Science.gov

Sample records for additional research needed

  1. Additional Research Needs to Support the GENII Biosphere Models

    SciTech Connect

    Napier, Bruce A.; Snyder, Sandra F.; Arimescu, Carmen

    2013-11-30

    In the course of evaluating the current parameter needs for the GENII Version 2 code (Snyder et al. 2013), areas of possible improvement for both the data and the underlying models have been identified. As the data review was implemented, PNNL staff identified areas where the models can be improved both to accommodate the locally significant pathways identified and also to incorporate newer models. The areas are general data needs for the existing models and improved formulations for the pathway models. It is recommended that priorities be set by NRC staff to guide selection of the most useful improvements in a cost-effective manner. Suggestions are made based on relatively easy and inexpensive changes, and longer-term more costly studies. In the short term, there are several improved model formulations that could be applied to the GENII suite of codes to make them more generally useful. • Implementation of the separation of the translocation and weathering processes • Implementation of an improved model for carbon-14 from non-atmospheric sources • Implementation of radon exposure pathways models • Development of a KML processor for the output report generator module data that are calculated on a grid that could be superimposed upon digital maps for easier presentation and display • Implementation of marine mammal models (manatees, seals, walrus, whales, etc.). Data needs in the longer term require extensive (and potentially expensive) research. Before picking any one radionuclide or food type, NRC staff should perform an in-house review of current and anticipated environmental analyses to select “dominant” radionuclides of interest to allow setting of cost-effective priorities for radionuclide- and pathway-specific research. These include • soil-to-plant uptake studies for oranges and other citrus fruits, and • Development of models for evaluation of radionuclide concentration in highly-processed foods such as oils and sugars. Finally, renewed

  2. Metrology Needs for Metal Additive Manufacturing Powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slotwinski, John A.; Garboczi, Edward J.

    2015-03-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) processes can produce highly complex and customized parts without the need for dedicated tooling and can produce parts directly from the part design information. These types of processes are poised to revolutionize the manufacturing industry, yet several challenges are currently preventing more widespread adoption of AM technologies. Among these challenges are metrology issues associated with the measurement and characterization of the metal powders used for AM systems. This article will describe the technical challenges and needs for characterizing metal AM powders, recent research efforts to address those needs, and current work to standardize characterization methods in ASTM and ISO, such as the recently released ASTM F3049, Standard Guide for Characterizing Properties of Metal Powders Used for Additive Manufacturing Processes.

  3. ANTHRAX REMEDIATION RESEARCH NEEDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Environmental Protection Agency has initiated a research program to respond to the immediate needs arising from the recent Bacillus anthracis bioterrorism events. Although the program has a strong emphasis on anthrax, other pathogens and chemical agents, including toxic indu...

  4. The Need for Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Martin R.; Shatkin, Laurence

    1987-01-01

    The need for research in computerized career guidance is pervasive. It is an expression of developers' needs to make sense of their work, to clarify what they are doing, to guide them in constructing and implementing a model, to observe the consequences and efficacy of a system, and to provide feedback. (JOW)

  5. Research needs in leptospirosis*

    PubMed Central

    1972-01-01

    Leptospirosis is a widespread infection of man and animals, and locally it assumes considerable importance as a public health and economic problem. It is an important occupational infection among persons working with animals or in environments that may be contaminated by infected animals. In recent years, considerable attention has been devoted to this infection but efforts to control and eliminate it, especially from natural foci, are hindered by gaps in our knowledge. This memorandum is a review of recent progress and current problems in leptospirosis research, with special reference to taxonomy, epidemiological methods, and control measures. Certain aspects of the basic biology of leptospires that are relevant to these topics are also discussed. PMID:4563541

  6. Research Papers Sponsored by the Commission on Private Philanthropy and Public Needs. Volume II: Philanthropic Fields of Interest, Part II-Additional Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of the Treasury, Washington, DC.

    Twelve papers discuss future changes and trends in philanthropic giving and activities. The report is Volume II, Part II of a five volume series examining the relationship between nonprofit institutions and their donors. The opening paper reviews the needs for better definition of the government's role in contracting and grant making, and for…

  7. Session: Discussion of Research Needs

    SciTech Connect

    anon.

    2004-09-01

    This final session at the Wind Energy and Birds/Bats workshop was lead by a facilitator who asked participants for their overall reaction to the research that had been presented during the workshop. Questions addressed by workshop participants included: how do you develop trust and confidence in the research, what are some of the specific gaps in our understanding of wind energy's impact on birds and bats; how do we prioritize and proceed with closing the data/research gaps; how do we connect the dots and bring various research and mapping efforts together; given gaps in the data, what are the critical questions we need to answer to make project decisions now; and, how do we track/influence the policies that will shape wind energy development. Conclusions reached regarding these questions are included in summary form.

  8. Additional Support Needs Reforms and Social Justice in Scotland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riddell, Sheila; Stead, Joan; Weedon, Elisabet; Wright, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    New additional support-needs legislation in Scotland sought to recognise the way in which poverty, as well as individual impairment, contribute to the creation of children's difficulties in learning. As well as identifying a wider range of needs, the legislation sought to provide parents, irrespective of social background, with more powerful means…

  9. Food irradiation: Key research needs

    SciTech Connect

    Morehouse, K.M. )

    1993-01-01

    Treatment of foods with ionizing radiation reduces microbial infection and insect infestations, inhibits sprouting, and delays maturation, thereby extending the shelf life of foods. The treatment of different types of foods with ionizing radiation for specific purposes is accepted in several countries, although it is prohibited in others. The US Food and Drug Administration has established regulations to allow the treatment of several different foods with ionizing radiation and has received petitions for the approval of radiation treatment of additional foods. When carried out according to established good manufacturing practices, food irradiation yields safe, wholesome foods. The irradiated product may be often chemically or microbiologically [open quotes]safer[close quotes] than the nonirradiated product. This paper presents several areas of scientific research in which more information would facilitate the expansion of this technology and points out major areas of concern. The question of the public acceptance of foods that have been treated with ionizing radiation is discussed only briefly in order to make the presentation complete.

  10. Research Needs in Business Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Onofrio, Marianne J., Ed.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Set of five articles includes "Introduction" (D'Onofrio); "Teaching Higher-Order Thinking Skills" (Maxam); "Research Questions in Teaching Software" (Franz, Waller); "Research in International Business Education" (Blockhus); and "The Knowledge Worker and Computer Technology" (Graf). (JOW)

  11. Mapping Transitions in Interpersonal Learning for Students with Additional Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coles-Janess, Bernadette; Griffin, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on the development of an interpersonal measure for students with additional learning needs. A questionnaire and learning continuum were constructed using a methodology devised by Griffin (2007a) for creating criterion-referenced frameworks. Teachers reported on 1619 students, ranging in age from 3 to 18 years. Analysis of the…

  12. 20 CFR 416.263 - No additional application needed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false No additional application needed. 416.263 Section 416.263 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Eligibility Special Provisions for People Who Work Despite A...

  13. 20 CFR 416.263 - No additional application needed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false No additional application needed. 416.263 Section 416.263 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Eligibility Special Provisions for People Who Work Despite A...

  14. 20 CFR 416.263 - No additional application needed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false No additional application needed. 416.263 Section 416.263 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Eligibility Special Provisions for People Who Work Despite A...

  15. 20 CFR 416.263 - No additional application needed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false No additional application needed. 416.263 Section 416.263 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Eligibility Special Provisions for People Who Work Despite A...

  16. Matching software practitioner needs to researcher activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feather, M. S.; Menzies, T.; Connelly, J. R.

    2003-01-01

    We present an approach to matching software practitioners' needs to software researchers' activities. It uses an accepted taxonomical software classfication scheme as intermediary, in terms of which practitioners express needs, and researchers express activities.

  17. Relating practitioner needs to research activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feather, M. S.; Menzies, T.; Connelly, J. R.

    2003-01-01

    We present an approach to matching needs (practioner requirements) to solutions (researcher activities). A taxonomical classification scheme acts as intermediary between needs and activities. Expert practitioners exprss their needs in terms of this taxonomy. Researchers express their activities in the same terms. A decision support tool is used to assist in the combination and study of their expressions of needs and activities.

  18. Overview of Materials Qualification Needs for Metal Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seifi, Mohsen; Salem, Ayman; Beuth, Jack; Harrysson, Ola; Lewandowski, John J.

    2016-03-01

    This overview highlights some of the key aspects regarding materials qualification needs across the additive manufacturing (AM) spectrum. AM technology has experienced considerable publicity and growth in the past few years with many successful insertions for non-mission-critical applications. However, to meet the full potential that AM has to offer, especially for flight-critical components (e.g., rotating parts, fracture-critical parts, etc.), qualification and certification efforts are necessary. While development of qualification standards will address some of these needs, this overview outlines some of the other key areas that will need to be considered in the qualification path, including various process-, microstructure-, and fracture-modeling activities in addition to integrating these with lifing activities targeting specific components. Ongoing work in the Advanced Manufacturing and Mechanical Reliability Center at Case Western Reserve University is focusing on fracture and fatigue testing to rapidly assess critical mechanical properties of some titanium alloys before and after post-processing, in addition to conducting nondestructive testing/evaluation using micro-computerized tomography at General Electric. Process mapping studies are being conducted at Carnegie Mellon University while large area microstructure characterization and informatics (EBSD and BSE) analyses are being conducted at Materials Resources LLC to enable future integration of these efforts via an Integrated Computational Materials Engineering approach to AM. Possible future pathways for materials qualification are provided.

  19. Research Needs and Future Directions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The food safety challenges facing the growers, processors and consumers of fresh and fresh cut produce are complex and multi-faceted. Established and ongoing research has given new insights into the ways in which produce can be contaminated at any step in the supply chain. The goal of future researc...

  20. Laser ultrasonics: Current research needs

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, J.W. . Center for Nondestructive Evaluation)

    1990-09-26

    Laser-ultrasonics refers to a range of technologies involving the use of laser electrooptical systems both to generate and to detect ultrasonic signals in and on materials and structures. Such systems have been developed to permit classical ultrasonic measurements for materials characterization and defect identification and measurement. From the point of view of one concerned with practical applications of ultrasonic inspection and measurement methods, laser-ultrasonic systems offer the flexibility which, in principle, should permit remote ultrasonic measurements to be performed on objects at elevated temperatures or in hostile environments. Laser-ultrasonic systems can be designed and constructed with extremely wide and flat detection bandwidth so that ultrasonic vibrational displacements can be recorded with high fidelity. In addition, there is no mechanical loading of the surface to damp, absorb, or otherwise distort the propagating acoustic energy. This feature has been used to great advantage in performing ultrasonic measurements in thin plates and films. In spite of the great advantages offered by laser-ultrasonics, there are severe limitations which restrict its application. In fact, based upon the performance of current state-of-the-art laser-ultrasonic systems, it is almost always more advantageous to use conventional ultrasonic transduction methods, if possible for a given application, than it is to apply laser-ultrasonics. In short, the main reason leading to this conclusion is the poor system detection sensitivity of laser-ultrasonic systems compared with piezoelectric transducer systems. The ramifications of this limited sensitivity are many.

  1. Supervision: Needed Research. A Research Agenda.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alfonso, Robert J.; Firth, Gerald R.

    1990-01-01

    The lack of research and continuing disagreement on the definition and the purposes of supervision in education have stifled the identification and development of skills and have contributed to weak preparation programs for instructional supervisors. (SI)

  2. Research needs of the new accelerator technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Sessler, A.M.

    1982-08-01

    A review is given of some of the new accelerator technologies with a special eye to the requirements which they generate for research and development. Some remarks are made concerning the organizational needs of accelerator research.

  3. A Right to Be Heard: Learning from Learners with Additional Needs in Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McPhillips, Therese; Shevlin, Michael; Long, Louise

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the consultation experiences of pupils who have additional needs in literacy. An opportunistic sample of eight schools--four in Northern Ireland and four in the Republic of Ireland--were chosen by the researchers; selected pupils were receiving additional literacy support. Focus group discussions and arts-based creative…

  4. Summary of research needs for sunflower genetics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic research of the sunflower research unit, USDA-ARS, in Fargo, ND, was discussed in a presentation to a group of producers, industry representatives, and scientists. The need for sunflower genetic research is ever increasing with more insect and disease problems nationwide. Combined with a ren...

  5. Basic Research Needs for Countering Terrorism

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, W.; Michalske, T.; Trewhella, J.; Makowski, L.; Swanson, B.; Colson, S.; Hazen, T.; Roberto, F.; Franz, D.; Resnick, G.; Jacobson, S.; Valdez, J.; Gourley, P.; Tadros, M.; Sigman, M.; Sailor, M.; Ramsey, M.; Smith, B.; Shea, K.; Hrbek, J.; Rodacy, P.; Tevault, D.; Edelstein, N.; Beitz, J.; Burns, C.; Choppin, G.; Clark, S.; Dietz, M.; Rogers, R.; Traina, S.; Baldwin, D.; Thurnauer, M.; Hall, G.; Newman, L.; Miller, D.; Kung, H.; Parkin, D.; Shuh, D.; Shaw, H.; Terminello, L.; Meisel, D.; Blake, D.; Buchanan, M.; Roberto, J.; Colson, S.; Carling, R.; Samara, G.; Sasaki, D.; Pianetta, P.; Faison, B.; Thomassen, D.; Fryberger, T.; Kiernan, G.; Kreisler, M.; Morgan, L.; Hicks, J.; Dehmer, J.; Kerr, L.; Smith, B.; Mays, J.; Clark, S.

    2002-03-01

    To identify connections between technology needs for countering terrorism and underlying science issues and to recommend investment strategies to increase the impact of basic research on efforts to counter terrorism.

  6. TMDL MODEL EVALUATION AND RESEARCH NEEDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This review examines the modeling research needs to support environmental decision-making for the 303(d) requirements for development of total maximum daily loads (TMDLs) and related programs such as 319 Nonpoint Source Program activities, watershed management, stormwater permits...

  7. Telerobotics: Research needs for evolving space stations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stark, L.

    1987-01-01

    It is argued that triplicate planning for telerobotics applicable to space stations is needed. It is important to carry out research to accomplish tasks: (1) with man alone (such as extra-vehicular activities), (2) with autonomous robots, and (3) with telerobotics. The research necessary to carry out these approaches is compared and contrasted in order to clarify present problems.

  8. Research Needs for Rural Public Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stocker, Frederick D.

    The report proposes a conceptual framework for researching key issues relating to rural public facility policy affecting such services as fire protection, water systems, roads, wastewater treatment, hospitals, and others, and identifies important research needs in this area. Major components of the framework are sources of financing (private and…

  9. Needed Research in Business Education. Sixth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rader, Martha H.; Wilhelm, William J.

    Areas of business education that need to be researched were identified through a two-round study. First, 2 groups of more than 40 Delta Pi Epsilon members generated ideas for research topics at regional and national conferences. The resulting list of topics was edited and rated by a Delphi panel consisting of 15 educators from postsecondary and…

  10. Research needs for a commercial passenger tiltrotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Unger, George; Alexander, Harold

    1991-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) recently completed a series of contracts and studies that examined the technology needs for a tiltrotor aircraft in commercial service as well as military missions. The commercial needs arise out of market-driven requirements that include vertiport location and design, passenger comfort levels and competitive costs. The military needs are derived from time-sensitive missions and combat effectiveness. In response to these results, NASA has decided to address the commercial needs first, recognizing that there will be eventual payoff to military missions as well. Research goals were explored in acoustics, flight dynamics, human factors and displays, dynamics and loads, propulsion, safety, and configuration design. The paper describes the development of these goals from the market requirements and the implications for possible research activities. The aircraft issues that were addressed include number of blades, advanced blade planforms, steep approach requirements and pilot-cockpit interface for civil operations.

  11. Assessment of Research Needs for Coal Utilization

    SciTech Connect

    Penner, S.S.

    1983-08-01

    The Coal Combustion and Applications Working Group (CCAWG), at the request of J.W. Mares (Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy) and A.W. Trivelpiece (Director, Office of Energy Research), has reviewed and evaluated the U.S. programs on coal combustion and utilization. The important topical areas of coal gasification and coal liquefaction have been deliberately excluded because R and D needs for these technologies were reviewed previously by the DOE Fossil Energy Research Working Group. The CCAWG studies were performed in order to provide an independent assessment of research areas that affect prospects for augmented coal utilization. In this report, we summarize the findings and research recommendations of CCAWG.

  12. Data literacy training needs of biomedical researchers

    PubMed Central

    Federer, Lisa M.; Lu, Ya-Ling; Joubert, Douglas J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The research investigated topic priorities for data literacy training for biomedical researchers and staff. Methods An electronic survey was used to assess researchers' level of knowledge related to data literacy skills and the relevance of these skills to their work. Results Most respondents did not have any formal training in data literacy. Respondents considered most tasks highly relevant to their work but rated their expertise in tasks lower. Conclusion Among this group, researchers have diverse data literacy training needs. Librarians' expertise makes them well suited to provide such training. PMID:26807053

  13. Profiling Transitions in Emotional Development for Students with Additional Learning Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Eileen; Griffin, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the research described in this article was to build a protocol for describing students' development of emotional knowledge and understanding, and to tailor this to the requirements of assessing the progress of students with additional needs. The paper reports the establishment of such a developmental profile, using procedures for…

  14. Artisanal Fisheries Research: A Need for Globalization?

    PubMed

    Oliveira Júnior, José Gilmar C; Silva, Luana P S; Malhado, Ana C M; Batista, Vandick S; Fabré, Nidia N; Ladle, Richard J

    2016-01-01

    Given limited funds for research and widespread degradation of ecosystems, environmental scientists should geographically target their studies where they will be most effective. However, in academic areas such as conservation and natural resource management there is often a mismatch between the geographic foci of research effort/funding and research needs. The former frequently being focused in the developed world while the latter is greater in the biodiverse countries of the Global South. Here, we adopt a bibliometric approach to test this hypothesis using research on artisanal fisheries. Such fisheries occur throughout the world, but are especially prominent in developing countries where they are important for supporting local livelihoods, food security and poverty alleviation. Moreover, most artisanal fisheries in the Global South are unregulated and unmonitored and are in urgent need of science-based management to ensure future sustainability. Our results indicate that, as predicted, global research networks and centres of knowledge production are predominantly located in developed countries, indicating a global mismatch between research needs and capacity. PMID:26942936

  15. The need for additional training for nutritional management of diabetes.

    PubMed

    Carney, Trish; Stein, Susan E; Quinlan, Jennifer J

    The purpose of this study was to investigate nurses' and nursing students'knowledge and perceived role in assisting patients with the nutritional management of diabetes. Three focus groups were conducted and the results were used to modify a previously developed survey regarding the nutritional management of diabetes. The survey was administered via an online survey tool and completed by 231 nurses and students. Over 70% of respondents agreed that nurses have an important role in reinforcing patient nutritional education. Results indicated,however, that knowledge gaps in the nutritional management of diabetes exist among nurses, including not knowing the carbohydrate content of 120ml of orange juice, a common treatment for hypoglycaemia (47.5%), not knowing where to locate carbohydrate content on a food label (60%), and not identifying the correct treatment for hypoglycaemia (47.5%). These results indicate that there may be a need to improve the nutritional education of nurses with respect to diabetes management. PMID:23752631

  16. Heavy duty transport research needs assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-13

    As a result of the desire to decrease the dependence of the US on foreign petroleum as a transportation fuel, this report assesses the research needs to further develop heavy duty engines. The topics covered include diesel engines, alternative fuels, electric vehicle technology, gas turbine engines, and stirling cycle alternative engines. (GHH)

  17. Workshop on indoor air quality research needs

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    Workshop participants report on indoor air quality research needs including the monitoring of indoor air quality, report of the instrumentation subgroup of indoor air quality, health effects, and the report of the control technology session. Risk analysis studies addressing indoor environments were also summarized. (DLS)

  18. Implementing Vision Research in Special Needs Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilhelmsen, Gunvor Birkeland; Aanstad, Monica L.; Leirvik, Eva Iren B.

    2015-01-01

    This article presents experiences from vision research implemented in education and argues for the need for teachers with visual competence and insight into suitable methods for stimulation and learning. A new type of continuing professional development (CPD) focuses on the role of vision in children's learning and development, the consequences of…

  19. Additive manufacturing metrology: State of the art and needs assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koester, L.; Taheri, H.; Bond, L. J.; Barnard, D.; Gray, J.

    2016-02-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) is a technology that first emerged in 1987 with stereolithography (SL) of plastic materials from 3D Systems. It saw light use for rapid prototyping and very low volume production for a number of years. However, in the past few years AM of metallic materials has become a practical fabrication technology, use is rapidly increasing and is projected to continue with double digit growth in coming years. The promise and flexibility shown by AM has spurred efforts to begin standardization of this type of process. This paper provides an assessment of the state of the art for in-situ process monitoring of AM processes with an emphasis on the production of metallic components. It is seen that with the implementation of proper process control there is potential to create reliable and reproducible materials and geometries previously unachievable using metal removal based means of production. A reliable methodology for detection and control of microstructure and defects would be of great value in terms of enabling broader AM utilization.

  20. Research needs in HLW disposal programmes

    SciTech Connect

    Hadermann, J.; McCombie, C.

    1993-12-31

    A repository for high-level radioactive waste (HLW) will not be in operation in Switzerland (or elsewhere) before the turn of the century. However, extensive investigations for disposal in specific regions or sites are ongoing and formal safety analyses have been performed in many countries. Broadly speaking, these analyses show the feasibility of the chosen options for deep geological disposal. At the present stage, before a licensing application, performance assessments have another important application: to identify further needs to improve system understanding, and to guide the necessary research activities. Performance assessments are thus indispensable tools for focussing in on research requirements and discriminating between necessary, and merely desirable or interesting, research projects. Based on experience from assessments of HLW disposal in the crystalline of Northern Switzerland (Project Gewaehr, KRISTALLIN-I) we consider in detail the chain of models resulting from a scenario analysis. For each model block (e.g., engineered barrier performance, hydrology, radionuclide transport), the adequacy of understanding is addressed and the necessary research needs pointed out. These needs cover a wide span, from a requirement for more reliable input numbers (example: long-term corrosion rate of glass) to a better understanding of important features (example: excavation-damaged-zone) and key mechanisms (example: sorption).

  1. RESEARCH NEEDS AND SUMMARY - CHAPTER 16

    EPA Science Inventory

    The point of view that has been taken in the preparation of the material in this volume is that we wanted to show to what extent the research community has been able to provide necessary tools to environmental managers for use in decision making. fter all, in addition to providin...

  2. Shaping Literacy Achievement: Research We Have, Research We Need

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pressley, Michael, Ed.; Billman, Alison K., Ed.; Perry, Kristen H., Ed.; Reffitt, Kelly E., Ed.; Reynolds, Julia Moorhead, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    In the era of No Child Left Behind, what literacy research is still needed? How should it be conducted? And what role does research play in determining the kinds of literacy experiences that actually take place in classrooms? This forward-thinking book brings together leading authorities to address these vital and hotly debated questions.…

  3. The ecological research needs of business

    PubMed Central

    Armsworth, Paul R; Armsworth, Anastasia N; Compton, Natalie; Cottle, Phil; Davies, Ian; Emmett, Bridget A; Fandrich, Vanessa; Foote, Matthew; Gaston, Kevin J; Gardiner, Phil; Hess, Tim; Hopkins, John; Horsley, Nick; Leaver, Natasha; Maynard, Trevor; Shannon, Delia

    2010-01-01

    . Business participants were forward-looking regarding ecological questions and research. For example, representatives from mining and quarrying companies emphasized the need to move beyond biodiversity to consider how ecosystems function, while those from the insurance sector stressed the importance of ecology researchers entering into new types of interdisciplinary collaboration. Synthesis and applications. Businesses from a variety of sectors demonstrated a clear interest in managing their impacts on, and exploiting opportunities created by, ecosystem services and biodiversity. To achieve this, businesses are asking diverse ecological research questions, but publications in leading applied ecology journals and research council funding reveal limited evidence of direct engagement with businesses. This represents a missed opportunity for ecological research findings to see more widespread application. PMID:20383265

  4. The ecological research needs of business.

    PubMed

    Armsworth, Paul R; Armsworth, Anastasia N; Compton, Natalie; Cottle, Phil; Davies, Ian; Emmett, Bridget A; Fandrich, Vanessa; Foote, Matthew; Gaston, Kevin J; Gardiner, Phil; Hess, Tim; Hopkins, John; Horsley, Nick; Leaver, Natasha; Maynard, Trevor; Shannon, Delia

    2010-04-01

    .Business participants were forward-looking regarding ecological questions and research. For example, representatives from mining and quarrying companies emphasized the need to move beyond biodiversity to consider how ecosystems function, while those from the insurance sector stressed the importance of ecology researchers entering into new types of interdisciplinary collaboration.Synthesis and applications. Businesses from a variety of sectors demonstrated a clear interest in managing their impacts on, and exploiting opportunities created by, ecosystem services and biodiversity. To achieve this, businesses are asking diverse ecological research questions, but publications in leading applied ecology journals and research council funding reveal limited evidence of direct engagement with businesses. This represents a missed opportunity for ecological research findings to see more widespread application. PMID:20383265

  5. Training needs of clinical research associates.

    PubMed

    Ajay, Samyuktha; Bhatt, Arun

    2010-10-01

    skills were not rated as critical to the role. This kind of a survey gives a good direction when training curriculum has to be designed for specific roles in clinical research. However, there is a need to expand the sample size to fine-tune the knowledge and skills areas. PMID:21350728

  6. Wind turbine aerodynamics research needs assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoddard, F. S.; Porter, B. K.

    1986-01-01

    A prioritized list is developed for wind turbine aerodynamic research needs and opportunities which could be used by the Department of Energy program management team in detailing the DOE Five-Year Wind Turbine Research Plan. The focus of the Assessment was the basic science of aerodynamics as applied to wind turbines, including all relevant phenomena, such as turbulence, dynamic stall, three-dimensional effects, viscosity, wake geometry, and others which influence aerodynamic understanding and design. The study was restricted to wind turbines that provide electrical energy compatible with the utility grid, and included both horizontal axis wind turbines (HAWT) and vertical axis wind turbines (VAWT). Also, no economic constraints were imposed on the design concepts or recommendations since the focus of the investigation was purely scientific.

  7. Fossil energy biotechnology: A research needs assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1993-11-01

    The Office of Program Analysis of the U.S. Department of Energy commissioned this study to evaluate and prioritize research needs in fossil energy biotechnology. The objectives were to identify research initiatives in biotechnology that offer timely and strategic options for the more efficient and effective uses of the Nation's fossil resource base, particularly the early identification of new and novel applications of biotechnology for the use or conversion of domestic fossil fuels. Fossil energy biotechnology consists of a number of diverse and distinct technologies, all related by the common denominator -- biocatalysis. The expert panel organized 14 technical subjects into three interrelated biotechnology programs: (1) upgrading the fuel value of fossil fuels; (2) bioconversion of fossil feedstocks and refined products to added value chemicals; and (3) the development of environmental management strategies to minimize and mitigate the release of toxic and hazardous petrochemical wastes.

  8. Additional Support Needs Policy in Scotland: Challenging or Reinforcing Social Inequality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riddell, Sheila; Weedon, Elisabet

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on Scottish policy on additional support needs and its material outcomes. The central question addressed is the extent to which the Scottish additional support needs system undermines or reinforces existing social and economic inequalities. Administrative data highlight the inflation of the additional support needs category,…

  9. Why infectious disease research needs community ecology

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Pieter T. J.; de Roode, Jacobus C.; Fenton, Andy

    2016-01-01

    Infectious diseases often emerge from interactions among multiple species and across nested levels of biological organization. Threats as diverse as Ebola virus, human malaria, and bat white-nose syndrome illustrate the need for a mechanistic understanding of the ecological interactions underlying emerging infections. We describe how recent advances in community ecology can be adopted to address contemporary challenges in disease research. These analytical tools can identify the factors governing complex assemblages of multiple hosts, parasites, and vectors, and reveal how processes link across scales from individual hosts to regions. They can also determine the drivers of heterogeneities among individuals, species, and regions to aid targeting of control strategies. We provide examples where these principles have enhanced disease management and illustrate how they can be further extended. PMID:26339035

  10. Why infectious disease research needs community ecology.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Pieter T J; de Roode, Jacobus C; Fenton, Andy

    2015-09-01

    Infectious diseases often emerge from interactions among multiple species and across nested levels of biological organization. Threats as diverse as Ebola virus, human malaria, and bat white-nose syndrome illustrate the need for a mechanistic understanding of the ecological interactions underlying emerging infections. We describe how recent advances in community ecology can be adopted to address contemporary challenges in disease research. These analytical tools can identify the factors governing complex assemblages of multiple hosts, parasites, and vectors, and reveal how processes link across scales from individual hosts to regions. They can also determine the drivers of heterogeneities among individuals, species, and regions to aid targeting of control strategies. We provide examples where these principles have enhanced disease management and illustrate how they can be further extended. PMID:26339035

  11. Market Research: An Area in Need of Nurse Researchers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froberg, Debra G.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    The application of marketing principles to nursing education and the need for research into the applicant market are discussed for nursing education programs, effective recruiting techniques, prediction of student success in nursing education, program quality, and the current and future nursing market. (Author/MSE)

  12. Intelligence is as intelligence does: can additional support needs replace disability?

    PubMed

    Arnold, Samuel R C; Riches, Vivienne C; Stancliffe, Roger J

    2011-12-01

    Abstract In many developed cultures there is an assumption that IQ is intelligence. However, emerging theories of multiple intelligences, of emotional intelligence, as well as the application of IQ testing to other cultural groups, and to people with disability, raises many questions as to what IQ actually measures. Despite recent research that shows IQ testing produces a floor effect when applied to people with lower IQ, as well as research that shows the Flynn effect also applies to people with lower IQ, in practice IQ scores below a certain cut-off are still being used to determine and classify a person's intellectual disability. However, a new paradigm is emerging, almost returning to the original intent of Binet, where measurement is made of the supports the person needs. In this paper, we argue that if one extends the notions of this supports paradigm that diagnosis of intellectual or physical disability could potentially be replaced by diagnosis of additional intellectual support needs, or additional physical support needs. PMID:21992715

  13. Research needs for neutron capture therapy

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    Key issues and questions addressed by the workshop related to optimization of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT), in general, and to the possibility of success of the present BNCT trials at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), in particular. Both trials use nuclear fission reactors as neutron sources for BNCT of glioblastoma multiforme (BNL) and of deep seated melanoma (MIT). Presentations and discussions focussed on optimal boron-labeled compounds, mainly for brain tumors such as glioblastoma multiforme, and the best mode of compound delivery to the tumor. Also, optimizing neutron irradiation with dose delivery to the tumor cells and the issues of dosimetry of BNCT especially in the brain were discussed. Planning of treatment and of follow-up of patients, coordination of BNCT at various treatment sites, and the potential of delivering BNCT to various types of cancer with an appropriately tailored protocol were additional issues. The need for multicentric interdisciplinary cooperation among the different medical specialties was highlighted.

  14. Asphalt and asphalt additives. Transportation research record

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    Contents: use of asphalt emulsions for in-place recycling: oregon experience; gap-graded cold asphalt concrete: benefits of polymer-modified asphalt cement and fibers; cold in-place recycling for rehabilitation and widening of low-volume flexible pavements in indiana; in situ cold recycling of bituminous pavements with polymer-modified high float emulsions; evaluation of new generation of antistripping additives; correlation between performance-related characteristics of asphalt cement and its physicochemical parameters using corbett's fractions and hpgc; reaction rates and hardening susceptibilities as determined from pressure oxygen vessel aging of asphalts; evaluation of aging characteristics of asphalts by using tfot and rtfot at different temperature levels; summary of asphalt additive performance at selected sites; relating asphalt absorption to properties of asphalt cement and aggregate; study of the effectiveness of styrene-butadiene rubber latex in hot mix asphalt mixes; stability of straight and polymer-modified asphalts.

  15. RESEARCH NEEDS FOR EFFECTIVE WATERSHED PLANNING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Watershed research has historically focused on physical and biological processes, stressor-response, and effects research, providing valuable understanding of the effects of human activity and natural disturbances on watershed ecosystems. Continued research to support watershed ...

  16. Research needs in aircraft noise prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raney, J. P.

    1975-01-01

    Progress needed in understanding the mechanisms of aircraft noise generation and propagation is outlined using the focus provided by the need to predict accurately the noise produced and received at the ground by an aircraft operating in the vicinity of an airport. The components of internal engine noise generation, jet exhaust, airframe noise and shielding and configuration effects, and the roles of atmospheric propagation and ground noise attenuation are presented and related to the prediction problem. The role of NASA in providing the focus and direction for needed advances is discussed, and possible contributions of the academic community in helping to fulfill the needs for accurate aircraft noise prediction methods are suggested.

  17. Water Conveyance Infrastructure Research Needs: An EPA/ORD Perspective

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a Powerpoint presentation that identifies pipe/pipeline related research needs that have been identified in several Agency Research programs including Safe & Sustainable Water Research, Aging Water Infrastucture Research, & Distribution Systems Research and Information Co...

  18. Rural Studies: Leadership Development Research Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Robert V.

    Rural school and human service administrators' professional development needs can be categorized as technical, interpersonal, and intrapersonal in nature. Vermont surveys have indicated that the technical skills most needed are in the areas of public relations, career education, teacher effectiveness training, community involvement, administrative…

  19. Advanced sodium fast reactor accident source terms : research needs.

    SciTech Connect

    Powers, Dana Auburn; Clement, Bernard; Ohno, Shuji; Zeyen, Roland

    2010-09-01

    An expert opinion elicitation has been used to evaluate phenomena that could affect releases of radionuclides during accidents at sodium-cooled fast reactors. The intent was to identify research needed to develop a mechanistic model of radionuclide release for licensing and risk assessment purposes. Experts from the USA, France, the European Union, and Japan identified phenomena that could affect the release of radionuclides under hypothesized accident conditions. They qualitatively evaluated the importance of these phenomena and the need for additional experimental research. The experts identified seven phenomena that are of high importance and have a high need for additional experimental research: High temperature release of radionuclides from fuel during an energetic eventEnergetic interactions between molten reactor fuel and sodium coolant and associated transfer of radionuclides from the fuel to the coolantEntrainment of fuel and sodium bond material during the depressurization of a fuel rod with breached claddingRates of radionuclide leaching from fuel by liquid sodiumSurface enrichment of sodium pools by dissolved and suspended radionuclidesThermal decomposition of sodium iodide in the containment atmosphereReactions of iodine species in the containment to form volatile organic iodides. Other issues of high importance were identified that might merit further research as development of the mechanistic model of radionuclide release progressed.

  20. RESEARCH NEEDS IN VOCATIONAL-TECHNICAL EDUCATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    COURTNEY, E. WAYNE

    THE OBJECTIVE OF THIS STUDY WAS TO IDENTIFY A STARTING POINT FOR RESEARCH EFFORTS IN THE STATE'S VOCATIONAL AND TECHNICAL EDUCATION SYSTEM. THE DIRECTORS OF THE 64 SCHOOLS OFFERING VOCATIONAL AND TECHNICAL PROGRAMS IN THE STATE RANKED, ACCORDING TO RESEARCH IMPORTANCE, THE COMPONENTS IN 14 CATEGORIES RELATING TO THE BROAD AREAS OF OCCUPATIONAL…

  1. Qualitative Research Articles: Guidelines, Suggestions and Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crescentini, Alberto; Mainardi, Giuditta

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to give ideas and suggestions to avoid some typical problems of qualitative articles. The aim is not to debate quality in qualitative research but to indicate some practical solutions. Design/methodology/approach: The paper discusses the design of qualitative research and the structure of a qualitative article…

  2. Understanding Consumer Needs through Market Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Overton, Cynthia; Volkman, Cheryl; Silver-Pacuilla, Heidi; Gray, Tracy

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to demonstrate how existing market research in the assistive technology (AT) field can be leveraged to create new solutions and to help those solutions reach wider markets. To do so, we discuss market research projects, focusing on seminal activities that have occurred in the assistive and learning technology field;…

  3. College Drinking Needs More Research, Scientists Say.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donodeo, Fred

    2000-01-01

    Summarizes presentations at a symposium (Denver, CO, June 5, 1998) on college drinking which examined: the impact of developmental issues of late adolescence; influence of college drinking on human biology and on substance abuse in later life; student drinking during the academic year; and campus program evaluation. Concluded there was a need for…

  4. Spacecraft software training needs assessment research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratcliff, Shirley; Golas, Katharine

    1990-01-01

    The problems were identified, along with their causes and potential solutions, that the management analysts were encountering in performing their jobs. It was concluded that sophisticated training applications would provide the most effective solution to a substantial portion of the analysts' problems. The remainder could be alleviated through the introduction of tools that could help make retrieval of the needed information from the vast and complex information resources feasible.

  5. Future Research Needs for Long-Term Monitoring Program Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minsker, B. S.; Dougherty, D. E.; Williams, G.; Davis, C. B.

    2002-05-01

    An ASCE Task Committee is preparing a manual of practice on long-term monitoring (LTM) program design for groundwater (including vadose) systems. The committee has identified several areas for future research and technology transfer that will improve LTM design. LTM is an on-going activity aimed at assessing remediation performance, containment integrity, and/or continued non-contamination of the subsurface and groundwater. LTM has different goals and needs than site characterization, so data collection, analysis, and modeling approaches must evolve to meet these new needs. Many new sensors and field measurement methods for LTM are under development, and research is needed to develop methods to integrate these data sources with more traditional samples drawn from wells to maximize the information extracted from the data. These new methods need to be able to provide information to assess performance of waste management activities and to understand long-term behavior by optimizing the collection and analysis of multiple data types. The effects of different sampling and measurement methods on monitoring results and their implications for the design of LTM programs also require study. Additional research needs include development of methods to assess flow control strategies, to identify monitoring redundancy in fractured media, and to better incorporate uncertainty into the LTM design process. Well-tested, documented, and open datasets are needed to validate and compare the performance of methods. Technology transfer activities must address the need for evolution of regulatory guidance to encompass the types of data analysis that are needed to assess remediation or containment performance, to identify appropriate LTM plans, and to incorporate novel data collection methods that may support better decision quality through the use of more extensive measurements with lower individual precisions than traditional measurements or may measure an indicator parameter rather than

  6. Onchocerciasis control: biological research is still needed.

    PubMed

    Boussinesq, M

    2008-09-01

    Achievements obtained by the onchocerciasis control programmes should not lead to a relaxation in the biological research on Onchocerco volvulus. Issues such as the Loa loa-related post-ivermectin serious adverse events, the uncertainties as to whether onchocerciasis can be eliminated by ivermectin treatments, and the possible emergence of ivermectin-resistant O. volvulus populations should be addressed proactively. Doxycycline, moxidectin and emodepside appear to be promising as alternative drugs against onchocerciasis but support to researches in immunology and genomics should also be increased to develop new control tools, including both vaccines and macrofilaricidal drugs. PMID:18814732

  7. 75 FR 25208 - Announcement of Body Armor Research Needs Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-07

    ... National Institute of Standards and Technology Announcement of Body Armor Research Needs Meeting AGENCY...-day High Strength Fiber and Body Armor Research Needs Meeting. The Meeting will provide a forum to... Body Armor Research Needs Meeting will be held June 15, 2010. The workshop will be held from 9 a.m....

  8. Research needs in taeniasis—cysticercosis (Memorandum)*

    PubMed Central

    1976-01-01

    This Memorandum discusses the epidemiology of taeniasis—cysticercosis, particularly the survival of taeniid eggs in nature, and goes on to consider diagnostic procedures (parasitological and serological), resistance to infection, pathogenesis and clinical pathology, chemotherapy, and the economic and social consequences of infection. Topics requiring further research are listed, and recommendations are made concerning the approach to the problem. PMID:1085668

  9. Ubuntu research values needed for Africa.

    PubMed

    Bateman, Chris

    2012-06-01

    Ex Africa semper aliquid novi. Africa's health researchers last month took greater collective responsibility for cultivating their continent's historically neglected and under-funded work when an international forum in Cape Town agreed on co-operative strategies to translate their findings into improving more lives on the ground. PMID:22668897

  10. Spacecraft software training needs assessment research, appendices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratcliff, Shirley; Golas, Katharine

    1990-01-01

    The appendices to the previously reported study are presented: statistical data from task rating worksheets; SSD references; survey forms; fourth generation language, a powerful, long-term solution to maintenance cost; task list; methodology; SwRI's instructional systems development model; relevant research; and references.

  11. Research needs on internal parasites of horses.

    PubMed

    1984-08-01

    The importance of the horse industry to the economy of the United States and the impact of parasitic infections on the industry are well documented. However, contemporary research activity on internal parasites of horses has not kept pace with growth of the horse population. Parasitic infections are a major facet of enteritis and colic in horses. Parasites are also associated with poor growth and development, respiratory tract disease, dermatitis, and CNS lesions. Babesia infections remain a threat to horses imported from some regions of the world. Most research activity has dealt with the development of new antiparasitic drugs. Efforts must be made to integrate these studies with observations on the bionomics of parasites in different regions and under different management conditions into more effective and less costly integrated parasite control programs. Increased research activity concerning the pathogenesis and immune response to equine parasitic infections is also necessary. A better understanding of these factors will lead to improved diagnostic, treatment, and preventative measures. Specific research objectives designed to produce short-term and long-term benefits are suggested. PMID:6383147

  12. Why We Need Qualitative Research in Suicidology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hjelmeland, Heidi; Knizek, Birthe Loa

    2010-01-01

    Using the differentiation between "explanations" and "understanding" from philosophy of science as the point of departure, a critical look at the current mainstream suicidological research was launched. An almost exclusive use of quantitative methodology focusing on "explanations" is demonstrated. This bias in scope and methodology has to a large…

  13. Financing Academic Research Facilities: A National Need.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, Julie T.

    1990-01-01

    This article examines possible changes to provide increased federal funding for university-based research facilities. The difficulties of converting between depreciation and use allowances are discussed, as is the possibility of using current market value versus acquisition cost as a basis for costing calculations and splitting the indirect cost…

  14. NEEDED RESEARCH ON DIFFUSION WITHIN EDUCATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    JAIN, NEMI C.; ROGERS, EVERETT M.

    IN SPITE OF THE VOLUME OF RESEARCH ATTENTION DEVOTED TO THE DIFFUSION OF INNOVATIONS, RELATIVELY LITTLE EMPHASIS HAS BEEN PLACED UPON DIFFUSION WITHIN ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURES. METHODOLOGICALLY, RELATIONAL ANALYSIS IN WHICH THE UNIT OF ANALYSIS IS A TWO-PERSON INTERACTING PAIR, A MULTIPLE PERSON COMMUNICATION CHAIN, OR CLIQUES OR SUBSYSTEMS IS…

  15. Research needs in ocean color data analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccluney, W. R.

    1973-01-01

    The success of the effort to extract several subsurface oceanographic parameters from remotely sensed ocean color data will depend to a great extent upon the existence of adequate theoretical models relating the desired oceanographic parameters to the upwelling radiances to be observed. In order to guide the development of these models, and to check their accuracies, a considerable amount of experimental work must be performed. The theoretical and experimental work needed to develop techniques for the quantitative analysis of satellite ocean color data is described.

  16. Health effects of coal technologies: research needs

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-09-01

    In this 1977 Environmental Message, President Carter directed the establishment of a joint program to identify the health and environmental problems associated with advanced energy technologies and to review the adequacy of present research programs. In response to the President's directive, representatives of three agencies formed the Federal Interagency Committee on the Health and Environmental Effects of Energy Technologies. This report was prepared by the Health Effects Working Group on Coal Technologies for the Committee. In this report, the major health-related problems associated with conventional coal mining, storage, transportation, and combustion, and with chemical coal cleaning, in situ gasification, fluidized bed combustion, magnetohydrodynamic combustion, cocombustion of coal-oil mixtures, and cocombustion of coal with municipal solid waste are identified. The report also contains recommended research required to address the identified problems.

  17. Research needs for AI in manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Triscari, T., Jr.; Henghold, W. M.

    The Air Force Wright Aeronautical Laboratories' Material Laboratory is charged with developing a research program for applications of artificial intelligence (AI) as it relates to manufacturing. As a part of program development, advisory input was sought from experts from industry, academia, and government. A structured methodology was employed which featured a top-down approach leading from concept level articulation, through application area goals and objectives, to project level detail. This paper documents the effort in terms of providing methodological background, application area goals and objectives, and results obtained from project generation and assessment. Emphasis is on project level results.

  18. Heat engine regenerators: Research status and needs

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchinson, R.A.

    1987-08-01

    The rapidly oscillating, variable density flows of regenerative heat engines provide a class of poorly understood unsteady flow and heat transfer problems. These problems are not currently amenable to direct experimental resolution. Experiences in engine development and test programs and efforts to develop analysis tools point to the regenerator as a key area of insufficient understanding. Focusing on flow and heat transfer in regenerators, this report discusses similarity parameters for the flows and reviews the experimental data currently available for Stirling analysis. Then a number of experimental results are presented from recent fundamental fluid mechanical and thermal investigations that shed additional light on the functioning of heat engine regenerators. Suggestions are made for approaches for further measurement and analysis efforts.

  19. Research on Youth Violence: Progress by Replacement, Not Addition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoagwood, Kimberly

    2000-01-01

    This article discusses the need to concentrate more educational research into efficacy studies on the effectiveness of specific preventive and treatment interventions targeted at disruptive behavior disorders. Other research needs are highlighted such as underlying mechanisms by which aggressive behavior develops, involvement in gangs, positive…

  20. The National Extreme Events Data and Research Center (NEED)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulledge, J.; Kaiser, D. P.; Wilbanks, T. J.; Boden, T.; Devarakonda, R.

    2014-12-01

    The Climate Change Science Institute at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is establishing the National Extreme Events Data and Research Center (NEED), with the goal of transforming how the United States studies and prepares for extreme weather events in the context of a changing climate. NEED will encourage the myriad, distributed extreme events research communities to move toward the adoption of common practices and will develop a new database compiling global historical data on weather- and climate-related extreme events (e.g., heat waves, droughts, hurricanes, etc.) and related information about impacts, costs, recovery, and available research. Currently, extreme event information is not easy to access and is largely incompatible and inconsistent across web sites. NEED's database development will take into account differences in time frames, spatial scales, treatments of uncertainty, and other parameters and variables, and leverage informatics tools developed at ORNL (i.e., the Metadata Editor [1] and Mercury [2]) to generate standardized, robust documentation for each database along with a web-searchable catalog. In addition, NEED will facilitate convergence on commonly accepted definitions and standards for extreme events data and will enable integrated analyses of coupled threats, such as hurricanes/sea-level rise/flooding and droughts/wildfires. Our goal and vision is that NEED will become the premiere integrated resource for the general study of extreme events. References: [1] Devarakonda, Ranjeet, et al. "OME: Tool for generating and managing metadata to handle BigData." Big Data (Big Data), 2014 IEEE International Conference on. IEEE, 2014. [2] Devarakonda, Ranjeet, et al. "Mercury: reusable metadata management, data discovery and access system." Earth Science Informatics 3.1-2 (2010): 87-94.

  1. DOD Health Care. Additional Efforts Needed To Verify Physicians' Qualifications. Report to Congressional Requesters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Div. of Human Resources.

    The Department of Defense's (DOD) efforts to assure that its physicians are qualified to perform their assigned duties are discussed. Five sections include: introduction; additional actions needed to help assure that military physicians have proper qualifications; hospital credentialing and privileging systems needed to comply with DOD…

  2. Teachers' Perceptions of Students' Additional Support Needs: In the Eye of the Beholder?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruggink, Marjon; Goei, Sui L.; Koot, Hans M.

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, teachers are regarded as key players in the process of identifying and catering to students' additional support needs within mainstream primary classrooms. However, teachers' professional judgements regarding students with special needs have been found to be contextually influenced (e.g. by school context, student population, level of…

  3. Biological effectiveness of neutrons: Research needs

    SciTech Connect

    Casarett, G.W.; Braby, L.A.; Broerse, J.J.; Elkind, M.M.; Goodhead, D.T.; Oleinick, N.L.

    1994-02-01

    The goal of this report was to provide a conceptual plan for a research program that would provide a basis for determining more precisely the biological effectiveness of neutron radiation with emphasis on endpoints relevant to the protection of human health. This report presents the findings of the experts for seven particular categories of scientific information on neutron biological effectiveness. Chapter 2 examines the radiobiological mechanisms underlying the assumptions used to estimate human risk from neutrons and other radiations. Chapter 3 discusses the qualitative and quantitative models used to organize and evaluate experimental observations and to provide extrapolations where direct observations cannot be made. Chapter 4 discusses the physical principles governing the interaction of radiation with biological systems and the importance of accurate dosimetry in evaluating radiation risk and reducing the uncertainty in the biological data. Chapter 5 deals with the chemical and molecular changes underlying cellular responses and the LET dependence of these changes. Chapter 6, in turn, discusses those cellular and genetic changes which lead to mutation or neoplastic transformation. Chapters 7 and 8 examine deterministic and stochastic effects, respectively, and the data required for the prediction of such effects at different organizational levels and for the extrapolation from experimental results in animals to risks for man. Gaps and uncertainties in this data are examined relative to data required for establishing radiation protection standards for neutrons and procedures for the effective and safe use of neutron and other high-LET radiation therapy.

  4. A Delphi Investigation into the Research Needs in Swedish Librarianship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maceviciute, Elena; Wilson, T. D.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Reports the conduct of a national survey in Sweden to establish the desired research priorities for libraries. The research sought to establish what evidence-base is needed for evidence-based practice. Method: The Delphi method was employed to solicit opinions on the kinds of research needed by libraries of all kinds in Sweden.…

  5. Innovative multidisciplinary research in environmental epidemiology: the challenges and needs.

    PubMed

    Vena, J E; Weiner, J M

    1999-01-01

    The ability of epidemiology to determine the relationships between health and environmental insults has become exceedingly difficult. The multifactorial nature of disease and the diversity of the insults, which include biologic, physical, social and cultural factors, combined with genetic susceptibility, suggest the need to develop better models of multidisciplinary epidemiologic investigation. This paper highlights the needs of an environmental epidemiologic team, discusses ways to incorporate new ideas across disciplines and to integrate constructs and paradigms of social, ecological, cultural and population determinants with individual-based exposure assessments. Innovation will be the key to the survival and increasing importance of epidemiology in addressing the public health needs of the future, but what are the ways to enhance and encourage creativity in environmental epidemiology? The process of self-renewal and continuing education will be highlighted. Additionally, the complexity of the problems and the need for clear supervision and control of multidisciplinary research efforts require a forum of communication and an 'information-processing approach' beyond those in traditional epidemiologic studies. New approaches in data management and medical informatics must be incorporated into the epidemiologic investigative framework. Methods to be included should focus on opportunities for computer-supported sharing of ideas. Such capabilities minimise the geographic distances and the disparate knowledge and training of the investigators and bring the team closer to the objectives and functions inherent in multidisciplinary investigation. PMID:10703183

  6. Study of research needs and priorities in radioactive waste management

    SciTech Connect

    Carson, W.E.; Mitchell, W. III

    1984-02-01

    This report presents the results of an assessment of long-range research needs in nuclear waste management. The purpose is to aid the Director of Energy Research in determining the health of DOE's research programs. The intent of the project reported here was to identify additional, basic research necessary in the 1980s and 1990s to develop an adequate scientific data base for nuclear waste management activities likely to be important around the turn of the century. The recommendations resulted from an overview of the entire area of nuclear waste management, not from focused examinations of narrow topics within that area. The suggested research may be the subject of future studies or more intense work by DOE. The recommendations presented in this report are not accompanied by designations of responsible program offices within DOE. It is anticipated that the contents of the report will be shared with the program offices involved and that those offices will recognize and respond to recommendations within their purviews.

  7. To Your Health: NLM update transcript - Zika research needs

    MedlinePlus

    ... transcript050216.html To Your Health: NLM update Transcript Zika research needs : 05/02/2016 To use the ... up on weekly topics. Research priorities for the Zika virus include a better understanding of how it ...

  8. Information Needs and Information-Gathering Behavior of Research Engineers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siess, Judith A.

    Research into both the information needs of engineers engaged in research and development, and the means chosen by engineers to fulfill their information needs are summarized in this condensation of a Master's thesis. Parallel questionnaires were administered in 1981 to 78 engineers at the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Construction Engineering…

  9. ASSESSING PROGRAM NEEDS FOR INDOOR ENVIRONMENTS RESEARCH (PNIER)

    EPA Science Inventory

    "Program Needs for Indoor Environments Research" (PNIER), EPA 402-B-05-001 www.epa.gov/iaq/pubs/pnier.pdf, is intended to be a "living" document that captures the indoor environments research needs for all EPA offices with program responsibilities related to indoor environmental...

  10. The Capacity Profile: A Method to Classify Additional Care Needs in Children with Neurodevelopmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meester-Delver, Anke; Beelen, Anita; Hennekam, Raoul; Nollet, Frans; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the interrater reliability and stability over time of the Capacity Profile (CAP). The CAP is a standardized method for classifying additional care needs indicated by current impairments in five domains of body functions: physical health, neuromusculoskeletal and movement-related, sensory, mental, and voice…

  11. 20 CFR 10.116 - What additional evidence is needed in cases based on occupational disease?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... based on occupational disease? 10.116 Section 10.116 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION... of Proof § 10.116 What additional evidence is needed in cases based on occupational disease? (a) The... occupational diseases. The medical report should also include the information specified on the checklist...

  12. 20 CFR 10.116 - What additional evidence is needed in cases based on occupational disease?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... based on occupational disease? 10.116 Section 10.116 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION... of Proof § 10.116 What additional evidence is needed in cases based on occupational disease? (a) The... occupational diseases. The medical report should also include the information specified on the checklist...

  13. 20 CFR 10.116 - What additional evidence is needed in cases based on occupational disease?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... based on occupational disease? 10.116 Section 10.116 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION... of Proof § 10.116 What additional evidence is needed in cases based on occupational disease? (a) The... particular occupational diseases. The medical report should also include the information specified on...

  14. 20 CFR 10.116 - What additional evidence is needed in cases based on occupational disease?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... based on occupational disease? 10.116 Section 10.116 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION... of Proof § 10.116 What additional evidence is needed in cases based on occupational disease? (a) The... particular occupational diseases. The medical report should also include the information specified on...

  15. 20 CFR 10.116 - What additional evidence is needed in cases based on occupational disease?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... based on occupational disease? 10.116 Section 10.116 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION... of Proof § 10.116 What additional evidence is needed in cases based on occupational disease? (a) The... particular occupational diseases. The medical report should also include the information specified on...

  16. 30 CFR 1210.206 - Will I need to submit additional documents or evidence to ONRR?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Will I need to submit additional documents or evidence to ONRR? 1210.206 Section 1210.206 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Natural Resources Revenue FORMS AND REPORTS Production and...

  17. 15 CFR 270.204 - Provision of additional resources and services needed by a Team.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Provision of additional resources and services needed by a Team. 270.204 Section 270.204 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NATIONAL CONSTRUCTION SAFETY TEAMS...

  18. 43 CFR 1823.13 - Is additional documentation needed when a third party requests a refund?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Is additional documentation needed when a third party requests a refund? 1823.13 Section 1823.13 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL MANAGEMENT...

  19. 43 CFR 1823.13 - Is additional documentation needed when a third party requests a refund?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Is additional documentation needed when a third party requests a refund? 1823.13 Section 1823.13 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL MANAGEMENT (1000) APPLICATION PROCEDURES Payments and...

  20. Membrane separation systems---A research and development needs assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, R.W. ); Cussler, E.L. . Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science); Eykamp, W. ); Koros, W.J. ); Riley, R.L. ); Strathmann, H. (Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Grenzflaech

    1990-04-01

    Industrial separation processes consume a significant portion of the energy used in the United States. A 1986 survey by the Office of Industrial Programs estimated that about 4.2 quads of energy are expended annually on distillation, drying and evaporation operations. This survey also concluded that over 0.8 quads of energy could be saved in the chemical, petroleum and food industries alone if these industries adopted membrane separation systems more widely. Membrane separation systems offer significant advantages over existing separation processes. In addition to consuming less energy than conventional processes, membrane systems are compact and modular, enabling easy retrofit to existing industrial processes. The present study was commissioned by the Department of Energy, Office of Program Analysis, to identify and prioritize membrane research needs in light of DOE's mission. Each report will be individually cataloged.

  1. HIV/AIDS Research in Correctional Settings: Perspectives on Training Needs from Researchers and IRB Members

    PubMed Central

    Kondo, Karli K.; Johnson, Mark E.; Ironside, Erica F.; Brems, Christiane; Eldridge, Gloria D.

    2015-01-01

    Being disproportionately represented by individuals living with HIV/AIDS, correctional facilities are an important venue for potentially invaluable HIV/AIDS epidemiological and intervention research. However, unique ethical, regulatory, and environmental challenges exist in these settings that have limited the amount and scope of research. We surveyed 760 HIV/AIDS researchers, and IRB chairs, members, and prisoner representatives to identify areas in which additional training might ameliorate these challenges. Most commonly identified training needs related to federal regulations, ethics (confidentiality, protection for participants/researchers, coercion, privacy, informed consent, and general ethics), and issues specific to the environment (culture of the correctional setting; general knowledge of correctional systems; and correctional environments, policies, and procedures). Bolstering availability of training on the challenges of conducting HIV/AIDS research in correctional settings is a crucial step toward increasing research that will yield significant benefits to incarcerated individuals and society as a whole. PMID:25490736

  2. Data Curation: A Study of Researcher Practices and Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLure, Merinda; Level, Allison V.; Cranston, Catherine L.; Oehlerts, Beth; Culbertson, Mike

    2014-01-01

    Colorado State University librarians conducted five focus groups with thirty-one faculty, research scientists, and research associates. The groups explored: (1) The nature of data sets that these researchers create or maintain; (2) How participants manage their data; (3) Needs for support that the participants identify in relation to sharing,…

  3. Research Needs for Technology Education: A U.S. Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Gene; Ritz, John

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted for the purpose of identifying research needs for technology education by generating a rank-ordered list of research topics that the profession's members might wish to explore individually or in collaboration with colleagues and students. The researchers' goal was to provide a concise list of topics that could be used by…

  4. Directions for Future Research in Vocational Special Needs Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rojewski, Jay W.; Meers, Gary D.

    A two-phase empirical investigation identified, categorized, and prioritized research needs in vocational special education for the next 10 years. Phase 1 involved 18 university personnel in a three-round Delphi technique that generated 91 future research objectives. Research statements collected from Round 1 questionnaires were used to construct…

  5. Needs for Rural Research in the Northern Finland Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muilu, Toivo

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to discuss the needs and demands which rural research faces at the interface between research and development. The case study area is northern Finland, which constitutes the most remote and sparsely populated areas of the European Union. This paper is based on the tradition of rural research since the 1980s in connection…

  6. Research needs for risk-informed, performance-based regulation

    SciTech Connect

    Cloninger, T.H.

    1997-01-01

    This presentation was made by an executive in the utility which operates the South Texas Project reactors, and summarizes their perspective on probabilistic safety analysis, risk-based operation, and risk-based regulation. They view it as a tool to help them better apply their resources to maintain the level of safety necessary to protect the public health and safety. South Texas served as one of the pilot plants for the application of risk-based regulation to the maintenance rule. The author feels that the process presents opportunities as well as challenges. Among the opportunities is the involvement of more people in the process, and the sense of investment they take in the decisions, in addition to the insight they can offer. In the area of challenges there is the need for better understanding of how to apply what already is known on problems, rather than essentially reinventing the wheel to address problems. Research is needed to better understand when some events are not truly of a significant safety concern. The demarcation between deterministic decisions and the appropriate application of risk-based decisions must be better defined, for the sake of the operator as well as the public observing plant operation.

  7. Developing Social Skills of Students with Additional Needs within the Context of the Australian Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Michael; Cooper, Greta; Kettler, Ryan J.; Elliott, Stephen N.

    2015-01-01

    Decades of research on social skills assessment and intervention indicates the importance of social skills in improving academic achievement. Additionally, a strong evidence base promotes the inclusion of social-emotional learning into the whole school curriculum. In recognition of this evidence, the new Australian Curriculum, under Personal and…

  8. Games for health for children—Current status and needed research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Videogames for health (G4H) offer exciting, innovative, potentially highly effective methods for increasing knowledge, delivering persuasive messages, changing behaviors, and influencing health outcomes. Although early outcome results are promising, additional research is needed to determine the gam...

  9. Research needs for risk-informed, performance-based regulations

    SciTech Connect

    Thadani, A.C.

    1997-01-01

    This article summarizes the activities of the Office of Research of the NRC, both from a historical aspect as well as it applies to the application of risk-based decision making. The office has been actively involved in problems related to understanding risks related to core accidents, to understanding the problem of aging of reactor components and materials from years of service, and toward the understanding and analysis of severe accidents. In addition new policy statements regarding the role of risk assessment in regulatory applications has given focus for the need of further work. The NRC has used risk assessment in regulatory questions in the past but in a fairly ad hoc sort of manner. The new policies will clearly require a better defined application of risk assessment, and help for people evaluating applications in judging the applicability of such applications when a component of them is based on risk-based decision making. To address this, standard review plans are being prepared to serve as guides for such questions. In addition, with regulatory decisions being allowed to be based upon risk-based decisions, it is necessary to have an adequate data base prepared, and made publically available, to support such a position.

  10. Aggregated Interdisciplinary Databases and the Needs of Undergraduate Researchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fister, Barbara; Gilbert, Julie; Fry, Amy Ray

    2008-01-01

    After seeing growing frustration among inexperienced undergraduate researchers searching a popular aggregated interdisciplinary database, the authors questioned whether the leading interdisciplinary databases are serving undergraduates' needs. As a preliminary exploration of this question, the authors queried vendors, analyzed their marketing…

  11. Selected Research, Development and Organizational Needs of the Hearing Impaired.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrett, Charles W., Ed.

    Identified are research, development, and organizational needs regarding sensory aids for the hearing impaired. Discussion of the present status of sensory aids focuses on acoustic and nonacoustic aids and points out that practical long-term utility has been extremely limited. Described are organizational and planning needs such as demographic…

  12. Medicinal herbs in the United States: research needs.

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, H B; Lucier, G W; Fisher, K D

    1999-01-01

    Virtually all cultures have, throughout history, used a variety of plants or materials derived from plants for the prevention and treatment of disease. Evidence of the beneficial therapeutic effects of these medicinal herbs is seen in their continued use. Additionally, the development of modern chemistry permitted the isolation of chemicals from medicinal herbs that have served as drugs or starting materials for the synthesis of many important drugs used today. Many more modern drugs have been synthesized as a result of knowledge gained from studies of mechanisms of actions of chemicals first isolated from medicinal herbs. Thus, medicinal herbs have played a major role in the development of modern medicine and continue to be widely used in their original form. Whereas it is generally agreed that most medicinal herbs are safe under the conditions used, some are toxic and should be avoided even though they are readily available, and others have significant adverse side effects when misused. Also, little has been done to investigate potential adverse effects that may be associated with extended or high-dose use of medicinal herbs. Thus, concern has been expressed that the lack of quality control used in the preparation of medicinal herbs, plus their unregulated sale and uninformed use, pose potential adverse health effects for consumers. There is also concern regarding potential herb/herb or herb/drug interactions and possible untoward health effects of medicinal herbs in sensitive subpopulations such as the young and the elderly and certain genetically predisposed individuals. In this paper, we discuss these concerns at some length and make recommendations for additional research and education discussed in the recent International Workshop to Evaluate Research Needs on the Use and Safety of Medicinal Herbs. PMID:10504141

  13. Basic Research Needs for Carbon Capture: Beyond 2020

    SciTech Connect

    Alivisatos, Paul; Buchanan, Michelle

    2010-03-04

    mimic those encountered in actual separation processes. Such tools are needed to examine interfaces and thin films at the atomic and molecular levels, achieving an atomic/molecular-scale understanding of gas–host structures, kinetics, and dynamics, and understanding and control of nanoscale synthesis in multiple dimensions. A second major crosscutting theme was the development of new computational tools for theory, modeling, and simulation of separation processes. Computational techniques can be used to elucidate mechanisms responsible for observed separations, predict new desired features for advanced separations materials, and guide future experiments, thus complementing synthesis and characterization efforts. These two crosscut areas underscored the fact that the challenge for future carbon capture technologies will be met only with multidisciplinary teams of scientists and engineers. In addition, it was noted that success in this fundamental research area must be closely coupled with successful applied research to ensure the continuing assessment and maturation of new technologies as they undergo scale-up and deployment. Carbon capture is a very rich scientific problem, replete with opportunity for basic researchers to advance the frontiers of science as they engage on one of the most important technical challenges of our times. This workshop report outlines an ambitious agenda for addressing the very difficult problem of carbon capture by creating foundational new basic science. This new science will in turn pave the way for many additional advances across a broad range of scientific disciplines and technology sectors.

  14. SRRC Cotton Research: Changing with the Public's Need

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    After the July 2002 SRRC Cotton Program review, a panel of industrial and university advisors recommended that we could respond better to industry needs and increase the impact of our research by reducing the number of active projects. As part of the response, the cotton research units at SRRC have ...

  15. Personnel Needs and Training for Biomedical and Behavioral Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Commission on Human Resources.

    This report for 1977 is the third in a series of annual reports prepared by the Committee on a Study of National Needs for Biomedical and Behavioral Research Personnel in a continuing study. Discussed are the current status of the labor market and the near-term outlook for research personnel in the four broad areas into which the study is…

  16. Research Needs for Technology Education: An International Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritz, John M.; Martin, Gene

    2013-01-01

    These authors report the findings of a study that sought to determine the most relevant research issues needed to be studied by the technology education profession. It used an international panel of experts to develop a list of important research issues for the school subject of technology education and for the preparation of teachers to better…

  17. Institutional Research Needs for U. S. Community Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Board for Community Coll. Education, Seattle. Research and Planning Office.

    Seven problem areas where research is needed critically at the two-year institution level are identified: (1) establish reliability and stability of MIS/data base; (2) find reliable predictive instruments and/or formulae; (3) analyze support services and academic assistance objectives; (4) develop research methods to evaluate curricula; (5)…

  18. RESEARCH NEEDS FOR OPPORTUNISTIC PATHOGENS IN PREMISE PLUMBING

    EPA Science Inventory

    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY OBJECTIVES. The objectives of this project were to: 1.) Host an expert workshop to identify research needs for opportunistic premise (i.e., building) plumbing pathogens (OPPPs); 2.) With the assistance of the workshop participants, prepare this research repor...

  19. Focusing Biodiversity Research on the Needs of Decision Makers

    PubMed

    SMYTHE; BERNABO; CARTER; JUTRO

    1996-11-01

    / The project on Biodiversity Uncertainties and Research Needs (BURN) ensures the advancement of usable knowledge on biodiversity by obtaining input from decision makers on their priority information needs about biodiversity and then using this input to engage leading scientists in designing policy-relevant research. Decision makers articulated concerns related to four issues: significance of biodiversity; status and trends of biodiversity; management for biodiversity; and the linkage of social, cultural, economic, legal, and biological objectives. Leading natural and social scientists then identified the research required to address the decision makers' needs and determined the probability of success. The diverse group of experts reached consensus on several fundamental issues, helping to clarify the role of biodiversity in land and resource management. The BURN participants identified several features that should be incorporated into policy-relevant research plans and management strategies for biodiversity. Research and assessment efforts should be: multidisciplinary and integrative, participatory with stakeholder involvement, hierarchical (multiple scales), and problem- and region-specific. The activities should be focused regionally within a global perspective. Meta-analysis of existing data is needed on all fronts to assess the state of the science. More specifically, the scientists recommended six priority research areas that should be pursued to address the information needs articulated by decision makers: (1) characterization of biodiversity, (2) environmental valuation, (3) management for sustainability-for humans and the environment (adaptive management), (4) information management strategies, (5) governance and stewardship issues, and (6) communication and outreach. Broad recommendations were developed for each research area to provide direction for research planning and resource management strategies. The results will directly benefit those groups that

  20. Disabling back injuries among nursing personnel: research needs and justification.

    PubMed

    Jensen, R C

    1987-02-01

    The need for more research on the problem of work-related back injuries among nursing personnel is documented by two comparisons based on the ratio of back injury workers' compensation claims to eligible employees. The first analysis of occupations across industries indicated that nursing aides, licensed practical nurses, and registered nurses all had high back injury ratios compared to other occupations. The second analysis of occupations within four parts of the health care industry indicated that aides in nursing and personal care facilities had the greatest problem with disabling back disorders. The article concludes with a list of research needs and suggested research methodologies. PMID:2950545

  1. Focusing biodiversity research on the needs of decision makers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smythe, Katie D.; Bernabo, J. Christopher; Carter, Thomas B.; Jutro, Peter R.

    1996-11-01

    The project on Biodiversity Uncertainties and Research Needs (BURN) ensures the advancement of usable knowledge on biodiversity by obtaining input from decision makers on their priority information needs about biodiversity and then using this input to engage leading scientists in designing policy-relevant research. Decision makers articulated concerns related to four issues: significance of biodiversity; status and trends of biodiversity; management for biodiversity; and the linkage of social, cultural, economic, legal, and biological objectives. Leading natural and social scientists then identified the research required to address the decision makers' needs and determined the probability of success. The diverse group of experts reached consensus on several fundamental issues, helping to clarify the role of biodiversity in land and resource management. The BURN participants identified several features that should be incorporated into policy-relevant research plans and management strategies for biodiversity. Research and assessment efforts should be: multidisciplinary and integrative, participatory with stakeholder involvement, hierarchical (multiple scales), and problem- and region-specific. The activities should be focused regionally within a global perspective. Meta-analysis of existing data is needed on all fronts to assess the state of the science. More specifically, the scientists recommended six priority research areas that should be pursued to address the information needs articulated by decision makers: (1) characterization of biodiversity, (2) environmental valuation, (3) management for sustainability—for humans and the environment (adaptive management), (4) information management strategies, (5) governance and stewardship issues, and (6) communication and outreach. Broad recommendations were developed for each research area to provide direction for research planning and resource management strategies. The results will directly benefit those groups that

  2. Defining Information Needs for Public Health Systems and Services Research

    PubMed Central

    Buehler, James W.

    2014-01-01

    Background: People who lead or manage public health agencies have multiple needs for information in order to do their jobs effectively. In seeking to investigate “what works” in public health practice, investigators in the field of public health systems and services research (PHSSR) have largely overlapping information needs but often require a greater detail, specificity, or comprehensiveness than is routinely available in public health data systems. PHSSR Data Needs Meeting: On April 24, 2014, the PHSSR Center of the University of Kentucky and AcademyHealth convened a 1-day meeting of public health practitioners and PHSSR investigators to identify PHSSR information needs. Meeting participants considered data needs for three PHSSR domains: the organization of public health agencies and services, the use of rapidly evolving health information technologies, and the financing and economic evaluation of public health activities. Future Data Needs: Identifying data needs in these and other PHSSR domains requires clarification of research questions, consideration of research methods, a balance of imagination and practicality, and investments to extend the information captured in existing administrative, financial, and population health monitoring systems. PMID:25848628

  3. Climate Change Research - What Do We Need Really?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rama Chandra Prasad, P.

    2015-01-01

    This research note focuses on the current climate change research scenario and discusses primarily what is required in the present global climate change conditions. Most of the climate change research and models predict adverse future conditions that have to be faced by humanity, with less emphasis on mitigation measures. Moreover, research ends as reports on the shelves of scientists and researchers and as publications in journals. At this juncture the major focus should be on research that helps in reducing the impact rather than on analysing future scenarios of climate change using different models. The article raises several questions and suggestions regards climate change research and lays emphasis on what we really need from climate change researchers.

  4. Translational Research Education and Training Needs in Hawai‘i

    PubMed Central

    Inouye, Jillian; Seto, Todd B; Braun, Kathryn L

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this needs assessment was to identify the translational research education and training needs of researchers and administrators working in Hawai‘i's communities and to use the finding to develop an education and training plan. The assessment was led by a community advisory board with members from community health centers, social agencies, hospitals, and academia on O‘ahu. The survey, developed with input of the community advisory board, was sent to 94 administrators and researchers involved or affiliated with research being conducted in Hawai‘i. Forty-one respondents (43%) completed the survey. Respondents wanted education and training in research processes, specific research-related skills, and facilitating interactions between community and academic researchers. Sixty-one percent were interested in training related to community-engaged research and yearly seminars on “collaborative mentoring.” Popular topics of interest were related to data monitoring, networking with different cultural groups, statistics, and human subjects review. A majority of respondents wanted to attend workshops, seminars, and presentations rather than take a class. Approximately 50% of the respondents wanted to gain information through on-line training. Findings guided the development of a translational research education and training plan for the University of Hawai‘i National Institute of Health (NIH) Research Centers in Minority Institutions Multidisciplinary and Translational Research Infrastructure Expansion (RMATRIX) grant. PMID:26019985

  5. Research needs for risk-informed, performance-based regulation

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, J.A.

    1997-01-01

    Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station has used PRA-derived risk insights for about 10 years now. The plant originally started applying PRA modeling to an auxiliary feedwater system during the initial licensing phases of the plant, and as a result of that, they were able to work with the NRC and apply some graded quality requirements to that particular system. There was a third redundant auxiliary feedwater pump, and they now can treat that system as partially safety related and partially non-safety related. So it was an advance for Palo Verde at that time to be able to make decisions with a PRA and they began learning how to use those techniques. After completing the IPE it became natural for the plant to make a transition into other areas at the plant to look for areas where the insights gained from PRA could be applied into their decision-making processes. Those that the plant embarked upon initially were areas where they could gain operational risk assessment insights. The author goes on to discuss experiences gained in using these techniques to better assess the safety of operations within the plant. In addition he offers comments on areas which need further development and research to make them more applicable to a plant by plant basis.

  6. The perceptions of teachers and principals toward providing additional compensation to teachers in high-need subject areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longing, Jeffrey Lucian

    The purpose of this study was to determine possible differences in the perceptions of teachers teaching in high-need areas (i.e., math, science, special education, etc.) and teachers not teaching in high-need areas, (i.e., business education, physical education, etc.) as defined by the states of Arkansas and Louisiana, regarding higher compensation for high-need teachers. In addition, possible perception differences among principals and teachers were determined. The independent variables consisted of gender, position held, years of certified experience, and certification areas. The dependent variable was the perceptions of the participants on providing higher compensation for high-need teachers in order to attract and retain them. The data for all variables were collected using the Teacher Compensation Survey. The sample for this study was limited to teachers, grades 9 through 12, and principals of public high schools in south Arkansas and north Louisiana. Forty-four school districts in south Arkansas (Arkansas Department of Education, 2008a) and north Louisiana (Louisiana Department of Education, 2008a) met the criteria for this study. Twenty-two superintendents gave permission for their districts to participate in the research. A sample of 849 teachers and 38 principals were identified in these districts. Surveys were returned from 350 teachers, creating a 41% response rate. When the 31 principals that returned surveys were added to the total population, the response rate increased to 43% with 381 of the 887 surveyed responding. However, 42 of the teachers and two of the principals skipped some of the questions on the survey and were not included in the study. The researcher used a One-Way ANOVA and independent t-tests to determine the presence of statistical differences at the .05 level. The data showed that most math and science teachers agreed that high-need teachers should be compensated at a higher rate than teachers not teaching in high-need areas. The data

  7. Focusing biodiversity research on the needs of decision makers

    SciTech Connect

    Smythe, K.D.; Bernabo, J.C.; Carter, T.B.; Jutro, P.R.

    1996-11-01

    The project on Biodiversity Uncertainties and Research Needs (BURN) ensures the advancement of usable knowledge on biodiversity by obtaining input from decision makers on their priority information needs about biodiversity and then using this input to engage leading scientists in designing policy-relevant research. Decision makers had concerns about four issues: significance of biodiversity; status and trends of biodiversity; management for biodiversity; the linkage of social, cultural, economic, legal, and biological objectives. Leading scientists identified research required to address these needs and determined the probability of success. The diverse group of experts reached consensus on several fundamental issues, helping to clarify the role of biodiversity in land and resource management. Several features that should be incorporated into policy-relevant research plans and management strategies for biodiversity were identified: multidisciplinary and integrative, participatory with stakeholder involvement, hierarchical, and problem- and region-specific. Activities should be focused regionally within a global perspective. More specifically, the scientists recommended six priority research areas that should be pursued to address the information needs articulated by decision makers: (1) characterization of biodiversity, (2) environmental valuation, (3) management for sustainability-for humans and the environment (adaptive management), (4) information management strategies, (5) governance and stewardship issues, and (6) communication and outreach. Broad recommendations wee developed for each research area to provide direction for research planning and resource management strategies. The results will directly benefit those groups that require biodiversity research to address their needs-whether to develop policy, manage natural resources, or make other decisions affecting biodiversity. 11 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  8. Industry-identified combustion research needs: Special study

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, J.G.; Soelberg, N.R.; Kessinger, G.F.

    1995-11-01

    This report discusses the development and demonstration of innovative combustion technologies that improve energy conservation and environmental practices in the US industrial sector. The report includes recommendations by industry on R&D needed to resolve current combustion-related problems. Both fundamental and applied R&D needs are presented. The report assesses combustion needs and suggests research ideas for seven major industries, which consume about 78% of all energy used by industry. Included are the glass, pulp and paper, refinery, steel, metal casting, chemicals, and aluminum industries. Information has been collected from manufacturers, industrial operators, trade organizations, and various funding organizations and has been supplemented with expertise at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to develop a list of suggested research and development needed for each of the seven industries.

  9. Methodologic research needs in environmental epidemiology: data analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Prentice, R L; Thomas, D

    1993-01-01

    A brief review is given of data analysis methods for the identification and quantification of associations between environmental exposures and health events of interest. Data analysis methods are outlined for each of the study designs mentioned, with an emphasis on topics in need of further research. Particularly noted are the need for improved methods for accommodating exposure assessment measurement errors in analytic epidemiologic studies and for improved methods for the conduct and analysis of aggregate data (ecologic) studies. PMID:8206041

  10. Preparing Jewish Educators: The Research We Have, the Research We Need

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feiman-Nemser, Sharon

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses the research we have and the research we need in both general and Jewish teacher education. First, I discuss three recent efforts to synthesize and assess existing research in teacher education and to identify needed research. Next I review a handful of recent studies in Jewish teacher education which illustrate various…

  11. Additive manufacturing in biomedical sciences and the need for definitions and norms.

    PubMed

    Chhaya, Mohit P; Poh, Patrina S P; Balmayor, Elizabeth R; van Griensven, Martijn; Schantz, Jan-Thorsten; Hutmacher, Dietmar W

    2015-01-01

    The application of additive biomanufacturing represents one of the most rapidly advancing areas of biomedical science, in which engineers, scientists, and clinicians are contributing to the future of health care. The combined efforts of a large number of groups around the globe have developed a strong research thrust that has resulted in a large number of publications. Reviewing this body of literature, there is an increasing trend of research groups inventing their own definitions and terminology. This has made it difficult to find and compare the results. Therefore, to move the field constructively forward, it is a conditio sine qua non to clarify various terminologies and standards. Based on this background, this article advocates tightening the terminology and has the objective of penning out definitions that will ultimately allow the development of official industry standard terms, such as American Society for Testing and Materials and or International Organization for Standardization for technologies developed for Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine. PMID:26305837

  12. Translational research-the need of a new bioethics approach.

    PubMed

    Hostiuc, Sorin; Moldoveanu, Alin; Dascălu, Maria-Iuliana; Unnthorsson, Runar; Jóhannesson, Ómar I; Marcus, Ioan

    2016-01-01

    Translational research tries to apply findings from basic science to enhance human health and well-being. Many phases of the translational research may include non-medical tasks (information technology, engineering, nanotechnology, biochemistry, animal research, economy, sociology, psychology, politics, and so on). Using common bioethics principles to these areas might sometimes be not feasible, or even impossible. However, the whole process must respect some fundamental, moral principles. The purpose of this paper is to argument the need for a different approach to the morality in translational bioethics, and to suggest some directions that might be followed when constructing such a bioethics. We will show that a new approach is needed and present a few ethical issues that are specific to the translational research. PMID:26767499

  13. Mining nonterrestrial resources: Information needs and research topics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daemen, Jaak J. K.

    1992-01-01

    An outline of topics we need to understand better in order to apply mining technology to a nonterrestrial environment is presented. The proposed list is not intended to be complete. It aims to identify representative topics that suggest productive research. Such research will reduce the uncertainties associated with extrapolating from conventional earthbound practice to nonterrestrial applications. One objective is to propose projects that should put future discussions of nonterrestrial mining on a firmer, less speculative basis.

  14. Need for Practice-Based Research in School Administration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kowalski, Theodore J.; Place, A. Will; Edmister, Julie; Zigler, Ted

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This article's first objective is to establish the need for elevating the quantity and quality of practice-based research in school administration. The requirement is addressed in relation to (a) persisting social demands for school reform, (b) heightened demands for evidence-based practice in all professions, and (c) persistent…

  15. What Further Research Is Needed on Restorative Justice in Schools?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurley, Nancy; Guckenburg, Sarah; Persson, Hannah; Fronius, Trevor; Petrosino, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Restorative justice is a non-punitive approach to resolving conflict that focuses on restoring relationships. This report summarizes recommendations about future research and evaluation needs that would advance the understanding of restorative justice in K-12 schools in the United States. The recommendations were generated from interviews with…

  16. Religiosity and Substance Abuse: Need for Systematic Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, Manoj

    2006-01-01

    Religion plays a significant role in human life, yet its potential to influence health and health-related conditions is not well studied. This article cites several studies that examine the correlation between religiosity and substance abuse. This article also suggests that more systematic researches are needed to validate the correlation of…

  17. Heavy duty transport research needs assessment. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-13

    As a result of the desire to decrease the dependence of the US on foreign petroleum as a transportation fuel, this report assesses the research needs to further develop heavy duty engines. The topics covered include diesel engines, alternative fuels, electric vehicle technology, gas turbine engines, and stirling cycle alternative engines. (GHH)

  18. Prospects for Technical Communication: Research for Futures Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathes, J. C.

    The need for technical communication to enable the transition from a "postindustrial" future to an alternative future is incalculable; however, research is required to improve current technical communication models and methods. The current rhetoric of technical communication derives from an inadequate command-generated technical communication…

  19. Technical Services Research Needs for the 1990s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veaner, Allen B.

    1983-01-01

    Research needs in area of library technical services are identified, focusing on costs, the catalog, bibliographic data, new cataloging code, subject access in online catalogs, acquisitions, serials control system, universal technical processing terminals, data storage devices, robots and artificial intelligence, bibliographic instruction, and…

  20. Response to ERIS 2014 States' Research Needs Survey

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document is ORD’s response to the states’ needs and priorities, as identified in the 2014 survey. ORD identified existing methods, models, tools and databases on these topics, as well as near-term research and development efforts, that could assist states in thei...

  1. Research Needs Related to Naphthalene Assessment (2005, Workshop)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has announced the release of the final report from the 2005 peer consultation workshop which sought expert opinion on research needs related to the mode of action of the inhalation carcinogenicity of naphthalene. This report is a summary of the main points of presentations an...

  2. The Facial Aesthetic index: An additional tool for assessing treatment need

    PubMed Central

    Sundareswaran, Shobha; Ramakrishnan, Ranjith

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Facial Aesthetics, a major consideration in orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning, may not be judged correctly and completely by simply analyzing dental occlusion or osseous structures. Despite this importance, there is no index to guarantee availability of treatment or prioritize patients based on their soft tissue treatment needs. Individuals having well-aligned teeth but unaesthetic convex profiles do not get included for treatment as per current malocclusion indices. The aim of this investigation is to develop an aesthetic index based on facial profiles which could be used as an additional tool with malocclusion indices. Materials and Methods: A chart showing typical facial profile changes due to underlying malocclusions was generated by soft tissue manipulations of standardized profile photographs of a well-balanced male and female face. A panel of 62 orthodontists judged the profile photographs of 100 patients with different soft tissue patterns for assessing profile variations and treatment need. The index was later tested in a cross-section of school population. Statistical analysis was done using “irr” package of R environment version 2.15.1. Results: The index exhibited very good reliability in determining profile variations (Fleiss kappa 0.866, P < 0.001), excellent reproducibility (kappa 0.9078), high sensitivity, and specificity (95.7%). Testing in population yielded excellent agreement among orthodontists (kappa 0.9286). Conclusions: A new Facial Aesthetic index, based on patient's soft tissue profile requirements is proposed, which can complement existing indices to ensure treatment to those in need. PMID:27127752

  3. Researching to transgress: the need for critical feminism in gerontology.

    PubMed

    Ray, R E

    1999-01-01

    This article defines "empowering research" and argues the need for a critical gerontology informed by feminist and postmodern theories which focus on the connections between language, self, and social action. The author calls for feminist gerontology which evokes critical consciousness on the part of the researcher and participants. Feminist gerontologists are encouraged to engage in self-reflection and self-critique in regards to their own attitudes toward aging and to include personal criticism in their scholarly writings. Examples of feminist research on aging which illustrate these characteristics are provided. PMID:10568103

  4. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  5. The Essential Need for Research Misconduct Allegation Audits.

    PubMed

    Loikith, Lisa; Bauchwitz, Robert

    2016-08-01

    Nearly 90 % of allegations of biomedical research misconduct in the United States are dismissed by responsible institutions without any faculty assessment or auditable record. Recently, members of the U.S. Congress have complained that the penalties for those against whom findings of research misconduct are made are too light and that too few grant funds associated with research misconduct have been recovered for use by other researchers and taxpayers. Here we discuss the laws that empower federal agencies that can oversee investigations of biomedical research misconduct: the Office of Research Integrity (ORI) and the Office of the Inspector General (OIG), both located within the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). Research misconduct investigations pertaining to U.S. physical sciences funded through the National Science Foundation (NSF) are overseen by the NSF's OIG. While OIGs may provide some improvement over the ORI in the handling of research misconduct, we have found that a much more serious flaw exists which undermines an ability to conduct performance audits of the effectiveness by which allegations of research misconduct are handled in the United States. Specifically, sufficient data do not need to be retained by U.S. research institutions funded by HHS or NSF to allow effective audit of why allegations of research misconduct are dismissed before being seen by faculty inquiry or investigative committees. U.S. federal Generally Accepted Government Auditing Standards (GAGAS/Yellow Book), if applied to the research misconduct oversight process, would allow a determination of whether the handling of allegations of biomedical research misconduct actually functions adequately, and if not, how it might be improved. In particular, we propose that independent, external peer review under GAGAS audit standards should be instituted without delay in assessing the performance of ORI, or any other similarly tasked federal agency, in handling allegations of

  6. EDITORIAL: The need and challenge for Environmental Research Letters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    2006-11-01

    Why another journal? This is the inevitable question that every effort to launch a new journal must, and should, address. A common statistic in the business world is that nine out of ten new restaurants fail. In the academic world something similar, but less definitive, can happen: a potentially interesting, but practically flawed, effort can be launched, never truly build an intellectual community, but then continue as a sub-critical, little-known journal for far too long. The challenge any new publication, academic or professional, faces is thus extreme. A new journal must find a way to usefully compete, and bring new value, in the face of multiple existing outlets for significant results, tremendous barriers to establishing a 'track record' or 'name recognition' against existing publications, and a print and a cyberspace increasingly desperate in the search for 'content', scientific or otherwise. In the case of Environmental Research Letters (ERL), however, these questions answered themselves and, as a result, I cannot imagine a more critically needed new publication. Indeed, the goal of ERL is to be more than simply one more good new journal. It is to be a place—both physical and online—that those engaged in environmental issues—from researchers within the physical and natural sciences, to those concerned with applied systems studies, modeling and simulation techniques, practical engagement in environmental activism, and developing, conducting or critiquing policy, legal, or business efforts—will all want to go to read, and to engage with colleagues. The environmental field has witnessed an incredible intellectual and professional proliferation. The areas of ecological resilience, global change science, policy, law and economics, industrial ecology, green buildings, environmental genomics, environmental archaeology, and the sociology of environmental movements have become increasingly regarded and, to varying degrees, recognized themselves as major

  7. Laser-based additive manufacturing: where it has been, where it needs to go

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Khershed P.

    2014-03-01

    It is no secret that the laser was the driver for additive manufacturing (AM) of 3D objects since such objects were first demonstrated in the mid-1980s. A myriad of techniques utilizing the directed energy of lasers were invented. Lasers are used to selectively sinter or fuse incremental layers in powder-beds, melt streaming powder following a programmed path, and polymerize photopolymers in a liquid vat layer-by-layer. The laser is an energy source of choice for repair of damaged components, for manufacture of new or replacement parts, and for rapid prototyping of concept designs. Lasers enable microstructure gradients and heterogeneous structures designed to exhibit unique properties and behavior. Laserbased additive manufacturing has been successful in producing relatively simple near net-shape metallic parts saving material and cost, but requiring finish-machining and in repair and refurbishment of worn components. It has been routinely used to produce polymer parts. These capabilities have been widely recognized as evidenced by the explosion in interest in AM technology, nationally. These successes are, however, tempered by challenges facing practitioners such as process and part qualification and verification, which are needed to bring AM as a true manufacturing technology. The ONR manufacturing science program, in collaboration with other agencies, invested in basic R&D in AM since its beginnings. It continues to invest, currently focusing on developing cyber-enabled manufacturing systems for AM. It is believed that such computation, communication and control approaches will help in validating AM and moving it to the factory floor along side CNC machines.

  8. Assessment of industrial attitudes toward generic research needs in tribology

    SciTech Connect

    Sibley, L.B.; Zlotnick, M.; Levinson, T.M.

    1985-09-01

    Based on extended discussions during visits with 27 companies representing 13 different parts of the tribology industry (such as bearings, lubricants, coatings, powerplants), it is apparent that only a tiny fraction of the large sums publicly reported as R and D expenditures by industry are used to fund generic tribology research. For example, of the greater than $2 B expenditures reported for R and D in the lubricants sector for 1982, the estimated total for generic tribology research was $12 M. This was the largest expenditure in any sector of the tribology industry and one-third of the total of $36 M. In the automotive industry out of a reported expenditure of $4 B, the estimated generic tribology research was $3 M. In some segments of the tribology industry, for example coatings and filters, there were no expenditures on generic research. There was little tendency to improve the state of the art of the tribology industry through long-term investment in generic R and D in ways that would foster innovation and productivity of energy conservation technology. Expenditures were oriented to development of specific commercial and military products, or to basic research focused on unspecified far term results, although useful spin-off of military developments into commercial fields sometimes occurs. There was a broad consensus in the companies visited that existing research results were not always made easily accessible to potential users in industry. The implication was that industry might benefit more if a larger fraction of the funds were devoted to putting the research results into a form design and development engineers could more readily apply. The need for a more effective presentation of research results was expressed with greater urgency at the smaller companies, but there seemed to be a broad consensus on the need for improvement. Recommendations are given.

  9. Summary report of a workshop on phytoremediation research needs

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-12-01

    Soil contamination is a national and global problem. A major challenge is the remediation of large sites contaminated with radionuclides and toxic metals, often present in relatively small amounts but above regulatory action levels. Despite the function of phytoremediation processes in nature for millenia, the technology of phytoremediation is, for the most part, still a concept. There are many different pollutants, plant uptake mechanisms, soil matrices, and plant species that need to be investigated, without overlooking the microbial participation in this technology. Developing actual practical applications will require a significant and coordinated research and development effort, due to the complexity of both biological systems and the soil contamination problems. Research and development in this area must involve scientists and engineers in Federal and state agencies, foreign organizations and industry. The representation at the workshop of researchers from many disciplines, organizations and countries, augurs well for a cooperative and interdisciplinary research effort and the rapid application of this technology. The urgent needs for effective, low-cost technologies to clean-up contaminated soils, both in the US and around the world, suggests phytoremediation as a high national and international research priority. The availability of scientists trained in the interdisciplinary topics relating to phytoremediation will be a major factor in expediting development of this technology.

  10. Assessment of basic research needs for greenhouse gas control technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, S.M.; Chandler, W.; Edmonds, J.; Houghton, J.; Levine, M.; Bates, L.; Chum, H.; Dooley, J.; Grether, D.; Logan, J.; Wiltsee, G.; Wright, L.

    1998-09-01

    This paper is an outgrowth of an effort undertaken by the Department of Energy's Office of Energy Research to assess the fundamental research needs to support a national program in carbon management. Five topics were identified as areas where carbon management strategies and technologies might be developed: (1) capture of carbon dioxide, decarbonization strategies, and carbon dioxide disposal and utilization; (2) hydrogen development and fuel cells; (3) enhancement of the natural carbon cycle; (4) biomass production and utilization; and (5) improvement of the efficiency of energy production, conversion, and utilization. Within each of these general areas, experts came together to identify targets of opportunity for fundamental research likely to lead to the development of mid- to long-term solutions for stabilizing or decreasing carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Basic research to support the options outlined above are far reaching-from understanding natural global processes such as the ocean and terrestrial carbon cycles to development of new materials and concepts for chemical separation. Examples of fundamental research needs are described in this paper.

  11. Food reward system: current perspectives and future research needs

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Stephen C.; Pelchat, Marcia; Grigson, Patricia Sue; Stice, Eric; Farooqi, Sadaf; Khoo, Chor San; Mattes, Richard D.; Beauchamp, Gary K.

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews current research and cross-disciplinary perspectives on the neuroscience of food reward in animals and humans, examines the scientific hypothesis of food addiction, discusses methodological and terminology challenges, and identifies knowledge gaps and future research needs. Topics addressed herein include the role of reward and hedonic aspects in the regulation of food intake, neuroanatomy and neurobiology of the reward system in animals and humans, responsivity of the brain reward system to palatable foods and drugs, translation of craving versus addiction, and cognitive control of food reward. The content is based on a workshop held in 2013 by the North American Branch of the International Life Sciences Institute. PMID:26011903

  12. Basic research needs and opportunities on interfaces in solar materials

    SciTech Connect

    Czanderna, A. W.; Gottschall, R. J.

    1981-04-01

    The workshop on research needs and recommended research programs on interfaces in solar energy conversion devices was held June 30-July 3, 1980. The papers deal mainly with solid-solid, solid-liquid, and solid-gas interfaces, sometimes involving multilayer solid-solid interfaces. They deal mainly with instrumental techniques of studying these interfaces so they can be optimized, so they can be fabricated with quality control and so changes with time can be forecast. The latter is required because a long lifetime (20 yrs is suggested) is necessary for economic reasons. Fifteen papers have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. (LTN)

  13. Harnessing the placebo effect: the need for translational research

    PubMed Central

    Colloca, Luana; Miller, Franklin G.

    2011-01-01

    Laboratory research recently has greatly enhanced the understanding of placebo and nocebo effects by identifying specific neuromodulators and brain areas associated with them. However, little progress has been made in translating this knowledge into improved patient care. Here, we discuss the limitations in our knowledge about placebo (and nocebo) effects and the need for translational research with the aim of guiding physicians in maximizing placebo effects and minimizing nocebo effects in their routine clinical practice. We suggest some strategies for how, when and why interventions to promote beneficial placebo responses might be administered in the clinical setting. PMID:21576150

  14. Structural dynamics technology research in NASA: Perspective on future needs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The perspective of a NASA ad hoc study group on future research needs in structural dynamics within the aerospace industry is presented. The common aspects of the design process across the industry are identified and the role of structural dynamics is established through a discussion of various design considerations having their basis in structural dynamics. The specific structural dynamics issues involved are identified and assessed as to their current technological status and trends. Projections of future requirements based on this assessment are made and areas of research to meet them are identified.

  15. Research needs and opportunities in server intervention programs.

    PubMed

    Saltz, R F

    1989-01-01

    Prevention specialists have recently focused on ways to shape the drinking context and environment to reduce the risks of drinking and driving. Server intervention refers to a set of strategies to control drinking in service establishments through changes in management policies, serving practices, and by training servers and other employees to monitor and control patrons' alcohol consumption. Research on server intervention is mixed, but seems to indicate that some server intervention practices can reduce levels of alcohol intoxication by patrons. Further work is needed to determine how such effects can be enhanced. Topics for future research include optimal components of specific training curriculum, policies needed to support and extend server training, importance of "booster" sessions, and the relationship of server intervention to broader social and legal environments that discourage drinking and driving. PMID:2793495

  16. Research Needs: Glass Solar Reflectance and Vinyl Siding

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, Robert; Curcija, Charlie; Arasteh, Dariush; Goudey, Howdy; Kohler, Christian; Selkowitz, Stephen

    2011-07-07

    The subject of glass solar reflectance and its contribution to permanent vinyl siding distortion has not been extensively studied, and some phenomena are not yet well understood. This white paper presents what is known regarding the issue and identifies where more research is needed. Three primary topics are discussed: environmental factors that control the transfer of heat to and from the siding surface; vinyl siding properties that may affect heat build-up and permanent distortion; and factors that determine the properties of reflected solar radiation from glass surfaces, including insulating window glass. Further research is needed to fully characterize the conditions associated with siding distortion, the scope of the problem, physical properties of vinyl siding, insulating window glass reflection characteristics, and possible mitigation or prevention strategies.

  17. Analyzing Enterprise Networks Needs: Action Research from the Mechatronics Sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cagnazzo, Luca; Taticchi, Paolo; Bidini, Gianni; Baglieri, Enzo

    New business models and theories are developing nowadays towards collaborative environments direction, and many new tools in sustaining companies involved in these organizations are emerging. Among them, a plethora of methodologies to analyze their needs are already developed for single companies. Few academic works are available about Enterprise Networks (ENs) need analysis. This paper presents the learning from an action research (AR) in the mechatronics sector: AR has been used in order to experience the issue of evaluating network needs and therefore define, develop, and test a complete framework for network evaluation. Reflection on the story in the light of the experience and the theory is presented, as well as extrapolation to a broader context and articulation of usable knowledge.

  18. The need for translational research on drug-drug interactions.

    PubMed

    Hennessy, S; Flockhart, D A

    2012-05-01

    Drug-drug interactions (DDIs) are an important clinical and public health concern. Although DDI screening now occurs during drug development, it is difficult to predict clinical importance based on in vitro experiments. Furthermore, older drugs that were not screened may have interactions that have not yet been identified. In this Commentary, we review the importance of DDIs and argue that a translational research approach is needed to produce clinically actionable information as well as generalizable biological knowledge. PMID:22513312

  19. Developing the Understanding and Practice of Inclusion in Higher Education for International Students with Disabilities/Additional Needs: A Whole Schooling Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Supple, Briony; Abgenyega, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present research on inclusion in higher education using a whole schooling philosophy. We seek insight into the perspectives of international students with disabilities/additional needs, three of whom from this particular research group are from non-English speaking backgrounds and attending the same university in Melbourne,…

  20. The Electric Power Research Institute. Coordinated Energy Research to Meet a National Need

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henning, Laura H.

    1975-01-01

    In an institute responsible for coordinating research and development for the electric energy industry, a data base and technical library are being developed to provide for information and research needs. Includes a selected basic annotated list of reference publications. (LS)

  1. Transferring climate research results to stakeholder needs in Northern Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meinke, Insa

    2013-04-01

    The North German Climate Office was established in 2006 at the Institute for Coastal Research at the Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Germany as consequence of an increased public information need regarding coastal climate change and its impacts in Northern Germany. The service is characterized by an intensive dialogue between regional climate research and stakeholders in Northern Germany. About once a week scientists of the North German climate office are invited to contribute to public dialogue events. Also, numerous direct inquiries are answered and expert interviews are conducted. From this dialogue process specific stakeholder information needs are localized and analysed to develop tailored information products. To provide easy and user specific access to research results interactive web tools are developed. One example is the North German climate atlas, an interactive web tool on possible future climate change in Northern Germany. Another interactive web tool is informing on present and future coastal protection needs in Northern Germany. Another aim of our information products is to assess and summarize the existing scientific knowledge on climate, climate change and impacts in Northern Germany. A mini IPCC-like regional assessment report has been published in 2010, which is summarizing, discussing and assessing the scientific knowledge on regional climate, climate change and impacts as well as possible adaptation strategies in the metropolitan region of Hamburg.

  2. We Don't Need a "Geoengineering" Research Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caldeira, K.

    2011-12-01

    Most approaches commonly labeled as 'geoengineering' can be divided into two categories: approaches that attempt to reduce the change in atmospheric composition caused by anthropogenic emissions (commonly labeled CDR, for Carbon Dioxide Removal), and approaches that attempt to reduce the change in climate caused by changes in atmospheric composition (commonly labeled SRM, for Sunlight Reflection Methods or Solar Radiation Management). CDR is relatively uncontroversial (apart from ocean fertilization), and the primary issues are typically cost, effectiveness, local environmental consequences, and verification. In contrast, SRM has provoked much controversy, because large-scale SRM deployments necessarily would affect everyone on this planet. Several proposals have been tabled for SRM-specific or geoengineering-specific research and governance structures, treating SRM or geoengineering research as a thing apart. We should instead view CDR and SRM research as part of a broader continuum of activities aimed at understanding Earth system dynamics and reducing risks associated with climate change. The scope of existing research efforts should be broadened so that CDR and SRM approaches are, at this stage in development, treated as an extension of what we are already doing. What is 'geoengineering research'? A primary need at this time is for expansion of scope of and funding for existing climate-related research efforts. For examples: Scientists studying the role of aerosols in clouds or stratospheric processes can expand the domain of concern to consider effects of intentionally introduced aerosols (and not just natural aerosols and aerosols we introduce as a byproduct of civilization's normal functioning). Scientists studying effects of land-surface change on global and regional climates can expand the domain of concern beyond inadvertent effects to consider effects of land-surface changes undertaken with the intent to affect these climates. Research programs aimed at

  3. 49 CFR 40.303 - What happens if the SAP believes the employee needs additional treatment, aftercare, or support...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false What happens if the SAP believes the employee... the Return-to-Duty Process § 40.303 What happens if the SAP believes the employee needs additional...? (a) As a SAP, if you believe that ongoing services (in addition to follow-up tests) are needed...

  4. 49 CFR 40.303 - What happens if the SAP believes the employee needs additional treatment, aftercare, or support...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What happens if the SAP believes the employee... the Return-to-Duty Process § 40.303 What happens if the SAP believes the employee needs additional...? (a) As a SAP, if you believe that ongoing services (in addition to follow-up tests) are needed...

  5. 49 CFR 40.303 - What happens if the SAP believes the employee needs additional treatment, aftercare, or support...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What happens if the SAP believes the employee... the Return-to-Duty Process § 40.303 What happens if the SAP believes the employee needs additional...? (a) As a SAP, if you believe that ongoing services (in addition to follow-up tests) are needed...

  6. 49 CFR 40.303 - What happens if the SAP believes the employee needs additional treatment, aftercare, or support...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What happens if the SAP believes the employee... the Return-to-Duty Process § 40.303 What happens if the SAP believes the employee needs additional...? (a) As a SAP, if you believe that ongoing services (in addition to follow-up tests) are needed...

  7. 49 CFR 40.303 - What happens if the SAP believes the employee needs additional treatment, aftercare, or support...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What happens if the SAP believes the employee... the Return-to-Duty Process § 40.303 What happens if the SAP believes the employee needs additional...? (a) As a SAP, if you believe that ongoing services (in addition to follow-up tests) are needed...

  8. A carbon monoxide passive sampler: Research and development needs

    SciTech Connect

    Traynor, G.W.; Apte, M.G.; Diamond, R.C.; Woods, A.L.

    1991-11-01

    In rare instances, carbon monoxide (CO) levels in houses can reach dangerously high concentrations, causing adverse health effects ranging from mild headaches to, under extreme conditions, death. Hundreds of fatal accidental carbon monoxide poisonings occur each year primarily due to the indoor operation of motor vehicles, the indoor use of charcoal for cooking, the operation of malfunctioning vented and unvented combustion appliances, and the misuse combustion appliances. Because there is a lack of simple, inexpensive, and accurate field sampling instrumentation, it is difficult for gas utilities and researchers to conduct field research studies designed to quantify the concentrations of CO in residences. Determining the concentration of CO in residences is the first step towards identifying the high risk appliances and high-CO environments which pose health risks. Thus, there exists an urgent need to develop and field-validate a CO-quantifying technique suitable for affordable field research. A CO passive sampler, if developed, could fulfill these requirements. Existing CO monitoring techniques are discussed as well as three potential CO-detection methods for use in a CO passive sampler. Laboratory and field research needed for the development and validation of an effective and cost-efficient CO passive sampler are also discussed.

  9. Health effects of fossil-fuel combustion products: needed research

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    An examination is made of the research needed to expand and clarify the understanding of the products of fossil-fuel combustion, chiefly that taking place in stationary sources of power. One of the specific objectives that guided the study on which this report is based was to identify the pollutants potentially hazardous to man that are released into the environment in the course of the combustion of fossil fuels. The hazards of principal concern are those which could cause deleterious, long-term somatic and genetic effects. Another objective was to specify the nature of the research needed to determine the health effects of these pollutants on the general population. Special attention was paid to the interaction of pollutants; the meteorologic and climatic factors that affect the transport, diffusion, and transformation of pollutants; the effects of concentrations of aerosol, particulate, and thermal loads on biologic systems; and the susceptibility of some portions of the population to the effects of pollutants on the skin and cardiovascular, pulmonary, and urinary systems. Other objectives were to evaluate the methods of the proposed research, including analytic and interpretation techniques, to identify fields in which the available scientific information is inadequate for regulatory decision-making and to recommend a research program to meet those deficiencies, and to provide a logical framework within which the necessary information can be developed (the proposed program is presented in terms of subject, methods, and priorities).

  10. Campus Grids: Bringing Additional Computational Resources to HEP Researchers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weitzel, Derek; Fraser, Dan; Bockelman, Brian; Swanson, David

    2012-12-01

    It is common at research institutions to maintain multiple clusters that represent different owners or generations of hardware, or that fulfill different needs and policies. Many of these clusters are consistently under utilized while researchers on campus could greatly benefit from these unused capabilities. By leveraging principles from the Open Science Grid it is now possible to utilize these resources by forming a lightweight campus grid. The campus grids framework enables jobs that are submitted to one cluster to overflow, when necessary, to other clusters within the campus using whatever authentication mechanisms are available on campus. This framework is currently being used on several campuses to run HEP and other science jobs. Further, the framework has in some cases been expanded beyond the campus boundary by bridging campus grids into a regional grid, and can even be used to integrate resources from a national cyberinfrastructure such as the Open Science Grid. This paper will highlight 18 months of operational experiences creating campus grids in the US, and the different campus configurations that have successfully utilized the campus grid infrastructure.

  11. Conservation Research Is Not Happening Where It Is Most Needed

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Kerrie A.; Auerbach, Nancy A.; Sam, Katerina; Magini, Ariana G.; Moss, Alexander St. L.; Langhans, Simone D.; Budiharta, Sugeng; Terzano, Dilva; Meijaard, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Target 19, set by the Convention on Biological Diversity, seeks to improve the knowledge, science base, and technologies relating to biodiversity. We will fail to achieve this target unless prolific biases in the field of conservation science are addressed. We reveal that comparatively less research is undertaken in the world’s most biodiverse countries, the science conducted in these countries is often not led by researchers based in-country, and these scientists are also underrepresented in important international fora. Mitigating these biases requires wide-ranging solutions: reforming open access publishing policies, enhancing science communication strategies, changing author attribution practices, improving representation in international processes, and strengthening infrastructure and human capacity for research in countries where it is most needed. PMID:27023288

  12. Conservation Research Is Not Happening Where It Is Most Needed.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Kerrie A; Auerbach, Nancy A; Sam, Katerina; Magini, Ariana G; Moss, Alexander St L; Langhans, Simone D; Budiharta, Sugeng; Terzano, Dilva; Meijaard, Erik

    2016-03-01

    Target 19, set by the Convention on Biological Diversity, seeks to improve the knowledge, science base, and technologies relating to biodiversity. We will fail to achieve this target unless prolific biases in the field of conservation science are addressed. We reveal that comparatively less research is undertaken in the world's most biodiverse countries, the science conducted in these countries is often not led by researchers based in-country, and these scientists are also underrepresented in important international fora. Mitigating these biases requires wide-ranging solutions: reforming open access publishing policies, enhancing science communication strategies, changing author attribution practices, improving representation in international processes, and strengthening infrastructure and human capacity for research in countries where it is most needed. PMID:27023288

  13. Assessment of Research Needs for Advanced Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Penner, S.S.

    1985-11-01

    The DOE Advanced Fuel Cell Working Group (AFCWG) was formed and asked to perform a scientific evaluation of the current status of fuel cells, with emphasis on identification of long-range research that may have a significant impact on the practical utilization of fuel cells in a variety of applications. The AFCWG held six meetings at locations throughout the country where fuel cell research and development are in progress, for presentations by experts on the status of fuel cell research and development efforts, as well as for inputs on research needs. Subsequent discussions by the AFCWG have resulted in the identification of priority research areas that should be explored over the long term in order to advance the design and performance of fuel cells of all types. Surveys describing the salient features of individual fuel cell types are presented in Chapters 2 to 6 and include elaborations of long-term research needs relating to the expeditious introduction of improved fuel cells. The Introduction and the Summary (Chapter 1) were prepared by AFCWG. They were repeatedly revised in response to comments and criticism. The present version represents the closest approach to a consensus that we were able to reach, which should not be interpreted to mean that each member of AFCWG endorses every statement and every unexpressed deletion. The Introduction and Summary always represent a majority view and, occasionally, a unanimous judgment. Chapters 2 to 6 provide background information and carry the names of identified authors. The identified authors of Chapters 2 to 6, rather than AFCWG as a whole, bear full responsibility for the scientific and technical contents of these chapters.

  14. Are special ethical guidelines needed for palliative care research?

    PubMed

    Casarett, D J; Karlawish, J H

    2000-08-01

    Recent studies have made it clear that there are substantial opportunities to improve end-of-life care. Doing so will require solid evidence on which to base clinical and policy decisions and this, in turn, will require a focused research effort. However, research that involves patients near the end of life creates numerous ethical challenges. Moreover, the inclusion of dying patients in research may make many providers uncomfortable. In short, there seems to be something ethically unique, and uniquely challenging, about palliative care research. This paper considers 4 arguments for this unique status: 1) dying patients are especially vulnerable; 2) adequate informed consent may be difficult to obtain; 3) balancing research and clinical roles is particularly difficult; and 4) the risks and benefits of palliative research are difficult to assess. We conclude that the first three of these arguments are weak, and that special guidelines are not needed. We suggest, however, that the fourth argument may have some merit, and should be the focus of discussion among investigators, providers, and patients. PMID:10989251

  15. Biowaste biorefinery in Europe: opportunities and research & development needs.

    PubMed

    Fava, Fabio; Totaro, Grazia; Diels, Ludo; Reis, Maria; Duarte, Jose; Carioca, Osvaldo Beserra; Poggi-Varaldo, Héctor M; Ferreira, Bruno Sommer

    2015-01-25

    This review aims to explore the needs and opportunities of research & development in the field of biowaste biorefinery in Europe. Modern industry in recent years is giving its close attention on organic waste as a new precious bioresource. Specific biowaste valorisation pathways are focusing on food processing waste, being food sector the first manufacture in Europe. Anyway they need to be further tested and validated and then transferred at the larger scale. In particular, they also need to become integrated, combining biomass pretreatments and recovery of biogenic chemicals with bioconversion processes in order to obtain a large class of chemicals. This will help to (a) use the whole biowaste, by avoiding producing residues and providing to the approach the required environmental sustainability, and (b) producing different biobased products that enter different markets, to get the possible economical sustainability of the whole biorefinery. However, the costs of the developed integrated processes might be high, mostly for the fact that the industry dealing with such issues is still underdeveloped and therefore dominated by high processing costs. Such costs can be significantly reduced by intensifying research & development on process integration and intensification. The low or no cost of starting material along with the environmental benefits coming from the concomitant biowaste disposal would offset the high capital costs for initiating such a biorefinery. As long as the oil prices tend to increase (and they will) this strategy will become even more attractive. PMID:24284045

  16. Information and research needs of acute-care clinical nurses.

    PubMed

    Spath, M; Buttlar, L

    1996-01-01

    The majority of nurses surveyed used the library on a regular but limited basis to obtain information needed in caring for or making decisions about their patients. A minority indicated that the libraries in their own institutions totally met their information needs. In fact, only 4% depended on the library to stay abreast of new information and developments in the field. Many of the nurses had their own journal subscriptions, which could account in part for the limited use of libraries and the popularity of the professional journal as the key information source. This finding correlates with the research of Binger and Huntsman, who found that 95% of staff development educators relied on professional journal literature to keep up with current information in the field, and only 45% regularly monitored indexing-and-abstracting services. The present study also revealed that nurses seek information from colleagues more than from any other source, supporting the findings of Corcoran-Perry and Graves. Further research is necessary to clarify why nurses use libraries on a limited basis. It appears, as Bunyan and Lutz contend, that a more aggressive approach to marketing the library to nurses is needed. Further research should include an assessment of how the library can meet the information needs of nurses for both research and patient care. Options to be considered include offering library orientation sessions for new staff nurses, providing current-awareness services by circulating photocopied table-of-contents pages, sending out reviews of new monographs, inviting nurses to submit search requests on a topic, scheduling seminars and workshops that teach CD-ROM and online search strategies, and providing information about electronic databases covering topics related to nursing. Information on databases may be particularly important in light of the present study's finding that databases available in CD-ROM format are consulted very little. Nursing education programs should

  17. Research Needs in Electrostatics for Lunar and Mars Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calle, Carlos I.

    2005-01-01

    The new space exploratory vision announced by President Bush on January 14, 2004, initiated new activities at the National Science and Space Administration (NASA) for human space missions to further explore our solar system. NASA is undertaking Lunar exploration to support sustained human and robotic exploration of Mars and beyond. A series of robotic missions to the Moon by 2008 to prepare for human exploration as early as 2015 but no later than 2020 are anticipated. In a similar way, missions to the Moon and Mars are being planned in Europe, Japan and Russia. These space missions will require international participation to solve problems in a number of important technological areas where research is needed, including biomedical risk mitigation as well as life support and habitability on the surface of Mars. Mitigation of dust hazards is one of the most important problems to be resolved for both Lunar and Mars missions. Both Lunar and Martian regolith are unique materials and completely different from the terrestrial soils that we are exposed to on earth. The total absence of water and an atmosphere on the moon and the formation of soil and fine dust by micrometeorite impacts over billions of years resulted in a layer of soil with unique properties. The soil is primarily basaltic in composition with a high glass concentration. The depth of the soil layer varies from a few meters in the mare areas (dark areas on the Lunar near side) to tens of meters in the highland areas (the lighter mountainous areas) and the particle size distribution of this dust layer varies widely with a major mass fraction less than 10 micrometer in diameter. The hard soil from the moon which has been extensively studied by several researchers showed clearly unique properties of Lunar soil. Apollo astronauts became aware of the potentially serious threat to crew health and mission hardware that can be caused by the lunar dust. As reported by McKay and Carrier the mass fraction of the lunar

  18. Anaerobic digestion of microalgal biomass: Challenges, opportunities and research needs.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Fernandez, Cristina; Sialve, Bruno; Molinuevo-Salces, Beatriz

    2015-12-01

    Integration of anaerobic digestion (AD) with microalgae processes has become a key topic to support economic and environmental development of this resource. Compared with other substrates, microalgae can be produced close to the plant without the need for arable lands and be fully integrated within a biorefinery. As a limiting step, anaerobic hydrolysis appears to be one of the most challenging steps to reach a positive economic balance and to completely exploit the potential of microalgae for biogas and fertilizers production. This review covers recent investigations dealing with microalgae AD and highlights research opportunities and needs to support the development of this resource. Novel approaches to increase hydrolysis rate, the importance of the reactor design and the noteworthiness of the microbial anaerobic community are addressed. Finally, the integration of AD with microalgae processes and the potential of the carboxylate platform for chemicals and biofuels production are reviewed. PMID:26454349

  19. Fertility-related research needs among women at the margins.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Sheree R; Baral, Stefan

    2015-05-01

    Fertility-related research encompasses fertility intentions, preconception care, research amongst pregnant women, and post-partum outcomes of mothers and children. However, some women remain under-represented within this domain of study. Women frequently missing within fertility-related research include those who are already the most vulnerable to health disparities, including female sex workers, lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender women, women living with HIV, and women who use drugs. Yet characterization of the needs of these women is important, given their unique fertility-related concerns, including risks and barriers to care emanating from social stigmas and discrimination. This synthesis provides an overview of fertility-related evidence, highlighting where there are clear research gaps among marginalized women and the potential implications of these data shortfalls. Overall, research among marginalized women to date has addressed pregnancy prevention and in some cases fertility intentions, but the majority of studies have focused on post-conception pregnancy safety and the well-being of the child. However, among female sex workers specifically, data on pregnancy safety and the well-being of the child are largely unavailable. Within each marginalized group, preconception care and effectiveness of conception methods are consistently understudied. Ultimately, the absence of epidemiologic, clinical and programmatic evidence limits the availability and quality of reproductive health services for all women and prevents social action to address these gaps. PMID:26278831

  20. Assessing the Need for a Research Ethics Remediation Program

    PubMed Central

    DuBois, James M; Anderson, Emily E; Chibnall, John

    2013-01-01

    With supplement funding to the Washington University CTSA, the Restoring Professionalism and Integrity in Research (RePAIR) program was developed at Saint Louis University to meet the remediation needs of institutions nationwide regarding investigators who violate research regulations. With the aim of determining the frequency and kinds of wrongdoing at leading research institutions in the United States, as well as institutional responses and levels of interest in a formal remediation program, an online questionnaire was distributed by email to a research integrity officer (RIO) and institutional review board (IRB) chair at all medical schools and comprehensive doctoral institutions in the United States (N = 194). One hundred sixty-one individuals responded (44%) representing 66% of institutions. For those institutions that had both RIOs and IRB chairs responding, 96% had investigated at least one case over the past 2 years; the modal individual response was 3–5 cases, with a range from 0 to more than 16 cases. The most common forms of wrongdoing were violations of procedure, informed consent, research integrity (fabrication, falsification, plagiarism), privacy, and conflict of interest policies. Most RIOs and IRB chairs expressed interest in the RePAIR program, despite concerns about costs and faculty resistance. PMID:23751027

  1. Assessing the need for a research ethics remediation program.

    PubMed

    DuBois, James M; Anderson, Emily E; Chibnall, John

    2013-06-01

    With supplement funding to the Washington University CTSA, the Restoring Professionalism and Integrity in Research (RePAIR) program was developed at Saint Louis University to meet the remediation needs of institutions nationwide regarding investigators who violate research regulations. With the aim of determining the frequency and kinds of wrongdoing at leading research institutions in the United States, as well as institutional responses and levels of interest in a formal remediation program, an online questionnaire was distributed by email to a research integrity officer (RIO) and institutional review board (IRB) chair at all medical schools and comprehensive doctoral institutions in the United States (N = 194). One hundred sixty-one individuals responded (44%) representing 66% of institutions. For those institutions that had both RIOs and IRB chairs responding, 96% had investigated at least one case over the past 2 years; the modal individual response was 3-5 cases, with a range from 0 to more than 16 cases. The most common forms of wrongdoing were violations of procedure, informed consent, research integrity (fabrication, falsification, plagiarism), privacy, and conflict of interest policies. Most RIOs and IRB chairs expressed interest in the RePAIR program, despite concerns about costs and faculty resistance. PMID:23751027

  2. Examining Researcher Needs and Barriers for using Electronic Health Data for Translational Research.

    PubMed

    Stephens, Kari A; Lee, E Sally; Estiri, Hossein; Jung, Hyunggu

    2015-01-01

    To achieve the Learning Health Care System, we must harness electronic health data (EHD) by providing effective tools for researchers to access data efficiently. EHD is proliferating and researchers are relying on these data to pioneer discovery. Tools must be user-centric to ensure their utility. To this end, we conducted a qualitative study to assess researcher needs and barriers to using EHD. Researchers expressed the need to be confident about the data and have easy access, a clear process for exploration and access, and adequate resources, while barriers included difficulties in finding datasets, usability of the data, cumbersome processes, and lack of resources. These needs and barriers can inform the design process for innovating tools to increase utility of EHD. Understanding researcher needs is key to building effective user-centered EHD tools to support translational research. PMID:26306262

  3. Examining Researcher Needs and Barriers for using Electronic Health Data for Translational Research

    PubMed Central

    Stephens, Kari A.; Lee, E. Sally; Estiri, Hossein; Jung, Hyunggu

    2015-01-01

    To achieve the Learning Health Care System, we must harness electronic health data (EHD) by providing effective tools for researchers to access data efficiently. EHD is proliferating and researchers are relying on these data to pioneer discovery. Tools must be user-centric to ensure their utility. To this end, we conducted a qualitative study to assess researcher needs and barriers to using EHD. Researchers expressed the need to be confident about the data and have easy access, a clear process for exploration and access, and adequate resources, while barriers included difficulties in finding datasets, usability of the data, cumbersome processes, and lack of resources. These needs and barriers can inform the design process for innovating tools to increase utility of EHD. Understanding researcher needs is key to building effective user-centered EHD tools to support translational research. PMID:26306262

  4. Space facilities: Meeting future needs for research, development, and operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The National Facilities Study (NFS) represents an interagency effort to develop a comprehensive and integrated long-term plan for world-class aeronautical and space facilities that meet current and projected needs for commercial and government aerospace research and development and space operations. At the request of NASA and the DOD, the National Research Council's Committee on Space Facilities has reviewed the space related findings of the NFS. The inventory of more than 2800 facilities will be an important resource, especially if it continues to be updated and maintained as the NFS report recommends. The data in the inventory provide the basis for a much better understanding of the resources available in the national facilities infrastructure, as well as extensive information on which to base rational decisions about current and future facilities needs. The working groups have used the inventory data and other information to make a set of recommendations that include estimates of cast savings and steps for implementation. While it is natural that the NFS focused on cost reduction and consolidations, such a study is most useful to future planning if it gives equal weight to guiding the direction of future facilities needed to satisfy legitimate national aspirations. Even in the context of cost reduction through facilities closures and consolidations, the study is timid about recognizing and proposing program changes and realignments of roles and missions to capture what could be significant savings and increased effectiveness. The recommendations of the Committee on Space Facilities are driven by the clear need to be more realistic and precise both in recognizing current incentives and disincentives in the aerospace industry and in forecasting future conditions for U.S. space activities.

  5. Teachers' Capacities to Meet Students' Additional Support Needs in Mainstream Primary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruggink, M.; Goei, S. L.; Koot, H. M.

    2016-01-01

    Mainstream primary school teachers generally acknowledge the need to implement adaptive teaching; however, meeting a variety of students' needs is a challenge. Studies have addressed the conditions under which teachers attribute their (in)capacities, but these have mainly involved vignettes. Therefore, it remains unknown whether teachers are…

  6. Research and Development Needs for Building-Integrated Solar Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2014-01-01

    The Building Technologies Office (BTO) has identified Building Integrated Solar Technologies (BIST) as a potentially valuable piece of the comprehensive pathway to help achieve its goal of reducing energy consumption in residential and commercial buildings by 50% by the year 2030. This report helps to identify the key research and development (R&D) needs that will be required for BIST to make a substantial contribution toward that goal. BIST include technologies for space heating and cooling, water heating, hybrid photovoltaic-thermal systems (PV/T), active solar lighting, and building-integrated photovoltaics (BIPV).

  7. Evaluation of NIPER thermal EOR research, state-of-the-art and research needs

    SciTech Connect

    Sarathi, P.S.; Olsen, D.K.; Mahmood, S.M.; Ramzel, E.B.

    1993-06-01

    The Thermal Oil Production Research Group at NIPER has conducted research on behalf of the US Department of Energy on thermal methods of oil production (steam and for 1 year, in situ combustion) since 1983. Research projects performed by this group have attempted to adapt to the needs and direction of the DOE`s oil research program and that of industry. This report summarizes the research that has been conducted, analyses the contributions of the research, describes how the technology was transferred to potential users, analyzes current trends in thermal research and thermal oil production, and makes suggestions for future research where NIPER could contribute to advances in thermal oil production.

  8. Ecosystem approach to inland fisheries: research needs and implementation strategies

    PubMed Central

    Beard, T. Douglas; Arlinghaus, Robert; Cooke, Steven J.; McIntyre, Peter B.; De Silva, Sena; Bartley, Devin; Cowx, Ian G.

    2011-01-01

    Inland fisheries are a vital component in the livelihoods and food security of people throughout the world, as well as contributing huge recreational and economic benefits. These valuable assets are jeopardized by lack of research-based understanding of the impacts of fisheries on inland ecosystems, and similarly the impact of human activities associated with inland waters on fisheries and aquatic biodiversity. To explore this topic, an international workshop was organized in order to examine strategies to incorporate fisheries into ecosystem approaches for management of inland waters. To achieve this goal, a new research agenda is needed that focuses on: quantifying the ecosystem services provided by fresh waters; quantifying the economic, social and nutritional benefits of inland fisheries; improving assessments designed to evaluate fisheries exploitation potential; and examining feedbacks between fisheries, ecosystem productivity and aquatic biodiversity. Accomplishing these objectives will require merging natural and social science approaches to address coupled social–ecological system dynamics. PMID:21325307

  9. Mercury biogeochemistry: Paradigm shifts, outstanding issues and research needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonke, Jeroen E.; Heimbürger, Lars-Eric; Dommergue, Aurélien

    2013-05-01

    Half a century of mercury research has provided scientists and policy makers with a detailed understanding of mercury toxicology, biogeochemical cycling and past and future impacts on human exposure. The complexity of the global biogeochemical mercury cycle has led to repeated and ongoing paradigm shifts in numerous mercury-related disciplines and outstanding questions remain. In this review, we highlight some of the paradigm shifts and questions on mercury toxicity, the risks and benefits of seafood consumption, the source of mercury in seafood, and the Arctic mercury cycle. We see a continued need for research on mercury toxicology and epidemiology, for marine mercury dynamics and ecology, and for a closer collaboration between observational mercury science and mercury modeling in general. As anthropogenic mercury emissions are closely tied to the energy cycle (in particular coal combustion), mercury exposure to humans and wildlife are likely to persist unless drastic emission reductions are put in place.

  10. Fossil energy biotechnology: A research needs assessment. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    The Office of Program Analysis of the US Department of Energy commissioned this study to evaluate and prioritize research needs in fossil energy biotechnology. The objectives were to identify research initiatives in biotechnology that offer timely and strategic options for the more efficient and effective uses of the Nation`s fossil resource base, particularly the early identification of new and novel applications of biotechnology for the use or conversion of domestic fossil fuels. Fossil energy biotechnology consists of a number of diverse and distinct technologies, all related by the common denominator -- biocatalysis. The expert panel organized 14 technical subjects into three interrelated biotechnology programs: (1) upgrading the fuel value of fossil fuels; (2) bioconversion of fossil feedstocks and refined products to added value chemicals; and, (3) the development of environmental management strategies to minimize and mitigate the release of toxic and hazardous petrochemical wastes.

  11. Ecosystem approach to inland fisheries: research needs and implementation strategies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beard, T. Douglas, Jr.; Arlinghaus, Robert; Cooke, Steven J.; McIntyre, Peter B.; De Silva, Sena; Bartley, Devin M.; Cowx, Ian G.

    2011-01-01

    Inland fisheries are a vital component in the livelihoods and food security of people throughout the world, as well as contributing huge recreational and economic benefits. These valuable assets are jeopardized by lack of research-based understanding of the impacts of fisheries on inland ecosystems, and similarly the impact of human activities associated with inland waters on fisheries and aquatic biodiversity. To explore this topic, an international workshop was organized in order to examine strategies to incorporate fisheries into ecosystem approaches for management of inland waters. To achieve this goal, a new research agenda is needed that focuses on: quantifying the ecosystem services provided by fresh waters; quantifying the economic, social and nutritional benefits of inland fisheries; improving assessments designed to evaluate fisheries exploitation potential; and examining feedbacks between fisheries, ecosystem productivity and aquatic biodiversity. Accomplishing these objectives will require merging natural and social science approaches to address coupled social–ecological system dynamics.

  12. Ecosystem approach to inland fisheries: Research needs and implementation strategies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beard, T.D., Jr.; Arlinghaus, R.; Cooke, S.J.; McIntyre, P.B.; De Silva, S.; Bartley, D.; Cowx, I.G.

    2011-01-01

    Inland fisheries are a vital component in the livelihoods and food security of people throughout the world, as well as contributing huge recreational and economic benefits. These valuable assets are jeopardized by lack of research-based understanding of the impacts of fisheries on inland ecosystems, and similarly the impact of human activities associated with inland waters on fisheries and aquatic biodiversity. To explore this topic, an international workshop was organized in order to examine strategies to incorporate fisheries into ecosystem approaches for management of inland waters. To achieve this goal, a new research agenda is needed that focuses on: quantifying the ecosystem services provided by fresh waters; quantifying the economic, social and nutritional benefits of inland fisheries; improving assessments designed to evaluate fisheries exploitation potential; and examining feedbacks between fisheries, ecosystem productivity and aquatic biodiversity. Accomplishing these objectives will require merging natural and social science approaches to address coupled social-ecological system dynamics. ?? 2010 The Royal Society.

  13. International research needs for improving sleep and health of workers.

    PubMed

    Kogi, Kazutaka

    2005-01-01

    Research needs in identifying preventive measures dealing with working time arrangements and associated sleep problems are reviewed. These needs are based on the recognition of a range of risk factors for health involving disturbed circadian rhythms leading to various levels of sleep deficits. The review takes account of recent joint change approaches that address both working time arrangements and various relevant intervening factors. As examples of such approaches, voluntary industry-based guidelines for improving shift work are examined. Also reviewed is evidence indicating the effects of improved working time arrangements and sleep hygiene on the tolerance of workers working irregular shifts. Trends in action-oriented risk assessment are further discussed as the effects on health and sleep of these workers may be modified by complex aspects related to working situations, family and social conditions, personal characteristics and social support. Generally relevant are not only the relationships between sleep-affecting factors and health, but also advances in taking the various support measures. The effective use of participatory steps is found important in dealing with working time arrangements and associated health and sleep problems together. It is thus considered important to study (a) the efficacy of joint change approaches addressing complex sleep and health factors, (b) effective procedures for action-oriented health risk assessment in various work life situations, and (c) the relevance of innovative participatory steps to improving health and tolerance of workers. Future research topics mentioned by the participants of the international symposium on night and shift work held in Santos in 2003 are presented, and international efforts to promote research into these aspects in field conditions are discussed. Interactive research involving local people appears crucial. PMID:15732307

  14. Declining scaup populations: issues, hypotheses, and research needs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Austin, J.E.; Afton, A.D.; Anderson, M.G.; Clark, R.G.; Custer, Christine M.; Lawrence, J.S.; Pollard, J.B.; Ringelman, J.K.

    2000-01-01

    The population estimate for greater (Aythya marila) and lesser (Aythya affinis) scaup (combined) has declined dramatically since the early 1980s to record lows in 1998. The 1998 estimate of 3.47 million scaup is far below the goal of 6.3 million set in the North American Waterfowl Management Plan (NAWMP), causing concern among biologists and hunters. We summarize issuesof concern, hypotheses for factors contributing to the population decline, and research and management needs recommended by participants of the Scaup Workshop, held in September 1999. We believe that contaminants, lower female survival, and reduced recruitment due to changes in food resources or breedingground habitats are primary factors contributing to the decline. These factors are not mutually exclusive but likely interact across seasons. Workshop participants identified seven action items. We need to further delineate where declines in breeding populations have occurred, with a primary focus on the western Canadian boreal forest, where declines appear to be most pronounced. Productivity in various areas and habitats throughout the breeding range needs to be assessed by conducting retrospective analyses of existing data and by intensive field studies at broad and local scales. Annual and seasonal survival rates need to be determined in order to assess the role of harvest or natural mortality. Effects of contaminants on reproduction, female body condition, and behavior must be investigated. Use, distribution, and role of food resources relative to body condition and reproduction need to be examined to better understand seasonal dynamics of nutrient reserves and the role in reproductive success. Affiliations among breeding, migration, and wintering areas must be assessed in order to understand differential exposure to harvest or contaminants, and differential reproductive success and recruitment. Biologists and agencies need to gather and improve information needed to manage greater and lesser

  15. Governance of Large Scale Research Infrastructures: Tailoring Infrastructures to Fit the Research Needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, E.; Pedersen, H.; Clémenceau, A.; Evans, R.

    2012-04-01

    The legal and governance structures of a pan-European large scale research infrastructure (RI) are critical. They shape the very operation of the undertaking - decision making processes, allocation of tasks and resources, and the relationships amongst the various interested parties - and its eventual success is crucially dependent on choosing these structures wisely. The experience of several examples is used to illustrate how legal and governance schemes for pan-European Research Infrastructures can be used as vehicles to tailor the infrastructure according to its scientific objectives. Indeed, the chosen model can: 1) foster multi-disciplinary research by having representatives of different communities deciding on joint programs; 2) better coordinate scattered communities, both geographically and thematically, increasing their cooperation; 3) implement an innovative Research organization; 4) leverage additional funding; 5) develop a strong identity and elevate international visibility for the communities served; 6) clarify responsibilities, accountability and authority. The ESFRI roadmap has extended the "classical" concept of single-sited RIs (as exemplified in the field of physics by facilities such as CERN) to that of distributed and virtual infrastructures but these raise new issues, especially regarding data exchange and management. As this concept of infrastructure at a European level is relatively new to the major part of the science community, it is especially important that governance models are thoroughly discussed and carefully adapted to fit the specific needs of each of these new distributed facilities. Alongside the legal frameworks which have previously been used for existing infrastructures, the European Commission has established a new legal vehicle, the European Research Infrastructure Consortium or "ERIC", to meet the requirements of the pan-European facilities. It will be shown that this flexible model can be used in a "customized" way to meet

  16. Biologically Enhanced Carbon Sequestration: Research Needs and Opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    Oldenburg, Curtis; Oldenburg, Curtis M.; Torn, Margaret S.

    2008-03-21

    Fossil fuel combustion, deforestation, and biomass burning are the dominant contributors to increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) concentrations and global warming. Many approaches to mitigating CO{sub 2} emissions are being pursued, and among the most promising are terrestrial and geologic carbon sequestration. Recent advances in ecology and microbial biology offer promising new possibilities for enhancing terrestrial and geologic carbon sequestration. A workshop was held October 29, 2007, at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) on Biologically Enhanced Carbon Sequestration (BECS). The workshop participants (approximately 30 scientists from California, Illinois, Oregon, Montana, and New Mexico) developed a prioritized list of research needed to make progress in the development of biological enhancements to improve terrestrial and geologic carbon sequestration. The workshop participants also identified a number of areas of supporting science that are critical to making progress in the fundamental research areas. The purpose of this position paper is to summarize and elaborate upon the findings of the workshop. The paper considers terrestrial and geologic carbon sequestration separately. First, we present a summary in outline form of the research roadmaps for terrestrial and geologic BECS. This outline is elaborated upon in the narrative sections that follow. The narrative sections start with the focused research priorities in each area followed by critical supporting science for biological enhancements as prioritized during the workshop. Finally, Table 1 summarizes the potential significance or 'materiality' of advances in these areas for reducing net greenhouse gas emissions.

  17. 76 FR 44593 - Identifying the Center for Drug Evaluation and Research's Science and Research Needs...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-26

    ...The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a draft report entitled ``Identifying CDER's Science and Research Needs.'' This document identifies current priorities in regulatory science related to the mission of the Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (CDER), and will guide strategic planning of internal research efforts. Through external communication of the......

  18. Cervical Cancer Screening: Defining the Need for Research

    PubMed Central

    Simoes, E.; Brucker, S.; Beckmann, M. W.; Ortmann, O.; Albring, C.; Wallwiener, D.

    2013-01-01

    With the development of a National Cancer Plan published in 2012, Germany has followed the recommendations of the WHO and the EU. The first area of action listed in Germanyʼs National Cancer Plan is improving the early detection of cancer. Both citizens and medical specialists are encouraged to take responsibility themselves and contribute to the efforts being made to meet the challenge of cancer. Screening for cervical cancer has long been an integral part of the German Directive for the Early Detection of Cancer and now – following the recommendations given in the European Guideline – an organised screening approach shall be developed to maximise the benefits and minimise the risks through a partial reorganisation of existing structures. Before this can be rolled out nationwide, it will be necessary to check the feasibility and suitability of new contents and organisational structures. The Federal Joint Committee which is largely responsible for the process according to the draft law on the implementation of the National Cancer Plan has emphasised the importance of evidence-based medicine and of collaboration between the autonomous governing bodies within the healthcare system to obtain viable results. For medical specialists, the follow-on question is which areas will need more research in future. New process steps need to be developed and verified to see whether they offer evidence which will support defined approaches or whether such evidence needs to be newly compiled, e.g. by testing invitation procedures for screening in trial schemes. The experience gained during the implementation of the existing directive on early detection of cancer should be integrated into the new process. Research initiated by specialists could encourage the development of a new version of the Directive for the Early Detection of Cancer suitable for the Germanyʼs healthcare system. PMID:26633900

  19. Long-Term Monitoring Research Needs: A DOE Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, B.; Davis, C. B.

    2002-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Management is responsible for dealing with the nation's legacy of Cold War radioactive and hazardous waste and contamination. Major efforts are underway to deal with this legacy; these are expected to last up to decades and cost up to billions of dollars at some sites. At all sites, however, active remediation must eventually cease; if hazards then remain, the site must enter into a long-term stewardship mode. In this talk we discuss aspects of long-term monitoring pertinent to DOE sites, focusing on challenges to be faced, specific goals or targets to be met, and research needs to be addressed in order to enable DOE to meet its long-term stewardship obligations. DOE LTM research needs fall into three major categories: doing what we can do now much more efficiently; doing things we cannot do now; and proving the validity of our monitoring programs. Given the enormity of the DOE obligations, it will be highly desirable to develop much more efficient monitoring paradigms. Doing so will demand developing autonomous, remote monitoring networks of in situ sensors capable of replacing (or at least supplementing to a large extent) conventional groundwater and soil gas sampling and analysis programs. The challenges involved range from basic science (e.g., inventing in situ sensors for TCE that do not demand routine maintenance) to engineering (attaining superior reliability in data reporting in remote networks) to ergonomics (developing decent ways of selecting and presenting the "right" information from the monitoring network) to regulatory affairs (presenting convincing evidence that the more efficient systems actually provide superior monitoring). We explore these challenges in some detail, focusing on the "long" in long-term monitoring as it applies to DOE sites. Monitoring system performance validation and, ultimately, regulator and stakeholder acceptance of site closure and long-term stewardship plans depend

  20. Reservoir Sedimentation and Upstream Sediment Sources: Perspectives and Future Research Needs on Streambank and Gully Erosion.

    PubMed

    Fox, G A; Sheshukov, A; Cruse, R; Kolar, R L; Guertault, L; Gesch, K R; Dutnell, R C

    2016-05-01

    The future reliance on water supply and flood control reservoirs across the globe will continue to expand, especially under a variable climate. As the inventory of new potential dam sites is shrinking, construction of additional reservoirs is less likely compared to simultaneous flow and sediment management in existing reservoirs. One aspect of this sediment management is related to the control of upstream sediment sources. However, key research questions remain regarding upstream sediment loading rates. Highlighted in this article are research needs relative to measuring and predicting sediment transport rates and loading due to streambank and gully erosion within a watershed. For example, additional instream sediment transport and reservoir sedimentation rate measurements are needed across a range of watershed conditions, reservoir sizes, and geographical locations. More research is needed to understand the intricate linkage between upland practices and instream response. A need still exists to clarify the benefit of restoration or stabilization of a small reach within a channel system or maturing gully on total watershed sediment load. We need to better understand the intricate interactions between hydrological and erosion processes to improve prediction, location, and timing of streambank erosion and failure and gully formation. Also, improved process-based measurement and prediction techniques are needed that balance data requirements regarding cohesive soil erodibility and stability as compared to simpler topographic indices for gullies or stream classification systems. Such techniques will allow the research community to address the benefit of various conservation and/or stabilization practices at targeted locations within watersheds. PMID:26885658

  1. Reservoir Sedimentation and Upstream Sediment Sources: Perspectives and Future Research Needs on Streambank and Gully Erosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, G. A.; Sheshukov, A.; Cruse, R.; Kolar, R. L.; Guertault, L.; Gesch, K. R.; Dutnell, R. C.

    2016-05-01

    The future reliance on water supply and flood control reservoirs across the globe will continue to expand, especially under a variable climate. As the inventory of new potential dam sites is shrinking, construction of additional reservoirs is less likely compared to simultaneous flow and sediment management in existing reservoirs. One aspect of this sediment management is related to the control of upstream sediment sources. However, key research questions remain regarding upstream sediment loading rates. Highlighted in this article are research needs relative to measuring and predicting sediment transport rates and loading due to streambank and gully erosion within a watershed. For example, additional instream sediment transport and reservoir sedimentation rate measurements are needed across a range of watershed conditions, reservoir sizes, and geographical locations. More research is needed to understand the intricate linkage between upland practices and instream response. A need still exists to clarify the benefit of restoration or stabilization of a small reach within a channel system or maturing gully on total watershed sediment load. We need to better understand the intricate interactions between hydrological and erosion processes to improve prediction, location, and timing of streambank erosion and failure and gully formation. Also, improved process-based measurement and prediction techniques are needed that balance data requirements regarding cohesive soil erodibility and stability as compared to simpler topographic indices for gullies or stream classification systems. Such techniques will allow the research community to address the benefit of various conservation and/or stabilization practices at targeted locations within watersheds.

  2. HTGR Dust Safety Issues and Needs for Research and Development

    SciTech Connect

    Paul W. Humrickhouse

    2011-06-01

    This report presents a summary of high temperature gas-cooled reactor dust safety issues. It draws upon a literature review and the proceedings of the Very High Temperature Reactor Dust Assessment Meeting held in Rockville, MD in March 2011 to identify and prioritize the phenomena and issues that characterize the effect of carbonaceous dust on high temperature reactor safety. It reflects the work and input of approximately 40 participants from the U.S. Department of Energy and its National Labs, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, industry, academia, and international nuclear research organizations on the topics of dust generation and characterization, transport, fission product interactions, and chemical reactions. The meeting was organized by the Idaho National Laboratory under the auspices of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant Project, with support from the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Information gleaned from the report and related meetings will be used to enhance the fuel, graphite, and methods technical program plans that guide research and development under the Next Generation Nuclear Plant Project. Based on meeting discussions and presentations, major research and development needs include: generating adsorption isotherms for fission products that display an affinity for dust, investigating the formation and properties of carbonaceous crust on the inside of high temperature reactor coolant pipes, and confirming the predominant source of dust as abrasion between fuel spheres and the fuel handling system.

  3. Operational research needs toward malaria elimination in China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shen-Bo; Ju, Chuan; Chen, Jun-Hu; Zheng, Bin; Huang, Fang; Xiao, Ning; Zhou, Xia; Ernest, Tambo; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2014-01-01

    Owing to the implementation of a national malaria elimination programme from 2010 to 2020, we performed a systematic review to assess research challenges in the People's Republic of China (P.R. China) and define research priorities in the next few years. A systematic search was conducted for articles published from January 2000 to December 2012 in international journals from PubMed and Chinese journals from the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI). In total, 2532 articles from CNKI and 308 articles from PubMed published between 2010 and 2012 related to malaria after unrelated references and review or comment were further excluded, and a set of research gaps have been identified that could hinder progress toward malaria elimination in P.R. China. For example, there is a lack of sensitive and specific tests for the diagnosis of malaria cases with low parasitemia, and there is a need for surveillance tools that can evaluate the epidemic status for guiding the elimination strategy. Hence, we argue that malaria elimination will be accelerated in P.R. China through the development of new tests, such as detection of parasite or drug resistance, monitoring glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency, active malaria screening methods, and understanding the effects of the environment and climate variation on vector distribution. PMID:25476883

  4. Ethical sensitivity: state of knowledge and needs for further research.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Kathryn

    2007-03-01

    Ethical sensitivity was introduced to caring science to describe the first component of decision making in professional practice; that is, recognizing and interpreting the ethical dimension of a care situation. It has since been conceptualized in various ways by scholars of professional disciplines. While all have agreed that ethical sensitivity is vital to practice, there has been no consensus regarding its definition, its characteristics, the conditions needed for it to occur, or the outcomes to professionals and society. The purpose of this article is to explore the meaning of the concept of ethical sensitivity based on a review of the professional literature of selected disciplines. Qualitative content analysis of the many descriptors found within the literature was conducted to enhance understanding of the concept and identify its essential characteristics. Ethical sensitivity is considered to be an emerging concept with potential utility in research and practice. PMID:17425144

  5. Space environmental effects on polymer composites: Research needs and opportunities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jang, Bor Z.; Bianchi, J.; Liu, Y. M.; Chang, C. P.

    1993-01-01

    The long-term performance of polymer-based composites in the space environment is discussed. Both thermoset and thermoplastic matrix composites are included in this discussion. Previous efforts on the space environmental effects on composites are briefly reviewed. Focus of this review is placed on the effects of hygrothermal stresses, atomic oxygen, ultraviolet (UV), and space debris/micrometeoroid impacts along with the potential synergism. Potential approaches to estimating the residual strength of polymer composites after exposure to atomic oxygen erosion or space debris/micrometeoroid impact are evaluated. New ground-based data are then utilized to illustrate the effects of atomic oxygen and thermal cycling on the failure behavior of polymer composites. Finally, research needs, challenges, and opportunities in the field of space environmental effects on composite materials are highlighted.

  6. Assessment of industry needs for oil shale research and development

    SciTech Connect

    Hackworth, J.H.

    1987-05-01

    Thirty-one industry people were contacted to provide input on oil shale in three subject areas. The first area of discussion dealt with industry's view of the shape of the future oil shale industry; the technology, the costs, the participants, the resources used, etc. It assessed the types and scale of the technologies that will form the industry, and how the US resource will be used. The second subject examined oil shale R D needs and priorities and potential new areas of research. The third area of discussion sought industry comments on what they felt should be the role of the DOE (and in a larger sense the US government) in fostering activities that will lead to a future commercial US oil shale shale industry.

  7. Electroactive Biofilms: Current Status and Future Research Needs

    SciTech Connect

    Borole, Abhijeet P; Reguera, Gemma; Ringeisen, Bradley; Wang, Zhiwu; Feng, Yujie; Kim, Byung Hong

    2011-01-01

    Electroactive biofilms generated by electrochemically active microorganisms have many potential applications in bioenergy and chemicals production. This review assesses the effects of microbiological and process parameters on enrichment of such biofilms as well as critically evaluates the current knowledge of the mechanisms of extracellular electron transfer in BES systems. First we discuss the role of biofilm forming microorganisms vs. planktonic microorganisms. Physical, chemical and electrochemical parameters which dictate the enrichment and subsequent performance of the biofilms are discussed. Potential dependent biological parameters including biofilm growth rate, specific electron transfer rate and others and their relationship to BES system performance is assessed. A review of the mechanisms of electron transfer in BES systems is included followed by a discussion of biofilm and its exopolymeric components and their electrical conductivity. A discussion of the electroactive biofilms in biocathodes is also included. Finally, we identify the research needs for further development of the electroactive biofilms to enable commercial applications.

  8. Biodiesel Exhaust: The Need for Health Effects Research

    PubMed Central

    Swanson, Kimberly J.; Madden, Michael C.; Ghio, Andrew J.

    2007-01-01

    Background Biodiesel is a diesel fuel alternative that has shown potential of becoming a commercially accepted part of the United States’ energy infrastructure. In November 2004, the signing of the Jobs Creation Bill HR 4520 marked an important turning point for the future production of biodiesel in the United States because it offers a federal excise tax credit. By the end of 2005, industry production was 75 million gallons, a 300% increase in 1 year. Current industry capacity, however, stands at just over 300 million gallons/year, and current expansion and new plant construction could double the industry’s capacity within a few years. Biodiesel exhaust emission has been extensively characterized under field and laboratory conditions, but there have been limited cytotoxicity and mutagenicity studies on the effects of biodiesel exhaust in biologic systems. Objectives We reviewed pertinent medical literature and addressed recommendations on testing specific research needs in the field of biodiesel toxicity. Discussion Employment of biodiesel fuel is favorably viewed, and there are suggestions that its exhaust emissions are less likely to present any risk to human health relative to petroleum diesel emissions. Conclusion The speculative nature of a reduction in health effects based on chemical composition of biodiesel exhaust needs to be followed up with investigations in biologic systems. PMID:17450214

  9. Critical Infrastructure for Ocean Research and Societal Needs in 2030

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glickson, D.; Barron, E. J.; Fine, R. A.; Bellingham, J. G.; Boss, E.; Boyle, E. A.; Edwards, M.; Johnson, K. S.; Kelley, D. S.; Kite-Powell, H.; Ramberg, S. E.; Rudnick, D. L.; Schofield, O.; Tamburri, M.; Wiebe, P. H.; Wright, D. J.; Committee on an Ocean Infrastructure StrategyU. S. Ocean Research in 2030

    2011-12-01

    At the request of the Subcommittee on Ocean Science and Technology, an expert committee was convened by the National Research Council to identify major research questions anticipated to be at the forefront of ocean science in 2030, define categories of infrastructure that should be included in planning, provide advice on criteria and processes that could be used to set priorities, and recommend ways to maximize the value of investments in ocean infrastructure. The committee identified 32 future ocean research questions in four themes: enabling stewardship of the environment, protecting life and property, promoting economic vitality, and increasing fundamental scientific understanding. Many of the questions reflect challenging, multidisciplinary science questions that are clearly relevant now and are likely to take decades to solve. U.S. ocean research will require a growing suite of ocean infrastructure for a range of activities, such as high quality, sustained time series observations and autonomous monitoring at a broad range of spatial and temporal scales. A coordinated national plan for making future strategic investments will be needed and should be based upon known priorities and reviewed every 5-10 years. After assessing trends in ocean infrastructure and technology development, the committee recommended implementing a comprehensive, long-term research fleet plan in order to retain access to the sea; continuing U.S. capability to access fully and partially ice-covered seas; supporting innovation, particularly the development of biogeochemical sensors; enhancing computing and modeling capacity and capability; establishing broadly accessible data management facilities; and increasing interdisciplinary education and promoting a technically-skilled workforce. They also recommended that development, maintenance, or replacement of ocean research infrastructure assets should be prioritized in terms of societal benefit. Particular consideration should be given to

  10. EDITORIAL: The need and challenge for Environmental Research Letters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    2006-11-01

    Why another journal? This is the inevitable question that every effort to launch a new journal must, and should, address. A common statistic in the business world is that nine out of ten new restaurants fail. In the academic world something similar, but less definitive, can happen: a potentially interesting, but practically flawed, effort can be launched, never truly build an intellectual community, but then continue as a sub-critical, little-known journal for far too long. The challenge any new publication, academic or professional, faces is thus extreme. A new journal must find a way to usefully compete, and bring new value, in the face of multiple existing outlets for significant results, tremendous barriers to establishing a 'track record' or 'name recognition' against existing publications, and a print and a cyberspace increasingly desperate in the search for 'content', scientific or otherwise. In the case of Environmental Research Letters (ERL), however, these questions answered themselves and, as a result, I cannot imagine a more critically needed new publication. Indeed, the goal of ERL is to be more than simply one more good new journal. It is to be a place—both physical and online—that those engaged in environmental issues—from researchers within the physical and natural sciences, to those concerned with applied systems studies, modeling and simulation techniques, practical engagement in environmental activism, and developing, conducting or critiquing policy, legal, or business efforts—will all want to go to read, and to engage with colleagues. The environmental field has witnessed an incredible intellectual and professional proliferation. The areas of ecological resilience, global change science, policy, law and economics, industrial ecology, green buildings, environmental genomics, environmental archaeology, and the sociology of environmental movements have become increasingly regarded and, to varying degrees, recognized themselves as major

  11. Critical Infrastructure for Ocean Research and Societal Needs in 2030

    SciTech Connect

    National Research Council

    2011-04-22

    The United States has jurisdiction over 3.4 million square miles of ocean expanse greater than the land area of all fifty states combined. This vast marine area offers researchers opportunities to investigate the ocean's role in an integrated Earth system, but also presents challenges to society, including damaging tsunamis and hurricanes, industrial accidents, and outbreaks of waterborne diseases. The 2010 Gulf of Mexico Deepwater Horizon oil spill and 2011 Japanese earthquake and tsunami are vivid reminders that a broad range of infrastructure is needed to advance our still-incomplete understanding of the ocean. The National Research Council (NRC)'s Ocean Studies Board was asked by the National Science and Technology Council's Subcommittee on Ocean Science and Technology, comprised of 25 U.S. government agencies, to examine infrastructure needs for ocean research in the year 2030. This request reflects concern, among a myriad of marine issues, over the present state of aging and obsolete infrastructure, insufficient capacity, growing technological gaps, and declining national leadership in marine technological development; issues brought to the nation's attention in 2004 by the U.S. Commission on Ocean Policy. A 15-member committee of experts identified four themes that encompass 32 future ocean research questions enabling stewardship of the environment, protecting life and property, promoting economic vitality, and increasing fundamental scientific understanding. Many of the questions in the report (e.g., sea level rise, sustainable fisheries, the global water cycle) reflect challenging, multidisciplinary science questions that are clearly relevant today, and are likely to take decades of effort to solve. As such, U.S. ocean research will require a growing suite of ocean infrastructure for a range of activities, such as high quality, sustained time series observations or autonomous monitoring at a broad range of spatial and temporal scales. Consequently, a

  12. Speech Perception Results for Children Using Cochlear Implants Who Have Additional Special Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dettman, Shani J.; Fiket, Hayley; Dowell, Richard C.; Charlton, Margaret; Williams, Sarah S.; Tomov, Alexandra M.; Barker, Elizabeth J.

    2004-01-01

    Speech perception outcomes in young children with cochlear implants are affected by a number of variables including the age of implantation, duration of implantation, mode of communication, and the presence of a developmental delay or additional disability. The aim of this study is to examine the association between degree of developmental delay…

  13. Reduced Need of Lubricity Additives in Soybean Oil Blends Under Boundary Lubrication Conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Converging prices of vegetable oils and petroleum, along with increased focus on renewable resources, gave more momentum to vegetable oil lubricants. Boundary lubrication properties of four Extreme Pressure (EP) additive blends in conventional Soy Bean Oil (SBO) and Paraffinic Mineral Oil (PMO) of ...

  14. Research needs and opportunities in radiation chemistry workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Barbara, Paul F

    1998-04-19

    There is a growing urgency for forefront basic research on ionizing radiation-induced chemical reactions, due to the relevance of these reactions in such areas of critical national need as environmental waste management, environmental remediation, nuclear energy production, and medical diagnosis and radiation therapy. Fortunately, the emergence of new theoretical and experimental tools for the study of radiation-induced chemical and physical processes, i.e. Radiation Chemistry, makes future progress quite promising. Nevertheless, a recent decline in he number of young investigators in radiation chemistry, as well as a natural obsolescence of large research facilities in radiation chemistry are serious obstacles to further progress. Understanding radiation-induced processes is of vital significance in such diverse fields as waste remediation in environmental cleanup, radiation processing of polymers and food, medical diagnosis and therapy, catalysis of chemical reactions, environmentally benign synthesis, and nuclear energy production. Radiation chemistry provides for these fields fundamental quantitative data, such as reaction rate coefficients, diffusion coefficients, radiation chemical yields, etc. As well as providing useful quantitative information of technological and medical importance, radiation chemistry is also a valuable tool for solving fundamental problems in chemistry and in material sciences. Exploiting the many facets of radiation chemistry requires a thorough and comprehensive understanding of the underlying chemical and physical processes. An understanding of the structure and dynamics of “tracks” produced by ionizing radiation is a central issue in the field. There is a continuing need to study the ultrafast processes that link the chemistry and physics of radiation-induced phenomena. This is especially true for practically important, but less well understood, nonstandard environments such as interfacial systems, supercritical media, and

  15. Photovoltaic manufacturing: Present status, future prospects, and research needs

    SciTech Connect

    Wolden, C.A.; Fthenakis, V.; Kurtin, J.; Baxter, J.; Repins, I.; Shasheen, S.; Torvik, J.; Rocket, A.; Aydil, E.

    2011-03-29

    In May 2010 the United States National Science Foundation sponsored a two-day workshop to review the state-of-the-art and research challenges in photovoltaic (PV) manufacturing. This article summarizes the major conclusions and outcomes from this workshop, which was focused on identifying the science that needs to be done to help accelerate PV manufacturing. A significant portion of the article focuses on assessing the current status of and future opportunities in the major PV manufacturing technologies. These are solar cells based on crystalline silicon (c-Si), thin films of cadmium telluride (CdTe), thin films of copper indium gallium diselenide, and thin films of hydrogenated amorphous and nanocrystalline silicon. Current trends indicate that the cost per watt of c-Si and CdTe solar cells are being reduced to levels beyond the constraints commonly associated with these technologies. With a focus on TW/yr production capacity, the issue of material availability is discussed along with the emerging technologies of dye-sensitized solar cells and organic photovoltaics that are potentially less constrained by elemental abundance. Lastly, recommendations are made for research investment, with an emphasis on those areas that are expected to have cross-cutting impact.

  16. Beamed Energy Propulsion: Research Status And Needs--Part 2

    SciTech Connect

    Birkan, Mitat

    2008-04-28

    One promising solution to the operationally responsive space is the application of remote electromagnetic energy to propel a launch vehicle into orbit. With beamed energy propulsion, one can leave the power source stationary on the ground or space, and direct heat propellant on the spacecraft with a beam from a fixed station. This permits the spacecraft to leave its power source at home, saving significant amounts of mass, greatly improving performance. This concept, which removes the mass penalty of carrying the propulsion energy source on board the vehicle, was first proposed by Arthur Kantrowitz in 1972; he invoked an extremely powerful ground based laser. The same year Michael Minovich suggested a conceptually similar 'in-space' laser rocket system utilizing a remote laser power station. In the late 1980's, Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR) funded continuous, double pulse laser and microwave propulsion while Strategic Defense Initiative Office (SDIO) funded ablative laser rocket propulsion. Currently AFOSR has been funding the concept initiated by Leik Myrabo, repetitively pulsed laser propulsion, which has been universally perceived, arguably, to be the closest for mid-term applications. This 2-part paper examines the investment strategies in beamed energy propulsion and technical challenges to be covers Part 2 covers the present research status and needs.

  17. Fossil energy biotechnology: A research needs assessment. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Finnerty, W.R.

    1992-04-01

    The Office of Program Analysis of the US Department of Energy commissioned this study to evaluate and prioritize research needs in fossil energy biotechnology. The objectives were to identify research initiatives in biotechnology that offer timely and strategic options for the more efficient and effective uses of the Nation`s fossil resource base, particularly the early identification of new and novel applications of biotechnology for the use or conversion of domestic fossil fuels. Fossil energy biotechnology consists of a number of diverse and distinct technologies, all related by the common denominator -- biocatalysis. The expert panel organized 14 technical subjects into three interrelated biotechnology programs: (1) upgrading the fuel value of fossil fuels; (2) bioconversion of fossil feedstocks and refined products to added value chemicals; and, (3) the development of environmental management strategies to minimize and mitigate the release of toxic and hazardous petrochemical wastes. The integration of these programs as viable bioprocessing initiatives proposes an innovative and conceptual principle for the development of a ``new`` approach to fossil energy biotechnology. This unifying principle is NON-AQUEOUS BIOCATALYSIS. Biocatalysis coupled to conventional chemical catalysis in organic-based media offers bioprocessing options uniquely characterized by the selectivity of biocatalysts plus fast reaction rates and specificity of chemical catalysts.

  18. Intelligence Is as Intelligence Does: Can Additional Support Needs Replace Disability?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Samuel R. C.; Riches, Vivienne C.; Stancliffe, Roger J.

    2011-01-01

    In many developed cultures there is an assumption that IQ is intelligence. However, emerging theories of multiple intelligences, of emotional intelligence, as well as the application of IQ testing to other cultural groups, and to people with disability, raises many questions as to what IQ actually measures. Despite recent research that shows IQ…

  19. Concrete-polymer composites: current status and future research needs

    SciTech Connect

    Kukacka, L E

    1981-04-01

    When plastics are combined with mixtures of inorganic materials, high-strength, durable, fast-setting composites are produced. These materials are used in structural engineering and other applications, and as a result of the successes obtained to date, considerable research and development work is in progress throughout the world. One family of polymer-based composites receiving considerable attention is the concrete-polymer materials. Work in this area is directed toward developing new high-strength durable materials by combining cement and concrete technology with that of polymer chemistry. In addition to the significant property enhancement, many combinations of siliceous materials with polymers require lower energy inputs per unit of performance than either component alone.

  20. Reorganizing Nigeria's Vaccine Supply Chain Reduces Need For Additional Storage Facilities, But More Storage Is Required.

    PubMed

    Shittu, Ekundayo; Harnly, Melissa; Whitaker, Shanta; Miller, Roger

    2016-02-01

    One of the major problems facing Nigeria's vaccine supply chain is the lack of adequate vaccine storage facilities. Despite the introduction of solar-powered refrigerators and the use of new tools to monitor supply levels, this problem persists. Using data on vaccine supply for 2011-14 from Nigeria's National Primary Health Care Development Agency, we created a simulation model to explore the effects of variance in supply and demand on storage capacity requirements. We focused on the segment of the supply chain that moves vaccines inside Nigeria. Our findings suggest that 55 percent more vaccine storage capacity is needed than is currently available. We found that reorganizing the supply chain as proposed by the National Primary Health Care Development Agency could reduce that need to 30 percent more storage. Storage requirements varied by region of the country and vaccine type. The Nigerian government may want to consider the differences in storage requirements by region and vaccine type in its proposed reorganization efforts. PMID:26858383

  1. Regulatory ozone modeling: status, directions, and research needs.

    PubMed Central

    Georgopoulos, P G

    1995-01-01

    The Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990 have established selected comprehensive, three-dimensional, Photochemical Air Quality Simulation Models (PAQSMs) as the required regulatory tools for analyzing the urban and regional problem of high ambient ozone levels across the United States. These models are currently applied to study and establish strategies for meeting the National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for ozone in nonattainment areas; State Implementation Plans (SIPs) resulting from these efforts must be submitted to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) in November 1994. The following presentation provides an overview and discussion of the regulatory ozone modeling process and its implications. First, the PAQSM-based ozone attainment demonstration process is summarized in the framework of the 1994 SIPs. Then, following a brief overview of the representation of physical and chemical processes in PAQSMs, the essential attributes of standard modeling systems currently in regulatory use are presented in a nonmathematical, self-contained format, intended to provide a basic understanding of both model capabilities and limitations. The types of air quality, emission, and meteorological data needed for applying and evaluating PAQSMs are discussed, as well as the sources, availability, and limitations of existing databases. The issue of evaluating a model's performance in order to accept it as a tool for policy making is discussed, and various methodologies for implementing this objective are summarized. Selected interim results from diagnostic analyses, which are performed as a component of the regulatory ozone modeling process for the Philadelphia-New Jersey region, are also presented to provide some specific examples related to the general issues discussed in this work. Finally, research needs related to a) the evaluation and refinement of regulatory ozone modeling, b) the characterization of uncertainty in photochemical modeling, and c

  2. Future Soil Moisture Satellite Missions and Research Needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Njoku, E. G.; Jackson, T. J.; O'Neill, P. E.

    2001-12-01

    many opportunities, and research needs, to be addressed in developing innovative approaches to utilization of the new satellite-derived data. Issues include development of new processing and retrieval algorithms, methods for jointly assimilating satellite-derived and in-situ data into hydrologic models, and validation of derived soil moisture data and products. An overview of the current soil moisture mission and planning status, and ongoing and needed research, will be provided in this paper.

  3. Information Management in Cancer Registries: Evaluating the Needs for Cancer Data Collection and Cancer Research

    PubMed Central

    Zachary, Iris; Boren, Suzanne A; Simoes, Eduardo; Jackson-Thompson, Jeannette; Davis, J Wade; Hicks, Lanis

    2015-01-01

    Cancer registry data collection involves, at a minimum, collecting data on demographics, tumor characteristics, and treatment. A common, identified, and standardized set of data elements is needed to share data quickly and efficiently with consumers of this data. This project highlights the fact that, there is a need to develop common data elements; Surveys were developed for central cancer registries (CCRs) and cancer researchers (CRs) at NCI-designated Cancer Centers, in order to understand data needs. Survey questions were developed based on the project focus, an evaluation of the research registries and database responses, and systematic review of the literature. Questions covered the following topics: 1) Research, 2) Data collection, 3) Database/ repository, 4) Use of data, 5) Additional data items, 6) Data requests, 7) New data fields, and 8) Cancer registry data set. A review of the surveys indicates that all cancer registries’ data are used for public health surveillance, and 96% of the registries indicate the data are also used for research. Data are available online in interactive tables from over 50% of CRs and 87% of CCRs. Some other survey responses indicate that CCR treatment data are not complete for example treatment data, however cancer researchers are interested in treatment variables from CCRs. Cancer registries have many data available for review, but need to examine what data are needed and used by different entities. Cancer Registries can further enhance usage through collaborations and partnerships to connect common interests in the data by making registries visible and accessible. PMID:26392844

  4. Wine and health: state of proofs and research needs.

    PubMed

    Walzem, R L

    2008-12-01

    Regular moderate wine consumption is often associated with reduced morbidity and mortality from to a variety of chronic diseases in which inflammation is a root cause. Wine comes in a wide variety of styles that contain quite different ethanol and polyphenol contents. Controversy remains as to whether the alcohol or polyphenols contribute more to the health benefits of regular moderate wine consumption. The variety of wines available to consumers can be expected to affect health differently in accordance with a particular wine's total polyphenolic content and spectrum of individual polyphenols. The overall effect of wine consumption on health depends upon the total amounts consumed, the style and possibly the pattern of consumption. The apparent effect of wine consumption may be modified by the non-wine diet composition of the consumer in that alcohol may appear as the primary component in consumers with high fruit, vegetable and whole grain intakes while phytochemical benefit may become significant in diets where wine is the primary dietary source of phytochemical. In this review, wine polyphenol mechanisms of action will be reviewed in connection with the mechanism the development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). Selected clinical studies published in 2004-2008 were reviewed. Experimental requirements for valid clinical studies, translation of in vitro to in vivo application and areas where additional evidence needs to be developed were identified. PMID:19109750

  5. Interventions to Alleviate Symptoms Related to Breast Cancer Treatments and Areas of Needed Research

    PubMed Central

    Janelsins, Michelle C; Mustian, Karen M; Peppone, Luke J; Sprod, Lisa K; Shayne, Michelle; Mohile, Supriya; Chandwani, Kavita; Gewandter, Jennifer S; Morrow, Gary R

    2012-01-01

    Treatments for breast cancer produce a host of side effects, which can become debilitating. Some cancer treatment-related side effects occur in up to 90% of patients during treatment and can persist for months or years after treatment has ended. As the number of breast cancer survivors steadily increases, the need for cancer control intervention research to alleviate side effects also grows. This review provides a general overview of recent clinical research studies of selected topics in the areas of symptom management for breast cancer with a focus on cognitive difficulties, fatigue, cardiotoxicity, bone loss, insomnia, and cancer pain. We review both pharmacological and behavioral intervention clinical research studies, conducted with breast cancer patients and survivors. Additionally, clinical perspectives on symptom management and recommendations for areas of needed research are provided. PMID:22855701

  6. We need to take a fresh look at medical research

    PubMed Central

    Simnett, John David

    1982-01-01

    Every human being has a vast store of knowledge about health and sickness and the ability to draw conclusions on the basis of this knowledge. Yet science research continues to be based largely on `objective studies' conducted by academics and to look down on `subjective' studies. The belief that `pure' objective science is highest and subjective information is lowest, inculcated by the way science is taught in schools, deters doctors from communicating information based on personal experience lest it be decried - as it certainly will be - as scientifically worthless. Alternative medicine with its open, flexible approach to the whole person, has something to teach conventional medicine. And doctors must pay more attention to what their patients can tell them. There is no rational justification for accepting the factual information that people give (in a case history) while disregarding what they have to say about their condition. Old-style science is particularly inept in helping doctors deal with psychosomatic problems. What is needed is a new `science of the subjective' which would be truly appropriate to the subject of study, the whole human being. There is a commentary on this paper by Sir Douglas Black, President of the Royal College of Physicians. PMID:7108911

  7. Child prostitution: global health burden, research needs, and interventions.

    PubMed

    Willis, Brian M; Levy, Barry S

    2002-04-20

    Child prostitution is a significant global problem that has yet to receive appropriate medical and public health attention. Worldwide, an estimated 1 million children are forced into prostitution every year and the total number of prostituted children could be as high as 10 million. Inadequate data exist on the health problems faced by prostituted children, who are at high risk of infectious disease, pregnancy, mental illness, substance abuse, and violence. Child prostitution, like other forms of child sexual abuse, is not only a cause of death and high morbidity in millions of children, but also a gross violation of their rights and dignity. In this article we estimate morbidity and mortality among prostituted children, and propose research strategies and interventions to mitigate such health consequences. Our estimates underscore the need for health professionals to collaborate with individuals and organisations that provide direct services to prostituted children. Health professionals can help efforts to prevent child prostitution through identifying contributing factors, recording the magnitude and health effects of the problem, and assisting children who have escaped prostitution. They can also help governments, UN agencies, and non-governmental organisations (NGOs) to implement policies, laws, and programmes to prevent child prostitution and mitigate its effects on children's health. PMID:11978356

  8. Asthma in the Elderly: Current Understanding and Future Research Needs

    PubMed Central

    Hanania, Nicola A.; King, Monroe J.; Braman, Sidney S.; Saltoun, Carol; Wise, Robert A.; Enright, Paul; Falsey, Ann A; Mathur, Sameer K.; Ramsdell, Joe W.; Rogers, Linda; Stempel, David A.; Lima, John J.; Fish, James E.; Wilson, Sandra R.; Boyd, Cynthia; Patel, Kushang V.; Irvin, Charles G.; Yawn, Barbara P.; Halm, Ethan A; Wasserman, Stephen I.; Sands, Mark F.; Ershler, William B.; Ledford, Dennis K.

    2011-01-01

    Asthma in the elderly (AIE) is under diagnosed and under treated and there is a paucity of knowledge. The National Institute on Aging convened this workshop to identify what is known, what gaps in knowledge remain and suggest research directions needed to improve the understanding and care of AIE. Asthma presenting at an advanced age often has similar clinical and physiologic consequences as seen with younger individuals but co-morbid illnesses and the psychosocial effects of aging may affect the diagnosis, clinical presentation and care of asthma in this population. At least two phenotypes exist among elderly asthma; those with long-standing asthma have more severe airflow limitation and less complete reversibility than those with late-onset asthma. Many challenges exist in the recognition and treatment of asthma in the elderly. Furthermore, the pathophysiological mechanisms of AIE are likely to be different from those seen in young asthmatics and these differences may influence the clinical course and outcomes of asthma in this population. PMID:21872730

  9. Life Cycle Impact Assessment Research Developments and Needs

    EPA Science Inventory

    Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) developments are explained along with key publications which record discussions which comprised ISO 14042 and SETAC document development, UNEP SETAC Life Cycle Initiative research, and research from public and private research institutions. It ...

  10. A Research Agenda for Radiation Oncology: Results of the Radiation Oncology Institute's Comprehensive Research Needs Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Jagsi, Reshma; Bekelman, Justin E.; Brawley, Otis W.; Deasy, Joseph O.; Le, Quynh-Thu; Michalski, Jeff M.; Movsas, Benjamin; Thomas, Charles R.; Lawton, Colleen A.; Lawrence, Theodore S.; Hahn, Stephen M.

    2012-10-01

    Purpose: To promote the rational use of scarce research funding, scholars have developed methods for the systematic identification and prioritization of health research needs. The Radiation Oncology Institute commissioned an independent, comprehensive assessment of research needs for the advancement of radiation oncology care. Methods and Materials: The research needs assessment used a mixed-method, qualitative and quantitative social scientific approach, including structured interviews with diverse stakeholders, focus groups, surveys of American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) members, and a prioritization exercise using a modified Delphi technique. Results: Six co-equal priorities were identified: (1) Identify and develop communication strategies to help patients and others better understand radiation therapy; (2) Establish a set of quality indicators for major radiation oncology procedures and evaluate their use in radiation oncology delivery; (3) Identify best practices for the management of radiation toxicity and issues in cancer survivorship; (4) Conduct comparative effectiveness studies related to radiation therapy that consider clinical benefit, toxicity (including quality of life), and other outcomes; (5) Assess the value of radiation therapy; and (6) Develop a radiation oncology registry. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this prioritization exercise is the only comprehensive and methodologically rigorous assessment of research needs in the field of radiation oncology. Broad dissemination of these findings is critical to maximally leverage the impact of this work, particularly because grant funding decisions are often made by committees on which highly specialized disciplines such as radiation oncology are not well represented.

  11. Zoonotic Malaria – Global Overview and Research and Policy Needs

    PubMed Central

    Ramasamy, Ranjan

    2014-01-01

    The four main Plasmodium species that cause human malaria, Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium malariae, and Plasmodium ovale, are transmitted between humans by mosquito vectors belonging to the genus Anopheles. It has recently become evident that Plasmodium knowlesi, a parasite that typically infects forest macaque monkeys, can be transmitted by anophelines to cause malaria in humans in Southeast Asia. Plasmodium knowlesi infections are frequently misdiagnosed microscopically as P. malariae. Direct human to human transmission of P. knowlesi by anophelines has not yet been established to occur in nature. Knowlesi malaria must therefore be presently considered a zoonotic disease. Polymerase chain reaction is now the definitive method for differentiating P. knowlesi from P. malariae and other human malaria parasites. The origin of P. falciparum and P. vivax in African apes are examples of ancient zoonoses that may be continuing at the present time with at least P. vivax, and possibly P. malariae and P. ovale. Other non-human primate malaria species, e.g., Plasmodium cynomolgi in Southeast Asia and Plasmodium brasilianum and Plasmodium simium in South America, can be transmitted to humans by mosquito vectors further emphasizing the potential for continuing zoonoses. The potential for zoonosis is influenced by human habitation and behavior as well as the adaptive capabilities of parasites and vectors. There is insufficient knowledge of the bionomics of Anopheles vector populations relevant to the cross-species transfer of malaria parasites and the real extent of malaria zoonoses. Appropriate strategies, based on more research, need to be developed for the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of zoonotic malaria. PMID:25184118

  12. Resource competition in plant invasions: emerging patterns and research needs

    PubMed Central

    Gioria, Margherita; Osborne, Bruce A.

    2014-01-01

    Invasions by alien plants provide a unique opportunity to examine competitive interactions among plants. While resource competition has long been regarded as a major mechanism responsible for successful invasions, given a well-known capacity for many invaders to become dominant and reduce plant diversity in the invaded communities, few studies have measured resource competition directly or have assessed its importance relative to that of other mechanisms, at different stages of an invasion process. Here, we review evidence comparing the competitive ability of invasive species vs. that of co-occurring native plants, along a range of environmental gradients, showing that many invasive species have a superior competitive ability over native species, although invasive congeners are not necessarily competitively superior over native congeners, nor are alien dominants are better competitors than native dominants. We discuss how the outcomes of competition depend on a number of factors, such as the heterogeneous distribution of resources, the stage of the invasion process, as well as phenotypic plasticity and evolutionary adaptation, which may result in increased or decreased competitive ability in both invasive and native species. Competitive advantages of invasive species over natives are often transient and only important at the early stages of an invasion process. It remains unclear how important resource competition is relative to other mechanisms (competition avoidance via phenological differences, niche differentiation in space associated with phylogenetic distance, recruitment and dispersal limitation, indirect competition, and allelopathy). Finally, we identify the conceptual and methodological issues characterizing competition studies in plant invasions, and we discuss future research needs, including examination of resource competition dynamics and the impact of global environmental change on competitive interactions between invasive and native species. PMID

  13. Research Needed on the Use of CAS Standards and Guidelines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creamer, Don G.

    2003-01-01

    This article suggests research projects that would extend the knowledge base about the use of Council for the Advancement of Standards in Higher Education (CAS) standards and guidelines in useful ways. Included are five research questions and specific research methodologies to guide researchers. (Contains 20 references.) (Author)

  14. TESOL, Teacher Identity, and the Need for "Small Story" Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vasquez, Camilla

    2011-01-01

    Narrative research in TESOL still remains very much in its infancy. And the predominant mode of narrative research in TESOL--following the trend in educational research, as well as in other social sciences--has clearly been that of narrative inquiry, with its concomitant privileging of autobiographical "big stories", or researcher-elicited…

  15. The local public health agency workforce: research needs and practice realities.

    PubMed

    Fraser, Michael R

    2003-01-01

    There is a paucity of information about the nation's local governmental public health agency (LPHA) workforce. Without additional research, crucial questions about the individuals providing front-line public health services remain unanswered. Current national efforts to develop a public health workforce research agenda must include strategies for collecting basic data on local governmental public health workers. The work of enumerating and classifying LPHA staff is complicated, but not impossible. Projects to improve LPHA performance and discussions of the certification of public health workers are incomplete without current and accurate data on the individuals comprising our nation's public health system. The need to describe basic facets of the LPHA workforce is not trivial. As city and county budgets are cut and LPHAs are left scrambling to cover lost positions, data are needed to inform important decisions about what kinds of LPHA staff are needed to keep a community healthy. PMID:14606188

  16. English as an Additional Language: Is There a Need to Embed Cultural Values and Beliefs in Institutional Practice?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sood, Krishan; Mistry, Malini Tina

    2011-01-01

    The number of pupils who have English as an Additional Language (EAL) in English schools is increasing, with an influx of migrants from Europe. This paper investigates how schools are addressing the needs of these children. Using survey and interviews with teachers and paraprofessionals the identification of personal assumptions and challenges of…

  17. High speed commercial transport fuels considerations and research needs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, C. M.; Niedzwiecki, R. W.

    1989-01-01

    NASA is currently evaluating the potential of incorporating High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) aircraft in the commercial fleet in the beginning of the 21st century. NASA sponsored HSCT enabling studies currently underway with airframers and engine manufacturers, are addressing a broad range of technical, environmental, economic, and related issues. Supersonic cruise speeds for these aircraft were originally focused in the Mach 2 to 5 range. At these flight speeds, both jet fuels and liquid methane were considered potential fuel candidates. For the year 2000 to 2010, cruise Mach numbers of 2 to 3+ are projected for aircraft fuel with thermally stable liquid jet fuels. For 2015 and beyond, liquid methane fueled aircraft cruising at Mach numbers of 4+ may be viable candidates. Operation at supersonic speeds will be much more severe than those encountered at subsonic flight. One of the most critical problems is the potential deterioration of the fuel due to the high temperature environment. HSCT fuels will not only be required to provide the energy necessary for flight, but will also be subject to aerodynamic heating and, will be required to serve as the primary heat sink for cooling the engine and airframe. To define fuel problems for high speed flight, a fuels workshop was conducted at NASA Lewis Research Center. The purpose of the workshop was to gather experts on aviation fuels, airframe fuel systems, airport infrastructure, and combustion systems to discuss high speed fuel alternatives, fuel supply scenarios, increased thermal stability approaches and measurements, safety considerations, and to provide directional guidance for future R and D efforts. Subsequent follow-up studies defined airport infrastructure impacts of high speed fuel candidates. The results of these activities are summarized. In addition, an initial case study using modified in-house refinery simulation model Gordian code (1) is briefly discussed. This code can be used to simulate different

  18. Community Educational Needs Assessment. Office of Planning & Development Research Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Arthur H., Jr.

    A community educational needs assessment was conducted to determine how well Pima Community College (PCC) was meeting community needs, provide information for updating PCC's 5-year master plan, enhance administrative decision making, and assist faculty in course and program revision. Surveys of high school students, county residents, and major…

  19. Using Brain-Based Research to Help Students with Special Needs. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Karen

    2002-01-01

    How do students with special needs learn best based on brain research? There was a great deal of strictly scientific information about different types of brain damage and how that can affect learning. Given this, it was surprising that there was very little information on ways in which to assist students with learning disabilities utilizing the…

  20. Coal gasification: Direct applications and syntheses of chemicals and fuels: A research needs assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Penner, S.S.; Alpert, S.B.; Beer, J.M.; Denn, M.; Haag, W.; Magee, R.; Reichl, E.; Rubin, E.S.; Solomon, P.R.; Wender, I.

    1987-06-01

    The DOE Working Group for an Assessment of Coal-Gasification Research Needs (COGARN - coal gasification advanced research needs) has reviewed and evaluated US programs dealing with coal gasification for a variety of applications. Cost evaluations and environmental-impact assessments formed important components of the deliberations. We have examined in some depth each of the following technologies: coal gasification for electricity generation in combined-cycle systems, coal gasification for the production of synthetic natural gas, coal gasifiers for direct electricity generation in fuel cells, and coal gasification for the production of synthesis gas as a first step in the manufacture of a wide variety of chemicals and fuels. Both catalytic and non-catalytic conversion processes were considered. In addition, we have constructed an orderly, long-range research agenda on coal science, pyrolysis, and partial combustion in order to support applied research and development relating to coal gasification over the long term. The COGARN studies were performed in order to provide an independent assessment of research needs in fuel utilization that involves coal gasification as the dominant or an important component. The findings and research recommendations of COGARN are summarized in this publication.

  1. Data needs for policy research on state-level health insurance markets.

    PubMed

    Simon, Kosali

    2008-01-01

    Private and public health insurance provision in the United States operates against a backdrop of 50 different regulatory environments in addition to federal rules. Through creative use of available data, a large body of research has contributed to our understanding of public policy in state health insurance markets. This research plays an important role as recent trends suggest states are taking the lead in health care reform. However, several important questions have not been answered due to lack of data. This paper identifies some of these areas, and discusses how the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality could push the research agenda in state health insurance policy further by augmenting the market-level data available to researchers. As states consider new forms of regulation and assistance for their insurance markets, there is increased need for better warehousing and maintenance of policy databases. PMID:18524294

  2. Addressing the Community Research Needs of Baccalaureate Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boswell, Carol; Cannon, Sharon B.

    2001-01-01

    In an online course to prepare nursing students to use research in practice, 12 students developed research proposals for community-based projects. The activity forged bonds with community agencies and showed students how research-based practice has a direct impact on patient care. (SK)

  3. Why We Need Community Engagement in Medical Research

    PubMed Central

    Holzer, Jessica K.; Ellis, Lauren; Merritt, Maria W.

    2014-01-01

    Background The medical research enterprise depends on public recognition of its societal value. In light of evidence indicating public mistrust, especially among minorities, inadequate enrollment and diversity of research participants, and poor uptake of findings, medical research appears to fall short of sufficient public regard. Community engagement in medical research, with special attention to minority communities, may help to remedy this shortfall by demonstrating respect for communities in practical ways. Approach We provide three case examples that illustrate how specific approaches to community-engaged research can build trust between researchers and communities, encourage participation among under-represented groups, and enhance the relevance and uptake of research findings. Discussion A common attribute of the specific approaches discussed here is that they enable researchers to demonstrate respect by recognizing community values and interests. The demonstration of respect for communities has intrinsic ethical importance. Conclusion Two potential outgrowths of demonstrating respect specifically through community engagement are (1) the production of research that is more relevant to the community and (2) the mitigation of asymmetry in the researcher-community relationship. We summarize practical resources available to researchers who seek to incorporate community engagement in their research. PMID:24979468

  4. Why do we need to standardize no-tillage research?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    No-tillage / conservation agricultural systems research has now been performed for more than half a century in many countries around the world, but few efforts have been made to standardize research methodology. This has led to a situation where no-tillage research results have often not been direct...

  5. Research Training Needs of Scientist-Practitioners: Implications for Counselor Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Christina Hamme; Hall, Sean B.; Buser, Juleen K.

    2016-01-01

    Counselors (N = 911) reported the research skills needed for practice and subsequent research training needs. Findings indicate that counselors have a high need for research skills at work, but training needs differ significantly by counselor type. Recommendations include increasing emphasis on single-case design, survey design, and widely…

  6. Agribusiness and Natural Resources in Michigan: Manpower Needs, Competencies Needed, School Program Characteristics. Summary of Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Eddie A.

    Designed to assist in the planning of statewide programs of vocational agriculture in Michigan, this report is also intended to assist local educators, administrators, and concerned citizens in planning needed vocational agriculture programs in Career Education Planning Districts. Procedures and findings are presented of a comprehensive analysis…

  7. Measuring Basic Needs Satisfaction: Evaluating Previous Research and Conducting New Psychometric Evaluations of the Basic Needs Satisfaction in General Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Mary M.; Finney, Sara J.

    2010-01-01

    Self-Determination Theory specifies the existence of three basic psychological needs: autonomy, competence, and relatedness. The current set of studies (a) provides a narrative review of past research on the Basic Needs Satisfaction in General Scale, (b) examines its dimensionality which has been assumed but not empirically studied, and (c)…

  8. Do we need a special ethics for research?

    PubMed

    Hansson, Sven Ove

    2011-03-01

    Research is subject to more stringent ethical requirements than most other human activities, and a procedure that is otherwise allowed may be forbidden in research. Hence, risk-taking is more restricted in scientific research than in most non-research contexts, and privacy is better protected in scientific questionnaires than in marketing surveys. Potential arguments for this difference are scrutinized. The case in its favour appears to be weak. A stronger case can be made in favour of a difference in the opposite direction: If perilous or otherwise problematic activities have to be performed it is usually better to perform them in a research context where they are properly evaluated so that guidance is obtained for the future. However, retreating from current ethical demands on research is not a desirable direction to go. Instead, research ethics can serve to inspire the introduction of more stringent ethical principles in other social sectors. PMID:19941087

  9. NASA Dryden Flight Research Center's Space Weather Needs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiley, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Presentation involves educating Goddard Space Weather staff about what our needs are, what type of aircraft we have and to learn what we have done in the past to minimize our exposure to Space Weather Hazards.

  10. Needs, opportunities, and options for large scale systems research

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, G.L.

    1984-10-01

    The Office of Energy Research was recently asked to perform a study of Large Scale Systems in order to facilitate the development of a true large systems theory. It was decided to ask experts in the fields of electrical engineering, chemical engineering and manufacturing/operations research for their ideas concerning large scale systems research. The author was asked to distribute a questionnaire among these experts to find out their opinions concerning recent accomplishments and future research directions in large scale systems research. He was also requested to convene a conference which included three experts in each area as panel members to discuss the general area of large scale systems research. The conference was held on March 26--27, 1984 in Pittsburgh with nine panel members, and 15 other attendees. The present report is a summary of the ideas presented and the recommendations proposed by the attendees.

  11. Literacy Instruction, Technology, and Students with Learning Disabilities: Research We Have, Research We Need

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Michael J.; Deshler, Donald D.

    2010-01-01

    Technology, whether assistive (AT) or instructional (IT), has played an uneven role in the field of learning disabilities since its inception more than a half century ago. In addition, technology is in a constant state of flux; hence, researchers have been challenged to conduct appropriate experimental testing of interventions before they are…

  12. Why We Need a Structured Abstract in Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mosteller, Frederick; Nave, Bill; Miech, Edward J.

    2004-01-01

    Background: Approximately 1,100 education journals collectively publish more than 20,000 education research articles each year. Under current practice, no systematic way exists to move the research findings from these studies into the hands of the millions of education practitioners and policymakers in the United States who might use them.…

  13. Graduate Student Needs in Relation to Library Research Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Shawna; Jacobs, Warren

    2013-01-01

    Traditionally, graduate study includes a research component, requiring library skills to locate relevant literature. Upon matriculation into graduate programs, many students are underprepared in library research skills, making library instruction a priority for the success of graduate students. This qualitative study, utilizing emergent design,…

  14. Employment Research Method for Early Recognition of Skills Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spottl, Georg; Windelband, Lars

    2006-01-01

    Given that the early recognition procedures used to date focus on trends and the scenario technique and are less concerned with the design of VET, a research-based employment research early recognition tool was developed as part of the "EarlyBird" Leonardo Project, by means of which it is possible to identify changes at shop-floor level. What was…

  15. The Need for Paradigms in Science Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, Barbara L.

    1975-01-01

    Suggests that the absence of conceptually based research in science education may derive from an attempt to conduct scientific research based on misperceptions of the nature of science and an inability to identify a suitable conceptual model. Suggests that Ausubel's model of meaningful learning may serve as a candidate for a science education…

  16. Clear principles are needed for integrity in gambling research.

    PubMed

    Livingstone, Charles; Adams, Peter J

    2016-01-01

    Commercial gambling is expanding rapidly across the globe. However, the field of gambling research has not kept pace with this expansion, and continues to focus on prevalence studies and individuated treatment regimes, with little attention to the political, economic or technological underpinnings of commercial gambling. The implications of this lack of sophistication in the research agenda are that society is ill-equipped to understand the nature and underlying causes of gambling harms, and how these might best be avoided, minimized or ameliorated. Around the world, various levels of government benefit from gambling revenue, with consequences for the independent regulation of gambling. Further, there is considerable industry influence on the research agenda, often involving similar techniques to those employed previously by the tobacco and alcohol industries to engage researchers. This influence is compounded by a failure of many gambling researchers and journals to adopt traditional academic safeguards, such as the disclosure of conflicts of interest, and by many arguing for a 'partnership model' with industry to advance the research agenda. This paper identifies five basic principles to restore reasonable standards of integrity in gambling studies: (1) research should not be funded by the proceeds of gambling; (2) research priorities should not be influenced by the beneficiaries of gambling; (3) conferences and other research fora should not be influenced by industry; (4) funding sources should be disclosed in journals and at conferences; and (5) meaningful access to gambling products and environments must be part of licensing. We also propose a range of actions to promote greater transparency and independence in the gambling research field. PMID:26058407

  17. Research needs: Prime-power for high energy space systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turchi, P. J.

    1982-07-01

    By the year 2000, an increasingly large portion of our national defense will depend on space-based systems. As part of a broader set of new research initiatives in support of space systems, the Air Force Office of Scientific Research is sponsoring basic research that may be applicable to the development of megawatt-level space prime-power systems. The emphasis of this particular new initiative is prime-power versus pulsed power including power conditioning, such as flywheel or inductive storage, for which there are existing programs.

  18. [Basic research during residency in Israel: is change needed?].

    PubMed

    Fishbain, Dana; Shoenfeld, Yehuda; Ashkenazi, Shai

    2013-10-01

    A six-month research period is a mandatory part of the residency training program in most basic specialties in Israel and is named: the "basic science period". This is the only period in an Israeli physician's medical career which is dedicated strictly to research, accentuating the importance of medical research to the quality of training and level of medicine in Israel. From another point of view, one may argue that in an era of shortage of physicians on the one hand and the dizzying rate of growth in medical knowledge on the other hand, every moment spent training in residency is precious, therefore, making the decision of whether to dedicate six months for research becomes ever more relevant. This question is currently raised for discussion once again by the Scientific Council of the Israeli Medical Association. The Scientific Council lately issued a call for comments sent to all Israeli physicians, asking their opinion on several key questions regarding basic science research. Learning the public's opinion will serve as a background for discussion. A total of 380 physicians responded to the call and specified their standpoint on the subject, among them heads of departments, units and clinics, senior physicians and residents. The findings pointed to strong support in maintaining the research period as part of residency training due to its importance to medical training and medicine, although half the respondents supported the use of various alternative formats for research together with the existing format. Those alternative format suggestions will be thoroughly reviewed. A smaller group of respondents supported allowing residents a choice between two tracks--with or without a research period, and only a few were in favor of canceling the research requirement altogether. The writers maintain that the "basic science period" of research during residency training is vital and its contribution to the high level of specialists and high level of medicine requires its

  19. RESEARCH NEEDS FOR SCALING UP INDOOR SINK EFFECT MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The events of 11 September 2001 underscored the need to study the vulnerability of buildings to weapons of mass destruction, including chemical, biological, physical, and radiological agents. Should these agents be released inside a building, they would interact with interior sur...

  20. Personnel Needs and Training for Biomedical and Behavioral Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Commission on Human Resources.

    The fourth in a series of annual reports assessing the role of and need for federal training programs in the biomedical and behavioral sciences is presented. Highlights of this 1978 report include: (1) the results of surveys of the chairpersons of 1,324 basic biomedical science departments and 474 behavioral science departments in Ph.D.-granting…

  1. The Need to Emphasize Epistemology in Teaching and Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalman, Calvin

    2009-01-01

    The views on epistemology by philosophers of science are developed through an historical lens. Enabling students to develop a scientific mindset is complicated by student's views on the Nature of Science. Students need to appreciate the history of science and to contrast different frameworks. In order to do this, students have to be able to follow…

  2. Frontiers in Chemical Engineering. Research Needs and Opportunities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Resources.

    Chemical engineers play a key role in industries such as petroleum, food, artificial fibers, petrochemicals, plastics and many others. They are needed to tailor manufacturing technology to the requirements of products and to integrate product and process design. This report discusses how chemical engineers are continuing to address technological…

  3. A RESEARCH STUDY OF AGRICULTURAL TRAINING NEEDS IN VENTURA COUNTY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    RODRIGUES, DONALD F.

    QUESTIONNAIRE RETURNS FROM 103 EMPLOYERS IN AGRICULTURE AND RELATED INDUSTRIES WERE COMBINED WITH 50 INTERVIEWS WITHIN THE SAME GROUP TO PROVIDE INFORMATION ABOUT AGRICULTURAL TRAINING NEEDS IN VENTURA COUNTY. MOST FIRMS EMPLOYED FEWER THAN 15 WORKERS ON A PERMANENT BASIS, SUPPLEMENTED BY LARGE MEMBERS OF SEASONAL WORKERS, ESPECIALLY IN THE…

  4. Current and Needed Research on Alternative Certification Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ham, Edward

    2010-01-01

    With alternative certification programs gaining popularity in teacher education, the need to evaluate these programs has become much more necessary. Without strict guidelines to classify alternative certification programs, it is difficult to make generalizations about these programs because of different requirements for completion and…

  5. Is There a Need for a European Institutional Research?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathies, Charles; Valimaa, Jussi

    2013-01-01

    Recent changes in European higher education have accompanied a strong desire and need by national ministries to have comparable data across institutions and a growing recognition from campus leaders that effective planning and decision-making requires reliable institutional data and analyses. This has induced changes and restructuring of duties…

  6. Library Research Skills: A Needs Assessment for Graduate Student Workshops

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffmann, Kristin; Antwi-Nsiah, Fred; Feng, Vivian; Stanley, Meagan

    2008-01-01

    Information literacy instruction programs for graduate students can be challenging to develop. One solution is to develop non-course-based, non-mandatory library instruction programs, in order to meet the information literacy needs of as many graduate students as possible. This was the approach taken by the Taylor Library at the University of…

  7. Translating Research Into E/PO That Addresses Real Needs in K-12 Classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Veen, Wil E.; Belbruno, E. A.; Roelofsen Moody, T.

    2009-01-01

    One of the challenges in NASA ROSES E/PO is translating cutting edge research into products for which there is a demonstrated need. Rather than working from the premise that the "research is so cool’ that K-12 students or the public should learn about it, it is key to consult with the target audience to identify what their needs really are. The partnership between NJACE, Innovative Orbital Design, Inc., and Princeton offered a unique opportunity to translate intriguing but theoretical and mathematical research related to low energy orbits into a valuable education product. NJACE worked with educators to identify several needs with an intellectual link to this research: 1) Understanding of Gravity and Newton's Laws, 2) Understanding of Energy and Energy Transformations, 3) Integration of the sciences with math and technology, and 4) Knowledge of NASA's past accomplishments (such as the moon landings). Based on these identified needs, two science units were developed for students in grades 5-12 that integrate astronomy, physics, and the life sciences with math and technology. In addition an engaging public lecture was developed that tells a personal story of the quest for more economic space travel. In the past year, the workshops have been presented on three occasions, reaching over 75 teachers and demand exceeded available space with numerous teachers on waiting lists. The lecture has been presented numerous times at planetariums, museums, amateur astronomy and other clubs. We hope that our partnership will serve as a useful example of how to translate cutting edge research into valuable education products with an identified need. We will provide handouts with links to a website where the products and training can be downloaded in hope that others will help disseminate our product.

  8. The need for econometric research in laboratory animal operations.

    PubMed

    Baker, David G; Kearney, Michael T

    2015-06-01

    The scarcity of research funding can affect animal facilities in various ways. These effects can be evaluated by examining the allocation of financial resources in animal facilities, which can be facilitated by the use of mathematical and statistical methods to analyze economic problems, a discipline known as econometrics. The authors applied econometrics to study whether increasing per diem charges had a negative effect on the number of days of animal care purchased by animal users. They surveyed animal numbers and per diem charges at 20 research institutions and found that demand for large animals decreased as per diem charges increased. The authors discuss some of the challenges involved in their study and encourage research institutions to carry out more robust econometric studies of this and other economic questions facing laboratory animal research. PMID:25989555

  9. GRACEnet: addressing policy needs through coordinated cross-location research

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jawson, Michael D.; Walthall, Charles W.; Shafer, Steven R.

    2012-01-01

    GRACEnet (Greenhouse gas Reduction through Agricultural Carbon Enhancement network) was conceived to build upon ongoing USDA Agricultural Research Service (ARS) research to improve soil productivity, while addressing the challenges and opportunities of interest in C sequestration from a climate change perspective. The vision for GRACEnet was and remains: Knowledge and information used to implement scientifically based agricultural management practices from the field to national policy scales on C sequestration, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and environmental benefits. The national focus of GRACEnet uses a standardized approach by ARS laboratories and university and land manager (e.g. farmer and rancher) cooperators to assess C sequestration and GHG emission from different crop and grassland systems. Since 2002, GRACEnet has significantly expanded GHG mitigation science and delivered usable information to agricultural research and policy organizations. Recent developments suggest GRACEnet will have international impact by contributing leadership and technical guidance for the Global Research Alliance on Agricultural Greenhouse Gases.

  10. The Need for Federal Support of University Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Frank E.

    1975-01-01

    Urges continued federal aid for research grants and contracts to universities in the area of aerospace technology because of the practical benefits to mankind and also because universities serve as repositories of the brainpower that "fuels" technological advancement. (BR)

  11. Space medicine research: Needs for the 21st century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pepper, L. J.

    1992-01-01

    Space medicine research in the 21st century will continue to focus on the four major areas including: (1) expansion of the current incomplete knowledge base of clinical and subclinical physiological changes due to microgravity; (2) development of countermeasures to extend the capabilities of the human performance envelope in extended duration flights; (3) development of novel methods for delivering all aspects of a comprehensive health care system in extreme remote conditions: and (4) further research and application of systems for biological materials processing. New space transportation vehicles will place unique physiologic and human factors demands on the human system, while providing better access to platforms for materials processing. Success in meeting the demands in each of the noted research areas will require an extensive, interactive team approach. Personnel from the medical research,operational, developmental, and basic science communities will be essential to success.

  12. Why our patients (and we) need basic science research.

    PubMed

    Schor, Nina F

    2013-05-28

    In times of fiscal austerity, the tendency is to seek instant, inexpensive gratification. In the case of biomedical research, this means the shortest path to practical clinical implementation. But fueling the translational pipeline with discovery depends critically on allowing the biomedical research community to follow their science where it takes them. Fiscal constraints carry with them the risk of squelching creativity and forfeiting the power of serendipity to provide the substrate for the translational engine in the future. PMID:23713087

  13. Why our patients (and we) need basic science research

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    In times of fiscal austerity, the tendency is to seek instant, inexpensive gratification. In the case of biomedical research, this means the shortest path to practical clinical implementation. But fueling the translational pipeline with discovery depends critically on allowing the biomedical research community to follow their science where it takes them. Fiscal constraints carry with them the risk of squelching creativity and forfeiting the power of serendipity to provide the substrate for the translational engine in the future. PMID:23713087

  14. Need for multidisciplinary research towards a second green revolution.

    PubMed

    Wollenweber, Bernd; Porter, John R; Lübberstedt, Thomas

    2005-06-01

    Despite recent achievements in conventional plant breeding and genomics, the rate of increase of crop yields is declining and thus there is a need for a second green revolution. Advances within single disciplines, alone, cannot solve the challenges of increasing yield. As scientific disciplines have become increasingly diversified, a more complete understanding of the mechanisms by which genetic and environmental variation modify grain yield and composition is needed, so that specific quantitative and quality targets can be identified. To achieve this aim, the expertise of plant genomics, physiology and agronomy, as well as recently developed plant modelling techniques, must be combined. There has been recent progress in these individual disciplines, but multidisciplinary approaches must be implemented to tackle drought stress and salinity as major constraints to achieving sufficient grain yield in the future. PMID:15860432

  15. Research Needs for Magnetic Fusion Energy Sciences. Report of the Research Needs Workshop (ReNeW) Bethesda, Maryland, June 8-12, 2009

    SciTech Connect

    2009-06-08

    strategic framework for realizing practical fusion energy. The portfolio is the product of ten months of fusion-community study and discussion, culminating in a Workshop held in Bethesda, Maryland, from June 8 to June 12, 2009. The Workshop involved some 200 scientists from Universities, National Laboratories and private industry, including several scientists from outside the US. Largely following the Basic Research Needs model established by the Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES ), the Report presents a collection of discrete research activities, here called 'thrusts.' Each thrust is based on an explicitly identified question, or coherent set of questions, on the frontier of fusion science. It presents a strategy to find the needed answers, combining the necessary intellectual and hardware tools, experimental facilities, and computational resources into an integrated, focused program. The thrusts should be viewed as building blocks for a fusion program plan whose overall structure will be developed by OFES , using whatever additional community input it requests. Part I of the Report reviews the issues identified in previous fusion-community studies, which systematically identified the key research issues and described them in considerable detail. It then considers in some detail the scientific and technical means that can be used to address these is sues. It ends by showing how these various research requirements are organized into a set of eighteen thrusts. Part II presents a detailed and self-contained discussion of each thrust, including the goals, required facilities and tools for each. This Executive Summary focuses on a survey of the ReNeW thrusts. The following brief review of fusion science is intended to provide context for that survey. A more detailed discussion of fusion science can be found in an Appendix to this Summary, entitled 'A Fusion Primer.'

  16. Sociotechnical approaches to workplace safety: Research needs and opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Michelle M.; Hettinger, Lawrence J.; Waterson, Patrick E.; Ian Noy, Y.; Dainoff, Marvin J.; Leveson, Nancy G.; Carayon, Pascale; Courtney, Theodore K.

    2015-01-01

    The sociotechnical systems perspective offers intriguing and potentially valuable insights into problems associated with workplace safety. While formal sociotechnical systems thinking originated in the 1950s, its application to the analysis and design of sustainable, safe working environments has not been fully developed. To that end, a Hopkinton Conference was organised to review and summarise the state of knowledge in the area and to identify research priorities. A group of 26 international experts produced collaborative articles for this special issue of Ergonomics, and each focused on examining a key conceptual, methodological and/or theoretical issue associated with sociotechnical systems and safety. In this concluding paper, we describe the major conference themes and recommendations. These are organised into six topic areas: (1) Concepts, definitions and frameworks, (2) defining research methodologies, (3) modelling and simulation, (4) communications and decision-making, (5) sociotechnical attributes of safe and unsafe systems and (6) potential future research directions for sociotechnical systems research. Practitioner Summary: Sociotechnical complexity, a characteristic of many contemporary work environments, presents potential safety risks that traditional approaches to workplace safety may not adequately address. In this paper, we summarise the investigations of a group of international researchers into questions associated with the application of sociotechnical systems thinking to improve worker safety. PMID:25728246

  17. Discrimination and racial disparities in health: evidence and needed research

    PubMed Central

    Mohammed, Selina A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides a review and critique of empirical research on perceived discrimination and health. The patterns of racial disparities in health suggest that there are multiple ways by which racism can affect health. Perceived discrimination is one such pathway and the paper reviews the published research on discrimination and health that appeared in PubMed between 2005 and 2007. This recent research continues to document an inverse association between discrimination and health. This pattern is now evident in a wider range of contexts and for a broader array of outcomes. Advancing our understanding of the relationship between perceived discrimination and health will require more attention to situating discrimination within the context of other health-relevant aspects of racism, measuring it comprehensively and accurately, assessing its stressful dimensions, and identifying the mechanisms that link discrimination to health. PMID:19030981

  18. Needs of physiological and psychological research using artificial gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, M.; Toyobe, M.; Hamami, H.; Tayama, M.; Fujii, T.; Sato, T.; Nitta, K.; Kibe, S.

    In the next century, mankind will expand its activity to the moon and Mars. At that time, humans will be exposed to a low and micro-gravity environment in long term which causes physiological and psychological problems. The authors propose an artificial gravity space station for a research laboratory on human physiology and psychology at various gravity levels. The baseline specifications and the configuration of the space station are shown. Reviewing the history of manned space flight, the necessity of the research on an artificial gravity space station is discussed, including themes of research to be conducted on the station and the application of its results. Technical issues for realization of the space station such as environmental factors, system function and assembly scenario are also discussed.

  19. Discrimination and racial disparities in health: evidence and needed research.

    PubMed

    Williams, David R; Mohammed, Selina A

    2009-02-01

    This paper provides a review and critique of empirical research on perceived discrimination and health. The patterns of racial disparities in health suggest that there are multiple ways by which racism can affect health. Perceived discrimination is one such pathway and the paper reviews the published research on discrimination and health that appeared in PubMed between 2005 and 2007. This recent research continues to document an inverse association between discrimination and health. This pattern is now evident in a wider range of contexts and for a broader array of outcomes. Advancing our understanding of the relationship between perceived discrimination and health will require more attention to situating discrimination within the context of other health-relevant aspects of racism, measuring it comprehensively and accurately, assessing its stressful dimensions, and identifying the mechanisms that link discrimination to health. PMID:19030981

  20. FINDING THE BALANCE - QUALITY ASSURANCE REQUIREMENTS VS. RESEARCH NEEDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Investigators often misapply quality assurance (QA) procedures and may consider QA as a hindrance to developing test plans for sampling and analysis. If used properly, however, QA is the driving force for collecting the right kind and proper amount of data. Researchers must use Q...

  1. FINDING THE BALANCE - QUALITY ASSURANCE REQUIREMENTS VS. RESEARCH NEEDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Investigators often misapply quality assurance (QA) procedures and may consider QA as a hindrance to developing test plans for
    sampling and analysis. If used properly, however, QA is the driving force for collecting the right kind and proper amount of data.
    Researchers must...

  2. OIL SPILL RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT NEEDS FOR THE 1990'S

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the 1970s and the early 1980s the emphasis of Federally-sponsored oil spill research was on mechanical spill control devices and removal methods such as booms, skimmers, and sorbents, with later efforts also focused on dispersing agents. The preponderance of the work was direc...

  3. Immigrant Families over the Life Course: Research Directions and Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Rebecca L.; Glick, Jennifer E.; Bures, Regina M.

    2009-01-01

    Family researchers and policy makers are giving increasing attention to the consequences of immigration for families. Immigration affects the lives of family members who migrate as well as those who remain behind and has important consequences for family formation, kinship ties, living arrangements, and children's outcomes. We present a selective…

  4. Electrorheological (ER) fluids: A research needs assessment. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Krieger, I.M.; Collins, E.A.

    1993-05-01

    This report consists of seven sections: (1) Executive Summary, (2) Introduction, (3) Overview, (4) Recommendations, (5) Panelist Reports, (6) Overseas Research and Development, and (7) Extended Bibliography. The Appendix contains the reports of site visits and contacts and other supplementary documents.

  5. Empowering Design-Based Implementation Research: The Need for Infrastructure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabelli, Nora; Dede, Chris

    2013-01-01

    This chapter discusses frameworks and conceptual lenses that help orient design-based implementation research (DBIR) work to the types of infrastructure required for success, while contributing to theories about the processes of educational improvement. Such infrastructures can be conceived as a framework: a set of interconnected elements that…

  6. Does Every Research Library Need a Digital Humanities Center?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaffner, Jennifer; Erway, Ricky

    2014-01-01

    The digital humanities (DH) are attracting considerable attention and funding at the same time that this nascent field is striving for an identity. Some research libraries are making significant investments by creating digital humanities centers. However, questions about whether such investments are warranted persist across the cultural heritage…

  7. Review of Pacific Northwest Laboratory research on aquatic effects of hydroelectric generation and assessment of research needs

    SciTech Connect

    Fickeisen, D.H.; Becker, C.D.; Neitzel, D.A.

    1981-05-01

    This report is an overview of Pacific Northwest Laboratory's (PNL) research on how hydroelectric generation affects aquatic biota and environments. The major accomplishments of this research are described, and additional work needed to permit optimal use of available data is identified. The research goals are to: (1) identify impacts of hydroelectric generation, (2) provide guidance in allocating scarce water resources, and (3) develop techniques to avoid or reduce the impacts on aquatic communities or to compensate for unavoidable impacts. Through laboratory and field experiments, an understanding is being developed of the generic impacts of hydrogeneration. Because PNL is located near the Columbia River, which is extensively developed for hydroelectric generation, it is used as a natural laboratory for studying a large-scale operating system. Although the impacts studied result from a particular system of dams and operating procedures and occur within a specific ecosystem, the results of these studies have application at hydroelectric generating facilities throughout the United States.

  8. The Need to Emphasize Epistemology in Teaching and Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalman, Calvin

    2009-04-01

    The views on epistemology by philosophers of science are developed through an historical lens. Enabling students to develop a scientific mindset is complicated by student’s views on the Nature of Science. Students need to appreciate the history of science and to contrast different frameworks. In order to do this, students have to be able to follow presentations in class and read their textbooks. Although individual words are understandable, the sentences appear to take the form of an unknown language. The solution utilized in this paper is to get students to approach their reading of their textbooks in the manner of the hermeneutical circle through an activity called Reflective Writing.

  9. Virtual Reality Technologies for Research and Education in Obesity and Diabetes: Research Needs and Opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Ershow, Abby G; Peterson, Charles M; Riley, William T; Rizzo, Albert “Skip”; Wansink, Brian

    2011-01-01

    The rising rates, high prevalence, and adverse consequences of obesity and diabetes call for new approaches to the complex behaviors needed to prevent and manage these conditions. Virtual reality (VR) technologies, which provide controllable, multisensory, interactive three-dimensional (3D) stimulus environments, are a potentially valuable means of engaging patients in interventions that foster more healthful eating and physical activity patterns. Furthermore, the capacity of VR technologies to motivate, record, and measure human performance represents a novel and useful modality for conducting research. This article summarizes background information and discussions for a joint July 2010 National Institutes of Health – Department of Defense workshop entitled Virtual Reality Technologies for Research and Education in Obesity and Diabetes. The workshop explored the research potential of VR technologies as tools for behavioral and neuroscience studies in diabetes and obesity, and the practical potential of VR in fostering more effective utilization of diabetes- and obesity-related nutrition and lifestyle information. Virtual reality technologies were considered especially relevant for fostering desirable health-related behaviors through motivational reinforcement, personalized teaching approaches, and social networking. Virtual reality might also be a means of extending the availability and capacity of health care providers. Progress in the field will be enhanced by further developing available platforms and taking advantage of VR’s capabilities as a research tool for well-designed hypothesis-testing behavioral science. Multidisciplinary collaborations are needed between the technology industry and academia, and among researchers in biomedical, behavioral, pedagogical, and computer science disciplines. Research priorities and funding opportunities for use of VR to improve prevention and management of obesity and diabetes can be found at agency websites (National

  10. Virtual reality technologies for research and education in obesity and diabetes: research needs and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Ershow, Abby G; Peterson, Charles M; Riley, William T; Rizzo, Albert Skip; Wansink, Brian

    2011-03-01

    The rising rates, high prevalence, and adverse consequences of obesity and diabetes call for new approaches to the complex behaviors needed to prevent and manage these conditions. Virtual reality (VR) technologies, which provide controllable, multisensory, interactive three-dimensional (3D) stimulus environments, are a potentially valuable means of engaging patients in interventions that foster more healthful eating and physical activity patterns. Furthermore, the capacity of VR technologies to motivate, record, and measure human performance represents a novel and useful modality for conducting research. This article summarizes background information and discussions for a joint July 2010 National Institutes of Health - Department of Defense workshop entitled Virtual Reality Technologies for Research and Education in Obesity and Diabetes. The workshop explored the research potential of VR technologies as tools for behavioral and neuroscience studies in diabetes and obesity, and the practical potential of VR in fostering more effective utilization of diabetes- and obesity-related nutrition and lifestyle information. Virtual reality technologies were considered especially relevant for fostering desirable health-related behaviors through motivational reinforcement, personalized teaching approaches, and social networking. Virtual reality might also be a means of extending the availability and capacity of health care providers. Progress in the field will be enhanced by further developing available platforms and taking advantage of VR's capabilities as a research tool for well-designed hypothesis-testing behavioral science. Multidisciplinary collaborations are needed between the technology industry and academia, and among researchers in biomedical, behavioral, pedagogical, and computer science disciplines. Research priorities and funding opportunities for use of VR to improve prevention and management of obesity and diabetes can be found at agency websites (National

  11. Why we need more basic biology research, not less.

    PubMed

    Botstein, David

    2012-11-01

    Much of the spectacular progress in biomedical science over the last half-century is the direct consequence of the work of thousands of basic scientists whose primary goal was understanding of the fundamental working of living things. Despite this, many politicians, funders, and even scientists have come to believe that the pace of successful applications to medical diagnosis and therapy is limited by our willingness to focus directly on human health, rather than a continuing deficit of understanding. By this theory, curiosity-driven research, aimed at understanding, is no longer important or even useful. What is advocated instead is "translational" research aimed directly at treating disease. I believe this idea to be deeply mistaken. Recent history suggests instead that what we have learned in the last 50 years is only the beginning. The way forward is to invest more in basic science, not less. PMID:23112227

  12. Needed: Global Collaboration for Comparative Research on Cities and Health

    PubMed Central

    Gusmano, Michael K.; Rodwin, Victor G.

    2016-01-01

    Over half of the world’s population lives in cities and United Nations (UN) demographers project an increase of 2.5 billion more urban dwellers by 2050. Yet there is too little systematic comparative research on the practice of urban health policy and management (HPAM), particularly in the megacities of middle-income and developing nations. We make a case for creating a global database on cities, population health and healthcare systems. The expenses involved in data collection would be difficult to justify without some review of previous work, some agreement on indicators worth measuring, conceptual and methodological considerations to guide the construction of the global database, and a set of research questions and hypotheses to test. We, therefore, address these issues in a manner that we hope will stimulate further discussion and collaboration.

  13. Basic research needed for stimulating the development of behavioral technologies

    PubMed Central

    Mace, F. Charles

    1994-01-01

    The costs of disconnection between the basic and applied sectors of behavior analysis are reviewed, and some solutions to these problems are proposed. Central to these solutions are collaborations between basic and applied behavioral scientists in programmatic research that addresses the behavioral basis and solution of human behavior problems. This kind of collaboration parallels the deliberate interactions between basic and applied researchers that have proven to be so profitable in other scientific fields, such as medicine. Basic research questions of particular relevance to the development of behavioral technologies are posed in the following areas: response allocation, resistance to change, countercontrol, formation and differentiation/discrimination of stimulus and response classes, analysis of low-rate behavior, and rule-governed behavior. Three interrelated strategies to build connections between the basic and applied analysis of behavior are identified: (a) the development of nonhuman animal models of human behavior problems using operations that parallel plausible human circumstances, (b) replication of the modeled relations with human subjects in the operant laboratory, and (c) tests of the generality of the model with actual human problems in natural settings. PMID:16812734

  14. AudioGuides at a National Research Laboratory Supporting Visitors With Special Needs: Initial Lessons Learned

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munoz, R.; Foster, S. Q.; Johnson, R. M.; Carbone, L.; Lewis, H.; Abshire, W.; Mann, L.

    2003-12-01

    The National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Mesa Laboratory offers the public an opportunity to visit an internationally recognized research laboratory housed in an architectural landmark located in a dramatic geological setting. The Mesa Lab's exhibits are viewed by over 80,000 people each year. Exhibits provide information about NCAR's scientific mission, current research efforts, technology, and the societal benefits of weather and climate research. Nearly 13,000 of NCAR's visitors are served with staff-led guided tours, including 3,000 students in school groups. Frequently, these tours are tailored to address the interests, ages, nationality, and special needs of the visitors. In June 2003, an audioguide was unveiled in English and Spanish versions for both adults and children. Based on preliminary summer usage figures, the audioguides may reach an additional 7,000 visitors in the coming year, many of whom may have special needs. With this in mind, the University Corporation of Atmospheric Research (UCAR) Office of Education and Outreach (EO) contracted local experts as advisors on the needs of people with low-vision, hearing loss, and Spanish language accessibility as the audioguide was developed. The script was written with the help of scientists and an internationally recognized audioguide production firm. Since the installation of the audioguide in July, visitors of all ages appear to be enthusiastic about this service and better focused on their learning experiences while viewing the exhibits. Interviews are helping EO to learn more about how the audioguide is helpful or may be revised to more effectively serve visitors in general as well as visitors with special needs. The audioguide was made possible by grants from the National Science Foundation Geoscience Education Program and the Friends of UCAR Fund.

  15. Personnel Needs and Training for Biomedical and Behavioral Research. The 1985 Report of the Committee on National Needs for Biomedical and Behavioral Research Personnel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Institute of Medicine (NAS), Washington, DC.

    Designed to provide assistance in the assessment of the need for biomedical and behavioral research personnel, this report presents research findings related to specific medical careers. The review includes an examination of the system under which biomedical and behavioral scientists are trained for research careers and the United States…

  16. Children with cochlear implants and complex needs: a review of outcome research and psychological practice.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Lindsey C

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, the number of children receiving cochlear implants who have significant disabilities in addition to their deafness has increased substantially. However, in comparison with the extensive literature on speech, language, and communication outcomes following pediatric implantation in children without complex needs, the available literature for this special group of children is relatively sparse. This article reviews the available research on outcomes, grouping studies according to the nature of the additional disabilities and specific etiologies of deafness. The methodological problems relating to outcome research in this field are outlined, followed by some tentative conclusions drawn from the literature base while bearing these problems in mind. The remainder of the article focuses on the challenges for clinical practice, from a psychological perspective, of implanting deaf children with complex needs. Two groups of children are considered, those whose additional disabilities have been identified prior to implantation and those whose difficulties become apparent at some point afterward, sometimes many years later. A case example describing the psychological assessment of a deaf-blind child being considered for implantation is presented. PMID:17493953

  17. Aircraft noise effects on sleep: mechanisms, mitigation and research needs.

    PubMed

    Basner, Mathias; Griefahn, Barbara; Berg, Martin van den

    2010-01-01

    There is an ample number of laboratory and field studies which provide sufficient evidence that aircraft noise disturbs sleep and, depending on traffic volume and noise levels, may impair behavior and well-being during the day. Although clinical sleep disorders have been shown to be associated with increased risk of cardiovascular diseases, only little is known about the long-term effects of aircraft noise disturbed sleep on health. National and international laws and guidelines try to limit aircraft noise exposure facilitating active and passive noise control to prevent relevant sleep disturbances and its consequences. Adopting the harmonized indicator of the European Union Directive 2002/49/EC, the WHO Night Noise Guideline for Europe (NNG) defines four Lnight , outside ranges associated with different risk levels of sleep disturbance and other health effects ( < 30, 30-40, 40-55, and> 55 dBA). Although traffic patterns differing in number and noise levels of events that lead to varying degrees of sleep disturbance may result in the same Lnight , simulations of nights with up to 200 aircraft noise events per night nicely corroborate expert opinion guidelines formulated in WHO's NNG. In the future, large scale field studies on the effects of nocturnal (aircraft) noise on sleep are needed. They should involve representative samples of the population including vulnerable groups like children and chronically ill subjects. Optimally, these studies are prospective in nature and examine the long-term consequences of noise-induced sleep disturbances. Furthermore, epidemiological case-control studies on the association of nocturnal (aircraft) noise exposure and cardiovascular disease are needed. Despite the existing gaps in knowledge on long-term health effects, sufficient data are available for defining limit values, guidelines and protection concepts, which should be updated with the availability of new data. PMID:20472955

  18. Research for food and health in Europe: themes, needs and proposals

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Diet, in addition to tobacco, alcohol and physical exercise, is a major factor contributing to chronic diseases in Europe. There is a pressing need for multidisciplinary research to promote healthier food choices and better diets. Food and Health Research in Europe (FAHRE) is a collaborative project commissioned by the European Union. Among its tasks is the description of national research systems for food and health and, in work reported here, the identification of strengths and gaps in the European research base. Methods A typology of nine research themes was developed, spanning food, society, health and research structures. Experts were selected through the FAHRE partners, with balance for individual characteristics, and reported using a standardised template. Results Countries usually commission research on food, and on health, separately: few countries have combined research strategies or programmes. Food and health are also strongly independent fields within the European Commission's research programmes. Research programmes have supported food and bio-technology, food safety, epidemiological research, and nutritional surveillance; but there has been less research into personal behaviour and very little on environmental influences on food choices - in the retail and marketing industries, policy, and regulation. The research is mainly sited within universities and research institutes: there is relatively little published research contribution from industry. Discussion National food policies, based on epidemiological evidence and endorsed by the World Health Organisation, recommend major changes in food intake to meet the challenge of chronic diseases. Biomedical and biotechnology research, in areas such as 'nutrio-genomics', 'individualised' diets, 'functional' foods and 'nutri-pharmaceuticals' appear likely to yield less health benefit, and less return on public investment, than research on population-level interventions to influence dietary

  19. Airborne Instrumentation Needs for Climate and Atmospheric Research

    SciTech Connect

    McFarquhar, Greg; Schmid, Beat; Korolev, Alexei; Ogren, John A.; Russell, P. B.; Tomlinson, Jason M.; Turner, David D.; Wiscombe, Warren J.

    2011-10-06

    Observational data are of fundamental importance for advances in climate and atmospheric research. Advances in atmospheric science are being made not only through the use of ground-based and space-based observations, but also through the use of in-situ and remote sensing observations acquired on instrumented aircraft. In order for us to enhance our knowledge of atmospheric processes, it is imperative that efforts be made to improve our understanding of the operating characteristics of current instrumentation and of the caveats and uncertainties in data acquired by current probes, as well as to develop improved observing methodologies for acquisition of airborne data.

  20. Our Natural Resources: Basic Research Needs in Forestry and Renewable Natural Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Task Force on Basic Research in Forestry and Renewable Natural Resources.

    This report examines basic research needs in forestry and renewable natural resources and determines benefits to be gained from greater investments in basic research. It was prepared by a group of 17 research scientists, each an accomplished investigator in one or more fields. Each contributor reflected on research needs within his own discipline…

  1. Assessment of pre-competitive research and development needs for industrial waste minimization

    SciTech Connect

    Young, J.K.; Fassbender, L.L.; Sen, R.K.

    1992-02-01

    This report summarizes the findings of the first phase of a study undertaken to define a role for the Advanced Industrial Concepts (AIC) Division of the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) in developing waste minimization technologies for the industrial sector. The report describes the results of an industrial waste characterization based mainly on the US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) 1989 Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) database. IN addition, it contains the results of interviews with personnel from trade associations, environmental advocacy groups, federal agencies, and industrial firms regarding pre-competitive research and development needs for industrial waste minimization. Recommendations for future AIC waste minimization activities are provided.

  2. Assessment of pre-competitive research and development needs for industrial waste minimization

    SciTech Connect

    Young, J.K.; Fassbender, L.L. ); Sen, R.K. and Associates, Washington, DC )

    1992-02-01

    This report summarizes the findings of the first phase of a study undertaken to define a role for the Advanced Industrial Concepts (AIC) Division of the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) in developing waste minimization technologies for the industrial sector. The report describes the results of an industrial waste characterization based mainly on the US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) 1989 Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) database. IN addition, it contains the results of interviews with personnel from trade associations, environmental advocacy groups, federal agencies, and industrial firms regarding pre-competitive research and development needs for industrial waste minimization. Recommendations for future AIC waste minimization activities are provided.

  3. Consensus statement and research needs: the role of dopamine and norepinephrine in depression and antidepressant treatment.

    PubMed

    Nutt, David J; Baldwin, David S; Clayton, Anita H; Elgie, Rodney; Lecrubier, Yves; Montejo, Angel L; Papakostas, George I; Souery, Daniel; Trivedi, Madhukar H; Tylee, Andre

    2006-01-01

    During a special session, the faculty identified several specific areas related to the role of dopamine and norepinephrine in depression and antidepressant treatment that either warrant the clinician's attention or are in need of more research. Areas of interest include fatigue and lethargy in depression, treatment strategies for treatment-resistant depression, the somatic presentation of depression, neurobiology of fatigue and its role in determining treatment, symptom rating scales, and sexual side effects. In addition, the faculty discussed the importance of patient psychoeducation and self-management as well as the ways in which disease models of depression affect treatment. PMID:16848678

  4. Membrane separation systems---A research and development needs assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, R.W. ); Cussler, E.L. . Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science); Eykamp, W. ); Koros, W.J. ); Riley, R.L. ); Strathmann, H. (Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Grenzflaech

    1990-03-01

    Membrane based separation technology, a relative newcomer on the separations scene, has demonstrated the potential of saving enormous amounts of energy in the processing industries if substituted for conventional separation systems. Over 1 quad annually, out of 2.6, can possibly be saved in liquid-to-gas separations, alone, if membrane separation systems gain wider acceptance, according to a recent DOE/OIP (DOE/NBM-80027730 (1986)) study. In recent years great strides have been made in the field and offer even greater energy savings in the future when substituted for other conventional separation techniques such as distillation, evaporation, filtration, sedimentation, and absorption. An assessment was conducted by a group of six internationally known membrane separations experts who examined the worldwide status of research in the seven major membrane areas. This encompassed four mature technology areas: reverse osmosis, micorfiltration, ultrafiltration, and electrodialysis; two developing areas: gas separation and and pervaporation; and one emerging technology: facilitated transport. Particular attention was paid to identifying the innovative processes currently emerging, and even further improvements which could gain wider acceptance for the more mature membrane technology. The topics that were pointed out as having the greatest research emphasis are pervaporation for organic-organic separations; gas separation; micorfiltration; an oxidant-resistant reverse osmosis membrane; and a fouling-resistant ultrafiltration membrane. 35 refs., 6 figs., 22 tabs.

  5. Trends in catalysis research to meet future refining needs

    SciTech Connect

    Absi-Halabi, M.; Stanislaus, A.; Qabazard, H.

    1997-02-01

    The main emphasis of petroleum refining during the `70s and early `80s was to maximize conversion of heavy oils to gasoline and middle distillate products. While this objective is still important, the current focus that began in the late `80s is to develop cleaner products. This is a result of strict environmental constraints to reduce emissions from both the products and refineries. Developing catalysts with improved activity, selectivity and stability for use in processes producing such environmentally acceptable fuels is the most economical and effective route for refiners. Novel technologies such as biocatalysis and catalytic membranes are examples of current successful laboratory-scale attempts to resolve anticipated future industry problems. Since catalysts play a key role in refining processes, it is important to examine the challenges facing catalysis research to meet future refining developments. The paper discusses the factors influencing refining, advancements in refining technology and catalysis, short-term future trends in refining catalysts research, and long-term trends in refining catalysts. 56 refs.

  6. Beamed Energy Propulsion: Research Status And Needs--Part 1

    SciTech Connect

    Birkan, Mitat

    2008-04-28

    One promising solution to the operationally responsive space is the application of remote electromagnetic energy to propel a launch vehicle into orbit. With beamed energy propulsion, one can leave the power source stationary on the ground or space, and direct heat propellant on the spacecraft with a beam from a fixed station. This permits the spacecraft to leave its power source at home, saving significant amounts of mass, greatly improving performance. This concept, which removes the mass penalty of carrying the propulsion energy source on board the vehicle, was first proposed by Arthur Kantrowitz in 1972; he invoked an extremely powerful ground based laser. The same year Michael Minovich suggested a conceptually similar 'in-space' laser rocket system utilizing a remote laser power station. In the late 1980's, Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR) funded continuous, double pulse laser and microwave propulsion while Strategic Defense Initiative Office (SDIO) funded ablative laser rocket propulsion. Currently AFOSR has been funding the concept initiated by Leik Myrabo, repetitively pulsed laser propulsion, which has been universally perceived, arguably, to be the closest for mid-term applications. This 2-part paper examines the investment strategies in beamed energy propulsion and technical challenges to be overcome. Part 1 presents a world-wide review of beamed energy propulsion research, including both laser and microwave arenas.

  7. Respiratory protection against bioaerosols: literature review and research needs.

    PubMed

    Rengasamy, Appavoo; Zhuang, Ziqing; Berryann, Roland

    2004-10-01

    Research on respiratory protection against biologic agents is important to address major concerns such as occupational safety and terrorist attack. This review describes the literature on respiratory protection against bioaerosols and identifies research gaps. Respiratory protection is a complex field involving a number of factors, such as the efficiency of respirator filter material; face-piece fitting; and maintenance, storage, and reuse of respirators. Several studies used nonpathogenic microorganisms having physical characteristics similar to that of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to analyze microbial penetration through respirators. Some studies showed that high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) and N95 filters provided a higher level of protection than dust/mist (DM) and dust/mist/fume (DMF) filters. Flow rate and relative humidity appear to alter the level of penetration of microorganisms through respirator filters. The relationship between microbial penetration through respirator filters and the aerodynamic diameter, length, or other physical characteristics of microorganisms remains controversial. Whether reaerosolization of bioaerosol particles should be a concern is unclear, given the fact that one study has demonstrated significant reaerosolization of 1- to 5-microm particles loaded onto respirator filters. Respirator maintenance, storage, and decontamination are important factors to be considered when reusing respirators. The respiratory protection against biologic warfare agents such as anthrax in military and civilian situations is described. PMID:15454893

  8. Games for Health for Children-Current Status and Needed Research.

    PubMed

    Baranowski, Tom; Blumberg, Fran; Buday, Richard; DeSmet, Ann; Fiellin, Lynn E; Green, C Shawn; Kato, Pamela M; Lu, Amy Shirong; Maloney, Ann E; Mellecker, Robin; Morrill, Brooke A; Peng, Wei; Shegog, Ross; Simons, Monique; Staiano, Amanda E; Thompson, Debbe; Young, Kimberly

    2016-02-01

    Videogames for health (G4H) offer exciting, innovative, potentially highly effective methods for increasing knowledge, delivering persuasive messages, changing behaviors, and influencing health outcomes. Although early outcome results are promising, additional research is needed to determine the game design and behavior change procedures that best promote G4H effectiveness and to identify and minimize possible adverse effects. Guidelines for ideal use of different types of G4H by children and adolescents should be elucidated to enhance effectiveness and minimize adverse effects. G4H stakeholders include organizational implementers, policy makers, players and their families, researchers, designers, retailers, and publishers. All stakeholders should be involved in G4H development and have a voice in setting goals to capitalize on their insights to enhance effectiveness and use of the game. In the future, multiple targeted G4H should be available to meet a population's diverse health needs in developmentally appropriate ways. Substantial, consistent, and sophisticated research with appropriate levels of funding is needed to realize the benefits of G4H. PMID:26262772

  9. An imperative need for global change research in tropical forests.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xuhui; Fu, Yuling; Zhou, Lingyan; Li, Bo; Luo, Yiqi

    2013-09-01

    Tropical forests play a crucial role in regulating regional and global climate dynamics, and model projections suggest that rapid climate change may result in forest dieback or savannization. However, these predictions are largely based on results from leaf-level studies. How tropical forests respond and feedback to climate change is largely unknown at the ecosystem level. Several complementary approaches have been used to evaluate the effects of climate change on tropical forests, but the results are conflicting, largely due to confounding effects of multiple factors. Although altered precipitation and nitrogen deposition experiments have been conducted in tropical forests, large-scale warming and elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) manipulations are completely lacking, leaving many hypotheses and model predictions untested. Ecosystem-scale experiments to manipulate temperature and CO2 concentration individually or in combination are thus urgently needed to examine their main and interactive effects on tropical forests. Such experiments will provide indispensable data and help gain essential knowledge on biogeochemical, hydrological and biophysical responses and feedbacks of tropical forests to climate change. These datasets can also inform regional and global models for predicting future states of tropical forests and climate systems. The success of such large-scale experiments in natural tropical forests will require an international framework to coordinate collaboration so as to meet the challenges in cost, technological infrastructure and scientific endeavor. PMID:24128847

  10. Research and development needs in filtration and dewatering

    SciTech Connect

    Lockhart, N.C.; Kern, R.

    1996-10-01

    The first part of this paper deals with technology issues. These are categorized as (1) fundamental aspects, specifically suspension characteristics and dewatering mechanisms, along with process modelling and control; (2) pre-treatment procedures, both physical and chemical, that optimize the dewatering characteristics; (3) types of dewatering devices based on centrifuges, vacuum and pressure filters with particular reference to various combined field approaches using two or more complementary driving forces to achieve better performance. The second part of the paper (attributed principally to the first-named author) deals with related R and D issues, namely economic assessments and justification for particular R and D strategies, including benchmarking and operational factors that apply in industrial environments. Dewatering operations and R and D needs are also analyzed from the perspective of matching and integration into overall process flowsheets, and in the context of alternative processing or utilization strategies which avoid the dewatering step. The analysis concludes with a discussion on effective identification and utilization of existing knowledge, and the R and D management process. Although the paper draws heavily on experiences relating to the coal industry, much of the material is relevant to fine suspensions in general.

  11. Automated radar image analysis research in support of military needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohde, Frederick W.; Chen, Pi-Fuay; Hevenor, Richard A.

    1986-10-01

    Synthetic aperture radars (SAR) are high resolution radars that can be used for reconnaissance, surveillance, and terrain analysis. The high resolution in range and azimuth is achieved by pulse compression and phase history processing, respectively. SAR images have much in common with optical images such as aerial photographs. Both are characterized by tones, patterns, shapes, and shadows. There are, however, significant differences between SAR and optical images due to the differences in the wavelengths and in the illumination and reflection of the targets. Cloud cover presents an obstacle to optical imagery but not to SAR imagery because radar waves can penetrate cloud cover. Optical imagery provides more detailed information than SAR imagery because of its higher resolution. The resolution of optical imagery decreases with distance whereas the resolution of SAR imagery is independent of distance. For large distances, for example from satellites to the surface of the Earth, the resolution of SAR imagery approaches the resolution of optical imagery. These properties make SAR a very useful tool for military purposes. SAR systems can collect large quantities of imagery. For the timely and economic analysis and interpretation of SAR imagery there is a need for the development of automated and interactive capabilities that will reduce the dependency on and requirements for highly trained image analysts.

  12. Sodium fast reactor fuels and materials : research needs.

    SciTech Connect

    Denman, Matthew R.; Porter, Douglas; Wright, Art; Lambert, John; Hayes, Steven; Natesan, Ken; Ott, Larry J.; Garner, Frank; Walters, Leon; Yacout, Abdellatif

    2011-09-01

    An expert panel was assembled to identify gaps in fuels and materials research prior to licensing sodium cooled fast reactor (SFR) design. The expert panel considered both metal and oxide fuels, various cladding and duct materials, structural materials, fuel performance codes, fabrication capability and records, and transient behavior of fuel types. A methodology was developed to rate the relative importance of phenomena and properties both as to importance to a regulatory body and the maturity of the technology base. The technology base for fuels and cladding was divided into three regimes: information of high maturity under conservative operating conditions, information of low maturity under more aggressive operating conditions, and future design expectations where meager data exist.

  13. Respiratory sensitization and allergy: Current research approaches and needs

    SciTech Connect

    Boverhof, Darrell R. Billington, Richard; Gollapudi, B. Bhaskar; Hotchkiss, John A.; Krieger, Shannon M.; Poole, Alan; Wiescinski, Connie M.; Woolhiser, Michael R.

    2008-01-01

    There are currently no accepted regulatory models for assessing the potential of a substance to cause respiratory sensitization and allergy. In contrast, a number of models exist for the assessment of contact sensitization and allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). Research indicates that respiratory sensitizers may be identified through contact sensitization assays such as the local lymph node assay, although only a small subset of the compounds that yield positive results in these assays are actually respiratory sensitizers. Due to the increasing health concerns associated with occupational asthma and the impending directives on the regulation of respiratory sensitizers and allergens, an approach which can identify these compounds and distinguish them from contact sensitizers is required. This report discusses some of the important contrasts between respiratory allergy and ACD, and highlights several prominent in vivo, in vitro and in silico approaches that are being applied or could be further developed to identify compounds capable of causing respiratory allergy. Although a number of animal models have been used for researching respiratory sensitization and allergy, protocols and endpoints for these approaches are often inconsistent, costly and difficult to reproduce, thereby limiting meaningful comparisons of data between laboratories and development of a consensus approach. A number of emerging in vitro and in silico models show promise for use in the characterization of contact sensitization potential and should be further explored for their ability to identify and differentiate contact and respiratory sensitizers. Ultimately, the development of a consistent, accurate and cost-effective model will likely incorporate a number of these approaches and will require effective communication, collaboration and consensus among all stakeholders.

  14. Prioritized List of Research Needs to support MRWFD Case Study Flowsheet Advancement

    SciTech Connect

    Law, Jack Douglas; Soelberg, Nicholas Ray

    2015-06-17

    In FY-13, a case study evaluation was performed of full recycle technologies for both the processing of light-water reactor (LWR) used nuclear fuels as well as fast reactor (FR) fuel in the full recycle option. This effort focused on the identification of the case study processes and the initial preparation of material balance flowsheets for the identified technologies. In identifying the case study flowsheets, it was decided that two cases would be developed: one which identifies the flowsheet as currently developed and another near-term target flowsheet which identifies the flowsheet as envisioned within two years, pending the results of ongoing research. The case study focus is on homogeneous aqueous recycle of the U/TRU resulting from the processing of LWR fuel as feed for metal fuel fabrication. The metal fuel is utilized in a sodium-cooled fast reactor, and the used fast reactor fuel is processed using electrochemical separations. The recovered U/TRU from electrochemical separations is recycled to fuel fabrication and the fast reactor. Waste streams from the aqueous and electrochemical processing are treated and prepared for disposition. Off-gas from the separations and waste processing are also treated. As part of the FY-13 effort, preliminary process unknowns and research needs to advance the near-term target flowsheets were identified. In FY-14, these research needs were updated, expanded and prioritized. This report again updates the prioritized list of research needs based upon results to date in FY-15. The research needs are listed for each of the main portions of the flowsheet: 1) Aqueous headend, 2) Headend tritium pretreatment off-gas, 3) Aqueous U/Pu/Np recovery, 4) Aqueous TRU product solidification, 5) Aqueous actinide/lanthanide separation, 6) Aqueous off-gas treatment, 7) Aqueous HLW management, 8) Treatment of aqueous process wastes, 9) E-chem actinide separations, 10) E-chem off-gas, 11) E-chem HLW management. The identified research needs

  15. Research Review: DSM-V conduct disorder: research needs for an evidence base

    PubMed Central

    Moffitt, Terrie E.; Arseneault, Louise; Jaffee, Sara R.; Kim-Cohen, Julia; Koenen, Karestan C.; Odgers, Candice L.; Slutske, Wendy S.; Viding, Essi

    2009-01-01

    This article charts a strategic research course toward an empirical foundation for the diagnosis of conduct disorder in the forthcoming DSM-V. Since the DSM-IV appeared in 1994, an impressive amount of new information about conduct disorder has emerged. As a result of this new knowledge, reasonable rationales have been put forward for adding to the conduct disorder diagnostic protocol: a childhood-limited subtype, family psychiatric history, callous-unemotional traits, female-specific criteria, preschool-specific criteria, early substance use, and biomarkers from genetics, neuroimaging, and physiology research. This article reviews the evidence for these and other potential changes to the conduct disorder diagnosis. We report that although there is a great deal of exciting research into each of the topics, very little of it provides the precise sort of evidence base required to justify any alteration to the DSM-V. We outline specific research questions and study designs needed to build the lacking evidence base for or against proposed changes to DSM-V conduct disorder. PMID:18181878

  16. Chemerin: A Comprehensive Review Elucidating the Need for Cardiovascular Research

    PubMed Central

    Ferland, David J.; Watts, Stephanie W.

    2016-01-01

    When chemerin was discovered in 1997, it was relegated to being a protein associated with the normal skin function contrasting the setting of psoriasis. However, with the discovery of multiple receptors for the chemerin protein and a vast collection of associations with various pathologies, chemerin has global influence capable of regulating chemotactic, adipokine, autocrine/paracrine, adipogenic, angiogenic, and reproductive functions. These individual abilities of chemerin are important for understanding its basic pharmacology and physiology, but application of these principles to human pathology relies on the ability of scientists and physicians to view this protein from a much wider, all-encompassing angle. A global participant in the action of chemerin is the cardiovascular system (CVS). Although the CVS may not have as many direct interactions (e.g. smooth muscle in endothelium) with chemerin as it does indirect (e.g. chemerin activation in the lumen by proteases), our basic understanding of the CVS and its relation to chemerin is necessary to form a proper grasp of its individual actions and make the applications to pathology. This review provides a fundamental, yet comprehensive review of chemerin that inherently identifies the CVS as a necessary link between chemerin and its associated pathologies, but also calls for basic cardiovascular research as the solution to this chasm between knowledge and application. PMID:26211950

  17. Do We Need More Qualitative Research or More Good Research? A Reaction to Stainback and Stainback. and Author Response.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Robert G.; Stainback, Susan

    1985-01-01

    The authors respond to an earlier article by S. Stainback and W. Stainback which suggested the need for more qualitative research in special education. The response centers on the need for better research in the field. The Stainbacks reply, questioning the underlying rationales denigrating qualitative research. (CL)

  18. Assessment of PNGV fuels infrastructure. Phase 1 report: Additional capital needs and fuel-cycle energy and emissions impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, M.; Stork, K.; Vyas, A.; Mintz, M.; Singh, M.; Johnson, L.

    1997-01-01

    This report presents the methodologies and results of Argonne`s assessment of additional capital needs and the fuel-cycle energy and emissions impacts of using six different fuels in the vehicles with tripled fuel economy (3X vehicles) that the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles is currently investigating. The six fuels included in this study are reformulated gasoline, low-sulfur diesel, methanol, ethanol, dimethyl ether, and hydrogen. Reformulated gasoline, methanol, and ethanol are assumed to be burned in spark-ignition, direct-injection engines. Diesel and dimethyl ether are assumed to be burned in compression-ignition, direct-injection engines. Hydrogen and methanol are assumed to be used in fuel-cell vehicles. The authors have analyzed fuels infrastructure impacts under a 3X vehicle low market share scenario and a high market share scenario. The assessment shows that if 3X vehicles are mass-introduced, a considerable amount of capital investment will be needed to build new fuel production plants and to establish distribution infrastructure for methanol, ethanol, dimethyl ether, and hydrogen. Capital needs for production facilities will far exceed those for distribution infrastructure. Among the four fuels, hydrogen will bear the largest capital needs. The fuel efficiency gain by 3X vehicles translates directly into reductions in total energy demand, fossil energy demand, and CO{sub 2} emissions. The combination of fuel substitution and fuel efficiency results in substantial petroleum displacement and large reductions in emissions of nitrogen oxide, carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds, sulfur oxide, and particulate matter of size smaller than 10 microns.

  19. The need for novel informatics tools for integrating and planning research in molecular and cellular cognition.

    PubMed

    Silva, Alcino J; Müller, Klaus-Robert

    2015-09-01

    The sheer volume and complexity of publications in the biological sciences are straining traditional approaches to research planning. Nowhere is this problem more serious than in molecular and cellular cognition, since in this neuroscience field, researchers routinely use approaches and information from a variety of areas in neuroscience and other biology fields. Additionally, the multilevel integration process characteristic of this field involves the establishment of experimental connections between molecular, electrophysiological, behavioral, and even cognitive data. This multidisciplinary integration process requires strategies and approaches that originate in several different fields, which greatly increases the complexity and demands of this process. Although causal assertions, where phenomenon A is thought to contribute or relate to B, are at the center of this integration process and key to research in biology, there are currently no tools to help scientists keep track of the increasingly more complex network of causal connections they use when making research decisions. Here, we propose the development of semiautomated graphical and interactive tools to help neuroscientists and other biologists, including those working in molecular and cellular cognition, to track, map, and weight causal evidence in research papers. There is a great need for a concerted effort by biologists, computer scientists, and funding institutions to develop maps of causal information that would aid in integration of research findings and in experiment planning. PMID:26286658

  20. Strengthen forensic entomology in court--the need for data exploration and the validation of a generalised additive mixed model.

    PubMed

    Baqué, Michèle; Amendt, Jens

    2013-01-01

    Developmental data of juvenile blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) are typically used to calculate the age of immature stages found on or around a corpse and thus to estimate a minimum post-mortem interval (PMI(min)). However, many of those data sets don't take into account that immature blow flies grow in a non-linear fashion. Linear models do not supply a sufficient reliability on age estimates and may even lead to an erroneous determination of the PMI(min). According to the Daubert standard and the need for improvements in forensic science, new statistic tools like smoothing methods and mixed models allow the modelling of non-linear relationships and expand the field of statistical analyses. The present study introduces into the background and application of these statistical techniques by analysing a model which describes the development of the forensically important blow fly Calliphora vicina at different temperatures. The comparison of three statistical methods (linear regression, generalised additive modelling and generalised additive mixed modelling) clearly demonstrates that only the latter provided regression parameters that reflect the data adequately. We focus explicitly on both the exploration of the data--to assure their quality and to show the importance of checking it carefully prior to conducting the statistical tests--and the validation of the resulting models. Hence, we present a common method for evaluating and testing forensic entomological data sets by using for the first time generalised additive mixed models. PMID:22370995

  1. Research Information Needs of Public Policy Oriented Researchers at a Regional University: Issues Emerging from a Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Faye

    2008-01-01

    This article presents the results of a pilot study of the research information needs, behaviour and source preferences of academic researchers at a regional university engaged in a public policy research project. In-depth interviews with three public policy oriented academic researchers undertaking interdisciplinary research projects at Charles…

  2. Modeling the Impact of School-Based Universal Depression Screening on Additional Service Capacity Needs: A System Dynamics Approach.

    PubMed

    Lyon, Aaron R; Maras, Melissa A; Pate, Christina M; Igusa, Takeru; Vander Stoep, Ann

    2016-03-01

    Although it is widely known that the occurrence of depression increases over the course of adolescence, symptoms of mood disorders frequently go undetected. While schools are viable settings for conducting universal screening to systematically identify students in need of services for common health conditions, particularly those that adversely affect school performance, few school districts routinely screen their students for depression. Among the most commonly referenced barriers are concerns that the number of students identified may exceed schools' service delivery capacities, but few studies have evaluated this concern systematically. System dynamics (SD) modeling may prove a useful approach for answering questions of this sort. The goal of the current paper is therefore to demonstrate how SD modeling can be applied to inform implementation decisions in communities. In our demonstration, we used SD modeling to estimate the additional service demand generated by universal depression screening in a typical high school. We then simulated the effects of implementing "compensatory approaches" designed to address anticipated increases in service need through (1) the allocation of additional staff time and (2) improvements in the effectiveness of mental health interventions. Results support the ability of screening to facilitate more rapid entry into services and suggest that improving the effectiveness of mental health services for students with depression via the implementation of an evidence-based treatment protocol may have a limited impact on overall recovery rates and service availability. In our example, the SD approach proved useful in informing systems' decision-making about the adoption of a new school mental health service. PMID:25601192

  3. Bioethical dimensions of cultural psychosomatics: the need for an ethical research approach.

    PubMed

    Lolas, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    Contemporary psychosomatics is a research-based technical discipline and its social power depends on how scientific knowledge is obtained and applied in practice, considering cultural contexts. This article presents the view that the dialogical principles on which bioethical discourse is based are more inclusive than professional ethics and philosophical reflection. The distinction is advanced between rule-guided behavior and norm-justifiable acts (substantiation and justification). The practical implications of good practices in the generation of valid, reliable, generalizable and applicable knowledge are emphasized. For practitioners and researchers, the need to reflect on the distinction between patient and research participant can avoid the therapeutic misunderstanding, a form of abuse of the doctor-patient relationship. In addition, in resource-poor settings, the dilemma presented by the know-do gap (inapplicability of research results due to financial or social constraints) is part of the ethics' realm of the profession. Future prospects include a wider use of research results in practice, but avoidance of the know-do gap (the disparity between what is known and what can be done, particularly in settings with limited resources) requires a synthetic and holistic approach to medical ethics, combining moral reflection, theoretical analysis and empirical data. PMID:23816868

  4. 48 CFR 1852.235-74 - Additional Reports of Work-Research and Development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...-Research and Development. 1852.235-74 Section 1852.235-74 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL... Provisions and Clauses 1852.235-74 Additional Reports of Work—Research and Development. As prescribed in 1835.070(e), insert a clause substantially the same as the following: Additional Reports of...

  5. 48 CFR 1852.235-74 - Additional Reports of Work-Research and Development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...-Research and Development. 1852.235-74 Section 1852.235-74 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL... Provisions and Clauses 1852.235-74 Additional Reports of Work—Research and Development. As prescribed in 1835.070(e), insert a clause substantially the same as the following: Additional Reports of...

  6. 48 CFR 1852.235-74 - Additional Reports of Work-Research and Development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Provisions and Clauses 1852.235-74 Additional Reports of Work—Research and Development. As prescribed in 1835... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Additional Reports of Work-Research and Development. 1852.235-74 Section 1852.235-74 Federal Acquisition Regulations System...

  7. 48 CFR 1852.235-74 - Additional Reports of Work-Research and Development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Provisions and Clauses 1852.235-74 Additional Reports of Work—Research and Development. As prescribed in 1835... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Additional Reports of Work-Research and Development. 1852.235-74 Section 1852.235-74 Federal Acquisition Regulations System...

  8. 48 CFR 1852.235-74 - Additional Reports of Work-Research and Development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Provisions and Clauses 1852.235-74 Additional Reports of Work—Research and Development. As prescribed in 1835... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Additional Reports of Work-Research and Development. 1852.235-74 Section 1852.235-74 Federal Acquisition Regulations System...

  9. Personnel Needs and Training for Biomedical and Behavioral Research. The 1983 Report of the Committee on National Needs for Biomedical and Behavioral Research Personnel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Institute of Medicine (NAS), Washington, DC.

    This report addresses concerns about the quality of biomedical and behavioral research conducted in the United States and the role that federally supported research and training plays in developing it. In addition, current and projected supply of and demand for scientists in the biomedical and behavioral fields is assessed. These fields include…

  10. 43 CFR 2430.3 - Additional criteria for classification of lands needed for urban or suburban purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... lands needed for urban or suburban purposes. 2430.3 Section 2430.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations... for classification of lands needed for urban or suburban purposes. (a) To be needed for urban or... determined to be needed for urban or suburban purposes may be classified for sale pursuant to the Public...

  11. 43 CFR 2430.3 - Additional criteria for classification of lands needed for urban or suburban purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... lands needed for urban or suburban purposes. 2430.3 Section 2430.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations... for classification of lands needed for urban or suburban purposes. (a) To be needed for urban or... determined to be needed for urban or suburban purposes may be classified for sale pursuant to the Public...

  12. 43 CFR 2430.3 - Additional criteria for classification of lands needed for urban or suburban purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... lands needed for urban or suburban purposes. 2430.3 Section 2430.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations... for classification of lands needed for urban or suburban purposes. (a) To be needed for urban or... determined to be needed for urban or suburban purposes may be classified for sale pursuant to the Public...

  13. 43 CFR 2430.3 - Additional criteria for classification of lands needed for urban or suburban purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... lands needed for urban or suburban purposes. 2430.3 Section 2430.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations... for classification of lands needed for urban or suburban purposes. (a) To be needed for urban or... determined to be needed for urban or suburban purposes may be classified for sale pursuant to the Public...

  14. National uses and needs for separated stable isotopes in physics, chemistry, and geoscience research

    SciTech Connect

    Zisman, M.S.

    1982-01-01

    Present uses of separated stable isotopes in the fields of physics, chemistry, and the geosciences have been surveyed to identify current supply problems and to determine future needs. Demand for separated isotopes remains strong, with 220 different nuclides having been used in the past three years. The largest needs, in terms of both quantity and variety of isotopes, are found in nuclear physics research. Current problems include a lack of availability of many nuclides, unsatisfactory enrichment of rare species, and prohibitively high costs for certain important isotopes. It is expected that demands for separated isotopes will remain roughly at present levels, although there will be a shift toward more requests for highly enriched rare isotopes. Significantly greater use will be made of neutron-rich nuclides below A = 100 for producing exotic ion beams at various accelerators. Use of transition metal nuclei for nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy will expand. In addition, calibration standards will be required for the newer techniques of radiological dating, such as the Sm/Nd and Lu/Hf methods, but in relatively small quantities. Most members of the research community would be willing to pay considerably more than they do now to maintain adequate supplies of stable isotopes.

  15. Using Adult Learning Principles as a Framework for Learning ICT Skills Needed for Research Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eyitayo, Oduronke Temitope

    2013-01-01

    Students in higher institutions need to carry out research projects. The focus of this paper explores a model to help students learn ICT skills needed for research projects. Generally students go through the "long and hard route" to learn and use ICT resources because they do not know how to do it. The paper explores the Adult Learning…

  16. The Development of a Critical Care Resident Research Curriculum: A Needs Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Sangeeta; Hutchison, James; Group, Canadian Critical Care Trials

    2016-01-01

    Background. Conducting research is expected from many clinicians' professional profile, yet many do not have advanced research degrees. Research training during residency is variable amongst institutions and research education needs of trainees are not well understood. Objective. To understand needs of critical care trainees regarding research education. Methods. Canadian critical care trainees, new critical care faculty, program directors, and research coordinators were surveyed regarding research training, research expectations, and support within their programs. Results. Critical care trainees and junior faculty members highlighted many gaps in research knowledge and skills. In contrast, critical care program directors felt that trainees were prepared to undertake research careers. Major differences in opinion amongst program directors and other respondent groups exist regarding preparation for designing a study, navigating research ethics board applications, and managing a research budget. Conclusion. We demonstrated that Canadian critical care trainees and junior faculty reported gaps in knowledge in all areas of research. There was disagreement amongst trainees, junior faculty, research coordinators, and program directors regarding learning needs. Results from this needs assessment will be used to help redesign the education program of the Canadian Critical Care Trials Group to complement local research training offered for critical care trainees. PMID:27610029

  17. The Development of a Critical Care Resident Research Curriculum: A Needs Assessment.

    PubMed

    Jain, Sangeeta; Menon, Kusum; Piquette, Dominique; Gottesman, Ronald; Hutchison, James; Gilfoyle, Elaine; Group, Canadian Critical Care Trials

    2016-01-01

    Background. Conducting research is expected from many clinicians' professional profile, yet many do not have advanced research degrees. Research training during residency is variable amongst institutions and research education needs of trainees are not well understood. Objective. To understand needs of critical care trainees regarding research education. Methods. Canadian critical care trainees, new critical care faculty, program directors, and research coordinators were surveyed regarding research training, research expectations, and support within their programs. Results. Critical care trainees and junior faculty members highlighted many gaps in research knowledge and skills. In contrast, critical care program directors felt that trainees were prepared to undertake research careers. Major differences in opinion amongst program directors and other respondent groups exist regarding preparation for designing a study, navigating research ethics board applications, and managing a research budget. Conclusion. We demonstrated that Canadian critical care trainees and junior faculty reported gaps in knowledge in all areas of research. There was disagreement amongst trainees, junior faculty, research coordinators, and program directors regarding learning needs. Results from this needs assessment will be used to help redesign the education program of the Canadian Critical Care Trials Group to complement local research training offered for critical care trainees. PMID:27610029

  18. Recovery of uranium from seawater-status of technology and needed future research and development

    SciTech Connect

    Kelmers, A. D.

    1980-01-01

    A survey of recent publications concerning uranium recovery from seawater shows that considerable experimental work in this area is currently under way in Japan, less in European countries. Repeated screening programs have identified hydrous titanium oxide as the most promising candidate adsorbent; however, many of its properties, such as distribution coefficient, selectivity, loading, and possibly stability, appear to fall far short of those required for a practical recovery system. In addition, various evaluations of the energy efficiency of pumped or tidal power schemes for contacting the sorbent and seawater are in serious disagreement. Needed future research and development tasks have been identified. A fundamental development program to achieve significantly improved adsorbent properties would be required to permit economical recovery of uranium from seawater. Unresolved engineering aspects of such recovery systems are also identified and discussed. 63 references.

  19. Dreams Do Come True: The Creation and Growth of a Recreational Dance Program for Children and Young Adults with Additional Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinders, Nicole; Fletcher, Paula; Bryden, Pam

    2015-01-01

    There are many benefits to dance, both for typically developing individuals and for individuals with additional needs. The purpose of this narrative case study was to analyse a dance program for children and young adults with additional needs from the perspective of the program creator and primary dance instructor. Data collection occurred at two…

  20. Materials Issues in Advanced Nuclear Systems: Executive Summary of DOE Basic Research Needs Workshop, "Basic Research Needs for Advanced Nuclear Energy Systems"

    SciTech Connect

    Roberto, James B; Diaz de la Rubia, Tomas

    2007-01-01

    This article is reproduced from excerpts from the Report of the Basic Energy Sciences Workshop on Basic Research Needs for Advanced Nuclear Energy Systems, U.S. Department of Energy, October 2006, www.sc.doe.gov/bes/reports/files/ANES_rpt.pdf.

  1. Basic Research Needs for Advanced Nuclear Systems. Report of the Basic Energy Sciences Workshop on Basic Research Needs for Advanced Nuclear Energy Systems, July 31-August 3, 2006

    SciTech Connect

    Roberto, J.; Diaz de la Rubia, T.; Gibala, R.; Zinkle, S.; Miller, J.R.; Pimblott, S.; Burns, C.; Raymond, K.; Grimes, R.; Pasamehmetoglu, K.; Clark, S.; Ewing, R.; Wagner, A.; Yip, S.; Buchanan, M.; Crabtree, G.; Hemminger, J.; Poate, J.; Miller, J.C.; Edelstein, N.; Fitzsimmons, T.; Gruzalski, G.; Michaels, G.; Morss, L.; Peters, M.; Talamini, K.

    2006-10-01

    The global utilization of nuclear energy has come a long way from its humble beginnings in the first sustained nuclear reaction at the University of Chicago in 1942. Today, there are over 440 nuclear reactors in 31 countries producing approximately 16% of the electrical energy used worldwide. In the United States, 104 nuclear reactors currently provide 19% of electrical energy used nationally. The International Atomic Energy Agency projects significant growth in the utilization of nuclear power over the next several decades due to increasing demand for energy and environmental concerns related to emissions from fossil plants. There are 28 new nuclear plants currently under construction including 10 in China, 8 in India, and 4 in Russia. In the United States, there have been notifications to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission of intentions to apply for combined construction and operating licenses for 27 new units over the next decade. The projected growth in nuclear power has focused increasing attention on issues related to the permanent disposal of nuclear waste, the proliferation of nuclear weapons technologies and materials, and the sustainability of a once-through nuclear fuel cycle. In addition, the effective utilization of nuclear power will require continued improvements in nuclear technology, particularly related to safety and efficiency. In all of these areas, the performance of materials and chemical processes under extreme conditions is a limiting factor. The related basic research challenges represent some of the most demanding tests of our fundamental understanding of materials science and chemistry, and they provide significant opportunities for advancing basic science with broad impacts for nuclear reactor materials, fuels, waste forms, and separations techniques. Of particular importance is the role that new nanoscale characterization and computational tools can play in addressing these challenges. These tools, which include DOE synchrotron X

  2. Marine research in Greece and the additional Greek marine research centres: Progress and present situation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haritonidis, S.

    1995-03-01

    Greece, as is known, has a coastline of 17 000 km, and over 2000 small and large islands. As expected, the quest of humankind for new sources of matter and energy has been focussed on the sea, with fishery being its primary interest. A number of philosophers and scientists have been involved in the study of this vast ecosystem since ancient times (Aristotle). The political, social and geographical upheavals witnessed in the Greek area, have, however resulted in bringing all these activities to a halt. The first contemporary research work commenced at the end of the 18th century/beginning of the 19th — with marine flora and fauna as its starting point. The first investigations had, of course, been limited to random collections of marine material done in the frame of international exploratory expeditions. Studies became more systematic by the end of the 19th and beginning of the 20th century, with priority being given to the animal kingdom (fish, molluscs, etc.). Investigation of the marine phytobenthos (macrophyceae, phytoplankton) was to follow. The past 40 years research has been more extensive, not limited only to biogeographical evaluations, but also having expanded to physiological and ecological levels. The relevant institutes of Greek universities have all the while watched and contributed to this effort. Today, this kind of research is being supported by the N.M.R.C., the Center of Marine Research, University of Crete, and two research boats which sail the Greek seas. In the ever-changing world, the study of marine flora and fauna has certainly made great progress; however, there are still two big problems to be faced. The first deals with increasing pollution of the seas, the second, with the difficulties in finding and affording adequate financial resources that would enable a more detailed and complete execution of this research work.

  3. Research Donor Program Needs Your Help to Advance Cancer and AIDS Research | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    NCI at Frederick employees have a unique opportunity to contribute directly to cancer and AIDS research by donating blood, saliva, and other samples through the Research Donor Program (RDP). Donors are compensated for their time, which is typically between 10 and 30 minutes. The RDP, which is administered by Occupational Health Services (OHS), Leidos Biomedical Research, provides samples from healthy donors for use in in vitro research conducted at NCI at Frederick and Fort Detrick. Samples are provided anonymously to researchers.

  4. The Elements of Library Research: What Every Student Needs to Know

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George, Mary W.

    2008-01-01

    To do solid academic research, college students need to look beyond the computer search engine. This short, practical book introduces students to the important components of the information-seeking process. "The Elements of Library Research" provides a foundation for success in any research assignment, from a freshman paper to a senior thesis.…

  5. Paradigms and poverty in global energy policy: research needs for achieving universal energy access

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sovacool, Benjamin K.; Bazilian, Morgan; Toman, Michael

    2016-06-01

    This research letter discusses elements of a long-term interdisciplinary research effort needed to help ensure the maximum social, economic, and environmental benefits of achieving secure universal access to modern energy services. Exclusion of these services affects the lives and livelihoods of billions of people. The research community has an important, but not yet well-defined, role to play.

  6. 48 CFR 12.202 - Market research and description of agency need.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... standards issued by the Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board at 36 CFR part 1194 (see... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Market research and... Commercial Items 12.202 Market research and description of agency need. (a) Market research (see 10.001)...

  7. 48 CFR 12.202 - Market research and description of agency need.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... standards issued by the Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board at 36 CFR part 1194 (see... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Market research and... Commercial Items 12.202 Market research and description of agency need. (a) Market research (see 10.001)...

  8. 48 CFR 12.202 - Market research and description of agency need.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... standards issued by the Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board at 36 CFR part 1194 (see... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Market research and... Commercial Items 12.202 Market research and description of agency need. (a) Market research (see 10.001)...

  9. Discussion of International Research Needs in the Field of Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassara, Beverly Benner

    The international area has grown as a field of graduate research in the past 20 years. Graduate students in adult education need to become more involved in international research both to stay viable as scholars and to be able to effect positive change in the lives of people in developing countries. The four main priorities in research in adult…

  10. Thinking Big Picture: Meeting the Needs of Researchers in Northern Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mamtora, Jayshree

    2011-01-01

    Due to the increase in research activity at Charles Darwin University in recent years, the Library created the position of Research Services Coordinator to meet researcher needs. Eighteen months after the new staff member was in place, an online survey was carried out to gauge the success of the new services and resources provided, and thereby…

  11. Research needs in allergy: an EAACI position paper, in collaboration with EFA

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    and treatment-responsive groups. Research efforts to unveil the basic pathophysiologic pathways and mechanisms, thus leading to the comprehension and resolution of the pathophysiologic complexity of allergies will allow for the design of novel patient-oriented diagnostic and treatment protocols. Several allergic diseases require well-controlled epidemiological description and surveillance, using disease registries, pharmacoeconomic evaluation, as well as large biobanks. Additionally, there is a need for extensive studies to bring promising new biotechnological innovations, such as biological agents, vaccines of modified allergen molecules and engineered components for allergy diagnosis, closer to clinical practice. Finally, particular attention should be paid to the difficult-to-manage, precarious and costly severe disease forms and/or exacerbations. Nonetheless, currently arising treatments, mainly in the fields of immunotherapy and biologicals, hold great promise for targeted and causal management of allergic conditions. Active involvement of all stakeholders, including Patient Organizations and policy makers are necessary to achieve the aims emphasized herein. PMID:23121771

  12. 40 CFR 26.304 - Additional protections for pregnant women and fetuses involved in observational research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... research. The provisions of 45 CFR 46.204 are applicable to this section. ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Additional protections for pregnant... Protections for Pregnant Women and Fetuses Involved as Subjects in Observational Research Conducted...

  13. Basic research needs and priorities in solar energy. Volume II. Technology crosscuts for DOE

    SciTech Connect

    Jayadev, J S; Roessner, D eds.

    1980-01-01

    Priorities for basic research important to the future developments of solar energy are idenified, described, and recommended. SERI surveyed more than 120 leading scientists who were engaged in or knowledgeable of solar-related research. The result is an amalgam of national scientific opinion representing the views of key researchers in relevant disciplines and of SERI staff members. The scientific disciplines included in the report are: chemistry, biology, materials sciences, engineering and mathematics, and the social and behavioral sciences. Each discipline is subdivided into two to five topical areas-and, within each topical area, research needs are described and ranked according to the priorities suggested in the survey. Three categories of priority were established: crucial, important, and needed. A narrative accompanying the description of research needs in each topical area discusses the importance of research in the area for solar energy development and presents the bases for the priority rankings recommended.

  14. Peer Mentoring to Facilitate Original Scientific Research by Students With Special Needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danch, J. M.

    2007-12-01

    Developed to allow high school students with special needs to participate in original scientific research, the Peer Mentoring Program was a supplement to existing science instruction for students in a self-contained classroom. Peer mentors were high school seniors at the end of a three-year advanced science research course who used their experience to create and develop inquiry-based research activities appropriate for students in the self- contained classroom. Peer mentors then assisted cooperative learning groups of special education students to facilitate the implementation of the research activities. Students with special needs successfully carried out an original research project and developed critical thinking and laboratory skills. Prior to embarking on their undergraduate course of study in the sciences, peer mentors developed an appreciation for the need to bring original scientific research to students of all levels. The program will be expanded and continued during the 2007-2008 school year.

  15. Results from a workshop on research needs for modeling aquifer thermal energy storage systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drost, M. K.

    1990-08-01

    A workshop an aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) system modeling was conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The goal of the workshop was to develop a list of high priority research activities that would facilitate the commercial success of ATES. During the workshop, participants reviewed currently available modeling tools for ATES systems and produced a list of significant issues related to modeling ATES systems. Participants assigned a priority to each issue on the list by voting and developed a list of research needs for each of four high-priority research areas; the need for a feasibility study model, the need for engineering design models, the need for aquifer characterization, and the need for an economic model. The workshop participants concluded that ATES commercialization can be accelerated by aggressive development of ATES modeling tools and made specific recommendations for that development.

  16. Towards sustainable environmental quality: A call to prioritize global research needs

    EPA Science Inventory

    Identifying, prioritizing, and advancing research priorities are important goals for those engaged in scientific enterprise. Anticipating the greatest scientific needs and challenges presents opportunities to be more agile in response, more efficient in purpose, and more intentio...

  17. Basic Research Needs for Clean and Efficient Combustion of 21st Century Transportation Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    McIlroy, A.; McRae, G.; Sick, V.; Siebers, D. L.; Westbrook, C. K.; Smith, P. J.; Taatjes, C.; Trouve, A.; Wagner, A. F.; Rohlfing, E.; Manley, D.; Tully, F.; Hilderbrandt, R.; Green, W.; Marceau, D.; O'Neal, J.; Lyday, M.; Cebulski, F.; Garcia, T. R.; Strong, D.

    2006-11-01

    To identify basic research needs and opportunities underlying utilization of evolving transportation fuels, with a focus on new or emerging science challenges that have the potential for significant long-term impact on fuel efficiency and emissions.

  18. Research needs to maximize economic producibility of the domestic oil resource

    SciTech Connect

    Tham, M.K.; Burchfield, T.; Chung, Ting-Horng; Lorenz, P.; Bryant, R.; Sarathi, P.; Chang, Ming Ming; Jackson, S.; Tomutsa, L. ); Dauben, D.L. )

    1991-10-01

    NIPER was contracted by the US Department of Energy Bartlesville (Okla.) Project Office (DOE/BPO) to identify research needs to increase production of the domestic oil resource, and K A Energy Consultants, Inc. was subcontracted to review EOR field projects. This report summarizes the findings of that investigation. Professional society and trade journals, DOE reports, dissertations, and patent literature were reviewed to determine the state-of-the-art of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and drilling technologies and the constraints to wider application of these technologies. The impacts of EOR on the environment and the constraints to the application of EOR due to environmental regulations were also reviewed. A review of well documented EOR field projects showed that in addition to the technical constraints, management factors also contributed to the lower-than-predicted oil recovery in some of the projects reviewed. DOE-sponsored projects were reviewed, and the achievements by these projects and the constraints which these projects were designed to overcome were also identified. Methods of technology transfer utilized by the DOE were reviewed, and several recommendations for future technology transfer were made. Finally, several research areas were identified and recommended to maximize economic producibility of the domestic oil resource. 14 figs., 41 tabs.

  19. Determining Data Information Literacy Needs: A Study of Students and Research Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Jacob; Fosmire, Michael; Miller, C. C.; Nelson, Megan Sapp

    2011-01-01

    Researchers increasingly need to integrate the disposition, management, and curation of their data into their current workflows. However, it is not yet clear to what extent faculty and students are sufficiently prepared to take on these responsibilities. This paper articulates the need for a data information literacy program (DIL) to prepare…

  20. Behavioral science in video games for children's diet and physical activity change: Key research needs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Innovative intervention programs are needed to overcome the limitations in previous programs that promoted change in diabetes risk behaviors in children. Serious video games show promise of changing dietary and physical activity behaviors, but research is needed on the optimal design of behavior-cha...

  1. Processes for Determining Educational Needs of Adults. Symposium: Adult Education Research Conference (San Antonio, Texas, 1978).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Douglas H.; Dowling, William D.

    Prepared for discussion at an Adult Education Research Conference, this paper offers commentary and summative evaluation of eleven doctoral dissertations on the process of determining educational or training needs of specific adult populations. As context for discussion Joe Ellis' definitions of needs--Felt, Real, and Education--are noted along…

  2. MANPOWER INVENTORY AND TRAINING NEEDS ANALYSIS. LOUISIANA DEPARTMENT OF HIGHWAYS MAINTENANCE RESEARCH PROJECT, REPORT NUMBER 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorgensen (Roy) and Associates, Washington, DC.

    AS PART OF A LONG-RANGE (1965-69) RESEARCH PROJECT IN LOUISIANA, A STUDY (1) IDENTIFIED TRAINING NEEDS OF PERSONS SUPERVISING THE MAINTENANCE AND OPERATION OF HIGHWAYS, BRIDGES, FERRIES, AND EQUIPMENT, (2) ESTIMATED TRAINING NEEDS OF POTENTIAL SUPERVISORY PERSONNEL, (3) DETERMINED CHARACTERISTICS OF BOTH GROUPS, AND (4) MADE RECOMMENDATIONS FOR A…

  3. Local Authorities' Experiences of Improving Parental Confidence in the Special Educational Needs Process. LGA Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Richard; Macleod, Shona; Jeffes, Jennifer; Atkinson, Mary

    2010-01-01

    How can we help parents to understand the special educational needs (SEN) process? What sort of information and support do they need? This report details the results of research with SEN officers (or their equivalent) in 26 local authorities, covering: (1) the referral process; (2) early identification and intervention; (3) local authority and…

  4. The Attitudes of Females in Drug Court Toward Additional Safeguards in HIV Prevention Research

    PubMed Central

    O’Leary, Catina Callahan; Cottler, Linda B.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the attitudes of 97 women from the St. Louis City Drug Court who previously participated in an HIV prevention study. Data from the previous study indicated that the women met multiple criteria for vulnerability in research. Federal regulations require that such participants be provided with “additional safeguards.” The survey explored the following questions: (1) What are participants’ attitudes toward commonly proposed additional safeguards for vulnerable participants in research, and (2) Are attitudes toward safeguards related to participants’ previous compliance with an HIV prevention protocol? Preferences regarding safeguards in research were not significantly related to participants’ compliance in the previous study. Most participants wanted researchers to take extra measures not only to provide consent information, but to ensure that they are not high on drugs, that they understand relevant information, and that they retain consent information at each visit. Most participants wanted researchers themselves, and not a third party, to assume this responsibility. PMID:19452277

  5. Needs Assessment for Research Use of High-Throughput Sequencing at a Large Academic Medical Center.

    PubMed

    Geskin, Albert; Legowski, Elizabeth; Chakka, Anish; Chandran, Uma R; Barmada, M Michael; LaFramboise, William A; Berg, Jeremy; Jacobson, Rebecca S

    2015-01-01

    Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) methods are driving profound changes in biomedical research, with a growing impact on patient care. Many academic medical centers are evaluating potential models to prepare for the rapid increase in NGS information needs. This study sought to investigate (1) how and where sequencing data is generated and analyzed, (2) research objectives and goals for NGS, (3) workforce capacity and unmet needs, (4) storage capacity and unmet needs, (5) available and anticipated funding resources, and (6) future challenges. As a precursor to informed decision making at our institution, we undertook a systematic needs assessment of investigators using survey methods. We recruited 331 investigators from over 60 departments and divisions at the University of Pittsburgh Schools of Health Sciences and had 140 respondents, or a 42% response rate. Results suggest that both sequencing and analysis bottlenecks currently exist. Significant educational needs were identified, including both investigator-focused needs, such as selection of NGS methods suitable for specific research objectives, and program-focused needs, such as support for training an analytic workforce. The absence of centralized infrastructure was identified as an important institutional gap. Key principles for organizations managing this change were formulated based on the survey responses. This needs assessment provides an in-depth case study which may be useful to other academic medical centers as they identify and plan for future needs. PMID:26115441

  6. Needs Assessment for Research Use of High-Throughput Sequencing at a Large Academic Medical Center

    PubMed Central

    Geskin, Albert; Legowski, Elizabeth; Chakka, Anish; Chandran, Uma R; Barmada, M. Michael; LaFramboise, William A.; Berg, Jeremy; Jacobson, Rebecca S.

    2015-01-01

    Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) methods are driving profound changes in biomedical research, with a growing impact on patient care. Many academic medical centers are evaluating potential models to prepare for the rapid increase in NGS information needs. This study sought to investigate (1) how and where sequencing data is generated and analyzed, (2) research objectives and goals for NGS, (3) workforce capacity and unmet needs, (4) storage capacity and unmet needs, (5) available and anticipated funding resources, and (6) future challenges. As a precursor to informed decision making at our institution, we undertook a systematic needs assessment of investigators using survey methods. We recruited 331 investigators from over 60 departments and divisions at the University of Pittsburgh Schools of Health Sciences and had 140 respondents, or a 42% response rate. Results suggest that both sequencing and analysis bottlenecks currently exist. Significant educational needs were identified, including both investigator-focused needs, such as selection of NGS methods suitable for specific research objectives, and program-focused needs, such as support for training an analytic workforce. The absence of centralized infrastructure was identified as an important institutional gap. Key principles for organizations managing this change were formulated based on the survey responses. This needs assessment provides an in-depth case study which may be useful to other academic medical centers as they identify and plan for future needs. PMID:26115441

  7. What Research Administrators Need to Know about Researcher Development: Towards a New Conceptual Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Linda

    2011-01-01

    Located within the recently emerged field of researcher development, this article represents an attempt to make a key theoretical contribution to its knowledge base through a conceptual analysis. It presents as propositional knowledge an original theoretical model of the componential structure of researcher development, as interpreted and defined…

  8. Meeting the Challenge of Adolescent Literacy: Research We Have, Research We Need

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conley, Mark W., Ed.; Freidhoff, Joseph R., Ed.; Sherry, Michael B., Ed.; Tuckey, Steven Forbes, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    In this concise, thought-provoking book, prominent researchers analyze existing knowledge on adolescent literacy, examine the implications for classroom instruction, and offer specific goals for future research. The volume reviews cutting-edge approaches to understanding the unique features of teaching and learning in secondary schools. Particular…

  9. Bioenergy Research and Strategic Planning: The Need for both Proactive and Reactive research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Public policy typically refers to governmental actions such as laws, regulatory measures, and funding decisions for a specified issue. As scientists, we should strive to provide unbiased, research information on which strategic planning and long-term goals can be based. However, research can contrib...

  10. Institutional Research, Fiscal Year 1978: OASES Community Needs Assessment. Research Monograph XIII.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Oklahoma City Junior Coll., OK.

    A needs assessment survey of the community surrounding the Open Access Satellite Education Services Center was conducted by South Oklahoma City Junior College in March 1978 to determine levels of interest in educational activities. Of a sample of 288 people, whose names were taken from the local telephone directory, 52% refused to answer any…

  11. Does Research on Education Fit the Development Needs of Latin America?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGinn, Noel; Tatto, Maria Teresa

    Fitting educational research to Latin America's developmental needs is a political issue involving differences in perspectives of Latin American and United States researchers, Latin American governments, and agencies concerned with development outside Latin America. A comparison of ERIC's "Current Index to Journals in Education" with the Latin…

  12. 48 CFR 312.202(d) - Market research and description of agency need.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Market research and description of agency need. 312.202(d) Section 312.202(d) Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND... for the Acquisition of Commercial Items 312.202(d) Market research and description of agency...

  13. 48 CFR 312.202(d) - Market research and description of agency need.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Market research and description of agency need. 312.202(d) Section 312.202(d) Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND... for the Acquisition of Commercial Items 312.202(d) Market research and description of agency...

  14. The Revival of Research Circles: Meeting the Needs of Modern Aging and the Third Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostlund, Britt

    2008-01-01

    This article provides evidence that it is worthwhile to reconsider the traditional research circle method as a means of involving people in the third age in fulfilling their needs to participate in learning activities and make their voices heard. The findings are based on three cases of research circles consistently driven by the interests of the…

  15. Assessment of the Research Learning Needs of University of Saskatchewan Librarians: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schrader, Alvin M.; Shiri, Ali; Williamson, Vicki

    2012-01-01

    As academic librarians with faculty status increasingly embrace research engagement as a core value and requirement, one of the little-studied questions is the extent to which they possess the requisite knowledge and skills to conduct high-quality research and scholarship and what further learning needs they might have within the organizational…

  16. A Research Agenda for the Common Core State Standards: What Information Do Policymakers Need?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rentner, Diane Stark; Ferguson, Maria

    2014-01-01

    This report looks specifically at the information and data needs of policymakers related to the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) and the types of research that could provide this information. The ideas in this report were informed by a series of meetings and discussions about a possible research agenda for the Common Core, sponsored by the…

  17. Sharing the Focus: Engaging with Support Workers to Include People with Communication Needs in Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lutz, Deborah; Fisher, Karen R.; Robinson, Sally

    2016-01-01

    Inclusive research is an increasing expectation to value and include people's voice in research and evaluations intended to benefit them. The active participation of people with communication support needs can be difficult due to the practical constraints of evaluations. One technique is to engage with workers who are familiar with the person, but…

  18. Recommendations concerning research and model evaluation needs to support breeder reactor environmental radiological assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, C. W.; Dunning, Jr., D. E.; Etnier, E. L.; Kocher, D. C.; McDowell-Boyer, L. M.; Meyer, H. R.; Rohwer, P. S.

    1980-12-01

    Purpose of this report is to present recommendations concerning needs for model evaluations, environmental research, and biomedical research to support breeder reactor environmental radiological assessments. More data are needed to specify dry deposition velocities and to validate plume depletion models. More atmospheric dispersion data are required to characterize flow near buildings, in complex terrain, and for travel distances at 100 km or more. Field data are needed for terrestrial food chain transport models, especially those used to assess the impact of acute radionuclide releases. Efforts are needed to develop models for the estimation of dose from external exposure to photons from a finite, elevated plume resulting from an acute radionuclide release to the atmosphere. Estimates of doses to man from internally deposited radionuclides require scrutiny. Further study of tritium is needed to determine its dependence on dose and dose rate and to specify the relative toxicity of various physiochemical forms of tritium in the environment.

  19. Application of research findings and summary of research needs: Bud Britton Memorial Symposium on Metabolic Disorders of Feedlot Cattle.

    PubMed

    Galyean, M L; Eng, K S

    1998-01-01

    Updated research findings with acidosis, feedlot bloat, liver abscesses, and sudden death syndromes were presented at the Bud Britton Memorial Symposium on Metabolic Disorders of Feedlot Cattle. Possible industry applications include the need to establish guidelines for use of clostridial vaccines in feedlot cattle, further assessment of the relationship between acidosis and polioencephalomalacia, examination of the effects of various ionophores on the incidence of metabolic disorders, and evaluation of the effects of feed bunk management and limit- and restricted-feeding programs on the incidence of metabolic disorders. A multidisciplinary approach among researchers, consulting nutritionists and veterinarians, and feedlot managers will be required for effective progress in research and in the application of research findings. Areas suggested for further research include 1) assessment of feed consumption patterns and social behavior of cattle in large-pen, feedlot settings; 2) evaluation of the relationship between feed intake management systems (feed bunk management programs, limit- and programmed-feeding) and the incidence of metabolic disorders, including delineation of the role of variability in feed intake in the etiology of such disorders; 3) efforts to improve antemortem and postmortem diagnosis, and to establish standardized regional or national epidemiological databases for various metabolic disorders; 4) ascertaining the accuracy of diagnosis of metabolic disorders and determining the relationship of previous health history of animals to the incidence of metabolic disorders; 5) further defining ruminal and intestinal microbiology as it relates to metabolic disorders and deeper evaluation of metabolic changes that occur with such disorders; 6) continued appraisal of the effects of grain processing and specific feed ingredients and nutrients on metabolic disorders, and development of new feed additives to control or prevent these disorders; and 7

  20. [The need for research to support the emergence of alternative animal health systems].

    PubMed

    Domenech, J; Bonnet, P; Renard, J F

    2004-04-01

    Animal diseases remain one of the main problems for livestock production in terms of trade development, poverty reduction and public health. Animal health systems are complex because of the diversity of the parties involved and because of various changes in the delivery of veterinary services, such as the redefinition of the roles of the public and private sectors. It is, therefore, often difficult to assess the global performance of animal health systems and sub-systems in terms of their medical, economic and social effectiveness. In addition, the necessary reliability of the health information obtained leads to certification of the status of regions and countries with regard to epizootics, which requires a high degree of standardisation and conformity with international norms. An assessment therefore needs to be made of the advantages of alternative systems compared with conventional systems. An animal health system should be seen as a whole, and when assessing its overall performance several things must be taken into account, e.g. the markets for products and the sometimes contradictory interests of all the different parties involved. There are, therefore, many research needs and avenues to be pursued, including: the methods, data and tools required for assessing the effectiveness of systems, including a definition of what constitutes a reliable indicator; the factors that determine the health of a herd; having a clearer idea of what will affect herd health will make it possible to map risk indicators and animal health care needs; the design and management of realistic and harmonised animal health information systems whose indicators provide reliable measurements of health; the function, organisation and effectiveness of participative surveillance approaches; the definition and effectiveness of animal health contracts, such as health mandates between the State and private veterinarians; the function and role of livestock auxiliaries; the establishment of

  1. Critical uncertainties and research needs for the restoration and conservation of native lampreys in North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mesa, Matthew G.; Copeland, Elizabeth S.

    2009-01-01

    We briefly reviewed the literature, queried selected researchers, and drew upon our own experience to describe some critical uncertainties and research needs for the conservation and restoration of native lampreys in North America. We parsed the uncertainties and research needs into five general categories: (1) population status; (2) systematics; (3) passage at dams, screens, and other structures; (4) species identification in the field; and (5) geneal biology and ecology. For each topic, we describe why the subject is important for lampreys, briefly smmarize our current state of knowledge, and discuss the key data or information gaps.

  2. White Sturgeon Research Needs: Workshop Results, Seattle, Washington, November 3-4, 1983.

    SciTech Connect

    Fickeisen, Duane H.; Neitzel, D.A.; Dauble, Dennis D.

    1984-02-01

    This report describes the results of a workshop to develop a research program for Columbia River Basin white surgeon. Invited participants developed a list of white sturgeon research needs and rationale for ranking the relative importance of the research needs. The highest ranked research needs were: define physical habitat requirements (substrate, flow, water quality) for early life history stages; identify genetic stocks; assess population status (e.g., distribution, densities, age-structure, year-class strength, age-specific mortality, disease, parasitism); assess reproductive status (e.g., spawning success, recruitment, age/size-dependent fecundity); develop new sampling techniques and gear for collecting early life history stages; assess gametogenesis (timing of maturation, frequency of spawning), including effects of environmental factors on gonadal development; and define physical habitat requirements (substrate, flow, water quality) for spawning. 2 references, 2 figures, 5 tables.

  3. Exploring paradigms in postpartum depression research: the need for feminist pragmatism.

    PubMed

    Mollard, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Postpartum depression (PPD) is an important area of women's health research internationally and across disciplines. There is no guiding paradigm, however, to ensure that PPD research results translate to women on a global level. This commentary builds on the work of Doucet, Letourneau, and Stoppard ( 2010 ) to determine a "best fit" paradigm with which to guide PPD research. Postpositivism, critical theory, constructivism, and pragmatism are combined with a feminist ideology and critiqued as potential guiding paradigms for PPD research. After thorough examination, I conclude the need for further use of a feminist pragmatist paradigm in PPD research. PMID:24654845

  4. Research possibilities? No! Needs for research to make PV solar energy utilization broadly competitive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolf, M.

    1982-01-01

    The historical progression of efficiency improvements, cost reductions, and performance improvements in modules and photovoltaic systems are described. The potential for future improvements in photovoltaic device efficiencies and cost reductions continues as device concepts, designs, processes, and automated production capabilities mature. Additional step-function improvements can be made as today's simpler devices are replaced by more sophisticated devices.

  5. "You Need to Let Your Voice Be Heard": Research Participants' Views on Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, K. E.; Kidney, C. A.; Patka, M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Persons with intellectual and developmental disabilities have had regrettably few opportunities to voice their opinions on aspects of research with which they have had direct experience. Understanding and responding to these views can contribute to policies and practices that increasingly treat people as they desire to be treated.…

  6. Leadership for Researcher Development: What Research Leaders Need to Know and Understand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Linda

    2012-01-01

    Research leadership, a much neglected area of educational leadership and management, is disadvantaged by having an underdeveloped and inadequate knowledge base. This article represents a contribution to this knowledge base through a conceptual analysis. It presents as propositional knowledge an original theoretical model of the componential…

  7. Research Review: DSM-V Conduct Disorder--Research Needs for an Evidence Base

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moffitt, Terrie E.; Arseneault, Louise; Jaffee, Sara R.; Kim-Cohen, Julia; Koenen, Karestan C.; Odgers, Candice L.; Slutske, Wendy S.; Viding, Essi

    2008-01-01

    This article charts a strategic research course toward an empirical foundation for the diagnosis of conduct disorder in the forthcoming DSM-V. Since the DSM-IV appeared in 1994, an impressive amount of new information about conduct disorder has emerged. As a result of this new knowledge, reasonable rationales have been put forward for adding to…

  8. The NIHR Public Health Research Programme: responding to local authority research needs in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Dorling, Hannah; Cook, Andrew; Ollerhead, Liz; Westmore, Matt

    2015-01-01

    The remit of the National Institute for Health Research Public Health Research (PHR) Programme is to evaluate public health interventions, providing new knowledge on the benefits, costs, acceptability and wider impacts of interventions, set outside of the National Health Service, intended to improve the health of the public and reduce inequalities. This paper illustrates how the PHR Programme is providing new knowledge for public health decision makers, based on the nine key areas for local authority public health action, described by the King's Fund. Many funded PHR projects are evaluating interventions, applied in a range of settings, across the identified key areas for local authority influence. For example, research has been funded on children and young people, and for some of the wider determinants of health, such as housing and travel. Other factors, such as spatial planning, or open and green spaces and leisure, are less represented in the PHR Programme. Further opportunities in research include interventions to improve the health of adolescents, adults in workplaces, and communities. Building evidence for public health interventions at local authority level is important to prioritise and implement effective changes to improve population health. PMID:26652743

  9. The Need for District Support for School Reform: What the Researchers Say. Research Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appelbaum, Deborah

    This article focuses on the school district's role in implementing Comprehensive School Reform (CSR). Research shows that effective district support for CSR varies from district to district. This is due, in part, to the fact that many prior models bypassed the district, operating under the belief that reform would be more effective if it targeted…

  10. RESEARCH STRATEGY FOR ELECTRIC AND MAGNETIC FIELDS: RESEARCH NEEDS AND PRIORITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document is a research strategy for electric and magnetic fields (EMF). esearch discussed will `provide information to allow better assessment of any health effects that might be found to be associated with EMF. he document describes a strategic framework which identifies th...

  11. International Research Workshop on Integrating GIS and Environmental Modeling: Problems, Prospects, and Research Needs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parks, Bradley

    2001-01-01

    The 4th International Conference on Integrating GIS and Environmental Modeling (GIS/EM4) was convened in Banff, Canada, September 2-8, 2000 at The Banff Centre for Conferences. The meeting's purpose, like it's predecessors was to reformulate, each three to four years, the collaborative research agenda for integrating spatio-temporal analysis with environmental simulation modeling.

  12. Meeting the Needs of Deaf and Hard of Hearing Students with Additional Disabilities through Professional Teacher Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruce, Susan; DiNatale, Patrice; Ford, Jeremiah

    2008-01-01

    According to even the most conservative estimates, at least a quarter of deaf children have additional disabilities. Most teacher preparation programs do not sufficiently prepare teacher candidates for the challenges posed by these children. This article describes a professional development effort to prepare in-service educators of the deaf to…

  13. Cancer Control Research Training for Native Researchers: A Model for Development of Additional Native Researcher Training Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Thomas M.; Dunn, Esther; Tom-Orme, Lillian; Joe, Jennie

    2005-01-01

    Several social and biological scientists who have Native status are engaged in productive research careers, but the encouragement that has been offered to Native students to formulate career goals devoted to cancer etiology or cancer control in Native peoples has had limited success. Hence, the Native Researchers' Cancer Control Training Program…

  14. Women, Reproductive Rights, and HIV/AIDS: Issues on Which Research and Interventions are Still Needed

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    From 2002 to 2005, two literature reviews identified a number of reproductive-health issues that appeared to be relatively neglected in relation to HIV/AIDS: contraceptive information tailored to the needs of HIV-positive people; voluntary HIV counselling and testing during antenatal care, labour, and delivery; parenting options for HIV-positive people besides pregnancy through unprotected intercourse (i.e. assisted conception and legal adoption or foster care); unwanted pregnancy; and abortion-related care. An additional finding was that stigma and discrimination were frequently cited as barriers to enjoyment of reproductive rights by HIV-positive women. Subsequently, a pilot project was initiated in which non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in developing countries used benchmarks to ascertain whether these neglected issues were addressed in local programmes and interventions serving women affected by HIV and AIDS. The benchmarks also assessed whether policies and programmes paid attention to the human and reproductive rights of HIV-positive women. This paper describes the main findings from the two exercises in relation to contraception for women living with HIV or AIDS, abortion-related care, legal adoption by HIV-positive parents, and reproductive rights. It concludes with a number of recommendations on topics to be incorporated into the international research agenda, policies, and programmes in the field of HIV/AIDS. PMID:17591338

  15. A Review of Research on the Literacy of Students with Visual Impairments and Additional Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Amy T.; Pogrund, Rona L.

    2009-01-01

    Research on the development of literacy in children with visual impairments and additional disabilities is minimal even though these children make up approximately 65% of the population of children with visual impairments. This article reports on emerging themes that were explored after a review of the literature revealed nine literacy studies…

  16. Research involvement, support needs, and factors affecting research participation: a survey of Mental Health Consultation Liaison Nurses.

    PubMed

    McMaster, Rose; Jammali-Blasi, Asmara; Andersson-Noorgard, Kurt; Cooper, Kerrie; McInnes, Elizabeth

    2013-04-01

    The aims of this study were to identify research involvement and support needs of Mental Health Consultation Liaison Nurses (MHCLN) and the factors that affect participation in research. A self-administered, standardized, anonymous questionnaire was distributed to a convenience sample of MHCLN. Frequencies and univariate analyses were calculated to examine relationships between: (i) involvement in a research study by highest qualification and job designation; and (ii) current enrolment in a higher degree study, research goals, and current research involvement by level of research skill. Open-ended responses were collated and summarized. Of the 34 workshop attendees, 32 participated in the survey (response rate 94%). Seventy-five percent of respondents agreed that involvement in research is an expectation of their role; 75% reported no current involvement in research. Over half (53%) of participants reported having research goals over the next 12 months. Those enrolled in postgraduate degrees were more likely to be currently involved in a research project (P=0.013). Commonly reported barriers to research participation were competing commitments and lack of support, resources, confidence, and motivation. This study showed that access to research support and resources, including mentorship and funding, are required to engage these MHCLN in research and to build capacity. PMID:22762255

  17. Reflections on Doctoral Supervision: Drawing from the Experiences of Students with Additional Learning Needs in Two Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Bethan

    2015-01-01

    Supervision is an essential part of doctoral study, consisting of relationship and process aspects, underpinned by a range of values. To date there has been limited research specifically about disabled doctoral students' experiences of supervision. This paper draws on qualitative, narrative interviews about doctoral supervision with disabled…

  18. Aeronautical Communications Research and Development Needs for Future Air Traffic Management Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerczewski, Robert J.

    2002-01-01

    Continuing growth in regional and global air travel has resulted in increasing traffic congestion in the air and on the ground. In spite of occasional temporary downturns due to economic recessions and catastrophic events, average growth rates of air travel have remained high since the 1960s. The resulting congestion, which constrains expansion of the air transportation industry, inflicts schedule delays and decreases overall system efficiency, creating a pressing need to develop more efficient methods of air traffic management (ATM). New ATM techniques, procedures, air space automation methods, and decision support tools are being researched and developed for deployment in time frames stretching from the next few years to the year 2020 and beyond. As these methods become more advanced and increase in complexity, the requirements for information generation, sharing and transfer among the relevant entities in the ATM system increase dramatically. However, current aeronautical communications systems will be inadequate to meet the future information transfer demands created by these advanced ATM systems. Therefore, the NASA Glenn Research Center is undertaking research programs to develop communication, methods and key technologies that can meet these future requirements. As part of this process, studies, workshops, testing and experimentation, and research and analysis have established a number of research and technology development needs. The purpose of this paper is to outline the critical research and technology needs that have been identified in these activities, and explain how these needs have been determined.

  19. Meeting the needs of deaf and hard of hearing students with additional disabilities through professional teacher development.

    PubMed

    Bruce, Susan; DiNatale, Patrice; Ford, Jeremiah

    2008-01-01

    According to even the most conservative estimates, at least a quarter of deaf children have additional disabilities. Most teacher preparation programs do not sufficiently prepare teacher candidates for the challenges posed by these children. This article describes a professional development effort to prepare in-service educators of the deaf to work with students with additional disabilities. Over a 3-year period, teachers selected these in-service topics: etiologies, vision conditions, behavior, transition, sensory integration, seizures, alternate assessment, and instructional strategies. In-class consultation was requested for support in the areas of formal assessment instruments, behavior, and student performance. Elements of effective professional development programs, such as honoring teachers' choices about topics and participation, responding to teachers' immediate classroom concerns, and providing in-class follow-up support, facilitated the success of this effort. PMID:19146073

  20. Attribute Utility Motivated k-anonymization of datasets to support the heterogeneous needs of biomedical researchers.

    PubMed

    Ye, Huimin; Chen, Elizabeth S

    2011-01-01

    In order to support the increasing need to share electronic health data for research purposes, various methods have been proposed for privacy preservation including k-anonymity. Many k-anonymity models provide the same level of anoymization regardless of practical need, which may decrease the utility of the dataset for a particular research study. In this study, we explore extensions to the k-anonymity algorithm that aim to satisfy the heterogeneous needs of different researchers while preserving privacy as well as utility of the dataset. The proposed algorithm, Attribute Utility Motivated k-anonymization (AUM), involves analyzing the characteristics of attributes and utilizing them to minimize information loss during the anonymization process. Through comparison with two existing algorithms, Mondrian and Incognito, preliminary results indicate that AUM may preserve more information from original datasets thus providing higher quality results with lower distortion. PMID:22195223

  1. Technology needs assessment of an atmospheric observation system for tropospheric research missions, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alvarado, D. R.; Bortner, M. H.; Grenda, R. N.; Frippel, G. G.; Halsey, H.; Neste, S. L.; Kritikos, H.; Keafer, L. S.; Deryder, L. J.

    1982-01-01

    The technology advancements needed to implement the atmospheric observation satellite systems for air quality research were identified. Tropospheric measurements are considered. The measurements and sensors are based on a model of knowledge objectives in atmospheric science. A set of potential missions and attendant spacecraft and sensors is postulated. The results show that the predominant technology needs will be in passive and active sensors for accurate and frequent global measurements of trace gas concentration profiles.

  2. Freedom and need: The evolution of public strategy for biomedical and health research in England

    PubMed Central

    Shergold, Miriam; Grant, Jonathan

    2008-01-01

    The optimal support of health-related research and development with public money is a complex challenge. Over the last century, policy makers in England have conceived and implemented a variety of models, ranging from independent, curiosity driven research to needs-based state commissions, and promoting different bodies to oversee scientific work. This paper traces these approaches, identifies the principles that drove them, and discusses their role in shaping policy for publicly funded health research, up to the recent launch of a new research strategy by the Department of Health. PMID:18230124

  3. HIV Prevention Among Diverse Young MSM: Research Needs, Priorities, and Opportunities.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Scott D; Wong, Frank Y

    2016-06-01

    There remains a profound need for innovative and effective interventions designed for young men who have sex with men (YMSM) generally, and racial and ethnic minority YMSM, YMSM living in rural communities, and low-income YMSM, particularly, to prevent HIV and improve health outcomes in the United States. This introduction to this theme issue, "Behavioral HIV Prevention Interventions for Diverse YMSM," of AIDS Education and Prevention identifies some of the research needs, priorities, and opportunities that emerged during a seminal NIMHD-sponsored workshop on HIV prevention behavioral interventions for diverse YMSM. It provides researchers, practitioners, and federal partners guidance in next steps to reduce the impact of the HIV epidemic among YMSM. The needs, priorities, and opportunities identified serve as a foundation to push both the science and the practice of HIV prevention forward. We recognize that considerably more research is needed, and this issue highlights intervention research-where we have been and where we should go. With the disparities faced by YMSM, we must act rapidly to do the work it will take to meet their prevention needs, reduce infections, and save lives. PMID:27244188

  4. An overview of aerodynamic research and technology requirements as related to some military needs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spearman, M. L.

    1983-01-01

    Based on unclassified sources, a general review is presented of some military needs in light of the perceived U.S.S.R. doctrine, force balances, inventory growth, inventory items, and current actions. The Soviets appear to be attempting to increase their sphere of influence throught economic and political control as well as possible military control of land, sea, air, and space. To offset such possibilities, certain areas of deterrent needs that the Western World might pursue are suggested. Particular emphasis is placed on the role of research and technology related to aerospace systems as part of the deterrent needs.

  5. Children with Cochlear Implants and Complex Needs: A Review of Outcome Research and Psychological Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Lindsay C.

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, the number of children receiving cochlear implants who have significant disabilities in addition to their deafness has increased substantially. However, in comparison with the extensive literature on speech, language, and communication outcomes following pediatric implantation in children without complex needs, the available…

  6. Needed Research in the Assessment and Monitoring of the Quality of Medical Care. NCHSR Research Report Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donabedian, Avedis

    In this paper the author assesses the state-of-the-art on quality assessment and monitoring of medical care and makes recommendations for needed research in this area. Following a brief introduction, the content is presented in two sections. The first, providing a frame of reference, covers definitions; quality assessment and program evaluation;…

  7. Research brief: the need for historically grounded HIV/AIDS prevention research among Native Americans.

    PubMed

    Lowe, John

    2007-01-01

    This is a brief report that summarizes the need for historically grounded HIV prevention research among Native Americans living in the United States. It illustrates the intersection of culture and history, showing that ethnic groups can respond to historical traumatic events for generations, often to the detriment of individual and collective health. PMID:17403492

  8. Research needs to better understand Lake Ontario ecosystem function: A workshop summary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stewart, Thomas J.; Rudstam, Lars G.; Watkins, James M.; Johnson, Timothy B.; Weidel, Brian C.; Koops, Marten A.

    2016-01-01

    Lake Ontario investigators discussed and interpreted published and unpublished information during two workshops to assess our current understanding of Lake Ontario ecosystem function and to identify research needs to guide future research and monitoring activities. The purpose of this commentary is to summarize key investigative themes and hypotheses that emerged from the workshops. The outcomes of the workshop discussions are organized under four themes: spatial linkages and interactions, drivers of primary production, trophic transfer, and human interactions.

  9. Research Needs in Fire Safety for the Human Exploration and Utilization of Space: Proceedings and Research Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruff, Gary A.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of the workshop documented in this publication was to bring together personnel responsible for the design and operations of the International Space Station (ISS) and the fire protection research community to review the current knowledge in fire safety relative to spacecraft. From this review, research needs were identified that were then used to formulate a research plan with specific objectives. In this document, I have attempted to capture the very informative and lively discussions that occurred in the plenary sessions and the working groups. I hope that it will be useful to readers and serve as a significant step in assuring fire protection for the crews of current and future spacecraft.

  10. Basic research needs and priorities in solar energy. Volume I. Executive summary. Technology crosscuts for DOE

    SciTech Connect

    Jayadev, T S; Roessner, D

    1980-01-01

    This report identifies, describes, and recommends priorities for basic research important to the future development of solar energy. In response to a request from the US Department of Energy, SERI surveyed more than 120 leading scientists who were engaged in or knowledgeable of solar-related research. SERI scientists relied heavily on the opinions of scientists polled, but weighted their own recommendations and opinions equally. The result is an amalgam of national scientific opinion representing the views of key researchers in relevant disciplines and of SERI staff members. The Scientific disciplines included in the report are: chemistry, biology, materials sciences, engineering and mathematics, and the social and behavioral sciences. Each discipline is subdivided into two to five topical areas and, wintin each topical area, research needs are described and ranked according to the priorities suggested in the survey. Three categories of priority were established: Crucial, important, and needed. A narrative accompanying the descripton of research needs in each topical area discusses the importance of research in the area for solar energy development and presents the bases for the priority rankings recommended.

  11. Aviation human factors research in US universities: Potential contributions to national needs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dismukes, R. Key

    1994-01-01

    Universities can and should make vital contributions to national needs in aviation human factors. However, to guide and utilize university research effectively we must understand what types of expertise and facilities universities can bring to bear on aviation problems. We should be aware of where relevant research is already underway and where untapped potential exists. How does the character of research in universities differ from and complement research in government and industry laboratories? What conditions would encourage universities to focus on national priorities and would promote high quality, relevant research? This paper attempts to address these issues. It is based on a survey conducted by the author, which included site visits to several universities, telephone interviews with faculty members at other universities, and a search of the aviation human factors research literature.

  12. Career Interventions for Gay and Lesbian Clients: A Synopsis of Practice Knowledge and Research Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pope, Mark

    1995-01-01

    Provides a comprehensive review of the professional literature on career counseling interventions with gay and lesbian clients. Interventions summarized were directed at counselors themselves, at counseling activities, and at social-community action. Provides recommendations on what research needs to be conducted to establish the area of gay and…

  13. Urban Indian Voices: A Community-Based Participatory Research Health and Needs Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Chad V.; Bartgis, Jami; Worley, Jody A.; Hellman, Chan M.; Burkhart, Russell

    2010-01-01

    This community-based participatory research (CBPR) project utilized a mixed-methods survey design to identify urban (Tulsa, OK) American Indian (AI) strengths and needs. Six hundred fifty AIs (550 adults and 100 youth) were surveyed regarding their attitudes and beliefs about their community. These results were used in conjunction with other…

  14. Training: Who Needs It? Research Report 1995. Key Issues for Providers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hotel and Catering Training Co., London (England).

    Aimed at all those involved in the supply of training and vocational education for the hospitality industry, this report summarizes findings of the research report, "Training Who Needs It?" It draws out and explores in more detail key issues relating to the provision of training, support, and related initiatives for the industry. Section 1…

  15. Stakeholder Perceptions of the Need for Research on Elements of Service Dog Partnerships in the Workplace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, Margaret K.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the perceived need for research on elements of successful service dog partnerships in the workplace outlined by stakeholders in an exploratory study. Method: A structured mixed methods approach was used to gather ideas from people with service dogs, trainers, vocational rehabilitation counselors, and other health care…

  16. Institutionalizing Student Outcomes Assessment: The Need for Better Research to Inform Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kezar, Adrianna

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the organizational impediments and facilitators that influence the implementation of student learning outcomes assessment (SLOA). This review points to the importance of culture, leadership, and organizational policies to the implementation of SLOA. However, we need to approach research differently, both conceptually and…

  17. A SURVEY ON RESEARCH NEEDS ON PERSONAL SAMPLERS FOR TOXIC ORGANIC COMPOUNDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A survey is presented on the research and development needs for personal monitoring devices for toxic organic compounds in the ambient atmosphere. This survey includes a description of organic compounds and their ambient concentrations, individual compounds of high priority, a su...

  18. Leisure Activity Participation and Handicapped Populations: An Assessment of Research Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verhoven, Peter J.; Goldstein, Judith E.

    Presented is a report of a conference on research needs in the area of leisure time activity for handicapped persons. Reviewed are the initial conference concept and its evaluation into five categories of concern (leisure concepts, attitudinal barriers, activity analysis, design/adaptation considerations, and education/counseling). Discussed are…

  19. The Future of Teacher Education: Needed Research and Practice. Conference Proceedings (College Station, Texas, May 1982).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corrigan, Dean C., Ed.; And Others

    This book contains seven papers presented at a conference on the future of teacher education. Richard M. Hersh examines the social organization of the school and the school's instruction and curriculum in "What Makes Some Schools and Teachers More Effective." In "Teacher Education: Needed Research and Practice for the Preparation of Teaching…

  20. HIV and Aging: State of Knowledge and Areas of Critical Need for Research

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    HIV risk behaviors, susceptibility to HIV acquisition, progression of disease after infection, and response to anti-retroviral therapy all vary by age. In those living with HIV, current effective treatment has increased the median life expectancy to > 70 years of age. Biologic, medical, individual social and societal issues change as one ages with HIV infection, but there has been only a small amount of research in this field. Therefore, the Office of AIDS Research of the National Institutes of Health commissioned a working group to develop an outline of the current state of knowledge and areas of critical need for research in HIV and Aging; the working groups’ findings and recommendations are summarized in this report. Key overarching themes identified by the group included: multi-morbidity, poly-pharmacy and the need to emphasize maintenance of function; the complexity of assessing HIV vs. treatment effects vs. aging vs. concurrent disease; the inter-related mechanisms of immune senescence, inflammation and hypercoagulability; the utility of multi-variable indices for predicting outcomes; a need to emphasize human studies to account for complexity; and a required focus on issues of community support, caregivers and systems infrastructure. Critical resources are needed to enact this research agenda and include expanded review panel expertise in aging, functional measures and multi-morbidity, as well as facilitated use and continued funding to allow long-term follow-up of cohorts aging with HIV. PMID:22688010

  1. Serving the Needs of Challenged Students at a Private Shanghai School: An Action Research Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Jerry

    2013-01-01

    This action research started in year 2009 at LIU Shanghai, a private school for children with autism spectrum disorder, to serve the needs of challenged students. The purpose of this qualitative study was to identify the strengths and challenges of the program, plus solicit recommendations from the parents and teachers for making improvements. The…

  2. ASAS centennial paper: future needs of research and extension in forage utilization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Forage-animal production agriculture is implementing infrastructure changes and management strategies to adjust to increased energy-related costs of fuel, feed grains, fertilizers, and seeds. The primary objectives of this position paper are to assess future research and extension scientific needs i...

  3. MEASURING AND INTERPRETING VOCS IN SOILS: STATE OF THE ART AND RESEARCH NEEDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A "National Symposium on Measuring and Interpreting VOCS in Soils: State of the Art and Research Needs" was held in Las Vegas between January 121-14, 1993. pproximately 300 people attended from federal and state government, academia, and private industry. his conference covered a...

  4. Using Community-Based Participatory Research to Assess Health Needs among Migrant and Seasonal Farmworkers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, Eva; Rager, Robin; Bates, Denise; Cooper, Cheryl

    2006-01-01

    Principles of community-based participatory research (CBPR) were applied among migrant and seasonal farmworkers (MSFWs) in a seven-county region of east Texas. The study purpose was to establish community-based partnerships for CBPR and conduct a preliminary qualitative assessment of perceived health needs and capacities. Key informant interviews…

  5. Adapting Piano Instruction to the Needs of Children with Learning Disabilities: Merging Research & Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Corinne Roth

    A music reading program was successful in teaching note reading in a nearly errorless fashion to one educable mentally handicapped and two learning-disabled piano students (aged 6-13). The program was based on principles extracted from the psychological and educational research literature and included the need to: (1) use symbols that catch…

  6. Balancing Needs and Resources. The Association for Institutional Research Annual Forum Proceedings No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staskey, Paul J., Ed.

    The abbreviated proceedings of the 18th Annual Forum of the Association for Institutional Research on balancing needs and resources are presented. Three of the five major addresses are presented in their entirety; the other two are summarized. The invited general session addresses included: "Talent for the 1980's" (Russell Edgerton); "If You Don't…

  7. Assessment of research and development (R and D) needs in ammonia safety and environmental control

    SciTech Connect

    Brenchley, D.L.; Athey, G.F.; Bomelburg, H.J.

    1981-09-01

    This report characterizes the ammonia industry operations, reviews current knowledge of ammonia release and subsequent impacts, summarizes the status of release prevention and control methods and identify research and development needs for safety and environmental control. Appendices include: accidental spills and human exposure; adiabatic mixing of liquid nitrogen and air; fire and explosion hazards; and environmental impact rating tables. (PSB)

  8. Education and Training that Meets the Needs of Small Business: A Systematic Review of Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawe, Susan; Nguyen, Nhi

    2007-01-01

    Small businesses account for the great majority of businesses and half the private sector employment in Australia, but only one third provide structured training for their employees. This study, a systematic review of existing research, set out to find clear evidence of intervention strategies that meet small business needs in relation to the…

  9. Basic Research Needs for Geosciences: Facilitating 21st Century Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect

    DePaolo, D. J.; Orr, F. M.; Benson, S. M.; Celia, M.; Felmy, A.; Nagy, K. L.; Fogg, G. E.; Snieder, R.; Davis, J.; Pruess, K.; Friedmann, J.; Peters, M.; Woodward, N. B.; Dobson, P.; Talamini, K.; Saarni, M.

    2007-06-01

    To identify research areas in geosciences, such as behavior of multiphase fluid-solid systems on a variety of scales, chemical migration processes in geologic media, characterization of geologic systems, and modeling and simulation of geologic systems, needed for improved energy systems.

  10. ASAS Centennial Paper: Future needs of research and extension in forage utilization.

    PubMed

    Rouquette, F M; Redmon, L A; Aiken, G E; Hill, G M; Sollenberger, L E; Andrae, J

    2009-01-01

    Forage-animal production agriculture is implementing infrastructure changes and management strategies to adjust to increased energy-related costs of fuel, feed grains, fertilizers, and seeds. The primary objectives of this position paper are to assess future research and extension scientific needs in forage utilization, financial support for the discipline, and changing status and number of scientists. A survey questionnaire returned from 25 land-grant universities in the eastern half of the United States rated the top 4 research needs as 1) pasture systems and efficiency of production; 2) interfacing with energy concerns; 3) forage cultivar evaluations and persistence; and 4) environment impacts. Plant-animal future research needs at 11 USDA-ARS regional locations are targeted at sustainable management and improved livestock performance, ecophysiology and ecology of grasslands, environment impacts, and improved technologies for nutritive value assessments. Extension scientists from 17 southern and northeastern states listed the top 3 needs as forage persistence, soil fertility and nutrient management, and pasture systems and efficiency of production. Grant funds currently provide more than 40% of land-grant university research and extension efforts in forage utilization, and scientists estimate that this support base will increase to 55 to 60% of the funding total by 2013. Reduced allocation of state and federal funding has contributed to a reduction in the number of full-time equivalent (FTE) scientists engaged in forage utilization research and extension activities. The current 25 state FTE conducting research number about 2.8 per state. This includes 10 states with >3, 11 states with <2, and 3 states with <1 FTE. Increased interest in cellulosic energy, climate change, and environmental impact may offer new opportunities for these FTE to participate in integrated cross-discipline research Extension programming, and technology transfer methods will change to

  11. Aviation human factors research in U.S. universities: Potential contributions to national needs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Key Dismukes, R.

    1994-01-01

    Univesity research can make vital contributions to national needs in aviation human factors (AHF). This article examines the types of expertise and facilities available in universities and explores how university capabilities complement the work of government laboratories. The AHF infrastructure is discussed and compared to other fields of applied research. Policy and funding issues are also examined. This study is based on a survey conducted by the author, which included site visits to several universities, telephone interviews with faculty members at other universities, and a search of the AHF research literature.

  12. Towards Advancing Knowledge Translation of AAC Outcomes Research for Children and Youth with Complex Communication Needs.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Stephen E; Shepherd, Tracy; Renzoni, Anne Marie; Anderson, Colleen; Barber, Mary; Kingsnorth, Shauna; Ward, Karen

    2015-06-01

    The production of new knowledge in augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) requires effective processes to leverage the different perspectives of researchers and knowledge users and improve prospects for utilization in clinical settings. This article describes the motivation, planning, process, and outcomes for a novel knowledge translation workshop designed to influence future directions for AAC outcomes research for children with complex communication needs. Invited knowledge users from 20 pediatric AAC clinics and researchers engaged in the collaborative development of research questions using a framework designed for the AAC field. The event yielded recommendations for research and development priorities that extend from the early development of language, communication, and literacy skills in very young children, to novel but unproven strategies that may advance outcomes in transitioning to adulthood. PMID:25860836

  13. Research Needs for Fusion-Fission Hybrid Systems. Report of the Research Needs Workshop (ReNeW) Gaithersburg, Maryland, September 30 - October 2, 2009

    SciTech Connect

    2009-09-30

    Largely in anticipation of a possible nuclear renaissance, there has been an enthusiastic renewal of interest in the fusion-fission hybrid concept, driven primarily by some members of the fusion community. A fusion-fission hybrid consists of a neutron-producing fusion core surrounded by a fission blanket. Hybrids are of interest because of their potential to address the main long-term sustainability issues related to nuclear power: fuel supply, energy production, and waste management. As a result of this renewed interest, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), with the participation of the Office of Fusion Energy Sciences (OFES), Office of Nuclear Energy (NE), and National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), organized a three-day workshop in Gaithersburg, Maryland, from September 30 through October 2, 2009. Participants identified several goals. At the highest level, it was recognized that DOE does not currently support any R&D in the area of fusion-fission hybrids. The question to be addressed was whether or not hybrids offer sufficient promise to motivate DOE to initiate an R&D program in this area. At the next level, the workshop participants were asked to define the research needs and resources required to move the fusion-fission concept forward. The answer to the high-level question was given in two ways. On the one hand, when viewed as a standalone concept, the fusion-fission hybrid does indeed offer the promise of being able to address the sustainability issues associated with conventional nuclear power. On the other hand, when participants were asked whether these hybrid solutions are potentially more attractive than contemplated pure fission solutions (that is, fast burners and fast breeders), there was general consensus that this question could not be quantitatively answered based on the known technical information. Pure fission solutions are based largely on existing both fusion and nuclear technology, thereby prohibiting a fair side-by-side comparison

  14. Family caregivers' support needs after brain injury: a synthesis of perspectives from caregivers, programs, and researchers.

    PubMed

    Gan, Caron; Gargaro, Judith; Brandys, Clare; Gerber, Gary; Boschen, Kathryn

    2010-01-01

    There is a dearth of support for family members who assume caregiving responsibilities following acquired brain injury (ABI). This qualitative study broadens the understanding of ABI caregiver support needs through data triangulation from multiple interview sources across different settings. Thirty-nine caregivers across urban and rural settings in Ontario participated in focus groups. Interviews focused on ABI support services received, their utility, access barriers, needed supports, and suggestions for service delivery. Key informant interviews were also held with four US researchers funded through the TBI Model Systems, one Canadian provincial government health official, and representatives from 11 Ontario ABI programs including two brain injury associations. Interviews focused on existing or proposed caregiver programs and gaps in services. A coding framework was developed through content analysis, centring on five themes: coping, supports that worked, supports needed, barriers, and ideal world recommendations. Perspectives from those involved in receiving, providing and researching caregiver interventions following ABI were synthesized to provide a thorough, detailed depiction of the ongoing support needs of caregivers. This convergence of evidence underscores that caregiver support needs transcend geographical boundaries and must be comprehensive, accessible, long-term, and encompass education, emotional, and instrumental support. Recommendations for ABI caregiver support services are offered. PMID:20634597

  15. The Need for an Enlarged Vision and Additional Perspectives of Public Relations in the 21st Century: A Challenge to Existing Paradigms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kruckeberg, Dean

    This paper asserts that an enlarged vision and additional perspectives of public relations will be needed in the 21st century: vision and perspectives that will not only complement but challenge existing paradigms. Future communication technological phenomena will require dramatic changes in public relations practitioners' efforts in relationship-…

  16. Families of children with traumatic injuries identify needs for research and training.

    PubMed

    Lash, M; Russo, D C; Navalta, C P; Baryza, M J

    1995-01-01

    This paper summarizes the survey responses of 67 families with children who were hospitalized after traumatic injuries. The survey was conducted during the pre-planning phase of a major research proposal on the rehabilitation of children who had been injured. The purpose of the survey was to involve families in the identification of needs and determination of priorities for research and training in childhood injuries. The first part of the survey focused on direct services that children and their families received through medical, psychosocial, educational and vocational interventions and providers. The second part concerned the immediate and long-term effects of a child's injury upon the family. Families were asked to indicate: (1) the direct care services they considered most important in their child's recovery; (2) areas needing more research and study; (3) training needed by professionals; and (4) information needed by families. Major findings were the importance to families of emergency room treatment and the quality of hospital care; concerns about communication between professionals and parents; the uncertainty of expectations for the future; and lack of information on community resources. Written comments emphasized the emotional impact of physical trauma upon families and the need for longitudinal research, with pediatric rehabilitation viewed as a broad spectrum of care starting with emergency room care and hospitalization and continuing through school and community programs. As a result of this survey several projects were initiated. They include: revision of head sheets distributed by emergency rooms, physician training in communication skills, preparation of families as service coordinators, and development of materials and programs specifically for families. PMID:24525578

  17. Structure, function and five basic needs of the global health research system

    PubMed Central

    Rudan, Igor; Sridhar, Devi

    2016-01-01

    Background Two major initiatives that were set up to support and co–ordinate global health research efforts have been largely discontinued in recent years: the Global Forum for Health Research and World Health Organization's Department for Research Policy and Cooperation. These developments provide an interesting case study into the factors that contribute to the sustainability of initiatives to support and co–ordinate global health research in the 21st century. Methods We reviewed the history of attempts to govern, support or co–ordinate research in global health. Moreover, we studied the changes and shifts in funding flows attributed to global health research. This allowed us to map the structure of the global health research system, as it has evolved under the increased funding contributions of the past decade. Bearing in mind its structure, core functions and dynamic nature, we proposed a framework on how to effectively support the system to increase its efficiency. Results Based on our framework, which charted the structure and function of the global health research system and exposed places and roles for many stakeholders within the system, five basic needs emerged: (i) to co–ordinate funding among donors more effectively; (ii) to prioritize among many research ideas; (iii) to quickly recognize results of successful research; (iv) to ensure broad and rapid dissemination of results and their accessibility; and (v) to evaluate return on investments in health research. Conclusion The global health research system has evolved rapidly and spontaneously. It has not been optimally efficient, but it is possible to identify solutions that could improve this. There are already examples of effective responses for the need of prioritization of research questions (eg, the CHNRI method), quick recognition of important research (eg, systems used by editors of the leading journals) and rapid and broadly accessible publication of the new knowledge (eg, PLoS One

  18. Needs Assessment of the Healthcare Sector in the Washington, D.C., Metropolitan Area. Research Report. Business Needs Assessment Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northern Virginia Community Coll., Annandale. Office of Institutional Research.

    According to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, the growing population of elderly citizens will result in an increased demand for healthcare services that will rise for a full 50 years. This study assesses the need for healthcare sector workers in the Washington, D.C. metropolitan area. Information on the skills, education, and experience that…

  19. Coal liquefaction: A research and development needs assessment: Final report, Volume I

    SciTech Connect

    Schindler, H.D.; Burke, F.P.; Chao, K.C.; Davis, B.H.; Gorbaty, M.L.; Klier, K.; Kruse, C.W.; Larsen, J.W.; Lumpkin, R.E.; McIlwain, M.E.; Wender, I.; Stewart, N.

    1989-03-01

    The DOE Coal Liquefaction Research Needs (COLIRN) Panel reviewed, developed, and assessed R and D needs for the development of coal liquefaction for the production of transportation fuels. Technical, economics, and environmental considerations were important components of the panel's deliberations. The panel examined in some depth each of the following technologies: direct liquefaction of coal, indirect liquefaction via conversion of coal-derived synthesis gas, pyrolysis, coprocessing of combined coal/oil feedstocks, and bioconversion of coal and coal-derived materials. In this assessment particular attention was given to highlighting the fundamental and applied research which has revealed new and improved liquefaction mechanisms, the potentially promising innovative processes currently emerging, and the technological and engineering improvements necessary for significant cost reductions. As the result of this assessment, the COLIRN panel developed a list of prioritized research recommendations needed to bring coal liquefaction to technical and economic readiness in the next 5--20 years. The findings and the research recommendations generated by the COLIRN panel are summarized in this publication. 107 figs., 63 tabs.

  20. Global Foot-and-Mouth Disease Research Update and Gap Analysis: 1 - Overview of Global Status and Research Needs.

    PubMed

    Knight-Jones, T J D; Robinson, L; Charleston, B; Rodriguez, L L; Gay, C G; Sumption, K J; Vosloo, W

    2016-06-01

    The Global Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) Research Alliance periodically reviews the state of FMD research to assess progress and to identify new priorities. In this supplement we provide an update of global FMD research, comprising (i) this overview paper, which includes background information with key findings, and papers covering (ii) epidemiology, wildlife and economics, (iii) vaccines, (iv) diagnostics, (v) biotherapeutics and disinfectants, (vi) immunology and (vii) pathogenesis and molecular biology. FMD research publications were reviewed (2011-2015) and activity updates were obtained from 33 FMD research institutes from around the world. Although a continual threat, FMD has been effectively controlled in much of the world using existing tools. However, control remains a challenge in most developing countries, where little has been done to understand the ongoing burden of FMD. More research is needed to support control in endemically infected countries, particularly robust field studies. Traditional FMD vaccines have several limitations including short duration and spectrum of protection, cold chain requirements, and the costs and biosecurity risks associated with vaccine production. Significant progress has been made in the development of novel vaccine candidates, particularly in the use of recombinant vaccines and virus-like particles as an alternative to traditional inactivated whole virus vaccines. Continued investment is needed to turn these developments into improved vaccines produced at scale. Increased knowledge of cellular and mucosal immunity would benefit vaccine development, as would further advances in our ability to enhance vaccine capsid stability. Developments in molecular biology and phylogenetics underlie many of the recent advances in FMD research, including improved vaccines and diagnostics, and improved understanding of FMD epidemiology. Tools for genetic analyses continue to become both more powerful and more affordable enabling them to

  1. Racism and Health II: A Needed Research Agenda for Effective Interventions.

    PubMed

    Williams, David R; Mohammed, Selina A

    2013-08-01

    This article reviews the empirical evidence that suggests that there is a solid foundation for more systematic research attention to the ways in which interventions that seek to reduce the multiple dimensions of racism can improve health and reduce disparities in health. First, research reveals that policies and procedures that seek to reduce institutional racism by improving neighborhood and educational quality and enhancing access to additional income, employment opportunities and other desirable resources can improve health. Second, research is reviewed that shows that there is the potential to improve health through interventions that can reduce cultural racism at the societal and individual level. Finally, research is presented that suggests that the adverse consequences of racism on health can be reduced through policies that maximize the health-enhancing capacities of medical care, address the social factors that initiate and sustain risk behaviors and empower individuals and communities to take control of their lives and health. Directions for future research are outlined. PMID:24347667

  2. Researching emotion: the need for coherence between focus, theory and methodology.

    PubMed

    Savage, Jan

    2004-03-01

    There is a longstanding awareness of the significance of emotion in nursing and yet it remains one of the more elusive areas of practice. Surprisingly, there has been little discussion in the nursing literature of how the phenomenon of emotion might be understood or studied. This paper gives an overview of theoretical and methodological approaches to emotion, and how the researcher's emotions may inform the research process. In addition, it draws on ethnographic research exploring the role of emotion in the practice and clinical supervision of a group of psychosexual nurses undergoing Balint seminar training to help highlight some of the inherent problems of researching emotion. The paper argues that these sorts of problems may be avoided or reduced by ensuring coherence between the research focus, the way emotion is theorised, and the methodological approach of the study. PMID:14962344

  3. Racism and Health II: A Needed Research Agenda for Effective Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Williams, David R.; Mohammed, Selina A.

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews the empirical evidence that suggests that there is a solid foundation for more systematic research attention to the ways in which interventions that seek to reduce the multiple dimensions of racism can improve health and reduce disparities in health. First, research reveals that policies and procedures that seek to reduce institutional racism by improving neighborhood and educational quality and enhancing access to additional income, employment opportunities and other desirable resources can improve health. Second, research is reviewed that shows that there is the potential to improve health through interventions that can reduce cultural racism at the societal and individual level. Finally, research is presented that suggests that the adverse consequences of racism on health can be reduced through policies that maximize the health-enhancing capacities of medical care, address the social factors that initiate and sustain risk behaviors and empower individuals and communities to take control of their lives and health. Directions for future research are outlined. PMID:24347667

  4. Understanding Health-Care Needs of Sexual and Gender Minority Veterans: How Targeted Research and Policy Can Improve Health.

    PubMed

    Mattocks, Kristin M; Kauth, Michael R; Sandfort, Theo; Matza, Alexis R; Sullivan, J Cherry; Shipherd, Jillian C

    2014-03-01

    Given the size of the patient population of the Veterans Health Administration (VHA), it is likely the largest single provider of health care for sexual and gender minority (SGM) individuals in the United States, including lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender persons. However, current VHA demographic data-collection strategies limit the understanding of how many SGM veterans there are, thereby making a population-based understanding of the health needs of SGM veterans receiving care in VHA difficult. In this article, we summarize the emergent research findings about SGM veterans and the first initiatives that have been implemented by VHA to promote quality care. Though the research on SGM veterans is in its infancy, it suggests that SGM veterans share some of the health risks noted in veterans generally and also risks associated with SGM status. Some promising resiliency factors have also been identified. These findings have implications for both VHA and non-VHA systems in the treatment of SGM veterans. However, more research on the unique needs of SGM veterans is needed to fully understand their health risks and resiliencies in addition to health-care utilization patterns. PMID:26789509

  5. When clinical care is like research: the need for review and consent.

    PubMed

    Wendler, David; Johnson, Rebecca

    2016-06-01

    The prevailing "segregated model" for understanding clinical research sharply separates it from clinical care and subjects it to extensive regulations and guidelines. This approach is based on the fact that clinical research relies on procedures and methods-research biopsies, blinding, randomization, fixed treatment protocols, placebos-that pose risks and burdens to participants in order to collect data that might benefit all patients. Reliance on these methods raises the potential for exploitation and unfairness, and thus points to the need for independent ethical review and more extensive informed consent. In contrast, it is widely assumed that clinical care does not raise these ethical concerns because it is designed to promote the best interests of individual patients. The segregation of clinical research from clinical care has been largely effective at protecting research participants. At the same time, this approach ignores the fact that several aspects of standard clinical care, such as clinician training and scheduling, also pose some risks and burdens to present patients for the benefit of all patients. We argue that recently proposed learning health care systems offer a way to address this concern, and better protect patients, by developing integrated review and consent procedures. Specifically, current approaches base the need for independent ethical review and more extensive informed consent on whether an activity is categorized as clinical research or clinical care. An ethically sounder approach, which could be incorporated into learning health care systems, would be to base the need for independent ethical review and more extensive informed consent on the extent to which an activity poses risks to present patients for the benefit of all patients. PMID:27188333

  6. Environmental and occupational health research and training needs in Colombia: A Delphi study

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Villamizar, Laura A.; González, Beatriz Elena; Vera, Lina María; Patz, Jonathan; Bautista, Leonelo E.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Environmental factors contribute with 16% of the burden of disease in Colombia. A main obstacle in implementing national and regional environmental and occupational health policies is the limited knowledge on the local ability to study and control the impact of harmful exposures on health. Objective To identify needs for research and training in environmental and occupational health in Colombia. Materials and methods We conducted a three-round hybrid Delphi study. A group of environmental and occupational health Colombian experts (n=16) from government agencies, universities, and research centers was recruited to participate in the study. Expert’s opinions on research and training needs were gathered through online questionnaires, followed by an in-person meeting. The percentage of agreement and the coefficient of variation were used to measure consensus. Results Air pollution and chemical products were considered the most important environmental and occupational exposures, due to their significant impact on chronic non-communicable diseases, such as respiratory diseases, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer. Research on the effects of outdoor air pollution on cardiovascular and respiratory diseases was considered of the greatest importance. Priority training areas included environmental and occupational health risk assessment, exposure modeling, advanced statistical methods, urban planning, occupational safety and hygiene, and epidemiology and toxicology. Conclusions These findings provide a valuable input for the definition and implementation of national environmental and occupational health policies and for the development of a regional hub aimed at strengthening the capacity for research and training in Colombia. PMID:26535742

  7. Changing requirements and resulting needs for IT-infrastructure for longitudinal research in the neurosciences.

    PubMed

    Buckow, Karoline; Quade, Matthias; Rienhoff, Otto; Nussbeck, Sara Y

    2016-01-01

    The observation of growing "difficulties" in IT-infrastructures in neuroscience research during the last years led to a search for reasons and an analysis on how this phenomenon is reflected in the scientific literature. With a retrospective analysis of nine examples of multicenter research projects in the neurosciences and a literature review the observation was systematically analyzed. Results show that the rise in complexity mainly stems from two reasons: (1) more and more need for information on quality and context of research data (metadata) and (2) long-term requirements to handle the consent and identity/pseudonyms of study participants and biomaterials in relation to legal requirements. The combination of these two aspects together with very long study times and data evaluation periods are components of the subjectively perceived "difficulties". A direct consequence of this result is that big multicenter trials are becoming part of integrated research data environments and are not standing alone for themselves anymore. This drives up the resource needs regarding the IT-infrastructure in neuroscience research. In contrast to these findings, literature on this development is scarce and the problem probably underestimated. PMID:25152316

  8. Sex is not enough: the need for gender-based analysis in health research.

    PubMed

    Nowatzki, Nadine; Grant, Karen R

    2011-04-01

    To gain a more detailed understanding of health care utilization patterns, researchers have begun to disaggregate administrative data by a number of important variables, including sex. Our purpose in this article is to confirm the need for sex-disaggregated data in health research, but also to argue that the further step of gender-based analysis is necessary. We focus on a number of conceptual and methodological issues surrounding sex-disaggregated administrative data, and we conclude that sex disaggregation alone is insufficient. Gender-sensitive indicators must be developed and used in order to understand the context of health differences and develop appropriate policies and programs. PMID:21409661

  9. Information needs research in the era of the digital medical library.

    PubMed Central

    Lomax, E. C.; Lowe, H. J.

    1998-01-01

    The rapid adoption of Internet-accessible information resources by the clinical community, has resulted in an exponential growth in the variety and type of clinical information resources along with an increasing diversity of information technologies to deliver clinical information. To date, little formal work has been done to investigate the significance of new information technologies such as Internet-based digital libraries and multimedia record systems on clinical information need or information seeking behavior. In the work described in this paper, we highlight some results from our recent multimethod research design and investigation of the information-seeking behavior of Pittsburgh area medical oncologists to argue for the use of a multimethod research design as an essential component of any investigation of clinical information need and information-seeking behavior in the era of the digital medical library. PMID:9929301

  10. Katrina and the Thai Tsunami - Water Quality and Public Health Aspects Mitigation and Research Needs

    PubMed Central

    Englande, A. J.

    2008-01-01

    The South East Asian Tsunami in Thailand and Hurricane Katrina in the United States were natural disasters of different origin but of similar destruction and response. Both disasters exhibited synonymous health outcomes and similar structural damage from large surges of water, waves, and flooding. A systematic discussion and comparison of the disasters in Thailand and the Gulf Coast considers both calamities to be similar types of disaster in different coastal locations. Thus valuable comparisons can be made for improvements in response, preparedness and mitigation. Research needs are discussed and recommendations made regarding potential methologies. Recommendations are made to: (1) improve disaster response time in terms of needs assessments for public health and environmental data collection; (2) develop an access-oriented data sharing policy; and (3) prioritize natural geomorphic structures such as barrier islands, mangroves, and wetlands to help reduce the scale of future natural disasters. Based on the experiences gained opportunities to enhance disaster preparedness through research are presented. PMID:19151433

  11. Environmental analysis using integrated GIS and remotely sensed data - Some research needs and priorities

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, F.W.; Quattrochi, D.A.; Ridd, M.K.; Lam, N.S.-N.; Walsh, S.J. NASA, Stennis Space Center, Bay Saint Louis, MS Utah, University, Salt Lake City Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge North Carolina, University, Chapel Hill )

    1991-06-01

    This paper discusses some basic scientific issues and research needs in the joint processing of remotely sensed and GIS data for environmental analysis. Two general topics are treated in detail: (1) scale dependence of geographic data and the analysis of multiscale remotely sensed and GIS data, and (2) data transformations and information flow during data processing. The discussion of scale dependence focuses on the theory and applications of spatial autocorrelation, geostatistics, and fractals for characterizing and modeling spatial variation. Data transformations during processing are described within the larger framework of geographical analysis, encompassing sampling, cartography, remote sensing, and GIS. Development of better user interfaces between image processing, GIS, database management, and statistical software is needed to expedite research on these and other impediments to integrated analysis of remotely sensed and GIS data. 79 refs.

  12. Environmental analysis using integrated GIS and remotely sensed data - Some research needs and priorities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Frank W.; Quattrochi, Dale A.; Ridd, Merrill K.; Lam, Nina S.-N.; Walsh, Stephen J.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses some basic scientific issues and research needs in the joint processing of remotely sensed and GIS data for environmental analysis. Two general topics are treated in detail: (1) scale dependence of geographic data and the analysis of multiscale remotely sensed and GIS data, and (2) data transformations and information flow during data processing. The discussion of scale dependence focuses on the theory and applications of spatial autocorrelation, geostatistics, and fractals for characterizing and modeling spatial variation. Data transformations during processing are described within the larger framework of geographical analysis, encompassing sampling, cartography, remote sensing, and GIS. Development of better user interfaces between image processing, GIS, database management, and statistical software is needed to expedite research on these and other impediments to integrated analysis of remotely sensed and GIS data.

  13. Katrina and the Thai Tsunami - water quality and public health aspects mitigation and research needs.

    PubMed

    Englande, A J

    2008-12-01

    The South East Asian Tsunami in Thailand and Hurricane Katrina in the United States were natural disasters of different origin but of similar destruction and response. Both disasters exhibited synonymous health outcomes and similar structural damage from large surges of water, waves, and flooding. A systematic discussion and comparison of the disasters in Thailand and the Gulf Coast considers both calamities to be similar types of disaster in different coastal locations. Thus valuable comparisons can be made for improvements in response, preparedness and mitigation. Research needs are discussed and recommendations made regarding potential methologies. Recommendations are made to: (1) improve disaster response time in terms of needs assessments for public health and environmental data collection; (2) develop an access-oriented data sharing policy; and (3) prioritize natural geomorphic structures such as barrier islands, mangroves, and wetlands to help reduce the scale of future natural disasters. Based on the experiences gained opportunities to enhance disaster preparedness through research are presented. PMID:19151433

  14. Quantitative Risk reduction estimation Tool For Control Systems, Suggested Approach and Research Needs

    SciTech Connect

    Miles McQueen; Wayne Boyer; Mark Flynn; Sam Alessi

    2006-03-01

    For the past year we have applied a variety of risk assessment technologies to evaluate the risk to critical infrastructure from cyber attacks on control systems. More recently, we identified the need for a stand alone control system risk reduction estimation tool to provide owners and operators of control systems with a more useable, reliable, and credible method for managing the risks from cyber attack. Risk is defined as the probability of a successful attack times the value of the resulting loss, typically measured in lives and dollars. Qualitative and ad hoc techniques for measuring risk do not provide sufficient support for cost benefit analyses associated with cyber security mitigation actions. To address the need for better quantitative risk reduction models we surveyed previous quantitative risk assessment research; evaluated currently available tools; developed new quantitative techniques [17] [18]; implemented a prototype analysis tool to demonstrate how such a tool might be used; used the prototype to test a variety of underlying risk calculational engines (e.g. attack tree, attack graph); and identified technical and research needs. We concluded that significant gaps still exist and difficult research problems remain for quantitatively assessing the risk to control system components and networks, but that a useable quantitative risk reduction estimation tool is not beyond reach.

  15. Outpatient management of postbiopsy pneumothorax with small-caliber chest tubes: factors affecting the need for prolonged drainage and additional interventions.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Sanjay; Hicks, Marshall E; Wallace, Michael J; Ahrar, Kamran; Madoff, David C; Murthy, Ravi

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of outpatient management of postbiopsy pneumothoraces with small-caliber chest tubes and to assess the factors that influence the need for prolonged drainage or additional interventions. We evaluated the medical records of patients who were treated with small-caliber chest tubes attached to Heimlich valves for pneumothoraces resulting from image-guided transthoracic needle biopsy to determine the hospital admission rates, the number of days the catheters were left in place, and the need for further interventions. We also evaluated the patient, lesion, and biopsy technique characteristics to determine their influence on the need for prolonged catheter drainage or additional interventions. Of the 191 patients included in our study, 178 (93.2%) were treated as outpatients. Ten patients (5.2%) were admitted for chest tube-related problems, either for underwater suction (n = 8) or for pain control (n = 2). No further interventions were required in 146 patients (76.4%), with successful removal of the chest tubes the day after the biopsy procedure. Prolonged catheter drainage (mean, 4.3 days) was required in 44 patients (23%). Nineteen patients (9.9%) underwent additional interventions for management of pneumothorax. Presence of emphysema was noted more frequently in patients who required additional interventions or prolonged chest tube drainage than in those who did not (51.1% vs. 24.7%; p = 0.001). We conclude that use of the Heimlich valve allows safe and successful outpatient treatment of most patients requiring chest tube placement for postbiopsy pneumothorax. Additional interventions or prolonged chest tube drainage are needed more frequently in patients with emphysema in the needle path. PMID:18074173

  16. Outpatient Management of Postbiopsy Pneumothorax with Small-Caliber Chest Tubes: Factors Affecting the Need for Prolonged Drainage and Additional Interventions

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, Sanjay Hicks, Marshall E.; Wallace, Michael J.; Ahrar, Kamran; Madoff, David C.; Murthy, Ravi

    2008-03-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of outpatient management of postbiopsy pneumothoraces with small-caliber chest tubes and to assess the factors that influence the need for prolonged drainage or additional interventions.We evaluated the medical records of patients who were treated with small-caliber chest tubes attached to Heimlich valves for pneumothoraces resulting from image-guided transthoracic needle biopsy to determine the hospital admission rates, the number of days the catheters were left in place, and the need for further interventions. We also evaluated the patient, lesion, and biopsy technique characteristics to determine their influence on the need for prolonged catheter drainage or additional interventions. Of the 191 patients included in our study, 178 (93.2%) were treated as outpatients. Ten patients (5.2%) were admitted for chest tube-related problems, either for underwater suction (n = 8) or for pain control (n = 2). No further interventions were required in 146 patients (76.4%), with successful removal of the chest tubes the day after the biopsy procedure. Prolonged catheter drainage (mean, 4.3 days) was required in 44 patients (23%). Nineteen patients (9.9%) underwent additional interventions for management of pneumothorax. Presence of emphysema was noted more frequently in patients who required additional interventions or prolonged chest tube drainage than in those who did not (51.1% vs. 24.7%; p = 0.001).We conclude that use of the Heimlich valve allows safe and successful outpatient treatment of most patients requiring chest tube placement for postbiopsy pneumothorax. Additional interventions or prolonged chest tube drainage are needed more frequently in patients with emphysema in the needle path.

  17. Biomedical research leaders: report on needs, opportunities, difficulties, education and training, and evaluation.

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, S H; Merkle, S; Brown, D; Moskowitz, J; Hurley, D; Brown, D; Bailey, B J; McClain, M; Misenhimer, M; Buckalew, J; Burks, T

    2000-01-01

    The National Association of Physicians for the Environment (NAPE) has assumed a leadership role in protecting environmental health in recent years. The Committee of Biomedical Research Leaders was convened at the recent NAPE Leadership Conference: Biomedical Research and the Environment held on 1--2 November 1999, at the National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland. This report summarizes the discussion of the committee and its recommendations. The charge to the committee was to raise and address issues that will promote and sustain environmental health, safety, and energy efficiency within the biomedical community. Leaders from every important research sector (industry laboratories, academic health centers and institutes, hospitals and care facilities, Federal laboratories, and community-based research facilities) were gathered in this committee to discuss issues relevant to promoting environmental health. The conference and this report focus on the themes of environmental stewardship, sustainable development and "best greening practices." Environmental stewardship, an emerging theme within and outside the biomedical community, symbolizes the effort to provide an integrated, synthesized, and concerted effort to protect the health of the environment in both the present and the future. The primary goal established by the committee is to promote environmentally responsible leadership in the biomedical research community. Key outcomes of the committee's discussion and deliberation were a) the need for a central organization to evaluate, promote, and oversee efforts in environmental stewardship; and b) immediate need to facilitate efficient information transfer relevant to protecting the global environment through a database/clearinghouse. Means to fulfill these needs are discussed in this report. PMID:11121363

  18. From computer-assisted intervention research to clinical impact: The need for a holistic approach.

    PubMed

    Ourselin, Sébastien; Emberton, Mark; Vercauteren, Tom

    2016-10-01

    The early days of the field of medical image computing (MIC) and computer-assisted intervention (CAI), when publishing a strong self-contained methodological algorithm was enough to produce impact, are over. As a community, we now have substantial responsibility to translate our scientific progresses into improved patient care. In the field of computer-assisted interventions, the emphasis is also shifting from the mere use of well-known established imaging modalities and position trackers to the design and combination of innovative sensing, elaborate computational models and fine-grained clinical workflow analysis to create devices with unprecedented capabilities. The barriers to translating such devices in the complex and understandably heavily regulated surgical and interventional environment can seem daunting. Whether we leave the translation task mostly to our industrial partners or welcome, as researchers, an important share of it is up to us. We argue that embracing the complexity of surgical and interventional sciences is mandatory to the evolution of the field. Being able to do so requires large-scale infrastructure and a critical mass of expertise that very few research centres have. In this paper, we emphasise the need for a holistic approach to computer-assisted interventions where clinical, scientific, engineering and regulatory expertise are combined as a means of moving towards clinical impact. To ensure that the breadth of infrastructure and expertise required for translational computer-assisted intervention research does not lead to a situation where the field advances only thanks to a handful of exceptionally large research centres, we also advocate that solutions need to be designed to lower the barriers to entry. Inspired by fields such as particle physics and astronomy, we claim that centralised very large innovation centres with state of the art technology and health technology assessment capabilities backed by core support staff and open

  19. Professional Development in Early Childhood Programs: Process Issues and Research Needs.

    PubMed

    Sheridan, Susan M; Edwards, Carolyn Pope; Marvin, Christine A; Knoche, Lisa L

    2009-05-01

    In light of the current policy context, early childhood educators are being asked to have a complex understanding of child development and early education issues and provide rich, meaningful educational experiences for all children and families in their care. Accountability for outcomes is high, and resources for professional support are limited. As such, the early education field needs well-conducted empirical studies on which to base professional development practices. In this paper, we offer research directions associated with the processes underlying professional development, including areas in need of investigation that can inform the early childhood education field in terms of how professional development efforts exert their influence and produce meaningful change in practitioners' skills, behaviors, and dispositions. The paper highlights representative research from the professional development literature on its various forms/approaches and offers an agenda for research on the professional development process. Broad issues associated with the conduct of research on professional development, including considerations of professional development processes, participant characteristics, relationships, and sustainability are discussed. PMID:19809599

  20. Professional Development in Early Childhood Programs: Process Issues and Research Needs

    PubMed Central

    Sheridan, Susan M.; Edwards, Carolyn Pope; Marvin, Christine A.; Knoche, Lisa L.

    2009-01-01

    In light of the current policy context, early childhood educators are being asked to have a complex understanding of child development and early education issues and provide rich, meaningful educational experiences for all children and families in their care. Accountability for outcomes is high, and resources for professional support are limited. As such, the early education field needs well-conducted empirical studies on which to base professional development practices. In this paper, we offer research directions associated with the processes underlying professional development, including areas in need of investigation that can inform the early childhood education field in terms of how professional development efforts exert their influence and produce meaningful change in practitioners’ skills, behaviors, and dispositions. The paper highlights representative research from the professional development literature on its various forms/approaches and offers an agenda for research on the professional development process. Broad issues associated with the conduct of research on professional development, including considerations of professional development processes, participant characteristics, relationships, and sustainability are discussed. PMID:19809599

  1. New Zealand needs guidelines for the safe and responsible inclusion of pregnant women in medical research.

    PubMed

    Ballantyne, Angela J

    2016-01-01

    Pregnancy is a crucial window of time that influences long-term population health. As a matter of justice, pregnant woman are entitled to high quality, evidenced-based care. As a matter of population health, we need to better understand foetal development, particularly the impact of lifestyle, stress, chronic conditions and clinical treatment during pregnancy. Pregnancy continues to be dominated by the precautionary principle, advocating for the routine exclusion of pregnant women from medical research, particularly intervention studies, on the grounds of foetal vulnerability. But this stance simply shifts the risk into the community. Due to a lack of evidence-based data, many pregnant women are refused medically important drugs, are subject to dangerous delays in getting drugs, or are prescribed drugs that are thought 'safe', despite evidence of possible teratogenicity. I argue that New Zealand needs to shift to a default position of inclusion of pregnant women in research; and to develop guidelines to facilitate their safe and responsible inclusion. The uniqueness of pregnancy gives rise to specific questions regarding research ethics. These questions warrant focused debate and the answers cannot simply be deduced from the general principles of research ethics we currently have in New Zealand. PMID:27362600

  2. Research Needs for Carbon Management in Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Uses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negra, C.; Lovejoy, T.; Ojima, D. S.; Ashton, R.; Havemann, T.; Eaton, J.

    2009-12-01

    Improved management of terrestrial carbon in agriculture, forestry, and other land use sectors is a necessary part of climate change mitigation. It is likely that governments will agree in Copenhagen in December 2009 to incentives for improved management of some forms of terrestrial carbon, including maintaining existing terrestrial carbon (e.g., avoiding deforestation) and creating new terrestrial carbon (e.g., afforestation, soil management). To translate incentives into changes in land management and terrestrial carbon stocks, a robust technical and scientific information base is required. All terrestrial carbon pools (and other greenhouse gases from the terrestrial system) that interact with the atmosphere at timescales less than centuries, and all land uses, have documented mitigation potential, however, most activity has focused on above-ground forest biomass. Despite research advances in understanding emissions reduction and sequestration associated with different land management techniques, there has not yet been broad-scale implementation of land-based mitigation activity in croplands, peatlands, grasslands and other land uses. To maximize long-term global terrestrial carbon volumes, further development of relevant data, methodologies and technologies are needed to complement policy and financial incentives. The Terrestrial Carbon Group, in partnership with UN-REDD agencies, the World Bank and CGIAR institutions, is reviewing literature, convening leading experts and surveying key research institutions to develop a Roadmap for Terrestrial Carbon: Research Needs for Implementation of Carbon Management in Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Uses. This work will summarize the existing knowledge base for emissions reductions and sequestration through land management as well as the current availability of tools and methods for measurement and monitoring of terrestrial carbon. Preliminary findings indicate a number of areas for future work. Enhanced information

  3. Indoor Air Pollution in Developing Countries: Research and Implementation Needs for Improvements in Global Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Gall, Elliott T.; Carter, Ellison M.; Matt Earnest, C.

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to indoor air pollution (IAP) from the burning of solid fuels for cooking, heating, and lighting accounts for a significant portion of the global burden of death and disease, and disproportionately affects women and children in developing regions. Clean cookstove campaigns recently received more attention and investment, but their successes might hinge on greater integration of the public health community with a variety of other disciplines. To help guide public health research in alleviating this important global environmental health burden, we synthesized previous research on IAP in developing countries, summarized successes and challenges of previous cookstove implementation programs, and provided key research and implementation needs from structured discussions at a recent symposium. PMID:23409891

  4. Multifaceted Problems: Liberal Bias and the Need for Scientific Rigor in Self-Critical Research.

    PubMed

    Skitka, Linda J

    2012-09-01

    Inbar and Lammers (2012, this issue) conducted two surveys of a sample of Society for Personality and Social Psychology listserv members to empirically examine two questions: How many social psychologists are politically liberal, and is there evidence that liberal social psychologists are biased against their conservative colleagues and/or research taking a conservative perspective? They conclude that the field is overwhelming liberal, and that there is ample evidence of bias against both conservatives and conservatively motivated research. Biased sampling, conversational norm and question context effects, missing control conditions, and a focus on hypothesis confirmation instead of hypothesis testing, however, undermine the scientific confidence one can place in their findings. Is there liberal bias? Probably. Is the evidence scientifically sound? Not so much. The field needs to adhere to the same standards of scientific rigor when conducting self-critical research as it requires of normal science. PMID:26168508

  5. Indoor air pollution in developing countries: research and implementation needs for improvements in global public health.

    PubMed

    Gall, Elliott T; Carter, Ellison M; Earnest, C Matt; Stephens, Brent

    2013-04-01

    Exposure to indoor air pollution (IAP) from the burning of solid fuels for cooking, heating, and lighting accounts for a significant portion of the global burden of death and disease, and disproportionately affects women and children in developing regions. Clean cookstove campaigns recently received more attention and investment, but their successes might hinge on greater integration of the public health community with a variety of other disciplines. To help guide public health research in alleviating this important global environmental health burden, we synthesized previous research on IAP in developing countries, summarized successes and challenges of previous cookstove implementation programs, and provided key research and implementation needs from structured discussions at a recent symposium. PMID:23409891

  6. Unheard Voices: The Need for HIV Research and Prevention Priorities for YMSM in the Global Context.

    PubMed

    Hall, Casey D; Murdock, Daniel; Nehl, Eric J; Wong, Frank Y

    2016-06-01

    This commentary considers the AIDS Education and Prevention special issue (volume 28, number 3) entitled "Behavioral HIV Prevention Interventions for Diverse Young Men Who Have Sex with Men (MSM)." The research presented in this special issue highlights the importance of addressing sub-populations of young MSM in order to better understand the unique realities and risk-factors affecting HIV epidemics and intervention needs. Here, we focus on several broad topics raised in this special issue and comment on their implications for HIV research and practice targeting young MSM in low- and middle-income countries. We consider issues relevant to reaching hidden populations, tailoring interventions, and integrating new communications and bio-medical technologies in research and practice in low-resource settings. PMID:27244194

  7. Coal liquefaction: A research and development needs assessment: Final report, Volume II

    SciTech Connect

    Schindler, H.D.; Burke, F.P.; Chao, K.C.; Davis, B.H.; Gorbaty, M.L.; Klier, K.; Kruse, C.W.; Larsen, J.W.; Lumpkin, R.E.; McIlwain, M.E.; Wender, I.; Stewart, N.

    1989-03-01

    Volume II of this report on an assessment of research needs for coal liquefaction contains reviews of the five liquefaction technologies---direct, indirect, pyrolysis, coprocessing, and bioconversion. These reviews are not meant to be encyclopedic; several outstanding reviews of liquefaction have appeared in recent years and the reader is referred to these whenever applicable. Instead, these chapters contain reviews of selected topics that serve to support the panel's recommendations or to illustrate recent accomplishments, work in progress, or areas of major research interest. At the beginning of each of these chapters is a brief introduction and a summary of the most important research recommendations brought out during the panel discussions and supported by the material presented in the review. A review of liquefaction developments outside the US is included. 594 refs., 100 figs., 60 tabs.

  8. OAST Space Theme Workshop. Volume 3: Working group summary. 9: Aerothermodynamics (M-3). A: Statement. B: Technology needs (form 1). C. Priority assessment (form 2). D. Additional assessments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Twelve aerothermodynamic space technology needs were identified to reduce the design uncertainties in aerodynamic heating and forces experienced by heavy lift launch vehicles, orbit transfer vehicles, and advanced single stage to orbit vehicles for the space transportation system, and for probes, planetary surface landers, and sample return vehicles for solar system exploration vehicles. Research and technology needs identified include: (1) increasing the fluid dynamics capability by at least two orders of magnitude by developing an advanced computer processor for the solution of fluid dynamic problems with improved software; (2) predicting multi-engine base flow fields for launch vehicles; and (3) developing methods to conserve energy in aerothermodynamic ground test facilities.

  9. High Priority Future Research Needs for Obstructive Sleep Apnea Diagnosis and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Kamal; Moorthy, Denish; Chan, Jeffrey A.; Concannon, Thomas W.; Ratichek, Sara J.; Chung, Mei; Balk, Ethan M.

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: To identify and prioritize future research needs (FRN) topics for diagnosis and treatment of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Methods: Twenty-one panel members represented six stake-holder categories: patients and the public, providers; purchasers of health care, payers, policymakers, and principal investigators. Building on a recently completed comparative effectiveness review, stakeholders nominated and discussed potential FRN topics. Stakeholders then nominated their top priority FRN topics based on the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Effective Health Care Program Selection Criteria. From these nominations, the highest priority FRN topics were determined and were elaborated upon to include possible study designs to address the topics. Results: Thirty-seven topics were discussed and prioritized. The nine highest priority FRN topics included: cost-effectiveness of management strategies, defining age- and sex-specific criteria for OSA, evaluating routine preoperative screening for OSA, evaluating involvement of a sleep medicine specialist in diagnosis of OSA, evaluating clinical prediction rules, assessing the effect of treating sleep disordered breathing and long-term clinical outcomes, comparing treatments for patients who do not tolerate positive airway pressure, evaluating strategies to improve treatment compliance, and evaluating the association between sleep apnea severity and long-term clinical outcomes. Conclusions: While there are numerous specific research questions with low or insufficient strength of evidence for OSA management, OSA patients, their healthcare providers, and society at large would benefit from refocusing research efforts into the prioritized research questions and away from simple comparisons of short-term outcomes between specific interventions. Citation: Patel K; Moorthy D; Chan JA; Concannon TW. High priority future research needs for obstructive sleep apnea diagnosis and treatment. J Clin Sleep Med 2013

  10. Critical research needs for managing coral reef marine protected areas: perspectives of academics and managers.

    PubMed

    Cvitanovic, C; Wilson, S K; Fulton, C J; Almany, G R; Anderson, P; Babcock, R C; Ban, N C; Beeden, R J; Beger, M; Cinner, J; Dobbs, K; Evans, L S; Farnham, A; Friedman, K J; Gale, K; Gladstone, W; Grafton, Q; Graham, N A J; Gudge, S; Harrison, P L; Holmes, T H; Johnstone, N; Jones, G P; Jordan, A; Kendrick, A J; Klein, C J; Little, L R; Malcolm, H A; Morris, D; Possingham, H P; Prescott, J; Pressey, R L; Skilleter, G A; Simpson, C; Waples, K; Wilson, D; Williamson, D H

    2013-01-15

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) are a primary policy instrument for managing and protecting coral reefs. Successful MPAs ultimately depend on knowledge-based decision making, where scientific research is integrated into management actions. Fourteen coral reef MPA managers and sixteen academics from eleven research, state and federal government institutions each outlined at least five pertinent research needs for improving the management of MPAs situated in Australian coral reefs. From this list of 173 key questions, we asked members of each group to rank questions in order of urgency, redundancy and importance, which allowed us to explore the extent of perceptional mismatch and overlap among the two groups. Our results suggest the mismatch among MPA managers and academics is small, with no significant difference among the groups in terms of their respective research interests, or the type of questions they pose. However, managers prioritised spatial management and monitoring as research themes, whilst academics identified climate change, resilience, spatial management, fishing and connectivity as the most important topics. Ranking of the posed questions by the two groups was also similar, although managers were less confident about the achievability of the posed research questions and whether questions represented a knowledge gap. We conclude that improved collaboration and knowledge transfer among management and academic groups can be used to achieve similar objectives and enhance the knowledge-based management of MPAs. PMID:23220604

  11. Less is often more, but not always: additional evidence that familiarity breeds contempt and a call for future research.

    PubMed

    Norton, Michael I; Frost, Jeana H; Ariely, Dan

    2013-12-01

    Ullrich, Krueger, Brod, and Groschupf (2013)-using a replication of the trait paradigm from Norton, Frost, and Ariely (2007)-suggest that less information does not always equal greater liking. We first ground the current debate in a larger historical debate in social psychology regarding the merits of configural versus algebraic models of person perception. We next review (a) related research that has suggested that more information can in some cases lead to more liking and (b) a large body of "real world" data-from friendships, daters, married couples, employment, celebrities, and politics-that suggests that more information often leads to less liking. We then provide an additional replication of our "less is more" effect, using a slight variation of the trait-list paradigm. The existing data suggest a need for further integrative explorations of when familiarity leads to contempt or liking or has no effect. PMID:24295381

  12. Fundamental Research Needs for Water and Wastewater Treatment Systems. Proceedings of a Conference (Arlington, Virginia, December 15, 1977).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherrard, J. H., Ed.

    Papers are presented identifying fundamental research needs in water and wastewater treatment by industrial users of technology, industrial users of research, a municipal water department, a consulting engineer, Congress, and the EPA. Areas of research needs addressed include: (1) microbial, viral, and organic contaminants; (2) biological…

  13. Proceedings for the Symposium on Research Needs for Extension Education (Columbus, Ohio, May 21-23, 1985).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Cooperative Extension Service.

    These proceedings consist of the following presentations and discussion papers: "Extension Research Needs in Evalaution" (Michael Patton); "Needed Research in Program Development" (Roger Lawrence); "The Cooperative Extension Service: A National Assessment" (Paul Warner); "National Study of Extension's Research Base: Implications for Extension…

  14. Research needs for strandplain/barrier island reservoirs in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, E.L.; Fowler, M.L.; Salamy, S.P.; Sarathi, P.S.; Young, M.A.

    1994-12-01

    This report identifies reservoir characterization and reservoir management research needs and IOR process and related research needs for the fourth geologic class, strandplain/barrier island reservoirs. The 330 Class 4 reservoirs in the DOE Tertiary OH Recovery Information System (TORIS) database contain about 30.8 billion barrels of oil or about 9% of the total original oil-in-place (OOIP) in all United States reservoirs. The current projection of Class 4 ultimate recovery with current operations is only 38% of the OOIP, leaving 19 billion barrels as the target for future IOR projects. Using the TORIS database and its predictive and economic models, the recovery potential which could result from future application of IOR technologies to Class 4 reservoirs was estimated to be between 1.0 and 4.3 billion barrels, depending on oil price and the level of technology advancement. The analysis indicated that this potential could be realized through (1) infill drilling alone and in combination with polymer flooding and profile modification, (2) chemical flooding (surfactant), and (3) thermal processes. Most of this future potential is in Texas, Oklahoma, California, and the Rocky Mountain region. Approximately two-thirds of the potentially recoverable resource is at risk of abandonment by the year 2000, which emphasizes the urgent need for the development and demonstration of cost-effective recovery technologies.

  15. Determining critical infrastructure for ocean research and societal needs in 2030

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glickson, Deborah; Barron, Eric; Fine, Rana

    2011-06-01

    The United States has jurisdiction over 3.4 million square miles of ocean—an expanse greater than the land area of all 50 states combined. This vast marine area offers researchers opportunities to investigate the ocean's role in an integrated Earth system but also presents challenges to society, including damaging tsunamis and hurricanes, industrial accidents, and outbreaks of waterborne diseases. The 2010 Gulf of Mexico Deepwater Horizon oil spill and 2011 Japanese earthquake and tsunami are vivid reminders that a broad range of infrastructure is needed to advance scientists' still incomplete understanding of the ocean. The National Research Council's (NRC) Ocean Studies Board was asked by the National Science and Technology Council's Subcommittee on Ocean Science and Technology, comprising 25 U.S. government agencies, to examine infrastructure needs for ocean research in the year 2030. This request reflects concern, among a myriad of marine issues, over the present state of aging and obsolete infrastructure, insufficient capacity, growing technological gaps, and declining national leadership in marine technological development; these issues were brought to the nation's attention in 2004 by the U.S. Commission on Ocean Policy.

  16. Findings of the US Research Needs Workshop on the Topic of Fusion Power

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, W R; Raffray, A R; Kurtz, R J; Morley, N B; Reiersen, W T; Sharpe, P; Willms, S

    2009-09-16

    The US Department of Energy, Office of Fusion Energy Sciences (OFES) conducted a Research Needs Workshop, referred to as ReNeW, in June 2009. The information developed at this workshop will help OFES develop a plan for US fusion research during the ITER era, roughly the next two decades. The workshop was organized in five Themes, one of which was Harnessing Fusion Power (or Fusion Power for short). The top level goal of the Fusion Power Theme was to identify the research needed to develop the knowledge to design and build, with high confidence, robust and reliable systems that can convert fusion products to useful forms of energy in a reactor environment, including a self-sufficient supply of tritium fuel. Each Theme was subsequently subdivided into Panels to address specific topics. The Fusion Power Panel topics were: fusion fuel cycle; power extraction; materials science; safety and environment; and reliability, availability, maintainability and inspectability (RAMI). Here we present the key findings of the Fusion Power Theme.

  17. Views from academia and industry on skills needed for the modern research environment.

    PubMed

    Talgar, Cigdem P; Goodey, Nina M

    2015-01-01

    Reports from employers of higher education graduates indicate the existence of a considerable gap between the skills required by employers and those possessed by recent graduates. As a first step toward closing this gap, this study aims to determine its origin. Interviews with nine research-active biochemistry professionals were used to identify the most important skills for biochemistry students to succeed in research positions postgraduation. The results of these interviews were used to develop a survey, which was then administered to a larger group of biochemistry faculty and industry professionals. The output of the survey was a list of 52 skills valued by biochemistry professionals and rated by perceived importance. Importantly, the survey results also afford a comparative look at the prioritization of skills by two key populations: the academic faculty training students and the industry professionals hiring them. While there are many areas of agreement between these two populations, the survey also reveals areas were priorities diverge. The discrepancies found here suggest that the skills gap manifest at the point of employment may stem directly from differences in prioritization between the academic and industrial environments. This article aims to provide insight into the needs and requirements of the modern biochemical research environment, and invites debate concerning the preparation students receive in academia. Moreover, the results presented herein point to a need for further exploration of the possible misalignment of these two critical environments for young scientists. PMID:26147139

  18. Overview of NASA Glenn Research Center Programs in Aero-Heat Transfer and Future Needs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaugler, Raymond E.

    2002-01-01

    This presentation concentrates on an overview of the NASA Glenn Research Center and the projects that are supporting Turbine Aero-Heat Transfer Research. The principal areas include the Ultra Efficient Engine Technology (UEET) Project, the Advanced Space Transportation Program (ASTP) Revolutionary Turbine Accelerator (RTA) Turbine Based Combined Cycle (TBCC) project, and the Propulsion & Power Base R&T - Smart Efficient Components (SEC), and Revolutionary Aeropropulsion Concepts (RAC) Projects. In addition, highlights are presented of the turbine aero-heat transfer work currently underway at NASA Glenn, focusing on the use of the Glenn-HT Navier- Stokes code as the vehicle for research in turbulence & transition modeling, grid topology generation, unsteady effects, and conjugate heat transfer.

  19. Stroke rehabilitation research needs to be different to make a difference

    PubMed Central

    Stinear, Cathy M.

    2016-01-01

    Stroke continues to be a major cause of adult disability. In contrast to progress in stroke prevention and acute medical management, there have been no major breakthroughs in rehabilitation therapies. Most stroke rehabilitation trials are conducted with patients at the chronic stage of recovery and this limits their translation to clinical practice. Encouragingly, several multi-centre rehabilitation trials, conducted during the first few weeks after stroke, have recently been reported; however, all were negative. There is a renewed focus on improving the quality of stroke rehabilitation research through greater harmonisation and standardisation of terminology, trial design, measures, and reporting. However, there is also a need for more pragmatic trials to test interventions in a way that assists their translation to clinical practice. Novel interventions with a strong mechanistic rationale need to be tested in both explanatory and pragmatic trials if we are to make a meaningful difference to stroke rehabilitation practice and outcomes. PMID:27408689

  20. Membrane biofilm reactors for nitrogen removal: state-of-the-art and research needs.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jong Hyuk; Cicek, Nazim; Oleszkiewicz, Jan A

    2009-01-01

    Historical developments up-to-date and operational challenges of membrane biofilm reactor (MBfR) were reviewed. A database of international, peer-reviewed journal articles regarding MBfR research from 1984 to 2008 was established and analyzed with a total of 107 papers. MBfR studies began to evolve in the early 1980s, since then the number of published papers increased steadily. After 2000, geographic locations where the research was conducted widened beyond North America and Europe to Asia. Research studies were divided into 4 categories and reviewed according to their main research focuses. In spite of the short history of MBfRs, studies have shown promising potential, possibly extending their application beyond nitrogen removal and organics removal. The MBfR research branched out to new fields including autotrophic denitrification. There are some important aspects of MBfRs that pose significant challenges to the application of this technology on a commercial scale in the near-future. The main challenge revolves around biofilm thickness and activity control. Further laboratory and demonstration scale studies on some of the proposed strategies for biofilm control are needed. Ultimately, more field studies with real wastewater should be performed to evaluate the resilience of the process in the face of flow and strength fluctuations, establishing optimum operational strategies. PMID:19934494

  1. Alternatives Assessment Frameworks: Research Needs for the Informed Substitution of Hazardous Chemicals

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, Molly M.; Malloy, Timothy F.; Tickner, Joel A.; Edwards, Sally

    2015-01-01

    Background Given increasing pressures for hazardous chemical replacement, there is growing interest in alternatives assessment to avoid substituting a toxic chemical with another of equal or greater concern. Alternatives assessment is a process for identifying, comparing, and selecting safer alternatives to chemicals of concern (including those used in materials, processes, or technologies) on the basis of their hazards, performance, and economic viability. Objectives The purposes of this substantive review of alternatives assessment frameworks are to identify consistencies and differences in methods and to outline needs for research and collaboration to advance science policy practice. Methods This review compares methods used in six core components of these frameworks: hazard assessment, exposure characterization, life-cycle impacts, technical feasibility evaluation, economic feasibility assessment, and decision making. Alternatives assessment frameworks published from 1990 to 2014 were included. Results Twenty frameworks were reviewed. The frameworks were consistent in terms of general process steps, but some differences were identified in the end points addressed. Methodological gaps were identified in the exposure characterization, life-cycle assessment, and decision–analysis components. Methods for addressing data gaps remain an issue. Discussion Greater consistency in methods and evaluation metrics is needed but with sufficient flexibility to allow the process to be adapted to different decision contexts. Conclusion Although alternatives assessment is becoming an important science policy field, there is a need for increased cross-disciplinary collaboration to refine methodologies in support of the informed substitution and design of safer chemicals, materials, and products. Case studies can provide concrete lessons to improve alternatives assessment. Citation Jacobs MM, Malloy TF, Tickner JA, Edwards S. 2016. Alternatives assessment frameworks: research

  2. Mass storage system experiences and future needs at the National Center for Atmospheric Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olear, Bernard T.

    1991-01-01

    A summary and viewgraphs of a discussion presented at the National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC) Mass Storage Workshop is included. Some of the experiences of the Scientific Computing Division at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) dealing the the 'data problem' are discussed. A brief history and a development of some basic mass storage system (MSS) principles are given. An attempt is made to show how these principles apply to the integration of various components into NCAR's MSS. Future MSS needs for future computing environments is discussed.

  3. Using community-based participatory research to address Chinese older women's health needs: Toward sustainability.

    PubMed

    Chang, E-Shien; Simon, Melissa A; Dong, XinQi

    2016-01-01

    Although community-based participatory research (CBPR) has been recognized as a useful approach for eliminating health disparities, less attention is given to how CBPR projects may address gender inequalities in health for immigrant older women. The goal of this article is to share culturally sensitive strategies and lessons learned from the PINE study-a population-based study of U.S. Chinese older adults that was strictly guided by the CBPR approach. Working with Chinese older women requires trust, respect, and understanding of their unique historical, social, and cultural positions. We also discuss implications for developing impact-driven research partnerships that meet the needs of this vulnerable population. PMID:27310870

  4. Photovoice in Kenya: Using a Community-Based Participatory Research Method to Identify Health Needs.

    PubMed

    Kingery, Francesca P; Naanyu, Violet; Allen, William; Patel, Pradip

    2016-01-01

    Photovoice, a community-based participatory research method, was utilized to delineate the health-related needs of a small rural community in Kenya. Within the Cherangany Constituency, 13 women were recruited and trained in digital photography and appropriate ethical conduct in photography (respect for privacy, consent, and confidentiality). Both individual and group interviews were conducted with the participants, and data were transcribed and analyzed for common themes by both the participants and the researcher. Common themes present in the photos were coded and prioritized in order of importance: (a) school fees, (b) water, (c) hospital fees, (d) sanitation, (e) orphans, (f) widows, (g) lack of jobs/capital, (h) disabilities, and (i) presence of disease. Data from this study will be utilized for (a) development of culturally competent health education, (b) site-specific education/training of incoming medical teams, and (c) informative meetings with local leaders regarding health and associated challenges. PMID:26679942

  5. Air pollutant interactions with vegetation: research needs in data acquisition and interpretation

    SciTech Connect

    Lindberg, S. E.; McLauglin, S. B.

    1980-01-01

    The objective of this discussion is to consider problems involved in the acquisition, interpretation, and application of data collected in studies of air pollutant interactions with the terrestrial environment. Emphasis will be placed on a critical evaluation of current deficiencies and future research needs by addressing the following questions: (1) which pollutants are either sufficiently toxic, pervasive, or persistent to warrant the expense of monitoring and effects research; (2) what are the interactions of multiple pollutants during deposition and how do these influence toxicity; (3) how de we collect, report, and interpret deposition and air quality data to ensure its maximum utility in assessment of potential regional environmental effects; (4) what processes do we study, and how are they measured to most efficiently describe the relationship between air quality dose and ultimate impacts on terrestrial ecosystems; and (5) how do we integrate site-specific studies into regional estimates of present and potential environmental degradation (or benefit).

  6. Obesity, physical activity, and the urban environment: public health research needs.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Russell P; Hynes, H Patricia

    2006-01-01

    Persistent trends in overweight and obesity have resulted in a rapid research effort focused on built environment, physical activity, and overweight. Much of the focus of this research has been on the design and form of suburbs. It suggests that several features of the suburban built environment such as low densities, poor street connectivity and the lack of sidewalks are associated with decreased physical activity and an increased risk of being overweight. But compared to suburban residents, inner city populations have higher rates of obesity and inactivity despite living in neighborhoods that are dense, have excellent street connectivity and who's streets are almost universally lined with sidewalks. We suggest that the reasons for this apparent paradox are rooted in the complex interaction of land use, infrastructure and social factors affecting inner city populations. Sometimes seemingly similar features are the result of very different processes, necessitating different policy responses to meet these challenges. For example, in suburbs, lower densities can result from government decision making that leads to restrictive zoning and land use issues. In the inner city, densities may be lowered because of abandonment and disinvestment. In the suburbs, changes in land use regulations could result in a healthier built environment. In inner cities, increasing densities will depend on reversing economic trends and investment decisions that have systematically resulted in distressed housing, abandoned buildings and vacant lots. These varying issues need to be further studied in the context of the totality of urban environments, incorporating what has been learned from other disciplines, such as economics and sociology, as well as highlighting some of the more successful inner city policy interventions, which may provide examples for communities working to improve their health. Certain disparities among urban and suburban populations in obesity and overweight, physical

  7. Declines of greater and lesser scaup populations: issues, hypotheses, and research needs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Austin, J.E.; Afton, A.D.; Anderson, M.G.; Clark, R.G.; Custer, Christine M.; Lawrence, J.; Pollard, J.B.; Ringelman, J.K.

    2000-01-01

    The population estimate for greater (Aythya marila) and lesser (Aythya affinis) scaup (combined) has declined dramatically since the early 1980s to record lows in 1998. The 1998 estimate of 3.47 million scaup is far below the goal of 6.3 million set in the North American Waterfowl Management Plan (NAWMP), causing concern among biologists and hunters. We summarize issues of concern, hypotheses for factors contributing to the population decline, and research and management needs recommended by participants of the Scaup Workshop, held in September 1999. We believe that contaminants, lower female survival, and reduced recruitment due to changes in food resources or breeding-ground habitats are primary factors contributing to the decline. These factors are not mutually exclusive but likely interact across seasons. Workshop participants identified seven action items. We need to further delineate where declines in breeding populations have occurred, with a primary focus on the western Canadian boreal forest, where declines appear to be most pronounced. Productivity in various areas and habitats throughout the breeding range needs to be assessed by conducting retrospective analyses of existing data and by intensive field studies at broad and local scales. Annual and seasonal survival rates need to be determined in order to assess the role of harvest or natural mortality. Effects of contaminants on reproduction, female body condition, and behavior must be investigated. Use, distribution, and role of food resources relative to body condition and reproduction need to be examined to better understand seasonal dynamics of nutrient reserves and the role in reproductive success. Affiliations among breeding, migration, and wintering areas must be assessed in order to understand differential exposure to harvest or contaminants, and differential reproductive success and recruitment. Biologists and agencies need to gather and improve information needed to manage greater and lesser

  8. Needs and opportunities for improving the health, safety, and productivity of medical research facilities.

    PubMed Central

    Hodgson, M; Brodt, W; Henderson, D; Loftness, V; Rosenfeld, A; Woods, J; Wright, R

    2000-01-01

    Medical research facilities, indeed all the nation's constructed facilities, must be designed, operated, and maintained in a manner that supports the health, safety, and productivity of the occupants. The National Construction Goals, established by the National Science and Technology Council, envision substantial improvements in occupant health and worker productivity. The existing research and best practices case studies support this conclusion, but too frequently building industry professionals lack the knowledge to design, construct, operate, and maintain facilities at these optimum levels. There is a need for more research and more collaborative efforts between medical and facilities engineering researchers and practitioners in order to attain the National Construction Goals. Such collaborative efforts will simultaneously support attainment of the National Health Goals. This article is the summary report of the Healthy Buildings Committee for the Leadership Conference: Biomedical Facilities and the Environment sponsored by the National Institutes of Health, the National Association of Physicians for the Environment, and the Association of Higher Education Facilities Officers on 1--2 November 1999 in Bethesda, Maryland, USA. PMID:11124125

  9. Operational research for improved tuberculosis control: the scope, the needs and the way forward.

    PubMed

    Lienhardt, C; Cobelens, F G J

    2011-01-01

    The promotion of research is one of the main components of the World Health Organizations Stop TB Strategy, which includes 'programme-based operational research (OR)' and 'research on introducing new tools into practice'. The importance of OR in improving tuberculosis (TB) control was recognised a long time ago, and historical OR studies have been instrumental in the development of major strategies for TB control. Although a growing number of OR projects are being conducted in the world today, little is known about their results or their likely impact on TB control programmes. As funding organisations increasingly recognise the need for OR, we propose a rational framework to conduct OR, which covers a spectrum from local setting-oriented to international policy guiding research, and determines the relevance, replicability and generalisability of the results. OR in TB control is aimed at 1) improving programme performance; 2) assessing the feasibility, effectiveness and impact of new strategies or interventions on TB control; and 3) collecting evidence to guide policy recommendations on specific interventions. This requires strengthened capacity to plan and conduct OR in low-income countries and appropriate support to conduct both nationally and internationally led OR projects. Suggestions are made for potential steps for improved purpose-driven OR, which may help to improve TB control locally and inform policy recommendations internationally. PMID:21276290

  10. The ideal of standards and the reality of schools: Needed research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Ronald D.; Helms, Jenifer V.

    2001-01-01

    : Research potentially can assist in the process of implementing the National Science Education Standards. Existing research shows that changes called for in the Standards are difficult to put into practice, create dilemmas for teachers, require significant changes in teachers' values and beliefs, are fostered when change is pursued within departments within schools, are influenced powerfully by teacher collaboration in the work context, are often resisted strongly by parents, and often demand new student roles and different student work. The results of research on reform do not give a definitive picture of the most productive roles for students, the nature of the desired student work, how teachers can best be engaged in reassessing values and beliefs and taking responsibility for acquiring new professional competencies, how to realize science for all, and the most effective ways of involving parents. Research is needed which will: (1) be approached from multiple perspectives, (2) be conducted in the real world, (3) focus on interventions into conventional school practice, (4) not assume change can be driven from the top down, (5) be interpretive in nature, (6) focus on student roles and student work, (7) give major attention to teacher learning, (8) attend to parents' concerns, and (9) be approached systemically.

  11. Viewing Challenge as Opportunity: A Climate Diagnostics Center Perspective on Meeting the Needs of Audiences Outside of the Research Community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, J. A.; Deluisi, B.; Ray, A. J.

    2004-12-01

    Although the day-to-day activities at the NOAA-CIRES Climate Diagnostics Center (CDC) focus on the efforts of the scientific research community, our mission includes the charge to "develop new climate products that better serve the needs of the public and decision-makers." Meeting this goal involves not only developing these products, but also making the public and policy-makers aware of the resources and guiding them in the use of the climate products. Among the challenges involved in this "knowledge transfer" are the fact that we need to reach audiences which may not be accustomed to interpreting, evaluating, and using information at the same level as a member of the scientific research community. Additionally, these audiences may not have access to the information in any sort of built-in way, whereas the scientific research community by definition includes the interchange of ideas via journals, seminars, and regularly scheduled conferences. This presentation will focus on recent efforts at CDC to communicate with the public and policy-makers. In the first case, we focus on the results of taking the opportunity to discuss our work at an event open to the general public, in particular grade-school and middle-school aged children. At this event, our goal was to clearly illustrate the differences between "climate," "weather," "climate variability" and "climate change" in a very basic way. In the second case, we review the methods and status of a user study affiliated with the Western Water Assessment project. This study focuses on identifying the needs of users (in this case, the water provider/water management community). This example illustrates the importance of identifying the user needs and their current knowledge level, so that the appropriate climate products can then be supplied to the user community. Finally, we review the CDC web site content which has evolved specifically in response to feedback from non-research users, and discuss the challenges of, and

  12. A call for research: the need to better understand the impact of support groups for suicide survivors.

    PubMed

    Cerel, Julie; Padgett, Jason H; Conwell, Yeates; Reed, Gerald A

    2009-06-01

    Support groups for suicide survivors (those individuals bereaved following a suicide) are widely used, but little research evidence is available to determine their efficacy. This paper outlines the pressing public health need to conduct research and determine effective ways to identify and meet the needs of suicide survivors, particularly through survivor support groups. After describing the various approaches to survivor support groups, we explain the need for further research, despite the inherent challenges. Finally, we pose several questions for researchers to consider as they work with survivors to develop a research agenda that sheds more light on the experiences of survivors and the help provided by survivor support groups. PMID:19606919

  13. Twenty-First Century Research Needs in Electrostatic Processes Applied to Industry and Medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazumder, M. K.; Sims, R. A.; Biris, A. S.; Srirama, P. K.; Saini, D.; Yurteri, C. U.; Trigwell, S.; De, S.; Sharma, R.

    2005-01-01

    From the early century Nobel Prize winning (1923) experiments with charged oil droplets, resulting in the discovery of the elementary electronic charge by Robert Millikan, to the early 21st century Nobel Prize (2002) awarded to John Fenn for his invention of electrospray ionization mass spectroscopy and its applications to proteomics, electrostatic processes have been successfully applied to many areas of industry and medicine. Generation, transport, deposition, separation, analysis, and control of charged particles involved in the four states of matter: solid, liquid, gas, and plasma are of interest in many industrial and biomedical processes. In this paper, we briefly discuss some of the applications and research needs involving charged particles in industrial and medical applications including: (1) Generation and deposition of unipolarly charged dry powder without the presence of ions or excessive ozone, (2) Control of tribocharging process for consistent and reliable charging, (3) Thin film (less than 25 micrometers) powder coating and Powder coating on insulative surfaces, (4) Fluidization and dispersion of fine powders, (5) Mitigation of Mars dust, (6) Effect of particle charge on the lung deposition of inhaled medical aerosols, (7) Nanoparticle deposition, and (8) Plasma/Corona discharge processes. A brief discussion on the measurements of charged particles and suggestions for research needs are also included.

  14. Research needs for assessing iodine intake, iodine status, and the effects of maternal iodine supplementation.

    PubMed

    Ershow, Abby G; Goodman, Gay; Coates, Paul M; Swanson, Christine A

    2016-09-01

    The Office of Dietary Supplements of the NIH convened 3 workshops on iodine nutrition in Rockville, Maryland, in 2014. The purpose of the current article is to summarize and briefly discuss a list of research and resource needs developed with the input of workshop participants. This list is composed of the basic, clinical, translational, and population studies required for characterizing the benefits and risks of iodine supplementation, along with related data, analyses, evaluations, methods development, and supporting activities. Ancillary studies designed to use the participant, biological sample, and data resources of ongoing and completed studies (including those not originally concerned with iodine) may provide an efficient, cost-effective means to address some of these research and resource needs. In the United States, the foremost question is whether neurobehavioral development in the offspring of mildly to moderately iodine-deficient women is improved by maternal iodine supplementation during pregnancy. It is important to identify the benefits and risks of iodine supplementation in all population subgroups so that supplementation can be targeted, if necessary, to avoid increasing the risk of thyroid dysfunction and related adverse health effects in those with high iodine intakes. Ultimately, there will be a need for well-designed trials and other studies to assess the impact of maternal supplementation on neurodevelopmental outcomes in the offspring. However, 2 basic information gaps loom ahead of such a study: the development of robust, valid, and convenient biomarkers of individual iodine status and the identification of infant and toddler neurobehavioral development endpoints that are sensitive to mild maternal iodine deficiency during pregnancy and its reversal by supplementation. PMID:27534640

  15. A Research Needs Assessment for waste plastics recycling: Volume 1, Executive summary. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-01

    This first volume provides a summary of the entire project. The study utilized the talents of a large number of participants, including a significant number of peer reviewers from industrial companies, government agencies, and research institutes. in addition, an extensive analysis of relevant literature was carried out. In considering the attractiveness of recycling technologies that are alternatives to waste-to-energy combustion units, a systems approach was utilized. Collection of waste streams containing plastics, sortation, and reclamation of plastics and plastic mixtures, reprocessing or chemical conversion of the reclaimed polymers, and the applicability of the products to specific market segments have been analyzed in the study.

  16. Post-disaster mental health need assessment surveys - the challenge of improved future research.

    PubMed

    Kessler, Ronald C; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich

    2008-12-01

    Disasters are very common occurrences, becoming increasingly prevalent throughout the world. The number of natural disasters either affecting more than 100 people or resulting in a call for international assistance, increased from roughly 100 per year worldwide in the late 1960s, to over 500 per year in the past decade. Population growth, environmental degradation, and global warming all play parts in accounting for these increases. There is also the possibility of a pandemic. This paper and associated journal issue focuses on the topic of growing worldwide importance: mental health needs assessment in the wake of large-scale disasters. Although natural and human-made disasters are known to have substantial effects on the mental health of the people who experience them, research shows that the prevalence of post-disaster psychopathology varies enormously from one disaster to another in ways that are difficult to predict merely by knowing the objective circumstances of the disaster. Mental health needs assessment surveys are consequently carried out after many large-scale natural and human-made disasters to provide information for service planners on the nature and magnitude of need for services. These surveys vary greatly, though, in the rigor with which they assess disaster-related stressors and post-disaster mental illness. Synthesis of findings across surveys is hampered by these inconsistencies. The typically limited focus of these surveys with regard to the inclusion of risk factors, follow-up assessments, and evaluations of treatment, also limit insights from these surveys concerning post-disaster mental illness and treatment response. The papers in this issue discuss methodological issues in the design and implementation of post-disaster mental health needs assessment surveys aimed at improving on the quality of previous such surveys. The many recommendations in these papers will hopefully help to foster improvements in the next generation of post

  17. Occurrence of 210Po and Biological Effects of Low-Level Exposure: The Need for Research

    PubMed Central

    Wiemels, Joseph L.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Polonium-210 (210Po) concentrations that exceed 1 Bq/L in drinking-water supplies have been reported from four widely separated U.S. states where exposure to it went unnoticed for decades. The radionuclide grandparents of 210Po are common in sediments, and segments of the public may be chronically exposed to low levels of 210Po in drinking water or in food products from animals raised in contaminated areas. Objectives: We summarized information on the environmental behavior, biokinetics, and toxicology of 210Po and identified the need for future research. Methods: Potential linkages between environmental exposure to 210Po and human health effects were identified in a literature review. Discussion: 210Po accumulates in the ovaries where it kills primary oocytes at low doses. Because of its radiosensitivity and tendency to concentrate 210Po, the ovary may be the critical organ in determining the lowest injurious dose for 210Po. 210Po also accumulates in the yolk sac of the embryo and in the fetal and placental tissues. Low-level exposure to 210Po may have subtle, long-term biological effects because of its tropism towards reproductive and embryonic and fetal tissues where exposure to a single alpha particle may kill or damage critical cells. 210Po is present in cigarettes and maternal smoking has several effects that appear consistent with the toxicology of 210Po. Conclusions: Much of the important biological and toxicological research on 210Po is more than four decades old. New research is needed to evaluate environmental exposure to 210Po and the biological effects of low-dose exposure to it so that public health officials can develop appropriate mitigation measures where necessary. PMID:22538346

  18. Solar energy development and aquatic ecosystems in the southwestern United States: potential impacts, mitigation, and research needs.

    PubMed

    Grippo, Mark; Hayse, John W; O'Connor, Ben L

    2015-01-01

    The cumulative impacts of utility-scale solar energy facilities on aquatic ecosystems in the Southwestern United States are of concern, considering the many existing regional anthropogenic stressors. We review the potential impacts of solar energy development on aquatic habitat and biota. The greatest potential for impacts is related to the loss, fragmentation, or prolonged drying of ephemeral water bodies and drainage networks resulting from the loss of desert washes within the construction footprint of the facility. Groundwater-dependent aquatic habitat may also be affected by operational groundwater withdrawal in the case of water-intensive solar technologies. Solar panels have also been found to attract aquatic insects and waterbirds, potentially resulting in mortality. Avoiding construction activity near perennial and intermittent surface waters is the primary means of reducing impacts on aquatic habitats, followed by measures to minimize erosion, sedimentation, and contaminant inputs into waterways. Currently, significant data gaps make solar facility impact assessment and mitigation more difficult. Examples include the need for more regional and site-specific studies of surface-groundwater connectivity, more detailed maps of regional stream networks and riparian vegetation corridors, as well as surveys of the aquatic communities inhabiting ephemeral streams. In addition, because they often lack regulatory protection, there is also a need to develop valuation criteria for ephemeral waters based on their ecological and hydrologic function within the landscape. By addressing these research needs, we can achieve the goal of greater reliance on solar energy, while at the same time minimizing impacts on desert ecosystems. PMID:25331641

  19. Solar Energy Development and Aquatic Ecosystems in the Southwestern United States: Potential Impacts, Mitigation, and Research Needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grippo, Mark; Hayse, John W.; O'Connor, Ben L.

    2015-01-01

    The cumulative impacts of utility-scale solar energy facilities on aquatic ecosystems in the Southwestern United States are of concern, considering the many existing regional anthropogenic stressors. We review the potential impacts of solar energy development on aquatic habitat and biota. The greatest potential for impacts is related to the loss, fragmentation, or prolonged drying of ephemeral water bodies and drainage networks resulting from the loss of desert washes within the construction footprint of the facility. Groundwater-dependent aquatic habitat may also be affected by operational groundwater withdrawal in the case of water-intensive solar technologies. Solar panels have also been found to attract aquatic insects and waterbirds, potentially resulting in mortality. Avoiding construction activity near perennial and intermittent surface waters is the primary means of reducing impacts on aquatic habitats, followed by measures to minimize erosion, sedimentation, and contaminant inputs into waterways. Currently, significant data gaps make solar facility impact assessment and mitigation more difficult. Examples include the need for more regional and site-specific studies of surface-groundwater connectivity, more detailed maps of regional stream networks and riparian vegetation corridors, as well as surveys of the aquatic communities inhabiting ephemeral streams. In addition, because they often lack regulatory protection, there is also a need to develop valuation criteria for ephemeral waters based on their ecological and hydrologic function within the landscape. By addressing these research needs, we can achieve the goal of greater reliance on solar energy, while at the same time minimizing impacts on desert ecosystems.

  20. Training Needs of Nurses in Public Hospitals in Australia: Review of Current Practices and Future Research Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlisle, Joanna; Bhanugopan, Ramudu; Fish, Alan

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to provide an overview of the concept of training needs analysis (TNA), current practice, models and the impact that training needs analysis currently has on nurses in public hospitals in Australia. Thus, the paper should aid future research in the area of TNA of nurses through helping researchers to clarify the…