Science.gov

Sample records for additional resources std

  1. 75 FR 22145 - Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA); CDC/HRSA Advisory Committee on HIV and STD...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-27

    ... hepatitis prevention in the United States; (3) a discussion of the successes and remaining challenges in... Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, 1600 Clifton Road, NE., Mailstop E-07, Atlanta, Georgia 30333,...

  2. 75 FR 63844 - Health Resources and Services Administration CDC/HRSA Advisory Committee on HIV and STD...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-18

    ... CDC/HRSA Advisory Committee on HIV and STD Prevention and Treatment (CHACHSPT) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), CDC/HRSA announces the following... with advising the Director, CDC, and the Administrator, HRSA, regarding activities related...

  3. Improving STD services worldwide.

    PubMed

    Frahn, A L

    1998-01-01

    The number of new sexually transmitted disease (STD) cases worldwide continues to rise annually. Many people, however, do not know that they are infected with a STD because STD infection may often remain asymptomatic until the disease reaches an advanced stage. Up to half of STD-infected women either have no symptoms of infection or do not realize that the symptoms they have indicate a need to seek medical care. Many people are uncomfortable discussing STDs. AVSC is helping providers of family planning and other health care services to become more comfortable discussing STDs with their clients and more skilled in diagnosing and treating them. AVSC has been organizing training activities, developing training materials, and conducting research around the world to help improve the quality and availability of STD services. Examples of AVSC work in Bangladesh and the development of training materials to improve STD service providers' counseling and clinical skills are cited. AVSC's STD-related research is designed to help improve the quality and safety of family planning and STD services worldwide. Activities are noted in Russia, South Africa, and some other developing countries.

  4. Compact, Low-Overhead, MIL-STD-1553B Controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, Richard; Barto, Rod

    2009-01-01

    A compact and flexible controller has been developed to provide MIL-STD- 1553B Remote Terminal (RT) communications and supporting and related functions with minimal demand on the resources of the system in which the controller is to be installed. (MIL-STD-1553B is a military standard that encompasses a method of communication and electrical-interface requirements for digital electronic subsystems connected to a data bus. MIL-STD-1553B is commonly used in defense and space applications.) Many other MIL-STD-1553B RT controllers are complicated, and to enable them to function, it is necessary to provide software and to use such ancillary separate hardware devices as microprocessors and dual-port memories. The present controller functions without need for software and any ancillary hardware. In addition, it contains a flexible system interface and extensive support hardware while including on-chip error-checking and diagnostic support circuitry. This controller is implemented within part of a modern field-programmable gate array.

  5. Production scheduling with discrete and renewable additional resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalinowski, K.; Grabowik, C.; Paprocka, I.; Kempa, W.

    2015-11-01

    In this paper an approach to planning of additional resources when scheduling operations are discussed. The considered resources are assumed to be discrete and renewable. In most research in scheduling domain, the basic and often the only type of regarded resources is a workstation. It can be understood as a machine, a device or even as a separated space on the shop floor. In many cases, during the detailed scheduling of operations the need of using more than one resource, required for its implementation, can be indicated. Resource requirements for an operation may relate to different resources or resources of the same type. Additional resources are most often referred to these human resources, tools or equipment, for which the limited availability in the manufacturing system may have an influence on the execution dates of some operations. In the paper the concept of the division into basic and additional resources and their planning method was shown. A situation in which sets of basic and additional resources are not separable - the same additional resource may be a basic resource for another operation is also considered. Scheduling of operations, including greater amount of resources can cause many difficulties, depending on whether the resource is involved in the entire time of operation, only in the selected part(s) of operation (e.g. as auxiliary staff at setup time) or cyclic - e.g. when an operator supports more than one machine, or supervises the execution of several operations. For this reason the dates and work times of resources participation in the operation can be different. Presented issues are crucial when modelling of production scheduling environment and designing of structures for the purpose of scheduling software development.

  6. MIL-STD-1553 interface application notes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedman, S. N.

    1982-11-01

    This paper describes Monolithic and Hybrid circuits used for interfacing to a MIL-STD-1553 Multiplex Data Bus. The focus in on how to implement smart and dumb remote terminals with existing devices. A menu table depicting product selection has also been provided. The implementation of Bus Controller (BC), Monitor and Remote Terminal Unit (RTU) interfaces, will be fully described using standard off the shelf products. Buffered Memory Interface, will complete the picture of the implementation of MIL-STD-1553 A or B. The MCE (Smith) LSI Chip Set for MIL-STD-1553B RTU and BC configurations will be described. Additional application topics covered will be the implementation of high speed data transfer circuitry, single, dual and quad redundant channel operation as well as implementing external status word controls. A summary of product sizes and power requirements associated with Bus Controller, RTU and Monitor applications will be provided.

  7. Addition of multiple limiting resources reduces grassland diversity.

    PubMed

    Harpole, W Stanley; Sullivan, Lauren L; Lind, Eric M; Firn, Jennifer; Adler, Peter B; Borer, Elizabeth T; Chase, Jonathan; Fay, Philip A; Hautier, Yann; Hillebrand, Helmut; MacDougall, Andrew S; Seabloom, Eric W; Williams, Ryan; Bakker, Jonathan D; Cadotte, Marc W; Chaneton, Enrique J; Chu, Chengjin; Cleland, Elsa E; D'Antonio, Carla; Davies, Kendi F; Gruner, Daniel S; Hagenah, Nicole; Kirkman, Kevin; Knops, Johannes M H; La Pierre, Kimberly J; McCulley, Rebecca L; Moore, Joslin L; Morgan, John W; Prober, Suzanne M; Risch, Anita C; Schuetz, Martin; Stevens, Carly J; Wragg, Peter D

    2016-09-01

    Niche dimensionality provides a general theoretical explanation for biodiversity-more niches, defined by more limiting factors, allow for more ways that species can coexist. Because plant species compete for the same set of limiting resources, theory predicts that addition of a limiting resource eliminates potential trade-offs, reducing the number of species that can coexist. Multiple nutrient limitation of plant production is common and therefore fertilization may reduce diversity by reducing the number or dimensionality of belowground limiting factors. At the same time, nutrient addition, by increasing biomass, should ultimately shift competition from belowground nutrients towards a one-dimensional competitive trade-off for light. Here we show that plant species diversity decreased when a greater number of limiting nutrients were added across 45 grassland sites from a multi-continent experimental network. The number of added nutrients predicted diversity loss, even after controlling for effects of plant biomass, and even where biomass production was not nutrient-limited. We found that elevated resource supply reduced niche dimensionality and diversity and increased both productivity and compositional turnover. Our results point to the importance of understanding dimensionality in ecological systems that are undergoing diversity loss in response to multiple global change factors.

  8. Addition of multiple limiting resources reduces grassland diversity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Niche dimensionality is the most general theoretical explanation for biodiversity: more niches allow for more ecological tradeoffs between species and thus greater opportunities for coexistence. Resource competition theory predicts that removing resource limitations, by increasing resource availabil...

  9. Should family planning include STD services?

    PubMed

    Finger, W R

    1994-05-01

    Recent reviews suggest that the addition of programs aimed at preventing and controlling sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), specifically human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), to existing family planning programs does not necessarily dilute overall program effectiveness. In Colombia, Mexico, and Jamaica, where condom distribution and/or information to prevent HIV transmission was integrated into the activities of family planning field workers, no negative effect on the image of condoms as a pregnancy prevention method was observed and there was a great demand on the part of family planning clients for information about acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). In Brazil, family planning staff are receiving training in HIV risk assessment and the counseling of women in partner negotiation skills. However, steps must be taken to reach men since it is their high-risk behavior that puts most women at risk of HIV. Both separate STD clinics for men and condom social marketing projects have yielded promising results. Obstacles to the addition of STD services to family planning programs include the need to treat male partners as well as female clients, a shortage of diagnostic tools and antibiotics for treatment, and the fact that the majority of women with STDs are asymptomatic. Indicative of the increased attention being given this approach, however, is the recent release of guidelines by the US Agency for International Development Office of Population on how family planning programs should approach integration. Suggested activities include condom promotion, behavior change, counseling, information, contraceptive development, and selected efforts at STD treatment.

  10. Renewable Fuel Standard Program (RFS1): Final Rule Additional Resources

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The final rule of fuels and fuel additives: renewable fuel standard program is published on May 1, 2007 and is effective on September 1, 2007. You will find the links to this final rule and technical amendments supporting this rule.

  11. Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS2): Final Rule Additional Resources

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The final rule of fuels and fuel additives: renewable fuel standard program is published on March 26, 2010 and is effective on July 1, 2010. You will find the links to this final rule and technical amendments supporting this rule.

  12. MIL-STD-1553 Interface Application Notes,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    This paper describes Monolithic and Hybrid circuits used for interfacing to a MIL- STD -1553 Multiplex Data Bus. The focus in on how to implement smart...will complete the picture of the implementation of MIL- STD -1553 A or B. The MCE (Smith) LSI Chip Set for MIL- STD -1553B RTU and BC configurations will

  13. The Job Demands-Resources Model: An Analysis of Additive and Joint Effects of Demands and Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Qiao; Schaufeli, Wilmar B.; Taris, Toon W.

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated the additive, synergistic, and moderating effects of job demands and job resources on well-being (burnout and work engagement) and organizational outcomes, as specified by the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) model. A survey was conducted among two Chinese samples: 625 blue collar workers and 761 health professionals. A…

  14. The SMART MIL-STD-1553 bus adapter hardware manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ton, T. T.

    1981-01-01

    The SMART Multiplexer Interface Adapter, (SMIA) a complete system interface for message structure of the MIL-STD-1553, is described. It provides buffering and storage for transmitted and received data and handles all the necessary handshaking to interface between parallel 8-bit data bus and a MIL-STD serial bit stream. The bus adapter is configured as either a bus controller of a remote terminal interface. It is coupled directly to the multiplex bus, or stub coupled through an additional isolation transformer located at the connection point. Fault isolation resistors provide short circuit protection.

  15. Aggregation of Cricket Activity in Response to Resource Addition Increases Local Diversity.

    PubMed

    Szinwelski, Neucir; Rosa, Cassiano Sousa; Solar, Ricardo Ribeiro de Castro; Sperber, Carlos Frankl

    2015-01-01

    Crickets are often found feeding on fallen fruits among forest litter. Fruits and other sugar-rich resources are not homogeneously distributed, nor are they always available. We therefore expect that crickets dwelling in forest litter have a limited supply of sugar-rich resource, and will perceive this and displace towards resource-supplemented sites. Here we evaluate how sugar availability affects cricket species richness and abundance in old-growth Atlantic forest by spraying sugarcane syrup on leaf litter, simulating increasing availability, and collecting crickets via pitfall trapping. We found an asymptotic positive association between resource addition and species richness, and an interaction between resource addition and species identity on cricket abundance, which indicates differential effects of resource addition among cricket species. Our results indicate that 12 of the 13 cricket species present in forest litter are maintained at low densities by resource scarcity; this highlights sugar-rich resource as a short-term driver of litter cricket community structure in tropical forests. When resource was experimentally increased, species richness increased due to behavioral displacement. We present evidence that the density of many species is limited by resource scarcity and, when resources are added, behavioral displacement promotes increased species packing and alters species composition. Further, our findings have technical applicability for increasing sampling efficiency of local cricket diversity in studies aiming to estimate species richness, but with no regard to local environmental drivers or species-abundance characteristics.

  16. MIL-STD-1750A Users Group,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The MIL- STD -1750 Users Group was established in August 1979 as a voluntary organization of industry representative to exchange information and status...of MIL- STD -1750, and to recommend changes to the standard. This paper is a brief description of the Group, its committees accomplishments, and future...direction. The purpose of the standard is reviewed. MIL- STD -1750 is a standard for and instruction set architecture ISA.

  17. MIL-STD-1553B Validation Testing,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    OPR) for MIL- STD -1553 applications. Since its inception in 1974, this organization played a vital role in promoting and enforcing the standard. In the...a wide variety of MIL- STD -1553B interfaces, such as Remote Terminals, transceivers and, of particular interest, the Large Scale Integrated circuit...chips, to ensure their conformity to MIL- STD -1553B. This paper outlines our present validation testing as well as planned automation of our testfacility

  18. MIL-STD-1862B Brassboard

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-06-01

    TITLE (Include Security Classification) MIL- STD -1862B BRASSBOARD 12 PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) 1ea. TYPE OF REPORT 13b TIME COVERED 14 DATE OF REPORT (Year...reverse if necessary and identify by block number) FIELD GROUP SUB-GROUP MIL- STD -1862B 12 05 Instruction Set Architecture I NebulaI. ABSTRACT (Continue on...incorporates an implementation of the Nebula Instruction Set Architecture (ISA) defined by MIL- STD -1862B; to develop and install programs which

  19. 15 CFR 270.204 - Provision of additional resources and services needed by a Team.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... services needed by a Team. 270.204 Section 270.204 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to... CONSTRUCTION SAFETY TEAMS NATIONAL CONSTRUCTION SAFETY TEAMS Investigations § 270.204 Provision of additional resources and services needed by a Team. The Director will determine the appropriate resources that a...

  20. MIL-STD-1760 Development Program,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    program and the program approach and status is presented. Each of the three interface elements of MIL- STD -1760 are discussed with emphasis on how the...elements enhance aircraft/store interoperability and reduce future aircraft modification cost. Implementation of MIL- STD -1760 is advocated for all future US and NATO aircraft and stores. (Author)

  1. MX Siting Investigation. Mineral Resources Survey, Seven Additional Valleys, Nevada/Utah Siting Area. Volume IV.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-23

    8217 AD-AI13 146 ERTEC WESTERN INC. LONG BEACH CA F/6 B/7 MX SITING INVESTIGATION. MINERAL RESOURCES SURVEY, SEVEN AGOITI--ETC(U) UNCLASSIFIED E-TR...50 MINERAL RESOURCES SURVEY SEVEN ADDITIONAL VALLEYS NEVADA/UTAH SITING AREA VOLUME IV 4Prepared for: U. S. Department of the Air Force Ballistic...VALLEY MINERAL RESOURCES SURVEfV STUDY AREA OXJNOARY SEPT. 26, 1960 I MX SITING INVESTIGATION 27 FEDC t97 DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE I ik 320’- 36 37 4

  2. MIL-STD-1750 Certification Study.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-02-29

    I AD-A09 260 IBM FEDERAL SYSTEMS DIV OWEBO N Y F/S 9/2 MIL- STD -1750 CERTIFICATION STUDY.{U) FEB 80 M L KUSHNER. 0 C REISIGER, W J TRACZ F33657-79-M...0858 UNCLASSIFIED IBM-6176175A NL I *uumuuuuinoE~mhhmhEmhhI- *llnlnnunlin. LEVEL> 7) MIL- STD -1750 CERTIFICATION STUDY CONTRACT NO.: F33657-79-M-0858...Continue or’ reverse side if necessary and Identifv by block number) Instruction Set Architecture MIL- STD -1750 Computer Architecture Verification

  3. MIL-STD-1750 Certification Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-06

    1 / OCMENT NO sUN AC PX 13243 MIL- STD -1750 CERTIFICATION STUDY FINAL REPORT CONTRACT NO. F33657-80-C-0118 I! CDRL NO. 3 ~• C PREPARED FOR Approved...on revere aide it necessalry and Identify by block number) Instruction Set Architecture MIL- STD -1750 Computer Architecture Verification Computer...and procedures that can be used by the Air Force to validate a candidate comnliter for compliance with MIL- STD -1750. DD I JAN 1473 EDITION OF I NOV 65S

  4. Subjective and objective components of resource value additively increase aggression in parasitoid contests

    PubMed Central

    Stockermans, Bernard C.; Hardy, Ian C. W.

    2013-01-01

    Two major categories of factors are predicted to influence behaviour in dyadic contests; differences in the abilities of the contestants to acquire and retain resources (resource holding potential), and the value of the contested resource (resource value, RV; which comprises objective and subjective components). Recent studies indicate that subjective components affect contest behaviour in several animal taxa but few have simultaneously investigated objective RV components. We find that both an objective (host size) and a subjective (contestant age) component of RV affect contest intensity in the parasitoid wasp Goniozus legneri. These additively influence aggressiveness, with a larger effect from the subjective component than the objective component. The greater influence of subjective RV adds weight to the recent surge of recognition of this RV component's importance in contest behaviour. PMID:23697643

  5. Telling Your Partner You Have an STD

    MedlinePlus

    ... STD after a confirmed diagnosis may be a criminal offense in some states. Some STDs can affect ... to make decisions about sex or your relationship right away. It's normal to want acceptance and reassurance ...

  6. Program Documentation Report: STD Tape Copy Programs,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Berman Model 9040 STD probe and 1014 data logger. The programs are written in FORTRAN IV and IBM 360 ASSEMBLAR COMPUTER LANGUAGES. Data tapes from the... STD in 7 track format are read in ASSEMBLAR Language and a 9 track FORTRAN readable tape produced. Printouts from the programs record the number of data points recovered and also list the bad data points (if any). (Author)

  7. HIV / AIDS and STD among seafarers. Project update.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, W

    1999-01-01

    In response to the need for HIV/AIDS and sexually transmitted disease (STD) information and support among seafarers, a regional project involving train-the-trainer workshops are being implemented in Vanuatu, Fiji Islands, Tuvalu, Solomon Islands, Tonga, Kiribati, Samoa, Federated States of Micronesia, Marshall Islands, and in Kavieng, Papua New Guinea. The project aims to build the capacity of the maritime training schools and partner agencies to provide high quality HIV/AIDS and STD training through the regional maritime training schools and colleges. In addition, the workshops aim to provide comprehensive information about HIV/AIDS and STDs and to further develop the training and education skills of participants. Condom is the main topic of the lectures, discussions, group works, brainstorms, role plays, questions and answers, games, participant presentations, and film showings. Informal feedback and formal evaluation on the workshops delivered have been excellent.

  8. Correlating the EMC analysis and testing methods for space systems in MIL-STD-1541A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perez, Reinaldo J.

    1990-01-01

    A study was conducted to improve the correlation between the electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) analysis models stated in MIL-STD-1541A and the suggested testing methods used for space systems. The test and analysis methods outlined in MIL-STD-1541A are described, and a comparative assessment of testing and analysis techniques as they relate to several EMC areas is presented. Suggestions on present analysis and test methods are introduced to harmonize and bring the analysis and testing tools in MIL-STD-1541A into closer agreement. It is suggested that test procedures in MIL-STD-1541A must be improved by providing alternatives to the present use of shielded enclosures as the primary site for such tests. In addition, the alternate use of anechoic chambers and open field test sites must be considered.

  9. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  10. The Relationship between STD Locus of Control and STD Acquisition among Adolescent Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenthal, Susan L.; Griffith, Jennifer O.; Succop, Paul A.; Biro, Frank M.; Lewis, Lisa M.; DeVellis, Robert F.; Stanberry, Lawrence R.

    2002-01-01

    Adolescent girls from an urban-based clinic participated in a longitudinal study about psychosexual development and risk of STD acquisition. The girls were asked about their perceptions of loci of control (parents, internal control) as it relates to STD acquisition. Responses to locus of control correlated over time but variations were not found…

  11. Resources allocation in healthcare for cancer: a case study using generalised additive mixed models.

    PubMed

    Musio, Monica; Sauleau, Erik A; Augustin, Nicole H

    2012-11-01

    Our aim is to develop a method for helping resources re-allocation in healthcare linked to cancer, in order to replan the allocation of providers. Ageing of the population has a considerable impact on the use of health resources because aged people require more specialised medical care due notably to cancer. We propose a method useful to monitor changes of cancer incidence in space and time taking into account two age categories, according to healthcar general organisation. We use generalised additive mixed models with a Poisson response, according to the methodology presented in Wood, Generalised additive models: an introduction with R. Chapman and Hall/CRC, 2006. Besides one-dimensional smooth functions accounting for non-linear effects of covariates, the space-time interaction can be modelled using scale invariant smoothers. Incidence data collected by a general cancer registry between 1992 and 2007 in a specific area of France is studied. Our best model exhibits a strong increase of the incidence of cancer along time and an obvious spatial pattern for people more than 70 years with a higher incidence in the central band of the region. This is a strong argument for re-allocating resources for old people cancer care in this sub-region.

  12. How can we improve online HIV and STD prevention for men who have sex with men? Perspectives of hook-up website owners, website users, and HIV/STD

    PubMed Central

    Wohlfeiler, Dan; Hecht, Jennifer; Volk, Jonathan; Raymond, H. Fisher; Kennedy, Tom; McFarland, Willi

    2012-01-01

    Internet-based interventions have potential to reduce HIV and STD transmission among men who meet male sexual partners online. From November 2009 to May 2010 we surveyed dating and hook-up website users (n=3,050), website owners (n=18), and health department HIV/STD directors (n=81) to identify structural and behavioral prevention interventions that could be implemented online and which a majority of website users were willing to use, owners were willing to implement, andHIV/STD directors perceived to beeffective. A majority of each of the three stakeholder groups agreed on the following: 1) automated HIV/STD testing reminders; 2) local STD test site directories; 3) links to sex-positive safe sex videos; 4) access to sexual health experts; 5) profile options to include safer sex preference; 6) chat rooms for specific sexual interests; 7) filtering partners by their profile information; and 8) anonymous e-card partner notification for STD exposure. Findings help build consensus about how to prioritize resources for implementing online HIV and STD prevention interventions and highlight differences between stakeholders to guide future discussion about how to advance prevention efforts. PMID:23180156

  13. How can we improve online HIV and STD prevention for men who have sex with men? Perspectives of hook-up website owners, website users, and HIV/STD directors.

    PubMed

    Wohlfeiler, Dan; Hecht, Jennifer; Volk, Jonathan; Fisher Raymond, H; Kennedy, Tom; McFarland, Willi

    2013-11-01

    Internet-based interventions have potential to reduce HIV and STD transmission among men who meet male sexual partners online. From November 2009 to May 2010 we surveyed dating and hook-up website users (n = 3,050), website owners (n = 18), and health department HIV/STD directors (n = 81) to identify structural and behavioral prevention interventions that could be implemented online and which a majority of website users were willing to use, owners were willing to implement, and HIV/STD directors perceived to be effective. A majority of each of the three stakeholder groups agreed on the following: (1) automated HIV/STD testing reminders, (2) local STD test site directories, (3) links to sex-positive safe sex videos, (4) access to sexual health experts, (5) profile options to include safer sex preference, (6) chat rooms for specific sexual interests, (7) filtering partners by their profile information, and (8) anonymous e-card partner notification for STD exposure. Findings help build consensus about how to prioritize resources for implementing online HIV and STD prevention interventions and highlight differences between stakeholders to guide future discussion about how to advance prevention efforts.

  14. Effects of native species diversity and resource additions on invader impact.

    PubMed

    Maron, John L; Marler, Marilyn

    2008-07-01

    Theory and empirical work have demonstrated that diverse communities can inhibit invasion. Yet, it is unclear how diversity influences invader impact, how impact varies among exotics, and what the relative importance of diversity is versus extrinsic factors that themselves can influence invasion. To address these issues, we established plant assemblages that varied in native species and functional richness and crossed this gradient in diversity with resource (water) addition. Identical assemblages were either uninvaded or invaded with one of three exotic forbs: spotted knapweed (Centaurea maculosa), dalmatian toadflax (Linaria dalmatica), or sulfur cinquefoil (Potentilla recta). To determine impacts, we measured the effects of exotics on native biomass and, for spotted knapweed, on soil moisture and nitrogen levels. Assemblages with high species richness were less invaded and less impacted than less diverse assemblages. Impact scaled with exotic biomass; spotted knapweed had the largest impact on native biomass compared with the other exotics. Although invasion depressed native biomass, the net result was to increase total community yield. Water addition increased invasibility (for knapweed only) but had no effect on invader impact. Together, these results suggest that diversity inhibits invasion and reduces impact more than resource additions facilitate invasion or impact.

  15. 76 FR 66721 - CDC/HRSA Advisory Committee on HIV and STD Prevention and Treatment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention CDC/HRSA Advisory Committee on HIV and STD.... 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the Health Resources and Services... with advising the Director, CDC and the Administrator, HRSA, regarding activities related to...

  16. Use of a Business Approach to Improve Disease Surveillance Data Management Systems and Information Technology Process in Florida's Bureau of STD Prevention and Control.

    PubMed

    Shiver, Stacy A; Schmitt, Karla; Cooksey, Adrian

    2009-01-01

    The business of sexually transmitted disease (STD) prevention and control demands technology that is capable of supporting a wide array of program activities-from the processing of laboratory test results to the complex and confidential process involved in contact investigation. The need for a tool that enables public health officials to successfully manage the complex operations encountered in an STD prevention and control program, and the need to operate in an increasingly poor resource environment, led the Florida Bureau of STD to develop the Patient Reporting Investigation Surveillance Manager. Its unique approach, technical architecture, and sociotechnical philosophy have made this business application successful in real-time monitoring of disease burden for local communities, identification of emerging outbreaks, monitoring and assurance of appropriate treatments, improving access to laboratory data, and improving the quality of data for epidemiologic analysis. Additionally, the effort attempted to create and release a product that promoted the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's ideas for integration of programs and processes.

  17. Incrementality and additionality: A new dimension to North-South resource transfers

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, A. . School of Environmental Sciences); Werksman, J. . Foundation for International Environmental Law and Development)

    1994-06-01

    In the last four years, incrementality'' and additionality'' have emerged as new terms in the evolving lexicon of international environmental diplomacy. As Parties to the Conventions on Climate Change, Biodiversity and the Ozone Layer, industrialized states undertake to provide sufficient additional resources (the principle of additionality) to meet the incremental cost (the concept of incrementality) of measures undertaken by the developing countries to tackle global environmental problems. Issues of incrementality and additionality go to the heart of a much deeper and highly contentious debate on who should pay the costs of responding to global environmental problems; on how the payment should be made; on which agency or agencies should manage the transfers; and upon which parties should be compensated. Every sign is that if the overall North to South transfer breaks down or is retarded, then the process of implementing the aforementioned agreements may be jeopardized. This paper reviews the emergency of the two terms in international environmental politics; it pinpoints the theoretical and practical difficulties of defining and implementing them; and it assesses whether these difficulties and conflicts of opinion may, in some manner, be resolved.

  18. Quantifying the STD-HIV connection.

    PubMed

    Dodd, R

    1994-01-01

    Annually, between 158 million and 328 million cases of curable STDs occur in the world. According to a French study an incredible 90%-99% of HIV infections could be attributable to STDs, suggesting that if other STDs were wiped out, the HIV epidemic could be brought under control. The INSERM U88 study focussed on a group of 10,000 people in south-west Uganda tracing the progress of HIV through the community from its introduction in 1980 to 1990. Then it estimated the fraction of HIV infections that were attributable to STDs using local statistics and simulated modelling. In the low scenario, the likelihood of transmission was increased 10-fold for ulcerative STDs, and two-fold for nonulcerative STDs in women. In the high scenario, the likelihood was increased 100-fold and 10-fold, respectively. In the low scenario between 90%-95% of cumulative HIV infections could be attributed to other STDs, which rose to 99% in the high scenario. According to the simulation models the HIV infections from 1990-2000 were reduced by 40% using the low scenario and by 80% using the high scenario. In the long term, HIV infection could not maintained at all if STDs were completely wiped out. STD control programs are needed in all communities, but more work is needed before the relationship between STDs and HIV can be clearly defined. In Thailand STD rates have been falling since 1986-87, while HIV rates have continued to rise. On the other hand, rates of bacterial STDs in Europe have been falling since the mid-seventies perhaps accounting for low heterosexual transmission. At an STD clinic in Nairobi the percentage of men who stopped transmitting HIV fell by half after being treated for gonorrhea. These studies lend support for better STD care integrated into general care, as more people would be at less risk of contracting HIV for medical reasons.

  19. Researchers report HIV and STD statistics from Vietnam.

    PubMed

    2000-03-20

    Vietnam will experience an extensive rise in the projected HIV and AIDS rates as reported by researchers. Although the country has already seen an extensive HIV spread among injecting drug users, the heterosexual HIV epidemic in Vietnam is still in its early phase. Researchers estimated that by the end of 1997 between 64,000 and 78,000 Vietnamese had contracted HIV and 3000-5000 people had developed AIDS. By the year 2000, the number is estimated to reach a cumulative total of 135,000-160,000 HIV-infected people, with 14,000-21,000 AIDS cases. In addition, there were 119,188 reported cases of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in 1998, of which 3088 were syphilis, 6859 were gonorrhea, and 108,152 were other STDs. Researchers also reported an alarming increase in penicillin-resistant gonococcal strains, reaching up to 80-90%. Meanwhile, gonococcal resistance to quinolon increased from 3% to 7% during 1994-97 according to recent documentations. Based on the findings, researchers pointed out the need to improve STD/HIV/AIDS prevention and control in Vietnam for the years 2000-05 in the areas of surveillance; STD services; information, education, and communication; safe blood supply; and program management.

  20. Health education and promotion for STD prevention: lessons for the next millennium.

    PubMed Central

    Darrow, W W

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review the evolution of health promotion for STD prevention. MAIN OBSERVATIONS: Information and education programmes were provided at the beginning of the 20th century to warn the public about the dangers of venereal infection and to support the medical model of case identification and case management under the care of qualified physicians. The public health approach offered advice about chemical, chemotherapeutic, and barrier prophylaxis, but avoided the issue of social prophylaxis. With the failure of antimicrobial agents to eradicate syphilis in the 1960s, rapid increases of viral sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and resistant strains of gonorrhoea in the 1970s, and the discovery of AIDS in the 1980s, alternatives to the traditional public health approach were sought and supported with a modest increase of resources. Three major innovations have been introduced to STD prevention as a result: social marketing, community involvement, and behaviour change programmes based on social and psychological concepts and theoretical models. CONCLUSIONS: Health promotion for STD prevention in the future will be characterised by careful assessments of the social and behavioural determinants of sexual risk taking, development and implementation of targeted interventions designed to reduce risk taking, and evaluation of social and behavioural interventions for improvements in STD prevention. Images PMID:9215087

  1. Annual US Air Force Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD) Report, 1995.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-05-01

    This report evaluates the 1995 US Air Force (USAF) Sexually Transmitted Diseases ( STD ) Prevention and Control Program. The report analyzes data from...88 medical treatment facilities worldwide and compares 1995 data with that from 1992-94. The 1995 USAF active duty total STD incidence rate was 7.64...cases per 1,000 personnel. This rate represents a 18.9% decline from the 1994 reported STD incidence rate of 9.41 per 1,000 personnel. Among active

  2. EMP Shielding Effectiveness and MIL-STD-285

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The relationship between electromagnetic-pulse (EMP) shielding effectiveness and MIL- STD -285 is investigated analytically. It is found that...measurements carried out in the manner prescribed by MIL- STD -285 using small cw dipole and loop sources located at fixed relative positions 12 in. from the...10 to the 8th power Hz). Upper bounds are provided by dipole measurements and lower bounds by loop measurements for each EMP frequency corresponding to a frequency employed in MIL- STD -285.

  3. [Syphilis: a STD back to us].

    PubMed

    Flagothier, C; Arrese, J E; Piérard-Franchimont, C; Piérard, G E

    2004-01-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases (STD) show frequent epidemiological changes. We report a case of secondary syphilis diagnosed in a 32-year old woman during post-partum. The disease, although showing a typical presentation, raises the problem of dating with precision the contamination time. This is of importance for treating the newborn at risk of congenital syphilis. We highlight the constant attention that should be brought to disclose this venereal disease that shows so variable clinical and histological presentations. Syphilis seems on the rise in the Mosan valley and in some cities where prostitution is imported from Eastern Europe and Africa.

  4. MIL-STD-1760 Application Guidelines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-09-01

    AD-A255 714 ASD-TR-91-5009 MIL-STD-1760 APPLICATION GUIDELINES Computing Devices Company Hastings, East Sussex, England Control Data Corporation DTIC...other data, is not to be regarded by implication, or otherwise in any manner construed, as licensing the holder, or any other person or corporation ...S) 182-80-18 ASD-TR-91-5009 6a NAME OF PERFORMINC ORGANIZATION 6b. OFFICE SYMBOL 7a. NAME OF MONITORING ORGANIZATION Contrcl Di~ta Corporation (if

  5. MX Siting Investigation. Mineral Resources Survey, Seven Additional Valleys, Nevada/Utah Siting Area. Volume II.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-23

    AO-AI13 14𔃾 ERTEC WESTERN INC LONG BEACH CA F/6 7/4 MX SITING INVESTIGATION. MINERAL RESOURCES SURVEY, SEVEN ADDITI-ETC(U) JUN Al F04704-80-C-OGO6...DTIC-DDA-2 FORM DOCUMENT PROCESSING SHEET DTIC ocT :g 70A -- ~’ .9 ’I K ii I / "~1 - i~ / . . ..1’ ~ ~- .. ~ ~1 I E-TR-50 MINERAL RESOURCES SURVEY...144 ERTEC WESTERN INC. LONG BEACH CA F/6 7/4 MX SITING INVESTIGATION. MINERAL RESOURCES SURVEY. SEVEN AOOITI-ETCIU) JUN 81 FON7O-80-C-0006

  6. Fallout from the STD epidemic: salpingitis, ectopic pregnancy, and infertility.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, M J

    1989-01-01

    Recent trends in sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in the U.S., and their bearing on pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and infertility are evaluated. STDs have increased 12-fold in the last decade, in comparison with a 200-fold rise in AIDS. While the total gonorrhea rate fell 10% last year, the incidence of gonorrhea resistant to penicillin or to all drugs is mounting. Syphilis increased 25% last year, probably because resources for contact-tracing were devoted to HIV infection, because of increasing incidence in crack users, and because new drugs, such as spectinomycin, used for resistant gonorrhea, are not effective against early syphilis. Chancroid, an easily diagnosed, treated, and traced disease, is appearing in the U.S. Genital herpes now infects 40 million, and attacks 400,000 new Americans yearly. Pelvic infections in the form of salpingitis, endometritis, and peritonitis were thought to be caused by gonorrhea in 90% of cases 10 years ago. Now a third are due to gonorrhea, a third are due to chlamydia, and the rest are due to mycoplasma and anaerobes. PID is so difficult to diagno se that 35% of diagnoses are false positives, and perhaps 25% of asymptomatic infertility patients have subclinical chlamydia. Yet the rate of PID seems constant, while STDs multiply. Reported infertile couples are also higher than ever. Whether this increased infertility is a result of tubal infections with STD organisms is not known. Physicians should be aware of the possibility of STD infection in any sexually active patient, and recommend that all women use spermicides. Spermicides are possibly more effective than condoms against STDs, and are under the control of women who suffer the consequences of STDs.

  7. Ligand screening by saturation-transfer difference (STD) NMR spectroscopy.

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnan, V V

    2005-04-26

    NMR based methods to screen for high-affinity ligands have become an indispensable tool for designing rationalized drugs, as these offer a combination of good experimental design of the screening process and data interpretation methods, which together provide unprecedented information on the complex nature of protein-ligand interactions. These methods rely on measuring direct changes in the spectral parameters, that are often simpler than the complex experimental procedures used to study structure and dynamics of proteins. The goal of this review article is to provide the basic details of NMR based ligand-screening methods, with particular focus on the saturation transfer difference (STD) experiment. In addition, we provide an overview of other NMR experimental methods and a practical guide on how to go about designing and implementing them.

  8. Analysis of the effects of section 29 tax credits on reserve additions and production of gas from unconventional resources

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-01

    Federal tax credits for production of natural gas from unconventional resources can stimulate drilling and reserves additions at a relatively low cost to the Treasury. This report presents the results of an analysis of the effects of a proposed extension of the Section 29 alternative fuels production credit specifically for unconventional gas. ICF Resources estimated the net effect of the extension of the credit (the difference between development activity expected with the extension of the credit and that expected if the credit expires in December 1990 as scheduled). The analysis addressed the effect of tax credits on project economics and capital formation, drilling and reserve additions, production, impact on the US and regional economies, and the net public sector costs and incremental revenues. The analysis was based on explicit modeling of the three dominant unconventional gas resources: Tight sands, coalbed methane, and Devonian shales. It incorporated the most current data on resource size, typical well recoveries and economics, and anticipated activity of the major producers. Each resource was further disaggregated for analysis based on distinct resource characteristics, development practices, regional economics, and historical development patterns.

  9. Education for Homeless Adults: Strategies for Implementation. Volume II - Resources and Additional Lessons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson River Center for Program Development, Glenmont, NY.

    This document, the second in a series of guidebooks that were developed for educators of homeless adults in New York, offers strategies and plans for sample lessons in which a holistic approach is used to help homeless adults and families improve their lives through education. The guidebook begins with lists of print and nonprint resources,…

  10. Steel Ammunition Bins, MIL-STD-l66O Tests.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-03-01

    Research, Development and Engineering Center (ARDEC) to conduct MIL- STD -1660 tests on steel ammunition bins with newly-designed plywood lids for use in the...transportation of hazardous waste. This report contains test results of the steel ammunition bins with plywood lids meeting MIL- STD -1660, Design Criteria for Ammunition Unit Loads, test procedures.

  11. Proposed MIL-STD for Avionics Installation Interfaces,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    This paper describes the Military Standard (MIL- STD ) now in development for avionics installation interface standardization. Originally based upon...the interface standard used by the commercial airlines, this new MIL- STD , now extensively revised, is scheduled for coordination at the end of 1982. The

  12. PA103 Container Pallet MIL-STD-1660 Tests.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-02-01

    Research, Development and Engineering Center (ARDEC) to conduct MIL- STD -1660 tests on PA103 containers unitized on a pallet with dunnage assemblies...supplied by Olin Ordnance. This report contains test results with the palletized unit load tested failing to meet MIL- STD -1660, Design Criteria for

  13. Future Armor Tiles MIL-STD-166O Tests.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-02-01

    The U.S. Army Defense Ammunition Center (DAC), Validation Engineering Division, was tasked by DAC to conduct MIL- STD -1660 tests on armor tile...containers on a wooden pallet. This report contains test results with the armor tile containers on a wooden pallet meeting MIL- STD -1660, Design Criteria for Ammunition Unit Loads, requirements.

  14. Tailored particle distributions derived from MIL-STD-1246

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, Ronald V.; Magallanes, Philip G.; Rock, David F.

    2002-09-01

    The use of MIL-STD-1246 particle distributions for calculating BRDF scatter has given unrealistic cleanliness requirements for optical systems exposed to environmental fallout. MIL-STD-1246 and fallout data were reviewed and used to generate more realistic particle distributions for use in BRDF scatter predictions.

  15. MIL-STD-1750A Microprocessor Chip Set Development,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Fairchild ARDL, under contract with General Dynamics/Fort Worth, is developing a high performance MIL- STD -1750A microprocessr chip set for use in...technology. Fairchild MIL- STD -1750A Microprocessor chip set is centered around the F9450A a 20-MHz 64 pin microprocessor with 200ns cycle time that

  16. Wooden Box Pallet MIL-STD-1660 Tests.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-12-01

    Division (SMCAC-DES), to test a wooden box pallet. This report contains the procedures, results, and recommendations from the MIL- STD -1660 tests...conducted. As tested, the wooden box pallet passed MIL- STD -1660, Design Criteria for Ammunition Unit Loads, tests.

  17. Client Preferences for STD/HIV Prevention Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hennessy, Michael; Mercier, Michele M.; Williams, Samantha P.; Arno, Janet N.

    2002-01-01

    Conducted a formative research study designed to elicit preferences for sexually transmitted disease (STD)/HIV prevention programs from clients at a midwestern STD clinic. Responses of 126 participants show preferences for mixed group or individual meetings with counselors, with extensive intervention less favored than single sessions. Discusses…

  18. Feasibility of a Tailored Intervention Targeting STD-Related Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellis, Jeffery M.; Grimely, Diane M.; Alexander, Leah R.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated whether high risk populations would be receptive to tailored, multimedia interventions to promote adoption of health-protective behaviors related to sexually transmitted disease (STD) prevention and control. Feedback from predominantly African American, urban participants aged 16-50 years, recruited from a STD clinic, indicated that…

  19. The Role of Behavioral Counseling in STD Prevention Program Settings

    PubMed Central

    Brookmeyer, Kathryn A.; Hogben, Matthew; Kinsey, Jennine

    2015-01-01

    Background Behavioral counseling for STD prevention is recommended for persons at risk, and the body of evidence yields numerous interventions that have STD preventive efficacy. What is needed is a review of the subset of these interventions that could be feasible in clinical settings, especially settings in STD prevention programs. Methods We reviewed existing systematic reviews of the literature and abstracted from them studies that fit the following criteria in that the interventions: (1) used no more than 60 minutes contact time in 1 to 2 sessions, (2) were individual-level and face to face, (3) took place in a clinical setting, (4) had STD outcomes available, (5) were based in the United States, (6) were peer-reviewed, and (7) had a control group. Results From 6 reviews (published 2006 – 2014) covering 91 studies, we found 13 analyses representing 11 intervention studies that fit the selection criteria. Of these 13, 5 returned lower STD rates in the intervention group at follow-up; one study reported a higher rate of STD in one subset of the intervention group (men who have sex with men: MSM). Studies with effects on STD at follow-up were quite similar to studies across populations, settings and follow-up periods, although successful interventions were more likely to demonstrate behavioral effects as well (5 of 5 versus 2 of 5 among 10 interventions measuring behavior change). Conclusions Counseling is likely to benefit some STD clinic attendees, although unlikely to benefit MSM. The balance of costs and benefits of implementing behavioral counseling in STD programs is unclear, but feasibility would be improved if behavioral counseling were implemented in the context of other prevention efforts. Because populations outside typical STD clinic settings could also benefit, programs may exercise a valuable role through partnerships. PMID:26779681

  20. STD studies show spermicides protect against Chlamydia.

    PubMed

    1986-01-01

    Evidence which suggests that spermicides provide protection against sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) is accumulating. Laboratory tests have repeatedly demonstrated that spermicides are capable of killing the bacteria responsible for several types of STDs, as well as the virus responsible for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Recently, studies conducted in Bangkok, Thailand and in New York City suggest that these protective effects are not confined to the laboratory but that they also occur among women who use spermicides in the real world. In the New York City study, Family Health International (FHI), using data collected by Planned Parenthood of New York City, compared STD prevalence rates for women using different contraceptive methods. Women who used spermicides, in comparison with women who used oral contraceptives (OCs), were 20% less likely to have contracted a STD, 30% less likely to have gonorrhea, and 60% less likely to have chlamydia. In the Thai study, conducted jointly by the FHI and the Ministry of Health, women at high risk of STDs were allocated either to a group which was instructed to use a vaginal sponge impregnated with nonoxynol-9 during intercourse or to a control group which received no vaginal contraceptives. All the women were either sterilized or using OCs, IUDs, or injectable contraceptives. Preliminary results suggest that the women who used the vaginal sponges were significantly less likely to contract chlamydia than the control group. In regard to the incidence of gonorrhea, no differences between the 2 groups was detected. In the Thai study methodological problems forced the researchers to redesign the study. In accordance with the new design, the women in the 2 groups will be crossed over after 6 weeks. This will allow the researchers to examine the effect of using or not using a vaginal spermicide on specific individuals. The findings of the 2 studies have special relevance given the increasing prevalence of STDs in many

  1. Resources

    MedlinePlus

    ... can be found on the web, through local libraries, your health care provider, and the yellow pages under "social service organizations." AIDS - resources Alcoholism - resources Allergy - resources ...

  2. Integrating viral hepatitis prevention services into an urban STD clinic: Denver, Colorado.

    PubMed

    Subiadur, Julie; Harris, Jennie L; Rietmeijer, Cornelis A

    2007-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends integrating viral hepatitis prevention services with services for adults evaluated for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). The Denver Public Health STD clinic began hepatitis B vaccination in 1999, hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibody (anti-HCV) testing in 2000, and hepatitis A vaccination in 2002. Rapid human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing began in late 2004. Hepatitis B vaccinations peaked in 2003 (31/100 client visits) when a full-time nurse was hired to vaccinate and eligibility was expanded. The proportion of clients documented to have received their anti-HCV test results declined from an average of 71% in 2000-2003 to 22% in 2004-2005, coinciding with the introduction of rapid HIV testing. Viral hepatitis prevention services can be incorporated into a busy STD clinic if staff and resources are available. Rapid HIV testing may be associated with lower receipt of anti-HCV test results.

  3. TOW Missile Pallet MIL-STD-1660 Tests

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-08-01

    0 DTICS ELECTE FEB 2 19941 FINAL REPORT C U ow AUGUST 1993 (V V Lfl3 NNE REPORT NO. 93-23 TOW MISSILE PALLET MIL- STD -1660 TESTS Prepared for...TITLE gOnakde Secwir Casaftedon) TOW Missile Pallet MIL- STD -1660 Tests 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Jason B. Solberg 13s. TYPE OF REPORT 13b. TIME COVERED...and Engineering Center (ARDEC) to test the TOW missile pallet. This report contains the procedures, results, and recommendations from the MIL- STD

  4. MIL-STD-1660-Tests of DS2 Containers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-06-01

    AD-A253 400 9 FINAL REPORT JUNE 1991 REPORT NO. EVT 13-90 MIL- STD -1660 TESTS OF DS2 CONTAINERS VIC’ -~ ~ UL P.7~9a Prepared for: Distribution...Classification) MIL- STD - 1660 Tests of DS2 Containers 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Jason B. Solberg 1,U. TYPE OF REPORT I1ft. TIME COVERED 114. DATE OF REPORT...tests conducted. As tested, the DS2 container passed MIL- STD - 1660, Design Criteria for Ammunition Unit Loads. 20. DISTRIBUTION / AVAILABILITY OF ABSTRACT

  5. System Behavior Specification Using IEEE Std 1175.4

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-27

    22nd Annual Systems & Software Technology Conference S stem Beha ior Specification1 7 y v Using IEEE Std 1175.4 e v i e w 5 2 8 1 2 R 27 April...DATE 27 APR 2010 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2010 to 00-00-2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE System Behavior Specification Using IEEE Std ...RESPONSIBLE PERSON a. REPORT unclassified b. ABSTRACT unclassified c. THIS PAGE unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std

  6. 120MM Mortar MIL-STD-1660 Tests

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-07-01

    AD-A285 065 FINAL REPORT JULY 1994 REPORT NO. 91-18 120MM MORTAR MIL- STD - 1660 TESTS 94-309 󈧷 Prepared for: Dist.iviiior Unlimited I I U.S. Army...Inidude Securt Ciassificz ion) 120MM Mortar MIL- STD - i660 Tests 12- PERSONAL AUTHOR IS) William R. Meyer ~13a. TYPE OF REPORT 13b. TINE COVERED 14...Armnament Re- earch, Development and Engineering Center (ARDEC), SMCAR-AEP, to conduct MIL- STD - 1660 tests on 120M,\\M mortar rounds on wooden p~allets

  7. Reengineering DOD-STD-2167A Requirements Specifications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-08-01

    DTIC1111111111111111101111" ELECT E ’•S SEP 1 6 1994 FINAL REPORT REENGINEERING DOD- STD -2167A REQUIREMENTS SPECIFICATIONS CONTRACT N00014-92.C.0242 OFFICE OF...Dist Special Canwacg Number N00014-92-C0242 Fna Report Reuglomeegtug DOD- STD -2167A Requirhmais SpecOmladom 1. INTRODUCTION This is the Final Report...under contract N00014-92-C-0242. This contract covered work in two steps: 1. Design of the automatic system for generating DoD- STD -2167A Software

  8. MIL-STD-1553 multiplex applications handbook. Addendum: Chapter 11

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1983-03-01

    This document contains data words and message formats to be used for MIL-STD-1553 data bust applications. This document is intended as a guide for military & private sector designers to identify standard data words and messages for use in future avionics systems and subsystems. This report is to be Chapter 11 in the existing MIL-STD-1553 Multiplex Applications handbook which the Defense Materials Standards and Specifications Office (DMSSO) plans for publications as a Military Handbook on MIL-STD-1553.

  9. Teaching English as an Additional Language 5-11: A Whole School Resource File

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Caroline

    2011-01-01

    There are increasing numbers of children with little or no English entering English speaking mainstream lessons. This often leaves them with unique frustrations due to limited English language proficiency and disorientation. Teachers often feel unable to cater sufficiently for these new arrivals. "Teaching English as an Additional Language Ages…

  10. Effects of resource addition on recovery of production and plant functional composition in degraded semiarid grasslands.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qing; Hooper, David U; Li, Hui; Gong, Xiao Ying; Peng, Fei; Wang, Hong; Dittert, Klaus; Lin, Shan

    2017-02-28

    Degradation of semiarid ecosystems from overgrazing threatens a variety of ecosystem services. Rainfall and nitrogen commonly co-limit production in semiarid grassland ecosystems; however, few studies have reported how interactive effects of precipitation and nitrogen addition influence the recovery of grasslands degraded by overgrazing. We conducted a 6-year experiment manipulating precipitation (natural precipitation and simulated wet year precipitation) and nitrogen (0, 25 and 50 kg N ha(-1)) addition at two sites with different histories of livestock grazing (moderately and heavily grazed) in Inner Mongolian steppe. Our results suggest that recovery of plant community composition and recovery of production can be decoupled. Perennial grasses provide long-term stability of high-quality forage production in this system. Supplemental water combined with exclosures led, in the heavily grazed site, to the strongest recovery of perennial grasses, although widespread irrigation of rangeland is not a feasible management strategy in many semiarid and arid regions. N fertilization combined with exclosures, but without water addition, increased dominance of unpalatable annual species, which in turn retarded growth of perennial species and increased inter-annual variation in primary production at both sites. Alleviation of grazing pressure alone allowed recovery of desired perennial species via successional processes in the heavily grazed site. Our experiments suggest that recovery of primary production and desirable community composition are not necessarily correlated. The use of N fertilization for the management of overgrazed grassland needs careful and systematic evaluation, as it has potential to impede, rather than aid, recovery.

  11. Receipt of HIV/STD Prevention Counseling by HIV-Infected Adults Receiving Medical Care in the United States

    PubMed Central

    MIZUNO, Yuko; ZHU, Julia; CREPAZ, Nicole; BEER, Linda; PURCELL, David W.; JOHNSON, Christopher H.; VALVERDE, Eduardo E.; SKARBINSKI, Jacek

    2015-01-01

    Objective Guidelines recommend risk-reduction counseling by HIV providers to all HIV-infected persons. Among HIV-infected adults receiving medical care in the United States, we estimated prevalence of exposure to three types of HIV/sexually transmitted disease (STD) risk-reduction interventions and described the characteristics of persons who received these interventions. Design Data were from the Medical Monitoring Project (MMP), a supplemental HIV surveillance system designed to produce nationally representative estimates of behavioral and clinical characteristics of HIV-infected adults receiving medical care in the United States. Methods Descriptive analyses were conducted to estimate the exposure to each type of HIV/STD risk-reduction intervention. Bivariate and multivariable analyses were conducted to assess associations between the selected correlates with each exposure variable. Results About 44% of participants reported a one-on-one conversation with a health care provider about HIV/STD prevention, 30% with a prevention program worker, 16% reported participation in a small group risk-reduction intervention, and 52% reported receiving at least one of the three interventions in the past 12 months. Minority race/ethnicity, low income, and risky sexual behavior consistently predicted greater intervention exposure. However, 39% of persons who reported risky sex did not receive any HIV/STD risk-reduction interventions. Conclusions HIV-infected persons in care with fewer resources or those who engaged in risk behaviors were more likely to receive HIV/STD risk-reduction interventions. However, less than half of HIV-infected persons in care received HIV/STD prevention counseling from their provider, an intervention that has been shown to be effective and is supported by guidelines. PMID:24056066

  12. Perspectives on the utilization of aquaculture coproduct in Europe and Asia: prospects for value addition and improved resource efficiency.

    PubMed

    Newton, Richard; Telfer, Trevor; Little, Dave

    2014-01-01

    Aquaculture has often been criticized for its environmental impacts, especially efficiencies concerning global fisheries resources for use in aquafeeds among others. However, little attention has been paid to the contribution of coproducts from aquaculture, which can vary between 40% and 70% of the production. These have often been underutilized and could be redirected to maximize the efficient use of resource inputs including reducing the burden on fisheries resources. In this review, we identify strategies to enhance the overall value of the harvested yield including noneffluent processing coproducts for three of the most important global aquaculture species, and discuss the current and prospective utilization of these resources for value addition and environmental impact reduction. The review concludes that in Europe coproducts are often underutilized because of logistical reasons such as the disconnected nature of the value chain, and perceived legislative barriers. However, in Asia, most coproducts are used, often innovatively but not to their full economic potential and sometimes with possible human health and biosecurity risks. These include possible spread of diseased material and low traceability in some circumstances. Full economic and environmental appraisal is long overdue for the current and potential strategies available for coproduct utilization.

  13. Experiences in validating MIL-STD-1553 remote terminals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Earhart, Leroy

    Validation testing intended to verify the compliance of a terminal's interface with MIL-STD-1553 is reviewed focusing on misconceptions people might have about it, examples of remote terminal failures, and options available for validation testing. It is concluded that neglecting validation testing for an interface as complex as MIL-STD-1553 can be a costly mistake as the performance of a 1553 interface cannot be properly determined without it.

  14. Partner Services in STD Prevention Programs: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Hogben, Matthew; Collins, Dayne; Hoots, Brooke; O’Connor, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    Background Partner services have been a mainstay of public health sexually transmitted disease (STD) prevention programs for decades. The principal goals are to interrupt transmission and reduce STD morbidity and sequelae. In this paper, we review current literature with the goal of informing STD prevention programs. Methods We searched the literature for systematic reviews. We found nine reviews published between 2005 and 2014 (covering 108 studies). The reviews varied by study inclusion criteria (e.g., study methods, geographic location, infections). We abstracted major conclusions and recommendations from the reviews. Results Conclusions and recommendations were divided into patient referral interventions and provider referral interventions. For patient referral, there was evidence supporting the use of expedited partner therapy and interactive counseling, but not purely didactic instruction. Provider referral through Disease Intervention Specialists was efficacious and particularly well-supported for HIV. For other studies, modeling data and testing outcomes showed that partner notification in general reached high-prevalence populations. Reviews also suggested more focus on using technology and population-level implementation strategies. However, partner services may not be the most efficient means to reach infected persons. Conclusions Partner services programs constitute a large proportion of program STD prevention activities. Value is maximized by balancing a portfolio of patient and provider referral interventions and by blending partner notification interventions with other STD prevention interventions in overall partner services program structure. STD prevention needs program-level research and development to generate this portfolio. PMID:26779688

  15. Efficiency testing of medium induction motors: A comment on IEEE Std 112-1991

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, G.G.; Martiny, W.J.

    1996-09-01

    The energy crisis of 1973 focused attention on the efficiency of polyphase induction motors, and the need to have a test procedure that was repeatable and accurate. Medium induction motors, especially those in the size range 1 through 125 horsepower, were important because of the large number in service and the fact that a significant efficiency improvement through redesign was economically feasible. In response to this the ANSI/IEEE Std. 112, ``IEEE Standard Test Procedure for Polyphase Induction Motors and Generators`` Method B was chosen for testing medium ac motors for efficiency. The current version IEEE std. 112-1991 Method B contains several requirements for accuracy improvement which have been found to be effective. Even though the Method B procedure with the additional accuracy requirement has been in use since 1984 no rational has been published to support these extra requirements. The paper discusses the purpose of these improvements, and also point out some weakness in procedure.

  16. STD update: screening and therapeutic options.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, H E

    2001-01-01

    patient in dealing with these difficult topics. Patient education is highlighted, as it, along with practitioner expertise, is the key to disease eradication. We are the missing link in STD eradication.

  17. Epidemiology of STD disparities in African American communities.

    PubMed

    Newman, Lori M; Berman, Stuart M

    2008-12-01

    This article reviews the epidemiology of sexually transmitted disease (STD) disparities for African American communities in the United States. Data are reviewed from a variety of sources such as national case reporting and population-based studies. Data clearly show a disproportionately higher burden of STDs in African American communities compared with white communities. Although disparities exist for both viral and bacterial STDs, disparities are greatest for bacterial STDs such as gonorrhea, chlamydia, and syphilis. Gonorrhea rates among African Americans are highest for adolescents and young adults, and disparities are greatest for adolescent men. Although disparities for men who have sex with men (MSM) are not as great as for heterosexual populations, STD rates for both white and African American MSM populations are high, so efforts to address disparities must also include African American MSM. Individual risk behavior and sociodemographic characteristics of African Americans do not seem to account fully for increased STD rates for African Americans. Population-level determinants such as sexual networks seem to play an important role in STD disparities. An understanding of the epidemiology of STD disparities is critical for identifying appropriate strategies and tailoring strategies for African American communities. Active efforts are needed to reduce not only the physical consequences of STDs, such as infertility, ectopic pregnancy, chronic pelvic pain, newborn disease, and increased risk of HIV infection, but also the social consequences of STDs such as economic burden, shame, and stigma.

  18. STD prevention: why limit ourselves to just an ounce?

    PubMed

    Shafer, C W

    2015-01-01

    When Ben Franklin said, "An ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure" he was not likely referring to sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Preventing an STD is greatly preferred to treating not just that STD but the ever-expanding circle of STDs which may arise from the index case. STD risk is closely linked to sexual behaviors, making effective prevention quite challenging. But there are more arrows in our prevention quiver than simply telling people to use condoms. Because many STDs are asymptomatic, there is a clear role for screening at-risk populations. Identifying those at-risk populations can only happen when we obtain meaningful sexual histories. Individuals diagnosed with STDs must be treated appropriately, but also treating their partners will limit further transmission. Expedited partner therapy is one approach to treating STD contacts. Vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV) is an under-utilized method of STD prevention. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is a recent development for HIV prevention in some high-risk individuals. Another recent strategy is HIV treatment as prevention, in which we reduce the pool of potential HIV transmitters. Each of these prevention tools is simply another building block to place upon the foundation of the ABCs: Abstinence, Being faithful, and Condom use.

  19. Four-Channel PC/104 MIL-STD-1553 Circuit Board

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, Gary L.

    2004-01-01

    The mini bus interface card (miniBIC) is the first four-channel electronic circuit board that conforms to MIL-STD-1553 and to the electrical-footprint portion of PC/104. [MIL-STD-1553 is a military standard that encompasses a method of communication and electrical- interface requirements for digital electronic subsystems connected to a data bus. PC/104 is an industry standard for compact, stackable modules that are fully compatible (in architecture, hardware, and software) with personal-computer data- and power-bus circuitry.] Prior to the development of the miniBIC, only one- and two-channel PC/104 MIL-STD-1553 boards were available. To obtain four channels, it was necessary to include at least two boards in a PC/104 stack. In comparison with such a two-board stack, the miniBIC takes up less space, consumes less power, and is more reliable. In addition, the miniBIC includes 32 digital input/output channels. The miniBIC (see figure) contains four MIL-STD-1553B hybrid integrated circuits (ICs), four transformers, a field-programmable gate array (FPGA), and an Industry Standard Architecture (ISA) interface. Each hybrid IC includes a MILSTD-1553 dual transceiver, memory-management circuitry, processor interface logic circuitry, and 64Kx16 bits of shared static random access memory. The memory is used to configure message and data blocks. In addition, 23 16-bit registers are available for (1) configuring the hybrid IC for, and starting it in, various modes of operation; (2) reading the status of the functionality of the hybrid IC; and (3) resetting the hybrid IC to a known state. The miniBIC can operate as a remote terminal, bus controller, or bus monitor. The FPGA provides the chip-select and data-strobe signals needed for operation of the hybrid ICs. The FPGA also receives interruption signals and forwards them to the ISA bus. The ISA interface connects the address, data, and control interfaces of the hybrid ICs to the ISA backplane. Each channel is, in effect, a MIL-STD

  20. April is STD Awareness Month: Know the Facts About Syphilis and How to Protect Yourself

    MedlinePlus

    ... Past Emails CDC Features April is STD Awareness Month Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... issue, CDC is dedicating all of STD Awareness Month (April) to syphilis prevention. We encourage everyone to ...

  1. Fiber optic demonstration of MIL-STD-1760 stores interconnect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Gary L.; Cosimini, Gregory J.; Bartnik, Daniel J.

    The authors describe a laser-diode-based, fiber-optic stores management interconnect demonstration system. System test results for MIL-STD-1760 compliance are presented. These tests include bandwidth, latency, step input response, transient (T-pulse) response, and signal to noise ratio.

  2. Pod-mounted MIL-STD-2179B recorder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kessler, William D.; Abeille, Pierre; Sulzer, Jean-Francois

    1991-12-01

    A MIL-STD-2179B recorder mounted within a high-performance aircraft pod is described, with emphasis on the recorder's features that allow it to meet this standard in the severe environment encountered. Specific examples of design features which minimize the effects of shock and vibration as well as temperature and humidity are given.

  3. Interface For MIL-STD-1553B Data Bus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davies, Bryan L.; Osborn, Stephen H.; Sullender, Craig C.

    1993-01-01

    Electronic control-logic subsystem acts as interface between microcontroller and MIL-STD-1553B data bus. Subsystem made of relatively small number of integrated circuits. Advantages include low power, few integrated-circuit chips, and little need for control signals.

  4. The Contraceptive Needs for STD Protection among Women in Jail

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oswalt, Krista; Hale, Galen J.; Cropsey, Karen L.; Villalobos, Gabriella C.; Ivey, Sara E.; Matthews, Catherine A.

    2010-01-01

    We assessed the contraceptive needs of women in jails and their sexually transmitted disease (STD) history and risk to determine effective contraceptive methods for this population. A survey of demographics, sexual health, contraceptive use, and preferred method of contraception was completed by participants recruited at jails in a medium-sized…

  5. Evaluation of the Positive Prevention HIV/STD Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaChausse, Robert G.

    2006-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of Positive Prevention, a theory-based, HIV/STD prevention education curriculum for high school youth. Three hundred fifty-three students participated in a longitudinal experimental design to determine the impact of the curriculum on HIV/AIDS knowledge, self-efficacy to abstain from sex, self-efficacy of…

  6. DOE Handbook: Supplementary guidance and design experience for the fusion safety standards DOE-STD-6002-96 and DOE-STD-6003-96

    SciTech Connect

    1999-01-01

    Two standards have been developed that pertain to the safety of fusion facilities. These are DOE- STD-6002-96, Safety of Magnetic Fusion Facilities: Requirements, and DOE-STD-6003-96, Safety of Magnetic Fusion Facilities: Guidance. The first of these standards identifies requirements that subscribers to that standard must meet to achieve safety in fusion facilities. The second standard contains guidance to assist in meeting the requirements identified in the first This handbook provides additional documentation on good operations and design practices as well as lessons learned from the experiences of designers and operators of previous fusion facilities and related systems. It is intended to capture the experience gained in the various fields and pass it on to designers of future fusion facilities as a means of enhancing success and safety. The sections of this document are presented according to the physical location of the major systems of a fusion facility, beginning with the vacuum vessel and proceeding to those systems and components outside the vacuum vessel (the "Ex-vessel Systems"). The last section describes administrative procedures that cannot be localized to specific components. It has been tacitly assumed that the general structure of the fusion facilities addressed is that of a tokamak though the same principles would apply to other magnetic confinement options.

  7. Detection of Common Warfighting Symbology (MIL-STD-2525) Air Symbols

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    UNCLASSIFIED Detection of Common Warfighting Symbology (MIL- STD -2525) Air Symbols Kingsley Fletcher, Ashley Arnold and Susan Cockshell...Standard Bravo version (MIL- STD -2525B) is a contractual requirement for a number of Australian defence projects. To evaluate how well MIL- STD -2525B...presence of each MIL- STD -2525B air affiliation symbol when symbol overlap and icon presence were manipulated. Detection efficiency and accuracy were

  8. Development and Evaluation of a Multimedia-Enhanced STD/HIV Curriculum for Middle Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldsworthy, Richard; Schwartz, Nancy

    2008-01-01

    STD infection among adolescents is a significant public health concern. Surveys indicate that parents believe STD and HIV/AIDS are appropriate topics for middle school and high school students; however, school-based STD education efforts remain inconsistent, perhaps in part as a result of the lack of standardized, well-distributed curricula.…

  9. NASA Handbook for Models and Simulations: An Implementation Guide for NASA-STD-7009

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steele, Martin J.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this Handbook is to provide technical information, clarification, examples, processes, and techniques to help institute good modeling and simulation practices in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). As a companion guide to NASA-STD- 7009, Standard for Models and Simulations, this Handbook provides a broader scope of information than may be included in a Standard and promotes good practices in the production, use, and consumption of NASA modeling and simulation products. NASA-STD-7009 specifies what a modeling and simulation activity shall or should do (in the requirements) but does not prescribe how the requirements are to be met, which varies with the specific engineering discipline, or who is responsible for complying with the requirements, which depends on the size and type of project. A guidance document, which is not constrained by the requirements of a Standard, is better suited to address these additional aspects and provide necessary clarification. This Handbook stems from the Space Shuttle Columbia Accident Investigation (2003), which called for Agency-wide improvements in the "development, documentation, and operation of models and simulations"' that subsequently elicited additional guidance from the NASA Office of the Chief Engineer to include "a standard method to assess the credibility of the models and simulations."2 General methods applicable across the broad spectrum of model and simulation (M&S) disciplines were sought to help guide the modeling and simulation processes within NASA and to provide for consistent reporting ofM&S activities and analysis results. From this, the standardized process for the M&S activity was developed. The major contents of this Handbook are the implementation details of the general M&S requirements ofNASA-STD-7009, including explanations, examples, and suggestions for improving the credibility assessment of an M&S-based analysis.

  10. Prostitutes, prostitution and STD/HIV transmission in mainland China.

    PubMed

    Gil, V E; Wang, M S; Anderson, A F; Lin, G M; Wu, Z O

    1996-01-01

    China's opening to the world has enabled massive social and economic transformations and the liberalization of many policies, but also the rise of coincident social problems and diseases. A revival of wide-scale female prostitution since the 1980s has now accelerated to a nationwide dilemma. Prostitutes have long been considered to be reservoirs, if not 'vectors' for the transmission of sexual diseases. A well established STD epidemic in the last decade, plus the presence of growing HIV infections in China now, underscore the need to evaluate the prostitute's role in STD and HIV propagation. This report examines unobtrusive data on female prostitutes in the People's Republic of China through an analysis of prison records from eight sexually segregated prisons (six in Sichuan Province and two in Guizhou Province), two female re-education institutions, and arrest records for convicted prostitutes from four counties in Sichuan Province and Chengdu City (also in Sichuan). Collectively, these data represent 2057 female prostitution cases, and span the years 1988-1990. Demographics are examined to enable a profile of the prostitute as based on data reviewed, and this is contrasted to the stereotype of the prostitute as described in government propaganda against prostitution. STD prevalence rates in the samples are examined and contrasted to two other studies on STDs in nonprostitution populations made available to the authors. Prostitute arrest records reveal a majority had active STD infection[s] at the time of their apprehension, with gonorrhea being the most common bacterium; in many instances, prostitutes also had a history of other sexually transmitted diseases. Thus, data examined support the notion of prostitution as an agent in STD transmission. Presence of HIV infection in prostitutes could not be corroborated through sampled records, nor could prostitution itself be confirmed as an agent in HIV transmission at present. However, given the type of clients

  11. Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aviation/Space, 1980

    1980-01-01

    The resources listed different types of materials related to the aerospace science under specified categories: free materials and inexpensive, selected government publication, audiovisual (government, nongovernment), aviation books, and space books. The list includes the publisher's name and the price for each publication. (SK)

  12. The contraceptive needs for STD protection among women in jail.

    PubMed

    Oswalt, Krista; Hale, Galen J; Cropsey, Karen L; Villalobos, Gabriella C; Ivey, Sara E; Matthews, Catherine A

    2010-08-01

    We assessed the contraceptive needs of women in jails and their sexually transmitted disease (STD) history and risk to determine effective contraceptive methods for this population. A survey of demographics, sexual health, contraceptive use, and preferred method of contraception was completed by participants recruited at jails in a medium-sized metropolitan area. Results from 188 women indicated high rates of STDs, inconsistent contraceptive use, and use of unreliable and user-dependent contraception methods. Intended contraceptive use following release varied depending on women's ability to bear children. Women planning to use condoms after release were more likely to have had an STD and more sexual partners than were women not planning to use condoms. Racial differences were found for participants' sexual health and contraception histories. These women were at high risk for STDs and appeared to need education about contraception methods. Therefore, they might benefit from education on safe sex practices provided prior to release.

  13. A MIL-STD 1760A advanced terminal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedman, Steven N.

    Attention is given to the BUS-65153 Small Terminal Interface Circuit (STIC), the smallest self-contained MIL-STD-1553A/B Notice 1 & 2 and MIL-STD-1760A dual redundant Remote Terminal (RT). The Terminal was designed to support a dual redundant RT protocol, including special transceivers. The author discusses the key features, especially the programmable options which make this terminal so flexible. The STIC has programmable features, such as 12/16 MHz clock selection, improved zero crossing tolerance, external status word control, and two- or three-state operation. A buffered DMA interface, programmable for 8 or 16-bit transfers, supports a variety of microprocessors. The timing and control signals available to the terminal designer are also examined.

  14. MIL-STD-1553 Multiplex Data Bus Word Formats.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-12-01

    RD-Al2i 934 MIL-STD-k553 MULTIPLEX DATA BUS WORD FORMATS(U) BOEING 1/2 MILITARY AIRPLANE CO SEATTLE WA DEC 8i F336i5-80-C-8i24 UNCLASSIFIED F/G 9/2...MICROCOPY RESOLUTION TEST CHART hAT sUjAL SURCAU of SThNOAROS - I93- A MIL-STD-1553 MULTIPLEX DATA BUS WORD FORMATS FINAL REPORT FOR PERIOD NOVEMBER...Washington 98124 ,::~~~~~ ~ ~~~~ i:i ouc- q . proved] for public elezt - -d tle;distribution is unlimited 82 11 26 054 CHAPTER 11 DATA WORD AND MESSAGE FORMAT

  15. MIL-STD-1553B system design in SST application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Ying

    2001-06-01

    In this paper, we will first introduce what is MIL-STD-1553B and why we choose it. Then we will analyze the characteristics and the reliability of this standard. When we use this protocol to implement our SDU system in the SST, we also need to describe the whole system in which the 1553 standard is used. Finally, we will put our most attention on the system design, including hardware interconnection and software program.

  16. Using Smartphone Apps in STD Interviews to Find Sexual Partners

    PubMed Central

    Pennise, Melissa; Herpin, Kate; Owens, John; Bedard, Brenden A.; Weimer, Anita C.; Kennedy, Byron S.; Younge, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Smartphone applications (apps) are increasingly used to facilitate casual sexual relationships, increasing the risk of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). In STD investigations, traditional contact elicitation methods can be enhanced with smartphone technology during field interviews. Methods In 2013, the Monroe County Department of Public Health conducted a large, multi-infection STD investigation among men who have sex with men (MSM) using both index case and cluster interviews. When patients indicated meeting sexual partners online, disease intervention specialists (DISs) had access to smartphone apps and were able to elicit partners through access to inboxes and profiles where traditional contact information was lacking. Social network mapping was used to display the extent of the investigation and the impact of access to smartphones on the investigation. Results A total of 14 index patient interviews and two cluster interviews were conducted; 97 individuals were identified among 117 sexual dyads. On average, eight partners were elicited per interview (range: 1–31). The seven individuals who used apps to find partners had an average of three Internet partners (range: 1–5). Thirty-six individuals either had a new STD (n=7) or were previously known to be HIV-positive (n=29). Of the 117 sexual dyads, 21 (18%) originated either online (n=8) or with a smartphone app (n=13). Of those originating online or with a smartphone app, six (29%) partners were located using the smartphone and two (10%) were notified of their exposure via a website. Three of the new STD/HIV cases were among partners who met online. Conclusion Smartphone technology used by DISs in the field improved contact elicitation and resulted in successful partner notification and case finding. PMID:25931628

  17. NASA STD-4005: The LEO Spacecraft Charging Design Standard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferguson, Dale C.

    2006-01-01

    Power systems with voltages higher than about 55 volts may charge in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) enough to cause destructive arcing. The NASA STD-4005 LEO Spacecraft Charging Design Standard will help spacecraft designers prevent arcing and other deleterious effects on LEO spacecraft. The Appendices, an Information Handbook based on the popular LEO Spacecraft Charging Design Guidelines by Ferguson and Hillard, serve as a useful explanation and accompaniment to the Standard.

  18. [Knowledge of STD/AIDS among adolescent students].

    PubMed

    Brêtas, José Roberto da Silva; Ohara, Conceição Vieira da Silva; Jardim, Dulcilene Pereira; Muroya, Renata de Lima

    2009-09-01

    This study aims to analyze the degree of knowledge adolescents have on STD/AIDS prevention, transmission, signs, and symptoms, and to contribute with the elaboration of educational actions in the University Extension Program called Corporality and Health Promotion. The research counted on 1,087 adolescents (40% females, 60% males) and was carried out in three elementary and high schools located in the municipality of Embu. A structured, multiple choice questionnaire was applied. Data indicated the achievement of the following results: as per the prevention, 92% of girls and 78% of boys referred to the use of condoms, while 42% of girls and 43% of boys affirmed to wash their genitalia after the sexual relation; 75% females and 52% males quoted television as their source of information. As per the knowledge of STD, girls and boys indicated not to have much information on the issue. Regarding STD healing programs, 57% females and 71% males affirmed not to have any knowledge on the issue; 5% of girls and 6% of boys thought AIDS to be curable. In a general perspective, we can conclude that girls were more familiar with the study's issues than boys.

  19. Network Extender for MIL-STD-1553 Bus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marcus, Julius; Hanson, T. David

    2003-01-01

    An extender system for MIL-STD-1553 buses transparently couples bus components at multiple developer sites. The bus network extender is a relatively inexpensive system that minimizes the time and cost of integration of avionic systems by providing a convenient mechanism for early testing without the need to transport the usual test equipment and personnel to an integration facility. This bus network extender can thus alleviate overloading of the test facility while enabling the detection of interface problems that can occur during the integration of avionic systems. With this bus extender in place, developers can correct and adjust their own hardware and software before products leave a development site. Currently resident at Johnson Space Center, the bus network extender is used to test the functionality of equipment that, although remotely located, is connected through a MILSTD- 1553 bus. Inasmuch as the standard bus protocol for avionic equipment is that of MIL-STD-1553, companies that supply MIL-STD-1553-compliant equipment to government or industry and that need long-distance communication support might benefit from this network bus extender

  20. Aging as an evolvability-increasing program which can be switched off by organism to mobilize additional resources for survival.

    PubMed

    Skulachev, Maxim V; Severin, Fedor F; Skulachev, Vladimir P

    2015-01-01

    During the last decade, several pieces of convincing evidence were published indicating that aging of living organisms is programmed, being a particular case of programmed death of organism (phenoptosis). Among them, the following observations can be mentioned. (1) Species were described that show negligible aging. In mammals, the naked mole rat is the most impressive example. This is a rodent of mouse size living at least 10-fold longer than a mouse and having fecundity higher than a mouse and no agerelated diseases. (2) In some species with high aging rate, genes responsible for active organization of aging by poisoning of the organism with endogenous metabolites have been identified. (3) In women, standard deviations divided by the mean are the same for age of menarche (an event controlled by the ontogenetic program) and for age of menopause (an aging-related event). (4) Inhibitors of programmed cell death (apoptosis and necrosis) retard and in certain cases even reverse the development of age-dependent pathologies. (5) In aging species, the rate of aging is regulated by the individual which responds by changes in this rate to changes in the environmental conditions. In this review, we consider point (5) in detail. Data are summarized suggesting that inhibition of aging rate by moderate food restriction can be explained assuming that such restriction is perceived by the organism as a signal of future starvation. In response to this dramatic signal, the organism switches off such an optional program as aging, mobilizing in such a way additional reserves for survival. A similar explanation is postulated for geroprotective effects of heavy muscle work, a lowering or a rise in the external temperature, small amounts of metabolic poisons (hormesis), low doses of radiation, and other deleterious events. On the contrary, sometimes certain positive signals can prolong life by inhibiting the aging program in individuals who are useful for the community (e

  1. Aging As An Evolvability-Increasing Program Which Can Be Switched Off By Organism To Mobilize Additional Resources For Survival.

    PubMed

    Skulachev, Maxim V; Severin, Fedor F; Skulachev, Vladimir P

    2015-04-22

    During the last decade, several pieces of convincing evidence were published indicating that aging of living organisms is programmed, being a particular case of programmed death of organism (phenoptosis). Among them, the following observations can be mentioned [1]. Species were described that show negligible aging. In mammals, the naked mole rat is the most impressive example. This is a rodent of mouse size living at least 10-fold longer than a mouse and having fecundity higher than a mouse and no age-related diseases [2]. In some species with high aging rate, genes responsible for active organization of aging by poisoning of the organism with endogenous metabolites have been identified [3]. In women, standard deviations divided by the mean are the same for age of menarche (an event controlled by the ontogenetic program) and for age of menopause (an aging-related event) [4]. Inhibitors of programmed cell death (apoptosis and necrosis) retard and in certain cases even reverse the development of age-dependent pathologies [5]. In aging species, the rate of aging is regulated by the individual which responds by changes in this rate to changes in the environmental conditions. In this review, we consider point [5] in detail. Data are summarized suggesting that inhibition of aging rate by moderate food restriction can be explained assuming that such restriction is perceived by the organism as a signal of future starvation. In response to this dramatic signal, the organism switches off such an optional program as aging, mobilizing in such a way additional reserves for survival. A similar explanation is postulated for geroprotective effects of heavy muscle work, a lowering or a rise in the external temperature, small amounts of metabolic poisons (hormesis), low doses of radiation, and other deleterious events. On the contrary, sometimes certain positive signals can prolong life by inhibiting the aging program in individuals who are useful for the community (e

  2. Randomised trials of STD treatment for HIV prevention: report of an international workshop. HIV/STD Trials Workshop Group.

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, R; Wawer, M; Gray, R; Whitworth, J; Grosskurth, H; Mabey, D

    1997-01-01

    Three community trials of the impact of STD treatment interventions on HIV incidence in rural populations have been completed or are in progress in Uganda and Tanzania. Investigators from these trials met for a joint technical workshop in Baltimore in May 1996. This report summarises the consensus of the workshop, with the aim of providing useful input to research on HIV intervention strategies. Issues discussed include: (i) the role of community randomised trials; (ii) strategies for STD management; (iii) epidemiological and statistical issues in the design and analysis of community randomised trials; (iv) diagnostic methods for STDs in population surveys; (v) treatment regimens for STDs in rural Africa; and (vi) ethical issues in community trials. PMID:9582456

  3. Proton irradiation SEU test results for the SEDS MIL-STD-1773 fiber optic data bus: integrated optoelectronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LaBel, Kenneth A.; Stassinopoulos, E. G.; Marshall, Paul W.; Petersen, Ed L.; Dale, Cheryl J.; Crabtree, Christina M.; Stauffer, Craig A.

    1993-09-01

    The Small Explorer Data System (SEDS) is a spaceflight command and data handling system for the small explorer (SMEX) program at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). A key component in this system is the SEDS MIL-STD-1773 Fiber Optic Multiplexed Data Bus. The 1773 bus provides a means of passing telemetry and commands between spacecraft subsystems. This bus is currently being considered for additional spaceflight programs inside and outside of the NASA realm. The SEDS 1773 bus uses integrated optoelectronics as part of its electrical subsystem (or user) to optical interface. Generic proton and heavy ion test results have been previously reported. Herein is presented proton test results for continuing this investigation under actual subsystem interface conditions (MIL-STD-1773) as well as for generic devices using the proton test facilities at University of California, Davis (UCD). This testing was undertaken as a joint effort between NASA/GSFC and the Naval Research Laboratories (NRL).

  4. Targeted intervention research studies on sexually transmitted diseases (STD): methodology, selected findings and implications for STD service delivery and communications.

    PubMed

    Field, M L; Price, J; Niang, C; N'tcha, J; Zwane, I T; Lurie, M; Nxumalo, M; Dialmy, A; Manhart, L; Gebre, A; Saidel, T; Dallabetta, G

    1998-01-01

    Targeted intervention research (TIR) studies were performed in five African countries (Senegal, Ethiopia, Benin, Morocco, and Swaziland) to improve the utilization of a community perspective in sexually transmitted disease (STD) programs. TIR, conducted by program managers with the aid of a multidisciplinary technical advisory group, examines factors at five levels of analysis (individual, social network, organization, community, and policy) through a variety of qualitative methods. The TIR studies indicated that patients' conceptions of normal versus abnormal health are fundamental to the process of interpreting symptoms and subsequently seeking care. The interpretation of STD symptoms varied across settings (e.g., vaginal lesions and discharge were considered signs of healing in Morocco and Benin), but increasing pain and discomfort were key triggers to seeking treatment. The concept of sexual transmission was blended with other causes such as violation of religious or moral codes, consumption of certain foods, and supernatural forces. Care-seeking tended to reflect an ordered yet loosely constructed process of elimination in pursuit of symptom relief, beginning with alternative regimens. Barriers to biomedical STD care included the need for husband's permission, costs, confidentiality concerns, long waits in public clinics, and fear of judgmental health provider attitudes. Overall, the findings highlight the importance of location-specific strategies aimed at increasing prompt care-seeking at qualified biomedical facilities.

  5. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Measurements of Plutonium-bearing Oxide in DOE-STD-3013-2000 Containers Using Calorimetry and Gamma Isotopic Analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Dearborn, D M; Keeton, S C

    2004-06-23

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) routinely uses calorimetry and gamma isotopic analyses (Cal/Iso) for the accountability measurement of plutonium (Pu) bearing items. In the past 15 years, the vast majority of those items measured by Cal/Iso were contained in a thin-walled convenience can enclosed in another thin-walled outer container. However, LLNL has recently begun to use DOE-STD-3013-2000 containers as well. These DOE-STD-3013-2000 containers are comprised of a stainless steel convenience can enclosed in welded stainless steel primary and secondary containers. In addition to the fact that the wall thickness of the DOE-STD-3013-2000 containers is much greater than that of other containers in our experience, the DOE-STD-3013-2000 containers appear to have larger thermal insulation characteristics. To date, we have derived Pu-mass values from Cal/Iso measurements of 74 different DOE-STD-3013-2000 containers filled with Pu-bearing oxide or mixed uranium-plutonium (U-Pu) oxide material. Both water-bath and air-bath calorimeters were used for these measurements and both use software to predict when thermal equilibrium is attained. Our experience has shown that after apparent equilibrium has been attained, at least one more complete cycle, and sometimes two or three more complete cycles, is required to gain a measure of true thermal equilibrium. Otherwise, the derived Pu-mass values are less than would be expected from a combination of previously measured Pu-bearing items and would contribute to increased loss in our inventory difference determinations. Conclusions and recommendations drawn from LLNL experience with measurements of Pu mass in Pu-bearing oxide or mixed U-Pu oxide in DOE-STD-3013-2000 containers using the Cal/Iso technique are included.

  6. New Manufacturers of Wooden Pallets Utilizing Mechanical Nailers MIL-STD-1660 Tests

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-02-01

    UTILIZING MECHANICAL NAILERS MIL- STD -1660 TESTS Prepared for: Distribution Unlimited U.S. Army Armament Research, Development and Engineering Center ATTN...SUBTITLE New Manufacturers of Wooden Pallets Utilizing Mechanical Nailers MIL- STD - 1660 Tests Unclassified 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 5d. PROJECT...to conduct MIL- STD -1660 tests, Design Criteria for Ammunition Unit Loads, on 42- by 53-inch pallets using commercially available nails installed with

  7. Discussions to Shaped Charge Jet Tests after MIL-STD-2105B

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-08-01

    Distribution Statement A: Approved for public release, distribution is unlimited. DISCUSSIONS TO SHAPED CHARGE JET TESTS AFTER MIL STD 2105 B...ABSTRACT In contrast to the fragment impact test the shaped charge jet impact test No. 5.2.6 of MIL STD 2105 B is very conservative. The detailed...description for the shaped charges, which should be used, is already modified from the first edition of the MIL STD 2105 B. The 50 mm Rockeye warhead

  8. Using the Mil. Std 1553B data bus in future spacecraft onboard applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plummer, Chris; Bordes, Yves

    2002-07-01

    This paper discusses the use of the Mil. Std 1553B data bus as the principal onboard data handling bus for future spacecraft applications. The paper takes a pragmatic approach by: Identifying the characteristics of the onboard bus traffic and its characteristics; Looking at future trends in onboard bus traffic; Describing the characteristics of the Mil. Std 1553B data bus; Proposing techniques that can be used on the Mil. Std 1553B data bus in future spacecraft application.

  9. An Implementation of MIL-STD-1750 Airborne Computer Instruction Set Architecture.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-05-01

    printing I May 1981 AN IMPLEMENTATION OF MIL- STD - 1750 AIRBORNE COMPUTER INSTRUCTION SET ARCHITECTURE by S. J. Shrimpton r SUMMARY is Memorandum...describes the design of a processor implementing the Mil- Std -1750 Airborne Computer Instruction Set Architecture, using Advanced Micro Devices 2901 bit-slice...microprocessor devices. The aspects of the hard- ware design and microcode specific to Mil- Std -1750 are discussed and reviewed in the light of the

  10. Towards MIL-STD-1553B Covert Channel Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    Multiplex Applications Handbook,” November 1988. [15] Department of Defense Handbook MIL - HDBK -1553A Notice 1 – 5 , January 1993 – May 2013. 20...The HPIU can support MIL -STD-1553B, SpaceWire and RS-422 buses [ 5 ]. 2 The HoPS program plans to use encryption to prevent any information...September 21, 1978. [13] Military Standard MIL –STD–1553B, Notice 1 – 4, February 1980 – January 1996. [14] Department of Defense Handbook MIL - HDBK -1553A

  11. Quality of STD care in an urban Zambian setting: the providers' perspective.

    PubMed

    Faxelid, E; Ahlberg, B M; Maimbolwa, M; Krantz, I

    1997-10-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyse obstacles to optimal STD care in an urban setting in Zambia. Eight-two health professionals answered a questionnaire with closed and open-ended questions. More than 50% were not satisfied with their working conditions, due to heavy workload, lack of equipment/drugs, poor salary, and lack of continuing education. Negative opinions about STD patients were common. Treatment and preventive activities were considered important but most respondents found patient compliance poor--especially for partner notification. To improve the quality of STD care, training in STD management should be combined with improved working conditions.

  12. NASA-STD 3001 and the Human Integration Design Handbook (HIDH): Evolution of NASA-STD-3000

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pickett, Lynn; Connolly, Janis; Arch, M.; Tillman, Barry; Russo, Dane

    2007-01-01

    The Habitability & Environmental Factors and Space Medicine Divisions have developed the Space Flight Human System Standard (SFHSS) (NASA-STD-3001) to replace NASA-STD-3000 as a new NASA standard for all human spaceflight programs. The SFHSS is composed of 2 volumes. Volume 1, Crew Health, contains medical levels of care, permissible exposure limits, and fitness for duty criteria, and permissible outcome limits as a means of defining successful operating criteria for the human system. Volume 2, Habitability and Environmental Health, contains environmental, habitability and human factors standards. Development of the Human Integration Design Handbook (HIDH), a companion to the standard, is currently under construction and entails the update and revision of NASA-STD-3000 data. This new handbook will, in the fashion of NASA STD-3000, assist engineers and designers in appropriately applying habitability, environmental and human factors principles to spacecraft design. Organized in a chapter-module-element structure, the HIDH will provide the guidance for the development of requirements, design considerations, lessons learned, example solutions, background research, and assist in the identification of gaps and research needs in the disciplines. Subject matter experts have been and continue to be solicited to participate in the update of the chapters. The purpose is to build the HIDH with the best and latest data, and provide a broad representation from experts in industry, academia, the military and the space program. The handbook and the two standards volumes work together in a unique way to achieve the required level of human-system interface. All new NASA programs will be required to meet Volumes 1 and 2. Volume 2 presents human interface goals in broad, non-verifiable standards. Volume 2 also requires that each new development program prepare a set of program-specific human factors requirements. These program-specific human and environmental factors requirements

  13. The impact of laws on HIV and STD prevention.

    PubMed

    Cason, Cari; Orrock, Nan; Schmitt, Karla; Tesoriero, James; Lazzarini, Zita; Sumartojo, Esther

    2002-01-01

    HIV and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are major public health problems in the United States. Since the start of the epidemic, nearly 800,000 persons have been reported with AIDS, and approximately 900,000 Americans are currently living with HIV infection. Each year, 15 million people in the United States become infected with one or more STDs. The direct and indirect costs of the major STDs--not including HIV infection--and their complications are estimated to total at least $10 billion annually. This article underscores the importance of law and other structural factors in the prevention and treatment of HIV and STDs. It describes state-level laws on STD screening, name-based reporting of STDs, name-based reporting of HIV and HIV partner notification implementation, and the impact of laws on STD and HIV risk behaviors and prevention services. More broadly, the article focuses on how the law influences the vulnerability or resilience of persons facing the risk of STDs, HIV infection, or AIDS.

  14. 77 FR 72868 - The Centers for Disease Control (CDC)/Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-06

    ... Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) Advisory Committee on HIV, Viral Hepatitis and STD Prevention... (Pub. L. 92-463) of October 6, 1972, that the CDC/HRSA Advisory Committee on HIV, Viral Hepatitis and...., Designated Federal Officer, CDC/HRSA Advisory Committee on HIV, Viral Hepatitis and STD Prevention...

  15. Intimate partner violence and HIV/STD risk among lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender individuals.

    PubMed

    Heintz, Adam Jackson; Melendez, Rita M

    2006-02-01

    To date, there has been little research examining HIV/STD risk among lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals who are in abusive relationships. This article uses data collected from a community-based organization that provides counseling for LGBT victims of intimate partner violence (IPV). A total of 58 clients completed the survey, which inquired as to sexual violence and difficulties negotiating safer sex with their abusive partners. A large percentage of participants reported being forced by their partners to have sex (41%). Many stated that they felt unsafe to ask their abusive partners to use safer sex protection or that they feared their partners' response to safer sex (28%). In addition, many participants experienced sexual (19%), physical (21%), and/or verbal abuse (32%) as a direct consequence of asking their partner to use safer sex protection. Training counselors on issues of sexuality and safer sex will benefit victims of IPV.

  16. McAlester Army Ammunition Plant (MCAAP) Wooden Pallet MIL-STD-1660 Tests.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-07-01

    Research, Development and Engineering Center (ARDEC) to conduct MIL- STD -1660 tests on 40- by 48-inch pallets produced by McAlester Army Ammunition Plant...MCAAP). This report contains test results with the pallets provided failing to meet MIL- STD -1660, Design Criteria for Ammunition Unit Loads, requirements due to nail failure.

  17. Using the MIL-STD-1553B to link up all subsystems of Solar Space Telesocpe.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Xiaochang

    1999-12-01

    From the 1980's, the use of MIL-STD-1553B in satellite programs has greatly increased. As an advanced satellite with numerous subsystems, Solar Space Telescope (SST) chooses this standard to meet its need for telemetry. This paper introduces some parts of MIL-STD-1553B that can be used in Solar Space Telescope.

  18. RosE represses Std fimbrial expression in Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium

    PubMed Central

    Chessa, Daniela; Winter, Maria G; Nuccio, Sean-Paul; Tükel, Çagla; Bäumler, Andreas J

    2008-01-01

    The Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium (S. typhimurium) genome contains a large repertoire of putative fimbrial operons that remain poorly characterized because they are not expressed in vitro. In this study, insertions that induced expression of the putative stdABCD fimbrial operon were identified from a random bank of transposon mutants by screening with immuno-magnetic particles for ligand expression (SIMPLE). Transposon insertions upstream of csgC and lrhA or within dam, setB and STM4463 (renamed rosE) resulted in expression of StdA and its assembly into fimbrial filaments on the cell surface. RosE is a novel negative regulator of Std fimbrial expression as indicated by its repression of a std::lacZ reporter construct and by binding of the purified protein to a DNA region upstream of the stdA start codon. Expression of Std fimbriae in the rosE mutant resulted in increased attachment of S. typhimurium to human colonic epithelial cell lines (T-84 and CaCo-2). A rosE mutant exhibited a reduced ability to compete with virulent S. typhimurium for colonization of murine organs, while no defect was observed when both competing strains carried a stdAB deletion. These data suggest that a tight control of Std fimbrial expression mediated by RosE is required during host pathogen interaction. PMID:18331470

  19. Projections of costs, financing, and additional resource requirements for low- and lower middle-income country immunization programs over the decade, 2011-2020.

    PubMed

    Gandhi, Gian; Lydon, Patrick; Cornejo, Santiago; Brenzel, Logan; Wrobel, Sandra; Chang, Hugh

    2013-04-18

    The Decade of Vaccines Global Vaccine Action Plan has outlined a set of ambitious goals to broaden the impact and reach of immunization across the globe. A projections exercise has been undertaken to assess the costs, financing availability, and additional resource requirements to achieve these goals through the delivery of vaccines against 19 diseases across 94 low- and middle-income countries for the period 2011-2020. The exercise draws upon data from existing published and unpublished global forecasts, country immunization plans, and costing studies. A combination of an ingredients-based approach and use of approximations based on past spending has been used to generate vaccine and non-vaccine delivery costs for routine programs, as well as supplementary immunization activities (SIAs). Financing projections focused primarily on support from governments and the GAVI Alliance. Cost and financing projections are presented in constant 2010 US dollars (US$). Cumulative total costs for the decade are projected to be US$57.5 billion, with 85% for routine programs and the remaining 15% for SIAs. Delivery costs account for 54% of total cumulative costs, and vaccine costs make up the remainder. A conservative estimate of total financing for immunization programs is projected to be $34.3 billion over the decade, with country governments financing 65%. These projections imply a cumulative funding gap of $23.2 billion. About 57% of the total resources required to close the funding gap are needed just to maintain existing programs and scale up other currently available vaccines (i.e., before adding in the additional costs of vaccines still in development). Efforts to mobilize additional resources, manage program costs, and establish mutual accountability between countries and development partners will all be necessary to ensure the goals of the Decade of Vaccines are achieved. Establishing or building on existing mechanisms to more comprehensively track resources and

  20. A proposal for strengthening medical school training in STD prevention techniques.

    PubMed Central

    Steinberg, J K; Wellman, J; Melrod, J

    1991-01-01

    Despite increases in national rates of sexually transmitted disease (STD), surveys indicate that medical students generally lack programs to train them in STD prevention techniques and in counseling patients about STD. The authors of this proposal investigated STD education for medical students at the University of California at Los Angeles and propose a project to involve third-year medical students in STD prevention techniques during their STD-clinic rotation. The long-term goal is to decrease the incidence and prevalence of STD. The immediate aims are to increase medical students' knowledge of STD prevention and to help them develop the communication skills necessary to effectively counsel patients about STD. Interventions would consist of a series of lectures and workshops using audiovisual aids, small group discussions, and role playing, and would be conducted by health educators and guest lecturers. A quasi-experimental research design would be used in testing the effectiveness of the project in two experimental and two control groups involving a total of 80 third-year medical students. The first intervention would be a 1-week lecture series. Written tests would be given before and after the first intervention to measure the baseline of the students' knowledge of STD prevention methods. The second intervention would be a 1-week workshop series. Students' interviews with patients would be videotaped before and after the second intervention so that the interviewer's communication skills may be assessed and compared. Sets of interventions would be scheduled for the fall of 1990 and the spring of 1991. Six months after the completion of the project, a followup questionnaire would be given to evaluate the project's overall effectiveness. PMID:1902314

  1. Behavior changes in SIS STD models with selective mixing

    SciTech Connect

    Hyman, J.M.; Li, J.

    1997-08-01

    The authors propose and analyze a heterogeneous, multigroup, susceptible-infective-susceptible (SIS) sexually transmitted disease (STD) model where the desirability and acceptability in partnership formations are functions of the infected individuals. They derive explicit formulas for the epidemic thresholds, prove the existence and uniqueness of the equilibrium states for the two-group model and provide a complete analysis of their local and global stability. The authors then investigate the effects of behavior changes on the transmission dynamics and analyze the sensitivity of the epidemic to the magnitude of the behavior changes. They verify that if people modify their behavior to reduce the probability of infection with individuals in highly infected groups, through either reduced contacts, reduced partner formations, or using safe sex, the infection level may be decreased. However, if people continue to have intragroup and intergroup partnerships, then changing the desirability and acceptability formation cannot eradicate the epidemic once it exceeds the epidemic threshold.

  2. Reducing offensiveness of STD prevention advertisements in China.

    PubMed

    Waller, David S; Fam, Kim-Shyan

    2011-01-01

    The issue of sexually transmitted diseases is a socially sensitive one in Asian communities, with governments being criticized for not doing enough to reduce AIDS transmission, and the advertising of such issues potentially causing offense to people. This article surveys 630 people in China to determine their level of offense toward the advertising of condoms and STD prevention and analyzes the qualitative responses to how they would reduce the offensiveness of such advertising. The results found that generally women are more offended by the advertising of these products than men, and in terms of creative execution, women prefer implicit, prevention or effects messages, whereas men suggested a scientific message, or a focus on the creative strategy or media/location of the advertisement. It is recommended that traditional Chinese Confucian values are important for public policy makers to keep in mind when wanting to advertise socially sensitive issues in China and wider Asia.

  3. 75 FR 78997 - Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/Health Resources and Services Administration (CDC/HRSA...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-17

    .../Health Resources and Services Administration (CDC/HRSA) Advisory Committee on HIV and STD Prevention and...-463) of October 6, 1972, that the CDC/HRSA Advisory Committee on HIV and STD Prevention and Treatment.... Contact Person for More Information: Kevin Fenton, M.D., PhD, Designated Federal Officer,...

  4. How to Develop and Interpret a Credibility Assessment of Numerical Models for Human Research: NASA-STD-7009 Demystified

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Emily S.; Mulugeta, Lealem; Walton, Marlei; Myers, Jerry G.

    2014-01-01

    In the wake of the Columbia accident, the NASA-STD-7009 [1] credibility assessment was developed as a unifying platform to describe model credibility and the uncertainties in its modeling predictions. This standard is now being adapted by NASAs Human Research Program to cover a wide range of numerical models for human research. When used properly, the standard can improve the process of code development by encouraging the use of best practices. It can also give management more insight in making informed decisions through a better understanding of the models capabilities and limitations.To a newcomer, the abstractions presented in NASA-STD-7009 and the sheer volume of information that must be absorbed can be overwhelming. This talk is aimed at describing the credibility assessment, which is the heart of the standard, in plain terms. It will outline how to develop a credibility assessment under the standard. It will also show how to quickly interpret the graphs and tables that result from the assessment and how to drill down from the top-level view to the foundation of the assessment. Finally, it will highlight some of the resources that are available for further study.

  5. 77 FR 23733 - CDC/HRSA Advisory Committee on HIV and STD Prevention and Treatment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-20

    ...) Enhancing Hepatitis Prevention Treatment and Care in the United States; (2) Integrating HIV Prevention and..., CDC, National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, 1600 Clifton Road,...

  6. Case management and patient reactions: a study of STD care in a province in Zambia.

    PubMed

    Hanson, S; Engvall, J; Sunkutu, R M; Kamanga, J; Mushanga, M; Höjer, B

    1997-05-01

    Sexually transmitted disease (STD) case management was evaluated through observation and interviews at 2 urban and 4 rural health centres and 2 district hospital STD clinics in one urban and 2 rural districts in Central Province, Zambia. The analysis was limited to 59 patients (42 men and 17 women) who paid first visits for their disease and were managed by a clinical officer. The evaluation suffered from the lack of a standard for case management. Results showed that the patients engaged in risky sexual behaviour without being aware of the risks. At the health institutions, few patients were informed about condoms, the risk of HIV, and abstinence from sex during treatment and few were asked to notify their partners. Clinical officers with special STD training performed better than others but sill informed only one-fifth of the patients. Few clinical officers managed patients according to the syndromic approach recommended by the STD control programme.

  7. STD-related knowledge, beliefs and attitudes of Xhosa-speaking patients attending STD primary health-care clinics in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Reddy, P; Meyer-Weitz, A; van den Borne, B; Kok, G

    1999-06-01

    The primary aim of this study was to describe patients at sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics in Cape Town, South Africa, in terms of gender, education and age differences relative to their STD knowledge and beliefs, their condom use, as well as their attitudes towards condom use and their condom-use behaviour. The information was collected with a view to developing a health education intervention. Structured interviews were conducted with 2978 randomly sampled Xhosa-speaking STD clinic attenders about their knowledge, beliefs and practices regarding STDs and related behaviours. More males (75%) than females (25%) presented for STD treatment. The majority of patients (92%) were younger than 35 years. Female patients were found to be more aware than male patients of the sexual nature of STD transmission, valued personal autonomy in sexual behaviour and expressed a greater need to use condoms. Males perceived STD symptoms to be more serious, had more misconceptions about the cause of STDs and also more negative beliefs and attitudes towards condom use. Only 34.9% of the patients reported using condoms in the last 6 months while only 24.5% reported regular use. Those who reported condom use were more knowledgeable about the sexual transmission of STDs and the effects of STDs on the neonate. They also had fewer misconceptions about the causes of STDs and perceived STD symptoms to be more serious, attached greater value to personal autonomy in sexual behaviour and condom use and had more positive outcome expectancies of refusing sex than those who never used condoms. The data suggest that targeted interventions directed at males will have to address their inadequate knowledge regarding STDs in terms of transmission, causes, consequences, prevention and cure. Their negative beliefs and attitudes towards condoms will need special attention, especially in view of their multiple partner behaviour. Interventions directed at females will need to improve their knowledge

  8. Small Explorer Data System MIL-STD-1773 fiber optic bus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flanegan, Mark; Label, Ken

    1992-01-01

    The MIL-STD-1773 Fiber Optic Data Bus as implemented in the GSFC Small Explorer Data System (SEDS) for the Small Explorer Program is described. It provides an overview of the SEDS MIL-STD-1773 bus components system design considerations, reliability figures, acceptance and qualification testing requirements, radiation requirements and tests, error handling considerations, and component heritage. The first mission using the bus will be launched in June of 1992.

  9. Small Explorer Data System MIL-STD-1773 fiber optic bus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flanegan, Mark; Label, Ken

    1992-06-01

    The MIL-STD-1773 Fiber Optic Data Bus as implemented in the GSFC Small Explorer Data System (SEDS) for the Small Explorer Program is described. It provides an overview of the SEDS MIL-STD-1773 bus components system design considerations, reliability figures, acceptance and qualification testing requirements, radiation requirements and tests, error handling considerations, and component heritage. The first mission using the bus will be launched in June of 1992.

  10. Quantitative Analysis of STD-NMR Spectra of Reversibly Forming Ligand-Receptor Complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishna, N. Rama; Jayalakshmi, V.

    We describe our work on the quantitative analysis of STD-NMR spectra of reversibly forming ligand-receptor complexes. This analysis is based on the theory of complete relaxation and conformational exchange matrix analysis of saturation transfer (CORCEMA-ST) effects. As part of this work, we have developed two separate versions of the CORCEMA-ST program. The first version predicts the expected STD intensities for a given model of a ligand-protein complex, and compares them quantitatively with the experimental data. This version is very useful for rapidly determining if a model for a given ligand-protein complex is compatible with the STD-NMR data obtained in solution. It is also useful in determining the optimal experimental conditions for undertaking the STD-NMR measurements on a given complex by computer simulations. In the second version of the CORCEMA-ST program, we have implemented a torsion angle refinement feature for the bound ligand within the protein binding pocket. In this approach, the global minimum for the bound ligand conformation is obtained by a hybrid structure refinement protocol involving CORCEMA-ST calculation of intensities and simulated annealing refinement of torsion angles of the bound ligand using STD-NMR intensities as experimental constraints to minimize a pseudo-energy function. This procedure is useful in refining and improving the initial models based on crystallography, computer docking, or other procedures to generate models for the bound ligand within the protein binding pocket compatible with solution STD-NMR data. In this chapter we describe the properties of the STD-NMR spectra, including the dependence of the intensities on various parameters. We also describe the results of the CORCEMA-ST analyses of experimental STD-NMR data on some ligand-protein complexes to illustrate the quantitative analysis of the data using this method. This CORCEMA-ST program is likely to be useful in structure-based drug design efforts.

  11. Missed Opportunities for Concurrent HIV-STD Testing in an Academic Emergency Department

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Ian B.K.; Quinlivan, Evelyn B.; Gay, Cynthia L.; Leone, Peter A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives We evaluated emergency department (ED) provider adherence to guidelines for concurrent HIV-sexually transmitted disease (STD) testing within an expanded HIV testing program and assessed demographic and clinical factors associated with concurrent HIV-STD testing. Methods We examined concurrent HIV-STD testing in a suburban academic ED with a targeted, expanded HIV testing program. Patients aged 18–64 years who were tested for syphilis, gonorrhea, or chlamydia in 2009 were evaluated for concurrent HIV testing. We analyzed demographic and clinical factors associated with concurrent HIV-STD testing using multivariate logistic regression with a robust variance estimator or, where applicable, exact logistic regression. Results Only 28.3% of patients tested for syphilis, 3.8% tested for gonorrhea, and 3.8% tested for chlamydia were concurrently tested for HIV during an ED visit. Concurrent HIV-syphilis testing was more likely among younger patients aged 25–34 years (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.36, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.78, 2.10) and patients with STD-related chief complaints at triage (AOR=11.47, 95% CI 5.49, 25.06). Concurrent HIV-gonorrhea/chlamydia testing was more likely among men (gonorrhea: AOR=3.98, 95% CI 2.25, 7.02; chlamydia: AOR=3.25, 95% CI 1.80, 5.86) and less likely among patients with STD-related chief complaints at triage (gonorrhea: AOR=0.31, 95% CI 0.13, 0.82; chlamydia: AOR=0.21, 95% CI 0.09, 0.50). Conclusions Concurrent HIV-STD testing in an academic ED remains low. Systematic interventions that remove the decision-making burden of ordering an HIV test from providers may increase HIV testing in this high-risk population of suspected STD patients. PMID:24385644

  12. Prevalence and risk factors for hepatitis B virus infections among visitors to an STD clinic.

    PubMed Central

    van Duynhoven, Y T; van de Laar, M J; Schop, W A; Rothbarth, P H; van der Meijden, W I; van Loon, A M; Sprenger, M J

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence and risk factors for hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections among individuals attending an STD clinic in a low endemic region. STUDY DESIGN: A total of 1228 women and 1648 men attending the STD clinic at the University Hospital Rotterdam, Netherlands, were examined for HBV infection by determination of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and antibodies to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc). Demographic characteristics, information on sexual behaviour, and intravenous drug use were recorded. RESULTS: The seroprevalence of HBsAg was 1.4% in women and 2.1% in men (0% in homosexual men). The seroprevalence of anti-HBc was 13% in women and 20% in men (36% in homosexual men). Native country, intravenous drug use, a history of STD, and the number of partners in the past half year (inversely) were independent risk factors for HBsAg positivity in women and heterosexual men. For anti-HBc independent associations were observed for native country, age, intravenous drug use, commercial sex, number of lifetime partners, homosexual contacts, orogenital contact (inverse), and a history of STD. CONCLUSION: The HBV prevalence in the STD clinic attendants was high, exceeding the national estimate, and indicates that the STD clinic population may be considered a high risk group. Our data confirmed an increased risk for HBV infections among established risk groups. Therefore, these risk groups should be routinely screened to identify HBV cases for counselling and contact tracing. PMID:9582467

  13. NASA-STD-3001, Space Flight Human-System Standard and the Human Integration Design Handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitmore, Mihriban; Boyer, Jennifer; Holubec, Keith

    2012-01-01

    NASA-STD-3001 Space Flight Human-System Standard Volume 1, Crew Health, Volume 2, Human Factors, Habitability and Environmental Health, and the Human Integration Design Handbook (HIDH) have replaced the Man-Systems Integration Standards (MSIS), NASA-STD-3000. For decades, NASA-STD-3000 was a significant contribution to human spaceflight programs and to human-systems integration. However, with research program and project results being realized, advances in technology, and the availability of new information in a variety of topic areas, the time had arrived to update this extensive suite of standards and design information. NASA-STD-3001, Volume 2 contains the Agency level standards from the human and environmental factors disciplines that ensure human spaceflight operations are performed safely, efficiently, and effectively. The HIDH is organized in the same sequence and serves as the companion document to NASA-STD-3001, Volume 2, providing a compendium of human spaceflight history and knowledge. The HIDH is intended to aid interpretation of NASA-STD-3001, Volume 2 standards and to provide guidance for requirement writers and vehicle and habitat designers. Keywords Human Factors, Standards, Environmental Factors, NASA

  14. Estimating the Size and Cost of the STD Prevention Services Safety Net

    PubMed Central

    Haderxhanaj, Laura T.; Torrone, Elizabeth A.; Behl, Ajay S.; Romaguera, Raul A.; Leichliter, Jami S.

    2015-01-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act is expected to reduce the number of uninsured people in the United States during the next eight years, but more than 10% are expected to remain uninsured. Uninsured people are one of the main populations using publicly funded safety net sexually transmitted disease (STD) prevention services. Estimating the proportion of the uninsured population expected to need STD services could help identify the potential demand for safety net STD services and improve program planning. In 2013, an estimated 8.27 million people met the criteria for being in need of STD services. In 2023, 4.70 million uninsured people are expected to meet the criteria for being in need of STD services. As an example, the cost in 2014 U.S. dollars of providing chlamydia screening to these people was an estimated $271.1 million in 2013 and is estimated to be $153.8 million in 2023. A substantial need will continue to exist for safety net STD prevention services in coming years. PMID:26556931

  15. Spaceflight qualification of the SEDS MIL-STD-1773 fiber optic data bus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flanegan, Mark C.

    1993-09-01

    The small explorer (SMEX) project at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) launched the first spaceflight implementation of the MIL-STD-1773 fiber optic data bus on the Solar Anomalous Magnetospheric Particle Explorer (SAMPEX) in July of 1992. The Small Explorer Data System (SEDS), of which the MIL-STD-1773 data bus is a part, has been successful. The MIL-STD-1773 bus is the implementation of the MIL-STD-1553 protocol using fiber optics. Advantages of the fiber optic bus over the electrical bus include lower power, lower weight, and immunity from EMI/RFI. It does not radiate electrical or magnetic fields. It is a nonconductor so it cannot conduct electrical noise into or from a subsystem. This is particularly advantageous on a spacecraft with very sensitive instruments which are often susceptible to electrical interference. Although the MIL-STD-1773 bus is a 1 Mbps bus like the MIL-STD-1553 bus, the fiber optics also provide a path to the much higher rate systems required in upcoming NASA missions.

  16. STD knowledge and behaviours among clients of female sex workers in Bali, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Fajans, P; Wirawan, D N; Ford, K

    1994-01-01

    This study investigated knowledge, beliefs, and practices related to STDs and AIDS among clients of low price sex workers in Bali, Indonesia. These men are at high risk of STD and HIV transmission. They have poor knowledge of the basic concepts of STD and HIV transmission and prevention, and they practice a variety of ineffective prevention strategies including partner selection and the prophylactic use of antibiotics. They report a mean of 1.9 paid sexual partners in the previous week and very low frequencies of condom use. Over 25% had experienced an STD symptom in the previous 6 months, with self treatment with antibiotics reported by a third. Recent experience of an STD was related to the number of sex worker partners in the previous month and to ever having used a condom with a sex worker. The implications of the study findings for the development of comprehensive STD control programs including educational campaigns, condom promotion, and the strengthening of STD case management by health care providers are discussed.

  17. Exposure to Different Types of Violence and Subsequent Sexual Risk Behavior among Female STD Clinic Patients: A Latent Class Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Jennifer L.; Senn, Theresa E.; Carey, Michael P.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Diverse forms of violence, including childhood maltreatment (CM), intimate partner violence (IPV), and exposure to community violence (ECV), have been linked separately with sexual risk behaviors. However, few studies have explored multiple experiences of violence simultaneously in relation to sexual risk-taking, especially in women who are most vulnerable to violent experiences. Methods Participants were 481 women (66% African American, Mage = 27 years) attending a publicly-funded STD clinic who reported on their past and current experiences with violence and their current sexual risk behavior. We identified patterns of experience with violence using latent class analysis (LCA) and investigated which combinations of experiences were associated with the riskiest sexual outcomes. Results Four classes of women with different experiences of violence were identified: Low Violence (39%), Predominantly ECV (20%), Predominantly CM (23%), and Multiply Victimized (18%). Women in the Multiply Victimized and Predominantly ECV classes reported the highest levels of sexual risk behavior, including more lifetime sexual partners and a greater likelihood of receiving STD treatment and using substances before sex. Conclusions Women with different patterns of violent experiences differed in their sexual risk behavior. Interventions to reduce sexual risk should address violence against women, focusing on experiences with multiple types of violence and experiences specifically with ECV. Additional research is needed to determine the best ways to address violence in sexual risk reduction interventions. PMID:23626921

  18. Estelle Specification of MIL-STD 188-220 Datalink Layer Interoperability Standard for Digital Message Transfer Device Subsystems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-11-01

    ESTELLE SPECIFICATION OF MIL- STD 188-220 DATALINK LAYER* INTEROPERABILITY STANDARD FOR DIGITAL MESSAGE TRANSFER DEVICE SUBSYSTEMS Hao Li Paul...Estelle specification. 1. Introduction The military standard "Interoperability Standard for Digital Message Transfer Device Subsystems" (MIL- STD -188- 220...5,6] represents the army’s focused efforts to digitize the battlefield. The army is hoping that by 2001, all systems will either use MIL- STD -188

  19. Limiting Orbital Debris. SMC Tailoring of NASA-STD-8719.14 -SMC-T-003 (2010)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-19

    Space Command SPACE AND MISSILE SYSTEMS CENTER TAILORING LIMITING ORBITAL DEBRIS SMC TAILORING OF NASA-STD-8719.14 APPROVED...Corporation report number TOR-2009(8506)-5, entitled SMC Tailoring of NASA-STD-8719.14, Process for Limiting Orbital Debris . 3. Beneficial comments...Process for Limiting Orbital Debris 28 Aug 07 2.2 Tailoring Annex The following section describes the SMC tailoring for NASA-STD-8719.14, Process

  20. Extending MIL-STD-1553 bandwidth: a study of impairments, EMI, and channel capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hegarty, Michael G.

    2004-09-01

    This paper explores the possibility of increasing the data rates on existing MIL-STD-1553 networks beyond its current one megabit per second rate. A combination of empirical and theoretical methods is used in predicting the capacity of a MIL-STD-1553 network. The analysis begins with an assessment of the usable bandwidth in a 1553 network followed by the development of models to predict signal-to-noise ratios based on a transmit signal level that meets the emissions limits of MIL-STD-461 and a noise level that is representative of a real 1553 system. This paper presents the theoretical capacity limits for several 1553 network configurations. The results of the analysis predict that the theoretical capacity within a legacy MIL-STD-1553 system is expected to be several hundred megabits per second. The achievable rate depends on network configuration and usable bandwidth. Methods of approaching these theoretical capacity limits is not discussed in this paper, rather, this paper provides a framework and a baseline for the analysis of higher data rates over legacy MIL-STD-1553 networks.

  1. Health System and Personal Barriers Resulting in Decreased Utilization of HIV and STD Testing Services among At-Risk Black Men Who Have Sex with Men in Massachusetts

    PubMed Central

    Reisner, Sari L.; Bland, Sean; Skeer, Margie; Cranston, Kevin; Isenberg, Deborah; Vega, Benny A.; Mayer, Kenneth H.

    2009-01-01

    (PCP); current PCP never recommending they get tested for HIV or STDs. In multivariable models adjusting for relevant demographic and behavioral factors, Black MSM who reported that a HCP recommended getting an HIV test (adjusted relative risk [ARR] = 0.26; p = 0.01) or STD test (ARR = 0.11; p = 0.0004) at their last visit in the past 12 months were significantly less likely to have not been tested for HIV or STDs in the past 2 years. Many sexually active Black MSM do not regularly test for HIV or STDs. HCPs play a pivotal role in encouraging testing for Black MSM. Additional provider training is warranted to educate HCPs about the specific health care needs of Black MSM, in order to facilitate access to timely, culturally competent HIV and STD testing and treatment services for this population. PMID:19803696

  2. Natural phenomena hazards assessment criteria for DOE sites: DOE Standard DOE-STD-1023-95

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, J.C.; Lu, S.C.; Boissonnade, A.C.

    1995-03-24

    This paper summarizes hazard assessment criteria (DOE-STD-1023-95) for Natural Phenomena Hazards (NPH) at DOE sites. The DOE has established policy and requirements for NPH mitigation for DOE sites and facilities using a graded approach by DOE Order 5480.28. The graded approach is implemented by five performance categories established for structures, systems, and components (SSCs) at DOE facilities based on criteria provided by DOE-STD-1021-93. In applying the design/evaluation criteria of DOE-STD-1020-94 for DOE facilities subjected to one of the natural phenomena hazards, the establishment of design basis load levels consistent with the corresponding performance category is required. This standard provides general criteria as well as specific criteria for natural phenomena hazard assessments to ensure that adequate design basis load levels are established for design and/or evaluation of DOE facilities.

  3. MIL-STD-1553 remote terminal design using ASIC megacell technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, Anthony F.

    In the early development of MIL-STD-1553, board level implementations of remote terminals, bus controllers, and monitors were the norm. As technology progressed, hybrid solutions followed by monolithic solutions became the preferred solution of avionics design engineers implementing MIL-STD-1553 interfaces. Recent advances in ASIC technology allows the integration of complete MIL-STD-1553 interface into a silicon substrate along with a host microprocessor, memory, and support logic. The benefits of such a solution include reduced board space, increased flexibility, and higher reliability. A device with similar attributes was designed by Rockwell International, Rocketdyne Division, and manufactured by United Technologies Microelectronics Center (UTMC) for use on Space Station Freedom. This paper outlines the development and functionality of the ASIC device.

  4. Modulation schemes and error-probability of MIL-STD-1773 fiber optic data bus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yude, Ni; Jian, Wang; Zhang, Jian-Guo

    2005-11-01

    Based on the analysis of the MIL-STD-1773 data bus modulation scheme, two optical modulation schemes are proposed for designing this kind of data bus, namely, partial tri-level Manchester II bi-phase coding (PTMBC) and extended Manchester II bi-phase coding with beginning-stopping flags (EMBC-BSF), which can efficiently solve the problem related to three outputs at a MIL-STD-1773 optical receiver with low complexity. Then we focus on the analysis of error probability and optical receiver sensitivity for MIL-STD-1773 data buses with three modulation schemes of Manchester II bi-phase coding, PTMBC , and EMBC-BSF. The results show that both the PTMBC and EMBC-BSF modulation schemes have almost the identical and worse receiver sensitivity than that of the Manchester bi-level coding by ~3dB.

  5. Using the theory of reasoned action (TRA) to understand the decision to use condoms in an STD clinic population.

    PubMed

    Baker, S A; Morrison, D M; Carter, W B; Verdon, M S

    1996-11-01

    The theory of reasoned action (TRA) provides useful information when designing health education interventions. In this study, 703 heterosexual STD clinic clients responded to a TRA-based survey. With steady partners, social norms and attitudes toward condom use were significant predictors of intention for both men and women. The interaction of attitude and norm increased prediction for men (R = .64, p < 0.001) and women (R = .70, p < 0.001). With casual partners, attitude was a predictor for men and social norm was a predictor for women. Prior use of condoms increased prediction for men (R = .38, p < 0.001) and women (R = .47, p < 0.001). Findings suggest that, in addition to traditional TRA model variables, the relationship between sexual partners and the individual's prior experience with condom use should be incorporated into attempts to understand this complex, dyadic behavior. Examining specific outcome and normative beliefs also provides important information for intervention design.

  6. Mapping the bound conformation and protein interactions of microtubule destabilizing peptides by STD-NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Milton, Mark J; Thomas Williamson, R; Koehn, Frank E

    2006-08-15

    Using the hemiasterlin analogs taltobulin (I, HTI-286), II, and III as model compounds, we demonstrate that relaxation-compensated STD-NMR can be used as an effective tool to efficiently provide a qualitative epitope map for microtubule destabilizing peptides. Due to the disparate relaxation behavior of the protons in these model compounds, it was essential to collect STD with very short saturation times to render an accurate picture of the binding interaction. The conformation of HTI-286 (I) in complex with the protein was determined from TRNOESY/ROESY experiments and is similar to the X-ray crystal structure conformation observed for hemiasterlin methyl ester in the absence of protein.

  7. STD-DOSY: A new NMR method to analyze multi-component enzyme/substrate systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramer, Markus; Kleinpeter, Erich

    2010-02-01

    A new approach to analyze multi-component Saturation Transfer Difference (STD) NMR spectra by combining the STD and the DOSY experiment is proposed. The resulting pulse sequence was successfully used to simplify an exemplary multi-component protein/substrate system by means of standard DOSY processing methods. Furthermore, the same experiment could be applied to calculate the ratio of saturated substrate molecules and its saturation rate in the case of competitive interactions. This ratio depends on the strength of this interaction between the substrates and the protein, so that this kind of information could be extracted from the results of our experiment.

  8. Project Eban: An HIV/STD Intervention for African American Couples

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Objective To describe the Eban HIV/STD Risk Reduction Intervention being evaluated in the NIMH Multisite HIV/STD Prevention trial for heterosexual African American couples, including the integrated theoretical framework, the structure, core elements and procedures of the intervention and how the content was shaped by culturally congruent concepts to address the needs of the study target population. Design The Eban HIV/STD Risk Reduction Intervention is designed to address multilevel individual, interpersonal and community level factors that contribute to HIV/STD transmission risk behaviors among heterosexual African American couples who are HIV serodiscordant. Methods The Eban HIV/STD Risk Reduction Intervention employs a mixed modality, couples-based approach that is based on an integrated ecological framework incorporating social cognitive theory and uses an Afro-centric paradigm that is informed by previous evidence-based couples HIV prevention interventions. For this randomized controlled trial, African American serodiscordant couples were recruited from four urban sites (Atlanta, Los Angeles, New York and Philadelphia) and were randomized to either the Eban HIV/STD Risk Reduction Intervention (treatment condition) or a Health Promotion Intervention that served as an attentional control condition. Both interventions had 4 individual couple sessions and 4 group sessions, but only the treatment condition was focused on reducing HIV/STD risk behaviors. Behavioral and biological data were collected at baseline, immediately after the intervention, and at 6 and 12 months. The theoretical framework, core elements and content of each session are described and lessons learned from this intervention trial are discussed. Results An HIV prevention intervention combining couple and group sessions can be feasibly implemented with African American HIV serodiscordant couples who remain at high risk of HIV/STD transmission. The lessons learned from the trial suggest that the

  9. Comparison Evaluation of the PFP FSAR and NRC Regulatory Guide 3.39 with DOE-STD-3009-94

    SciTech Connect

    OSCARSON, E.E.

    2000-07-28

    One of the Plutonium Finishing Plant's (PFP) current Authorization Basis (AB) documents is the Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR). This FSAR (HNF-SD-CP-SAR-02 1) was prepared to the format and content guidance specified in U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Regulatory Guide 3.39, Standard Format and Content of License Applications for Plutonium Processing and Fuel Fabrication Plants (RG 3.39). In April 1992, the US Department of Energy (DOE) issued DOE Order 5480.23 which established the FSAR requirements for DOE nonreactor nuclear facilities. In 1994, DOE issued DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for US. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports, which is a format and content guide addressing the preparation of FSARs in accordance with DOE Order 5480.23. During the initial preparation and issuance of the PFP FSAR the format and content guidance contained in NRC Regulatory Guide 3.39 was utilized, since it was the most applicable guidance at the time for the preparation of Safety Analysis Reports for plutonium processing plants. With the adoption of DOE Order 5480.23 and DOE-STD-3009-94, DOE required the preparation of SARs to meet the format and content of those DOE documents. The PFP was granted an exemption to continue with RG 3.39 format for future FSAR revisions. PFP modifications and additions have required PFP FSAR modifications that have typically been prepared to the same NRC Regulatory Guide 3.39 format and content, to provide consistency with the PFP FSAR. This document provides a table comparison between the 3009 and RG 3.39 formats to validate the extent of PFP FSAR compliance with the intent of DOE Order 5480.23 and DOE-STD-3009-94. This evaluation was initially performed on Revisions 1 and 1A of the PFP FSAR. With the preparation of a Revision 2 draft to the FSAR, sections with significant changes were reevaluated for compliance and the tables were updated, as appropriate. The tables resulting from this

  10. Exploring Gender Differences in the Relationship between HIV/STD Testing and Condom Use among Undergraduate College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bontempi, Jean Breny; Mugno, Raymond; Bulmer, Sandra M.; Danvers, Karina; Vancour, Michele L.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Rates of HIV/AIDS, and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), are increasing among university students. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine gender differences in the relationship between condom use and (1) HIV/STD testing behaviors, (2) STD treatment behaviors and, (3) alcohol use behaviors. Methods: A survey was…

  11. McAlester Army Ammunition Plant (MCAAP) 40- by 44-Inch Wooden Pallet MIL-STD-1660 Tests

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-07-01

    and Engineering Center (ARDEC) to conduct MIL- STD -1660 tests on a 40- by 44-inch wooden pallet (oak) manufactured by MCAAP. This report contains test...results with the pallets provided meeting MIL- STD -1660, Design Criteria for Ammunition Unit Loads, requirements.

  12. 78 FR 64221 - CDC/HRSA Advisory Committee on HIV, Viral Hepatitis and STD Prevention and Treatment; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-28

    ... Hepatitis and STD Prevention and Treatment; Notice of Meeting In accordance with section l0(a)(2) of the... meeting. Name: CDC/HRSA Advisory Committee on HIV, Viral Hepatitis and STD Prevention and Treatment Dates... related to prevention and control of HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis and other STDs, the support of health...

  13. 77 FR 66469 - CDC/HRSA Advisory Committee on HIV, Viral Hepatitis and STD Prevention and Treatment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-05

    ... Hepatitis and STD Prevention and Treatment In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory... Client Level Data Update; (3) Viral Hepatitis Action Plan and Implementation Update; (4) Update on... Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, CDC, 1600 Clifton Road NE., Mailstop...

  14. 78 FR 56708 - Announcement of Requirements and Registration for Game On!: HIV/STD Prevention Mobile Application...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-13

    ... for Game On!: HIV/ STD Prevention Mobile Application (App) Video Game Challenge AGENCY: Centers for...) announces the launch of the Game On!: HIV/STD Prevention Mobile Application (App) Video Game Challenge. We invite video game developers to create an original, innovative, and highly entertaining game...

  15. Knowledge, Beliefs and Behaviours Related to STD Risk, Prevention, and Screening among a Sample of African American Men and Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uhrig, Jennifer D.; Friedman, Allison; Poehlman, Jon; Scales, Monica; Forsythe, Ann

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Current data on sexually transmitted disease (STD) among African Americans show significant racial/ethnic disparities. The purpose of this study was to explore knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and behaviours related to STD risk, prevention, and testing among African American adults to help inform the development of a health communication…

  16. 75 FR 39264 - CDC/HRSA Advisory Committee on HIV and STD Prevention and Treatment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-08

    ... CDC/HRSA Advisory Committee on HIV and STD Prevention and Treatment In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the CDC and HRSA announce the following..., CDC and the Administrator, HRSA, regarding activities related to prevention and control of...

  17. Replicating a Teen HIV/STD Preventive Intervention in a Multicultural City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Diane M.; Hoppe, Marilyn J.; Wells, Elizabeth A.; Beadnell, Blair A.; Wilsdon, Anthony; Higa, Darrel; Gillmore, Mary Rogers; Casey, Erin A.

    2007-01-01

    Although there are now several adolescent HIV and STD preventive interventions of demonstrated efficacy in the literature, little is understood about the portability of these interventions. This study replicated Stanton's Focus on Kids intervention, developed for inner city African American adolescents, in a different population, transferring it…

  18. HIV and STD Knowledge, Sexual Behaviors and Drug Taking Behaviors of Adolescents in Southern Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, R. Mark; Ball, Marcia; Cerullo, Jennie; Trunova, Elena

    2004-01-01

    For several years, HIV infection has increasing rapidly in Eastern Europe and Russia (UNAIDS, 2000, 2003). The purpose of the study was to investigate the HIV and STD knowledge, sexual behaviors and drug taking behaviors of adolescents in southern Russia. The instrument was compiled by the authors, professionally translated, and pilot tested. Most…

  19. Design considerations for MIL-STD-2179 recorders in a rugged environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoff, Steve C.

    1993-02-01

    MIL-STD-2179 is based on D-1 technology which has been proven in the commercial TV industry for over ten years. Application of this technology, in a harsh military environment, has presented technical challenges not addressed in commercial designs. This paper addresses those special design obstacles as well as enhancements desirable for scientific data manipulation compared to fixed rate benign commercial applications.

  20. Flight results of a new GEO infrared Earth sensor STD 15 on board TC2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunel, O.; Krebs, J. P.

    In the frame of the Telecom 2 and Hispasat spacecraft programs, Matra-Marconi Space (France) entrusted SODERN in 1988 for the development of an accurate version of the Earth sensor designed to operate on three axis stabilized satellites at geosynchronous altitude. This new sensor, called STD 15, is a versatile one directly derived from the STD 12 already used on board the SPOT/ERS satellites. Two STD 15 were launched for the first time in December 1991 on board the TC2-A satellite, followed by a second launch in April 1992 on board TC2-B and a third one in September 1992 on board HISPASAT 1A. After a few months of successful operation, the telemetry data have been analyzed by SODERN in order to draw conclusions about the STD 15 behavior. The aim of this paper is to descrbe the latest version of the sensor, then to carry out a preliminary analysis of the available in-flight data. After a short presentation of its operating principle and associated algorithms, the equipment is briefly described and its main features are shown with special attention to the error budget for the various operating modes: transfer orbit (classical or super-synchronous), Earth acquisition, antenna mapping attitude control and station keeping in GEO. Then the main performance results of on ground testing and computed theoretical results are discussed and compared with the in-flight results.

  1. Variability in the performance of MIL-STD-810 sand testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacoby, Keith T.

    2005-05-01

    Exotic Electro-Optics (EEO) recently completed a series of MIL-STD-810F, Method 510.4 sand erosion tests at multiple commercial testing sites. During this testing process, it became apparent that no two environmental test vendors are alike, even if MIL-STD-810F is specified in all cases. Three different test laboratories performing the same Method 510.4 sand test on identically fabricated samples yielded three different results. Ultimately, it is the responsibility of the Engineer to confirm that the test vendor"s equipment, processes, and procedures produce a test environment that is applicable and a result that is accurate based upon the customer specified test requirement and the MIL-STD-810 methodology. Some critical factors that determine the utility of a test are particle concentration, air velocity, particle size and composition, and the ability to maintain these parameters over test duration of up to 90 minutes. EEO has identified a number of parametric details critical to maximizing the stability and accuracy of MIL-STD-810F, Method 510.4, Procedure II sand testing. These strategies will be presented.

  2. Some problems of implementation: ANSI/IEEE Std 1149.1 in microcontroller design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamkiewicz, Hubert; Glinski, Krzysztof; Lewandowski, Artur

    1992-08-01

    The paper presents some problems of implementation ANSI/IEEE Std 1149.1 worked out in the Industrial Institute of Electronics (PIE) microcontroller board. Diagnostic properties of some special hardware solutions and examples of testing procedures are described. Testing was performed with the help of the PIE diagnostic bus analyzer.

  3. Brief Sexual Histories and Routine HIV/STD Testing by Medical Providers

    PubMed Central

    Lanier, Yzette; Castellanos, Ted; Barrow, Roxanne Y.; Jordan, Wilbert C.; Caine, Virginia

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Clinicians who routinely take patient sexual histories have the opportunity to assess patient risk for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and make appropriate recommendations for routine HIV/STD screenings. However, less than 40% of providers conduct sexual histories with patients, and many do not receive formal sexual history training in school. After partnering with a national professional organization of physicians, we trained 26 (US and US territory-based) practicing physicians (58% female; median age=48 years) regarding sexual history taking using both in-person and webinar methods. Trainings occurred during either a 6-h onsite or 2-h webinar session. We evaluated their post-training experiences integrating sexual histories during routine medical visits. We assessed use of sexual histories and routine HIV/STD screenings. All participating physicians reported improved sexual history taking and increases in documented sexual histories and routine HIV/STD screenings. Four themes emerged from the qualitative evaluations: (1) the need for more sexual history training; (2) the importance of providing a gender-neutral sexual history tool; (3) the existence of barriers to routine sexual histories/testing; and (4) unintended benefits for providers who were conducting routine sexual histories. These findings were used to develop a brief, gender-neutral sexual history tool for clinical use. This pilot evaluation demonstrates that providers were willing to utilize a sexual history tool in clinical practice in support of HIV/STD prevention efforts. PMID:24564387

  4. Influence of Professional Preparation and Class Structure on HIV, STD, and Pregnancy Prevention Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhodes, Darson L.; Jozkowski, Kristen N.; Hammig, Bart J.; Ogletree, Roberta J.; Fogarty, Erin C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine if education about human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/sexually transmitted disease (STD) and pregnancy prevention is dependent on professional preparation and/or class structure. Design: A secondary data analysis of the 2006 School Health Policies and Programmes Study (SHPPS) was conducted.…

  5. SHPPS 2006: School Health Policies and Programs Study--Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD) Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The School Health Policies and Programs Study (SHPPS) is a national survey periodically conducted to assess school health policies and programs at the state, district, school, and classroom levels. This brief reports study results in the area of sexually transmitted disease (STD) prevention, covering the following topics (1) Health Education; and…

  6. HIV-Positive Mothers' Communication about Safer Sex and Std Prevention with Their Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Debra A.; Roberts, Kathleen Johnston; Herbeck, Diane M.

    2012-01-01

    Mothers play an important role in promoting the sexual health of their adolescent children. Fifty-seven HIV-positive mothers with adolescent children participated in an in-depth, qualitative interview regarding whether they have talked to their children about safer sex and sexually transmitted disease (STD) prevention, including at what age they…

  7. Rural and Nonrural African American High School Students and STD/HIV Sexual-Risk Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milhausen, Robin R.; Crosby, Richard; Yarber, William L.; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Wingood, Gina M.; Ding, Kele

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To determine differences between African American adolescents on STD/HIV sexual-risk behaviors and precursors to these risk behaviors. Methods: Six hundred sixty-three rural and 3313 nonrural adolescents who completed the 1999 YRBS Survey were selected. Results: Rural females and males were more likely to report ever having coitus and…

  8. Ecological Factors Associated with STD Risk Behaviors among Detained Female Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voisin, Dexter R.; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Salazar, Laura F.; Crosby, Richard A.; Yarber, William L.

    2006-01-01

    The authors used Bronfenbrenner's conceptual framework of an ecological systems model to examine factors that are independently associated with sexually transmitted disease (STD) risk behaviors among 280 sexually active detained female adolescents. Using computer-assisted self-interviewing procedures, the authors assessed individual…

  9. Assessment of potential additions to conventional oil and gas resources of the world (outside the United States) from reserve growth, 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klett, Timothy R.; Cook, Troy A.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Attanasi, E.D.; Freeman, Phil A.; Ryder, Robert T.; Gautier, Donald L.; Verma, Mahendra K.; Le, Phuong A.; Schenk, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey estimated volumes of technically recoverable, conventional petroleum resources resulting from reserve growth for discovered fields outside the United States that have reported in-place oil and gas volumes of 500 million barrels of oil equivalent or greater. The mean volumes were estimated at 665 billion barrels of crude oil, 1,429 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 16 billion barrels of natural gas liquids. These volumes constitute a significant portion of the world's oil and gas resources.

  10. Intercomparison of the Performance of CLM3, NOAH, RUC, and STD Land Surface Schemes in the Weather and Research Forecasting Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, J.; Miller, N.

    2007-12-01

    The Community Land Model version 3 (CLM3) developed by the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) was coupled into the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model version 2.2. The performance of WRF-CLM3 in predicting regional climate was quantitatively compared with that of WRF coupled to the soil thermal diffusion (STD), Rapid Update Cycle, and NOAH Land Surface Schemes. These land surface schemes represent a range of complexity within land-surface schemes. CLM3 is the most sophisticated model, with detailed snow and vegetation processes. The STD scheme is oversimplified, which only calculates soil temperature and neglects vegetation and snow physics. The RUC and NOAH schemes are intermediate in the detail, and the major deference between them is that RUC has a multi-layer snow scheme, and Noah has a single snow layer lumped with the topmost soil layer. WRF was driven by the National Centers for Environmental Prediction Reanalysis data II with each of these land surface schemes for one-year simulations over the period, 1 October 1995 to 30 September 1996, resulting in four one-year simulations for intercomparison. Each simulation has 30km-10km two-way nested domains. The 30 km domain includes the western U.S. and eastern Pacific, and the inner domain includes California and parts of Nevada, Oregon, and the eastern Pacific. Our analysis shows that WRF-CLM3 outperforms WRF-RUC, WRF-NOAH, and WRF-STD in simulating temperature and snow when compared with observations. The WRF-STD scheme, which does not include snow and vegetation processes resulted in the poorest results, with a dramatic overestimation of surface air temperature. However, regardless of the land surface scheme chosen, WRF reasonably well reproduces the winter precipitation, a major water resource for California, suggesting that the linkage between land surface processes and precipitation is not explicit. In general, land surface schemes play a significant role in the simulation of regional

  11. Examining the themes of STD-related Internet searches to increase specificity of disease forecasting using Internet search terms

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Amy K.; Mikati, Tarek; Mehta, Supriya D.

    2016-01-01

    US surveillance of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) is often delayed and incomplete which creates missed opportunities to identify and respond to trends in disease. Internet search engine data has the potential to be an efficient, economical and representative enhancement to the established surveillance system. Google Trends allows the download of de-identified search engine data, which has been used to demonstrate the positive and statistically significant association between STD-related search terms and STD rates. In this study, search engine user content was identified by surveying specific exposure groups of individuals (STD clinic patients and university students) aged 18–35. Participants were asked to list the terms they use to search for STD-related information. Google Correlate was used to validate search term content. On average STD clinic participant queries were longer compared to student queries. STD clinic participants were more likely to report using search terms that were related to symptomatology such as describing symptoms of STDs, while students were more likely to report searching for general information. These differences in search terms by subpopulation have implications for STD surveillance in populations at most risk for disease acquisition. PMID:27827386

  12. The Uniframe Mobile Agent Based Resource Discovery Service

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-06-28

    ABSTRACT see report 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT Same as Report (SAR) 18 . NUMBER OF PAGES 251...Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39- 18 THE UNIFRAME MOBILE AGENT BASED RESOURCE DISCOVERY SERVICE A Technical Report Report Number TR-CIS... 18 2.1.2.3 The UniFrame System Level Generative Programming Framework (USGPF

  13. Uniframe Resource Discovery Service Monitoring and Management System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-04-07

    18 . NUMBER OF PAGES 193 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON a. REPORT unclassified b. ABSTRACT unclassified c. THIS PAGE unclassified Standard...Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39- 18 UNIFRAME RESOURCE DISCOVERY SERVICE MONITORING AND MANAGEMANT SYSTEM A Technical...Grid Monitoring Architecture ......................................................... 18 2.2.6 Monitoring of Software Components

  14. Assessment of potential additions to conventional oil and gas resources in discovered fields of the United States from reserve growth, 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey estimated volumes of technically recoverable, conventional petroleum resources that have the potential to be added to reserves from reserve growth in 70 discovered oil and gas accumulations of the United States, excluding Federal offshore areas. The mean estimated volumes are 32 billion barrels of crude oil, 291 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 10 billion barrels of natural gas liquids.

  15. NASA-STD-7009 Guidance Document for Human Health and Performance Models and Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walton, Marlei; Mulugeta, Lealem; Nelson, Emily S.; Myers, Jerry G.

    2014-01-01

    Rigorous verification, validation, and credibility (VVC) processes are imperative to ensure that models and simulations (MS) are sufficiently reliable to address issues within their intended scope. The NASA standard for MS, NASA-STD-7009 (7009) [1] was a resultant outcome of the Columbia Accident Investigation Board (CAIB) to ensure MS are developed, applied, and interpreted appropriately for making decisions that may impact crew or mission safety. Because the 7009 focus is engineering systems, a NASA-STD-7009 Guidance Document is being developed to augment the 7009 and provide information, tools, and techniques applicable to the probabilistic and deterministic biological MS more prevalent in human health and performance (HHP) and space biomedical research and operations.

  16. Risky Sexual Behavior and Correlates of STD Prevalence Among African American HIV Serodiscordant Couples

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports baseline behavioral and biological data collected from a cohort of 535 African American HIV serodiscordant couples enrolled in the Eban study across four urban metro areas. Data were collected on (1) the prevalence of risky sexual behaviors that occur within a couple and with concurrent sexual partners, (2) the STD prevalence for each member of the couple and (3) the correlates of STDs in the male partner as well as in the female partner. Presentation of the sociodemographic characterization and HIV risk behavior profiles of African American HIV serodiscordant couples represents an important initial description of a hidden, vulnerable population. Future research should be conducted with diverse samples of African American couples (i.e., younger couples, non-stable couples) to explore other potential correlates of STD prevalence. PMID:20499152

  17. Risky sexual behavior and correlates of STD prevalence among African American HIV serodiscordant couples.

    PubMed

    2010-10-01

    This paper reports baseline behavioral and biological data collected from a cohort of 535 African American HIV serodiscordant couples enrolled in the Eban study across four urban metro areas. Data were collected on (1) the prevalence of risky sexual behaviors that occur within a couple and with concurrent sexual partners, (2) the STD prevalence for each member of the couple and (3) the correlates of STDs in the male partner as well as in the female partner. Presentation of the sociodemographic characterization and HIV risk behavior profiles of African American HIV serodiscordant couples represents an important initial description of a hidden, vulnerable population. Future research should be conducted with diverse samples of African American couples (i.e., younger couples, non-stable couples) to explore other potential correlates of STD prevalence.

  18. Interface For Dual-Channel MIL-STD-1553 Data Bus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davies, Bryan L.; Heaps, Timothy L.

    1992-01-01

    Digital electronic subsystem made of commercially available programmable logic arrays and discrete logic devices serves as interface between microprocessor and dual-channel MIL-STD-1553 data bus. Subsystem consumes only 800 mW of power. Provides flexibility in that it is controllable via firmware. Includes only two reading-and-writing ports: one for status and control signals, other for transmission and reception of data.

  19. NASA-STD-4005 and NASA-HDBK-4006, LEO Spacecraft Solar Array Charging Design Standard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferguson, Dale C.

    2007-01-01

    Two new NASA Standards are now official. They are the NASA LEO Spacecraft Charging Design Standard (NASA-STD-4005) and the NASA LEO Spacecraft Charging Design Handbook (NASA-HDBK-4006). They give the background and techniques for controlling solar array-induced charging and arcing in LEO. In this paper, a brief overview of the new standards is given, along with where they can be obtained and who should be using them.

  20. Evidence-Based HIV/STD Prevention Intervention for Black Men Who Have Sex with Men

    PubMed Central

    Herbst, Jeffrey H.; Painter, Thomas M.; Tomlinson, Hank L.; Alvarez, Maria E.

    2015-01-01

    Summary This report summarizes published findings of a community-based organization in New York City that evaluated and demonstrated the efficacy of the Many Men, Many Voices (3MV) human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/sexually transmitted disease (STD) prevention intervention in reducing sexual risk behaviors and increasing protective behaviors among black men who have sex with men (MSM). The intervention addressed social determinants of health (e.g., stigma, discrimination, and homophobia) that can influence the health and well-being of black MSM at high risk for HIV infection. This report also highlights efforts by CDC to disseminate this evidence-based behavioral intervention throughout the United States. CDC's Office of Minority Health and Health Equity selected the intervention analysis and discussion to provide an example of a program that might be effective for reducing HlV infection- and STD-related disparities in the United States. 3MV uses small group education and interaction to increase knowledge and change attitudes and behaviors related to HIV/STD risk among black MSM. Since its dissemination by CDC in 2004, 3MV has been used in many settings, including health department- and community-based organization programs. The 3MV intervention is an important component of a comprehensive HIV and STD prevention portfolio for at-risk black MSM. As CDC continues to support HIV prevention programming consistent with the National HIV/AIDS Strategy and its high-impact HIV prevention approach, 3MV will remain an important tool for addressing the needs of black MSM at high risk for HIV infection and other STDs. PMID:24743663

  1. A POTENTIAL APPLICATION OF UNCERTAINTY ANALYSIS TO DOE-STD-3009-94 ACCIDENT ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    Palmrose, D E; Yang, J M

    2007-05-10

    The objective of this paper is to assess proposed transuranic waste accident analysis guidance and recent software improvements in a Windows-OS version of MACCS2 that allows the inputting of parameter uncertainty. With this guidance and code capability, there is the potential to perform a quantitative uncertainty assessment of unmitigated accident releases with respect to the 25 rem Evaluation Guideline (EG) of DOE-STD-3009-94 CN3 (STD-3009). Historically, the classification of safety systems in a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facility's safety basis has involved how subject matter experts qualitatively view uncertainty in the STD-3009 Appendix A accident analysis methodology. Specifically, whether consequence uncertainty could be larger than previously evaluated so the site-specific accident consequences may challenge the EG. This paper assesses whether a potential uncertainty capability for MACCS2 could provide a stronger technical basis as to when the consequences from a design basis accident (DBA) truly challenges the 25 rem EG.

  2. Development of dual-rate MIL-STD-1773A data bus transceiver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonebright, Rodney K.; Kim, Jae H.; Hughes, Rod; Clement, Jay W.; Bocek, Thomas M.; Chan, Eric Y.; Nitardy, John H.; Hong, Chi-Shain

    1996-10-01

    Boeing has first developed a space-qualifiable, radiation- hardened, dual-rate MIL-STD-1773A fiber-optic transceiver for military command/response time division multiplexed data bus applications. This will provide an enhancement path from a fixed low data rate MIL-STD-1553 bus to a high data rate MIL-STD-1773 bus with minor modification of terminals supporting the existing function. The transceiver operates at dual-rates of both 1 and 20 Mbps over temperature (minus 25 to plus 85 degrees Celsius), and it shows a large dynamic range of greater than 20 dB in support of 32-node star network; a sensitivity of up to minus 38.7 dBm and a saturation of minus 16.1 dBm (limited mainly by test source power) at BER less than or equal to 1 multiplied by 10-10. These transceivers are currently being utilized for space and military applications at DARPA, NASA, and JPL. In this paper we describe the dual-rate transceiver design requirements, ASIC and hybrid design, and performance test results.

  3. Leak testing of IR sensor dewars to 1E-15 std He/s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, Y. Tito; Bergquist, Lyle E.

    1990-09-01

    The results of tests for leakage performed on ten IR sensor dewars are presented, and the design principles of the new testing devices are discussed. The ultrasensitive leak detector used for testing is compared to conventional detectors. The superfine leak calibrator consisting of a tracer gas supply, an aliquot volume, a pressure transducer, temperature gage, and valves was used to measure leak rates in the E-4 to E-12 std cc He/s range. The testing method is explained, including the gases used, the quadrupole mass analyzer, the reference leak calibration, and the temperature coefficient of the reference leak. The test results of the IR sensor dewars are shown: seven showed leak rates in the E-15 std cc He/s range, two had no detectable leaks, and one had a mid-range E-14 leak. The shelf lives of the dewars are calculated based on the results. The vacuum integrity of small IR sensor dewars can be reliably tested to the range of 1E-15 std cc He/s using the ultrasensitive leak detector and the superfine leak calibrator.

  4. A versatile electrical penetration design qualified to IEEE Std. 317-1983

    SciTech Connect

    Lankenau, W.; Wetherill, T.M.

    1994-12-31

    Although worldwide demand for new construction of nuclear power stations has been on a decline, the available opportunities for the design and construction of qualified electrical penetrations continues to offer challenges, requiring a highly versatile design. Versatility is necessary in order to meet unique customer requirements within the constraints of a design basis qualified to IEEE Std. 317-1983. This paper summarizes such a versatile electrical penetration designed, built and tested to IEEE Std. 317-1983. The principal features are described including major materials of construction. Some of the design constraints such as sealing requirements, and conductor density (including numerical example) are discussed. The requirements for qualification testing of the penetration assembly to IEEE Std. 317-1983 are delineated in a general sense, and some typical test ranges for preconditioning, radiation exposure, and LOCA are provided. The paper concludes by describing ways in which this versatile design has been adapted to meet unique customer requirements in a variety of nuclear power plants.

  5. The addition of decision support into computerized physician order entry reduces red blood cell transfusion resource utilization in the intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Fernández Pérez, Evans R; Winters, Jeffrey L; Gajic, Ognjen

    2007-07-01

    Computerized physician order entry (CPOE) has the potential for cost containment in critically ill patients through practice standardization and elimination of unnecessary interventions. Previous study demonstrated the beneficial short-term effect of adding a decision support for red blood cell (RBC) transfusion into the hospital CPOE. We evaluated the effect of such intervention on RBC resource utilization during the two-year study period. From the institutional APACHE III database we identified 2,200 patients with anemia, but no active bleeding on admission: 1,100 during a year before and 1,100 during a year after the intervention. The mean number of RBC transfusions per patient decreased from 1.5 +/- 1.9 units to 1.3 +/- 1.8 units after the intervention (P = 0.045). RBC transfusion cost decreased from $616,442 to $556,226 after the intervention. Hospital length of stay and adjusted hospital mortality did not differ before and after protocol implementation. In conclusion, the implementation of an evidenced-based decision support system through a CPOE can decrease RBC transfusion resource utilization in critically ill patients.

  6. The Importance of School Staff Referrals and Follow-Up in Connecting High School Students to HIV and STD Testing.

    PubMed

    Rasberry, Catherine N; Liddon, Nicole; Adkins, Susan Hocevar; Lesesne, Catherine A; Hebert, Andrew; Kroupa, Elizabeth; Rose, India D; Morris, Elana

    2017-04-01

    This study examined predictors of having received HIV and sexually transmitted disease (STD) testing and having been referred by school staff for HIV/STD testing. In 2014, students in seven high schools completed paper-and-pencil questionnaires assessing demographic characteristics, sexual behavior, referrals for HIV/STD testing, and HIV/STD testing. The analytic sample ( n = 11,303) was 50.7% female, 40.7% Hispanic/Latino, 34.7% Black/African American (non-Hispanic), and mean age was 15.86 ( SD = 1.22). After controlling for demographic characteristics, significant predictors of reporting having been tested for HIV or STDs were reporting having received a referral for HIV/STD testing (odds ratio [ OR] = 3.18; 95% CI = [2.14, 4.70]) and reporting staff following-up on the referral ( OR = 3.29; 95% CI = [1.31, 8.23]). Students reporting referrals had significantly higher odds of being male ( OR = 2.49; 95% CI = [1.70, 3.65]), "other" or multiracial (non-Hispanic; compared to White, non-Hispanic; OR = 2.72; 95% CI = [1.35, 5.46]), sexual minority ( OR = 3.80; 95% CI = [2.57, 5.62]), and sexually experienced ( OR = 2.58; 95% CI = [1.76, 3.795]). School staff referrals with follow-up may increase HIV/STD testing among students.

  7. Performance of Coded Offset Quadrature Phase-Shift Keying (OQPSK) and MIL-STD Shaped OQPSK (SOQPSK) with Iterative Decoding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, L.; Simon, M. K.

    2004-02-01

    We show that, similar to the trellis-coded modulation representation of MIL-STD shaped offset quadrature phase-shift keying (SOQPSK), offset quadrature phase-shift keying (OQPSK) can be decomposed into a "degraded" trellis encoder and a memoryless mapper. Based on the representations of OQPSK and MIL-STD SOQPSK as trellis-coded modulations, we investigate the potential coding gains achievable from the application of simple outer codes to form a concatenated coding structure with iterative decoding. For MIL-STD SOQPSK, we describe the optimum receiver corresponding to its trellis-coded modulation form and then propose a simplified receiver. The bit-error-rate (BER) performances of both receivers for uncoded and coded MIL-STD SOQPSK are simulated and compared to those of OQPSK and Feher-patented quadrature phase-shift keying (FQPSK). The asymptotic BER performance of MIL-STD SOQPSK also is analyzed and compared to that of OQPSK and FQPSK. Simulation results show that, compared to their uncoded systems, both OQPSK and MIL-STD SOQPSK obtain significant coding gains by applying iterative decoding to either the parallel concatenated coding scheme or the serial one, even when very simple outer codes are used.

  8. Resource Manual

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Human Development Institute, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This manual was designed primarily for use by individuals with developmental disabilities and related conditions. The main focus of this manual is to provide easy-to-read information concerning available resources, and to provide immediate contact information for the purpose of applying for resources and/or locating additional information. The…

  9. STD/HIV prevention in Turkey: planning a sequence of interventions.

    PubMed

    Aral, S O; Fransen, L

    1995-12-01

    This study was initiated to assess which mix of early STD/HIV prevention interventions would potentially be effective, cost-effective and sustainable in Turkey; and to program an intervention sequence to maximize synergy among the interventions. During rapid assessment we: 1) reviewed past issues of 3 leading newspapers; 2) collected information on TV coverage; 3) interviewed key informants including taxicab drivers, hotel employees, grocery store owners, academicians in public health and law, investigators of STD/HIV and reproductive tract infections, and officials in the ministry of health; 4) reviewed available evidence on STD/HIV morbidity, sexual behavior patterns, migration patterns and same/opposite gender sex trade. We found: 1) discrepancies between decision makers' perceptions and social realities with respect to the epidemiology of sexual behavior and STDs, and the state of public health programs; 2) discrepancies between sexual practices and public expression regarding sexual practices; 3) economic, demographic, and political pressures in Turkey and in surrounding countries for the expansion of prostitution; 4) a sexual double standard and gender specific migration patterns which sustain a high demand for commercial sex; 5) patterns of health care seeking behaviors and provision of STD clinical services which indicate other STDs may play a very important role in spread of HIV infection; 6) an important mass media role in opinion formation; 7) consensual denial of risk for the majority based on beliefs embedded in machismo, nationalism and religion, and a resulting marginalization and externalization of STD/HIV risk; 8) high prevalence of syphilis among both Turkish and immigrant female prostitutes in Istanbul (early latent 8 and 13%; late latent 0 and 4%; previous history 9 and 22%) 9) and high rates of syphilis among male prostitutes (early latent 11%, late latent 21% and previous history 58%). We concluded that interventions should initially include

  10. Domain-specific interactions between MLN8237 and human serum albumin estimated by STD and WaterLOGSY NMR, ITC, spectroscopic, and docking techniques.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hongqin; Liu, Jiuyang; Huang, Yanmei; Gao, Rui; Tang, Bin; Li, Shanshan; He, Jiawei; Li, Hui

    2017-03-30

    Alisertib (MLN8237) is an orally administered inhibitor of Aurora A kinase. This small-molecule inhibitor is under clinical or pre-clinical phase for the treatment of advanced malignancies. The present study provides a detailed characterization of the interaction of MLN8237 with a drug transport protein called human serum albumin (HSA). STD and WaterLOGSY nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-binding studies were conducted first to confirm the binding of MLN8237 to HSA. In the ligand orientation assay, the binding sites of MLN8237 were validated through two site-specific spy molecules (warfarin sodium and ibuprofen, which are two known site-selective probes) by using STD and WaterLOGSY NMR competition techniques. These competition experiments demonstrate that both spy molecules do not compete with MLN8237 for the specific binding site. The AutoDock-based blind docking study recognizes the hydrophobic subdomain IB of the protein as the probable binding site for MLN8237. Thermodynamic investigations by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) reveal that the non-covalent interaction between MLN8237 and HSA (binding constant was approximately 10(5) M(-1)) is driven mainly by favorable entropy and unfavorable enthalpy. In addition, synchronous fluorescence, circular dichroism (CD), and 3D fluorescence spectroscopy suggest that MLN8237 may induce conformational changes in HSA.

  11. Domain-specific interactions between MLN8237 and human serum albumin estimated by STD and WaterLOGSY NMR, ITC, spectroscopic, and docking techniques

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hongqin; Liu, Jiuyang; Huang, Yanmei; Gao, Rui; Tang, Bin; Li, Shanshan; He, Jiawei; Li, Hui

    2017-01-01

    Alisertib (MLN8237) is an orally administered inhibitor of Aurora A kinase. This small-molecule inhibitor is under clinical or pre-clinical phase for the treatment of advanced malignancies. The present study provides a detailed characterization of the interaction of MLN8237 with a drug transport protein called human serum albumin (HSA). STD and WaterLOGSY nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-binding studies were conducted first to confirm the binding of MLN8237 to HSA. In the ligand orientation assay, the binding sites of MLN8237 were validated through two site-specific spy molecules (warfarin sodium and ibuprofen, which are two known site-selective probes) by using STD and WaterLOGSY NMR competition techniques. These competition experiments demonstrate that both spy molecules do not compete with MLN8237 for the specific binding site. The AutoDock-based blind docking study recognizes the hydrophobic subdomain IB of the protein as the probable binding site for MLN8237. Thermodynamic investigations by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) reveal that the non-covalent interaction between MLN8237 and HSA (binding constant was approximately 105 M−1) is driven mainly by favorable entropy and unfavorable enthalpy. In addition, synchronous fluorescence, circular dichroism (CD), and 3D fluorescence spectroscopy suggest that MLN8237 may induce conformational changes in HSA. PMID:28358124

  12. Word-level Alignment for Multilingual Resource Acquisition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-04-01

    SUBTITLE Word-level Alignment for Multilingual Resource Acquisition 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S...unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 Word-level Alignment for Multilingual Resource Acquisition Adam Lopez...parses to adhere to the constraints of a given monolingual parsing model. If we assume context-free grammars, then each parse must be context-free

  13. HIV, other STD, and pregnancy prevention education in public secondary schools -- 45 states, 2008-2010.

    PubMed

    2012-04-06

    In the United States, 46% of high school students have had sexual intercourse and potentially are at risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), and pregnancy. The National HIV/AIDS Strategy for the United States recommends educating young persons about HIV before they begin engaging in behaviors that place them at risk for HIV infection. The Community Preventive Services Task Force (CPSTF) also recommends risk reduction interventions to prevent HIV, other STDs, and pregnancy among adolescents. To estimate changes in the percentage of secondary schools that teach specific HIV, other STD, and pregnancy risk reduction topics, a key intervention consistent with those supported by the National HIV/AIDS Strategy and CPSTF, CDC analyzed 2008 and 2010 School Health Profiles data for public secondary schools in 45 states. This report summarizes the results of those analyses, which indicated that in 2010, compared with 2008, the percentage of secondary schools teaching 11 topics on HIV, other STD, and pregnancy prevention in a required course in grades 6, 7, or 8 was significantly lower in 11 states and significantly higher in none; the percentage of secondary schools teaching eight topics in a required course in grades 9, 10, 11, or 12 was significantly lower in one state and significantly higher in two states; and the percentage of secondary schools teaching three condom-related topics in a required course in grades 9, 10, 11, or 12 was significantly lower in eight states and significantly higher in three states. Secondary schools can increase efforts to teach all age-appropriate HIV, other STD, and pregnancy prevention topics to help reduce risk behaviors among students.

  14. An Investigation of the Validity of Applying MIL-STD-285 to EMP shielding Effectiveness.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-04-01

    corresponding shi’.lding effectivenw•s of the structure to a plane electromagnetic wa%. (source in the far field). ", \\I 4 4 M ION for NTS WhMtg Secftui...qpecificc.• ion included cri~eria level high altitude EMP. Shielding effect- ,vn .. .m , is of shelt ,rs were made at the time of acceptance frmn vendors...a frequency employed in MIL-STD-285. A closed form express; ion 6 (r, f) is obtained for the difference between EMP shielding effectiveness and loop

  15. Design Principles and Practices for Implementation of MIL-STD-1760 in Aircraft and Stores

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-06-01

    its crew. Without some limitattons on the amount of fault induced energy which can be dumped into the store , it is considered not practical for the...TIC FJILE COP’ ASD-TR-87-5028 AD-A 183 724 ’ DISIGN PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICES FO’Z IMPLEMENTATION OF MZL-STD-1760 IN AIRCRAFT AND STORES .•AUG 3 1 a...il Aircraft an Stores 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) TIP.- T.mirnpr.. A-..J. Marpk. -JM- Dritm- R..R- EPrnqr.,dez 13a. TYPE OF REPORT 3.TIME COVERED 14. DATE

  16. Another Look at the Draft Mil-Std-1540E Unit Random Vibration Test Requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perl, E.; Peterson, A. J..; Davis, D.

    2012-07-01

    The draft Mil-Std-1540E has been updated to reflect lessons learned since its publication as an SMC Standard in 2008, [1], and an earlier Aerospace Corporation Technical Report released in 2006, [2]. This paper discusses the technical rationale supporting some of the unit random vibration test requirements to provide better insight into their derivation and application to programs. It is intended that these requirements be tailored for each program to reflect the customer risk profile. Several tailoring options are provided and a two phase test strategy is discussed to highlight its applicability to utilizing heritage hardware in new applications.

  17. Potential Damage to Flight Hardware from MIL-STD-462 CS02 Setup

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, Patrick K.; Block, Nathan F.

    2002-01-01

    The MIL-STD-462 CS02 conducted susceptibility test setup, performed during electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) testing, consists of an audio transformer with the secondary used as an inductor and a large capacitor. Together, these two components form an L-type low-pass filter to minimize the injected test signal input into the power source. Some flight hardware power input configurations are not compatible with this setup and break into oscillation when powered up. This can damage flight hardware and caused a catastrophic failure to an item tested in the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Large EMC Test Facility.

  18. Potential Damage to Flight Hardware from MIL-STD-462 CS02 Setup

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, Patrick K.; Block, Nathan F.

    2003-01-01

    The MIL-STD-462 CS02 conducted susceptibility test setup includes an audio transformer, with the secondary used as an inductor, and a large capacitor. Together, these two components form an L-type low-pass filter to minimize the injected test signal input into the power source. Some flight hardware power input configurations are not compatible with this setup and break into oscillation when powered up. This, in turn, can damage flight hardware. Such an oscillation resulted in the catastrophic failure of an item tested in the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Large electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) Test Facility.

  19. Results of the NIMH Collaborative HIV/STD Prevention Trial of a Community Popular Opinion Leader Intervention

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Objective To determine whether community populations in Community Popular Opinion Leader (C-POL) intervention venues showed greater reductions in sexual risk practices and lower HIV/STD incidence than those in comparison venues. Methods A 5-country group-randomized trial, conducted from 2002 to 2007, enrolled cohorts from 20 to 40 venues in each country. Venues, matched within country on sexual risk and other factors, were randomly assigned within matched pairs to the C-POL community intervention or an AIDS education comparison. All participants had access to condoms and were assessed with repeated in-depth sexual behavior interviews, STD/HIV testing and treatment, and HIV/STD risk reduction counseling. Sexual behavior change and HIV/STD incidence were measured over two years. Results Both intervention and comparison conditions showed declines of approximately 33% in risk behavior prevalence and had comparable disease incidence within and across countries, target populations, and types of venues. Conclusions The community-level intervention did not produce greater behavioral risk and disease incidence reduction than the comparison condition, perhaps due to the intensive prevention services received by all participants during the assessment. Repeated, detailed self-review of risk behavior practices coupled with HIV/STD testing, treatment, HIV risk reduction counseling, and condom access can themselves substantially change behavior and disease acquisition. PMID:20354444

  20. Vertical profiling of atmospheric refractivity using GPS STD data from a single ground-based station: Simulations and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zus, F.; Dick, G.; Heise, S.; Wickert, J.; Ramatschi, M.

    2013-12-01

    We developed a ray-tracing operator to compute the signal travel time delay due to the neutral atmosphere, known as Slant Total Delay (STD), between a GPS satellite and a ground-based receiving station. Having developed a rapid and precise forward operator we constructed the tangent-linear (adjoint) operator to estimate refractivity in the vicinity of a single station. The refractivity retrievals potentially complement refractivity retrievals from radio occultation data and can be considered a valuable input for Numerical Weather Prediction. In a first experiment (simulation) we study the feasibility for vertical profiling of refractivity using STDs from a single station. The simulation cycle consists of the computation of STDs given a refractivity profile, the addition of noise to mimic observation errors and the retrieval of a refractivity profile from the artificial STDs by a non-linear least-square analysis. Clearly, besides the noise level, the elevation range plays an important role regarding the quality of the refractivity retrieval; near-horizon STDs corrupted by noise allow a significantly better refractivity retrieval than STDs close to the zenith without any noise. The simulation study suggests that near-horizon STDs provide additional information when compared to Zenith Total Delays (ZTDs). In a second experiment (application) we replace the artificial STDs in the simulation by STDs retrieved from GPS phase-observations. The procedure is repeated station-by-station for 200 stations in Germany. We do not find a significant benefit from STDs over ZTDs in the retrieved refractivity profile since near-horizon STDs are rarely available and representative errors due to asymmetry are non-negligable. We attempt to mitigate the latter problem by the additional estimation of horizontal gradients, and indeed, we find strong evidence that STDs retrieved from GPS phase-observations contain asymmetric information. The former problem still poses a serious limitation

  1. Modified approach to use of DOE-STD-3009 example risk matrices.

    SciTech Connect

    Atwood, Ginger A.

    2008-04-01

    DOE-STD-3009, Preparation Guide for US Department of Energy Non-reactor Nuclear Facilities Documented Safety Analyses, identifies a methodology for selection of high risk accidents and hazard scenarios for Hazard Category 1, 2, and 3 Nuclear Facilities and their controls. It provides examples of risk matrices which can be used as a part of this methodology. It also states, 'There is no one correct approach or presentation'. Sandia has used a modified version of these examples to focus control selection on controls that provide the highest risk to the public and the workers. Sandia's matrix assigns a lower risk level to high probability, low consequence events that are covered by institutional safety programs. The objective of this paper is to serve as a point of discussion on the benefits of using this modification to the DOE-STD-3009 examples. The paper relates to the workshop subtopic of Lessons Learned and Hazards Analysis since it provides lessons learned in hazard analysis process at SNL.

  2. HIV/Std Risk Behaviors and Perceptions Among Rural-to-Urban Migrants in China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaoming; Stanton, Bonita; Fang, Xiaoyi; Lin, Danhua; Mao, Rong; Wang, Jing; Cottrell, Lesley; Harris, Carole

    2006-01-01

    Data from 2,153 sexually active rural-to-urban migrants in China were analyzed to examine the relationship between the movement of rural-to-urban migration and increased HIV/STD (sexually transmitted disease) risk and the applicability of constructs of a Western-based theory of behavioral change to the study population. Measurements included migrant mobility, sexual risk, and the seven constructs of the protection motivation theory (PMT). Data in the current study suggest that high mobility among rural-to-urban migrants was associated with increased sexual risk. The PMT constructs are applicable in identifying perceptions and attitudes associated with sexual risk behaviors in this culturally distinct population. Increased sexual risk was associated with increased perceptions of extrinsic rewards, intrinsic rewards, and response cost. Also consistent with PMT, increased sexual risk was associated with perceptions of decreased severity, vulnerability, response efficacy, and self-efficacy. After controlling for a number of key confounding factors, all seven PMT constructs were associated with sexual risk in the manner posited by the theory. The association between mobility and sexual risk underscores the importance of effective HIV/STD prevention efforts among this vulnerable population. The social cognitive theories including the PMT may form a logical base for prevention intervention programs targeting rural-to-urban migrants in China. PMID:15585430

  3. Family Life Education Project seeks to bring down illegitimate births, teen-age pregnancies and STD.

    PubMed

    Kondo, A

    1992-01-01

    Levels of teen pregnancy, illegitimate birth, sexually transmitted disease (STD), rape, wife-bashing, abandonment and abuse, abortion, school dropout, divorce, and drug abuse are on the rise in Fiji. 13.4% of 7,093 births to 7,093 mothers over the period January 1982-June 1983 were to mothers under age 19, of which 46.7% of the babies were illegitimate. 4% of all mothers harbored STD. Talks held by the Ministry of Education eventually led to the development and implementation of the Family Life Education Project in July 1985. The project's longterm goals are to reduce the incidence of adolescent pregnancy, unwanted births, STDs, and psychological stress. To attain these goals, family life education was incorporated in the curricula of 104 of 141 of the country's secondary schools. This core course was designed to change teen attitudes and behaviors relating to family life, population issues, and family planning, and was implemented with broad parental and community support. Anecdotal evidence suggests program success.

  4. Interactive video behavioral intervention to reduce adolescent females' STD risk: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Downs, Julie S; Murray, Pamela J; Bruine de Bruin, Wändi; Penrose, Joyce; Palmgren, Claire; Fischhoff, Baruch

    2004-10-01

    A longitudinal randomized design was used to evaluate the impact of a theoretically based, stand-alone interactive video intervention on 300 urban adolescent girls' (a) knowledge about sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), (b) self-reported sexual risk behavior, and (c) STD acquisition. It was compared to two controls, representing high-quality informational interventions. One used the same content in book form; the other used commercially available brochures. Following randomization, the interventions were administered at baseline, with booster sessions at 1, 3, and 6 months. Self-reports revealed that those assigned to the interactive video were significantly more likely to be abstinent in the first 3 months following initial exposure to the intervention, and experienced fewer condom failures in the following 3 months, compared to controls. Six months after enrollment, participants in the video condition were significantly less likely to report having been diagnosed with an STD. A non-significant trend in data from a clinical PCR assay of Chlamydia trachomatis was consistent with that finding.

  5. Determinants of inconsistent condom use with female sex workers among men attending the STD clinic in Singapore

    PubMed Central

    Wee, S; Barrett, M; Lian, W; Jayabaskar, T; Chan, K

    2004-01-01

    Background/objectives: Female sex workers and their male clients have been identified as risk groups for the transmission of STDs and HIV. Behavioural interventions targeting clients need to address inconsistent condom use among them. The aim of the study is to assess the sociodemographic, behavioural, and psychological factors associated with inconsistent condom use among clients of sex workers. Methods: 229 male patients attending the STD clinic in Singapore who reported paying for sex in the previous 6 months were interviewed. Response rate was 91%. Results: Overall, 45% used condoms inconsistently; these clients were more likely to have poor STD knowledge, visit sex workers five or more times in the past 6 months, have lower self efficacy, less favourable social norms for condom use, and more likely to forget condom use when intoxicated (alcohol impaired decision making). Conclusions: Behavioural interventions for clients need to improve STD/HIV transmission knowledge and focus on improving client's self efficacy in using condoms. PMID:15295132

  6. A Novel Integration Effort to Reduce the Risk for Alcohol-Exposed Pregnancy Among Women Attending Urban STD Clinics

    PubMed Central

    Hutton, Heidi E.; Chander, Geetanjali; Green, Patricia P.; Hutsell, Catherine A.; Weingarten, Kimberly

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol-exposed pregnancy (AEP) is a significant public health problem in the United States. Sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics serve female clients with a high prevalence of heavy alcohol consumption coupled with ineffective contraceptive use. Project CHOICES (Changing High-Risk AlcOhol Use and Increasing Contraception Effectiveness) is an evidence-based, brief intervention to lower risk of AEP by targeting alcohol and contraceptive behaviors through motivational interviewing and individualized feedback. We describe our experience integrating and implementing CHOICES in STD clinics. This endeavor aligns with CDC's National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention's program collaboration and service integration strategic priority to strengthen collaborative work across disease areas and integrate services provided by related programs at the client level. PMID:24385650

  7. Additive Manufactured Product Integrity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waller, Jess; Wells, Doug; James, Steve; Nichols, Charles

    2017-01-01

    NASA is providing key leadership in an international effort linking NASA and non-NASA resources to speed adoption of additive manufacturing (AM) to meet NASA's mission goals. Participants include industry, NASA's space partners, other government agencies, standards organizations and academia. Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) is identified as a universal need for all aspects of additive manufacturing.

  8. A STD-NMR study of the interaction of the Anabaena ferredoxin-NADP+ reductase with the coenzyme.

    PubMed

    Antonini, Lara V; Peregrina, José R; Angulo, Jesús; Medina, Milagros; Nieto, Pedro M

    2014-01-07

    Ferredoxin-NADP+ reductase (FNR) catalyzes the electron transfer from ferredoxin to NADP+ via its flavin FAD cofactor. To get further insights in the architecture of the transient complexes produced during the hydride transfer event between the enzyme and the NADP+ coenzyme we have applied NMR spectroscopy using Saturation Transfer Difference (STD) techniques to analyze the interaction between FNRox and the oxidized state of its NADP+ coenzyme. We have found that STD NMR, together with the use of selected mutations on FNR and of the non-FNR reacting coenzyme analogue NAD+, are appropriate tools to provide further information about the the interaction epitope.

  9. Spatial Visualization of Multivariate Datasets: An Analysis of STD and HIV/AIDS Diagnosis Rates and Socioeconomic Context Using Ring Maps

    PubMed Central

    Lòpez-De Fede, Ana; Stewart, John E.; Hardin, James W.; Mayfield-Smith, Kathy; Sudduth, Dawn

    2011-01-01

    Objectives We used existing data systems to examine sexually transmitted disease (STD) and HIV/AIDS diagnosis rates and explore potential county-level associations between HIV/AIDS diagnosis rates and socioeconomic disadvantage. Methods Using South Carolina county data, we constructed multivariate ring maps to spatially visualize syphilis, gonorrhea, chlamydia, and HIV/AIDS diagnosis rates; gender- and race-specific HIV/AIDS diagnosis rates; and three measures of socioeconomic disadvantage—an unemployment index, a poverty index, and the Townsend index of social deprivation. Statistical analyses were performed to quantitatively assess potential county-level associations between HIV/AIDS diagnosis rates and each of the three indexes of socioeconomic disadvantage. Results Ring maps revealed substantial spatial association in STD and HIV/AIDS diagnosis rates and highlighted large gender and racial disparities in HIV/AIDS across the state. The mean county-level HIV/AIDS diagnosis rate (per 100,000 population) was 24.2 for males vs. 11.2 for females, and 34.8 for African Americans vs. 5.2 for white people. In addition, ring map visualization suggested a county-level association between HIV/AIDS diagnosis rates and socioeconomic disadvantage. Significant positive bivariate relationships were found between HIV/AIDS rate categories and each increase in poverty index category (odds ratio [OR] = 2.03; p=0.006), as well as each increase in Townsend index of social deprivation category (OR=4.98; p<0.001). A multivariate ordered logistic regression model in which all three socioeconomic disadvantage indexes were included showed a significant positive association between HIV/AIDS and Townsend index categories (adjusted OR=6.10; p<0.001). Conclusions Ring maps graphically depicted the spatial coincidence of STD and HIV/AIDS and revealed large gender and racial disparities in HIV/AIDS across South Carolina counties. This spatial visualization method used existing data systems to

  10. HIV/STD Prevention Benefits of Living in Supportive Families: A Prospective Analysis of High Risk African-American Female Teens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosby, Richard A.; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Wingood, Gina M.; Harrington, Kathy

    2002-01-01

    Investigated whether living in a supportive family was an HIV/STD-protective factor for at-risk African American adolescent girls. Surveys supported the association between living in perceived supportive families and HIV/STD protective benefits. Supportive families enhanced girls' confidence in their ability to negotiate condom use and helped them…

  11. Behavioral risk factors for STD/HIV transmission in Bangladesh's trucking industry.

    PubMed

    Gibney, Laura; Saquib, Nazmus; Metzger, Jesse

    2003-04-01

    To examine behaviors that could influence STD/HIV transmission in Bangladesh's trucking industry, a survey was orally administered to 388 truck drivers/helpers at Tejgaon truck stand in Dhaka. A two-tiered sampling strategy was used: 38 trucking agencies were randomly selected and a mean of 10.2 subjects was recruited from each agency. Focus group and in-depth interviews were also conducted. The focus was on behaviors that affect (i) exposure to STD/HIV infection, (ii) efficiency of transmission of infection and (iii) duration of infectiousness. The findings illustrated that intravenous drug use was not an important risk factor; only 1 subject had used drugs intravenously. Sexual risk behaviors, however, were prevalent: the mean number of sexual partners in the past year was 4.57 (SD=8.70) and in the past 3 months was 1.82 (SD=3.27). Premarital and extramarital sex was common, often with commercial sex workers (CSW); 54% of all subjects had relations with at least 1 CSW in the past year. In a multiple logistic regression analysis, subjects who engaged in other types of socially risky behavior (drinking alcohol, ingesting or smoking recreational drugs, having sex with other men) were significantly (p<0.05) more likely to have had sex with a CSW in the past year. While 7.2% of subjects had a male sex partner in the past year, 21% had ever had one (likely youthful experimentation for most). Condom use was very infrequent: of the 343 subjects who had ever had sexual intercourse only 31% had ever used a condom and most of those subjects had used only once or occasionally. Having sex with CSWs, being married, having heard of AIDS and age were significantly associated (p<0.05) with ever use of condoms. Frequently, subjects who had genital symptoms either did not have those symptoms treated at all or treated in a timely fashion, and over 1/3 did not change their sexual behavior while infected. To reduce the potential for the spread of STD/HIV in this population

  12. Food additives

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Michael

    1974-01-01

    Food additives are discussed from the food technology point of view. The reasons for their use are summarized: (1) to protect food from chemical and microbiological attack; (2) to even out seasonal supplies; (3) to improve their eating quality; (4) to improve their nutritional value. The various types of food additives are considered, e.g. colours, flavours, emulsifiers, bread and flour additives, preservatives, and nutritional additives. The paper concludes with consideration of those circumstances in which the use of additives is (a) justified and (b) unjustified. PMID:4467857

  13. Fiber-Optic Implementation of MIL STD-1553: A Serial Bus Protocol

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-03-01

    U w z Iu w U 3 wRMR (INS SICOUOARV ( ac nd u Figure 4. A Typical Mil Std-1553 Application LL ... F-16 Aircraft Avionics Systemi [Ref. 61 16 E. THE HD...n t - r E R R O R; ll Tetin Ech) Word,~Pushbut tot, Update _-- 9GO 6? toa -Put ’t Z t ’ ’. PLAY I yes I Go; er , e~Go z W, a oe seuo an U ord IE...Word Cnt OBC AA MOV R2, A Save Wd Cnt in R2 OBD 9900 ANL P1, #00 Clear Port 1 OBF 8902 ORL P1, #02 Output LSH Enable oCl 02 OUTL Bus, A 0C2 9900 ANL P1

  14. Incarceration and Unstable Housing Interact to Predict Sexual Risk Behaviors among African American STD Clinic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Widman, Laura; Noar, Seth M.; Golin, Carol E.; Willoughby, Jessica Fitts; Crosby, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Given dramatic racial disparities in rates of HIV/STDs among African Americans, understanding broader structural factors that increase the risk for HIV/STDs is crucial. This study investigated incarceration history and unstable housing as two structural predictors of HIV risk behavior among 293 African Americans (159 men/134 women, Mage=27). Participants were recruited from an urban STD clinic in the southeastern U.S. Approximately half the sample had been incarcerated in their lifetime (54%), and 43% had been unstably housed in the past 6 months. Incarceration was independently associated with number of sex partners and the frequency of unprotected sex. Unstable housing was independently associated with the frequency of unprotected sex. However, these main effects were qualified by significant interactions: individuals with a history of incarceration and more unstable housing had more sex partners and more unprotected sex in the past three months than individuals without these structural barriers. Implications for structural-level interventions are discussed. PMID:24060677

  15. STD Clinic Patients' Awareness of Non-AIDS Complications of HIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Castro, José Guillermo; Granovsky, Inna; Jones, Deborah; Weiss, Stephen M.

    2016-01-01

    Participants were recruited from a sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic in Florida and were assessed regarding the knowledge and awareness of non-AIDS conditions associated with HIV infection. Questionnaires were administered before and after a brief information session on non-AIDS conditions associated with HIV infection. Participants included men (n = 46) and women (n = 51). Prior to the information session, at baseline, only 34% of the participants were worried about HIV infection. Most participants (82%) agreed that HIV could be treated with antiretroviral therapy (ART), while only 38% were aware that HIV-associated conditions cannot be easily treated with ART. After the information session, almost all participants reported they were concerned regarding the risk of HIV infection. High-risk patients may have limited knowledge about the consequences of HIV infection beyond the traditional AIDS-associated conditions. Increased awareness of these less known consequences of HIV infection may decrease the potential for complacency regarding acquiring HIV infection. PMID:25331221

  16. Handbook for the USAF space environment standard (MIL-STD-1809)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1993-01-01

    The Handbook for the Space Environment Standard (MIL-STD-1809) is a companion document to the Standard. The Standard is necessarily a very concise document, so that the Handbook is intended to make its usage easier. The Handbook describes the sources of the environmental models cited in the Standard, as well as the usage of the models, and their limitations. Means for obtaining the cited models are given as well. With the exception of the space debris model, the Handbook covers only the natural space environment. The Handbook provides a general overview of the various components of the space environment and the generally accepted understanding of them at the current time. A bibliography is provided to aid in understanding the materials presented in the Handbook and Standard.

  17. Preliminary SEU analysis of the SAMPEX MIL-STD-1773 space-flight data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crabtree, Christina M.; LaBel, Kenneth A.; Stassinopoulos, E. G.; Miller, Jay T.

    1993-09-01

    The Small Explorer Data System (SEDS) relies heavily on new technologies in the electrical designs. Among the key technologies utilized are fiber optics. The effects of the harsh space radiation environment on these spacecraft components can be quite severe. This paper takes a preliminary look at the single event upset (SEU) data seen during the early portion of SAMPEX flight (launched in July 1992) versus the ground test predictions. The new technologies are addressed along with the error handling abilities of the fiber optic system (MIL-STD-1773). The predicted SAMPEX radiation environment is discussed as well as the methodology of SEU rate prediction utilizing both cosmic ray and proton concerns. A comparison of the flight data to ground test predictions is discussed along with information concerning the significance of where and when the SEUs have occurred.

  18. Evaluation of advanced microelectronics for inclusion in MIL-STD-975

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, W. Richard

    1991-03-01

    The approach taken by NASA and JPL (Jet Propulsion Laboratory) in the development of a MIL-STD-975 section which contains advanced technology such as Large Scale Integration and Very Large Scale Integration (LSI/VLSI) microelectronic devices is described. The parts listed in this section are recommended as satisfactory for NASA flight applications, in the absence of alternate qualified devices, based on satisfactory results of a vendor capability audit, the availability of sufficient characterization and reliability data from the manufacturers and users and negotiated detail procurement specifications. The criteria used in the selection and evaluation of the vendors and candidate parts, the preparation of procurement specifications, and the status of this activity are discussed.

  19. Evaluation of advanced microelectronics for inclusion in MIL-STD-975

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, W. Richard

    1991-01-01

    The approach taken by NASA and JPL (Jet Propulsion Laboratory) in the development of a MIL-STD-975 section which contains advanced technology such as Large Scale Integration and Very Large Scale Integration (LSI/VLSI) microelectronic devices is described. The parts listed in this section are recommended as satisfactory for NASA flight applications, in the absence of alternate qualified devices, based on satisfactory results of a vendor capability audit, the availability of sufficient characterization and reliability data from the manufacturers and users and negotiated detail procurement specifications. The criteria used in the selection and evaluation of the vendors and candidate parts, the preparation of procurement specifications, and the status of this activity are discussed.

  20. SHIPMENT OF TWO DOE-STD-3013 CONTAINERS IN A 9977 TYPE B PACKAGE

    SciTech Connect

    Abramczyk, G.; Bellamy, S.; Loftin, B.; Nathan, S.

    2011-06-06

    The 9977 is a certified Type B Packaging authorized to ship uranium and plutonium in metal and oxide forms. Historically, the standard container for these materials has been the DOE-STD-3013 which was specifically designed for the long term storage of plutonium bearing materials. The Department of Energy has used the 9975 Packaging containing a single 3013 container for the transportation and storage of these materials. In order to reduce container, shipping, and storage costs, the 9977 Packaging is being certified for transportation and storage of two 3013 containers. The challenges and risks of this content and the 9977s ability to meet the Code of Federal Regulations for the transport of these materials are presented.

  1. Clean STD-NMR spectrum for improved detection of ligand-protein interactions at low concentration of protein.

    PubMed

    Xia, Youlin; Zhu, Qi; Jun, Kyu-Yeon; Wang, Jingchun; Gao, Xiaolian

    2010-12-01

    Saturation transfer difference (STD)-NMR has been widely used to screen ligand compound libraries for their binding activities to proteins and to determine the binding epitopes of the ligands. We report herein, a Clean STD-NMR method developed to overcome false positives (artifacts) observed in the STD-NMR spectrum due to the power spillover of RF irradiation. The method achieved higher degree of resonance saturation through digital editing of two STD-NMR spectra to generate a concatenated difference spectrum and three times of sensitivity enhancement for a loose binding complex involving DNA oligonucleotide and an RNA-binding protein, CUGBP-1ab (25.2 kDa). The interesting binding characteristics of the complex dCTGTCT-CUGBP1ab were obtained. The method was applied to a mixture of small ligand and bovine serum albumin protein (BSA, 66.3 kDa), and detected the intermolecular contacts at a BSA concentration as low as 0.1 µM, a working concentration useful for the detection of proteins of low solubility at biologically relevant conditions.

  2. 76 FR 38550 - Technical Standard DOE-STD-1095-2011, Department of Energy Laboratory Accreditation for External...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-01

    ...The Department of Energy (DOE or the Department) is issuing Technical Standard DOE-STD-1095-2011, Department of Energy Laboratory Accreditation for External Dosimetry, January 2011. This standard provides updated technical criteria for performance testing for, and provides a requirement for onsite quality assurance assessments of, whole body and extremity dosimetry programs in use at DOE......

  3. 78 FR 32392 - CDC/HRSA Advisory Committee on HIV, Viral Hepatitis and STD Prevention and Treatment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-30

    ... CDC/HRSA Advisory Committee on HIV, Viral Hepatitis and STD Prevention and Treatment In accordance... Administrator, HRSA, regarding activities related to prevention and control of HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis and... professionals and the public about HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis and other STDs. Matters To Be Discussed:...

  4. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) seroprevalence in persons attending STD clinics in the United States, 1985-1987.

    PubMed

    Cannon, R O; Schmid, G P; Moore, P S; Pappaioanou, M

    1989-01-01

    We reviewed published and unpublished studies on seroprevalence of HIV antibody in persons attending sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics in the United States from 1985 through 1987. We identified 23 studies from 16 states; nine studies determined risk factors for HIV. Overall, 899 (4.2%) of the 21,352 clinic attendees were seropositive; the seroprevalence rate was higher for men (5.9%) than for women (1.7%). Clinic seroprevalence ranged from 0.5% to 15.2% (median, 3.5%), reflecting in part the proportion of all attendees who were homosexual or bisexual, intravenous-drug users (IVDUs), or heterosexual partners of bisexual men or IVDUs (median proportion, 21.8% for the nine sites with this information). Most HIV-seropositive persons were at recognized risk (median for the same nine studies, 85.3%). Homosexual/bisexual men had the highest seroprevalence (median, 32.2%), followed by heterosexual IVDUs (median, 3.6%). Heterosexuals who denied intravenous-drug use had a median rate of 0.9%, which strongly correlated with rates in IVDUs in the same clinics (r = 0.88). We conclude many STD clinic attendees are infected with HIV. Because AIDS is an STD and seroprevalence has been associated with other STDs, STD clinics are important sites for HIV surveillance and risk-reduction education.

  5. Teaching Gender to Younger and Less Sexually Experienced Adolescents in the Context of HIV/STD Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sclafane, Jamie Heather; Perry, Deidrea L.; Lolacono, Marni L.; Fryer, Craig S.; Adair, Elissa Schuler; Silver, Ellen Johnson; Bauman, Laurie J.

    2005-01-01

    Gender beliefs affect adolescents' sexual motivations, perceptions, and actions (Moss, 1994) and can endanger sexual health (Haffner, 1998). We believe that teaching youth about gender norms will increase the efficacy of HIV/STD preventive interventions. We were funded by the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development to develop and…

  6. Sexual Sensation Seeking, Social Stress, and Coping Styles as Predictors of HIV/STD Risk Behaviors in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teva, Inmaculada; Bermudez, Maria Paz; Buela-Casal, Gualberto

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess whether coping styles, social stress, and sexual sensation seeking were predictors of HIV/STD risk behaviours in adolescents. A representative sample of 4,456 female and male Spanish high school students aged 13 to 18 years participated. A stratified random sampling procedure was used. Self-report questionnaires…

  7. Saturation-Transfer Difference (STD) NMR: A Simple and Fast Method for Ligand Screening and Characterization of Protein Binding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viegas, Aldino; Manso, Joao; Nobrega, Franklin L.; Cabrita, Eurico J.

    2011-01-01

    Saturation transfer difference (STD) NMR has emerged as one of the most popular ligand-based NMR techniques for the study of protein-ligand interactions. The success of this technique is a consequence of its robustness and the fact that it is focused on the signals of the ligand, without any need of processing NMR information about the receptor…

  8. Set-theoretic deconvolution (STD) for multichromatic ground/air/space-based imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safronov, Aleksandr N.

    1997-09-01

    This paper proposes a class of nonlinear methods, called Set-Theoretic Deconvolution (STD), developed for joint restoration of M(M >1) monochrome distorted 2-dimensional images (snapshots) of an unknown extended object, being viewed through the optical channel with unknown PSF, whose true monochrome brightness profiles look distinct at M(M>!) slightly different wavelengths chosen. The presented method appeals to the generalized Projection Onto Convex Sets (POCS) formalism, so that the proper projective metric is introduced and then minimized. Thus, a number of operators is derived in closed form and cyclically applied to M-dimensional functional vector built up from estimates for combinations of monochrome images. During the projecting of vector onto convex sets one attempts to avoid non-physical inversion and to correctly form a feasible solution (fixed point) consistent with qualitative not quantitative information being assumed to be known in advance. Computer simulation demonstrates that the resulting improved monochrome images reveal fine details which could not easily be discerned in the original distorted images. This technique recovers fairly reliably the total multichromatic 2-D portrait of an arbitrary compact object whose monochrome brightness distributions have discontinuities and are highly nonconvex plus multiply connected ones. Originally developed for the deblurring of passively observed objects, the STD approach can be carried over to scenario with actively irradiated objects (f.e., near-Earth space targets). Under advanced conditions, such as spatio-spectrally diversified laser illumination or coherent Doppler imaging implementation, the synthesized loop deconvolver could be universal tool in object feature extraction by means of occasionally aberrated space-borne telescope or turbulence-affected ground/air-based large aperture optical systems.

  9. Group epitope mapping considering relaxation of the ligand (GEM-CRL): Including longitudinal relaxation rates in the analysis of saturation transfer difference (STD) experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemper, Sebastian; Patel, Mitul K.; Errey, James C.; Davis, Benjamin G.; Jones, Jonathan A.; Claridge, Timothy D. W.

    2010-03-01

    In the application of saturation transfer difference (STD) experiments to the study of protein-ligand interactions, the relaxation of the ligand is one of the major influences on the experimentally observed STD factors, making interpretation of these difficult when attempting to define a group epitope map (GEM). In this paper, we describe a simplification of the relaxation matrix that may be applied under specified experimental conditions, which results in a simplified equation reflecting the directly transferred magnetisation rate from the protein onto the ligand, defined as the summation over the whole protein of the protein-ligand cross-relaxation multiplied by with the fractional saturation of the protein protons. In this, the relaxation of the ligand is accounted for implicitly by inclusion of the experimentally determined longitudinal relaxation rates. The conditions under which this "group epitope mapping considering relaxation of the ligand" (GEM-CRL) can be applied were tested on a theoretical model system, which demonstrated only minor deviations from that predicted by the full relaxation matrix calculations (CORCEMA-ST) [7]. Furthermore, CORCEMA-ST calculations of two protein-saccharide complexes (Jacalin and TreR) with known crystal structures were performed and compared with experimental GEM-CRL data. It could be shown that the GEM-CRL methodology is superior to the classical group epitope mapping approach currently used for defining ligand-protein proximities. GEM-CRL is also useful for the interpretation of CORCEMA-ST results, because the transferred magnetisation rate provides an additional parameter for the comparison between measured and calculated values. The independence of this parameter from the above mentioned factors can thereby enhance the value of CORCEMA-ST calculations.

  10. STD and HIV Risk Factors Among U.S. Young Adults: Variations by Gender, Race, Ethnicity and Sexual Orientation

    PubMed Central

    Mojola, Sanyu A.; Everett, Bethany

    2012-01-01

    CONTEXT STDs, including HIV, disproportionately affect individuals who have multiple minority identities. Understanding differences in STD risk factors across racial, ethnic and sexual minority groups, as well as genders, is important for tailoring public health interventions. METHODS Data from Waves 3 (2001–2002) and 4 (2007–2008) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health were used to develop population-based estimates of STD and HIV risk factors among 11,045 young adults (mean age, 29 at Wave 4), by gender, race and ethnicity, and sexual orientation (heterosexual, mixed-oriented, gay). Regression analyses were conducted to examine associations between risk factors and young adults’ characteristics. RESULTS Overall, sexual-minority women in each racial or ethnic group had a higher prevalence of sexual risk behaviors—including a history of multiple partners, forced sex and incarceration—than their heterosexual counterparts. Mixed-oriented women in each racial or ethnic group were more likely than heterosexual white women to have received an STD diagnosis (odds ratios, 1.8–6.4). Black men and sexual-minority men also appeared to be at heightened risk. Gay men in all racial and ethnic groups were significantly more likely than heterosexual white men to report having received an STD diagnosis (2.3–8.3); compared with heterosexual white men, mixed-oriented black men had the highest odds of having received such a diagnosis (15.2). CONCLUSIONS Taking account of multiple minority identities should be an important part of future research and intervention efforts for STD and HIV prevention. PMID:22681428

  11. [Association of knowledge about STD and level of schooling among conscripts upon enlistment in the Brazilian Army, Brazil, 2007].

    PubMed

    Miranda, Angelica Espinosa; Ribeiro, Denis; Rezende, Erika Fazito; Pereira, Gerson Fernando Mendes; Pinto, Valdir Monteiro; Saraceni, Valeria

    2013-02-01

    The scope of this study was to describe knowledge of military conscripts about STD in relation to level of schooling upon enlistment in the Brazilian Army. A self-administered questionnaire with demographic and clinical aspects, forms of transmission, sexual behavior and access to STD information was applied in a national sample in 2007. Variables associated with low schooling were: being 19-20 years old [OR=1.2(95%CI:1.18-1.32)]; saying that STD can be transmitted by: eating contaminated food [OR=2.2(95%CI:1,96-2.55)]; bathing in rivers/beaches [OR=1.5(95%CI:1.27-1.88)]; mosquito bites [OR=1.5(95%CI:1.38-1.65)]; sexual intercourse <=14 years old [OR=1.4 (95%CI:1.33-1.55)]. Variables inversely associated with low schooling were: being white [OR=0.9 (95%CI:0.82-0.91)]; stating that STD can be transmitted by: sharing syringes/needles [OR=0.7(95%CI: 0.62-0.78)]; mother-to-child transmission [OR=0.6(95%CI:0.58-0.69)]; having used a condom in the last sexual intercourse [OR=0.8(95%CI:0.71-0.85)]; being MSM [OR=0.7(95% CI: 0.60-0.92)]; knowing that sex without condoms increases risk of transmission [OR=0.4 (95%CI:0,37-0,51)]. Given the association of low schooling with less knowledge about STD, educational policies geared to this population are needed because they are more vulnerable.

  12. Food additives

    MedlinePlus

    ... or natural. Natural food additives include: Herbs or spices to add flavor to foods Vinegar for pickling ... Certain colors improve the appearance of foods. Many spices, as well as natural and man-made flavors, ...

  13. The Bali STD/AIDS study: association between vaginal hygiene practices and STDs among sex workers

    PubMed Central

    Reed, B.; Ford, K.; Wirawan, D.

    2001-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the association between genital cleansing practices and the prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases and of sexual health knowledge among female sex workers in Bali, Indonesia. Methods: Low priced commercial sex workers (CSWs) participated in the Bali STD/AIDS Study, a 3 year educational project evaluating the effect of education on the subsequent use of condoms and the prevalence of STDs and AIDS. Structured interviews, genital evaluation, laboratory evaluation for STDs, and treatment were performed. Vaginal cleansing characteristics including frequency, type, and reasons for use, were evaluated. Associations between these characteristics and the presence of bacterial and viral genital infections were assessed. Results: Of 625 female sex workers evaluated between May and July 1998, 99.1% used substances, such as soap and toothpaste, to clean the vagina at least daily, with 69.3% performing this after each intercourse. The women using such cleansers after each client did not differ from those using them once or less daily in education, AIDS and condom use knowledge, time working as a CSW, or number of clients in the previous day. However, they were younger than those using vaginal cleansers daily or less, and reported lower condom usage in the past week. Several genital symptoms, such as discoloured discharge and odour, were reported less by women with the highest frequency of vaginal cleanser use. Prevalence of genital infections in this population of women was substantial, with bacterial infections more prevalent than viral infections. Infections were not associated with the type of cleanser used, using a genital cleanser on the day of examination, or using a cleanser after each client versus daily or less, except for candida colonisation, which was more prevalent in women cleansing after each client (OR=1.87, 95% CI 1.21, 2.90). However, symptomatic candida vulvovaginitis (positive culture plus presence of symptoms) was not associated

  14. Quantification of progressive deformation localization below the STD shear zone (Himalaya)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leloup, P. H.; Liu, X. B.; Mahéo, G.; Paquette, J. L.; Liu, X. H.

    2012-04-01

    In low angle fault systems it is generally assumed that deformation, initially distributed in the footwall, ultimately localizes along the brittle detachment [e.g., Lister et al., 1989]. However, few studies have demonstrated and / or quantified this hypothesis. The Nyalam Detachment (ND) is a part of the South Tibet Detachment (STD), a major fault zone that separates the un-metamorphosed Tethyan sedimentary series of Tibet from the underlying gneisses of the Upper Himalayan crystalline series UHCS. West of Ruji series have been tilted to the west, giving the opportunity to observe an exceptionally thick (~3.5 km) continuous section of the UHCS below the detachment. Intense top to the NNE simple shear is restricted to the ~300 m thick Nyalam mylonitic shear zone immediately below the ND. Further below deformation is closer to pure shear and is absorbed in a more distributed way. In this zone, many leucocratic dykes are stretched and transposed parallel to the schistosity, while some are only slightly deformed or are undeformed. At a given location, dating of sets of deformed and undeformed dykes allow us to constrain the timing for the end of deformation. Deformation ended at ~15.5 and prior to 17.2 Ma, ~1400 m and ~3500 m structurally below the ND respectively. Within the Nyalam shear zone, ductile deformation lasted after 17 Ma, but footwall cooling history implies that the ND stopped at ~13 Ma. These data imply that deformation stopped first at depth, before to end in the shear zone. The same data suggest that the end of deformation migrated regularly towards the STD (upward) at a rate of 0.8±0.33 mm/yr. We interpret this migration as a progressive localisation of the deformation from a ≥3.5 km zone within a ~300m thick shear zone. This example shows that it is possible to quantify the rate at which deformation localizes in natural shear zones. This parameter should be taken into account when discussing the localization mechanisms.

  15. Higher Prevalence of Sexual Transmitted Diseases and Correlates of Genital Warts among Heterosexual Males Attending Sexually Transmitted Infection Clinics (MSCs) in Jiangmen, China: Implication for the Up-Taking of STD Related Service

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Zhengjun; Lu, Hekun; Tan, Xueling; Zhang, Baoyuan; Best, John; Yang, Ligang; Zheng, Heping; Jiang, Ning; Yin, Yueping; Yang, Bin; Chen, Xiangsheng

    2015-01-01

    Background Increasing burden of STDs is one of China’s major public health concerns. However, only a limited number of studies have ever investigated the prevalence of these STDs, particular for genital warts and its correlates among heterosexual males attending STD clinics in China. In order to fill this gap, we conducted a cross-sectional study among MSCs in Jiangmen, China, between the years of 2009 and 2010. Method The eligible participants were recruited from several STD-clinics in public hospitals. We collected demographic information and behaviors of the participants. After HIV and syphilis testing, we further checked whether the participants had genital warts and genital herpes. In addition, urine samples were collected from part of the participants for CT and NG testing. Results Of the 533 eligible participants, over three-fifths were aged 35 or below, nearly three quarters had no college degree, over three-fifths were residence of Jiangmen. The prevalence of HIV, syphilis, genital warts, genital herpes, CT and NG were 0.19%, 7.50%, 7.32%, 5.25%, 9.73% and 6.19%, respectively. Living with family members (versus living alone), no STD-related service in past year, experiencing STDs related symptoms in past year, and sex with FSWs in last three months were positively associated with genital warts, with adjusted ORs of 5.54 (95% CI 1.94–15.81), 2.26 (95% CI 1.08–4.74), 1.99 (95% CI 1.00–3.99) and 2.01 (95% CI 1.00–4.04), respectively. Conclusion Our study indicates that the prevalence of STDs among MSCs in Jiangmen was high, which may further spread HIV among MSCs. Targeted interventions that focused on STDs related services uptake should be implemented urgently. PMID:25811185

  16. Target-specific NMR detection of protein-ligand interactions with antibody-relayed (15)N-group selective STD.

    PubMed

    Hetényi, Anasztázia; Hegedűs, Zsófia; Fajka-Boja, Roberta; Monostori, Éva; Kövér, Katalin E; Martinek, Tamás A

    2016-12-01

    Fragment-based drug design has been successfully applied to challenging targets where the detection of the weak protein-ligand interactions is a key element. (1)H saturation transfer difference (STD) NMR spectroscopy is a powerful technique for this work but it requires pure homogeneous proteins as targets. Monoclonal antibody (mAb)-relayed (15)N-GS STD spectroscopy has been developed to resolve the problem of protein mixtures and impure proteins. A (15)N-labelled target-specific mAb is selectively irradiated and the saturation is relayed through the target to the ligand. Tests on the anti-Gal-1 mAb/Gal-1/lactose system showed that the approach is experimentally feasible in a reasonable time frame. This method allows detection and identification of binding molecules directly from a protein mixture in a multicomponent system.

  17. A single-supply, monolithic, MIL-STD-1553 transceiver implemented in BiCMOS wafer fabrication technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albrecht, Thomas L.; Molinari, Lou

    An integrated circuit has been designed for use as a single supply, MIL-STD-1553 transceiver using BiCMOS technology. Use of the BiCMOS fabrication process has advantages over both Bipolar and CMOS technologies. These advantages include: reduced standby current drain, increased flexibility in mating the transceiver to various remote terminals, increased control over output amplitude and rise/fall times, easier methods for adjusting filter response and residual voltage, and reduced chip size (over a CMOS transceiver). Development of this monolithic transceiver opens the door to future advances in remote terminal design. By combining the current driving capacity of Bipolar with the digital design capability of CMOS, the next probable step in the progression of MIL-STD-1553 technology would be a fully monolithic remote terminal. This device would combine a transceiver with the encoder/decoder and protocol logic on a single semiconductor device.

  18. Potlining Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolf Keller

    2004-08-10

    In this project, a concept to improve the performance of aluminum production cells by introducing potlining additives was examined and tested. Boron oxide was added to cathode blocks, and titanium was dissolved in the metal pool; this resulted in the formation of titanium diboride and caused the molten aluminum to wet the carbonaceous cathode surface. Such wetting reportedly leads to operational improvements and extended cell life. In addition, boron oxide suppresses cyanide formation. This final report presents and discusses the results of this project. Substantial economic benefits for the practical implementation of the technology are projected, especially for modern cells with graphitized blocks. For example, with an energy savings of about 5% and an increase in pot life from 1500 to 2500 days, a cost savings of $ 0.023 per pound of aluminum produced is projected for a 200 kA pot.

  19. Phosphazene additives

    DOEpatents

    Harrup, Mason K; Rollins, Harry W

    2013-11-26

    An additive comprising a phosphazene compound that has at least two reactive functional groups and at least one capping functional group bonded to phosphorus atoms of the phosphazene compound. One of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with cellulose and the other of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with a resin, such as an amine resin of a polycarboxylic acid resin. The at least one capping functional group is selected from the group consisting of a short chain ether group, an alkoxy group, or an aryloxy group. Also disclosed are an additive-resin admixture, a method of treating a wood product, and a wood product.

  20. Adapting an effective primary care provider STD/HIV prevention training programme.

    PubMed

    Rabin, D L

    1998-04-01

    Sexually acquired human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection continues to be the major source of HIV infection in the USA. Preventing sexual transmission of HIV can be accomplished through patient behaviour change. Such behaviour change can also decrease risk of other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and unwanted pregnancies, both far more common problems than HIV infection. Primary care physicians and other providers can increase patients' safe sex practices by conducting effective sexual risk assessment (RA) and risk reduction (RR) counselling, but physicians both infrequently and incompletely do sexual RA and RR. A programme was developed to improve primary care physicians' prevention practice using Simulated Patient Instructors (SPIs) and mailed educational materials. Programme evaluations showed improved sexual RA and RR practice both by self-report as well as by observation by Simulated Patient Evaluators (SPEs). This paper briefly reviews these findings and then presents adaptations made to improve the programme's content, decrease its cost and increase its availability for training many other care providers. Evaluation of the adapted programme indicates that content and training methods are highly regarded by a diverse array of trainees. To disseminate the modified programme beyond the local area, a Train-the-Trainer programme and manual have been developed, including discussion of recruiting, training and using SPIs for sexual risk reduction. Wider use of this training, as well as more effective and more readily available STD/HIV prevention training, are needed to attain national goals of provider clinical prevention practice.

  1. Sociocultural contexts and communication about sex in China: informing HIV/STD prevention programs.

    PubMed

    Lieber, Eli; Chin, Dorothy; Li, Li; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Detels, Roger; Wu, Zunyou; Guan, Jihui

    2009-10-01

    HIV may be particularly stigmatizing in Asia because of its association with "taboo" topics, including sex, drugs, homosexuality, and death (Aoki, Ngin, Mo, & Ja, 1989). These cultural schemata expose salient boundaries and moral implications for sexual communication (Chin, 1999, Social Science and Medicine, 49, 241-251). Yet HIV/STD prevention efforts are frequently conducted in the public realm. Education strategies often involve conversations with health "experts" about condom use, safe sex, and partner communication. The gap between the public context of intervention efforts and the private and norm-bound nature of sex conversation is particularly challenging. Interviews with 32 market workers in eastern China focused on knowledge, beliefs, and values surrounding sexual practices, meanings, and communication. Sex-talk taboos, information seeking, vulnerability, partner communication, and cultural change emerged as central to understanding intervention information flow and each theme's relative influence is described. Findings illustrate the nature of how sexual communication schemata in Chinese contexts impact the effectiveness of sexual health message communication.

  2. Risk behaviour and STD acquisition in genitourinary clinic attenders who have travelled.

    PubMed Central

    Hawkes, S; Hart, G J; Bletsoe, E; Shergold, C; Johnson, A M

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To investigate the travel history of clients presenting at a genitourinary medicine (GUM) clinic in order to assess the contribution made by sexual partnerships abroad to STD transmission in the UK. SUBJECTS--386 old and new clients who attended during a 3-month period and who had travelled abroad in the 3 months preceding their visit. METHODS--All participating clients self-completed a confidential questionnaire, the results of which were then linked to their clinical diagnosis (if any). RESULTS--25% of participants reported a new sexual partner during their most recent trip abroad. In comparison to those not reporting a new partner, they were more likely to be male, travelling alone, to have visited the clinic previously and to have no regular sexual partner. Two-thirds reported never or inconsistently using condoms with these new partners. A total of 11.6% of the STDs diagnosed in the study participants may have been acquired abroad. CONCLUSION--We have found a high rate of new sexual relationships reported by attendees at our GUM clinic, and a low rate of reported condom use. With high HIV incidence rates in many tourist regions, the need for further studies to establish the true extent of imported STDs in the UK is a priority, and primary prevention campaigns to inform travellers are of paramount importance. PMID:8566971

  3. School-Based Randomized Controlled Trial of an HIV/STD Risk-Reduction Intervention for South African Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Jemmott, John B.; Jemmott, Loretta S.; O’Leary, Ann; Ngwane, Zolani; Icard, Larry D.; Bellamy, Scarlett L.; Jones, Shasta F.; Landis, J. Richard; Heeren, G. Anita; Tyler, Joanne C.; Makiwane, Monde B.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We tested the efficacy of a school-based HIV/STD risk-reduction intervention for South African adolescents. Design A cluster-randomized controlled design, with assessments of self-reported sexual behavior collected pre-intervention and 3, 6, and 12 months post-intervention. Setting Primary schools in a large Black township and a neighboring rural settlement in Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. Participants 9 of 17 matched-pairs of schools were randomly selected. Grade 6 learners with parent/guardian consent were eligible. Interventions Two 6-session interventions based on behavior-change theories and qualitative research: HIV/STD risk-reduction intervention targeted sexual-risk behaviors; attention-matched health-promotion control intervention targeted health issues unrelated to sexual behavior. Main Outcome Measures The primary outcome was self-report of unprotected vaginal intercourse in the previous 3 months averaged over the 3 follow-ups. Secondary outcomes were other sexual behaviors. Results A total of 1,057 (94.5%) of 1,118 eligible learners (mean age = 12.4 years) participated, with 96.7% retained at the 12-month follow-up. Generalized estimating equations analyses, adjusting for clustering from 18 schools, revealed that averaged over the 3 follow-ups a significantly smaller percentage of HIV/STD risk-reduction intervention participants reported having unprotected vaginal intercourse (OR = 0.51; 95% CI, 0.30-0.85), vaginal intercourse (OR = 0.62; 95% CI, 0.42-0.94), and multiple sexual partners (OR = 0.50; 95% CI, 0.28-0.89), when adjusted for baseline prevalences, compared with health-promotion control participants. Conclusions This is the first large-scale community-level randomized intervention trial to obtain significant effects on HIV/STD sexual-risk behavior among South African adolescents in the earliest stages of entry into sexual activity. PMID:20921349

  4. [Analysis of syphilis and gonorrhoea cases, based on data from the National STD Centre, Department of Dermatology and Venerology, Semmelweis University (2005-2008)].

    PubMed

    Pónyai, Katinka; Marschalkó, Márta; Schöffler, Mária; Ostorházi, Eszter; Rozgonyi, Ferenc; Várkonyi, Viktória; Kárpáti, Sarolta

    2009-09-20

    The STD Department of Semmelweis University Budapest is the National Centre of Hungary, which is responsible for screening and care of sexually transmitted diseases (STD), including syphilis and gonorrhoea. 42,114 patients attended the STD Department and 25,362 anonymous screening (HIV: 12,337, syphilis: 13,025) were done between January 2005 and December 2008. During this period 600 syphilitic and 339 gonorrhoea infections were diagnosed. The obligatory HIV screening of patients with sexually transmitted infections (STI) resulted positive result in 47 cases, and 63 patients infected with HIV acquired new syphilitic or gonorrhoea infection. Contact tracing was successful in around 400 syphilis cases, and 150-200 gonorrhoea cases per year. We present our statistical data in order to call attention to the resurgence of syphilis and gonorrhoea and the importance of STD co-infections.

  5. Quantification of Soil Physical Properties by Using X-Ray Computerized Tomography (CT) and Standard Laboratory (STD) Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez, Maria Ambert

    2003-12-12

    The implementation of x-ray computerized tomography (CT) on agricultural soils has been used in this research to quantify soil physical properties to be compared with standard laboratory (STD) methods. The overall research objective was to more accurately quantify soil physical properties for long-term management systems. Two field studies were conducted at Iowa State University's Northeast Research and Demonstration Farm near Nashua, IA using two different soil management strategies. The first field study was conducted in 1999 using continuous corn crop rotation for soil under chisel plow with no-till treatments. The second study was conducted in 2001 and on soybean crop rotation for the same soil but under chisel plow and no-till practices with wheel track and no-wheel track compaction treatments induced by a tractor-manure wagon. In addition, saturated hydraulic (K{sub s}) conductivity and the convection-dispersion (CDE) model were also applied using long-term soil management systems only during 2001. The results obtained for the 1999 field study revealed no significant differences between treatments and laboratory methods, but significant differences were found at deeper depths of the soil column for tillage treatments. The results for standard laboratory procedure versus CT method showed significant differences at deeper depths for the chisel plow treatment and at the second lower depth for no-till treatment for both laboratory methods. The macroporosity distribution experiment showed significant differences at the two lower depths between tillage practices. Bulk density and percent porosity had significant differences at the two lower depths of the soil column. The results obtained for the 2001 field study showed no significant differences between tillage practices and compaction practices for both laboratory methods, but significant differences between tillage practices with wheel track and no-wheel compaction treatments were found along the soil profile for

  6. The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory DOE-STD-3013 Surveillance Program for the Storage of Plutonium Packages

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, D

    2005-03-07

    This document presents a site-specific DOE-STD-3013 (3013) surveillance program for 3013 material stored at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in the B332 Plutonium Facility. The 3013 standard requires the development of a surveillance program to assure the long-term safety of plutonium storage in 3013 compliant containers. A complex-wide Integrated Surveillance Program in Support of Long-Term Storage of Plutonium-Bearing Materials (ISP)(LA-UR-00-3246, Revision 1, March 2001) has been developed to give guidance on an acceptable surveillance approach and to set up a mechanism to integrate surveillance activities and facilitate the sharing of lessons learned. This LLNL 3013 surveillance program has been developed following guidelines established for Storage Sites in the ISP and is sufficient for the storage in the LLNL Plutonium Facility. The LLNL 3013 surveillance program must be coupled with the DOE complex wide Materials Identification and Surveillance (MIS) program and the ISP led by Savannah River Site (SRS). These programs support the technical basis for continuing safe storage of plutonium packages and provide the technical basis for the limited scope of the site-specific LLNL 3013 surveillance program. The LLNL 3013 surveillance program calls for surveillance of 3013 packages to begin approximately three years after packaging of the first oxide. One percent of the stored packages per year will be randomly selected and nondestructively examined (NDE) by LLNL per the guidelines of the ISP. Additional packages may be selected for NDE if recommended by the ISP Steering Committee and agreed upon by the MIS Working Group. One selected package will be shipped to SRS for destructive analysis each year starting when SRS can receive them. This is expected to be in FY2007. We expect to store a maximum of 400 3013 packages. This would result in an expected maximum of 4 surveillances per year. The activities outlined in the program evolved from the current

  7. PowerON: The use of instant message counseling and the Internet to facilitate HIV/STD education and prevention

    PubMed Central

    Moskowitz, David A.; Melton, Dan; Owczarzak, Jill

    2015-01-01

    Objective In recent years, Internet-based or online counseling has emerged as an effective way to assess psychological disorders and discuss destructive behaviors with individuals or groups of individuals. This study explores the application of online counseling to HIV/STD risk-taking behavior among men who have sex with men (MSM). Methods PowerON, an organization that provides sexual health information to MSM exclusively online, used instant message technology to counsel MSM in real time through computer-mediated means. A sample of 279 transcripts of instant message exchanges between PowerON counselors and Gay.com users were recorded and qualitatively analyzed. Results Approximately 43% of the instant message sessions discussed information about HIV/STD testing. Risk-taking behaviors were addressed in 39% of the sessions. Information about HIV/STDs and general counseling were given in 23% and 18% of the counseling sessions respectively. Conclusion The data showed these instant message sessions to be a potentially feasible forum for HIV/STD counseling. Practice Implications Information ordinarily disseminated at health clinics could be successfully distributed through the Internet to MSM. PMID:19217742

  8. IMPLEMENTATION OF THE SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA OF DOE-STD-1189-2008 APPENDIX A [FULL PAPER

    SciTech Connect

    OMBERG SK

    2008-05-14

    This paper describes the approach taken by two Fluor Hanford projects for implementing of the seismic design criteria from DOE-STD-1189-2008, Appendix A. The existing seismic design criteria and the new seismic design criteria is described, and an assessment of the primary differences provided. The gaps within the new system of seismic design criteria, which necessitate conduct of portions of work to the existing technical standards pending availability of applicable industry standards, is discussed. Two Hanford Site projects currently in the Control Decision (CD)-1 phase of design have developed an approach to implementation of the new criteria. Calculations have been performed to determine the seismic design category for one project, based on information available in early CD-1. The potential effects of DOE-STD-1189-2008, Appendix A seismic design criteria on the process of project alternatives analysis is discussed. Present of this work is expected to benefit others in the DOE Complex that may be implementing DOE-STD-1189-2008.

  9. Studies on the binding of modest modulators of the human enzyme, Sirtuin 6, using STD-NMR.

    PubMed

    Bolívar, Beatriz E; Welch, John T

    2017-02-21

    Pyrazinamide (PZA), an essential constituent of short course tuberculosis chemotherapy, binds weakly but selectively to Sirtuin 6 (SIRT6). Despite structural similarities between nicotinamide (NAM), PZA, and pyrazinoic acid (POA), these inhibitors modulate SIRT6 via different mechanisms and binding sites, as suggested by Saturation Transfer Difference (STD) Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR). Available experimental evidence, such as that derived from crystal structures and kinetic experiments, is of only limited utility in the elucidation of the mechanistic details of sirtuin inhibition by NAM or other inhibitors. For example, crystallographic structural analysis of sirtuin binding sites does not illuminate differences in binding affinities among sirtuins or capture details of the dynamic process. STD NMR led to findings that not only agreed with the binding kinetics experiments, but also yielded insights into the binding process. The data also illustrate the geometry of the ligand binding epitopes in solution for both the apo- and holoenzyme. Recognition that SIRT6 is affected selectively by PZA, an established clinical agent, suggests that the rational development of more potent and selective NAM surrogates may be possible. These derivatives may be accessible by employing the malleability of this scaffold to assist in the identification by STD-NMR of the motifs that interact with the holo- and apo-enzymes in solution.

  10. Club Drugs and HIV/STD Infection: An Exploratory Analysis among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Changsha, China

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Jun; Zhao, Junshi; He, Jianmei; Zhang, Guoqiang; Tang, Xuemin

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate current club drug use and its potential association with the transmission of HIV/STD among Changsha men who have sex with men (MSM). Method A cross-sectional survey was conducted by using self-administered questionnaires including information regarding socio-demographics, club drug use, high-risk behaviors, and HIV/STD infections. Multiple methods including venue-based, peer referral using “snowball” techniques, and internet advertisements were used to recruit study participants. Results Of the 826 participants, 177 (21.4%) reported that they had used club drugs at some time before or during sex in the past six months. MSM with young age, low education level, and seeking partners through the internet or bars were the main population who used drugs. Poppers were the most common drug used among Changsha MSM. The prevalence of HIV, syphilis, and herpes simplex virus-2 were higher among drug users. There were no significant differences in unprotected sexual intercourse and condom use between drug users and non-users. Compared with non-users, risk behaviors such as group sex, multiple sex partners, and sex with foreigners were more frequent among drug users. Conclusion Club drug use is common among Changsha MSM, and is related to unsafe sex activities and HIV/STD infection. It is necessary to build novel targeted HIV prevention strategies to monitor and reduce club drug use among MSM. PMID:25950912

  11. Using community-based participatory research to develop an intervention to reduce HIV and STD infections among Latino men.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Scott D; Hergenrather, Kenneth C; Montaño, Jaime; Remnitz, Ivan M; Arceo, Ramiro; Bloom, Fred R; Leichliter, Jami S; Bowden, W Patrick

    2006-10-01

    Although the Latino community living in the United States has been disproportionately affected by the intersecting epidemics of HIV and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), the development, implementation, and evaluation of HIV and STD prevention interventions designed to reduce infection among Latinos lags behind prevention efforts targeting other communities. HoMBReS: Hombres Manteniendo Bienestar y Relaciones Saludables is a sexual risk reduction intervention designed to reduce HIV and STD infection among recently arrived, non-English-speaking Latino men who are members of a multicounty Latino soccer league in central North Carolina, a region of the United States with both the fastest growing Latino population and disproportionate HIV and STD infection rates. HoMBReS was developed in partnership with the local Latino community using community-based participatory research (CBPR). We describe (a) the CBPR partnership history and further expansion; (b) the development of the intervention through the integration of collected formative data, theoretical considerations, and findings from the scientific literature; and (c) lessons learned while using a CBPR approach to develop HoMBReS.

  12. Developing a Motion Comic for HIV/STD Prevention for Young People Ages 15-24, Part 2: Evaluation of a Pilot Intervention.

    PubMed

    Willis, Leigh A; Kachur, Rachel; Castellanos, Ted J; Nichols, Kristen; Mendoza, Maria C B; Gaul, Zaneta J; Spikes, Pilgrim; Gamayo, Ashley C; Durham, Marcus D; LaPlace, Lisa; Straw, Julie; Staatz, Colleen; Buge, Hadiza; Hogben, Matthew; Robinson, Susan; Brooks, John; Sutton, Madeline Y

    2016-12-29

    In the United States, young people (ages 15-24 years) are disproportionately affected by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), due at least in part to inadequate or incorrect HIV/STD-related knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and behavioral intentions (KABI). Comic book narratives are a proven method of HIV/STD prevention communication to strengthen KABI for HIV/STD prevention. Motion comics, a new type of comic media, are an engaging and low-cost means of narrative storytelling. The objective of this study was to quantitatively evaluate the effectiveness of a pilot six-episode HIV/STD-focused motion comic series to improve HIV/STD-related KABI among young people. We assessed change in HIV/STD knowledge, HIV stigma, condom attitudes, HIV/STD testing attitudes, and behavioral intentions among 138 participants in 15 focus groups immediately before and after viewing the motion comic series. We used paired t-tests and indicators of overall improvement to assess differences between surveys. We found a significant decrease in HIV stigma (p < .001) and increases in both HIV knowledge (p = .002) and behavioral intentions to engage in safe sex (p < .001). In summary, this motion comic intervention improved HIV/STD-related KABI of young adult viewers by reducing HIV stigma and increasing behavioral intentions to engage in safer sex. Our results demonstrate the promise of this novel intervention and support its use to deliver health messages to young people.

  13. Can variation in HIV/STD-related risk be explained by individual SES? Findings from female sex workers in a rural Chinese county

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Xiaoyi; Li, Xiaoming; Yang, Hongmei; Hong, Yan; Stanton, Bonita; Zhao, Ran; Dong, Baiqing; Liu, Wei; Zhou, Yuejiao; Liang, Shaoling

    2007-01-01

    Low socioeconomic status (SES) has been linked to HIV and sexually transmitted disease (STD) at a macro level because the majority of new cases of HIV infection in the world have been reported in underdeveloped or developing countries. However, empirical data on the relationship between individual SES and HIV/STD related risk have been mixed. Employing quantitative data from 454 female sex workers, this study was designed to examine the profile of the study sample in terms of their individual SES, HIV/STD-related sexual risk across work locations with different social, cultural and economic conditions; and examine the relationship between work location and HIV-related risk behaviors, controlling for individual SES. We have shown in the current study that both SES and HIV/STD-related risk behaviors significantly differed by work location. However, the difference in individual SES was not sufficient to explain the difference of HIV/STD-related risk across the work locations. The findings underscore the need for effective prevention intervention efforts targeting female sex workers in rural area. Based on the findings, we also suggest that HIV/STD intervention efforts among female sex workers should take the social and cultural contextual factors of their working environment (and sexual risks) into consideration. PMID:18350430

  14. Developing a Motion Comic for HIV/STD Prevention for Young People Ages 15-24, Part 1: Listening to Your Target Audience.

    PubMed

    Willis, Leigh A; Kachur, Rachel; Castellanos, Ted J; Spikes, Pilgrim; Gaul, Zaneta J; Gamayo, Ashley C; Durham, Marcus; Jones, Sandra; Nichols, Kristen; Han Barthelemy, Solange; LaPlace, Lisa; Staatz, Colleen; Hogben, Matthew; Robinson, Susan; Brooks, John T; Sutton, Madeline Y

    2016-12-21

    Young people (15-24 years) in the United States are disproportionately affected by infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and sexually transmitted diseases (STD). Shortfalls in HIV/STD-related knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and behavioral intentions (KABI) likely contribute to this discrepancy. In this report we describe our experience developing a novel means of health communication combining entertainment-education theory and recent technological advances to create a HIV/STD-focused "motion comic." We also report the audience satisfaction and acceptance of the intervention. We used the Health Belief Model (HBM), entertainment-education (EE) principles, and the Sabido Method (SM) and conducted three rounds of focus groups to develop a 38-minute HIV/STD focused motion comic for young people between the ages 15 and 24 years. Participants indicated that motion comics were an acceptable method of delivering HIV/STD prevention messages. They also expressed satisfaction with motion comics plot, story settings, the tone of humor, and drama. Our results suggest that motion comics are a viable new method of delivering health communication messages about HIV/STD and other public health issues, and warrant further development and broader evaluation.

  15. Additively Manufactured Metals in Oxygen Systems Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tylka, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Metals produced by additive manufacturing methods, such as Powder Bed Fusion Technology, are now mature enough to be considered for qualification in human spaceflight oxygen systems. The mechanical properties of metals produced through AM processes are being systematically studied. However, it is unknown whether AM metals in oxygen applications may present an increased risk of flammability or ignition as compared to wrought metals of the same metallurgical composition due to increased porosity. Per NASA-STD-6001B materials to be used in oxygen system applications shall be based on flammability and combustion test data, followed by a flammability assessment. Without systematic flammability and ignition testing in oxygen there is no credible method for NASA to accurately evaluate the risk of using AM metals in oxygen systems.

  16. Resource Economics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conrad, Jon M.

    2000-01-01

    Resource Economics is a text for students with a background in calculus, intermediate microeconomics, and a familiarity with the spreadsheet software Excel. The book covers basic concepts, shows how to set up spreadsheets to solve dynamic allocation problems, and presents economic models for fisheries, forestry, nonrenewable resources, stock pollutants, option value, and sustainable development. Within the text, numerical examples are posed and solved using Excel's Solver. These problems help make concepts operational, develop economic intuition, and serve as a bridge to the study of real-world problems of resource management. Through these examples and additional exercises at the end of Chapters 1 to 8, students can make dynamic models operational, develop their economic intuition, and learn how to set up spreadsheets for the simulation of optimization of resource and environmental systems. Book is unique in its use of spreadsheet software (Excel) to solve dynamic allocation problems Conrad is co-author of a previous book for the Press on the subject for graduate students Approach is extremely student-friendly; gives students the tools to apply research results to actual environmental issues

  17. Online learning: An alternative for STD/HIV/AIDS knowledge update.

    PubMed

    Caballero, M Erika; San Martín, V Ana María; Reyes, A Cecilia

    2006-01-01

    The experience of the e-learning diploma "Specialist in management for control and prevention of STD/HIV/AIDS" for Latin-American health professionals is presented. It was developed by eminent advisory Chilean experts using a web CT platform with the support of the, Global Development Learning Network (GDLN) of World Bank and certificated by the Austral University of Chile, Virtual University and REUNA. The design, development, results of learning, and the opinion of the quality of the course are described. The purpose of this research was to know the opinion of the participants about the quality of diploma on line, and to orient the decision making with respect to the optimization for future versions of this diploma. The universe and sample correspond to first cohort of the diploma during year 2005, was conformed by 33 students. The instrument of data collection used was a survey of opinion applied when finalizing of the diploma. The data were process in SPSS 13.0. The measured criteria of quality were classified like high quality when 80% or more of the participants answered that the evaluated aspect was excellent, medium quality (61 and 79%) and low quality at least of 60% thought that was excellent. The results emphasize that the quality of the contents of the diploma it considers a 95% of the participants excellent. A 100% consider the roll carried out by the tutor excellent and 91.3% excellent the roll of the academic secretary. The means of support to the student were evaluated like excellent by 58.3% of the users. The system of communication by means of internal mail of the diploma was considered excellent by 67% of the students the forums were evaluated like excellent by 84.8% of the people. In relation to the Web site 84.5% consider it excellent, the learning activities were considered as excellent by 75% and the system of evaluation of the diploma was considered adapted by 83.3% of the participants. The 100% would recommend the diploma to other

  18. Algae Resources

    SciTech Connect

    2016-06-01

    Algae are highly efficient at producing biomass, and they can be found all over the planet. Many use sunlight and nutrients to create biomass, which contain key components—including lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates— that can be converted and upgraded to a variety of biofuels and products. A functional algal biofuels production system requires resources such as suitable land and climate, sustainable management of water resources, a supplemental carbon dioxide (CO2) supply, and other nutrients (e.g., nitrogen and phosphorus). Algae can be an attractive feedstock for many locations in the United States because their diversity allows for highpotential biomass yields in a variety of climates and environments. Depending on the strain, algae can grow by using fresh, saline, or brackish water from surface water sources, groundwater, or seawater. Additionally, they can grow in water from second-use sources such as treated industrial wastewater; municipal, agricultural, or aquaculture wastewater; or produced water generated from oil and gas drilling operations.

  19. How Can Men Reduce the Risk of Getting a Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD)?

    MedlinePlus

    ... researchers Data Sharing and Other Resources Scientific databases, models, datasets & repositories Research Research networks, center programs, career development programs Grants & Funding About ...

  20. Quality of sexually transmitted disease services in Jamaica: evaluation of a clinic-based approach. Collaborative Working Group on Indicators of STD Case Management.

    PubMed Central

    Bryce, J.; Vernon, A.; Brathwaite, A. R.; Perry, S.; Figueroa, J. P.; Emerson, R. B.

    1994-01-01

    As part of a larger strategy to develop global indicators of HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) infection prevention programmes, a clinic-based method for the assessment of sexually transmitted disease (STD) service quality was developed and field tested by trained observers who visited a random sample of public-sector clinics in Jamaica in October 1991. The assessment included an inventory of equipment and drugs, interviews with clinic staff, and observations of 27 health workers in 15 clinics as they provided services to 115 patients presenting for STD care. This observation-based method provided Jamaican programme managers with descriptive data on STD case management in public clinics within a one-month study period at an approximate local cost of US+ 5000. Based on weighted estimates, 91% of public-sector STD patients in Jamaica were seen in clinics whose staff had received some training in STD case management during the preceding 12 months. The correct treatment rate was estimated to be 82% for those diagnosed with gonorrhoea, and 70% for those diagnosed with syphilis. Based on 98 observed encounters for first-time-for-episode patients, counselling included sex partner referral (57%), partner reduction (48%), and condom use (59%). Although 61% of STD patients were seen in clinics with condoms in stock on the day of the assessment, only 23% were offered condoms during their visit. The clinic-based assessment method can be adapted to the programme management and reporting needs of countries at all stages of STD service development, and can provide data needed to improve programme operations and meet international reporting standards. PMID:8205644

  1. Sexually Transmitted Diseases in a specialized STD healthcare center: epidemiology and demographic profile from January 1999 to December 2009*

    PubMed Central

    Fagundes, Luiz Jorge; Vieira Junior, Elso Elias; Moysés, Ana Carolina Marteline Cavalcante; de Lima, Fernão Dias; de Morais, Fátima Regina Borges; Vizinho, Natalina Lima

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Sexually Transmitted Diseases are still considered a serious public health problem in Brazil and worldwide. OBJECTIVE To examine Sexually Transmitted Diseases prevalence and the sickness impact profile of STDs in a reference health center specializing in the treatment of Sexually Transmitted Diseases. METHOD We collected epidemiological, demographic, clinical and laboratory data from the medical records and interviews of 4,128 patients who had attended the center from January 1999 to December 2009. RESULTS Male patients outnumbered (76%) females (24%), Caucasians outnumbered (74.3%) those of mixed race (14.8%), blacks (10.8%) and Asians (0.1%). STD occurrence was higher in the 20-29 age group (46.2%) This population included 34.7% high school graduates, 8.7% college graduates and 0.8% illiterates. As for affective-sexual orientation, 86.5% were heterosexual, 7.8% homosexual and 5.5% bisexual. Regarding patients' sexual practices over the previous 30 days, 67.7% reported sexual intercourse with one person, 8.6% had had sex with two persons and 3.9%, with three or more people. The highest incidence of STD was condyloma acuminata, affecting 29.4% of all the patients, genital candidiasis 14.2%, and genital herpes 10.6%. Of the 44.3% who submitted to serologic testing for HIV detection 5% were positive, with a ratio of 6.8 males to 1 female. CONCLUSIONS STD prevalence remains high in Brazil and it is necessary to invest in early detection, prevention and treatment. PMID:24068122

  2. Herpes - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Genital herpes - resources; Resources - genital herpes ... The following organizations are good resources for information on genital herpes : March of Dimes -- www.marchofdimes.com/pregnancy/complications-herpes The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists -- ...

  3. Improving HIV/STD Prevention in the Care of Persons Living with HIV Through a National Training Program

    PubMed Central

    Burnside, Helen; Hsu, Katherine; Smock, Laura; Coury-Doniger, Patricia; Hall, Christopher; Marrazzo, Jeanne; Nagendra, Gowri; Rietmeijer, Cornelis; Rompalo, Ann; Thrun, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Persons living with HIV (PLWH) are living longer, remaining sexually active, and may continue risky sexual behaviors. As such, it is crucial for providers to ask all HIV-positive patients about behaviors related to HIV transmission and STD acquisition. The “Ask, Screen, Intervene” (ASI) curriculum was developed to increase provider knowledge, skills, and motivation to incorporate risk assessment and prevention services into the care of PLWH. The ASI curriculum was delivered to 2558 HIV-care providers at 137 sites between September 30, 2007 and December 31, 2010. Immediately post-training, participants self-reported significant gains in perceived confidence to demonstrate ASI knowledge and skills (p<0.001) and 89% agreed they would update practices as a result of the training. Three to six months post-training, 320 participants who served PLWH or supervised HIV-care providers self-reported more frequently performing ASI skills (p<0.001), and 71% self-reported greater perceived confidence than before training to perform those skills (p<0.001). Limitations include self-reported measures and a 30% response rate to the 3–6 month follow-up survey. Our findings suggest that a well-coordinated training program can reach a national audience of HIV-care providers, significantly increase self-reported capacity to incorporate HIV/STD prevention into the care of PLWH, and increase implementation of national recommendations. PMID:24428796

  4. Description of a MIL-STD-1553B Data Bus Ada Driver for the LeRC EPS Testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackin, Michael A.

    1995-01-01

    This document describes the software designed to provide communication between control computers in the NASA Lewis Research Center Electrical Power System Testbed using MIL-STD-1553B. The software drivers are coded in the Ada programming language and were developed on a MSDOS-based computer workstation. The Electrical Power System (EPS) Testbed is a reduced-scale prototype space station electrical power system. The power system manages and distributes electrical power from the sources (batteries or photovoltaic arrays) to the end-user loads. The electrical system primary operates at 120 volts DC, and the secondary system operates at 28 volts DC. The devices which direct the flow of electrical power are controlled by a network of six control computers. Data and control messages are passed between the computers using the MIL-STD-1553B network. One of the computers, the Power Management Controller (PMC), controls the primary power distribution and another, the Load Management Controller (LMC), controls the secondary power distribution. Each of these computers communicates with two other computers which act as subsidiary controllers. These subsidiary controllers are, in turn, connected to the devices which directly control the flow of electrical power.

  5. Forum: challenges in STD/AIDS prevention in Portuguese-speaking African countries: contributions from social research and from a gender approach. Introduction.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Simone

    2009-03-01

    This forum on the challenges of preventing STD/AIDS in Portuguese-speaking African countries contains three articles and a postscript. The first paper reviews academic production on the topic from the fields of the social sciences and of health, with special attention on how local cultural and socioeconomic factors impact the dynamics of the epidemic. Based on an ethnographic study of a region in southern Mozambique, the second paper analyzes the notion of 'tradition' within the context of Mozambique and how it affects perceptions of the local population's vulnerability to STD/AIDS. The third and final article discusses common ground and differences between government and civil society in gender approaches by community HIV/AIDS projects in Mozambique. Their observations suggest that important mistakes have been made in STD/AIDS prevention discourse and initiatives in African countries because the unique features of local development models and cultural systems have not been taken into account.

  6. Synthesis and optimization of peptidomimetics as HIV entry inhibitors against the receptor protein CD4 using STD NMR and ligand docking.

    PubMed

    Neffe, Axel T; Bilang, Matthias; Meyer, Bernd

    2006-09-07

    We recently described the design and synthesis of a novel CD4 binding peptidomimetic as a potential HIV entry inhibitor with a KD value of approximately 35 microM and a high proteolytic stability [A. T. Neffe and B. Meyer, Angew. Chem., Int. Ed., 2004, 43, 2937-2940]. Based on saturation transfer difference (STD) NMR analyses and docking studies of peptidomimetics we now report the rational design, synthesis, and binding properties of 11 compounds with improved binding affinity. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) resulted in a KD = 10 microM for the best peptidomimetic XI, whose binding affinity is confirmed by STD NMR (KD = 9 microM). The STD NMR determined binding epitope of the ligand indicates a very similar binding mode as that of the lead structure. The binding studies provide structure activity relationships and demonstrate the utility of this approach.

  7. Program Evaluation Resources

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    These resources list tools to help you conduct evaluations, find organizations outside of EPA that are useful to evaluators, and find additional guides on how to do evaluations from organizations outside of EPA.

  8. Data Harmonization Process for Creating the National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention Atlas

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Rob; Gant, Zanetta; Jeffries, Carla; Broeker, Lance; Mirabito, Massimo; Roberts, Henry

    2014-01-01

    In 2009, the CDC National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP) initiated the online, interactive NCHHSTP Atlas. The goal of the Atlas is to strengthen the capacity to monitor the diseases overseen by NCHHSTP and to illustrate demographic, spatial, and temporal variation in disease patterns. The Atlas includes HIV, AIDS, viral hepatitis, sexually transmitted disease, and tuberculosis surveillance data, and aims to provide a single point of access to meet the analytical and data dissemination needs of NCHHSTP. To accomplish this goal, an NCHHSTP-wide Data Harmonization Workgroup reviewed surveillance data collected by each division to harmonize the data across diseases, allowing one to query data and generate comparable maps and tables via the same user interface. Although we were not able to harmonize all data elements, data standardization is necessary and work continues toward that goal. PMID:24385651

  9. Antiretroviral manufacturers and the challenge of universal access to drugs through the Brazilian National STD/AIDS Program.

    PubMed

    do Lago, Regina Ferro; Costa, Nilson do Rosário

    2009-10-01

    This article describes the antiretroviral (ARV) manufacturing market in Brazil and contextualizes the challenges for the public policy of supplying ARVs through the National STD/AIDS Program. Increasing expenditure on these drugs is the main source of uncertainty for the policy's future. Brazil's domestic scenario is one of growing external dependence, both for the finished drugs and the active ingredients. Experience in the National Program has shown that it is the state's role to provide public goods, which presupposes ensuring mutual compatibility between company interests and social interests. This balance is currently at stake in Brazil, since structural changes in the market have raised challenges for the National Program's sustainability, requiring new public policy instruments in defense of the collective interest. The article drew on a literature review, using bibliographic indexing sources, systematic organization of primary data, government publications, relevant legislation, research reports, and articles recommended by experts from the field.

  10. Evaluation of human engineering design standard (MSFC-STD-267A) in the design of manned space vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, J. G.

    1972-01-01

    The major conclusion of the detailed examination of the human factors engineering design standard is that it is unsuitable for future spacecraft design. The standard, published in 1966, was not intended to be a zero or reduced gravity standard and was directed primarily toward ground support equipment and technology. Futhermore, ambiguities, conflicts, and unenforceable requirements contribute to the difficulty. The role of man in future space missions and its impact on human engineering standards are also discussed, and it is concluded that greater standardization is vital to the success of future missions. A survey of NASA/MSFC contractors was made, and it was found that MSFC-STD-267A is largely ignored and the most significant problems are inaccessibility and nonspecificity of the data. The resistance of contract management and designer and of program managers is a primary reason for poor human engineering design. Specific recommendations for improvement of format and organization, including an interim solution, are given.

  11. Microcomputer Software System Development: Suggested Revisions to MIL-STD-1521A for Cost-Effective Acquisition of Custom Software through Software Engineering.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-09-01

    testing, checking, auditing , or otherwise establishing and documenting whether or not items, processes, services , or documents conform to specified...36 Measures of Software Design ......... 38 Testing the Software ... ........... 39 The Configuration Audit ... .......... 40 Summary...42 APPENDIX A. AN INTERPRETATION OF MIL-STD-1521A: TECHNICAL REVIEWS AND AUDITS FOR SYSTEMS, EQUIPMENT, AND COMPUTER PROGRAMS

  12. Assessment of the utilization of a state AIDS/STD hotline by persons with and without HIV infection and their information needs.

    PubMed

    Vassilev, Zdravko P; Marcus, Steven M; Jennis, Thelma; Ruck, Bruce; Rego, German

    2005-10-01

    A large number of AIDS/sexually transmitted disease (STD) helplines provide support to people seeking information how to avoid infection with HIV or how to deal with the infection if they have already contracted it. Nevertheless, limited knowledge is available about how such helplines are being utilized by different segments of the population and what the main concerns of the people calling the helplines are. The goal of this study was to evaluate the use of the State AIDS/STD Hotline in New Jersey and describe the information needs of its callers. Callers were categorized as either having HIV or being free of the virus based on their self-reported HIV status. A cross-sectional design was then used combining caller information from the New Jersey AIDS/STD Hotline with data from the state health department on the number of people living with HIV in each county in New Jersey. The utilization rate of the New Jersey AIDS/STD Hotline was significantly higher among persons with HIV infection compared to the utilization rate among persons who were either free of the virus or unaware of their HIV status. The callers infected with HIV differed significantly from the rest of the callers in terms of the type of information they requested. While callers who had the infection were most likely to ask about treatment options, financial assistance, and support groups, the rest of the callers were more likely to inquire about testing site location and prevention information.

  13. Potential Impact and Acceptability of Internet Partner Notification for Men Who Have Sex with Men and Transgender Women Recently Diagnosed with STD in Lima, Peru

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Jesse L; Segura, Eddy R; Perez-Brumer, Amaya G; Reisner, Sari L; Peinado, Jesus; Salvatierra, Hector J; Sanchez, Jorge; Lama, Javier R

    2014-01-01

    We assessed the potential impact of internet partner notification (PN) among MSM and transgender women in Peru recently diagnosed with STD. Use of internet PN was anticipated for 55.9% of recent partners, including 43.0% of partners not currently expected to be notified, a 20.6% increase in anticipated notification outcomes. PMID:24326581

  14. CORCEMA refinement of the bound ligand conformation within the protein binding pocket in reversibly forming weak complexes using STD-NMR intensities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayalakshmi, V.; Rama Krishna, N.

    2004-05-01

    We describe an intensity-restrained optimization procedure for refining approximate structures of ligands within the protein binding pockets using STD-NMR intensity data on reversibly forming weak complexes. In this approach, the global minimum for the bound-ligand conformation is obtained by a hybrid structure refinement method involving CORCEMA calculation of intensities and simulated annealing optimization of torsion angles of the bound ligand using STD-NMR intensities as experimental constraints and the NOE R-factor as the pseudo-energy function to be minimized. This method is illustrated using simulated STD data sets for typical carbohydrate and peptide ligands. Our procedure also allows for the optimization of side chain torsion angles of protein residues within the binding pocket. This procedure is useful in refining and improving initial models based on crystallography or computer docking or other algorithms to generate models for the bound ligand (e.g., a lead compound) within the protein binding pocket compatible with solution STD-NMR data. This method may facilitate structure-based drug design efforts.

  15. School-Based HIV/STD Testing Behaviors and Motivations among Black and Hispanic Teen MSM: Results from a Formative Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Elana; Topete, Pablo; Rasberry, Catherine N.; Lesesne, Catherine A.; Kroupa, Elizabeth; Carver, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Background: This evaluation explores experiences with, and motivations for, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and sexually transmitted disease (STD) testing among black and Hispanic school-aged young men who have sex with men (YMSM). Methods: Participants were recruited at community-based organizations that serve YMSM in New York City,…

  16. Estimates of Intraclass Correlation for Variables Related to Behavioral HIV/STD Prevention in a Predominantly African American and Hispanic Sample of Young Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pals, Sherri L.; Beaty, Brenda L.; Posner, Samuel F.; Bull, Sheana S.

    2009-01-01

    Studies designed to evaluate HIV and STD prevention interventions often involve random assignment of groups such as neighborhoods or communities to study conditions (e.g., to intervention or control). Investigators who design group-randomized trials (GRTs) must take the expected intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) into account in sample size…

  17. Teens in the Twenty-First Century Still Prefer People over Machines: Importance of Intervention Delivery Style in Adolescent HIV/STD Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pendleton, Sara M.; Stanton, Bonita; Cottrell, Lesley A.; Marshall, Sharon; Pack, Robert; Burns, James; Gibson, Catherine; Wu, Ying; Li, Xiaoming; Cole, Matthew

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To assess and compare youth satisfaction with two delivery approaches to a HIV/STD risk reduction intervention targeting adolescents: an on-site, face-to-face (FTF) approach versus a long distance interactive televised (DIT) approach. Methods: A convenience sample of 571 rural adolescents ages 12-16 years who participated in an HIV/STD…

  18. Impact of attitudes and beliefs regarding African American sexual behavior on STD prevention and control in African American communities: unintended consequences.

    PubMed

    Valentine, Jo A

    2008-12-01

    Compared to whites, blacks experience significant health disparities for sexually transmitted diseases, particularly in the rates of chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis. To develop more effective interventions to control and prevent STDs, public health practitioners should better understand and respond to factors that facilitate sexual risk-taking behaviors and impede access to STD health care and make use of factors that promote sexual health. Legacies of slavery, racism, and economic or class discrimination leave many blacks suspicious of interventions aimed at improving the welfare of their communities. Sexual behavior, in particular, has been used to justify social oppression of blacks in the United States. Although efforts to engage affected black communities in improving STD health care delivery have been undertaken, bias, prejudice, and stereotyping continue to contribute to negative experiences for many blacks across health care settings, including those involving STD care. Implementing more effective interventions to reduce the disparate burden of bacterial STDs in black communities requires accessible and acceptable STD health care. Understanding and addressing the potential impact of both provider and patient attitudes can improve these service delivery outcomes.

  19. Investigating stakeholders' perceptions of the link between high STD rates and the current Baltimore City Public Schools' sex education curriculum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolden, Shenell L. T.

    The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine key stakeholders' perceptions of the current Baltimore City Public Schools' (BCPS) sex education curriculum and to gain insight into how they believe the curriculum could be modified to be more effective. A mixed methods approach using qualitative and quantitative data collection consisting of a survey, focus group interview, and individual interviews was conducted to gather information on stakeholders' perceptions. The stakeholders included: (1) former students who received their sex education courses in the Baltimore City Public School system (BCPS); (2) teachers in BCPS who were affiliated with the sex education curriculum; (3) health care professionals who screened and/or treated East Baltimore City residents for a sexually transmitted disease (STD) and; (4) one policy maker who was responsible for creating sex education curriculum at the national level. Analysis of the quantitative data from former Baltimore City Public School students revealed a general satisfaction with the current sex education curriculum. However, qualitative data from the same group of stakeholders revealed several changes they thought should be implemented into the program in an effort to improve the current curriculum. Findings from the other groups after qualitative analysis of the interviews suggest three major themes in support of curriculum change: (1) a blended curriculum that integrates both the cognitive and affective learning domains; (2) knowledge of prevention of STD's and pregnancy; and (3) authentic teaching and learning. Results from this study strongly suggest that the Baltimore City Public School system is apathetic to the sexual health needs of students and, therefore, is inadvertently contributing to the high rate of sexually transmitted diseases among young people. Keywords: Abstinence, Affective domain, Indoctrination, Behavior Modification, Cognitive domain, Sex education curriculum, Sexually Transmitted Diseases.

  20. Earth Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewer, Tom

    1970-01-01

    Reviews some of the more concerted, large-scale efforts in the earth resources areas" in order to help the computer community obtain insights into the activities it can jointly particpate in withthe earth resources community." (Author)

  1. ALS - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - ALS ... The following organizations are good resources for information on amyotrophic lateral sclerosis : Muscular Dystrophy Association -- www.mda.org/disease/amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis National Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) ...

  2. Breastfeeding - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - breastfeeding ... The following organizations are good resources for information on breastfeeding and breastfeeding problems : La Leche League International Inc. -- www.lalecheleague.org March of Dimes -- www.marchofdimes.com/ ...

  3. Alcoholism - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - alcoholism ... The following organizations are good resources for information on alcoholism : Alcoholics Anonymous -- www.aa.org Al-Anon Family Groups www.al-anon.org National Institute on Alcohol ...

  4. Scoliosis - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - scoliosis ... The following organizations are good resources for information on scoliosis : American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons -- orthoinfo.aaos.org/topic.cfm?topic=A00626 National Institute of Arthritis and ...

  5. Migraine - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - migraine ... The following organizations are good resources for information on migraines : American Migraine Foundation -- www.americanmigrainefoundation.org National Headache Foundation -- www.headaches.org National Institute of Neurological Disorders ...

  6. Incontinence - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - incontinence ... The following organizations are good resources for information on incontinence. Fecal incontinence : The American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists -- www.acog.org/~/media/for%20patients/faq139.ashx ...

  7. Blindness - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - blindness ... The following organizations are good resources for information on blindness : American Foundation for the Blind -- www.afb.org Foundation Fighting Blindness -- www.blindness.org National Eye Institute -- ...

  8. Epilepsy - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - epilepsy ... The following organizations are good resources for information on epilepsy : Epilepsy Foundation -- www.epilepsy.com National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke -- www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/ ...

  9. Infertility - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - infertility ... The following organizations are good resources for information on infertility : Centers for Disease Control and Prevention -- www.cdc/gov/reproductivehealth/infertility March of Dimes -- www.marchofdimes.com/ ...

  10. Ostomy - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - ostomy ... The following organizations are good resources for information on ostomies: American Society of Colon and Rectal Surgeons -- www.fascrs.org/patients/disease-condition/ostomy-expanded-version United ...

  11. Psoriasis - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - psoriasis ... The following organizations are good resources for information about psoriasis : American Academy of Dermatology -- www.aad.org/skin-conditions/dermatology-a-to-z/psoriasis National Institute of ...

  12. Lupus - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - lupus ... The following organizations are good resources for information on systemic lupus erythematosus : The Lupus Foundation of America -- www.lupus.org The National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal ...

  13. Scleroderma - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - scleroderma ... The following organizations are good resources for information on scleroderma : American College of Rheumatology -- www.rheumatology.org/practice/clinical/patients/diseases_and_conditions/scleroderma.asp National Institute ...

  14. Alzheimer - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - Alzheimer ... The following organizations are good resources for information on Alzheimer disease : Alzheimer's Association -- www.alz.org Alzheimer's Disease Education and Referral Center -- www.nia.nih.gov/alzheimers ...

  15. Cancer - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - cancer ... The following organizations are good resources for information on cancer : American Cancer Society -- www.cancer.org Cancer Care -- www.cancercare.org Cancer.Net -- www.cancer.net/coping- ...

  16. SIDS - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - SIDS ... The following organizations are good resources for information on SIDS (Sudden Infant Death Syndrome) : American SIDS Institute -- sids.org Centers for Disease Control and Prevention -- www.cdc. ...

  17. Kentucky Department for Natural Resources and Environmental Protection permit application for air contaminant source: SRC-I demonstration plant, Newman, Kentucky. Supplement I. [Additional information on 38 items requested by KY/DNREP

    SciTech Connect

    Pearson, Jr., John F.

    1981-02-13

    In response to a letter from KY/DNREP, January 19, 1981, ICRC and DOE have prepared the enclosed supplement to the Kentucky Department for Natural Resources and Environmental Protection Permit Application for Air Contaminant Source for the SRC-I Demonstration Plant. Each of the 38 comments contained in the letter has been addressed in accordance with the discussions held in Frankfort on January 28, 1981, among representatives of KY/DNREP, EPA Region IV, US DOE, and ICRC. The questions raised involve requests for detailed information on the performance and reliability of proprietary equipment, back-up methods, monitoring plans for various pollutants, composition of wastes to flares, emissions estimates from particular operations, origin of baseline information, mathematical models, storage tanks, dusts, etc. (LTN)

  18. Anticipated Notification of Sexual Partners following STD Diagnosis among Men Who Have Sex with Men and Transgender Women in Lima, Peru: A Mixed Methods Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Jesse L.; Perez-Brumer, Amaya G.; Segura, Eddy R.; Salvatierra, Hector J.; Sanchez, Jorge; Lama, Javier R.

    2016-01-01

    Background New strategies to support partner notification (PN) are critical for STD control and require detailed understanding of how specific individual and partnership characteristics guide notification decisions. Methods From 2011 to 2012, 397 MSM and TW recently diagnosed with HIV, syphilis, or another STD completed a survey on anticipated notification of recent sexual partners and associated factors. Qualitative interviews were conducted with a subset of participants to provide further depth to quantitative findings. Prevalence ratios and generalized estimating equation (GEE) models were used to analyze participant- and partner-level factors associated with anticipated PN. Results Among all partners reported, 52.5% were described as “Very Likely” or “Somewhat Likely” to be notified. Anticipated notification was more likely for main partners than casual (adjusted Prevalence Ratio [aPR], 95% CI: 0.63, 0.54–0.75) or commercial (aPR, 95% CI: 0.44, 0.31–0.62) partners. Other factors associated with likely notification included perception of the partner as an STD source (aPR, 95% CI: 1.27, 1.10–1.48) and anticipated future sexual contact with the partner (aPR, 95% CI: 1.30, 1.11–1.52). An HIV diagnosis was associated with a lower likelihood of notification than non-HIV STDs (aPR: 0.68, 0.55–0.86). Qualitative discussion of the barriers and incentives to PN reflected a similar differentiation of anticipated notification according to partnership type and type of HIV/STD diagnosis. Discussion Detailed attention to how partnership characteristics guide notification outcomes is essential to the development of new PN strategies. By accurately and thoroughly assessing the diversity of partnership interactions among individuals with HIV/STD, new notification techniques can be tailored to partner-specific circumstances. PMID:27685158

  19. Act for Better Child Care Services of 1988. Report from the Committee on Labor and Human Resources Together with Additional Views (To Accompany S. 1885). 100th Congress, 2nd Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources.

    The Act for Better Child Care Services of 1988, additional views of members of the United States Senate, and related materials are reported. The purpose of the Act is to increase the availability, affordability, and quality of child care throughout the nation. The legislation provides direct financial assistance to low-income and working families…

  20. Uniform Additivity in Classical and Quantum Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cross, Andrew; Li, Ke; Smith, Graeme

    2017-01-01

    Information theory quantifies the optimal rates of resource interconversions, usually in terms of entropies. However, nonadditivity often makes evaluating entropic formulas intractable. In a few auspicious cases, additivity allows a full characterization of optimal rates. We study uniform additivity of formulas, which is easily evaluated and captures all known additive quantum formulas. Our complete characterization of uniform additivity exposes an intriguing new additive quantity and identifies a remarkable coincidence—the classical and quantum uniformly additive functions with one auxiliary variable are identical.

  1. Municipal Solid Waste Resources

    SciTech Connect

    2016-06-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) is a source of biomass material that can be utilized for bioenergy production with minimal additional inputs. MSW resources include mixed commercial and residential garbage such as yard trimmings, paper and paperboard, plastics, rubber, leather, textiles, and food wastes. Waste resources such as landfill gas, mill residues, and waste grease are already being utilized for cost-effective renewable energy generation. MSW for bioenergy also represents an opportunity to divert greater volumes of residential and commercial waste from landfills.

  2. Revision of FED-STD-209D and MIL-STD-1246B and development of IES (Institute of Environmental Sciences) contamination control recommended practices in the United States of America

    SciTech Connect

    Mielke, R.L.

    1990-01-01

    In the United States of America, numerous organizations are writing standards and recommend practices for contamination control and cleanroom applications. The American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), the Institute of Environmental Sciences (IES), and various US Government agencies are among the organizations with a vested interest in publishing standards and recommended practices on these subjects. In the early years of contamination control and cleanroom technology, significant work was done in the US on standards and recommended practices. Proprietary standards were established by companies and other documents were produced by Federal agencies and technical organizations. In 1982, the IES began to focus on recommended practices, and the US General Services Administration (GSA) commissioned the IES to review and rewrite US Federal Standard 209 (FED-STD-209). The ASTM continues to review and update their standards on cleanroom applications on a periodic basis. Now, in 1990, US military organizations are beginning to review their cleanroom documents as well. This paper will discuss the preparation of IES Recommended Practices and Standards for contamination control and cleanroom applications. It will describe the current status of four IES Recommended Practices and two US Government documents.

  3. Extractable resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The use of information from space systems in the operation of extractive industries, particularly in exploration for mineral and fuel resources was reviewed. Conclusions and recommendations reported are based on the fundamental premise that survival of modern industrial society requires a continuing secure flow of resources for energy, construction and manufacturing, and for use as plant foods.

  4. A Cross-Correlated Trellis-Coded Quadrature Modulation Representation of MIL-STD Shaped Offset Quadrature Phase-Shift Keying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, M. K.; Li, L.

    2003-08-01

    We show that MIL-STD shaped offset quadrature phase-shift keying (SOQPSK), a highly bandwidth-efficient constant-envelope modulation, can be represented in the form of a cross-correlated trellis-coded quadrature modulation, a generic structure containing both memory and cross-correlation between the in-phase and quadrature-phase channels. Such a representation allows identification of the optimum form of receiver for MIL-STD SOQPSK and at the same time, through modification of the equivalent I and Q encoders to recursive types, allows for it to be embedded as the inner code of a serial or parallel (turbo-like) concatenated coding structure together with iterative decoding.

  5. Addiction and sexually transmitted disease (STD), human immunodeficiency virus, (HIV), and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS): their mutual interactions.

    PubMed

    Adrian, Manuella

    2006-01-01

    We explore the links between substance use, misuse, addiction, and dependency1 and sexuality, sexually transmitted diseases (STD), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) to increase our awareness of their interdependence and to identify new ways to perceive, judge, and intervene (or not to) with associated problems. We consider the sociocultural and economic context in which these behaviors occur; the impact these behaviors have on one another; the personal opinions and attitudes; the religious, moral, or political beliefs and agendas; the physiological and fiscal constraints; and theories of rational decision-making and psychological motivation that act to increase or reduce the incidence of these behaviors and their sequellae, while hindering or facilitating prevention, harm reduction, and treatment interventions. Mechanisms of epidemic spread of STDS/HIV/AIDS are presented in the Appendix. Each of these terms are loaded "container concepts" that are culture-bound and stakeholder-driven and whose dimensions are less than consensus-based. They represent a range of meanings, uses, and misuses in an ongoing politicalized area of human and systemic functioning and adaptations.

  6. Fluorinated Carbohydrates as Lectin Ligands: 19F-Based Direct STD Monitoring for Detection of Anomeric Selectivity

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, João P.; Diercks, Tammo; Jiménez-Barbero, Jesús; André, Sabine; Gabius, Hans-Joachim; Cañada, Francisco Javier

    2015-01-01

    The characterization of the binding of reducing carbohydrates present as mixtures of anomers in solution to a sugar recepor (lectin) poses severe difficulties. In this situation, NMR spectroscopy enables the observation of signals for each anomer in the mixture by applying approaches based on ligand observation. Saturation transfer difference (STD) NMR allows fast and efficient screening of compound mixtures for reactivity to a receptor. Owing to the exceptionally favorable properties of 19F in NMR spectroscopy and the often complex 1H spectra of carbohydrates, 19F-containing sugars have the potential to be turned into versatile sensors for recognition. Extending the recently established 1H → 1H STDre19F-NMR technique, we here demonstrate its applicability to measure anomeric selectivity of binding in a model system using the plant lectin concanavalin A (ConA) and 2-deoxy-2-fluoro-d-mannose. Indeed, it is also possible to account for the mutual inhibition between the anomers on binding to the lectin by means of a kinetic model. The monitoring of 19F-NMR signal perturbation disclosed the relative activities of the anomers in solution and thus enabled the calculation of their binding affinity towards ConA. The obtained data show a preference for the α anomer that increases with temperature. This experimental approach can be extended to others systems of biomedical interest by testing human lectins with suitably tailored glycan derivatives. PMID:26580665

  7. Declining syphilis prevalence in pregnant women in Nairobi since 1995: another success story in the STD field?

    PubMed

    Temmerman, M; Fonck, K; Bashir, F; Inion, I; Ndinya-Achola, J O; Bwayo, J; Kirui, P; Claeys, P; Fransen, L

    1999-06-01

    Untreated maternal syphilis during pregnancy will cause adverse pregnancy outcomes in more than 60% of the infected women. In Nairobi, Kenya, the prevalence of syphilis in pregnant women of 2.9% in 1989, showed a rise to 6.5% in 1993, parallel to an increase of HIV-1 prevalence rates. Since the early 1990s, decentralized STD/HIV prevention and control programmes, including a specific syphilis control programme, were developed in the public health facilities of Nairobi. Since 1992 the prevalence of syphilis in pregnant women has been monitored. This paper reports the findings of 81,311 pregnant women between 1994 and 1997. A total of 4244 women (5.3%) tested positive with prevalence rates of 7.2% (95% CI: 6.7-7.7) in 1994, 7.3% (95% CI: 6.9-7.7) in 1995, 4.5% (95% CI: 4.3-4.8) in 1996 and 3.8% (95% CI: 3.6-4.0) in 1997. In conclusion, a marked decline in syphilis seroprevalence in pregnant women in Nairobi was observed since 1995-96 (P<0.0001, Chi-square test for trend) in contrast to upward trends reported between 1990 and 1994-95 in the same population.

  8. Difference in Risk Behaviors and STD Prevalence Between Street-Based and Establishment-Based FSWs in Guangdong Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yan; Lin, Peng; Fu, Xiaobing; Deng, Zhongming; Liu, Yongying; Huang, Guohua; Li, Jie; Tan, Yihe

    2012-01-01

    The major mode of HIV/AIDS transmission in China is now heterosexual activities, but risk for HIV and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) may differ among different strata of female sex workers (FSWs). Respondent-driven sampling was used to recruit 320 FSWs in Guangdong Province, China. The respondents were interviewed using a structured questionnaire, and tested for HIV, syphilis, gonorrhea, and Chlamydia. The street-based FSWs had lower education levels, a higher proportion supporting their families, charged less for their services, and had engaged in commercial sex for a longer period of time than establishment-based FSWs. The proportion consistently using condoms with clients and with regular non-paying partners was also lower. The prevalence of syphilis, gonorrhea, and Chlamydia was higher among street-based sex workers. Being a street-based sex worker, having regular non-paying sex partners, and having non-regular non-paying partners were independent risk factors for inconsistent condom. Street-based FSWs had more risk behaviors than establishment-based FSWs, and should therefore be specifically targeted for HIV as well as STD intervention programs. PMID:22228068

  9. Characterization of representative materials in support of safe, long term storage of surplus plutonium in DOE-STD-3013 containers

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Paul H; Narlesky, Joshua E; Worl, Laura A; Gillispie, Obie W

    2010-01-01

    The Surveillance and Monitoring Program (SMP) is a joint LANL/SRS effort funded by DOE/EM to provide the technical basis for the safe, long-term storage (up to 50 years) of over 6 metric tons of plutonium stored in over 5000 DOE-STD-3013 containers at various facilities around the DOE complex. The majority of this material is plutonium that is surplus to the nuclear weapons program, and much of it is destined for conversion to mixed oxide fuel for use in US nuclear power plants. The form of the plutonium ranges from relatively pure metal and oxide to very impure oxide. The performance of the 3013 containers has been shown to depend on moisture content and on the levels, types and chemical forms of the impurities. The oxide materials that present the greatest challenge to the storage container are those that contain chloride salts. The chlorides (NaCl, KCl, CaCl{sub 2}, and MgCl{sub 2}) range from less than half of the impurities present to nearly all the impurities. Other common impurities include oxides and other compounds of calcium, magnesium, iron, and nickel. Over the past 15 years the program has collected a large body of experimental data on over 60 samples of plutonium chosen to represent the broader population of materials in storage. This paper will summarize the characterization data, including the origin and process history, particle size, surface area, density, calorimetry, chemical analysis, moisture analysis, prompt gamma, gas generation and corrosion behavior.

  10. Characterization of Representative Materials in Support of Safe, Long Term Storage of Surplus Plutonium in DOE-STD-3013 Containers

    SciTech Connect

    Narlesky, Joshua E.; Stroud, Mary Ann; Smith, Paul Herrick; Wayne, David M.; Mason, Richard E.; Worl, Laura A.

    2013-02-15

    The Surveillance and Monitoring Program is a joint Los Alamos National Laboratory/Savannah River Site effort funded by the Department of Energy-Environmental Management to provide the technical basis for the safe, long-term storage (up to 50 years) of over 6 metric tons of plutonium stored in over 5,000 DOE-STD-3013 containers at various facilities around the DOE complex. The majority of this material is plutonium that is surplus to the nuclear weapons program, and much of it is destined for conversion to mixed oxide fuel for use in US nuclear power plants. The form of the plutonium ranges from relatively pure metal and oxide to very impure oxide. The performance of the 3013 containers has been shown to depend on moisture content and on the levels, types and chemical forms of the impurities. The oxide materials that present the greatest challenge to the storage container are those that contain chloride salts. Other common impurities include oxides and other compounds of calcium, magnesium, iron, and nickel. Over the past 15 years the program has collected a large body of experimental data on 54 samples of plutonium, with 53 chosen to represent the broader population of materials in storage. This paper summarizes the characterization data, moisture analysis, particle size, surface area, density, wattage, actinide composition, trace element impurity analysis, and shelf life surveillance data and includes origin and process history information. Limited characterization data on fourteen nonrepresentative samples is also presented.

  11. Relationship-Specific Condom Attitudes Predict Condom Use among STD Clinic Patients with both Primary and Non-Primary Partners

    PubMed Central

    Senn, Theresa E.; Scott-Sheldon, Lori A. J.; Carey, Michael P.

    2014-01-01

    Although condom use differs by partner type (i.e., primary vs. non-primary partner), attitudes towards condom use are typically measured without consideration of partner type. This study investigated the predictive utility of condom attitudes measured separately by partner type. Participants were 270 patients (37% women, 72% Black) recruited from a publicly-funded STD clinic who reported having both primary and non-primary partners. They completed a computerized survey assessing relationship-specific condom attitudes by partner type, condom attitudes related to pleasure and respect, and condom use with primary and non-primary partners. Participants reported more positive relationship-specific condom attitudes with a non-primary vs. primary partner. When considering pleasure-related, respect-related, and relationship-specific condom attitudes simultaneously, only relationship-specific condom attitudes predicted unprotected sex, with both primary and non-primary partners. In general, pleasure and respect-related condom attitudes did not predict unprotected sex; however, pleasure-related attitudes predicted unprotected sex with a non-primary partner for men. Future research should assess relationship-specific condom attitudes. Sexual risk reduction interventions that address interpersonal consequences of condom use in both primary and non-primary relationships should be a priority. PMID:24567031

  12. JPL Thermal Design Modeling Philosophy and NASA-STD-7009 Standard for Models and Simulations - A Case Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Avila, Arturo

    2011-01-01

    The Standard JPL thermal engineering practice prescribes worst-case methodologies for design. In this process, environmental and key uncertain thermal parameters (e.g., thermal blanket performance, interface conductance, optical properties) are stacked in a worst case fashion to yield the most hot- or cold-biased temperature. Thus, these simulations would represent the upper and lower bounds. This, effectively, represents JPL thermal design margin philosophy. Uncertainty in the margins and the absolute temperatures is usually estimated by sensitivity analyses and/or by comparing the worst-case results with "expected" results. Applicability of the analytical model for specific design purposes along with any temperature requirement violations are documented in peer and project design review material. In 2008, NASA released NASA-STD-7009, Standard for Models and Simulations. The scope of this standard covers the development and maintenance of models, the operation of simulations, the analysis of the results, training, recommended practices, the assessment of the Modeling and Simulation (M&S) credibility, and the reporting of the M&S results. The Mars Exploration Rover (MER) project thermal control system M&S activity was chosen as a case study determining whether JPL practice is in line with the standard and to identify areas of non-compliance. This paper summarizes the results and makes recommendations regarding the application of this standard to JPL thermal M&S practices.

  13. Extragenital Gonorrhea and Chlamydia Testing and Infection Among Men Who Have Sex With Men—STD Surveillance Network, United States, 2010–2012

    PubMed Central

    Patton, Monica E.; Kidd, Sarah; Llata, Eloisa; Stenger, Mark; Braxton, Jim; Asbel, Lenore; Bernstein, Kyle; Gratzer, Beau; Jespersen, Megan; Kerani, Roxanne; Mettenbrink, Christie; Mohamed, Mukhtar; Pathela, Preeti; Schumacher, Christina; Stirland, Ali; Stover, Jeff; Tabidze, Irina; Kirkcaldy, Robert D.; Weinstock, Hillard

    2015-01-01

    Background Gonorrhea (GC) and chlamydia (CT) are the most commonly reported notifiable diseases in the United States. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends that men who have sex with men (MSM) be screened for urogenital GC/CT, rectal GC/CT, and pharyngeal GC. We describe extragenital GC/CT testing and infections among MSM attending sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics. Methods The STD Surveillance Network collects patient data from 42 STD clinics. We assessed the proportion of MSM attending these clinics during July 2011–June 2012 who were tested and positive for extragenital GC/CT at their most recent visit or in the preceding 12 months and the number of extragenital infections that would have remained undetected with urethral screening alone. Results Of 21 994 MSM, 83.9% were tested for urogenital GC, 65.9% for pharyngeal GC, 50.4% for rectal GC, 81.4% for urogenital CT, 31.7% for pharyngeal CT, and 45.9% for rectal CT. Of MSM tested, 11.1% tested positive for urogenital GC, 7.9% for pharyngeal GC, 10.2% for rectal GC, 8.4% for urogenital CT, 2.9% for pharyngeal CT, and 14.1% for rectal CT. More than 70% of extragenital GC infections and 85% of extragenital CT infections were associated with negative urethral tests at the same visit and would not have been detected with urethral screening alone. Conclusions Extragenital GC/CT was common among MSM attending STD clinics, but many MSM were not tested. Most extragenital infections would not have been identified, and likely would have remained untreated, with urethral screening alone. Efforts are needed to facilitate implementation of extragenital GC/CT screening recommendations for MSM. PMID:24647015

  14. An integrated approach to 300 kV electrostatic discharge application during component testing that will satisfy MIL-STD-331B Appendix F

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehmann, Monty R.; Nial, Jack; Whitaker, Mike

    1992-11-01

    The widely differing methods of producing and applying a 300 kV electrostatic stimulus to components during testing to satisfy MIL-STD-331B Appendix F has resulted in uncertainty about the validity of some test results data. Problems encountered in test methodology are examined and possible solutions are proposed. The resulting integrated systematic approach is presented; specific equipment is described, and sample waveforms are shown. Test procedures are presented in a standardized format.

  15. 18 CFR 5.21 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Additional information. 5.21 Section 5.21 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT INTEGRATED LICENSE APPLICATION PROCESS §...

  16. 18 CFR 5.21 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Additional information. 5.21 Section 5.21 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT INTEGRATED LICENSE APPLICATION PROCESS §...

  17. 18 CFR 5.21 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Additional information. 5.21 Section 5.21 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT INTEGRATED LICENSE APPLICATION PROCESS §...

  18. 18 CFR 5.21 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Additional information. 5.21 Section 5.21 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT INTEGRATED LICENSE APPLICATION PROCESS §...

  19. 18 CFR 5.21 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Additional information. 5.21 Section 5.21 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT INTEGRATED LICENSE APPLICATION PROCESS §...

  20. 30 CFR 256.53 - Additional bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Additional bonds. 256.53 Section 256.53 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, REGULATION, AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... the Government and the estimated costs of lease abandonment and cleanup are less than the...

  1. 18 CFR 33.10 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Additional information. 33.10 Section 33.10 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT APPLICATIONS UNDER FEDERAL POWER ACT SECTION...

  2. Serological Profile of HSV-2 in STD Patients: Evaluation of Diagnostic Utility of HSV-2 IgM and IgG Detection

    PubMed Central

    Rashetha; Sucilathangam, G.; Cinthujah, B.; Revathy, C.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives:The present study was undertaken to determine Herpes Simplex Virus-2 seroprevalence in sexually active adults aged 20-49 and to investigate the correlation with sociodemographic characteristics and to find its association with other sexually transmitted diseases especially HIV and also to assess the proportion of primary and reactivated HSV-2 cases. Materials and Methods:This prospective study was carried out for a period of six months in a tertiary care hospital. Serum samples were taken from 91 patients attending the out Patient clinic of the Department of Venereology. The serological testing for HSV-2 was performed on all the specimens by using Euroimmun anti-HSV2 (gG2) IgM ELISA and IgG ELISA. Results: Out of the 91 STD patients in the study group, 18 males (34.62%) and 14 females (36.84%) tested positive for HSV-2 antibodies. Seropositivity rate is 35.16%. More number of HSV-2 positive cases were seen among males, older age, rural residence, low socioeconomic status, single marital status, irregular condom usage during the sexual intercourses with new partners and with higher number of sexual partners during lifetime. HSV-2 IgM alone was positive in three cases, HSV-2 IgG alone was positive in 26 cases and three had a positive HSV-2 IgM and IgG result. Addition of IgM testing increased rate of detecting seroconversion, 31.87%, when only IgG ELISA was used, to 35.16 % patients when IgM test was added. In the study group four cases tested positive for VDRL, and one of them was a known positive case. Among the 55 HIV positive cases in the study group, HSV 2 was positive in 17 cases and among the 36 HIV negative cases HSV 2 was positive in 15 cases. (30.91% and 47.22%).Though the number of HIV cases were high, HSV 2 positivity among them was statistically not significant. Conclusion:The purpose of screening for HSV-2 is not only to identify seropositivity, but to help seropositive people identify symptoms and protect themselves from

  3. What do young adults expect when they go online? Lessons for development of an STD/HIV and pregnancy prevention website.

    PubMed

    Bull, Sheana Salyers; Phibbs, Stephanie; Watson, Sally; McFarlane, Mary

    2007-04-01

    We used participatory research to develop a theoretically based online STD/HIV and pregnancy prevention intervention that would be entertaining and captivating for 15-25 year olds while delivering key messages about condom use. We conducted six focus groups with 15-25 year olds attending reproductive health clinics and completed a content analysis with focus group data. Youth had expectations that websites contain features such as graphics and flash technology. They would participate in research online if their confidentiality was assured and if they could receive an instant incentive. Limited access to high-end bandwidth capability requires use of compressed graphics and music to reach diverse audiences. Youth suggested approaches to frame role-model delivered messages about HIV/STD and pregnancy risk, condom attitudes, norms and self-efficacy for negotiation. These data allowed for development of a dynamic, interactive and relatively low bandwidth site that retains fidelity to key theoretical constructs in STD/HIV and pregnancy prevention.

  4. Target immobilization as a strategy for NMR-based fragment screening: comparison of TINS, STD, and SPR for fragment hit identification.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Masakazu; Retra, Kim; Figaroa, Francis; Hollander, Johan G; Ab, Eiso; Heetebrij, Robert J; Irth, Hubertus; Siegal, Gregg

    2010-09-01

    Fragment-based drug discovery (FBDD) has become a widely accepted tool that is complementary to high-throughput screening (HTS) in developing small-molecule inhibitors of pharmaceutical targets. Because a fragment campaign can only be as successful as the hit matter found, it is critical that the first stage of the process be optimized. Here the authors compare the 3 most commonly used methods for hit discovery in FBDD: high concentration screening (HCS), solution ligand-observed nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and surface plasmon resonance (SPR). They selected the commonly used saturation transfer difference (STD) NMR spectroscopy and the proprietary target immobilized NMR screening (TINS) as representative of the array of possible NMR methods. Using a target typical of FBDD campaigns, the authors find that HCS and TINS are the most sensitive to weak interactions. They also find a good correlation between TINS and STD for tighter binding ligands, but the ability of STD to detect ligands with affinity weaker than 1 mM K(D) is limited. Similarly, they find that SPR detection is most suited to ligands that bind with K(D) better than 1 mM. However, the good correlation between SPR and potency in a bioassay makes this a good method for hit validation and characterization studies.

  5. Acceptability and feasibility of using established geosocial and sexual networking mobile applications to promote HIV and STD testing among men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Sun, Christina J; Stowers, Jason; Miller, Cindy; Bachmann, Laura H; Rhodes, Scott D

    2015-03-01

    This study is the first published multi-app study, of which we are aware, to evaluate both the acceptability and feasibility of providing sexual health information and HIV/STD testing referrals via established geosocial and sexual networking apps for MSM. Data were collected using an online survey and through four apps (A4A Radar, Grindr, Jack'd, and Scruff). Two-thirds (64 %) found apps to be an acceptable source for sexual health information. MSM who found apps as acceptable were more likely non-white, not sure of their current HIV status, and have low HIV testing self-efficacy. One-quarter (26 %) of informational chats with the health educator resulted in users requesting and being referred to local HIV/STD testing sites. There were significant differences in the number and types of interactions across apps. Established apps designed for MSM may be both an acceptable and feasible platform to promote HIV/STD testing. Future research should evaluate interventions that leverage this technology.

  6. Acceptability and feasibility of using established geosocial and sexual networking mobile applications to promote HIV and STD testing among men who have sex with men

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Christina J.; Stowers, Jason; Miller, Cindy; Bachmann, Laura H.; Rhodes, Scott D.

    2014-01-01

    This study is the first published multi-app study, of which we are aware, to evaluate both the acceptability and feasibility of providing sexual health information and HIV/STD testing referrals via established geosocial and sexual networking apps for MSM. Data were collected using an online survey and through four apps (A4A Radar, Grindr, Jack’d, and Scruff). Two-thirds (64%) found apps to be an acceptable source for sexual health information. MSM who found apps as acceptable were more likely non-white men, not sure of their current HIV status, and have low HIV testing self-efficacy. One-quarter (26%) of informational chats with the health educator resulted in users requesting and being referred to local HIV/STD testing sites. There were significant differences in the number and types of interactions across apps. Established apps for MSM may be both an acceptable and feasible platform to promote HIV/STD testing. Future research should evaluate interventions that leverage this technology. PMID:25381563

  7. Direct Dose Consequences Due to DOE-STD-1027 Threshold Values

    SciTech Connect

    Hochhalter, E Eugene; Durante, Richard Paul; Walker, Jonathon Bill

    2001-06-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the potential direct dose consequences to facility workers and/or co-located workers from a Hazard Category 2 or 3 nuclear facility or a less than Hazard Category 3 radiological inventory. At the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), the safety analysis for several Hazard Category 3 nuclear facilities had to be revisited and the direct dose consequences associated with the facility radiological inventory had to be analyzed and incorporated into the safety analysis. This additional safety analysis was required because it was assumed that for a nuclear facility operating with radiological inventories between the Hazard Category 3 threshold quantities as a lower bounds and less the Hazard Category 2 threshold quantities as an upper bounds, the risk to the facility worker and/or co-located worker was within the INEEL Evaluation Guidelines for radiological exposures.

  8. Hemophilia - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - hemophilia ... The following organizations provide further information on hemophilia : Centers for Disease Control and Prevention -- www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/hemophilia/index.html National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute -- www.nhlbi.nih.gov/ ...

  9. Arthritis - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - arthritis ... The following organizations provide more information on arthritis : American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons -- orthoinfo.aaos.org/menus/arthritis.cfm Arthritis Foundation -- www.arthritis.org Centers for Disease Control and Prevention -- www. ...

  10. Diabetes - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - diabetes ... The following sites provide further information on diabetes: American Diabetes Association -- www.diabetes.org Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation International -- www.jdrf.org National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion -- ...

  11. Depression - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - depression ... Depression is a medical condition. If you think you may be depressed, see a health care provider. ... following organizations are good sources of information on depression : American Psychological Association -- www.apa.org/topics/depress/ ...

  12. Planning with PRA: HIV and STD in a Nepalese mountain community.

    PubMed

    Butcher, K; Kievelitz, U

    1997-09-01

    The application of Participatory Rural Appraisal methods (PRA) to the topic of sexual health enabled us to explore key factors concerning local people's perceptions regarding HIV/AIDS and STDs and to plan collectively to address the emerging issues. Conducting the process in a gender sensitive way enabled people to feel safe enough to express their own opinions, and having gained confidence in their peer groups, to share ideas later with the whole community in a joint planning exercise. Nevertheless one group was identified as difficult to reach and whose needs could not be met in a group for reasons of confidentiality. While the methodology itself clearly has great potential in planning around specific health issues, there are, nevertheless, limitations. Although the approach and the tools used are simple and accessible, the skills needed to analyze the information are more complex and demanding. The training given did not manage to equip facilitators adequately with these analytical skills and in the future will be more experience based and geared towards developing analysis and the ability to formulate questions. In addition, since the project is not permanently resident in the area, intensive support within the District is necessary to increase the chances of sustainability.

  13. Mars resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duke, Michael B.

    1986-01-01

    The most important resources of Mars for the early exploration phase will be oxygen and water, derived from the Martian atmosphere and regolith, which will be used for propellant and life support. Rocks and soils may be used in unprocessed form as shielding materials for habitats, or in minimally processed form to expand habitable living and work space. Resources necessary to conduct manufacturing and agricultural projects are potentially available, but will await advanced stages of Mars habitation before they are utilized.

  14. Forest Resources

    SciTech Connect

    2016-06-01

    Forest biomass is an abundant biomass feedstock that complements the conventional forest use of wood for paper and wood materials. It may be utilized for bioenergy production, such as heat and electricity, as well as for biofuels and a variety of bioproducts, such as industrial chemicals, textiles, and other renewable materials. The resources within the 2016 Billion-Ton Report include primary forest resources, which are taken directly from timberland-only forests, removed from the land, and taken to the roadside.

  15. 40 CFR 52.135 - Resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Resources. 52.135 Section 52.135... PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Arizona § 52.135 Resources. (a) The requirements of § 51.280 of this... resources available to the State and local agencies and of additional resources needed to carry out the...

  16. 40 CFR 52.135 - Resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Resources. 52.135 Section 52.135... PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Arizona § 52.135 Resources. (a) The requirements of § 51.280 of this... resources available to the State and local agencies and of additional resources needed to carry out the...

  17. 40 CFR 52.135 - Resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Resources. 52.135 Section 52.135... PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Arizona § 52.135 Resources. (a) The requirements of § 51.280 of this... resources available to the State and local agencies and of additional resources needed to carry out the...

  18. 40 CFR 51.280 - Resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Resources. 51.280 Section 51.280... Resources. Each plan must include a description of the resources available to the State and local agencies at the date of submission of the plan and of any additional resources needed to carry out the...

  19. 40 CFR 51.280 - Resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Resources. 51.280 Section 51.280... Resources. Each plan must include a description of the resources available to the State and local agencies at the date of submission of the plan and of any additional resources needed to carry out the...

  20. 40 CFR 51.280 - Resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Resources. 51.280 Section 51.280... Resources. Each plan must include a description of the resources available to the State and local agencies at the date of submission of the plan and of any additional resources needed to carry out the...

  1. 40 CFR 52.135 - Resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Resources. 52.135 Section 52.135... PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Arizona § 52.135 Resources. (a) The requirements of § 51.280 of this... resources available to the State and local agencies and of additional resources needed to carry out the...

  2. 40 CFR 51.280 - Resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Resources. 51.280 Section 51.280... Resources. Each plan must include a description of the resources available to the State and local agencies at the date of submission of the plan and of any additional resources needed to carry out the...

  3. 40 CFR 51.280 - Resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Resources. 51.280 Section 51.280... Resources. Each plan must include a description of the resources available to the State and local agencies at the date of submission of the plan and of any additional resources needed to carry out the...

  4. 40 CFR 52.135 - Resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Resources. 52.135 Section 52.135... PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Arizona § 52.135 Resources. (a) The requirements of § 51.280 of this... resources available to the State and local agencies and of additional resources needed to carry out the...

  5. STD/HIV control in Malawi and the search for affordable and effective urethritis therapy: a first field evaluation.

    PubMed Central

    Lule, G; Behets, F M; Hoffman, I F; Dallabetta, G; Hamilton, H A; Moeng, S; Liomba, G; Cohen, M S

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To evaluate gonococcal (GU) and nongonococcal urethritis (NGU), chlamydia antigen, and serostatus for syphilis and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among males attending a Malawian STD clinic with complaints of urethral discharge and/or dysuria. To collect demographic and behavioural data and to determine the effectiveness of five treatments for urethritis. METHODS--Urethritis was diagnosed using microscopy and culture for Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Sera were screened with rapid plasma reagin (RPR) and if reactive, with microhaemagglutination for Treponema pallidum (MHA-TP). HIV antibodies and chlamydia antigen were detected using enzyme immunoassay. Patients were randomised for treatment, cure was assessed 8-10 days later. RESULTS--At enrolment, GU was diagnosed in 415 (80.3%) and NGU in 59 (11.2%) of 517 males. Chlamydia antigen was found in 26 (5.2%) of 497 specimens tested. Syphilis seropositivity rate (RPR and MHA-TP reactive) was 10.7%. Overall HIV seroprevalence was 44.2%; 71.7% of men with reactive syphilis serology were HIV(+) compared with 40.9% of syphilis seronegatives (OR: 3.6, p < 0.001). Trimethoprim 320 mg/sulphamethoxazole 1600 mg by mouth for 2 days (TMPSMX), or the combination of amoxicillin 3 gm, probenicid 1 gm, and clavulanate 125 mg by mouth once (APC), failed to cure gonorrhoea effectively. Amoxicillin 3 gm, probenicid 1 gm, and clavulanate 125 mg, by mouth once with doxycycline 100 mg BID for 7 days (APC-D), gentamicin 240 mg IM once (GENT), ciprofloxacin 250 mg by mouth once (CIPRO) cured 92.9% to 95% of gonorrhoea. APC-D treatment did not generate less NGU at follow-up. HIV serostatus did not affect cure of urethritis. CONCLUSION--All patients presenting with urethritis should be treated syndromically using a simple algorithm and screened for syphilis seroreactivity for appropriate treatment and counselling. PMID:7705854

  6. The New NASA-STD-4005 and NASA-HDBK-4006, Essentials for Direct-Drive Solar Electric Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferguson, Dale C.

    2007-01-01

    High voltage solar arrays are necessary for direct-drive solar electric propulsion, which has many advantages, including simplicity and high efficiency. Even when direct-drive is not used, the use of high voltage solar arrays leads to power transmission and conversion efficiencies in electric propulsion Power Management and Distribution. Nevertheless, high voltage solar arrays may lead to temporary power disruptions, through the so-called primary electrostatic discharges, and may permanently damage arrays, through the so-called permanent sustained discharges between array strings. Design guidance is needed to prevent these solar array discharges, and to prevent high power drains through coupling between the electric propulsion devices and the high voltage solar arrays. While most electric propulsion systems may operate outside of Low Earth Orbit, the plasmas produced by their thrusters may interact with the high voltage solar arrays in many ways similarly to Low Earth Orbit plasmas. A brief description of previous experiences with high voltage electric propulsion systems will be given in this paper. There are two new official NASA documents available free through the NASA Standards website to help in designing and testing high voltage solar arrays for electric propulsion. They are NASA-STD-4005, the Low Earth Orbit Spacecraft Charging Design Standard, and NASA-HDBK-4006, the Low Earth Orbit Spacecraft Charging Design Handbook. Taken together, they can both educate the high voltage array designer in the engineering and science of spacecraft charging in the presence of dense plasmas and provide techniques for designing and testing high voltage solar arrays to prevent electrical discharges and power drains.

  7. Improving cyclic stability of lithium nickel manganese oxide cathode at elevated temperature by using dimethyl phenylphosphonite as electrolyte additive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mai, Shaowei; Xu, Mengqing; Liao, Xiaolin; Xing, Lidan; Li, Weishan

    2015-01-01

    A novel electrolyte additive, dimethyl phenylphosphonite (DMPP), is reported in this paper to be able to improve significantly the cyclic stability of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode of high voltage lithium ion battery at elevated temperature. When experiencing charge/discharge cycling at 50 °C with 1C (1C = 146.7 mAh g-1) rate in a standard (STD) electrolyte (1.0 M LiPF6 in ethylene carbonate (EC)/dimethyl carbonate (DMC), EC/DMC = 1/2 in volume), LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 suffers serious discharge capacity decaying, with a capacity retention of 42% after 100 cycles. With adding 0.5% DMPP into the STD electrolyte, the capacity retention is increased to 91%. This improvement can be ascribed to the preferential oxidation of DMPP to the STD electrolyte and the subsequent formation of a protective film on LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4, which suppresses the electrolyte decomposition and protects LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 from destruction. Theoretical calculations together with voltammetric analyses demonstrate the preferential oxidation of DMPP and the consequent suppression of electrolyte decomposition, while the observations from scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectronic spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirm the protection that DMPP provides for LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4.

  8. Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Test Methods Additional Resources

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Supporting documents on the Direct Final Rule that allows refiners and laboratories to use more current and improved fuel testing procedures for twelve American Society for Testing and Materials analytical test methods.

  9. Modifications to the Renewable Fuel Standard Program Additional Resources

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA withdraws the heating oil definition and transmix amendments addressed in EPA's direct final rule on October 9, 2012. You will find October's final rule and withdrawal notice of this final rule on this page.

  10. Lunar Resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edmunson, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the lunar resources that we know are available for human use while exploration of the moon. Some of the lunar resources that are available for use are minerals, sunlight, solar wind, water and water ice, rocks and regolith. The locations for some of the lunar resouces and temperatures are reviewed. The Lunar CRater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) mission, and its findings are reviewed. There is also discussion about water retention in Permament Shadowed Regions of the Moon. There is also discussion about the Rock types on the lunar surface. There is also discussion of the lunar regolith, the type and the usages that we can have from it.

  11. 15 CFR 990.66 - Additional considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional considerations. 990.66 Section 990.66 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued... NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Restoration Implementation Phase § 990.66 Additional...

  12. CISNET: Resources

    Cancer.gov

    The Publications pages provide lists of all CISNET publications since the inception of CISNET. Publications are listed by Cancer Site or by Research Topic. The Publication Support and Modeling Resources pages provides access to technical modeling information, raw data, and publication extensions stemming from the work of the CISNET consortium.

  13. Urban Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novak, Kathy

    Designed as a resource for urban adult basic education (ABE) program planners, this guidebook describes model linkage strategies between ABE and job placement as well as ABE and job training services that are targeted to urban Americans. The following topics are covered in the guide: linkage strategies (the meaning of the term linkages, community…

  14. std::string Append

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    CENTER Weapons and Software Engineering Center Picatinny Arsenal , New Jersey UNCLASSIFIED The views, opinions, and/or...ARDEC, WSEC Fire Control Systems & Technology Directorate (RDAR-WSF-M) Picatinny Arsenal , NJ 07806-5000 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT... Arsenal , NJ 07806-5000 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM(S) 11. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S REPORT NUMBER(S) Technical Report ARWSE-TR-14026 12

  15. Evaluation by fluorescence, STD-NMR, docking and semi-empirical calculations of the o-NBA photo-acid interaction with BSA.

    PubMed

    Chaves, Otávio A; Jesus, Catarina S H; Cruz, Pedro F; Sant'Anna, Carlos M R; Brito, Rui M M; Serpa, Carlos

    2016-12-05

    Serum albumins present reversible pH dependent conformational transitions. A sudden laser induced pH-jump is a methodology that can provide new insights on localized protein (un)folding processes that occur within the nanosecond to microsecond time scale. To generate the fast pH jump needed to fast-trigger a protein conformational event, a photo-triggered acid generator as o-nitrobenzaldehyde (o-NBA) can be conveniently used. In order to detect potential specific or nonspecific interactions between o-NBA and BSA, we have performed ligand-binding studies using fluorescence spectroscopy, saturation transfer difference (STD) NMR, molecular docking and semi-empirical calculations. Fluorescence quenching indicates the formation of a non-fluorescent complex in the ground-state between the fluorophore and the quencher, but o-NBA does not bind much effectively to the protein (Ka~4.34×10(3)M(-1)) and thus can be considered a relatively weak binder. The corresponding thermodynamic parameters: ΔG°, ΔS° and ΔH° showed that the binding process is spontaneous and entropy driven. Results of (1)H STD-NMR confirm that the photo-acid and BSA interact, and the relative intensities of the signals in the STD spectra show that all o-NBA protons are equally involved in the binding process, which should correspond to a nonspecific interaction. Molecular docking and semi-empirical calculations suggest that the o-NBA binds preferentially to the Trp-212-containing site of BSA (FA7), interacting via hydrogen bonds with Arg-217 and Tyr-149 residues.

  16. Evaluation by fluorescence, STD-NMR, docking and semi-empirical calculations of the o-NBA photo-acid interaction with BSA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaves, Otávio A.; Jesus, Catarina S. H.; Cruz, Pedro F.; Sant'Anna, Carlos M. R.; Brito, Rui M. M.; Serpa, Carlos

    2016-12-01

    Serum albumins present reversible pH dependent conformational transitions. A sudden laser induced pH-jump is a methodology that can provide new insights on localized protein (un)folding processes that occur within the nanosecond to microsecond time scale. To generate the fast pH jump needed to fast-trigger a protein conformational event, a photo-triggered acid generator as o-nitrobenzaldehyde (o-NBA) can be conveniently used. In order to detect potential specific or nonspecific interactions between o-NBA and BSA, we have performed ligand-binding studies using fluorescence spectroscopy, saturation transfer difference (STD) NMR, molecular docking and semi-empirical calculations. Fluorescence quenching indicates the formation of a non-fluorescent complex in the ground-state between the fluorophore and the quencher, but o-NBA does not bind much effectively to the protein (Ka 4.34 × 103 M- 1) and thus can be considered a relatively weak binder. The corresponding thermodynamic parameters: ΔG°, ΔS° and ΔH° showed that the binding process is spontaneous and entropy driven. Results of 1H STD-NMR confirm that the photo-acid and BSA interact, and the relative intensities of the signals in the STD spectra show that all o-NBA protons are equally involved in the binding process, which should correspond to a nonspecific interaction. Molecular docking and semi-empirical calculations suggest that the o-NBA binds preferentially to the Trp-212-containing site of BSA (FA7), interacting via hydrogen bonds with Arg-217 and Tyr-149 residues.

  17. Effects of a Social Network HIV/STD Prevention Intervention for Men Who Have Sex with Men in Russia and Hungary: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Amirkhanian, Yuri A.; Kelly, Jeffrey A.; Takacs, Judit; McAuliffe, Timothy L.; Kuznetsova, Anna V.; Toth, Tamas P.; Mocsonaki, Laszlo; DiFranceisco, Wayne J.; Meylakhs, Anastasia

    2015-01-01

    Objective To test a novel social network HIV risk reduction intervention for MSM in Russia and Hungary, where same-sex behavior is stigmatized and men may best be reached through their social network connections. Design A 2-arm trial with 18 sociocentric networks of MSM randomized to the social network intervention or standard HIV/STD testing/counseling. Setting St. Petersburg, Russia and Budapest, Hungary. Participants 18 “seeds” from community venues invited the participation of their MSM friends who, in turn, invited their own MSM friends into the study, a process that continued outward until eighteen 3-ring sociocentric networks (mean size=35 members, n=626) were recruited. Intervention Empirically-identified network leaders were trained and guided to convey HIV prevention advice to other network members. Main Outcome and Measures Changes in sexual behavior from baseline to 3- and 12-month followup, with composite HIV/STD incidence measured at 12-months to corroborate behavior changes. Results There were significant reductions between baseline, first followup, and second followup in the intervention versus comparison arm for proportion of men engaging in any unprotected anal intercourse (P=.04); UAI with a nonmain partner (P=.04); and UAI with multiple partners (P=.002). The mean percentage of unprotected AI acts significantly declined (P=.001), as well as the mean number of UAI acts among men who initially had multiple partners (P=.05). Biological HIV/STD incidence was 15% in comparison condition networks and 9% in intervention condition networks. Conclusions Even where same-sex behavior is stigmatized, it is possible to reach MSM and deliver HIV prevention through their social networks. PMID:25565495

  18. The Association of HIV Stigma and HIV/STD Knowledge With Sexual Risk Behaviors Among Adolescent and Adult Men Who Have Sex With Men in Ghana, West Africa.

    PubMed

    Nelson, LaRon E; Wilton, Leo; Agyarko-Poku, Thomas; Zhang, Nanhua; Aluoch, Marilyn; Thach, Chia T; Owiredu Hanson, Samuel; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw

    2015-06-01

    Ghanaian men who have sex with men (MSM) have a high HIV seroprevalence, but despite a critical need to address this public health concern, research evidence has been extremely limited on influences on sexual risk behavior among MSM in Ghana. To investigate associations between HIV/STD knowledge, HIV stigma, and sexual behaviors in a sample of MSM in Ghana, we conducted a secondary data analysis of cross-sectional survey data from a non-probability sample of Ghanaian MSM (N = 137). Nearly all the men (93%) had more than one current sex partner (M = 5.11, SD = 7.4). Of those reported partners, the average number of current female sexual partners was 1.1 (SD = 2.6). Overall, knowledge levels about HIV and STDs were low, and HIV stigma was high. There was no age-related difference in HIV stigma. Younger MSM (≤25 years) used condoms less often for anal and vaginal sex than did those over 25. Relative frequency of condom use for oral sex was lower in younger men who had higher STD knowledge and also was lower in older men who reported high HIV stigma. Knowledge and stigma were not associated with condom use for anal or vaginal sex in either age group. These descriptive data highlight the need for the development of intervention programs that address HIV/STD prevention knowledge gaps and reduce HIV stigma in Ghanaian communities. Intervention research in Ghana should address age-group-specific HIV prevention needs of MSM youth.

  19. Social and behavioural factors associated with HIV seroconversion in homosexual men attending a central London STD clinic: a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Gilbart, V L; Williams, D I; Macdonald, N D; Rogers, P A; Evans, B G; Hart, G; Williams, I G

    2000-02-01

    An unmatched retrospective case control study was conducted to test the feasibility of investigating social and behavioural factors which may have contributed to recent HIV seroconversion in a group of homosexual men. Participants, recruited from a London sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic, were sexually active and had had a negative HIV test with a subsequent test (positive (cases) or negative (controls)) within three to 15 months. Twenty cases and 22 controls were recruited between February and October 1995. There was no difference between cases and controls in: the number of regular or casual sexual partners, the proportion who were unaware of their regular partners' serostatus (cases 60%, controls 59%), or the proportion who had known HIV-positive regular partners (cases 20%, controls 23%). A significant difference in sexual behaviour was found only when the HIV status of partners, if known, was taken into account: cases were more likely than controls to have had unprotected receptive anal intercourse with a partner not known to be HIV-negative (OR = 5.5, CI = 1.15-29.50). Fifty per cent of the cases and 27% of the controls acquired acute STDs between the two HIV tests. All participants achieved high self-efficacy scores, but the controls believed their peers placed a greater value on safer sex. Cases cited emotional issues and the use of drugs and alcohol as contributing to their seroconversion, whereas controls cited a commitment to safer sex and the avoidance of high-risk situations as contributing to their remaining HIV-negative. The results illustrate the importance of acknowledging the concept of 'negotiated safety' in studies of sexual behaviour; seroconversion was only associated with unprotected sex with a partner not known to be HIV-negative. Despite high self-efficacy scores, indicating the skills to negotiate safer sex, high levels of unsafe anal intercourse were reported. Differences between cases and controls included the importance of

  20. Space Resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKay, Mary Fae (Editor); McKay, David S. (Editor); Duke, Michael S. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    Space resources must be used to support life on the Moon and exploration of Mars. Just as the pioneers applied the tools they brought with them to resources they found along the way rather than trying to haul all their needs over a long supply line, so too must space travelers apply their high technology tools to local resources. The pioneers refilled their water barrels at each river they forded; moonbase inhabitants may use chemical reactors to combine hydrogen brought from Earth with oxygen found in lunar soil to make their water. The pioneers sought temporary shelter under trees or in the lee of a cliff and built sod houses as their first homes on the new land; settlers of the Moon may seek out lava tubes for their shelter or cover space station modules with lunar regolith for radiation protection. The pioneers moved further west from their first settlements, using wagons they had built from local wood and pack animals they had raised; space explorers may use propellant made at a lunar base to take them on to Mars. The concept for this report was developed at a NASA-sponsored summer study in 1984. The program was held on the Scripps campus of the University of California at San Diego (UCSD), under the auspices of the American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE). It was jointly managed under the California Space Inst. and the NASA Johnson Space Center, under the direction of the Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology (OAST) at NASA Headquarters. The study participants (listed in the addendum) included a group of 18 university teachers and researchers (faculty fellows) who were present for the entire 10-week period and a larger group of attendees from universities, Government, and industry who came for a series of four 1-week workshops. The organization of this report follows that of the summer study. Space Resources consists of a brief overview and four detailed technical volumes: (1) Scenarios; (2) Energy, Power, and Transport; (3) Materials; (4

  1. A real time data acquisition system using the MIL-STD-1553B bus. [for transmission of data to host computer for control law processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peri, Frank, Jr.

    1992-01-01

    A flight digital data acquisition system that uses the MIL-STD-1553B bus for transmission of data to a host computer for control law processing is described. The instrument, the Remote Interface Unit (RIU), can accommodate up to 16 input channels and eight output channels. The RIU employs a digital signal processor to perform local digital filtering before sending data to the host. The system allows flexible sensor and actuator data organization to facilitate quick control law computations on the host computer. The instrument can also run simple control laws autonomously without host intervention. The RIU and host computer together have replaced a similar larger, ground minicomputer system with favorable results.

  2. Facilitating NASA's Use of GEIA-STD-0005-1, Performance Standard for Aerospace and High Performance Electronic Systems Containing Lead-Free Solder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plante, Jeannete

    2010-01-01

    GEIA-STD-0005-1 defines the objectives of, and requirements for, documenting processes that assure customers and regulatory agencies that AHP electronic systems containing lead-free solder, piece parts, and boards will satisfy the applicable requirements for performance, reliability, airworthiness, safety, and certify-ability throughout the specified life of performance. It communicates requirements for a Lead-Free Control Plan (LFCP) to assist suppliers in the development of their own Plans. The Plan documents the Plan Owner's (supplier's) processes, that assure their customer, and all other stakeholders that the Plan owner's products will continue to meet their requirements. The presentation reviews quality assurance requirements traceability and LFCP template instructions.

  3. Space Resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKay, Mary Fae (Editor); McKay, David S. (Editor); Duke, Michael S. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    Space resources must be used to support life on the Moon and exploration of Mars. Just as the pioneers applied the tools they brought with them to resources they found along the way rather than trying to haul all their needs over a long supply line, so too must space travelers apply their high technology tools to local resources. The pioneers refilled their water barrels at each river they forded; moonbase inhabitants may use chemical reactors to combine hydrogen brought from Earth with oxygen found in lunar soil to make their water. The pioneers sought temporary shelter under trees or in the lee of a cliff and built sod houses as their first homes on the new land; settlers of the Moon may seek out lava tubes for their shelter or cover space station modules with lunar regolith for radiation protection. The pioneers moved further west from their first settlements, using wagons they had built from local wood and pack animals they had raised; space explorers may use propellant made at a lunar base to take them on to Mars. The concept for this report was developed at a NASA-sponsored summer study in 1984. The program was held on the Scripps campus of the University of California at San Diego (UCSD), under the auspices of the American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE). It was jointly managed under the California Space Inst. and the NASA Johnson Space Center, under the direction of the Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology (OAST) at NASA Headquarters. The study participants (listed in the addendum) included a group of 18 university teachers and researchers (faculty fellows) who were present for the entire 10-week period and a larger group of attendees from universities, Government, and industry who came for a series of four 1-week workshops. The organization of this report follows that of the summer study. Space Resources consists of a brief overview and four detailed technical volumes: (1) Scenarios; (2) Energy, Power, and Transport; (3) Materials; (4

  4. Space Resource Roundtable Rationale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duke, Michael

    1999-01-01

    Recent progress in the U.S. Space Program has renewed interest in space resource issues. The Lunar Prospector mission conducted in NASA's Discovery Program has yielded interesting new insights into lunar resource issues, particularly the possibility that water is concentrated in cold traps at the lunar poles. This finding has not yet triggered a new program of lunar exploration or development, however it opens the possibility that new Discovery Missions might be viable. Several asteroid missions are underway or under development and a mission to return samples from the Mars satellite, Phobos, is being developed. These exploration missions are oriented toward scientific analysis, not resource development and utilization, but can provide additional insight into the possibilities for mining asteroids. The Mars Surveyor program now includes experiments on the 2001 lander that are directly applicable to developing propellants from the atmosphere of Mars, and the program has solicited proposals for the 2003/2005 missions in the area of resource utilization. These are aimed at the eventual human exploration of Mars. The beginning of construction of the International Space Station has awakened interest in follow-on programs of human exploration, and NASA is once more studying the human exploration of Moon, Mars and asteroids. Resource utilization will be included as objectives by some of these human exploration programs. At the same time, research and technology development programs in NASA such as the Microgravity Materials Science Program and the Cross-Enterprise Technology Development Program are including resource utilization as a valid area for study. Several major development areas that could utilize space resources, such as space tourism and solar power satellite programs, are actively under study. NASA's interests in space resource development largely are associated with NASA missions rather than the economic development of resources for industrial processes. That

  5. Water resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salomonson, V. V.; Rango, A.

    1973-01-01

    The application of ERTS-1 imagery to the conservation and control of water resources is discussed. The effects of exisiting geology and land use in the water shed area on the hydrologic cycle and the general characteristics of runoff are described. The effects of floods, snowcover, and glaciers are analyzed. The use of ERTS-1 imagery to map surface water and wetland areas to provide rapid inventorying over large regions of water bodies is reported.

  6. Modeling renewable energy resources in integrated resource planning

    SciTech Connect

    Logan, D.; Neil, C.; Taylor, A.

    1994-06-01

    Including renewable energy resources in integrated resource planning (IRP) requires that utility planning models properly consider the relevant attributes of the different renewable resources in addition to conventional supply-side and demand-side options. Otherwise, a utility`s resource plan is unlikely to have an appropriate balance of the various resource options. The current trend toward regulatory set-asides for renewable resources is motivated in part by the perception that the capabilities of current utility planning models are inadequate with regard to renewable resources. Adequate modeling capabilities and utility planning practices are a necessary prerequisite to the long-term penetration of renewable resources into the electric utility industry`s resource mix. This report presents a review of utility planning models conducted for the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). The review examines the capabilities of utility planning models to address key issues in the choice between renewable resources and other options. The purpose of this review is to provide a basis for identifying high priority areas for advancing the state of the art.

  7. Information technology resources assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Loken, S.C.

    1993-01-01

    The emphasis in Information Technology (IT) development has shifted from technology management to information management, and the tools of information management are increasingly at the disposal of end-users, people who deal with information. Moreover, the interactive capabilities of technologies such as hypertext, scientific visualization, virtual reality, video conferencing, and even database management systems have placed in the hands of users a significant amount of discretion over how these resources will be used. The emergence of high-performance networks, as well as network operating systems, improved interoperability, and platform independence of applications will eliminate technical barriers to the use of data, increase the power and range of resources that can be used cooperatively, and open up a wealth of possibilities for new applications. The very scope of these prospects for the immediate future is a problem for the IT planner or administrator. Technology procurement and implementation, integration of new technologies into the existing infrastructure, cost recovery and usage of networks and networked resources, training issues, and security concerns such as data protection and access to experiments are just some of the issues that need to be considered in the emerging IT environment. As managers we must use technology to improve competitiveness. When procuring new systems, we must take advantage of scalable resources. New resources such as distributed file systems can improve access to and efficiency of existing operating systems. In addition, we must assess opportunities to improve information worker productivity and information management through tedmologies such as distributed computational visualization and teleseminar applications.

  8. Lunar Water Resource Demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muscatello, Anthony C.

    2008-01-01

    In cooperation with the Canadian Space Agency, the Northern Centre for Advanced Technology, Inc., the Carnegie-Mellon University, JPL, and NEPTEC, NASA has undertaken the In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) project called RESOLVE. This project is a ground demonstration of a system that would be sent to explore permanently shadowed polar lunar craters, drill into the regolith, determine what volatiles are present, and quantify them in addition to recovering oxygen by hydrogen reduction. The Lunar Prospector has determined these craters contain enhanced hydrogen concentrations averaging about 0.1%. If the hydrogen is in the form of water, the water concentration would be around 1%, which would translate into billions of tons of water on the Moon, a tremendous resource. The Lunar Water Resource Demonstration (LWRD) is a part of RESOLVE designed to capture lunar water and hydrogen and quantify them as a backup to gas chromatography analysis. This presentation will briefly review the design of LWRD and some of the results of testing the subsystem. RESOLVE is to be integrated with the Scarab rover from CMIJ and the whole system demonstrated on Mauna Kea on Hawaii in November 2008. The implications of lunar water for Mars exploration are two-fold: 1) RESOLVE and LWRD could be used in a similar fashion on Mars to locate and quantify water resources, and 2) electrolysis of lunar water could provide large amounts of liquid oxygen in LEO, leading to lower costs for travel to Mars, in addition to being very useful at lunar outposts.

  9. Additive Similarity Trees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sattath, Shmuel; Tversky, Amos

    1977-01-01

    Tree representations of similarity data are investigated. Hierarchical clustering is critically examined, and a more general procedure, called the additive tree, is presented. The additive tree representation is then compared to multidimensional scaling. (Author/JKS)

  10. NASA Water Resources Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toll, David L.

    2011-01-01

    With increasing population pressure and water usage coupled with climate variability and change, water issues are being reported by numerous groups as the most critical environmental problems facing us in the 21st century. Competitive uses and the prevalence of river basins and aquifers that extend across boundaries engender political tensions between communities, stakeholders and countries. In addition to the numerous water availability issues, water quality related problems are seriously affecting human health and our environment. The potential crises and conflicts especially arise when water is competed among multiple uses. For example, urban areas, environmental and recreational uses, agriculture, and energy production compete for scarce resources, not only in the Western U.S. but throughout much of the U.S. and also in numerous parts of the world. Mitigating these conflicts and meeting water demands and needs requires using existing water resources more efficiently. The NASA Water Resources Program Element works to use NASA products and technology to address these critical water issues. The primary goal of the Water Resources is to facilitate application of NASA Earth science products as a routine use in integrated water resources management for the sustainable use of water. This also includes the extreme events of drought and floods and the adaptation to the impacts from climate change. NASA satellite and Earth system observations of water and related data provide a huge volume of valuable data in both near-real-time and extended back nearly 50 years about the Earth's land surface conditions such as precipitation, snow, soil moisture, water levels, land cover type, vegetation type, and health. NASA Water Resources Program works closely to use NASA and Earth science data with other U.S. government agencies, universities, and non-profit and private sector organizations both domestically and internationally. The NASA Water Resources Program organizes its

  11. HIV prevention through early detection and treatment of other sexually transmitted diseases--United States. Recommendations of the Advisory Committee for HIV and STD prevention.

    PubMed

    1998-07-31

    In May 1997, the Advisory Committee for HIV and STD Prevention (ACHSP) reviewed data on the relation between curable sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and the risk for sexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). ACHSP considered that the evidence was strong that early detection and treatment of other STDs is an effective strategy for preventing sexually transmitted HIV infection but was concerned that this strategy has not been clearly articulated or implemented as a core strategy for HIV prevention in the United States. In the context of persistently high prevalence of STDs in many parts of the United States and with emerging evidence that the U.S. epidemic of HIV infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) increasingly is affecting population groups with the highest rates of curable STDs, ACHSP recommends the following actions: Early detection and treatment of curable STDs should become a major, explicit component of comprehensive HIV prevention programs at national, state, and local levels. In areas where STDS that facilitate HIV transmission are prevalent, screening and treatment programs should be expanded. HIV and STD prevention programs in the United States, together with private and public sector partners, should take joint responsibility for implementing this strategy.

  12. Targeting the Use of Pooled HIV RNA Screening to Reduce Cost in Health Department STD Clinics: New York City, 2009–2011

    PubMed Central

    Pathela, Preeti; Pirillo, Robert; Blank, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Objective Staff at public New York City sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics screen patients for acute HIV infection (AHI) using pooled nucleic acid amplification tests. AHI screening is expensive but important for populations at high risk of acquiring HIV. We analyzed if targeting AHI screening in STD clinics could reduce program costs while maintaining AHI case detection. Methods From January 2009 through May 2010, we screened all patients with negative rapid HIV tests for AHI. Using risk information on cases detected during this universal screening period, we developed criteria for targeted AHI screening and compared case yields and testing costs during 12 months of universal screening (June 2009 through May 2010) vs. 12 months of targeted screening (June 2010 through May 2011). Results During the defined period of universal screening, we identified 40 AHI cases, and during targeted screening, we identified 35 AHI cases. Because of targeting efforts, the number needed to test to find one AHI case dropped from 1,631 to 254. With targeted screening, it cost an average of $4,535 per case detected and 39.3 cases were detected per 10,000 specimens; using universal screening, $29,088 was spent per case detected and 6.1 cases were detected per 10,000 specimens processed. Conclusion Targeted screening identified similar numbers of AHI cases as when screening all clinic patients seeking HIV testing, but at one-seventh the cost. PMID:25552758

  13. ‘Let Us Protect Our Future’ a culturally congruent evidenced-based HIV/STD risk-reduction intervention for young South African adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Jemmott, L. S.; Jemmott, J. B.; Ngwane, Z.; Icard, L.; O’Leary, A.; Gueits, L.; Brawner, B.

    2014-01-01

    One of the worst HIV/AIDS epidemics in the world is occurring in South Africa, where heterosexual exposure is the main mode of HIV transmission. Young people 15–24 years of age, particularly women, account for a large share of new infections. Accordingly, there is an urgent need for behavior-change interventions to reduce the incidence of HIV among adolescents in South Africa. However, there are few such interventions with proven efficacy for South African adolescents, especially young adolescents. A recent cluster-randomized controlled trial of the ‘Let Us Protect Our Future!’ HIV/STD risk-reduction intervention for Grade 6 South African adolescents (mean age = 12.4 years) found significant decreases in self-reported sexual risk behaviors compared with a control intervention. This article describes the intervention, the use of the social cognitive theory and the reasoned action approach to develop the intervention, how formative research informed its development and the acceptability of the intervention. Challenges in designing and implementing HIV/STD risk-reduction interventions for young adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa are discussed. PMID:23962491

  14. Employing a teen advisory board to adapt an evidence-based HIV/STD intervention for incarcerated African-American adolescent women.

    PubMed

    Latham, Teaniese P; Sales, Jessica M; Renfro, Tiffaney L; Boyce, Lorin S; Rose, Eve; Murray, Colleen C; Wingood, Gina M; DiClemente, Ralph J

    2012-10-01

    This manuscript assesses priorities and challenges of adolescent females by conducting a meeting with teen advisory board (TAB) members to collect information regarding their lives and experiences pre-, during and post-incarceration in a juvenile detention facility. Multiple themes emerged regarding the impact of incarceration on young African-American females, including experiencing a loss of personal liberties, the importance of making money upon release, unfaithfulness by partners on the 'outside', substance use and lack of control over their environment upon release, including parents, peers and male sexual partners. Based on feedback from TAB members, unique barriers and challenges were identified that suggested areas where adaptations to an evidenced-based HIV/sexually transmitted disease (STD) intervention would be justified to more adequately meet the needs of this particular subgroup of young African-American women. Adaptations to the evidence-based interventions included enhancing activities related to goal setting, emotion regulation skills, decision-making, recognizing and utilizing support networks and addressing the relationship between substance use and risky sexual behavior. Future health education efforts focusing on either the creation of new HIV/STD interventions or adaptations to existing interventions should consider utilizing advisory boards with members of the priority population at the earliest stages of intervention planning.

  15. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, J. R.; St. Clair, T. L.; Burks, H. D.; Stoakley, D. M.

    1987-01-01

    A method has been found for enhancing the melt flow of thermoplastic polyimides during processing. A high molecular weight 422 copoly(amic acid) or copolyimide was fused with approximately 0.05 to 5 pct by weight of a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive, and this melt was studied by capillary rheometry. Excellent flow and improved composite properties on graphite resulted from the addition of a PMDA-aniline additive to LARC-TPI. Solution viscosity studies imply that amic acid additives temporarily lower molecular weight and, hence, enlarge the processing window. Thus, compositions containing the additive have a lower melt viscosity for a longer time than those unmodified.

  16. [Food additives and healthiness].

    PubMed

    Heinonen, Marina

    2014-01-01

    Additives are used for improving food structure or preventing its spoilage, for example. Many substances used as additives are also naturally present in food. The safety of additives is evaluated according to commonly agreed principles. If high concentrations of an additive cause adverse health effects for humans, a limit of acceptable daily intake (ADI) is set for it. An additive is a risk only when ADI is exceeded. The healthiness of food is measured on the basis of nutrient density and scientifically proven effects.

  17. Earth resources*

    PubMed Central

    Skinner, Brian J.

    1979-01-01

    Reliable supplies of metals have historically been the keys to industrial and technological development. But many metals are subject to the possible exhaustion of traditional kinds of deposits. A continued supply of such metals, which include tin, tungsten, silver, lead, zinc, and many others, will require their recovery from common rocks, in which they are found in solid solution in common silicate minerals. Recovery from unconventional sources will be so energy intensive that we may eventually have to stop mining such metals. The greatest challenge facing the U.S. Geological Survey in its second century will be the problem of resource limitations. PMID:16592706

  18. California's geothermal resource potential

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leibowitz, L. P.

    1978-01-01

    According to a U.S. Geological Survey estimate, recoverable hydrothermal energy in California may amount to 19,000 MW of electric power for a 30-year period. At present, a geothermal installation in the Geysers region of the state provides 502 MWe of capacity; an additional 1500 MWe of electric generating capacity is scheduled to be in operation in geothermal fields by 1985. In addition to hydrothermal energy sources, hot-igneous and conduction-dominated resources are under investigation for possible development. Land-use conflicts, environmental concerns and lack of risk capital may limit this development.

  19. Polylactides in additive biomanufacturing.

    PubMed

    Poh, Patrina S P; Chhaya, Mohit P; Wunner, Felix M; De-Juan-Pardo, Elena M; Schilling, Arndt F; Schantz, Jan-Thorsten; van Griensven, Martijn; Hutmacher, Dietmar W

    2016-12-15

    New advanced manufacturing technologies under the alias of additive biomanufacturing allow the design and fabrication of a range of products from pre-operative models, cutting guides and medical devices to scaffolds. The process of printing in 3 dimensions of cells, extracellular matrix (ECM) and biomaterials (bioinks, powders, etc.) to generate in vitro and/or in vivo tissue analogue structures has been termed bioprinting. To further advance in additive biomanufacturing, there are many aspects that we can learn from the wider additive manufacturing (AM) industry, which have progressed tremendously since its introduction into the manufacturing sector. First, this review gives an overview of additive manufacturing and both industry and academia efforts in addressing specific challenges in the AM technologies to drive toward AM-enabled industrial revolution. After which, considerations of poly(lactides) as a biomaterial in additive biomanufacturing are discussed. Challenges in wider additive biomanufacturing field are discussed in terms of (a) biomaterials; (b) computer-aided design, engineering and manufacturing; (c) AM and additive biomanufacturing printers hardware; and (d) system integration. Finally, the outlook for additive biomanufacturing was discussed.

  20. Information resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friend, Milton; Franson, J. Christian; Friend, Milton; Gibbs, Samantha E.J.; Wild, Margaret A.

    2015-10-19

    A wide variety of entities across North America are involved in wildlife disease investigations; however, the formal assembly of multidimensional programs that primarily address disease for the benefit of free-ranging wildlife is rather limited. The Southeastern Cooperative Wildlife Disease Study (SCWDS), the National Wildlife Health Center (NWHC), and the Canadian Wildlife Health Cooperative (CWHC) are selected examples. These programs are highlighted because of the scope of their capabilities and long-term involvement in assisting State and Federal natural resource agencies combat wildlife disease. A variety of other sources for possible assistance in addressing wildlife disease issues exists throughout North America and globally. It is prudent for wildlife conservation field biologists, managers, and administrators to be aware of such local resources. Ideally, awareness and knowledge of the types of assistance those programs can provide should be obtained prior to disease crisis events since appropriate, timely intervention often is required to minimize wildlife losses from disease and prevent the establishment of new infectious diseases within wildlife populations and geographic areas. Increasing recognition of the substantial number of infectious diseases being transferred between wildlife, domestic animals, and humans has led to increased collaborative investigations between wildlife, domestic, and human health programs. That collaboration has led to a heightened focus on wildlife disease within some public health and agriculture agencies. For purposes of this Chapter, wildlife disease is narrowly defined as those diseases (infectious and noninfectious) causing morbidity and mortality in free-ranging wildlife populations. Therefore, there is no focus on the numerous fish disease or environmental contaminant programs that exist on behalf of North American fauna.

  1. Curriculum Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Norma H.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses an article which presents a concise discussion of secular humanism. Reviews additional materials on censorship from the perspective of the new religious right, the fundamentalists, and public policy and the law. The sources provide background to enhance teaching about secular humanism and textbook censorship. (SLM)

  2. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fletcher, James C. (Inventor); Pratt, J. Richard (Inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (Inventor); Burks, Harold D. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A process for preparing polyimides having enhanced melt flow properties is described. The process consists of heating a mixture of a high molecular weight poly-(amic acid) or polyimide with a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive in the range of 0.05 to 15 percent by weight of additive. The polyimide powders so obtained show improved processability, as evidenced by lower melt viscosity by capillary rheometry. Likewise, films prepared from mixtures of polymers with additives show improved processability with earlier onset of stretching by TMA.

  3. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, J. Richard (Inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (Inventor); Burks, Harold D. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A process for preparing polyimides having enhanced melt flow properties is described. The process consists of heating a mixture of a high molecular weight poly-(amic acid) or polyimide with a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive in the range of 0.05 to 15 percent by weight of the additive. The polyimide powders so obtained show improved processability, as evidenced by lower melt viscosity by capillary rheometry. Likewise, films prepared from mixtures of polymers with additives show improved processability with earlier onset of stretching by TMA.

  4. 18 CFR 154.400 - Additional requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER NATURAL GAS ACT RATE SCHEDULES AND TARIFFS Limited Rate Changes § 154... proposal to implement a limited rate change must comply with this subpart. ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Additional...

  5. Food Additives and Hyperkinesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wender, Ester H.

    1977-01-01

    The hypothesis that food additives are causally associated with hyperkinesis and learning disabilities in children is reviewed, and available data are summarized. Available from: American Medical Association 535 North Dearborn Street Chicago, Illinois 60610. (JG)

  6. Smog control fuel additives

    SciTech Connect

    Lundby, W.

    1993-06-29

    A method is described of controlling, reducing or eliminating, ozone and related smog resulting from photochemical reactions between ozone and automotive or industrial gases comprising the addition of iodine or compounds of iodine to hydrocarbon-base fuels prior to or during combustion in an amount of about 1 part iodine per 240 to 10,000,000 parts fuel, by weight, to be accomplished by: (a) the addition of these inhibitors during or after the refining or manufacturing process of liquid fuels; (b) the production of these inhibitors for addition into fuel tanks, such as automotive or industrial tanks; or (c) the addition of these inhibitors into combustion chambers of equipment utilizing solid fuels for the purpose of reducing ozone.

  7. Resource Specialist Training Resources. Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Ruth Wharton

    Materials for special education resource specialists in California on implementing a team approach and facilitating change are presented as the second of four volumes. The first section includes a description of the resource specialist program; the interaction between the resource specialist and the principal; the roles of the resource specialist,…

  8. Coal resources of Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, R.B.

    1982-01-01

    In the late 1800s, whaling ships carried Alaskan coal, and it was used to thaw ground for placer gold mining. Unfortunate and costly political maneuvers in the early 1900s delayed coal removal, but the Alaska Railroad and then World War II provided incentives for opening mines. Today, 33 million acres (about 9% of the state) is classified as prospectively valuable for coal, much of it under federal title. Although the state's geology is poorly known, potential for discovery of new fields exists. The US Geological Survey estimates are outdated, although still officially used. The total Alaska onshore coal resource is estimated to be 216 to 4216 billion tons of which 141 billion tons are identified resources; an additional 1430 billion tons are believed to lie beneath Cook Inlet. Transportation over mountain ranges and wetlands is the biggest hurdle for removal. Known coal sources and types are described and mapped. 1 figure.

  9. Asteroid resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, John S.

    1992-01-01

    There are three types of possible asteroidal materials that appear to be attractive for exploitation: (1) volatiles, (2) free metals, and (3) bulk dirt. Because some of the near-Earth asteroids are energetically more accessible than the Moon (require a round-trip total change in velocity less than 9 km/sec, though the trip time would be measured in years not days), such an asteroid might be chosen as the source of any useful material, even if that material was also available on the Moon. Provided that the asteroid was minable, it might therefore be chosen as the source of bulk dirt needed for shielding in low Earth orbit (LEO) or elsewhere in near-Earth space. And the near-Earth asteroids may offer materials that are rare or absent on the surface of the Moon. The relationship between asteroids and meteorites is discussed. A brief overview of the entire range of meteorite compositions, with emphasis on the occurrence of interesting resources is presented. Focus is on materials useful in space, especially volatiles, metals, and raw dirt. Those few materials that may have sufficiently high market value to be worth returning to Earth will be mentioned.

  10. Additional mineral resources assessment of the Battle Creek, Bruneau River, Deep Creek-Owyhee River, Jarbidge River, Juniper Creek, Little Owyhee River, North Fork Owyhee River, Owyhee River Canyon, South Fork Owyhee River, Upper Deep Creek, and Yatahoney Creek Wilderness Study Areas, Owyhee County, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Diggles, Michael F.; Berger, Byron R.; Vander Meulen, Dean B.; Minor, Scott A.; Ach, Jay A.; Sawlan, Michael G.

    1989-01-01

    From 1984 to 1986, studies were conducted to assess the potential for undiscovered mineral resources in wilderness study areas on the Owyhee Plateau. The results of these studies have been published in a series of U.S. Geological Survey Bulletins. Since that time, low-grade, high-tonnage epithermal hot-spring gold-silver deposits have been recognized in the region north of the wilderness study areas. The recognition that this mineral-deposit model is applicable in the region, coupled with new data that has become available to the U.S. Geological Survey, reinterpretation of existing geochemical data, and known-deposit data suggest that similar deposits may be present elsewhere on the Owyhee Plateau. This report is an additional assessment of the Battle Creek, Bruneau River, Deep Creek-Owyhee River, Jarbidge River, Juniper Creek, Little Owyhee River, North Fork Owyhee River, Owyhee River Canyon, South Fork Owyhee River (ID-016-053), Upper Deep Creek, and Yatahoney Creek Wilderness Study Areas in Idaho Wilderness Study Areas in Idaho in light of those new data.

  11. Interaction between Wine Phenolic Acids and Salivary Proteins by Saturation-Transfer Difference Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (STD-NMR) and Molecular Dynamics Simulations.

    PubMed

    Ferrer-Gallego, Raúl; Hernández-Hierro, José Miguel; Brás, Natércia F; Vale, Nuno; Gomes, Paula; Mateus, Nuno; de Freitas, Victor; Heredia, Francisco J; Escribano-Bailón, María Teresa

    2017-03-10

    The interaction between phenolic compounds and salivary proteins is highly related to the astringency perception. Recently, it has been proven the existence of synergisms on the perceived astringency when phenolic acids were tested as mixtures in comparison to individual compounds, maintaining constant the total amount of the stimulus. The interactions between wine phenolic acids and the peptide fragment IB712 have been studied by saturation-transfer difference (STD) NMR spectroscopy. This technique provided the dissociation constants and the percentage of interaction between both individual and mixtures of hydroxybenzoic and hydroxycinnamic acids and the model peptide. It is noteworthy that hydroxybenzoic acids showed higher affinity for the peptide than hydroxycinnamic acids. To obtain further insights into the mechanisms of interaction, molecular dynamics simulations have been performed. Results obtained not only showed the ability of these compounds to interact with salivary proteins but also may justify the synergistic effect observed in previous sensory studies.

  12. History of Childhood Abuse, Drinking Motives, Alcohol Use, and Sexual Risk Behavior among STD clinic patients in St. Petersburg, Russia: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Abdala, Nadia; Li, Fangyong; Shaboltas, Alla V.; Skochilov, Roman V.; Krasnoselskikh, Tatiana V.

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between level of childhood abuse (physical and emotional) and sexual risk behavior of sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic patients in St. Petersburg, Russia was examined through path analyses. Mediating variables investigated were: Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT), drinking motives (for social interaction, to enhance mood, to facilitate sexual encounters), intimate partner violence (IPV), anxiety, and depression symptoms. Results showed a significant indirect effect of childhood abuse on women’s sexual risk behavior: higher level of childhood abuse was associated with a greater likelihood of IPV, motivations to drink, leading to higher AUDIT scores and correlated to higher likelihood of having multiple, new or casual sexual partner(s). No significant effect was identified in paths to condom use. Among men, childhood abuse had no significant effect on sexual risk behavior. Reduction in alcohol-related sexual risk behavior may be achieved by addressing the effects of childhood abuse among female participants. PMID:25801476

  13. Group Sparse Additive Models

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Junming; Chen, Xi; Xing, Eric P.

    2016-01-01

    We consider the problem of sparse variable selection in nonparametric additive models, with the prior knowledge of the structure among the covariates to encourage those variables within a group to be selected jointly. Previous works either study the group sparsity in the parametric setting (e.g., group lasso), or address the problem in the nonparametric setting without exploiting the structural information (e.g., sparse additive models). In this paper, we present a new method, called group sparse additive models (GroupSpAM), which can handle group sparsity in additive models. We generalize the ℓ1/ℓ2 norm to Hilbert spaces as the sparsity-inducing penalty in GroupSpAM. Moreover, we derive a novel thresholding condition for identifying the functional sparsity at the group level, and propose an efficient block coordinate descent algorithm for constructing the estimate. We demonstrate by simulation that GroupSpAM substantially outperforms the competing methods in terms of support recovery and prediction accuracy in additive models, and also conduct a comparative experiment on a real breast cancer dataset.

  14. Additive Manufacturing Infrared Inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaddy, Darrell

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing is a rapid prototyping technology that allows parts to be built in a series of thin layers from plastic, ceramics, and metallics. Metallic additive manufacturing is an emerging form of rapid prototyping that allows complex structures to be built using various metallic powders. Significant time and cost savings have also been observed using the metallic additive manufacturing compared with traditional techniques. Development of the metallic additive manufacturing technology has advanced significantly over the last decade, although many of the techniques to inspect parts made from these processes have not advanced significantly or have limitations. Several external geometry inspection techniques exist such as Coordinate Measurement Machines (CMM), Laser Scanners, Structured Light Scanning Systems, or even traditional calipers and gages. All of the aforementioned techniques are limited to external geometry and contours or must use a contact probe to inspect limited internal dimensions. This presentation will document the development of a process for real-time dimensional inspection technique and digital quality record of the additive manufacturing process using Infrared camera imaging and processing techniques.

  15. Phenylethynyl Containing Reactive Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G., Jr. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Phenylethynyl containing reactive additives were prepared from aromatic diamine, containing phenylethvnvl groups and various ratios of phthalic anhydride and 4-phenylethynviphthalic anhydride in glacial acetic acid to form the imide in one step or in N-methyl-2-pvrrolidinone to form the amide acid intermediate. The reactive additives were mixed in various amounts (10% to 90%) with oligomers containing either terminal or pendent phenylethynyl groups (or both) to reduce the melt viscosity and thereby enhance processability. Upon thermal cure, the additives react and become chemically incorporated into the matrix and effect an increase in crosslink density relative to that of the host resin. This resultant increase in crosslink density has advantageous consequences on the cured resin properties such as higher glass transition temperature and higher modulus as compared to that of the host resin.

  16. Fused Lasso Additive Model

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Ashley; Witten, Daniela; Simon, Noah

    2016-01-01

    We consider the problem of predicting an outcome variable using p covariates that are measured on n independent observations, in a setting in which additive, flexible, and interpretable fits are desired. We propose the fused lasso additive model (FLAM), in which each additive function is estimated to be piecewise constant with a small number of adaptively-chosen knots. FLAM is the solution to a convex optimization problem, for which a simple algorithm with guaranteed convergence to a global optimum is provided. FLAM is shown to be consistent in high dimensions, and an unbiased estimator of its degrees of freedom is proposed. We evaluate the performance of FLAM in a simulation study and on two data sets. Supplemental materials are available online, and the R package flam is available on CRAN. PMID:28239246

  17. Phenylethynyl Containing Reactive Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G., Jr. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Phenylethynyl containing reactive additives were prepared from aromatic diamines containing phenylethynyl groups and various ratios of phthalic anhydride and 4-phenylethynylphthalic anhydride in glacial acetic acid to form the imide in one step or in N-methyl-2-pyrrolidi none to form the amide acid intermediate. The reactive additives were mixed in various amounts (10% to 90%) with oligomers containing either terminal or pendent phenylethynyl groups (or both) to reduce the melt viscosity and thereby enhance processability. Upon thermal cure, the additives react and become chemically incorporated into the matrix and effect an increase in crosslink density relative to that of the host resin. This resultant increase in crosslink density has advantageous consequences on the cured resin properties such as higher glass transition temperature and higher modulus as compared to that of the host resin.

  18. World Resources: 1990-91

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The World Resources series is intended to meet the critical need for accessible, accurate information on the management of natural resources and protection of the global environment. This volume of World Resources contains information on resource use and environmental issues around the world. Part 1 gives an overview of topics that stand out as having a pervasive impact on the human condition, exerting unique leverage on the future of the planet, or requiring urgent action. Part 2 includes a chapter on global climate change, and includes the first publication of the Greenhouse Index, which tracks each country's current responsibility for greenhouse gas emissions. Part 2 also includes an overview of resource use and environmental problems in Latin America - from deforestation to urban pollution - continuing and expanding on a tradition of examining in each volume a particular geographical region in more detail. Both the potential impact of climate change and Latin America resource issues are discussed in additional sections throughout the volume. Part 3 reports on basic conditions and trends, major problems and efforts to resolve them, and recent developments in each of the major resource categories, from population and health to energy and freshwater. Supporting data, as well as the core data tables from the World Resources Database, are found in Part 4.

  19. Additives in plastics.

    PubMed Central

    Deanin, R D

    1975-01-01

    The polymers used in plastics are generally harmless. However, they are rarely used in pure form. In almost all commercial plastics, they are "compounded" with monomeric ingredients to improve their processing and end-use performance. In order of total volume used, these monomeric additives may be classified as follows: reinforcing fibers, fillers, and coupling agents; plasticizers; colorants; stabilizers (halogen stabilizers, antioxidants, ultraviolet absorbers, and biological preservatives); processing aids (lubricants, others, and flow controls); flame retardants, peroxides; and antistats. Some information is already available, and much more is needed, on potential toxicity and safe handling of these additives during processing and manufacture of plastics products. PMID:1175566

  20. Additives in plastics.

    PubMed

    Deanin, R D

    1975-06-01

    The polymers used in plastics are generally harmless. However, they are rarely used in pure form. In almost all commercial plastics, they are "compounded" with monomeric ingredients to improve their processing and end-use performance. In order of total volume used, these monomeric additives may be classified as follows: reinforcing fibers, fillers, and coupling agents; plasticizers; colorants; stabilizers (halogen stabilizers, antioxidants, ultraviolet absorbers, and biological preservatives); processing aids (lubricants, others, and flow controls); flame retardants, peroxides; and antistats. Some information is already available, and much more is needed, on potential toxicity and safe handling of these additives during processing and manufacture of plastics products.

  1. Biobased lubricant additives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fully biobased lubricants are those formulated using all biobased ingredients, i.e. biobased base oils and biobased additives. Such formulations provide the maximum environmental, safety, and economic benefits expected from a biobased product. Currently, there are a number of biobased base oils that...

  2. More Than Additional Space...

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CEFP Journal, 1973

    1973-01-01

    A much needed addition to the Jamestown Elementary School turned out to be more than an expansion of walls for more space. A new educational program, a limited budget, and a short time line were tackled on a team approach basis and were successfully resolved. (Author)

  3. Evaluating intercepts from demographic models to understand resource limitation and resource thresholds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reynolds-Hogland, M. J.; Hogland, J.S.; Mitchell, M.S.

    2008-01-01

    Understanding resource limitation is critical to effective management and conservation of wild populations, however resource limitation is difficult to quantify partly because resource limitation is a dynamic process. Specifically, a resource that is limiting at one time may become non-limiting at another time, depending upon changes in its availability and changes in the availability of other resources. Methods for understanding resource limitation, therefore, must consider the dynamic effects of resources on demography. We present approaches for interpreting results of demographic modeling beyond analyzing model rankings, model weights, slope estimates, and model averaging. We demonstrate how interpretation of y-intercepts, odds ratios, and rates of change can yield insights into resource limitation as a dynamic process, assuming logistic regression is used to link estimates of resources with estimates of demography. In addition, we show how x-intercepts can be evaluated with respect to odds ratios to understand resource thresholds. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Vinyl capped addition polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vannucci, Raymond D. (Inventor); Malarik, Diane C. (Inventor); Delvigs, Peter (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    Polyimide resins (PMR) are generally useful where high strength and temperature capabilities are required (at temperatures up to about 700 F). Polyimide resins are particularly useful in applications such as jet engine compressor components, for example, blades, vanes, air seals, air splitters, and engine casing parts. Aromatic vinyl capped addition polyimides are obtained by reacting a diamine, an ester of tetracarboxylic acid, and an aromatic vinyl compound. Low void materials with improved oxidative stability when exposed to 700 F air may be fabricated as fiber reinforced high molecular weight capped polyimide composites. The aromatic vinyl capped polyimides are provided with a more aromatic nature and are more thermally stable than highly aliphatic, norbornenyl-type end-capped polyimides employed in PMR resins. The substitution of aromatic vinyl end-caps for norbornenyl end-caps in addition polyimides results in polymers with improved oxidative stability.

  5. Electrophilic addition of astatine

    SciTech Connect

    Norseev, Yu.V.; Vasaros, L.; Nhan, D.D.; Huan, N.K.

    1988-03-01

    It has been shown for the first time that astatine is capable of undergoing addition reactions to unsaturated hydrocarbons. A new compound of astatine, viz., ethylene astatohydrin, has been obtained, and its retention numbers of squalane, Apiezon, and tricresyl phosphate have been found. The influence of various factors on the formation of ethylene astatohydrin has been studied. It has been concluded on the basis of the results obtained that the univalent cations of astatine in an acidic medium is protonated hypoastatous acid.

  6. Functional Generalized Additive Models.

    PubMed

    McLean, Mathew W; Hooker, Giles; Staicu, Ana-Maria; Scheipl, Fabian; Ruppert, David

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the functional generalized additive model (FGAM), a novel regression model for association studies between a scalar response and a functional predictor. We model the link-transformed mean response as the integral with respect to t of F{X(t), t} where F(·,·) is an unknown regression function and X(t) is a functional covariate. Rather than having an additive model in a finite number of principal components as in Müller and Yao (2008), our model incorporates the functional predictor directly and thus our model can be viewed as the natural functional extension of generalized additive models. We estimate F(·,·) using tensor-product B-splines with roughness penalties. A pointwise quantile transformation of the functional predictor is also considered to ensure each tensor-product B-spline has observed data on its support. The methods are evaluated using simulated data and their predictive performance is compared with other competing scalar-on-function regression alternatives. We illustrate the usefulness of our approach through an application to brain tractography, where X(t) is a signal from diffusion tensor imaging at position, t, along a tract in the brain. In one example, the response is disease-status (case or control) and in a second example, it is the score on a cognitive test. R code for performing the simulations and fitting the FGAM can be found in supplemental materials available online.

  7. Enabling opportunistic resources for CMS Computing Operations

    DOE PAGES

    Hufnagel, Dirk

    2015-12-23

    With the increased pressure on computing brought by the higher energy and luminosity from the LHC in Run 2, CMS Computing Operations expects to require the ability to utilize opportunistic resources resources not owned by, or a priori configured for CMS to meet peak demands. In addition to our dedicated resources we look to add computing resources from non CMS grids, cloud resources, and national supercomputing centers. CMS uses the HTCondor/glideinWMS job submission infrastructure for all its batch processing, so such resources will need to be transparently integrated into its glideinWMS pool. Bosco and parrot wrappers are used to enablemore » access and bring the CMS environment into these non CMS resources. Finally, we describe our strategy to supplement our native capabilities with opportunistic resources and our experience so far using them.« less

  8. Enabling opportunistic resources for CMS Computing Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Hufnagel, Dick

    2015-11-19

    With the increased pressure on computing brought by the higher energy and luminosity from the LHC in Run 2, CMS Computing Operations expects to require the ability to utilize “opportunistic” resourcesresources not owned by, or a priori configured for CMS — to meet peak demands. In addition to our dedicated resources we look to add computing resources from non CMS grids, cloud resources, and national supercomputing centers. CMS uses the HTCondor/glideinWMS job submission infrastructure for all its batch processing, so such resources will need to be transparently integrated into its glideinWMS pool. Bosco and parrot wrappers are used to enable access and bring the CMS environment into these non CMS resources. Here we describe our strategy to supplement our native capabilities with opportunistic resources and our experience so far using them.

  9. Enabling opportunistic resources for CMS Computing Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hufnagel, D.; CMS Collaboration

    2015-12-01

    With the increased pressure on computing brought by the higher energy and luminosity from the LHC in Run 2, CMS Computing Operations expects to require the ability to utilize opportunistic resources resources not owned by, or a priori configured for CMS to meet peak demands. In addition to our dedicated resources we look to add computing resources from non CMS grids, cloud resources, and national supercomputing centers. CMS uses the HTCondor/glideinWMS job submission infrastructure for all its batch processing, so such resources will need to be transparently integrated into its glideinWMS pool. Bosco and parrot wrappers are used to enable access and bring the CMS environment into these non CMS resources. Here we describe our strategy to supplement our native capabilities with opportunistic resources and our experience so far using them.

  10. Enabling opportunistic resources for CMS Computing Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Hufnagel, Dirk

    2015-12-23

    With the increased pressure on computing brought by the higher energy and luminosity from the LHC in Run 2, CMS Computing Operations expects to require the ability to utilize opportunistic resources resources not owned by, or a priori configured for CMS to meet peak demands. In addition to our dedicated resources we look to add computing resources from non CMS grids, cloud resources, and national supercomputing centers. CMS uses the HTCondor/glideinWMS job submission infrastructure for all its batch processing, so such resources will need to be transparently integrated into its glideinWMS pool. Bosco and parrot wrappers are used to enable access and bring the CMS environment into these non CMS resources. Finally, we describe our strategy to supplement our native capabilities with opportunistic resources and our experience so far using them.

  11. Resource Destroying Maps.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zi-Wen; Hu, Xueyuan; Lloyd, Seth

    2017-02-10

    Resource theory is a widely applicable framework for analyzing the physical resources required for given tasks, such as computation, communication, and energy extraction. In this Letter, we propose a general scheme for analyzing resource theories based on resource destroying maps, which leave resource-free states unchanged but erase the resource stored in all other states. We introduce a group of general conditions that determine whether a quantum operation exhibits typical resource-free properties in relation to a given resource destroying map. Our theory reveals fundamental connections among basic elements of resource theories, in particular, free states, free operations, and resource measures. In particular, we define a class of simple resource measures that can be calculated without optimization, and that are monotone nonincreasing under operations that commute with the resource destroying map. We apply our theory to the resources of coherence and quantum correlations (e.g., discord), two prominent features of nonclassicality.

  12. Resource Destroying Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zi-Wen; Hu, Xueyuan; Lloyd, Seth

    2017-02-01

    Resource theory is a widely applicable framework for analyzing the physical resources required for given tasks, such as computation, communication, and energy extraction. In this Letter, we propose a general scheme for analyzing resource theories based on resource destroying maps, which leave resource-free states unchanged but erase the resource stored in all other states. We introduce a group of general conditions that determine whether a quantum operation exhibits typical resource-free properties in relation to a given resource destroying map. Our theory reveals fundamental connections among basic elements of resource theories, in particular, free states, free operations, and resource measures. In particular, we define a class of simple resource measures that can be calculated without optimization, and that are monotone nonincreasing under operations that commute with the resource destroying map. We apply our theory to the resources of coherence and quantum correlations (e.g., discord), two prominent features of nonclassicality.

  13. Unconventional Energy Resources: 2011 Review

    SciTech Connect

    Collaboration: American Association of Petroleum Geologists

    2011-12-15

    This report contains nine unconventional energy resource commodity summaries prepared by committees of the Energy Minerals Division (EMD) of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists. Unconventional energy resources, as used in this report, are those energy resources that do not occur in discrete oil or gas reservoirs held in structural or stratigraphic traps in sedimentary basins. These resources include coal, coalbed methane, gas hydrates, tight gas sands, gas shale and shale oil, geothermal resources, oil sands, oil shale, and uranium resources. Current U.S. and global research and development activities are summarized for each unconventional energy commodity in the topical sections of this report. Coal and uranium are expected to supply a significant portion of the world's energy mix in coming years. Coalbed methane continues to supply about 9% of the U.S. gas production and exploration is expanding in other countries. Recently, natural gas produced from shale and low-permeability (tight) sandstone has made a significant contribution to the energy supply of the United States and is an increasing target for exploration around the world. In addition, oil from shale and heavy oil from sandstone are a new exploration focus in many areas (including the Green River area of Wyoming and northern Alberta). In recent years, research in the areas of geothermal energy sources and gas hydrates has continued to advance. Reviews of the current research and the stages of development of these unconventional energy resources are described in the various sections of this report.

  14. Siloxane containing addition polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maudgal, S.; St. Clair, T. L.

    1984-01-01

    Addition polyimide oligomers have been synthesized from bis(gamma-aminopropyl) tetramethyldisiloxane and 3, 3', 4, 4'-benzophenonetetracarboxylic dianhydride using a variety of latent crosslinking groups as endcappers. The prepolymers were isolated and characterized for solubility (in amide, chlorinated and ether solvents), melt flow and cure properties. The most promising systems, maleimide and acetylene terminated prepolymers, were selected for detailed study. Graphite cloth reinforced composites were prepared and properties compared with those of graphite/Kerimid 601, a commercially available bismaleimide. Mixtures of the maleimide terminated system with Kerimid 601, in varying proportions, were also studied.

  15. Platelet additive solution - electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Azuma, Hiroshi; Hirayama, Junichi; Akino, Mitsuaki; Ikeda, Hisami

    2011-06-01

    Recent attention to solutions that replace most or all plasma in platelet concentrates, while maintaining satisfactory platelet function, is motivated by the potential of plasma reduction or depletion to mitigate various transfusion-related adverse events. This report considers the electrolytic composition of previously described platelet additive solutions, in order to draw general conclusions about what is required for platelet function and longevity. The optimal concentrations of Na(+) and Cl(-) are 69-115 mM. The presence of both K(+) and Mg(2+) in platelet suspension at nearly physiological concentrations (3-5mM and 1.5-3mM, respectively) is indispensable for good preservation capacity because both electrolytes are required to prevent platelet activation. In contrast to K(+) and Mg(2+), Ca(2+) may not be important because no free Ca(2+) is available in M-sol, which showed excellent platelet preservation capacity at less than 5% plasma concentration. The importance of bicarbonate (approximately 40 mM) can be recognized when the platelets are suspended in additive solution under less than 5% residual plasma concentration.

  16. 19 CFR 213.5 - Access to Commission resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Access to Commission resources. 213.5 Section 213... IMPORT TRADE TRADE REMEDY ASSISTANCE § 213.5 Access to Commission resources. Commission resources, in addition to the Office's resources, are available to an eligible small business to the same extent as...

  17. 19 CFR 213.5 - Access to Commission resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Access to Commission resources. 213.5 Section 213... IMPORT TRADE TRADE REMEDY ASSISTANCE § 213.5 Access to Commission resources. Commission resources, in addition to the Office's resources, are available to an eligible small business to the same extent as...

  18. 19 CFR 213.5 - Access to Commission resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Access to Commission resources. 213.5 Section 213... IMPORT TRADE TRADE REMEDY ASSISTANCE § 213.5 Access to Commission resources. Commission resources, in addition to the Office's resources, are available to an eligible small business to the same extent as...

  19. 19 CFR 213.5 - Access to Commission resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Access to Commission resources. 213.5 Section 213... IMPORT TRADE TRADE REMEDY ASSISTANCE § 213.5 Access to Commission resources. Commission resources, in addition to the Office's resources, are available to an eligible small business to the same extent as...

  20. 19 CFR 213.5 - Access to Commission resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Access to Commission resources. 213.5 Section 213... IMPORT TRADE TRADE REMEDY ASSISTANCE § 213.5 Access to Commission resources. Commission resources, in addition to the Office's resources, are available to an eligible small business to the same extent as...

  1. Chemical dependence - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Substance use - resources, Drug abuse - resources; Resources - chemical dependence ... National Institute on Drug Abuse -- www.drugabuse.gov Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration -- www.samhsa.gov

  2. Chronic pain - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Pain - resources; Resources - chronic pain ... The following organizations are good resources for information on chronic pain: American Chronic Pain Association -- theacpa.org National Fibromyalgia and Chronic Pain Association -- www.fmcpaware.org National ...

  3. Victim assistance - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Rape - resources; Resources - rape ... The following organizations are good resources for information on domestic violence and rape : Administration for Children and Families -- www.acf.hhs.gov The National Center for Victims ...

  4. Sustainability Characterization for Additive Manufacturing

    PubMed Central

    Mani, Mahesh; Lyons, Kevin W; Gupta, SK

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) has the potential to create geometrically complex parts that require a high degree of customization, using less material and producing less waste. Recent studies have shown that AM can be an economically viable option for use by the industry, yet there are some inherent challenges associated with AM for wider acceptance. The lack of standards in AM impedes its use for parts production since industries primarily depend on established standards in processes and material selection to ensure the consistency and quality. Inability to compare AM performance against traditional manufacturing methods can be a barrier for implementing AM processes. AM process sustainability has become a driver due to growing environmental concerns for manufacturing. This has reinforced the importance to understand and characterize AM processes for sustainability. Process characterization for sustainability will help close the gaps for comparing AM performance to traditional manufacturing methods. Based on a literature review, this paper first examines the potential environmental impacts of AM. A methodology for sustainability characterization of AM is then proposed to serve as a resource for the community to benchmark AM processes for sustainability. Next, research perspectives are discussed along with relevant standardization efforts. PMID:26601038

  5. Sustainability Characterization for Additive Manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Mani, Mahesh; Lyons, Kevin W; Gupta, S K

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) has the potential to create geometrically complex parts that require a high degree of customization, using less material and producing less waste. Recent studies have shown that AM can be an economically viable option for use by the industry, yet there are some inherent challenges associated with AM for wider acceptance. The lack of standards in AM impedes its use for parts production since industries primarily depend on established standards in processes and material selection to ensure the consistency and quality. Inability to compare AM performance against traditional manufacturing methods can be a barrier for implementing AM processes. AM process sustainability has become a driver due to growing environmental concerns for manufacturing. This has reinforced the importance to understand and characterize AM processes for sustainability. Process characterization for sustainability will help close the gaps for comparing AM performance to traditional manufacturing methods. Based on a literature review, this paper first examines the potential environmental impacts of AM. A methodology for sustainability characterization of AM is then proposed to serve as a resource for the community to benchmark AM processes for sustainability. Next, research perspectives are discussed along with relevant standardization efforts.

  6. Resources for Creative Preschool Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flemming, Bonnie, Ed.; And Others

    A resource book intended as a teaching aid for preschool teachers, this compilation includes those ideas that have been used with success with children three through five years of age. The curriculum material is presented in outline format under the following headings: Subject of Interest; Basic Understandings; Additional Facts the Teacher Should…

  7. Community Guide to Cholesterol Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Heart and Lung Inst. (DHHS/NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    This guide is divided into two sections, one for physicians and the other for patients. The physician section lists different resources including continuing medical education opportunities on the medical and scientific aspects of cholesterol and heart disease and on the physician's role in diagnosis and patient management. Additional materials on…

  8. Additive composition, for gasoline

    SciTech Connect

    Vataru, M.

    1989-01-10

    An admixture is described that comprises Diesel fuel and an additive composition added thereto which is between about 0.05 to about 2.0 percent by weight of the fuel, the composition comprising: (a) between about 0.05 and 25% relative weight parts of an organic peroxide, and (b) between about 0.1 and 25% relative weight parts of detergent selected from the component group that consists of: (i) fatty amines; (ii) ethoxylated and propoxylated derivatives of fatty amines; (iii) fatty diamines; (iv) fatty imidazlines; (v) polymeric amines and derivatives thereof; (vi) combination of one or more of the (i) through (v) components with carboxylic acid or acids having from three to forth carbon atoms, (c) from about 99.0 to about 50% by weight of a hydrocarbon solvent.

  9. Teardrop bladder: additional considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Wechsler, R.J.; Brennan, R.E.

    1982-07-01

    Nine cases of teardrop bladder (TDB) seen at excretory urography are presented. In some of these patients, the iliopsoas muscles were at the upper limit of normal in size, and additional evaluation of the perivesical structures with computed tomography (CT) was necessary. CT demonstrated only hypertrophied muscles with or without perivesical fat. The psoas muscles and pelvic width were measured in 8 patients and compared with the measurements of a control group of males without TDB. Patients with TDB had large iliopsoas muscles and narrow pelves compared with the control group. The psoas muscle width/pelvic width ratio was significantly greater (p < 0.0005) in patients with TDB than in the control group, with values of 1.04 + 0.05 and 0.82 + 0.09, respectively. It is concluded that TDB is not an uncommon normal variant in black males. Both iliopsoas muscle hypertrophy and a narrow pelvis are factors that predispose a patient to TDB.

  10. New addition curing polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frimer, Aryeh A.; Cavano, Paul

    1991-01-01

    In an attempt to improve the thermal-oxidative stability (TOS) of PMR-type polymers, the use of 1,4-phenylenebis (phenylmaleic anhydride) PPMA, was evaluated. Two series of nadic end-capped addition curing polyimides were prepared by imidizing PPMA with either 4,4'-methylene dianiline or p-phenylenediamine. The first resulted in improved solubility and increased resin flow while the latter yielded a compression molded neat resin sample with a T(sub g) of 408 C, close to 70 C higher than PME-15. The performance of these materials in long term weight loss studies was below that of PMR-15, independent of post-cure conditions. These results can be rationalized in terms of the thermal lability of the pendant phenyl groups and the incomplete imidization of the sterically congested PPMA. The preparation of model compounds as well as future research directions are discussed.

  11. Perspectives on Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourell, David L.

    2016-07-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) has skyrocketed in visibility commercially and in the public sector. This article describes the development of this field from early layered manufacturing approaches of photosculpture, topography, and material deposition. Certain precursors to modern AM processes are also briefly described. The growth of the field over the last 30 years is presented. Included is the standard delineation of AM technologies into seven broad categories. The economics of AM part generation is considered, and the impacts of the economics on application sectors are described. On the basis of current trends, the future outlook will include a convergence of AM fabricators, mass-produced AM fabricators, enabling of topology optimization designs, and specialization in the AM legal arena. Long-term developments with huge impact are organ printing and volume-based printing.

  12. Sewage sludge additive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalvinskas, J. J.; Mueller, W. A.; Ingham, J. D. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    The additive is for a raw sewage treatment process of the type where settling tanks are used for the purpose of permitting the suspended matter in the raw sewage to be settled as well as to permit adsorption of the dissolved contaminants in the water of the sewage. The sludge, which settles down to the bottom of the settling tank is extracted, pyrolyzed and activated to form activated carbon and ash which is mixed with the sewage prior to its introduction into the settling tank. The sludge does not provide all of the activated carbon and ash required for adequate treatment of the raw sewage. It is necessary to add carbon to the process and instead of expensive commercial carbon, coal is used to provide the carbon supplement.

  13. Utilitarianism and the disabled: distribution of resources.

    PubMed

    Stein, Mark S

    2002-02-01

    Utilitarianism is more convincing than resource egalitarianism or welfare egalitarianism as a theory of how resources should be distributed between disabled people and nondisabled people. Unlike resource egalitarianism, utilitarianism can redistribute resources to the disabled when they would benefit more from those resources than nondisabled people. Unlike welfare egalitarianism, utilitarianism can halt redistribution when the disabled would no longer benefit more than the nondisabled from additional resources. The author considers one objection to this view: it has been argued, by Sen and others, that there are circumstances under which utilitarianism would unfairly distribute fewer resources to the physically disabled than to nondisabled people, on the ground that the disabled would derive less benefit from those resources. In response, the author claims that critics of utilitarianism have fallaciously exaggerated the circumstances under which the disabled would benefit less than the nondisabled from additional resources. In those limited circumstances in which the disabled really would benefit less from resources, the author argues, it does not seem unfair to distribute fewer resources to them.

  14. Solar radiation resource assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-11-01

    The bulletin discusses the following: introduction; Why is solar radiation resource assessment important Understanding the basics; the solar radiation resource assessment project; and future activities.

  15. 1993 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1993-12-01

    The Loads and Resources Study is presented in three documents: (1) this summary of Federal system and Pacific Northwest region loads and resources; (2) a technical appendix detailing forecasted Pacific Northwest economic trends and loads, and (3) a technical appendix detailing the loads and resources for each major Pacific Northwest generating utility. In this loads and resources study, resource availability is compared with a range of forecasted electricity consumption. The forecasted future electricity demands -- firm loads -- are subtracted from the projected capability of existing and {open_quotes}contracted for{close_quotes} resources to determine whether Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the region will be surplus or deficit. If resources are greater than loads in any particular year or month, there is a surplus of energy and/or capacity, which BPA can sell to increase revenues. Conversely, if firm loads exceed available resources, there is a deficit of energy and/or capacity, and additional conservation, contract purchases, or generating resources will be needed to meet load growth. The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study analyzes the Pacific Northwest`s projected loads and available generating resources in two parts: (1) the loads and resources of the Federal system, for which BPA is the marketing agency; and (2) the larger Pacific Northwest regional power system, which includes loads and resource in addition to the Federal system. The loads and resources analysis in this study simulates the operation of the power system under the Pacific Northwest Coordination Agreement (PNCA) produced by the Pacific Northwest Coordinating Group. This study presents the Federal system and regional analyses for five load forecasts: high, medium-high, medium, medium-low, and low. This analysis projects the yearly average energy consumption and resource availability for Operating Years (OY) 1994--95 through 2003--04.

  16. Additive lattice kirigami.

    PubMed

    Castle, Toen; Sussman, Daniel M; Tanis, Michael; Kamien, Randall D

    2016-09-01

    Kirigami uses bending, folding, cutting, and pasting to create complex three-dimensional (3D) structures from a flat sheet. In the case of lattice kirigami, this cutting and rejoining introduces defects into an underlying 2D lattice in the form of points of nonzero Gaussian curvature. A set of simple rules was previously used to generate a wide variety of stepped structures; we now pare back these rules to their minimum. This allows us to describe a set of techniques that unify a wide variety of cut-and-paste actions under the rubric of lattice kirigami, including adding new material and rejoining material across arbitrary cuts in the sheet. We also explore the use of more complex lattices and the different structures that consequently arise. Regardless of the choice of lattice, creating complex structures may require multiple overlapping kirigami cuts, where subsequent cuts are not performed on a locally flat lattice. Our additive kirigami method describes such cuts, providing a simple methodology and a set of techniques to build a huge variety of complex 3D shapes.

  17. Ceramics with Different Additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Juanjuan; Feng, Lajun; Lei, Ali; Zhao, Kang; Yan, Aijun

    2014-09-01

    Li2CO3, MgCO3, BaCO3, and Bi2O3 dopants were introduced into CaCu3Ti4O12 (CCTO) ceramics in order to improve the dielectric properties. The CCTO ceramics were prepared by conventional solid-state reaction method. The phase structure, microstructure, and dielectric behavior were carefully investigated. The pure structure without any impurity phases can be confirmed by the x-ray diffraction patterns. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) analysis illuminated that the grains of Ca0.90Li0.20Cu3Ti4O12 ceramics were greater than that of pure CCTO. It was important for the properties of the CCTO ceramics to study the additives in complex impedance spectroscopy. It was found that the Ca0.90Li0.20Cu3Ti4O12 ceramics had the higher permittivity (>45000), the lower dielectric loss (<0.025) than those of CCTO at 1 kHz at room temperature and good temperature stability from -30 to 75 °C.

  18. Additive lattice kirigami

    PubMed Central

    Castle, Toen; Sussman, Daniel M.; Tanis, Michael; Kamien, Randall D.

    2016-01-01

    Kirigami uses bending, folding, cutting, and pasting to create complex three-dimensional (3D) structures from a flat sheet. In the case of lattice kirigami, this cutting and rejoining introduces defects into an underlying 2D lattice in the form of points of nonzero Gaussian curvature. A set of simple rules was previously used to generate a wide variety of stepped structures; we now pare back these rules to their minimum. This allows us to describe a set of techniques that unify a wide variety of cut-and-paste actions under the rubric of lattice kirigami, including adding new material and rejoining material across arbitrary cuts in the sheet. We also explore the use of more complex lattices and the different structures that consequently arise. Regardless of the choice of lattice, creating complex structures may require multiple overlapping kirigami cuts, where subsequent cuts are not performed on a locally flat lattice. Our additive kirigami method describes such cuts, providing a simple methodology and a set of techniques to build a huge variety of complex 3D shapes. PMID:27679822

  19. Neutron Characterization for Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watkins, Thomas; Bilheux, Hassina; An, Ke; Payzant, Andrew; DeHoff, Ryan; Duty, Chad; Peter, William; Blue, Craig; Brice, Craig A.

    2013-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is leveraging decades of experience in neutron characterization of advanced materials together with resources such as the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) and the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) shown in Fig. 1 to solve challenging problems in additive manufacturing (AM). Additive manufacturing, or three-dimensional (3-D) printing, is a rapidly maturing technology wherein components are built by selectively adding feedstock material at locations specified by a computer model. The majority of these technologies use thermally driven phase change mechanisms to convert the feedstock into functioning material. As the molten material cools and solidifies, the component is subjected to significant thermal gradients, generating significant internal stresses throughout the part (Fig. 2). As layers are added, inherent residual stresses cause warping and distortions that lead to geometrical differences between the final part and the original computer generated design. This effect also limits geometries that can be fabricated using AM, such as thin-walled, high-aspect- ratio, and overhanging structures. Distortion may be minimized by intelligent toolpath planning or strategic placement of support structures, but these approaches are not well understood and often "Edisonian" in nature. Residual stresses can also impact component performance during operation. For example, in a thermally cycled environment such as a high-pressure turbine engine, residual stresses can cause components to distort unpredictably. Different thermal treatments on as-fabricated AM components have been used to minimize residual stress, but components still retain a nonhomogeneous stress state and/or demonstrate a relaxation-derived geometric distortion. Industry, federal laboratory, and university collaboration is needed to address these challenges and enable the U.S. to compete in the global market. Work is currently being conducted on AM technologies at the ORNL

  20. The Resource Development Concept: Institutional Resources. Resource Paper No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smitheran, Joyce

    Community colleges have four primary resources: income, faculty and staff, the physical plant, and students. This document recommends methods of taking a hard look at the ways in which these resources are and can be utilized. The budgeting structure must be thoroughly examined to determine the extent to which it is flexible and to which it…

  1. Outcomes from a community-based, participatory lay health adviser HIV/STD prevention intervention for recently arrived immigrant Latino men in rural North Carolina.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Scott D; Hergenrather, Kenneth C; Bloom, Fred R; Leichliter, Jami S; Montaño, Jaime

    2009-10-01

    Latinos in the United States are at increased risk for HIV and sexually transmitted disease (STD) infection. We evaluated the efficacy of a pilot lay health adviser (LHA) intervention designed to increase condom use and HIV testing among Latino men. Fifteen LHAs (mean age = 35.6; range 23-60 years) from 15 Latino soccer teams were trained and worked with their teammates for 18 months. Another 15 teams served as the control group. Data were collected at baseline and at 18 months post-LHA training from a random sample of teammates from intervention and control teams. Data were collected from 222 men (mean age = 29 years) who participated in one of the 30 teams. Relative to the control condition, participants in the intervention reported more consistent condom use in the 30 days preceding follow-up (unadjusted analysis, intervention, 65.6% vs. control, 41.3%; p < .001). Participants in the intervention were more likely to report condom use (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.3; confidence interval [CI = 1.2-4.3) and HIV testing (AOR = 2.5; CI = 1.5-4.3). LHA interventions for Latino men that are developed in partnership with community members, rely on male-centered intrapersonal networks, and are culturally congruent can enhance preventive behaviors and may reduce HIV infection.

  2. Outcomes from a community-based, participatory lay health advisor HIV/STD prevention intervention for recently arrived immigrant Latino men in rural North Carolina, USA

    PubMed Central

    Rhodes, Scott D.; Hergenrather, Kenneth C.; Bloom, Fred R.; Leichliter, Jami S.; Montaño, Jaime

    2012-01-01

    Background Latinos in the United States are at increased risk for HIV and sexually transmitted disease (STD) infection. We evaluated the efficacy of a pilot, lay health advisor (LHA) intervention designed to increase condom use and HIV testing among Latino men. Methods Fifteen LHAs (mean age=35.6; range 23–60 years) from 15 Latino soccer teams were trained and worked with their teammates for 18 months. Another 15 teams served as the control group. Data were collected at baseline and 18-months post-LHA training from a random sample of teammates from intervention and control teams. Results Data were collected from 222 men (mean age=29 years) who participated in one of the 30 teams. Relative to the control condition, participants in the intervention reported more consistent condom use in the 30 days preceding follow-up (unadjusted analysis, intervention, 65.6% vs. control, 41.3%; P<.001). Participants in the intervention were more likely to report condom use (adjusted odds ratio=2.3; CI=1.2–4.3) and HIV testing (adjusted odds ratio=2.5; CI=1.5–4.3). Conclusions LHA interventions for Latino men that are developed in partnership with community members, rely on male-centered intrapersonal networks, and are culturally congruent can enhance preventive behaviors and may reduce HIV infection. PMID:19824838

  3. A review and assessment of non-governmental organization-based STD/AIDS education and prevention projects for marginalized groups.

    PubMed

    Crane, S F; Carswell, J W

    1992-06-01

    A review of projects run by non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in primarily developing countries, which have aimed to provide STD/AIDS education and prevention skills to various marginalized groups, reveals that past quantitative and formative research has failed to identify key programmatic factors which lead to more successful project implementation and sustainability. In observations, interviews with field staff, visits to program sites and information drawn from the literature, a variety of methods to reach a wide range of groups such as men who have sex with men, prostitutes, clients of prostitutes, prisoners, street children, migrant workers and refugees are explored. Factors found to facilitate project success include the following: at least one full-time committed staff member; respectful treatment and appropriate motivation of the target group; suitable and sufficient equipment and supplies (particularly condoms); planning ahead for the participation of HIV-positive individuals and ways to meet their needs; focusing on qualitative rather than quantitative evaluation; planning in advance beyond a 9 or 12 month 'model'. Despite some evidence that marginalized groups can be successfully motivated to practise safer sex through prevention education, long-term behaviour change still presents major challenges--even when specific conditions are met.

  4. Structure optimization of 2-benzamidobenzoic acids as PqsD inhibitors for Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections and elucidation of binding mode by SPR, STD NMR, and molecular docking.

    PubMed

    Weidel, Elisabeth; de Jong, Johannes C; Brengel, Christian; Storz, Michael P; Braunshausen, Andrea; Negri, Matthias; Plaza, Alberto; Steinbach, Anke; Müller, Rolf; Hartmann, Rolf W

    2013-08-08

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa employs a characteristic pqs quorum sensing (QS) system that functions via the signal molecules PQS and its precursor HHQ. They control the production of a number of virulence factors and biofilm formation. Recently, we have shown that sulfonamide substituted 2-benzamidobenzoic acids, which are known FabH inhibitors, are also able to inhibit PqsD, the enzyme catalyzing the last and key step in the biosynthesis of HHQ. Here, we describe the further optimization and characterization of this class of compounds as PqsD inhibitors. Structural modifications showed that both the carboxylic acid ortho to the amide and 3'-sulfonamide are essential for binding. Introduction of substituents in the anthranilic part of the molecule resulted in compounds with IC50 values in the low micromolar range. Binding mode investigations by SPR with wild-type and mutated PqsD revealed that this compound class does not bind into the active center of PqsD but in the ACoA channel, preventing the substrate from accessing the active site. This binding mode was further confirmed by docking studies and STD NMR.

  5. The New Resource File

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luck, Donald D.

    2011-01-01

    The development of the resource file is a common experience in teacher preparation programs. The author examines strategies for transforming what has been a project composed of physical resources to one emphasizing digital resources. Methods for finding, tagging, storing and retrieving resources are explored.

  6. Natural resource protection on buffer lands: integrating resource evaluation and economics.

    PubMed

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael; Greenberg, Michael

    2008-07-01

    Environmental managers are faced with the wise management, sustainability, and stewardship of their land for natural resource values. This task requires the integration of ecological evaluation with economics. Using the Department of Energy (DOE) as a case study, we examine the why, who, what, where, when, and how questions about assessment and natural resource protection of buffer lands. We suggest that managers evaluate natural resources for a variety of reasons that revolve around land use, remediation/restoration, protection of natural environments, and natural resource damage assessment (NRDA). While DOE is the manager of its lands, and thus its natural resources, a range of natural resource trustees and public officials have co-responsibility. We distinguish four types of natural resource evaluations: (1) the resources themselves (to the ecosystem), (2) the value of specific resources to people (e.g. hunting/fishing/bird-watching/herbal medicines), (3) the value of ecological resources to services for communities (e.g. clean air/water), and (4) the value of the intact ecosystems (e.g. forests or estuaries). Resource evaluations should occur initially to provide information about the status of those resources, and continued evaluation is required to provide trends data. Additional natural resource evaluation is required before, during and immediately following changes in land use, and remediation or restoration. Afterwards, additional monitoring and evaluations are required to evaluate the effects of the land use change or the efficacy of remediation/restoration. There are a wide range of economic methods available to evaluate natural resources, but the methods chosen depend upon the nature of the resource being evaluated, the purpose of the evaluation, and the needs of the agencies, natural resource trustees, public officials, and the public. We discuss the uses, and the advantages and disadvantages of different evaluation methods for natural resources.

  7. Introduction to Natural Resources: Advanced Applications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crummett, Dan

    This guide, which is designed for use with student and teacher guides to a 10-unit secondary-level course in natural resources, contains a series of student supplements and advanced assignment and job sheets that provide students with additional opportunities to explore the following areas of natural resources and conservation education: outdoor…

  8. Technical Resources for Energy Savings Plus Health

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Energy Savings Plus Health Guide equips school districts to integrate indoor air quality protections into school energy efficiency retrofits and other building upgrade projects. This page lists additional resources related to Energy Savings Plus Health

  9. Extending the granularity of representation and control for the MIL-STD CAIS 1.0 node model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Kathy L.

    1986-01-01

    The Common APSE (Ada 1 Program Support Environment) Interface Set (CAIS) (DoD85) node model provides an excellent baseline for interfaces in a single-host development environment. To encompass the entire spectrum of computing, however, the CAIS model should be extended in four areas. It should provide the interface between the engineering workstation and the host system throughout the entire lifecycle of the system. It should provide a basis for communication and integration functions needed by distributed host environments. It should provide common interfaces for communications mechanisms to and among target processors. It should provide facilities for integration, validation, and verification of test beds extending to distributed systems on geographically separate processors with heterogeneous instruction set architectures (ISAS). Additions to the PROCESS NODE model to extend the CAIS into these four areas are proposed.

  10. Minimum Additive Waste Stabilization (MAWS). Technology summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    In the Minimum Additive Waste Stabilization(MAWS) concept, actual waste streams are utilized as additive resources for vitrification, which may contain the basic components (glass formers and fluxes) for making a suitable glass or glassy slag. If too much glass former is present, then the melt viscosity or temperature will be too high for processing; while if there is too much flux, then the durability may suffer. Therefore, there are optimum combinations of these two important classes of constituents depending on the criteria required. The challenge is to combine these resources in such a way that minimizes the use of non-waste additives yet yields a processable and durable final waste form for disposal. The benefit to this approach is that the volume of the final waste form is minimized (waste loading maximized) since little or no additives are used and vitrification itself results in volume reduction through evaporation of water, combustion of organics, and compaction of the solids into a non-porous glass. This implies a significant reduction in disposal costs due to volume reduction alone, and minimizes future risks/costs due to the long term durability and leach resistance of glass. This is accomplished by using integrated systems that are both cost-effective and produce an environmentally sound waste form for disposal. individual component technologies may include: vitrification; thermal destruction; soil washing; gas scrubbing/filtration; and, ion-exchange wastewater treatment. The particular combination of technologies will depend on the waste streams to be treated. At the heart of MAWS is vitrification technology, which incorporates all primary and secondary waste streams into a final, long-term, stabilized glass wasteform. The integrated technology approach, and view of waste streams as resources, is innovative yet practical to cost effectively treat a broad range of DOE mixed and low-level wastes.

  11. Resource envelope concepts for mission planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ibrahim, K. Y.; Weiler, J. D.; Tokaz, J. C.

    1991-01-01

    Seven proposed methods for creating resource envelopes for Space Station Freedom mission planning are detailed. Four reference science activity models are used to illustrate the effect of adding operational flexibility to mission timelines. For each method, a brief explanation is given along with graphs to illustrate the application of the envelopes to the power and crew resources. The benefits and costs of each method are analyzed in terms of resource utilization. In addition to the effect on individual activities, resource envelopes are analyzed at the experiment level.

  12. Educational Resources on Supernovae for Children

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Struck, James T.

    The National Science Education Standards (1996, National Academy Press) suggest mention of objects like the ``sun, moon, stars" in grades K-4 and element formation in grades 9-12. Children's librarians and some astronomy librarians should know about some of the resources for children on supernovae not only because supernovae are critical to higher element formation, but also to educate others about the universe's expansion and stars. In addition, basic bibliometrics on these resources yields lessons on the importance of using many indexes, the pattern of literature for children on supernovae, the types of resources on supernovae, and the scattering of resources/information for children on supernovae.

  13. Additive Construction with Mobile Emplacement (ACME)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vickers, John

    2015-01-01

    The Additive Construction with Mobile Emplacement (ACME) project is developing technology to build structures on planetary surfaces using in-situ resources. The project focuses on the construction of both 2D (landing pads, roads, and structure foundations) and 3D (habitats, garages, radiation shelters, and other structures) infrastructure needs for planetary surface missions. The ACME project seeks to raise the Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of two components needed for planetary surface habitation and exploration: 3D additive construction (e.g., contour crafting), and excavation and handling technologies (to effectively and continuously produce in-situ feedstock). Additionally, the ACME project supports the research and development of new materials for planetary surface construction, with the goal of reducing the amount of material to be launched from Earth.

  14. The rise and fall of IUDS's: banning of IUD's in USA. Alarming interactions between IUD's and sexually transmitted diseases (STD).

    PubMed

    Krzyzaniak, L T; Lotfy, M

    1986-06-01

    This supplement presents an extensive review of patterns of IUD use in the US, unanswered controversies related to the role of the IUD in pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and sexually transmitted diseases, and the ethical and mediciolegal aspects of IUD marketing. Also included is a section on an Adolescent Festival scheduled to be held in Turkey in June 1986 which will focus on beginning a dialog between adolescents and parents, educators, and physicians. The text is amply illustrated with figures and includes 10 tables. There has been a constant decline in the number of IUD users in the US, from 2.2 million in 1981 to 1.4 million in 1985. Many women asked to have their IUDs removed after successive withdrawals of 1st-generation IUDs from the US market. It has been well established that users of copper IUDs are at higher risk for pelvic infection, especially nulligravidas under 25 years of age. The PID seen in IUD users is caused by microbiological contaminants such as Chlamydia trachomatis, ureaplasma urealyticum, and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. The constant presence of the IUD tail in the cervical canal and vagina is associated with transuterine migration of virus, bacteria, and fungus to the upper urogenital tract. In addition, the microbiologic contaminants in semen colonize on selected IUD parts. The lack of sophisticated evaluation of types of IUDs has been in part a reflection of insufficient testing on the part of IUD manufacturers who have a financial interest in study results. The ethical aspects of IUD use should be considered in relation to religion, ethnic groups, cultural patterns, government regulations, the role of gynecologists, family planning centers, marketing promotion, package inserts, and prevention of adolescent pregnancy. A series of IUD Documentation workshops are planned to assess the current status of this contraceptive method.

  15. Accessing opportunistic resources with Bosco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weitzel, D.; Sfiligoi, I.; Bockelman, B.; Frey, J.; Wuerthwein, F.; Fraser, D.; Swanson, D.

    2014-06-01

    Bosco is a software project developed by the Open Science Grid to help scientists better utilize their on-campus computing resources. Instead of submitting jobs through a dedicated gatekeeper, as most remote submission mechanisms use, it uses the built-in SSH protocol to gain access to the cluster. By using a common access method, SSH, we are able to simplify the interaction with the cluster, making the submission process more user friendly. Additionally, it does not add any extra software to be installed on the cluster making Bosco an attractive option for the cluster administrator. In this paper, we will describe Bosco, the personal supercomputing assistant, and how Bosco is used by researchers across the U.S. to manage their computing workflows. In addition, we will also talk about how researchers are using it, including an unique use of Bosco to submit CMS reconstruction jobs to an opportunistic XSEDE resource.

  16. Space resources. Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckay, Mary Fae (Editor); Mckay, David S. (Editor); Duke, Michael B. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    Space resources must be used to support life on the Moon and in the exploration of Mars. Just as the pioneers applied the tools they brought with them to resources they found along the way rather than trying to haul all their needs over a long supply line, so too must space travelers apply their high technology tools to local resources. This overview describes the findings of a study on the use of space resources in the development of future space activities and defines the necessary research and development that must precede the practical utilization of these resources. Space resources considered included lunar soil, oxygen derived from lunar soil, material retrieved from near-Earth asteroids, abundant sunlight, low gravity, and high vacuum. The study participants analyzed the direct use of these resources, the potential demand for products from them, the techniques for retrieving and processing space resources, the necessary infrastructure, and the economic tradeoffs.

  17. Solar Resource Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Renne, D.; George, R.; Wilcox, S.; Stoffel, T.; Myers, D.; Heimiller, D.

    2008-02-01

    This report covers the solar resource assessment aspects of the Renewable Systems Interconnection study. The status of solar resource assessment in the United States is described, and summaries of the availability of modeled data sets are provided.

  18. Human Resource Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, W. H.; Wyatt, L. L.

    1977-01-01

    By using the total resource approach, we have focused attention on the need to integrate human resource planning with other business plans and highlighted the importance of a productivity strategy. (Author)

  19. Cerebral palsy - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - cerebral palsy ... The following organizations are good resources for information on cerebral palsy : National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke -- www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/cerebral_palsy/cerebral_palsy. ...

  20. Lung disease - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - lung disease ... The following organizations are good resources for information on lung disease : American Lung Association -- www.lung.org National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute -- www.nhlbi.nih.gov ...

  1. Interstitial cystitis - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - interstitial cystitis ... The following organizations are good resources for information on interstitial cystitis : Interstitial Cystitis Association -- www.ichelp.org National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse -- www.kidney.niddk. ...

  2. Prostate cancer - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - prostate cancer ... The following organizations are good resources for information on prostate cancer : American Cancer Society -- www.cancer.org/cancer/prostatecancer/index National Cancer Institute -- www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/ ...

  3. Parkinson disease - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - Parkinson disease ... The following organizations are good resources for information on Parkinson disease : The Michael J. Fox Foundation -- www.michaeljfox.org National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke -- www. ...

  4. Liver disease - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - liver disease ... The following organizations are good resources for information on liver disease : American Liver Foundation -- www.liverfoundation.org Children's Liver Association for Support Services -- www.classkids.org Hepatitis ...

  5. Heart disease - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - heart disease ... The following organizations are good resources for information on heart disease: American Heart Association -- www.heart.org Centers for Disease Control and Prevention -- www.cdc.gov/heartdisease

  6. Asthma and allergy - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - asthma and allergy ... The following organizations are good resources for information on asthma and allergies : Allergy and Asthma Network -- www.allergyasthmanetwork.org American Academy of Allergy Asthma and Immunology -- www. ...

  7. Spinal injury - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - spinal injury ... The following organizations are good resources for information on spinal injury : National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke -- www.ninds.nih.gov/Disorders/All-Disorders/Spinal-Cord- ...

  8. Sickle cell anemia - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - sickle cell anemia ... The following organizations are good resources for information on sickle cell anemia : American Sickle Cell Anemia Association -- www.ascaa.org National Heart, Blood, and Lung Institute -- www. ...

  9. Elder care - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - elder care ... The following organizations are good resources for information on aging and elder care: Administration on Aging -- www.aoa.gov Eldercare Locator -- www.eldercare.gov National Institute on ...

  10. HIV/AIDS - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - HIV/AIDS ... The following organizations are good resources for information on AIDS : AIDS.gov -- www.aids.gov AIDS Info -- aidsinfo.nih.gov The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation -- www. ...

  11. Cleft palate - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - cleft palate ... The following organizations are good resources for information on cleft palate : Cleft Palate Foundation -- www.cleftline.org March of Dimes -- www.marchofdimes.com/professionals/14332_1210.asp ...

  12. Cystic fibrosis - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - cystic fibrosis ... The following organizations are good resources for information on cystic fibrosis : Cystic Fibrosis Foundation -- www.cff.org March of Dimes -- www.marchofdimes.org/baby/cystic-fibrosis-and- ...

  13. Colon cancer - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - colon cancer ... The following organizations are good resources for information on colon cancer : American Cancer Society -- www.cancer.org/cancer/colonandrectumcancer/index Colon Cancer Alliance -- www.ccalliance.org National ...

  14. Selective mutism - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - selective mutism ... The following organizations are good resources for information on selective mutism : American Speech-Language-Hearing Association -- www.asha.org/public/speech/disorders/selectivemutism.htm Selective Mutism and ...

  15. Muscular dystrophy - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - muscular dystrophy ... The following organizations are good resources for information on muscular dystrophy : Muscular Dystrophy Association -- www.mdausa.org National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke -- www.ninds.nih. ...

  16. Spina bifida - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - spina bifida ... The following organizations are good resources for information on spina bifida : March of Dimes -- www.marchofdimes.org/baby/spina-bifida.aspx National Institute of Neurologic Disorders and ...

  17. Reye syndrome - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - Reye syndrome ... The following organizations are good resources for information on Reye Syndrome : National Reye's Syndrome Foundation, Inc. -- www.reyessyndrome.org National Institute of Neurologic Disorders and Stroke -- www. ...

  18. Kidney disease - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - kidney disease ... The following organizations are good resources for information on kidney disease: National Kidney Disease Education Program -- www.nkdep.nih.gov National Kidney Foundation -- www.kidney.org National ...

  19. NASA OSMA NDE Program Additive Manufacturing Foundational Effort

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waller, Jess; Walker, James; Burke, Eric; Wells, Douglas; Nichols, Charles

    2016-01-01

    NASA is providing key leadership in an international effort linking NASA and non-NASA resources to speed adoption of additive manufacturing (AM) to meet NASA's mission goals. Participants include industry, NASA's space partners, other government agencies, standards organizations and academia. Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) is identified as a universal need for all aspects of additive manufacturing.

  20. 18 CFR 367.59 - Additions and retirements of property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... retirements of property. 367.59 Section 367.59 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... GAS ACT Service Company Property Instructions § 367.59 Additions and retirements of property. (a) For the purpose of avoiding undue refinement in accounting for additions to and retirements...

  1. 18 CFR 367.59 - Additions and retirements of property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... retirements of property. 367.59 Section 367.59 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... GAS ACT Service Company Property Instructions § 367.59 Additions and retirements of property. (a) For the purpose of avoiding undue refinement in accounting for additions to and retirements...

  2. 18 CFR 367.59 - Additions and retirements of property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... retirements of property. 367.59 Section 367.59 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... GAS ACT Service Company Property Instructions § 367.59 Additions and retirements of property. (a) For the purpose of avoiding undue refinement in accounting for additions to and retirements...

  3. 36 CFR 228.115 - Additional notice of decisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Additional notice of decisions. 228.115 Section 228.115 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MINERALS Oil and Gas Resources Administration of Operations § 228.115 Additional notice...

  4. Water Resources Division training catalog

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hotchkiss, W.R.; Foxhoven, L.A.

    1984-01-01

    The National Training Center provides technical and management sessions nesessary for the conductance of the U.S. Geological Survey 's training programs. This catalog describes the facilities and staff at the Lakewood Training Center and describes Water Resources Division training courses available through the center. In addition, the catalog describes the procedures for gaining admission, formulas for calculating fees, and discussion of course evaluations. (USGS)

  5. Classification systems for natural resource management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kleckner, Richard L.

    1981-01-01

    Resource managers employ various types of resource classification systems in their management activities such as inventory, mapping, and data analysis. Classification is the ordering or arranging of objects into groups or sets on the basis of their relationships, and as such, provide the resource managers with a structure for organizing their needed information. In addition of conforming to certain logical principles, resource classifications should be flexible, widely applicable to a variety of environmental conditions, and useable with minimal training. The process of classification may be approached from the bottom up (aggregation) or the top down (subdivision) or a combination of both, depending on the purpose of the classification. Most resource classification systems in use today focus on a single resource and are used for a single, limited purpose. However, resource managers now must employ the concept of multiple use in their management activities. What they need is an integrated, ecologically based approach to resource classification which would fulfill multiple-use mandates. In an effort to achieve resource-data compatibility and data sharing among Federal agencies, and interagency agreement has been signed by five Federal agencies to coordinate and cooperate in the area of resource classification and inventory.

  6. 1997 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1997-12-01

    The 1997 White Book is presented in two documents: (1) this summary of Federal system and Pacific Northwest region loads and resources; and (2) a technical appendix detailing the loads and resources for each major Pacific Northwest generating utility. Data detailing Pacific Northwest non-utility generating (NUG) resources is also available upon request. This analysis updates the 1996 pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study, published in December 1996. In this loads and resources study, resource availability is compared with a medium forecast of electricity consumption. This document analyzes the Pacific Northwest`s projected loads and available generating resources in two parts: (1) the loads and resources of the Federal system, for which BPA is the marketing agency; and (2) the larger Pacific Northwest regional power system which includes loads and resources in addition to the Federal system. This study presents the Federal system and regional analyses for the medium load forecast. This analysis projects the yearly average energy consumption and resource availability for Operating Years (OY) 1998--99 through 2007--08.

  7. STDs and Infertility

    MedlinePlus

    ... Status of EPT Legal/Policy Toolkit Gemifloxacin Procaine Penicillin G Shortage Additional Resources Archive Drug Notices Azithromycin ... Pyloric Stenosis Cefixime Spectinomycin - Alternative Treatments Alternatives to Penicillin G Updating the STD Treatment Guidelines 2010 Guidelines ...

  8. Reportable STDs in Young People 15-24 Years of Age, by State

    MedlinePlus

    ... Status of EPT Legal/Policy Toolkit Gemifloxacin Procaine Penicillin G Shortage Additional Resources Archive Drug Notices Azithromycin ... Pyloric Stenosis Cefixime Spectinomycin - Alternative Treatments Alternatives to Penicillin G Updating the STD Treatment Guidelines 2010 Guidelines ...

  9. STDs and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Status of EPT Legal/Policy Toolkit Gemifloxacin Procaine Penicillin G Shortage Additional Resources Archive Drug Notices Azithromycin ... Pyloric Stenosis Cefixime Spectinomycin - Alternative Treatments Alternatives to Penicillin G Updating the STD Treatment Guidelines 2010 Guidelines ...

  10. What Gay, Bisexual and Other Men Who Have Sex with Men Need to Know about Sexually Transmitted Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... Status of EPT Legal/Policy Toolkit Gemifloxacin Procaine Penicillin G Shortage Additional Resources Archive Drug Notices Azithromycin ... Pyloric Stenosis Cefixime Spectinomycin - Alternative Treatments Alternatives to Penicillin G Updating the STD Treatment Guidelines 2010 Guidelines ...

  11. Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... Status of EPT Legal/Policy Toolkit Gemifloxacin Procaine Penicillin G Shortage Additional Resources Archive Drug Notices Azithromycin ... Pyloric Stenosis Cefixime Spectinomycin - Alternative Treatments Alternatives to Penicillin G Updating the STD Treatment Guidelines 2010 Guidelines ...

  12. Water Resource Adaptation Program

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Water Resource Adaptation Program (WRAP) contributes to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (U.S. EPA) efforts to provide water resource managers and decision makers with the tools needed to adapt water resources to demographic and economic development, and future clim...

  13. Save Our Water Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bromley, Albert W.

    The purpose of this booklet, developed as part of Project SOAR (Save Our American Resources), is to give Scout leaders some facts about the world's resources, the sources of water pollution, and how people can help in obtaining solutions. Among the topics discussed are the world's water resources, the water cycle, water quality, sources of water…

  14. Natural Resources Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoadley, Irene Braden

    This bibliography presents a modern definition of the conceptual framework from which to view natural resources, and affords access to information which examines resources from the social scientists point of view. It presents five broad divisions of activity or variables which include (1) Natural and Human Resources, (2) Epistomological and…

  15. International Resource Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schabel, H. G.

    The International Resource Management program enables undergraduate students of the University of Wisconsin, Stevens Point, College of Natural Resources to complete an academic minor in International Resource Management. The program attempts to alert students and faculty to global environmental issues and their interconnectedness with a variety of…

  16. Resources for the Marketplace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shropshire, William O.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    A conceptual introduction to the nature of resources and their role in production and in the marketplace begins this issue. Four instructional units follow, beginning with "Nature Is Resourceful," a unit intended for preschool and kindergarten children built around a nature/resource walk, making sun tea, and analyzing the story of the…

  17. Reasoning abstractly about resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clement, B.; Barrett, A.

    2001-01-01

    r describes a way to schedule high level activities before distributing them across multiple rovers in order to coordinate the resultant use of shared resources regardless of how each rover decides how to perform its activities. We present an algorithm for summarizing the metric resource requirements of an abstract activity based n the resource usages of its potential refinements.

  18. Space Resources Roundtable VI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The topics addressed in the conference paper abstracts contained in this document include: extracting resources from the Moon and Mars, equipment for in situ resource utilization, mission planning for resource extraction, drilling on Mars, and simulants for lunar soil and minerals.

  19. Chapter Four: Discursive Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Richard F.

    2008-01-01

    In this chapter, the focus of attention moves from the contexts described in chapter 3 to the verbal, nonverbal, and interactional resources that participants employ in discursive practices. These resources are discussed within the frame of participation status and participation framework proposed by Goffman. Verbal resources employed by…

  20. Reconciling resource utilization and resource selection functions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hooten, Mevin B.; Hanks, Ephraim M.; Johnson, Devin S.; Alldredge, Mat W.

    2013-01-01

    Summary: 1. Analyses based on utilization distributions (UDs) have been ubiquitous in animal space use studies, largely because they are computationally straightforward and relatively easy to employ. Conventional applications of resource utilization functions (RUFs) suggest that estimates of UDs can be used as response variables in a regression involving spatial covariates of interest. 2. It has been claimed that contemporary implementations of RUFs can yield inference about resource selection, although to our knowledge, an explicit connection has not been described. 3. We explore the relationships between RUFs and resource selection functions from a hueristic and simulation perspective. We investigate several sources of potential bias in the estimation of resource selection coefficients using RUFs (e.g. the spatial covariance modelling that is often used in RUF analyses). 4. Our findings illustrate that RUFs can, in fact, serve as approximations to RSFs and are capable of providing inference about resource selection, but only with some modification and under specific circumstances. 5. Using real telemetry data as an example, we provide guidance on which methods for estimating resource selection may be more appropriate and in which situations. In general, if telemetry data are assumed to arise as a point process, then RSF methods may be preferable to RUFs; however, modified RUFs may provide less biased parameter estimates when the data are subject to location error.