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  1. Primary elements for STD clinical treatment.

    PubMed

    Townsend, S

    1992-04-01

    This article discusses the 4 basic elements of STD clinical treatment: diagnostic tools, training, well-run clinics, and antibiotics. In many developing countries, primary health care (PHC) centers serve as the initial source of STD preventive and curative services. If necessary, PHC centers can refer patients to the more specialized STD clinics. As the article explains, PHC clinics ideally need tables for pelvic examinations, lamps, reliable supplies of water and electricity, instruments for pelvic exams, sterilization equipment, gloves, microscopes and blood-taking equipment. Furthermore, PHC clinics should be able to perform 2 simple microscopic tests: the "wet-mount" test (for trichomoniasis, candidiasis, or bacterial vaginosis in women and the Gram stain Test (for gonorrhea in men). STD clinics should provide more comprehensive services, but such services are often more costly and time-consuming. In 1990, several organization launched an international initiative to develop diagnostic techniques appropriate for use in settings with limited resources. In addition to diagnostic tools, effective STD clinical treatment requires a well-trained staff, skilled not only in diagnosis but also in counseling about condoms and partner notification. Well-run clinics is another requisite of effective STD treatment. Well-run clinics is another requisite of effective STD treatment. Well-run clinics usually share the following features: 1) a convenient location; 2) clearly displayed signs directing patients to the clinic; 3) convenient operating hours; 4) privacy; 5) comfortable waiting areas; and 6) short waiting periods. Finally, effective STD treatment depends on the administration of the right type and dosage of a drug. Cost, however, remains the principal obstacle to availability of effective drugs. PMID:12343659

  2. 75 FR 22145 - Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA); CDC/HRSA Advisory Committee on HIV and STD...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-27

    ... hepatitis prevention in the United States; (3) a discussion of the successes and remaining challenges in... Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, 1600 Clifton Road, NE., Mailstop E-07, Atlanta, Georgia 30333,...

  3. 75 FR 63844 - Health Resources and Services Administration CDC/HRSA Advisory Committee on HIV and STD...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-18

    ... CDC/HRSA Advisory Committee on HIV and STD Prevention and Treatment (CHACHSPT) In accordance with... prevention and control of HIV/AIDS and other STDs; the support of health care services to persons living with HIV/AIDS; and the education of health professionals and the public about HIV/AIDS and other...

  4. Compact, Low-Overhead, MIL-STD-1553B Controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, Richard; Barto, Rod

    2009-01-01

    A compact and flexible controller has been developed to provide MIL-STD- 1553B Remote Terminal (RT) communications and supporting and related functions with minimal demand on the resources of the system in which the controller is to be installed. (MIL-STD-1553B is a military standard that encompasses a method of communication and electrical-interface requirements for digital electronic subsystems connected to a data bus. MIL-STD-1553B is commonly used in defense and space applications.) Many other MIL-STD-1553B RT controllers are complicated, and to enable them to function, it is necessary to provide software and to use such ancillary separate hardware devices as microprocessors and dual-port memories. The present controller functions without need for software and any ancillary hardware. In addition, it contains a flexible system interface and extensive support hardware while including on-chip error-checking and diagnostic support circuitry. This controller is implemented within part of a modern field-programmable gate array.

  5. Production scheduling with discrete and renewable additional resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalinowski, K.; Grabowik, C.; Paprocka, I.; Kempa, W.

    2015-11-01

    In this paper an approach to planning of additional resources when scheduling operations are discussed. The considered resources are assumed to be discrete and renewable. In most research in scheduling domain, the basic and often the only type of regarded resources is a workstation. It can be understood as a machine, a device or even as a separated space on the shop floor. In many cases, during the detailed scheduling of operations the need of using more than one resource, required for its implementation, can be indicated. Resource requirements for an operation may relate to different resources or resources of the same type. Additional resources are most often referred to these human resources, tools or equipment, for which the limited availability in the manufacturing system may have an influence on the execution dates of some operations. In the paper the concept of the division into basic and additional resources and their planning method was shown. A situation in which sets of basic and additional resources are not separable - the same additional resource may be a basic resource for another operation is also considered. Scheduling of operations, including greater amount of resources can cause many difficulties, depending on whether the resource is involved in the entire time of operation, only in the selected part(s) of operation (e.g. as auxiliary staff at setup time) or cyclic - e.g. when an operator supports more than one machine, or supervises the execution of several operations. For this reason the dates and work times of resources participation in the operation can be different. Presented issues are crucial when modelling of production scheduling environment and designing of structures for the purpose of scheduling software development.

  6. Managing Urban School System Resources: New Procedures, Addition Actors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hentschke, Guilbert C.

    In recent years urban school systems have had to face unusually severe economic constraints. In the process of adjusting to these constraints, urban systems will likely seek new ways to reallocate existing resources and will undertake more cooperative ventures with other organizational entities to gain access to additional resources. Four…

  7. Impact of International Laboratory Partnerships on the Performance of HIV/STD Testing in Five Resource Constrained Countries

    PubMed Central

    Gaydos, Charlotte A; Rizzo-Price, PatriciaA; Balakrishnan, Pachamutha; Mateta, Patrick; Leon, SegungoR; Verevochkin, Sevgei; Yin, Yue-pingP; Quinn, Thomas C; Strader, LisaC; Pequegnat, Willo

    2012-01-01

    Objective To review a quality control and quality assurance (QC/QA) model established to ensure the validity and reliability of collection, storage, and analysis of biological outcome data, and to promote good laboratory practices and sustained operational improvements in international clinical laboratories. Methods A two-arm randomized community-level HIV behavioral intervention trial was conducted in five countries: China, India, Peru, Russia, and Zimbabwe. The trial was based on diffusion theory utilizing a Community Popular Opinion Leaders (C-POL) intervention model with behavioral and biological outcomes. The model was established by the Biological Outcome Workgroup (BOWG), which collaborated with the Data Coordinating Center (DCC) and John Hopkins University Reference Laboratory. Five international laboratories conducted Chlamydia/gonorrhea PCR, HSV2 EIA, Syphilis RPR/TPPA, HIV EIA/Western Blot, and trichomonas culture. Data were collected at baseline, 12, and 24 months. Results Laboratory performance and infrastructure improved throughout the trial. Recommendations for improvement were consistently followed. Conclusions Quality laboratories in resource-poor settings can be established, operating standards can be improved, and certification can be obtained with consistent training, monitoring, and technical support. Building collaborative partnership relations can establish a sustainable network for clinical trials, and can lead to accreditation and international laboratory development. PMID:22096049

  8. Determinants of STD epidemics: implications for phase appropriate intervention strategies.

    PubMed

    Aral, S O

    2002-04-01

    Determinants of evolving epidemics of sexually transmitted diseases (STD) are equally influenced by the evolution of the STD epidemics themselves and by the evolution of human societies. A temporal approach to STD transmission dynamics suggests the need to monitor infectivity, rate of exposure between infected and susceptible individuals, and duration of infectiousness in societies. Different indicators may be used to monitor rate of exposure in the general population and in core groups. In addition, underlying determinants of STD epidemics such as poverty, inequality, racial/ethnic discrimination, unemployment, sex ratio, volume of migration, and health care coverage and quality are important variables to monitor through a surveillance system focused on social context. Ongoing large scale societal changes including urbanisation, globalisation, increasing inequality, and increasing volume of migrant populations may affect the evolution of STD epidemics. Globalised STD epidemics could pose a major challenge to local public health systems. PMID:12083444

  9. Should family planning include STD services?

    PubMed

    Finger, W R

    1994-05-01

    Recent reviews suggest that the addition of programs aimed at preventing and controlling sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), specifically human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), to existing family planning programs does not necessarily dilute overall program effectiveness. In Colombia, Mexico, and Jamaica, where condom distribution and/or information to prevent HIV transmission was integrated into the activities of family planning field workers, no negative effect on the image of condoms as a pregnancy prevention method was observed and there was a great demand on the part of family planning clients for information about acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). In Brazil, family planning staff are receiving training in HIV risk assessment and the counseling of women in partner negotiation skills. However, steps must be taken to reach men since it is their high-risk behavior that puts most women at risk of HIV. Both separate STD clinics for men and condom social marketing projects have yielded promising results. Obstacles to the addition of STD services to family planning programs include the need to treat male partners as well as female clients, a shortage of diagnostic tools and antibiotics for treatment, and the fact that the majority of women with STDs are asymptomatic. Indicative of the increased attention being given this approach, however, is the recent release of guidelines by the US Agency for International Development Office of Population on how family planning programs should approach integration. Suggested activities include condom promotion, behavior change, counseling, information, contraceptive development, and selected efforts at STD treatment. PMID:12287744

  10. Campus Grids: Bringing Additional Computational Resources to HEP Researchers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weitzel, Derek; Fraser, Dan; Bockelman, Brian; Swanson, David

    2012-12-01

    It is common at research institutions to maintain multiple clusters that represent different owners or generations of hardware, or that fulfill different needs and policies. Many of these clusters are consistently under utilized while researchers on campus could greatly benefit from these unused capabilities. By leveraging principles from the Open Science Grid it is now possible to utilize these resources by forming a lightweight campus grid. The campus grids framework enables jobs that are submitted to one cluster to overflow, when necessary, to other clusters within the campus using whatever authentication mechanisms are available on campus. This framework is currently being used on several campuses to run HEP and other science jobs. Further, the framework has in some cases been expanded beyond the campus boundary by bridging campus grids into a regional grid, and can even be used to integrate resources from a national cyberinfrastructure such as the Open Science Grid. This paper will highlight 18 months of operational experiences creating campus grids in the US, and the different campus configurations that have successfully utilized the campus grid infrastructure.

  11. The Job Demands-Resources Model: An Analysis of Additive and Joint Effects of Demands and Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Qiao; Schaufeli, Wilmar B.; Taris, Toon W.

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated the additive, synergistic, and moderating effects of job demands and job resources on well-being (burnout and work engagement) and organizational outcomes, as specified by the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) model. A survey was conducted among two Chinese samples: 625 blue collar workers and 761 health professionals. A…

  12. STD Education: Challenge for the 80s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kroger, Fred; Wiesner, Paul J.

    1981-01-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases (STD) are the most pervasive, destructive, and costly communicable disease problems facing America's youth. The need for and appropriateness of school-based STD education, some elements of high-quality STD education, and strategies for dealing constructively with controversy are discussed. (JN)

  13. Aggregation of Cricket Activity in Response to Resource Addition Increases Local Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Szinwelski, Neucir; Rosa, Cassiano Sousa; Solar, Ricardo Ribeiro de Castro; Sperber, Carlos Frankl

    2015-01-01

    Crickets are often found feeding on fallen fruits among forest litter. Fruits and other sugar-rich resources are not homogeneously distributed, nor are they always available. We therefore expect that crickets dwelling in forest litter have a limited supply of sugar-rich resource, and will perceive this and displace towards resource-supplemented sites. Here we evaluate how sugar availability affects cricket species richness and abundance in old-growth Atlantic forest by spraying sugarcane syrup on leaf litter, simulating increasing availability, and collecting crickets via pitfall trapping. We found an asymptotic positive association between resource addition and species richness, and an interaction between resource addition and species identity on cricket abundance, which indicates differential effects of resource addition among cricket species. Our results indicate that 12 of the 13 cricket species present in forest litter are maintained at low densities by resource scarcity; this highlights sugar-rich resource as a short-term driver of litter cricket community structure in tropical forests. When resource was experimentally increased, species richness increased due to behavioral displacement. We present evidence that the density of many species is limited by resource scarcity and, when resources are added, behavioral displacement promotes increased species packing and alters species composition. Further, our findings have technical applicability for increasing sampling efficiency of local cricket diversity in studies aiming to estimate species richness, but with no regard to local environmental drivers or species-abundance characteristics. PMID:26436669

  14. The SMART MIL-STD-1553 bus adapter hardware manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ton, T. T.

    1981-01-01

    The SMART Multiplexer Interface Adapter, (SMIA) a complete system interface for message structure of the MIL-STD-1553, is described. It provides buffering and storage for transmitted and received data and handles all the necessary handshaking to interface between parallel 8-bit data bus and a MIL-STD serial bit stream. The bus adapter is configured as either a bus controller of a remote terminal interface. It is coupled directly to the multiplex bus, or stub coupled through an additional isolation transformer located at the connection point. Fault isolation resistors provide short circuit protection.

  15. Mineral resources of the Buffalo Hump and Sand Dunes Addition Wilderness Study Areas, Sweetwater County, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Gibbons, A.B.; Barbon, H.N.; Kulik, D.M. ); McDonnell, J.R. Jr. )

    1990-01-01

    The authors present a study to assess the potential for undiscovered mineral resources and appraise the identified resources of the Buffalo Hump and Sand Dunes Addition Wilderness Study Areas, southwestern Wyoming, There are no mines, prospects, or mineralized areas nor any producing oil or gas wells; however, there are occurrences of coal, claystone and shale, and sand. There is a moderate resource potential for oil shale and natural gas and a low resource potential for oil, for metals, including uranium, and for geothermal sources.

  16. STD Prevention. Health Facts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stang, Lucas; Miner, Kathleen R.

    The 10-volume "Health Facts" series is intended to supplement health education curricula and provide a handy reference for individuals who would like additional background information on particular health topics. The emphasis is placed on topics and examples relevant to youth of middle and high school age. The five sections in this book provide…

  17. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  18. 15 CFR 270.204 - Provision of additional resources and services needed by a Team.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Provision of additional resources and services needed by a Team. 270.204 Section 270.204 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NATIONAL CONSTRUCTION SAFETY TEAMS...

  19. Correlating the EMC analysis and testing methods for space systems in MIL-STD-1541A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perez, Reinaldo J.

    1990-01-01

    A study was conducted to improve the correlation between the electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) analysis models stated in MIL-STD-1541A and the suggested testing methods used for space systems. The test and analysis methods outlined in MIL-STD-1541A are described, and a comparative assessment of testing and analysis techniques as they relate to several EMC areas is presented. Suggestions on present analysis and test methods are introduced to harmonize and bring the analysis and testing tools in MIL-STD-1541A into closer agreement. It is suggested that test procedures in MIL-STD-1541A must be improved by providing alternatives to the present use of shielded enclosures as the primary site for such tests. In addition, the alternate use of anechoic chambers and open field test sites must be considered.

  20. Telling Your Partner You Have an STD

    MedlinePlus

    ... STD after a confirmed diagnosis may be a criminal offense in some states. Some STDs can affect ... to make decisions about sex or your relationship right away. It's normal to want acceptance and reassurance ...

  1. Resources

    MedlinePlus

    ... palate - resources Colon cancer - resources Cystic fibrosis - resources Depression - resources Diabetes - resources Digestive disease - resources Drug abuse - resources Eating disorders - resources Elder care - resources Epilepsy - resources Family troubles - ...

  2. How can we improve online HIV and STD prevention for men who have sex with men? Perspectives of hook-up website owners, website users, and HIV/STD

    PubMed Central

    Wohlfeiler, Dan; Hecht, Jennifer; Volk, Jonathan; Raymond, H. Fisher; Kennedy, Tom; McFarland, Willi

    2012-01-01

    Internet-based interventions have potential to reduce HIV and STD transmission among men who meet male sexual partners online. From November 2009 to May 2010 we surveyed dating and hook-up website users (n=3,050), website owners (n=18), and health department HIV/STD directors (n=81) to identify structural and behavioral prevention interventions that could be implemented online and which a majority of website users were willing to use, owners were willing to implement, andHIV/STD directors perceived to beeffective. A majority of each of the three stakeholder groups agreed on the following: 1) automated HIV/STD testing reminders; 2) local STD test site directories; 3) links to sex-positive safe sex videos; 4) access to sexual health experts; 5) profile options to include safer sex preference; 6) chat rooms for specific sexual interests; 7) filtering partners by their profile information; and 8) anonymous e-card partner notification for STD exposure. Findings help build consensus about how to prioritize resources for implementing online HIV and STD prevention interventions and highlight differences between stakeholders to guide future discussion about how to advance prevention efforts. PMID:23180156

  3. How can we improve online HIV and STD prevention for men who have sex with men? Perspectives of hook-up website owners, website users, and HIV/STD directors.

    PubMed

    Wohlfeiler, Dan; Hecht, Jennifer; Volk, Jonathan; Fisher Raymond, H; Kennedy, Tom; McFarland, Willi

    2013-11-01

    Internet-based interventions have potential to reduce HIV and STD transmission among men who meet male sexual partners online. From November 2009 to May 2010 we surveyed dating and hook-up website users (n = 3,050), website owners (n = 18), and health department HIV/STD directors (n = 81) to identify structural and behavioral prevention interventions that could be implemented online and which a majority of website users were willing to use, owners were willing to implement, and HIV/STD directors perceived to be effective. A majority of each of the three stakeholder groups agreed on the following: (1) automated HIV/STD testing reminders, (2) local STD test site directories, (3) links to sex-positive safe sex videos, (4) access to sexual health experts, (5) profile options to include safer sex preference, (6) chat rooms for specific sexual interests, (7) filtering partners by their profile information, and (8) anonymous e-card partner notification for STD exposure. Findings help build consensus about how to prioritize resources for implementing online HIV and STD prevention interventions and highlight differences between stakeholders to guide future discussion about how to advance prevention efforts. PMID:23180156

  4. Resources allocation in healthcare for cancer: a case study using generalised additive mixed models.

    PubMed

    Musio, Monica; Sauleau, Erik A; Augustin, Nicole H

    2012-11-01

    Our aim is to develop a method for helping resources re-allocation in healthcare linked to cancer, in order to replan the allocation of providers. Ageing of the population has a considerable impact on the use of health resources because aged people require more specialised medical care due notably to cancer. We propose a method useful to monitor changes of cancer incidence in space and time taking into account two age categories, according to healthcar general organisation. We use generalised additive mixed models with a Poisson response, according to the methodology presented in Wood, Generalised additive models: an introduction with R. Chapman and Hall/CRC, 2006. Besides one-dimensional smooth functions accounting for non-linear effects of covariates, the space-time interaction can be modelled using scale invariant smoothers. Incidence data collected by a general cancer registry between 1992 and 2007 in a specific area of France is studied. Our best model exhibits a strong increase of the incidence of cancer along time and an obvious spatial pattern for people more than 70 years with a higher incidence in the central band of the region. This is a strong argument for re-allocating resources for old people cancer care in this sub-region. PMID:23242683

  5. The Relationship between STD Locus of Control and STD Acquisition among Adolescent Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenthal, Susan L.; Griffith, Jennifer O.; Succop, Paul A.; Biro, Frank M.; Lewis, Lisa M.; DeVellis, Robert F.; Stanberry, Lawrence R.

    2002-01-01

    Adolescent girls from an urban-based clinic participated in a longitudinal study about psychosexual development and risk of STD acquisition. The girls were asked about their perceptions of loci of control (parents, internal control) as it relates to STD acquisition. Responses to locus of control correlated over time but variations were not found…

  6. Resources

    MedlinePlus

    ... Diabetes - resources Digestive disease - resources Drug abuse - resources Eating disorders - resources Elder care - resources Epilepsy - resources Family troubles - resources Gastrointestinal disorders - resources Hearing impairment - resources ...

  7. Mobile health units and STD control.

    PubMed

    Hall, B

    1991-09-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), especially genital ulcers, facilitate HIV transmission. Prevention and control of STDs could reduce HIV transmission in sub-Saharan Africa where the STD prevalence is still high. The principles of primary health care (PHC) should guide coordinated or integrated AIDS and STD programs in sub-Saharan Africa. WHO recommends implementing the following AIDS prevention and control activities: district-based epidemiological surveillance, education and communication efforts, blood safety, nursing care, counseling, and activities targeting youth, women, and workers at risk. PHC funding is still low in sub-Saharan Africa, even though health professionals have been involved in intensive efforts to mobilize and coordinate national and international financial support for AIDS control programs. Expenditures on infrastructure and training beyond current practical levels are needed to achieve WHO recommendations. The POD from the Shanning Group can address sub-Saharan Africa's problems with using mobile clinic/laboratory facilities. The major problems are cost and difficult terrain. The POD is a modular demountable unit that can be removed from the vehicle for use as a self-supporting facility. The vehicle is then free for other uses. The POD's uses span from a simple examination and STD treatment facility to a sophisticated laboratory conducting basic STD testing as well as HIV and hepatitis ELISA testing. In fact, the POD can serve both roles simultaneously. The Shanning Group also has an audio-visual POD which can present STD educational material to a wide audience. PMID:12346059

  8. Incrementality and additionality: A new dimension to North-South resource transfers

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, A. . School of Environmental Sciences); Werksman, J. . Foundation for International Environmental Law and Development)

    1994-06-01

    In the last four years, incrementality'' and additionality'' have emerged as new terms in the evolving lexicon of international environmental diplomacy. As Parties to the Conventions on Climate Change, Biodiversity and the Ozone Layer, industrialized states undertake to provide sufficient additional resources (the principle of additionality) to meet the incremental cost (the concept of incrementality) of measures undertaken by the developing countries to tackle global environmental problems. Issues of incrementality and additionality go to the heart of a much deeper and highly contentious debate on who should pay the costs of responding to global environmental problems; on how the payment should be made; on which agency or agencies should manage the transfers; and upon which parties should be compensated. Every sign is that if the overall North to South transfer breaks down or is retarded, then the process of implementing the aforementioned agreements may be jeopardized. This paper reviews the emergency of the two terms in international environmental politics; it pinpoints the theoretical and practical difficulties of defining and implementing them; and it assesses whether these difficulties and conflicts of opinion may, in some manner, be resolved.

  9. Prevalence of Hepatitis C Virus Antibody in Patients With Sexually Transmitted Diseases Attending a Harrisburg, PA, STD Clinic

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Sharon; Weber, Daniel I.; LeBar, William D.; Heitjan, Daniel F.; Kopreski, Mary Magdalene C.; Curcio, Frederick D.

    1994-01-01

    Objective: The prevalence of hepatitis B and hepatitis C in a sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic population was studied, along with the prevalence of various STD agents, in an attempt to identify possible STD markers for the hepatitis C virus and help delineate the role of hepatitis C as an STD. The hepatitis C antibody rates found in the STD clinic were also compared with those found among patients attending a local OB/GYN clinic and those enrolled in a blood donor program, all from the same geographical area. Methods: A total of 150 women attending an STD clinc were examined for each of the following agents: Chlamyadia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, syphilis, hepatitis B surface antigen, hepatitis B core antibody, hepatitis B surface antibody, and hepatitis C virus antibody. Additionally, several patients who signed informed consent to be evaluated for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antibody were tested by an enzyme immunoassay (EIA) screen method. The prevalence of each agent was then compared with the other agents. Results: The overall prevalence rates detected were as follows: hepatitis B 16%, hepatitis C 4%, chlamydia 18.7%, gonorrhea 7.4%, syphilis 0.7%, and HIV 0%. Hepatitis C antibody was detected in 4% of patients in the STD clinic, 0.76% of volunteer blood donors from central Pennsylvania, and 0% of patiants studied from the Harrisburg Hospital (Harrisburg, PA) prentatal population. Conclusions: This screening study reveals an association between attending a Harrisburg, PA, area STD clinic and having an increased prevalence of hepatitis C antibody, but larger matched control studies will be needed to help clarify sexual transmission as a mode of transmission for the hepatitis C virus. PMID:18475350

  10. Health education and promotion for STD prevention: lessons for the next millennium.

    PubMed Central

    Darrow, W W

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review the evolution of health promotion for STD prevention. MAIN OBSERVATIONS: Information and education programmes were provided at the beginning of the 20th century to warn the public about the dangers of venereal infection and to support the medical model of case identification and case management under the care of qualified physicians. The public health approach offered advice about chemical, chemotherapeutic, and barrier prophylaxis, but avoided the issue of social prophylaxis. With the failure of antimicrobial agents to eradicate syphilis in the 1960s, rapid increases of viral sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and resistant strains of gonorrhoea in the 1970s, and the discovery of AIDS in the 1980s, alternatives to the traditional public health approach were sought and supported with a modest increase of resources. Three major innovations have been introduced to STD prevention as a result: social marketing, community involvement, and behaviour change programmes based on social and psychological concepts and theoretical models. CONCLUSIONS: Health promotion for STD prevention in the future will be characterised by careful assessments of the social and behavioural determinants of sexual risk taking, development and implementation of targeted interventions designed to reduce risk taking, and evaluation of social and behavioural interventions for improvements in STD prevention. Images PMID:9215087

  11. Researchers report HIV and STD statistics from Vietnam.

    PubMed

    2000-03-20

    Vietnam will experience an extensive rise in the projected HIV and AIDS rates as reported by researchers. Although the country has already seen an extensive HIV spread among injecting drug users, the heterosexual HIV epidemic in Vietnam is still in its early phase. Researchers estimated that by the end of 1997 between 64,000 and 78,000 Vietnamese had contracted HIV and 3000-5000 people had developed AIDS. By the year 2000, the number is estimated to reach a cumulative total of 135,000-160,000 HIV-infected people, with 14,000-21,000 AIDS cases. In addition, there were 119,188 reported cases of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in 1998, of which 3088 were syphilis, 6859 were gonorrhea, and 108,152 were other STDs. Researchers also reported an alarming increase in penicillin-resistant gonococcal strains, reaching up to 80-90%. Meanwhile, gonococcal resistance to quinolon increased from 3% to 7% during 1994-97 according to recent documentations. Based on the findings, researchers pointed out the need to improve STD/HIV/AIDS prevention and control in Vietnam for the years 2000-05 in the areas of surveillance; STD services; information, education, and communication; safe blood supply; and program management. PMID:12295954

  12. An STD/HIV prevention intervention framework.

    PubMed

    Cohen, D A; Scribner, R

    2000-01-01

    Historically, interventions to prevent STD/HIV transmission have been categorized by program methodology rather than defining the content and nature of the intervention. A new taxonomy is needed to help expand the scope of interventions that can be used to prevent STD and HIV transmission. The taxonomy defines two major types of interventions, individual-level and structural level. The former targets risk factors attributable to individuals. Structural interventions target conditions outside the control of the individual. Individual-level interventions focus on counseling, screening, and treatment. They include psychological and biological interventions. Structural-level interventions address accessibility of relevant consumer products (condoms, needles), physical structures (e.g. blighted and abandoned housing, lighting, design of social facilities), social structures (policies that facilitate or constrain behaviors such as supervision of youth, and enforcement of alcohol beverage laws); and media messages (messages and images in the broadcast and print media that portray high-risk behaviors as positive and without serious consequences). A new taxonomy not only clarifies the content of preventive interventions but highlights neglected strategies involving individual biological interventions and structural interventions to prevent STD/HIV transmission. PMID:12240881

  13. Health education needed to improve public STD awareness in Somalia.

    PubMed

    Fox, E; Burans, J P; Omar, M A; Farah, A H; Guled, A; Yusef, S; Woody, J N

    1988-01-01

    To study public sexually transmitted disease (STD) awareness among sexually active individuals in Mogadishu, Somalia the authors interviewed 183 patients who presented at an STD clinic and 29 controls. Only 2 of 3 patients with proven STD knew that diseases can be transmitted through sexual intercourse, and only 1 of 3 non-STD controls had this knowledge. Schools were listed as the source for their STD information by only 15%, and health providers by only 5% of the STD-aware individuals. Moreover, STD awareness did not seem to impact on people's life style, since more STD-aware persons were sexually promiscuous than their unaware counterparts. The authors conclude that STD awareness is very low among the general public in Somalia. Urgent health education campaigns are necessary to slow the spread of STDs. The epidemic of HIV, the latest addendum on the list on modern STDs, could then perhaps be halted, since educating the public on how to avoid exposure to the AIDS virus presently remains the only successful strategy against this killer disease. PMID:2979944

  14. Analysis of the effects of section 29 tax credits on reserve additions and production of gas from unconventional resources

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-01

    Federal tax credits for production of natural gas from unconventional resources can stimulate drilling and reserves additions at a relatively low cost to the Treasury. This report presents the results of an analysis of the effects of a proposed extension of the Section 29 alternative fuels production credit specifically for unconventional gas. ICF Resources estimated the net effect of the extension of the credit (the difference between development activity expected with the extension of the credit and that expected if the credit expires in December 1990 as scheduled). The analysis addressed the effect of tax credits on project economics and capital formation, drilling and reserve additions, production, impact on the US and regional economies, and the net public sector costs and incremental revenues. The analysis was based on explicit modeling of the three dominant unconventional gas resources: Tight sands, coalbed methane, and Devonian shales. It incorporated the most current data on resource size, typical well recoveries and economics, and anticipated activity of the major producers. Each resource was further disaggregated for analysis based on distinct resource characteristics, development practices, regional economics, and historical development patterns.

  15. Education for Homeless Adults: Strategies for Implementation. Volume II - Resources and Additional Lessons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson River Center for Program Development, Glenmont, NY.

    This document, the second in a series of guidebooks that were developed for educators of homeless adults in New York, offers strategies and plans for sample lessons in which a holistic approach is used to help homeless adults and families improve their lives through education. The guidebook begins with lists of print and nonprint resources,…

  16. Ligand screening by saturation-transfer difference (STD) NMR spectroscopy.

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnan, V V

    2005-04-26

    NMR based methods to screen for high-affinity ligands have become an indispensable tool for designing rationalized drugs, as these offer a combination of good experimental design of the screening process and data interpretation methods, which together provide unprecedented information on the complex nature of protein-ligand interactions. These methods rely on measuring direct changes in the spectral parameters, that are often simpler than the complex experimental procedures used to study structure and dynamics of proteins. The goal of this review article is to provide the basic details of NMR based ligand-screening methods, with particular focus on the saturation transfer difference (STD) experiment. In addition, we provide an overview of other NMR experimental methods and a practical guide on how to go about designing and implementing them.

  17. 75 FR 78997 - Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/Health Resources and Services Administration (CDC/HRSA...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-17

    .../Health Resources and Services Administration (CDC/HRSA) Advisory Committee on HIV and STD Prevention and...-463) of October 6, 1972, that the CDC/HRSA Advisory Committee on HIV and STD Prevention and Treatment... Advisory Committee on HIV and STD Prevention and Treatment, Department of Health and Human Services,...

  18. Client Preferences for STD/HIV Prevention Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hennessy, Michael; Mercier, Michele M.; Williams, Samantha P.; Arno, Janet N.

    2002-01-01

    Conducted a formative research study designed to elicit preferences for sexually transmitted disease (STD)/HIV prevention programs from clients at a midwestern STD clinic. Responses of 126 participants show preferences for mixed group or individual meetings with counselors, with extensive intervention less favored than single sessions. Discusses…

  19. Feasibility of a Tailored Intervention Targeting STD-Related Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellis, Jeffery M.; Grimely, Diane M.; Alexander, Leah R.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated whether high risk populations would be receptive to tailored, multimedia interventions to promote adoption of health-protective behaviors related to sexually transmitted disease (STD) prevention and control. Feedback from predominantly African American, urban participants aged 16-50 years, recruited from a STD clinic, indicated that…

  20. Integrating viral hepatitis prevention services into an urban STD clinic: Denver, Colorado.

    PubMed

    Subiadur, Julie; Harris, Jennie L; Rietmeijer, Cornelis A

    2007-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends integrating viral hepatitis prevention services with services for adults evaluated for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). The Denver Public Health STD clinic began hepatitis B vaccination in 1999, hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibody (anti-HCV) testing in 2000, and hepatitis A vaccination in 2002. Rapid human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing began in late 2004. Hepatitis B vaccinations peaked in 2003 (31/100 client visits) when a full-time nurse was hired to vaccinate and eligibility was expanded. The proportion of clients documented to have received their anti-HCV test results declined from an average of 71% in 2000-2003 to 22% in 2004-2005, coinciding with the introduction of rapid HIV testing. Viral hepatitis prevention services can be incorporated into a busy STD clinic if staff and resources are available. Rapid HIV testing may be associated with lower receipt of anti-HCV test results. PMID:17542447

  1. Basis for seismic provisions of DOE-STD-1020

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, R.C.; Short, S.A.

    1994-04-01

    DOE-STD-1020 provides for a graded approach for the seismic design and evaluation of DOE structures, systems, and components (SSC). Each SSC is assigned to a Performance Category (PC) with a performance description and an approximate annual probability of seismic-induced unacceptable performance, P{sub F}. The seismic annual probability performance goals for PC 1 through 4 for which specific seismic design and evaluation criteria are presented. DOE-STD-1020 also provides a seismic design and evaluation procedure applicable to achieve any seismic performance goal annual probability of unacceptable performance specified by the user. The desired seismic performance goal is achieved by defining the seismic hazard in terms of a site-specified design/evaluation response spectrum (called herein, the Design/Evaluation Basis Earthquake, DBE). Probabilistic seismic hazard estimates are used to establish the DBE. The resulting seismic hazard curves define the amplitude of the ground motion as a function of the annual probability of exceedance P{sub H} of the specified seismic hazard. Once the DBE is defined, the SSC is designed or evaluated for this DBE using adequately conservative deterministic acceptance criteria. To be adequately conservative, the acceptance criteria must introduce an additional reduction in the risk of unacceptable performance below the annual risk of exceeding the DBE. The ratio of the seismic hazard exceedance probability P{sub H} to the performance goal probability P{sub F} is defined herein as the risk reduction ratio. The required degree of conservatism in the deterministic acceptance criteria is a function of the specified risk reduction ratio.

  2. Teaching English as an Additional Language 5-11: A Whole School Resource File

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Caroline

    2011-01-01

    There are increasing numbers of children with little or no English entering English speaking mainstream lessons. This often leaves them with unique frustrations due to limited English language proficiency and disorientation. Teachers often feel unable to cater sufficiently for these new arrivals. "Teaching English as an Additional Language Ages…

  3. Four-Channel PC/104 MIL-STD-1553 Circuit Board

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, Gary L.

    2004-01-01

    The mini bus interface card (miniBIC) is the first four-channel electronic circuit board that conforms to MIL-STD-1553 and to the electrical-footprint portion of PC/104. [MIL-STD-1553 is a military standard that encompasses a method of communication and electrical- interface requirements for digital electronic subsystems connected to a data bus. PC/104 is an industry standard for compact, stackable modules that are fully compatible (in architecture, hardware, and software) with personal-computer data- and power-bus circuitry.] Prior to the development of the miniBIC, only one- and two-channel PC/104 MIL-STD-1553 boards were available. To obtain four channels, it was necessary to include at least two boards in a PC/104 stack. In comparison with such a two-board stack, the miniBIC takes up less space, consumes less power, and is more reliable. In addition, the miniBIC includes 32 digital input/output channels. The miniBIC (see figure) contains four MIL-STD-1553B hybrid integrated circuits (ICs), four transformers, a field-programmable gate array (FPGA), and an Industry Standard Architecture (ISA) interface. Each hybrid IC includes a MILSTD-1553 dual transceiver, memory-management circuitry, processor interface logic circuitry, and 64Kx16 bits of shared static random access memory. The memory is used to configure message and data blocks. In addition, 23 16-bit registers are available for (1) configuring the hybrid IC for, and starting it in, various modes of operation; (2) reading the status of the functionality of the hybrid IC; and (3) resetting the hybrid IC to a known state. The miniBIC can operate as a remote terminal, bus controller, or bus monitor. The FPGA provides the chip-select and data-strobe signals needed for operation of the hybrid ICs. The FPGA also receives interruption signals and forwards them to the ISA bus. The ISA interface connects the address, data, and control interfaces of the hybrid ICs to the ISA backplane. Each channel is, in effect, a MIL-STD

  4. STD prevention: why limit ourselves to just an ounce?

    PubMed

    Shafer, C W

    2015-01-01

    When Ben Franklin said, "An ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure" he was not likely referring to sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Preventing an STD is greatly preferred to treating not just that STD but the ever-expanding circle of STDs which may arise from the index case. STD risk is closely linked to sexual behaviors, making effective prevention quite challenging. But there are more arrows in our prevention quiver than simply telling people to use condoms. Because many STDs are asymptomatic, there is a clear role for screening at-risk populations. Identifying those at-risk populations can only happen when we obtain meaningful sexual histories. Individuals diagnosed with STDs must be treated appropriately, but also treating their partners will limit further transmission. Expedited partner therapy is one approach to treating STD contacts. Vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV) is an under-utilized method of STD prevention. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is a recent development for HIV prevention in some high-risk individuals. Another recent strategy is HIV treatment as prevention, in which we reduce the pool of potential HIV transmitters. Each of these prevention tools is simply another building block to place upon the foundation of the ABCs: Abstinence, Being faithful, and Condom use. PMID:25985610

  5. HIV / AIDS and STD health promotion in Tanzanian fishing villages.

    PubMed

    Balyagati, D; Luhamba, D; Nnko, S; Nyonyo, V; Schapink, D

    1995-01-01

    The Tanzania-Netherlands Project to Support AIDS Control (TANESA) conducted rapid appraisals in 14 villages with fishing camps along Lake Victoria to determine needs and resources available for HIV/STD (sexually transmitted disease) prevention. Discussions with village members sparked interest, so TANESA launched a health promotion program. It first set up a pilot project in a village of about 600 persons with an established fishing camp. TANESA trained 6 young women and 8 fishermen during a 4-day workshop as peer educators. The topics included anatomy and biology, STDs, HIV prevention, adult education, counseling, and communication skills. Training techniques used were short lectures, group discussions, role-playing, and exercises from a workbook. The newly trained peer educators helped set up a general education campaign: video shows, exhibition boards, pamphlets, condom distribution, and discussion sessions with peers. Village leaders did not support the idea of official classes, an AIDS information room, or a village health committee. Nevertheless, the peer educators continued their mission. Once a month, the program coordinator visits them and advocates the program to village leaders. TANESA next replicated the program in a larger village (about 6000 population). This time, it first mobilized village leaders to develop the program themselves. The core groups were fishermen, female bar and guesthouse workers, and young unemployed women offering sex for money. Each group chose its own peer educators. Village leaders were responsible for the educational campaign organized by the peer educators. The campaign received a positive response and effected positive attitudes towards condom use. Village leaders organized an AIDS action committee. TANESA now provides technical support, fosters a team spirit among peer educators, and supports monitoring activities. Peer educators express an increase in their self-esteem and self-confidence. PMID:12289840

  6. Improving STD testing behavior among high-risk young adults by offering STD testing at a vocational school

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Chlamydia trachomatis infection (CT) is the most prevalent bacterial STD. Sexually active adolescents and young adults are the main risk group for CT. However, STD testing rates in this group are low since exposed individuals may not feel at risk, owing-at least in part-to the infection's largely asymptomatic nature. Designing new testing environments that are more appealing to young people who are most at risk of acquiring chlamydia can be an important strategy to improve overall testing rates. Here we evaluate the effect of a school-based sexual health program conducted among vocational school students, aiming to obtain better access for counseling and enhance students' STD testing behavior. Methods Adolescents (median age 19 years) attending a large vocational school were provided with sexual health education. Students filled in a questionnaire measuring CT risk and were offered STD testing. Using univariate and multivariate analysis, we assessed differences between men and women in STD-related risk behavior, sexual problems, CT testing behavior and determinants of CT testing behavior. Results Of 345 participants, 70% were female. Of the 287 sexually active students, 75% were at high risk for CT; one third of women reported sexual problems. Of sexually active participants, 61% provided a self-administered specimen for STD testing. Independent determinants for testing included STD related symptoms and no condom use. All CT diagnoses were in the high-CT-risk group. In the high-risk group, STD testing showed an increased uptake, from 27% (previous self-reported test) to 65% (current test). CT prevalence was 5.7%. Conclusions Vocational school students are a target population for versatile sexual health prevention. When provided with CT testing facilities and education, self selection mechanisms seemed to increase CT testing rate dramatically in this high-CT-risk population expressing sexual problems. Considering the relative ease of testing and treating

  7. [Seroprevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection in STD consultants in Morocco].

    PubMed

    Takourt, B; Radouani, F; Benchekroun, A; Sekkat, S; Bouqdir, F; Guinet, R; Ibrahimy, S; Benslimane, A

    1995-03-01

    We have conducted a seroepidemiological survey of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among 400 STD consultants in comparison with 400 blood donors. The study was performed by using the indirect microimmunofluorescence technique with Chlamydia trachomatis, Chlamydia psittaci and Chlamydia pneumoniae as antigens. The overall seroprevalences were 60% and 46% for STD consultants and blood donors respectively. The seroprevalences of Chlamydia trachomatis alone were 12.5% for STD consultants and 7.5% for blood donors. No differences were observed according to age in the two groups and people of 20-29 and 30-39 years old, of both sexes were the most concerned. We conclude that Chlamydia trachomatis infection remains an important problem in Morocco. PMID:8640084

  8. MIL-STD-1750 chip set - Possible designs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynn, H. C.; Moore, R. K.

    The development of a MIL-STD-1750A compliant microprocessor chip set for use in digital avionics systems is presented. Design constraints are identified, and a logical partitioning of the chip set is defined. Signal interfaces are proposed, and potential physical configurations for the chip set are presented. The cost of miniaturization is found to be high, although with user discretion in implementing the instruction set architecture features while providing as much capability as possible, a MIL-STD-1750A compliant microprocessor chip set with wide user acceptance can be produced.

  9. DOE Handbook: Supplementary guidance and design experience for the fusion safety standards DOE-STD-6002-96 and DOE-STD-6003-96

    SciTech Connect

    1999-01-01

    Two standards have been developed that pertain to the safety of fusion facilities. These are DOE- STD-6002-96, Safety of Magnetic Fusion Facilities: Requirements, and DOE-STD-6003-96, Safety of Magnetic Fusion Facilities: Guidance. The first of these standards identifies requirements that subscribers to that standard must meet to achieve safety in fusion facilities. The second standard contains guidance to assist in meeting the requirements identified in the first This handbook provides additional documentation on good operations and design practices as well as lessons learned from the experiences of designers and operators of previous fusion facilities and related systems. It is intended to capture the experience gained in the various fields and pass it on to designers of future fusion facilities as a means of enhancing success and safety. The sections of this document are presented according to the physical location of the major systems of a fusion facility, beginning with the vacuum vessel and proceeding to those systems and components outside the vacuum vessel (the "Ex-vessel Systems"). The last section describes administrative procedures that cannot be localized to specific components. It has been tacitly assumed that the general structure of the fusion facilities addressed is that of a tokamak though the same principles would apply to other magnetic confinement options.

  10. Development and Evaluation of a Multimedia-Enhanced STD/HIV Curriculum for Middle Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldsworthy, Richard; Schwartz, Nancy

    2008-01-01

    STD infection among adolescents is a significant public health concern. Surveys indicate that parents believe STD and HIV/AIDS are appropriate topics for middle school and high school students; however, school-based STD education efforts remain inconsistent, perhaps in part as a result of the lack of standardized, well-distributed curricula.…

  11. NASA Handbook for Models and Simulations: An Implementation Guide for NASA-STD-7009

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steele, Martin J.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this Handbook is to provide technical information, clarification, examples, processes, and techniques to help institute good modeling and simulation practices in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). As a companion guide to NASA-STD- 7009, Standard for Models and Simulations, this Handbook provides a broader scope of information than may be included in a Standard and promotes good practices in the production, use, and consumption of NASA modeling and simulation products. NASA-STD-7009 specifies what a modeling and simulation activity shall or should do (in the requirements) but does not prescribe how the requirements are to be met, which varies with the specific engineering discipline, or who is responsible for complying with the requirements, which depends on the size and type of project. A guidance document, which is not constrained by the requirements of a Standard, is better suited to address these additional aspects and provide necessary clarification. This Handbook stems from the Space Shuttle Columbia Accident Investigation (2003), which called for Agency-wide improvements in the "development, documentation, and operation of models and simulations"' that subsequently elicited additional guidance from the NASA Office of the Chief Engineer to include "a standard method to assess the credibility of the models and simulations."2 General methods applicable across the broad spectrum of model and simulation (M&S) disciplines were sought to help guide the modeling and simulation processes within NASA and to provide for consistent reporting ofM&S activities and analysis results. From this, the standardized process for the M&S activity was developed. The major contents of this Handbook are the implementation details of the general M&S requirements ofNASA-STD-7009, including explanations, examples, and suggestions for improving the credibility assessment of an M&S-based analysis.

  12. The Effect of Fear-Inducing Stimuli upon STD Attitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyes, Kelly B.; Barnard, Anne E.

    This study tested the effect of varying levels of fearful information about sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and self-efficacy of condom use on attitudes toward condom use and STD prevention. College students (N=118) from an introductory psychology class were exposed to audiotaped information about several STDs. Those in the high fear…

  13. Evaluation of the Positive Prevention HIV/STD Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaChausse, Robert G.

    2006-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of Positive Prevention, a theory-based, HIV/STD prevention education curriculum for high school youth. Three hundred fifty-three students participated in a longitudinal experimental design to determine the impact of the curriculum on HIV/AIDS knowledge, self-efficacy to abstain from sex, self-efficacy of…

  14. Interface For MIL-STD-1553B Data Bus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davies, Bryan L.; Osborn, Stephen H.; Sullender, Craig C.

    1993-01-01

    Electronic control-logic subsystem acts as interface between microcontroller and MIL-STD-1553B data bus. Subsystem made of relatively small number of integrated circuits. Advantages include low power, few integrated-circuit chips, and little need for control signals.

  15. The Contraceptive Needs for STD Protection among Women in Jail

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oswalt, Krista; Hale, Galen J.; Cropsey, Karen L.; Villalobos, Gabriella C.; Ivey, Sara E.; Matthews, Catherine A.

    2010-01-01

    We assessed the contraceptive needs of women in jails and their sexually transmitted disease (STD) history and risk to determine effective contraceptive methods for this population. A survey of demographics, sexual health, contraceptive use, and preferred method of contraception was completed by participants recruited at jails in a medium-sized…

  16. Pulling together: interagency coordination and HIV/STD prevention.

    PubMed

    Thomas, James C; Carter, Craig; Torrone, Elizabeth; Levandowski, Brooke A

    2008-01-01

    Using multiple network comparisons, we determined whether sexually transmitted disease (STD) rates or black-white STD rate differences are related to how HIV prevention agencies interact through exchanges of information, clients, or funds. In 10 North Carolinian counties, we conducted a cross-sectional analysis, using each county's network as the unit of interest. Using data from face-to-face interviews, measures of the density (overall connectedness) and degree centralization (amount of centralized information hubs) were calculated with UCINET. Statistical significance of the associations between county characteristics and STD rates was assessed with exact Wilcoxon rank sum test. Syphilis rates were lower (P = .01) in counties with a high network density, on the basis of exchanges of information or clients. The effect on black-white rate differences was in the same direction but weaker. Where network degree centralization was high, syphilis rates were higher and the black-white rate differences were larger. Gonorrhea rates demonstrated similar but attenuated patterns of association with network characteristics. STD prevention is more effective when all agencies interact with each other (density) but less effective when interactions are predominantly with a few central agencies (degree centralization). The measures of network exchanges employed in this study may be appropriate for future assessment of service provision of funded prevention programs. PMID:18091030

  17. Educator's Guide to AIDS and Other STD's.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sroka, Stephen R.

    This guide is a comprehensive resource to teach about acquired immune deficiency syndrome and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) from kindergarten to college. It uses an activity-oriented behavioral approach to teaching prevention strategies within a communicable disease conceptual framework which is easily implemented into all schools.…

  18. Aging as an evolvability-increasing program which can be switched off by organism to mobilize additional resources for survival.

    PubMed

    Skulachev, Maxim V; Severin, Fedor F; Skulachev, Vladimir P

    2015-01-01

    During the last decade, several pieces of convincing evidence were published indicating that aging of living organisms is programmed, being a particular case of programmed death of organism (phenoptosis). Among them, the following observations can be mentioned. (1) Species were described that show negligible aging. In mammals, the naked mole rat is the most impressive example. This is a rodent of mouse size living at least 10-fold longer than a mouse and having fecundity higher than a mouse and no agerelated diseases. (2) In some species with high aging rate, genes responsible for active organization of aging by poisoning of the organism with endogenous metabolites have been identified. (3) In women, standard deviations divided by the mean are the same for age of menarche (an event controlled by the ontogenetic program) and for age of menopause (an aging-related event). (4) Inhibitors of programmed cell death (apoptosis and necrosis) retard and in certain cases even reverse the development of age-dependent pathologies. (5) In aging species, the rate of aging is regulated by the individual which responds by changes in this rate to changes in the environmental conditions. In this review, we consider point (5) in detail. Data are summarized suggesting that inhibition of aging rate by moderate food restriction can be explained assuming that such restriction is perceived by the organism as a signal of future starvation. In response to this dramatic signal, the organism switches off such an optional program as aging, mobilizing in such a way additional reserves for survival. A similar explanation is postulated for geroprotective effects of heavy muscle work, a lowering or a rise in the external temperature, small amounts of metabolic poisons (hormesis), low doses of radiation, and other deleterious events. On the contrary, sometimes certain positive signals can prolong life by inhibiting the aging program in individuals who are useful for the community (e

  19. 77 FR 72868 - The Centers for Disease Control (CDC)/Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-06

    ... Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) Advisory Committee on HIV, Viral Hepatitis and STD Prevention... (Pub. L. 92-463) of October 6, 1972, that the CDC/HRSA Advisory Committee on HIV, Viral Hepatitis and...., Designated Federal Officer, CDC/HRSA Advisory Committee on HIV, Viral Hepatitis and STD Prevention...

  20. Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, John; MacDonald, Ian

    1980-01-01

    Presents a guide to resources on television drama available to teachers for classroom use in television curriculum. Lists American and British television drama videorecordings of both series and individual presentations and offers a bibliography of "one-off" single fiction plays produced for British television. (JMF)

  1. Adoption and Implementation of a Computer-delivered HIV/STD Risk-Reduction Intervention for African American Adolescent Females Seeking Services at County Health Departments: Implementation Optimization is Urgently Needed

    PubMed Central

    DiClemente, Ralph J.; Bradley, Erin; Davis, Teaniese L.; Brown, Jennifer L.; Ukuku, Mary; Sales, Jessica M.; Rose, Eve S.; Wingood, Gina M.

    2013-01-01

    Although group-delivered HIV/STD risk-reduction interventions for African American adolescent females have proven efficacious, they require significant financial and staffing resources to implement and may not be feasible in personnel- and resource-constrained public health clinics. We conducted a study assessing adoption and implementation of an evidence-based HIV/STD risk-reduction intervention that was translated from a group-delivered modality to a computer-delivered modality to facilitate use in county public health departments. Usage of the computer-delivered intervention was low across eight participating public health clinics. Further investigation is needed to optimize implementation by identifying, understanding and surmounting barriers that hamper timely and efficient implementation of technology-delivered HIV/STD risk-reduction interventions in county public health clinics. PMID:23673891

  2. Addition to Transition Assessment Resources: A Template for Determining the Use of Guardianship Alternatives for Students Who Have Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millar, Dorothy Squatrito

    2014-01-01

    The main purpose of this article is to add to the transition assessment resources by introducing the Guardianship Alternative Assessment Template (GAAT) as it relates to guardianship prevention for youth and adults who have an intellectual disability. Guardianship refers to a legal intervention when a court determines that adult individuals are…

  3. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Measurements of Plutonium-bearing Oxide in DOE-STD-3013-2000 Containers Using Calorimetry and Gamma Isotopic Analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Dearborn, D M; Keeton, S C

    2004-06-23

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) routinely uses calorimetry and gamma isotopic analyses (Cal/Iso) for the accountability measurement of plutonium (Pu) bearing items. In the past 15 years, the vast majority of those items measured by Cal/Iso were contained in a thin-walled convenience can enclosed in another thin-walled outer container. However, LLNL has recently begun to use DOE-STD-3013-2000 containers as well. These DOE-STD-3013-2000 containers are comprised of a stainless steel convenience can enclosed in welded stainless steel primary and secondary containers. In addition to the fact that the wall thickness of the DOE-STD-3013-2000 containers is much greater than that of other containers in our experience, the DOE-STD-3013-2000 containers appear to have larger thermal insulation characteristics. To date, we have derived Pu-mass values from Cal/Iso measurements of 74 different DOE-STD-3013-2000 containers filled with Pu-bearing oxide or mixed uranium-plutonium (U-Pu) oxide material. Both water-bath and air-bath calorimeters were used for these measurements and both use software to predict when thermal equilibrium is attained. Our experience has shown that after apparent equilibrium has been attained, at least one more complete cycle, and sometimes two or three more complete cycles, is required to gain a measure of true thermal equilibrium. Otherwise, the derived Pu-mass values are less than would be expected from a combination of previously measured Pu-bearing items and would contribute to increased loss in our inventory difference determinations. Conclusions and recommendations drawn from LLNL experience with measurements of Pu mass in Pu-bearing oxide or mixed U-Pu oxide in DOE-STD-3013-2000 containers using the Cal/Iso technique are included.

  4. Components of Quality HIV/STD Prevention & Human Sexuality Education. Report of the HIV/STD Prevention & Human Sexuality Education Task Force.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Health and Rehabilitative Services, Tallahassee.

    This report sets forth the essential components of quality HIV/STD prevention and human sexuality education as determined by the HIV/STD Prevention and Human Sexuality Education Task Force. The first part of the report presents the purpose of the task force, background on Florida legislation on HIV/AIDS and sexuality education as part of…

  5. NASA STD-4005: The LEO Spacecraft Charging Design Standard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferguson, Dale C.

    2006-01-01

    Power systems with voltages higher than about 55 volts may charge in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) enough to cause destructive arcing. The NASA STD-4005 LEO Spacecraft Charging Design Standard will help spacecraft designers prevent arcing and other deleterious effects on LEO spacecraft. The Appendices, an Information Handbook based on the popular LEO Spacecraft Charging Design Guidelines by Ferguson and Hillard, serve as a useful explanation and accompaniment to the Standard.

  6. MIL-STD-1553B system design in SST application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Ying

    2001-06-01

    In this paper, we will first introduce what is MIL-STD-1553B and why we choose it. Then we will analyze the characteristics and the reliability of this standard. When we use this protocol to implement our SDU system in the SST, we also need to describe the whole system in which the 1553 standard is used. Finally, we will put our most attention on the system design, including hardware interconnection and software program.

  7. Using Smartphone Apps in STD Interviews to Find Sexual Partners

    PubMed Central

    Pennise, Melissa; Herpin, Kate; Owens, John; Bedard, Brenden A.; Weimer, Anita C.; Kennedy, Byron S.; Younge, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Smartphone applications (apps) are increasingly used to facilitate casual sexual relationships, increasing the risk of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). In STD investigations, traditional contact elicitation methods can be enhanced with smartphone technology during field interviews. Methods In 2013, the Monroe County Department of Public Health conducted a large, multi-infection STD investigation among men who have sex with men (MSM) using both index case and cluster interviews. When patients indicated meeting sexual partners online, disease intervention specialists (DISs) had access to smartphone apps and were able to elicit partners through access to inboxes and profiles where traditional contact information was lacking. Social network mapping was used to display the extent of the investigation and the impact of access to smartphones on the investigation. Results A total of 14 index patient interviews and two cluster interviews were conducted; 97 individuals were identified among 117 sexual dyads. On average, eight partners were elicited per interview (range: 1–31). The seven individuals who used apps to find partners had an average of three Internet partners (range: 1–5). Thirty-six individuals either had a new STD (n=7) or were previously known to be HIV-positive (n=29). Of the 117 sexual dyads, 21 (18%) originated either online (n=8) or with a smartphone app (n=13). Of those originating online or with a smartphone app, six (29%) partners were located using the smartphone and two (10%) were notified of their exposure via a website. Three of the new STD/HIV cases were among partners who met online. Conclusion Smartphone technology used by DISs in the field improved contact elicitation and resulted in successful partner notification and case finding. PMID:25931628

  8. Traditional women's associations as channels for HIV / AIDS / STD prevention.

    PubMed

    Niang, C I

    1995-01-01

    Women of the Laobe ethnic group and the Dimba, a traditional women's association, provide advice about sexuality and reproductive health in southern Senegal. Research was initiated in October 1992 by the Cheikh Anta Diop University to determine whether these women could also help in HIV/AIDS and STD prevention activities. The study investigated men's and women's knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and practices (KABP) related to sexuality and HIV/AIDS/STDs in the community of Kolda; practices potentially increasing women's risk of HIV/STD infection; and possibilities for integrating HIV/STD prevention messages into the interactions which take place between the Laobe and Dimba groups and the Kolda community. The KABP study was a questionnaire administered to 250 men and 250 women of reproductive age representing five ethnic groups residing in Kolda. 11 men and 14 women older than age 40 participated in in-depth sexual life history interviews. The survey and interviews indicate that people in Kolda do not generally see a link between sexual relations and STD transmission. Instead, STDs are attributed to behaviors such as urinating, walking barefoot on the urine of an already-infected person, encountering a "bad wind", and being cursed. Women may be at increased risk of HIV infection through practices designed to enhance sexual pleasure, including the insertion of organic and mineral product into the vagina, and the cutting of bumps and warts in and around the vagina. Sexual practices, knowledge, prevention through the Laobe and Dimba, and outcome and follow-up are discussed. PMID:12346870

  9. Net Weight Issue LLNL DOE-STD-3013 Containers

    SciTech Connect

    Wilk, P

    2008-01-16

    The following position paper will describe DOE-STD-3013 container sets No.L000072 and No.L000076, and how they are compliant with DOE-STD-3013-2004. All masses of accountable nuclear materials are measured on LLNL certified balances maintained under an MC&A Program approved by DOE/NNSA LSO. All accountability balances are recalibrated annually and checked to be within calibration on each day that the balance is used for accountability purposes. A statistical analysis of the historical calibration checks from the last seven years indicates that the full-range Limit of Error (LoE, 95% confidence level) for the balance used to measure the mass of the contents of the above indicated 3013 containers is 0.185 g. If this error envelope, at the 95% confidence level, were to be used to generate an upper-limit to the measured weight of the containers No.L000072 and No.L000076, the error-envelope would extend beyond the 5.0 kg 3013-standard limit on the package contents by less than 0.3 g. However, this is still well within the intended safety bounds of DOE-STD-3013-2004.

  10. Network Extender for MIL-STD-1553 Bus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marcus, Julius; Hanson, T. David

    2003-01-01

    An extender system for MIL-STD-1553 buses transparently couples bus components at multiple developer sites. The bus network extender is a relatively inexpensive system that minimizes the time and cost of integration of avionic systems by providing a convenient mechanism for early testing without the need to transport the usual test equipment and personnel to an integration facility. This bus network extender can thus alleviate overloading of the test facility while enabling the detection of interface problems that can occur during the integration of avionic systems. With this bus extender in place, developers can correct and adjust their own hardware and software before products leave a development site. Currently resident at Johnson Space Center, the bus network extender is used to test the functionality of equipment that, although remotely located, is connected through a MILSTD- 1553 bus. Inasmuch as the standard bus protocol for avionic equipment is that of MIL-STD-1553, companies that supply MIL-STD-1553-compliant equipment to government or industry and that need long-distance communication support might benefit from this network bus extender

  11. Randomised trials of STD treatment for HIV prevention: report of an international workshop. HIV/STD Trials Workshop Group.

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, R; Wawer, M; Gray, R; Whitworth, J; Grosskurth, H; Mabey, D

    1997-01-01

    Three community trials of the impact of STD treatment interventions on HIV incidence in rural populations have been completed or are in progress in Uganda and Tanzania. Investigators from these trials met for a joint technical workshop in Baltimore in May 1996. This report summarises the consensus of the workshop, with the aim of providing useful input to research on HIV intervention strategies. Issues discussed include: (i) the role of community randomised trials; (ii) strategies for STD management; (iii) epidemiological and statistical issues in the design and analysis of community randomised trials; (iv) diagnostic methods for STDs in population surveys; (v) treatment regimens for STDs in rural Africa; and (vi) ethical issues in community trials. PMID:9582456

  12. VLSI MIL-STD-1750A processor development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaertner, M.; Winter, T.; Brauchmann, W.

    An American company is developing a VLSI program to design, fabricate, characterize, and deliver a family of General Purpose Computers optimized to execute MIL-STD-1750A Notice 1. The CPU architecture is fashioned in an extensible functional module configuration with a performance range from 0.9 MIPS to 1.5 MIPS (DAIS-type Mix). The three configurations which have emerged include baseline CPU, baseline CPU plus floating point accelerator, and 32-bit data path CPU (ISA Invisible). It is pointed out that these machines will employ multisource VLSI low power CMOS technology and will be fully qualified to meet military environmental specifications.

  13. Pilot Testing and Evaluation of the CDC-Sponsored STD Curriculum. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yarber, William L.; And Others

    This project sought to determine the efficacy of the recently published Centers for Disease Control (CDC) sponsored sexually transmitted diseases (STD) curriculum, "STD: A Guide for Today's Young Adults." Six school districts (rural, suburban and urban) with a participating population of 1,114 students, cooperated with the study. One group of…

  14. The STD Site Operator. Satellite Technology Demonstration, Technical Report No. 0419.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braunstein, Jean

    Intimately involved in any equipment system is the human factor. The people operating the equipment at the remote installations for the Satellite Technology Demonstration (STD) were different from paid employees or from private consumers. The STD site operators were paid only token fees; thus, they are best describd as having been motivated by the…

  15. RosE represses Std fimbrial expression in Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium

    PubMed Central

    Chessa, Daniela; Winter, Maria G; Nuccio, Sean-Paul; Tükel, Çagla; Bäumler, Andreas J

    2008-01-01

    The Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium (S. typhimurium) genome contains a large repertoire of putative fimbrial operons that remain poorly characterized because they are not expressed in vitro. In this study, insertions that induced expression of the putative stdABCD fimbrial operon were identified from a random bank of transposon mutants by screening with immuno-magnetic particles for ligand expression (SIMPLE). Transposon insertions upstream of csgC and lrhA or within dam, setB and STM4463 (renamed rosE) resulted in expression of StdA and its assembly into fimbrial filaments on the cell surface. RosE is a novel negative regulator of Std fimbrial expression as indicated by its repression of a std::lacZ reporter construct and by binding of the purified protein to a DNA region upstream of the stdA start codon. Expression of Std fimbriae in the rosE mutant resulted in increased attachment of S. typhimurium to human colonic epithelial cell lines (T-84 and CaCo-2). A rosE mutant exhibited a reduced ability to compete with virulent S. typhimurium for colonization of murine organs, while no defect was observed when both competing strains carried a stdAB deletion. These data suggest that a tight control of Std fimbrial expression mediated by RosE is required during host pathogen interaction. PMID:18331470

  16. NASA-STD 3001 and the Human Integration Design Handbook (HIDH): Evolution of NASA-STD-3000

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pickett, Lynn; Connolly, Janis; Arch, M.; Tillman, Barry; Russo, Dane

    2007-01-01

    The Habitability & Environmental Factors and Space Medicine Divisions have developed the Space Flight Human System Standard (SFHSS) (NASA-STD-3001) to replace NASA-STD-3000 as a new NASA standard for all human spaceflight programs. The SFHSS is composed of 2 volumes. Volume 1, Crew Health, contains medical levels of care, permissible exposure limits, and fitness for duty criteria, and permissible outcome limits as a means of defining successful operating criteria for the human system. Volume 2, Habitability and Environmental Health, contains environmental, habitability and human factors standards. Development of the Human Integration Design Handbook (HIDH), a companion to the standard, is currently under construction and entails the update and revision of NASA-STD-3000 data. This new handbook will, in the fashion of NASA STD-3000, assist engineers and designers in appropriately applying habitability, environmental and human factors principles to spacecraft design. Organized in a chapter-module-element structure, the HIDH will provide the guidance for the development of requirements, design considerations, lessons learned, example solutions, background research, and assist in the identification of gaps and research needs in the disciplines. Subject matter experts have been and continue to be solicited to participate in the update of the chapters. The purpose is to build the HIDH with the best and latest data, and provide a broad representation from experts in industry, academia, the military and the space program. The handbook and the two standards volumes work together in a unique way to achieve the required level of human-system interface. All new NASA programs will be required to meet Volumes 1 and 2. Volume 2 presents human interface goals in broad, non-verifiable standards. Volume 2 also requires that each new development program prepare a set of program-specific human factors requirements. These program-specific human and environmental factors requirements

  17. A modular approach to MIL-STD-1553 simulation support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCartney, R. I.; Phillips, R. E.

    With the adoption of the MIL-STD-1553 multiplex data bus as a communication protocol in avionics systems, evolves the need for dedicated, flexible laboratory facilities as test and development support centers. This flexibility has been difficult to achieve in the past because of the large amount of special purpose hardware involved in the emulation of a MIL-STD-1553 system. This paper describes and discusses a state-of-the-art approach to developing a real-time computer simulation of any established and/or future 1553 system, using as the core element the Multiplex Bus Terminal (MBT). Such a system can be configured to the desired level of complexity due to the software programmability of the MBT hardware. Utilizing a comprehensive package of high level language callable drivers and handlers, or by assembly level real-time programming support, the user can program the MBT for use as a stand alone, hot bench test station, or as the key element in a full scale, computer modeled, 1553 avionic system.

  18. Food Resources of Stream Macronivertebrates Determined by Natural-Abundance stable C and N Isotopes and a 15N Tracer Addition

    SciTech Connect

    Mulholland, P. J.

    2000-01-01

    Trophic relationships were examined using natural-abundance {sup 13}C and {sup 15}N analyses and a {sup 15}N-tracer addition experiment in Walker Branch, a 1st-order forested stream in eastern Tennessee. In the {sup 15}N-tracer addition experiment, we added {sup 15}NH{sub 4} to stream water over a 6-wk period in early spring, and measured {sup 15}N:{sup 14}N ratios in different taxa and biomass compartments over distance and time. Samples collected from a station upstream from the {sup 15}N addition provided data on natural-abundance {sup 13}C:{sup 12}C and {sup 15}N:{sup 14}N ratios. The natural-abundance {sup 15}N analysis proved to be of limited value in identifying food resources of macroinvertebrates because {sup 15}N values were not greatly different among food resources. In general, the natural-abundance stable isotope approach was most useful for determining whether epilithon or detritus were important food resources for organisms that may use both (e.g., the snail Elimia clavaeformis), and to provide corroborative evidence of food resources of taxa for which the {sup 15}N tracer results were not definitive. The {sup 15}N tracer results showed that the mayflies Stenonema spp. and Baetis spp. assimilated primarily epilithon, although Baetis appeared to assimilate a portion of the epilithon (e.g., algal cells) with more rapid N turnover than the bulk pool sampled. Although Elimia did not reach isotopic equilibrium during the tracer experiment, application of a N-turnover model to the field data suggested that it assimilated a combination of epilithon and detritus. The amphipod Gammarus minus appeared to depend mostly on fine benthic organic matter (FBOM), and the coleopteran Anchytarsus bicolor on epixylon. The caddisfly Diplectrona modesta appeared to assimilate primarily a fast N-turnover portion of the FBOM pool, and Simuliidae a fast N-turnover component of the suspended particulate organic matter pool rather than the bulk pool sampled. Together, the

  19. Mineral resources of the Sheep Mountain Wilderness study area and the Cucamonga Wilderness and additions, Los Angeles and San Bernardino counties, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Evans, James G.; Pankraatz, Leroy; Ridenour, James; Schmauch, Steven W.; Zilka, Nicholas T.

    1977-01-01

    A mineral survey of the Sheep Mountain Wilderness study area and Cucamonga Wilderness area and additions by the U.S. Geological Survey and Bureau of Mines in 1975 covered about 66,500 acres (26,500 ha) of the San Bernardino and Angeles National Forests in southern California. The two study areas are separated by San Antonio Canyon. The mineral resource potential was evaluated through geological, geochemical, and geophysical studies by the Geological Survey and through evaluation of mines and prospects by the Bureau of Mines.

  20. How to Develop and Interpret a Credibility Assessment of Numerical Models for Human Research: NASA-STD-7009 Demystified

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Emily S.; Mulugeta, Lealem; Walton, Marlei; Myers, Jerry G.

    2014-01-01

    In the wake of the Columbia accident, the NASA-STD-7009 [1] credibility assessment was developed as a unifying platform to describe model credibility and the uncertainties in its modeling predictions. This standard is now being adapted by NASAs Human Research Program to cover a wide range of numerical models for human research. When used properly, the standard can improve the process of code development by encouraging the use of best practices. It can also give management more insight in making informed decisions through a better understanding of the models capabilities and limitations.To a newcomer, the abstractions presented in NASA-STD-7009 and the sheer volume of information that must be absorbed can be overwhelming. This talk is aimed at describing the credibility assessment, which is the heart of the standard, in plain terms. It will outline how to develop a credibility assessment under the standard. It will also show how to quickly interpret the graphs and tables that result from the assessment and how to drill down from the top-level view to the foundation of the assessment. Finally, it will highlight some of the resources that are available for further study.

  1. A Qualitative Study of Rural Black Adolescents’ Perspectives on Primary STD Prevention Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Akers, Aletha Y.; Gold, Melanie A.; Coyne-Beasley, Tamera; Corbie-Smith, Giselle

    2014-01-01

    CONTEXT Primary STD prevention relies on five key strategies: practicing abstinence, choosing low-risk partners, discussing partners’ sexual history, using condoms consistently and not having multiple partners. Few studies have examined all of these strategies simultaneously, and few have focused on rural black adolescents, whose rates of early sexual initiation and STDs are among the highest in the nation. METHODS In 2006, a sample of 37 black adolescents (20 female, 17 male) from two rural North Carolina counties participated in focus groups that explored their understanding of how primary prevention strategies reduce STD transmission, the common barriers they encounter in trying to adopt these strategies and the risk reduction strategies that they employ. Transcripts were analyzed using a grounded theory approach. RESULTS Adolescents understood how primary prevention strategies reduce STD transmission. However, they perceived sex as normal and abstinence as unlikely during adolescence. Furthermore, they considered the remaining primary prevention strategies difficult to implement because these strategies depend on partner cooperation and incorrectly assume that STD prevention is paramount when adolescents make sexual decisions. Adolescents reported using alternative strategies to reduce their STD risk; the most commonly used approaches were indirect assessments of partner characteristics (e.g., evaluating their physical appearance and sexual history) and STD testing (to identify and treat infections). CONCLUSION Adolescents try to reduce their STD risk, but do so by using ineffective practices. Promoting primary prevention strategies requires helping adolescents to identify opportunities to successfully employ these strategies. PMID:22681424

  2. High occurrence of HBV among STD clinic attenders in Bombay, India.

    PubMed

    Kura, M M; Hira, S; Kohli, M; Dalal, P J; Ramnani, V K; Jagtap, M R

    1998-04-01

    The pattern of sexually transmitted disease (STD) is the basis for designing surveillance of specific STD, their trends and syndromic management protocols. Two hundred and fifteen consecutive first-time STD clinic attenders at a teaching hospital in Bombay were recruited for the study in October 1995. Thorough clinical examination and the following investigations were done: wet mount, Gram stain, Giemsa stain, modified Thayer-Martin (MTM) medium culture, Fontana stain, Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL), Treponema pallidium haemagglutination test (TPHA), HBsAg and HIV. Ulcerative STD constituted 73.5% of total STD while 15.8% were discharges and 10.2% were genital growths. Ulcers in decreasing order of frequency were chancroid (51.9%), genital herpes (29.1%) and syphilis (14.5). 76.5% of genital discharges were due to gonococcal infection. The high rate of ulcerative STD is possibly an important co-factor for the high HIV prevalence of 31.2% in Bombay. Of 182 patients tested for HBV, 16 (8.8%) were reactive for HBsAg, revealing a high prevalence among STD attenders. A high co-relation of HBsAg positive with either HIV or VDRL requires urgent attention for HBV intervention strategies in this population. PMID:9598752

  3. Reducing offensiveness of STD prevention advertisements in China.

    PubMed

    Waller, David S; Fam, Kim-Shyan

    2011-01-01

    The issue of sexually transmitted diseases is a socially sensitive one in Asian communities, with governments being criticized for not doing enough to reduce AIDS transmission, and the advertising of such issues potentially causing offense to people. This article surveys 630 people in China to determine their level of offense toward the advertising of condoms and STD prevention and analyzes the qualitative responses to how they would reduce the offensiveness of such advertising. The results found that generally women are more offended by the advertising of these products than men, and in terms of creative execution, women prefer implicit, prevention or effects messages, whereas men suggested a scientific message, or a focus on the creative strategy or media/location of the advertisement. It is recommended that traditional Chinese Confucian values are important for public policy makers to keep in mind when wanting to advertise socially sensitive issues in China and wider Asia. PMID:21932981

  4. Behavior changes in SIS STD models with selective mixing

    SciTech Connect

    Hyman, J.M.; Li, J.

    1997-08-01

    The authors propose and analyze a heterogeneous, multigroup, susceptible-infective-susceptible (SIS) sexually transmitted disease (STD) model where the desirability and acceptability in partnership formations are functions of the infected individuals. They derive explicit formulas for the epidemic thresholds, prove the existence and uniqueness of the equilibrium states for the two-group model and provide a complete analysis of their local and global stability. The authors then investigate the effects of behavior changes on the transmission dynamics and analyze the sensitivity of the epidemic to the magnitude of the behavior changes. They verify that if people modify their behavior to reduce the probability of infection with individuals in highly infected groups, through either reduced contacts, reduced partner formations, or using safe sex, the infection level may be decreased. However, if people continue to have intragroup and intergroup partnerships, then changing the desirability and acceptability formation cannot eradicate the epidemic once it exceeds the epidemic threshold.

  5. Anal Intercourse among Young Heterosexuals in Three US STD Clinics

    PubMed Central

    Gorbach, Pamina M.; Manhart, Lisa E.; Hess, Kristen L.; Stoner, Bradley P.; Martin, David H.; Holmes, King K.

    2016-01-01

    Background To examine factors associated with heterosexual anal intercourse (AI). Methods Between 2001 and 2004, 890 heterosexual adults aged 18-26 attending public STD clinics in Seattle, New Orleans and St Louis were interviewed using CASI and tested for sexually transmitted infections (STI) Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Mycoplasma genitalium, Trichomonas vaginalis, and genital herpes (HSV-2). Characteristics associated with AI were identified using logistic regression. Results Overall 289 (32%) reported ever having had AI, 201 (26.5%) reported AI with at least one of their last three partners and 17% reported AI with their last partner. Fewer females than males reported condom use at last AI (24% vs. 47%, p<0.001). Ever having AI was associated with sex on the same day as meeting a partner (AOR 3.5 [95% CI 1.94-6.15]), receiving money for sex (AOR 3.3 [1.40-7.75]), and >3 lifetime sex partners (AOR 2.2 [1.17-4.26]) among women, and sex on the same day as meeting a partner (AOR 2.0 [1.28-3.14]) and paying for sex (AOR 1.8 [1.00-3.15]) among men. AI with the last partner was associated with sex toy use (AOR 5.3 [2.35-12.0]) and having concurrent partners (AOR 2.3 [1.18-4.26]) among men, and with sex within a week of meeting (AOR 2.7 [1.21-5.83]), believing the partner was concurrent (AOR 2.6 [1.38-4.83]), and partnership duration >3 months (AOR 3.2 [1.03-10.1]) among women. Prevalent STI was not associated with AI. Conclusions Many young heterosexuals attending STD clinics reported AI, which was associated with other sexual risk behaviors, suggesting a confluence of risks for HIV infection. PMID:19265740

  6. Modeling the effectiveness of isolation strategies in preventing STD epidemics

    SciTech Connect

    Hyman, J.M.; Li, J.

    1998-06-01

    The authors formulate and analyze a two-group, selective-mixing, susceptible-infective-susceptible (SIS), sexually transmitted disease (STD) model where the infection-dependent desirability and acceptability in partnership formations are zero at high infection levels. They analyze two strategies to limit the spread of the epidemic by avoiding forming partnerships with people in a highly infected group. In one approach, the people in the highly infected group protect themselves by forming partnerships with only people outside their own group. They show that the transmission dynamics for this approach are similar to the situation where people continue to have both intragroup and intergroup partnerships. In the second approach, when one group becomes highly infected, the people in the other group adopt an isolation strategy and stop forming any partnerships with people in this highly infected group. They show that the second approach can limit the epidemic to the highly infected group. The other group will be infection-free, but as long as the epidemic in the total population exceeds the epidemic threshold, the epidemic will continue to persist. If the group reproductive number of the infection-free group is greater than one, and the infection should ever invade the infection-free group, then it will lead to an epidemic similar to the one that would have occurred if they had not isolated themselves from the other group. In this simple two-group model, although these isolation strategies may reduce the extent of an STD epidemic, they are ineffective in preventing an epidemic.

  7. 77 FR 23733 - CDC/HRSA Advisory Committee on HIV and STD Prevention and Treatment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-20

    ...) Enhancing Hepatitis Prevention Treatment and Care in the United States; (2) Integrating HIV Prevention and..., CDC, National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, 1600 Clifton Road,...

  8. HIV/STD Stigmatization Fears as Health Seeking Barriers in China

    PubMed Central

    Lieber, Eli; Li, Li; Wu, Zunyou; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Guan, Jihui

    2005-01-01

    Internationally, stigma prohibits effective HIV/STD identification, prevention, and care. Interviews with 106 persons in an urban center in Eastern China, some know to have engaged in stigmatized risk acts (sex workers, STD clinic patients) and some vulnerable for stigmatization fears to influence health seeking behaviors (market employees, rural-to-urban migrants). Interviews focused on community norms, values, beliefs, and emotional and behavioral reactions to HIV/STD stigmatization related events. Attributions for infection were found to: mark individual's failure to adhere to sexuality norms; define a condition warranting the avoidance of infected persons and dismissal by medical professionals; and promote anticipation of negative emotions (i.e., shame, fear, and embarrassment) and devalued social roles and status. Strategies reported to avoid stigmatization include: avoiding HIV/STD knowledge; avoiding health care professionals, particularly in public settings; and conforming to community norms of shunning those suspected of risky behaviors. Results have direct implications for community marketing campaigns in China. PMID:16374668

  9. Small Explorer Data System MIL-STD-1773 fiber optic bus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flanegan, Mark; Label, Ken

    1992-01-01

    The MIL-STD-1773 Fiber Optic Data Bus as implemented in the GSFC Small Explorer Data System (SEDS) for the Small Explorer Program is described. It provides an overview of the SEDS MIL-STD-1773 bus components system design considerations, reliability figures, acceptance and qualification testing requirements, radiation requirements and tests, error handling considerations, and component heritage. The first mission using the bus will be launched in June of 1992.

  10. The Ruggedized STD Bus Microcomputer - A low cost computer suitable for Space Shuttle experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Budney, T. J.; Stone, R. W.

    1982-01-01

    Previous space flight computers have been costly in terms of both hardware and software. The Ruggedized STD Bus Microcomputer is based on the commercial Mostek/Pro-Log STD Bus. Ruggedized PC cards can be based on commercial cards from more than 60 manufacturers, reducing hardware cost and design time. Software costs are minimized by using standard 8-bit microprocessors and by debugging code using commercial versions of the ruggedized flight boards while the flight hardware is being fabricated.

  11. STD syndrome packets: improving syndromic management of sexually transmitted diseases in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, D; Harrison, A; Lurie, M; Abdool Karim, S S

    1999-03-01

    As part of an intervention to improve the syndromic management of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), the acceptability of STD syndrome packets was tested in Hlabisa, South Africa. The packets contained drugs recommended for each syndrome, four condoms, a partner treatment card, and a patient information sheet. 4085 such packets were distributed, at a cost of US$0.02 each, to six public sector clinics during the 1-year study period. These clinics treated a total of 3535 STD patients in that time period. Interviews conducted with 16 clinic nurses 1 year after project implementation indicated that they thought the packets made treatment easier and saved staff time. 10 nurses indicated they used the packets all the time; the remaining 6 used them most of the time, with gaps attributed to supply shortages. Also interviewed were 64 STD patients who received the packets. 84% indicated they would be willing to buy the packet from a pharmacy and 63% would buy it from a general store. 67% of STD patients were prepared to spend up to US$5 on the packet. These findings suggest that STD packets have an important role to play in increasing access to STD treatment in developing countries. Use could be increased even further by social marketing of the packets. PMID:10100772

  12. Estimating the Size and Cost of the STD Prevention Services Safety Net.

    PubMed

    Gift, Thomas L; Haderxhanaj, Laura T; Torrone, Elizabeth A; Behl, Ajay S; Romaguera, Raul A; Leichliter, Jami S

    2015-01-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act is expected to reduce the number of uninsured people in the United States during the next eight years, but more than 10% are expected to remain uninsured. Uninsured people are one of the main populations using publicly funded safety net sexually transmitted disease (STD) prevention services. Estimating the proportion of the uninsured population expected to need STD services could help identify the potential demand for safety net STD services and improve program planning. In 2013, an estimated 8.27 million people met the criteria for being in need of STD services. In 2023, 4.70 million uninsured people are expected to meet the criteria for being in need of STD services. As an example, the cost in 2014 U.S. dollars of providing chlamydia screening to these people was an estimated $271.1 million in 2013 and is estimated to be $153.8 million in 2023. A substantial need will continue to exist for safety net STD prevention services in coming years. PMID:26556931

  13. STD knowledge and behaviours among clients of female sex workers in Bali, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Fajans, P; Wirawan, D N; Ford, K

    1994-01-01

    This study investigated knowledge, beliefs, and practices related to STDs and AIDS among clients of low price sex workers in Bali, Indonesia. These men are at high risk of STD and HIV transmission. They have poor knowledge of the basic concepts of STD and HIV transmission and prevention, and they practice a variety of ineffective prevention strategies including partner selection and the prophylactic use of antibiotics. They report a mean of 1.9 paid sexual partners in the previous week and very low frequencies of condom use. Over 25% had experienced an STD symptom in the previous 6 months, with self treatment with antibiotics reported by a third. Recent experience of an STD was related to the number of sex worker partners in the previous month and to ever having used a condom with a sex worker. The implications of the study findings for the development of comprehensive STD control programs including educational campaigns, condom promotion, and the strengthening of STD case management by health care providers are discussed. PMID:7833364

  14. NASA-STD-3001, Space Flight Human-System Standard and the Human Integration Design Handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitmore, Mihriban; Boyer, Jennifer; Holubec, Keith

    2012-01-01

    NASA-STD-3001 Space Flight Human-System Standard Volume 1, Crew Health, Volume 2, Human Factors, Habitability and Environmental Health, and the Human Integration Design Handbook (HIDH) have replaced the Man-Systems Integration Standards (MSIS), NASA-STD-3000. For decades, NASA-STD-3000 was a significant contribution to human spaceflight programs and to human-systems integration. However, with research program and project results being realized, advances in technology, and the availability of new information in a variety of topic areas, the time had arrived to update this extensive suite of standards and design information. NASA-STD-3001, Volume 2 contains the Agency level standards from the human and environmental factors disciplines that ensure human spaceflight operations are performed safely, efficiently, and effectively. The HIDH is organized in the same sequence and serves as the companion document to NASA-STD-3001, Volume 2, providing a compendium of human spaceflight history and knowledge. The HIDH is intended to aid interpretation of NASA-STD-3001, Volume 2 standards and to provide guidance for requirement writers and vehicle and habitat designers. Keywords Human Factors, Standards, Environmental Factors, NASA

  15. Barriers to asymptomatic screening and other STD services for adolescents and young adults: focus group discussions

    PubMed Central

    Tilson, Elizabeth C; Sanchez, Victoria; Ford, Chandra L; Smurzynski, Marlene; Leone, Peter A; Fox, Kimberley K; Irwin, Kathleen; Miller, William C

    2004-01-01

    Background Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are a major public health problem among young people and can lead to the spread of HIV. Previous studies have primarily addressed barriers to STD care for symptomatic patients. The purpose of our study was to identify perceptions about existing barriers to and ideal services for STDs, especially asymptomatic screening, among young people in a southeastern community. Methods Eight focus group discussions including 53 White, African American, and Latino youth (age 14–24) were conducted. Results Perceived barriers to care included lack of knowledge of STDs and available services, cost, shame associated with seeking services, long clinic waiting times, discrimination, and urethral specimen collection methods. Perceived features of ideal STD services included locations close to familiar places, extended hours, and urine-based screening. Television was perceived as the most effective route of disseminating STD information. Conclusions Further research is warranted to evaluate improving convenience, efficiency, and privacy of existing services; adding urine-based screening and new services closer to neighborhoods; and using mass media to disseminate STD information as strategies to increase STD screening. PMID:15189565

  16. Extending MIL-STD-1553 bandwidth: a study of impairments, EMI, and channel capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hegarty, Michael G.

    2004-09-01

    This paper explores the possibility of increasing the data rates on existing MIL-STD-1553 networks beyond its current one megabit per second rate. A combination of empirical and theoretical methods is used in predicting the capacity of a MIL-STD-1553 network. The analysis begins with an assessment of the usable bandwidth in a 1553 network followed by the development of models to predict signal-to-noise ratios based on a transmit signal level that meets the emissions limits of MIL-STD-461 and a noise level that is representative of a real 1553 system. This paper presents the theoretical capacity limits for several 1553 network configurations. The results of the analysis predict that the theoretical capacity within a legacy MIL-STD-1553 system is expected to be several hundred megabits per second. The achievable rate depends on network configuration and usable bandwidth. Methods of approaching these theoretical capacity limits is not discussed in this paper, rather, this paper provides a framework and a baseline for the analysis of higher data rates over legacy MIL-STD-1553 networks.

  17. Using the theory of reasoned action (TRA) to understand the decision to use condoms in an STD clinic population.

    PubMed

    Baker, S A; Morrison, D M; Carter, W B; Verdon, M S

    1996-11-01

    The theory of reasoned action (TRA) provides useful information when designing health education interventions. In this study, 703 heterosexual STD clinic clients responded to a TRA-based survey. With steady partners, social norms and attitudes toward condom use were significant predictors of intention for both men and women. The interaction of attitude and norm increased prediction for men (R = .64, p < 0.001) and women (R = .70, p < 0.001). With casual partners, attitude was a predictor for men and social norm was a predictor for women. Prior use of condoms increased prediction for men (R = .38, p < 0.001) and women (R = .47, p < 0.001). Findings suggest that, in addition to traditional TRA model variables, the relationship between sexual partners and the individual's prior experience with condom use should be incorporated into attempts to understand this complex, dyadic behavior. Examining specific outcome and normative beliefs also provides important information for intervention design. PMID:8910029

  18. Clinic-based intervention projects: STD and family planning programs get involved. Intervention model.

    PubMed

    Finger, W R

    1991-06-01

    The sexually transmitted disease (STD) program in Udorn, a popular Thai tourist city, has worked closely with 750 prostitutes for 15 years, incorporating the concerns of brothel managers and prostitutes into service delivery. The program in Udorn is part of a nationwide network of STD clinics. The level of person-to-person interaction was increased once it was determined by 1989 that HIV had infected 6% of prostitutes in the city's brothels. Outreach educators were recruited and trained to ensure that all prostitutes in Udorn had the basic facts about HIV and AIDS. Over the last 2 years, the STD program has trained outreach educators to work in 8 brothels, started a local AIDS prevention foundation supported by local businessmen, and taken other steps to incorporate AIDS prevention into its clinic structure. Such clinic-based programs are an important way of targeting groups at high risk of HIV transmission. PMID:12316886

  19. Talking about STD/HIV prevention: a look at communication online.

    PubMed

    Keller, S N; LaBelle, H; Karimi, N; Gupta, S

    2004-11-01

    Little is known about the quality and usability of online health information. This analysis evaluated STD prevention websites' content quality and usability. Thirty-six sites were analyzed to determine their adherence to established sexual health guidelines and their accessibility, usability, credibility and currency. The objective of this study was to determine what communication skills are available to teenagers through STD prevention websites. Only two (6%) addressed safe sex negotiation; seven (19%) addressed basic communication skills; and slightly more than half (53%) addressed at least one sexual decision-making message. Most sites displayed consistent template design and two-thirds had working hyperlinks. But few (19%) of the sites offered a site map, while only one-third (36%) provided an internal search engine. These results indicate that health educators need to include tips on how to negotiate safe sex and improve interactive design features when creating STD websites for teenagers. PMID:15511730

  20. MIL-STD-1553 remote terminal design using ASIC megacell technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, Anthony F.

    In the early development of MIL-STD-1553, board level implementations of remote terminals, bus controllers, and monitors were the norm. As technology progressed, hybrid solutions followed by monolithic solutions became the preferred solution of avionics design engineers implementing MIL-STD-1553 interfaces. Recent advances in ASIC technology allows the integration of complete MIL-STD-1553 interface into a silicon substrate along with a host microprocessor, memory, and support logic. The benefits of such a solution include reduced board space, increased flexibility, and higher reliability. A device with similar attributes was designed by Rockwell International, Rocketdyne Division, and manufactured by United Technologies Microelectronics Center (UTMC) for use on Space Station Freedom. This paper outlines the development and functionality of the ASIC device.

  1. Natural phenomena hazards assessment criteria for DOE sites: DOE Standard DOE-STD-1023-95

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, J.C.; Lu, S.C.; Boissonnade, A.C.

    1995-03-24

    This paper summarizes hazard assessment criteria (DOE-STD-1023-95) for Natural Phenomena Hazards (NPH) at DOE sites. The DOE has established policy and requirements for NPH mitigation for DOE sites and facilities using a graded approach by DOE Order 5480.28. The graded approach is implemented by five performance categories established for structures, systems, and components (SSCs) at DOE facilities based on criteria provided by DOE-STD-1021-93. In applying the design/evaluation criteria of DOE-STD-1020-94 for DOE facilities subjected to one of the natural phenomena hazards, the establishment of design basis load levels consistent with the corresponding performance category is required. This standard provides general criteria as well as specific criteria for natural phenomena hazard assessments to ensure that adequate design basis load levels are established for design and/or evaluation of DOE facilities.

  2. The Characteristics of Heterosexual STD Clinic Attendees Who Practice Oral Sex in Zhejiang Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Qiaoqin; Pan, Xiaohong; Cai, Gaofeng; Yan, Jiezhe; Xu, Yun; Ono-Kihara, Masako; Kihara, Masahiro

    2013-01-01

    Background The characteristics of heterosexual attendees who visit sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics and practice oral sex have not been revealed in China. This information is important for the development of targeted STD prevention programmes for this population. Study Design A self-administered questionnaire survey with a cross-sectional design was administered to consecutive attendees at four STD clinics in Zhejiang Province, China, between October and December in 2007. Demographic, psychosocial, and behavioural factors associated with oral sex over a lifetime were identified using univariate and multivariate analyses. Results Of the 872 attendees, 6.9% engaged in oral sex over their lifetimes. Of the oral-sex group, 96.6% also engaged in vaginal sex. The correlates for oral sex over a lifetime as determined by the multivariate analysis were high income (odds ratio [OR] = 2.53, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.39–4.59), high human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related knowledge (OR = 2.71, 95% CI 1.26–5.81), early sex initiation (OR = 2.42, 95% CI 1.37–4.27), multiple sexual partners (OR = 3.09, 95% CI 1.58–6.06), and sexually active in the previous 6 months (OR = 7.73, 95% CI 1.04–57.39). Conclusions Though the prevalence of oral sex is low, the heterosexual STD clinic attendees practicing oral sex was found to have higher risks associated with STD/HIV transmission than those not. Behavioural and medical interventions conducted by clinicians in Chinese STD clinics should take into account the characteristics and related risks of those who practice oral sex. PMID:23825627

  3. Comparison Evaluation of the PFP FSAR and NRC Regulatory Guide 3.39 with DOE-STD-3009-94

    SciTech Connect

    OSCARSON, E.E.

    2000-07-28

    One of the Plutonium Finishing Plant's (PFP) current Authorization Basis (AB) documents is the Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR). This FSAR (HNF-SD-CP-SAR-02 1) was prepared to the format and content guidance specified in U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Regulatory Guide 3.39, Standard Format and Content of License Applications for Plutonium Processing and Fuel Fabrication Plants (RG 3.39). In April 1992, the US Department of Energy (DOE) issued DOE Order 5480.23 which established the FSAR requirements for DOE nonreactor nuclear facilities. In 1994, DOE issued DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for US. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports, which is a format and content guide addressing the preparation of FSARs in accordance with DOE Order 5480.23. During the initial preparation and issuance of the PFP FSAR the format and content guidance contained in NRC Regulatory Guide 3.39 was utilized, since it was the most applicable guidance at the time for the preparation of Safety Analysis Reports for plutonium processing plants. With the adoption of DOE Order 5480.23 and DOE-STD-3009-94, DOE required the preparation of SARs to meet the format and content of those DOE documents. The PFP was granted an exemption to continue with RG 3.39 format for future FSAR revisions. PFP modifications and additions have required PFP FSAR modifications that have typically been prepared to the same NRC Regulatory Guide 3.39 format and content, to provide consistency with the PFP FSAR. This document provides a table comparison between the 3009 and RG 3.39 formats to validate the extent of PFP FSAR compliance with the intent of DOE Order 5480.23 and DOE-STD-3009-94. This evaluation was initially performed on Revisions 1 and 1A of the PFP FSAR. With the preparation of a Revision 2 draft to the FSAR, sections with significant changes were reevaluated for compliance and the tables were updated, as appropriate. The tables resulting from this

  4. Knowledge, Beliefs and Behaviours Related to STD Risk, Prevention, and Screening among a Sample of African American Men and Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uhrig, Jennifer D.; Friedman, Allison; Poehlman, Jon; Scales, Monica; Forsythe, Ann

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Current data on sexually transmitted disease (STD) among African Americans show significant racial/ethnic disparities. The purpose of this study was to explore knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and behaviours related to STD risk, prevention, and testing among African American adults to help inform the development of a health communication…

  5. Correlates of HIV/STD testing and willingness to test among rural-to-urban migrants in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bo; Li, Xiaoming; Stanton, Bonita; McGuire, James

    2010-08-01

    This study investigates socio-demographic, behavioral, psychological, and structural factors associated with self-reported HIV/STD testing and willingness to test among 1,938 Chinese migrants. Overall, 6% and 14% of participants had ever been tested for HIV and STD, respectively. The results of multivariate analyses indicate that working at entertainment sectors, engaging in commercial sex, and utilization of health care were positively associated with both HIV and STD testing. Younger age, selling blood, perceived peer sexual risk involvement, and satisfaction with life were associated with HIV testing only. Female gender, early sexual debut, multiple sexual partners, and perceived vulnerability to HIV/STD were associated with STD testing only. Male gender, having premarital sex, perceived higher severity of and vulnerability to HIV/STD, and utilization of health care were associated with willingness to be tested for both HIV and STD. Interventions designed to raise the perception of vulnerability to HIV/STD and to improve access to and utilization of health care may be effective in encouraging more HIV testing in this vulnerable population. PMID:18953644

  6. 78 FR 64221 - CDC/HRSA Advisory Committee on HIV, Viral Hepatitis and STD Prevention and Treatment; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-28

    ... Hepatitis and STD Prevention and Treatment; Notice of Meeting In accordance with section l0(a)(2) of the... meeting. Name: CDC/HRSA Advisory Committee on HIV, Viral Hepatitis and STD Prevention and Treatment Dates... related to prevention and control of HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis and other STDs, the support of health...

  7. 77 FR 66469 - CDC/HRSA Advisory Committee on HIV, Viral Hepatitis and STD Prevention and Treatment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-05

    ... Hepatitis and STD Prevention and Treatment In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory... Client Level Data Update; (3) Viral Hepatitis Action Plan and Implementation Update; (4) Update on... Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, CDC, 1600 Clifton Road NE., Mailstop...

  8. Evaluation of MSFC-STD-486, ''Threaded Fasteners, Torque Limits For'' for use in the construction of aerospace vhicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hart, J. F.

    1973-01-01

    MSFC-STD-486, Threaded Fasteners, Torque Limits For, is a relatively new standard that has not had much user experience. This test was run to provide such experience and verify the values in MSFC-STD-486. This was accomplished by plotting torque-tension curves on aluminum and alloy steel aircraft quality bolts and nuts through 1/2 inch in diameter.

  9. Exploring Gender Differences in the Relationship between HIV/STD Testing and Condom Use among Undergraduate College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bontempi, Jean Breny; Mugno, Raymond; Bulmer, Sandra M.; Danvers, Karina; Vancour, Michele L.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Rates of HIV/AIDS, and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), are increasing among university students. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine gender differences in the relationship between condom use and (1) HIV/STD testing behaviors, (2) STD treatment behaviors and, (3) alcohol use behaviors. Methods: A survey was…

  10. Proposed changes to FED-STD-209 and IES-RP-CC006

    SciTech Connect

    Mielke, R.L.

    1992-12-31

    In the United States, two documents have been considered basic to work with cleanrooms and controlled environments. They are {ital Cleanroom and Work Station Requirements, Controlled Environment{emdash}Federal Standard 209D}, published by the U.S. General Services Administration, and {ital Recommended Practice for Testing Cleanrooms} (IES-RP-CC006), published by the Institute of Environmental Sciences (IES). FED-STD-209 is the authoritative document on air cleanliness classification and cleanroom certification. Recommended Practice 006 is the recognized source for testing cleanroom performance. This paper covers the purpose and proposed changes for both FED-STD-209D and IES-RP-CC006. 3 refs., 1 tab.

  11. Project Eban: An HIV/STD Intervention for African American Couples

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Objective To describe the Eban HIV/STD Risk Reduction Intervention being evaluated in the NIMH Multisite HIV/STD Prevention trial for heterosexual African American couples, including the integrated theoretical framework, the structure, core elements and procedures of the intervention and how the content was shaped by culturally congruent concepts to address the needs of the study target population. Design The Eban HIV/STD Risk Reduction Intervention is designed to address multilevel individual, interpersonal and community level factors that contribute to HIV/STD transmission risk behaviors among heterosexual African American couples who are HIV serodiscordant. Methods The Eban HIV/STD Risk Reduction Intervention employs a mixed modality, couples-based approach that is based on an integrated ecological framework incorporating social cognitive theory and uses an Afro-centric paradigm that is informed by previous evidence-based couples HIV prevention interventions. For this randomized controlled trial, African American serodiscordant couples were recruited from four urban sites (Atlanta, Los Angeles, New York and Philadelphia) and were randomized to either the Eban HIV/STD Risk Reduction Intervention (treatment condition) or a Health Promotion Intervention that served as an attentional control condition. Both interventions had 4 individual couple sessions and 4 group sessions, but only the treatment condition was focused on reducing HIV/STD risk behaviors. Behavioral and biological data were collected at baseline, immediately after the intervention, and at 6 and 12 months. The theoretical framework, core elements and content of each session are described and lessons learned from this intervention trial are discussed. Results An HIV prevention intervention combining couple and group sessions can be feasibly implemented with African American HIV serodiscordant couples who remain at high risk of HIV/STD transmission. The lessons learned from the trial suggest that the

  12. Resources, resources, resources....

    PubMed

    1997-01-01

    Several resources provided by different types of organizations are available to transgender people in the New York area. Some of these organizations include the Gender Identity Project, Harlem United Community AIDS Center, Hetrick Martin Institute, SafeSpace and Youth Enrichment Services (YES). Organization telephone numbers, addresses, and their targeted audiences are provided. PMID:11364801

  13. Assessment of potential additions to conventional oil and gas resources of the world (outside the United States) from reserve growth, 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klett, Timothy R.; Cook, Troy A.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Attanasi, E.D.; Freeman, Phil A.; Ryder, Robert T.; Gautier, Donald L.; Verma, Mahendra K.; Le, Phuong A.; Schenk, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey estimated volumes of technically recoverable, conventional petroleum resources resulting from reserve growth for discovered fields outside the United States that have reported in-place oil and gas volumes of 500 million barrels of oil equivalent or greater. The mean volumes were estimated at 665 billion barrels of crude oil, 1,429 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 16 billion barrels of natural gas liquids. These volumes constitute a significant portion of the world's oil and gas resources.

  14. STD: A Guide for Today's Young Adults. Instructor's Manual and Student Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yarber, William L.

    This text/curriculum guide promotes responsible attitudes and behavior toward health, wellness, and sexuality. The student workbook and instructor's manual dispel commonly held misconceptions about sexually transmitted diseases (STD) and present accurate information on their danger and prevention. The instructor's manual presents the goals of STD…

  15. Evaluation of an STD Education Media Campaign: A Control Construct Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKillip, Jack; Baldwin, Kimm

    1990-01-01

    A multimedia sexually transmitted disease (STD) education campaign was evaluated for 8 weeks on a college campus. Subjects who were interviewed included 560 Southern Illinois University students. The program and evaluation covered condom use, moderate alcohol use, and regular exercise. Results indicate increased power for a control construct…

  16. Factors Influencing Condom Use and STD Acquisition among African American College Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Lisa M.; Melton, Richard S.; Succop, Paul A.; Rosenthal, Susan L.

    2000-01-01

    Surveyed 123 sexually experienced African-American college women at a state university to identify factors influencing their condom use and the risk of acquiring sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). The women who were older, had initiated sex earlier, or had more recent sexual partners were more likely than others to report a history of an STD.…

  17. HIV-Positive Mothers' Communication about Safer Sex and Std Prevention with Their Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Debra A.; Roberts, Kathleen Johnston; Herbeck, Diane M.

    2012-01-01

    Mothers play an important role in promoting the sexual health of their adolescent children. Fifty-seven HIV-positive mothers with adolescent children participated in an in-depth, qualitative interview regarding whether they have talked to their children about safer sex and sexually transmitted disease (STD) prevention, including at what age they…

  18. Rural and Nonrural African American High School Students and STD/HIV Sexual-Risk Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milhausen, Robin R.; Crosby, Richard; Yarber, William L.; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Wingood, Gina M.; Ding, Kele

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To determine differences between African American adolescents on STD/HIV sexual-risk behaviors and precursors to these risk behaviors. Methods: Six hundred sixty-three rural and 3313 nonrural adolescents who completed the 1999 YRBS Survey were selected. Results: Rural females and males were more likely to report ever having coitus and…

  19. Ecological Factors Associated with STD Risk Behaviors among Detained Female Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voisin, Dexter R.; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Salazar, Laura F.; Crosby, Richard A.; Yarber, William L.

    2006-01-01

    The authors used Bronfenbrenner's conceptual framework of an ecological systems model to examine factors that are independently associated with sexually transmitted disease (STD) risk behaviors among 280 sexually active detained female adolescents. Using computer-assisted self-interviewing procedures, the authors assessed individual…

  20. Intimate Partner Violence and HIV/STD Risk among Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Individuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heintz, Adam Jackson; Melendez, Rita M.

    2006-01-01

    To date, there has been little research examining HIV/STD risk among lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals who are in abusive relationships. This article uses data collected from a community-based organization that provides counseling for LGBT victims of intimate partner violence (IPV). A total of 58 clients completed the…

  1. Brief Sexual Histories and Routine HIV/STD Testing by Medical Providers

    PubMed Central

    Lanier, Yzette; Castellanos, Ted; Barrow, Roxanne Y.; Jordan, Wilbert C.; Caine, Virginia

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Clinicians who routinely take patient sexual histories have the opportunity to assess patient risk for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and make appropriate recommendations for routine HIV/STD screenings. However, less than 40% of providers conduct sexual histories with patients, and many do not receive formal sexual history training in school. After partnering with a national professional organization of physicians, we trained 26 (US and US territory-based) practicing physicians (58% female; median age=48 years) regarding sexual history taking using both in-person and webinar methods. Trainings occurred during either a 6-h onsite or 2-h webinar session. We evaluated their post-training experiences integrating sexual histories during routine medical visits. We assessed use of sexual histories and routine HIV/STD screenings. All participating physicians reported improved sexual history taking and increases in documented sexual histories and routine HIV/STD screenings. Four themes emerged from the qualitative evaluations: (1) the need for more sexual history training; (2) the importance of providing a gender-neutral sexual history tool; (3) the existence of barriers to routine sexual histories/testing; and (4) unintended benefits for providers who were conducting routine sexual histories. These findings were used to develop a brief, gender-neutral sexual history tool for clinical use. This pilot evaluation demonstrates that providers were willing to utilize a sexual history tool in clinical practice in support of HIV/STD prevention efforts. PMID:24564387

  2. 75 FR 39264 - CDC/HRSA Advisory Committee on HIV and STD Prevention and Treatment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-08

    ... CDC/HRSA Advisory Committee on HIV and STD Prevention and Treatment In accordance with section 10(a)(2..., CDC and the Administrator, HRSA, regarding activities related to prevention and control of HIV/AIDS and other STDs, the support of health care services to persons living with HIV/AIDS, and education...

  3. 76 FR 66721 - CDC/HRSA Advisory Committee on HIV and STD Prevention and Treatment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention CDC/HRSA Advisory Committee on HIV and STD... and control of HIV/AIDS and other STDs, the support of health care services to persons living with HIV/AIDS, and education of health professionals and the public about HIV/AIDS and other STDs. Matters To...

  4. HIV and STD Knowledge, Sexual Behaviors and Drug Taking Behaviors of Adolescents in Southern Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, R. Mark; Ball, Marcia; Cerullo, Jennie; Trunova, Elena

    2004-01-01

    For several years, HIV infection has increasing rapidly in Eastern Europe and Russia (UNAIDS, 2000, 2003). The purpose of the study was to investigate the HIV and STD knowledge, sexual behaviors and drug taking behaviors of adolescents in southern Russia. The instrument was compiled by the authors, professionally translated, and pilot tested. Most…

  5. Replicating a Teen HIV/STD Preventive Intervention in a Multicultural City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Diane M.; Hoppe, Marilyn J.; Wells, Elizabeth A.; Beadnell, Blair A.; Wilsdon, Anthony; Higa, Darrel; Gillmore, Mary Rogers; Casey, Erin A.

    2007-01-01

    Although there are now several adolescent HIV and STD preventive interventions of demonstrated efficacy in the literature, little is understood about the portability of these interventions. This study replicated Stanton's Focus on Kids intervention, developed for inner city African American adolescents, in a different population, transferring it…

  6. SHPPS 2006: School Health Policies and Programs Study--Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD) Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The School Health Policies and Programs Study (SHPPS) is a national survey periodically conducted to assess school health policies and programs at the state, district, school, and classroom levels. This brief reports study results in the area of sexually transmitted disease (STD) prevention, covering the following topics (1) Health Education; and…

  7. Influence of Professional Preparation and Class Structure on HIV, STD, and Pregnancy Prevention Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhodes, Darson L.; Jozkowski, Kristen N.; Hammig, Bart J.; Ogletree, Roberta J.; Fogarty, Erin C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine if education about human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/sexually transmitted disease (STD) and pregnancy prevention is dependent on professional preparation and/or class structure. Design: A secondary data analysis of the 2006 School Health Policies and Programmes Study (SHPPS) was conducted.…

  8. Depression, Suicidal Ideation and STD-Related Risk in Homeless Older Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohde, Paul; Noell, John; Ochs, Linda; Seeley, John R.

    2001-01-01

    Goals of this study were to examine the frequency of depression and related constructs of suicidal ideation and hopelessness in a sample of homeless older adolescents and their associations with behaviors, such as infrequent condom use and homosexual experience, that may increase the risk of sexually transmitted disease (STD). (BF)

  9. Brief sexual histories and routine HIV/STD testing by medical providers.

    PubMed

    Lanier, Yzette; Castellanos, Ted; Barrow, Roxanne Y; Jordan, Wilbert C; Caine, Virginia; Sutton, Madeline Y

    2014-03-01

    Clinicians who routinely take patient sexual histories have the opportunity to assess patient risk for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and make appropriate recommendations for routine HIV/STD screenings. However, less than 40% of providers conduct sexual histories with patients, and many do not receive formal sexual history training in school. After partnering with a national professional organization of physicians, we trained 26 (US and US territory-based) practicing physicians (58% female; median age=48 years) regarding sexual history taking using both in-person and webinar methods. Trainings occurred during either a 6-h onsite or 2-h webinar session. We evaluated their post-training experiences integrating sexual histories during routine medical visits. We assessed use of sexual histories and routine HIV/STD screenings. All participating physicians reported improved sexual history taking and increases in documented sexual histories and routine HIV/STD screenings. Four themes emerged from the qualitative evaluations: (1) the need for more sexual history training; (2) the importance of providing a gender-neutral sexual history tool; (3) the existence of barriers to routine sexual histories/testing; and (4) unintended benefits for providers who were conducting routine sexual histories. These findings were used to develop a brief, gender-neutral sexual history tool for clinical use. This pilot evaluation demonstrates that providers were willing to utilize a sexual history tool in clinical practice in support of HIV/STD prevention efforts. PMID:24564387

  10. Assessing Patient Exposure to a Video-Based Intervention in STD Clinic Waiting Rooms: Findings From the Safe in the City Trial.

    PubMed

    Besera, Ghenet T; Cox, Shanna; Malotte, C Kevin; Rietmeijer, Cornelis A; Klausner, Jeffrey D; O'Donnell, Lydia; Margolis, Andrew D; Warner, Lee

    2016-09-01

    Safe in the City, a video intervention for clinic waiting rooms, was previously shown to reduce sexually transmitted disease (STD) incidence. However, little is known about patients' recall of exposure to the intervention. Using data from a nested study of patients attending clinics during the trial, we assessed whether participants recalled Safe in the City, and, if so, how the intervention affected subsequent attitudes and behaviors. Analyses were restricted to responses to a 3-month follow-up questionnaire among participants who were exposed to the video (n = 708). Impact was measured as participants' reports of the video's effect on behaviors and attitudes. Associations were evaluated using multivariable logistic regression. Of participants who were exposed, 685 (97%) recalled viewing the video, and 68% recalled all three vignettes. After watching the video, participants felt more positive about condoms (69%) and comfortable acquiring condoms (56%), were reminded of important information about STDs and condoms (90%), and tried to apply what they learned to their lives (59%). Compared with those who recalled viewing one or two vignettes, participants who recalled viewing all three vignettes reported more positive attitudes toward condoms and peer/provider communication. These findings demonstrate that a low-resource video intervention for waiting rooms can provide sufficient exposure to positively influence STD-related attitudes/behaviors. PMID:27091608

  11. Assessment of potential additions to conventional oil and gas resources in discovered fields of the United States from reserve growth, 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey Reserve Growth Assessment Team

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey estimated volumes of technically recoverable, conventional petroleum resources that have the potential to be added to reserves from reserve growth in 70 discovered oil and gas accumulations of the United States, excluding Federal offshore areas. The mean estimated volumes are 32 billion barrels of crude oil, 291 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 10 billion barrels of natural gas liquids.

  12. S.T.A.R.T.T. plus: addition of prehospital personnel to a national multidisciplinary crisis resource management trauma team training course

    PubMed Central

    Gillman, Lawrence M.; Martin, Doug; Engels, Paul T.; Brindley, Peter; Widder, Sandy; French, Cheryl

    2016-01-01

    Summary The Simulated Trauma and Resuscitation Team Training (S.T.A.R.T.T.) course is a unique multidisciplinary trauma team training course deliberately designed to address the common crisis resource management (CRM) skills of trauma team members. Moreover, the curriculum has been updated to also target the specific learning needs of individual participating professionals: physicians, nurses and respiratory therapists. This commentary outlines further modifications to the course curriculum in order to address the needs of a relatively undertargeted group: prehospital personnel (i.e., emergency medical services). Maintenance of high participant satisfaction, regardless of profession, suggests that the S.T.A.R.T.T. course can be readily modified to incorporate prehospital personnel without losing its utility or popularity. PMID:26574706

  13. Evaluation of a Statewide HIV-HCV-STD Online Clinical Education Program by Healthcare Providers - A Comparison of Nursing and Other Disciplines.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dongwen; Luque, Amneris E

    2016-01-01

    The New York State HIV-HCV-STD Clinical Education Initiative (CEI) has developed a large repository of online resources and disseminated them to a wide range of healthcare providers. To evaluate the CEI online education program and in particular to compare the self-reported measures by clinicians from different disciplines, we analyzed the data from 1,558 course completions in a study period of three months. The results have shown that the overall evaluations by the clinicians were very positive. Meanwhile, there were significant differences across the clinical disciplines. In particular, physicians and nurse practitioners were the most satisfied. In contrast, pharmacists and case/care managers recorded lower than average responses. Nurses and counselors had mixed results. Nurse practitioners' responses were very similar to physicians on most measures, but significantly different from nurses in many aspects. For more effective knowledge dissemination, online education programs should consider the unique needs by clinicians from specific disciplines. PMID:27332204

  14. NASA-STD-7009 Guidance Document for Human Health and Performance Models and Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walton, Marlei; Mulugeta, Lealem; Nelson, Emily S.; Myers, Jerry G.

    2014-01-01

    Rigorous verification, validation, and credibility (VVC) processes are imperative to ensure that models and simulations (MS) are sufficiently reliable to address issues within their intended scope. The NASA standard for MS, NASA-STD-7009 (7009) [1] was a resultant outcome of the Columbia Accident Investigation Board (CAIB) to ensure MS are developed, applied, and interpreted appropriately for making decisions that may impact crew or mission safety. Because the 7009 focus is engineering systems, a NASA-STD-7009 Guidance Document is being developed to augment the 7009 and provide information, tools, and techniques applicable to the probabilistic and deterministic biological MS more prevalent in human health and performance (HHP) and space biomedical research and operations.

  15. Risky Sexual Behavior and Correlates of STD Prevalence Among African American HIV Serodiscordant Couples

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports baseline behavioral and biological data collected from a cohort of 535 African American HIV serodiscordant couples enrolled in the Eban study across four urban metro areas. Data were collected on (1) the prevalence of risky sexual behaviors that occur within a couple and with concurrent sexual partners, (2) the STD prevalence for each member of the couple and (3) the correlates of STDs in the male partner as well as in the female partner. Presentation of the sociodemographic characterization and HIV risk behavior profiles of African American HIV serodiscordant couples represents an important initial description of a hidden, vulnerable population. Future research should be conducted with diverse samples of African American couples (i.e., younger couples, non-stable couples) to explore other potential correlates of STD prevalence. PMID:20499152

  16. Comparative parameters of fertility regulation as related to STD / HIV infections. An overview.

    PubMed

    Merino, G; Bailon, R; Correu, S

    1991-01-01

    The sexually transmitted disease (STD), chancroid, is the greatest factor for HIV infections in Africa like syphilis is in the US. 3 physicians suggest that reducing the incidence of STDs may reduce the spread of HIV. Risk factors for HIV include current or history of STD in women and bisexual men, pelvic inflammatory disease, semen, copper releasing IUDs, contraceptive dermatitis, malnutrition/food allergy, environmental pollutants, genetic make up, and prostitutes. HIV infected persons should use condoms to not only protect partners but to prevent repeated contact with HIV which influences the clinical outcome. Condom use for contraception is not widely practiced in some areas, however, including Central Africa and Haiti. Condom use has increased in the US because IUDs have been removed from the market, fear of HIV infection, and discontinued use of oral contraceptives in older women. Urticarial reactions secondary to a copper IUD often occur in adolescent women, but clears when the IUD is removed. Traces of nickel in the copper wire used in IUDs often induce an allergic reaction. Allergic reactions are cofactors of HIV which can be made worse if coupled with excessive menstrual bleeding and HIV infected semen cells entering the uterus via the IUD tail. Many countries have integrated family planning services with other public health services, such as STD clinics that address AIDS. Integrated services should provide STD services and contraception and involve males and be accessible to them. Comprehensive school based clinical model should be implemented into schools and colleges. Counselors should advice HIV infected women not to have any more children. These women should get top priority to family planning services. HIV antibody testing for women should be done at any center where women may be including family planning centers and prisons. PMID:12284219

  17. Evidence-based HIV/STD prevention intervention for black men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Herbst, Jeffrey H; Painter, Thomas M; Tomlinson, Hank L; Alvarez, Maria E

    2014-04-18

    This report summarizes published findings of a community-based organization in New York City that evaluated and demonstrated the efficacy of the Many Men, Many Voices (3MV) human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/sexually transmitted disease (STD) prevention intervention in reducing sexual risk behaviors and increasing protective behaviors among black men who have sex with men (MSM). The intervention addressed social determinants of health (e.g., stigma, discrimination, and homophobia) that can influence the health and well-being of black MSM at high risk for HIV infection. This report also highlights efforts by CDC to disseminate this evidence-based behavioral intervention throughout the United States. CDC's Office of Minority Health and Health Equity selected the intervention analysis and discussion to provide an example of a program that might be effective for reducing HIV infection- and STD-related disparities in the United States. 3MV uses small group education and interaction to increase knowledge and change attitudes and behaviors related to HIV/STD risk among black MSM. Since its dissemination by CDC in 2004, 3MV has been used in many settings, including health department- and community-based organization programs. The 3MV intervention is an important component of a comprehensive HIV and STD prevention portfolio for at-risk black MSM. As CDC continues to support HIV prevention programming consistent with the National HIV/AIDS Strategy and its high-impact HIV prevention approach, 3MV will remain an important tool for addressing the needs of black MSM at high risk for HIV infection and other STDs. PMID:24743663

  18. NASA-STD-4005 and NASA-HDBK-4006, LEO Spacecraft Solar Array Charging Design Standard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferguson, Dale C.

    2007-01-01

    Two new NASA Standards are now official. They are the NASA LEO Spacecraft Charging Design Standard (NASA-STD-4005) and the NASA LEO Spacecraft Charging Design Handbook (NASA-HDBK-4006). They give the background and techniques for controlling solar array-induced charging and arcing in LEO. In this paper, a brief overview of the new standards is given, along with where they can be obtained and who should be using them.

  19. Interface For Dual-Channel MIL-STD-1553 Data Bus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davies, Bryan L.; Heaps, Timothy L.

    1992-01-01

    Digital electronic subsystem made of commercially available programmable logic arrays and discrete logic devices serves as interface between microprocessor and dual-channel MIL-STD-1553 data bus. Subsystem consumes only 800 mW of power. Provides flexibility in that it is controllable via firmware. Includes only two reading-and-writing ports: one for status and control signals, other for transmission and reception of data.

  20. Military standards and SCATHA program update of MIL-STD-1541

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frankos, D. T.

    1980-01-01

    The elctromagnetic compatability requirements for space systems, 15 October 1973, to be met by industry contractors for spacecraft launch vehicles and other special space systems, are considered. Deficiencies in the existing standard with respect to spacecraft charge and discharge phenomena, the technical ramifications for generating a new standard, and the upgrading of MIL-STD-1541 with requirements supplied as a result of the SCATHA program are discussed.

  1. Development of an automated system for MIL-STD-461 EMI testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canaga, K. W.; Nakagawa, K. K.

    This paper discusses the development of an automated MIL-STD-461 EMI measurement system and some of the lessons learned in the process. The system hardware and software are described, and the tradeoffs associated with the various configuration and design choices are discussed. Problems occurring in the change from manual to automated EMI measurements are discussed, along with the solutions employed with this particular system.

  2. A new hydronaphthalenone from the mangrove-derived Daldinia eschscholtzii PSU-STD57.

    PubMed

    Kongyen, Wipapan; Rukachaisirikul, Vatcharin; Phongpaichit, Souwalak; Sakayaroj, Jariya

    2015-01-01

    One new hydronaphthalenone derivative (1) was isolated from the broth extract of the endophytic fungus Daldinia eschscholtzii PSU-STD57 together with five known compounds, isosclerone (2), 8-methoxy-1-naphthol, 1,8-dimethoxynaphthalene, 2,6-dihydroxyphenyl-1-butan-1-one and tyrosol. The structures were assigned by spectroscopic methods. All the compounds were tested for antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant S. aureus and Microsporum gypseum. PMID:25776658

  3. The prevalence of sexually transmitted pathogens in patients presenting to a Casablanca STD clinic.

    PubMed

    Heikel, J; Sekkat, S; Bouqdir, F; Rich, H; Takourt, B; Radouani, F; Hda, N; Ibrahimy, S; Benslimane, A

    1999-09-01

    The objective of this study conducted at the sexually transmitted diseases (STD) clinic of the Pasteur Institute of Morocco (SCPIM) is to describe clinical complaints and biological findings in patients attending this facility. Two thousand two hundred sixty-four patients had visited the STD clinic from 1992 to 1996. The main reported symptom was genital discharge for men (44.5%) and women (68.6%). Genital eruption and ulcer were more frequent in men. The principal biological result shows a seroprevalence of 0.62% for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), 3.05% for hepatitis B virus (HBV), 51.5% for chlamydiae and 13.2% for syphilis. Factors associated with clinical findings were age and Gonococcus for men (odds ratio (OR): 1.94 and 5.96, respectively) and Trichomonas and positive TPHA for women (OR: 9.49 and 0.25, respectively). This work describes for the first time the distribution of various germs involved in sexually transmitted diseases in Moroccan population and underlines the importance of studying its sexual behavior as well as determinants of STD incidence. PMID:10555614

  4. A POTENTIAL APPLICATION OF UNCERTAINTY ANALYSIS TO DOE-STD-3009-94 ACCIDENT ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    Palmrose, D E; Yang, J M

    2007-05-10

    The objective of this paper is to assess proposed transuranic waste accident analysis guidance and recent software improvements in a Windows-OS version of MACCS2 that allows the inputting of parameter uncertainty. With this guidance and code capability, there is the potential to perform a quantitative uncertainty assessment of unmitigated accident releases with respect to the 25 rem Evaluation Guideline (EG) of DOE-STD-3009-94 CN3 (STD-3009). Historically, the classification of safety systems in a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facility's safety basis has involved how subject matter experts qualitatively view uncertainty in the STD-3009 Appendix A accident analysis methodology. Specifically, whether consequence uncertainty could be larger than previously evaluated so the site-specific accident consequences may challenge the EG. This paper assesses whether a potential uncertainty capability for MACCS2 could provide a stronger technical basis as to when the consequences from a design basis accident (DBA) truly challenges the 25 rem EG.

  5. A versatile electrical penetration design qualified to IEEE Std. 317-1983

    SciTech Connect

    Lankenau, W.; Wetherill, T.M.

    1994-12-31

    Although worldwide demand for new construction of nuclear power stations has been on a decline, the available opportunities for the design and construction of qualified electrical penetrations continues to offer challenges, requiring a highly versatile design. Versatility is necessary in order to meet unique customer requirements within the constraints of a design basis qualified to IEEE Std. 317-1983. This paper summarizes such a versatile electrical penetration designed, built and tested to IEEE Std. 317-1983. The principal features are described including major materials of construction. Some of the design constraints such as sealing requirements, and conductor density (including numerical example) are discussed. The requirements for qualification testing of the penetration assembly to IEEE Std. 317-1983 are delineated in a general sense, and some typical test ranges for preconditioning, radiation exposure, and LOCA are provided. The paper concludes by describing ways in which this versatile design has been adapted to meet unique customer requirements in a variety of nuclear power plants.

  6. Resource Manual

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Human Development Institute, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This manual was designed primarily for use by individuals with developmental disabilities and related conditions. The main focus of this manual is to provide easy-to-read information concerning available resources, and to provide immediate contact information for the purpose of applying for resources and/or locating additional information. The…

  7. STD/HIV prevention in Turkey: planning a sequence of interventions.

    PubMed

    Aral, S O; Fransen, L

    1995-12-01

    This study was initiated to assess which mix of early STD/HIV prevention interventions would potentially be effective, cost-effective and sustainable in Turkey; and to program an intervention sequence to maximize synergy among the interventions. During rapid assessment we: 1) reviewed past issues of 3 leading newspapers; 2) collected information on TV coverage; 3) interviewed key informants including taxicab drivers, hotel employees, grocery store owners, academicians in public health and law, investigators of STD/HIV and reproductive tract infections, and officials in the ministry of health; 4) reviewed available evidence on STD/HIV morbidity, sexual behavior patterns, migration patterns and same/opposite gender sex trade. We found: 1) discrepancies between decision makers' perceptions and social realities with respect to the epidemiology of sexual behavior and STDs, and the state of public health programs; 2) discrepancies between sexual practices and public expression regarding sexual practices; 3) economic, demographic, and political pressures in Turkey and in surrounding countries for the expansion of prostitution; 4) a sexual double standard and gender specific migration patterns which sustain a high demand for commercial sex; 5) patterns of health care seeking behaviors and provision of STD clinical services which indicate other STDs may play a very important role in spread of HIV infection; 6) an important mass media role in opinion formation; 7) consensual denial of risk for the majority based on beliefs embedded in machismo, nationalism and religion, and a resulting marginalization and externalization of STD/HIV risk; 8) high prevalence of syphilis among both Turkish and immigrant female prostitutes in Istanbul (early latent 8 and 13%; late latent 0 and 4%; previous history 9 and 22%) 9) and high rates of syphilis among male prostitutes (early latent 11%, late latent 21% and previous history 58%). We concluded that interventions should initially include

  8. Food additives

    MedlinePlus

    Food additives are substances that become part of a food product when they are added during the processing or making of that food. "Direct" food additives are often added during processing to: Add nutrients ...

  9. Food additives

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Michael

    1974-01-01

    Food additives are discussed from the food technology point of view. The reasons for their use are summarized: (1) to protect food from chemical and microbiological attack; (2) to even out seasonal supplies; (3) to improve their eating quality; (4) to improve their nutritional value. The various types of food additives are considered, e.g. colours, flavours, emulsifiers, bread and flour additives, preservatives, and nutritional additives. The paper concludes with consideration of those circumstances in which the use of additives is (a) justified and (b) unjustified. PMID:4467857

  10. Results of the NIMH Collaborative HIV/STD Prevention Trial of a Community Popular Opinion Leader Intervention

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Objective To determine whether community populations in Community Popular Opinion Leader (C-POL) intervention venues showed greater reductions in sexual risk practices and lower HIV/STD incidence than those in comparison venues. Methods A 5-country group-randomized trial, conducted from 2002 to 2007, enrolled cohorts from 20 to 40 venues in each country. Venues, matched within country on sexual risk and other factors, were randomly assigned within matched pairs to the C-POL community intervention or an AIDS education comparison. All participants had access to condoms and were assessed with repeated in-depth sexual behavior interviews, STD/HIV testing and treatment, and HIV/STD risk reduction counseling. Sexual behavior change and HIV/STD incidence were measured over two years. Results Both intervention and comparison conditions showed declines of approximately 33% in risk behavior prevalence and had comparable disease incidence within and across countries, target populations, and types of venues. Conclusions The community-level intervention did not produce greater behavioral risk and disease incidence reduction than the comparison condition, perhaps due to the intensive prevention services received by all participants during the assessment. Repeated, detailed self-review of risk behavior practices coupled with HIV/STD testing, treatment, HIV risk reduction counseling, and condom access can themselves substantially change behavior and disease acquisition. PMID:20354444

  11. Potential Damage to Flight Hardware from MIL-STD-462 CS02 Setup

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, Patrick K.; Block, Nathan F.

    2002-01-01

    The MIL-STD-462 CS02 conducted susceptibility test setup, performed during electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) testing, consists of an audio transformer with the secondary used as an inductor and a large capacitor. Together, these two components form an L-type low-pass filter to minimize the injected test signal input into the power source. Some flight hardware power input configurations are not compatible with this setup and break into oscillation when powered up. This can damage flight hardware and caused a catastrophic failure to an item tested in the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Large EMC Test Facility.

  12. Potential Damage to Flight Hardware from MIL-STD-462 CS02 Setup

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, Patrick K.; Block, Nathan F.

    2003-01-01

    The MIL-STD-462 CS02 conducted susceptibility test setup includes an audio transformer, with the secondary used as an inductor, and a large capacitor. Together, these two components form an L-type low-pass filter to minimize the injected test signal input into the power source. Some flight hardware power input configurations are not compatible with this setup and break into oscillation when powered up. This, in turn, can damage flight hardware. Such an oscillation resulted in the catastrophic failure of an item tested in the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Large electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) Test Facility.

  13. Another Look at the Draft Mil-Std-1540E Unit Random Vibration Test Requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perl, E.; Peterson, A. J..; Davis, D.

    2012-07-01

    The draft Mil-Std-1540E has been updated to reflect lessons learned since its publication as an SMC Standard in 2008, [1], and an earlier Aerospace Corporation Technical Report released in 2006, [2]. This paper discusses the technical rationale supporting some of the unit random vibration test requirements to provide better insight into their derivation and application to programs. It is intended that these requirements be tailored for each program to reflect the customer risk profile. Several tailoring options are provided and a two phase test strategy is discussed to highlight its applicability to utilizing heritage hardware in new applications.

  14. A simulation approach to MIL-STD-1553 Multiplex Bus interfacing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, R. J.; Murray, J.

    The technique developed for interfacing a 32 bit minicomputer to the MIL-STD-1553 Avionics Multiplex Bus (Mux Bus) in the F/A-18 Part Task Trainer is discussed. It is noted that the capability of access to the Mux Bus through a minicomputer provides the means of emulating any aircraft system the mission computer interfaces to in the aircraft. The capability of emulating the mission computer also exists for simulating real aircraft systems. The technique for recognizing bus requests for systems data required for simulation and responding to these requests within the timing constraints of 1553 is described, and details of bus operation specified by 1553 are given.

  15. Integrating HIV Testing as an Outcome of STD Partner Services for Men Who Have Sex with Men.

    PubMed

    Katz, David A; Dombrowski, Julia C; Kerani, Roxanne P; Aubin, Mark R; Kern, David A; Heal, David D; Bell, Teal R; Golden, Matthew R

    2016-05-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) with bacterial sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are at elevated risk for HIV infection, but often do not test for HIV at time of STD diagnosis. We instituted and evaluated a program promoting HIV testing through STD partner services (PS). In May 2012, health departments in Washington State modified STD PS programs with the objective of providing PS to all MSM with early syphilis, gonorrhea, or chlamydial infection and ensuring that those without a prior HIV diagnosis tested for HIV infection. We used chi-square tests and logistic and log-binomial regression to compare the percentage of MSM who received PS, HIV tested, and were newly HIV diagnosed before (January 1, 2010 to April 30, 2012) and during the revised program (May 1, 2012 to August 31, 2014). Among MSM without a prior HIV diagnosis, 2008 (62%) of 3253 preintervention and 3712 (76%) of 4880 during the intervention received PS (p < 0.001). HIV testing among PS recipients increased from 63% to 91% (p < 0.001). PS recipients were more likely to be newly HIV diagnosed than nonrecipients during the preintervention (2.5% vs. 0.93%, p = 0.002) and intervention periods (2.4% vs. 1.4%, p = 0.050). The percentage of MSM with newly diagnosed HIV infection who had a concurrent STD diagnosis increased from 6.6% to 13% statewide (p < 0.0001). Among all MSM with bacterial STDs, 61 (1.9%) preintervention and 104 (2.1%) during the intervention were newly diagnosed with HIV infection (adjusted relative risk = 1.34, p = 0.07). In conclusion, promoting HIV testing through STD PS is feasible and increases HIV testing among MSM. Our findings suggest that integrating HIV testing promotion into STD PS may increase HIV case finding. PMID:27158848

  16. HIV/STD Prevention Benefits of Living in Supportive Families: A Prospective Analysis of High Risk African-American Female Teens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosby, Richard A.; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Wingood, Gina M.; Harrington, Kathy

    2002-01-01

    Investigated whether living in a supportive family was an HIV/STD-protective factor for at-risk African American adolescent girls. Surveys supported the association between living in perceived supportive families and HIV/STD protective benefits. Supportive families enhanced girls' confidence in their ability to negotiate condom use and helped them…

  17. Resource Economics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conrad, Jon M.

    1999-10-01

    Resource Economics is a text for students with a background in calculus, intermediate microeconomics, and a familiarity with the spreadsheet software Excel. The book covers basic concepts, shows how to set up spreadsheets to solve dynamic allocation problems, and presents economic models for fisheries, forestry, nonrenewable resources, stock pollutants, option value, and sustainable development. Within the text, numerical examples are posed and solved using Excel's Solver. Through these examples and additional exercises at the end of each chapter, students can make dynamic models operational, develop their economic intuition, and learn how to set up spreadsheets for the simulation of optimization of resource and environmental systems.

  18. Risk Behaviors by Type of Concurrency among Young People in Three US STD Clinics

    PubMed Central

    Hess, Kristen L.; Gorbach, Pamina M.; Manhart, Lisa E.; Stoner, Bradley P.; Martin, David H.; Holmes, King K.

    2014-01-01

    Background Concurrent sexual partnerships can increase sexually transmitted diseases (STD) transmission on a population level. However, different concurrency types may be associated with differential risk for transmission. To investigate this, we describe the prevalence and correlates of four specific concurrency types. Methods Between 2001 and 2004, 1098 young adults attending 3 STD clinics were interviewed and tested for STDs. Characteristics associated with concurrency types were identified using logistic regression. Results Approximately one-third of respondents reported reactive (34%), transitional (36%), compensatory (32%), and experimental (26%) concurrency. Among men, reactive concurrency was associated with not identifying as heterosexual, drug use, and having sex the same day as meeting a partner. Among women, reactive concurrency was associated with African American race and having >3 lifetime partners. Transitional concurrency was associated with >3 lifetime partners for men and women. Among men, compensatory was associated with African American race; whereas, among women there were no associations with compensatory concurrency. Among men, experimental concurrency was associated with >3 lifetime partners and having sex the same day as meeting a partner. Among women, experimental concurrency was associated with not identifying as heterosexual, drug use, and having sex the same day as meeting a partner. Conclusions All concurrency types were common in this population and each was associated with a set of demographic and risk factors. Reactive and experimental concurrency types were associated with other high-risk behaviors, such as drug use. PMID:22697146

  19. Hepatitis B infection among Chinese STD patients in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Gan, C Y; Yap, S F; Ngeow, Y F; Wong, H C

    1991-01-01

    This study documents the prevalence of Hepatitis B serological markers among STD patients who have had multiple sexual partners in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, and compares the rates with those of a sample of the population with single or no sexual partners. A total of 336 Chinese STD patients (multiple partners group) and 234 Chinese control subjects (non-multiple partner group) were screened. Those with a history of blood transfusion or parenteral drug abuse had been excluded from the study, and all study subjects were heterosexuals. The overall carrier rate was 9.2% for the multiple partner group (MP group) and 6.8% for the non-multiple partner group (NMP group). Infection rates were 64.3% for the MP-group and 38.9% for the NMP group. After adjustments for age and sex, there was no significant difference in carrier rates between the two groups, but infection rates were significantly different with the MP group, being 3.2 times more likely to acquire infection than the NMP group. The study concludes that in heterosexuals, those with multiple sexual partners have increased chances of acquiring HBV infection. PMID:1862464

  20. Modified approach to use of DOE-STD-3009 example risk matrices.

    SciTech Connect

    Atwood, Ginger A.

    2008-04-01

    DOE-STD-3009, Preparation Guide for US Department of Energy Non-reactor Nuclear Facilities Documented Safety Analyses, identifies a methodology for selection of high risk accidents and hazard scenarios for Hazard Category 1, 2, and 3 Nuclear Facilities and their controls. It provides examples of risk matrices which can be used as a part of this methodology. It also states, 'There is no one correct approach or presentation'. Sandia has used a modified version of these examples to focus control selection on controls that provide the highest risk to the public and the workers. Sandia's matrix assigns a lower risk level to high probability, low consequence events that are covered by institutional safety programs. The objective of this paper is to serve as a point of discussion on the benefits of using this modification to the DOE-STD-3009 examples. The paper relates to the workshop subtopic of Lessons Learned and Hazards Analysis since it provides lessons learned in hazard analysis process at SNL.

  1. HIV/Std Risk Behaviors and Perceptions Among Rural-to-Urban Migrants in China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaoming; Stanton, Bonita; Fang, Xiaoyi; Lin, Danhua; Mao, Rong; Wang, Jing; Cottrell, Lesley; Harris, Carole

    2006-01-01

    Data from 2,153 sexually active rural-to-urban migrants in China were analyzed to examine the relationship between the movement of rural-to-urban migration and increased HIV/STD (sexually transmitted disease) risk and the applicability of constructs of a Western-based theory of behavioral change to the study population. Measurements included migrant mobility, sexual risk, and the seven constructs of the protection motivation theory (PMT). Data in the current study suggest that high mobility among rural-to-urban migrants was associated with increased sexual risk. The PMT constructs are applicable in identifying perceptions and attitudes associated with sexual risk behaviors in this culturally distinct population. Increased sexual risk was associated with increased perceptions of extrinsic rewards, intrinsic rewards, and response cost. Also consistent with PMT, increased sexual risk was associated with perceptions of decreased severity, vulnerability, response efficacy, and self-efficacy. After controlling for a number of key confounding factors, all seven PMT constructs were associated with sexual risk in the manner posited by the theory. The association between mobility and sexual risk underscores the importance of effective HIV/STD prevention efforts among this vulnerable population. The social cognitive theories including the PMT may form a logical base for prevention intervention programs targeting rural-to-urban migrants in China. PMID:15585430

  2. Perception of HIV testing among attendees at an STD clinic in India.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, T; Gupte, M D; Mathai, A K; Boopathi, K; Dorairaj, V S

    2008-01-01

    This study reports perception of STD clinic attendees of Government General hospital, Chennai, India towards free HIV testing. All STD clinic attendees who were eligible for the study (511), from January to April 2001 formed the study subjects. In all, 362 (71%) subjects responded to the question on perception of risk in getting HIV/AIDS. Among them 36% perceived that they were at risk of getting infected with HIV. There was a significant difference (P=0.01) between the genders, as more males perceived risk of getting HIV than females and, with the increase in number of sexual partners in a lifetime there was an increasing trend (p<0.0001) in the perception of risk. There were 244 (55%) subjects willing for HIV testing. A significant difference between the genders (p<0.0001) was observed, as more females were willing to accept free HIV testing than males. When adjusting the effect of co-variates such as gender, age, marital status and perception of risk in getting HIV, persons having two or more sexual partners in their life time were four times more willing to be HIV tested than persons with one sexual partner (OR=4; p=0.001). The findings in this study will help optimize HIV testing in at risk patient populations in India. PMID:18278612

  3. Depression, suicidal ideation and STD-related risk in homeless older adolescents.

    PubMed

    Rohde, P; Noell, J; Ochs, L; Seeley, J R

    2001-08-01

    Goals of this study were to examine the frequency of depression and related constructs of suicidal ideation and hopelessness in a sample of homeless older adolescents and their associations with behaviors that may increase the risk of sexually transmitted disease (STD). Diagnostic interviews and blood/urine samples were obtained from 523 homeless adolescents (mean age=17.8). Overall, 12.2 per cent had a current DSM-IV diagnosis of major depression and 6.5 per cent had dysthymia, with higher rates for female and older participants. Depression appeared to precede rather than follow homelessness and was associated with biologically verified STDs (in older participants), infrequent condom use, a non-heterosexual orientation (in older participants), and lifetime homosexual experience. Unlike depression, suicidal ideation and hopelessness were associated with higher rates of intravenous drug use but lower rates of multiple sex partners and, in young homeless women, less sexual coercion. Depression is frequent in homeless older adolescents and has a complex association with STD-related behaviors. PMID:11549325

  4. AIDSCAP seeks a private sector solution to the STD self-treatment dilemma.

    PubMed

    Henry, K

    1995-03-01

    Many people in developing countries faced with long waits at health clinics, expensive prescriptions and laboratory tests, stigma associated with sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic attendance, and the disdain of some health providers opt to buy over-the-counter drugs against their STDs at pharmacies and in markets, and treat themselves. Such self-treatment may lead to partially treated infections and serious complications, not to mention the associated increased risk of contracting or transmitting HIV from having sexual intercourse while still infected with a STD. Population Services International in collaboration with Family Health International's AIDSTECH Project developed a standard prepackaged therapy for male urethritis to be tested in a pilot program in Cameroon. The package was named MSTOP, with MST being the French acronym for STD, and consisted of a pouch containing antibiotics to treat gonorrhea and chlamydia, the two most common causes of urethritis in Cameroon, an educational brochure, detailed instructions on how to take the medication, two cards for referring sexual partners for diagnosis and treatment, and eight Prudence condoms. Medication included two tablets of cefuroxime axetil to be taken in a single oral dose and 20 tablets of doxycycline to be taken orally twice daily for ten days. The kit retailed for US$17, at the low end of what people were willing to pay for urethritis treatment on the market, with Glaxo and Ciba-Geigy supplying the drugs at a preferential price. By the completion of all necessary preliminary studies and consultations, however, new Ministry of Health (MOH) officials had come to power who opposed the original plan of selling MSTOP without prescriptions in pharmacies and health care centers. MSTOP was therefore approved for sale March 1993 only by prescription in 21 health care facilities which served mainly university students and the military and in three private pharmacies near the university campus. More than 86

  5. Food additives.

    PubMed

    Berglund, F

    1978-01-01

    The use of additives to food fulfils many purposes, as shown by the index issued by the Codex Committee on Food Additives: Acids, bases and salts; Preservatives, Antioxidants and antioxidant synergists; Anticaking agents; Colours; Emulfifiers; Thickening agents; Flour-treatment agents; Extraction solvents; Carrier solvents; Flavours (synthetic); Flavour enhancers; Non-nutritive sweeteners; Processing aids; Enzyme preparations. Many additives occur naturally in foods, but this does not exclude toxicity at higher levels. Some food additives are nutrients, or even essential nutritents, e.g. NaCl. Examples are known of food additives causing toxicity in man even when used according to regulations, e.g. cobalt in beer. In other instances, poisoning has been due to carry-over, e.g. by nitrate in cheese whey - when used for artificial feed for infants. Poisonings also occur as the result of the permitted substance being added at too high levels, by accident or carelessness, e.g. nitrite in fish. Finally, there are examples of hypersensitivity to food additives, e.g. to tartrazine and other food colours. The toxicological evaluation, based on animal feeding studies, may be complicated by impurities, e.g. orthotoluene-sulfonamide in saccharin; by transformation or disappearance of the additive in food processing in storage, e.g. bisulfite in raisins; by reaction products with food constituents, e.g. formation of ethylurethane from diethyl pyrocarbonate; by metabolic transformation products, e.g. formation in the gut of cyclohexylamine from cyclamate. Metabolic end products may differ in experimental animals and in man: guanylic acid and inosinic acid are metabolized to allantoin in the rat but to uric acid in man. The magnitude of the safety margin in man of the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) is not identical to the "safety factor" used when calculating the ADI. The symptoms of Chinese Restaurant Syndrome, although not hazardous, furthermore illustrate that the whole ADI

  6. Saturation-Transfer Difference (STD) NMR: A Simple and Fast Method for Ligand Screening and Characterization of Protein Binding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viegas, Aldino; Manso, Joao; Nobrega, Franklin L.; Cabrita, Eurico J.

    2011-01-01

    Saturation transfer difference (STD) NMR has emerged as one of the most popular ligand-based NMR techniques for the study of protein-ligand interactions. The success of this technique is a consequence of its robustness and the fact that it is focused on the signals of the ligand, without any need of processing NMR information about the receptor…

  7. The Impact of a Culturally Appropriate, STD/AIDS Education Intervention on Black Male Adolescents' Sexual and Condom Use Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLamater, John; Wagstaff, David A.; Havens, Kayt Klein

    A culturally appropriate, theoretically based videotape was developed in collaboration with local African American producers to promote condom use among 15-to-19-year-old black males seeking treatment at a municipal sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic. The videotape's immediate, short-term (30-day), and long-term (6-month) impacts were…

  8. Teaching Gender to Younger and Less Sexually Experienced Adolescents in the Context of HIV/STD Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sclafane, Jamie Heather; Perry, Deidrea L.; Lolacono, Marni L.; Fryer, Craig S.; Adair, Elissa Schuler; Silver, Ellen Johnson; Bauman, Laurie J.

    2005-01-01

    Gender beliefs affect adolescents' sexual motivations, perceptions, and actions (Moss, 1994) and can endanger sexual health (Haffner, 1998). We believe that teaching youth about gender norms will increase the efficacy of HIV/STD preventive interventions. We were funded by the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development to develop and…

  9. 78 FR 32392 - CDC/HRSA Advisory Committee on HIV, Viral Hepatitis and STD Prevention and Treatment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-30

    ... CDC/HRSA Advisory Committee on HIV, Viral Hepatitis and STD Prevention and Treatment In accordance... Administrator, HRSA, regarding activities related to prevention and control of HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis and... professionals and the public about HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis and other STDs. Matters To Be Discussed:...

  10. Short-Term Impact of Safer Choices: A Multicomponent, School-Based HIV, Other STD, and Pregnancy Prevention Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coyle, Karin; Basen-Engquist, Karen; Kirby, Douglas; Parcel, Guy; Banspach, Stephen; Harrist, Ronald; Baumler, Elizabeth; Weil, Marsha

    1999-01-01

    Evaluated the effectiveness of the first year of "Safer Choices," a two-year, multicomponent HIV, STD, and pregnancy-prevention program for high school students based on social theory. Student self-report surveys indicated that "Safer Choices" succeeded in reducing selected risk behaviors and in enhancing selected protective behaviors. The…

  11. 78 FR 56708 - Announcement of Requirements and Registration for Game On!: HIV/STD Prevention Mobile Application...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-13

    ...The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) located within the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) announces the launch of the Game On!: HIV/STD Prevention Mobile Application (App) Video Game Challenge. We invite video game developers to create an original, innovative, and highly entertaining game for smartphones that educates either adolescents (13 to 17 years of age) or......

  12. Sexual sensation-seeking and worry about sexually transmitted diseases (STD) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection among Spanish adolescents.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Martínez, Olga; Bermúdez, María Paz; Teva, Inmaculada; Buela-Casal, Gualberto

    2007-11-01

    The target of this study is to assess the relationship between sexual sensation-seeking, worry about STD/HIV infection, and risky sexual behaviours among 182 adolescents aged 13-18 years. Results showed that participants who engaged in a wider range of potentially risky behaviours (e.g., sexual experience, higher number of sexual partners in last six months, and the last sexual contact with a casual partner) obtained higher sensation-seeking scores. It was also found that adolescents who engaged in sex with a casual partner in their last sexual contact reported being worried about STD/HIV infection, but adolescents having sex with a steady partner underestimated their risk of STD/HIV infection. These results support the idea that preventive programmes may benefit from including components aimed at teaching adolescents to satisfy their preferences for sexual sensation-seeking through novel and stimulating sexual behaviours involving minimum risk. Similarly, the need to include components aimed at making adolescents become realistically aware of the STD/HIV risk involved in unprotected intercourse with steady love partners is highlighted. PMID:17959123

  13. Sexual Sensation Seeking, Social Stress, and Coping Styles as Predictors of HIV/STD Risk Behaviors in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teva, Inmaculada; Bermudez, Maria Paz; Buela-Casal, Gualberto

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess whether coping styles, social stress, and sexual sensation seeking were predictors of HIV/STD risk behaviours in adolescents. A representative sample of 4,456 female and male Spanish high school students aged 13 to 18 years participated. A stratified random sampling procedure was used. Self-report questionnaires…

  14. Behavioral risk factors for STD/HIV transmission in Bangladesh's trucking industry.

    PubMed

    Gibney, Laura; Saquib, Nazmus; Metzger, Jesse

    2003-04-01

    To examine behaviors that could influence STD/HIV transmission in Bangladesh's trucking industry, a survey was orally administered to 388 truck drivers/helpers at Tejgaon truck stand in Dhaka. A two-tiered sampling strategy was used: 38 trucking agencies were randomly selected and a mean of 10.2 subjects was recruited from each agency. Focus group and in-depth interviews were also conducted. The focus was on behaviors that affect (i) exposure to STD/HIV infection, (ii) efficiency of transmission of infection and (iii) duration of infectiousness. The findings illustrated that intravenous drug use was not an important risk factor; only 1 subject had used drugs intravenously. Sexual risk behaviors, however, were prevalent: the mean number of sexual partners in the past year was 4.57 (SD=8.70) and in the past 3 months was 1.82 (SD=3.27). Premarital and extramarital sex was common, often with commercial sex workers (CSW); 54% of all subjects had relations with at least 1 CSW in the past year. In a multiple logistic regression analysis, subjects who engaged in other types of socially risky behavior (drinking alcohol, ingesting or smoking recreational drugs, having sex with other men) were significantly (p<0.05) more likely to have had sex with a CSW in the past year. While 7.2% of subjects had a male sex partner in the past year, 21% had ever had one (likely youthful experimentation for most). Condom use was very infrequent: of the 343 subjects who had ever had sexual intercourse only 31% had ever used a condom and most of those subjects had used only once or occasionally. Having sex with CSWs, being married, having heard of AIDS and age were significantly associated (p<0.05) with ever use of condoms. Frequently, subjects who had genital symptoms either did not have those symptoms treated at all or treated in a timely fashion, and over 1/3 did not change their sexual behavior while infected. To reduce the potential for the spread of STD/HIV in this population

  15. Potlining Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolf Keller

    2004-08-10

    In this project, a concept to improve the performance of aluminum production cells by introducing potlining additives was examined and tested. Boron oxide was added to cathode blocks, and titanium was dissolved in the metal pool; this resulted in the formation of titanium diboride and caused the molten aluminum to wet the carbonaceous cathode surface. Such wetting reportedly leads to operational improvements and extended cell life. In addition, boron oxide suppresses cyanide formation. This final report presents and discusses the results of this project. Substantial economic benefits for the practical implementation of the technology are projected, especially for modern cells with graphitized blocks. For example, with an energy savings of about 5% and an increase in pot life from 1500 to 2500 days, a cost savings of $ 0.023 per pound of aluminum produced is projected for a 200 kA pot.

  16. Phosphazene additives

    SciTech Connect

    Harrup, Mason K; Rollins, Harry W

    2013-11-26

    An additive comprising a phosphazene compound that has at least two reactive functional groups and at least one capping functional group bonded to phosphorus atoms of the phosphazene compound. One of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with cellulose and the other of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with a resin, such as an amine resin of a polycarboxylic acid resin. The at least one capping functional group is selected from the group consisting of a short chain ether group, an alkoxy group, or an aryloxy group. Also disclosed are an additive-resin admixture, a method of treating a wood product, and a wood product.

  17. Additively Manufactured Metals in Oxygen Systems Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tylka, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Metals produced by additive manufacturing methods, such as Powder Bed Fusion Technology, are now mature enough to be considered for qualification in human spaceflight oxygen systems. The mechanical properties of metals produced through AM processes are being systematically studied. However, it is unknown whether AM metals in oxygen applications may present an increased risk of flammability or ignition as compared to wrought metals of the same metallurgical composition due to increased porosity. Per NASA-STD-6001B materials to be used in oxygen system applications shall be based on flammability and combustion test data, followed by a flammability assessment. Without systematic flammability and ignition testing in oxygen there is no credible method for NASA to accurately evaluate the risk of using AM metals in oxygen systems.

  18. Prevalence of Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Risk Behaviors from the NIMH Collaborative HIV/STD Prevention Trial

    PubMed Central

    Celentano, David D.; Mayer, Kenneth H.; Pequegnat, Willo; Abdala, Nadia; Green, Annette M.; Handsfield, H. Hunter; Hartwell, Tyler D.

    2014-01-01

    This cross-sectional study describes the baseline prevalence and correlates of common bacterial and viral sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and risk behaviors among individuals at high risk for HIV recruited in five low- and middle-income countries. Correlations of risk behaviors and demographic factors with prevalent STDs and the association of STDs with HIV prevalence are examined. Between 2,212 and 5,543 participants were recruited in each of five countries (China, India, Peru, Russia, and Zimbabwe). Standard protocols were used to collect behavioral risk information and biological samples for STD testing. Risk factors for HIV/STD prevalence were evaluated using logistic regression models. STD prevalence was significantly higher for women than men in all countries, and the most prevalent STD was Herpes simplex virus-type 2 (HSV-2). HIV prevalence was generally low (below 5%) except in Zimbabwe (30% among women, 11.7% among men). Prevalence of bacterial STDs was generally low (below 5% for gonorrhea and under 7% for syphilis in all sites), with the exception of syphilis among female sex workers in India. Behavioral and demographic risks for STDs varied widely across the five study sites. Common risks for STDs included female gender, increasing number of recent sex partners, and in some sites, older age, particularly for chronic STDs (i.e., HSV-2 and HIV). Prevalence of HIV was not associated with STDs except in Zimbabwe, which showed a modest correlation between HIV and HSV-2 prevalence (Pearson coefficient = .55). These findings underscore the heterogeneity of global STD and HIV epidemics and suggest that local, focused interventions are needed to achieve significant declines in these infections. PMID:25400718

  19. STD1 (MSN3) interacts directly with the TATA-binding protein and modulates transcription of the SUC2 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Tillman, T S; Ganster, R W; Jiang, R; Carlson, M; Schmidt, M C

    1995-01-01

    STD1 (MSN3) was isolated independently as a multicopy suppressor of mutations in the TATA-binding protein and in SNF4, suggesting that STD1 might couple the SNF1 kinase signaling pathway to the transcriptional machinery. We report here a direct physical interaction between STD1 and the TATA-binding protein (TBP), observed in vivo by the two-hybrid system and in vitro by binding studies. STD1 bound both native TBP in yeast cell-free extracts and purified recombinant TBP. This interaction was altered when TBP delta 57 was used, suggesting a role for the non-conserved N-terminal domain of TBP in mediating protein-protein interactions. We also show that perturbation of STD1-TBP stoichiometry alters SUC2 expression in vivo and that this effect is dependent on the N-terminal domain of TBP. The activation of SUC2 expression by increased copy number of STD1 occurs at the level of mRNA accumulation and it requires the same TATA element and uses the same transcription start site as does activation of SUC2 by glucose limitation. Taken together, these results suggest that STD1 modulates SUC2 transcription through direct interactions with TBP. Images PMID:7667094

  20. SHIPMENT OF TWO DOE-STD-3013 CONTAINERS IN A 9977 TYPE B PACKAGE

    SciTech Connect

    Abramczyk, G.; Bellamy, S.; Loftin, B.; Nathan, S.

    2011-06-06

    The 9977 is a certified Type B Packaging authorized to ship uranium and plutonium in metal and oxide forms. Historically, the standard container for these materials has been the DOE-STD-3013 which was specifically designed for the long term storage of plutonium bearing materials. The Department of Energy has used the 9975 Packaging containing a single 3013 container for the transportation and storage of these materials. In order to reduce container, shipping, and storage costs, the 9977 Packaging is being certified for transportation and storage of two 3013 containers. The challenges and risks of this content and the 9977s ability to meet the Code of Federal Regulations for the transport of these materials are presented.

  1. Evaluation of advanced microelectronics for inclusion in MIL-STD-975

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, W. Richard

    1991-01-01

    The approach taken by NASA and JPL (Jet Propulsion Laboratory) in the development of a MIL-STD-975 section which contains advanced technology such as Large Scale Integration and Very Large Scale Integration (LSI/VLSI) microelectronic devices is described. The parts listed in this section are recommended as satisfactory for NASA flight applications, in the absence of alternate qualified devices, based on satisfactory results of a vendor capability audit, the availability of sufficient characterization and reliability data from the manufacturers and users and negotiated detail procurement specifications. The criteria used in the selection and evaluation of the vendors and candidate parts, the preparation of procurement specifications, and the status of this activity are discussed.

  2. STD Clinic Patients' Awareness of Non-AIDS Complications of HIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Castro, José Guillermo; Granovsky, Inna; Jones, Deborah; Weiss, Stephen M.

    2016-01-01

    Participants were recruited from a sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic in Florida and were assessed regarding the knowledge and awareness of non-AIDS conditions associated with HIV infection. Questionnaires were administered before and after a brief information session on non-AIDS conditions associated with HIV infection. Participants included men (n = 46) and women (n = 51). Prior to the information session, at baseline, only 34% of the participants were worried about HIV infection. Most participants (82%) agreed that HIV could be treated with antiretroviral therapy (ART), while only 38% were aware that HIV-associated conditions cannot be easily treated with ART. After the information session, almost all participants reported they were concerned regarding the risk of HIV infection. High-risk patients may have limited knowledge about the consequences of HIV infection beyond the traditional AIDS-associated conditions. Increased awareness of these less known consequences of HIV infection may decrease the potential for complacency regarding acquiring HIV infection. PMID:25331221

  3. Higher Prevalence of Sexual Transmitted Diseases and Correlates of Genital Warts among Heterosexual Males Attending Sexually Transmitted Infection Clinics (MSCs) in Jiangmen, China: Implication for the Up-Taking of STD Related Service

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Zhengjun; Lu, Hekun; Tan, Xueling; Zhang, Baoyuan; Best, John; Yang, Ligang; Zheng, Heping; Jiang, Ning; Yin, Yueping; Yang, Bin; Chen, Xiangsheng

    2015-01-01

    Background Increasing burden of STDs is one of China’s major public health concerns. However, only a limited number of studies have ever investigated the prevalence of these STDs, particular for genital warts and its correlates among heterosexual males attending STD clinics in China. In order to fill this gap, we conducted a cross-sectional study among MSCs in Jiangmen, China, between the years of 2009 and 2010. Method The eligible participants were recruited from several STD-clinics in public hospitals. We collected demographic information and behaviors of the participants. After HIV and syphilis testing, we further checked whether the participants had genital warts and genital herpes. In addition, urine samples were collected from part of the participants for CT and NG testing. Results Of the 533 eligible participants, over three-fifths were aged 35 or below, nearly three quarters had no college degree, over three-fifths were residence of Jiangmen. The prevalence of HIV, syphilis, genital warts, genital herpes, CT and NG were 0.19%, 7.50%, 7.32%, 5.25%, 9.73% and 6.19%, respectively. Living with family members (versus living alone), no STD-related service in past year, experiencing STDs related symptoms in past year, and sex with FSWs in last three months were positively associated with genital warts, with adjusted ORs of 5.54 (95% CI 1.94–15.81), 2.26 (95% CI 1.08–4.74), 1.99 (95% CI 1.00–3.99) and 2.01 (95% CI 1.00–4.04), respectively. Conclusion Our study indicates that the prevalence of STDs among MSCs in Jiangmen was high, which may further spread HIV among MSCs. Targeted interventions that focused on STDs related services uptake should be implemented urgently. PMID:25811185

  4. Recommended Resources about Eleanor Roosevelt.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Social Education, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Books, films, and additional resources available from the National Women's History Resource Service are included in this annotated listing of resource materials which can be used to teach about Eleanor Roosevelt in elementary and secondary social studies classrooms. (RM)

  5. Voluntary STD testing and treatment program at a metropolitan correctional facility: evaluation of test acceptability and associated risk factors.

    PubMed

    Brown, Christopher K; Earley, Mary; Shaikh, Raees; Fickenscher, Jillian; Ott, Jessica; Person, Austin; Islam, K M Monirul; Simonsen, Kari; Sandkovsky, Uriel; Kaiser, Katherine Laux; Foxall, Mark; Margalit, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have addressed challenges of diagnosis and treatment of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) within correctional facilities. Initiatives that screen all inmates can be cost-prohibitive, while symptom-based screening undoubtedly fails to recognize significant numbers of asymptomatically infected persons. This study discusses a voluntary STD screening and treatment program developed at the Douglas County (Nebraska) Department of Corrections where student volunteers interviewed, screened, and educated 456 inmates. Inmate urine samples and interview responses about risk behaviors and motivators for participation in the screening program were analyzed. The results support the ongoing project method to screen and treat inmates in the community correctional facility. Risk factor analysis suggests that targeted testing and treatment efforts may have a role in providing cost-effective care for STD among the incarcerated population. PMID:24352406

  6. SEDS MIL-STD-1773 fiber optic data bus: Proton irradiation test results and spaceflight SEU data

    SciTech Connect

    LaBel, K.A.; Stassinopoulos, E.G.; Miller, J.T. ); Marshall, P. ); Dale, C. ); Crabtree, C.M. ); Gates, M.M. )

    1993-12-01

    The Small Explorer Data System (SEDS) was launched in July of 1992 as part of the Solar Anomalous Magnetospheric Particle Explorer (SAMPEX) mission. The SEDS utilizes NASA's first MIL-STD-1773 Fiber Optic Multiplexed Data Bus (or 1773 bus) to communicate with other spacecraft subsystems in the space environment. The 1773 bus is the fiber optic version of the MIL-STD-1553 Data Bus, a electronic wire bus used in many avionics applications. The authors present proton test and space flight single event effect data for NASA's first fiber optic data bus. Bit error rate predictions based on a new proton direct ionization model agree well with flight data for proton belt and solar flare effects.

  7. Can variation in HIV/STD-related risk be explained by individual SES? Findings from female sex workers in a rural Chinese county

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Xiaoyi; Li, Xiaoming; Yang, Hongmei; Hong, Yan; Stanton, Bonita; Zhao, Ran; Dong, Baiqing; Liu, Wei; Zhou, Yuejiao; Liang, Shaoling

    2007-01-01

    Low socioeconomic status (SES) has been linked to HIV and sexually transmitted disease (STD) at a macro level because the majority of new cases of HIV infection in the world have been reported in underdeveloped or developing countries. However, empirical data on the relationship between individual SES and HIV/STD related risk have been mixed. Employing quantitative data from 454 female sex workers, this study was designed to examine the profile of the study sample in terms of their individual SES, HIV/STD-related sexual risk across work locations with different social, cultural and economic conditions; and examine the relationship between work location and HIV-related risk behaviors, controlling for individual SES. We have shown in the current study that both SES and HIV/STD-related risk behaviors significantly differed by work location. However, the difference in individual SES was not sufficient to explain the difference of HIV/STD-related risk across the work locations. The findings underscore the need for effective prevention intervention efforts targeting female sex workers in rural area. Based on the findings, we also suggest that HIV/STD intervention efforts among female sex workers should take the social and cultural contextual factors of their working environment (and sexual risks) into consideration. PMID:18350430

  8. Quantification of Soil Physical Properties by Using X-Ray Computerized Tomography (CT) and Standard Laboratory (STD) Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Maria Ambert Sanchez

    2003-12-12

    The implementation of x-ray computerized tomography (CT) on agricultural soils has been used in this research to quantify soil physical properties to be compared with standard laboratory (STD) methods. The overall research objective was to more accurately quantify soil physical properties for long-term management systems. Two field studies were conducted at Iowa State University's Northeast Research and Demonstration Farm near Nashua, IA using two different soil management strategies. The first field study was conducted in 1999 using continuous corn crop rotation for soil under chisel plow with no-till treatments. The second study was conducted in 2001 and on soybean crop rotation for the same soil but under chisel plow and no-till practices with wheel track and no-wheel track compaction treatments induced by a tractor-manure wagon. In addition, saturated hydraulic (K{sub s}) conductivity and the convection-dispersion (CDE) model were also applied using long-term soil management systems only during 2001. The results obtained for the 1999 field study revealed no significant differences between treatments and laboratory methods, but significant differences were found at deeper depths of the soil column for tillage treatments. The results for standard laboratory procedure versus CT method showed significant differences at deeper depths for the chisel plow treatment and at the second lower depth for no-till treatment for both laboratory methods. The macroporosity distribution experiment showed significant differences at the two lower depths between tillage practices. Bulk density and percent porosity had significant differences at the two lower depths of the soil column. The results obtained for the 2001 field study showed no significant differences between tillage practices and compaction practices for both laboratory methods, but significant differences between tillage practices with wheel track and no-wheel compaction treatments were found along the soil profile for

  9. PowerON: The use of instant message counseling and the Internet to facilitate HIV/STD education and prevention

    PubMed Central

    Moskowitz, David A.; Melton, Dan; Owczarzak, Jill

    2015-01-01

    Objective In recent years, Internet-based or online counseling has emerged as an effective way to assess psychological disorders and discuss destructive behaviors with individuals or groups of individuals. This study explores the application of online counseling to HIV/STD risk-taking behavior among men who have sex with men (MSM). Methods PowerON, an organization that provides sexual health information to MSM exclusively online, used instant message technology to counsel MSM in real time through computer-mediated means. A sample of 279 transcripts of instant message exchanges between PowerON counselors and Gay.com users were recorded and qualitatively analyzed. Results Approximately 43% of the instant message sessions discussed information about HIV/STD testing. Risk-taking behaviors were addressed in 39% of the sessions. Information about HIV/STDs and general counseling were given in 23% and 18% of the counseling sessions respectively. Conclusion The data showed these instant message sessions to be a potentially feasible forum for HIV/STD counseling. Practice Implications Information ordinarily disseminated at health clinics could be successfully distributed through the Internet to MSM. PMID:19217742

  10. IMPLEMENTATION OF THE SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA OF DOE-STD-1189-2008 APPENDIX A [FULL PAPER

    SciTech Connect

    OMBERG SK

    2008-05-14

    This paper describes the approach taken by two Fluor Hanford projects for implementing of the seismic design criteria from DOE-STD-1189-2008, Appendix A. The existing seismic design criteria and the new seismic design criteria is described, and an assessment of the primary differences provided. The gaps within the new system of seismic design criteria, which necessitate conduct of portions of work to the existing technical standards pending availability of applicable industry standards, is discussed. Two Hanford Site projects currently in the Control Decision (CD)-1 phase of design have developed an approach to implementation of the new criteria. Calculations have been performed to determine the seismic design category for one project, based on information available in early CD-1. The potential effects of DOE-STD-1189-2008, Appendix A seismic design criteria on the process of project alternatives analysis is discussed. Present of this work is expected to benefit others in the DOE Complex that may be implementing DOE-STD-1189-2008.

  11. Club Drugs and HIV/STD Infection: An Exploratory Analysis among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Changsha, China

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Jun; Zhao, Junshi; He, Jianmei; Zhang, Guoqiang; Tang, Xuemin

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate current club drug use and its potential association with the transmission of HIV/STD among Changsha men who have sex with men (MSM). Method A cross-sectional survey was conducted by using self-administered questionnaires including information regarding socio-demographics, club drug use, high-risk behaviors, and HIV/STD infections. Multiple methods including venue-based, peer referral using “snowball” techniques, and internet advertisements were used to recruit study participants. Results Of the 826 participants, 177 (21.4%) reported that they had used club drugs at some time before or during sex in the past six months. MSM with young age, low education level, and seeking partners through the internet or bars were the main population who used drugs. Poppers were the most common drug used among Changsha MSM. The prevalence of HIV, syphilis, and herpes simplex virus-2 were higher among drug users. There were no significant differences in unprotected sexual intercourse and condom use between drug users and non-users. Compared with non-users, risk behaviors such as group sex, multiple sex partners, and sex with foreigners were more frequent among drug users. Conclusion Club drug use is common among Changsha MSM, and is related to unsafe sex activities and HIV/STD infection. It is necessary to build novel targeted HIV prevention strategies to monitor and reduce club drug use among MSM. PMID:25950912

  12. Implementation of Ada protocols on Mil-STD-1553 B data bus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruhman, Smil; Rosemberg, Flavia

    1986-01-01

    Standardization activity of data communication in avionic systems started in 1968 for the purpose of total system integration and the elimination of heavy wire bundles carrying signals between various subassemblies. The growing complexity of avionic systems is straining the capabilities of MIL-STD-1553 B (first issued in 1973), but a much greater challenge to it is posed by Ada, the standard language adopted for real-time, computer embedded-systems. Hardware implementation of Ada communication protocols in a contention/token bus or token ring network is proposed. However, during the transition period when the current command/response multiplex data bus is still flourishing and the development environment for distributed multi-computer Ada systems is as yet lacking, a temporary accomodation of the standard language with the standard bus could be very useful and even highly desirable. By concentrating all status informtion and decisions at the bus controller, it was found to be possible to construct an elegant and efficient harware impelementation of the Ada protocols at the bus interface. This solution is discussed.

  13. Psychosocial and behavioral factors associated to STD/AIDS risk among health students.

    PubMed

    Dessunti, Elma Mathias; Advincula Reis, Alberto Olavo

    2007-01-01

    This study aimed to identify and compare psychosocial and behavioral factors associated to STD/AIDS risk among students enrolled in the first and last years of the Nursing and Medical Undergraduate Programs at State University of Londrina. A convenience sample was selected from 263 enrolled students, and the 183 students who were sexually active (70.4%) had their data assessed. The Aids Risk Reduction Model framework was used to design the questionnaire in which a 5% statistical significance level was considered. Some risk factors were identified such as the perception of invulnerability, multiple sexual partners, consumption of alcoholic beverages before intercourse, and the discontinuous use or no use of condom. The risk factors are common both to the freshman and senior students, with no significant differences related to the passage of time or to the students' higher educational level. Senior students tend to be monogamous which makes them feel safer and decrease the use of condom with their sexual partners. PMID:17546359

  14. Effect of an STD/HIV Behavioral Intervention on Women's Use of the Female Condom

    PubMed Central

    Van Devanter, Nancy; Gonzales, Virginia; Merzel, Cheryl; Parikh, Nina S.; Celantano, David; Greenberg, Judith

    2002-01-01

    Objectives. This study assessed the effectiveness of a sexually transmitted disease (STD)/HIV behavior change intervention in increasing women's use of the female condom. Methods. A total of 604 women at high risk for STDs and HIV in New York City, Baltimore, Md, and Seattle, Wash, enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of a small-group, skills-training intervention that included information and skills training in the use of the female condom. Results. In a logistic regression, the strongest predictors of use were exposure to the intervention (odds ratio [OR] = 5.5; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.8, 10.7), intention to use the female condom in the future (OR = 4.5; 95% CI = 2.4, 8.5), having asked a partner to use a condom in the past 30 days (OR = 2.3; 95% CI = 1.3, 3.9), and confidence in asking a partner to use a condom (OR = 1.9; 95% CI = 1.1, 3.5). Conclusions. Clinicians counseling women in the use of the female condom need to provide information, demonstrate its correct use with their clients, and provide an opportunity for their clients to practice skills themselves. PMID:11772772

  15. Over Batch Analysis for the LLNL DOE-STD-3013 Packaging System

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, D C; Dodson, K

    2009-07-02

    This document addresses the concern raised in the Savannah River Site (SRS) Acceptance Criteria about receiving an item that is over batched by 1.0 kg of fissile materials. This document shows that the occurrence of this is incredible. Some of the Department of Energy Standard 3013 (DOE-STD-3013) requirements are described in Section 2.1. The SRS requirement is discussed in Section 2.2. Section 2.3 describes the way fissile materials are handled in the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Plutonium Facility (B332). Based on the material handling discussed in Section 2.3, there are only three errors that could result in a shipping container being over batched. These are: incorrect measurement of the item, selecting the wrong item to package, and packaging two items into a single shipping container. The analysis in Section 3 shows that the first two events are incredible because of the controls that exist at LLNL. The third event is physically impossible. Therefore, it is incredible for an item to be shipped to SRS that is more than 1.0 kg of fissile materials over batched.

  16. Sociocultural contexts and communication about sex in China: informing HIV/STD prevention programs.

    PubMed

    Lieber, Eli; Chin, Dorothy; Li, Li; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Detels, Roger; Wu, Zunyou; Guan, Jihui

    2009-10-01

    HIV may be particularly stigmatizing in Asia because of its association with "taboo" topics, including sex, drugs, homosexuality, and death (Aoki, Ngin, Mo, & Ja, 1989). These cultural schemata expose salient boundaries and moral implications for sexual communication (Chin, 1999, Social Science and Medicine, 49, 241-251). Yet HIV/STD prevention efforts are frequently conducted in the public realm. Education strategies often involve conversations with health "experts" about condom use, safe sex, and partner communication. The gap between the public context of intervention efforts and the private and norm-bound nature of sex conversation is particularly challenging. Interviews with 32 market workers in eastern China focused on knowledge, beliefs, and values surrounding sexual practices, meanings, and communication. Sex-talk taboos, information seeking, vulnerability, partner communication, and cultural change emerged as central to understanding intervention information flow and each theme's relative influence is described. Findings illustrate the nature of how sexual communication schemata in Chinese contexts impact the effectiveness of sexual health message communication. PMID:19842826

  17. Herpes - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Genital herpes - resources; Resources - genital herpes ... following organizations are good resources for information on genital herpes : March of Dimes -- www.marchofdimes.com/pregnancy/complications- ...

  18. Resource Economics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conrad, Jon M.

    2000-01-01

    Resource Economics is a text for students with a background in calculus, intermediate microeconomics, and a familiarity with the spreadsheet software Excel. The book covers basic concepts, shows how to set up spreadsheets to solve dynamic allocation problems, and presents economic models for fisheries, forestry, nonrenewable resources, stock pollutants, option value, and sustainable development. Within the text, numerical examples are posed and solved using Excel's Solver. These problems help make concepts operational, develop economic intuition, and serve as a bridge to the study of real-world problems of resource management. Through these examples and additional exercises at the end of Chapters 1 to 8, students can make dynamic models operational, develop their economic intuition, and learn how to set up spreadsheets for the simulation of optimization of resource and environmental systems. Book is unique in its use of spreadsheet software (Excel) to solve dynamic allocation problems Conrad is co-author of a previous book for the Press on the subject for graduate students Approach is extremely student-friendly; gives students the tools to apply research results to actual environmental issues

  19. Factors influencing participation in weekly support groups among women completing an HIV/STD intervention program.

    PubMed

    VanDevanter, N; Parikh, N S; Cohall, R M; Merzel, C; Faber, N; Litwak, E; Gonzales, V; Kahn-Krieger, S; Messeri, P; Weinberg, G; Greenberg, J

    1999-01-01

    Over the past three decades, the influence and importance of social support has been well documented and the findings have suggested a beneficial effect on stress-related situations, mental and physical health, and social functioning. More recently, small group/skills training behavioral interventions have demonstrated success in changing behaviors which affect the transmission of sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV among populations at risk for these diseases. Studies of support groups to date have been conducted exclusively in research settings where women are offered financial incentives for participation. Little is known about the willingness of women to participate in ongoing support groups after successfully completing a skills training intervention. The present study examines the factors that may influence participation among women in a weekly support group after completing a structured, six session HIV/STD intervention. Both quantitative and qualitative data are collected from 265 women in the intervention arm of a multi-site randomized controlled behavioral intervention trial. Results reveal that less than a quarter (22%) of women participated in at least one support group. Participation varied significantly by site, ranging from 34% to 15% (p = .008). Participation was also strongly linked to recent use of domestic violence services. Qualitative data indicated that although monetary incentives play some role in the woman's decision to participate, other factors are also important. These include program outreach, support group size, salience of the group content, consistency of group leadership from the intervention to the support group, and use of peer leaders along with professional facilitators. Implications for design of post-intervention support groups programs are discussed. PMID:10813265

  20. Seroprevalence of herpes simplex virus type 2 antibodies in an STD clinic in Paris.

    PubMed

    Janier, M; Lassau, F; Bloch, J; Spindler, E; Morel, P; Gérard, P; Aufrère, A

    1999-08-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the seroprevalence of herpes simplex virus (HSV)-2 and HSV-1 in a population of men and women attending the STD clinic of Hôpital St-Louis (Paris, France). Four hundred and eighty-seven patients (264 men and 223 women) were tested for HSV-2 and HSV-1 antibodies by specific enzyme immunoassay (EIA) (Smithkline-Beecham Biologicals). Univariate and multivariate analyses were carried out for correlations with clinical, socio-epidemiological and behavioural data. HSV-2 seroprevalence was 55% (44.7% in men, 67.3% in women). HSV-1 seroprevalence was 93% (94.7% in men, 91% in women). The predictive factors of HSV-2 seropositivity being female (OR: 3.37), age (OR: 1.04), country of origin (Central Africa OR: 3.52, North Africa OR: 1.36), history of genital herpes (OR: 10.97), hepatitis B virus (HBV) markers (OR: 1.92) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) markers (OR: 3.96). The only protective factor was HSV-1 seropositivity (OR: 0.25). The predictive factors of HSV-1 seropositivity were only the country of origin (Central Africa OR: 2.95, North Africa OR: 1.83) and the absence of genital herpes (OR: 11.01). Only 23 (8.6%) HSV-2 seropositive patients had a history of genital herpes. This study underlines the very high HSV-2 seroprevalence of patients with STDs, only a few of whom have a history of genital herpes. Detection and counselling is urgently needed for these patients. PMID:10471101

  1. Developable resources

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, R.T.; Hunt, J.M.

    1995-01-01

    In the United States, it has become the conventional wisdom that all developable conventional hydropower resources have been exhausted. Studies by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and other agencies find differently. The root of disagreement may lie in the definition of what is developable. Environmental special interest groups now define developable hydropower sites as those having zero effect on the environment. As a result they conclude there are no additional developable hydropower sites. By contrast, the definition used by DOE and others is broader as it balances economic, technical, and environmental factors in accordance with the Federal Power Act.

  2. [Factors associated with condom use and knowledge about STD/AIDS among teenagers in public and private schools in São Paulo, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Martins, Laura B Motta; da Costa-Paiva, Lúcia Helena S; Osis, Maria José D; de Sousa, Maria Helena; Pinto-Neto, Aarão M; Tadini, Valdir

    2006-02-01

    This study aimed to compare knowledge about STD/AIDS and identify the factors associated with adequate knowledge and consistent use of male condoms in teenagers from public and private schools in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. We selected 1,594 adolescents ranging 12 to 19 years of age in 13 public schools and 5 private schools to complete a questionnaire on knowledge of STD/AIDS and use of male condoms. Prevalence ratios were computed with a 95% confidence interval. The score on STD knowledge used a cutoff point corresponding to 50% of correct answers. Statistical tests were chi-square and Poisson multiple regression. Consistent use of male condoms was 60% in private and 57.1% in public schools (p > 0.05) and was associated with male gender and lower socioeconomic status. Female gender, higher schooling, enrollment in private school, Caucasian race, and being single were associated with higher knowledge of STDs. Teenagers from public and private schools have adequate knowledge of STD prevention, however this does not include the adoption of effective prevention. Educational programs and STD/AIDS awareness-raising should be expanded in order to minimize vulnerability. PMID:16501744

  3. Triethylborate as an electrolyte additive for high voltage layered lithium nickel cobalt manganese oxide cathode of lithium ion battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zaisheng; Xing, Lidan; Li, JianHui; Xu, Mengqing; Li, Weishan

    2016-03-01

    Triethylborate (TEB) is used as an electrolyte additive to improve the electrochemical performances of LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 (LNCM) upon cycling at 4.5 V vs. Li/Li+. Charge/discharge tests demonstrate that the cyclic stability of LNCM at room and elevated temperature can be improved effectively by TEB. With addition of 10 wt. % TEB into STD electrolyte (1.0 M LiPF6/EC:EMC:DEC), LNCM achieves a capacity retention of 99.8% after 150 cycles and 94.7% after 120 cycles at room and elevated temperature, respectively, comparing to that of 68.9% and 68.8% of STD electrolyte. In addition, 10 wt. % TEB also improves the rate capability of LNCM at room temperature. Physical and electrochemical characterizations from XRD, SEM, TEM, XPS, ICP-MS, LSV, CA, and EIS reveal that the preferential oxidative reaction of TEB generates a thin, uniform and low interfacial resistance film on the LNCM surface. This film not only suppresses the subsequent decomposition of STD electrolyte, but also prevents the dissolution of transition metal ions from LNCM, resulting in improved cyclic stability and rate capability of LNCM.

  4. Primary care physicians' perceptions of adolescent pregnancy and STD prevention practices in a Nova Scotia county.

    PubMed

    Langille, D B; Mann, K V; Gailiunas, P N

    1997-01-01

    In 1992, the reported Nova Scotia provincial rate for Chlamydia trachomatis genital infection was 15/1000 for girls and 2/1000 for boys, whereas rates for County A were 12/1000 for girls and 1/1000 for boys. The predisposing, enabling, and enforcing factors related to practice behaviors in the prevention of adolescent pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) were determined in face-to-face interviews to assess 26 physicians' ideal history taking and service provision versus their actual practice. Beliefs, attitudes, and enabling and reinforcing factors were assessed using a 5-point Likert scale. Interviews were completed between July 7 and August 31, 1994, with 26 doctors, of whom 20 were men (median age, 39 years) and 6 were women (median age, 35 years). The number of years in practice was 12. Fewer than 50% of male physicians were able to answer 7 of the 10 questions in relation to predisposing factors in prevention of adolescent pregnancy and STDs. 89% of the physicians believed that adolescent pregnancy and STDs are preventable, only 62% believed their own efforts to be effective in prevention. 85% of the physicians believed that schools had a responsibility to provide sex education, while 81% considered the role of parents in avoiding pregnancy and STDs crucial. 85% agreed that they were comfortable about talking with adolescents about sexuality, but only 36% felt that their medical school education had provided adequate preparation and 46% cited lack of time. While two-thirds agreed that female adolescents often made appointments for pregnancy prevention, only 23% said that girls did the same for STD prevention and 12% said that boys did. 68% of the physicians claimed that the current Medical Services Insurance fee schedule discouraged them from talking to adolescents about prevention. The lowest rate of agreement was with questions about sexual orientation (69%) and sexual practices (62%). The median score difference between believing that

  5. Decontaminating the DOE-STD-3013 Inner Container to Meet 10-CFR-835 Appendix D Requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, H.E.; Nelson, T.O.; Rivera, Y.M.; Wedman, D.E.; Weisbrod, K.R.

    1999-03-03

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) has published a standard that specifies the criteria for preparation and packaging of plutonium metals and oxides for safe long-term storage (DOE-STD-3013-96). This standard is followed for the packaging of materials resulting from the disassembly of nuclear weapons at Los Alamos National Laboratory under the Advanced Retirement and Integrated Extraction System (ARIES) project. Declassified plutonium metal or oxide material from the ARES project is packaged into doubly contained and welded type 304L stainless steel containers that comply with the DOE standard. The 3013-96 standard describes requirements for maximum contamination limits on the outer surface of the sealed inner container. These limits are 500 dpm per 100 cm2 for direct measurements and 20 dpm per 100 cm2 for removable contamination. For containers filled, welded, and handled inside a highly contaminated glovebox line, these limits are difficult to obtain. Simple handling within the line is demonstrated to contaminate surfaces from 10,000 to 10,000,000 dpm alpha per 100 cm2. To routinely achieve contamination levels below the maximum contamination levels specified by the 3013-96 standard within a processing operation, a decontamination step must be included. In the ARIES line, this decontamination step is an electrolytic process that produces a controlled uniform etch of the container surfaces. Decontamination of the 3013-96 compliant ARIES inner container is well demonstrated. Within 30 to 50 minutes electrolysis time, tixed contamination is reduced to hundreds of dpm generally occurring only at electrode contact points and welds. Removable contamination is routinely brought to non-detectable levels. The total process time for the cycle (includes electrolysis, rinse, and dry stages) is on the order of 1.5 to 2 hours per container. The ARIES inner container decontamination system highly automated and consists of a plumbing loop, electronic controls and

  6. Herpes - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Genital herpes - resources; Resources - genital herpes ... The following organizations are good resources for information on genital herpes : March of Dimes -- www.marchofdimes.com/pregnancy/complications-herpes National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease -- ...

  7. Description of a MIL-STD-1553B Data Bus Ada Driver for the LeRC EPS Testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackin, Michael A.

    1995-01-01

    This document describes the software designed to provide communication between control computers in the NASA Lewis Research Center Electrical Power System Testbed using MIL-STD-1553B. The software drivers are coded in the Ada programming language and were developed on a MSDOS-based computer workstation. The Electrical Power System (EPS) Testbed is a reduced-scale prototype space station electrical power system. The power system manages and distributes electrical power from the sources (batteries or photovoltaic arrays) to the end-user loads. The electrical system primary operates at 120 volts DC, and the secondary system operates at 28 volts DC. The devices which direct the flow of electrical power are controlled by a network of six control computers. Data and control messages are passed between the computers using the MIL-STD-1553B network. One of the computers, the Power Management Controller (PMC), controls the primary power distribution and another, the Load Management Controller (LMC), controls the secondary power distribution. Each of these computers communicates with two other computers which act as subsidiary controllers. These subsidiary controllers are, in turn, connected to the devices which directly control the flow of electrical power.

  8. Results of a pilot study of pre-release STD testing and inmates' risk behaviors in an Ohio prison.

    PubMed

    Sieck, Cynthia J; Dembe, Allard E

    2011-08-01

    This study presents the results of a pilot study of mandatory pre-release testing for sexually transmitted disease (STD) and a behavioral risk survey for male inmates at an Ohio prison. Approximately 4-6 weeks prior to scheduled release, inmates took part in a mandatory blood test and optional genital swab and physical examination to test for STDs. At the time of testing, a voluntary behavioral and knowledge survey was administered to inmates. Pre-release testing identified 53 new cases of STDs among the 916 inmates (5.5%) scheduled for release during the pilot study period. Trichomoniasis and hepatitis C were the most common infections identified through pre-release testing. Nearly all inmates participated in the required blood test. Participation rates for the other testing methods averaged less than 45%. Inmates reported engaging in various risky behaviors during incarceration such as having sex (12.1%), tattooing (36.5%), and drug use (19.5%). Pre-release testing identified several new cases of STDs not identified through existing intake and for-cause testing procedures. Substantial useful information about the prevalence of STD risk behaviors can be obtained through a pre-release survey. PMID:21448579

  9. Kentucky Department for Natural Resources and Environmental Protection permit application for air contaminant source: SRC-I demonstration plant, Newman, Kentucky. Supplement I. [Additional information on 38 items requested by KY/DNREP

    SciTech Connect

    Pearson, Jr., John F.

    1981-02-13

    In response to a letter from KY/DNREP, January 19, 1981, ICRC and DOE have prepared the enclosed supplement to the Kentucky Department for Natural Resources and Environmental Protection Permit Application for Air Contaminant Source for the SRC-I Demonstration Plant. Each of the 38 comments contained in the letter has been addressed in accordance with the discussions held in Frankfort on January 28, 1981, among representatives of KY/DNREP, EPA Region IV, US DOE, and ICRC. The questions raised involve requests for detailed information on the performance and reliability of proprietary equipment, back-up methods, monitoring plans for various pollutants, composition of wastes to flares, emissions estimates from particular operations, origin of baseline information, mathematical models, storage tanks, dusts, etc. (LTN)

  10. Act for Better Child Care Services of 1988. Report from the Committee on Labor and Human Resources Together with Additional Views (To Accompany S. 1885). 100th Congress, 2nd Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources.

    The Act for Better Child Care Services of 1988, additional views of members of the United States Senate, and related materials are reported. The purpose of the Act is to increase the availability, affordability, and quality of child care throughout the nation. The legislation provides direct financial assistance to low-income and working families…

  11. Teens in the Twenty-First Century Still Prefer People over Machines: Importance of Intervention Delivery Style in Adolescent HIV/STD Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pendleton, Sara M.; Stanton, Bonita; Cottrell, Lesley A.; Marshall, Sharon; Pack, Robert; Burns, James; Gibson, Catherine; Wu, Ying; Li, Xiaoming; Cole, Matthew

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To assess and compare youth satisfaction with two delivery approaches to a HIV/STD risk reduction intervention targeting adolescents: an on-site, face-to-face (FTF) approach versus a long distance interactive televised (DIT) approach. Methods: A convenience sample of 571 rural adolescents ages 12-16 years who participated in an HIV/STD…

  12. Estimates of Intraclass Correlation for Variables Related to Behavioral HIV/STD Prevention in a Predominantly African American and Hispanic Sample of Young Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pals, Sherri L.; Beaty, Brenda L.; Posner, Samuel F.; Bull, Sheana S.

    2009-01-01

    Studies designed to evaluate HIV and STD prevention interventions often involve random assignment of groups such as neighborhoods or communities to study conditions (e.g., to intervention or control). Investigators who design group-randomized trials (GRTs) must take the expected intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) into account in sample size…

  13. SIPSEY WILDERNESS AND ADDITIONS, ALABAMA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schweinfurth, Stanley P.; Mory, Peter C.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of geologic, geochemical, and mineral surveys the Sipsey Wilderness and additions are deemed to have little promise for the occurrence of metallic mineral resources. Although limestone, shale, and sandstone resources that occur in the area are physically suitable for a variety of uses, similar materials are available outside the area closer to transportation routes and potential markets. A small amount of coal has been identified in the area, occurring as nonpersistent beds less than 28 in. thick. Oil and (or) natural gas resources may be present if suitable structural traps exist in the subsurface. Therefore, the area has a probable oil and gas potential. Small amounts of asphaltic sandstone and limestone, commonly referred to as tar sands, may also occur in the subsurface. 5 refs.

  14. Evaluation of human engineering design standard (MSFC-STD-267A) in the design of manned space vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, J. G.

    1972-01-01

    The major conclusion of the detailed examination of the human factors engineering design standard is that it is unsuitable for future spacecraft design. The standard, published in 1966, was not intended to be a zero or reduced gravity standard and was directed primarily toward ground support equipment and technology. Futhermore, ambiguities, conflicts, and unenforceable requirements contribute to the difficulty. The role of man in future space missions and its impact on human engineering standards are also discussed, and it is concluded that greater standardization is vital to the success of future missions. A survey of NASA/MSFC contractors was made, and it was found that MSFC-STD-267A is largely ignored and the most significant problems are inaccessibility and nonspecificity of the data. The resistance of contract management and designer and of program managers is a primary reason for poor human engineering design. Specific recommendations for improvement of format and organization, including an interim solution, are given.

  15. Identifying critical unrecognized sugar-protein interactions in GH10 xylanases from Geobacillus stearothermophilus using STD NMR.

    PubMed

    Balazs, Yael S; Lisitsin, Elina; Carmiel, Oshrat; Shoham, Gil; Shoham, Yuval; Schmidt, Asher

    2013-09-01

    (1)H solution NMR spectroscopy is used synergistically with 3D crystallographic structures to map experimentally significant hydrophobic interactions upon substrate binding in solution under thermodynamic equilibrium. Using saturation transfer difference spectroscopy (STD NMR), a comparison is made between wild-type xylanase XT6 and its acid/base catalytic mutant E159Q--a non-active, single-heteroatom alteration that has been previously utilized to measure binding thermodynamics across a series of xylooligosaccharide-xylanase complexes [Zolotnitsky et al. (2004) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 101, 11275-11280). In this study, performing STD NMR of one substrate screens binding interactions to two proteins, avoiding many disadvantages inherent to the technique and clearly revealing subtle changes in binding induced upon mutation of the catalytic Glu. To visualize and compare the binding epitopes of xylobiose-xylanase complexes, a 'SASSY' plot (saturation difference transfer spectroscopy) is used. Two extraordinarily strong, but previously unrecognized, non-covalent interactions with H2-5 of xylobiose were observed in the wild-type enzyme but not in the E159Q mutant. Based on the crystal structure, these interactions were assigned to tryptophan residues at the -1 subsite. The mutant selectively binds only the β-xylobiose anomer. The (1)H solution NMR spectrum of a xylotriose-E159Q complex displays non-uniform broadening of the NMR signals. Differential broadening provides a unique subsite assignment tool based on structural knowledge of face-to-face stacking with a conserved tyrosine residue at the +1 subsite. The results obtained herein by substrate-observed NMR spectroscopy are discussed further in terms of methodological contributions and mechanistic understanding of substrate-binding adjustments upon a charge change in the E159Q construct. PMID:23863045

  16. Prevalence of infectious diseases in Bangladeshi women living adjacent to a truck stand: HIV/STD/hepatitis/genital tract infections

    PubMed Central

    Gibney, L.; Macaluso, M.; Kirk, K.; Hassan, M; Schwebke, J.; Vermund, S.; Choudhury, P.

    2001-01-01

    Background: Little is known about infection rates for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other diseases that can be transmitted sexually in Bangladeshi women who may be at intermediate levels of risk—that is, women who are not commercial sex workers (CSWs) but whose sexual contacts may include men at high risk for STD. This study examines HIV/hepatitis/STD and other genital tract infections in women living near Tejgaon truck stand in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Methods: This population based study was conducted from January to December 1998. A random sample of 384 women provided urine and blood samples and participated in an interview; 261 of them also had a physical examination in which vaginal and cervical specimens were taken. Laboratory tests included PCR on urine and cervical swabs for gonorrhoea and chlamydia, culture for trichomoniasis, serology tests for syphilis, herpes simplex 2, hepatitis B, C, D, HIV1, HIV2, and clinical diagnoses of other genital tract infections. Results: None of the participants tested positive for HIV. In the 261 women who had a physical examination, trichomoniasis was detected in 19.5%, chlamydia in 3.4%, gonorrhoea in 5.4%, bacterial vaginosis in 37.2%, and candidiasis in 10%. In the full sample of 384 women, with tests of urine and blood, prevalence of infection with chlamydia, gonorrhoea, syphilis, and herpes simplex 2 was detected in 0%, 6.3%, 5.7%, and 32% respectively. Almost 50% of the subjects had ever been exposed to hepatitis B, 3.6% were currently infective, 1.6% had hepatitis C, and none had hepatitis D. Conclusion: The high prevalence of certain of these infectious diseases indicates the need to implement prevention interventions with these women and, perhaps more importantly, with their male partners. Qualitative research is needed to provide insights into their sexual behaviour and the contexts in which high risk behaviours occur. Key Words: sexually transmitted diseases; Bangladesh; truck drivers PMID:11588280

  17. Investigating stakeholders' perceptions of the link between high STD rates and the current Baltimore City Public Schools' sex education curriculum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolden, Shenell L. T.

    The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine key stakeholders' perceptions of the current Baltimore City Public Schools' (BCPS) sex education curriculum and to gain insight into how they believe the curriculum could be modified to be more effective. A mixed methods approach using qualitative and quantitative data collection consisting of a survey, focus group interview, and individual interviews was conducted to gather information on stakeholders' perceptions. The stakeholders included: (1) former students who received their sex education courses in the Baltimore City Public School system (BCPS); (2) teachers in BCPS who were affiliated with the sex education curriculum; (3) health care professionals who screened and/or treated East Baltimore City residents for a sexually transmitted disease (STD) and; (4) one policy maker who was responsible for creating sex education curriculum at the national level. Analysis of the quantitative data from former Baltimore City Public School students revealed a general satisfaction with the current sex education curriculum. However, qualitative data from the same group of stakeholders revealed several changes they thought should be implemented into the program in an effort to improve the current curriculum. Findings from the other groups after qualitative analysis of the interviews suggest three major themes in support of curriculum change: (1) a blended curriculum that integrates both the cognitive and affective learning domains; (2) knowledge of prevention of STD's and pregnancy; and (3) authentic teaching and learning. Results from this study strongly suggest that the Baltimore City Public School system is apathetic to the sexual health needs of students and, therefore, is inadvertently contributing to the high rate of sexually transmitted diseases among young people. Keywords: Abstinence, Affective domain, Indoctrination, Behavior Modification, Cognitive domain, Sex education curriculum, Sexually Transmitted Diseases.

  18. Improving cyclic stability of lithium nickel manganese oxide cathode at elevated temperature by using dimethyl phenylphosphonite as electrolyte additive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mai, Shaowei; Xu, Mengqing; Liao, Xiaolin; Xing, Lidan; Li, Weishan

    2015-01-01

    A novel electrolyte additive, dimethyl phenylphosphonite (DMPP), is reported in this paper to be able to improve significantly the cyclic stability of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode of high voltage lithium ion battery at elevated temperature. When experiencing charge/discharge cycling at 50 °C with 1C (1C = 146.7 mAh g-1) rate in a standard (STD) electrolyte (1.0 M LiPF6 in ethylene carbonate (EC)/dimethyl carbonate (DMC), EC/DMC = 1/2 in volume), LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 suffers serious discharge capacity decaying, with a capacity retention of 42% after 100 cycles. With adding 0.5% DMPP into the STD electrolyte, the capacity retention is increased to 91%. This improvement can be ascribed to the preferential oxidation of DMPP to the STD electrolyte and the subsequent formation of a protective film on LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4, which suppresses the electrolyte decomposition and protects LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 from destruction. Theoretical calculations together with voltammetric analyses demonstrate the preferential oxidation of DMPP and the consequent suppression of electrolyte decomposition, while the observations from scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectronic spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirm the protection that DMPP provides for LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4.

  19. Earth Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewer, Tom

    1970-01-01

    Reviews some of the more concerted, large-scale efforts in the earth resources areas" in order to help the computer community obtain insights into the activities it can jointly particpate in withthe earth resources community." (Author)

  20. Breastfeeding - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - breastfeeding ... The following organizations are good resources for information on breastfeeding and breastfeeding problems : La Leche League International Inc. -- www.lalecheleague.org March of Dimes -- www.marchofdimes.com/ ...

  1. SIDS - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - SIDS ... The following organizations are good resources for information on SIDS : American SIDS Institute -- www.sids.org Centers for Disease Control and Prevention -- www.cdc.gov/sids National ...

  2. Scoliosis - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - scoliosis ... The following organizations are good resources for information on scoliosis : American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons -- orthoinfo.aaos.org/topic.cfm?topic=A00626 National Institute of Arthritis and ...

  3. Infertility - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - infertility ... The following organizations are good resources for information on infertility : Centers for Disease Control and Prevention -- www.cdc/gov/reproductivehealth/infertility March of Dimes -- www.marchofdimes.com/ ...

  4. Alzheimer - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - Alzheimer ... The following organizations are good resources for information on Alzheimer disease : Alzheimer's Association -- www.alz.org Alzheimer's Disease Education and Referral Center -- www.nia.nih.gov/alzheimers ...

  5. Psoriasis - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - psoriasis ... The following organizations are good resources for information about psoriasis : American Academy of Dermatology -- www.aad.org/skin-conditions/dermatology-a-to-z/psoriasis National Institute of ...

  6. Epilepsy - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - epilepsy ... The following organizations are good resources for information on epilepsy : Epilepsy Foundation -- www.efa.org National Institute of Neurologic Disorders and Stroke -- www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/ ...

  7. Alcoholism - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - alcoholism ... The following organizations are good resources for information on alcoholism : Alcoholics Anonymous -- www.aa.org Al-Anon/Alateen -- www.al-anon.org/home National Institute on Alcohol ...

  8. Incontinence - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - incontinence ... The following organizations are good resources for information on incontinence. Fecal incontinence : The American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists -- www.acog.org/~/media/for%20patients/faq139.ashx ...

  9. Cancer - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - cancer ... The following organizations are good resources for information on cancer : American Cancer Society -- www.cancer.org Cancer Care -- www.cancercare.org National Cancer Institute -- www.cancer.gov

  10. Lupus - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - lupus ... The following organizations are good resources for information on systemic lupus erythematosus : The Lupus Foundation of America -- www.lupus.org The National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal ...

  11. ALS - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - ALS ... The following organizations are good resources for information on amyotrophic lateral sclerosis : Muscular Dystrophy Association -- mda.org/disease/amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis National Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) Registry -- ...

  12. Blindness - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - blindness ... The following organizations are good resources for information on blindness : American Foundation for the Blind -- www.afb.org Foundation Fighting Blindness -- www.blindness.org National Eye Institute -- ...

  13. Scleroderma - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - scleroderma ... The following organizations are good resources for information on scleroderma : American College of Rheumatology -- www.rheumatology.org/practice/clinical/patients/diseases_and_conditions/scleroderma.asp National Institute ...

  14. Migraine - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - migraine ... The following organizations are good resources for information on migraines : American Migraine Foundation -- www.americanmigrainefoundation.org National Headache Foundation -- www.headaches.org National Institute of Neurological Disorders ...

  15. Ostomy - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - ostomy ... The following organizations are good resources for information on ostomies: American Society of Colon and Rectal Surgeons -- www.fascrs.org/patients/treatments-screening and www.fascrs.org/ ...

  16. 77 FR 68738 - Procurement List; Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-16

    ...), Air Resources Laboratory, 456 S. Illinois Avenue, Oak Ridge, TN. NPA: Goodwill Industries--Knoxville... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Additions On 9/14/2012 (77 FR 56813-56814) and 9/21/2012 (77 FR 58528-58529),...

  17. 15 CFR 990.66 - Additional considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Restoration Implementation Phase § 990.66 Additional considerations... restoration success and the need for corrective action. (b) The reasonable costs of such actions are...

  18. 15 CFR 990.66 - Additional considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Restoration Implementation Phase § 990.66 Additional considerations... restoration success and the need for corrective action. (b) The reasonable costs of such actions are...

  19. 15 CFR 990.66 - Additional considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Restoration Implementation Phase § 990.66 Additional considerations... restoration success and the need for corrective action. (b) The reasonable costs of such actions are...

  20. Bioethics education and resources.

    PubMed

    Opel, Douglas J; Olson, Maren E

    2012-08-01

    Ethics education based upon everyday ethical dilemmas can help trainees place themselves within the situation and encourage them to reflect on their role and responsibility in reaching its resolution.• Three elements can help augment the bioethics teaching experience: (a) identifying the ethical dilemma, (b) employing methods of ethical analysis, and(c) having knowledge of additional bioethics resources.An increasing number of bioethics resources are available to clinicians, including clinical ethics consultation (CEC) and print and Web-based resources. PMID:22855929

  1. Revision of FED-STD-209D and MIL-STD-1246B and development of IES (Institute of Environmental Sciences) contamination control recommended practices in the United States of America

    SciTech Connect

    Mielke, R.L.

    1990-01-01

    In the United States of America, numerous organizations are writing standards and recommend practices for contamination control and cleanroom applications. The American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), the Institute of Environmental Sciences (IES), and various US Government agencies are among the organizations with a vested interest in publishing standards and recommended practices on these subjects. In the early years of contamination control and cleanroom technology, significant work was done in the US on standards and recommended practices. Proprietary standards were established by companies and other documents were produced by Federal agencies and technical organizations. In 1982, the IES began to focus on recommended practices, and the US General Services Administration (GSA) commissioned the IES to review and rewrite US Federal Standard 209 (FED-STD-209). The ASTM continues to review and update their standards on cleanroom applications on a periodic basis. Now, in 1990, US military organizations are beginning to review their cleanroom documents as well. This paper will discuss the preparation of IES Recommended Practices and Standards for contamination control and cleanroom applications. It will describe the current status of four IES Recommended Practices and two US Government documents.

  2. Serological Profile of HSV-2 in STD Patients: Evaluation of Diagnostic Utility of HSV-2 IgM and IgG Detection

    PubMed Central

    Rashetha; Sucilathangam, G.; Cinthujah, B.; Revathy, C.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives:The present study was undertaken to determine Herpes Simplex Virus-2 seroprevalence in sexually active adults aged 20-49 and to investigate the correlation with sociodemographic characteristics and to find its association with other sexually transmitted diseases especially HIV and also to assess the proportion of primary and reactivated HSV-2 cases. Materials and Methods:This prospective study was carried out for a period of six months in a tertiary care hospital. Serum samples were taken from 91 patients attending the out Patient clinic of the Department of Venereology. The serological testing for HSV-2 was performed on all the specimens by using Euroimmun anti-HSV2 (gG2) IgM ELISA and IgG ELISA. Results: Out of the 91 STD patients in the study group, 18 males (34.62%) and 14 females (36.84%) tested positive for HSV-2 antibodies. Seropositivity rate is 35.16%. More number of HSV-2 positive cases were seen among males, older age, rural residence, low socioeconomic status, single marital status, irregular condom usage during the sexual intercourses with new partners and with higher number of sexual partners during lifetime. HSV-2 IgM alone was positive in three cases, HSV-2 IgG alone was positive in 26 cases and three had a positive HSV-2 IgM and IgG result. Addition of IgM testing increased rate of detecting seroconversion, 31.87%, when only IgG ELISA was used, to 35.16 % patients when IgM test was added. In the study group four cases tested positive for VDRL, and one of them was a known positive case. Among the 55 HIV positive cases in the study group, HSV 2 was positive in 17 cases and among the 36 HIV negative cases HSV 2 was positive in 15 cases. (30.91% and 47.22%).Though the number of HIV cases were high, HSV 2 positivity among them was statistically not significant. Conclusion:The purpose of screening for HSV-2 is not only to identify seropositivity, but to help seropositive people identify symptoms and protect themselves from

  3. Acceptability and feasibility of using established geosocial and sexual networking mobile applications to promote HIV and STD testing among men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Sun, Christina J; Stowers, Jason; Miller, Cindy; Bachmann, Laura H; Rhodes, Scott D

    2015-03-01

    This study is the first published multi-app study, of which we are aware, to evaluate both the acceptability and feasibility of providing sexual health information and HIV/STD testing referrals via established geosocial and sexual networking apps for MSM. Data were collected using an online survey and through four apps (A4A Radar, Grindr, Jack'd, and Scruff). Two-thirds (64 %) found apps to be an acceptable source for sexual health information. MSM who found apps as acceptable were more likely non-white, not sure of their current HIV status, and have low HIV testing self-efficacy. One-quarter (26 %) of informational chats with the health educator resulted in users requesting and being referred to local HIV/STD testing sites. There were significant differences in the number and types of interactions across apps. Established apps designed for MSM may be both an acceptable and feasible platform to promote HIV/STD testing. Future research should evaluate interventions that leverage this technology. PMID:25381563

  4. Acceptability and feasibility of using established geosocial and sexual networking mobile applications to promote HIV and STD testing among men who have sex with men

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Christina J.; Stowers, Jason; Miller, Cindy; Bachmann, Laura H.; Rhodes, Scott D.

    2014-01-01

    This study is the first published multi-app study, of which we are aware, to evaluate both the acceptability and feasibility of providing sexual health information and HIV/STD testing referrals via established geosocial and sexual networking apps for MSM. Data were collected using an online survey and through four apps (A4A Radar, Grindr, Jack’d, and Scruff). Two-thirds (64%) found apps to be an acceptable source for sexual health information. MSM who found apps as acceptable were more likely non-white men, not sure of their current HIV status, and have low HIV testing self-efficacy. One-quarter (26%) of informational chats with the health educator resulted in users requesting and being referred to local HIV/STD testing sites. There were significant differences in the number and types of interactions across apps. Established apps for MSM may be both an acceptable and feasible platform to promote HIV/STD testing. Future research should evaluate interventions that leverage this technology. PMID:25381563

  5. Resourceful Zoos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Diane J.; Monger, Joyce R.

    1991-01-01

    This chapter from a forthcoming book on teaching students economic concepts presents a series of activities focusing on zoos. Zoo resources are examined and categorized, including land, capital, entrepreneurs, and human resources. Zoo careers, business decisions, and investment causes and effects are also studied using worksheets, projects,…

  6. Instructional Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, Tom

    2009-01-01

    Using open-ended virtual spaces can be challenging and time consuming for teachers. Fortunately, there are many resources in-world and on the web with general guidelines and specific tools to help teachers be more productive. Most of the groups that host these resources recruit professional members with experience in simulation and game-based…

  7. Rethinking Resourcing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, Donald M.; Olson, Mark A.

    2003-01-01

    This adaptation of an excerpt from a book, "The Business Value Web: Resourcing Business Processes and Solutions in Higher Education," addresses ways to look at college business processes systematically, take fresh approaches to resourcing, and create real value for stakeholders. (EV)

  8. Resource Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiestand, M. Ed.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the importance of learning about diabetes and provides a list of ways to obtain this information. Different resources include videos, internet sites, books, cookbooks, and magazines. Provides a detailed list of each of the previous resources and recommends that people with or without diabetes make a concerted effort to educate…

  9. Extractable resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The use of information from space systems in the operation of extractive industries, particularly in exploration for mineral and fuel resources was reviewed. Conclusions and recommendations reported are based on the fundamental premise that survival of modern industrial society requires a continuing secure flow of resources for energy, construction and manufacturing, and for use as plant foods.

  10. Characterization of representative materials in support of safe, long term storage of surplus plutonium in DOE-STD-3013 containers

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Paul H; Narlesky, Joshua E; Worl, Laura A; Gillispie, Obie W

    2010-01-01

    The Surveillance and Monitoring Program (SMP) is a joint LANL/SRS effort funded by DOE/EM to provide the technical basis for the safe, long-term storage (up to 50 years) of over 6 metric tons of plutonium stored in over 5000 DOE-STD-3013 containers at various facilities around the DOE complex. The majority of this material is plutonium that is surplus to the nuclear weapons program, and much of it is destined for conversion to mixed oxide fuel for use in US nuclear power plants. The form of the plutonium ranges from relatively pure metal and oxide to very impure oxide. The performance of the 3013 containers has been shown to depend on moisture content and on the levels, types and chemical forms of the impurities. The oxide materials that present the greatest challenge to the storage container are those that contain chloride salts. The chlorides (NaCl, KCl, CaCl{sub 2}, and MgCl{sub 2}) range from less than half of the impurities present to nearly all the impurities. Other common impurities include oxides and other compounds of calcium, magnesium, iron, and nickel. Over the past 15 years the program has collected a large body of experimental data on over 60 samples of plutonium chosen to represent the broader population of materials in storage. This paper will summarize the characterization data, including the origin and process history, particle size, surface area, density, calorimetry, chemical analysis, moisture analysis, prompt gamma, gas generation and corrosion behavior.

  11. JPL Thermal Design Modeling Philosophy and NASA-STD-7009 Standard for Models and Simulations - A Case Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Avila, Arturo

    2011-01-01

    The Standard JPL thermal engineering practice prescribes worst-case methodologies for design. In this process, environmental and key uncertain thermal parameters (e.g., thermal blanket performance, interface conductance, optical properties) are stacked in a worst case fashion to yield the most hot- or cold-biased temperature. Thus, these simulations would represent the upper and lower bounds. This, effectively, represents JPL thermal design margin philosophy. Uncertainty in the margins and the absolute temperatures is usually estimated by sensitivity analyses and/or by comparing the worst-case results with "expected" results. Applicability of the analytical model for specific design purposes along with any temperature requirement violations are documented in peer and project design review material. In 2008, NASA released NASA-STD-7009, Standard for Models and Simulations. The scope of this standard covers the development and maintenance of models, the operation of simulations, the analysis of the results, training, recommended practices, the assessment of the Modeling and Simulation (M&S) credibility, and the reporting of the M&S results. The Mars Exploration Rover (MER) project thermal control system M&S activity was chosen as a case study determining whether JPL practice is in line with the standard and to identify areas of non-compliance. This paper summarizes the results and makes recommendations regarding the application of this standard to JPL thermal M&S practices.

  12. Fluorinated Carbohydrates as Lectin Ligands: 19F-Based Direct STD Monitoring for Detection of Anomeric Selectivity

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, João P.; Diercks, Tammo; Jiménez-Barbero, Jesús; André, Sabine; Gabius, Hans-Joachim; Cañada, Francisco Javier

    2015-01-01

    The characterization of the binding of reducing carbohydrates present as mixtures of anomers in solution to a sugar recepor (lectin) poses severe difficulties. In this situation, NMR spectroscopy enables the observation of signals for each anomer in the mixture by applying approaches based on ligand observation. Saturation transfer difference (STD) NMR allows fast and efficient screening of compound mixtures for reactivity to a receptor. Owing to the exceptionally favorable properties of 19F in NMR spectroscopy and the often complex 1H spectra of carbohydrates, 19F-containing sugars have the potential to be turned into versatile sensors for recognition. Extending the recently established 1H → 1H STDre19F-NMR technique, we here demonstrate its applicability to measure anomeric selectivity of binding in a model system using the plant lectin concanavalin A (ConA) and 2-deoxy-2-fluoro-d-mannose. Indeed, it is also possible to account for the mutual inhibition between the anomers on binding to the lectin by means of a kinetic model. The monitoring of 19F-NMR signal perturbation disclosed the relative activities of the anomers in solution and thus enabled the calculation of their binding affinity towards ConA. The obtained data show a preference for the α anomer that increases with temperature. This experimental approach can be extended to others systems of biomedical interest by testing human lectins with suitably tailored glycan derivatives. PMID:26580665

  13. Characterization of Representative Materials in Support of Safe, Long Term Storage of Surplus Plutonium in DOE-STD-3013 Containers

    SciTech Connect

    Narlesky, Joshua E.; Stroud, Mary Ann; Smith, Paul Herrick; Wayne, David M.; Mason, Richard E.; Worl, Laura A.

    2013-02-15

    The Surveillance and Monitoring Program is a joint Los Alamos National Laboratory/Savannah River Site effort funded by the Department of Energy-Environmental Management to provide the technical basis for the safe, long-term storage (up to 50 years) of over 6 metric tons of plutonium stored in over 5,000 DOE-STD-3013 containers at various facilities around the DOE complex. The majority of this material is plutonium that is surplus to the nuclear weapons program, and much of it is destined for conversion to mixed oxide fuel for use in US nuclear power plants. The form of the plutonium ranges from relatively pure metal and oxide to very impure oxide. The performance of the 3013 containers has been shown to depend on moisture content and on the levels, types and chemical forms of the impurities. The oxide materials that present the greatest challenge to the storage container are those that contain chloride salts. Other common impurities include oxides and other compounds of calcium, magnesium, iron, and nickel. Over the past 15 years the program has collected a large body of experimental data on 54 samples of plutonium, with 53 chosen to represent the broader population of materials in storage. This paper summarizes the characterization data, moisture analysis, particle size, surface area, density, wattage, actinide composition, trace element impurity analysis, and shelf life surveillance data and includes origin and process history information. Limited characterization data on fourteen nonrepresentative samples is also presented.

  14. 40 CFR 51.280 - Resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Resources. 51.280 Section 51.280... Resources. Each plan must include a description of the resources available to the State and local agencies at the date of submission of the plan and of any additional resources needed to carry out the...

  15. 40 CFR 52.135 - Resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Resources. 52.135 Section 52.135... PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Arizona § 52.135 Resources. (a) The requirements of § 51.280 of this... resources available to the State and local agencies and of additional resources needed to carry out the...

  16. 40 CFR 51.280 - Resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Resources. 51.280 Section 51.280... Resources. Each plan must include a description of the resources available to the State and local agencies at the date of submission of the plan and of any additional resources needed to carry out the...

  17. 40 CFR 52.135 - Resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Resources. 52.135 Section 52.135... PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Arizona § 52.135 Resources. (a) The requirements of § 51.280 of this... resources available to the State and local agencies and of additional resources needed to carry out the...

  18. 40 CFR 52.135 - Resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Resources. 52.135 Section 52.135... PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Arizona § 52.135 Resources. (a) The requirements of § 51.280 of this... resources available to the State and local agencies and of additional resources needed to carry out the...

  19. 40 CFR 51.280 - Resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Resources. 51.280 Section 51.280... Resources. Each plan must include a description of the resources available to the State and local agencies at the date of submission of the plan and of any additional resources needed to carry out the...

  20. 40 CFR 51.280 - Resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Resources. 51.280 Section 51.280... Resources. Each plan must include a description of the resources available to the State and local agencies at the date of submission of the plan and of any additional resources needed to carry out the...

  1. 40 CFR 52.135 - Resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Resources. 52.135 Section 52.135... PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Arizona § 52.135 Resources. (a) The requirements of § 51.280 of this... resources available to the State and local agencies and of additional resources needed to carry out the...

  2. 40 CFR 52.135 - Resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Resources. 52.135 Section 52.135... PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Arizona § 52.135 Resources. (a) The requirements of § 51.280 of this... resources available to the State and local agencies and of additional resources needed to carry out the...

  3. 40 CFR 51.280 - Resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Resources. 51.280 Section 51.280... Resources. Each plan must include a description of the resources available to the State and local agencies at the date of submission of the plan and of any additional resources needed to carry out the...

  4. Depression - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - depression ... Depression is a medical condition. If you think you may be depressed, see a health care provider. ... following organizations are good sources of information on depression : American Psychological Association -- www.apa.org/topics/depress/ ...

  5. Multimedia Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Thomas

    1997-01-01

    Describes how the author uses multimedia resources, in this case video tapes, for two assignments: to teach job interviewing in his undergraduate business communication class; and to teach crisis communication in his graduate level advanced business communication class. (SR)

  6. Diabetes - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - diabetes ... The following sites provide further information on diabetes : American Diabetes Association -- www.diabetes.org Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation International -- www.jdrf.org National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion -- ...

  7. Hemophilia - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - hemophilia ... The following organizations provide further information on hemophilia : Centers for Disease Control and Prevention -- www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/hemophilia/index.html National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute -- www.nhlbi.nih.gov/ ...

  8. Arthritis - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - arthritis ... The following organizations provide more information on arthritis : American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons -- orthoinfo.aaos.org/menus/arthritis.cfm Arthritis Foundation -- www.arthritis.org Centers for Disease Control and Prevention -- www. ...

  9. Mars resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duke, Michael B.

    1986-01-01

    The most important resources of Mars for the early exploration phase will be oxygen and water, derived from the Martian atmosphere and regolith, which will be used for propellant and life support. Rocks and soils may be used in unprocessed form as shielding materials for habitats, or in minimally processed form to expand habitable living and work space. Resources necessary to conduct manufacturing and agricultural projects are potentially available, but will await advanced stages of Mars habitation before they are utilized.

  10. [Food additives and healthiness].

    PubMed

    Heinonen, Marina

    2014-01-01

    Additives are used for improving food structure or preventing its spoilage, for example. Many substances used as additives are also naturally present in food. The safety of additives is evaluated according to commonly agreed principles. If high concentrations of an additive cause adverse health effects for humans, a limit of acceptable daily intake (ADI) is set for it. An additive is a risk only when ADI is exceeded. The healthiness of food is measured on the basis of nutrient density and scientifically proven effects. PMID:24772784

  11. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, J. R.; St. Clair, T. L.; Burks, H. D.; Stoakley, D. M.

    1987-01-01

    A method has been found for enhancing the melt flow of thermoplastic polyimides during processing. A high molecular weight 422 copoly(amic acid) or copolyimide was fused with approximately 0.05 to 5 pct by weight of a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive, and this melt was studied by capillary rheometry. Excellent flow and improved composite properties on graphite resulted from the addition of a PMDA-aniline additive to LARC-TPI. Solution viscosity studies imply that amic acid additives temporarily lower molecular weight and, hence, enlarge the processing window. Thus, compositions containing the additive have a lower melt viscosity for a longer time than those unmodified.

  12. Direct Dose Consequences Due to DOE-STD-1027 Threshold Values

    SciTech Connect

    Hochhalter, E Eugene; Durante, Richard Paul; Walker, Jonathon Bill

    2001-06-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the potential direct dose consequences to facility workers and/or co-located workers from a Hazard Category 2 or 3 nuclear facility or a less than Hazard Category 3 radiological inventory. At the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), the safety analysis for several Hazard Category 3 nuclear facilities had to be revisited and the direct dose consequences associated with the facility radiological inventory had to be analyzed and incorporated into the safety analysis. This additional safety analysis was required because it was assumed that for a nuclear facility operating with radiological inventories between the Hazard Category 3 threshold quantities as a lower bounds and less the Hazard Category 2 threshold quantities as an upper bounds, the risk to the facility worker and/or co-located worker was within the INEEL Evaluation Guidelines for radiological exposures.

  13. Alternative techniques for some typical MIL-STD-461/462 types of measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz, J. E.; Larsen, E. B.

    1989-03-01

    Antenna factors determined in a screenroom which was partially loaded with radio frequency (RF) absorbing material, using the two antenna insertion loss technique, are presented. These antenna factors are compared with the antenna factors obtained in an unloaded screenroom, a fully loaded screenroom (anechoic chamber), and at an open field site. In addition, measurements at the 8 corners of a cube were made in partially loaded and fully loaded screenroom to determine the field deviation at the 8 corners of the cube with respect to its center. Also, measurement improvements are quantified for the electric field strength beneath a single wire transmission line, in a partially loaded screenroom. Finally, electric field measurements were made on top of the grounded table in a partially loaded screenroom to determine the field strength variation above the table.

  14. The New NASA-STD-4005 and NASA-HDBK-4006, Essentials for Direct-Drive Solar Electric Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferguson, Dale C.

    2007-01-01

    High voltage solar arrays are necessary for direct-drive solar electric propulsion, which has many advantages, including simplicity and high efficiency. Even when direct-drive is not used, the use of high voltage solar arrays leads to power transmission and conversion efficiencies in electric propulsion Power Management and Distribution. Nevertheless, high voltage solar arrays may lead to temporary power disruptions, through the so-called primary electrostatic discharges, and may permanently damage arrays, through the so-called permanent sustained discharges between array strings. Design guidance is needed to prevent these solar array discharges, and to prevent high power drains through coupling between the electric propulsion devices and the high voltage solar arrays. While most electric propulsion systems may operate outside of Low Earth Orbit, the plasmas produced by their thrusters may interact with the high voltage solar arrays in many ways similarly to Low Earth Orbit plasmas. A brief description of previous experiences with high voltage electric propulsion systems will be given in this paper. There are two new official NASA documents available free through the NASA Standards website to help in designing and testing high voltage solar arrays for electric propulsion. They are NASA-STD-4005, the Low Earth Orbit Spacecraft Charging Design Standard, and NASA-HDBK-4006, the Low Earth Orbit Spacecraft Charging Design Handbook. Taken together, they can both educate the high voltage array designer in the engineering and science of spacecraft charging in the presence of dense plasmas and provide techniques for designing and testing high voltage solar arrays to prevent electrical discharges and power drains.

  15. Incident HIV infection among men attending STD clinics in Pune, India: pathways to disparity and interventions to enhance equity.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, Mary E; Gangakhedkar, Raman R; Sahay, Seema; Reynolds, Steven J; Ghate, Manisha V; Risbud, Arun R; Paranjape, Ramesh S; Bollinger, Robert C; Mehendale, Sanjay M

    2003-09-01

    Systematic disparities in rates of HIV incidence by socioeconomic status were assessed among men attending three sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics in Pune, India, to identify key policy-intervention points to increase health equity. Measures of socioeconomic status included level of education, family income, and occupation. From 1993 to 2000, 2,260 HIV-uninfected men who consented to participate in the study were followed on a quarterly basis. Proportional hazards regression analysis of incident HIV infection identified a statistically significant interaction between level of education and genital ulcer disease. Compared to the lowest-risk men without genital ulcer disease who completed high school, the relative risk (RR) for acquisition of HIV was 7.02 (p < 0.001) for illiterate men with genital ulcer disease, 3.62 (p < 0.001) for men with some education and genital ulcer disease, and 3.02 (p < 0.001) for men who completed high school and had genital ulcer disease. For men with no genital ulcer disease and those with no education RR was 1.09 (p = 0.84), and for men with primary/middle school it was 1.70 (p = 0.03). The study provides evidence that by enhancing access to treatment and interventions that include counselling, education, and provision of condoms for prevention of STDs, especially genital ulcer disease, among disadvantaged men, the disparity in rates of HIV incidence could be lessened considerably. Nevertheless, given the same level of knowledge on AIDS, the same level of risk behaviour, and the same level of biological co-factors, the most disadvantaged men still have higher rates of HIV incidence. PMID:14717571

  16. Additive usage levels.

    PubMed

    Langlais, R

    1996-01-01

    With the adoption of the European Parliament and Council Directives on sweeteners, colours and miscellaneous additives the Commission is now embarking on the project of coordinating the activities of the European Union Member States in the collection of the data that are to make up the report on food additive intake requested by the European Parliament. This presentation looks at the inventory of available sources on additive use levels and concludes that for the time being national legislation is still the best source of information considering that the directives have yet to be transposed into national legislation. Furthermore, this presentation covers the correlation of the food categories as found in the additives directives with those used by national consumption surveys and finds that in a number of instances this correlation still leaves a lot to be desired. The intake of additives via food ingestion and the intake of substances which are chemically identical to additives but which occur naturally in fruits and vegetables is found in a number of cases to be higher than the intake of additives added during the manufacture of foodstuffs. While the difficulties are recognized in contributing to the compilation of food additive intake data, industry as a whole, i.e. the food manufacturing and food additive manufacturing industries, are confident that in a concerted effort, use data on food additives by industry can be made available. Lastly, the paper points out that with the transportation of the additives directives into national legislation and the time by which the food industry will be able to make use of the new food legislative environment several years will still go by; food additives use data by the food industry will thus have to be reviewed at the beginning of the next century. PMID:8792135

  17. An additional middle cuneiform?

    PubMed Central

    Brookes-Fazakerley, S.D.; Jackson, G.E.; Platt, S.R.

    2015-01-01

    Additional cuneiform bones of the foot have been described in reference to the medial bipartite cuneiform or as small accessory ossicles. An additional middle cuneiform has not been previously documented. We present the case of a patient with an additional ossicle that has the appearance and location of an additional middle cuneiform. Recognizing such an anatomical anomaly is essential for ruling out second metatarsal base or middle cuneiform fractures and for the preoperative planning of arthrodesis or open reduction and internal fixation procedures in this anatomical location. PMID:26224890

  18. Lunar Resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edmunson, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the lunar resources that we know are available for human use while exploration of the moon. Some of the lunar resources that are available for use are minerals, sunlight, solar wind, water and water ice, rocks and regolith. The locations for some of the lunar resouces and temperatures are reviewed. The Lunar CRater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) mission, and its findings are reviewed. There is also discussion about water retention in Permament Shadowed Regions of the Moon. There is also discussion about the Rock types on the lunar surface. There is also discussion of the lunar regolith, the type and the usages that we can have from it.

  19. Carbamate deposit control additives

    SciTech Connect

    Honnen, L.R.; Lewis, R.A.

    1980-11-25

    Deposit control additives for internal combustion engines are provided which maintain cleanliness of intake systems without contributing to combustion chamber deposits. The additives are poly(oxyalkylene) carbamates comprising a hydrocarbyloxyterminated poly(Oxyalkylene) chain of 2-5 carbon oxyalkylene units bonded through an oxycarbonyl group to a nitrogen atom of ethylenediamine.

  20. The Association of HIV Stigma and HIV/STD Knowledge With Sexual Risk Behaviors Among Adolescent and Adult Men Who Have Sex With Men in Ghana, West Africa.

    PubMed

    Nelson, LaRon E; Wilton, Leo; Agyarko-Poku, Thomas; Zhang, Nanhua; Aluoch, Marilyn; Thach, Chia T; Owiredu Hanson, Samuel; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw

    2015-06-01

    Ghanaian men who have sex with men (MSM) have a high HIV seroprevalence, but despite a critical need to address this public health concern, research evidence has been extremely limited on influences on sexual risk behavior among MSM in Ghana. To investigate associations between HIV/STD knowledge, HIV stigma, and sexual behaviors in a sample of MSM in Ghana, we conducted a secondary data analysis of cross-sectional survey data from a non-probability sample of Ghanaian MSM (N = 137). Nearly all the men (93%) had more than one current sex partner (M = 5.11, SD = 7.4). Of those reported partners, the average number of current female sexual partners was 1.1 (SD = 2.6). Overall, knowledge levels about HIV and STDs were low, and HIV stigma was high. There was no age-related difference in HIV stigma. Younger MSM (≤25 years) used condoms less often for anal and vaginal sex than did those over 25. Relative frequency of condom use for oral sex was lower in younger men who had higher STD knowledge and also was lower in older men who reported high HIV stigma. Knowledge and stigma were not associated with condom use for anal or vaginal sex in either age group. These descriptive data highlight the need for the development of intervention programs that address HIV/STD prevention knowledge gaps and reduce HIV stigma in Ghanaian communities. Intervention research in Ghana should address age-group-specific HIV prevention needs of MSM youth. PMID:25809638

  1. Effects of a Social Network HIV/STD Prevention Intervention for Men Who Have Sex with Men in Russia and Hungary: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Amirkhanian, Yuri A.; Kelly, Jeffrey A.; Takacs, Judit; McAuliffe, Timothy L.; Kuznetsova, Anna V.; Toth, Tamas P.; Mocsonaki, Laszlo; DiFranceisco, Wayne J.; Meylakhs, Anastasia

    2015-01-01

    Objective To test a novel social network HIV risk reduction intervention for MSM in Russia and Hungary, where same-sex behavior is stigmatized and men may best be reached through their social network connections. Design A 2-arm trial with 18 sociocentric networks of MSM randomized to the social network intervention or standard HIV/STD testing/counseling. Setting St. Petersburg, Russia and Budapest, Hungary. Participants 18 “seeds” from community venues invited the participation of their MSM friends who, in turn, invited their own MSM friends into the study, a process that continued outward until eighteen 3-ring sociocentric networks (mean size=35 members, n=626) were recruited. Intervention Empirically-identified network leaders were trained and guided to convey HIV prevention advice to other network members. Main Outcome and Measures Changes in sexual behavior from baseline to 3- and 12-month followup, with composite HIV/STD incidence measured at 12-months to corroborate behavior changes. Results There were significant reductions between baseline, first followup, and second followup in the intervention versus comparison arm for proportion of men engaging in any unprotected anal intercourse (P=.04); UAI with a nonmain partner (P=.04); and UAI with multiple partners (P=.002). The mean percentage of unprotected AI acts significantly declined (P=.001), as well as the mean number of UAI acts among men who initially had multiple partners (P=.05). Biological HIV/STD incidence was 15% in comparison condition networks and 9% in intervention condition networks. Conclusions Even where same-sex behavior is stigmatized, it is possible to reach MSM and deliver HIV prevention through their social networks. PMID:25565495

  2. Evaluation by fluorescence, STD-NMR, docking and semi-empirical calculations of the o-NBA photo-acid interaction with BSA.

    PubMed

    Chaves, Otávio A; Jesus, Catarina S H; Cruz, Pedro F; Sant'Anna, Carlos M R; Brito, Rui M M; Serpa, Carlos

    2016-12-01

    Serum albumins present reversible pH dependent conformational transitions. A sudden laser induced pH-jump is a methodology that can provide new insights on localized protein (un)folding processes that occur within the nanosecond to microsecond time scale. To generate the fast pH jump needed to fast-trigger a protein conformational event, a photo-triggered acid generator as o-nitrobenzaldehyde (o-NBA) can be conveniently used. In order to detect potential specific or nonspecific interactions between o-NBA and BSA, we have performed ligand-binding studies using fluorescence spectroscopy, saturation transfer difference (STD) NMR, molecular docking and semi-empirical calculations. Fluorescence quenching indicates the formation of a non-fluorescent complex in the ground-state between the fluorophore and the quencher, but o-NBA does not bind much effectively to the protein (Ka~4.34×10(3)M(-1)) and thus can be considered a relatively weak binder. The corresponding thermodynamic parameters: ΔG°, ΔS° and ΔH° showed that the binding process is spontaneous and entropy driven. Results of (1)H STD-NMR confirm that the photo-acid and BSA interact, and the relative intensities of the signals in the STD spectra show that all o-NBA protons are equally involved in the binding process, which should correspond to a nonspecific interaction. Molecular docking and semi-empirical calculations suggest that the o-NBA binds preferentially to the Trp-212-containing site of BSA (FA7), interacting via hydrogen bonds with Arg-217 and Tyr-149 residues. PMID:27376757

  3. Water Resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salomonson, V. V.

    1973-01-01

    Uses of ERTS-1 imagery and data for water resources surveys and management are summarized. Areas discussed are: (1) land use and geology; (2) flood plain and flood inundation mapping; (3) snow cover mapping; (4) glacier observations; (5) data collection systems; (6) surface waters; (7) wetlands mapping; (8) water quality; (9) soil mapping; (10) phreatophyte and riparian vegetation mapping; and (11) evapotranspiration.

  4. Networked Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nickerson, Gord

    1991-01-01

    Describes the use and applications of the communications program Telenet for remote log-in, a basic interactive resource sharing service that enables users to connect to any machine on the Internet and conduct a session. The Virtual Terminal--the central component of Telenet--is also described, as well as problems with terminals, services…

  5. Further Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moon, Rexford G., Jr.; Hawes, Gene R.

    1980-01-01

    Published and institutional resources for assistance in recognizing adult prior learning are listed in five categories: assessment by examination, life or work experience, institutions and contact persons for competency-based programs, background publications, and credit for homemaking and volunteer work by women. (MSE)

  6. Financial Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dougherty, Richard M.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Nine articles cover topics related to library financial resources: (1) escalating serials prices; (2) library budgeting; (3) entrepreneurship; (4) cutback management; (5) academic library budgets; (6) assessment of library effectiveness; (7) public library fund-raising; (8) capital investment; and (9) unit cost analysis at the Virginia Polytechnic…

  7. Rural Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novak, Kathy

    Designed as a resource for rural adult basic education (ABE) program planners, this guidebook describes model linkage strategies between ABE and job placement as well as ABE and job training services that are targeted to rural Americans. The following topics are addressed in the guide: key linkage strategies (community advisory councils,…

  8. Urban Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novak, Kathy

    Designed as a resource for urban adult basic education (ABE) program planners, this guidebook describes model linkage strategies between ABE and job placement as well as ABE and job training services that are targeted to urban Americans. The following topics are covered in the guide: linkage strategies (the meaning of the term linkages, community…

  9. A real time data acquisition system using the MIL-STD-1553B bus. [for transmission of data to host computer for control law processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peri, Frank, Jr.

    1992-01-01

    A flight digital data acquisition system that uses the MIL-STD-1553B bus for transmission of data to a host computer for control law processing is described. The instrument, the Remote Interface Unit (RIU), can accommodate up to 16 input channels and eight output channels. The RIU employs a digital signal processor to perform local digital filtering before sending data to the host. The system allows flexible sensor and actuator data organization to facilitate quick control law computations on the host computer. The instrument can also run simple control laws autonomously without host intervention. The RIU and host computer together have replaced a similar larger, ground minicomputer system with favorable results.

  10. Facilitating NASA's Use of GEIA-STD-0005-1, Performance Standard for Aerospace and High Performance Electronic Systems Containing Lead-Free Solder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plante, Jeannete

    2010-01-01

    GEIA-STD-0005-1 defines the objectives of, and requirements for, documenting processes that assure customers and regulatory agencies that AHP electronic systems containing lead-free solder, piece parts, and boards will satisfy the applicable requirements for performance, reliability, airworthiness, safety, and certify-ability throughout the specified life of performance. It communicates requirements for a Lead-Free Control Plan (LFCP) to assist suppliers in the development of their own Plans. The Plan documents the Plan Owner's (supplier's) processes, that assure their customer, and all other stakeholders that the Plan owner's products will continue to meet their requirements. The presentation reviews quality assurance requirements traceability and LFCP template instructions.

  11. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fletcher, James C. (Inventor); Pratt, J. Richard (Inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (Inventor); Burks, Harold D. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A process for preparing polyimides having enhanced melt flow properties is described. The process consists of heating a mixture of a high molecular weight poly-(amic acid) or polyimide with a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive in the range of 0.05 to 15 percent by weight of additive. The polyimide powders so obtained show improved processability, as evidenced by lower melt viscosity by capillary rheometry. Likewise, films prepared from mixtures of polymers with additives show improved processability with earlier onset of stretching by TMA.

  12. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, J. Richard (Inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (Inventor); Burks, Harold D. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A process for preparing polyimides having enhanced melt flow properties is described. The process consists of heating a mixture of a high molecular weight poly-(amic acid) or polyimide with a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive in the range of 0.05 to 15 percent by weight of the additive. The polyimide powders so obtained show improved processability, as evidenced by lower melt viscosity by capillary rheometry. Likewise, films prepared from mixtures of polymers with additives show improved processability with earlier onset of stretching by TMA.

  13. 18 CFR 367.59 - Additions and retirements of property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Additions and retirements of property. 367.59 Section 367.59 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... GAS ACT Service Company Property Instructions § 367.59 Additions and retirements of property. (a)...

  14. 18 CFR 367.59 - Additions and retirements of property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Additions and retirements of property. 367.59 Section 367.59 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... GAS ACT Service Company Property Instructions § 367.59 Additions and retirements of property. (a)...

  15. 18 CFR 367.59 - Additions and retirements of property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Additions and retirements of property. 367.59 Section 367.59 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... GAS ACT Service Company Property Instructions § 367.59 Additions and retirements of property. (a)...

  16. 18 CFR 367.59 - Additions and retirements of property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Additions and retirements of property. 367.59 Section 367.59 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... GAS ACT Service Company Property Instructions § 367.59 Additions and retirements of property. (a)...

  17. Maroon Bells-Snowmass Wilderness and Additions, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, V.L.; Weisner, R.C.

    1984-01-01

    The Maroon Bells-Snowmass Wilderness and Additions, located in western Colorado, was examined for mineral potential during 1974-1976. Evidence of mineralization is widespread and numerous areas have either probable or substantiated mineral-resource potential for one or more of the following metals: gold, silver, lead, zinc, copper, and molybdenum. In addition, part of the wilderness has substantiated coal resource potential. There is little promise for the occurrence of oil and gas or geothermal resources.

  18. Smog control fuel additives

    SciTech Connect

    Lundby, W.

    1993-06-29

    A method is described of controlling, reducing or eliminating, ozone and related smog resulting from photochemical reactions between ozone and automotive or industrial gases comprising the addition of iodine or compounds of iodine to hydrocarbon-base fuels prior to or during combustion in an amount of about 1 part iodine per 240 to 10,000,000 parts fuel, by weight, to be accomplished by: (a) the addition of these inhibitors during or after the refining or manufacturing process of liquid fuels; (b) the production of these inhibitors for addition into fuel tanks, such as automotive or industrial tanks; or (c) the addition of these inhibitors into combustion chambers of equipment utilizing solid fuels for the purpose of reducing ozone.

  19. Food Additives and Hyperkinesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wender, Ester H.

    1977-01-01

    The hypothesis that food additives are causally associated with hyperkinesis and learning disabilities in children is reviewed, and available data are summarized. Available from: American Medical Association 535 North Dearborn Street Chicago, Illinois 60610. (JG)

  20. Additional Types of Neuropathy

    MedlinePlus

    ... A A Listen En Español Additional Types of Neuropathy Charcot's Joint Charcot's Joint, also called neuropathic arthropathy, ... can stop bone destruction and aid healing. Cranial Neuropathy Cranial neuropathy affects the 12 pairs of nerves ...

  1. Space Resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKay, Mary Fae (Editor); McKay, David S. (Editor); Duke, Michael S. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    Space resources must be used to support life on the Moon and exploration of Mars. Just as the pioneers applied the tools they brought with them to resources they found along the way rather than trying to haul all their needs over a long supply line, so too must space travelers apply their high technology tools to local resources. The pioneers refilled their water barrels at each river they forded; moonbase inhabitants may use chemical reactors to combine hydrogen brought from Earth with oxygen found in lunar soil to make their water. The pioneers sought temporary shelter under trees or in the lee of a cliff and built sod houses as their first homes on the new land; settlers of the Moon may seek out lava tubes for their shelter or cover space station modules with lunar regolith for radiation protection. The pioneers moved further west from their first settlements, using wagons they had built from local wood and pack animals they had raised; space explorers may use propellant made at a lunar base to take them on to Mars. The concept for this report was developed at a NASA-sponsored summer study in 1984. The program was held on the Scripps campus of the University of California at San Diego (UCSD), under the auspices of the American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE). It was jointly managed under the California Space Inst. and the NASA Johnson Space Center, under the direction of the Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology (OAST) at NASA Headquarters. The study participants (listed in the addendum) included a group of 18 university teachers and researchers (faculty fellows) who were present for the entire 10-week period and a larger group of attendees from universities, Government, and industry who came for a series of four 1-week workshops. The organization of this report follows that of the summer study. Space Resources consists of a brief overview and four detailed technical volumes: (1) Scenarios; (2) Energy, Power, and Transport; (3) Materials; (4

  2. Space Resource Roundtable Rationale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duke, Michael

    1999-01-01

    Recent progress in the U.S. Space Program has renewed interest in space resource issues. The Lunar Prospector mission conducted in NASA's Discovery Program has yielded interesting new insights into lunar resource issues, particularly the possibility that water is concentrated in cold traps at the lunar poles. This finding has not yet triggered a new program of lunar exploration or development, however it opens the possibility that new Discovery Missions might be viable. Several asteroid missions are underway or under development and a mission to return samples from the Mars satellite, Phobos, is being developed. These exploration missions are oriented toward scientific analysis, not resource development and utilization, but can provide additional insight into the possibilities for mining asteroids. The Mars Surveyor program now includes experiments on the 2001 lander that are directly applicable to developing propellants from the atmosphere of Mars, and the program has solicited proposals for the 2003/2005 missions in the area of resource utilization. These are aimed at the eventual human exploration of Mars. The beginning of construction of the International Space Station has awakened interest in follow-on programs of human exploration, and NASA is once more studying the human exploration of Moon, Mars and asteroids. Resource utilization will be included as objectives by some of these human exploration programs. At the same time, research and technology development programs in NASA such as the Microgravity Materials Science Program and the Cross-Enterprise Technology Development Program are including resource utilization as a valid area for study. Several major development areas that could utilize space resources, such as space tourism and solar power satellite programs, are actively under study. NASA's interests in space resource development largely are associated with NASA missions rather than the economic development of resources for industrial processes. That

  3. 33 CFR 203.83 - Additional requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Additional requirements. 203.83 Section 203.83 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE EMERGENCY EMPLOYMENT OF ARMY AND OTHER RESOURCES, NATURAL DISASTER PROCEDURES Local...

  4. 18 CFR 33.10 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .... 33.10 Section 33.10 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT APPLICATIONS UNDER FEDERAL POWER ACT SECTION 203 § 33.10 Additional information. The Director of the Office of Energy Market Regulation, or his...

  5. 42 CFR 124.10 - Additional conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Additional conditions. 124.10 Section 124.10 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH RESOURCES DEVELOPMENT MEDICAL FACILITY CONSTRUCTION AND MODERNIZATION Project Grants for Public Medical Facility...

  6. Modeling renewable energy resources in integrated resource planning

    SciTech Connect

    Logan, D.; Neil, C.; Taylor, A.

    1994-06-01

    Including renewable energy resources in integrated resource planning (IRP) requires that utility planning models properly consider the relevant attributes of the different renewable resources in addition to conventional supply-side and demand-side options. Otherwise, a utility`s resource plan is unlikely to have an appropriate balance of the various resource options. The current trend toward regulatory set-asides for renewable resources is motivated in part by the perception that the capabilities of current utility planning models are inadequate with regard to renewable resources. Adequate modeling capabilities and utility planning practices are a necessary prerequisite to the long-term penetration of renewable resources into the electric utility industry`s resource mix. This report presents a review of utility planning models conducted for the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). The review examines the capabilities of utility planning models to address key issues in the choice between renewable resources and other options. The purpose of this review is to provide a basis for identifying high priority areas for advancing the state of the art.

  7. Lunar Water Resource Demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muscatello, Anthony C.

    2008-01-01

    In cooperation with the Canadian Space Agency, the Northern Centre for Advanced Technology, Inc., the Carnegie-Mellon University, JPL, and NEPTEC, NASA has undertaken the In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) project called RESOLVE. This project is a ground demonstration of a system that would be sent to explore permanently shadowed polar lunar craters, drill into the regolith, determine what volatiles are present, and quantify them in addition to recovering oxygen by hydrogen reduction. The Lunar Prospector has determined these craters contain enhanced hydrogen concentrations averaging about 0.1%. If the hydrogen is in the form of water, the water concentration would be around 1%, which would translate into billions of tons of water on the Moon, a tremendous resource. The Lunar Water Resource Demonstration (LWRD) is a part of RESOLVE designed to capture lunar water and hydrogen and quantify them as a backup to gas chromatography analysis. This presentation will briefly review the design of LWRD and some of the results of testing the subsystem. RESOLVE is to be integrated with the Scarab rover from CMIJ and the whole system demonstrated on Mauna Kea on Hawaii in November 2008. The implications of lunar water for Mars exploration are two-fold: 1) RESOLVE and LWRD could be used in a similar fashion on Mars to locate and quantify water resources, and 2) electrolysis of lunar water could provide large amounts of liquid oxygen in LEO, leading to lower costs for travel to Mars, in addition to being very useful at lunar outposts.

  8. Information technology resources assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Loken, S.C.

    1993-01-01

    The emphasis in Information Technology (IT) development has shifted from technology management to information management, and the tools of information management are increasingly at the disposal of end-users, people who deal with information. Moreover, the interactive capabilities of technologies such as hypertext, scientific visualization, virtual reality, video conferencing, and even database management systems have placed in the hands of users a significant amount of discretion over how these resources will be used. The emergence of high-performance networks, as well as network operating systems, improved interoperability, and platform independence of applications will eliminate technical barriers to the use of data, increase the power and range of resources that can be used cooperatively, and open up a wealth of possibilities for new applications. The very scope of these prospects for the immediate future is a problem for the IT planner or administrator. Technology procurement and implementation, integration of new technologies into the existing infrastructure, cost recovery and usage of networks and networked resources, training issues, and security concerns such as data protection and access to experiments are just some of the issues that need to be considered in the emerging IT environment. As managers we must use technology to improve competitiveness. When procuring new systems, we must take advantage of scalable resources. New resources such as distributed file systems can improve access to and efficiency of existing operating systems. In addition, we must assess opportunities to improve information worker productivity and information management through tedmologies such as distributed computational visualization and teleseminar applications.

  9. Water resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salomonson, V. V.; Rango, A.

    1973-01-01

    The application of ERTS-1 imagery to the conservation and control of water resources is discussed. The effects of exisiting geology and land use in the water shed area on the hydrologic cycle and the general characteristics of runoff are described. The effects of floods, snowcover, and glaciers are analyzed. The use of ERTS-1 imagery to map surface water and wetland areas to provide rapid inventorying over large regions of water bodies is reported.

  10. Additive Manufacturing Infrared Inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaddy, Darrell

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing is a rapid prototyping technology that allows parts to be built in a series of thin layers from plastic, ceramics, and metallics. Metallic additive manufacturing is an emerging form of rapid prototyping that allows complex structures to be built using various metallic powders. Significant time and cost savings have also been observed using the metallic additive manufacturing compared with traditional techniques. Development of the metallic additive manufacturing technology has advanced significantly over the last decade, although many of the techniques to inspect parts made from these processes have not advanced significantly or have limitations. Several external geometry inspection techniques exist such as Coordinate Measurement Machines (CMM), Laser Scanners, Structured Light Scanning Systems, or even traditional calipers and gages. All of the aforementioned techniques are limited to external geometry and contours or must use a contact probe to inspect limited internal dimensions. This presentation will document the development of a process for real-time dimensional inspection technique and digital quality record of the additive manufacturing process using Infrared camera imaging and processing techniques.

  11. NASA Water Resources Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toll, David L.

    2011-01-01

    With increasing population pressure and water usage coupled with climate variability and change, water issues are being reported by numerous groups as the most critical environmental problems facing us in the 21st century. Competitive uses and the prevalence of river basins and aquifers that extend across boundaries engender political tensions between communities, stakeholders and countries. In addition to the numerous water availability issues, water quality related problems are seriously affecting human health and our environment. The potential crises and conflicts especially arise when water is competed among multiple uses. For example, urban areas, environmental and recreational uses, agriculture, and energy production compete for scarce resources, not only in the Western U.S. but throughout much of the U.S. and also in numerous parts of the world. Mitigating these conflicts and meeting water demands and needs requires using existing water resources more efficiently. The NASA Water Resources Program Element works to use NASA products and technology to address these critical water issues. The primary goal of the Water Resources is to facilitate application of NASA Earth science products as a routine use in integrated water resources management for the sustainable use of water. This also includes the extreme events of drought and floods and the adaptation to the impacts from climate change. NASA satellite and Earth system observations of water and related data provide a huge volume of valuable data in both near-real-time and extended back nearly 50 years about the Earth's land surface conditions such as precipitation, snow, soil moisture, water levels, land cover type, vegetation type, and health. NASA Water Resources Program works closely to use NASA and Earth science data with other U.S. government agencies, universities, and non-profit and private sector organizations both domestically and internationally. The NASA Water Resources Program organizes its

  12. Phenylethynyl Containing Reactive Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G., Jr. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Phenylethynyl containing reactive additives were prepared from aromatic diamine, containing phenylethvnvl groups and various ratios of phthalic anhydride and 4-phenylethynviphthalic anhydride in glacial acetic acid to form the imide in one step or in N-methyl-2-pvrrolidinone to form the amide acid intermediate. The reactive additives were mixed in various amounts (10% to 90%) with oligomers containing either terminal or pendent phenylethynyl groups (or both) to reduce the melt viscosity and thereby enhance processability. Upon thermal cure, the additives react and become chemically incorporated into the matrix and effect an increase in crosslink density relative to that of the host resin. This resultant increase in crosslink density has advantageous consequences on the cured resin properties such as higher glass transition temperature and higher modulus as compared to that of the host resin.

  13. Additives in plastics.

    PubMed Central

    Deanin, R D

    1975-01-01

    The polymers used in plastics are generally harmless. However, they are rarely used in pure form. In almost all commercial plastics, they are "compounded" with monomeric ingredients to improve their processing and end-use performance. In order of total volume used, these monomeric additives may be classified as follows: reinforcing fibers, fillers, and coupling agents; plasticizers; colorants; stabilizers (halogen stabilizers, antioxidants, ultraviolet absorbers, and biological preservatives); processing aids (lubricants, others, and flow controls); flame retardants, peroxides; and antistats. Some information is already available, and much more is needed, on potential toxicity and safe handling of these additives during processing and manufacture of plastics products. PMID:1175566

  14. Binding mechanism of the tyrosine-kinase inhibitor nilotinib to human serum albumin determined by 1H STD NMR, 19F NMR, and molecular modeling.

    PubMed

    Yan, Jin; Wu, Di; Sun, Pingchuan; Ma, Xiaoli; Wang, Lili; Li, Shanshan; Xu, Kailin; Li, Hui

    2016-05-30

    Drug interaction with albumins significantly affects in vivo drug transport and biological metabolism. To gain insight into the binding mechanisms of tyrosine-kinase inhibitor nilotinib (NIL) to human serum albumin (HSA), an approach combining (1)H saturation-transfer difference (STD) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, (19)F NMR spectroscopy, steady-state fluorescence quenching, and molecular modeling was adopted. (19)F NMR was used to determine the binding constant, and a value of 4.12 × 10(3)M(-1) was obtained. Fluorescence spectroscopy was also used to determine the binding constant, and the value obtained was within the same order of magnitude. The binding process was mainly driven by hydrogen bonds and van der Waals forces. Displacement experiments further showed that NIL mainly bound to the hydrophobic cavity of HSA's subdomain IIA, also called Sudlow's site I. Molecular docking simulation was also used to establish a molecular binding model, and findings were consistent with those of displacement and the (1)H STD NMR experiments. PMID:26922576

  15. Employing a teen advisory board to adapt an evidence-based HIV/STD intervention for incarcerated African-American adolescent women.

    PubMed

    Latham, Teaniese P; Sales, Jessica M; Renfro, Tiffaney L; Boyce, Lorin S; Rose, Eve; Murray, Colleen C; Wingood, Gina M; DiClemente, Ralph J

    2012-10-01

    This manuscript assesses priorities and challenges of adolescent females by conducting a meeting with teen advisory board (TAB) members to collect information regarding their lives and experiences pre-, during and post-incarceration in a juvenile detention facility. Multiple themes emerged regarding the impact of incarceration on young African-American females, including experiencing a loss of personal liberties, the importance of making money upon release, unfaithfulness by partners on the 'outside', substance use and lack of control over their environment upon release, including parents, peers and male sexual partners. Based on feedback from TAB members, unique barriers and challenges were identified that suggested areas where adaptations to an evidenced-based HIV/sexually transmitted disease (STD) intervention would be justified to more adequately meet the needs of this particular subgroup of young African-American women. Adaptations to the evidence-based interventions included enhancing activities related to goal setting, emotion regulation skills, decision-making, recognizing and utilizing support networks and addressing the relationship between substance use and risky sexual behavior. Future health education efforts focusing on either the creation of new HIV/STD interventions or adaptations to existing interventions should consider utilizing advisory boards with members of the priority population at the earliest stages of intervention planning. PMID:21368023

  16. 'Let Us Protect Our Future' a culturally congruent evidenced-based HIV/STD risk-reduction intervention for young South African adolescents.

    PubMed

    Jemmott, L S; Jemmott, J B; Ngwane, Z; Icard, L; O'Leary, A; Gueits, L; Brawner, B

    2014-02-01

    One of the worst HIV/AIDS epidemics in the world is occurring in South Africa, where heterosexual exposure is the main mode of HIV transmission. Young people 15-24 years of age, particularly women, account for a large share of new infections. Accordingly, there is an urgent need for behavior-change interventions to reduce the incidence of HIV among adolescents in South Africa. However, there are few such interventions with proven efficacy for South African adolescents, especially young adolescents. A recent cluster-randomized controlled trial of the 'Let Us Protect Our Future!' HIV/STD risk-reduction intervention for Grade 6 South African adolescents (mean age = 12.4 years) found significant decreases in self-reported sexual risk behaviors compared with a control intervention. This article describes the intervention, the use of the social cognitive theory and the reasoned action approach to develop the intervention, how formative research informed its development and the acceptability of the intervention. Challenges in designing and implementing HIV/STD risk-reduction interventions for young adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa are discussed. PMID:23962491

  17. ‘Let Us Protect Our Future’ a culturally congruent evidenced-based HIV/STD risk-reduction intervention for young South African adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Jemmott, L. S.; Jemmott, J. B.; Ngwane, Z.; Icard, L.; O’Leary, A.; Gueits, L.; Brawner, B.

    2014-01-01

    One of the worst HIV/AIDS epidemics in the world is occurring in South Africa, where heterosexual exposure is the main mode of HIV transmission. Young people 15–24 years of age, particularly women, account for a large share of new infections. Accordingly, there is an urgent need for behavior-change interventions to reduce the incidence of HIV among adolescents in South Africa. However, there are few such interventions with proven efficacy for South African adolescents, especially young adolescents. A recent cluster-randomized controlled trial of the ‘Let Us Protect Our Future!’ HIV/STD risk-reduction intervention for Grade 6 South African adolescents (mean age = 12.4 years) found significant decreases in self-reported sexual risk behaviors compared with a control intervention. This article describes the intervention, the use of the social cognitive theory and the reasoned action approach to develop the intervention, how formative research informed its development and the acceptability of the intervention. Challenges in designing and implementing HIV/STD risk-reduction interventions for young adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa are discussed. PMID:23962491

  18. Biobased lubricant additives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fully biobased lubricants are those formulated using all biobased ingredients, i.e. biobased base oils and biobased additives. Such formulations provide the maximum environmental, safety, and economic benefits expected from a biobased product. Currently, there are a number of biobased base oils that...

  19. Multifunctional fuel additives

    SciTech Connect

    Baillargeon, D.J.; Cardis, A.B.; Heck, D.B.

    1991-03-26

    This paper discusses a composition comprising a major amount of a liquid hydrocarbyl fuel and a minor low-temperature flow properties improving amount of an additive product of the reaction of a suitable diol and product of a benzophenone tetracarboxylic dianhydride and a long-chain hydrocarbyl aminoalcohol.

  20. California's geothermal resource potential

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leibowitz, L. P.

    1978-01-01

    According to a U.S. Geological Survey estimate, recoverable hydrothermal energy in California may amount to 19,000 MW of electric power for a 30-year period. At present, a geothermal installation in the Geysers region of the state provides 502 MWe of capacity; an additional 1500 MWe of electric generating capacity is scheduled to be in operation in geothermal fields by 1985. In addition to hydrothermal energy sources, hot-igneous and conduction-dominated resources are under investigation for possible development. Land-use conflicts, environmental concerns and lack of risk capital may limit this development.

  1. Earth resources*

    PubMed Central

    Skinner, Brian J.

    1979-01-01

    Reliable supplies of metals have historically been the keys to industrial and technological development. But many metals are subject to the possible exhaustion of traditional kinds of deposits. A continued supply of such metals, which include tin, tungsten, silver, lead, zinc, and many others, will require their recovery from common rocks, in which they are found in solid solution in common silicate minerals. Recovery from unconventional sources will be so energy intensive that we may eventually have to stop mining such metals. The greatest challenge facing the U.S. Geological Survey in its second century will be the problem of resource limitations. PMID:16592706

  2. Damien: Teacher Resource Guide [with Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pacific Resources for Education and Learning, Honolulu, HI.

    This resource includes: a videotape of the film "Damien," which was locally produced in Hawaii in the late 1940s; instructional modules and resources for the classroom; additional information to support the instructional modules and videotape viewing; and an annotated bibliography. Major goals of the teacher resource materials are to provide…

  3. Boron addition to alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Coad, B. C.

    1985-08-20

    A process for addition of boron to an alloy which involves forming a melt of the alloy and a reactive metal, selected from the group consisting of aluminum, titanium, zirconium and mixtures thereof to the melt, maintaining the resulting reactive mixture in the molten state and reacting the boric oxide with the reactive metal to convert at least a portion of the boric oxide to boron which dissolves in the resulting melt, and to convert at least portion of the reactive metal to the reactive metal oxide, which oxide remains with the resulting melt, and pouring the resulting melt into a gas stream to form a first atomized powder which is subsequently remelted with further addition of boric oxide, re-atomized, and thus reprocessed to convert essentially all the reactive metal to metal oxide to produce a powdered alloy containing specified amounts of boron.

  4. Tackifier for addition polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, J. M.; St.clair, T. L.

    1980-01-01

    A modification to the addition polyimide, LaRC-160, was prepared to improve tack and drape and increase prepeg out-time. The essentially solventless, high viscosity laminating resin is synthesized from low cost liquid monomers. The modified version takes advantage of a reactive, liquid plasticizer which is used in place of solvent and helps solve a major problem of maintaining good prepeg tack and drape, or the ability of the prepeg to adhere to adjacent plies and conform to a desired shape during the lay up process. This alternate solventless approach allows both longer life of the polymer prepeg and the processing of low void laminates. This approach appears to be applicable to all addition polyimide systems.

  5. Vinyl capped addition polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vannucci, Raymond D. (Inventor); Malarik, Diane C. (Inventor); Delvigs, Peter (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    Polyimide resins (PMR) are generally useful where high strength and temperature capabilities are required (at temperatures up to about 700 F). Polyimide resins are particularly useful in applications such as jet engine compressor components, for example, blades, vanes, air seals, air splitters, and engine casing parts. Aromatic vinyl capped addition polyimides are obtained by reacting a diamine, an ester of tetracarboxylic acid, and an aromatic vinyl compound. Low void materials with improved oxidative stability when exposed to 700 F air may be fabricated as fiber reinforced high molecular weight capped polyimide composites. The aromatic vinyl capped polyimides are provided with a more aromatic nature and are more thermally stable than highly aliphatic, norbornenyl-type end-capped polyimides employed in PMR resins. The substitution of aromatic vinyl end-caps for norbornenyl end-caps in addition polyimides results in polymers with improved oxidative stability.

  6. [Biologically active food additives].

    PubMed

    Velichko, M A; Shevchenko, V P

    1998-07-01

    More than half out of 40 projects for the medical science development by the year of 2000 have been connected with the bio-active edible additives that are called "the food of XXI century", non-pharmacological means for many diseases. Most of these additives--nutricevtics and parapharmacevtics--are intended for the enrichment of food rations for the sick or healthy people. The ecologicaly safest and most effective are combined domestic adaptogens with immuno-modulating and antioxidating action that give anabolic and stimulating effect,--"leveton", "phytoton" and "adapton". The MKTs-229 tablets are residue discharge means. For atherosclerosis and general adiposis they recommend "tsar tablets" and "aiconol (ikhtien)"--on the base of cod-liver oil or "splat" made out of seaweed (algae). All these preparations have been clinically tested and received hygiene certificates from the Institute of Dietology of the Russian Academy of Medical Science. PMID:9752776

  7. Electrophilic addition of astatine

    SciTech Connect

    Norseev, Yu.V.; Vasaros, L.; Nhan, D.D.; Huan, N.K.

    1988-03-01

    It has been shown for the first time that astatine is capable of undergoing addition reactions to unsaturated hydrocarbons. A new compound of astatine, viz., ethylene astatohydrin, has been obtained, and its retention numbers of squalane, Apiezon, and tricresyl phosphate have been found. The influence of various factors on the formation of ethylene astatohydrin has been studied. It has been concluded on the basis of the results obtained that the univalent cations of astatine in an acidic medium is protonated hypoastatous acid.

  8. Hydrocarbon fuel additive

    SciTech Connect

    Ambrogio, S.

    1989-02-28

    This patent describes the method of fuel storage or combustion, wherein the fuel supply contains small amounts of water, the step of adding to the fuel supply an additive comprising a blend of a hydrophilic agent chosen from the group of ethylene glycol, n-butyl alcohol, and cellosolve in the range of 22-37% by weight; ethoxylated nonylphenol in the range of 26-35% by weight; nonylphenol polyethylene glycol ether in the range of 32-43% by weight.

  9. Functional Generalized Additive Models.

    PubMed

    McLean, Mathew W; Hooker, Giles; Staicu, Ana-Maria; Scheipl, Fabian; Ruppert, David

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the functional generalized additive model (FGAM), a novel regression model for association studies between a scalar response and a functional predictor. We model the link-transformed mean response as the integral with respect to t of F{X(t), t} where F(·,·) is an unknown regression function and X(t) is a functional covariate. Rather than having an additive model in a finite number of principal components as in Müller and Yao (2008), our model incorporates the functional predictor directly and thus our model can be viewed as the natural functional extension of generalized additive models. We estimate F(·,·) using tensor-product B-splines with roughness penalties. A pointwise quantile transformation of the functional predictor is also considered to ensure each tensor-product B-spline has observed data on its support. The methods are evaluated using simulated data and their predictive performance is compared with other competing scalar-on-function regression alternatives. We illustrate the usefulness of our approach through an application to brain tractography, where X(t) is a signal from diffusion tensor imaging at position, t, along a tract in the brain. In one example, the response is disease-status (case or control) and in a second example, it is the score on a cognitive test. R code for performing the simulations and fitting the FGAM can be found in supplemental materials available online. PMID:24729671

  10. Additional mineral resources assessment of the Battle Creek, Bruneau River, Deep Creek-Owyhee River, Jarbidge River, Juniper Creek, Little Owyhee River, North Fork Owyhee River, Owyhee River Canyon, South Fork Owyhee River, Upper Deep Creek, and Yatahoney Creek Wilderness Study Areas, Owyhee County, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Diggles, Michael F.; Berger, Byron R.; Vander Meulen, Dean B.; Minor, Scott A.; Ach, Jay A.; Sawlan, Michael G.

    1989-01-01

    From 1984 to 1986, studies were conducted to assess the potential for undiscovered mineral resources in wilderness study areas on the Owyhee Plateau. The results of these studies have been published in a series of U.S. Geological Survey Bulletins. Since that time, low-grade, high-tonnage epithermal hot-spring gold-silver deposits have been recognized in the region north of the wilderness study areas. The recognition that this mineral-deposit model is applicable in the region, coupled with new data that has become available to the U.S. Geological Survey, reinterpretation of existing geochemical data, and known-deposit data suggest that similar deposits may be present elsewhere on the Owyhee Plateau. This report is an additional assessment of the Battle Creek, Bruneau River, Deep Creek-Owyhee River, Jarbidge River, Juniper Creek, Little Owyhee River, North Fork Owyhee River, Owyhee River Canyon, South Fork Owyhee River (ID-016-053), Upper Deep Creek, and Yatahoney Creek Wilderness Study Areas in Idaho Wilderness Study Areas in Idaho in light of those new data.

  11. Siloxane containing addition polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maudgal, S.; St. Clair, T. L.

    1984-01-01

    Addition polyimide oligomers have been synthesized from bis(gamma-aminopropyl) tetramethyldisiloxane and 3, 3', 4, 4'-benzophenonetetracarboxylic dianhydride using a variety of latent crosslinking groups as endcappers. The prepolymers were isolated and characterized for solubility (in amide, chlorinated and ether solvents), melt flow and cure properties. The most promising systems, maleimide and acetylene terminated prepolymers, were selected for detailed study. Graphite cloth reinforced composites were prepared and properties compared with those of graphite/Kerimid 601, a commercially available bismaleimide. Mixtures of the maleimide terminated system with Kerimid 601, in varying proportions, were also studied.

  12. Oil additive process

    SciTech Connect

    Bishop, H.

    1988-10-18

    This patent describes a method of making an additive comprising: (a) adding 2 parts by volume of 3% sodium hypochlorite to 45 parts by volume of diesel oil fuel to form a sulphur free fuel, (b) removing all water and foreign matter formed by the sodium hypochlorite, (c) blending 30 parts by volume of 24% lead naphthanate with 15 parts by volume of the sulphur free fuel, 15 parts by volume of light-weight material oil to form a blended mixture, and (d) heating the blended mixture slowly and uniformly to 152F.

  13. Air resources

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    This section describes the ambient (surrounding) air quality of the TVA region, discusses TVA emission contributions to ambient air quality, and identifies air quality impacts to human health and welfare. Volume 2 Technical Document 2, Environmental Consequences, describes how changes in TVA emissions could affect regional air quality, human health, environmental resources, and materials. The primary region of the affected environment is broadly defined as the state of Tennessee, as well as southern Kentucky, western Virginia, southern West Virginia, western North Carolina, and northern Georgia, Alabama, and Mississippi. This area represents the watershed of the Tennessee River and the 201 counties of the greater TVA service area. Emissions from outside the Tennessee Valley region contribute to air quality in the Valley. Also, TVA emissions are transported outside the Valley and have some impact on air quality beyond the primary study area. Although the study area experiences a number of air quality problems, overall air quality is good.

  14. Information resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friend, Milton

    2015-01-01

    A wide variety of entities across North America are involved in wildlife disease investigations; however, the formal assembly of multidimensional programs that primarily address disease for the benefit of free-ranging wildlife is rather limited. The Southeastern Cooperative Wildlife Disease Study (SCWDS), the National Wildlife Health Center (NWHC), and the Canadian Wildlife Health Cooperative (CWHC) are selected examples. These programs are highlighted because of the scope of their capabilities and long-term involvement in assisting State and Federal natural resource agencies combat wildlife disease. A variety of other sources for possible assistance in addressing wildlife disease issues exists throughout North America and globally. It is prudent for wildlife conservation field biologists, managers, and administrators to be aware of such local resources. Ideally, awareness and knowledge of the types of assistance those programs can provide should be obtained prior to disease crisis events since appropriate, timely intervention often is required to minimize wildlife losses from disease and prevent the establishment of new infectious diseases within wildlife populations and geographic areas. Increasing recognition of the substantial number of infectious diseases being transferred between wildlife, domestic animals, and humans has led to increased collaborative investigations between wildlife, domestic, and human health programs. That collaboration has led to a heightened focus on wildlife disease within some public health and agriculture agencies. For purposes of this Chapter, wildlife disease is narrowly defined as those diseases (infectious and noninfectious) causing morbidity and mortality in free-ranging wildlife populations. Therefore, there is no focus on the numerous fish disease or environmental contaminant programs that exist on behalf of North American fauna.

  15. Performance Boosting Additive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Mainstream Engineering Corporation was awarded Phase I and Phase II contracts from Goddard Space Flight Center's Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program in early 1990. With support from the SBIR program, Mainstream Engineering Corporation has developed a unique low cost additive, QwikBoost (TM), that increases the performance of air conditioners, heat pumps, refrigerators, and freezers. Because of the energy and environmental benefits of QwikBoost, Mainstream received the Tibbetts Award at a White House Ceremony on October 16, 1997. QwikBoost was introduced at the 1998 International Air Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Exposition. QwikBoost is packaged in a handy 3-ounce can (pressurized with R-134a) and will be available for automotive air conditioning systems in summer 1998.

  16. Sewage sludge additive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalvinskas, J. J.; Mueller, W. A.; Ingham, J. D. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    The additive is for a raw sewage treatment process of the type where settling tanks are used for the purpose of permitting the suspended matter in the raw sewage to be settled as well as to permit adsorption of the dissolved contaminants in the water of the sewage. The sludge, which settles down to the bottom of the settling tank is extracted, pyrolyzed and activated to form activated carbon and ash which is mixed with the sewage prior to its introduction into the settling tank. The sludge does not provide all of the activated carbon and ash required for adequate treatment of the raw sewage. It is necessary to add carbon to the process and instead of expensive commercial carbon, coal is used to provide the carbon supplement.

  17. Perspectives on Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourell, David L.

    2016-07-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) has skyrocketed in visibility commercially and in the public sector. This article describes the development of this field from early layered manufacturing approaches of photosculpture, topography, and material deposition. Certain precursors to modern AM processes are also briefly described. The growth of the field over the last 30 years is presented. Included is the standard delineation of AM technologies into seven broad categories. The economics of AM part generation is considered, and the impacts of the economics on application sectors are described. On the basis of current trends, the future outlook will include a convergence of AM fabricators, mass-produced AM fabricators, enabling of topology optimization designs, and specialization in the AM legal arena. Long-term developments with huge impact are organ printing and volume-based printing.

  18. New addition curing polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frimer, Aryeh A.; Cavano, Paul

    1991-01-01

    In an attempt to improve the thermal-oxidative stability (TOS) of PMR-type polymers, the use of 1,4-phenylenebis (phenylmaleic anhydride) PPMA, was evaluated. Two series of nadic end-capped addition curing polyimides were prepared by imidizing PPMA with either 4,4'-methylene dianiline or p-phenylenediamine. The first resulted in improved solubility and increased resin flow while the latter yielded a compression molded neat resin sample with a T(sub g) of 408 C, close to 70 C higher than PME-15. The performance of these materials in long term weight loss studies was below that of PMR-15, independent of post-cure conditions. These results can be rationalized in terms of the thermal lability of the pendant phenyl groups and the incomplete imidization of the sterically congested PPMA. The preparation of model compounds as well as future research directions are discussed.

  19. Sustainability Characterization for Additive Manufacturing

    PubMed Central

    Mani, Mahesh; Lyons, Kevin W; Gupta, SK

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) has the potential to create geometrically complex parts that require a high degree of customization, using less material and producing less waste. Recent studies have shown that AM can be an economically viable option for use by the industry, yet there are some inherent challenges associated with AM for wider acceptance. The lack of standards in AM impedes its use for parts production since industries primarily depend on established standards in processes and material selection to ensure the consistency and quality. Inability to compare AM performance against traditional manufacturing methods can be a barrier for implementing AM processes. AM process sustainability has become a driver due to growing environmental concerns for manufacturing. This has reinforced the importance to understand and characterize AM processes for sustainability. Process characterization for sustainability will help close the gaps for comparing AM performance to traditional manufacturing methods. Based on a literature review, this paper first examines the potential environmental impacts of AM. A methodology for sustainability characterization of AM is then proposed to serve as a resource for the community to benchmark AM processes for sustainability. Next, research perspectives are discussed along with relevant standardization efforts. PMID:26601038

  20. Sustainability Characterization for Additive Manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Mani, Mahesh; Lyons, Kevin W; Gupta, S K

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) has the potential to create geometrically complex parts that require a high degree of customization, using less material and producing less waste. Recent studies have shown that AM can be an economically viable option for use by the industry, yet there are some inherent challenges associated with AM for wider acceptance. The lack of standards in AM impedes its use for parts production since industries primarily depend on established standards in processes and material selection to ensure the consistency and quality. Inability to compare AM performance against traditional manufacturing methods can be a barrier for implementing AM processes. AM process sustainability has become a driver due to growing environmental concerns for manufacturing. This has reinforced the importance to understand and characterize AM processes for sustainability. Process characterization for sustainability will help close the gaps for comparing AM performance to traditional manufacturing methods. Based on a literature review, this paper first examines the potential environmental impacts of AM. A methodology for sustainability characterization of AM is then proposed to serve as a resource for the community to benchmark AM processes for sustainability. Next, research perspectives are discussed along with relevant standardization efforts. PMID:26601038

  1. Coal resources of Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, R.B.

    1982-01-01

    In the late 1800s, whaling ships carried Alaskan coal, and it was used to thaw ground for placer gold mining. Unfortunate and costly political maneuvers in the early 1900s delayed coal removal, but the Alaska Railroad and then World War II provided incentives for opening mines. Today, 33 million acres (about 9% of the state) is classified as prospectively valuable for coal, much of it under federal title. Although the state's geology is poorly known, potential for discovery of new fields exists. The US Geological Survey estimates are outdated, although still officially used. The total Alaska onshore coal resource is estimated to be 216 to 4216 billion tons of which 141 billion tons are identified resources; an additional 1430 billion tons are believed to lie beneath Cook Inlet. Transportation over mountain ranges and wetlands is the biggest hurdle for removal. Known coal sources and types are described and mapped. 1 figure.

  2. 30 CFR 250.803 - Additional production system requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Additional production system requirements. 250... Production Safety Systems § 250.803 Additional production system requirements. (a) For all production platforms, you must comply with the following production safety system requirements, in addition to...

  3. 30 CFR 250.803 - Additional production system requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Additional production system requirements. 250... Production Safety Systems § 250.803 Additional production system requirements. (a) For all production platforms, you must comply with the following production safety system requirements, in addition to...

  4. The STD/MHD codes - Comparison of analyses with experiments at AEDC/HPDE, Reynolds Metal Co., and Hercules, Inc. [for MHD generator flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vetter, A. A.; Maxwell, C. D.; Swean, T. F., Jr.; Demetriades, S. T.; Oliver, D. A.; Bangerter, C. D.

    1981-01-01

    Data from sufficiently well-instrumented, short-duration experiments at AEDC/HPDE, Reynolds Metal Co., and Hercules, Inc., are compared to analyses with multidimensional and time-dependent simulations with the STD/MHD computer codes. These analyses reveal detailed features of major transient events, severe loss mechanisms, and anomalous MHD behavior. In particular, these analyses predicted higher-than-design voltage drops, Hall voltage overshoots, and asymmetric voltage drops before the experimental data were available. The predictions obtained with these analyses are in excellent agreement with the experimental data and the failure predictions are consistent with the experiments. The design of large, high-interaction or advanced MHD experiments will require application of sophisticated, detailed and comprehensive computational procedures in order to account for the critical mechanisms which led to the observed behavior in these experiments.

  5. Disruption of Snf3/Rgt2 glucose sensors decreases lifespan and caloric restriction effectiveness through Mth1/Std1 by adjusting mitochondrial efficiency in yeast.

    PubMed

    Choi, Kyung-Mi; Kwon, Young-Yon; Lee, Cheol-Koo

    2015-01-30

    Down-regulation of intracellular nutrient signal pathways was proposed to be a primary mechanism of caloric restriction (CR)-mediated lifespan extension. However, the link between lifespan and glucose sensors in the plasma membrane was poorly understood in yeast. Herein, a mutant that lacked glucose sensors (snf3Δrgt2Δ) had impaired glucose fermentation, showed decreased chronological lifespan (CLS), and reduced CLS extension by CR. The mutant also had reduced mitochondrial efficiency, as inferred by increased mitochondrial superoxide and decreased ATP levels. Mth1 and Std1, which are downstream effectors of the Snf3/Rgt2 pathway, were required for viability through mitochondrial function but not fermentative metabolism. PMID:25541485

  6. Asteroid resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, John S.

    1992-01-01

    There are three types of possible asteroidal materials that appear to be attractive for exploitation: (1) volatiles, (2) free metals, and (3) bulk dirt. Because some of the near-Earth asteroids are energetically more accessible than the Moon (require a round-trip total change in velocity less than 9 km/sec, though the trip time would be measured in years not days), such an asteroid might be chosen as the source of any useful material, even if that material was also available on the Moon. Provided that the asteroid was minable, it might therefore be chosen as the source of bulk dirt needed for shielding in low Earth orbit (LEO) or elsewhere in near-Earth space. And the near-Earth asteroids may offer materials that are rare or absent on the surface of the Moon. The relationship between asteroids and meteorites is discussed. A brief overview of the entire range of meteorite compositions, with emphasis on the occurrence of interesting resources is presented. Focus is on materials useful in space, especially volatiles, metals, and raw dirt. Those few materials that may have sufficiently high market value to be worth returning to Earth will be mentioned.

  7. Neutron Characterization for Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watkins, Thomas; Bilheux, Hassina; An, Ke; Payzant, Andrew; DeHoff, Ryan; Duty, Chad; Peter, William; Blue, Craig; Brice, Craig A.

    2013-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is leveraging decades of experience in neutron characterization of advanced materials together with resources such as the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) and the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) shown in Fig. 1 to solve challenging problems in additive manufacturing (AM). Additive manufacturing, or three-dimensional (3-D) printing, is a rapidly maturing technology wherein components are built by selectively adding feedstock material at locations specified by a computer model. The majority of these technologies use thermally driven phase change mechanisms to convert the feedstock into functioning material. As the molten material cools and solidifies, the component is subjected to significant thermal gradients, generating significant internal stresses throughout the part (Fig. 2). As layers are added, inherent residual stresses cause warping and distortions that lead to geometrical differences between the final part and the original computer generated design. This effect also limits geometries that can be fabricated using AM, such as thin-walled, high-aspect- ratio, and overhanging structures. Distortion may be minimized by intelligent toolpath planning or strategic placement of support structures, but these approaches are not well understood and often "Edisonian" in nature. Residual stresses can also impact component performance during operation. For example, in a thermally cycled environment such as a high-pressure turbine engine, residual stresses can cause components to distort unpredictably. Different thermal treatments on as-fabricated AM components have been used to minimize residual stress, but components still retain a nonhomogeneous stress state and/or demonstrate a relaxation-derived geometric distortion. Industry, federal laboratory, and university collaboration is needed to address these challenges and enable the U.S. to compete in the global market. Work is currently being conducted on AM technologies at the ORNL

  8. 30 CFR 250.803 - Additional production system requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Additional production system requirements. 250.803 Section 250.803 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Production Safety Systems § 250.803...

  9. 18 CFR 367.59 - Additions and retirements of property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Additions and retirements of property. 367.59 Section 367.59 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 2005, FEDERAL POWER ACT AND NATURAL GAS ACT...

  10. The Biomedical Resource Ontology (BRO) to enable resource discovery in clinical and translational research.

    PubMed

    Tenenbaum, Jessica D; Whetzel, Patricia L; Anderson, Kent; Borromeo, Charles D; Dinov, Ivo D; Gabriel, Davera; Kirschner, Beth; Mirel, Barbara; Morris, Tim; Noy, Natasha; Nyulas, Csongor; Rubenson, David; Saxman, Paul R; Singh, Harpreet; Whelan, Nancy; Wright, Zach; Athey, Brian D; Becich, Michael J; Ginsburg, Geoffrey S; Musen, Mark A; Smith, Kevin A; Tarantal, Alice F; Rubin, Daniel L; Lyster, Peter

    2011-02-01

    The biomedical research community relies on a diverse set of resources, both within their own institutions and at other research centers. In addition, an increasing number of shared electronic resources have been developed. Without effective means to locate and query these resources, it is challenging, if not impossible, for investigators to be aware of the myriad resources available, or to effectively perform resource discovery when the need arises. In this paper, we describe the development and use of the Biomedical Resource Ontology (BRO) to enable semantic annotation and discovery of biomedical resources. We also describe the Resource Discovery System (RDS) which is a federated, inter-institutional pilot project that uses the BRO to facilitate resource discovery on the Internet. Through the RDS framework and its associated Biositemaps infrastructure, the BRO facilitates semantic search and discovery of biomedical resources, breaking down barriers and streamlining scientific research that will improve human health. PMID:20955817

  11. The Biomedical Resource Ontology (BRO) to Enable Resource Discovery in Clinical and Translational Research

    PubMed Central

    Tenenbaum, Jessica D.; Whetzel, Patricia L.; Anderson, Kent; Borromeo, Charles D.; Dinov, Ivo D.; Gabriel, Davera; Kirschner, Beth; Mirel, Barbara; Morris, Tim; Noy, Natasha; Nyulas, Csongor; Rubenson, David; Saxman, Paul R.; Singh, Harpreet; Whelan, Nancy; Wright, Zach; Athey, Brian D.; Becich, Michael J.; Ginsburg, Geoffrey S.; Musen, Mark A.; Smith, Kevin A.; Tarantal, Alice F.; Rubin, Daniel L; Lyster, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The biomedical research community relies on a diverse set of resources, both within their own institutions and at other research centers. In addition, an increasing number of shared electronic resources have been developed. Without effective means to locate and query these resources, it is challenging, if not impossible, for investigators to be aware of the myriad resources available, or to effectively perform resource discovery when the need arises. In this paper, we describe the development and use of the Biomedical Resource Ontology (BRO) to enable semantic annotation and discovery of biomedical resources. We also describe the Resource Discovery System (RDS) which is a federated, inter-institutional pilot project that uses the BRO to facilitate resource discovery on the Internet. Through the RDS framework and its associated Biositemaps infrastructure, the BRO facilitates semantic search and discovery of biomedical resources, breaking down barriers and streamlining scientific research that will improve human health. PMID:20955817

  12. Amine Hydroxy Derivative of Soybean Oil as Lubricant Additive

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The amphiphilic character of vegetable oils makes them an excellent candidate as lubricants and as specialty chemicals. Additional advantages of vegetable oils are that they are renewable resources, environmentally friendly non toxic fluids, and readily biodegradable. Industrial application of veg...

  13. 38 CFR 21.8284 - Additional vocational training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Vocational Training Program Entrance, Termination, and Resources § 21.8284 Additional...

  14. 38 CFR 21.8284 - Additional vocational training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Vocational Training Program Entrance, Termination, and Resources § 21.8284 Additional...

  15. 38 CFR 21.8284 - Additional vocational training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Vocational Training Program Entrance, Termination, and Resources § 21.8284 Additional...

  16. Enabling opportunistic resources for CMS Computing Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hufnagel, D.; CMS Collaboration

    2015-12-01

    With the increased pressure on computing brought by the higher energy and luminosity from the LHC in Run 2, CMS Computing Operations expects to require the ability to utilize opportunistic resources resources not owned by, or a priori configured for CMS to meet peak demands. In addition to our dedicated resources we look to add computing resources from non CMS grids, cloud resources, and national supercomputing centers. CMS uses the HTCondor/glideinWMS job submission infrastructure for all its batch processing, so such resources will need to be transparently integrated into its glideinWMS pool. Bosco and parrot wrappers are used to enable access and bring the CMS environment into these non CMS resources. Here we describe our strategy to supplement our native capabilities with opportunistic resources and our experience so far using them.

  17. Mineral resources

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    Federal regulations require that onshore oil and gas leases that are subsequently determined to overlie a known geologic structure are to have their rental rates increased. The Bureau of Land Management does not have internal controls that ensure that such rental increases are processed consistently and in a timely manner. Although BLM's state offices in Colorado and Wyoming generally increased rental rates for leases determined to overlie known geologic structures, these increases were not made in a timely manner during calendar years 1984 and 1985. These delays resulted in lost revenue of $552,614. There were also a few instances in the two states in which the rental rates had not been increased at all, causing an additional revenue loss of at least $15,123.

  18. BEI Resources: Supporting antiviral research

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Robert; Peacock, Susan

    2008-01-01

    The Biodefense and Emerging Infections Research Resources Repository (BEI Resources) provides unique, quality-assured reagents to the scientific community for use in basic research and product development involving biodefense and emerging infectious diseases. These include microorganisms (up to Biosafety Level-3) on the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) lists of Category A, B and C priority pathogens. In addition to live microorganisms, related products such as polyclonal antisera, monoclonal antibodies, isolated nucleic acid preparations, overlapping peptide arrays, purified proteins, and assay kits are also available. Many of these materials have direct or indirect applications in antiviral research. These reagents are available free of charge to all registered investigators, regardless of funding source or affiliation. Acquisition of new reagents for the repository is one of the critically necessary and challenging tasks for BEI Resources. Therefore, investigators are encouraged to deposit relevant items, so as to provide access to materials, relief from the burden of distribution, protection of intellectual property rights, and secure storage. In addition, BEI Resources has the capability of contracting for the preparation of specific reagents. If there is a resource needed to advance a specific research area, contact an NIAID program officer or use the “suggest a reagent” option on the BEI Resources homepage, www.beiresources.org. PMID:18675849

  19. Calibration of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Passive-Active Neutron Drum Shuffler for Measurement of Highly Enriched Uranium in Oxides within DOE-STD-3013-2000 Containers

    SciTech Connect

    Mount, M E; O'Connell, W J

    2005-06-03

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) uses the LLNL passive-active neutron drum (PAN) shuffler (Canberra Model JCC-92) for accountability measurement of highly enriched uranium (HEU) oxide and HEU in mixed uranium-plutonium (U-Pu) oxide. In June 2002, at the 43rd Annual Meeting of the Institute of Nuclear Material Management, LLNL reported on an extensive effort to calibrate this shuffler, based on standards measurements and extensive simulations, for HEU oxides and mixed U-Pu oxides in thin-walled primary and secondary containers. In August 2002, LLNL began to also use DOE-STD-3013-2000 containers for HEU oxide and mixed U-Pu oxide. These DOE-STD-3013-2000 containers are comprised of a stainless steel convenience can enclosed in welded stainless steel primary and secondary containers. Compared to the double thin-walled containers, the DOE-STD-3013-2000 containers have substantially thicker walls, and the density of materials in these containers was found to extend over a greater range (1.35 g/cm{sup 3} to 4.62 g/cm{sup 3}) than foreseen for the double thin-walled containers. Further, the DOE-STD-3013-2000 Standard allows for oxides containing at least 30 wt% Pu plus U whereas the calibration algorithms for thin-walled containers were derived for virtually pure HEU or mixed U-Pu oxides. An initial series of Monte Carlo simulations of the PAN shuffler response to given quantities of HEU oxide and mixed U-Pu oxide in DOE-STD-3013-2000 containers was generated and compared with the response predicted by the calibration algorithms for thin-walled containers. Results showed a decrease on the order of 10% in the count rate, and hence a decrease in the calculated U mass for measured unknowns, with some varying trends versus U mass. Therefore a decision was made to develop a calibration algorithm for the PAN shuffler unique to the DOE-STD-3013-2000 container. This paper describes that effort and selected unknown item measurement results.

  20. Unconventional Energy Resources: 2011 Review

    SciTech Connect

    Collaboration: American Association of Petroleum Geologists

    2011-12-15

    This report contains nine unconventional energy resource commodity summaries prepared by committees of the Energy Minerals Division (EMD) of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists. Unconventional energy resources, as used in this report, are those energy resources that do not occur in discrete oil or gas reservoirs held in structural or stratigraphic traps in sedimentary basins. These resources include coal, coalbed methane, gas hydrates, tight gas sands, gas shale and shale oil, geothermal resources, oil sands, oil shale, and uranium resources. Current U.S. and global research and development activities are summarized for each unconventional energy commodity in the topical sections of this report. Coal and uranium are expected to supply a significant portion of the world's energy mix in coming years. Coalbed methane continues to supply about 9% of the U.S. gas production and exploration is expanding in other countries. Recently, natural gas produced from shale and low-permeability (tight) sandstone has made a significant contribution to the energy supply of the United States and is an increasing target for exploration around the world. In addition, oil from shale and heavy oil from sandstone are a new exploration focus in many areas (including the Green River area of Wyoming and northern Alberta). In recent years, research in the areas of geothermal energy sources and gas hydrates has continued to advance. Reviews of the current research and the stages of development of these unconventional energy resources are described in the various sections of this report.

  1. 19 CFR 213.5 - Access to Commission resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Access to Commission resources. 213.5 Section 213... IMPORT TRADE TRADE REMEDY ASSISTANCE § 213.5 Access to Commission resources. Commission resources, in addition to the Office's resources, are available to an eligible small business to the same extent as...

  2. 19 CFR 213.5 - Access to Commission resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Access to Commission resources. 213.5 Section 213... IMPORT TRADE TRADE REMEDY ASSISTANCE § 213.5 Access to Commission resources. Commission resources, in addition to the Office's resources, are available to an eligible small business to the same extent as...

  3. 19 CFR 213.5 - Access to Commission resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Access to Commission resources. 213.5 Section 213... IMPORT TRADE TRADE REMEDY ASSISTANCE § 213.5 Access to Commission resources. Commission resources, in addition to the Office's resources, are available to an eligible small business to the same extent as...

  4. Minimum Additive Waste Stabilization (MAWS). Technology summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    In the Minimum Additive Waste Stabilization(MAWS) concept, actual waste streams are utilized as additive resources for vitrification, which may contain the basic components (glass formers and fluxes) for making a suitable glass or glassy slag. If too much glass former is present, then the melt viscosity or temperature will be too high for processing; while if there is too much flux, then the durability may suffer. Therefore, there are optimum combinations of these two important classes of constituents depending on the criteria required. The challenge is to combine these resources in such a way that minimizes the use of non-waste additives yet yields a processable and durable final waste form for disposal. The benefit to this approach is that the volume of the final waste form is minimized (waste loading maximized) since little or no additives are used and vitrification itself results in volume reduction through evaporation of water, combustion of organics, and compaction of the solids into a non-porous glass. This implies a significant reduction in disposal costs due to volume reduction alone, and minimizes future risks/costs due to the long term durability and leach resistance of glass. This is accomplished by using integrated systems that are both cost-effective and produce an environmentally sound waste form for disposal. individual component technologies may include: vitrification; thermal destruction; soil washing; gas scrubbing/filtration; and, ion-exchange wastewater treatment. The particular combination of technologies will depend on the waste streams to be treated. At the heart of MAWS is vitrification technology, which incorporates all primary and secondary waste streams into a final, long-term, stabilized glass wasteform. The integrated technology approach, and view of waste streams as resources, is innovative yet practical to cost effectively treat a broad range of DOE mixed and low-level wastes.

  5. Resources for Creative Preschool Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flemming, Bonnie, Ed.; And Others

    A resource book intended as a teaching aid for preschool teachers, this compilation includes those ideas that have been used with success with children three through five years of age. The curriculum material is presented in outline format under the following headings: Subject of Interest; Basic Understandings; Additional Facts the Teacher Should…

  6. Career Development. A Resource Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulz, William; And Others

    Intended for counselors, teachers, administrators, and students, this resource book contains 40 activities to prepare students in grades 7-12 to make the transition from school to work. (With two exceptions, activities can be completed without additional career materials.) Introductory materials include a rationale for career development…

  7. Community Guide to Cholesterol Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Heart and Lung Inst. (DHHS/NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    This guide is divided into two sections, one for physicians and the other for patients. The physician section lists different resources including continuing medical education opportunities on the medical and scientific aspects of cholesterol and heart disease and on the physician's role in diagnosis and patient management. Additional materials on…

  8. Additive Construction with Mobile Emplacement (ACME)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vickers, John

    2015-01-01

    The Additive Construction with Mobile Emplacement (ACME) project is developing technology to build structures on planetary surfaces using in-situ resources. The project focuses on the construction of both 2D (landing pads, roads, and structure foundations) and 3D (habitats, garages, radiation shelters, and other structures) infrastructure needs for planetary surface missions. The ACME project seeks to raise the Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of two components needed for planetary surface habitation and exploration: 3D additive construction (e.g., contour crafting), and excavation and handling technologies (to effectively and continuously produce in-situ feedstock). Additionally, the ACME project supports the research and development of new materials for planetary surface construction, with the goal of reducing the amount of material to be launched from Earth.

  9. Chronic pain - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Pain - resources; Resources - chronic pain ... The following organizations are good resources for information on chronic pain: American Chronic Pain Association -- www.theacpa.org National Fibromyalgia and Chronic Pain Association -- www.fmcpaware.org ...

  10. Victim assistance - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Rape - resources; Resources - rape ... The following organizations are good resources for information on domestic violence and rape : Administration for Children and Families -- www.acf.hhs.gov National Center for Victims of ...

  11. Chemical dependence - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Drug abuse - resources; Resources - chemical dependence ... The following organizations are a good resource for information on drug dependence: National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence -- ncadd.org National Institute on Drug Abuse -- www.drugabuse.gov ...

  12. Gastrointestinal disorders - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Digestive disease - resources; Resources - gastrointestinal disorders ... org American Liver Foundation -- www.liverfoundation.org National Digestive Diseases Information Clearinghouse -- digestive.niddk.nih.gov

  13. Solar radiation resource assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-11-01

    The bulletin discusses the following: introduction; Why is solar radiation resource assessment important Understanding the basics; the solar radiation resource assessment project; and future activities.

  14. 38 CFR 21.8284 - Additional vocational training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Vocational Training and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Vocational Training Program Entrance, Termination, and Resources § 21.8284 Additional vocational training. VA may provide an additional period...

  15. NASA OSMA NDE Program Additive Manufacturing Foundational Effort

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waller, Jess; Walker, James; Burke, Eric; Wells, Douglas

    2016-01-01

    NASA is providing key leadership in an international effort linking NASA and non-NASA resources to speed adoption of additive manufacturing (AM) to meet NASA's mission goals. Participants include industry, NASA's space partners, other government agencies, standards organizations and academia. Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) is identified as a universal need for all aspects of additive manufacturing.

  16. Improving ED efficiency to capture additional revenue.

    PubMed

    Mandavia, Sujal; Samaniego, Loretta

    2016-06-01

    An increase in the number of patients visiting emergency departments (EDs) presents an opportunity for additional revenue if hospitals take four steps to optimize resources: Streamline the patient pathway and reduce the amount of time each patient occupies a bed in the ED. Schedule staff according to the busy and light times for patient arrivals. Perform registration and triage bedside, reducing initial wait times. Create an area for patients to wait for test results so beds can be freed up for new arrivals. PMID:27451568

  17. Introduction to Natural Resources: Advanced Applications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crummett, Dan

    This guide, which is designed for use with student and teacher guides to a 10-unit secondary-level course in natural resources, contains a series of student supplements and advanced assignment and job sheets that provide students with additional opportunities to explore the following areas of natural resources and conservation education: outdoor…

  18. Electronic Resource Management Systems in Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grogg, Jill E.

    2008-01-01

    Electronic resource management (ERM) systems have inundated the library marketplace. Both integrated library systems (ILS) vendors and subscription agents are now offering products and service enhancements that claim to help libraries efficiently manage their electronic resources. Additionally, some homegrown and open-source solutions have emerged…

  19. 78 FR 73819 - Forest Resource Coordinating Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-09

    ...The Forest Resource Coordinating Committee will meet in Washington, DC, February 6 and 7, 2014. The Committee is authorized under Section 8005 of the Food, Conservation, and Energy Act of 2008 (Pub. L. 110-246). Additional information on the Forest Resource Coordinating Committee can be found by visiting the Committee's Web site at: http://www.fs.fed.us/spf/coop/...

  20. The Resource Development Concept: Institutional Resources. Resource Paper No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smitheran, Joyce

    Community colleges have four primary resources: income, faculty and staff, the physical plant, and students. This document recommends methods of taking a hard look at the ways in which these resources are and can be utilized. The budgeting structure must be thoroughly examined to determine the extent to which it is flexible and to which it…

  1. Natural resource protection on buffer lands: integrating resource evaluation and economics

    PubMed Central

    Gochfeld, Michael; Greenberg, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Environmental managers are faced with the wise management, sustainability, and stewardship of their land for natural resource values. This task requires the integration of ecological evaluation with economics. Using the Department of Energy (DOE) as a case study, we examine the why, who, what, where, when, and how questions about assessment and natural resource protection of buffer lands. We suggest that managers evaluate natural resources for a variety of reasons that revolve around land use, remediation/restoration, protection of natural environments, and natural resource damage assessment (NRDA). While DOE is the manager of its lands, and thus its natural resources, a range of natural resource trustees and public officials have co-responsibility. We distinguish four types of natural resource evaluations: (1) the resources themselves (to the ecosystem), (2) the value of specific resources to people (e.g. hunting/fishing/bird-watching/herbal medicines), (3) the value of ecological resources to services for communities (e.g. clean air/water), and (4) the value of the intact ecosystems (e.g. forests or estuaries). Resource evaluations should occur initially to provide information about the status of those resources, and continued evaluation is required to provide trends data. Additional natural resource evaluation is required before, during and immediately following changes in land use, and remediation or restoration. Afterwards, additional monitoring and evaluations are required to evaluate the effects of the land use change or the efficacy of remediation/restoration. There are a wide range of economic methods available to evaluate natural resources, but the methods chosen depend upon the nature of the resource being evaluated, the purpose of the evaluation, and the needs of the agencies, natural resource trustees, public officials, and the public. We discuss the uses, and the advantages and disadvantages of different evaluation methods for natural resources. PMID

  2. Natural resource protection on buffer lands: integrating resource evaluation and economics.

    PubMed

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael; Greenberg, Michael

    2008-07-01

    Environmental managers are faced with the wise management, sustainability, and stewardship of their land for natural resource values. This task requires the integration of ecological evaluation with economics. Using the Department of Energy (DOE) as a case study, we examine the why, who, what, where, when, and how questions about assessment and natural resource protection of buffer lands. We suggest that managers evaluate natural resources for a variety of reasons that revolve around land use, remediation/restoration, protection of natural environments, and natural resource damage assessment (NRDA). While DOE is the manager of its lands, and thus its natural resources, a range of natural resource trustees and public officials have co-responsibility. We distinguish four types of natural resource evaluations: (1) the resources themselves (to the ecosystem), (2) the value of specific resources to people (e.g. hunting/fishing/bird-watching/herbal medicines), (3) the value of ecological resources to services for communities (e.g. clean air/water), and (4) the value of the intact ecosystems (e.g. forests or estuaries). Resource evaluations should occur initially to provide information about the status of those resources, and continued evaluation is required to provide trends data. Additional natural resource evaluation is required before, during and immediately following changes in land use, and remediation or restoration. Afterwards, additional monitoring and evaluations are required to evaluate the effects of the land use change or the efficacy of remediation/restoration. There are a wide range of economic methods available to evaluate natural resources, but the methods chosen depend upon the nature of the resource being evaluated, the purpose of the evaluation, and the needs of the agencies, natural resource trustees, public officials, and the public. We discuss the uses, and the advantages and disadvantages of different evaluation methods for natural resources. PMID

  3. Family planning, STD services fare well under Kennedy health reform proposal. But abortion debate yet to come.

    PubMed

    1994-06-01

    The US Senate Labor and Human Resources Committee has advanced a health care reform plan that includes stronger and more complete coverage of reproductive health care than any other major proposal. It is likely to spark debates over coverage of abortion services, however. The Labor and Human Resources' health care reform plan (the Kennedy plan) expands the definition of family planning services to include counseling and education and coverage of contraceptive drugs and devices. The lack of specificity of coverage of prescription drugs in the Clinton plan worried reproductive health advocates. The Kennedy plan addresses contraceptive drugs and devices under the category family planning services, which, in essence, does not make them subject to the separate deductible. It also exempts all family planning services from any deductibles or copayments. The Kennedy plan refers to sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) rather than calling them fertility related infectious illnesses as the Clinton plan does. The Kennedy plan would include syphilis. Both plans cover annual exams for women at risk of STDs. The Kennedy plan covers pap smears or pelvic exam every two years, while the interval of the Clinton plan is three years. No one challenged any of the above provisions during the first round of committee markups. There is likely to be no challenges after the 1994 Memorial Day recess. One was surprised that no challenges materialized over the provision for school-related health education and services. The committee approved this provision by a vote of 17-0. Even the antiabortion supporter did not object to it. The major challenge awaiting the committee after the Memorial Day recess is abortion. The Kennedy plan does not specifically include abortion but is intimated under the category of services for pregnant women. Antiabortion amendments are expected. It is unlikely this committee or any other committee will reach a consensus over the overall shape of a reform plan. PMID

  4. The New Resource File

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luck, Donald D.

    2011-01-01

    The development of the resource file is a common experience in teacher preparation programs. The author examines strategies for transforming what has been a project composed of physical resources to one emphasizing digital resources. Methods for finding, tagging, storing and retrieving resources are explored.

  5. Measuring Learning Resource Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, M. I.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Describes the design and application of the Resource Questionnaire, an instrument developed at the University of Glasgow (Scotland) to gather information on the learning resources used by students, particularly computer-assisted learning. Topics include amount of time to use resources; usefulness of resources; ease of access; and preliminary…

  6. Insights into (S)-rivastigmine inhibition of butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE): Molecular docking and saturation transfer difference NMR (STD-NMR).

    PubMed

    Bacalhau, Patrícia; San Juan, Amor A; Goth, Albertino; Caldeira, A Teresa; Martins, Rosário; Burke, Anthony J

    2016-08-01

    Rivastigmine is a very important drug prescribed for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD) symptoms. It is a dual inhibitor, in that it inhibits both acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE). For our screening program on the discovery of new rivastigmine analogue hits for human butyrylcholinesterase (hBuChE) inhibition, we investigated the interaction of this inhibitor with BuChE using the complimentary approach of the biophysical method, saturation transfer difference (STD)-NMR and molecular docking. This allowed us to obtain essential information on the key binding interactions between the inhibitor and the enzyme to be used for screening of hit compounds. The main conclusions obtained from this integrated study was that the most dominant interactions were (a) H-bonding between the carbamate carbonyl of the inhibitor and the NH group of the imidazole unit of H434, (b) stacking of the aromatic unit of the inhibitor and the W82 aromatic unit in the choline binding pocket via π-π interactions and (c) possible CH/π interactions between the benzylic methyl group and the N-methyl groups of the inhibitor and W82 of the enzyme. PMID:27317888

  7. A review and assessment of non-governmental organization-based STD/AIDS education and prevention projects for marginalized groups.

    PubMed

    Crane, S F; Carswell, J W

    1992-06-01

    A review of projects run by non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in primarily developing countries, which have aimed to provide STD/AIDS education and prevention skills to various marginalized groups, reveals that past quantitative and formative research has failed to identify key programmatic factors which lead to more successful project implementation and sustainability. In observations, interviews with field staff, visits to program sites and information drawn from the literature, a variety of methods to reach a wide range of groups such as men who have sex with men, prostitutes, clients of prostitutes, prisoners, street children, migrant workers and refugees are explored. Factors found to facilitate project success include the following: at least one full-time committed staff member; respectful treatment and appropriate motivation of the target group; suitable and sufficient equipment and supplies (particularly condoms); planning ahead for the participation of HIV-positive individuals and ways to meet their needs; focusing on qualitative rather than quantitative evaluation; planning in advance beyond a 9 or 12 month 'model'. Despite some evidence that marginalized groups can be successfully motivated to practise safer sex through prevention education, long-term behaviour change still presents major challenges--even when specific conditions are met. PMID:10171671

  8. Mobile consultant: evaluation of additional services.

    PubMed

    Banitsas, Konstantinos; Georgiadis, Pantelis; Tachakra, Sapal; Cavouras, Dionisis

    2007-01-01

    As the need for mobility in the medical world increases, newer systems and applications came to light; many of them based on wireless and mobile networks. PDA based systems were presented in the past, capable of videoconferencing and transmitting high quality images between a roaming consultant and a fixed point in the hospital. These systems not only had desirable characteristics but also incorporated additional services that were found of value: paging, Voice over IP calling, Internet, email, intranet, patient record update, etc This paper presents an engineering and clinical evaluation of those additional services based on both objective and subjective criteria. It concludes that such complementary services can be desirable as they increase personnel mobility, utilize the hospital resources more efficiently while at the same time increase productivity and decrease the cost of hardware and communications. PMID:18002803

  9. Resource envelope concepts for mission planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ibrahim, K. Y.; Weiler, J. D.; Tokaz, J. C.

    1991-01-01

    Seven proposed methods for creating resource envelopes for Space Station Freedom mission planning are detailed. Four reference science activity models are used to illustrate the effect of adding operational flexibility to mission timelines. For each method, a brief explanation is given along with graphs to illustrate the application of the envelopes to the power and crew resources. The benefits and costs of each method are analyzed in terms of resource utilization. In addition to the effect on individual activities, resource envelopes are analyzed at the experiment level.

  10. Space Science Education Resource Directory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christian, C. A.; Scollick, K.

    The Office of Space Science (OSS) of NASA supports educational programs as a by-product of the research it funds through missions and investigative programs. A rich suite of resources for public use is available including multimedia materials, online resources, hardcopies and other items. The OSS supported creation of a resource catalog through a group lead by individuals at STScI that ultimately will provide an easy-to-use and user-friendly search capability to access products. This paper describes the underlying architecture of that catalog, including the challenge to develop a system for characterizing education products through appropriate metadata. The system must also be meaningful to a large clientele including educators, scientists, students, and informal science educators. An additional goal was to seamlessly exchange data with existing federally supported educational systems as well as local systems. The goals, requirements, and standards for the catalog will be presented to illuminate the rationale for the implementation ultimately adopted.

  11. Additive manufacturing in production: challenges and opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahuja, Bhrigu; Karg, Michael; Schmidt, Michael

    2015-03-01

    Additive manufacturing, characterized by its inherent layer by layer fabrication methodology has been coined by many as the latest revolution in the manufacturing industry. Due to its diversification of Materials, processes, system technology and applications, Additive Manufacturing has been synonymized with terminology such as Rapid prototyping, 3D printing, free-form fabrication, Additive Layer Manufacturing, etc. A huge media and public interest in the technology has led to an innovative attempt of exploring the technology for applications beyond the scope of the traditional engineering industry. Nevertheless, it is believed that a critical factor for the long-term success of Additive Manufacturing would be its ability to fulfill the requirements defined by the traditional manufacturing industry. A parallel development in market trends and product requirements has also lead to a wider scope of opportunities for Additive Manufacturing. The presented paper discusses some of the key challenges which are critical to ensure that Additive Manufacturing is truly accepted as a mainstream production technology in the industry. These challenges would highlight on various aspects of production such as product requirements, process management, data management, intellectual property, work flow management, quality assurance, resource planning, etc. In Addition, changing market trends such as product life cycle, mass customization, sustainability, environmental impact and localized production will form the foundation for the follow up discussion on the current limitations and the corresponding research opportunities. A discussion on ongoing research to address these challenges would include topics like process monitoring, design complexity, process standardization, multi-material and hybrid fabrication, new material development, etc.

  12. Incorporation of additives into polymers

    DOEpatents

    McCleskey, T. Mark; Yates, Matthew Z.

    2003-07-29

    There has been invented a method for incorporating additives into polymers comprising: (a) forming an aqueous or alcohol-based colloidal system of the polymer; (b) emulsifying the colloidal system with a compressed fluid; and (c) contacting the colloidal polymer with the additive in the presence of the compressed fluid. The colloidal polymer can be contacted with the additive by having the additive in the compressed fluid used for emulsification or by adding the additive to the colloidal system before or after emulsification with the compressed fluid. The invention process can be carried out either as a batch process or as a continuous on-line process.

  13. Deciphering the roles of multiple additives in organocatalyzed Michael additions.

    PubMed

    Günler, Z Inci; Companyó, Xavier; Alfonso, Ignacio; Burés, Jordi; Jimeno, Ciril; Pericàs, Miquel A

    2016-05-21

    The synergistic effects of multiple additives (water and acetic acid) on the asymmetric Michael addition of acetone to nitrostyrene catalyzed by primary amine-thioureas (PAT) were precisely determined. Acetic acid facilitates hydrolysis of the imine intermediates, thus leading to catalytic behavior, and minimizes the formation of the double addition side product. In contrast, water slows down the reaction but minimizes catalyst deactivation, eventually leading to higher final yields. PMID:27128165

  14. Using Spare Logic Resources To Create Dynamic Test Points

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, Richard; Kleyner, Igor

    2011-01-01

    A technique has been devised to enable creation of a dynamic set of test points in an embedded digital electronic system. As a result, electronics contained in an application specific circuit [e.g., gate array, field programmable gate array (FPGA)] can be internally probed, even when contained in a closed housing during all phases of test. In the present technique, the test points are not fixed and limited to a small number; the number of test points can vastly exceed the number of buffers or pins, resulting in a compact footprint. Test points are selected by means of spare logic resources within the ASIC(s) and/or FPGA(s). A register is programmed with a command, which is used to select the signals that are sent off-chip and out of the housing for monitoring by test engineers and external test equipment. The register can be commanded by any suitable means: for example, it could be commanded through a command port that would normally be used in the operation of the system. In the original application of the technique, commanding of the register is performed via a MIL-STD-1553B communication subsystem.

  15. 30 CFR 1210.206 - Will I need to submit additional documents or evidence to ONRR?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Will I need to submit additional documents or evidence to ONRR? 1210.206 Section 1210.206 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Natural Resources Revenue FORMS AND REPORTS Production and...

  16. Enantioselective Michael Addition of Water

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Bi-Shuang; Resch, Verena; Otten, Linda G; Hanefeld, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    The enantioselective Michael addition using water as both nucleophile and solvent has to date proved beyond the ability of synthetic chemists. Herein, the direct, enantioselective Michael addition of water in water to prepare important β-hydroxy carbonyl compounds using whole cells of Rhodococcus strains is described. Good yields and excellent enantioselectivities were achieved with this method. Deuterium labeling studies demonstrate that a Michael hydratase catalyzes the water addition exclusively with anti-stereochemistry. PMID:25529526

  17. Water Resources Division training catalog

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hotchkiss, W.R.; Foxhoven, L.A.

    1984-01-01

    The National Training Center provides technical and management sessions nesessary for the conductance of the U.S. Geological Survey 's training programs. This catalog describes the facilities and staff at the Lakewood Training Center and describes Water Resources Division training courses available through the center. In addition, the catalog describes the procedures for gaining admission, formulas for calculating fees, and discussion of course evaluations. (USGS)

  18. Gasoline additives, emissions, and performance

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    The papers included in this publication deal with the influence of fuel, additive, and hardware changes on a variety of vehicle performance characteristics. Advanced techniques for measuring these performance parameters are also described. Contents include: Fleet test evaluation of gasoline additives for intake valve and combustion chamber deposit clean up; A technique for evaluating octane requirement additives in modern engines on dynamometer test stands; A fleet test of two additive technologies comparing their effects on tailpipe emissions; Investigation into the vehicle exhaust emissions of high percentage ethanol blends; Variability in hydrocarbon speciation measurements at low emission (ULEV) levels; and more.

  19. 1997 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1997-12-01

    The 1997 White Book is presented in two documents: (1) this summary of Federal system and Pacific Northwest region loads and resources; and (2) a technical appendix detailing the loads and resources for each major Pacific Northwest generating utility. Data detailing Pacific Northwest non-utility generating (NUG) resources is also available upon request. This analysis updates the 1996 pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study, published in December 1996. In this loads and resources study, resource availability is compared with a medium forecast of electricity consumption. This document analyzes the Pacific Northwest`s projected loads and available generating resources in two parts: (1) the loads and resources of the Federal system, for which BPA is the marketing agency; and (2) the larger Pacific Northwest regional power system which includes loads and resources in addition to the Federal system. This study presents the Federal system and regional analyses for the medium load forecast. This analysis projects the yearly average energy consumption and resource availability for Operating Years (OY) 1998--99 through 2007--08.

  20. Classification systems for natural resource management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kleckner, Richard L.

    1981-01-01

    Resource managers employ various types of resource classification systems in their management activities such as inventory, mapping, and data analysis. Classification is the ordering or arranging of objects into groups or sets on the basis of their relationships, and as such, provide the resource managers with a structure for organizing their needed information. In addition of conforming to certain logical principles, resource classifications should be flexible, widely applicable to a variety of environmental conditions, and useable with minimal training. The process of classification may be approached from the bottom up (aggregation) or the top down (subdivision) or a combination of both, depending on the purpose of the classification. Most resource classification systems in use today focus on a single resource and are used for a single, limited purpose. However, resource managers now must employ the concept of multiple use in their management activities. What they need is an integrated, ecologically based approach to resource classification which would fulfill multiple-use mandates. In an effort to achieve resource-data compatibility and data sharing among Federal agencies, and interagency agreement has been signed by five Federal agencies to coordinate and cooperate in the area of resource classification and inventory.

  1. Extending the granularity of representation and control for the MIL-STD CAIS 1.0 node model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Kathy L.

    1986-01-01

    The Common APSE (Ada 1 Program Support Environment) Interface Set (CAIS) (DoD85) node model provides an excellent baseline for interfaces in a single-host development environment. To encompass the entire spectrum of computing, however, the CAIS model should be extended in four areas. It should provide the interface between the engineering workstation and the host system throughout the entire lifecycle of the system. It should provide a basis for communication and integration functions needed by distributed host environments. It should provide common interfaces for communications mechanisms to and among target processors. It should provide facilities for integration, validation, and verification of test beds extending to distributed systems on geographically separate processors with heterogeneous instruction set architectures (ISAS). Additions to the PROCESS NODE model to extend the CAIS into these four areas are proposed.

  2. Resources within Reason.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, Patsy; Catlett, Camille; Winton, Pamela J.

    2003-01-01

    This brief article describes eight resources for using assistive technology to support the development and participation of young children with disabilities. Resources include fact sheets, guides, Web sites, organizations, videotapes, special projects. (DB)

  3. Solar Resource Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Renne, D.; George, R.; Wilcox, S.; Stoffel, T.; Myers, D.; Heimiller, D.

    2008-02-01

    This report covers the solar resource assessment aspects of the Renewable Systems Interconnection study. The status of solar resource assessment in the United States is described, and summaries of the availability of modeled data sets are provided.

  4. Reye syndrome - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - Reye syndrome ... The following organizations are good resources for information on Reye Syndrome : National Reye's Syndrome Foundation, Inc. -- www.reyessyndrome.org National Institute of Neurologic Disorders and Stroke -- www. ...

  5. Muscular dystrophy - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - muscular dystrophy ... The following organizations are good resources for information on muscular dystrophy : Muscular Dystrophy Association -- www.mdausa.org National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke -- www.ninds.nih. ...

  6. Spina bifida - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - spina bifida ... The following organizations are good resources for information on spina bifida : March of Dimes -- www.marchofdimes.org/baby/spina-bifida.aspx National Institute of Neurologic Disorders and ...

  7. Heart disease - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - heart disease ... The following organizations are good resources for information on heart disease: American Heart Association -- www.heart.org Centers for Disease Control and Prevention -- www.cdc.gov/heartdisease

  8. Liver disease - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - liver disease ... The following organizations are good resources for information on liver disease : American Liver Foundation -- www.liverfoundation.org Children's Liver Association for Support Services -- www.classkids.org Hepatitis ...

  9. Asthma and allergy - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - asthma and allergy ... The following organizations are good resources for information on asthma and allergies : Allergy and Asthma Network Mothers of Asthmatics -- www.aanma.org American Academy of Allergy, Asthma ...

  10. Lung disease - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - lung disease ... The following organizations are good resources for information on lung disease : American Lung Association -- www.lung.org National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute -- www.nhlbi.nih.gov ...

  11. Cystic fibrosis - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - cystic fibrosis ... The following organizations are good resources for information on cystic fibrosis : Cystic Fibrosis Foundation -- www.cff.org March of Dimes -- www.marchofdimes.org/baby/cystic-fibrosis-and- ...

  12. Parkinson disease - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - Parkinson disease ... The following organizations are good resources for information on Parkinson disease : The Michael J. Fox Foundation -- www.michaeljfox.org National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke -- www. ...

  13. Sickle cell anemia - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - sickle cell anemia ... The following organizations are good resources for information on sickle cell anemia : American Sickle Cell Anemia Association -- www.ascaa.org National Heart, Blood, and Lung Institute -- www. ...

  14. Colon cancer - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - colon cancer ... The following organizations are good resources for information on colon cancer : American Cancer Society -- www.cancer.org/cancer/colonandrectumcancer/index Colon Cancer Alliance -- www.ccalliance.org National ...

  15. Spinal injury - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - spinal injury ... The following organizations are good resources for information on spinal injury : National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke -- www.ninds.nih.gov The National Spinal Cord Injury ...

  16. Kidney disease - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - kidney disease ... The following organizations are good resources for information on kidney disease: National Kidney Disease Education Program -- www.nkdep.nih.gov National Kidney Foundation -- www.kidney.org National ...

  17. Prostate cancer - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - prostate cancer ... The following organizations are good resources for information on prostate cancer : American Cancer Society -- www.cancer.org/cancer/prostatecancer/index National Cancer Institute -- www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/ ...

  18. Cleft palate - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - cleft palate ... The following organizations are good resources for information on cleft palate : Cleft Palate Foundation -- www.cleftline.org March of Dimes -- www.marchofdimes.com/professionals/14332_1210.asp ...

  19. Elder care - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - elder care ... The following organizations are good resources for information on aging and elder care: Administration on Aging -- www.aoa.gov Eldercare Locator -- www.eldercare.gov National Institute on ...

  20. Interstitial cystitis - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - interstitial cystitis ... The following organizations are good resources for information on interstitial cystitis : Interstitial Cystitis Association -- www.ichelp.org National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse -- www.kidney.niddk. ...

  1. Selective mutism - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - selective mutism ... The following organizations are good resources for information on selective mutism : American Speech-Language-Hearing Association -- www.asha.org/public/speech/disorders/selectivemutism.htm Selective Mutism and ...

  2. Cerebral palsy - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - cerebral palsy ... The following organizations are good resources for information on cerebral palsy : National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke -- www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/cerebral_palsy/cerebral_palsy. ...

  3. Space resources. Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKay, Mary Fae; McKay, David S.; Duke, Michael B.

    Space resources must be used to support life on the Moon and in the exploration of Mars. Just as the pioneers applied the tools they brought with them to resources they found along the way rather than trying to haul all their needs over a long supply line, so too must space travelers apply their high technology tools to local resources. This overview describes the findings of a study on the use of space resources in the development of future space activities and defines the necessary research and development that must precede the practical utilization of these resources. Space resources considered included lunar soil, oxygen derived from lunar soil, material retrieved from near-Earth asteroids, abundant sunlight, low gravity, and high vacuum. The study participants analyzed the direct use of these resources, the potential demand for products from them, the techniques for retrieving and processing space resources, the necessary infrastructure, and the economic tradeoffs.

  4. Space resources. Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckay, Mary Fae (Editor); Mckay, David S. (Editor); Duke, Michael B. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    Space resources must be used to support life on the Moon and in the exploration of Mars. Just as the pioneers applied the tools they brought with them to resources they found along the way rather than trying to haul all their needs over a long supply line, so too must space travelers apply their high technology tools to local resources. This overview describes the findings of a study on the use of space resources in the development of future space activities and defines the necessary research and development that must precede the practical utilization of these resources. Space resources considered included lunar soil, oxygen derived from lunar soil, material retrieved from near-Earth asteroids, abundant sunlight, low gravity, and high vacuum. The study participants analyzed the direct use of these resources, the potential demand for products from them, the techniques for retrieving and processing space resources, the necessary infrastructure, and the economic tradeoffs.

  5. Human Resource Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, W. H.; Wyatt, L. L.

    1977-01-01

    By using the total resource approach, we have focused attention on the need to integrate human resource planning with other business plans and highlighted the importance of a productivity strategy. (Author)

  6. Color Addition and Subtraction Apps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz, Frances; Ruiz, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Color addition and subtraction apps in HTML5 have been developed for students as an online hands-on experience so that they can more easily master principles introduced through traditional classroom demonstrations. The evolution of the additive RGB color model is traced through the early IBM color adapters so that students can proceed step by step…

  7. 75 FR 27313 - Proposed Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-14

    ... FROM PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED PROCUREMENT LIST Proposed Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Proposed additions to the... or Severely Disabled, Jefferson Plaza 2, Suite 10800, 1421 Jefferson Davis Highway,...

  8. Resource Planning Guide

    1994-06-30

    RPG1.06 is an (IRP) tool developed so that small public utilities would have a tool to complete an IRP that was in compliance with the Energy Policy Act of 1992. RPG1.06 is divided into three levels: Fast Track, Intermediate, and Detailed. Each level is designed to be completed independently. The Fast Track level is designed for users who want to complete a quick, simple planning study to identify applicable resource options. The Intermediate level ismore » designed for users who want to add their own data and apply weighting factors to the results after completing a quick, simple planning study. The Detailed level is designed for users who want to identify applicable resource options and spend a fair amount of time collecting the data, computing the calculations, and compiling the results. The Detailed level contains a production costing module and optimization algorithms. The software contains the worksheets that appear in the workbook version. Similar to the workbooks, the software worksheets are designed to be completed in numerical order. The software automatically saves the data entered into a worksheet, and carries the data from worksheet to worksheet, completing all calculations. RPG1.06 also contains three additional volumes. Getting Started is an introduction to RPG1.06. Getting Started helps the user understand the differences between the three workbooks and choose the workbook that best fits the users needs. Reference Data contains supply, demand, end-use, weather, and survey data that can be used in lieu of a utility''s own data. Reference Data is particulary helpful for a utility that does not have the time, staff, or money to gather all its own data. The Sample Load Forecasting Methodologies details the steps necessary to complete simple trends, end-use, and economic load forecasts.« less

  9. Berkeley Disk Resource Manager

    2004-02-27

    The Berkeley Disk Resource Manager (B-DRM) is a middleware component whose function is to provide dynamic space allocation and file management of a shared disk system on the Grid. It provides space allocation and dynamic information on storage availability for the planning and execution of Grid jobs. The B-DRM manages two types of resources: space and files. Vi1en managing space, the B-DRM allocates space to the requesting client based on a default space quota, Thenmore » managing files, the B-DRM allocates space for files, invokes file transfer services to move files into the space, pins files for a certain lifetime, releases files upon the client’s request, and uses file replacement policies to optimize the use of the shared space. The B-DRM is designed to provide effective sharing of files, by monitoring the activity of shared files, and making dynamic decisions on which files to replace when space is needed. In addition, the B-DRM performs automatic garbage collection of unused files when space is needed by removing selected files that were released by the client or whose lifetime has expired. The BDRM supports requests to get multiple files in a single call, manages a queue of the requested files, brings in as many files as the space quota permits, and continues to reuse the space when files are released to stream files to the client until the entire request is satisfied. Similarly, the B-DRM supports requests to put multiple files into its space, streaming files into the allocated space and reusing the space if necessary.« less

  10. Berkeley Disk Resource Manager

    SciTech Connect

    Shoshani, Arie; Sim, Alex; Gu, Junmin

    2004-02-27

    The Berkeley Disk Resource Manager (B-DRM) is a middleware component whose function is to provide dynamic space allocation and file management of a shared disk system on the Grid. It provides space allocation and dynamic information on storage availability for the planning and execution of Grid jobs. The B-DRM manages two types of resources: space and files. Vi1en managing space, the B-DRM allocates space to the requesting client based on a default space quota, Then managing files, the B-DRM allocates space for files, invokes file transfer services to move files into the space, pins files for a certain lifetime, releases files upon the client’s request, and uses file replacement policies to optimize the use of the shared space. The B-DRM is designed to provide effective sharing of files, by monitoring the activity of shared files, and making dynamic decisions on which files to replace when space is needed. In addition, the B-DRM performs automatic garbage collection of unused files when space is needed by removing selected files that were released by the client or whose lifetime has expired. The BDRM supports requests to get multiple files in a single call, manages a queue of the requested files, brings in as many files as the space quota permits, and continues to reuse the space when files are released to stream files to the client until the entire request is satisfied. Similarly, the B-DRM supports requests to put multiple files into its space, streaming files into the allocated space and reusing the space if necessary.

  11. Multiple Resources, Multiple Outcomes: Testing the "Improved" School Finance with NELS88

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grubb, W. Norton

    2008-01-01

    This article first presents the conceptual framework of the "improved" school finance. This approach clarifies that effective school resources include compound resources, complex resources, and abstract resources in addition to the simple resources usually included in production functions. The implications of this approach are then explored with…

  12. Save Our Water Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bromley, Albert W.

    The purpose of this booklet, developed as part of Project SOAR (Save Our American Resources), is to give Scout leaders some facts about the world's resources, the sources of water pollution, and how people can help in obtaining solutions. Among the topics discussed are the world's water resources, the water cycle, water quality, sources of water…

  13. Natural Resources Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoadley, Irene Braden

    This bibliography presents a modern definition of the conceptual framework from which to view natural resources, and affords access to information which examines resources from the social scientists point of view. It presents five broad divisions of activity or variables which include (1) Natural and Human Resources, (2) Epistomological and…

  14. Reasoning abstractly about resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clement, B.; Barrett, A.

    2001-01-01

    r describes a way to schedule high level activities before distributing them across multiple rovers in order to coordinate the resultant use of shared resources regardless of how each rover decides how to perform its activities. We present an algorithm for summarizing the metric resource requirements of an abstract activity based n the resource usages of its potential refinements.

  15. Water Resource Adaptation Program

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Water Resource Adaptation Program (WRAP) contributes to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (U.S. EPA) efforts to provide water resource managers and decision makers with the tools needed to adapt water resources to demographic and economic development, and future clim...

  16. Global Education Resource Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graff, Sandra, Comp.

    Over 700 annotated resources, most of which were produced between 1970 and 1980, are presented in this resource guide which addresses global issues and interdependence from a world order perspective. Arranged into 3 parts, the resources listed in part I primarily provide background material organized under the following subtitles: world order;…

  17. Space Resources Roundtable VI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The topics addressed in the conference paper abstracts contained in this document include: extracting resources from the Moon and Mars, equipment for in situ resource utilization, mission planning for resource extraction, drilling on Mars, and simulants for lunar soil and minerals.

  18. Resources within "Reason"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catlett, Camille

    2010-01-01

    Federally funded national centers offer high-quality products and resources for use by teachers, family members, and others. By design, they offer resources that are low cost or no cost. This article presents details about several centers that may have resources to support your work. They include: (1) Center for Early Literacy Learning (CELL); (2)…

  19. International Resource Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schabel, H. G.

    The International Resource Management program enables undergraduate students of the University of Wisconsin, Stevens Point, College of Natural Resources to complete an academic minor in International Resource Management. The program attempts to alert students and faculty to global environmental issues and their interconnectedness with a variety of…

  20. Resources for the Marketplace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shropshire, William O.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    A conceptual introduction to the nature of resources and their role in production and in the marketplace begins this issue. Four instructional units follow, beginning with "Nature Is Resourceful," a unit intended for preschool and kindergarten children built around a nature/resource walk, making sun tea, and analyzing the story of the "Three…

  1. 7 CFR 1469.4 - Significant resource concerns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Provisions § 1469.4 Significant resource concerns. (a) Soil quality and water quality are nationally significant resource concerns for all land uses. (b) For each sign-up, the Chief may determine additional... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Significant resource concerns. 1469.4 Section...

  2. 77 FR 43592 - System Energy Resources, Inc.; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-25

    ..., 2012, System Energy Resources, Inc. (System Energy Resources), submitted a supplement to its petition... supplement, System Energy Resources supplements its March 28 petition to provide additional information and... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY...

  3. Reconciling resource utilization and resource selection functions.

    PubMed

    Hooten, Mevin B; Hanks, Ephraim M; Johnson, Devin S; Alldredge, Mat W

    2013-11-01

    1. Analyses based on utilization distributions (UDs) have been ubiquitous in animal space use studies, largely because they are computationally straightforward and relatively easy to employ. Conventional applications of resource utilization functions (RUFs) suggest that estimates of UDs can be used as response variables in a regression involving spatial covariates of interest. 2. It has been claimed that contemporary implementations of RUFs can yield inference about resource selection, although to our knowledge, an explicit connection has not been described. 3. We explore the relationships between RUFs and resource selection functions from a hueristic and simulation perspective. We investigate several sources of potential bias in the estimation of resource selection coefficients using RUFs (e.g. the spatial covariance modelling that is often used in RUF analyses). 4. Our findings illustrate that RUFs can, in fact, serve as approximations to RSFs and are capable of providing inference about resource selection, but only with some modification and under specific circumstances. 5. Using real telemetry data as an example, we provide guidance on which methods for estimating resource selection may be more appropriate and in which situations. In general, if telemetry data are assumed to arise as a point process, then RSF methods may be preferable to RUFs; however, modified RUFs may provide less biased parameter estimates when the data are subject to location error. PMID:23574332

  4. Reconciling resource utilization and resource selection functions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hooten, Mevin B.; Hanks, Ephraim M.; Johnson, Devin S.; Alldredge, Mat W.

    2013-01-01

    Summary: 1. Analyses based on utilization distributions (UDs) have been ubiquitous in animal space use studies, largely because they are computationally straightforward and relatively easy to employ. Conventional applications of resource utilization functions (RUFs) suggest that estimates of UDs can be used as response variables in a regression involving spatial covariates of interest. 2. It has been claimed that contemporary implementations of RUFs can yield inference about resource selection, although to our knowledge, an explicit connection has not been described. 3. We explore the relationships between RUFs and resource selection functions from a hueristic and simulation perspective. We investigate several sources of potential bias in the estimation of resource selection coefficients using RUFs (e.g. the spatial covariance modelling that is often used in RUF analyses). 4. Our findings illustrate that RUFs can, in fact, serve as approximations to RSFs and are capable of providing inference about resource selection, but only with some modification and under specific circumstances. 5. Using real telemetry data as an example, we provide guidance on which methods for estimating resource selection may be more appropriate and in which situations. In general, if telemetry data are assumed to arise as a point process, then RSF methods may be preferable to RUFs; however, modified RUFs may provide less biased parameter estimates when the data are subject to location error.

  5. Permanent Genetic Resources added to Molecular Ecology Resources Database 1 December 2009–31 January 2010

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This article documents the addition of 220 microsatellite marker loci to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Allanblackia floribunda, Amblyraja radiata, Bactrocera cucurbitae, Brachycaudus helichrysi, Calopogonium mucunoides, Dissodactylus primiti...

  6. Color Addition and Subtraction Apps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz, Frances; Ruiz, Michael J.

    2015-10-01

    Color addition and subtraction apps in HTML5 have been developed for students as an online hands-on experience so that they can more easily master principles introduced through traditional classroom demonstrations. The evolution of the additive RGB color model is traced through the early IBM color adapters so that students can proceed step by step in understanding mathematical representations of RGB color. Finally, color addition and subtraction are presented for the X11 colors from web design to illustrate yet another real-life application of color mixing.

  7. 30 CFR 75.1103-10 - Fire suppression systems; additional requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fire suppression systems; additional requirements. 75.1103-10 Section 75.1103-10 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... Protection § 75.1103-10 Fire suppression systems; additional requirements. For each conveyor belt...

  8. 30 CFR 75.1103-10 - Fire suppression systems; additional requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fire suppression systems; additional requirements. 75.1103-10 Section 75.1103-10 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... Protection § 75.1103-10 Fire suppression systems; additional requirements. For each conveyor belt...

  9. Domeland Wilderness, Domeland addition, and Woodpecker Roadless Areas, California

    SciTech Connect

    Bergquist, J.R.; Spear, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral survey of the Domeland Wilderness and the contiguous Domeland Addition and Woodpecker Roadless Areas was made in 1978-1980 by the USGS and USBM. The study delineated areas of substantiated and probable mineral-resource potential. The areas of substantiated resource potential are in the Wookpecker Roadless Area where alluvial gravel in Rockhouse Basin and on Upper Trout Creek contains small, irregular, low-grade deposits of placer gold. There is a probable resource potential for very small deposits of uranium in fractures in granitic rocks west of the South Fork of the Kern River in the Domeland Wilderness. Geochemical data indicate a probable potential for a porphyry-molybdenum deposit at the southern end of the Domeland Wilderness, and for very small deposits of tungsten, copper-lead-zinc, tin, silver, and molybdenum at several places in the wilderness and roadless areas. The geologic terrance precludes the occurrence of organic fuel resources.

  10. Self managing experiment resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stagni, F.; Ubeda, M.; Tsaregorodtsev, A.; Romanovskiy, V.; Roiser, S.; Charpentier, P.; Graciani, R.

    2014-06-01

    Within this paper we present an autonomic Computing resources management system, used by LHCb for assessing the status of their Grid resources. Virtual Organizations Grids include heterogeneous resources. For example, LHC experiments very often use resources not provided by WLCG, and Cloud Computing resources will soon provide a non-negligible fraction of their computing power. The lack of standards and procedures across experiments and sites generated the appearance of multiple information systems, monitoring tools, ticket portals, etc... which nowadays coexist and represent a very precious source of information for running HEP experiments Computing systems as well as sites. These two facts lead to many particular solutions for a general problem: managing the experiment resources. In this paper we present how LHCb, via the DIRAC interware, addressed such issues. With a renewed Central Information Schema hosting all resources metadata and a Status System (Resource Status System) delivering real time information, the system controls the resources topology, independently of the resource types. The Resource Status System applies data mining techniques against all possible information sources available and assesses the status changes, that are then propagated to the topology description. Obviously, giving full control to such an automated system is not risk-free. Therefore, in order to minimise the probability of misbehavior, a battery of tests has been developed in order to certify the correctness of its assessments. We will demonstrate the performance and efficiency of such a system in terms of cost reduction and reliability.

  11. Calculators and Computers: Graphical Addition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spero, Samuel W.

    1978-01-01

    A computer program is presented that generates problem sets involving sketching graphs of trigonometric functions using graphical addition. The students use calculators to sketch the graphs and a computer solution is used to check it. (MP)

  12. Polyolefins as additives in plastics

    SciTech Connect

    Deanin, R.D.

    1993-12-31

    Polyolefins are not only major commodity plastics - they are also very useful as additives, both in other polyolefins and also in other types of plastics. This review covers ethylene, propylene, butylene and isobutylene polymers, in blends with each other, and as additives to natural rubber, styrene/butadiene rubber, polystyrene, polyvinyl chloride, polymethyl methacrylate, polyphenylene oxide, polycarbonate, thermoplastic polyesters, polyurethanes, polyamides, and mixed automotive plastics recycling.

  13. ReviewsGCSE Book Review: Modular Science for AQA GCSE Book Review: Modular Science for Edexcel GCSE Book Review: Revise for GCSE Science (Edexcel Modular Foundation and Higher) GCSE Book Review: AQA GCSE Physics, AQA GCSE Physics Additions Book Review: Studying Maths and its Applications Book Review: Medical Physics, 2nd edition Book Review: The Physics of Hockey Book Review: Nine Crazy Ideas In Science Book Review: Light and Dark Talking Point: The Skeptical Environmentalist Places To Visit: Centre for Alternative Technology, Machynlleth, Powys Resources: Sources of Energy Web Watch: Terence, this is stupid stuff...

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-03-01

    GCSE BOOK REVIEWS (162) Modular Science for AQA Modular Science for Edexcel Revise for GCSE Science (Edexcel Modular Foundation and Higher) AQA GCSE Physics, AQA GCSE Physics Additions BOOK REVIEWS (166) Studying Maths and its Applications Medical Physics, 2nd edition The Physics of Hockey Nine Crazy Ideas In Science Light and Dark TALKING POINT (169) The Skeptical Environmentalist PLACES TO VISIT (170) Centre for Alternative Technology, Machynlleth, Powys RESOURCES (172) Sources of Energy WEB WATCH (173) Terence, this is stupid stuff...

  14. Benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH); Prostate enlargement resources; BPH resources ... organizations provide information on benign prostatic hyperplasia ( prostate enlargement ): National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse -- www. ...

  15. CERN Computing Resources Lifecycle Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tselishchev, Alexey; Tedesco, Paolo; Ormancey, Emmanuel; Isnard, Christian

    2011-12-01

    Computing environments in High Energy Physics are typically complex and heterogeneous, with a wide variety of hardware resources, operating systems and applications. The research activity in all its aspects is carried out by international collaborations constituted by a growing number of participants with a high manpower turnover. These factors can increase the administrative workload required to manage the computing infrastructure and to track resource usage and inheritance. It is therefore necessary to rationalize and formalize the computing resources management, while respecting the requirement of flexibility of scientific applications and services. This paper shows how during the last years the CERN computing infrastructure has been moving in this direction, establishing well-defined policies and lifecycles for resource management. Applications are being migrated towards proposed common identity, authentication and authorization models, reducing their complexity while increasing security and usability. Regular tasks like the creation of primary user accounts are being automated, and self-service facilities are being introduced for common operations, like creation of additional accounts, group subscriptions and password reset. This approach is leading to more efficient and manageable systems.

  16. Zeolite-catalyzed additions of aromatic compounds to oleic acid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is significant research interest in developing new materials from vegetable oils and animal fats. Biobased materials can be more environmentally friendly because they tend to have good biodegradability and are derived from renewable resources. In this talk, efficient approaches for the addit...

  17. ADDITIVITY ASSESSMENT OF TRIHALOMETHANE MIXTURES BY PROPORTIONAL RESPONSE ADDITION

    EPA Science Inventory

    If additivity is known or assumed, the toxicity of a chemical mixture may be predicted from the dose response curves of the individual chemicals comprising the mixture. As single chemical data are abundant and mixture data sparse, mixture risk methods that utilize single chemical...

  18. Research resource: the Endometrium Database Resource (EDR).

    PubMed

    Darlington, Yolanda; Jeong, Jae-Wook; Lee, Kevin Y; Franco, Heather L; Chen, Edward S; McOwiti, Apollo; Mistretta, Toni-Ann; Steffen, David; Becnel, Lauren; DeMayo, Francesco J

    2013-03-01

    In order to understand the biology of the endometrium and potentially develop new diagnostic tools and treatments for endometrial diseases, the highly orchestrated gene expression/regulation that occurs within the uterus must first be understood. Even though a wealth of information on endometrial gene expression/regulation is available, this information is scattered across several different resources in formats that can be difficult for the average bench scientist to query, integrate, and utilize. The Endometrium Database Resource (EDR) was created as a single evolving resource for protein- and micro-RNA-encoding genes that have been shown by gene expression microarray, Northern blot, or other experiments in the literature to have their expression regulated in the uterus of humans, mice, rats, cows, domestic pigs, guinea pigs, and sheep. Genes are annotated in EDR with basic gene information (eg, gene symbol and chromosome), gene orthologs, and gene ontologies. Links are also provided to external resources for publication/s, nucleic and amino acid sequence, gene product function, and Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) phase expression graph information. The resource also allows for direct comparison of relative gene expression in different microarray experiments for genes shown in the literature to be differentially expressed in the uterus. It is available via a user-friendly, web-based interface and is available without charge or restriction to the entire scientific community. The EDR can be accessed at http://edr.research.bcm.edu. PMID:23340253

  19. Research Resource: The Endometrium Database Resource (EDR)

    PubMed Central

    Darlington, Yolanda; Jeong, Jae-Wook; Lee, Kevin Y.; Franco, Heather L.; Chen, Edward S.; McOwiti, Apollo; Mistretta, Toni-Ann; Steffen, David; DeMayo, Francesco J.

    2013-01-01

    In order to understand the biology of the endometrium and potentially develop new diagnostic tools and treatments for endometrial diseases, the highly orchestrated gene expression/regulation that occurs within the uterus must first be understood. Even though a wealth of information on endometrial gene expression/regulation is available, this information is scattered across several different resources in formats that can be difficult for the average bench scientist to query, integrate, and utilize. The Endometrium Database Resource (EDR) was created as a single evolving resource for protein- and micro-RNA-encoding genes that have been shown by gene expression microarray, Northern blot, or other experiments in the literature to have their expression regulated in the uterus of humans, mice, rats, cows, domestic pigs, guinea pigs, and sheep. Genes are annotated in EDR with basic gene information (eg, gene symbol and chromosome), gene orthologs, and gene ontologies. Links are also provided to external resources for publication/s, nucleic and amino acid sequence, gene product function, and Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) phase expression graph information. The resource also allows for direct comparison of relative gene expression in different microarray experiments for genes shown in the literature to be differentially expressed in the uterus. It is available via a user-friendly, web-based interface and is available without charge or restriction to the entire scientific community. The EDR can be accessed at http://edr.research.bcm.edu. PMID:23340253

  20. Contamination of water resources by pathogenic bacteria

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Water-borne pathogen contamination in water resources and related diseases are a major water quality concern throughout the world. Increasing interest in controlling water-borne pathogens in water resources evidenced by a large number of recent publications clearly attests to the need for studies that synthesize knowledge from multiple fields covering comparative aspects of pathogen contamination, and unify them in a single place in order to present and address the problem as a whole. Providing a broader perceptive of pathogen contamination in freshwater (rivers, lakes, reservoirs, groundwater) and saline water (estuaries and coastal waters) resources, this review paper attempts to develop the first comprehensive single source of existing information on pathogen contamination in multiple types of water resources. In addition, a comprehensive discussion describes the challenges associated with using indicator organisms. Potential impacts of water resources development on pathogen contamination as well as challenges that lie ahead for addressing pathogen contamination are also discussed. PMID:25006540

  1. Resource assessment for geothermal direct use applications

    SciTech Connect

    Beer, C.; Hederman, W.F. Jr.; Dolenc, M.R.; Allman, D.W.

    1984-04-01

    This report discusses the topic geothermal resource assessment and its importance to laymen and investors for finding geothermal resources for direct-use applications. These are applications where the heat from lower-temperature geothermal fluids, 120 to 200/sup 0/F, are used directly rather than for generating electricity. The temperatures required for various applications are listed and the various types of geothermal resources are described. Sources of existing resource data are indicated, and the types and suitability of tests to develop more data are described. Potential development problems are indicated and guidance is given on how to decrease technical and financial risk and how to use technical consultants effectively. The objectives of this report are to provide: (1) an introduction low-temperature geothermal resource assessment; (2) experience from a series of recent direct-use projects; and (3) references to additional information.

  2. [INVITED] Lasers in additive manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinkerton, Andrew J.

    2016-04-01

    Additive manufacturing is a topic of considerable ongoing interest, with forecasts predicting it to have major impact on industry in the future. This paper focusses on the current status and potential future development of the technology, with particular reference to the role of lasers within it. It begins by making clear the types and roles of lasers in the different categories of additive manufacturing. This is followed by concise reviews of the economic benefits and disadvantages of the technology, current state of the market and use of additive manufacturing in different industries. Details of these fields are referenced rather than expanded in detail. The paper continues, focusing on current indicators to the future of additive manufacturing. Barriers to its development, trends and opportunities in major industrial sectors, and wider opportunities for its development are covered. Evidence indicates that additive manufacturing may not become the dominant manufacturing technology in all industries, but represents an excellent opportunity for lasers to increase their influence in manufacturing as a whole.

  3. Evaluation of certain food additives.

    PubMed

    2015-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives, including flavouring agents, and to prepare specifications for identity and purity. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles governing the toxicological evaluation of and assessment of dietary exposure to food additives, including flavouring agents. A summary follows of the Committee's evaluations of technical, toxicological and dietary exposure data for eight food additives (Benzoe tonkinensis; carrageenan; citric and fatty acid esters of glycerol; gardenia yellow; lutein esters from Tagetes erecta; octenyl succinic acid-modified gum arabic; octenyl succinic acid-modified starch; paprika extract; and pectin) and eight groups of flavouring agents (aliphatic and alicyclic hydrocarbons; aliphatic and aromatic ethers; ionones and structurally related substances; miscellaneous nitrogen-containing substances; monocyclic and bicyclic secondary alcohols, ketones and related esters; phenol and phenol derivatives; phenyl-substituted aliphatic alcohols and related aldehydes and esters; and sulfur-containing heterocyclic compounds). Specifications for the following food additives were revised: citric acid; gellan gum; polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monostearate; potassium aluminium silicate; and Quillaia extract (Type 2). Annexed to the report are tables summarizing the Committee's recommendations for dietary exposures to and toxicological evaluations of all of the food additives and flavouring agents considered at this meeting. PMID:26118220

  4. Land- and resource-use issues at the Valles Caldera

    SciTech Connect

    Intemann, P.R.

    1981-01-01

    The Valles Caldera possesses a wealth of resources from which various private parties as well as the public at large can benefit. Among the most significant of these are the geothermal energy resource and the natural resource. Wildlife, scenic, and recreational resources can be considered components of the natural resource. In addition, Native Americans in the area value the Valles Caldera as part of their religion. The use of land in the caldera to achieve the full benefits of one resource may adversely affect the value of other resources. Measures can be taken to minimize adverse affects and to maximize the benefits of all the varied resources within the caldera as equitably as possible. An understanding of present and potential land and resource uses in the Caldera, and who will benefit from these uses, can lead to the formulation of such measures.

  5. Manipulating crystallization with molecular additives.

    PubMed

    Shtukenberg, Alexander G; Lee, Stephanie S; Kahr, Bart; Ward, Michael D

    2014-01-01

    Given the importance of organic crystals in a wide range of industrial applications, the chemistry, biology, materials science, and chemical engineering communities have focused considerable attention on developing methods to control crystal structure, size, shape, and orientation. Tailored additives have been used to control crystallization to great effect, presumably by selectively binding to particular crystallographic surfaces and sites. However, substantial knowledge gaps still exist in the fundamental mechanisms that govern the formation and growth of organic crystals in both the absence and presence of additives. In this review, we highlight research discoveries that reveal the role of additives, either introduced by design or present adventitiously, on various stages of formation and growth of organic crystals, including nucleation, dislocation spiral growth mechanisms, growth inhibition, and nonclassical crystal morphologies. The insights from these investigations and others of their kind are likely to guide the development of innovative methods to manipulate crystallization for a wide range of materials and applications. PMID:24579880

  6. Additive Manufacturing of Hybrid Circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarobol, Pylin; Cook, Adam; Clem, Paul G.; Keicher, David; Hirschfeld, Deidre; Hall, Aaron C.; Bell, Nelson S.

    2016-07-01

    There is a rising interest in developing functional electronics using additively manufactured components. Considerations in materials selection and pathways to forming hybrid circuits and devices must demonstrate useful electronic function; must enable integration; and must complement the complex shape, low cost, high volume, and high functionality of structural but generally electronically passive additively manufactured components. This article reviews several emerging technologies being used in industry and research/development to provide integration advantages of fabricating multilayer hybrid circuits or devices. First, we review a maskless, noncontact, direct write (DW) technology that excels in the deposition of metallic colloid inks for electrical interconnects. Second, we review a complementary technology, aerosol deposition (AD), which excels in the deposition of metallic and ceramic powder as consolidated, thick conformal coatings and is additionally patternable through masking. Finally, we show examples of hybrid circuits/devices integrated beyond 2-D planes, using combinations of DW or AD processes and conventional, established processes.

  7. Tougher Addition Polyimides Containing Siloxane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St. Clair, T. L.; Maudgal, S.

    1986-01-01

    Laminates show increased impact resistances and other desirable mechanical properties. Bismaleamic acid extended by reaction of diaminosiloxane with maleic anhydride in 1:1 molar ratio, followed by reaction with half this molar ratio of aromatic dianhydride. Bismaleamic acid also extended by reaction of diaminosiloxane with maleic anhydride in 1:2 molar ratio, followed by reaction with half this molar ratio of aromatic diamine (Michael-addition reaction). Impact resistances improved over those of unmodified bismaleimide, showing significant increase in toughness. Aromatic addition polyimides developed as both matrix and adhesive resins for applications on future aircraft and spacecraft.

  8. Nuclear winter attracts additional scrutiny

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.J.

    1984-07-06

    Prodded by the Natural Resources Defense Council, Congress has asked the Pentagon to provide what amounts to an environmental impact statement on the potential for nuclear weapons explosions to create enough soot and dust to cause a nuclear winter. The request has implications for arms control and civil defense as well as for weapons procurement and deployment. Little attention was given to the atmospheric and climatic effects of nuclear war until the nuclear winter concept was introduced in October of 1983. Only the Navy and the DOE took steps to follow up until pressure was put on Congress and the Pentagon for further study. Pentagon criticism of the nuclear winter presentation argues that the scenario assumptions that cities will be targeted and that a conflict will involve 5000-6500 megatons are incorrect.

  9. Lunar exploration for resource utilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duke, Michael B.

    1992-01-01

    The strategy for developing resources on the Moon depends on the stage of space industrialization. A case is made for first developing the resources needed to provide simple materials required in large quantities for space operations. Propellants, shielding, and structural materials fall into this category. As the enterprise grows, it will be feasible to develop additional sources - those more difficult to obtain or required in smaller quantities. Thus, the first materials processing on the Moon will probably take the abundant lunar regolith, extract from it major mineral or glass species, and do relatively simple chemical processing. We need to conduct a lunar remote sensing mission to determine the global distribution of features, geophysical properties, and composition of the Moon, information which will serve as the basis for detailed models of and engineering decisions about a lunar mine.

  10. Cockpit resource management training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yocum, M.; Foushee, C.

    1984-01-01

    Cockpit resource management which is a multifaceted concept is outlined. The system involves the effective coordination of many resources: aircraft systems, company, air traffic control, equipment, navigational aids, documents, and manuals. The main concept, however, is group interaction. Problems which arise from lack of coordination, decision making, and lack of communication are pointed out. Implementation by the regional airline industry of cockpit resource management, designed to deal with human interactions problems in the most cost effective manner, is discussed.

  11. Competition for finite resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, L. Jonathan; Zia, R. K. P.

    2012-05-01

    The resources in a cell are finite, which implies that the various components of the cell must compete for resources. One such resource is the ribosomes used during translation to create proteins. Motivated by this example, we explore this competition by connecting two totally asymmetric simple exclusion processes (TASEPs) to a finite pool of particles. Expanding on our previous work, we focus on the effects on the density and current of having different entry and exit rates.

  12. Promoting Additive Acculturation in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Margaret A.

    1995-01-01

    A study focusing on 113 ninth graders of Mexican descent indicates that most students and their parents adhere to a strategy of additive acculturation (incorporating skills of the new culture and language), but that the school curriculum and general school climate devalue Mexican culture. (SLD)

  13. Individualized Additional Instruction for Calculus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takata, Ken

    2010-01-01

    College students enrolling in the calculus sequence have a wide variance in their preparation and abilities, yet they are usually taught from the same lecture. We describe another pedagogical model of Individualized Additional Instruction (IAI) that assesses each student frequently and prescribes further instruction and homework based on the…

  14. Out of bounds additive manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Holshouser, Chris; Newell, Clint; Palas, Sid; Love, Lonnie J.; Kunc, Vlastimil; Lind, Randall F.; Lloyd, Peter D.; Rowe, John C.; Blue, Craig A.; Duty, Chad E.; Peter, William H.; Dehoff, Ryan R.

    2013-03-01

    Lockheed Martin and Oak Ridge National Laboratory are working on an additive manufacturing system capable of manufacturing components measured not in terms of inches or feet, but multiple yards in all dimensions with the potential to manufacture parts that are completely unbounded in size.

  15. The Additive Property of Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsaoussis, Dimitris S.

    1995-01-01

    Presents exercises that analyze the additive property of energy. Concludes that if a body has more than one component of energy depending on the same physical quantity, the body's total energy will be the algebraic sum of the components if a linear relationship exists between the energy components and that physical quantity. (JRH)

  16. Tinkertoy Color-Addition Device.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Joe L.

    1995-01-01

    Describes construction and use of a simple home-built device, using an overhead projector, for use in demonstrations of the addition of various combinations of red, green, and blue light. Useful in connection with discussions of color, color vision, or color television. (JRH)

  17. Silage Additives and Management Issues

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Inoculants are the most common silage additives in the United States. These products contain lactic acid bacteria to supplement the lactic acid bacteria naturally on the crop and help insure a consistent fermentation in the silo. There are three types of inoculants: homofermentative lactic acid bact...

  18. Tetrasulfide extreme pressure lubricant additives

    SciTech Connect

    Gast, L.E.; Kenney, H.E.; Schwab, A.W.

    1980-08-19

    A novel class of compounds has been prepared comprising the tetrasulfides of /sup 18/C hydrocarbons, /sup 18/C fatty acids, and /sup 18/C fatty and alkyl and triglyceride esters. These tetrasulfides are useful as extreme pressure lubricant additives and show potential as replacements for sulfurized sperm whale oil.

  19. TMCC WIND RESOURCE ASSESSMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Turtle Mountain Community College

    2003-12-30

    North Dakota has an outstanding resource--providing more available wind for development than any other state. According to U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) studies, North Dakota alone has enough energy from good wind areas, those of wind power Class 4 and higher, to supply 36% of the 1990 electricity consumption of the entire lower 48 states. At present, no more than a handful of wind turbines in the 60- to 100-kilowatt (kW) range are operating in the state. The first two utility-scale turbines were installed in North Dakota as part of a green pricing program, one in early 2002 and the second in July 2002. Both turbines are 900-kW wind turbines. Two more wind turbines are scheduled for installation by another utility later in 2002. Several reasons are evident for the lack of wind development. One primary reason is that North Dakota has more lignite coal than any other state. A number of relatively new minemouth power plants are operating in the state, resulting in an abundance of low-cost electricity. In 1998, North Dakota generated approximately 8.2 million megawatt-hours (MWh) of electricity, largely from coal-fired plants. Sales to North Dakota consumers totaled only 4.5 million MWh. In addition, the average retail cost of electricity in North Dakota was 5.7 cents per kWh in 1998. As a result of this surplus and the relatively low retail cost of service, North Dakota is a net exporter of electricity, selling approximately 50% to 60% of the electricity produced in North Dakota to markets outside the state. Keeping in mind that new electrical generation will be considered an export commodity to be sold outside the state, the transmission grid that serves to export electricity from North Dakota is at or close to its ability to serve new capacity. The markets for these resources are outside the state, and transmission access to the markets is a necessary condition for any large project. At the present time, technical assessments of the transmission network indicate

  20. Cataloging Internet resources.

    PubMed

    Flannery, M R

    1995-04-01

    The number of resources available on the Internet continues to expand exponentially, but finding appropriate resources is still a fragmented, hit-or-miss operation. Traditional library expertise in bibliographic description and access should be applied to the management of this emerging body of material. In the process, catalogers will be able to assess the adequacy of current tools (e.g., cataloging codes, machine-readable cataloging formats, integrated library systems) for providing access to Internet resources and will contribute credibly to design or redesign of access tools. This paper outlines the major issues that must be considered in cataloging electronic resources. PMID:7599587

  1. Measuring natural resource scarcity

    SciTech Connect

    Halvorsen, R.; Smith, T.R.

    1984-10-01

    Conclusions concerning trends in natural resource scarcity may depend critically on the choice of scarcity index. Unfortunately, the prevalence of vertical integration in natural resource industries has hindered the use of some otherwise desirable scarcity measures. In this paper duality theory is used to derive an econometric procedure for estimating one such measure, the shadow price of the resource in situ. Empirical results for the Canadian metal mining industry indicate that resource scarcity as measured by this shadow price has decreased substantially over time. 23 refernces, 1 table.

  2. Central American resource studies

    SciTech Connect

    Van Eeckhout, E.; Laughlin, A.W.

    1989-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has been working with five Central American countries to assist in the development of their energy and mineral resources. Since 1985, mineral resources in Costa Rica, peat resources in Costa Rica and Panama, geothermal energy resources in Honduras and Guatemala, and geothermal field development in El Salvador and Costa Rica have been topics of study. This paper presents an overview of this work -- within these proceedings are papers that deal with specific aspects of each topic, and these will be duly noted. 15 refs., 4 figs.

  3. World energy resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clerici, A.; Alimonti, G.

    2015-08-01

    As energy is the main "fuel" for social and economic development and since energy-related activities have significant environmental impacts, it is important for decision-makers to have access to reliable and accurate data in an user-friendly format. The World Energy Council (WEC) has for decades been a pioneer in the field of energy resources and every three years publishes its flagship report Survey of Energy Resources. A commented analysis in the light of latest data summarized in such a report, World Energy Resources (WER) 2013, is presented together with the evolution of the world energy resources over the last twenty years.

  4. Evaluation of certain food additives.

    PubMed

    2012-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives, including flavouring agents, with a view to concluding as to safety concerns and to preparing specifications for identity and purity. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles governing the toxicological evaluation of and assessment of dietary exposure to food additives, including flavouring agents. A summary follows of the Committee's evaluations of technical, toxicological and dietary exposure data for five food additives (magnesium dihydrogen diphosphate; mineral oil (medium and low viscosity) classes II and III; 3-phytase from Aspergillus niger expressed in Aspergillus niger; serine protease (chymotrypsin) from Nocardiopsis prasina expressed in Bacillus licheniformis; and serine protease (trypsin) from Fusarium oxysporum expressed in Fusarium venenatum) and 16 groups of flavouring agents (aliphatic and aromatic amines and amides; aliphatic and aromatic ethers; aliphatic hydrocarbons, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids and related esters, sulfides, disulfides and ethers containing furan substitution; aliphatic linear alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes, acids and related alcohols, acetals and esters; amino acids and related substances; epoxides; furfuryl alcohol and related substances; linear and branched-chain aliphatic, unsaturated, unconjugated alcohols, aldehydes, acids and related esters; miscellaneous nitrogen-containing substances; phenol and phenol derivatives; pyrazine derivatives; pyridine, pyrrole and quinoline derivatives; saturated aliphatic acyclic branched-chain primary alcohols, aldehydes and acids; simple aliphatic and aromatic sulfides and thiols; sulfur-containing heterocyclic compounds; and sulfur-substituted furan derivatives). Specifications for the following food additives were revised: ethyl cellulose, mineral oil (medium viscosity), modified starches and titanium

  5. Annotated Bibliography of Mathematics Resources. Program Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markus, Nancy L.

    Two bibliographies that review 18 books and resource materials that adult educators can use to teach mathematics in adult literacy classes are included. The materials are suggested to help teachers implement an effective, successful mathematics program, using many of the strategies recommended by the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics.…

  6. Resource Guide: Resources for Native Education Leaders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Begaye, Tim

    2002-01-01

    Provides a comprehensive list of resources about educational leadership in Native-based organizations or communities. Shows the limited material that is currently available and reveals how Native researchers, funders, and institutions must give more attention to the study of Native leadership. (Contains 69 references.) (AUTH)

  7. Resource Specialist Training Resources. Volume I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Ruth Wharton

    A collection of materials for the training of special education resource specialists are presented as the first of four volumes. The materials pertain to California legislation, coordination, inservice programs, consultation, instruction, and career-vocational education. After reviewing provisions of Assembly Bill 777 and Senate Bills 1870 and…

  8. Montana's forest resources. Forest Service resource bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Conner, R.C.; O'Brien, R.A.

    1993-09-01

    The report includes highlights of the forest resource in Montana as of 1989. Also the study describes the extent, condition, and location of the State's forests with particular emphasis on timberland. Includes statistical tables, area by land classes, ownership, and forest type, growing stock and sawtimber volumes, growth, mortality, and removals for timberland.

  9. Environmental regulations alter resource planning methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Castro, R.D.

    1997-05-01

    The advent of regulations governing the volume of air pollutants emitted may force radical alterations in traditional economics-based resource planning. A review of the effect on regional resource planning of adopted emission rules for the Los Angeles basin may benefit utility resource planners. The 1990 amendments to the Clean Air Act (Amendments) concerning utility generation has prompted a reassessment of resource planning methodology. The current methodology does not account for the restrictive NOx emission limits imposed by the Amendments. A new procedure needs to be developed that considers environmental impacts in the selection of the most economical resource plan. Historically, economic aspects of dispatch and generation has dominated the focus of resource planners; for most of the larger utilities, resource planning usually entailed performing analyses with convolution-based production costing software. This method is used because it resolves the prohibitively large run times associated with the exhaustively comprehensive enumeration method of matching loads with resources. An alternative method of analysis, Monte Carlo, requires a larger number of iterations to achieve the precision of convolution. Additionally, the Monte Carlo method`s of convergence, as compared to the convolution method, is much more sensitive to the number of operating units, the number of operating states, the range of input data, and the convergence criteria.

  10. Decontamination formulation with sorbent additive

    DOEpatents

    Tucker; Mark D. , Comstock; Robert H.

    2007-10-16

    A decontamination formulation and method of making that neutralizes the adverse health effects of both chemical and biological compounds, especially chemical warfare (CW) and biological warfare (BW) agents, and toxic industrial chemicals. The formulation provides solubilizing compounds that serve to effectively render the chemical and biological compounds, particularly CW and BW compounds, susceptible to attack, and at least one reactive compound that serves to attack (and detoxify or kill) the compound. The formulation includes at least one solubilizing agent, a reactive compound, a bleaching activator, a sorbent additive, and water. The highly adsorbent, water-soluble sorbent additive (e.g., sorbitol or mannitol) is used to "dry out" one or more liquid ingredients, such as the liquid bleaching activator (e.g., propylene glycol diacetate or glycerol diacetate) and convert the activator into a dry, free-flowing powder that has an extended shelf life, and is more convenient to handle and mix in the field.

  11. Robust stability under additive perturbations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhaya, A.; Desoer, C. A.

    1985-01-01

    A MIMO linear time-invariant feedback system 1S(P,C) is considered which is assumed to be U-stable. The plant P is subjected to an additive perturbation Delta P which is proper but not necessarily stable. It is proved that the perturbed system is U-stable if and only if Delta P(I + Q x Delta P) exp -1 is U-stable.

  12. Additive manufacturing of hybrid circuits

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Bell, Nelson S.; Sarobol, Pylin; Cook, Adam; Clem, Paul G.; Keicher, David M.; Hirschfeld, Deidre; Hall, Aaron Christopher

    2016-03-26

    There is a rising interest in developing functional electronics using additively manufactured components. Considerations in materials selection and pathways to forming hybrid circuits and devices must demonstrate useful electronic function; must enable integration; and must complement the complex shape, low cost, high volume, and high functionality of structural but generally electronically passive additively manufactured components. This article reviews several emerging technologies being used in industry and research/development to provide integration advantages of fabricating multilayer hybrid circuits or devices. First, we review a maskless, noncontact, direct write (DW) technology that excels in the deposition of metallic colloid inks for electrical interconnects.more » Second, we review a complementary technology, aerosol deposition (AD), which excels in the deposition of metallic and ceramic powder as consolidated, thick conformal coatings and is additionally patternable through masking. As a result, we show examples of hybrid circuits/devices integrated beyond 2-D planes, using combinations of DW or AD processes and conventional, established processes.« less

  13. Estimating the additional cost of disability: beyond budget standards.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson-Meyers, Laura; Brown, Paul; McNeill, Robert; Patston, Philip; Dylan, Sacha; Baker, Ronelle

    2010-11-01

    Disabled people have long advocated for sufficient resources to live a life with the same rights and responsibilities as non-disabled people. Identifying the unique resource needs of disabled people relative to the population as a whole and understanding the source of these needs is critical for determining adequate levels of income support and for prioritising service provision. Previous attempts to identify the resources and costs associated with disability have tended to rely on surveys of current resource use. These approaches have been criticised as being inadequate for identifying the resources that would be required to achieve a similar standard of living to non-disabled people and for not using methods that are acceptable to and appropriate for the disabled community. The challenge is therefore to develop a methodology that accurately identifies these unique resource needs, uses an approach that is acceptable to the disabled community, enables all disabled people to participate, and distinguishes 'needs' from 'wants.' This paper describes and presents the rationale for a mixed methodology for identifying and prioritising the resource needs of disabled people. The project is a partnership effort between disabled researchers, a disability support organisation and academic researchers in New Zealand. The method integrates a social model of disability framework and an economic cost model using a budget standards approach to identify additional support, equipment, travel and time required to live an 'ordinary life' in the community. A survey is then used to validate the findings and identify information gaps and resource priorities of the community. Both the theoretical basis of the approach and the practical challenges of designing and implementing a methodology that is acceptable to the disabled community, service providers and funding agencies are discussed. PMID:20933315

  14. Evaluation of certain food additives.

    PubMed

    2009-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives, including flavouring agents, with a view to recommending acceptable daily intakes (ADIs) and to preparing specifications for identity and purity. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles governing the toxicological evaluation and assessment of intake of food additives (in particular, flavouring agents). A summary follows of the Committee's evaluations of technical, toxicological and intake data for certain food additives (asparaginase from Aspergillus niger expressed in A. niger, calcium lignosulfonate (40-65), ethyl lauroyl arginate, paprika extract, phospholipase C expressed in Pichia pastoris, phytosterols, phytostanols and their esters, polydimethylsiloxane, steviol glycosides and sulfites [assessment of dietary exposure]) and 10 groups of related flavouring agents (aliphatic branched-chain saturated and unsaturated alcohols, aldehydes, acids and related esters; aliphatic linear alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes, acids and related alcohols, acetals and esters; aliphatic secondary alcohols, ketones and related esters; alkoxy-substituted allylbenzenes present in foods and essential oils and used as flavouring agents; esters of aliphatic acyclic primary alcohols with aliphatic linear saturated carboxylic acids; furan-substituted aliphatic hydrocarbons, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids and related esters, sulfides, disulfides and ethers; miscellaneous nitrogen-containing substances; monocyclic and bicyclic secondary alcohols, ketones and related esters; hydroxy- and alkoxy-substituted benzyl derivatives; and substances structurally related to menthol). Specifications for the following food additives were revised: canthaxanthin; carob bean gum and carob bean gum (clarified); chlorophyllin copper complexes, sodium and potassium salts; Fast Green FCF; guar gum and guar gum (clarified

  15. Fire-Retardant Polymeric Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Martha K.; Smith, Trent M.

    2011-01-01

    Polyhydroxyamide (PHA) and polymethoxyamide (PMeOA) are fire-retardant (FR) thermoplastic polymers and have been found to be useful as an additive for imparting fire retardant properties to other compatible, thermoplastic polymers (including some elastomers). Examples of compatible flammable polymers include nylons, polyesters, and acrylics. Unlike most prior additives, PHA and PMeOA do not appreciably degrade the mechanical properties of the matrix polymer; indeed, in some cases, mechanical properties are enhanced. Also, unlike some prior additives, PHA and PMeOA do not decompose into large amounts of corrosive or toxic compounds during combustion and can be processed at elevated temperatures. PMeOA derivative formulations were synthesized and used as an FR additive in the fabrication of polyamide (PA) and polystyrene (PS) composites with notable reduction (>30 percent for PS) in peak heat release rates compared to the neat polymer as measured by a Cone Calorimeter (ASTM E1354). Synergistic effects were noted with nanosilica composites. These nanosilica composites had more than 50-percent reduction in peak heat release rates. In a typical application, a flammable thermoplastic, thermoplastic blend, or elastomer that one seeks to render flame-retardant is first dry-mixed with PHA or PMeOA or derivative thereof. The proportion of PHA or PMeOA or derivative in the mixture is typically chosen to lie between 1 and 20 weight percent. The dry blend can then be melt-extruded. The extruded polymer blend can further be extruded and/or molded into fibers, pipes, or any other of a variety of objects that may be required to be fire-retardant. The physical and chemical mechanisms which impart flame retardancy of the additive include inhibiting free-radical oxidation in the vapor phase, preventing vaporization of fuel (the polymer), and cooling through the formation of chemical bonds in either the vapor or the condensed phase. Under thermal stress, the cyclic hydroxyl/ methoxy

  16. Information Resource Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossmeier, Joseph G.

    1981-01-01

    Explains the function of information resources, predicts the increased importance of computers, and emphasizes that computer information systems are a resource to support institutional operation and management. Enumerates the components in planning for the use of information technology. Presents the Virginia Community College System's information…

  17. Community Educational Resource Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robbins, Michael J.

    Described is the community educational resource center (CERC), defined to be a multipurpose, community-based facility that delivers a coordinated system of special educational resources, human and nonhuman, to instructional and administrative personnel confronted by educationally handicapped children. Covered in the description are program need in…

  18. Family History Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bookmark, 1991

    1991-01-01

    The 12 articles in this issue focus on the theme of family history resources: (1) "Introduction: Family History Resources" (Joseph F. Shubert); (2) "Work, Credentials, and Expectations of a Professional Genealogist" (Coreen P. Hallenbeck and Lewis W. Hallenbeck); (3) "Computers and Genealogy" (Theresa C. Strasser); (4) "Finding Historical Records…

  19. National Resource Centers Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Postsecondary Education, US Department of Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The National Resource Centers Program provides grants to institutions of higher education to establish, strengthen, and operate comprehensive and undergraduate centers that are national resources for: (1) Teaching modern foreign languages, especially the less and least commonly taught languages; (2) Disciplinary instruction to provide a thorough…

  20. Splash! Water Resource Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southwest Florida Water Management District, Brooksville.

    This set of activities is designed to bring water resource education into the middle school classroom using an interdisciplinary approach. The packet contains timely, localized information about the water resources of west central Florida. Each activity is aligned to middle-school Sunshine State Standards. These hands-on, minds-on activities can…