Science.gov

Sample records for additional research questions

  1. Constructivism and Objectivism: Additional Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meltzer, Edmund S.

    2006-01-01

    In past issues of "The Educational Forum," David Elkind (2004; 2005) and Jamin Carson (2005) have engaged in a dialogue about constructivism and objectivism as viable philosophies of education. In this issue, yet another author joins in the discussion by questioning the role of science and religion in objectivism.

  2. Questions for Music Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorgensen, Estelle R.

    2008-01-01

    In addressing the question-set "What questions do music education researchers need to address?", an illustrative list of juxtaposed descriptive and normative questions is sketched as follows: What are and should be the dimensions of music education? What are and should be the institutional agencies of music education? What are and should be the…

  3. Asking Research Questions: Theoretical Presuppositions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tenenberg, Josh

    2014-01-01

    Asking significant research questions is a crucial aspect of building a research foundation in computer science (CS) education. In this article, I argue that the questions that we ask are shaped by internalized theoretical presuppositions about how the social and behavioral worlds operate. And although such presuppositions are essential in making…

  4. Questioning the Questions of Instructional Technology Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeves, Thomas C.

    This paper explores the issue of the social relevance of instructional technology research, and examines the state of research in the field today. A modification of Dick and Dick's (1989) research article classification scheme is used to categorize the field's research literature. This new classification scheme represents an effort to distinguish…

  5. Questionable Methods in Alcoholism Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koocher, Gerald P.

    1991-01-01

    Alcoholism research paradigms that use substantial cash incentives to attract participants and that call for alcoholics to consume ethanol in laboratory raise ethical questions. When using such methods, investigators should be obligated to discuss risk-benefit rationales and detail precautionary behaviors to protect participants. Discussion of…

  6. Developing Qualitative Research Questions: A Reflective Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agee, Jane

    2009-01-01

    The reflective and interrogative processes required for developing effective qualitative research questions can give shape and direction to a study in ways that are often underestimated. Good research questions do not necessarily produce good research, but poorly conceived or constructed questions will likely create problems that affect all…

  7. Qualitative Studies: Developing Good Research Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bufkin, Melissa A.

    2006-01-01

    Qualitative research is a type of research process that is widely used to give people a voice while researching a particular subject matter. In using this research process, one must understand how important it is to develop research questions within the qualitative research process. The purpose of this article is to aid researchers in the…

  8. Mental Models of Research: Generating Authentic Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donham, Jean; Heinrich, Jill A.; Bostwick, Kerry A.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we question how we might disrupt positivist research paradigms that preclude students from engaging and experiencing ownership in the research process. We question what we, as professors, could do to facilitate the transition from traditional research reporting to a disposition of inquiry that allows for ambiguity and discovery in…

  9. Questioning Photovoice Research: Whose Voice?

    PubMed

    Evans-Agnew, Robin A; Rosemberg, Marie-Anne S

    2016-07-01

    Photovoice is an important participatory research tool for advancing health equity. Our purpose is to critically review how participant voice is promoted through the photovoice process of taking and discussing photos and adding text/captions. PubMed, Scopus, PsycINFO, and Web of Science databases were searched from the years 2008 to 2014 using the keywords photovoice, photonovella, photovoice and social justice, and photovoice and participatory action research. Research articles were reviewed for how participant voice was (a) analyzed, (b) exhibited in community forums, and (c) disseminated through published manuscripts. Of 21 studies, 13 described participant voice in the data analysis, 14 described participants' control over exhibiting photo-texts, seven manuscripts included a comprehensive set of photo-texts, and none described participant input on choice of manuscript photo-texts. Photovoice designs vary in the advancement of participant voice, with the least advancement occurring in manuscript publication. Future photovoice researchers should expand approaches to advancing participant voice. PMID:26786953

  10. Core questions in domestication research

    PubMed Central

    Zeder, Melinda A.

    2015-01-01

    The domestication of plants and animals is a key transition in human history, and its profound and continuing impacts are the focus of a broad range of transdisciplinary research spanning the physical, biological, and social sciences. Three central aspects of domestication that cut across and unify this diverse array of research perspectives are addressed here. Domestication is defined as a distinctive coevolutionary, mutualistic relationship between domesticator and domesticate and distinguished from related but ultimately different processes of resource management and agriculture. The relative utility of genetic, phenotypic, plastic, and contextual markers of evolving domesticatory relationships is discussed. Causal factors are considered, and two leading explanatory frameworks for initial domestication of plants and animals, one grounded in optimal foraging theory and the other in niche-construction theory, are compared. PMID:25713127

  11. How to Arrive at Good Research Questions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gafoor, K. Abdul

    2008-01-01

    Identifying an area of research a topic, deciding on a problem, and formulating it in to a researchable question are very difficult stages in the whole research process at least for beginners. Few books on research methodology elaborates the various process involved in problem selection and clarification. Viewing research and problem selection as…

  12. Questions about Research That Makes a Difference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, John

    1991-01-01

    Answers the following questions about transformative research: (1) is the concept needed? (2) does it represent a new methodology? (3) how does it relate to social movements? and (4) is it limited to postindustrial societies? (SK)

  13. Learning How to Ask Research Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musante, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Collaborative research is a demanding endeavor, and for a group of undergraduate students tasked with identifying their own interdisciplinary research problem, the challenges are even greater. "It was scary--we didn't know what to ask the professors, and we couldn't decide on a research question," says Miran Park, a student at the University of…

  14. Research Questions in Trade and Industrial Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wichowski, Chester; Walker, Thomas

    Results are reported of a nationwide survey to identify and categorize research questions related to the trade and industrial education area. (Respondents were members of the Policy and Planning Committee and the Research Committee of the American Vocational Association's Trade and Industrial Division, state and territorial supervisors of trade…

  15. Research Questions for the Digital Era Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcum, Deanna B.

    2003-01-01

    Examines three essential questions and suggests areas for research in each: (1) How are digital resource users best served: What resources will they want? How will they want to use them? What services will most enhance use? (2) What elements are required for a coherent preservation strategy covering resources both digital and traditional? (3) What…

  16. Fetal research: the question in the states.

    PubMed

    Baron, C H

    1985-04-01

    Baron, a law professor, traces the history of state and federal regulation of fetal research from 1973 to 1983. He explores the dilemmas raised by research on fetuses, particularly aborted fetuses, and the aspects of fetal research that the federal regulations and state laws were enacted to control. While criticizing many of the states' actions for lack of uniformity and blanket prohibitions based on the status of the fetus or abortus, Baron acknowledges that less-than-perfect legislation is the price of rule making in a pluralistic society that is still working toward a consensus on controversial issues such as abortion and fetal research. Using as an example the 1973-1974 debate between researchers and law makers in Massachusetts, he discusses how advocates on both sides of the fetal research question might educate and persuade each other to reach an acceptable regulatory compromise. PMID:4008234

  17. The most intriguing question in synesthesia research.

    PubMed

    Rouw, Romke; Ridderinkhof, K Richard

    2014-01-01

    This discussion paper forms an insightful addition to the synesthesia literature. Accompanying a steep increase in recent publications on synesthesia, it helps remedy the conspicuous paucity of mechanistic process models explaining the condition. The paper furthermore addresses what is arguably among the most interesting questions: Why do most synesthetes *not* get confused by their additional sensations? This is particularly interesting when phrased in a broader context: What are the mechanisms for deciding which of the sensations we experience reflect something "real" (phenomena in the outside world) and which reflect something that is "not real" (internally generated and private phenomena). PMID:24735051

  18. Linking Research Questions to Mixed Methods Data Analysis Procedures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.; Leech, Nancy L.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the development of research questions in mixed methods studies. First, we discuss the ways that the goal of the study, the research objective(s), and the research purpose shape the formation of research questions. Second, we compare and contrast quantitative research questions and qualitative research…

  19. Rainfall Simulation: methods, research questions and challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ries, J. B.; Iserloh, T.

    2012-04-01

    In erosion research, rainfall simulations are used for the improvement of process knowledge as well as in the field for the assessment of overland flow generation, infiltration, and erosion rates. In all these fields of research, rainfall experiments have become an indispensable part of the research methods. In this context, small portable rainfall simulators with small test-plot sizes of one square-meter or even less, and devices of low weight and water consumption are in demand. Accordingly, devices with manageable technical effort like nozzle-type simulators seem to prevail against larger simulators. The reasons are obvious: lower costs and less time consumption needed for mounting enable a higher repetition rate. Regarding the high number of research questions, of different fields of application, and not least also due to the great technical creativity of our research staff, a large number of different experimental setups is available. Each of the devices produces a different rainfall, leading to different kinetic energy amounts influencing the soil surface and accordingly, producing different erosion results. Hence, important questions contain the definition, the comparability, the measurement and the simulation of natural rainfall and the problem of comparability in general. Another important discussion topic will be the finding of an agreement on an appropriate calibration method for the simulated rainfalls, in order to enable a comparison of the results of different rainfall simulator set-ups. In most of the publications, only the following "nice" sentence can be read: "Our rainfall simulator generates a rainfall spectrum that is similar to natural rainfall!". The most substantial and critical properties of a simulated rainfall are the drop-size distribution, the fall velocities of the drops, and the spatial distribution of the rainfall on the plot-area. In a comparison of the most important methods, the Laser Distrometer turned out to be the most up

  20. Research funds for NCI’s Provocative Questions project announced

    Cancer.gov

    NCI’s Provocative Questions project has announced that it is now seeking applications from researchers eager to influence the state of cancer research by tackling potentially game-changing, but perplexing, scientific questions that could drive progress ag

  1. Early Childhood Teacher Research: From Questions to Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castle, Kathryn

    2011-01-01

    What is early childhood teacher research and why is it important? How does a teacher researcher formulate a research question and a plan for doing research? How do teachers apply research results to effect change? "Early Childhood Teacher Research" is an exciting new resource that will address the sorts of questions and concerns that pre- and…

  2. Forming a Research Question from a Multi-Center Database

    PubMed Central

    Likosky, Donald S.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract: It is not uncommon for individuals to ask biostatisiticians and epidemiologists to assist them with a research project. Often the request is in the shape of statistical analyses. However, most of these requests are nothing more than missed opportunities. This manuscript focuses on the reasons underlying such a statement. Most individuals might say that the most important aspect of a study is its conclusion. Many who would disagree with this sentiment and would feel that the most important aspect of a study rather is the question it intends to address. If this question is not articulated sufficiently, any additional information stemming from the study will most likely be irrelevant. Herein, some principles for formulating (successfully) a question from a multi-center database will be described. PMID:19361039

  3. Separating the Research Question from the Laboratory Techniques: Advancing High-School Biology Teachers' Ability to Ask Research Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hasson, Eilat; Yarden, Anat

    2012-01-01

    Inquiry is essentially a process in which research questions are asked and an attempt is made to find the answers. However, the formulation of operational research questions of the sort used in authentic scientific inquiry is not a trivial task. Here, we set out to explore the possible influence of separating the research question from the…

  4. 10 Questions: Approaches to Research Funding.

    PubMed

    2016-07-01

    We asked four stem cell scientists who recently started their labs or expanded their research programs to share their insights and approaches to obtaining funding. We present highlights from their interview responses here. PMID:27392222

  5. Frequently Asked Questions about Clinical Research

    MedlinePlus

    ... the molecular basis of human genetic diseases, and creating new technologies to accelerate further genetic research. NHGRI investigators are working to uncover the genetic components of common disorders such as cancer, diabetes, and heart disease, as well as less common conditions such ...

  6. Beyond Technology: Questioning, Research and the Information Literate School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenzie, Jamie

    This collection of previously published essays and articles by the author outlines an approach to school research that is meant to prepare students to explore the most demanding and essential questions of life with independence, skill and confidence. The book describes strategies to make student questioning and research central to schooling, and…

  7. Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuntz, Haley

    2007-01-01

    A canoe trip guide for young people gets used to the never-ending flow of questions. Kids are constantly inquiring about how many kilometres have been traveled that day, how many kilometres to go that day, what is for dinner, and when the next set of moving water is coming up. With kids, the questions are endless. Questions often are used as a…

  8. Studying Teacher Preparation: The Questions That Drive Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochran-Smith, Marilyn; Maria Villegas, Ana

    2015-01-01

    This article argues that research on teacher preparation over the last 100 years can be understood in terms of the major questions that researchers examined. The analysis is guided by the framework of "research as historically situated social practice," which emphasizes that researchers' interests, commitments, and social experiences…

  9. Top 10 Research Questions Related to Physical Literacy.

    PubMed

    Longmuir, Patricia E; Tremblay, Mark S

    2016-01-01

    The term physical literacy is relatively new, and its definition, conceptual underpinning, how it is measured, how to change it, and its relationship with holistic health and wellness across the life span are a few of many foundational issues that lack consensus. At present, there are more questions than answers. The purpose of this article is to highlight 10 important research questions related to physical literacy with the hope of fueling future research activity and debate. Input was sought from international experts and practitioners on priorities and research gaps related to physical literacy. This list was supplemented by personal experience and research priorities identified in published manuscripts. From these various sources, the top 10 research questions related to physical literacy were compiled. Research related to physical literacy is in its infancy, and many important, even fundamental research questions and priorities remain unanswered. Research needs are summarized within 4 themes: monitoring physical literacy, understanding the physical literacy journey, enhancing physical literacy, and the benefits of physical literacy. Specific research questions relate to identifying measurable aspects of physical literacy and how they change across cultures and throughout the life span, as well as understanding the individual and environmental factors that describe the physical literacy journey and are effective targets for interventions. Physical literacy is increasingly recognized as the foundation for a healthy active lifestyle; however, robust research demonstrating its constitution, its relationship with health-related outcomes, and intervention strategies for its improvement remains to be completed. PMID:26889582

  10. Using Ethical Questions to Develop Autonomy in Student Researchers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coon, Anne C.

    1989-01-01

    Presents an assignment where students are asked to read, speak, role play, and write on ethical questions, which sharpens and strengthens the research paper component of English composition, while setting the student free in the world of ideas. (RAE)

  11. Begging the Question: Performativity and Studio-Based Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petelin, George

    2014-01-01

    The requirement that candidates in studio-based or practice-led higher degrees by research should formulate a research question has been found to be problematic by some writers. The present article argues that this stance, particularly as it is articulated by proponents of the influential category of "performative research" (Haseman,…

  12. Human milk research for answering questions about human health.

    PubMed

    Wang, Richard Y; Bates, Michael N; Goldstein, Daniel A; Haynes, Suzanne G; Hench, Karen D; Lawrence, Ruth A; Paul, Ian M; Qian, Zhengmin

    2005-10-22

    Concerns regarding human milk in our society are diverse, ranging from the presence of environmental chemicals to the health of breastfed infants and the economic value of breastfeeding to society. The panel convened for the Technical Workshop on Human Milk Surveillance and Biomonitoring for Environmental Chemicals in the United States, held at the Hershey Medical Center, Pennsylvania State College of Medicine, on 24--26 September 2004, considered how human milk research may contribute to environmental health initiatives to benefit society. The panel concluded that infant, maternal, and community health can benefit from studies using human milk biomonitoring. Unlike other biological specimens, human milk provides information regarding exposure of the mother and breastfed infant to environmental chemicals. Some of the health topics relevant to this field of research include disorders of growth and development in infants, cancer origins in women, and characterization of the trend of exposure to environmental chemicals in the community. The research focus will determine the design of the study and the need for the collection of alternative biological specimens and the long-term storage of these specimens. In order to strengthen the ability to interpret study results, it is important to identify reference ranges for the chemicals measured and to control for populations with high environmental chemical exposure, because the amount of data on environmental chemical levels in human milk that is available for comparison is extremely limited. In addition, it will be necessary to validate models used to assess infant exposure from breastfeeding because of the variable nature of current models. Information on differences between individual and population risk estimates for toxicity needs to be effectively communicated to the participant. Human milk research designed to answer questions regarding health will require additional resources to meet these objectives. PMID:16176918

  13. Research in thermal biology: Burning questions for coldwater stream fishes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCullough, D.A.; Bartholow, J.M.; Jager, H.I.; Beschta, R.L.; Cheslak, E.F.; Deas, M.L.; Ebersole, J.L.; Foott, J.S.; Johnson, S.L.; Marine, K.R.; Mesa, M.G.; Petersen, J.H.; Souchon, Y.; Tiffan, K.F.; Wurtsbaugh, W.A.

    2009-01-01

    With the increasing appreciation of global warming impacts on ecological systems, in addition to the myriad of land management effects on water quality, the number of literature citations dealing with the effects of water temperature on freshwater fish has escalated in the past decade. Given the many biological scales at which water temperature effects have been studied, and the growing need to integrate knowledge from multiple disciplines of thermal biology to fully protect beneficial uses, we held that a survey of the most promising recent developments and an expression of some of the remaining unanswered questions with significant management implications would best be approached collectively by a diverse research community. We have identified five specific topic areas of renewed research where new techniques and critical thought could benefit coldwater stream fishes (particularly salmonids): molecular, organism, population/species, community and ecosystem, and policy issues in water quality. Our hope is that information gained through examination of recent research fronts linking knowledge at various scales will prove useful in managing water quality at a basin level to protect fish populations and whole ecosystems. Standards of the past were based largely on incipient lethal and optimum growth rate temperatures for fish species, while future standards should consider all integrated thermal impacts to the organism and ecosystem. ?? Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

  14. Research in thermal biology: Burning questions for coldwater stream fishes

    SciTech Connect

    McCullough, Dr. Dale; Bartholow, Dr. John; Jager, Yetta; al., et.

    2009-01-01

    With the increasing appreciation of global warming impacts on ecological systems in addition to the myriad of land management effects on water quality, the number of literature citations dealing with the effects of water temperature on freshwater fish has escalated in the past decade. Given the many biological scales at which water temperature effects have been studied and the growing need to integrate knowledge from multiple disciplines of thermal biology to fully protect beneficial uses, we held that a survey of the most promising recent developments and an expression of some of the remaining unanswered questions with significant management implications would best be approached collectively by a diverse research community. We have identified five specific topic areas of renewed research where new techniques and critical thought could benefit coldwater stream fishes (particularly salmonids): molecular, organism, population/species, community and ecosystem, and policy issues in water quality. Our hope is that information gained through examination of recent research fronts linking knowledge at various scales will prove useful in managing water quality at a basin level to protect fish populations and whole ecosystems. Standards of the past were based largely on incipient lethal and optimum growth rate temperatures for fish species, while future standards should consider all integrated thermal impacts to the organism and ecosystem.

  15. The Arctic in the Anthropocene: Emerging Research Questions

    SciTech Connect

    Pfirman, Stephanie; Huntington, Henry

    2014-04-29

    The activity was designed to provide guidance on future research questions in the Arctic over the next 10-20 years, identifying the key scientific questions that are emerging in different realms of Arctic science and exploring both disciplinary realms (e.g., marine, terrestrial, atmosphere, cryosphere, and social sciences) and cross cutting realms (e.g., integrated systems science and sustainability science). Based on the emerging research questions, the study also helps identify research infrastructure needs and collaboration opportunities. Attention was given to assessing needs where there may be a mismatch between rates of change and the pace of scientific research. Although it is understood that there is no one answer, the committee was asked to explore how agency decision makers might achieve balance in their research portfolios and associated investments. This report is meant to guide future directions in U.S. Arctic research so that research is targeted on critical scientific and societal questions and conducted as effectively as possible. This activity was sponsored by USARC, DOE, NASA, NOAA, NSF, and the Smithsonian Institution.

  16. Trends and Research Questions in Research on Learning and Schooling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glaser, Robert

    This paper concentrates on cognitive psychological research on school subjects using as illustration work in reading, mathematics, and aptitude for learning. In general, the work in reading research can be characterized in terms of three themes: (1) comprehension as the construction of knowledge; (2) the structure of text; and (3) reading as the…

  17. Student Engagement Research in Higher Education: Questioning an Academic Orthodoxy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zepke, Nick

    2014-01-01

    This article suggests that student engagement research is not often investigated critically. It attempts to change this. After briefly outlining a conceptual framework for student engagement, it explores three critical questions about it. First, it asks whether in trying to be all things in teaching and learning, student engagement focuses too…

  18. Questions of Culture in Distance Learning: A Research Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uzuner, Sedef

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews past research that focused on questions of culture in distance learning. Of specific interest are the studies that examined the influence of culture on students' learning and engagement in asynchronous learning networks (ALNs). The purpose of this review is three-fold: to present the state of knowledge concerning the questions…

  19. Service-Learning Projects Developed from Institutional Research Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zack, Maria; Crow, Greg

    2013-01-01

    Institutional research questions provide an excellent source of interesting problems for service-learning projects for undergraduates in mathematics. This paper discusses how this model has been implemented at Point Loma Nazarene University and provides both examples and practical details. (Contains 6 figures.)

  20. Top 10 research questions related to body composition.

    PubMed

    Going, Scott; Lee, Vinson; Blew, Rob; Laddu, Deepika; Hetherington-Rauth, Megan

    2014-03-01

    An understanding of body composition is crucial to understanding human health, disease, and function. Research in body composition has focused on the development of assessment methods, description of normal changes in body composition with growth and development and aging, and the changes that occur in body composition in response to challenges ranging from illness to planned interventions. Each focus is significant, and in a sense, they are interdependent, because technological advances allow more sophisticated questions to be addressed, which in turn drives the development of better methods. Significant advances have been made in each area, although perhaps surprisingly basic questions remain. For example, growth trajectories are often estimated from cross-sectional data, given the resources needed for long-term observational studies, and thus, longitudinal descriptive data are still needed. Along with advances in laboratory methods, development of field methods remains relevant for screening and clinical practice. Despite recognition of wide interindividual differences in intervention response, average outcomes continue to be emphasized. With technological advances, it is now possible to examine genetic along with nongenetic factors that underlie changes in body composition, and these techniques need to be applied in long-term, well-controlled trials. In this article, we review 10 key questions in related areas in which research is needed to continue to advance the field. PMID:24749235

  1. Cosmic Questions: Engaging science museum audiences with current astronomical research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dussault, M.; Gould, R.; Sneider, C.; Cohen, S.

    2003-05-01

    "Cosmic Questions: Our Place in Space and Time" is a major new traveling exhibition and education project that will enable millions of Americans to learn how recent discoveries have shed light on-and raised new questions about-our place in the cosmos. Created by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory with funding from the National Science Foundation and from NASA's Office of Space Science, the highly interactive exhibition opened at Boston's Museum of Science this past fall. In February 2003 it began its 3-year national tour under the management of the Association of Science-Technology Centers. Staff from the Museum of Science, in partnership with the CfA, developed a comprehensive set of educational programs, activities and events for museum staff, for teachers and students, and for public audiences. Both the exhibition and accompanying programs involve audiences in learning about the tools, techniques, and research that have allowed us to find some amazing answers to such enduring questions as: What is our place in the universe? Was there a beginning to time? How do we fit in? Evaluation data- including extensive observations, exit interviews, and follow-up phone surveys- suggest that a large majority of visitors could describe new learning and articulate new questions they had as a result of experiencing Cosmic Questions exhibits and programs. Indeed, the evaluation report states that "those interviewed often volunteered an unusual amount of reflective comments compared to visitors at other exhibits." This presentation will highlight how the content, approach, design, development and implementation of this project were (and continue to be) shaped by the significant involvement and contributions of astronomers, observatories and space science education and public outreach programs.

  2. Organizational Issues and Human Resource Development Research Questions. A Guide for Researchers in Human Resource Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Ronald L., Ed.

    The nine papers in this monograph, written by members of the University Council for Research in Human Resource Development, respond to the following questions: What is the most important organizational issue of the 1990s, and what human resource development (HRD) research questions might be generated from this issue? The papers are as follows: (1)…

  3. Using Research to Inform Healthcare Managers’ And Policy Makers’ Questions: From Summative to Interpretive Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Lomas, Jonathan

    2005-01-01

    This paper highlights the importance of research synthesis for healthcare managers’ and policy makers’ questions and the difficulty of generalizing from the methods used to answer clinicians’ questions. Social science research has a central role in such syntheses because of the context-dependent nature of managers’ and policy makers’ questions, which generally encompass a far broader spectrum than the circumscribed “what works?” questions of clinically oriented reviews. A major challenge is in moving from purely researcher-driven processes, which summarize research, to co-production processes, which allow managers and policy makers to join with researchers in interpreting implications for the healthcare system. Additional challenges lie in clearly defining the function, role and objective of the synthesis; handling flexibility around finalizing the question; harnessing a manageable scope of literature to review; adopting rules to select the final sample of research; creating useful messages; and developing a format that is responsive to the needs and preferences of the audience. One inevitable conclusion is that research synthesis for managers and policy makers will, compared to that for clinicians, leave much discretion in the hands of the synthesiser(s). This raises the interesting issue of how to engender, in the absence of “methodological checklists,” trust and credibility in both the people doing the synthesis and the processes they use. PMID:19308103

  4. Proposing an Argument for Research Questions that Could Create Permeable Boundaries within Qualitative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koro-Ljungberg, Mirka; Hayes, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    In this conceptual paper, we discuss how carefully developed research questions may support qualitative researchers by providing boundaries for their study designs. These boundaries could indicate a researcher's epistemological and theoretical connections and support his or her research choices. Although these boundaries are permeable and in flux,…

  5. The Timing of the Research Question: First-Year Writing Faculty and Instruction Librarians' Differing Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nutefall, Jennifer E.; Ryder, Phyllis Mentzell

    2010-01-01

    Faculty and librarians agree on the qualities of a good research question. However, in an exploratory study, they differed on when students should develop their research question. While librarians stated that students should develop their question early, first-year writing faculty advocated for delaying the development of the research question.…

  6. Top 10 research questions related to energy balance.

    PubMed

    Shook, Robin P; Hand, Gregory A; Blair, Steven N

    2014-03-01

    Obesity is the result of a mismatch between the amount of calories consumed and the amount of calories expended during an extended period of time. This relationship is described by the energy balance equation, which states the rate of change in energy storage depots in the body are equal to the rate of energy intake minus the rate of energy expenditure. Although this relationship may appear easy to understand based on simple mathematics, in reality, a variety of known and unknown systems influence the components of energy balance (energy storage, energy intake, energy expenditure). Clearly, if a complete understanding of energy balance was apparent, worldwide levels of obesity would not have reached pandemic proportions due to effective prevention and treatment strategies. The aim of the present article is to provide a brief overview of the components of energy balance and to identify 10 key topics and unanswered questions that would move the research field forward if addressed. These topics are intentionally diverse and range from general themes (e.g., methodological issues) to specific areas (e.g., intensity of exercise required to alter energy intake). Although this list is not meant to be exhaustive, it does provide a research agenda for scientists involved in the study of energy balance and recommendations for public health professionals developing obesity interventions. PMID:24749236

  7. Top 10 Research Questions Related to Teaching Games for Understanding.

    PubMed

    Memmert, Daniel; Almond, Len; Bunker, David; Butler, Joy; Fasold, Frowin; Griffin, Linda; Hillmann, Wolfgang; Hüttermann, Stefanie; Klein-Soetebier, Timo; König, Stefan; Nopp, Stephan; Rathschlag, Marco; Schul, Karsten; Schwab, Sebastian; Thorpe, Rod; Furley, Philip

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we elaborate on 10 current research questions related to the "teaching games for understanding" (TGfU) approach with the objective of both developing the model itself and fostering game understanding, tactical decision making, and game-playing ability in invasion and net/wall games: (1) How can existing scientific approaches from different disciplines be used to enhance game play for beginners and proficient players? (2) How can state-of-the-art technology be integrated to game-play evaluations of beginners and proficient players by employing corresponding assessments? (4) How can complexity thinking be utilized to shape day-to-day physical education (PE) and coaching practices? (5) How can game making/designing be helpfully utilized for emergent learning? (6) How could purposeful game design create constraints that enable tactical understanding and skill development through adaptive learning and distributed cognition? (7) How can teacher/coach development programs benefit from game-centered approaches? (8) How can TGfU-related approaches be implemented in teacher or coach education with the goal of facilitating preservice and in-service teachers/coaches' learning to teach and thereby foster their professional development from novices to experienced practitioners? (9) Can the TGfU approach be considered a helpful model across different cultures? (10) Can physical/psychomotor, cognitive, affective/social, and cultural development be fostered via TGfU approaches? The answers to these questions are critical not only for the advancement of teaching and coaching in PE and sport-based clubs, but also for an in-depth discussion on new scientific avenues and technological tools. PMID:26452580

  8. Top 10 Research Questions Related to Teaching Games for Understanding

    PubMed Central

    Memmert, Daniel; Almond, Len; Bunker, David; Butler, Joy; Fasold, Frowin; Griffin, Linda; Hillmann, Wolfgang; Hüttermann, Stefanie; Klein-Soetebier, Timo; König, Stefan; Nopp, Stephan; Rathschlag, Marco; Schul, Karsten; Schwab, Sebastian; Thorpe, Rod; Furley, Philip

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we elaborate on 10 current research questions related to the “teaching games for understanding” (TGfU) approach with the objective of both developing the model itself and fostering game understanding, tactical decision making, and game-playing ability in invasion and net/wall games: (1) How can existing scientific approaches from different disciplines be used to enhance game play for beginners and proficient players? (2) How can state-of-the-art technology be integrated to game-play evaluations of beginners and proficient players by employing corresponding assessments? (4) How can complexity thinking be utilized to shape day-to-day physical education (PE) and coaching practices? (5) How can game making/designing be helpfully utilized for emergent learning? (6) How could purposeful game design create constraints that enable tactical understanding and skill development through adaptive learning and distributed cognition? (7) How can teacher/coach development programs benefit from game-centered approaches? (8) How can TGfU-related approaches be implemented in teacher or coach education with the goal of facilitating preservice and in-service teachers/coaches’ learning to teach and thereby foster their professional development from novices to experienced practitioners? (9) Can the TGfU approach be considered a helpful model across different cultures? (10) Can physical/psychomotor, cognitive, affective/social, and cultural development be fostered via TGfU approaches? The answers to these questions are critical not only for the advancement of teaching and coaching in PE and sport-based clubs, but also for an in-depth discussion on new scientific avenues and technological tools. PMID:26452580

  9. Research Question, Study Design and Continuous Research Education and Training Exercises (CREATE) Program

    PubMed Central

    Burt, Tal; Sharma, Pooja; Mittal, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    The clinical research project starts with identifying the optimal research question, one that is ethical, impactful, feasible, scientifically sound, novel, relevant, and interesting. The project continues with the design of the study to answer the research question. Such design should be consistent with ethical and methodological principles, and make optimal use of resources in order to have the best chances of identifying a meaningful answer to the research question. Physicians and other healthcare providers are optimally positioned to identify meaningful research questions the answer to which could make significant impact on healthcare delivery. The typical medical education curriculum, however, lacks solid training in clinical research. We propose CREATE (Continuous Research Education And Training Exercises) as a peer- and group-based, interactive, analytical, customized, and accrediting program with didactic, training, mentoring, administrative, and professional support to enhance clinical research knowledge and skills among healthcare professionals, promote the generation of original research projects, increase the chances of their successful completion and potential for meaningful impact. The key features of the program are successive intra- and inter-group discussions and confrontational thematic challenges among participating peers aimed at capitalizing on the groups’ collective knowledge, experience and skills, and combined intellectual processing capabilities to optimize choice of research project elements and stakeholder decision-making. PMID:26855934

  10. The Theory Question in Research Capacity Building in Education: Towards an Agenda for Research and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biesta, Gert; Allan, Julie; Edwards, Richard

    2011-01-01

    The question of capacity building in education has predominantly been approached with regard to the methods and methodologies of educational research. Far less attention has been given to capacity building in relation to theory. In many ways the latter is as pressing an issue as the former, given that good research depends on a combination of high…

  11. Research Methods and Research Questions for the Study of Person-Perception in Adult Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Joseph M.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses three research questions pertinent to person-perception research: (1) identification of dimensions employed by adults in the process of interpersonal perception; (2) developmental changes in the content of expectations; and (3) developmental changes in the role expectations play in influencing behavior. Discusses implicit personality…

  12. Examining Research Questions on Germination from the Perspective of Scientific Creativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demir Kaçan, Sibel

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted with the participation of 31 pre-service science teachers. Participants were asked to develop various research questions on germination. The study aims to examine research questions on the subject germination from the perspective of scientific creativity. The research questions were examined using the fluency, science…

  13. Top 10 research questions to promote physical activity research in people with binge eating disorder.

    PubMed

    Vancampfort, Davy; Rosenbaum, Simon; Probst, Michel; Connaughton, Joanne; Du Plessis, Christy; Yamamoto, Taisei; Diedens, Jolien; Stubbs, Brendon

    2016-01-01

    Despite emerging evidence illustrating the benefits of physical activity for people with binge eating disorder, engaging this population in physical activity is challenging. The International Organization of Physical Therapists in Mental Health (IOPTMH) set out to summarize, appraise, and strengthen the direction of physical activity endeavors. This process led to the identification of 10 important research questions which are discussed. Addressing these 10 research questions is critical for developing evidence-based approaches for promoting and sustaining an active lifestyle in people with binge eating disorder. PMID:26694684

  14. The Process of Question Answering. Research Report No. 88.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehnert, Wendy

    The computational model of question answering proposed by a computer program, QUALM, is a theory of conceptual information processing based on models of human memory organization. It has been developed from the perspective of natural language processing in conjunction with story understanding systems. The processes in QUALM are divided into four…

  15. Home Education Reason and Research: Common Questions and Research-Based Answers about Homeschooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Brian D.

    2009-01-01

    This is a brief review of research on a variety of topics related to home education and answers the most common questions asked regarding Homeschooling. Examples of the topics addressed are: the teaching parent's education level, academic achievement of students, population growth, philosophy, government (state) regulation and homeschool…

  16. Asphalt and asphalt additives. Transportation research record

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    Contents: use of asphalt emulsions for in-place recycling: oregon experience; gap-graded cold asphalt concrete: benefits of polymer-modified asphalt cement and fibers; cold in-place recycling for rehabilitation and widening of low-volume flexible pavements in indiana; in situ cold recycling of bituminous pavements with polymer-modified high float emulsions; evaluation of new generation of antistripping additives; correlation between performance-related characteristics of asphalt cement and its physicochemical parameters using corbett's fractions and hpgc; reaction rates and hardening susceptibilities as determined from pressure oxygen vessel aging of asphalts; evaluation of aging characteristics of asphalts by using tfot and rtfot at different temperature levels; summary of asphalt additive performance at selected sites; relating asphalt absorption to properties of asphalt cement and aggregate; study of the effectiveness of styrene-butadiene rubber latex in hot mix asphalt mixes; stability of straight and polymer-modified asphalts.

  17. From Effect to Effectiveness: The Missing Research Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alsop, Graham; Tompsett, Chris

    2007-01-01

    For many researchers and developers in information and communication technology in education (ICTE), the transfer of knowledge from research into educational practice is slow and limited. For most researchers concerned with changing practice, the failure to make a significant impact is attributed to those who practice in education, whilst those in…

  18. Predicting Individual Research Productivity: More than a Question of Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ito, Jack K.; Brotheridge, Celeste M.

    2007-01-01

    Despite professors' education and socialization and the significant rewards they receive for research activities and output, the 80/20 rule seems to apply; that is, there exists a system of stars who produce a disproportionate volume of research such that most research tends to be undertaken by a small percentage of the academy (Erkut, 2002).…

  19. Questioning Research with Children: Discrepancy between Theory and Practice?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uprichard, Emma

    2010-01-01

    This paper argues that current child and childhood research is problematical in as much as there is a discrepancy between theory and research practice. Although in theory, children are conceptualised as active agents in the social world, the type of research that children are typically involved in implies that children are competent, knowledgeable…

  20. Simulation for human factors research. A central question: Fidelity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagel, D.

    1985-01-01

    Generalized outlines are presented for simulation in human factors research. Recent trends in aeronautical simulation are given. Some criteria for effective training devices are also given. Full system/full mission simulation in aviation and in space human factors research is presented.

  1. Epistemological Questions about Research and Practice in ALM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wedege, Tine

    The new research and practice area of "adults and mathematics" is situated within the didactics of mathematics as it is structured and delimited by the concrete forms of practice and knowledge currently regarded as mathematics teaching, learning, and knowing. "Adults Learning Mathematics" (ALM) is a community of practice and research within the…

  2. Questioning Methodologies in Research on Men in ECEC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohrmann, Tim; Brody, David

    2015-01-01

    Research that elucidates the complexities of gender balance is itself a controversial field. This article examines challenges and limitations in quantitative as well as qualitative research on gender balance in early childhood education and care (ECEC). Cross country comparisons of male and female participation in the ECEC workforce are often…

  3. Learning with IT: Towards a Research Agenda - Questions and Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Ursula

    2000-01-01

    Discusses information and learning technology in further education and higher education, especially in the United Kingdom. Topics include change and the influence of information technology; information technology research in further education; political and social issues; professional development concerns; and research, development, and…

  4. Clinical Research Trials and You: Questions and Answers

    MedlinePlus

    ... volunteers and to preserve the integrity of the science. Ethical guidelines in place today were primarily a response to past research abuses. Informed Consent Informed consent is the process of learning the key facts about a clinical trial before ...

  5. RESEARCH IN THERMAL BIOLOGY: BURNING QUESTIONS FOR COLDWATER STREAM FISHES

    EPA Science Inventory

    With the increasing appreciation of global warming impacts on ecological systems in addition to the myriad of land management effects on water quality, the number of literature citations dealing with the effects of water temperature on freshwater fish has escalated in the past de...

  6. Nutrient Use Efficiency in Bioenergy Cropping Systems: Critical Research Questions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Current U.S. plans for energy security rely on converting large areas of cropland from food to biofuel production. Additionally, lands currently considered too marginal for intensive food production may be considered suitable for biofuels production; predominant cropping systems may shift to more va...

  7. Collaborating in Life Science Research Groups: The Question of Authorship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study explores how life science postdocs' perceptions of contemporary academic career rationales influence how they relate to collaboration within research groups. One consequential dimension of these perceptions is the high value assigned to publications. For career progress, postdocs consider producing publications and…

  8. Researchers Ask Tough Questions of K-12 Charities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrie, Caroline

    2005-01-01

    Private foundations can play a critical, catalytic role in changing American public education for the better, but they could and should be getting more bang for their bucks than they are right now. This article reports on a diverse collection of research papers that aims to shed unprecedented light both on the scope of contemporary education…

  9. Is the wrong question being asked in infertility research?

    PubMed

    Luke, Barbara; Stern, Judy E; Hornstein, Mark D; Kotelchuck, Milton; Diop, Hafsatou; Cabral, Howard; Declercq, Eugene R

    2016-01-01

    A persistent finding is that assisted reproductive technology (ART) is associated with compromised birth outcomes, including higher risks for prematurity, low birthweight, and congenital malformations, even among singletons. Over the past decade, our research group, the Massachusetts Outcome Study of Assisted Reproductive Technology (MOSART), has evaluated pregnancy and birth outcomes among three groups of women, those women treated with ART, those with indicators of subfertility but without ART treatment, and fertile women. We have also explored the influence of infertility-related diagnoses on outcomes for women and infants. Over the course of our research, we have changed our perspective from an original focus on ART treatment parameters as the primary cause of excess morbidity to one centered instead on the underlying infertility-related diagnoses. This paper summarizes the research findings from our group that support this change in focus for infertility-based research from a primary emphasis on ART treatment to greater attention to the contribution of preexisting pathology underlying the infertility and suggests directions for future analyses. PMID:26634257

  10. High Level Thinking and Questioning Strategies. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, Ella

    2010-01-01

    Higher-order thinking is an instructional strategy supported by research. Often referred to as critical thinking skills, it is more than simple recall of facts or information. It is a function of the interaction between cognitive strategies, meta-cognition, and nonstrategic knowledge when solving problems. Higher-order thinking is based on the…

  11. Top 10 Research Questions Related to Body Composition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Going, Scott; Lee, Vinson; Blew, Rob; Laddu, Deepika; Hetherington-Rauth, Megan

    2014-01-01

    An understanding of body composition is crucial to understanding human health, disease, and function. Research in body composition has focused on the development of assessment methods, description of normal changes in body composition with growth and development and aging, and the changes that occur in body composition in response to challenges…

  12. Using SDSS & GalaxyZoo Databases to Ask Research-able Questions in Learning Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slater, Timothy F.

    2010-01-01

    Using Galaxy Zoo1 at: http://zoo1.galaxyzoo.org/ accessing SDSS and a multi-phase backwards faded scaffolding approach, we first ask students to classify 30 galaxies and consider proposed conclusion: "most galaxies are elliptical” based on the evidence collected. Here, student attention is isolated from generating a question or even a data collection protocol, but focused on the issue of "does the evidence match the conclusion?” The next phase focuses on generating conclusions from evidence, whereas the previous phase was focused on evaluating conclusions. Students explain their reasoning provide evidence in response to "What conclusions and generalizations can you make from the following data collected by a student in terms of do spiral galaxies generally spin clockwise or anticlockwise given that one observes 36 spirals spinning clockwise, 21 spirals spinning anticlockwise, and 16 appearing to be edge-on or unclear.” Next, students are asked to consider what evidence needs to be collected in order to complete a scientific inquiry related to a given question. Students propose what evidence is needed in order to pursue, "What fraction of galaxies observed appear to be in the process of merging with other galaxies?” Note students are explicitly asked not to actually gather data as it detracts from developing an understanding of how data collection needs to be tightly aligned with the question. And, in practice, students can intellectually engage with a data collection plan that is simply too ominous to actually collect. By this point, students have extended experience with inquiry in this domain. Students are now ready to wrestle with creating a fruitful question. Students are tasked to design an answerable research question, propose a plan to pursue evidence, collect data using the present astronomical data base and create an evidence-based conclusion about the nature and or frequency of galaxies.

  13. Biomedical Research and Corporate Interests: A Question of Academic Freedom

    PubMed Central

    McHenry, Leemon

    2008-01-01

    The current situation in medicine has been described as a crisis of credibility, as the profit motive of industry has taken control of clinical trials and the dissemination of data. Pharmaceutical companies maintain a stranglehold over the content of medical journals in three ways: (1) by ghostwriting articles that bias the results of clinical trials, (2) by the sheer economic power they exert on journals due to the purchase of drug advertisements and journal reprints, and (3) by the threat of legal action against those researchers who seek to correct the misrepresentation of study results. This paper argues that Karl Popper's critical rationalism provides a corrective to the failure of academic freedom in biomedical research. PMID:22013356

  14. Biomedical research and corporate interests: a question of academic freedom.

    PubMed

    McHenry, Leemon

    2008-01-01

    The current situation in medicine has been described as a crisis of credibility, as the profit motive of industry has taken control of clinical trials and the dissemination of data. Pharmaceutical companies maintain a stranglehold over the content of medical journals in three ways: (1) by ghostwriting articles that bias the results of clinical trials, (2) by the sheer economic power they exert on journals due to the purchase of drug advertisements and journal reprints, and (3) by the threat of legal action against those researchers who seek to correct the misrepresentation of study results. This paper argues that Karl Popper's critical rationalism provides a corrective to the failure of academic freedom in biomedical research. PMID:22013356

  15. Virtual Round Table on ten leading questions for network research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-03-01

    The following discussion is an edited summary of the public debate started during the conference “Growing Networks and Graphs in Statistical Physics, Finance, Biology and Social Systems” held in Rome in September 2003. Drafts documents were circulated electronically among experts in the field and additions and follow-up to the original discussion have been included. Among the scientists participating to the discussion L.A.N. Amaral, A. Barrat, A.L. Barabasi, G. Caldarelli, P. De Los Rios, A. Erzan, B. Kahng, R. Mantegna, J.F.F. Mendes, R. Pastor-Satorras, A. Vespignani are acknowledged for their contributions and editing.

  16. Questions raised over future of UK research council

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, Michael

    2010-02-01

    Five senior physicists have written to the UK science minister, Lord Drayson, about the "dismal future" for researchers in the country in the wake of a £40m shortfall in the budget of the Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC). The physicists, who chair the STFC's five advisory panels, have also called for structural reforms to be made to the council. They warn that unless the government takes action to reverse the situation, the UK will be "perceived as an untrustworthy partner in global projects" and predict that a brain drain of the best UK scientists to positions overseas will ensue.

  17. [Dentists and National Socialism. Systematic Literature Review and Research Questions].

    PubMed

    Schwanke, Enno; Krischel, Matthis; Gross, Dominik

    2016-01-01

    Compared to the rich literature on Nazi medicine in general, the connection between dentists and National Socialism is less well documented. Neither the elites of the field from this era nor those excluded from the profession are catalogued in a systematic manner. The aims of this contribution are to assemble and review the relevant literature and show how German dentistry organizations have handled this chapter of their professional history. Trends in the literature since the 1980s are examined and it is pointed out, which areas have received some attention and which have not yet been addressed. Thus, this contribution will serve as both the basis and the starting point for new research into the field. PMID:27141725

  18. Determining Research Questions on Health Risks by People with Learning Disabilities, Carers and Care-Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Anita F.; Chesson, Rosemary A.

    2008-01-01

    Here we describe the process by which research questions were developed for reducing health risks for people with learning disabilities. A participatory approach was used to give service users and carers a clear voice in "deciding" questions, thereby setting the research agenda. Audio-taped interviews and focus groups were used. Forty people (20…

  19. [Low grade lymphoma: research progress and questions about treatment].

    PubMed

    Ishizawa, Kenichi

    2015-10-01

    Treatment options for follicular lymphoma (FL) are considered when patients have limited stage, low tumor burden advanced stage, and high tumor burden advanced stage disease. Although patients with limited stage FL are managed with radiotherapy (24-36 Gy), watchful waiting (WW), rituximab monotherapy, and rituximab combined with chemotherapy need to be evaluated. In patients with low tumor burdens, WW is regarded as the standard management. The usefulness of rituximab monotherapy was also recently suggested. Rituximab combined with chemotherapy improved overall survival (OS) in patients with high tumor burdens and the optimal reference regimen might be R-CHOP or rituximab combined with bendamustine. As to efficacy, improved relapse-free survival, with rituximab maintenance, has been shown. In patients with primary macroglobulinemia, fludarabine improved both progression-free survival and OS as compared with chlorambucil. As to extra-nodal marginal-zone B cell lymphoma, the addition of rituximab to chlorambucil improves both the response rate and event-free survival. Large clinical trials of lenalidomide, idelalisib, and ibrutinib are now ongoing. PMID:26458443

  20. Emotion Theory and Research: Highlights, Unanswered Questions, and Emerging Issues

    PubMed Central

    Izard, Carroll E.

    2009-01-01

    Emotion feeling is a phase of neurobiological activity, the key component of emotions and emotion-cognition interactions. Emotion schemas, the most frequently occurring emotion experiences, are dynamic emotion-cognition interactions that may consist of momentary/ situational responding or enduring traits of personality that emerge over developmental time. Emotions play a critical role in the evolution of consciousness and the operations of all mental processes. Types of emotion relate differentially to types or levels of consciousness. Unbridled imagination and the ability for sympathetic regulation of empathy may represent both potential gains and losses from the evolution and ontogeny of emotion processes and consciousness. Unresolved issues include psychology’s neglect of levels of consciousness that are distinct from access or reflective consciousness and use of the term “unconscious mind” as a dumpster for all mental processes that are considered unreportable. The relation of memes and the mirror neuron system to empathy, sympathy, and cultural influences on the development of socioemotional skills are unresolved issues destined to attract future research. PMID:18729725

  1. Building Consistency between Title, Problem Statement, Purpose, & Research Questions to Improve the Quality of Research Plans and Reports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Isadore; Covrig, Duane M.

    2013-01-01

    Consistency in the title, problem, purpose, and research question improve the logic and transparency of research. When these components of research are aligned research design and planning are more coherent and research reports are more readable. This article reviews the process for checking for and improving consistency. Numerous examples of…

  2. Top 10 Research Questions Related to Musculoskeletal Physical Fitness Testing in Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plowman, Sharon Ann

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to bring attention to the 10 most pressing questions relevant to musculoskeletal physical fitness testing in children and adolescents. The goal is to stimulate research to answer these questions. The most pressing needs include establishing definitive links between valid, reliable, and feasible field test measures of…

  3. Questions and Answers about Child Care: A Sloan Work and Family Research Network Fact Sheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloan Work and Family Research Network, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The Sloan Work and Family Research Network has prepared Fact Sheets that provide statistical answers to some important questions about work-family and work-life issues. This Fact Sheet includes statistics about Child Care, and answers the following questions about child care: (1) How many children are in child care?; (2) How many hours per week do…

  4. Questions and Answers about AFTERSCHOOL CARE: A Sloan Work and Family Research Network Fact Sheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloan Work and Family Research Network, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The Sloan Work and Family Research Network has prepared Fact Sheets that provide statistical answers to some important questions about work-family and work-life issues. This Fact Sheet includes statistics about Afterschool Care, and answers the following questions about afterschool programs: (1) How does afterschool care help children?; (2) How…

  5. Learning Biology through Research Papers: A Stimulus for Question-Asking by High-School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brill, Gilat; Yarden, Anat

    2003-01-01

    Question-asking is a basic skill, required for the development of scientific thinking. However, the way in which science lessons are conducted does not usually stimulate question-asking by students. To make students more familiar with the scientific inquiry process, we developed a curriculum in developmental biology based on research papers…

  6. A Systematic Review of Research on Questioning as a High-Level Cognitive Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davoudi, Mohammad; Sadeghi, Narges Amel

    2015-01-01

    Given the significance of questioning as a high-level cognitive strategy in language teaching and learning in the literature on TEFL as well as in education in general, this study sought to make a systematic review of research studies conducted in the span of the last three decades on the issue of questioning across different disciplines with a…

  7. Are We Asking the Right Questions? Using Cognitive Interviews to Improve Surveys in Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desimone, Laura M.; Le Floch, Kerstin Carlson

    2004-01-01

    Improving the validity and reliability of surveys is a critical part of the response to the call for improved rigor of education research, policy analysis and evaluation. Too often we create inquiry tools without validating our measures against how respondents interpret our questions, and therefore collect data of questionable quality. The purpose…

  8. Compilation of Agricultural Research, Education, and Extension Questions for Discussion. 104th Congress, 1st Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Agriculture.

    This volume compiles and reprints the responses of 37 organizations to a series of questions issued by the House Committee on Agriculture in anticipation of debates concerning the Research Title of the 1995 Farm Bill due for updating and revision. The questions address some of the following topics: the role of the federal government in…

  9. Top 10 research questions related to assessing physical activity and its contexts using systematic observation.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, Thomas L; van der Mars, Hans

    2015-03-01

    Numerous methods are available to assess physical activity (PA) but systematic observation (SO) excels in being able to provide contextually rich data on the setting in which the activity occurs. As SO is particularly useful for determining how activity is influenced by the immediate physical and social environments, its use is becoming more popular. Observation tools have the advantages of flexibility, high internal validity, low inference, and low participant burden, while their disadvantages include the need for careful observer training and recalibration, inaccessibility to certain environments, and potential participant reactivity. There is a need for both scientists and practitioners to have additional information on observation techniques and systems relative to making environmental and policy decisions about PA, and in this article, we describe concepts and identify questions related to using SO in researching PA behavior. We present 10 general questions in 3 sections, including those related to: (a) ensuring data accuracy through the selection of the most appropriate methodological protocols; (b) investigating PA in school settings, including physical education, recess, and other programs; and (c) investigating PA in community settings (e.g., parks, recreation centers, youth and adult sport programs) and homes. PMID:25664670

  10. Writing a Scientific Research ("Testable") Question: The First Step in Using Online Data Sets for Guided Inquiry Assignments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graves, Chiron; Rutherford, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    Educational research focused on questioning techniques used in classroom settings is quite extensive. However, research regarding a teacher's ability to generate research questions is virtually nonexistent. Posing research or "testable" questions is a key component of inquiry-based instruction, and teachers must be able to both generate these…

  11. Questions Students Ask: Bridging the Gap between Scientists and Students in a Research Institute Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    France, Bev; Bay, Jacquie L.

    2010-01-01

    It was proposed that an analysis of the questions students anticipate asking, and ask, could provide information about an enculturation encounter between Year 13 biology students and scientists working in a biomedical-clinical research unit. As part of a day-long intervention at this research institute, small groups of students (10-15) met with…

  12. Animal Encounters in Environmental Education Research: Responding to the "Question of the Animal"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oakley, Jan; Watson, Gavan P. L.; Russell, Constance L.; Cutter-Mackenzie, Amy; Fawcett, Leesa; Kuhl, Gail; Russell, Joshua; van der Waal, Marlon; Warkentin, Traci

    2010-01-01

    The "question of the animal" represents an area of emergent interest in the environmental education field, as researchers critically consider human-animal relations and animal advocacy in their work. Following a group discussion at the 10th Seminar in Health and Environmental Education Research, the authors of this paper share experiences,…

  13. Narcissism, Entitlement, and Questionable Research Practices in Counseling: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Mark S.; Wester, Kelly L.; King, Bridgett

    2008-01-01

    Although reports of research misconduct and questionable research practices (QRPs) have been prevalent in the literature, very little has been written about these issues in the field of counseling. The current pilot study addresses (a) the continuous drive for evidence-based practice in education and counseling and (b) the relationship between…

  14. Research Questions and Some Tentative Answers about Hospitals: Modeling the Sociology of Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salem, Philip; Williams, M. Lee

    Recent reviews of the literature demonstrate that there is little research providing insight into the nature of hospital communication. Using the model of the sociology of communication, five specific research questions can be generated about hospital communication: (1) How is information processed? (2) What communication is satisfying? (3) What…

  15. Predicting self-reported research misconduct and questionable research practices in university students using an augmented Theory of Planned Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Rajah-Kanagasabai, Camilla J.; Roberts, Lynne D.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the utility of the Theory of Planned Behavior model, augmented by descriptive norms and justifications, for predicting self-reported research misconduct and questionable research practices in university students. A convenience sample of 205 research active Western Australian university students (47 male, 158 female, ages 18–53 years, M = 22, SD = 4.78) completed an online survey. There was a low level of engagement in research misconduct, with approximately one in seven students reporting data fabrication and one in eight data falsification. Path analysis and model testing in LISREL supported a parsimonious two step mediation model, providing good fit to the data. After controlling for social desirability, the effect of attitudes, subjective norms, descriptive norms and perceived behavioral control on student engagement in research misconduct and questionable research practices was mediated by justifications and then intention. This revised augmented model accounted for a substantial 40.8% of the variance in student engagement in research misconduct and questionable research practices, demonstrating its predictive utility. The model can be used to target interventions aimed at reducing student engagement in research misconduct and questionable research practices. PMID:25983709

  16. Beyond procedural ethics: foregrounding questions of justice in global health research ethics training for students.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Matthew R; Godard, Beatrice

    2013-07-01

    Interest in global health is growing among students across many disciplines and fields of study. In response, an increasing number of academic programmes integrate and promote opportunities for international research, service or clinical placements. These activities raise a range of ethical issues and are associated with important training needs for those who participate. In this paper, we focus on research fieldwork conducted in lower income nations by students from more affluent countries and the ethics preparation they would benefit from receiving prior to embarking on these projects. Global health research is closely associated with questions of justice and equity that extend beyond concerns of procedural ethics. Research takes place in and is shaped by matrices of political, social and cultural contexts and concerns. These realities warrant analysis and discussion during research ethics training. Training activities present an opportunity to encourage students to link global health research to questions of global justice, account for issues of justice in planning their own research, and prepare for 'ethics-in-practice' issues when conducting research in contexts of widespread inequality. Sustained engagement with questions of justice and equity during research ethics training will help support students for involvement in global health research. PMID:23706108

  17. Beyond procedural ethics: Foregrounding questions of justice in global health research ethics training for students

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, Matthew R.; Godard, Beatrice

    2013-01-01

    Interest in global health is growing among students across many disciplines and fields of study. In response, an increasing number of academic programmes integrate and promote opportunities for international research, service or clinical placements. These activities raise a range of ethical issues and are associated with important training needs for those who participate. In this paper, we focus on research fieldwork conducted in lower income nations by students from more affluent countries and the ethics preparation they would benefit from receiving prior to embarking on these projects. Global health research is closely associated with questions of justice and equity that extend beyond concerns of procedural ethics. Research takes place in and is shaped by matrices of political, social and cultural contexts and concerns. These realities warrant analysis and discussion during research ethics training. Training activities present an opportunity to encourage students to link global health research to questions of global justice, account for issues of justice in planning their own research, and prepare for ‘ethicsin-practice’ issues when conducting research in contexts of widespread inequality. Sustained engagement with questions of justice and equity during research ethics training will help support students for involvement in global health research. PMID:23706108

  18. Outlining Purposes, Stating the Nature of the Present Research, and Listing Research Questions or Hypotheses in Academic Papers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shehzad, Wasima

    2011-01-01

    Driving research questions from the prevailing issues and interests and developing from them new theories, formulas, algorithms, methods, and designs, and linking them to the interests of the larger audience is a vital component of scientific research papers. The present article discusses outlining purposes or stating the nature of the present…

  19. Mapping the Questions: The State of Writing-Related Transfer Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Jessie

    2012-01-01

    The following article maps the questions, methods, contexts, and theories presented in published scholarship on writing-related transfer. While not exhaustive, this review attempts to capture representative samples with a focus on recent publications. The article then highlights a multi-institutional research initiative that aims to flesh out the…

  20. Television Viewing and Symptoms of Inattention and Hyperactivity across Time: The Importance of Research Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Tara; Barnard-Brak, Lucy; To, Yen

    2009-01-01

    The importance of well-specified research questions in the evaluation of early predictors of later inattention and hyperactivity is examined. In an analysis of a nationally representative sample of 2,717 children aged 4 to 10, latent growth trajectories for television viewing and inattention and hyperactivity are determined and the relationship of…

  1. Answering the Questions of Rape Prevention Research: A Response to Tharp et al. (2011)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foubert, John D.

    2011-01-01

    Rape prevention programmers and researchers have long struggled to select the most appropriate theoretical models to frame their work. Questions abound regarding appropriate standards of evidence for success of program interventions. The present article provides an alternative point of view to the one put forward by seven staff members from the…

  2. The Attitudes of Females in Drug Court Toward Additional Safeguards in HIV Prevention Research

    PubMed Central

    O’Leary, Catina Callahan; Cottler, Linda B.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the attitudes of 97 women from the St. Louis City Drug Court who previously participated in an HIV prevention study. Data from the previous study indicated that the women met multiple criteria for vulnerability in research. Federal regulations require that such participants be provided with “additional safeguards.” The survey explored the following questions: (1) What are participants’ attitudes toward commonly proposed additional safeguards for vulnerable participants in research, and (2) Are attitudes toward safeguards related to participants’ previous compliance with an HIV prevention protocol? Preferences regarding safeguards in research were not significantly related to participants’ compliance in the previous study. Most participants wanted researchers to take extra measures not only to provide consent information, but to ensure that they are not high on drugs, that they understand relevant information, and that they retain consent information at each visit. Most participants wanted researchers themselves, and not a third party, to assume this responsibility. PMID:19452277

  3. Agenda for Researching Teaching (ART): A Visual Model and Research Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leech, Nancy L.; Haug, Carolyn A.; Robinson, Ellen Hill

    2011-01-01

    In response to the dearth of research agendas that connect teacher education and teaching in the field and to the call for more programmatic research, the purpose of this paper is to present the Agenda for Researching Teaching (ART). The ART is a visual research agenda that spans the time from a teacher candidate learning to teach to impacting…

  4. An Examination of Qualitative Empirical Studies at the AHRD from 1999-2003: Research Purpose, Research Questions, and Inquiry Literature Cited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plakhotnik, Maria S.; Rocco, Tonette S.; McCarley, Howard; Ianinska, Silvana; Bernier, Judith D.

    2006-01-01

    The paper examines the nature of qualitative empirical studies published in the AHRD proceedings from 1999-2003 and discusses findings on research purpose, research question(s), and inquiry literature cited. (Contains 4 tables.)

  5. Report to the Nuclear energy Research Advisory Committee (NERAC) Subcommittee on "Long-Term Isotope Research and Productions Plan" - Responses to Questions

    SciTech Connect

    Ammoniums

    1999-07-01

    This report presents responses to two series of questions that were raised by a subcommittee of the Nuclear Energy Research Advisory Committee (NERAC) that has been charged with producing a ''Long-Term Isotope Research and Production Plan.'' The NERAC subcommittee is chaired by Dr. Richard Reba, and the Hanford Site Visit team, which comprises a subset of the subcommittee members, is chaired by Dr. Thomas Ruth. The first set of questions raised by the subcommittee on isotope production at the Hanford Site was received from Dr. Ruth on May 10, 1999, and the second set was received from him on July 5, 1999. Responses to the first set of questions were prepared as part of a June 1999 report entitled ''Isotope Production at the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington'' (PNNL 1999a). The responses to these questions are summarized in this document, with frequent references to the June 1999 report for additional details. Responses to the second set of questions from the NERAC subcommittee are presented in this document for the first time.

  6. Generation of Priority Research Questions to Inform Conservation Policy and Management at a National Level

    PubMed Central

    Rudd, Murray A; Beazley, Karen F; Cooke, Steven J; Fleishman, Erica; Lane, Daniel E; Mascia, Michael B; Roth, Robin; Tabor, Gary; Bakker, Jiselle A; Bellefontaine, Teresa; Berteaux, Dominique; Cantin, Bernard; Chaulk, Keith G; Cunningham, Kathryn; Dobell, Rod; Fast, Eleanor; Ferrara, Nadia; Findlay, C Scott; Hallstrom, Lars K; Hammond, Thomas; Hermanutz, Luise; Hutchings, Jeffrey A; Lindsay, Kathryn E; Marta, Tim J; Nguyen, Vivian M; Northey, Greg; Prior, Kent; Ramirez-Sanchez, Saudiel; Rice, Jake; Sleep, Darren J H; Szabo, Nora D; Trottier, Geneviève; Toussaint, Jean-Patrick; Veilleux, Jean-Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Integrating knowledge from across the natural and social sciences is necessary to effectively address societal tradeoffs between human use of biological diversity and its preservation. Collaborative processes can change the ways decision makers think about scientific evidence, enhance levels of mutual trust and credibility, and advance the conservation policy discourse. Canada has responsibility for a large fraction of some major ecosystems, such as boreal forests, Arctic tundra, wetlands, and temperate and Arctic oceans. Stressors to biological diversity within these ecosystems arise from activities of the country's resource-based economy, as well as external drivers of environmental change. Effective management is complicated by incongruence between ecological and political boundaries and conflicting perspectives on social and economic goals. Many knowledge gaps about stressors and their management might be reduced through targeted, timely research. We identify 40 questions that, if addressed or answered, would advance research that has a high probability of supporting development of effective policies and management strategies for species, ecosystems, and ecological processes in Canada. A total of 396 candidate questions drawn from natural and social science disciplines were contributed by individuals with diverse organizational affiliations. These were collaboratively winnowed to 40 by our team of collaborators. The questions emphasize understanding ecosystems, the effects and mitigation of climate change, coordinating governance and management efforts across multiple jurisdictions, and examining relations between conservation policy and the social and economic well-being of Aboriginal peoples. The questions we identified provide potential links between evidence from the conservation sciences and formulation of policies for conservation and resource management. Our collaborative process of communication and engagement between scientists and decision makers for

  7. Questions Students Ask: Bridging the gap between scientists and students in a research institute classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    France, Bev; Bay, Jacquie L.

    2010-01-01

    It was proposed that an analysis of the questions students anticipate asking, and ask, could provide information about an enculturation encounter between Year 13 biology students and scientists working in a biomedical-clinical research unit. As part of a day-long intervention at this research institute, small groups of students (10-15) met with scientists (two) for a 15-minute discussion period. Pre- and post-questionnaires from 398 students provided data on intended, and judged best questions that were categorised and analysed into five categories: nature of science, science information, citizen decisions, personal, and no response/other. Chi Square analysis showed that students' areas of interest shifted to a personal perspective as a result of the intervention. Twenty students were interviewed who provided explanations for their questions. Analysis of their responses showed students were: developing an understanding of scientific practice as a journey, making identity links, using the personal as a knowledge bridge, acknowledging a commonality of values, and demonstrating that such an enculturation can be a transformative experience. These students engaged with a community of scientists at a physical, cognitive, and personal level. Physically they engaged with the practice of science in the laboratory, cognitively they were able to develop an understanding about how science knowledge was developed, and personally they were able to identify with science and scientists. The shift in students' questions showed that the intervention influenced their views on science and scientists to a broader understanding of scientific literacy.

  8. Playing with Data--Or How to Discourage Questionable Research Practices and Stimulate Researchers to Do Things Right.

    PubMed

    Sijtsma, Klaas

    2016-03-01

    Recent fraud cases in psychological and medical research have emphasized the need to pay attention to Questionable Research Practices (QRPs). Deliberate or not, QRPs usually have a deteriorating effect on the quality and the credibility of research results. QRPs must be revealed but prevention of QRPs is more important than detection. I suggest two policy measures that I expect to be effective in improving the quality of psychological research. First, the research data and the research materials should be made publicly available so as to allow verification. Second, researchers should more readily consider consulting a methodologist or a statistician. These two measures are simple but run against common practice to keep data to oneself and overestimate one's methodological and statistical skills, thus allowing secrecy and errors to enter research practice. PMID:25820980

  9. Top 10 research questions related to physical activity in preschool children.

    PubMed

    Pate, Russell R; O'Neill, Jennifer R; Brown, William H; McIver, Kerry L; Howie, Erin K; Dowda, Marsha

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this article was to highlight important research needs related to physical activity in 3- to 5-year-old children. We identified research needs in 3 major categories: health effects, patterns of physical activity, and interventions and policies. The top research needs include identifying the health effects of physical activity, the effects of physical activity on the development of healthy weight, the effects of physical activity on learning and behavior, and the health implications of sedentary behavior. Research questions concerning patterns of physical activity include determining the prevalence of 3- to 5-year-olds meeting the current physical activity guidelines; the social and environmental factors that influence physical activity in home, preschool, and community settings; and how physical activity tracks into later childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. Research questions about interventions and policies include identifying the most effective strategies to promote physical activity in home, child care, and community settings and to reach diverse populations of young children, identifying effective intervention implementation and dissemination strategies, and determining the effectiveness of national, state, local, and institutional policies for increasing physical activity. In conclusion, research is needed to establish a full understanding of the health implications of physical activity in 3- to 5-year-old children, to better understand the nature of physical activity behavior in this group, and to learn how to promote physical activity in young children. PMID:24592775

  10. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  11. A Help To Start Research/Practice That Facilitates Self-Directed Learning in a Japanese Language Class: 50 Questions That Promote Research [and] Related Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ariizumi, Yoshihiko

    This paper presents 50 questions that promote research/practices to facilitate self-directed learning in Japanese language classes. The questions are divided into the five following categories: (1) general questions and general research methodology issues (e.g., Why is it important to nurture self-directed learning?); (2) learners' readiness for…

  12. An official American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society statement: research questions in COPD.

    PubMed

    Celli, Bartolome R; Decramer, Marc; Wedzicha, Jadwiga A; Wilson, Kevin C; Agustí, Alvar; Criner, Gerard J; MacNee, William; Make, Barry J; Rennard, Stephen I; Stockley, Robert A; Vogelmeier, Claus; Anzueto, Antonio; Au, David H; Barnes, Peter J; Burgel, Pierre-Regis; Calverley, Peter M; Casanova, Ciro; Clini, Enrico M; Cooper, Christopher B; Coxson, Harvey O; Dusser, Daniel J; Fabbri, Leonardo M; Fahy, Bonnie; Ferguson, Gary T; Fisher, Andrew; Fletcher, Monica J; Hayot, Maurice; Hurst, John R; Jones, Paul W; Mahler, Donald A; Maltais, François; Mannino, David M; Martinez, Fernando J; Miravitlles, Marc; Meek, Paula M; Papi, Alberto; Rabe, Klaus F; Roche, Nicolas; Sciurba, Frank C; Sethi, Sanjay; Siafakas, Nikos; Sin, Don D; Soriano, Joan B; Stoller, James K; Tashkin, Donald P; Troosters, Thierry; Verleden, Geert M; Verschakelen, Johny; Vestbo, Jorgen; Walsh, John W; Washko, George R; Wise, Robert A; Wouters, Emiel F M; ZuWallack, Richard L

    2015-04-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a leading cause of morbidity, mortality, and resource use worldwide. The goal of this official American Thoracic Society (ATS)/European Respiratory Society (ERS) research statement is to describe evidence related to diagnosis, assessment and management; identify gaps in knowledge; and make recommendations for future research. It is not intended to provide clinical practice recommendations on COPD diagnosis and management. Clinicians, researchers, and patient advocates with expertise in COPD were invited to participate. A literature search of Medline was performed, and studies deemed relevant were selected. The search was not a systematic review of the evidence. Existing evidence was appraised and summarised, and then salient knowledge gaps were identified. Recommendations for research that addresses important gaps in the evidence in all areas of COPD were formulated via discussion and consensus. Great strides have been made in the diagnosis, assessment and management of COPD, as well as understanding its pathogenesis. Despite this, many important questions remain unanswered. This ATS/ERS research statement highlights the types of research that leading clinicians, researchers, and patient advocates believe will have the greatest impact on patient-centred outcomes. PMID:25829431

  13. An official American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society statement: research questions in COPD.

    PubMed

    Celli, Bartolome R; Decramer, Marc; Wedzicha, Jadwiga A; Wilson, Kevin C; Agustí, Alvar A; Criner, Gerard J; MacNee, William; Make, Barry J; Rennard, Stephen I; Stockley, Robert A; Vogelmeier, Claus; Anzueto, Antonio; Au, David H; Barnes, Peter J; Burgel, Pierre-Regis; Calverley, Peter M; Casanova, Ciro; Clini, Enrico M; Cooper, Christopher B; Coxson, Harvey O; Dusser, Daniel J; Fabbri, Leonardo M; Fahy, Bonnie; Ferguson, Gary T; Fisher, Andrew; Fletcher, Monica J; Hayot, Maurice; Hurst, John R; Jones, Paul W; Mahler, Donald A; Maltais, François; Mannino, David M; Martinez, Fernando J; Miravitlles, Marc; Meek, Paula M; Papi, Alberto; Rabe, Klaus F; Roche, Nicolas; Sciurba, Frank C; Sethi, Sanjay; Siafakas, Nikos; Sin, Don D; Soriano, Joan B; Stoller, James K; Tashkin, Donald P; Troosters, Thierry; Verleden, Geert M; Verschakelen, Johny; Vestbo, Jorgen; Walsh, John W; Washko, George R; Wise, Robert A; Wouters, Emiel F M; ZuWallack, Richard L

    2015-06-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a leading cause of morbidity, mortality and resource use worldwide. The goal of this official American Thoracic Society (ATS)/European Respiratory Society (ERS) Research Statement is to describe evidence related to diagnosis, assessment, and management; identify gaps in knowledge; and make recommendations for future research. It is not intended to provide clinical practice recommendations on COPD diagnosis and management. Clinicians, researchers and patient advocates with expertise in COPD were invited to participate. A literature search of Medline was performed, and studies deemed relevant were selected. The search was not a systematic review of the evidence. Existing evidence was appraised and summarised, and then salient knowledge gaps were identified. Recommendations for research that addresses important gaps in the evidence in all areas of COPD were formulated via discussion and consensus. Great strides have been made in the diagnosis, assessment and management of COPD, as well as understanding its pathogenesis. Despite this, many important questions remain unanswered. This ATS/ERS research statement highlights the types of research that leading clinicians, researchers and patient advocates believe will have the greatest impact on patient-centred outcomes. PMID:26028628

  14. Top 10 research questions related to physical activity and multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Motl, Robert W; Learmonth, Yvonne C; Pilutti, Lara A; Gappmaier, Eduard; Coote, Susan

    2015-06-01

    An estimated 2.5 million people worldwide are living with multiple sclerosis (MS), and this disease may be increasing in prevalence. MS is a disease of the central nervous system that is associated with heterogeneous symptoms and functional consequences, and the current first-line disease-modifying therapies often become ineffective later in the disease. There is increasing evidence for the benefits of physical activity (PA) in people with MS, but this population is generally physically inactive and sedentary. We proposed 10 research questions to guide future research on PA and MS: (1) Is PA an MS disease-modifying behavior? (2) What are the benefits of PA among people with MS? (3) What is the optimal PA prescription for people with MS? (4) What are the safety issues with PA in people with MS? (5) What characteristics of people with MS modify the benefits of PA? (6) What variables explain participation in PA among people with MS? (7) What are effective behavioral interventions for PA change in people with MS? (8) How do we translate PA research into clinical MS practice? (9) What is the role of sedentary behavior in people with MS? And (10) what is the optimal measurement of PA in people with MS? These questions are critical for informing our understanding of the short- and long-term consequences of PA in MS as well as for identifying approaches for promoting and sustaining PA in MS. Addressing these questions may greatly improve the lives of people with this chronic disease. PMID:25874730

  15. Twenty-six key research questions in urban stream ecology: an assessment of the state of the science

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although urban streams have been the focus of much research activity in recent years, there remain many unanswered questions about the mechanisms driving the “urban stream syndrome.” Identification of these key research questions is an important step toward effective, efficient ...

  16. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) in South Africa: Engaging multiple constituents to shape the research question

    PubMed Central

    Mosavel, Maghboeba; Simon, Christian; van Stade, Debbie; Buchbinder, Mara

    2011-01-01

    Community engagement is an on-going, arduous, and necessary process for developing effective health promotion programs. The challenges are amplified when the particular health issue or research question is not prominent in the consciousness of the targeted community. In this paper, we explore the community-based participatory research (CBPR) model as a means to negotiate a mutual agenda between communities and researchers. The paper is focused on the (perceived) need for cervical cancer screening in an under-resourced community in Cape Town, South Africa. Cervical cancer is a significant health problem in this community and elsewhere in South Africa. Unlike HIV-AIDS, however, many Black South Africans have not been educated about cervical cancer and the importance of obtaining screening. Many may not consider screening a priority in their lives. Our research included extensive consultations and informal interviews with diverse community and regional stakeholders. Following these, we conducted 27 focus groups and 106 demographic surveys with randomly selected youth, parents, local health care personnel, educators and school staff. Focus group data were summarized and analyzed cross-sectionally. Community stakeholders were involved throughout this research. Our consultations, interviews, and focus group data were key in identifying the concerns and priorities of the community. By engaging community stakeholders, we developed a research framework that incorporated the community’s concerns and priorities, and stressed the intersecting roles of poverty, violence, and other cultural forces in shaping community members’ health and wellbeing. Community members helped to refocus our research from cervical cancer to ‘cervical health,’ a concept that acknowledged the impact on women’s bodies and lives of HIV-AIDS and STDs, sexual violence, poverty, and multiple social problems. We conclude that the research agenda and questions in community-based health research

  17. What are you trying to learn? Study designs and the appropriate analysis for your research question

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One fundamental necessity in the entire process of a well-performed study is the experimental design. A well-designed study can help researchers understand and have confidence in their results and analyses, and additionally the agreement or disagreement with the stated hypothesis. This well-designed...

  18. Grand Research Questions in the Solid-Earth Sciences Final Scientific/Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Linn, Anne M.

    2008-12-03

    Over the past three decades, Earth scientists have made great strides in understanding our planet’s workings and history. Yet this progress has served principally to lay bare more fundamental questions about the Earth. Expanding knowledge is generating new questions, while innovative technologies and new partnerships with other sciences provide new paths toward answers. A National Academies committee was established to frame some of the great intellectual challenges inherent in the study of the Earth and planets. The goal was to focus on science, not implementation issues, such as facilities or recommendations aimed at specific agencies. The committee canvassed the geological community and deliberated at length to arrive at 10 questions: 1. How did Earth and other planets form? 2. What happened during Earth’s “dark age” (the first 500 million years)? 3. How did life begin? 4. How does Earth’s interior work, and how does it affect the surface? 5. Why does Earth have plate tectonics and continents? 6. How are Earth processes controlled by material properties? 7. What causes climate to change—and how much can it change? 8. How has life shaped Earth—and how has Earth shaped life? 9. Can earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and their consequences be predicted? 10. How do fluid flow and transport affect the human environment? Written for graduate students, colleagues in sister disciplines, and program managers funding Earth and planetary science research, the report describes where the field stands, how it got there, and where it might be headed. Our hope is that the report will spark new interest in and support for the field by showing how Earth science can contribute to a wide range of issues—including some not always associated with the solid Earth—from the formation of the solar system to climate change to the origin of life. Its reach goes beyond the United States; the report is being translated into Chinese and distributed in China.

  19. ACT-CCREC Core Research Program: Study Questions and Design. ACT Working Paper Series. WP-2015-01

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cruce, Ty M.

    2015-01-01

    This report provides a non-technical overview of the guiding research questions and research design for the ACT-led core research program conducted on behalf of the GEAR UP College and Career Readiness Evaluation Consortium (CCREC). The core research program is a longitudinal study of the effectiveness of 14 GEAR UP state grants on the academic…

  20. Questioning the Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tienken, Christopher H.; Goldberg, Stephanie; DiRocco, Dominic

    2010-01-01

    Historical accounts of questioning used in the education process trace back to Socrates. One of the best examples of his use of questioning is found in Plato's "The Republic." Socrates used a series of strategic questions to help his student Glaucon come to understand the concept of justice. Socrates purposefully posed a series of questions to…

  1. Electric Power Lines : Questions and Answers on Research into Health Effects.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1995-06-01

    Most people know that electric power lines, like the wiring in our homes, can cause serious electric shocks if we`re not careful. Many people also want to know whether the EMF (electric and magnetic fields) produced by power lines and other electrical devices affect our health. Although no adverse health effects of electric power EMF have been confirmed, there is continued scientific uncertainty about this issue. Research on EMF is ongoing throughout the world. The purpose of this booklet is to answer some common questions that the BPA (Bonneville Power Administration) receives about the possible effects of power lines on health. First, some basic electrical terms are defined, and electric and magnetic fields are debed. Next, answers are given to several questions about recent scientific studies. Some important information about electrical safety follows. We then describe how BPA is addressing public concerns about potential health effects of power lines. The last section tells you how to obtain more detailed information about the health and safety issues summarized in this booklet.

  2. Eye Tracking Research to Answer Questions about Augmentative and Alternative Communication Assessment and Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, Krista M.; Mitchell, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Recently, eye tracking technologies (i.e., technologies that automatically track the point of an individual’s gaze while that person views or interacts with a visual image) have become available for research purposes. These technologies record the orientation of the individual’s eyes in a series of samples taken at rapid intervals through measurement of infrared light reflected from the cornea (the curved portion of the eyeball) and the pupil, and as a function of the distance of the eyes from the monitor. Based on the sampling information, researchers can quantify which locations within the visual image were fixated (viewed), for how long, and how many times. These automated eye tracking technologies open up a wealth of avenues for investigating how individuals with developmental or acquired communication disabilities may respond to aided augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) systems. In this paper, we introduce basic terminology and summarize some of the considerations of importance to researchers seeking to do this type of research. We also explore some of the special challenges of conducting eye tracking research with populations with disabilities who might use AAC, including challenges of inferring attention from the presence of fixation and challenges related to calibration that may result from participant characteristics, behavioral idiosyncracies, and/or the number of calibration points. We also examine how the technology can be applied to ask well-structured experimental questions that have direct clinical relevance, with a focus on the unique contributions that eye tracking research can provide by (a) allowing evaluation of skills in individuals who are difficult to assess via traditional methods and (b) facilitating access to information on underlying visual cognitive processes that is not accessible via traditional behavioral measures. PMID:24758526

  3. From question-behaviour effects in trials to the social psychology of research participation.

    PubMed

    McCambridge, Jim

    2015-01-01

    The 'question-behaviour effect' (QBE) has attracted much recent attention within health psychology, where it has also been referred to as the 'mere measurement' effect. There are other conceptualisations of similar phenomena in related disciplines. This paper explores the implications of the QBE for the safety of inferences about intervention effectiveness within the context of randomised controlled trials evaluating health behaviour change interventions. It draws attention to poorly understood mechanisms by which bias is introduced with conventional thinking about trial design and analysis. The threat to valid inference on intervention effectiveness posed by the QBE applies even when its effects are small and regardless of the specific content of the QBE. The nature of the resulting bias does not fit well within existing bias classification schemes, such as that proposed by the Cochrane Collaboration. The QBE is one possible consequence of research participation and it is suggested that the social psychology of research participation is very much underdeveloped. Possible future directions for health psychology research in this area are considered. PMID:25146179

  4. Research on Youth Violence: Progress by Replacement, Not Addition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoagwood, Kimberly

    2000-01-01

    This article discusses the need to concentrate more educational research into efficacy studies on the effectiveness of specific preventive and treatment interventions targeted at disruptive behavior disorders. Other research needs are highlighted such as underlying mechanisms by which aggressive behavior develops, involvement in gangs, positive…

  5. Questioning the Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tienken, Christopher H.; Goldberg, Stephanie; DiRocco, Dominic

    2009-01-01

    Well-known historical accounts of questioning used in the education process trace back to Socrates. One of the best examples of his use of questioning is found in Plato's classic work "The Republic" (2003). Today, teachers still use questions as one way to help students develop productive thinking skills and to understand concepts and topics.…

  6. The neurobiology of emotion–cognition interactions: fundamental questions and strategies for future research

    PubMed Central

    Okon-Singer, Hadas; Hendler, Talma; Pessoa, Luiz; Shackman, Alexander J.

    2015-01-01

    Recent years have witnessed the emergence of powerful new tools for assaying the brain and a remarkable acceleration of research focused on the interplay of emotion and cognition. This work has begun to yield new insights into fundamental questions about the nature of the mind and important clues about the origins of mental illness. In particular, this research demonstrates that stress, anxiety, and other kinds of emotion can profoundly influence key elements of cognition, including selective attention, working memory, and cognitive control. Often, this influence persists beyond the duration of transient emotional challenges, partially reflecting the slower molecular dynamics of catecholamine and hormonal neurochemistry. In turn, circuits involved in attention, executive control, and working memory contribute to the regulation of emotion. The distinction between the ‘emotional’ and the ‘cognitive’ brain is fuzzy and context-dependent. Indeed, there is compelling evidence that brain territories and psychological processes commonly associated with cognition, such as the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and working memory, play a central role in emotion. Furthermore, putatively emotional and cognitive regions influence one another via a complex web of connections in ways that jointly contribute to adaptive and maladaptive behavior. This work demonstrates that emotion and cognition are deeply interwoven in the fabric of the brain, suggesting that widely held beliefs about the key constituents of ‘the emotional brain’ and ‘the cognitive brain’ are fundamentally flawed. We conclude by outlining several strategies for enhancing future research. Developing a deeper understanding of the emotional-cognitive brain is important, not just for understanding the mind but also for elucidating the root causes of its disorders. PMID:25774129

  7. The neurobiology of emotion-cognition interactions: fundamental questions and strategies for future research.

    PubMed

    Okon-Singer, Hadas; Hendler, Talma; Pessoa, Luiz; Shackman, Alexander J

    2015-01-01

    Recent years have witnessed the emergence of powerful new tools for assaying the brain and a remarkable acceleration of research focused on the interplay of emotion and cognition. This work has begun to yield new insights into fundamental questions about the nature of the mind and important clues about the origins of mental illness. In particular, this research demonstrates that stress, anxiety, and other kinds of emotion can profoundly influence key elements of cognition, including selective attention, working memory, and cognitive control. Often, this influence persists beyond the duration of transient emotional challenges, partially reflecting the slower molecular dynamics of catecholamine and hormonal neurochemistry. In turn, circuits involved in attention, executive control, and working memory contribute to the regulation of emotion. The distinction between the 'emotional' and the 'cognitive' brain is fuzzy and context-dependent. Indeed, there is compelling evidence that brain territories and psychological processes commonly associated with cognition, such as the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and working memory, play a central role in emotion. Furthermore, putatively emotional and cognitive regions influence one another via a complex web of connections in ways that jointly contribute to adaptive and maladaptive behavior. This work demonstrates that emotion and cognition are deeply interwoven in the fabric of the brain, suggesting that widely held beliefs about the key constituents of 'the emotional brain' and 'the cognitive brain' are fundamentally flawed. We conclude by outlining several strategies for enhancing future research. Developing a deeper understanding of the emotional-cognitive brain is important, not just for understanding the mind but also for elucidating the root causes of its disorders. PMID:25774129

  8. [The NTP in allergy research : open questions regarding nasal provocation tests using allergens].

    PubMed

    Förster, U; Sperl, A; Klimek, L

    2013-10-01

    The nasal provocation test (NPT) is a simple procedure with high specificity and sensitivity that is used in the investigation of allergic and nonallergic diseases. Uniform standards are of particular importance in the clinical setting and for the comparability of clinical and basic allergy research. These standards should cover the composition, dosage and pharmacological formulation of provocative substances (e.g. allergen extracts), the necessity of titration, allergen application methods and the evaluation criteria for a positive NPT reaction. Detection of various mediators and cytokines in nasal discharge can be very useful in the late phase reactions. NPT finds specific applications in studies of local IgE secretion in the nasal mucosa, the diagnosis of analgesic intolerance and in assessments of the efficacy of specific immunotherapies. Additional parameters warranting further evaluation include provocation with cold dry air in nasal hyperreactivity patients and nasal nitric oxide formation. Determination of nasal blood flow during NPT provides an additional clinical parameter. PMID:24127046

  9. Communication between women and their health care providers: research findings and unanswered questions.

    PubMed Central

    Weisman, C S

    1987-01-01

    Although much research has been carried out on communication between health care providers and patients, relatively few studies have investigated the effects of patient or provider gender on the communication process or its outcomes. Women use health services more than men and are more likely than men to report being influenced by health information in the media. No studies are available showing that physicians hold biases about male and female patients that translate into different communication patterns with each sex. Recent studies of verbal communication between patients and primary health care physicians show that female patients tend to ask more questions than men. Evidence that physicians are more likely to withhold information from female patients is not conclusive. Some evidence has been found that female physicians interrupt their patients less often than male physicians, provide more verbalizations of empathy, and provide clearer explanations in response to patients' concerns. Female physician-patient dyads might be expected to improve communication under certain circumstances. PMID:3120213

  10. Six Questions on Complex Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Symons, John F.; Sanayei, Ali

    2011-09-01

    This paper includes an interview with John F. Symons regarding some important questions in "complex systems" and "complexity". In addition, he has stated some important open problems concerning complex systems in his research area from a philosophical point of view.

  11. [The mixed design in nursing sciences or when a question of research calls for qualitative and quantitative strategies].

    PubMed

    Bourgault, Patricia; Gallagher, Frances; Michaud, Cécile; Saint-Cyr-Tribble, Denise

    2010-12-01

    The use of a mixed method research design raises many questions, especially regarding the paradigmatic position. With this paradigm, we may consider the mixed method design as the best way of answering a research question and the latter orients to one of the different subtypes of mixed method design. To illustrate the use of this kind of design, we propose a study such as conducted in nursing sciences. In this article, the challenges raised by the mixed method design, and the place of this type of research in nursing sciences is discussed. PMID:21322192

  12. Scholar-Craftsmanship: Question-Type, Epistemology, Culture of Inquiry, and Personality-Type in Dissertation Research Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werner, Thomas P.; Rogers, Katrina S.

    2013-01-01

    "Scholar-Craftsmanship" (SC) is a quadrant methodological framework created to help social science doctoral students construct first-time dissertation research. The framework brackets and predicts how epistemological domains, cultures of inquiries, personality indicators, and research question--types can be correlated in dissertation…

  13. Campus Grids: Bringing Additional Computational Resources to HEP Researchers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weitzel, Derek; Fraser, Dan; Bockelman, Brian; Swanson, David

    2012-12-01

    It is common at research institutions to maintain multiple clusters that represent different owners or generations of hardware, or that fulfill different needs and policies. Many of these clusters are consistently under utilized while researchers on campus could greatly benefit from these unused capabilities. By leveraging principles from the Open Science Grid it is now possible to utilize these resources by forming a lightweight campus grid. The campus grids framework enables jobs that are submitted to one cluster to overflow, when necessary, to other clusters within the campus using whatever authentication mechanisms are available on campus. This framework is currently being used on several campuses to run HEP and other science jobs. Further, the framework has in some cases been expanded beyond the campus boundary by bridging campus grids into a regional grid, and can even be used to integrate resources from a national cyberinfrastructure such as the Open Science Grid. This paper will highlight 18 months of operational experiences creating campus grids in the US, and the different campus configurations that have successfully utilized the campus grid infrastructure.

  14. Questions and controversies in innate immune research: what is the physiological role of NLRP3?

    PubMed

    Coll, R C; O'Neill, Laj; Schroder, K

    2016-01-01

    The NLRP3 inflammasome is a key component of the innate immune system that induces pro-inflammatory cytokine production and cell death. Although NLRP3 is activated by many pathogens, it only appears to be critical for host defense for a limited number of specific infections. NLRP3 is however strongly associated with the initiation and pathology of many inflammatory diseases. If NLRP3 function is largely redundant for host defense, but drives a number of inflammatory diseases, this raises the important question of why evolution has elected to maintain NLRP3 function. We propose that the primary physiological functions of NLRP3 in health are to engage pathways to clear noxious substances (e.g. protein aggregates and crystals), and to regulate metabolism. We discuss the newly identified functions for NLRP3 in metabolic homeostasis, and how NLRP3 beneficial functions in homeostasis may become detrimental during the onset of inflammatory and metabolic diseases. A common feature of most NLRP3-driven diseases is that they are associated with ageing or metabolic excess, and indeed, Nlrp3 deficiency promotes 'healthspan' in ageing mice. This suggests that beneficial functions of NLRP3 in youth may become increasingly countered by NLRP3-dependent pathology as an individual ages, and we propose a general model by which ageing or nutrient excess may provide a tipping point to switch NLRP3 function from beneficial to pathological. The physiological role of NLRP3 in healthy individuals remains incompletely understood and future research will need to address this if NLRP3 is to become a successful therapeutic target for the clinical management of inflammatory diseases. PMID:27551512

  15. Questions and controversies in innate immune research: what is the physiological role of NLRP3?

    PubMed Central

    Coll, RC; O’Neill, LAJ; Schroder, K

    2016-01-01

    The NLRP3 inflammasome is a key component of the innate immune system that induces pro-inflammatory cytokine production and cell death. Although NLRP3 is activated by many pathogens, it only appears to be critical for host defense for a limited number of specific infections. NLRP3 is however strongly associated with the initiation and pathology of many inflammatory diseases. If NLRP3 function is largely redundant for host defense, but drives a number of inflammatory diseases, this raises the important question of why evolution has elected to maintain NLRP3 function. We propose that the primary physiological functions of NLRP3 in health are to engage pathways to clear noxious substances (e.g. protein aggregates and crystals), and to regulate metabolism. We discuss the newly identified functions for NLRP3 in metabolic homeostasis, and how NLRP3 beneficial functions in homeostasis may become detrimental during the onset of inflammatory and metabolic diseases. A common feature of most NLRP3-driven diseases is that they are associated with ageing or metabolic excess, and indeed, Nlrp3 deficiency promotes ‘healthspan’ in ageing mice. This suggests that beneficial functions of NLRP3 in youth may become increasingly countered by NLRP3-dependent pathology as an individual ages, and we propose a general model by which ageing or nutrient excess may provide a tipping point to switch NLRP3 function from beneficial to pathological. The physiological role of NLRP3 in healthy individuals remains incompletely understood and future research will need to address this if NLRP3 is to become a successful therapeutic target for the clinical management of inflammatory diseases. PMID:27551512

  16. Manipulative Experimental Approaches to Addressing Geobiological Questions in Microbial Mat and Stromatolite Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bebout, I. Lee

    2005-01-01

    We will present a short synopsis of experimental approaches using greenhouse flume systems to address questions of biogeochemical cycling, mineral formation and 3-d structure for Guerrero Negro microbial mats and Highborne Cay Stromatolites.

  17. Additional Research Needs to Support the GENII Biosphere Models

    SciTech Connect

    Napier, Bruce A.; Snyder, Sandra F.; Arimescu, Carmen

    2013-11-30

    In the course of evaluating the current parameter needs for the GENII Version 2 code (Snyder et al. 2013), areas of possible improvement for both the data and the underlying models have been identified. As the data review was implemented, PNNL staff identified areas where the models can be improved both to accommodate the locally significant pathways identified and also to incorporate newer models. The areas are general data needs for the existing models and improved formulations for the pathway models. It is recommended that priorities be set by NRC staff to guide selection of the most useful improvements in a cost-effective manner. Suggestions are made based on relatively easy and inexpensive changes, and longer-term more costly studies. In the short term, there are several improved model formulations that could be applied to the GENII suite of codes to make them more generally useful. • Implementation of the separation of the translocation and weathering processes • Implementation of an improved model for carbon-14 from non-atmospheric sources • Implementation of radon exposure pathways models • Development of a KML processor for the output report generator module data that are calculated on a grid that could be superimposed upon digital maps for easier presentation and display • Implementation of marine mammal models (manatees, seals, walrus, whales, etc.). Data needs in the longer term require extensive (and potentially expensive) research. Before picking any one radionuclide or food type, NRC staff should perform an in-house review of current and anticipated environmental analyses to select “dominant” radionuclides of interest to allow setting of cost-effective priorities for radionuclide- and pathway-specific research. These include • soil-to-plant uptake studies for oranges and other citrus fruits, and • Development of models for evaluation of radionuclide concentration in highly-processed foods such as oils and sugars. Finally, renewed

  18. Troubling the Identity of a Researcher: Methodological and Ethical Questions in Cooperating with Teacher-Carers in Norway

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bae, Berit

    2005-01-01

    The questions raised in this article have to do with how to take due care of the subjectivity of the persons involved in a research project. My main point is that a researcher's self-reflection on ethical problems is inextricably a part of doing research in early childhood settings, if we want to create knowledge which is valid and takes care…

  19. Testing for Questionable Research Practices in a Meta-Analysis: An Example from Experimental Parapsychology.

    PubMed

    Bierman, Dick J; Spottiswoode, James P; Bijl, Aron

    2016-01-01

    We describe a method of quantifying the effect of Questionable Research Practices (QRPs) on the results of meta-analyses. As an example we simulated a meta-analysis of a controversial telepathy protocol to assess the extent to which these experimental results could be explained by QRPs. Our simulations used the same numbers of studies and trials as the original meta-analysis and the frequencies with which various QRPs were applied in the simulated experiments were based on surveys of experimental psychologists. Results of both the meta-analysis and simulations were characterized by 4 metrics, two describing the trial and mean experiment hit rates (HR) of around 31%, where 25% is expected by chance, one the correlation between sample-size and hit-rate, and one the complete P-value distribution of the database. A genetic algorithm optimized the parameters describing the QRPs, and the fitness of the simulated meta-analysis was defined as the sum of the squares of Z-scores for the 4 metrics. Assuming no anomalous effect a good fit to the empirical meta-analysis was found only by using QRPs with unrealistic parameter-values. Restricting the parameter space to ranges observed in studies of QRP occurrence, under the untested assumption that parapsychologists use comparable QRPs, the fit to the published Ganzfeld meta-analysis with no anomalous effect was poor. We allowed for a real anomalous effect, be it unidentified QRPs or a paranormal effect, where the HR ranged from 25% (chance) to 31%. With an anomalous HR of 27% the fitness became F = 1.8 (p = 0.47 where F = 0 is a perfect fit). We conclude that the very significant probability cited by the Ganzfeld meta-analysis is likely inflated by QRPs, though results are still significant (p = 0.003) with QRPs. Our study demonstrates that quantitative simulations of QRPs can assess their impact. Since meta-analyses in general might be polluted by QRPs, this method has wide applicability outside the domain of experimental

  20. Testing for Questionable Research Practices in a Meta-Analysis: An Example from Experimental Parapsychology

    PubMed Central

    Bierman, Dick J.; Spottiswoode, James P.; Bijl, Aron

    2016-01-01

    We describe a method of quantifying the effect of Questionable Research Practices (QRPs) on the results of meta-analyses. As an example we simulated a meta-analysis of a controversial telepathy protocol to assess the extent to which these experimental results could be explained by QRPs. Our simulations used the same numbers of studies and trials as the original meta-analysis and the frequencies with which various QRPs were applied in the simulated experiments were based on surveys of experimental psychologists. Results of both the meta-analysis and simulations were characterized by 4 metrics, two describing the trial and mean experiment hit rates (HR) of around 31%, where 25% is expected by chance, one the correlation between sample-size and hit-rate, and one the complete P-value distribution of the database. A genetic algorithm optimized the parameters describing the QRPs, and the fitness of the simulated meta-analysis was defined as the sum of the squares of Z-scores for the 4 metrics. Assuming no anomalous effect a good fit to the empirical meta-analysis was found only by using QRPs with unrealistic parameter-values. Restricting the parameter space to ranges observed in studies of QRP occurrence, under the untested assumption that parapsychologists use comparable QRPs, the fit to the published Ganzfeld meta-analysis with no anomalous effect was poor. We allowed for a real anomalous effect, be it unidentified QRPs or a paranormal effect, where the HR ranged from 25% (chance) to 31%. With an anomalous HR of 27% the fitness became F = 1.8 (p = 0.47 where F = 0 is a perfect fit). We conclude that the very significant probability cited by the Ganzfeld meta-analysis is likely inflated by QRPs, though results are still significant (p = 0.003) with QRPs. Our study demonstrates that quantitative simulations of QRPs can assess their impact. Since meta-analyses in general might be polluted by QRPs, this method has wide applicability outside the domain of experimental

  1. Boise Hydrogeophysical Research Site: Field-Scale Test Facility for Addressing Fundamental Questions of Environmental Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrash, W.; Routh, P. S.

    2006-12-01

    The Boise Hydrogeophysical Research Site (BHRS) is a research wellfield or field-scale test facility developed in a shallow, coarse, fluvial aquifer with the objectives of supporting (a) development of cost-effective, non- invasive methods for quantitative characterization and imaging methods in heterogeneous aquifers using hydrologic and geophysical techniques; (b) examination of fundamental relationships and processes at multiple scales; (c) testing theories and models for groundwater flow and solute transport; and (d) educating and training the next generation of professionals in multidisciplinary subsurface science and engineering. The design of the wells and the wellfield provide for a wide range of single-well, cross-hole, multiwell and multilevel hydrologic, geophysical, and combined hydrologic-geophysical experiments. Efforts have been focused largely on (a) establishing the 3D distributions of geologic, hydrologic, and geophysical parameters which can then be used as the basis for testing methods to jointly invert hard and soft data to return the "known" 3D K distribution and (b) developing subsurface measurement and imaging methods including static and time-lapse tomographic imaging methods. From this work we have developed a good understanding of the hydrostratigraphic framework of the BHRS as a hierarchical system which includes layers and lenses; this framework is recognized with geologic, hydrologic, radar, seismic, and EM methods and tracer tests. Work to date has been conducted by Boise State University with some collaboration and exchange with researchers and students from other institutions. At this point the BHRS is functioning well as a field-scale control volume and test cell in a multiscale heterogeneous aquifer so there is an opportunity to increase the range of both collaborative participation and research activities at the BHRS. In this regard, opportunities exist to investigate and monitor process and property variation in time and space

  2. Placenta-Specific Protein 1: A Potential Key to Many Oncofetal-Placental OB/GYN Research Questions

    PubMed Central

    Devor, Eric J.; Reyes, Henry D.; Santillan, Donna A.; Santillan, Mark K.; Onukwugha, Chinenye; Goodheart, Michael J.; Leslie, Kimberly K.

    2014-01-01

    Placenta-specific protein 1 (PLAC1) is a secreted protein found in trophoblasts. Several reports implicate a central role for PLAC1 in establishment and maintenance of the placenta. In addition to placentae PLAC1 is expressed in a variety of solids including breast, endometrial, and ovarian cancers. In order to show that PLAC1 is potentially relevant to a number of research questions in OB/GYN, we report on PLAC1 expression in a selected panel that includes two choriocarcinoma cell lines, normal placental tissues, and endometrial and ovarian tumors. We report for the first time that PLAC1 is also expressed in human fetal tissues. PLAC1 is transcriptionally heterogeneous with one promoter (P1) generating two transcripts with alternately spliced 5' UTRs and the other promoter (P2) generating a third transcript. Placental tissues favor P2 transcripts, while P1 is favored in most of the other cells. Mechanisms determining multiple PLAC1 transcripts and promoter preferences are as yet unknown, but it is clear that this protein is likely to be important in a variety of phenomena relevant to both gynecologic oncology and maternal-fetal medicine. PMID:24757447

  3. Young Children and E-Reading: Research to Date and Questions for the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Elizabeth B.; Warschauer, Mark

    2014-01-01

    The practice of reading is rapidly moving from print to screen. Young children are not immune from this trend; indeed, many children's principal literacy experiences occur using iPads and other handheld digital devices. This transition raises important questions about how the emergence and development of literacy might change in these new…

  4. Asking Difficult Questions: Exploring Research Methods with Children on Painful Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leeson, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    Assumptions about a child's competence to voice an opinion often inhibit efforts to find effective methods for participation. Answers to questions are sought from the significant adults who surround a child [Morris, J. 2003. "Including All Children: Finding Out about the Experiences of Children with Communication and/or Cognitive…

  5. Research Questions to Identify Ecological Indicators Most Useful for Linking Ecosystems and Human Wellbeing

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background/Question/Methods While the desirability of ecological indicators that foster social science interpretation and use as well as public comprehension is well established, guidelines for developing indicators that meet these needs are not as well developed. In the past f...

  6. Lifespan Engagement and the Question of Relevance: Challenges for Music Education Research in the Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, David

    2008-01-01

    The scope of music education research has expanded significantly over the last 50 years. Nevertheless, many studies remain atomistic, with limited contexts for questions, methods, findings and implications. Such approaches may seek to validate instructional strategies within an established music education system, rather than developing a continuum…

  7. What Makes a Scientific Research Question Worth Investigating? Students' Epistemic Criteria and Considerations of Contribution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berson, Eric Bruckner

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation introduces the construct of "worthwhileness" as an important aspect of students' "practical" epistemologies of science (Sandoval, 2005). Specifically, it examines how students conceptualize what makes a scientific research question worthwhile, through a close analysis of the criteria they use for…

  8. When Do Secondary School Graduates Go on to Post-Secondary Education? Research Question 2. Student Transition Project Highlights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heslop, Joanne

    2006-01-01

    The topic of this newsletter is Student Transitions Project Research Question #2: What is the nature and distribution of the transition of students from the kindergarten to Grade 12 (K-12) education system into B.C. public post-secondary institutions over a multi-year period? (For secondary school graduates of 2001/02 to 2003/04 and post-secondary…

  9. Measuring sun exposure in epidemiological studies: Matching the method to the research question.

    PubMed

    King, Laura; Xiang, Fan; Swaminathan, Ashwin; Lucas, Robyn M

    2015-12-01

    Sun exposure has risks and benefits for health. Testing these associations requires tools for measuring sun exposure that are feasible and relevant to the time-course of the health outcome. Recent sun exposure, e.g. the last week, is best captured by dosimeters and sun diaries. These can also be used for medium-term sun exposure e.g. over several weeks, but incur a high participant burden. Self-reported data on "typical time outdoors" for working and non-working days, is less detailed and not influenced by day-to-day variation. Over a longer period, e.g. the lifetime, or for particular life stages, proxies of sun exposure, such as latitude of residence or ambient ultraviolet (UV) radiation levels (from satellites or ground-level monitoring) can be used, with additional detail provided by lifetime sun exposure calendars that include locations of residence, usual time outdoors, and detail of sunburn episodes. Objective measures of lifetime sun exposure include microtopography of sun-exposed skin (e.g. using silicone casts) or conjunctival UV autofluorescence. Potential modifiers of the association between sun exposure and the health outcome, such as clothing coverage and skin colour, may also need to be measured. We provide a systematic approach to selecting sun exposure measures for use in epidemiological health research. PMID:26555640

  10. Patients’ Question-Asking Behavior During Primary Care Visits: A Report From the AAFP National Research Network

    PubMed Central

    Galliher, James M.; Post, Douglas M.; Weiss, Barry D.; Dickinson, L. Miriam; Manning, Brian K.; Staton, Elizabeth W.; Brown, Judith Belle; Hickner, John M.; Bonham, Aaron J.; Ryan, Bridget L.; Pace, Wilson D.

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE The Ask Me 3 (AM3) health communication program encourages patients to ask specific questions during office visits with the intention of improving understanding of their health conditions and adherence to treatment recommendations. This study evaluated whether implementing AM3 improves patients’ question-asking behavior and increases adherence to prescription medications and lifestyle recommendations. METHODS This randomized trial involved 20 practices from the American Academy of Family Physicians National Research Network that were assigned to an AM3 intervention group or a control group. Forty-one physicians in the practices were each asked to enroll at least 20 patients. The patients’ visits were audio recorded, and recordings were reviewed to determine whether patients asked questions and which questions they asked. Patients were interviewed 1 to 3 weeks after the visit to assess their recall of physicians’ recommendations, rates of prescription filling and taking, and attempts at complying with lifestyle recommendations. RESULTS The study enrolled 834 eligible patients in 20 practices. There were no significant difference between the AM3 and control patients in the rate of asking questions, but this rate was high (92%) in both groups. There also were no differences in rates of either filling or taking prescriptions, although rates of these outcomes were fairly high, too. Control patients were more likely to recall that their physician recommended a lifestyle change, however (68% vs 59%, P=.04). CONCLUSIONS In a patient population in which asking questions already occurs at a high rate and levels of adherence are fairly high, we found no evidence that the AM3 intervention results in patients asking specific questions or more questions in general, or in better adherence to prescription medications or lifestyle recommendations. PMID:20212302

  11. Adjunct Questions: Help or Hinder? A Critical Review of Theoretical and Empirical Research with Specific Regard for Age and Ability of the Learner, and Level of the Question.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ackerman, Amy S.

    Adjunct questions are test-like items interspersed at regular intervals, preceding or following prose passages, with the intention of increasing subsequent learning. In this state-of-the-art review, studies which include three major variables--age, ability, and question complexity level--are examined to determine whether a particular combination…

  12. Electric Power Lines : Questions and Answers on Research into Health Effects.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1993-11-01

    Most people know that electric power lines, like the wiring in our homes, can cause serious electric shocks if we`re not careful. Many people also want to know whether the electric and magnetic fields (EMF) produced by power lines and other electrical devices cause health effects. The purpose of this pamphlet is to answer some common questions that the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) receives about the possible effects of power lines on health. (BPA is the Pacific Northwest`s Federal electric power marketing agency.) First, some basic electrical terms are defined, and electric and magnetic fields are described. Next, answers are given to several questions about recent scientific studies. We then describe how BPA is addressing public concerns raised by these studies. Some important information about electrical safety follows. The last section tells you how to obtain more detailed information about the health and safety issues summarized in this pamphlet.

  13. Electric Power Lines : Questions and Answers on Research into Health Effects.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1994-05-01

    Most people know that electric power lines, like the wiring in our homes, can cause serious electric shocks if we`re not careful. Many people also want to know whether the electric and magnetic fields (EMF) produced by power lines and other electrical devices cause health effects. The purpose of this booklet is to answer some common questions that the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) receives about the possible effects of power lines on health. First, some basic electrical terms are defined, and electric and magnetic fields are debed. Next, answers are given to several questions about recent scientific studies. Some important information about electrical safety follows. We then describe how BPA is addressing public concerns about potential health effects of power lines. The last section tells you how to obtain more detailed information about the health and safety issues summarized in this booklet.

  14. To Do, or Not to Do: That Is the Question for White Cross-Cultural Researchers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mio, Jeffery Scott; Iwamasa, Gayle

    1993-01-01

    Presents summary of what transpired at symposium organized to address feelings of ethnic-minority researchers about impact of white researchers investigating cross-cultural issues. Concludes with four lessons to be drawn from whole topic of minority and majority researchers investigating ethnic-minority populations and other cross-cultural issues.…

  15. Top 10 Research Questions Related to Physical Activity in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pate, Russell R.; O'Neill, Jennifer R.; Brown, William H.; McIver, Kerry L.; Howie, Erin K.; Dowda, Marsha

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to highlight important research needs related to physical activity in 3-to 5-year-old children. We identified research needs in 3 major categories: health effects, patterns of physical activity, and interventions and policies. The top research needs include identifying the health effects of physical activity, the…

  16. Qualitative Research in Question: A Narrative of Disciplinary Power with/in the IRB

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Tara Star

    2008-01-01

    This article narrates the author's experience of obtaining institutional review board (IRB) approval for her dissertation study. Although her research topic was particularly sensitive, this case is illustrative of the increasing level of difficulty qualitative researchers are facing in conducting not only risky research but also work that is not…

  17. Rejecting the Null: Research and Social Justice Means Asking Different Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Stephanie; Schwartz, Jonathan P.

    2012-01-01

    The focus of this article is on the specific ethical issues related to social justice research and the practical implications of engaging in social justice research, including the potential impact of research results on practice, policy, and advocacy at the local and national level. Specific recommendations are offered, including identifying…

  18. Conducting "Good" Equity Research in Mathematics Education: A Question of Methodology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bullock, Erika C.

    2012-01-01

    Hostetler (2005) describes "good" education research as that which attends to the well-being of students, teachers, and communities. In this essay, the author proposes measuring equity-based research in mathematics education against Hostetler's standard. She argues that current equity-based research has not adequately addressed the…

  19. Research-Practice Partnerships in Education: Outcomes, Dynamics, and Open Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coburn, Cynthia E.; Penuel, William R.

    2016-01-01

    Policymakers, funders, and researchers today view "research-practice partnerships" (RPPs) as a promising approach for expanding the role of research in improving educational practice. Although studies in other fields provide evidence of the potential for RPPs, studies in education are few. This article provides a review of available…

  20. Swedish Physical Education Research Questioned--Current Situation and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsson, Hakan; Redelius, Karin

    2008-01-01

    Background: Research on the school subject of physical education and health in Sweden has proliferated in the early part of the 21st century. Several large research programmes have been conducted that shed light on the history of physical education and health in this country and that provide a research-based description of the current situation in…

  1. [Research on basic questions of intellectual property rights of acupuncture and moxibustion].

    PubMed

    Dong, Guo-Feng; Wu, Xiao-Dong; Han, Yan-Jing; Meng, Hong; Wang, Xin

    2011-12-01

    Along with the modernization and internationalization of acupuncture-moxibustion (acu-moxibustion), the issue of intellectual property rights has been becoming prominent and remarkable increasingly. In the present paper, the authors explain the basic issues of acu-moxibustion learning from the concept, scope, subject, object, contents and acquisition way of intellectual property rights. To make clear these questions will help us inherit and carry forward the existing civilization achievements of acu-moxibustion, and unceasingly bring forth new ideas and further improvement in clinical application, so as to serve the people's health in a better way. PMID:22379795

  2. Integrating the Life Course and Life-Span: Formulating Research Questions with Dual Points of Entry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanahan, Michael J.; Porfelli, Erik

    2002-01-01

    Life-span research typically begins with personal characteristics, life-course research with social context and roles. Using both points of entry will encourage interdisciplinary work as well as the study of person-context interactions. (Contains 30 references.) (SK)

  3. Beyond "on" or "with": Questioning Power Dynamics and Knowledge Production in "Child-Oriented" Research Methodology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunleth, Jean

    2011-01-01

    By taking a reflexive approach to research methodology, this article contributes to discussions on power dynamics and knowledge production in the social studies of children. The author describes and analyzes three research methods that she used with children--drawing, child-led tape-recording and focus group discussions. These methods were carried…

  4. Understanding Interventions that Encourage Minorities to Pursue Research Careers: Major Questions and Appropriate Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagen, Adam P.; Labov, Jay B.

    2007-01-01

    This article describes a workshop, supported by the National Academy of Sciences and the National Institute of Health, that examines the current state of research about interventions that could significantly influence the participation of underrepresented minorities in pursuing research careers in the biomedical and behavioral sciences and other…

  5. A Return to the Gold Standard? Questioning the Future of Narrative Construction as Educational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barone, Tom

    2007-01-01

    Narrative construction is an approach to social research in which data are configured into any of a variety of diachronic, or storied, formats. Having recently gained popularity, this approach is now in danger of marginalization (along with other qualitative and quantitative forms of social research) as a result of politically charged attempts to…

  6. On Answering Questions Worth Asking: Alternative Designs for Sport and Exercise Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, John M., III; Parkhouse, Bonnie L.

    1982-01-01

    Alternate approaches to traditional research techniques available for the physical educator are: (1) field research, using structured and unstructured observation in actual settings; (2) survey analysis to ascertain current conditions or practice; (3) field experiments conducted in actual settings with experimenter controls; (4) time series…

  7. Living the Questions: A Guide for Teacher-Researchers. Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shagoury, Ruth; Power, Brenda Miller

    2012-01-01

    Teacher research is an extension of good teaching, observing students closely, analyzing their needs, and adjusting the curriculum to fit the needs of all. In this completely updated second edition of their definitive work, Ruth Shagoury and Brenda Miller Power present a framework for teacher research along with an extensive collection of…

  8. Reactions to Participating in Dating Violence Research: Are Our Questions Distressing Participants?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shorey, Ryan C.; Cornelius, Tara L.; Bell, Kathryn M.

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, there has been increased research focus on dating violence, producing important information for reducing these violent relationships. Yet Institutional Review Boards (IRBs) are often hesitant to approve research on dating violence, citing emotional distress of participants as a possible risk of participation. However, no known…

  9. Changing Teaching and Learning Relationships through Collaborative Action Research: Learning to Ask Different Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington, Paula; Gillam, Katy; Andrews, Jane; Day, Christopher

    2006-01-01

    The article reports work over one year by three teachers from the Milton Keynes Primary Schools Learning Network. Their collaborative classroom-focused action research investigated the limits and possibilities of pupils' and teachers' learning through self-evaluation. In phase one the teacher researchers used questionnaires, interviews and…

  10. Research Questions for the Development of Components of an Emerging Career Ladder Program Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Packard, Richard D.

    The Northern Arizona University Career Ladder Research and Evaluation Project for teachers implements a procedure for rewarding teachers based on performance levels rather than on years of teaching experience and college credits. Research data is collected each spring, analyzed and fed back to the districts for improvement of key program…

  11. A research note about military-civilian humanitarianism: more questions than answers.

    PubMed

    Weiss, T G

    1997-06-01

    'Military-civilian humanitarianism'--or the coming together of military forces and civilian aid agencies to deal with the human suffering from complex emergencies--has numerous forms, but disenchantment has resulted from the Somalia and Bosnia syndromes. There is little political will at present, but evidence from the immediate post-Cold War era suggests how multilateral military operations could expand or contract in future to the benefit or peril of war victims. Partly a literature review but more importantly a framework for interpreting recent publications, this essay seeks to move beyond exchanging assertions. There is a contextualisation of recent literature; a definition of military-civilian humanitarianism; a discussion of possible military contributions to humanitarian action; a framework to assess the effectiveness of military-civilian humanitarianism; and a preliminary analysis of experience from northern Iraq, Somalia, Bosnia, Rwanda and Haiti. Caveat lector: At this point in time, there are still 'more questions than answers'. PMID:9235222

  12. The research component of specialist registration--a question of alligators and swamps? A personal view.

    PubMed

    Aldous, C M; Adhikari, M; Rout, C C

    2015-01-01

    The recent implementation of the research requirement for specialist registration presents difficulties with regard to the provision of research supervision, particularly in those medical schools that previously followed the path of qualification via the Colleges of Medicine of South Africa examinations. The differences between the requirements for research supervision as stated in the Health Professions Council of South Africa memorandum and those of the Committee for Higher Education are causing disparities between medical schools similar to those that led to the memorandum in the first place. While the research component of specialist training can only improve the quality of both patient care and academic endeavour, it requires an enormous investment of time on the part of both the specialist trainees and their supervisors. In order to deal with this, specific issues outlined in the article need to be addressed. PMID:26046156

  13. Interrupting the Silence: An Action Research Study to Transform a Juvenile Justice Culture for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, Questioning & Intersex (LGBTQI) Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McRae, Dawn N.

    2015-01-01

    This action research (AR) study explored practitioners' knowledge of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, Questioning, and Intersex (LGBTQI) youth issues in a juvenile justice setting. A research and service approach was employed to develop a LGBTQI policy and training. This study was motivated by three research questions. Does sensitivity…

  14. Expanding the Frontiers of Population Nutrition Research: New Questions, New Methods, and New Approaches12

    PubMed Central

    Pelletier, David L.; Porter, Christine M.; Aarons, Gregory A.; Wuehler, Sara E.; Neufeld, Lynnette M.

    2013-01-01

    Nutrition research, ranging from molecular to population levels and all points along this spectrum, is exploring new frontiers as new technologies and societal changes create new possibilities and demands. This paper defines a set of frontiers at the population level that are being created by the increased societal recognition of the importance of nutrition; its connection to urgent health, social, and environmental problems; and the need for effective and sustainable solutions at the population level. The frontiers are defined in terms of why, what, who, and how we study at the population level and the disciplinary foundations for that research. The paper provides illustrations of research along some of these frontiers, an overarching framework for population nutrition research, and access to some of the literature from outside of nutrition that can enhance the intellectual coherence, practical utility, and societal benefit of population nutrition research. The frontiers defined in this paper build on earlier forward-looking efforts by the American Society for Nutrition and extend these efforts in significant ways. The American Society for Nutrition and its members can play pivotal roles in advancing these frontiers by addressing a number of well-recognized challenges associated with transdisciplinary and engaged research. PMID:23319128

  15. How Asking a Very Basic Research Question Led Us to a Model for at Least Three Diseases | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    By Howard Young Editor’s note: This article is adapted from Dr. Young’s January 12, 2015, post to the I am Intramural Blog of the Intramural Research Program. When I started this project, it was not my objective to develop a model for any specific disease, nor did I even suspect that the ultimate result would be some insight into autoimmune disease. The basic research question I was asking was why there are sequences in the 3′ untranslated region (3′UTR) of the interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) mRNA that are more highly conserved than in the coding region of the gene.

  16. Survey Data for Trend Analysis. An Index to Repeated Questions in U. S. National Surveys Held by the Roper Public Opinion Research Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hastings, Philip K., Ed.; And Others

    This volume consists of an index of questions repeated in public opinion surveys, and the variants of these questions. The questions included are drawn from American national samples (primarily of the general population) conducted by AIPO (Gallup) NORC, and Roper, and archived at the Roper Public Opinion Research Center. The basic data for over 90…

  17. Can zoo records help answer behavioral research questions? The case of the left-handed lemurs (Lemur catta).

    PubMed

    Hosey, Geoff; Hill, Sonya P; Lherbier, Mary L

    2012-01-01

    Most zoos keep comprehensive records, which potentially form a database for use in answering some research questions, such as in veterinary and population management research. They have not, however, been widely used to answer questions about animal behavior and welfare. Here we try to assess the usefulness to behavioral research of two sorts of zoo records (ARKS, the Animal Records Keeping System, and student dissertations held on file) to test the hypothesis that ring-tailed lemurs with a left limb preference experience more negative social lives. We found that, as predicted, lemurs with a left limb preference (LH) received more aggression and were involved in less grooming than nonleft-preferent lemurs (NLH), though the differences were not statistically significant. Contrary to prediction, LH lemurs had fewer reported woundings than NLH lemurs, but again the difference was not statistically significant. We found that the ARKS reports did not contain sufficient quantified and systematic behavioral data for our purposes, although otherwise they provided an excellent context for interpreting results. The student dissertations were also of limited use, primarily because of the small time frame in which they were carried out. Because of these shortcomings we were unable to distinguish whether our inability to find significant effects was due to biological (perhaps hand preference had no consequences for the lemurs) or data reasons. We suggest that closer liaison between zoo research staff, zoo record keepers and academic supervisors could help to improve the usefulness of zoo records for behavioral research. PMID:21674604

  18. The challenge of implementing the prevention goals: some questions for researchers and communicators.

    PubMed

    Brandt, E N

    1983-01-01

    Two important issues in achieving change are how biomedical and behavioral research advances are viewed and used and the problem of "translation"--that is, how the results are put into practice. Momentum in federally funded research has been continued because we are betting that today's knowledge is limited relative to what remains to be learned about the prevention of disease. Those who administer programs, give primary care, and educate health professionals would benefit if they became fully sensitized to the world of research, and the planning of research would be invigorated by the perceptions of administrators and practitioners. The process of translation depends on the information function, and this function is as important as research and delivery. The schools and the media have created a public interested in science and medicine, but persuading people to change lifestyles is relatively unexplored territory. More knowledge in this area would help to decrease, for example, the number of smokers in the population and the number of accidents on the highways and in the workplace. PMID:6828633

  19. Children Left Alone: Latchkey Problems--Future Research Questions and Interventions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fosarelli, Patricia D.

    A brief discussion of some myths associated with latchkey children is followed by a statement that an insufficient number of after-school care programs for children makes it likely that children will continue in self-care or sibling care. It is suggested that future research endeavors take the following parental/familial variables into account:…

  20. Dependency, Partiality and the Generation of Research Questions in Refugee Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Marianne; Fozdar, Farida

    2010-01-01

    From the late 1990s to the mid 2000s refugees who gained entry to Australia came mainly from the African region, in particular Sudan. This contrasts with earlier intakes from Asia, the Middle East and the former Yugoslavia. The change in regional focus sparked research into the resettlement of African refugees in Australia, but it is a new field…

  1. Finding the right research question: quality science depends on quality careers.

    PubMed

    Flockhart, D A; Abernethy, D R

    2008-09-01

    When making the transition from trainee to principal investigator, there are few steps more important than selecting the first independent research project. The project must synthesize the excitement and idealism of contributing to the well-being of humankind and the practical realities of an area of inquiry that is likely to lead to a successful career. PMID:18615005

  2. Recent Advances, Open Questions and Future Directions in Solar-Terrestrial Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daglis, I. A.; Baumjohann, W.; Geiss, J.; Orsini, S.; Sarris, E. T.; Scholer, M.; Tsurutani, B. T.; Vassiliadis, D.

    1998-01-01

    Solar-terrestrial research deserves the special attention of the scientific community, both because of the attractive physics underlying the various phenomena associated with them, as well as because of the applied aspect of the sometimes destructive effects of solar-terrestrial coupling on a wide variety of technological systems.

  3. The Concept of Redundancy in Television Learning Research: Questions of Meaning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, LuEtt

    1992-01-01

    Criticizes past research on redundancy in television learning for its inconsistent definitions and ambiguous examples. Four areas of concern are considered: the meaning and use of the term; the nature of signs (iconic or digital) used in audio and visual communication; the subjectivity of interpretation; and differences in meaning between separate…

  4. The Effect of Teacher's Questioning Behavior on EFL Classroom Interaction: A Classroom-Based Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shomoossi, Nematullah

    1997-01-01

    Background: After the failure of several important methods comparison studies in the 1960s, the influence of interaction analysis stimulated interest in foreign language classroom processes. More careful observational studies gradually revealed which process variables were of interest. Also, there has been much research on teacher talk, with a…

  5. Research Approaches to the Regulation of Academic Writing: The State of the Question

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castello, Montserrat; Banales, Gerardo; Vega, Norma Alicia

    2010-01-01

    Effective composition of academic and/or professional texts is a complex task that requires the use of regulation processes. In recent years these processes have been studied from four research approaches: cognitive, sociocognitive, sociocultural and socially shared. This study analyzes their principal theoretical premises as well as the empirical…

  6. SLA Research and L2 Pedagogy: Misapplications and Questions of Relevance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spada, Nina

    2015-01-01

    There has been considerable debate about the relevance and applicability of SLA theory and research for L2 pedagogy. There are those who maintain that SLA must be applicable to L2 pedagogy: a view based on the argument that because SLA is a subfield of applied linguistics, it should have direct relevance to L2 teaching. Others take the view that…

  7. Children's Media Use and Sleep Problems: Issues and Unanswered Questions. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmerman, Frederick J.

    2008-01-01

    Research shows that most children and adolescents do not get enough high-quality sleep, and that their sleep times appear to have declined over the last two decades. Coinciding with this trend has been the rise in popularity of new media forms including the Internet, video games, cell phones and DVDs. Because of the immediacy and interactivity of…

  8. Representing Refugee Youth in Qualitative Research: Questions of Ethics, Language and Authenticity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorstensson Dávila, Liv

    2014-01-01

    This article speaks conceptually and methodologically about the ethics and politics of doing research with newcomer refugee youth and issues of representation. Feminist poststructuralist paradigms across a variety of fields have critically examined notions of experience, agency, and identity to in order to encompass more fluid understandings of…

  9. The Effects of Text Analysis on Drafting and Justifying Research Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padilla, Maria Antonia; Solorzano, Wendy Guadalupe; Pacheco, Virginia

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: A correspondence has been seen between the level at which one can read scientific texts and his/her performance in writing this type of texts. Besides being able to read at the most complex levels, formulating research problems requires explicit training in writing. The objective of the present study was to evaluate whether…

  10. 48 CFR 1852.235-74 - Additional Reports of Work-Research and Development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...-Research and Development. 1852.235-74 Section 1852.235-74 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL... Provisions and Clauses 1852.235-74 Additional Reports of Work—Research and Development. As prescribed in 1835.070(e), insert a clause substantially the same as the following: Additional Reports of...

  11. 48 CFR 1852.235-74 - Additional Reports of Work-Research and Development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...-Research and Development. 1852.235-74 Section 1852.235-74 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL... Provisions and Clauses 1852.235-74 Additional Reports of Work—Research and Development. As prescribed in 1835.070(e), insert a clause substantially the same as the following: Additional Reports of...

  12. 48 CFR 1852.235-74 - Additional Reports of Work-Research and Development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Provisions and Clauses 1852.235-74 Additional Reports of Work—Research and Development. As prescribed in 1835... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Additional Reports of Work-Research and Development. 1852.235-74 Section 1852.235-74 Federal Acquisition Regulations System...

  13. 48 CFR 1852.235-74 - Additional Reports of Work-Research and Development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Provisions and Clauses 1852.235-74 Additional Reports of Work—Research and Development. As prescribed in 1835... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Additional Reports of Work-Research and Development. 1852.235-74 Section 1852.235-74 Federal Acquisition Regulations System...

  14. 48 CFR 1852.235-74 - Additional Reports of Work-Research and Development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Provisions and Clauses 1852.235-74 Additional Reports of Work—Research and Development. As prescribed in 1835... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Additional Reports of Work-Research and Development. 1852.235-74 Section 1852.235-74 Federal Acquisition Regulations System...

  15. Artificial Cell Research as a Field that Connects Chemical, Biological and Philosophical Questions.

    PubMed

    Deplazes-Zemp, Anna

    2016-01-01

    This review article discusses the interdisciplinary nature and implications of artificial cell research. It starts from two historical theories: Gánti's chemoton model and the autopoiesis theory by Maturana and Varela. They both explain the transition from chemical molecules to biological cells. These models exemplify two different ways in which disciplines of chemistry, biology and philosophy can profit from each other. In the chemoton model, conclusions from one disciplinary approach are relevant for the other disciplines. In contrast, the autopoiesis model itself (rather than its conclusions) is transferred from one discipline to the other. The article closes by underpinning the relevance of artificial cell research for philosophy with reference to the on-going philosophical debates on emergence, biological functions and biocentrism. PMID:27363375

  16. [The legal question of the obtention of human stem cells for biomedical research. Legislation policy considerations].

    PubMed

    Romeo Casabona, Carlos María

    2006-01-01

    The future Law on Biomedical Research, whose draft bill has been approved by the Council of Ministers and that will soon begin its parliamentary process of approval, will regulate, among other matters, the research with embryos. Likewise, it will make a pronouncement on the so-called therapeutic cloning. This report makes a detailed analysis of different matters that must be borne in mind by the legislator in order to face the process of evaluation and approval of said Law in relation with the aforementioned matters. It makes a special analysis of the legal texts of an international nature to which Spain is unavoidably subjected to, in such a way that the legislative text that will finally be approved is not contrary to the dispositions that are within such. PMID:17124973

  17. More regulation of industry-supported biomedical research: are we asking the right questions?

    PubMed

    Fry-Revere, Sigrid; Malmstrom, David Bjorn

    2009-01-01

    Industry-sponsored biomedical research is under the microscope. In an attempt to achieve just results in extraordinary cases, critics are suggesting regulations that would pervert the U.S. clinical trial process. However, the arguments made to justify such regulation are weak at best. All the proposals to regulate industry sponsorship of clinical trials that we surveyed (over a hundred articles and ten books, most written in the past decade) suffer from some form of fallacious reasoning. In the interest of advocating sound policy, this article points out some of the most common reasoning errors found in the literature on financial conflicts of interest in clinical trials. PMID:19723253

  18. Amundsen, Nansen, and the question of science: dramatizing historical research on the polar heroic.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Robert Marc

    2011-12-01

    Recent historical research reveals a much greater role than previously assumed for science in the polar activities of Fridtjof Nansen and Roald Amundsen. Science-based polar exploration was what first linked these two men; Amundsen's subsequent turn to sport and sensation dampened their relationship. These insights and other new perspectives about heroic period of polar exploration are being transformed by the author into a drama for stage that will have its world premier in Norway in December 2011. The play attempts to use imaginatively the art and craft of theatre to diffuse insight from historical scholarship. PMID:21962487

  19. The $1. 5 billion question: Can the US Global Change Research Program deliver on its promises

    SciTech Connect

    Monastersky, R.

    1993-09-04

    President Clinton has continued the funding for scientific investigations of global climatic change, increasing funds to a total of $1.5 billion spread amoung 11 different agencies. However, a growing number of critics warn that the program appears heading toward failure. The main issue is relevancy. Almost every agrees that the research effort will support important scientific work over the next decade, but it will not necessarily provide the information policymakers need to address the threat of climatic change, ozone depletion, deforestation, desertification, and similiar issues. This article summarizes the concerns and comments of critics, and the gap between the climate scientists and governmental policymakers.

  20. Defining the questions: a research agenda for nontraditional authentication in arms control

    SciTech Connect

    Hauck, Danielle K; Mac Arthur, Duncan W; Smith, Morag K; Thron, Jonathan L; Budlong - Sylvester, Kory

    2010-01-01

    Many traditional authentication techniques have been based on hardware solutions. Thus authentication of measurement system hardware has been considered in terms of physical inspection and destructive analysis. Software authentication has implied hash function analysis or authentication tools such as Rose. Continuity of knowledge is maintained through TIDs and cameras. Although there is ongoing progress improving all of these authentication methods, there has been little discussion of the human factors involved in authentication. Issues of non-traditional authentication include sleight-of-hand substitutions, monitor perception vs. reality, and visual diversions. Since monitor confidence in a measurement system depends on the product of their confidences in each authentication element, it is important to investigate all authentication techniques, including the human factors. This paper will present an initial effort to identify the most important problems that traditional authentication approaches in safeguards have not addressed and are especially relevant to arms control verification. This will include a survey of the literature and direct engagement with nontraditional experts in areas like psychology and human factors. Based on the identification of problem areas, potential research areas will be identified and a possible research agenda will be developed.

  1. Flood Risk Management Policy in Scotland: Research Questions Past, Present and Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkinson, Mark; Hastings, Emily; MacDonald, Jannette

    2016-04-01

    Scotland's Centre of Expertise for Waters (CREW) delivers accessible research and expert opinion to support the Scottish Government and its delivery partners in the development and implementation of water policy. It was established in 2011 by the Scottish Government (Rural and Environmental Science and Analytical Services) in recognition of a gap in the provision of short term advice and research to policy (development and implementation). Key policy areas include the Water Framework Directive, Floods Directive, Drinking Water Directive, Habitats Directive and Scotland's Hydro Nation Strategy. CREW is unique in its demand-driven and free service for policy makers and practitioners, managing the engagement between scientists, policy makers and practitioners to work effectively across this interface. The users of CREW are the Scottish Government, Scottish Environment Protection Agency, Scottish Natural Heritage and Scottish Water. CREW has funded around 100 projects relating to water policy since its inception in 2011. Of these, a significant number relate to flood risk management policy. Based on a review of work to date, this poster will give an overview of these projects and a forward look at the challenges that remain. From learning from community led flood risk management to surface water flood forecasting for urban communities, links will be made between sustainable and traditional flood risk management while considering the perceptions of stakeholders to flood risk management. How can we deliver fully integrated flood risk management options? How policy makers, scientists and land managers can better work together will also be explored.

  2. Tumors of the Central Nervous System: Clinical Aspects, Molecular Mechanisms, Unanswered Questions, and Future Research Directions

    PubMed Central

    Babcock, Michael A.; Kostova, Felina V.; Fountain, Jane; Guha, Abhijit; Packer, Roger J.; Pollack, Ian F.; Maria, Bernard L.

    2013-01-01

    Central nervous system tumors are the most common solid tumors in children. Many histological subtypes and biological variants exist. The 2007 Neurobiology of Disease in Children Symposium, held in conjunction with the 36th annual meeting of the Child Neurology Society, aimed to define current knowledge in the field and to develop specific aims for future clinical, translational, and fundamental science. Because of advances in structural and metabolic imaging, surgical technique, and combination therapies, the life expectancy of children with some of the most common tumors, such as cerebellar astrocytomas and medulloblastomas, has improved. Other common tumor types, including diffuse pontine gliomas and malignant embryonal tumors, still have a dismal prognosis. As novel therapies are identified for pediatric central nervous system tumors, long-term survival may be associated with considerable disability. A cooperative effort is crucial to early diagnosis and to translating basic research findings into safe, effective new treatments. PMID:18952577

  3. Providing free heroin to addicts participating in research – ethical concerns and the question of voluntariness

    PubMed Central

    Henden, Edmund; Bærøe, Kristine

    2015-01-01

    Providing heroin to people with heroin addiction taking part in medical trials assessing the effectiveness of the drug as a treatment alternative breaches ethical research standards, some ethicists maintain. Heroin addicts, they say, are unable to consent voluntarily to taking part in these trials. Other ethicists disagree. In our view, both sides of the debate have an inadequate understanding of ‘voluntariness’. In this article we therefore offer a fuller definition of the concept, one which allows for a more flexible, case-to-case approach in which some heroin addicts are considered capable of consenting voluntarily, others not. An advantage of this approach, it is argued, is that it provides a safety net to minimise the risk of inflicting harm on trial participants. PMID:26191421

  4. Relationship of Teacher Questioning and Student Answering Behaviors in High School Biology and Chemistry Classes across the School Year. Classroom Interaction Research Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schell, Robert E.; And Others

    This research assessed whether, within the context of a classroom session, the pattern of questioning and discussion used by teachers is related to the pattern of student responses. Clear and comprehensible linkages between questioning and answering behaviors were found in this study. These results indicate that researchers can help resolve the…

  5. Parallels between nutrition and physical activity: research questions in development of peak bone mass.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Connie M

    2015-06-01

    Lifestyle choices are attributed to 40% to 60% of adult peak bone mass. The National Osteoporosis Foundation (NOF) sought to update its 2000 consensus statement on peak bone mass and partnered with the American Society for Nutrition, which, in turn, charged a 9-member writing committee with using a systematic review approach to update the previous NOF guidelines. PubMed searches of the scientific literature from January 2000 through December 2014 were conducted on all relevant lifestyle choice factors and their relation to increasing bone mass during childhood and adolescence. The writing group concluded that there is strong evidence for the benefits of physical activity and calcium intake on bone mass accretion, moderately strong evidence for the benefits of vitamin D and dairy intake on bone mass and for physical activity on bone structure, and weaker evidence for other lifestyle choices. There were parallels and synergies between the benefits of diet and exercise on development of peak bone mass, but the type of evidence and public policy recommendations in the two disciplines differ in several important ways. Nutrition uses a more reductionist approach in contrast to physical activity, which uses a more global approach. This leads to differences in research priorities in the 2 disciplines. The disciplines can advance more quickly through collaboration and adoption of the best approaches from each other. PMID:25965111

  6. Florence Goodenough and child study: The question of mothers as researchers.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Ann

    2015-05-01

    This article examines the views of early developmental psychologist Florence Goodenough, summarizing her contributions to the field, her complex viewpoints on science and gender issues, and her arguments for maternal record-keeping as a valuable scientific strategy, as drawn from her writings in textbooks, popular magazine articles, and private correspondence. During the 1920s, 1930s, and 1940s, when Goodenough enjoyed a high professional profile as a research scientist, the field of child psychology shifted from focus on producing applied knowledge to benefit parents and educators to a preference for laboratory-controlled basic science approaches to understanding development. Goodenough championed observation and other descriptive methods, including use of mothers as data collectors in the home, even while these approaches were increasingly discredited by prominent peers in the United States. I argue that Goodenough's allegiance to maternal record-keeping highlights a forgotten strand of context-sensitive, descriptive work that survived despite its general disparagement among proponents of a narrower version of strictly experimental developmental science emerging in the 1920s. PMID:26120919

  7. Application of terrestrial laser scanning for coastal geomorphologic research questions in western Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmeister, Dirk; Curdt, Constanze; Tilly, Nora; Ntageretzis, Konstantin; Aasen, Helge; Vött, Andreas; Bareth, Georg

    2013-04-01

    Coasts are areas of permanent change, influenced by gradual changes and sudden impacts. In particular, western Greece is a tectonically active region, due to the nearby plate boundary of the Hellenic Arc. The region has suffered from numerous earthquakes and tsunamis during prehistoric and historic times and is thus characterized by a high seismic and tsunami hazard risk. Additionally, strong winter storms may reach considerable dimensions. In this study, terrestrial laser scanning was applied for (i) annual change detection at seven coastal areas of western Greece for three years (2009-2011) and (ii) accurate parameter detection of large boulders, dislocated by high-energy wave impacts. The Riegl LMS-Z420i laser scanner was used in combination with a precise DGPS system (Topcon HiPer Pro) for all surveys. Each scan position and a further target were recorded for georeferencing and merging of the point clouds. (i) For the annual detection of changes, reference points for the base station of the DGPS system were marked. High-resolution digital elevation models (HRDEM) were generated from each dataset of the different years and are compared to each other, resulting in mass balances. (ii) 3D-models of dislocated boulders were reconstructed and parameters (e.g. volume in combination with density measurements, distance and height above present sea-level) were derived for the solution of wave transport equations, which estimate the minimum wave height or velocity that is necessary for boulder movement. (i) Our results show that annual changes are detectable by multi-temporal terrestrial laser scanning. In general, volumetric changes and affected areas are quantifiable and maps of changes can be established. On exposed beach areas, bigger changes were detectable, where seagrass and sand is eroded and gravel accumulated. In opposite, only minor changes for elevated areas are derived. Dislocated boulders on several sites showed no movement. At coastal areas with a high

  8. Shallow erosion on slopes in the European Alps - research review and further questions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiegand, Christoph; Geitner, Clemens

    2010-05-01

    to a superficial abrasion of vegetation, humus and the upper soil. Sward damages caused by the passage of cattle also belongs to this type of shallow erosion. It follows that this type of soil erosion requires a moving medium. Hence it is advisable to distinguish the occurrence of ‘Blaiken' in consideration of the processes which take part. Only then the involved parameters can be evaluated. The most important parameters are topography (slope angle, aspect, elevation a.s.l.), geological settings (composition of regolith material), soil conditions, vegetation and land use. In most cases only a critical combination of these factors leads to erosion. A review of relevant previous work also shows a lack of pedological information and information about the composition of regolith material. There is a need for further detailed studies. In addition effects of land use change should be taken in consideration because of the increased occurrence of erosion following abandoned land use. Moreover the present work shows what type of documentation of occurred incidences exist and how this should be amended for better understanding of the ongoing processes and their monitoring.

  9. How Asking a Very Basic Research Question Led Us to a Model for at Least Three Diseases | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    By Howard Young Editor’s note: This article is adapted from Dr. Young’s January 12, 2015, post to the I am Intramural Blog of the Intramural Research Program. When I started this project, it was not my objective to develop a model for any specific disease, nor did I even suspect that the ultimate result would be some insight into autoimmune disease. The basic research question I was asking was why there are sequences in the 3′ untranslated region (3′UTR) of the interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) mRNA that are more highly conserved than in the coding region of the gene.

  10. Marine research in Greece and the additional Greek marine research centres: Progress and present situation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haritonidis, S.

    1995-03-01

    Greece, as is known, has a coastline of 17 000 km, and over 2000 small and large islands. As expected, the quest of humankind for new sources of matter and energy has been focussed on the sea, with fishery being its primary interest. A number of philosophers and scientists have been involved in the study of this vast ecosystem since ancient times (Aristotle). The political, social and geographical upheavals witnessed in the Greek area, have, however resulted in bringing all these activities to a halt. The first contemporary research work commenced at the end of the 18th century/beginning of the 19th — with marine flora and fauna as its starting point. The first investigations had, of course, been limited to random collections of marine material done in the frame of international exploratory expeditions. Studies became more systematic by the end of the 19th and beginning of the 20th century, with priority being given to the animal kingdom (fish, molluscs, etc.). Investigation of the marine phytobenthos (macrophyceae, phytoplankton) was to follow. The past 40 years research has been more extensive, not limited only to biogeographical evaluations, but also having expanded to physiological and ecological levels. The relevant institutes of Greek universities have all the while watched and contributed to this effort. Today, this kind of research is being supported by the N.M.R.C., the Center of Marine Research, University of Crete, and two research boats which sail the Greek seas. In the ever-changing world, the study of marine flora and fauna has certainly made great progress; however, there are still two big problems to be faced. The first deals with increasing pollution of the seas, the second, with the difficulties in finding and affording adequate financial resources that would enable a more detailed and complete execution of this research work.

  11. Answering the big questions in neuroscience: DoD's experimental research wing takes on massive, high-risk projects.

    PubMed

    Mertz, Leslie

    2012-01-01

    When the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) asks research questions, it goes big. This is, after all, the same agency that put together teams of scientists and engineers to find a way to connect the worlds computers and, in doing so, developed the precursor to the Internet. DARPA, the experimental research wing of the U.S. Department of Defense, funds the types of research queries that scientists and engineers dream of tackling. Unlike a traditional granting agency that conservatively metes out its funding and only to projects with a good chance of success, DARPA puts its money on massive, multi-institutional projects that have no guarantees, but have enormous potential. In the 1990s, DARPA began its biological and medical science research to improve the safety, health, and well being of military personnel, according to DARPA program manager and Army Colonel Geoffrey Ling, Ph.D., M.D. More recently, DARPA has entered the realm of neuroscience and neurotechnology. Its focus with these projects is on its prime customer, the U.S. Department of Defense, but Ling acknowledged that technologies developed in its programs "certainly have potential to cascade into civilian uses." PMID:22344946

  12. Burning Questions about Calories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, J. David; Berry, Kimberly A.

    2001-01-01

    Uses questioning techniques to teach about caloric consumption and weight gain. Starts with defining questions about calories and includes the stages of measuring calories, analyzing data, and conducting inquiry research. Includes directions for the experiment. (YDS)

  13. Improved survival with the addition of radiotherapy to androgen deprivation: questions answered and a review of current controversies in radiotherapy for non-metastatic prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Amini, Arya; Kavanagh, Brian D; Rusthoven, Chad G

    2016-01-01

    The contemporary standard of care for locally advanced high-risk prostate cancer includes a combination of dose-escalated radiotherapy (RT) plus androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT). However, 20 years ago, at the inception of the National Cancer Institute of Canada (NCIC) led study (NCIC Clinical Trials Group PR.3/Medical Research Council PR07/Intergroup T94-0110), the survival impact of prostate RT for high-risk disease was uncertain. Recently, Mason, Warde and colleagues presented the final results of this NCIC/MRC study (PMID: 25691677) randomizing 1,205 high-risk prostate cancer patients to ADT + RT vs. ADT alone. These updated results confirm substantial improvements with the addition of RT to ADT for the endpoints of overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS), and biochemical recurrence. Close examination of subtleties of this trial's design highlight some of the most salient controversies in the field of prostate RT, including the risk-stratified roles of ADT, optimal ADT duration, and RT field design in the dose-escalated and intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) era. PMID:26855950

  14. Field-Based Teacher Research: How Teachers and Scientists Working Together Answers Questions about Turtle Nesting Ecology while Enhancing Teachers' Inquiry Skills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winters, J. M.; Jungblut, D.; Catena, A. N.; Rubenstein, D. I.

    2013-12-01

    Providing rigorous academic supplement to a professional development program for teachers, QUEST is a fusion of Drexel University's environmental science research department with Princeton University's Program in Teacher Preparation. Completed in the summers of 2012 (in partnership with Earthwatch) and 2013 in Barnegat Bay, New Jersey, QUEST's terrapin field research program enhances K-12 teachers' ecological knowledge, develops inquiry-based thinking in the classroom, and builds citizen science engagement. With a focus on quality question development and data analysis to answer questions, teachers are coached in developing, implementing, and presenting independent research projects on diamondback terrapin nesting ecology. As a result, teachers participating in QUEST's week long program bring a realistic example of science in action into their classrooms, helping to develop their own students' critical thinking skills. For teachers, this program provides training towards educating students on how to do real and imaginative science - subsequently sending students to university better prepared to engage in their own independent research. An essential component of the collaboration through QUEST, in addition to the teacher's experience during and after the summer institute, is the research data collected which supplements that of the Principal Investigator. In 2012, by documenting terrapin nest site predators, teachers gained valuable scientific experience, while Drexel acquired important ecological data which would have not been able to be collected otherwise. In 2013, teachers helped answer important questions about terrapin nesting success post Superstorm Sandy. In fact, the 2013 QUEST teachers are the first to visualize the frighteningly increased erosion of a primary terrapin nesting site due to Sandy; showing how most terrapin nests now lie in the bay, instead of safe on shore. Teachers comment that interacting with scientists in the field, and contributing to

  15. IODP Deep Biosphere Research Workshop report - a synthesis of recent investigations, and discussion of new research questions and drilling targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orcutt, B. N.; LaRowe, D. E.; Lloyd, K. G.; Mills, H.; Orsi, W.; Reese, B. K.; Sauvage, J.; Huber, J. A.; Amend, J.

    2014-04-01

    During the past decade, the IODP (International Ocean Discovery Program) has fostered a significant increase in deep biosphere investigations in the marine sedimentary and crustal environments, and scientists are well-poised to continue this momentum into the next phase of the IODP. The goals of this workshop were to evaluate recent findings in a global context, synthesize available biogeochemical data to foster thermodynamic and metabolic activity modeling and measurements, identify regional targets for future targeted sampling and dedicated expeditions, foster collaborations, and highlight the accomplishments of deep biosphere research within IODP. Twenty-four scientists from around the world participated in this one-day workshop sponsored by IODP-MI and held in Florence, Italy, immediately prior to the Goldschmidt 2013 conference. A major topic of discussion at the workshop was the continued need for standard biological sampling and measurements across IODP platforms. Workshop participants renew the call to IODP operators to implement recommended protocols.

  16. 40 CFR 26.304 - Additional protections for pregnant women and fetuses involved in observational research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... research. The provisions of 45 CFR 46.204 are applicable to this section. ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Additional protections for pregnant... Protections for Pregnant Women and Fetuses Involved as Subjects in Observational Research Conducted...

  17. Improving Control of Antibiotic-Resistant Gonorrhea by Integrating Research Agendas Across Disciplines: Key Questions Arising From Mathematical Modeling.

    PubMed

    Grad, Yonatan H; Goldstein, Edward; Lipsitch, Marc; White, Peter J

    2016-03-15

    The rise in gonococcal antibiotic resistance and the threat of untreatable infection are focusing attention on strategies to limit the spread of drug-resistant gonorrhea. Mathematical models provide a framework to link the natural history of infection and patient behavior to epidemiological outcomes and can be used to guide research and enhance the public health impact of interventions. While limited knowledge of key disease parameters and networks of spread has impeded development of operational models of gonococcal transmission, new tools in gonococcal surveillance may provide useful data to aid tracking and modeling. Here, we highlight critical questions in the management of gonorrhea that can be addressed by mathematical models and identify key data needs. Our overarching aim is to articulate a shared agenda across gonococcus-related fields from microbiology to epidemiology that will catalyze a comprehensive evidence-based clinical and public health strategy for management of gonococcal infections and antimicrobial resistance. PMID:26518045

  18. Questions and Answers about School-Age Children in Self-Care: A Sloan Work and Family Research Network Fact Sheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloan Work and Family Research Network, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Sloan Work and Family Research Network has prepared Fact Sheets that provide statistical answers to some important questions about work-family and work-life issues. This Fact Sheet includes statistics about Children in Self-Care, and answers the following questions about school-age children in self-care: (1) How many school-age children are in…

  19. Questioning Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Michelle

    1999-01-01

    Questions are so much a part of the classroom routine and they should stimulate learning and thinking. Introduces the Questioning and Understanding to Improve Learning and Thinking (QUILT) method which incorporates Bloom's Taxonomy and wait time. (ASK)

  20. Critiquing Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmerman, Lynn W.

    2015-01-01

    Question formation is a basic part of teaching and learning English. However, teachers often focus on the ability to form the question properly and not as much on the quality of the information the question is seeking. Whether teaching English language learners or students who want to be English teachers, teachers need to carefully consider the…

  1. Four Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hark-Weber, Amara G., Ed.

    2013-01-01

    The author is pleased to introduce a new section in "TAJ," Four Questions. The structure is simple: four questions are asked to teaching artists working in various media and locations. The questions are always the same, but because each teaching artist's approach is unique, their answers will provide an insight into particular methodologies that…

  2. Asking the Right Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galvin, Ruth Mehrtens

    1990-01-01

    Like good researchers, writers about research need to be able to tell whether scientific findings are valid. Six questions, to be asked of the researcher, can help the writer explain to others. A healthy skepticism is also important; there may be signals that more questions should be asked. (MSE)

  3. Reading for Meaning: Questioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trinkle, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    An essential literacy skill is asking questions. Because reading comprehension strategies should be taught directly and explicitly, students need to be told that they should ask questions throughout their research and that all questions are valid. While library media specialists are not reading teachers, the work they do with students in the…

  4. Questions for Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Schaeffer, Nora Cate; Dykema, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    We begin with a look back at the field to identify themes of recent research that we expect to continue to occupy researchers in the future. As part of this overview, we characterize the themes and topics examined in research about measurement and survey questions published in Public Opinion Quarterly in the past decade. We then characterize the field more broadly by highlighting topics that we expect to continue or to grow in importance, including the relationship between survey questions and the total survey error perspective, cognitive versus interactional approaches, interviewing practices, mode and technology, visual aspects of question design, and culture. Considering avenues for future research, we advocate for a decision-oriented framework for thinking about survey questions and their characteristics. The approach we propose distinguishes among various aspects of question characteristics, including question topic, question type and response dimension, conceptualization and operationalization of the target object, question structure, question form, response categories, question implementation, and question wording. Thinking about question characteristics more systematically would allow study designs to take into account relationships among these characteristics and identify gaps in current knowledge. PMID:24970951

  5. RESEARCH REPORT: Eliciting students' understandings of chemical reactions using two forms of essay questions during a learning cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavallo, Ann M. L.

    2003-05-01

    We examined ninth-grade students' explanations of chemical reactions using two forms of an open-ended essay question during a learning cycle. One form provided students with key terms to be used as 'anchors' upon which to base their essay, whereas the second form did not. The essays were administered at three points: pre-learning cycle, post-concept application, and after additional concept application activities. Students' explanations were qualitatively examined and grouped according to common patterns representing their understandings or misunderstandings. Findings indicated that more misunderstandings were elicited by the use of key terms as compared to the non-use of key terms in the pre-test. Misunderstandings in the key term essay responses generally involved the misuse of these terms and their association with the concept. Findings also indicated significant positive shifts in students' understanding over the learning cycle. No perceptible increase in understanding occurred after additional application activities. Differences in gender were observed, with females showing equal or greater understanding compared to males, contradicting reports that males typically outperform females in the physical sciences and supporting the need to reconstruct assessment techniques to better reveal the conceptual understandings of all students.

  6. The critical role of the research question, inclusion criteria, and transparency in meta-analyses of integrity test research: a reply to Harris et al. (2012) and Ones, Viswesvaran, and Schmidt (2012).

    PubMed

    Van Iddekinge, Chad H; Roth, Philip L; Raymark, Patrick H; Odle-Dusseau, Heather N

    2012-05-01

    We clear up a number of misconceptions from the critiques of our meta-analysis (Van Iddekinge, Roth, Raymark, & Odle-Dusseau, 2012). We reiterate that our research question focused on the criterion-related validity of integrity tests for predicting individual work behavior and that our inclusion criteria flowed from this question. We also reviewed the primary studies we could access from Ones, Viswesvaran, and Schmidt's (1993) meta-analysis of integrity tests and found that only about 30% of the studies met our inclusion criteria. Further, analyses of some of the types of studies we had to exclude revealed potentially inflated validity estimates (e.g., corrected validities as high as .80 for polygraph studies). We also discuss our experience trying to obtain primary studies and other information from authors of Harris et al. (2012) and Ones, Viswesvaran, and Schmidt (2012). In addition, we address concerns raised about certain decisions we made and values we used, and we demonstrate how such concerns would have little or no effect on our results or conclusions. Finally, we discuss some other misconceptions about our meta-analysis, as well as some divergent views about the integrity test literature in general. Overall, we stand by our research question, methods, and results, which suggest that the validity of integrity tests for criteria such as job performance and counterproductive work behavior is weaker than the authors of the critiques appear to believe. PMID:22582729

  7. Using a population-based observational cohort study to address difficult comparative effectiveness research questions: the CEASAR study

    PubMed Central

    Barocas, Daniel A; Chen, Vivien; Cooperberg, Matthew; Goodman, Michael; Graff, John J; Greenfield, Sheldon; Hamilton, Ann; Hoffman, Karen; Kaplan, Sherrie; Koyama, Tatsuki; Morgans, Alicia; Paddock, Lisa E; Phillips, Sharon; Resnick, Matthew J; Stroup, Antoinette; Wu, Xiao-Cheng; Penson, David F

    2016-01-01

    Background While randomized controlled trials represent the highest level of evidence we can generate in comparative effectiveness research, there are clinical scenarios where this type of study design is not feasible. The Comparative Effectiveness Analyses of Surgery and Radiation in localized prostate cancer (CEASAR) study is an observational study designed to compare the effectiveness and harms of different treatments for localized prostate cancer, a clinical scenario in which randomized controlled trials have been difficult to execute and, when completed, have been difficult to generalize to the population at large. Methods CEASAR employs a population-based, prospective cohort study design, using tumor registries as cohort inception tools. The primary outcome is quality of life after treatment, measured by validated instruments. Risk adjustment is facilitated by capture of traditional and nontraditional confounders before treatment and by propensity score analysis. Results We have accrued a diverse, representative cohort of 3691 men in the USA with clinically localized prostate cancer. Half of the men invited to participate enrolled, and 86% of patients who enrolled have completed the 6-month survey. Conclusion Challenging comparative effectiveness research questions can be addressed using well-designed observational studies. The CEASAR study provides an opportunity to determine what treatments work best, for which patients, and in whose hands. PMID:24236685

  8. Cancer Control Research Training for Native Researchers: A Model for Development of Additional Native Researcher Training Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Thomas M.; Dunn, Esther; Tom-Orme, Lillian; Joe, Jennie

    2005-01-01

    Several social and biological scientists who have Native status are engaged in productive research careers, but the encouragement that has been offered to Native students to formulate career goals devoted to cancer etiology or cancer control in Native peoples has had limited success. Hence, the Native Researchers' Cancer Control Training Program…

  9. Question-Asking and Question-Exploring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sands, Lorraine; Carr, Margaret; Lee, Wendy

    2012-01-01

    The Centre of Innovation Research at Greerton Early Childhood Centre was characterised as a dispositional milieu where working theories were explored through a narrative research methodology. As the research progressed, the teachers at Greerton strengthened the way we were listening to, and watching out for young children's questions to enable…

  10. A Review of Research on the Literacy of Students with Visual Impairments and Additional Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Amy T.; Pogrund, Rona L.

    2009-01-01

    Research on the development of literacy in children with visual impairments and additional disabilities is minimal even though these children make up approximately 65% of the population of children with visual impairments. This article reports on emerging themes that were explored after a review of the literature revealed nine literacy studies…

  11. Essential Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilhelm, Jeffrey D.

    2012-01-01

    The secret to teaching may be as simple as asking students good questions--and then giving them the opportunity to find the answers. The author shares how he uses essential questions that set the class off on an inquiry. Rather than consuming information that he distributes and then repeating it on a test, students carry out their own…

  12. Question Mapping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Josh

    2012-01-01

    After accepting the principal position at Farmersville (TX) Junior High, the author decided to increase instructional rigor through question mapping because of the success he saw using this instructional practice at his prior campus. Teachers are the number one influence on student achievement (Marzano, 2003), so question mapping provides a…

  13. Curiosity Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelsen, Jane; DeLorenzo, Chip

    2010-01-01

    Have you ever found yourself lecturing a child, with the best of intentions, in an attempt to help him or her learn a lesson or process a situation in a manner that you feel will be productive? Curiosity questions, which the authors also call What and How questions, help children process an experience, event, or natural consequence so that they…

  14. Developmental Aspects of Training Students to Use Information-Locating Strategies for Responding to Questions. Research Series No. 137.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raphael, Taffy E.

    This technical report describes a series of three studies designed to instruct students in the relationship between texts, comprehension questions, and two sources of answer information--the text to which a given question refers and their own background knowledge. The focus of the technical report is on individual differences in the amount and…

  15. Transfer of hospitals and "additional premises" to the state: questionable morality in the implementation of the National Health Service Act (1946).

    PubMed

    Cook, G C

    2004-12-01

    The National Health Service Act of 1946, pioneered by Aneurin Bevan, came into being on the "appointed day", 5 July 1948. Hospitals with their "additional premises" throughout Britain were "seized" by the state and incorporated into this vast socialist enterprise. While the majority of the population welcomed this new initiative in the creation of a welfare state, associated with medical care from cradle to grave, not all (especially members of various Hospital Boards of Management) were so enthusiastic. The hospitals for "incurables" (long stay patients) were unhappy and lost a vast proportion of their income owing to a great deal of procrastination; but most of them ultimately managed to escape nationalisation after a prolonged period of negotiation, by a claim that they were "homes" rather than "hospitals". The confiscation of property which had been built as a result of voluntary subscription was another huge and highly contentious matter, which has been highlighted in recent years. The future of the Seamen's Hospital Society's properties represents a good example of this. PMID:15579611

  16. Characteristics, detection methods, and treatment of questionable occlusal carious lesions: findings from The National Dental Practice-Based Research Network

    PubMed Central

    Makhija, Sonia K; Gilbert, Gregg H.; Funkhouser, Ellen; Bader, James D; Gordan, Valeria V.; Rindal, D. Brad; Pihlstrom, Daniel J.; Qvist, Vibeke

    2014-01-01

    Questionable occlusal carious lesions (QOC) can be defined as an occlusal tooth surface with no cavitation and no radiographic radiolucencies, but caries is suspected due to roughness, surface opacities, or staining. An earlier analysis of data from this study indicates ⅓ of patients have a QOC. The objective of this report is to quantify the characteristics of these common lesions, diagnostic aids used, and treatment of QOC. A total of 82 dentist and hygienist practitioner-investigators from the United States and Denmark in The National Dental Practice-Based Research Network participated. When consented patients presented with a QOC, information was recorded about the patient, tooth, lesion, and treatments. 2,603 QOC from 1,732 patients were analyzed. Lesions were usually associated with a fissure, on molars, and varied from yellow to black in color. Half presented with a chalky luster and had a rough surface when examined with an explorer. There was an association between color and luster, 10% were chalky-light, 47% were shiny-dark, and 42% were mixtures. A higher proportion of chalky than shiny lesions were light (22% vs. 9%; p < 0.001). Lesions light in color were less common in adults than pediatric patients (9% vs. 32%; p < 0.001). Lesions that were chalky and light were more common among pediatric than adult patients (22% vs. 6%, p < 0.001). This is the first study to investigate characteristics of QOC in routine clinical practice. Clinicians commonly face this diagnostic uncertainty. Determining the characteristics of these lesions are relevant when making diagnostic and treatment decisions. PMID:24480989

  17. Variation in blood sample collection for determination of hemodialysis adequacy. Council on Renal Nutrition National Research Question Collaborative Study Group.

    PubMed

    Beto, J A; Bansal, V K; Ing, T S; Daugirdas, J T

    1998-01-01

    Inadequate dialysis has been associated with high morbidity and mortality in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients receiving maintenance hemodialysis. The accurate estimation of dialysis adequacy, measured either as a calculated urea kinetics (Kt/V) or a simple urea reduction ratio (URR) is dependent on the proper collection of blood samples for predialysis and postdialysis blood urea nitrogen (BUN) determination. Because no established protocol exists for blood sampling, we surveyed the study cohort of dialysis centers participating in the National Kidney Foundation Council on Renal Nutrition National Research Question Collaborative Study to determine the comparability of BUN data that were collected to calculate URR to determine adequacy of dialysis. Surveys were completed by 100% of the 202 units participating: 195 in the United States (from 43 states) and seven from Canada, treating approximately 15,000 hemodialysis patients in total. The distribution of the sample by the type of facility mirrored that of 1996 United States Renal Data System (USRDS) Annual Report facilities data. Results showed a 5.0% error in predialysis blood draw and an 8.4% to 41.6% error in the postdialysis counterpart. There was a large variability in the observed postdialysis methods in general. Dilution of predialysis sample with either heparin or saline will falsely underestimate Kt/V and URR. The presence of access-derived, recirculated blood in the postdialysis sample will falsely overestimate Kt/V and URR. Excessive delay in drawing postdialysis sample will reduce Kt/V and URR because of urea rebound. Adoption by all dialysis providers of a uniform blood sample draw procedure will result in a consistency necessary to allow reliable and valid comparison of adequacy of dialysis parameters within and between ESRD patients, units, and clinical trials. PMID:9428465

  18. Characteristics, detection methods and treatment of questionable occlusal carious lesions: findings from the national dental practice-based research network.

    PubMed

    Makhija, S K; Gilbert, G H; Funkhouser, E; Bader, J D; Gordan, V V; Rindal, D B; Pihlstrom, D J; Qvist, V

    2014-01-01

    Questionable occlusal carious lesions (QOC) can be defined as an occlusal tooth surface with no cavitation and no radiographic radiolucencies, but caries is suspected due to roughness, surface opacities or staining. An earlier analysis of data from this study indicates 1/3 of patients have a QOC. The objective of this report has been to quantify the characteristics of these common lesions, the diagnostic aids used and the treatment of QOC. A total of 82 dentist and hygienist practitioner-investigators from the USA and Denmark in the National Dental Practice-Based Research Network participated. When consenting patients presented with a QOC, information was recorded about the patient, tooth, lesion and treatments. A total of 2,603 QOC from 1,732 patients were analyzed. The lesions were usually associated with a fissure, on molars, and varied from yellow to black in color. Half presented with a chalky luster and had a rough surface when examined with an explorer. There was an association between color and luster: 10% were chalky-light, 47% were shiny-dark and 42% were mixtures. A higher proportion of chalky than of shiny lesions were light (22 vs. 9%; p < 0.001). Lesions light in color were less common in adults than in pediatric patients (9 vs. 32%; p < 0.001). Lesions that were chalky and light were more common among pediatric than among adult patients (22 vs. 6%; p < 0.001). This is the first study to investigate characteristics of QOC in routine clinical practice. Clinicians commonly face this diagnostic uncertainty. Determining the characteristics of these lesions is relevant when making diagnostic and treatment decisions. PMID:24480989

  19. To Question or Not to Question: That Seems to Be the Question.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradtmueller, Weldon G.; Egan, James B.

    Research on the effects of questioning in the classroom has explored the placement, timing, type, and social impact of questions. Principles of good questioning include the following: (1) well-stated questions should be concise, clear, and complete; (2) questions should be topical in nature, requiring a complex answer; (3) yes or no questions…

  20. Fermi questions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouffard, Karen

    1999-05-01

    This column contains problems and solutions for the general category of questions known as "Fermi" questions. Forcing the students to use their ability to estimate, giving answers in terms of order-of-magnitude, is not only a challenge for a competition, but a teaching strategy to use in the classroom to develop self-confidence and the ability to analyze answers as to whether or not they make sense, as opposed to relying on the "precision" of a calculator value.

  1. Research and Teaching: Correlations between Students' Written Responses to Lecture-Tutorial Questions and Their Understandings of Key Astrophysics Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckenrode, Jeffrey; Prather, Edward E.; Wallace, Colin S.

    2016-01-01

    This article reports on an investigation into the correlations between students' understandings of introductory astronomy concepts and the correctness and coherency of their written responses to targeted Lecture-Tutorial questions.

  2. Four Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hark-Weber, Amara G., Ed.

    2013-01-01

    Teaching artists often find themselves working in schools and communities that are new to them, whether these are situations close to home or farther afield. This issue of Four Questions highlights teaching artists who travel extensively as part of their teaching and artistic practices and bring their expertise, energy, and creativity to…

  3. Questionable Exercises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liemohn, Wendell; Haydu, Traci; Phillips, Dawn

    1999-01-01

    This publication presents general guidelines for exercise prescription that have an anatomical basis but also consider the exerciser's ability to do the exercise correctly. It reviews various common questionable exercises, explaining how some exercises, especially those designed for flexibility and muscle fitness, can cause harm. Safer…

  4. Producing and Using Video Data in the Early Years: Ethical Questions and Practical Consequences in Research with Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robson, Sue

    2011-01-01

    This article considers ethical questions and practical challenges arising from the production of video data with young children, and suggests that such considerations are reciprocal and that video data should be seen as constructed collaboratively by all participants. Video data can be a valuable means of eliciting children's perspectives, but it…

  5. Will the Real Author Come Forward? Questions of Ethics, Plagiarism, Theft and Collusion in Academic Research Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sikes, Pat

    2009-01-01

    This paper raises some questions about academic authorial honesty under the headings of Plagiarism (including self-plagiarism), Theft, and Collusion. Compared with the medical sciences, the social sciences in general and education specifically, lag behind in terms of critical attention being paid to the problem of plagiarism, the peer review…

  6. On the Science of Embodied Cognition in the 2010s: Research Questions, Appropriate Reductionism, and Testable Explanations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunez, Rafael

    2012-01-01

    "The Journal of the Learning Sciences" has devoted this special issue to the study of embodied cognition (as it applies to mathematics), a topic that for several decades has gained attention in the cognitive sciences and in mathematics education, in particular. In this commentary, the author aims to address crucial questions in embodied…

  7. The Effects of the Use of the Question Exploration Routine on Student Performance in Secondary Content Classrooms. Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulgren, Janis A.; Lenz, B. Keith; Marquis, Janet; Schumaker, Jean B.; Deshler, Donald D.

    The tenth in a series of studies investigating the educational context and outcomes for high school students with disabilities (SWDs), this study explored the use of a Question Exploration Routine as a means of enhancing the performance of students with disabilities in ninth-grade inclusive content classes. Participants were 134 students, with and…

  8. Do Workshops in Evidence-Based Practice Equip Participants to Identify and Answer Questions Requiring Consideration of Clinical Research? A Diagnostic Skill Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyer, Peter C,; Naqvi, Zoon; Dayan, Peter S.; Celentano, James J.; Eskin, Barnet; Graham, Mark J.

    2009-01-01

    Evidence-based practice (EBP) requires practitioners to identify and formulate questions in response to patient encounters, and to seek, select, and appraise applicable clinical research. A standardized workshop format serves as the model for training of medical educators in these skills. We developed an evaluation exercise to assess the ability…

  9. Questioning Our Questions: Assessing Question Asking Practices to Evaluate a yPAR Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grace, Sarah; Langhout, Regina Day

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine question asking practices in a youth participatory action research (yPAR) after school program housed at an elementary school. The research question was: In which ways did the adult question asking practices in a yPAR setting challenge and/or reproduce conventional models of power in educational…

  10. Questioning Strategies to Develop Critical Thinking Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Carol P.

    Major research on questioning has focused on the numbers and types of questions asked by teachers, the effects of teachers' questions on students, the questioning process, questioning as used in textbooks, and the questioning pattern (what the teacher does immediately after asking a question). Teachers who have few skills to utilize questioning…

  11. Piloting an approach to rapid and automated assessment of a new research initiative: Application to the National Cancer Institute’s Provocative Questions initiative

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Elizabeth R.; Williams, Duane E.; DiJoseph, Leo G.; Schnell, Joshua D.; Finstad, Samantha L.; Lee, Jerry S. H.; Greenspan, Emily J.; Corrigan, James G.

    2013-01-01

    Funders of biomedical research are often challenged to understand how a new funding initiative fits within the agency’s portfolio and the larger research community. While traditional assessment relies on retrospective review by subject matter experts, it is now feasible to design portfolio assessment and gap analysis tools leveraging administrative and grant application data that can be used for early and continued analysis. We piloted such methods on the National Cancer Institute’s Provocative Questions (PQ) initiative to address key questions regarding diversity of applicants; whether applicants were proposing new avenues of research; and whether grant applications were filling portfolio gaps. For the latter two questions, we defined measurements called focus shift and relevance, respectively, based on text similarity scoring. We demonstrate that two types of applicants were attracted by the PQs at rates greater than or on par with the general National Cancer Institute applicant pool: those with clinical degrees and new investigators. Focus shift scores tended to be relatively low, with applicants not straying far from previous research, but the majority of applications were found to be relevant to the PQ the application was addressing. Sensitivity to comparison text and inability to distinguish subtle scientific nuances are the primary limitations of our automated approaches based on text similarity, potentially biasing relevance and focus shift measurements. We also discuss potential uses of the relevance and focus shift measures including the design of outcome evaluations, though further experimentation and refinement are needed for a fuller understanding of these measures before broad application. PMID:24808631

  12. A research facility for habitation questions to be built at the German Aerospace Center in Cologne: future challenges of Space medicine

    PubMed Central

    Koch, B; Gerzer, R

    2008-01-01

    For long term habitation in space and for living on Moon and Mars, many questions still need to be resolved. Such habitation questions include prevention of and rehabilitation from negative effects of weightlessness that are, in many instances, comparable to problems of aging people on Earth as well as of patients during and recovery from long term stays in bed. Therefore the DLR Institute of Aerospace Medicine has designed a concept for a research facility that will make it possible to join space research directly with terrestrial applications. From a strategic point of view, one major emphasis of :envihab is to form a closely interrelated network of scientists and the industry and the public. The project has been in the planning phase for several years. After an international architectural contest, the winning concept was selected in 2007 by a Jury with ESA participation. PMID:19048099

  13. Genes as a historical archive: on the applicability of genetic research to sociohistorical questions: the debate on the origins of Ashkenazi Jewry revisited.

    PubMed

    Kohler, Noa Sophie

    2014-01-01

    The origin of the Ashkenazi Jews has fascinated a growing number of geneticists in recent decades. Using genetic markers to answer questions of history is an approach that is at once tempting and precarious. Both genetics and history are highly specialized fields, and with an interdisciplinary approach, difficulties abound.This article briefly discusses this complex issue based on two studies, written by geneticists,which aimed at contributing to the research on the history of Ashkenazi Jewry.To date, geneticists who have tried to tackle historical questions by means of genetics and statistics have had difficulties with the dialectic methods of historiography, while historians have often misinterpreted the validity of the research results of the so-called "exact sciences." Only when both sides study and understand the other side's methodology can cooperation lead to usable and meaningful results. PMID:25345705

  14. Are we asking the right questions? A review of Canadian REB practices in relation to community-based participatory research.

    PubMed

    Guta, Adrian; Wilson, Michael G; Flicker, Sarah; Travers, Robb; Mason, Catherine; Wenyeve, Gloria; O'Campo, Patricia

    2010-06-01

    Access barriers to effective ethics review continue to be a significant challenge for researchers and community-based organizations undertaking community-based participatory research (CBPR). This article reports on findings from a content analysis of select (Behavioural, Biomedical, Social Sciences, Humanities) research ethics boards (REBs) in the Canadian research context (n = 86). Existing ethics review documentation was evaluated using 30 CBPR related criteria for their sensitivity to relevant approaches, processes, and outcomes. A linear regression was conducted to determine whether specific organizational characteristics have an impact on the CBPR sensitivity: (1) region of Canada, (2) type of institution (university or a healthcare organization), (3) primary institutional language (English or French) and (4) national ranking with respect to research intensiveness. While only research intensiveness proved statistically significant (p = .001), we recognize REB protocol forms may not actually reflect how CBPR is reviewed. Despite using a single guiding ethical framework, REBs across Canada employ a variety of techniques to review research studies. We report on these differences and varying levels of sensitivity to CBPR. Finally, we highlight best practices and make recommendations for integrating CBPR principles into existing ethics review. PMID:20569148

  15. Turbulent Drag Reduction with Surfactant Additives — Basic Research and Application to an Air Conditioning System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawaguchi, Y.; Li, F. C.; Yu, B.; Wei, J. J.

    It is well known that a small amount of chemicals such as water-soluble polymers or surfactants dramatically suppresses turbulence when they are added to liquid flow at large Reynolds number. In the last two decades, the application of surfactants to heat transportation systems such as district heating and cooling systems has attracted much interest among researchers. It has been revealed that 70% of the pumping power used to drive hot water in primary pipelines or district heating systems was saved by adding only a few hundred ppm of surfactant into the circulating water. The technological achievement requires a new design strategy for pipeline networks and heat exchangers to handle the drag reducing liquid flow. In the case of a Newtonian fluid such as water or air, the knowledge for designing fluid systems has been accumulated and the accuracy of numerical prediction is sufficient. On the other hand, the design system for surfactant solutions is not mature because drag-reducing flow phenomena are much more complicated than for Newtonian flow, for example, the friction factor for a surfactant solution depends not only on Reynolds number but also pipe diameter. In order to provide a design strategy for heat transportation systems using surfactant additives, we are now carrying out both experimental and numerical studies for surfactant solutions. In this lecture, experimental and numerical studies on the turbulence structure in drag reducing flow will be introduced. The result of an application study relating to the air conditioning system will be also shown.

  16. The practice gap in the care of women following successful infertility treatments: unasked research questions in midwifery and nursing.

    PubMed

    Allan, Helen; Finnerty, Gina

    2007-06-01

    The aim of this paper is to highlight the gap between existing research evidence and nursing and midwifery practices in caring for women following successful in vitro fertilization (IVF) and gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT), and to suggest directions for research within these disciplines. We argue that although the number of couples in the UK experiencing fertility problems has risen, 1.4% of all births in the UK are as the result of infertility treatments (HFEA, 2005/2006); yet there is little research into the experiences of motherhood for women who successfully achieve pregnancy following IVF or GIFT. Consequently, there is negligible research evidence for nurses and midwives practicing in this area, and British healthcare staff appear to be unaware of the specific needs of infertile women during pregnancy, birth and early motherhood. In this paper we review the existing literature on this group of women, which falls into three areas: studies into the psychosocial development of the child conceived via IVF/GIFT/donor insemination; comparative studies into experiences of women following successful infertility treatment and women who conceive naturally; and studies into the experiences of women following successful IVF treatment. We review this literature to argue for research into the needs of infertile women following successful IVF/GIFT, to inform evidence for practice. PMID:17564889

  17. Applying the results of education research to help students learn more: peer instruction and clicker questions in upper-division courses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pepper, Rachel E.; Chasteen, Stephanie V.; Pollock, Steven J.; Perkins, Katherine K.

    2014-11-01

    The physics faculty at the University of Colorado have transformed four upper-division courses: Classical Mechanics/Math Methods, Electricity and Magnetism (E&M) I and II, and Quantum Mechanics. We discuss these transformations as a model for other upper-division courses, such as fluid mechanics, focusing on one of the changes made in the transformation effort: the addition of peer instruction (``clicker questions'') to lecture. The goals of our course transformation were to improve student learning and to develop materials and approaches that other faculty could easily adopt or adapt. In this talk, we review the evidence for effectiveness of peer instruction, discuss our implementation, and present evidence of improved student learning in our transformed upper division courses. Tips for effective use of peer instruction and banks of clicker questions available for fluid mechanics will also be discussed. Our curriculum materials are free and available at http://per.colorado.edu/sei.

  18. Big Questions, Small Works, Lots of Layers: Documentary Video Production and the Teaching of Academic Research and Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halbritter, Bump; Blon, Noah; Creighton, Caron

    2011-01-01

    Documentary movie making is not academic writing. Nor is it traditional academic research. However, I have found it to be a remarkable vehicle for teaching both of these things...each semester I am amazed and humbled by the creativity and sincerity that my students bring to their work.

  19. To Aggregate or Not and Potentially Better Questions for Clustered Data: The Need for Hierarchical Linear Modeling in CTE Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nimon, Kim

    2012-01-01

    Using state achievement data that are openly accessible, this paper demonstrates the application of hierarchical linear modeling within the context of career technical education research. Three prominent approaches to analyzing clustered data (i.e., modeling aggregated data, modeling disaggregated data, modeling hierarchical data) are discussed…

  20. Early Career Academic Perceptions, Attitudes and Professional Development Activities: Questioning the Teaching and Research Gap to Further Academic Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Kelly E.; Lodge, Jason M.; Bosanquet, Agnes

    2014-01-01

    Early career academia is a challenging time, particularly as academics are facing increasing pressures to excel across a range of areas. Boyer argued for the "true scholar" versed in the overlapping areas of scholarship in research, teaching, integration and engagement. Academic developers have an important role to play in assisting the…

  1. "Why Are You Doing This?" Questions on Purpose, Structure, and Outcomes in Participatory Action Research Engaging Youth and Teacher Candidates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galletta, Anne; Jones, Vanessa

    2010-01-01

    Our article is based on a study of our integration of social foundations coursework with filmmaking and participatory action research, bringing teacher candidates and middle and high school students together. The project was carried out in partnership between an urban university and two nearby public schools within a Midwestern city known for high…

  2. PowerPoint Presentations: A Creative Addition to the Research Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Alan E.

    2003-01-01

    Contends that the requirement of a PowerPoint presentation as part of the research process would benefit students in the following ways: learning how to conduct research; starting their research project sooner; honing presentation and public speaking skills; improving cooperative and social skills; and enhancing technology skills. Outlines the…

  3. QTIPs: Questionable theoretical and interpretive practices in social psychology.

    PubMed

    Brandt, Mark J; Proulx, Travis

    2015-01-01

    One possible consequence of ideological homogeneity is the misinterpretation of data collected with otherwise solid methods. To help identify these issues outside of politically relevant research, we name and give broad descriptions to three questionable interpretive practices described by Duarte et al. and introduce three additional questionable theoretical practices that also reduce the theoretical power and paradigmatic scope of psychology. PMID:26785688

  4. Injury to the Preterm Brain and Cerebral Palsy: Clinical Aspects, Molecular Mechanisms, Unanswered Questions, and Future Research Directions

    PubMed Central

    Babcock, Michael A.; Kostova, Felina V.; Ferriero, Donna M.; Johnston, Michael V.; Brunstrom, Jan E.; Hagberg, Henrik; Maria, Bernard L.

    2013-01-01

    Cerebral palsy will affect nearly 10% of the 60,000 very-low-birth-weight infants born in the United States in the next year, and an even greater percentage will display some form of permanent neurological impairment resulting from injury to the preterm brain. The 2008 Neurobiology of Disease in Children Symposium, held in conjunction with the 37th annual meeting of the Child Neurology Society, aimed to define current knowledge and to develop specific aims for future clinical, translational, and fundamental science. A complex interplay of both destructive and developmental forces is responsible for injury to the preterm brain. Advances in imaging and histology have implicated a variety of cell types, though pre-oligodendrocyte injury remains the focus. Research into different mechanisms of injury is facilitating new neuroprotective and rehabilitative interventions. A cooperative effort is necessary to translate basic research findings into clinically effective therapies and better care for these children. PMID:19745084

  5. Statement Summarizing Research Findings on the Issue of the Relationship Between Food-Additive-Free Diets and Hyperkinesis in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipton, Morris; Wender, Esther

    The National Advisory Committee on Hyperkinesis and Food Additives paper summarized some research findings on the issue of the relationship between food-additive-free diets and hyperkinesis in children. Based on several challenge studies, it is concluded that the evidence generally refutes Dr. B. F. Feingold's claim that artificial colorings in…

  6. [Two hundred blood tests from Auschwitz. A notorious research project and the question about the contribution Adolf Butenandts].

    PubMed

    Trunk, Achim

    2007-01-01

    The 1939 Nobel Laureate in Chemistry and later President of the Max Planck Society Adolf Butenandt has been increasingly exposed to criticism in recent years. One far-reaching accusation against him is his postulated participation in the human experiments executed by the SS-physician Josef Mengele in the Auschwitz concentration camp. It concerns a project initiated by anthropologist Otmar von Verschuer in 1943. For this, Verschu-ER Obtained blood samples from his assistant Mengele in the Auschwitz concentration camp. When methodological problems occurred in the project Butenandt helped Verschuer. According to the reconstruction of geneticist Benno Müller-Hill the research project included lethal human experiments: Mengele had selectively infected concentration camp detainees with tuberculosis to observe their racially conditioned resistibility against that disease, he claims. This reconstruction, however, contradicts other sources. Therefore an alternative reconstruction is offered here. According to that, the project represented a large-scale attempt of serological race diagnosis in man. Human experiments are not plausible for this project. Yet it is clearly connected to race biological research and implementation. PMID:18447187

  7. Health and Well-Being in Emerging Adults’ Same-Sex Relationships: Critical Questions and Directions for Research in Developmental Science

    PubMed Central

    Frost, David M.; Meyer, Ilan H.; Hammack, Phillip L.

    2016-01-01

    Researchers have yet to account for the potentially unique experiences of emerging adults who are in or seeking to be in a relationship with a same-sex romantic partner. This paper articulates an agenda for research focused on better understanding and addressing the health and well-being of emerging adults in or pursuing same-sex romantic relationships. We provide a general summary of what is known about health and well-being in same-sex relationships, followed by an overview of the current and changing social climate surrounding same-sex relationships. We point out how recent historical changes present sexual minority emerging adults with unique relational benefits and challenges that have not been examined within the social and health sciences. We conclude by proposing a set of research questions to help develop knowledge needed to improve the health and well-being of emerging adults in or pursuing same-sex relationships.

  8. 75 FR 34277 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; FAR Case 2008-007, Additional Requirements for Market Research

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-16

    ... Research AGENCIES: Department of Defense (DoD), General Services Administration (GSA), and National... executive agencies. Specifically, the head of the agency must conduct market research before issuing an... million for the procurement of items other than commercial items is required to conduct market...

  9. Additional flow quality measurements in the Langley Research Center 8-Foot Transonic Pressure Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, J. D.; Stainback, P. C.; Brooks, C. W., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Additional tests were conducted to further define the disturbance characteristics of the Langley 8-Foot Transonic Pressure Tunnel. Measurements were made in the settling chamber with hot wire probes and in the test section with pressure transducers when various methods were used to choke the flow. In addition to presenting rms values measured at various locations and tunnel condition, autocorrelations and cross correlation data are also presented.

  10. Is there a need for a '100 questions exercise' to enhance fisheries and aquatic conservation, policy, management and research? Lessons from a global 100 questions exercise on conservation of biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Cooke, S J; Danylchuk, A J; Kaiser, M J; Rudd, M A

    2010-06-01

    Recent global and regional exercises have been undertaken to identify 100 questions of relevance to policy makers that, if answered, would improve decision making and conservation actions. These were intentionally broad, but all included themes and questions of relevance to aquatic and fisheries professionals (e.g. exploitation, habitat alteration, effectiveness of protected areas, migratory connectivity and environmental effects of aquaculture). Here, the content of the global 100 question exercise relevant to aquatic and fisheries issues is summarized and a critical analysis is provided. Many of the questions addressed in apparently unrelated themes and topics (e.g. terrestrial, agriculture and energy policy) have potential relevance to fisheries and aquatic habitats, which underlines the connectivity between terrestrial and aquatic realms. Given the intimate link between aquatic environmental problems and human activities (including culture and economics), greater understanding of the human dimension is required to inform decision making. Stakeholder perspectives need to be included as a core component of the fisheries management triangle (i.e. managing fish, habitat and people). The benefits and risks of conducting a global 100 questions exercise with an exclusive focus on questions of relevance to fisheries and aquatic practitioners are also considered. There is no question that evidence-based approaches to conservation are essential for addressing the many threats that face aquatic ecosystems and reverse the imperilment trends among ichthyofauna. It is still unclear, however, as to the extent to which 100 questions exercises will help to achieve conservation and management targets for aquatic resources. A global 100 questions exercise that focused on fisheries and aquatic issues would certainly help to generate interest and awareness sufficient to justify such an exercise. PMID:20557662

  11. Defining an additivity framework for mixture research in inducible whole-cell biosensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin-Betancor, K.; Ritz, C.; Fernández-Piñas, F.; Leganés, F.; Rodea-Palomares, I.

    2015-11-01

    A novel additivity framework for mixture effect modelling in the context of whole cell inducible biosensors has been mathematically developed and implemented in R. The proposed method is a multivariate extension of the effective dose (EDp) concept. Specifically, the extension accounts for differential maximal effects among analytes and response inhibition beyond the maximum permissive concentrations. This allows a multivariate extension of Loewe additivity, enabling direct application in a biphasic dose-response framework. The proposed additivity definition was validated, and its applicability illustrated by studying the response of the cyanobacterial biosensor Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 pBG2120 to binary mixtures of Zn, Cu, Cd, Ag, Co and Hg. The novel method allowed by the first time to model complete dose-response profiles of an inducible whole cell biosensor to mixtures. In addition, the approach also allowed identification and quantification of departures from additivity (interactions) among analytes. The biosensor was found to respond in a near additive way to heavy metal mixtures except when Hg, Co and Ag were present, in which case strong interactions occurred. The method is a useful contribution for the whole cell biosensors discipline and related areas allowing to perform appropriate assessment of mixture effects in non-monotonic dose-response frameworks

  12. Defining an additivity framework for mixture research in inducible whole-cell biosensors.

    PubMed

    Martin-Betancor, K; Ritz, C; Fernández-Piñas, F; Leganés, F; Rodea-Palomares, I

    2015-01-01

    A novel additivity framework for mixture effect modelling in the context of whole cell inducible biosensors has been mathematically developed and implemented in R. The proposed method is a multivariate extension of the effective dose (EDp) concept. Specifically, the extension accounts for differential maximal effects among analytes and response inhibition beyond the maximum permissive concentrations. This allows a multivariate extension of Loewe additivity, enabling direct application in a biphasic dose-response framework. The proposed additivity definition was validated, and its applicability illustrated by studying the response of the cyanobacterial biosensor Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 pBG2120 to binary mixtures of Zn, Cu, Cd, Ag, Co and Hg. The novel method allowed by the first time to model complete dose-response profiles of an inducible whole cell biosensor to mixtures. In addition, the approach also allowed identification and quantification of departures from additivity (interactions) among analytes. The biosensor was found to respond in a near additive way to heavy metal mixtures except when Hg, Co and Ag were present, in which case strong interactions occurred. The method is a useful contribution for the whole cell biosensors discipline and related areas allowing to perform appropriate assessment of mixture effects in non-monotonic dose-response frameworks. PMID:26606975

  13. Defining an additivity framework for mixture research in inducible whole-cell biosensors

    PubMed Central

    Martin-Betancor, K.; Ritz, C.; Fernández-Piñas, F.; Leganés, F.; Rodea-Palomares, I.

    2015-01-01

    A novel additivity framework for mixture effect modelling in the context of whole cell inducible biosensors has been mathematically developed and implemented in R. The proposed method is a multivariate extension of the effective dose (EDp) concept. Specifically, the extension accounts for differential maximal effects among analytes and response inhibition beyond the maximum permissive concentrations. This allows a multivariate extension of Loewe additivity, enabling direct application in a biphasic dose-response framework. The proposed additivity definition was validated, and its applicability illustrated by studying the response of the cyanobacterial biosensor Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 pBG2120 to binary mixtures of Zn, Cu, Cd, Ag, Co and Hg. The novel method allowed by the first time to model complete dose-response profiles of an inducible whole cell biosensor to mixtures. In addition, the approach also allowed identification and quantification of departures from additivity (interactions) among analytes. The biosensor was found to respond in a near additive way to heavy metal mixtures except when Hg, Co and Ag were present, in which case strong interactions occurred. The method is a useful contribution for the whole cell biosensors discipline and related areas allowing to perform appropriate assessment of mixture effects in non-monotonic dose-response frameworks PMID:26606975

  14. Stochastic fractal-based models of heterogeneity in subsurface hydrology: Origins, applications, limitations, and future research questions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molz, Fred J.; Rajaram, Harihar; Lu, Silong

    2004-03-01

    Modern measurement techniques have shown that property distributions in natural porous and fractured media appear highly irregular and nonstationary in a spatial statistical sense. This implies that direct statistical analyses of the property distributions are not appropriate, because the statistical measures developed will be dependent on position and therefore will be nonunique. An alternative, which has been explored to an increasing degree during the past 20 years, is to consider the class of functions known as nonstationary stochastic processes with spatially stationary increments. When such increment distributions are described by probability density functions (PDFs) of the Gaussian, Levy, or gamma class or PDFs that converge to one of these classes under additions, then one is also dealing with a so-called stochastic fractal, the mathematical theory of which was developed during the first half of the last century. The scaling property associated with such fractals is called self-affinity, which is more general that geometric self-similarity. Herein we review the application of Gaussian and Levy stochastic fractals and multifractals in subsurface hydrology, mainly to porosity, hydraulic conductivity, and fracture roughness, along with the characteristics of flow and transport in such fields. Included are the development and application of fractal and multifractal concepts; a review of the measurement techniques, such as the borehole flowmeter and gas minipermeameter, that are motivating the use of fractal-based theories; the idea of a spatial weighting function associated with a measuring instrument; how fractal fields are generated; and descriptions of the topography and aperture distributions of self-affine fractures. In a somewhat different vein the last part of the review deals with fractal- and fragmentation-based descriptions of fracture networks and the implications for transport in such networks. Broad conclusions include the implication that models

  15. Changes to English as an Additional Language Writers' Research Articles: From Spoken to Written Register

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koyalan, Aylin; Mumford, Simon

    2011-01-01

    The process of writing journal articles is increasingly being seen as a collaborative process, especially where the authors are English as an Additional Language (EAL) academics. This study examines the changes made in terms of register to EAL writers' journal articles by a native-speaker writing centre advisor at a private university in Turkey.…

  16. Full Life-Cycle Defect Management Assessment: Initial Inspection Data Collection Results and Research Questions for Further Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shull, Forrest; Feldmann, Raimund; Haingaertner, Ralf; Regardie, Myrna; Seaman, Carolyn

    2007-01-01

    It is often the case in software projects that when schedule and budget resources are limited, the Verification and Validation (V&V) activities suffer. Fewer V&V activities can be afforded and moreover, short-term challenges can result in V&V activities being scaled back or dropped altogether. As a result, too often the default solution is to save activities for improving software quality until too late in the life-cycle, relying on late-term code inspections followed by thorough testing activities to reduce defect counts to acceptable levels. As many project managers realize, however, this is a resource-intensive way of achieving the required quality for software. The Full Life-cycle Defect Management Assessment Initiative, funded by NASA s Office of Safety and Mission Assurance under the Software Assurance Research Program, aims to address these problems by: Improving the effectiveness of early life-cycle V&V activities to make their benefits more attractive to team leads. Specifically, we focus on software inspection, a proven method that can be applied to any software work product, long before executable code has been developed; Better communicating this effectiveness to software development teams, along with suggestions for parameters to improve in the future to increase effectiveness; Analyzing the impact of early life-cycle V&V on the effectiveness and cost required for late life-cycle V&V activities, such as testing, in order to make the tradeoffs more apparent. This white paper reports on an initial milestone in this work, the development of a preliminary model of inspection effectiveness across multiple NASA Centers. This model contributes toward reaching our project goals by: Allowing an examination of inspection parameters, across different types of projects and different work products, for an analysis of factors that impact defect detection effectiveness. Allowing a comparison of this NASA-specific model to existing recommendations in the literature

  17. To research (or not) that is the question: ethical issues in research when medical care is disrupted by political action: a case study from Eldoret, Kenya

    PubMed Central

    House, Darlene R; Marete, Irene; Meslin, Eric M

    2016-01-01

    While considerable attention has been focused on understanding the myriad of ethical analysis in international research in low and middle income countries, new issues always arise that have not been anticipated in guidelines or studied extensively. The disruption of medical care arising as a direct result of political actions, including strikes, postelection violence and related activities, is one such issue that leaves physician-researchers struggling to manage often conflicting professional responsibilities. This paper discusses the ethical conflicts that arise for physician-researchers, particularly when disruption threatens the completion of a study or completion is possible but at the expense of not addressing unmet medical needs of patients. We review three pragmatic strategies and the ethical issues arising from each: not starting research, stopping research that has already started, and continuing research already initiated. We argue that during episodes of medical care disruption, research that has been started can be continued only if the ethical standards imposed at the beginning of the study can continue to be met; however, studies that have been approved but not yet started should not begin until the disruption has ended and ethical standards can again be assured. PMID:26474601

  18. Effect of Fewer Questions per Section on SAT® I Scores. Research Report No. 2003-2. ETS RR-03-08

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridgeman, Brent; Trapani, Catherine; Curley, Edward

    2003-01-01

    The impact of allowing more time for each question on SAT® I: Reasoning Test scores was estimated by embedding sections with a reduced number of questions into the standard 30-minute equating section of two national test administrations. Thus, for example, questions were deleted from a verbal section that contained 35 questions to produce forms…

  19. Questioning ORACLE: An Assessment of ORACLE's Analysis of Teachers' Questions and [A Comment on "Questioning ORACLE"].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scarth, John; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Analysis of teachers' questions, part of the ORACLE (Observation Research and Classroom Learning Evaluation) project research, is examined in detail. Scarth and Hammersley argue that the rules ORACLE uses for identifying different types of questions involve levels of ambiguity and inference that threaten reliability and validity of the study's…

  20. How have research questions and methods used in clinical trials published in Clinical Rehabilitation changed over the last 30 years?

    PubMed

    Mayo, Nancy E; Kaur, Navaldeep; Barbic, Skye P; Fiore, Julio; Barclay, Ruth; Finch, Lois; Kuspinar, Ayse; Asano, Miho; Figueiredo, Sabrina; Aburub, Ala' Sami; Alzoubi, Fadi; Arafah, Alaa; Askari, Sorayya; Bakhshi, Behtash; Bouchard, Vanessa; Higgins, Johanne; Hum, Stanley; Inceer, Mehmet; Letellier, Marie Eve; Lourenco, Christiane; Mate, Kedar; Salbach, Nancy M; Moriello, Carolina

    2016-09-01

    Research in rehabilitation has grown from a rare phenomenon to a mature science and clinical trials are now common. The purpose of this study is to estimate the extent to which questions posed and methods applied in clinical trials published in Clinical Rehabilitation have evolved over three decades with respect to accepted standards of scientific rigour. Studies were identified by journal, database, and hand searching for the years 1986 to 2016.A total of 390 articles whose titles suggested a clinical trial of an intervention, with or without randomization to form groups, were reviewed. Questions often still focused on methods to be used (57%) rather than what knowledge was to be gained. Less than half (43%) of the studies delineated between primary and secondary outcomes; multiple outcomes were common; and sample sizes were relatively small (mean 83, range 5 to 3312). Blinding of assessors was common (72%); blinding of study subjects was rare (19%). In less than one-third of studies was intention-to-treat analysis done correctly; power was reported in 43%. There is evidence of publication bias as 83% of studies reported either a between-group or a within-group effect. Over time, there was an increase in the use of parameter estimation rather than hypothesis testing and there was evidence that methodological rigour improved.Rehabilitation trialists are answering important questions about their interventions. Outcomes need to be more patient-centred and a measurement framework needs to be explicit. More advanced statistical methods are needed as interventions are complex. Suggestions for moving forward over the next decades are given. PMID:27496695

  1. How have research questions and methods used in clinical trials published in Clinical Rehabilitation changed over the last 30 years?

    PubMed Central

    Mayo, Nancy E; Kaur, Navaldeep; Barbic, Skye P; Fiore, Julio; Barclay, Ruth; Finch, Lois; Kuspinar, Ayse; Asano, Miho; Figueiredo, Sabrina; Aburub, Ala’ Sami; Alzoubi, Fadi; Arafah, Alaa; Askari, Sorayya; Bakhshi, Behtash; Bouchard, Vanessa; Higgins, Johanne; Hum, Stanley; Inceer, Mehmet; Letellier, Marie Eve; Lourenco, Christiane; Mate, Kedar; Salbach, Nancy M; Moriello, Carolina

    2016-01-01

    Research in rehabilitation has grown from a rare phenomenon to a mature science and clinical trials are now common. The purpose of this study is to estimate the extent to which questions posed and methods applied in clinical trials published in Clinical Rehabilitation have evolved over three decades with respect to accepted standards of scientific rigour. Studies were identified by journal, database, and hand searching for the years 1986 to 2016. A total of 390 articles whose titles suggested a clinical trial of an intervention, with or without randomization to form groups, were reviewed. Questions often still focused on methods to be used (57%) rather than what knowledge was to be gained. Less than half (43%) of the studies delineated between primary and secondary outcomes; multiple outcomes were common; and sample sizes were relatively small (mean 83, range 5 to 3312). Blinding of assessors was common (72%); blinding of study subjects was rare (19%). In less than one-third of studies was intention-to-treat analysis done correctly; power was reported in 43%. There is evidence of publication bias as 83% of studies reported either a between-group or a within-group effect. Over time, there was an increase in the use of parameter estimation rather than hypothesis testing and there was evidence that methodological rigour improved. Rehabilitation trialists are answering important questions about their interventions. Outcomes need to be more patient-centred and a measurement framework needs to be explicit. More advanced statistical methods are needed as interventions are complex. Suggestions for moving forward over the next decades are given. PMID:27496695

  2. Greek research reactor performance characteristics after addition of beryllium reflector and LEU fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Deen, J.R.; Snelgrove, J.L.; Papastergiou, C.

    1992-12-31

    The GRR-1 is a 5-MW pool-type, light-water-moderated and-cooled reactor fueled with MTR-type fuel elements. Recently received Be reflector blocks will soon be added to the core to add additional reactivity until fresh LEU fuel arrives. REBUS-3 xy fuel cycle analyses, using burnup dependent cross sections, were performed to assist in fuel management decisions for the water- and Be-reflected HEU nonequilibrium cores. Cross sections generated by EPRI-CELL have been benchmarked to identical VIM Monte Carlo models. The size of the Be-reflected LEU core has been reduced to 30 elements compared to 35 for the HEU water-reflected core, and an equilibrium cycle calculation has been performed.

  3. Greek research reactor performance characteristics after addition of beryllium reflector and LEU fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Deen, J.R.; Snelgrove, J.L. ); Papastergiou, C. )

    1992-01-01

    The GRR-1 is a 5-MW pool-type, light-water-moderated and-cooled reactor fueled with MTR-type fuel elements. Recently received Be reflector blocks will soon be added to the core to add additional reactivity until fresh LEU fuel arrives. REBUS-3 xy fuel cycle analyses, using burnup dependent cross sections, were performed to assist in fuel management decisions for the water- and Be-reflected HEU nonequilibrium cores. Cross sections generated by EPRI-CELL have been benchmarked to identical VIM Monte Carlo models. The size of the Be-reflected LEU core has been reduced to 30 elements compared to 35 for the HEU water-reflected core, and an equilibrium cycle calculation has been performed.

  4. Research on the Technology Applying Anti-Rutting Additive to Asphalt Mixture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Jie; Huang, Liming; Li, Chun

    High-temperature problems like rutting, displacement and upheaval are the most serious ones for bituminous pavement of urban roads. Especially, such problems at crossroads and fixed places where buses stop, for instance, BRT, affect service ability and life of roads largely. Application of anti-rutting asphalt mixture mainly aims at reducing strain and deformation generated by bituminous concrete under effect of vehicle load, decreasing remainders that cannot be recovered in deformation, improving the ability of bituminous pavement to resist deformation under high temperature and delaying generation of rutting. Anti-rutting asphalt mixture in this thesis refers to the asphalt mixture where anti-rutting additive is added by dry method and high-temperature stability is improved.

  5. Literacy and Children Who Are Blind and Who Have Additional Disabilities--the Challenges for Teachers and Researchers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCall, Steve; McLinden, Mike

    2001-01-01

    This article describes an innovative action research project based at the University of Birmingham in the United Kingdom that involved the professional development of teachers and instruction using specially developed Moon tactile code materials to teach literacy to pupils who are blind and who have additional disabilities. (Contains references.)…

  6. Can Science Education Research Give an Answer to Questions posed by History of Science and Technology? The Case of Steam Engine's Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanderakis, Nikos E.

    2009-09-01

    According to the principle of virtual velocities, if on a simple machine in equilibrium we suppose a slight virtual movement, then the ratio of weights or forces equals the inverse ratio of velocities or displacements. The product of the weight raised or force applied multiplied by the height or displacement plays a central role there. British engineers used the same product in the eighteenth century in order to measure steam engines’ effectiveness. The question is whether this measure was obviously empirical or had its origin in theory of mechanics and particularly in the principle of virtual velocities. According to science education research, this measure is not likely to have arisen intuitively and most probably could not have been formulated without any acquaintance with theory of mechanics.

  7. Student Moderators in Asynchronous Online Discussion: A Question of Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zingaro, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Much current research exalts the benefits of having students facilitate weekly discussions in asynchronous online courses. This study seeks to add to what is known about student moderation through an analysis of the types of questions students use to spur each discussion. Prior experimental work has demonstrated that the types of questions posed…

  8. [The changing role of the state in health care systems in OECD countries--research questions, research design and first results].

    PubMed

    Helmert, U; Cacace, M; Grimmeisen, S; Wendt, C; Rothgang, H

    2005-02-01

    In the framework of the DFG-Research-Unit 597 "Transformation of the State" is Project C3 investigating the change of the role of the state in health care systems in OECD-countries between 1970 and 2000. The primary research hypothesis is, that a tendency of convergence exists regarding the role of the state for the three main dimensions of health care systems, namely service provision, financing and regulation. This is carried out firstly based on a quantitative oriented analysis for 23 OECD-countries, utilising the data set "OECD Health Data 2002", and secondly with qualitative oriented country-studies for England, Germany and the U.S. Findings for the qualitative country-studies give some hints of convergence regarding the "private-public-mix" between the health system types "social insurance" (Germany), "national health system" (England), and "market oriented health system" (USA). First quantitative results concerning the changing role of the state in relation to the health care systems in OECD-countries provide evidence for a convergence process between these states in the financing dimension. For the dependent variable "total health care costs in % of gross domestic product" a trend of convergence is observed for the members states of the European Union (n = 12), while in the remaining Non-EU countries (n = 11) a trend of divergence is identified. For the same parameter we found a convergence for OECD-countries of the type "national health system" (n = 14). For OECD-countries of the type "social insurance" (n = 8) this convergence process is observed only for the time period 1970 - 1980. Some results confirm the hypothesis of the "growth to limits" (Flora). But it appears to us that in future other significant factors like globalisation processes, the increasing potentials of the medical technology and demographic changes may play an important role for the overall health budget and specific needs of the population in the OECD-states. PMID:15747194

  9. Questioning Many Mysteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Sara F.

    2015-04-01

    The first section of this memoir queries my formative years. Indirectly I address the question, did my childhood and early years make a difference in my choice of career? Why and how did I begin my journey to becoming a scientist? Did I choose the field of solar astronomy or did circumstances dictate it for me? In the second section, I travel through my work environments and experiences, talking about interactions and aspects of being a scientist that do not appear in our research papers. What parts of my research were happenstances and what parts did I plan? What does it feel like to be on scientific quests? Using examples in my journey, I also turn to questions that have intrigued me throughout my sojourn as a solar astronomer. How do scientific discoveries come about? What factors lead to little discoveries? And what factors lead to major exciting discoveries? Are there timely questions we do not think to ask? How can small, seemingly scattered pieces of knowledge suddenly coalesce into a deeper understanding - what is called the "Aha!" experience - the times when our mental light switches on, and with child-like wonder we behold a "big picture"?

  10. Birds: Old Questions and New.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flannery, Maura C.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses questions such as how birds fly and the meaning of bird songs. Explains the relationship between birds and ecological activism and points out the excitement in research and observation of birds. (Contains 34 references.) (YDS)

  11. Interview Questions with Bentham Scientific

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mather, John C.

    2013-01-01

    John Mather answers questions for an interview for the Bentham Science Newsletter. He covers topics ranging from his childhood, his professional career and his thoughts on research, technology and today's scientists and engineers.

  12. Posing Einstein's Question: Questioning Einstein's Pose.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topper, David; Vincent, Dwight E.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the events surrounding a famous picture of Albert Einstein in which he poses near a blackboard containing a tensor form of his 10 field equations for pure gravity with a question mark after it. Speculates as to the content of Einstein's lecture and the questions he might have had about the equation. (Contains over 30 references.) (WRM)

  13. Using Questioning to Stimulate Mathematical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Way, Jenni

    2008-01-01

    Good questioning techniques have long been regarded as a fundamental tool of effective teachers and research has found that "differences in students' thinking and reasoning could be attributed to the type of questions that teachers asked" (Wood, 2002). Past research shows that 93% of teacher questions were "lower order" knowledge-based questions…

  14. Any Questions, Please?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollio, Howard R.

    1989-01-01

    This pamphlet discusses the use of questioning in the college classroom and its contribution to learning. Starting with a brief examination of the ways children question, discussions cover: (1) the effects of linguistic and socio-linguistic characteristics in questioning; (2) questions in psychotherapy, law, and opinion polling; (3) classroom…

  15. Provocative Questions in Cancer: NCI Seminar

    Cancer.gov

    science writers' seminar to discuss various aspects of one of NCI’s signature efforts -- the Provocative Questions project. Discussion will focus on the scientific research that surrounds some of these questions.

  16. What Children Learn from Questioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Research shows that young children ask a multitude of why and how questions. And when they do, they're not simply trying to get adult attention; instead, they're actively seeking information. In this article, Paul Harris describes the findings of a number of research analyses based on extensive transcripts of children's natural speech. Some of the…

  17. Measuring victimization inside prisons: questioning the questions.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Nancy; Jing Shi; Bachman, Ronet

    2008-10-01

    Violence and victimization inside the prison setting are accepted as facts, although the facts about their prevalence remain uncertain. Variation in the methods used to estimate rates of sexual and physical victimization contribute to the wide range in estimates appearing in the prison literature. This article focuses on the questions used in the prison victimization literature to elicit information on victimization from inmates, compared to questions used in the general victimization literature. The questions used in the National Violence Against Women and Men Surveys are used to estimate sexual and physical victimization rates for an entire prison system. Rates of victimization were found to vary significantly by specificity of the question, definition of perpetrator, and clustering of behaviors. Facts about victimization inside prison will become more certain when the methodology becomes more standardized and consistent with definitions of victimization. PMID:18309042

  18. Less is often more, but not always: additional evidence that familiarity breeds contempt and a call for future research.

    PubMed

    Norton, Michael I; Frost, Jeana H; Ariely, Dan

    2013-12-01

    Ullrich, Krueger, Brod, and Groschupf (2013)-using a replication of the trait paradigm from Norton, Frost, and Ariely (2007)-suggest that less information does not always equal greater liking. We first ground the current debate in a larger historical debate in social psychology regarding the merits of configural versus algebraic models of person perception. We next review (a) related research that has suggested that more information can in some cases lead to more liking and (b) a large body of "real world" data-from friendships, daters, married couples, employment, celebrities, and politics-that suggests that more information often leads to less liking. We then provide an additional replication of our "less is more" effect, using a slight variation of the trait-list paradigm. The existing data suggest a need for further integrative explorations of when familiarity leads to contempt or liking or has no effect. PMID:24295381

  19. Delivery of QTIiv2 Question Types

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wills, Gary B.; Davis, Hugh C.; Gilbert, Lester; Hare, Jonathon; Howard, Yvonne; Jeyes, Steve; Millard, David; Sherratt, Robert

    2009-01-01

    The IMS Question and Test Interoperability (QTI) standard identifies 16 different question types which may be used in online assessment. While some partial implementations exist, the R2Q2 project has developed a complete solution that renders and responds to all 16 question types as specified. In addition, care has been taken in the R2Q2 project…

  20. Exam Question Exchange.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, John J.

    1979-01-01

    Describes an exam question which challenges college freshmen, enrolled in chemistry, to derive temperature dependence of an equilibrium constant. The question requires cognitive response at the level of synthesis. (Author/SA)

  1. Questions about Adoption

    MedlinePlus

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Questions About Adoption Page Content Article Body What's the best way to handle my child's questions about her adoption? Many parents want to know when is the ...

  2. Is There a Relationship between Chemistry Performance and Question Type, Question Content and Gender?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson, Ross D.

    2012-01-01

    This research inquires into the effectiveness of the two predominant forms of questions--multiple-choice questions and short-answer questions--used in the State University Entrance Examination for Chemistry including the relationship between performance and gender. It examines not only the style of question but also the content type examined…

  3. I Didn't Know Oxygen Could Boil! What Preservice and Inservice Elementary Teachers' Answers to "Simple" Science Questions Reveals about Their Subject Matter Knowledge. Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Diana C.

    2005-01-01

    In this descriptive study, the science subject matter knowledge of preservice and inservice elementary teachers was examined and compared. Over an eight-year period, answers to 13 science questions, including 10 from the US National Science Foundation's Survey of Public Attitudes Toward and Understanding of Science and Technology, were collected…

  4. Analysis of Requests Made to the National Children's Bureau Question and Answer Service. Design of Information Systems in the Social Sciences. Research Reports Series B, Number Two.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bath Univ. of Technology (England). Univ. Library.

    A sample of 564 inquiries made to the National Children's Bureau (NCB) question and answer service during 1970-72 was analyzed. Three-quarters of all inquiries came by letter, and nearly all the remainder by telephone. Apart from inquiries concerning the NCB itself, inquiries were mostly for information on a variety of topics concerned with…

  5. Exam Question Exchange.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, John J., Ed.

    1983-01-01

    Acceptable answers are provided for two chemistry questions. The first question is related to the prediction of the appearance of non-first-order proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra. The second question is related to extraterrestrial kinetic theory of gases. (JN)

  6. Exam Question Exchange.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, John J., Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Contains two articles relating to chemistry examination questions. One provides examples of how to sequence multiple choice questions so that partial credit may be given for some responses. The second includes a question and solution dealing with stereoisomerism as a result of free radical chlorination of a nonstereoisometic substance. (TW)

  7. Improving Student Question Classification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heiner, Cecily; Zachary, Joseph L.

    2009-01-01

    Students in introductory programming classes often articulate their questions and information needs incompletely. Consequently, the automatic classification of student questions to provide automated tutorial responses is a challenging problem. This paper analyzes 411 questions from an introductory Java programming course by reducing the natural…

  8. Making Questions Flow

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothstein, Dan; Santana, Luz; Minigan, Andrew P.

    2015-01-01

    Getting students to ask questions can feel like pulling teeth. How can teachers transform that feeling and create classrooms that come alive with questions? The authors, developers of the question formulation technique, suggest two simple changes: First, teachers need to give students both a structure and the opportunity to practice generating…

  9. Teachers' Classroom Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahin, Alpaslan

    2007-01-01

    There is a large body of literature on the types of questions asked by teachers. Questions are a way that teachers use to bring students around to the correct mathematical concepts and procedures through "the negotiation of meaning for necessary condition of learning" (Voigt, 1992, p. 43). Teachers ask many questions, but we are not sure what…

  10. Using Questions to Depress Student Thought.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillon, J. T.

    1978-01-01

    Examines the traditional and prevailing view that teacher questions are effective stimulants to student thought. Through an examination of research, practice, and theory related to question use, the author develops a counterargument that questions inhibit thought and discussion, or at least do not stimulate student participation. (RH)

  11. Measuring Victimization inside Prisons: Questioning the Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolff, Nancy; Shi, Jing; Bachman, Ronet

    2008-01-01

    Violence and victimization inside the prison setting are accepted as facts, although the facts about their prevalence remain uncertain. Variation in the methods used to estimate rates of sexual and physical victimization contribute to the wide range in estimates appearing in the prison literature. This article focuses on the questions used in the…

  12. The Geography of Virtual Questioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mon, Lorri; Bishop, Bradley Wade; McClure, Charles R.; McGilvray, Jessica; Most, Linda; Milas, Theodore Patrick; Snead, John T.

    2009-01-01

    This article explores the geography of virtual questioning by using geographic information systems to study activity within the Florida Electronic Library "Ask a Librarian" collaborative chat service. Researchers mapped participating libraries throughout the state of Florida that served as virtual "entry portals" for users as they asked questions…

  13. Unpark Those Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ness, Molly

    2013-01-01

    Whenever Mr. Henderson's 3rd grade students had a question that he couldn't immediately answer or that seemed off-topic, he asked them to write the question on a sticky note and place it on a poster dubbed the "Parking Lot." His intention was to find time later to answer those questions, but too often, he said, the parking lot…

  14. 34 CFR 660.32 - What additional selection criteria does the Secretary use for an application for a research...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... project are likely to be used by other research projects or programs with similar objectives. (c... use for an application for a research project, a survey, or a study? 660.32 Section 660.32 Education... evaluates an application for a research project, study, or survey on the basis of the criteria in...

  15. 34 CFR 660.32 - What additional selection criteria does the Secretary use for an application for a research...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... project are likely to be used by other research projects or programs with similar objectives. (c... use for an application for a research project, a survey, or a study? 660.32 Section 660.32 Education... evaluates an application for a research project, study, or survey on the basis of the criteria in...

  16. 34 CFR 660.32 - What additional selection criteria does the Secretary use for an application for a research...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... project are likely to be used by other research projects or programs with similar objectives. (c... use for an application for a research project, a survey, or a study? 660.32 Section 660.32 Education... evaluates an application for a research project, study, or survey on the basis of the criteria in...

  17. 34 CFR 660.32 - What additional selection criteria does the Secretary use for an application for a research...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the proposed teaching, testing, and research methodology; and (2) The size, scope, and duration of the... use for an application for a research project, a survey, or a study? 660.32 Section 660.32 Education..., DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH AND STUDIES PROGRAM How Does the Secretary Make a...

  18. 34 CFR 660.32 - What additional selection criteria does the Secretary use for an application for a research...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the proposed teaching, testing, and research methodology; and (2) The size, scope, and duration of the... use for an application for a research project, a survey, or a study? 660.32 Section 660.32 Education..., DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH AND STUDIES PROGRAM How Does the Secretary Make a...

  19. Problem of Questioning

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2011-04-25

    Le Prof.Leprince-Ringuet, chercheur sur le plan scientifique, artistique et humain, parle de la remise en question des hommes et la remise en question scientifique fondamentale ou exemplaire- plusieurs personnes prennent la parole p.ex Jeanmairet, Adam, Gregory. Le Prof.Gregory clot la soirée en remerciant le Prof.Leprince-Ringuet

  20. Designing Great Hinge Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiliam, Dylan

    2015-01-01

    According to author Dylan Wiliam, because lessons never go exactly as planned, teachers should build plan B into plan A. This involves designing a lesson with a "hinge" somewhere in the middle and using specific kinds of questions--what he calls hinge questions--to quickly assess students' understanding of a concept before moving on.…

  1. Are There Any Questions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dauterman, Philip

    1970-01-01

    The crucial variable in good classroom teaching is the verbal behavior of the teacher. Through his questioning techniques--what questions he asks, how and when he asks them, how he replies to students, and how he stimulates students to reply to each other--the teacher can evoke a high level of class discussion and force students to go beyond the…

  2. Let's Switch Questioning Around

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tovani, Cris

    2015-01-01

    English teacher Cris Tovani knows from her experiences teaching elementary school that students are naturally curious. But, too often, students are so trained to be question answerers that by the time they reach high school, they no longer form questions of their own and instead focus on trying to figure out what answer the teacher wants. Tovani…

  3. Questions About the Oceans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dubach, Harold W.; Taber, Robert W.

    This book was prompted by the success of a display mounted by the National Oceanographic Data Center at the 17th International Science Fair in 1966, which enabled visiting teachers and students to ask and receive answers to questions via teletype. The book contains one hundred questions typical of those asked, together with answers ranging in…

  4. Questioning the Text.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, Stephanie

    2001-01-01

    One way teachers can improve students' reading comprehension is to teach them to think while reading, questioning the text and carrying on an inner conversation. This involves: choosing the text for questioning; introducing the strategy to the class; modeling thinking aloud and marking the text with stick-on notes; and allowing time for guided…

  5. 1 Great Question

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nethery, Carrie

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author presents an ideal question that can take an art teacher and his or her students through all the levels of thought in Bloom's taxonomy--perfect for modeling the think-aloud process: "How many people is the artist inviting into this picture?" This great question always helps the students look beyond the obvious and dig…

  6. It's about the Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bearwald, Ronald R.

    2011-01-01

    The best coaching partnerships are built on conversation and listening, and they are not built on a coach giving answers to a mentee. Ronald Bearward explains how coaches can use questions to help mentees find answers for themselves. Effective questions lead to greater reflection and solutions that teachers can use now and in the future.

  7. Reproducing or Challenging Power in the Questions We Ask and the Methods We Use: A Framework for Activist Research in Urban Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nygreen, Kysa

    2006-01-01

    Many have argued that educational research does little to change (and may actually reproduce) the social-structural inequalities shaping the quality of high-poverty urban schools. Building from this premise, this paper asks: How can university-based scholars of urban education do research that encourages, produces, or informs change in urban…

  8. Parameters and pitfalls to consider in the conduct of food additive research, Carrageenan as a case study.

    PubMed

    Weiner, Myra L

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides guidance on the conduct of new in vivo and in vitro studies on high molecular weight food additives, with carrageenan, the widely used food additive, as a case study. It is important to understand the physical/chemical properties and to verify the identity/purity, molecular weight and homogeneity/stability of the additive in the vehicle for oral delivery. The strong binding of CGN to protein in rodent chow or infant formula results in no gastrointestinal tract exposure to free CGN. It is recommended that doses of high Mw non-caloric, non-nutritive additives not exceed 5% by weight of total solid diet to avoid potential nutritional effects. Addition of some high Mw additives at high concentrations to liquid nutritional supplements increases viscosity and may affect palatability, caloric intake and body weight gain. In in vitro studies, the use of well-characterized, relevant cell types and the appropriate composition of the culture media are necessary for proper conduct and interpretation. CGN is bound to media protein and not freely accessible to cells in vitro. Interpretation of new studies on food additives should consider the interaction of food additives with the vehicle components and the appropriateness of the animal or cell model and dose-response. PMID:26615870

  9. Young children's difficulty with indirect speech acts: implications for questioning child witnesses.

    PubMed

    Evans, Angela D; Stolzenberg, Stacia N; Lee, Kang; Lyon, Thomas D

    2014-01-01

    Prior research suggests that infelicitous choice of questions can significantly underestimate children's actual abilities, independently of suggestiveness. One possibly difficult question type is indirect speech acts such as "Do you know..." questions (DYK, e.g., "Do you know where it happened?"). These questions directly ask if respondents know, while indirectly asking what respondents know. If respondents answer "yes," but fail to elaborate, they are either ignoring or failing to recognize the indirect question (known as pragmatic failure). Two studies examined the effect of indirect speech acts on maltreated and non-maltreated 2- to 7-year-olds' post-event interview responses. Children were read a story and later interviewed using DYK and Wh- questions. Additionally, children completed a series of executive functioning tasks. Both studies revealed that using DYK questions increased the chances of pragmatic failure, particularly for younger children and those with lower inhibitory control skills. PMID:25393547

  10. Acquisition of Multiple Questions in the Context of Social Conversation in Children with Autism

    PubMed Central

    Doggett, Rebecca A.; Krasno, Anna M.; Koegel, Lynn Kern; Koegel, Robert L.

    2013-01-01

    Verbal initiations, such as questions, are essential components of social conversation often lacking in children with autism. Building on research showing that single questions can be taught in isolation, this study used a multiple baseline design to investigate whether a self-management intervention was effective for teaching simultaneous acquisition and discrimination of three social questions in the context of conversation. Following intervention, participants rapidly increased their appropriate use of all three questions in a conversational context and maintained these gains over time. The participants also used questions appropriately with partners uninvolved in treatment. Additionally, the occasional presence of appropriate questions during baseline coupled with rapid improvement during intervention support theories that a lack of question-asking may be motivation-based rather than ability-based. PMID:23292139

  11. Piloting the Post-Entry Language Assessment: Outcomes from a New System for Supporting Research Candidates with English as an Additional Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tynan, Liz; Johns, Kellie

    2015-01-01

    The Post-Entry Language Assessment (PELA) was introduced by the James Cook University Graduate Research School in February 2013 as a pilot programme to test a new mechanism for initiating post-enrolment support for research degree candidates who have English as an additional language. Language ability does not necessarily, on its own, predict…

  12. What is a Question?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knuth, Kevin H.

    2003-03-01

    A given question can be defined in terms of the set of statements or assertions that answer it. Application of logical inference to these sets of assertions allows one to derive the logic of inquiry among questions. There are interesting symmetries between the logics of inference and inquiry; where probability describes the degree to which a premise implies an assertion, there exists an analogous measure that describes the bearing or relevance that a question has on an outstanding issue. These have been extended to suggest that the logic of inquiry results in functional relationships analogous to, although more general than, those found in information theory. Employing lattice theory, I examine in greater detail the structure of the space of assertions and questions demonstrating that the symmetries between the logical relations in each of the spaces derive directly from the lattice structure. Furthermore, I show that while symmetries between the spaces exist, the two lattices are not isomorphic. The lattice of assertions is described by a Boolean lattice 2N, whereas the lattice of assuredly real questions is shown to be a sublattice of the free distributive lattice FD(N) = 22N. Thus there does not exist a one-to-one mapping of assertions to questions, there is no reflection symmetry between the two spaces, and questions in general do not possess complements. Last, with these lattice structures in mind, I discuss the relationship between probability, relevance, and entropy.

  13. What is a Question?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knuth, Kevin H.; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A given question can be defined in terms of the set of statements or assertions that answer it. Application of the logic of inference to this set of assertions allows one to derive the logic of inquiry among questions. There are interesting symmetries between the logics of inference and inquiry; where probability describes the degree to which a premise implies an assertion, there exists an analogous quantity that describes the bearing or relevance that a question has on an outstanding issue. These have been extended to suggest that the logic of inquiry results in functional relationships analogous to, although more general than, those found in information theory. Employing lattice theory, I examine in greater detail the structure of the space of assertions and questions demonstrating that the symmetries between the logical relations in each of the spaces derive directly from the lattice structure. Furthermore, I show that while symmetries between the spaces exist, the two lattices are not isomorphic. The lattice of assertions is described by a Boolean lattice 2(sup N) whereas the lattice of real questions is shown to be a sublattice of the free distributive lattice FD(N) = 2(sup 2(sup N)). Thus there does not exist a one-to-one mapping of assertions to questions, there is no reflection symmetry between the two spaces, and questions in general do not possess unique complements. Last, with these lattice structures in mind, I discuss the relationship between probability, relevance and entropy.

  14. Knowledge and question asking.

    PubMed

    Ibáñez Molinero, Rafael; García-Madruga, Juan Antonio

    2011-02-01

    The ability and the motivation for question asking are, or should be, some of the most important aims of education. Unfortunately, students neither ask many questions, nor good ones. The present paper is about the capacity of secondary school pupils for asking questions and how this activity depends on prior knowledge. To examine this, we use texts containing different levels of information about a specific topic: biodiversity. We found a positive relationship between the amount of information provided and the number of questions asked about the texts, supporting the idea that more knowledgeable people ask more questions. Some students were warned that there would be an exam after the reading, and this led to a diminishing number of questions asked, and yet this still did not significantly improve their exam scores. In such a case, it seems that reading was more concerned with immediacy, hindering critical thinking and the dialog between their previous ideas and the new information. Thus, question asking seems to be influenced not only by the amount of knowledge, but also by the reader's attitude towards the information. PMID:21266138

  15. A question of character.

    PubMed

    Wetlaufer, S

    1999-01-01

    For the most part, Glamor-a-Go-Go's board has been thrilled with CEO Joe Ryan's performance. Ryan, after all, had transformed the private-label cosmetics company into a retail powerhouse with flashy outlets from New York to Los Angeles. In addition to saving the company from bankruptcy shortly after his arrival in 1992, Ryan had made Glamor-a-Go-Go a fun and exciting place to work, increasing workers' wages and creating boundless opportunities for anyone willing to work hard and think out of the box. He had also brought more women and people of color on board. And he had made many employees wealthy, with generous stock giveaways and options for the most senior employees down to the most junior. Glamor-a-Go-Go's stock price had grown tenfold during Ryan's tenure. But Ryan's personal affairs were beginning to call into question his leadership abilities. The local paper's gossip column recently ran a photo of Ryan--a married man--leaving a gala event with a beautiful young woman from the company, with the headline "Who's That Girl?" Indeed, rumors about Ryan's philandering were starting to take on a harsher edge. Some people believed his secretary left because Ryan had sexually harassed her. Others believed a mail-room employee had been promoted to factory supervisor because of her affair with the CEO. Having warned Ryan several times about his alleged infidelities, the board is stuck. What should it do about Ryan's extracurricular behavior? Does Ryan's personal behavior even affect the company? Is what Ryan does outside the office the board's concern? Six commentators weigh in. PMID:10621266

  16. Rubella: Questions and Answers

    MedlinePlus

    ... of special precautions. Does the MMR vaccine cause autism? There is no scientific evidence that measles, MMR, ... other vaccine causes or increases the risk of autism. The question about a possible link between MMR ...

  17. Biology Today: Questions & Variations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flannery, Maura, Ed.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the importance of student questions as tools of instruction and as indicators of student misconceptions. Suggests different ways in which students may gain an understanding of biological concepts through discussion of popular movies and biological problems. (CW)

  18. A Teacher's Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Close, Elizabeth

    1995-01-01

    Presents questions and concerns of a teacher who served as a scoring assessor for the Early Adolescence/English Language Arts field test of the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards, run by the Educational Testing Service. (SR)

  19. Asking gender questions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pritchard, Jonathan; Masters, Karen; Allen, James; Contenta, Filippo; Huckvale, Leo; Wilkins, Stephen; Zocchi, Alice

    2014-12-01

    Jonathan Pritchard, Karen Masters, James Allen, Filippo Contenta, Leo Huckvale, Stephen Wilkins and Alice Zocchi report on a survey of the gender of astronomers attending and asking questions at this year's UK National Astronomy Meeting.

  20. Beginning EFL Teachers' Beliefs about Quality Questions and Their Questioning Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pham, Ly Ngoc Khanh; Hamid, M. Obaidul

    2013-01-01

    Motivated by the scarcity of research that examines the impact of teacher beliefs on their actual practices in Vietnam, this study investigated the relationship between teachers' beliefs about quality questions and their questioning behaviours in terms of questioning purposes, content focus, students' cognitive level, wording and syntax.…

  1. Asking Good Questions: Promoting Greater Understanding of Mathematics through Purposeful Teacher and Student Questioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Di Teodoro, Susan; Donders, Sharon; Kemp-Davidson, Joy; Robertson, Peggy; Schuyler, Lori

    2011-01-01

    This action research report follows the journey of four elementary school teachers as they learn to define and ask "deeper" or meaningful mathematical questions in their teachings. It chronicles the way that teaching through problem solving and developing criteria for questioning increased the percentage of "deeper" questions being asked and…

  2. The Effects of Questions and Anxiety on Attention, Question Confidence, and Metacognition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fasko, Daniel, Jr.; Skidmore, Ronald

    The effects of questions of different cognitive levels were investigated in four undergraduate classes involving a total of 80 students. Previous research suggested that questions may distract students from a lecture, and that students felt more confident about responding accurately to low-order questions. These results do not support previous…

  3. Neutralization of acid mine drainage influenced lakes by organic additions. Final research report, 1 October 1987-31 December 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Brugam, R.B.; Gastineau, J.; Ratcliff, E.; Stevens, A.

    1990-02-01

    The authors conducted a series of 5 experiments in which 1 m diameter and 3 to 6 m long cylindrical enclosures were built in an acidic lake on a coal mine site. The enclosures extended from the lake surface to the sediment. Limestone, phosphate, sewage sludge or wheat straw was added to the enclosures to test their neutralizing capabilities. The theory suggests that sewage sludge and wheat straw should be substrates for sulfate reduction by bacteria and that the production of H2S and its precipitation as FeS should remove sulfuric acid from the water column. The limestone additions raised pH as expected. Straw additions supported sulfate reduction. Sulfate reduction was strongest where both lime and straw were added together. Straw additions produced the expected neutralization in the experiments, but neutralization was not permanent.

  4. "My Brother Likes Meeting New People, but Don't Ask Him Any Direct Questions": Involving Adults with Autism plus Learning Disability in a Qualitative Research Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tozer, Rosemary; Atkin, Karl; Wenham, Aniela

    2014-01-01

    Adult siblings of people with autism and a learning disability have hitherto been largely overlooked by research, policy and practice in the UK. As part of a qualitative study focussing on adult siblings, we met twelve people with autism plus severe learning disability with their brother or sister. Individually tailored resources were used to make…

  5. Can Archival Tissue Reveal Answers to Modern Research Questions?: Computer-Aided Histological Assessment of Neuroblastoma Tumours Collected over 60 Years

    PubMed Central

    Chetcuti, Albert; Mackie, Nicole; Tafavogh, Siamak; Graf, Nicole; Henwood, Tony; Charlton, Amanda; Catchpoole, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Despite neuroblastoma being the most common extracranial solid cancer in childhood, it is still a rare disease. Consequently, the unavailability of tissue for research limits the statistical power of studies. Pathology archives are possible sources of rare tissue, which, if proven to remain consistent over time, could prove useful to research of rare disease types. We applied immunohistochemistry to investigate whether long term storage caused any changes to antigens used diagnostically for neuroblastoma. We constructed and quantitatively assessed a tissue microarray containing neuroblastoma archival material dating between 1950 and 2007. A total of 119 neuroblastoma tissue cores were included spanning 6 decades. Fourteen antibodies were screened across the tissue microarray (TMA). These included seven positive neuroblastoma diagnosis markers (NB84, Chromogranin A, NSE, Ki-67, INI1, Neurofilament Protein, Synaptophysin), two anticipated to be negative (S100A, CD99), and five research antibodies (IL-7, IL-7R, JAK1, JAK3, STAT5). The staining of these antibodies was evaluated using Aperio ImageScope software along with novel pattern recognition and quantification algorithms. This analysis demonstrated that marker signal intensity did not decrease over time and that storage for 60 years had little effect on antigenicity. The construction and assessment of this neuroblastoma TMA has demonstrated the feasibility of using archival samples for research.

  6. Fundamental Research in Engineering Education. Development of Concept Questions and Inquiry-Based Activities in Thermodynamics and Heat Transfer: An Example for Equilibrium vs. Steady-State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vigeant, Margot; Prince, Michael; Nottis, Katharyn

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the use of inquiry-based instruction to promote the understanding of critical concepts in thermodynamics and heat transfer. Significant research shows that students frequently enter our courses with tightly held misconceptions about the physical world that are not effectively addressed through traditional instruction. Students'…

  7. English as an Additional Language--A Genealogy of Language-in-Education Policies and Reflections on Research Trajectories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Constant

    2016-01-01

    The school population in England is linguistically diverse; according to official data, over one million pupils do not speak English as their first language. All teachers are expected to support English as an additional language (EAL) development as part of their professional responsibility. At the same time, there has been little specific…

  8. Keratoconus Frequently Asked Questions

    MedlinePlus

    ... Presentations More Links Research Research Update Clinical Trials News E-Updates Products Press Releases Papers Events The NKCF Virtual ... Presentations More Links Research Research Update Clinical Trials News E-Updates Products Press Releases Papers Events The NKCF Virtual ...

  9. Adding value in additive manufacturing: researchers in the United Kingdom and Europe look to 3D printing for customization.

    PubMed

    Banks, Jim

    2013-01-01

    Having already made a big impact in the medical sector, three-dimensional (3-D) printing technology continues to push the boundaries of cost efficiency, convenience, and customization. It has transformed some aspects of medical device production. However, expectations of the technology are often exaggerated in the media, so we spoke to leading researchers in the field about its practical applications and what can be expected in the near future. PMID:24233187

  10. Question Their Answers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Royce, Brenda

    2004-10-01

    Brenda Royce has been teaching high school chemistry and physics for nine years, and is currently science department chair at University High School in Fresno, CA, a college prep charter school on the CSU Fresno campus. She also enjoys coaching Science Olympiad, and working with science and math student teachers as a workshop leader and mentor teacher through the Science and Math Education Center at CSUF. Prior to teaching, she worked in analytical and environmental chemistry for several years. Brenda shares with us her strategy of answering students' questions by "questioning their answers."

  11. A synopsis of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) investment in additive manufacture and what challenges remain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maher, Michael; Smith, Adrien; Margiotta, Jesse

    2014-03-01

    DARPA's interest in additive manufacture dates back to the mid-80s with seedling programs that developed the foundational knowledge and equipment that led to the Solid Freeform Fabrication program in 1990. The drivers for this program included reducing development times by enabling "tool-less" manufacturing as well as integration of design and fabrication tools. DARPA consistently pushed the boundaries of additive manufacture with follow-on programs that expanded the material suite available for 3-D printing as well as new processes that expanded the technology's capability base. Programs such as the Mesoscopic Integrated Conformal Electronics (MICE) program incorporated functionality to the manufacturing processes through direct write of electronics. DARPA's investment in additive manufacture continues to this day but the focus has changed. DARPA's early investments were focused on developing and demonstrating the technology's capabilities. Now that the technology has been demonstrated, there is serious interest in taking advantage of the attributes unique to the processing methodology (such as customization and new design possibilities) for producing production parts. Accordingly, today's investment at DARPA addresses the systematic barriers to implementation rather than the technology itself. The Open Manufacturing program is enabling rapid qualification of new technologies for the manufacturing environment through the development of new modeling and informatics tools. While the technology is becoming more mainstream, there are plenty of challenges that need to be addressed. And as the technology continues to mature, the agency will continue to look for those "DARPA-hard" challenges that enable revolutionary changes in capability and performance for the Department of Defense.

  12. Conditions for Teacher Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borg, Simon

    2006-01-01

    The article starts by defining teacher research and a summary of its benefits. In reviewing teacher research in the field of ELT, the author points out that such research is not enough. The author then suggests ten conditions that would increase the incidence of teacher research. Additional questions for consideration are suggested at the end that…

  13. Common questions in veterinary toxicology.

    PubMed

    Bates, N; Rawson-Harris, P; Edwards, N

    2015-05-01

    Toxicology is a vast subject. Animals are exposed to numerous drugs, household products, plants, chemicals, pesticides and venomous animals. In addition to the individual toxicity of the various potential poisons, there is also the question of individual response and, more importantly, of species differences in toxicity. This review serves to address some of the common questions asked when dealing with animals with possible poisoning, providing evidence where available. The role of emetics, activated charcoal and lipid infusion in the management of poisoning in animals, the toxic dose of chocolate, grapes and dried fruit in dogs, the use of antidotes in paracetamol poisoning, timing of antidotal therapy in ethylene glycol toxicosis and whether lilies are toxic to dogs are discussed. PMID:25728477

  14. Processing the Curriculum through Quality Questioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregerson, Jessica

    2011-01-01

    In this inquiry-based project, student-generated questions became the basis for student-directed individual and group projects that provided practice with problem solving, critical thinking, and research skills while digging deeper into the Earth science curriculum. The author used her students' high-level questions to provide relevance,…

  15. Questioning: A Path to Critical Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christenbury, Leila; Kelly, Patricia P.

    Intended to help upper elementary and secondary school teachers increase their students' critical thinking, this booklet discusses the theory and techniques behind the use of questioning to evoke prior knowledge and further inquiry. The first portion of the booklet discusses the theory and research that underlie the use of questioning, examining…

  16. HOW PEOPLE RESPOND TO CONTINGENT VALUATION QUESTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of the project is to understand better how individuals interpret and respond to contingent valuation (CV) questions. The research will address three issues: the reliability of the referendum questions format, the importance of reminding respondents about subst...

  17. How explicable are differences between reviews that appear to address a similar research question? A review of reviews of physical activity interventions

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Systematic reviews are promoted as being important to inform decision-making. However, when presented with a set of reviews in a complex area, how easy is it to understand how and why they may differ from one another? Methods An analysis of eight reviews reporting evidence on effectiveness of community interventions to promote physical activity. We assessed review quality and investigated overlap of included studies, citation of relevant reviews, consistency in reporting, and reasons why specific studies may be excluded. Results There were 28 included studies. The majority (n = 22; 79%) were included only in one review. There was little cross-citation between reviews (n = 4/28 possible citations; 14%). Where studies appeared in multiple reviews, results were consistently reported except for complex studies with multiple publications. Review conclusions were similar. For most reviews (n = 6/8; 75%), we could explain why primary data were not included; this was usually due to the scope of the reviews. Most reviews tended to be narrow in focus, making it difficult to gain an understanding of the field as a whole. Conclusions In areas where evaluating impact is known to be difficult, review findings often relate to uncertainty of data and methodologies, rather than providing substantive findings for policy and practice. Systematic ‘maps’ of research can help identify where existing research is robust enough for multiple in-depth syntheses and also show where new reviews are needed. To ensure quality and fidelity, review authors should systematically search for all publications from complex studies. Other relevant reviews should be searched for and cited to facilitate knowledge-building. PMID:22901701

  18. Asking Questions about Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Ian; Flanagan, Bernie; Hogarth, Sylvia; Mountford, Paula; Philpott, Jenny

    2009-01-01

    We raise questions about young people's participation in light of findings from a project ("Democracy through Citizenship") funded by the Joseph Rowntree Reform Trust Limited, and managed by the Institute for Citizenship. Following a six-month feasibility study the project took place over a three-year period in one local authority in the north of…

  19. Asking the Right Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lord, Rob

    2011-01-01

    As a student teacher at Nottingham Trent University, the author explored the issues surrounding children asking investigable questions in science and the repertoire of strategies that could be employed by teachers in the classroom to support this process. His project was carried out in an inner-city primary school in Nottingham. The four focus…

  20. Question: Who Can Vote?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodeheaver, Misty D.; Haas, Mary E.

    2008-01-01

    This year's rollercoaster primary elections and the pending national election, with an anticipated record voter turnout, provide the perfect backdrop for an examination of the questions: (1) Who can vote?; and (2) Who will vote? Historically, the American government refused voting rights to various groups based on race, gender, age, and even…

  1. My Favorite Exam Question

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Styer, Dan

    2015-01-01

    My favorite exam question comes from the final exam in an introductory mechanics course: "A rolling 31 ton railroad boxcar collides with a stationary flatcar. The coupling mechanism activates so the cars latch together and roll down the track attached. Of the initial kinetic energy, 38% dissipates as heat, sound, vibrations, mechanical…

  2. A Question of Character

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart, Reginald

    2010-01-01

    When intern placement veteran Jacqueline Perkins begins counseling students at Florida A&M University (FAMU) about their prospects for getting well-paying, security-related jobs with the federal government, she confronts the 800-pound gorilla in the room--the question of whether a student has been convicted of or pleaded guilty to a misdemeanor.…

  3. More Fermi questions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouffard, Karen

    1999-09-01

    "Fermi" questions are a popular component of most Physics Olympics meets. Asking students to make a reasonable assumption about a problem and give answers in terms of order of magnitude is not only a great challenge for a competition, but is also a valued teaching strategy in the classroom.

  4. Exam Question Exchange.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, John J., Ed.

    1978-01-01

    Two exam questions are presented. One suitable for advanced undergraduate or beginning graduate courses in organic chemistry, is on equivalent expressions for the description of several pericyclic reactions. The second, for general chemistry students, asks for an estimation of the rate of decay of a million-year-old Uranium-238 sample. (BB)

  5. A question of choice.

    PubMed

    Grabiner, Gene

    2011-01-01

    Women's reproductive rights, reproductive health, and constitutional privacy rights in the United States are addressed in light of the contemporary onslaught of the Christian Right. The misuse of State power by fundamentalist social forces in America is critiqued. The article also briefly reviews the question of State control over women's bodies. PMID:21696627

  6. The Compensation Question

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richwine, Jason; Biggs, Andrew; Mishel, Lawrence; Roy, Joydeep

    2012-01-01

    Over the past few years, as cash-strapped states and school districts have faced tough budget decisions, spending on teacher compensation has come under the microscope. The underlying question is whether, when you take everything into account, today's teachers are fairly paid, underpaid, or overpaid. In this forum, two pairs of respected…

  7. A Question of Choice

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Women's reproductive rights, reproductive health, and constitutional privacy rights in the United States are addressed in light of the contemporary onslaught of the Christian Right. The misuse of State power by fundamentalist social forces in America is critiqued. The article also briefly reviews the question of State control over women's bodies. PMID:21696627

  8. Questioning and Experimentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mutanen, Arto

    2014-01-01

    The paper is a philosophical analysis of experimentation. The philosophical framework of the analysis is the interrogative model of inquiry developed by Hintikka. The basis of the model is explicit and well-formed logic of questions and answers. The framework allows us to formulate a flexible logic of experimentation. In particular, the formulated…

  9. My Favorite Exam Question

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Styer, Dan

    2015-12-01

    My favorite exam question comes from the final exam in an introductory mechanics course: A rolling 31 ton railroad boxcar collides with a stationary flatcar. The coupling mechanism activates so the cars latch together and roll down the track attached. Of the initial kinetic energy, 38% dissipates as heat, sound, vibrations, mechanical deformation, and so forth. How much does the flatcar weigh?

  10. Research Summary of an Additive Manufacturing Technology for the Fabrication of 3D Composites with Tailored Internal Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, Larry R.; Riddick, Jaret C.

    2014-01-01

    A novel additive manufacturing technology is used to create micro-composites, which can be tailored for specific end-use applications. The Field-Aided Laminar Composite (FALCom) process uses specifically focused electric fields to align nano- to micro-sized particles into chain-like structures, which are referred to as pseudo-fibers. These pseudo-fibers are then immediately frozen into place by incident ultraviolet radiation on the photopolymer matrix. The pseudo-fibers are arranged by design, and they are used to create three-dimensional composite structures. Multiple filler materials have been evaluated for use in the FALCom system; however, this report describes aluminum micro-particles that are aligned and oriented in an acrylic photopolymer matrix. A description of the technology and a review of experimental processing are shown, and conclusions, as well as, future work are discussed.

  11. Autophagy: New Questions from Recent Answers

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Macroautophagy (hereafter autophagy) is currently one of the areas of medical life sciences attracting a great interest because of its pathological implications and therapy potentials. The discovery of the autophagy-related genes (ATGs) has been the key event in this research field because their study has led to the acquisition of new knowledge about the mechanism of this transport pathway. In addition, the investigation of these genes in numerous model systems has revealed the central role that autophagy plays in maintaining the cell homeostasis. This process carries out numerous physiological functions, some of which were unpredicted and thus surprising. Here, we will review some of the questions about the mechanism and function of autophagy that still remain unanswered, and new ones that have emerged from the recent discoveries.

  12. Recanalization and Reperfusion Therapies of Acute Ischemic Stroke: What have We Learned, What are the Major Research Questions, and Where are We Headed?

    PubMed Central

    Gomis, Meritxell; Dávalos, Antoni

    2014-01-01

    Two placebo-controlled trials have shown that early administration of intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) after ischemic stroke improves outcomes up to 4.5 h after symptoms onset; however, six other trials contradict these results. We also know from analysis of the pooled data that benefits from treatment decrease as time from stroke onset to start of treatment increases. In addition to time, another important factor is patient selection through multimodal imaging, combining data from artery status, and salvageable tissue measures. Nonetheless, at the present time randomized controlled trials (RCTs) cannot demonstrate any beneficial outcomes for neuroimaging mismatch selection after 4.5 h from symptoms onset. By focusing on cases of large arterial occlusion, we know that recanalization is crucial, so endovascular treatment is an approach of interest. The use of intra-arterial thrombolysis was tested in two small RCTs that demonstrated clear benefits in terms of higher recanalization and also in clinical outcomes. But a new paradigm of stroke treatment may have begun with mechanical thrombectomy. In this field, Merci devices have been overtaken by fully deployed closed-cell self-expanding stents (stent-retrievers or “stent-trievers”). However, despite the high rate of recanalization achieved with stent-retrievers compared with other recanalization treatments, the use of these devices cannot clearly demonstrate better outcomes. Thus, futile recanalization occurs when successful recanalization fails to improve functional outcome. Recently, three RCTs, namely synthesis, IMS-III, and MR-rescue, have not been demonstrated any clear benefit for endovascular treatment. Most likely, these trials were not adequately designed to prove the superiority of endovascular treatment because they did not use optimal target populations, vascular status was not evaluated in all patients, relatively high rates of patients did not have enough mismatch

  13. Tropical Tropospheric Ozone from SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere ADditional Ozonesondes) Network: A Project for Satellite Research, Process Studies, Education

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Anne M.; Witte, Jacquelyn C.; Oltmans, Samuel J.; Schmidlin, Francis J.; Coetzee, G. J. R.; Hoegger, Bruno; Kirchhoff, V. W. J. H.; Ogawa, Toshihiro; Kawakami, Shuji; Posny, Francoise

    2002-01-01

    The first climatological overview of total, stratospheric and tropospheric ozone in the southern hemisphere tropical and subtropics is based on ozone sounding data from 10 sites comprising the Southern Hemisphere Additional OZonesondes (SHADOZ) network. The period covered is 1998-2000. Observations were made over: Ascension Island; Nairobi, Kenya; Irene, South Africa; Reunion Island; Watukosek, Java; Fiji; Tahiti; American Samoa; San Cristobal, Galapagos; Natal, Brazil. Campaign data were collected on a trans-Atlantic oceanographic cruise and during SAFARI-2000 in Zambia. The ozone data, with simultaneous temperature profiles to approx. 7 hPa and relative humidity to approx. 200 hPa, reside at: . SHADOZ ozone time-series and profiles give a perspective on tropical total, stratospheric and tropospheric ozone. Prominent features are highly variable tropospheric ozone and a zonal wave-one pattern in total (and tropospheric) column ozone. Total, stratospheric and tropospheric column ozone amounts peak between August and November and are lowest between March and May. Tropospheric ozone variability over the Indian and Pacific Ocean displays influences of the Indian Ocean Dipole and convective mixing. Pollution transport from Africa and South America is a seasonal feature. Tropospheric ozone seasonality over the Atlantic Basin shows effects of regional subsidence and recirculation as well as biomass burning. Dynamical and chemical influences appear to be of comparable magnitude though model studies are needed to quantify this.

  14. Living in the question.

    PubMed

    Flower, J

    1999-01-01

    We live in a fast moving-world. Business has accelerated to breathtaking speeds in the 1990s--and in the last few years the afterburner has really kicked in. The speed of change is overwhelming. Especially in health care, who has time to "live in the question?" We need to decide things quickly, get the decision out of the way, and move on, right? Maybe. Biology shows us that you can't plan ahead very far. New things come along that you don't even have a category for, and therefore you don't even see them. Things are going to happen that you literally have no notion are even possible. The key to succeeding in this environment? Don't plan ahead. Stay curious. Make small bets. Build organizational hothouses. Feed the seedlings that grow. The challenge is to remain curious, to live in the question, both personally and organizationally. PMID:10557490

  15. Knowledge based question answering

    SciTech Connect

    Pazzani, M.J.; Engelman, C.

    1983-01-01

    The natural language database query system incorporated in the Knobs Interactive Planning System comprises a dictionary driven parser, APE-II, and script interpreter whch yield a conceptual dependency as a representation of the meaning of user input. A conceptualisation pattern matching production system then determines and executes a procedure for extracting the desired information from the database. In contrast to syntax driven q-a systems, e.g. those based on atn parsers, APE-II is driven bottom-up by expectations associated with word meanings. The goals of this approach include utilising similar representations for questions with similar meanings but widely varying surface structures, developing a powerful mechanism for the disambiguation of words with multiple meanings and the determination of pronoun referents, answering questions which require inferences to be understood, and interpreting ellipses and ungrammatical statements. The Knobs demonstration system is an experimental, expert system for air force mission planning applications. 16 refs.

  16. Demography and Population Projection of Aphis fabae (Hemiptera: Aphididae): with Additional Comments on Life Table Research Criteria.

    PubMed

    Akca, Izzet; Ayvaz, Tamer; Yazici, Eda; Smith, Cecil L; Chi, Hsin

    2015-08-01

    We collected developmental, survival, and reproduction data for Aphis fabae Scopoli (Hemiptera: Aphididae) reared on faba bean, Vicia faba L. 'Sevilla' at four constant temperatures (15, 20, 25, and 30°C), 70% relative humidity, and a photoperiod of 16:8 (L:D) h. The highest intrinsic rate of increase (r = 0.4347 d(-1)) and finite rate (λ = 1.5445 d(-1)) were observed at 25°C. The population projection based on the age-stage, two-sex life table quantitatively revealed the growth potential and stage structure of the aphid. We have included the following suggestions to aid researchers in life table studies: 1) The bootstrap method should be used to estimate the variance and SEs of developmental time, survival rate, fecundity, and population parameters. 2) The required number of bootstraps is dependent on the life table data--the higher the variation among individuals, the higher the number of bootstraps should be. In most cases, we suggest that 100,000 bootstraps should be used to obtain a stable estimate of variance and SEs. 3) Computer projection based on the age-stage, two-sex life table should be used to reveal the stage structure during population growth. 4) We used a simple equation based on the total fecundity, survival rate to adult stage, and first reproductive age to detect possible errors in life table parameters. 5) To assist readers in comprehending results, life table studies should include the cohort size, preadult survival rate, number of emerged female adults, mean fecundity, survival and fecundity curves, and population parameters. PMID:26470285

  17. Neutrino Oscillations:. Hierarchy Question

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ernst, D. J.; Cogswell, B. K.; Burroughs, H. R.; Escamilla-Roa, J.; Latimer, D. L.

    2014-09-01

    The only experimentally observed phenomenon that lies outside the standard model of the electroweak interaction is neutrino oscillations. A way to try to unify the extensive neutrino oscillation data is to add a phenomenological mass term to the Lagrangian that is not diagonal in the flavor basis. The goal is then to understand the world's data in terms of the parameters of the mixing matrix and the differences between the squares of the masses of the neutrinos. An outstanding question is what is the correct ordering of the masses, the hierarchy question. We point out a broken symmetry relevant to this question, the symmetry of the simultaneous interchange of hierarchy and the sign of θ13. We first present the results of an analysis of data that well determine the phenomenological parameters but are not sensitive to the hierarchy. We find θ13 = 0.152±0.014, θ 23 = 0.25{ - 0.05}{ + 0.03} π and Δ32 = 2.45±0.14×10-3 eV2, results consistent with others. We then include data that are sensitive to the hierarchy and the sign of θ13. We find, unlike others, four isolated minimum in the χ2-space as predicted by the symmetry. Now that Daya Bay and RENO have determined θ13 to be surprisingly large, the Super-K atmospheric data produce meaningful symmetry breaking such that the inverse hierarchy is preferred at the 97.2 % level.

  18. The effects of e-simulation interview training on teachers' use of open-ended questions.

    PubMed

    Brubacher, Sonja P; Powell, Martine; Skouteris, Helen; Guadagno, Belinda

    2015-05-01

    Teachers in many parts of the world are mandated reporters of child abuse and maltreatment but very little is known concerning how they question children in suspicious circumstances. Teachers (n=36), who had previously participated in a mock interview scenario designed to characterize their baseline use of various question-types when attempting to elicit sensitive information from children, were given online training in choosing effective questions. They engaged in simulated interviews with a virtual avatar several times in one week and then participated in a mock interview scenario. The amount and proportion of open-ended questions they used increased dramatically after training. The overall number of questions, and amount and proportions of specific and leading questions decreased. In particular, large decreases were observed in more risky yes-no and other forced-choice questions. Given that most teachers may feel the need to ask a child about an ambiguous situation at some point during their careers it is worthwhile to incorporate practice asking effective questions into their training, and the present research suggests that an e-learning format is effective. Additionally, effective questions encourage the development of narrative competence, and we discuss how teachers might include open-ended questions during regular classroom learning. PMID:25703802

  19. Questioning and Experimentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mutanen, Arto

    2014-08-01

    The paper is a philosophical analysis of experimentation. The philosophical framework of the analysis is the interrogative model of inquiry developed by Hintikka. The basis of the model is explicit and well-formed logic of questions and answers. The framework allows us to formulate a flexible logic of experimentation. In particular, the formulated model can be interpreted realistically. Moreover, the model demonstrates an explicit logic of knowledge acquisition. So, the natural extension of the model is to apply it to an analysis of the learning process.

  20. Internet delivered question and answer column for patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Maijala, Riikka; Anttila, Minna; Koivunen, Marita; Pitkänen, Anneli; Kuosmanen, Lauri; Välimäki, Maritta

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the use of an Internet delivered question and answer column among patients with schizophrenia. The column was developed for research purposes. The study sample consisted of patients (N = 100) admitted to acute inpatient psychiatric care in two hospital districts. Descriptive data were collected from the column to which a nurse replied within 3 days and analysed using qualitative content analysis. The column had four to five questions weekly. The most common age of users was 18-24 years, and the gender distribution was almost equal. Column use was heaviest among students (44%) and least among unemployed people (19%). Out of 85 questions or comments sent to the column, 25 (29%) were related to program training and the remaining 60 (71%) were related to medication (31%), illness and tests (25%), other questions or comments (9%), daily life and coping with it (4%), and places to receive treatment (2%). An Internet delivered question and answer column can be included in the care of patients with schizophrenia. However, it requires a new type of basic and additional education in the field of mental health care in order for nurses to be able to provide nursing via the Internet forum. PMID:24960233

  1. Approaches to Cell Biology Teaching: Questions about Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Deborah; Tanner, Kimberly

    2002-01-01

    There are many questions to be asked about the pedagogical practice of questioning. Questions provide insight into what students at any age or grade level already know about a topic, which provides a beginning point for teaching. Questions reveal misconceptions and misunderstandings that must be addressed for teachers to move student thinking…

  2. Food additives

    MedlinePlus

    Food additives are substances that become part of a food product when they are added during the processing or making of that food. "Direct" food additives are often added during processing to: Add nutrients ...

  3. Food additives

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Michael

    1974-01-01

    Food additives are discussed from the food technology point of view. The reasons for their use are summarized: (1) to protect food from chemical and microbiological attack; (2) to even out seasonal supplies; (3) to improve their eating quality; (4) to improve their nutritional value. The various types of food additives are considered, e.g. colours, flavours, emulsifiers, bread and flour additives, preservatives, and nutritional additives. The paper concludes with consideration of those circumstances in which the use of additives is (a) justified and (b) unjustified. PMID:4467857

  4. Sensitive Questions in Surveys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tourangeau, Roger; Yan, Ting

    2007-01-01

    Psychologists have worried about the distortions introduced into standardized personality measures by social desirability bias. Survey researchers have had similar concerns about the accuracy of survey reports about such topics as illicit drug use, abortion, and sexual behavior. The article reviews the research done by survey methodologists on…

  5. Unproven (questionable) cancer therapies.

    PubMed Central

    Brigden, M L

    1995-01-01

    More than half of all cancer patients use some form of alternative treatment during the course of their illness. Alternative therapies are often started early in patients' illness, and their use is frequently not acknowledged to health care professionals. Some alternative therapies are harmful, and their promoters may be fraudulent. Persons who try alternative cancer therapies may not be poorly educated but may ultimately abandon conventional treatment. Recent attention has focused on aspects of questionable therapies that make these treatments attractive to patients and that may be perceived as being deficient in the practice of conventional health care professionals. Physicians with patients with cancer should always make sure that unproven therapies are discussed early in the therapeutic relationship. They should also attempt to be aware of alternative therapies that are in vogue in their particular geographic area. PMID:8533410

  6. Memorial Consequences of Answering SAT II Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, Elizabeth J.; Agarwal, Pooja K.; Roediger, Henry L., III

    2009-01-01

    Many thousands of students take standardized tests every year. In the current research, we asked whether answering standardized test questions affects students' later test performance. Prior research has shown both positive and negative effects of multiple-choice testing on later tests, with negative effects arising from students selecting…

  7. Question Driven Instruction with Classroom Response Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerace, William; Beatty, Ian

    2007-10-01

    Essentially, a classroom response system is technology that: 1) allows an instructor to present a question or problem to the class; 2) allows students to enter their answers into some kind of device; and 3) instantly aggregates and summarizes students' answers for the instructor, usually as a histogram. Most response systems provide additional functionality. Some additional names for this class of system (or for subsets of the class) are classroom communication system (CCS), audience response system (ARS), voting machine system, audience feedback system, and--most ambitiously--CATAALYST system (for ``Classroom Aggregation Technology for Activating and Assessing Learning and Your Students' Thinking''). UMPERG has been teaching with and researching classroom response systems since 1993. We find that the technology has the potential to transform the way we teach science in large lecture settings. CRSs can serve as catalysts for creating a more interactive, student-centered classroom in the lecture hall, thereby allowing students to become more actively involved in constructing and using knowledge. CRSs not only make it easier to engage students in learning activities during lecture but also enhance the communication among students, and between the students and the instructor. This enhanced communication assists the students and the instructor in assessing understanding during class time, and affords the instructor the opportunity to devise instructional interventions that target students' needs as they arise.

  8. The lingering question of menthol in cigarettes.

    PubMed

    Besaratinia, Ahmad; Tommasi, Stella

    2015-02-01

    Tobacco use is the single most important preventable cause of cancer-related deaths in the USA and many parts of the world. There is growing evidence that menthol cigarettes are starter tobacco products for children, adolescents, and young adults. Accumulating research also suggests that smoking menthol cigarettes reinforces nicotine dependence, impedes cessation, and promotes relapse. However, menthol cigarettes are exempt from the US Food and Drug Administration ban on flavored cigarettes due, in part, to the lack of empirical evidence describing the health consequences of smoking menthol cigarettes relative to regular cigarettes. Determining the biological effects of menthol cigarette smoke relative to regular cigarette smoke can clarify the health risks associated with the use of respective products and assist regulatory agencies in making scientifically based decisions on the development and evaluation of regulations on tobacco products to protect public health and to reduce tobacco use by minors. We highlight the inherent shortcomings of the conventional epidemiologic, clinical, and laboratory research on menthol cigarettes that have contributed to the ongoing debate on the public health impact of menthol in cigarettes. In addition, we provide perspectives on how future investigations exploiting state-of-the-art biomarkers of exposure and disease states can help answer the lingering question of menthol in cigarettes. PMID:25416451

  9. Asking a Great Question: A Librarian Teaches Questioning Skills to First-Year Medical Students.

    PubMed

    Adams, Nancy E

    2015-01-01

    In a single one-hour session, first-year medical students were taught a framework for differentiating between lower-order questions that lead to knowledge of facts and higher-order questions that lead to integration of concepts and deeper learning, thereby preparing them for problem-based learning (PBL). Students generated lists of questions in response to an assertion prompt and categorized them according to Bloom's Taxonomy. These data were analyzed in addition to data from the course exam, which asked them to formulate a higher-level question in response to a prompt. Categorizing questions according to Bloom's Taxonomy was a more difficult task for students than was formulating higher-order questions. Students reported that the skills that they learned were used in subsequent PBL sessions to formulate higher-order learning objectives that integrated new and previously-learned concepts. PMID:26496396

  10. Ethical Questions and Biologists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franke, Robert G.

    1983-01-01

    A three-part questionnaire was used to assess degree of emphasis given to values education in college biology. In addition to demographic data, the questionnaire, mailed to 377 biologists (185 forms returned), included items focusing on the significance of ethical issues and when life-science related values are best introduced to students. (JN)

  11. Cosmic questions: an introduction.

    PubMed

    Primack, J R; Abrams, N E

    2001-12-01

    This introductory talk at the Cosmic Questions conference sponsored by the AAAS summarizes some earlier pictures of the universe and some pictures based on modern physics and cosmology. The uroboros (snake swallowing its tail) is an example of a traditional picture. The Biblical flat-earth picture was very different from the Greek spherical earth-centered picture, which was the standard view until the end of the Middle Ages. Many people incorrectly assume that the Newtonian picture of stars scattered through otherwise empty space is still the prevailing view. Seeing Earth from space shows the power of a new picture. The Hubble Space Telescope can see all the bright galaxies, all the way to the cosmic Dark Ages. We are at the center of cosmic spheres of time: looking outward is looking backward in time. All the matter and energy in the universe can be represented as a cosmic density pyramid. The laws of physics only allow the material objects in the universe to occupy a wedge-shaped region on a diagram of mass versus size. All sizes--from the smallest size scale, the Planck scale, to the entire visible universe--can be represented on the Cosmic Uroboros. There are interesting connections across this diagram, and the human scale lies in the middle. PMID:11797741

  12. Questioning cochlear amplification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Heijden, Marcel; Versteegh, Corstiaen P. C.

    2015-12-01

    Thirty years ago it was hypothesized that motile processes inject mechanical energy into cochlear traveling waves. This mechanical amplification, alternatively described as negative damping, is invoked to explain both the sensitivity and the nonlinear compression of cochlear responses. There is a recent trend to present cochlear amplification as an established fact, even though the evidence is at most circumstantial and several thorny problems have remained unresolved. We analyze several of these issues, and present new basilar membrane recordings that allowed us to quantify cochlear energy flow. Specifically, we address the following questions: (1) Does auditory sensitivity require narrowband amplification? (2) Has the "RC problem" (lowpass filtering of outer hair cell receptor potential) been resolved? (3) Can OHC motility improve auditory sensitivity? (4) Is there a net power gain between neighboring locations on the basilar membrane? The analyses indicate that mechanical amplification in the cochlea is neither necessary nor useful, and that realizing it by known forms of motility would reduce sensitivity rather than enhance it. Finally, our experimental data show that the peaking of the traveling wave is realized by focusing the acoustic energy rather than amplifying it. (Abbreviations. BM: basilar membrane; CF: characteristic frequency; IHC: inner hair cell; ME: middle ear; MT; mechanotransducer; OHC: outer hair cell; SPL: sound pressure level.)

  13. Question Popularity Analysis and Prediction in Community Question Answering Services

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ting; Zhang, Wei-Nan; Cao, Liujuan; Zhang, Yu

    2014-01-01

    With the blooming of online social media applications, Community Question Answering (CQA) services have become one of the most important online resources for information and knowledge seekers. A large number of high quality question and answer pairs have been accumulated, which allow users to not only share their knowledge with others, but also interact with each other. Accordingly, volumes of efforts have been taken to explore the questions and answers retrieval in CQA services so as to help users to finding the similar questions or the right answers. However, to our knowledge, less attention has been paid so far to question popularity in CQA. Question popularity can reflect the attention and interest of users. Hence, predicting question popularity can better capture the users’ interest so as to improve the users’ experience. Meanwhile, it can also promote the development of the community. In this paper, we investigate the problem of predicting question popularity in CQA. We first explore the factors that have impact on question popularity by employing statistical analysis. We then propose a supervised machine learning approach to model these factors for question popularity prediction. The experimental results show that our proposed approach can effectively distinguish the popular questions from unpopular ones in the Yahoo! Answers question and answer repository. PMID:24837851

  14. Promoting Student Learning Through Questioning: A Study of Classroom Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Sandra; Bowman, Mary Ann

    1996-01-01

    A study in a graduate-level occupational therapy class found that questions asked by teachers and the instructional format in which they were asked influenced the frequency and level of student questioning. Subjects were 5 undergraduate and 15 graduate students. It was concluded that improved classroom questioning strategies may contribute to…

  15. Research of the Additional Losses Occurring in Optical Fiber at its Multiple Bends in the Range Waves 1310nm, 1550nm and 1625nm Long

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yurchenko, A. V.; Gorlov, N. I.; Alkina, A. D.; Mekhtiev, A. D.; Kovtun, A. A.

    2016-01-01

    Article is devoted to research of the additional losses occurring in the optical fiber at its multiple bends in the range waves of 1310 nanometers, 1550 nanometers and 1625 nanometers long. Article is directed on creation of the external factors methods which allow to estimate and eliminate negative influence. The automated way of calculation of losses at a bend is developed. Results of scientific researches are used by engineers of “Kazaktelekom” AS for practical definition of losses service conditions. For modeling the Wolfram|Alpha environment — the knowledge base and a set of computing algorithms was chosen. The greatest losses are noted on wavelength 1310nm and 1625nm. All dependences are nonlinear. Losses with each following excess are multiplicative.

  16. Food additives.

    PubMed

    Berglund, F

    1978-01-01

    The use of additives to food fulfils many purposes, as shown by the index issued by the Codex Committee on Food Additives: Acids, bases and salts; Preservatives, Antioxidants and antioxidant synergists; Anticaking agents; Colours; Emulfifiers; Thickening agents; Flour-treatment agents; Extraction solvents; Carrier solvents; Flavours (synthetic); Flavour enhancers; Non-nutritive sweeteners; Processing aids; Enzyme preparations. Many additives occur naturally in foods, but this does not exclude toxicity at higher levels. Some food additives are nutrients, or even essential nutritents, e.g. NaCl. Examples are known of food additives causing toxicity in man even when used according to regulations, e.g. cobalt in beer. In other instances, poisoning has been due to carry-over, e.g. by nitrate in cheese whey - when used for artificial feed for infants. Poisonings also occur as the result of the permitted substance being added at too high levels, by accident or carelessness, e.g. nitrite in fish. Finally, there are examples of hypersensitivity to food additives, e.g. to tartrazine and other food colours. The toxicological evaluation, based on animal feeding studies, may be complicated by impurities, e.g. orthotoluene-sulfonamide in saccharin; by transformation or disappearance of the additive in food processing in storage, e.g. bisulfite in raisins; by reaction products with food constituents, e.g. formation of ethylurethane from diethyl pyrocarbonate; by metabolic transformation products, e.g. formation in the gut of cyclohexylamine from cyclamate. Metabolic end products may differ in experimental animals and in man: guanylic acid and inosinic acid are metabolized to allantoin in the rat but to uric acid in man. The magnitude of the safety margin in man of the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) is not identical to the "safety factor" used when calculating the ADI. The symptoms of Chinese Restaurant Syndrome, although not hazardous, furthermore illustrate that the whole ADI

  17. Answering Questions and Questioning Answers. Part II. University of Central Florida Conference Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, C. C.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Brief analyses are provided of presentations made at a conference, held at the University of Central Florida in Orlando, which addressed questions and answers relating to research and education. Conference sessions explored the role of research in relation to educational practices with special focus on theory, research, issues and application.…

  18. Questions They Ask: Considering Teacher-Inquiry Questions Posed by Pre-Service English Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salerno, April S.; Kibler, Amanda K.

    2015-01-01

    Our study of pre-service teachers' (PSTs) inquiry projects includes two levels of practitioner-research: on one level, we examine the research questions PSTs pose about their classrooms; and on the second, the study is an action-research investigation of our own practice in teaching PSTs both pedagogical and inquiry practices. We study PSTs'…

  19. Antibiotic Resistance Questions and Answers

    MedlinePlus

    ... on the Farm Get Smart About Antibiotics Week Antibiotic Resistance Questions and Answers Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend ... Many ear infections Top of Page Questions about Antibiotic Resistance Examples of How Antibiotic Resistance Spreads Click for ...

  20. Questions and Answers about Psychosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... treatment options? Questions & Answers about the NIMH RAISE Project What is RAISE? Why is RAISE important? What ... more information Questions & Answers about the NIMH RAISE Project Q: What is RAISE? A: In 2008, the ...

  1. Ordered questions bias eyewitnesses and jurors.

    PubMed

    Michael, Robert B; Garry, Maryanne

    2016-04-01

    Eyewitnesses play an important role in the justice system. But suggestive questioning can distort eyewitness memory and confidence, and these distorted beliefs influence jurors (Loftus, Learning & Memory, 12, 361-366, 2005; Penrod & Culter, Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, 1, 817-845, 1995). Recent research, however, hints that suggestion is not necessary: Simply changing the order of a set of trivia questions altered people's beliefs about their accuracy on those questions (Weinstein & Roediger, Memory & Cognition, 38, 366-376, 2010, Memory & Cognition, 40, 727-735, 2012). We wondered to what degree eyewitnesses' beliefs-and in turn the jurors who evaluate them-would be affected by this simple change to the order in which they answer questions. Across six experiments, we show that the order of questions matters. Eyewitnesses reported higher accuracy and were more confident about their memory when questions seemed initially easy, than when they seemed initially difficult. Moreover, jurors' beliefs about eyewitnesses closely matched those of the eyewitnesses themselves. These findings have implications for eyewitness metacognition and for eyewitness questioning procedures. PMID:26335413

  2. A question of taste.

    PubMed

    Mitchison, T J

    2013-11-01

    A career in science is shaped by many factors, one of the most important being our tastes in research. These typically form early and are shaped by subsequent successes and failures. My tastes run to microscopes, chemistry, and spatial organization of cytoplasm. I will try to identify where they came from, how they shaped my career, and how they continue to evolve. My hope is to inspire young scientists to identify and celebrate their own unique tastes. PMID:24174461

  3. Children Who Question Their Heterosexuality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carver, Priscilla R.; Egan, Susan K.; Perry, David G.

    2004-01-01

    Many gay, lesbian, and bisexual adults report a period of childhood sexual questioning--an uneasy questioning of their heterosexuality brought on by same-sex attractions and motivating same-sex sexual exploration. This article evaluates hypotheses about the correlates, causes, and consequences of childhood sexual questioning. Participants were 182…

  4. Improving your IQ -- Intelligent Questioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kassner, Kirk

    1998-01-01

    Stresses the importance for teachers to analyze their Intelligent Questioning (IQ) and Responding to Answers (RSA) scores. Provides three methods for measuring IQ and RSA: Flowchart for Asking Effective Questions, Questioning Observation form, and Flanders Technique of Interaction Analysis. Contends that by improving these teaching skills,…

  5. Improving the Questions Students Ask

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donohue-Smith, Maureen

    2006-01-01

    Teachers often tell their classes that "there is no such thing as a stupid question." But this is not completely honest. Questions aren't asked in a vacuum; their intelligence or stupidity depends on a variety of contextual variables. The ideal question is the right one, posed to the right source in the right way at the right time for the right…

  6. Syndrome in Question*

    PubMed Central

    Tonolli, Vanessa Mello; Stolf, Hamilton Ometto; Tonello, Cláudio Sampieri; Pires, Rafaelle Batistella; Abbade, Luciana Patricia Fernandes

    2014-01-01

    Hay-Wells syndrome or AEC (Ankyloblepharon, Ectodermal dysplasia and Cleft lip and palate syndrome) is a rare ectodermal disorder. The treatment is aimed to prevent clinical complications. We describe the case of a four-month old male patient with erosions on the scalp, trunk and arms, trachyonychia, deformity of the ears, micropenis, cleft palate, decreased eyebrow and eyelash hairs, in addition to antecedents of surgical correction of ankyloblepharon. The importance of the correct diagnosis is emphasized, besides the investigation of the associated diseases, treatment of complications and genetic counseling of the parents. PMID:24770526

  7. Identification of bacteria synthesizing ribosomal RNA in response to uranium addition during biostimulation at the Rifle, CO Integrated Field Research site

    SciTech Connect

    McGuinness, Lora R.; Wilkins, Michael J.; Williams, Kenneth H.; Long, Philip E.; Kerkhof, Lee J.; Boyanov, Maxim I.

    2015-09-18

    Understanding which organisms are capable of reducing uranium at historically contaminated sites provides crucial information needed to evaluate treatment options and outcomes. One approach is determination of the bacteria which directly respond to uranium addition. In this research, uranium amendments were made to groundwater samples from a site of ongoing biostimulation with acetate. The active microbes in the planktonic phase were deduced by monitoring ribosomes production via RT-PCR. The results indicated several microorganisms were synthesizing ribosomes in proportion with uranium amendment up to 2 μM. Concentrations of U (VI) >2 μM were generally found to inhibit ribosome synthesis. Two active bacteria responding to uranium addition in the field were close relatives of Desulfobacter postgateii and Geobacter bemidjiensis. Since RNA content often increases with growth rate, our findings suggest it is possible to rapidly elucidate active bacteria responding to the addition of uranium in field samples and provides a more targeted approach to stimulate specific populations to enhance radionuclide reduction in contaminated sites.

  8. Identification of bacteria synthesizing ribosomal RNA in response to uranium addition during biostimulation at the Rifle, CO Integrated Field Research site

    DOE PAGESBeta

    McGuinness, Lora R.; Wilkins, Michael J.; Williams, Kenneth H.; Long, Philip E.; Kerkhof, Lee J.; Boyanov, Maxim I.

    2015-09-18

    Understanding which organisms are capable of reducing uranium at historically contaminated sites provides crucial information needed to evaluate treatment options and outcomes. One approach is determination of the bacteria which directly respond to uranium addition. In this research, uranium amendments were made to groundwater samples from a site of ongoing biostimulation with acetate. The active microbes in the planktonic phase were deduced by monitoring ribosomes production via RT-PCR. The results indicated several microorganisms were synthesizing ribosomes in proportion with uranium amendment up to 2 μM. Concentrations of U (VI) >2 μM were generally found to inhibit ribosome synthesis. Two activemore » bacteria responding to uranium addition in the field were close relatives of Desulfobacter postgateii and Geobacter bemidjiensis. Since RNA content often increases with growth rate, our findings suggest it is possible to rapidly elucidate active bacteria responding to the addition of uranium in field samples and provides a more targeted approach to stimulate specific populations to enhance radionuclide reduction in contaminated sites.« less

  9. Explicit versus Implicit Questioning: Inviting All Children to Think Mathematically

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parks, Amy Noelle

    2010-01-01

    Background/Context: Open-ended, or implicit, questioning has been described as central to reform teaching in mathematics. However, concerns about equity have caused some researchers to question whether this kind of teaching is productive for all children. Purpose: This study explores the role that implicit and explicit questions played in…

  10. Questions for Surveys: Current Trends and Future Directions.

    PubMed

    Schaeffer, Nora Cate; Dykema, Jennifer

    2011-12-01

    We begin with a look back at the field to identify themes of recent research that we expect to continue to occupy researchers in the future. As part of this overview, we characterize the themes and topics examined in research about measurement and survey questions published in Public Opinion Quarterly in the past decade. We then characterize the field more broadly by highlighting topics that we expect to continue or to grow in importance, including the relationship between survey questions and the total survey error perspective, cognitive versus interactional approaches, interviewing practices, mode and technology, visual aspects of question design, and culture. Considering avenues for future research, we advocate for a decision-oriented framework for thinking about survey questions and their characteristics. The approach we propose distinguishes among various aspects of question characteristics, including question topic, question type and response dimension, conceptualization and operationalization of the target object, question structure, question form, response categories, question implementation, and question wording. Thinking about question characteristics more systematically would allow study designs to take into account relationships among these characteristics and identify gaps in current knowledge. PMID:24970951

  11. Big Questions: Dark Matter

    ScienceCinema

    Lincoln, Don

    2014-08-07

    Carl Sagan's oft-quoted statement that there are "billions and billions" of stars in the cosmos gives an idea of just how much "stuff" is in the universe. However scientists now think that in addition to the type of matter with which we are familiar, there is another kind of matter out there. This new kind of matter is called "dark matter" and there seems to be five times as much as ordinary matter. Dark matter interacts only with gravity, thus light simply zips right by it. Scientists are searching through their data, trying to prove that the dark matter idea is real. Fermilab's Dr. Don Lincoln tells us why we think this seemingly-crazy idea might not be so crazy after all.

  12. Big Questions: Dark Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Lincoln, Don

    2013-12-05

    Carl Sagan's oft-quoted statement that there are "billions and billions" of stars in the cosmos gives an idea of just how much "stuff" is in the universe. However scientists now think that in addition to the type of matter with which we are familiar, there is another kind of matter out there. This new kind of matter is called "dark matter" and there seems to be five times as much as ordinary matter. Dark matter interacts only with gravity, thus light simply zips right by it. Scientists are searching through their data, trying to prove that the dark matter idea is real. Fermilab's Dr. Don Lincoln tells us why we think this seemingly-crazy idea might not be so crazy after all.

  13. Potlining Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolf Keller

    2004-08-10

    In this project, a concept to improve the performance of aluminum production cells by introducing potlining additives was examined and tested. Boron oxide was added to cathode blocks, and titanium was dissolved in the metal pool; this resulted in the formation of titanium diboride and caused the molten aluminum to wet the carbonaceous cathode surface. Such wetting reportedly leads to operational improvements and extended cell life. In addition, boron oxide suppresses cyanide formation. This final report presents and discusses the results of this project. Substantial economic benefits for the practical implementation of the technology are projected, especially for modern cells with graphitized blocks. For example, with an energy savings of about 5% and an increase in pot life from 1500 to 2500 days, a cost savings of $ 0.023 per pound of aluminum produced is projected for a 200 kA pot.

  14. Phosphazene additives

    SciTech Connect

    Harrup, Mason K; Rollins, Harry W

    2013-11-26

    An additive comprising a phosphazene compound that has at least two reactive functional groups and at least one capping functional group bonded to phosphorus atoms of the phosphazene compound. One of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with cellulose and the other of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with a resin, such as an amine resin of a polycarboxylic acid resin. The at least one capping functional group is selected from the group consisting of a short chain ether group, an alkoxy group, or an aryloxy group. Also disclosed are an additive-resin admixture, a method of treating a wood product, and a wood product.

  15. [International regulation of ethics committees on biomedical research as protection mechanisms for people: analysis of the Additional Protocol to the Convention on Human Rights and Biomedicine, concerning Biomedical Research of the Council of Europe].

    PubMed

    de Lecuona, Itziar

    2013-01-01

    The article explores and analyses the content of the Council of Europe's Additional Protocol to the Convention on Human Rights and Biomedicine concerning Biomedical Research regarding the standard legal instrument in biomedical research, issued by an international organization with leadership in bioethics. This implies ethics committees are mechanisms of protection of humans in biomedical research and not mere bureaucratic agencies and that a sound inescapable international regulatory framework exists for States to regulate biomedical research. The methodology used focuses on the analysis of the background, the context in which it is made and the nature and scope of the Protocol. It also identifies and analyses the characteristics and functions of ethics committees in biomedical research and, in particular, the information that should be provided to this bodies to develop their functions previously, during and at the end of research projects. This analysis will provide guidelines, suggestions and conclusions for the awareness and training of members of these committees in order to influence the daily practice. This paper may also be of interest to legal practitioners who work in different areas of biomedical research. From this practical perspective, the article examines the legal treatment of the Protocol to meet new challenges and classic issues in research: the treatment of human biological samples, the use of placebos, avoiding double standards, human vulnerability, undue influence and conflicts of interest, among others. Also, from a critical view, this work links the legal responses to develop work procedures that are required for an effective performance of the functions assigned of ethics committees in biomedical research. An existing international legal response that lacks doctrinal standards and provides little support should, however, serve as a guide and standard to develop actions that allow ethics committees -as key bodies for States- to advance in

  16. Big Questions: Missing Antimatter

    SciTech Connect

    Lincoln, Don

    2013-08-27

    Einstein's equation E = mc2 is often said to mean that energy can be converted into matter. More accurately, energy can be converted to matter and antimatter. During the first moments of the Big Bang, the universe was smaller, hotter and energy was everywhere. As the universe expanded and cooled, the energy converted into matter and antimatter. According to our best understanding, these two substances should have been created in equal quantities. However when we look out into the cosmos we see only matter and no antimatter. The absence of antimatter is one of the Big Mysteries of modern physics. In this video, Fermilab's Dr. Don Lincoln explains the problem, although doesn't answer it. The answer, as in all Big Mysteries, is still unknown and one of the leading research topics of contemporary science.

  17. Big Questions: Missing Antimatter

    ScienceCinema

    Lincoln, Don

    2014-08-07

    Einstein's equation E = mc2 is often said to mean that energy can be converted into matter. More accurately, energy can be converted to matter and antimatter. During the first moments of the Big Bang, the universe was smaller, hotter and energy was everywhere. As the universe expanded and cooled, the energy converted into matter and antimatter. According to our best understanding, these two substances should have been created in equal quantities. However when we look out into the cosmos we see only matter and no antimatter. The absence of antimatter is one of the Big Mysteries of modern physics. In this video, Fermilab's Dr. Don Lincoln explains the problem, although doesn't answer it. The answer, as in all Big Mysteries, is still unknown and one of the leading research topics of contemporary science.

  18. Vocation Project Interview Questions--Support Document

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheelahan, Leesa; Leahy, Mary; Fredman, Nick; Moodie, Gavin; Arkoudis, Sophie; Bexley, Emmaline

    2012-01-01

    This document was produced by the authors based on their research for the report "Missing Links: The Fragmented Relation between Tertiary Education and Jobs. It is an added resource for further information. It contains interview questions for: (1) graduates; (2) learning advisors; (3) managers; (4) pathways officers; (5) students; and (6)…

  19. Questions of Inclusion in Scotland and Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allan, Julie

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines inclusion in Scotland and in Europe. It considers some of the uncertainties surrounding inclusion and the questions--many of which give cause for concern--that are currently being raised by researchers, teachers and their representative unions, parents and children. The shifting political and policy contexts and recent patterns…

  20. Thinking through Quality Questioning: Deepening Student Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Jackie Acree; Sattes, Beth Dankert

    2011-01-01

    This groundbreaking book provides teachers with an accessible, research-based blueprint for developing student metacognitive skills and ensuring that students take responsibility for their own learning. The authors use the findings of cognitive scientists to highlight quality questioning behaviors and explain how to apply them for improved student…

  1. Vocabulary Questions on Informal Reading Inventories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffelmeyer, Fredrick A.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Examines the utility of informal reading inventories (IRI) and acknowledges four limitations of the research. Indicates that no validity-enhancing measures were implemented in conjunction with the three IRIs analyzed. Suggests that IRI vocabulary questions do not appear to be useful. (MG)

  2. Medical Marijuana: More Questions than Answers

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Kevin P.

    2014-01-01

    With 23 states and the District of Columbia having enacted medical marijuana laws as of August 2014, it is important that psychiatrists be able to address questions about medical marijuana from patients, families, and other health care professionals. The author discusses the limited medical literature on synthetic cannabinoids and medical marijuana. The synthetic cannabinoids dronabinol and nabilone are approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for nausea and vomiting associated with cancer chemotherapy and appetite stimulation in patients with wasting diseases such as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Results of clinical trials of these agents for other conditions have varied widely thus far. In addition, few data are available on the use of the marijuana plant as a medical treatment. The author concludes that there is a clear need for additional research on possible medical uses of cannabinoids. He notes that discussions with prospective medical marijuana patients should emphasize the importance of communication among all parties due to the possible side effects of treatment with marijuana and its potential to interact with other medications the patient may be taking. Facilitating a thorough substance abuse consultation is one of most positive ways that psychiatrists, especially addiction psychiatrists, can make an impact as medical marijuana becomes increasingly common. A careful review of the prospective medical marijuana user's substance use history, co-occurring medical and psychiatric conditions, family history, and psychosocial stressors is essential in evaluating the potential risks of medical marijuana for these patients. The author concludes that psychiatrists can have a significant impact by increasing the likelihood that medical marijuana will be used in a safe and responsible way. PMID:25226202

  3. Medical marijuana: more questions than answers.

    PubMed

    Hill, Kevin P

    2014-09-01

    With 23 states and the District of Columbia having enacted medical marijuana laws as of August 2014, it is important that psychiatrists be able to address questions about medical marijuana from patients, families, and other health care professionals. The author discusses the medical literature on synthetic cannabinoids and medical marijuana. The synthetic cannabinoids dronabinol and nabilone are approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for nausea and vomiting associated with cancer chemotherapy and appetite stimulation in patients with wasting diseases such as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Results of clinical trials of these agents for other conditions have varied widely thus far. In addition, few data are available on the use of the marijuana plant as a medical treatment. The author concludes that there is a clear need for additional research on possible medical uses of cannabinoids. He notes that discussions with prospective medical marijuana patients should emphasize the importance of communication among all parties due to the possible side effects of treatment with marijuana and its potential to interact with other medications the patient may be taking. Facilitating a thorough substance abuse consultation is one of most positive ways that psychiatrists, especially addiction psychiatrists, can make an impact as medical marijuana becomes increasingly common. A careful review of the prospective medical marijuana user's substance use history, co-occurring medical and psychiatric conditions, family history, and psychosocial stressors is essential in evaluating the potential risks of medical marijuana for these patients. The author concludes that psychiatrists can have a significant impact by increasing the likelihood that medical marijuana will be used in a safe and responsible way. PMID:25226202

  4. Reference Readiness for AV Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drolet, Leon L., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Reviews 50 reference tools which librarians can use to answer almost any audiovisual question including queries on trivia, equipment selection, biographical information, and motion picture ratings. (LLS)

  5. Questioning to Scaffold: An Exploration of Questions in Pre-Service Teacher Training Feedback Sessions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engin, Marion

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to explore trainer questioning strategies which aimed to scaffold development and learning in teacher training feedback sessions. Research was conducted with a group of Turkish pre-service English teacher trainees at an English-medium university in Turkey. Findings include a categorisation of different question…

  6. Question, answer, compare: a cross-category comparison of answers on question and answer websites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ocepek, Melissa G.; Westbrook, Lynn

    2015-10-01

    Online information seekers make heavy use of websites that accept their natural language questions. This study compared the three types of such websites: social question and answer (Q&A), digital reference services, and ask-an-expert services. Questions reflecting daily life, research, and crisis situations were posed to high use websites of all three types. The resulting answers' characteristics were analyzed in terms of speed, transparency, formality, and intimacy. The results indicate that social Q&A websites excel in speed, ask-an-expert websites in intimacy, and digital reference services in transparency and formality.

  7. Key Questions in Marine Megafauna Movement Ecology.

    PubMed

    Hays, Graeme C; Ferreira, Luciana C; Sequeira, Ana M M; Meekan, Mark G; Duarte, Carlos M; Bailey, Helen; Bailleul, Fred; Bowen, W Don; Caley, M Julian; Costa, Daniel P; Eguíluz, Victor M; Fossette, Sabrina; Friedlaender, Ari S; Gales, Nick; Gleiss, Adrian C; Gunn, John; Harcourt, Rob; Hazen, Elliott L; Heithaus, Michael R; Heupel, Michelle; Holland, Kim; Horning, Markus; Jonsen, Ian; Kooyman, Gerald L; Lowe, Christopher G; Madsen, Peter T; Marsh, Helene; Phillips, Richard A; Righton, David; Ropert-Coudert, Yan; Sato, Katsufumi; Shaffer, Scott A; Simpfendorfer, Colin A; Sims, David W; Skomal, Gregory; Takahashi, Akinori; Trathan, Philip N; Wikelski, Martin; Womble, Jamie N; Thums, Michele

    2016-06-01

    It is a golden age for animal movement studies and so an opportune time to assess priorities for future work. We assembled 40 experts to identify key questions in this field, focussing on marine megafauna, which include a broad range of birds, mammals, reptiles, and fish. Research on these taxa has both underpinned many of the recent technical developments and led to fundamental discoveries in the field. We show that the questions have broad applicability to other taxa, including terrestrial animals, flying insects, and swimming invertebrates, and, as such, this exercise provides a useful roadmap for targeted deployments and data syntheses that should advance the field of movement ecology. PMID:26979550

  8. 50 CFR 86.116 - May I change the questions in the survey?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false May I change the questions in the survey... questions in the survey? You must not change the questions because we need information that is comparable... OMB on the survey questions and the OMB approval does not extend to additional questions....

  9. 50 CFR 86.116 - May I change the questions in the survey?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false May I change the questions in the survey... questions in the survey? You must not change the questions because we need information that is comparable... OMB on the survey questions and the OMB approval does not extend to additional questions....

  10. Imagining Education: An Arendtian Response to an Inmate's Question

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Karen Ann; Fels, Lynn

    2013-01-01

    This article responds to a "what-if" question regarding education, raised by a woman inmate. Emerging in the midst of a research project with women in prison, the unexpected question haunts the two authors, both educational researchers, who in turn reconsider education's role in difficult circumstances. For guidance, the authors turn to…

  11. Answering Your Questions about AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalichman, Seth C.

    This book focuses on AIDS education and answers 350 commonly asked questions about Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) taken from questions addressed to two major urban AIDS hotlines (Milwaukee, Wisconsin, and Houston, Texas). Chapter 1, "HIV - The Virus That Causes AIDS," discusses: the HIV virus; the…

  12. Questions Dog Design of Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gewertz, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    On the verge of signing a contract to help design assessments for the common standards, ACT Inc. has withdrawn from the project amid conflict-of-interest questions sparked by its own development of a similar suite of tests. Even though it involves only a small subcontract, the move by the Iowa-based test-maker, and the questions from the state…

  13. Kids Ask the Best Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deal, Debby; Sterling, Donna

    1997-01-01

    According to 1995 National Science Education Standards, "inquiry into authentic questions generated from student experiences is the central strategy for teaching science." Effective classroom questions promote relevance, encourage ownership, help students interpret their observations, and link new learning to what students already know. Two…

  14. Test Pool Questions, Area III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloan, Jamee Reid

    This manual contains multiple choice questions to be used in testing students on nurse training objectives. Each test includes several questions covering each concept. The concepts in section A, medical surgical nursing, are diseases of the following systems: musculoskeletal; central nervous; cardiovascular; gastrointestinal; urinary and male…

  15. The Value Question in Metaphysics.

    PubMed

    Kahane, Guy

    2012-07-01

    Much seems to be at stake in metaphysical questions about, for example, God, free will or morality. One thing that could be at stake is the value of the universe we inhabit-how good or bad it is. We can think of competing philosophical positions as describing possibilities, ways the world might turn out to be, and to which value can be assigned. When, for example, people hope that God exists, or fear that we do not possess free will, they express attitudes towards these possibilities, attitudes that presuppose answers to questions about their comparative value. My aim in this paper is to distinguish these evaluative questions from related questions with which they can be confused, to identify structural constraints on their proper pursuit, and to address objections to their very coherence. Answers to such evaluative questions offer one measure of the importance of philosophical disputes. PMID:23024399

  16. The Value Question in Metaphysics

    PubMed Central

    Kahane, Guy

    2012-01-01

    Much seems to be at stake in metaphysical questions about, for example, God, free will or morality. One thing that could be at stake is the value of the universe we inhabit—how good or bad it is. We can think of competing philosophical positions as describing possibilities, ways the world might turn out to be, and to which value can be assigned. When, for example, people hope that God exists, or fear that we do not possess free will, they express attitudes towards these possibilities, attitudes that presuppose answers to questions about their comparative value. My aim in this paper is to distinguish these evaluative questions from related questions with which they can be confused, to identify structural constraints on their proper pursuit, and to address objections to their very coherence. Answers to such evaluative questions offer one measure of the importance of philosophical disputes. PMID:23024399

  17. Do clinicians use more question marks?

    PubMed Central

    Otte, Willem M; van’t Klooster, Maryse A; van Diessen, Eric; Leijten, Frans SS; Sander, Josemir W

    2015-01-01

    Objective To quantify the use of question marks in titles of published studies. Design and setting Literature review. Participants All Pubmed publications between 1 January 2013 and 31 December 2013 with an available abstract. Papers were classified as being clinical when the search terms clin*, med* or patient* were found anywhere in the paper’s title, abstract or the journal’s name. Other papers were considered controls. As a verification, clinical journals were compared to non-clinical journals in two different approaches. Also, 50 highest impact journals were explored for publisher group dependent differences. Main outcome measure Total number of question marks in titles. Results A total of 368,362 papers were classified as clinical and 596,889 as controls. Clinical papers had question marks in 3.9% (95% confidence interval 3.8–4.0%) of titles and other papers in 2.3% (confidence interval 2.3–2.3%; p < 0.001). These findings could be verified for clinical journals compared to non-clinical journals. Different percentages between four publisher groups were found (p < 0.01). Conclusion We found more question marks in titles of clinical papers than in other papers. This could suggest that clinicians often have a question-driven approach to research and scientists in more fundamental research a hypothesis-driven approach. An alternative explanation is that clinicians like catchy titles. Publishing groups might have pro- and anti-question mark policies. PMID:26085937

  18. A Set of Questions, A Question of Sets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathematics in School, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Two versions of a page of exercises using set ideas are presented, one in plain language and one in technical language. Some questions and answers about the appropriateness of set terminology and symbols are then given. (MNS)

  19. From Question Answering to Visual Exploration

    SciTech Connect

    McColgin, Dave W.; Gregory, Michelle L.; Hetzler, Elizabeth G.; Turner, Alan E.

    2006-08-11

    Research in Question Answering has focused on the quality of information retrieval or extraction using the metrics of precision and recall to judge success; these metrics drive toward finding the specific best answer(s) and are best supportive of a lookup type of search. These do not address the opportunity that users? natural language questions present for exploratory interactions. In this paper, we present an integrated Question Answering environment that combines a visual analytics tool for unstructured text and a state-of-the-art query expansion tool designed to compliment the cognitive processes associated with an information analysts work flow. Analysts are seldom looking for factoid answers to simple questions; their information needs are much more complex in that they may be interested in patterns of answers over time, conflicting information, and even related non-answer data may be critical to learning about a problem or reaching prudent conclusions. In our visual analytics tool, questions result in a comprehensive answer space that allows users to explore the variety within the answers and spot related information in the rest of the data. The exploratory nature of the dialog between the user and this system requires tailored evaluation methods that better address the evolving user goals and counter cognitive biases inherent to exploratory search tasks.

  20. Memorial consequences of answering SAT II questions.

    PubMed

    Marsh, Elizabeth J; Agarwal, Pooja K; Roediger, Henry L

    2009-03-01

    Many thousands of students take standardized tests every year. In the current research, we asked whether answering standardized test questions affects students' later test performance. Prior research has shown both positive and negative effects of multiple-choice testing on later tests, with negative effects arising from students selecting incorrect alternatives on multiple-choice tests and then believing they were correct (Roediger & Marsh, 2005). In the current experiments, undergraduates and high school students answered multiple-choice questions retired from SAT II tests (that are no longer in the testing pool) on biology, chemistry, U.S. history, and world history, and later answered cued-recall questions about these subjects. In 3 experiments, we observed positive testing effects: More final cued-recall questions were answered correctly if the items had appeared on the initial multiple-choice test. We also sometimes observed negative testing effects: intrusions of multiple-choice distractors as answers on the final cued-recall test. Students who scored well on the initial test benefited from taking the test, but lower achieving students showed either less benefit (undergraduates) or costs from the testing (high school students). PMID:19309212

  1. Examining the Use of Facebook and Twitter as an Additional Social Space in a MOOC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Min; McKelroy, Emily; Kang, Jina; Harron, Jason; Liu, Sa

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the researchers examined if and to what extent social media tools such as Facebook and Twitter can augment participants' learning experience in an xMOOC and offer an additional social space. Two research questions guided this inquiry: (1) What did MOOC participants consider the usefulness of the Facebook group and Twitter feed…

  2. Solar physics: Dynamo theory questioned

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charbonneau, Paul

    2016-07-01

    Observations of X-ray emission -- a diagnostic tool for the mechanisms driving stellar magnetic fields -- from four cool stars call into question accepted models of magnetic-field generation in the Sun and stars. See Letter p.526

  3. Organ Transplantation: Frequently Asked Questions

    MedlinePlus

    ... contact. What questions should I ask the transplant team? What kind of medical tests are done in ... listing? Who are the members of the transplant team and what are their jobs? How many attending ...

  4. Questions Students Ask: Beta Decay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koss, Jordan; Hartt, Kenneth

    1988-01-01

    Answers a student's question about the emission of a positron from a nucleus. Discusses the problem from the aspects of the uncertainty principle, beta decay, the Fermi Theory, and modern physics. (YP)

  5. Winter Weather Frequently Asked Questions

    MedlinePlus

    ... Planning Information on Specific Types of Emergencies Winter Weather Frequently Asked Questions Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend ... I do if I get stranded in cold weather? Tie a brightly colored cloth to the antenna ...

  6. HPV Vaccine - Questions and Answers

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Media Resources News Newsletters Events Redirect for HPV Vaccine FAQ Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... to the address below. http://www.cdc.gov/hpv/parents/questions-answers.html File Formats Help: How ...

  7. Questions to Ask Your Doctor

    MedlinePlus

    ... Donate Home > Education > Questions to Ask Your Doctor Education What is mbc? Diagnosis Guide for the Newly ... treatment in a community-based medical office. Consider distance from home, availability of specialists, access to clinical ...

  8. Methodological questions in studying consonant acquisition

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Jan; Beckman, Mary E.

    2009-01-01

    Consonant mastery is one of the most widely used metrics of typical phonological acquisition and of phonological disorder. Two fundamental methodological questions concerning research on consonant acquisition are (1) how to elicit a representative sample of productions and (2) how to analyse this sample once it has been collected. This paper address these two questions by reviewing relevant aspects of experience in evaluating word-initial consonant accuracy from transcriptions of isolated-word productions elicited from 2- and 3-year-olds learning four different first languages representing a telling range of consonant systems (English, Cantonese, Greek, Japanese). It is suggested that both researchers and clinicians should consider a number of different item-related factors, such as phonotactic probability and word length, when constructing word lists to elicit consonant productions from young children. This study also proposes that transcription should be supplemented by acoustic analysis and the perceptual judgements of naïve listeners. PMID:19031192

  9. Examining student-generated questions in an elementary science classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz, Juan Francisco, Jr.

    This study was conducted to better understand how teachers use an argument-based inquiry technique known as the Science Writing Heuristic (SWH) approach to address issues on teaching, learning, negotiation, argumentation, and elaboration in an elementary science classroom. Within the SWH framework, this study traced the progress of promoting argumentation and negotiation (which led to student-generated questions) during a discussion in an elementary science classroom. Speech patterns during various classroom scenarios were analyzed to understand how teacher--student interactions influence learning. This study uses a mixture of qualitative and quantitative methods. The qualitative aspect of the study is an analysis of teacher--student interactions in the classroom using video recordings. The quantitative aspect uses descriptive statistics, tables, and plots to analyze the data. The subjects in this study were fifth grade students and teachers from an elementary school in the Midwest, during the academic years 2007/2008 and 2008/2009. The three teachers selected for this study teach at the same Midwestern elementary school. These teachers were purposely selected because they were using the SWH approach during the two years of the study. The results of this study suggest that all three teachers moved from using teacher-generated questions to student-generated questions as they became more familiar with the SWH approach. In addition, all three promoted the use of the components of arguments in their dialogs and discussions and encouraged students to elaborate, challenge, and rebut each other's ideas in a non-threatening environment. This research suggests that even young students, when actively participating in class discussions, are capable of connecting their claims and evidence and generating questions of a higher-order cognitive level. These findings demand the implementation of more professional development programs and the improvement in teacher education to help

  10. Reducing Bureaucratic Accretion in Government and University Procedures for Sponsored Research. New Approaches in Process and Additional Areas for Attention. Proceedings of a Hearing, June 5, 1985. Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC. Government-University-Industry Research Roundtable.

    On June 5, 1985, the Government-University-Industry Research Roundtable conducted a hearing designed to be the first step in what will be a continuing process by the Research Roundtable of seeking ways to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the sponsored research system. The goal of the hearing was to identify ways to simplify the system…

  11. Analysis of the Possibilities for Discussing Questions of Global Justice in Geography Classes on the Use of Methods of Empirical Social Research When Analyzing the Teaching of Geography in Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Applis, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    This study examines students' orientations with regard to questions on the implementation of justice in production structures of the global textile industry. The students worked with the Mystery Method from the Thinking Through Geography approach by David Leat and with Lawrence Kohlberg's Method of Dilemma Discussion. During this process, the…

  12. Question Safari: Seeking Questions in Their Natural Habitat. A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Emily S

    2016-01-01

    Due to the demanding schedules of nurses, many clinical queries generated during patient care are forgotten before the nurse has time to conduct a search. This article describes a new clinical librarian service, Question Safari, created in partnership with the Nursing Research & Evidence-Based Practice initiative to help mitigate this issue and to support patient care. PMID:27054538

  13. On asking the right questions.

    PubMed

    Rayner, P

    1986-03-01

    Despite the vast array of theoretical formulations now available, none is sufficiently well developed. Some of the philosophical questions thrown up by such material are posed. Under the heading of "Discourse," the questions of what constitutes reasonableness and how logical validity is established are raised. Under the heading of "Epistemology," the nature of concept formulation and causality is raised. Under the heading of "Language," the nature of linguistic representation and artificially constructed language or "artificial intelligence" is raised. It is suggested that these and other issues in the philosophy of science require the urgent attention of family therapy theorists. PMID:3754225

  14. Response times to conceptual questions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasry, Nathaniel; Watkins, Jessica; Mazur, Eric; Ibrahim, Ahmed

    2013-09-01

    We measured the time taken by students to respond to individual Force Concept Inventory (FCI) questions. We examine response time differences between correct and incorrect answers, both before and after instruction. We also determine the relation between response time and expressed confidence. Our data reveal three results of interest. First, response times are longer for incorrect answers than for correct ones, indicating that distractors are not automatic choices. Second, response times increase after instruction for both correct and incorrect answers, supporting the notion that instruction changes students' approach to conceptual questions. Third, response times are inversely related to students' expressed confidence; the lower their confidence, the longer it takes to respond.

  15. Are debatable scientific questions debatable? (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oreskes, N.

    2010-12-01

    Are debatable scientific questions debatable? In 2000, the physicist-philosopher John Ziman posed this pithy—and crucial—question. He noted that scientists were at a disadvantage in public debate, because the rules of engagement are different in scientific discourse than in public discourse in ways that make it difficult for scientists to ‘win’ public arguments, even when the facts are on their side. In this paper, I revisit Ziman’s arguments in light of the difficulties that climate scientists have had in communicating the reality and gravity of global warming. In addition to the problem posed by Ziman, I also address the role of organized disinformation in further increasing the challenges that climate scientists face.

  16. Inferring Orthologs: Open Questions and Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Tekaia, Fredj

    2016-01-01

    With the increasing number of sequenced genomes and their comparisons, the detection of orthologs is crucial for reliable functional annotation and evolutionary analyses of genes and species. Yet, the dynamic remodeling of genome content through gain, loss, transfer of genes, and segmental and whole-genome duplication hinders reliable orthology detection. Moreover, the lack of direct functional evidence and the questionable quality of some available genome sequences and annotations present additional difficulties to assess orthology. This article reviews the existing computational methods and their potential accuracy in the high-throughput era of genome sequencing and anticipates open questions in terms of methodology, reliability, and computation. Appropriate taxon sampling together with combination of methods based on similarity, phylogeny, synteny, and evolutionary knowledge that may help detecting speciation events appears to be the most accurate strategy. This review also raises perspectives on the potential determination of orthology throughout the whole species phylogeny. PMID:26966373

  17. Approaches to answering critical CER questions.

    PubMed

    Kinnier, Christine V; Chung, Jeanette W; Bilimoria, Karl Y

    2015-01-01

    While randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are the gold standard for research, many research questions cannot be ethically and practically answered using an RCT. Comparative effectiveness research (CER) techniques are often better suited than RCTs to address the effects of an intervention under routine care conditions, an outcome otherwise known as effectiveness. CER research techniques covered in this section include: effectiveness-oriented experimental studies such as pragmatic trials and cluster randomized trials, treatment response heterogeneity, observational and database studies including adjustment techniques such as sensitivity analysis and propensity score analysis, systematic reviews and meta-analysis, decision analysis, and cost effectiveness analysis. Each section describes the technique and covers the strengths and weaknesses of the approach. PMID:25677015

  18. Conceptual Question Response Times in Peer Instruction Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Kelly; Lasry, Nathaniel; Lukoff, Brian; Schell, Julie; Mazur, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Classroom response systems are widely used in interactive teaching environments as a way to engage students by asking them questions. Previous research on the time taken by students to respond to conceptual questions has yielded insights on how students think and change conceptions. We measure the amount of time students take to respond to…

  19. The Pyramid Question: A Problem-Solving Adventure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClintock, Ruth M.

    1997-01-01

    Presents a question designed to launch a discovery journey through conjecture, research, serendipitous encounters, proof, answers, and new questions. Reports some discoveries and suggests ways in which to incorporate this strategy into classrooms. Presents a geometry project that incorporates this problem-solving approach to mathematics. (JRH)

  20. Lactation and neonatal nutrition: Defining and refining the critical questions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper resulted from a conference entitled "Lactation and Milk: Defining and Refining the Critical Questions" held at the University of Colorado School of Medicine from January 18-20, 2012. The mission of the conference was to identify unresolved questions and set future goals for research into ...

  1. Teenagers' Web Questions Compared with a Sexuality Curriculum: An Exploration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Juliette D. G.; McCutchen, Lisa E.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Teenagers need information about their changing bodies. Many young people do not receive adequate or accurate puberty/sexuality education from their parents or school, so many teenagers are going online to have their sexuality questions answered. Purpose: This research examines teenagers' web questions on sexuality, and an example of…

  2. Questions about Brain Development = Preguntas sobre el desarrollo del cerebro.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southeastern Regional Vision for Education (SERVE), Tallahassee, FL.

    Noting that new research shows that a baby's earliest years shape how he or she grows later in life, this brochure, in English- and Spanish-language versions, provides brief answers to some important questions parents may have about their baby's brain. The questions answered are: (1) "Why is brain development a popular subject lately?; (2) "What…

  3. Assessing District Support for Leadership Development: Asking the Right Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snow-Renner, Ravay

    This document provides guiding questions and a process for school district personnel to assess the district's organizational capacity for supporting strong educational leaders in a standards-based system. These questions reflect the most recent research literature about leadership and its optimal organizational supports in high-performing school…

  4. Characteristics of Question Format Web Queries: An Exploratory Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spink, Amanda; Ozmutlu, H. Cenk

    2002-01-01

    Provides results from a study that examined queries in question format submitted to two Web search engines, Ask Jeeves and Excite. Identifies four types of user Web queries: keyword, Boolean, question, and request; discusses implications for Web search services; and suggests further research needs. (Author/LRW)

  5. International Conference on Recent Research and Development in Vocational Education (Adelaide, South Australia, Australia, March 12-19, 1989). Additional Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    TAFE National Centre for Research and Development, Payneham (Australia).

    The conference recorded in this document covered a wide variety of themes and consisted of keynote addresses, research presentations, and workshops. The following keynote addresses are include: "Some Recent TAFE National Centre Research and Development in Australian Vocational Education" (Hall); "Vocational Teacher Education: Principles,…

  6. [Questions by adolescents about dieting].

    PubMed

    Bloch, A

    1989-12-15

    In recent years there has been increasing concern and involvement of Israeli adolescents with dieting. An increase in the incidence of obesity has been emphasized by the mass media. This has been marked by an increase in the number of questions on dieting sent anonymously by 12 to 14 year-olds to a column in a popular youth magazine about adolescent sexuality. These letters include requests for diets to prevent obesity in general and fatness of certain parts of the body in particular, such as the thighs or buttocks; questions as to side-effects of diets already started, particularly amenorrhea; and questions about the onset of bulimia and anorexia nervosa, expressing fear of the consequences. This study gives examples of the questions and the answers, and indicates the professions of those to whom the applicants were referred for further diagnosis and treatment. Newer techniques of health education with regard to adolescent dieting are urgently needed so that the health staff can promote insight and indicate the need for treatment at as early a stage as possible. The use of mass media in a suitable manner is critical, given the increase in diet-advertising. PMID:2620891

  7. Explaining Errors in Children's Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowland, Caroline F.

    2007-01-01

    The ability to explain the occurrence of errors in children's speech is an essential component of successful theories of language acquisition. The present study tested some generativist and constructivist predictions about error on the questions produced by ten English-learning children between 2 and 5 years of age. The analyses demonstrated that,…

  8. Looming Questions in Performance Pay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gratz, Donald B.

    2010-01-01

    When proposing performance pay for teachers, reformers first must answer three questions: What is the definition of teacher performance? What is the definition of student performance? and What are the goals of schooling? Reformers also need to examine the assumptions that guide their proposals and prepare to deal with the implementation issues…

  9. ANSWERING CONSUMER QUESTIONS ABOUT EGGS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Answering consumer questions is an important aspect of egg marketing. Consumers expect those they contact to be able to address their situation and help find answers. Topics of general consumer concerns include: proper storage, safe handling, food safety, and food quality. With the vast array of ...

  10. Questioning Shakespeare through Student Journals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornton, Kathleen K.

    Reader-response journals were successfully employed in a "Reading Shakespeare" course for non-majors, making literary tradition accessible to students untrained in classical rhetoric. Students were encouraged to employ any combination of four approaches. First, students were invited to ask questions about the language, sequence of events,…

  11. Addressing Phonological Questions with Ultrasound

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Lisa

    2005-01-01

    Ultrasound can be used to address unresolved questions in phonological theory. To date, some studies have shown that results from ultrasound imaging can shed light on how differences in phonological elements are implemented. Phenomena that have been investigated include transitional schwa, vowel coalescence, and transparent vowels. A study of…

  12. Questioning Centre-Periphery Platforms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Postiglione, Gerard A.

    2005-01-01

    How much is hegemony and how much is self-determination in the higher education systems in Southeast Asia? This paper argues that while the question of centre and periphery is still relevant to the analysis of international university systems, the analytical frameworks from which it has arisen may lose viability in the long term. Southeast Asian…

  13. Four Questions to Ask Yourself

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abilock, Debbie, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    One's commitment to intellectual freedom is manifested not just in the creation of a strong and clear selection policy or the celebration of Banned Books Week but by his or her willingness to examine his or her practices openly with others. In this article, the author proposes four questions to explore in one's teaching and in professional…

  14. Education Answers That Vouchers Question.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sroufe, Gerald E.

    This speech explains education voucher programs and responds to criticisms of such programs. The education voucher system is described as one that questions traditional structures and methods while it equalizes opportunities to purchase education, fosters federally funded and controlled alternative school settings and programs, and gives parents…

  15. Multiple True-False Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, G. C.; Woods, G. T.

    1974-01-01

    Two types of objective questions are compared: the multiple choice item, in which one and only one of several stated alternatives is correct for a given initial statement, and the multiple true-false item, where the stem is followed by several completions of which one or more can be correct. (DT)

  16. Ten Practical Questions about Branding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Robert M.; Rattenbury, Jeanne

    2004-01-01

    "Marketing" and "branding" were once considered dirty words on campus but faculty, staff, and board members now appreciate the value of getting their message out and managing their reputation. The question is not so much whether to invest, but when, how, and most important, what's the return on investment? A roundtable of accomplished marketing…

  17. Effect on Learning of Postinstructional Responses to Questions of Differing Degrees of Complexity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yost, Michael; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Seventh grade students answered questions while reading programmed science materials. For increasingly difficult questions, achievement and time required to complete the unit increased. Post-instruction achievement was higher in groups which answered questions during the unit than those which read additional material but answered no questions.…

  18. Questions about Physics: The Case of a Turkish "Ask a Scientist" Website

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yerdelen-Damar, Sevda; Eryilmaz, Ali

    2010-01-01

    The physics questions submitted to an "ask a scientist" website were classified with respect to field of interest in physics, type of requested information in the question (factual, explanatory, etc.), and motivation for asking the question (applicative or non-applicative). In addition, differences in the number of females' and males' questions in…

  19. Study Questions Link Between Multiple Moles, Risk for Melanoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... Study Questions Link Between Multiple Moles, Risk for Melanoma Research suggests people with many of the blemishes ... be at heightened risk for skin cancer, including melanoma. But a new study found that patients with ...

  20. Power Dynamics and Questioning in Elementary Science Classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinsvold, Lori A.; Cochran, Kathryn F.

    2012-11-01

    We describe the dynamic discourse interactions between a teacher and her students in a third-grade science classroom. We focused on how the teacher and students initiate, prompt, respond, and provide feedback; use questioning and power strategies; and how questions are associated with power dynamics. We relate the consequences of teacher use of power to the engagement of student with subject matter. Two classroom sessions were observed and teacher-student interactions audio recorded. Data were transcribed and a method was developed for analyzing teacher-student interactions, power dynamics, and types of questions asked. Results revealed that teacher talk was twice as frequent as students' talk; questions were primarily closed-ended and task-oriented; and students asked few questions. The teacher exercised power by keeping activities organized and conventional, and utilizing subject matter. The developed methods showed us the complexity of question and power dynamics in classroom discourse and have implications for professional development and research.

  1. Toward a Natural Language Interface for EHR Questions

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Kirk; Demner-Fushman, Dina

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a pilot study on the process of manually annotating natural language EHR questions with a formal meaning representation. This formal representation could then be used as a structured query as part of a natural language interface for electronic health records. This study analyzes the challenges of representing EHR questions as structured queries as well as the feasibility of creating a sufficiently large corpus of manually annotated structured queries for EHR questions. A set of 100 EHR questions, sampled from actual questions asked by ICU physicians[1], is used to perform the analysis. The ultimate goal of this research is to enable automatic methods for understanding EHR questions for use in a natural language EHR interface. PMID:26306260

  2. 47 CFR 13.215 - Question pools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Question pools. 13.215 Section 13.215... Question pools. The question pool for each written examination element will be composed of questions acceptable to the FCC. Each question pool must contain at least five (5) times the number of...

  3. 47 CFR 13.215 - Question pools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Question pools. 13.215 Section 13.215... Question pools. The question pool for each written examination element will be composed of questions acceptable to the FCC. Each question pool must contain at least five (5) times the number of...

  4. Determination of the Composition and Quantity of Phthalate Ester Additives in PVC Children's Toys. Greenpeace Research Laboratories Technical Note 06/97.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stringer, Ruth; Labounskaia, Irina; Santillo, David; Johnston, Paul; Siddorn, John; Stephenson, Angela

    Polyvinyl chloride (vinyl or PVC) is widely used in toys and other children's products. This study, conducted by Greenpeace, examined the composition and quantity of phthalate ester additives in children's PVC toys, used to give the toys added flexibility. Drawn from 17 countries, a total of 71 toys designed to be chewed by babies and young…

  5. On a question of Gross

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Abhijit

    2007-03-01

    Using the notion of weighted sharing of sets we prove two uniqueness theorems which improve the results proved by Fang and Qiu [H. Qiu, M. Fang, A unicity theorem for meromorphic functions, Bull. Malaysian Math. Sci. Soc. 25 (2002) 31-38], Lahiri and Banerjee [I. Lahiri, A. Banerjee, Uniqueness of meromorphic functions with deficient poles, Kyungpook Math. J. 44 (2004) 575-584] and Yi and Lin [H.X. Yi, W.C. Lin, Uniqueness theorems concerning a question of Gross, Proc. Japan Acad. Ser. A 80 (2004) 136-140] and thus provide an answer to the question of Gross [F. Gross, Factorization of meromorphic functions and some open problems, in: Proc. Conf. Univ. Kentucky, Lexington, KY, 1976, in: Lecture Notes in Math., vol. 599, Springer, Berlin, 1977, pp. 51-69], under a weaker hypothesis.

  6. Using Questioning to Facilitate Discussion of Science Teaching Problems in Teacher Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Meilan; Lundeberg, Mary; McConnell, Tom J.; Koehler, Matthew J.; Eberhardt, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Previous research has shown that questioning is a key strategy that facilitators use to promote discussion in Problem-Based Learning (PBL). Yet, there is a lack of detailed understanding on what questions facilitators ask and how those questions affect discussion. In this study we examined different types of questions that experienced facilitators…

  7. Answering Scientific Questions Using an Artistic Framework: A Personal Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Little, S. F. B.

    2014-12-01

    Being multidisciplinary, while admired, is not viewed as a goal of education. Instead, extreme specialization is emphasized. One seeks to attain mastery of a given subject, but at what cost? Even those fields viewed as "interdisciplinary" are often quite narrow in scope, only permitting the most closely related subjects to coalesce. The arts however, are by nature both inter- and multi-disciplinary. They attempt to research, analyze, and reflect upon broader questions, often employing techniques garnered from far-flung fields in order to do so. It is an unfortunate dilemma then that the artist should seem so separate from the scientist, as it seems that both are engaged in a sort of hypothesis testing. Perhaps this division is a remnant of the antiquated left- and right-brained dichotomy, which clearly separated the two groups: Science and Art, Left and Right. In this way, the artist was branded as Science's "other," despite the inherent sameness of their processes. This "otherness" has been carried forward to the present, where artists are often viewed as simply craftspeople -object makers- and the concept of the "artistic problem" is rarely considered. As someone possessing degrees in both Fine Art and Hydrology, the author attempts to explain the connection between the two subjects, and the manner in which they compliment and enlighten each other in her own research. She hypothesizes that in addition to this "otherness," it is the multi-dimensional mode of thinking and dealing with problems that sets the artist apart. But this is a dynamic trait, and as such, it should be considered that by approaching scientific endeavors as artistic problems, the researcher could be permitted a broader framework in which to answer a given scientific question.

  8. Disability Discrimination and Obesity: The Big Questions?

    PubMed

    Flint, Stuart W; Snook, Jeremé

    2015-12-01

    Obesity discrimination in employment and recruitment has become a topic of focus for research examination with increasing reports of discrimination by colleagues and managers. Whilst a limited number of legal cases have emerged, disability law is consulted in line with the expectation of anti-discriminatory practices at work. In line with disability law, whether obesity is defined as a disability or not has an impact on the outcome of a court ruling. Ambiguity when defining obesity through either the medical or social model means there are many questions that remain unanswered which might lead to inconsistency in court rulings. PMID:26353881

  9. Identification of Bacteria Synthesizing Ribosomal RNA in Response to Uranium Addition During Biostimulation at the Rifle, CO Integrated Field Research Site

    PubMed Central

    McGuinness, Lora R.; Wilkins, Michael J.; Williams, Kenneth H.; Long, Philip E.; Kerkhof, Lee J.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding which organisms are capable of reducing uranium at historically contaminated sites provides crucial information needed to evaluate treatment options and outcomes. One approach is determination of the bacteria which directly respond to uranium addition. In this study, uranium amendments were made to groundwater samples from a site of ongoing biostimulation with acetate. The active microbes in the planktonic phase were deduced by monitoring ribosomes production via RT-PCR. The results indicated several microorganisms were synthesizing ribosomes in proportion with uranium amendment up to 2 μM. Concentrations of U (VI) >2 μM were generally found to inhibit ribosome synthesis. Two active bacteria responding to uranium addition in the field were close relatives of Desulfobacter postgateii and Geobacter bemidjiensis. Since RNA content often increases with growth rate, our findings suggest it is possible to rapidly elucidate active bacteria responding to the addition of uranium in field samples and provides a more targeted approach to stimulate specific populations to enhance radionuclide reduction in contaminated sites. PMID:26382047

  10. Effects of question formats on causal judgments and model evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Smithson, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Evaluation of causal reasoning models depends on how well the subjects’ causal beliefs are assessed. Elicitation of causal beliefs is determined by the experimental questions put to subjects. We examined the impact of question formats commonly used in causal reasoning research on participant’s responses. The results of our experiment (Study 1) demonstrate that both the mean and homogeneity of the responses can be substantially influenced by the type of question (structure induction versus strength estimation versus prediction). Study 2A demonstrates that subjects’ responses to a question requiring them to predict the effect of a candidate cause can be significantly lower and more heterogeneous than their responses to a question asking them to diagnose a cause when given an effect. Study 2B suggests that diagnostic reasoning can strongly benefit from cues relating to temporal precedence of the cause in the question. Finally, we evaluated 16 variations of recent computational models and found the model fitting was substantially influenced by the type of questions. Our results show that future research in causal reasoning should place a high priority on disentangling the effects of question formats from the effects of experimental manipulations, because that will enable comparisons between models of causal reasoning uncontaminated by method artifact. PMID:25954225

  11. Open forum: Question and responses

    SciTech Connect

    Schulze, R.H.; Krupa, S.; Shen, T.T.

    1993-01-01

    The question addressed in this section is: With the end of the Cold War and the exchange of information improving between East and West, what roles should government agencies and non-government organizations from developed countries play in assisting less developed countries in developing a stronger environmental protection program Responses presented here were obtained from Richard H. Schulze (President of Trinity Consultants, Inc.), Sagar Krupa (Professor, Department of Plant Pathology, University of Minnesota), and Thomas T. Shen (Ph.D., D.AAEE, Retiree of the New York Department of Environmental Conservation).

  12. Biology Question Generation from a Semantic Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lishan

    Science instructors need questions for use in exams, homework assignments, class discussions, reviews, and other instructional activities. Textbooks never have enough questions, so instructors must find them from other sources or generate their own questions. In order to supply instructors with biology questions, a semantic network approach was developed for generating open response biology questions. The generated questions were compared to professional authorized questions. To boost students' learning experience, adaptive selection was built on the generated questions. Bayesian Knowledge Tracing was used as embedded assessment of the student's current competence so that a suitable question could be selected based on the student's previous performance. A between-subjects experiment with 42 participants was performed, where half of the participants studied with adaptive selected questions and the rest studied with mal-adaptive order of questions. Both groups significantly improved their test scores, and the participants in adaptive group registered larger learning gains than participants in the control group. To explore the possibility of generating rich instructional feedback for machine-generated questions, a question-paragraph mapping task was identified. Given a set of questions and a list of paragraphs for a textbook, the goal of the task was to map the related paragraphs to each question. An algorithm was developed whose performance was comparable to human annotators. A multiple-choice question with high quality distractors (incorrect answers) can be pedagogically valuable as well as being much easier to grade than open-response questions. Thus, an algorithm was developed to generate good distractors for multiple-choice questions. The machine-generated multiple-choice questions were compared to human-generated questions in terms of three measures: question difficulty, question discrimination and distractor usefulness. By recruiting 200 participants from

  13. Explanation, motivation and question posing routines in university mathematics teachers' pedagogical discourse: a commognitive analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viirman, Olov

    2015-11-01

    This paper investigates the teaching practices used by university mathematics teachers when lecturing, a topic within university mathematics education research which is gaining an increasing interest. In the study, a view of mathematics teaching as a discursive practice is taken, and Sfard's commognitive framework is used to investigate the teaching practices of seven Swedish university mathematics teachers on the topic of functions. The present paper looks at the discourse of mathematics teaching, presenting a categorization of the didactical routines into three categories - explanation, motivation and question posing routines. All of these are present in the discourses of all seven teachers, but within these general categories, a number of different sub-categories of routines are found, used in different ways and to different extent by the various teachers. The explanation routines include known mathematical facts, summary and repetition, different representations, everyday language, and concretization and metaphor; the motivation routines include reference to utility, the nature of mathematics, humour and result focus; and the question posing routines include control questions, asking for facts, enquiries and rhetorical questions. This categorization of question posing routines, for instance, complements those already found in the literature. In addition to providing a valuable insight into the teaching of functions at the university level, the categorizations presented in the study can also be useful for investigating the teaching of other mathematical topics.

  14. The Impact of Multifaceted Questions on Eyewitness Accuracy Following Forced Fabrication Interviews.

    PubMed

    Chrobak, Quin M; Rindal, Eric J; Zaragoza, Maria S

    2015-01-01

    Lawyers will frequently use complex-question forms, such as multifaceted questions (single questions that contain both a true and a false proposition), when cross-examining witnesses, and prior research has shown that use of such questions reduces testimonial accuracy. The present study extends this research by using a forced fabrication paradigm (Chrobak & Zaragoza, 2008) to assess how multifaceted questions might affect eyewitness suggestibility after exposure to misleading post-event information. Consistent with prior studies, the use of multifaceted questions led to lower accuracy than simple questions. The novel finding was that multifaceted questions caused larger impairments in performance among fabrication participants (who had earlier been suggestively interviewed), than in control participants (who had not). We also provide preliminary evidence that the impairment caused by multifaceted questions is due to both (a) having to consider two propositions simultaneously, and (b) the shift in question focus from the fabricated event to a true event. PMID:26273938

  15. Emerging Model of Questioning through the Process of Teaching and Learning Electrochemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iksan, Zanaton Haji; Daniel, Esther

    2015-01-01

    Verbal questioning is a technique used by teachers in the teaching and learning process. Research in Malaysia related to teachers' questioning in the chemistry teaching and learning process is more focused on the level of the questions asked rather than the content to ensure that students understand. Thus, the research discussed in this paper is…

  16. Les questions de migrations internationales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samman, Mouna Liliane

    1993-03-01

    International migrations have growing implications for both countries of origin and countries of destination. In the latter, the presence of foreigners and of members of their families today creates problems of integration, causes argument and brings mounting xenophobia. Paralleling political, economic and social measures taken by public authorities to respond to these difficulties, education needs to assist in defusing the resulting social tensions by preparing the minds of learners and helping to develop new attitudes. In particular, when educational programmes address questions of international migration, these should be treated in the framework of historical evolution so that their real significance and their true temporal and spatial dimensions become apparent. It is also important that the growing interdependence between countries should be made plain, that national history should be placed in its international context, and that the true consequences of these developments should be made clear. In this context, learners need to be acquainted with Human Rights, thereby stressing universal moral values and the role of the individual. Lastly, questions relating to international migration are usually presented in the media in a selective and partial manner, and the young people who take in this information often accept the hasty judgments which are made of situations as proven facts. This is why all teaching about international migration needs to be considered or reconsidered in the light of the complementary or competing actions of the media.

  17. [The questions of international migration].

    PubMed

    Samman, M L

    1993-03-01

    International migrations have growing implications for both countries of destination. In the latter, the presence of foreigners and of members of their families today creates problems of integration, causes argument, and brings mounting xenophobia. Paralleling political, economic, and social measures taken by public authorities to respond to these difficulties, education needs to assist in diffusing the resulting social tensions by preparing the minds of learners and helping to develop new attitudes. In particular, when educational programs address questions of international migration, these should be treated in the framework of historical evolution in order that their real significance and their true temporal and spatial dimensions become apparent. It is also important that the growing interdependence between countries should be made plain, that national history should be placed in its international context, and that the true consequences of these developments should be made clear. In this context, learners need to be acquainted with Human Rights, thereby stressing universal moral values and the role of the individual. Lastly, questions relating to international migration are usually presented in the media in a selective and partial manner, and the young people who take in this information often accept the hasty judgments which are made of situations as proven facts. This is why all teaching about international migration needs to be considered or reconsidered in light of the complementary or competing actions of the media. (author's modified) PMID:12286405

  18. Answering Key Fuel Cycle Questions

    SciTech Connect

    Piet, S.J.; Dixon, B.W.; Bennett, R.G.; Smith, J.D.; Hill, R.N.

    2004-10-03

    Given the range of fuel cycle goals and criteria, and the wide range of fuel cycle options, how can the set of options eventually be narrowed in a transparent and justifiable fashion? It is impractical to develop all options. We suggest an approach that starts by considering a range of goals for the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) and then posits seven questions, such as whether Cs and Sr isotopes should be separated from spent fuel and, if so, what should be done with them. For each question, we consider which of the goals may be relevant to eventually providing answers. The AFCI program has both ''outcome'' and ''process'' goals because it must address both waste already accumulating as well as completing the fuel cycle in connection with advanced nuclear power plant concepts. The outcome objectives are waste geologic repository capacity and cost, energy security and sustainability, proliferation resistance, fuel cycle economics, and safety. The process objectives are rea diness to proceed and adaptability and robustness in the face of uncertainties.

  19. Frequently asked questions: iodinated contrast agents.

    PubMed

    Bettmann, Michael A

    2004-10-01

    Although iodinated contrast agents are safe and widely used, adverse events occur and questions remain about their use, safety, and interactions. Some questions are easily answered and others still require extensive investigation. For one frequent question--is informed consent necessary before all contrast media injections--the simple answer is no. Another question concerns use of contrast media in patients with prior reactions or allergies. Contrast agents can be safely used in such patients, but special care must be taken to be aware of what the previous reaction was and to be ready to treat any reaction. The protective role of pre-treatment with steroids is well established for minor reactions, but they may not prevent major reactions. It is important to realize that even life-threatening, anaphylactoid reactions are not the result of a true allergy to contrast media. Many questions arise about contrast agent-induced nephropathy. Baseline serum creatinine values should be obtained in patients who are at risk, not all patients. The incidence and natural history of contrast agent-induced nephropathy remain unclear. It occurs only in patients with compromised renal function before contrast agent injection, but even patients with normal serum creatinine levels can have renal dysfunction. Calculated creatinine clearance is a better way to determine risk and to follow this complication. The outcome in almost all patients is benign, with progression to end-stage renal disease being rare. The major risk factors, in addition to renal dysfunction, are long-standing diabetes mellitus, dehydration, and use of other nephrotoxic medications. Recent work in preventing and ameliorating contrast agent-induced nephropathy with N-acetyl cysteine, substitution of an isosmolal nonionic contrast agent, and various hydration regimens has been promising. Another common concern is use of iodinated contrast agents in pregnant or breast-feeding women. In both cases, there is no evidence

  20. Epistemic Questions and Answers for Software System Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holloway, C. M.; Johnson, Chris W.

    2010-01-01

    System safety is primarily concerned with epistemic questions, that is, questions concerning knowledge and the degree of confidence that can be placed in that knowledge. For systems with which human experience is long, such as roads, bridges, and mechanical devices, knowledge about what is required to make the systems safe is deep and detailed. High confidence can be placed in the validity of that knowledge. For other systems, however, with which human experience is comparatively short, such as those that rely in part or in whole on software, knowledge about what is required to ensure safety tends to be shallow and general. The confidence that can be placed in the validity of that knowledge is consequently low. In a previous paper, we enumerated a collection of foundational epistemic questions concerning software system safety. In this paper, we review and refine the questions, discuss some difficulties that attend to answering the questions today, and speculate on possible research to improve the situation.