned. Interviews were conducted with 70 middle managers at two energy companies (comprising utilities and unregulated businesses). Interviews examined the shape and significance of middle manager involvement in environmental issues, looking specifically at what issues middle managers deal with, what goals they pursue, and what approaches they use. The research finds middle managers' roles with respect to environmental issues to be far-reaching and complex. Much of their effort is focused on meeting regulatory requirements ("complying"). They are committed to compliance, in part for ethical reasons, but often find regulations frustrating and costly. Compliance is more challenging than commonly thought; it demands time, knowledge, and substantial creativity. In pursuing it, interviewees work with employees throughout the organization. This research shows middle managers interacting with those hierarchically above and below them in ways that greatly modify earlier portrayals of middle managers. Earlier portrayals often emphasized struggles for power within the organization. Here, middle managers work in ways best characterized as collaborative and supportive. Middle managers also have extensive involvement laterally within the company and with groups outside the company. These links have received modest attention in literature, yet are found to be terribly important. Middle managers' lateral efforts inside the company, often on teams, allow diverse expertise (e.g., from people in different functions) to be applied to environmental issues. Documenting middle managers' involvement externally, with governmental officials and sectors

  10. PNNL Coal Gasification Research

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, Douglas J.; Cabe, James E.; Bearden, Mark D.

    2010-07-28

    This report explains the goals of PNNL in relation to coal gasification research. The long-term intent of this effort is to produce a syngas product for use by internal Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) researchers in materials, catalysts, and instrumentation development. Future work on the project will focus on improving the reliability and performance of the gasifier, with a goal of continuous operation for 4 hours using coal feedstock. In addition, system modifications to increase operational flexibility and reliability or accommodate other fuel sources that can be used for syngas production could be useful.

  11. usSEABED: Database Efforts in Marine Surficial Sediments of the US EEZ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, J. A.; Jenkins, C. J.; Field, M. E.; Gardner, J. V.; Zimmermann, M.; Box, C. E.; Kneeshaw, T. A.

    2001-12-01

    The USGS, in partnership with the University of Sydney, Australia and National Marine Fisheries Service, Seattle is constructing a unique marine surficial sediment database, usSEABED, for the United States EEZ. usSEABED maximizes the knowledge of the seafloor by combining sedimentological and biological information, verbal sample and photographic descriptions (through fuzzy set theory), chemical, and acoustic data, along with other seabed geologic characteristics, into a single standardized format. In this way, usSEABED is more than a compilation of known quantitative surficial sediment data but rather provides an integrated view of the seabed. Decades of marine sediment research by federal, state, local, academic, and private institutions has provided temporal and spatial snapshots of the ocean floor, either as focused, tightly gridded sampling efforts, or in the earliest days, more widely scattered efforts. As is, these datasets had disparate purposes with dissimilar sampling parameters, statistics, and data types. usSEABED filters these datasets, providing uniform parameters for quantitative sediment textural data, parsed verbal data (using fuzzy set theory), modeled data, and both geologic and biologic compositional parameters. Access to our efforts is through our website, available in the fall of 2001, which includes an explanation of the processing involved, sample maps, an interactive GIS site, and a data-download site. usSEABED is held in a comma-delimited, field-defined, tree-d structure that can be brought into most COTS relational databases or GIS. Focussed originally on the U.S. Pacific margin, recent work is widening the coverage to areas in Hawaii, Alaska, the Gulf of Mexico, the Great Lakes, and the U.S. Atlantic margin. usSEABED is an ongoing project, with expanding data inclusions and new data-filtering modules available, such as sediment true-color displays and marine mineral locations. We invite the additions of new sedimentological, biological

  12. Thyroid iodide efflux: a team effort?

    PubMed

    Fong, Peying

    2011-12-15

    The thyroid hormones thyroxine (T(4)) and triiodothyronine (T(3)) play key roles in regulating development, growth and metabolism in pre- and postnatal life. Iodide (I(-)) is an essential component of the thyroid hormones and is accumulated avidly by the thyroid gland. The rarity of elemental iodine and I(-) in the environment challenges the thyroid to orchestrate a remarkable series of transport processes that ultimately ensure sufficient levels for hormone synthesis. In addition to actively extracting circulating I(-), thyroid follicular epithelial cells must also translocate I(-) into a central intrafollicular compartment, where thyroglobulin is iodinated to form the protein precursor to T(4) and T(3). In the last decade, several bodies of evidence render questionable the notion that I(-) exits thyrocytes solely via the Cl(-)/I(-) exchanger Pendrin (SLC26A4), therefore necessitating reconsideration of several other candidate I(-) conduits: the Cl(-)/H(+) antiporter, CLC-5, the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) and the sodium monocarboxylic acid transporter (SMCT1).

  13. A History of the Energy Research and Development Administration [ERDA

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Buck, Alice L.

    1982-03-01

    Congress created the Energy Research and Development Administration on October 11, 1974 in response to the Nation's growing need for additional sources of energy. The new agency would coordinate energy programs formerly scattered among many federal agencies, and serve as the focus point for a major effort by the Federal Government to expand energy research and development efforts. New ways to conserve existing supplies as well as the commercial demonstration of new technologies would hopefully be the fruit of the Government's first significant effort to amalgamate energy resource development programs. This history briefly summarizes the accomplishments of the agency.

  14. History of the Energy Research and Development Administration

    SciTech Connect

    Buck, A.L.

    1982-03-01

    Congress created the Energy Research and Development Administration on October 11, 1974 in response to the Nation's growing need for additional sources of energy. The new agency would coordinate energy programs formerly scattered among many federal agencies, and serve as the focus point for a major effort by the Federal Government to expand energy research and development efforts. New ways to conserve existing supplies as well as the commercial demonstration of new technologies would hopefully be the fruit of the Government's first significant effort to amalgamate energy resource development programs. This history briefly summarizes the accomplishments of the agency.

  15. Effort, symptom validity testing, performance validity testing and traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Bigler, Erin D.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: To understand the neurocognitive effects of brain injury, valid neuropsychological test findings are paramount. Review: This review examines the research on what has been referred to a symptom validity testing (SVT). Above a designated cut-score signifies a ‘passing’ SVT performance which is likely the best indicator of valid neuropsychological test findings. Likewise, substantially below cut-point performance that nears chance or is at chance signifies invalid test performance. Significantly below chance is the sine qua non neuropsychological indicator for malingering. However, the interpretative problems with SVT performance below the cut-point yet far above chance are substantial, as pointed out in this review. This intermediate, border-zone performance on SVT measures is where substantial interpretative challenges exist. Case studies are used to highlight the many areas where additional research is needed. Historical perspectives are reviewed along with the neurobiology of effort. Reasons why performance validity testing (PVT) may be better than the SVT term are reviewed. Conclusions: Advances in neuroimaging techniques may be key in better understanding the meaning of border zone SVT failure. The review demonstrates the problems with rigidity in interpretation with established cut-scores. A better understanding of how certain types of neurological, neuropsychiatric and/or even test conditions may affect SVT performance is needed. PMID:25215453

  16. Efforts to Reduce the Impacts of Hydroelectric Power Production on Reservoir Fisheries in the United States.

    SciTech Connect

    Cada, G. F.

    1997-09-08

    Research into the environmental effects of hydroelectric power production in the United States has focused increasingly on resident and migratory fish populations. Hydropower dams and reservoirs can block fish movements in both upstream and downstream directions. These movements are essential for important stocks of anadromous and catadromous fish. In addition, some strictly freshwater fish may move long distances within a river during their life cycle.A dam can pose an impassable barrier for fish trying to move upstream unless mitigation measures in the form of ladders or lifts are provided. Fish moving downstream to the sea may become disoriented when they encounter static water within a reservoir. Both resident and migratory fish may be injured or killed by passing through the turbine or over the spillway. In the United States, a variety of organizations conduct applied research and development of measures to (1) enhance fish passage, (2) reduce the numbers of fish that are drawn into the turbine intakes, and (3) reduce the injury and mortality rates of fish that pass through the turbines. Examples of these efforts from a variety of river systems and hydroelectric power plants are described.

  17. 1991 research and technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Selected research and technology activities at Ames Research Center, including the Moffett Field site and the Dryden Flight Research Facility, are summarized. These activities exemplify the Center's varied and productive research efforts for 1991.

  18. Research and Technology, 1989

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Selected research and technology activities at Ames Research Center, including the Moffett Field site and the Dryden Flight Research Facility, are summarized. These accomplishments exemplify the Center's varied and highly productive research efforts for 1989.

  19. Research and technology, 1992

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Selected research and technology activities at Ames Research Center, including the Moffett Field site and the Dryden Flight Research Facility, are summarized. These activities exemplify the Center's varied and productive research efforts for 1992.

  20. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fletcher, James C. (Inventor); Pratt, J. Richard (Inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (Inventor); Burks, Harold D. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A process for preparing polyimides having enhanced melt flow properties is described. The process consists of heating a mixture of a high molecular weight poly-(amic acid) or polyimide with a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive in the range of 0.05 to 15 percent by weight of additive. The polyimide powders so obtained show improved processability, as evidenced by lower melt viscosity by capillary rheometry. Likewise, films prepared from mixtures of polymers with additives show improved processability with earlier onset of stretching by TMA.