Science.gov

Sample records for additional safety feature

  1. Integral fast reactor safety features

    SciTech Connect

    Cahalan, J.E.; Kramer, J.M.; Marchaterre, J.F.; Mueller, C.J.; Pedersen, D.R.; Sevy, R.H.; Wade, D.C.; Wei, T.Y.C.

    1988-01-01

    The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) is an advanced liquid-metal-cooled reactor concept being developed at Argonne National Laboratory. The two major goals of the IFR development effort are improved economics and enhanced safety. In addition to liquid metal cooling, the principal design features that distinguish the IFR are: (1) a pool-type primary system, (2) an advanced ternary alloy metallic fuel, and (3) an integral fuel cycle with on-site fuel reprocessing and fabrication. This paper focuses on the technical aspects of the improved safety margins available in the IFR concept. This increased level of safety is made possible by (1) the liquid metal (sodium) coolant and pool-type primary system layout, which together facilitate passive decay heat removal, and (2) a sodium-bonded metallic fuel pin design with thermal and neutronic properties that provide passive core responses which control and mitigate the consequences of reactor accidents.

  2. Safety features in anaesthesia machine.

    PubMed

    Subrahmanyam, M; Mohan, S

    2013-09-01

    Anaesthesia is one of the few sub-specialties of medicine, which has quickly adapted technology to improve patient safety. This application of technology can be seen in patient monitoring, advances in anaesthesia machines, intubating devices, ultrasound for visualisation of nerves and vessels, etc., Anaesthesia machines have come a long way in the last 100 years, the improvements being driven both by patient safety as well as functionality and economy of use. Incorporation of safety features in anaesthesia machines and ensuring that a proper check of the machine is done before use on a patient ensures patient safety. This review will trace all the present safety features in the machine and their evolution.

  3. Passive Safety Features for Small Modular Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Ingersoll, Daniel T

    2010-01-01

    The rapid growth in the size and complexity of commercial nuclear power plants in the 1970s spawned an interest in smaller, simpler designs that are inherently or intrinsically safe through the use of passive design features. Several designs were developed, but none were ever built, although some of their passive safety features were incorporated into large commercial plant designs that are being planned or built today. In recent years, several reactor vendors are actively redeveloping small modular reactor (SMR) designs with even greater use of passive features. Several designs incorporate the ultimate in passive safety they completely eliminate specific accident initiators from the design. Other design features help to reduce the likelihood of an accident or help to mitigate the accident s consequences, should one occur. While some passive safety features are common to most SMR designs, irrespective of the coolant technology, other features are specific to water, gas, or liquid-metal cooled SMR designs. The extensive use of passive safety features in SMRs promise to make these plants highly robust, protecting both the general public and the owner/investor. Once demonstrated, these plants should allow nuclear power to be used confidently for a broader range of customers and applications than will be possible with large plants alone.

  4. [Safety of food additives in Japan].

    PubMed

    Ito, Sumio

    2011-01-01

    Recently, many accidents relating to food happened in Japan. The consumer's distrust for food, food companies, and the administration is increasing. The consumer especially has an extreme refusal feeling for chemicals such as food additives and agricultural chemicals, and begins to request agricultural chemical-free vegetables and food additive-free food. Food companies also state no agricultural chemicals and no food additives to correspond with consumers' request and aim at differentiating. The food additive is that the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare specifies the one that person's health might not be ruined by providing for Food Sanitation Law Article 10 in our country. The standard for food additives and standard for use of food additives are provided according to regulations of Food Sanitation Law Article 11. Therefore, it is thought that the food additive used is safe now. Then, it reports on the procedure and the safety examination, etc. in our country for designation for food additive this time.

  5. Integral fast reactor concept inherent safety features

    SciTech Connect

    Marchaterre, J.F.; Sevy, R.H.; Cahalan, J.E.

    1987-01-01

    The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) is an innovative liquid-metal-cooled reactor concept being developed at Argonne National Laboratory. The two major goals of the IFT development effort are improved economics and enhanced safety. The design features that together fulfill these goals are: 1) a liquid metal (sodium) coolant, 2) a pool-type reactor primary system configuration, 3) an advanced ternary alloy metallic fuel, and 4) an integral fuel cycle. This paper reviews the design features that contribute to the safety margins inherent to the IFR concept. Special emphasis is placed on the ability of the IFR design to accommodate anticipated transients without scram (ATWS).

  6. Integral Fast Reactor concept inherent safety features

    SciTech Connect

    Marchaterre, J.F.; Sevy, R.H.; Cahalan, J.E.

    1986-01-01

    The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) is an innovative liquid-metal-cooled reactor concept being developed at Argonne National Laboratory. The two major goals of the IFR development effort are improved economics and enhanced safety. The design features that together fulfill these goals are: (1) a liquid metal (sodium) coolant, (2) a pool-type reactor primary system configuration, (3) an advanced ternary alloy metallic fuel, and (4) an integral fuel cycle. This paper reviews the design features that contribute to the safety margins inherent to the IFR concept. Special emphasis is placed on the ability of the IFR design to accommodate anticipated transients without scram (ATWS).

  7. 47 CFR 36.605 - Calculation of safety net additive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Calculation of safety net additive. 36.605... § 36.605 Calculation of safety net additive. (a) “Safety net additive support.” A rural incumbent local exchange carrier shall receive safety net additive support if it satisfies the conditions set forth...

  8. 14 CFR 437.77 - Additional safety requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Additional safety requirements. 437.77..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING EXPERIMENTAL PERMITS Safety Requirements § 437.77 Additional safety requirements. The FAA may impose additional safety requirements on an applicant or permittee proposing...

  9. 14 CFR 437.77 - Additional safety requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Additional safety requirements. 437.77..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING EXPERIMENTAL PERMITS Safety Requirements § 437.77 Additional safety requirements. The FAA may impose additional safety requirements on an applicant or permittee proposing...

  10. 14 CFR 437.77 - Additional safety requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Additional safety requirements. 437.77..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING EXPERIMENTAL PERMITS Safety Requirements § 437.77 Additional safety requirements. The FAA may impose additional safety requirements on an applicant or permittee proposing...

  11. 14 CFR 437.77 - Additional safety requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional safety requirements. 437.77..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING EXPERIMENTAL PERMITS Safety Requirements § 437.77 Additional safety requirements. The FAA may impose additional safety requirements on an applicant or permittee proposing...

  12. 14 CFR 437.77 - Additional safety requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Additional safety requirements. 437.77..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING EXPERIMENTAL PERMITS Safety Requirements § 437.77 Additional safety requirements. The FAA may impose additional safety requirements on an applicant or permittee proposing...

  13. Improving the safety features of general practice computer systems.

    PubMed

    Avery, Anthony J; Savelyich, Boki S P; Teasdale, Sheila

    2003-01-01

    General practice computer systems already have a number of important safety features. However, there are problems in that general practitioners (GPs) have come to rely on hazard alerts when they are not foolproof. Furthermore, GPs do not know how to make best use of safety features on their systems. There are a number of solutions that could help to improve the safety features of general practice computer systems and also help to improve the abilities of healthcare professionals to use these safety features.

  14. 49 CFR 192.171 - Compressor stations: Additional safety equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Compressor stations: Additional safety equipment...) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Design...

  15. 49 CFR 192.171 - Compressor stations: Additional safety equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Compressor stations: Additional safety equipment...) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Design...

  16. 49 CFR 192.171 - Compressor stations: Additional safety equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compressor stations: Additional safety equipment...) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Design...

  17. Designing Crane Controls with applied Mechanical and Electrical Safety Features

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lytle, Bradford P.; Walczak, Thomas A.; Delgado, H. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The use of overhead traveling bridge cranes in many varied applications is common practice. In particular, the use of cranes in the nuclear, military, commercial, aerospace, and other industries can involve safety critical situations. Considerations for Human Injury or Casualty, Loss of Assets, Endangering the Environment, or Economic Reduction must be addressed. Traditionally, in order to achieve additional safety in these applications, mechanical systems have been augmented with a variety of devices. These devices assure that a mechanical component failure shall reduce the risk of a catastrophic loss of the correct and/or safe load carrying capability. ASME NOG-1-1998, (Rules for Construction of Overhead and Gantry Cranes, Top Running Bridge, and Multiple Girder), provides design standards for cranes in safety critical areas. Over and above the minimum safety requirements of todays design standards, users struggle with obtaining a higher degree of reliability through more precise functional specifications while attempting to provide "smart" safety systems. Electrical control systems also may be equipped with protective devices similar to the mechanical design features. Demands for improvement of the cranes "control system" is often recognized, but difficult to quantify for this traditionally "mechanically" oriented market. Finite details for each operation must be examined and understood. As an example, load drift (or small motions) at close tolerances can be unacceptable (and considered critical). To meet these high functional demands encoders and other devices are independently added to control systems to provide motion and velocity feedback to the control drive. This paper will examine the implementation of Programmable Electronic Systems (PES). PES is a term this paper will use to describe any control system utilizing any programmable electronic device such as Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC), or an Adjustable Frequency Drive (AID) 'smart' programmable

  18. 9. BUILDING 65 ADDITION. LASER SAFETY TEAM. FLOOR PLAN, ELEVATIONS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. BUILDING 65 ADDITION. LASER SAFETY TEAM. FLOOR PLAN, ELEVATIONS, ETC. March 21, 1973 - Frankford Arsenal, Building No. 65, South of Tacony Street between Bridge Street & tracks of former Pennsylvania Railroad, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  19. COG - Special Features of Interest to Criticality Safety Practitioners

    SciTech Connect

    Buck, R M; Heinrichs, D P; Krass, A W; Lent, E M

    2010-01-14

    COG is a modern, general-purpose, high fidelity, multi-particle transport code developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory specifically for use in deep penetration (shielding) and criticality safety calculations. This paper describes some features in COG of special interest to criticality safety practitioners.

  20. Passive Safety Features Evaluation of KIPT Neutron Source Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Zhong, Zhaopeng; Gohar, Yousry

    2016-06-01

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) of the United States and Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology (KIPT) of Ukraine have cooperated on the development, design, and construction of a neutron source facility. The facility was constructed at Kharkov, Ukraine and its commissioning process is underway. It will be used to conduct basic and applied nuclear research, produce medical isotopes, and train young nuclear specialists. The facility has an electron accelerator-driven subcritical assembly. The electron beam power is 100 kW using 100 MeV electrons. Tungsten or natural uranium is the target material for generating neutrons driving the subcritical assembly. The subcritical assembly is composed of WWR-M2 - Russian fuel assemblies with U-235 enrichment of 19.7 wt%, surrounded by beryllium reflector assembles and graphite blocks. The subcritical assembly is seated in a water tank, which is a part of the primary cooling loop. During normal operation, the water coolant operates at room temperature and the total facility power is ~300 KW. The passive safety features of the facility are discussed in in this study. Monte Carlo computer code MCNPX was utilized in the analyses with ENDF/B-VII.0 nuclear data libraries. Negative reactivity temperature feedback was consistently observed, which is important for the facility safety performance. Due to the design of WWR-M2 fuel assemblies, slight water temperature increase and the corresponding water density decrease produce large reactivity drop, which offset the reactivity gain by mistakenly loading an additional fuel assembly. The increase of fuel temperature also causes sufficiently large reactivity decrease. This enhances the facility safety performance because fuel temperature increase provides prompt negative reactivity feedback. The reactivity variation due to an empty fuel position filled by water during the fuel loading process is examined. Also, the loading mistakes of removing beryllium reflector assemblies and

  1. 47 CFR 54.1304 - Calculation of safety net additive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... additive unless the carrier's realized total growth in Telecommunications Plant in Service (TPIS) was more... (CONTINUED) UNIVERSAL SERVICE High Cost Loop Support for Rate-of-Return Carriers § 54.1304 Calculation of..., a rate-of-return incumbent local exchange carrier shall receive safety net additive support...

  2. Active transportation safety features around schools in Canada.

    PubMed

    Pinkerton, Bryn; Rosu, Andrei; Janssen, Ian; Pickett, William

    2013-10-31

    The purpose of this study was to describe the presence and quality of active transportation safety features in Canadian school environments that relate to pedestrian and bicycle safety. Variations in these features and associated traffic concerns as perceived by school administrators were examined by geographic status and school type. The study was based on schools that participated in 2009/2010 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) survey. ArcGIS software version 10 and Google Earth were used to assess the presence and quality of ten different active transportation safety features. Findings suggest that there are crosswalks and good sidewalk coverage in the environments surrounding most Canadian schools, but a dearth of bicycle lanes and other traffic calming measures (e.g., speed bumps, traffic chokers). Significant urban/rural inequities exist with a greater prevalence of sidewalk coverage, crosswalks, traffic medians, and speed bumps in urban areas. With the exception of bicycle lanes, the active transportation safety features that were present were generally rated as high quality. Traffic was more of a concern to administrators in urban areas. This study provides novel information about active transportation safety features in Canadian school environments. This information could help guide public health efforts aimed at increasing active transportation levels while simultaneously decreasing active transportation injuries.

  3. Active Transportation Safety Features around Schools in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Pinkerton, Bryn; Rosu, Andrei; Janssen, Ian; Pickett, William

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the presence and quality of active transportation safety features in Canadian school environments that relate to pedestrian and bicycle safety. Variations in these features and associated traffic concerns as perceived by school administrators were examined by geographic status and school type. The study was based on schools that participated in 2009/2010 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) survey. ArcGIS software version 10 and Google Earth were used to assess the presence and quality of ten different active transportation safety features. Findings suggest that there are crosswalks and good sidewalk coverage in the environments surrounding most Canadian schools, but a dearth of bicycle lanes and other traffic calming measures (e.g., speed bumps, traffic chokers). Significant urban/rural inequities exist with a greater prevalence of sidewalk coverage, crosswalks, traffic medians, and speed bumps in urban areas. With the exception of bicycle lanes, the active transportation safety features that were present were generally rated as high quality. Traffic was more of a concern to administrators in urban areas. This study provides novel information about active transportation safety features in Canadian school environments. This information could help guide public health efforts aimed at increasing active transportation levels while simultaneously decreasing active transportation injuries. PMID:24185844

  4. Passive Safety Features in Advanced Nuclear Power Plant Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahir, M.; Chughtai, I. R.; Aslam, M.

    2013-03-01

    For implementation of advance passive safety features in future nuclear power plant design, a passive safety system has been proposed and its response has been observed for Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) in the cold leg of a reactor coolant system. In a transient simulation the performance of proposed system is validated against existing safety injection system for a reference power plant of 325 MWe. The existing safety injection system is a huge system and consists of many active components including pumps, valves, piping and Instrumentation and Control (I&C). A good running of the active components of this system is necessary for its functionality as high head safety injection system under design basis accidents. Using reactor simulation technique, the proposed passive safety injection system and existing safety injection system are simulated and tested for their performance under large break LOCA for the same boundary conditions. Critical thermal hydraulic parameters of both the systems are presented graphically and discussed. The results obtained are approximately the same in both the cases. However, the proposed passive safety injection system is a better choice for such type of reactors due to reduction in components with improved safety.

  5. Safety Features of Material and Personnel Movement Devices. Module SH-25. Safety and Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This student module on safety features of material and personnel movement devices is one of 50 modules concerned with job safety and health. This module covers safe conditions and operating practices for conveyors, elevators, escalators, moving walks, manlifts, forklifts, and motorized hand trucks. Following the introduction, 10 objectives (each…

  6. A Safety Net for New Principals: Ten Features

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crippen, Carolyn

    2004-01-01

    The 12 components or features outlined within this article create a broad safety net for new principals and relates directly to the model of school leadership described by Thomas Sergiovanni. Sergiovanni speaks about three components of leadership in school leaders: the educational leader's "heart" (emotions), "head" (thoughts), and "hand"…

  7. Redundant safety features in a high-channel-count retinal neurostimulator

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Shawn K.; Ellersick, William F.; Krishnan, Ashwati; Doyle, Patrick; Shire, Douglas B.; Wyatt, John L.; Rizzo, Joseph F.

    2016-01-01

    Safety features embedded in a 256-channel retinal prosthesis integrated circuit are presented. The biology of the retina and the electrochemistry of the electrode-tissue interface demand careful planning and design of the safety features of an implantable retinal stimulation device. We describe the internal limits and communication safety features of our ASIC, but we focus on monitoring and protection circuits for the electrode-tissue interface. Two independent voltage monitoring circuits for each channel measure the electrode polarization voltage at two different times in the biphasic stimulation cycle. The monitors ensure that the charged electrode stays within the electrochemical water window potentials, and that the discharged electrode is within a small window near the counter electrode potential. A switch to connect each electrode to the counter electrode between pulses protects against a wide range of device failures. Additionally, we describe work on an active feedback system to ensure that the electrode voltage is at zero. PMID:27231724

  8. Additional information for impact response of the restart safety rods

    SciTech Connect

    Yau, W.W.F.

    1991-10-14

    WSRC-RP-91-677 studied the structural response of the safety rods under the conditions of brake failure and accidental release. It was concluded that the maximum impact loading to the safety rod is 6020 pounds based on conservative considerations that energy dissipation attributable to fluid resistance and reactor superstructure flexibility. The staffers of the Defense Nuclear Facility Safety Board reviewed the results and inquired about the extent of conservatism. By request of the RESTART team, I reassessed the impact force due to these conservative assumptions. This memorandum reports these assessments.

  9. Application features of additives based on metakaolin in concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirsanova, A. A.; Kramar, L. Y.

    2015-01-01

    The present paper is devoted to the influence of additives based on metakaolin (U- YF, UM-YF and YF-UMD) on speed concrete strength development in the early stages of concrete hardening, as well as the strength increase in 28 days. The authors have proved that metakaolin gauging in concrete should not exceed 3%. Introduction of 5% of metakaolin or more entails the fault in concrete strength in the later stages of concrete hardening and decreases its resistance to the influence of sulfate and frosty environments. The most effective of the developed additives are UM-YF and UMD-YF which provide high sulfate and frost resistance to the concrete (up to 800 ... 1000 cycles). The above mentioned influence of additives on concrete properties is connected with an intended formation of structure of the cement matrix of concrete that is resistant to various aggressive environments.

  10. Radiation safety attached to radioactive sources management - additional aspects

    SciTech Connect

    Kositsyn, V.F.

    1993-12-31

    Radiation sources are used in many scientific areas. Safety management requirements are determined for them with guarantee of the international and national dose limits unexceeding. As a rule, such dose limits are being developed concerning the type, energy, and flux of main radiation. Lack of knowledge of these attendant radiations can put personnel in danger. The study of the attendant neutron and gamma-radiations for plutonium 128 alpha sources was made.

  11. 21 CFR 170.20 - General principles for evaluating the safety of food additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES Food Additive... proposed experiments to determine its safety, the Commissioner will advise a person who wishes to establish the safety of a food additive whether he believes the experiments planned will yield data adequate...

  12. 21 CFR 170.20 - General principles for evaluating the safety of food additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES Food Additive... proposed experiments to determine its safety, the Commissioner will advise a person who wishes to establish the safety of a food additive whether he believes the experiments planned will yield data adequate...

  13. 21 CFR 170.20 - General principles for evaluating the safety of food additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES Food Additive... proposed experiments to determine its safety, the Commissioner will advise a person who wishes to establish the safety of a food additive whether he believes the experiments planned will yield data adequate...

  14. 21 CFR 570.20 - General principles for evaluating the safety of food additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES Food Additive... and the proposed experiments to determine its safety, the Commissioner will advise a person who wishes to establish the safety of a food additive whether he believes the experiments planned will...

  15. 21 CFR 570.20 - General principles for evaluating the safety of food additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES Food Additive... and the proposed experiments to determine its safety, the Commissioner will advise a person who wishes to establish the safety of a food additive whether he believes the experiments planned will...

  16. 21 CFR 570.20 - General principles for evaluating the safety of food additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES Food Additive... and the proposed experiments to determine its safety, the Commissioner will advise a person who wishes to establish the safety of a food additive whether he believes the experiments planned will...

  17. 21 CFR 570.20 - General principles for evaluating the safety of food additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES Food Additive... and the proposed experiments to determine its safety, the Commissioner will advise a person who wishes to establish the safety of a food additive whether he believes the experiments planned will...

  18. 21 CFR 570.20 - General principles for evaluating the safety of food additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES Food Additive... and the proposed experiments to determine its safety, the Commissioner will advise a person who wishes to establish the safety of a food additive whether he believes the experiments planned will...

  19. 21 CFR 170.20 - General principles for evaluating the safety of food additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES Food Additive... proposed experiments to determine its safety, the Commissioner will advise a person who wishes to establish the safety of a food additive whether he believes the experiments planned will yield data adequate...

  20. 5 CFR 8301.104 - Additional rules for employees of the Food Safety and Inspection Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Food Safety and Inspection Service. 8301.104 Section 8301.104 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF....104 Additional rules for employees of the Food Safety and Inspection Service. Any employee of the Food Safety and Inspection Service not otherwise required to obtain approval for outside employment...

  1. 5 CFR 8301.104 - Additional rules for employees of the Food Safety and Inspection Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Food Safety and Inspection Service. 8301.104 Section 8301.104 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF....104 Additional rules for employees of the Food Safety and Inspection Service. Any employee of the Food Safety and Inspection Service not otherwise required to obtain approval for outside employment...

  2. 5 CFR 8301.104 - Additional rules for employees of the Food Safety and Inspection Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Food Safety and Inspection Service. 8301.104 Section 8301.104 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF....104 Additional rules for employees of the Food Safety and Inspection Service. Any employee of the Food Safety and Inspection Service not otherwise required to obtain approval for outside employment...

  3. 5 CFR 8301.104 - Additional rules for employees of the Food Safety and Inspection Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Food Safety and Inspection Service. 8301.104 Section 8301.104 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF....104 Additional rules for employees of the Food Safety and Inspection Service. Any employee of the Food Safety and Inspection Service not otherwise required to obtain approval for outside employment...

  4. 5 CFR 8301.104 - Additional rules for employees of the Food Safety and Inspection Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Food Safety and Inspection Service. 8301.104 Section 8301.104 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF....104 Additional rules for employees of the Food Safety and Inspection Service. Any employee of the Food Safety and Inspection Service not otherwise required to obtain approval for outside employment...

  5. 77 FR 76419 - Health and Safety Data Reporting; Addition of Certain Chemicals; Withdrawal of Final Rule

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-28

    ...-2011-0363; FRL-9375-3] RIN 2070-AJ89 Health and Safety Data Reporting; Addition of Certain Chemicals.... SUMMARY: EPA is withdrawing the final Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) section 8(d) Health and Safety Data Reporting Rule that it issued on December 3, 2012. The health and safety data reporting rule...

  6. Safety features of future LWR in Germany - regulatory view

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, H.P.; Weil, L.

    1997-12-01

    The present state of advances in safety considerations regarding future PWR and BWR in the Federal Republic of Germany is described from the regulatory point of view. The role of deterministic and, in particular, probabilistic methods to be applied in the design process is explained. A further topic is the special situation of the ongoing harmonization process between France and Germany concerning safety objectives and requirements for future pressurized water reactors especially the EPR project. 11 refs.

  7. 21 CFR 70.42 - Criteria for evaluating the safety of color additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... additives. 70.42 Section 70.42 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... experiments to determine its safety, the Commissioner will advise a person who wishes to establish the safety of a color additive whether he believes the experiments planned will yield data adequate for...

  8. 21 CFR 70.42 - Criteria for evaluating the safety of color additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... additives. 70.42 Section 70.42 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... experiments to determine its safety, the Commissioner will advise a person who wishes to establish the safety of a color additive whether he believes the experiments planned will yield data adequate for...

  9. 21 CFR 70.42 - Criteria for evaluating the safety of color additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... additives. 70.42 Section 70.42 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... experiments to determine its safety, the Commissioner will advise a person who wishes to establish the safety of a color additive whether he believes the experiments planned will yield data adequate for...

  10. 21 CFR 70.42 - Criteria for evaluating the safety of color additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... additives. 70.42 Section 70.42 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... experiments to determine its safety, the Commissioner will advise a person who wishes to establish the safety of a color additive whether he believes the experiments planned will yield data adequate for...

  11. 21 CFR 70.42 - Criteria for evaluating the safety of color additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... additives. 70.42 Section 70.42 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... experiments to determine its safety, the Commissioner will advise a person who wishes to establish the safety of a color additive whether he believes the experiments planned will yield data adequate for...

  12. Identification and characterization of passive safety system and inherent safety feature building blocks for advanced light-water reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Forsberg, C.W.

    1989-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is investigating passive and inherent safety options for Advanced Light-Water Reactors (ALWRs). A major activity in 1989 includes identification and characterization of passive safety system and inherent safety feature building blocks, both existing and proposed, for ALWRs. Preliminary results of this work are reported herein. This activity is part of a larger effort by the US Department of Energy, reactor vendors, utilities, and others in the United States to develop improved LWRs. The Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR) program and the Advanced Pressurized Water Reactor (APWR) program have as goals improved, commercially available LWRs in the early 1990s. The Advanced Simplified Boiling Water Reactor (ASBWR) program and the AP-600 program are developing more advanced reactors with increased use of passive safety systems. It is planned that these reactors will become commercially available in the mid 1990s. The ORNL program is an exploratory research program for LWRs beyond the year 2000. Desired long-term goals for such reactors include: (1) use of only passive and inherent safety, (2) foolproof against operator errors, (3) malevolence resistance against internal sabotage and external assault and (4) walkaway safety. The acronym ''PRIME'' (Passive safety, Resilient operation, Inherent safety, Malevolence resistance, and Extended (walkaway) safety) is used to summarize these desired characteristics. Existing passive and inherent safety options are discussed in this document.

  13. Natural and Artificial Playing Fields: Characteristics and Safety Features.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Roger C., Ed.; Hoerner, Earl F., Ed.; Milner, Edward M., Ed.; Morehouse, C. A., Ed.

    These papers are on the subjects of playing field standards, surface traction, testing and correlation to actual field experience, and state-of-the-art natural and artificial surfaces. The papers, presented at the Symposium on the Characteristics and Safety of Playing Surfaces (Artificial and Natural) for Field Sports in 1998, cover the…

  14. 21 CFR 170.20 - General principles for evaluating the safety of food additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES Food Additive Safety § 170.20 General principles for...) Upon written request describing the proposed use of an additive and the proposed experiments to... additive whether he believes the experiments planned will yield data adequate for an evaluation of...

  15. Comparative Qualitative Research Distinguishing Safety Features Among Aviation Safety Action Programs in the United States Airlines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chilakalapudi, Naga Swathi Kiran

    Over the years, aviation safety has been influenced by continuous implementations of both proactive and reactive policies by both regulatory boards and also, aviation service providers. This achievement has been possible mainly because of the safety management tools like the Aviation Safety Action Program (ASAP) which derives its roots from the much earlier Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS). Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) provides guidelines and procedures for installation and development of an ASAP, for every airline in the United States. In this study, how different United States air carriers apply ASAP in their organizations is investigated.

  16. Additivity of Feature-Based and Symmetry-Based Grouping Effects in Multiple Object Tracking.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chundi; Zhang, Xuemin; Li, Yongna; Lyu, Chuang

    2016-01-01

    Multiple object tracking (MOT) is an attentional process wherein people track several moving targets among several distractors. Symmetry, an important indicator of regularity, is a general spatial pattern observed in natural and artificial scenes. According to the "laws of perceptual organization" proposed by Gestalt psychologists, regularity is a principle of perceptual grouping, such as similarity and closure. A great deal of research reported that feature-based similarity grouping (e.g., grouping based on color, size, or shape) among targets in MOT tasks can improve tracking performance. However, no additive feature-based grouping effects have been reported where the tracking objects had two or more features. "Additive effect" refers to a greater grouping effect produced by grouping based on multiple cues instead of one cue. Can spatial symmetry produce a similar grouping effect similar to that of feature similarity in MOT tasks? Are the grouping effects based on symmetry and feature similarity additive? This study includes four experiments to address these questions. The results of Experiments 1 and 2 demonstrated the automatic symmetry-based grouping effects. More importantly, an additive grouping effect of symmetry and feature similarity was observed in Experiments 3 and 4. Our findings indicate that symmetry can produce an enhanced grouping effect in MOT and facilitate the grouping effect based on color or shape similarity. The "where" and "what" pathways might have played an important role in the additive grouping effect.

  17. Additivity of Feature-Based and Symmetry-Based Grouping Effects in Multiple Object Tracking

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chundi; Zhang, Xuemin; Li, Yongna; Lyu, Chuang

    2016-01-01

    Multiple object tracking (MOT) is an attentional process wherein people track several moving targets among several distractors. Symmetry, an important indicator of regularity, is a general spatial pattern observed in natural and artificial scenes. According to the “laws of perceptual organization” proposed by Gestalt psychologists, regularity is a principle of perceptual grouping, such as similarity and closure. A great deal of research reported that feature-based similarity grouping (e.g., grouping based on color, size, or shape) among targets in MOT tasks can improve tracking performance. However, no additive feature-based grouping effects have been reported where the tracking objects had two or more features. “Additive effect” refers to a greater grouping effect produced by grouping based on multiple cues instead of one cue. Can spatial symmetry produce a similar grouping effect similar to that of feature similarity in MOT tasks? Are the grouping effects based on symmetry and feature similarity additive? This study includes four experiments to address these questions. The results of Experiments 1 and 2 demonstrated the automatic symmetry-based grouping effects. More importantly, an additive grouping effect of symmetry and feature similarity was observed in Experiments 3 and 4. Our findings indicate that symmetry can produce an enhanced grouping effect in MOT and facilitate the grouping effect based on color or shape similarity. The “where” and “what” pathways might have played an important role in the additive grouping effect. PMID:27199875

  18. Analysis of occupational accidents: prevention through the use of additional technical safety measures for machinery

    PubMed Central

    Dźwiarek, Marek; Latała, Agata

    2016-01-01

    This article presents an analysis of results of 1035 serious and 341 minor accidents recorded by Poland's National Labour Inspectorate (PIP) in 2005–2011, in view of their prevention by means of additional safety measures applied by machinery users. Since the analysis aimed at formulating principles for the application of technical safety measures, the analysed accidents should bear additional attributes: the type of machine operation, technical safety measures and the type of events causing injuries. The analysis proved that the executed tasks and injury-causing events were closely connected and there was a relation between casualty events and technical safety measures. In the case of tasks consisting of manual feeding and collecting materials, the injuries usually occur because of the rotating motion of tools or crushing due to a closing motion. Numerous accidents also happened in the course of supporting actions, like removing pollutants, correcting material position, cleaning, etc. PMID:26652689

  19. Safety basis for the 241-AN-107 mixer pump installation and caustic addition

    SciTech Connect

    Van Vleet, R.J.

    1994-10-05

    This safety Basis was prepared to determine whether or not the proposed activities of installing a 76 HP jet mixer pump and the addition of approximately 50,000 gallons of 19 M (50:50 wt %) aqueous caustic are within the safety envelope as described by Tank Farms (chapter six of WHC-SD-WM-ISB-001, Rev. 0). The safety basis covers the components, structures and systems for the caustic addition and mixer pump installation. These include: installation of the mixer pump and monitoring equipment; operation of the mixer pump, process monitoring equipment and caustic addition; the pump stand, caustic addition skid, the electrical skid, the video camera system and the two densitometers. Also covered is the removal and decontamination of the mixer pump and process monitoring system. Authority for this safety basis is WHC-IP-0842 (Waste Tank Administration). Section 15.9, Rev. 2 (Unreviewed Safety Questions) of WHC-IP-0842 requires that an evaluation be performed for all physical modifications.

  20. Study of Cost Effective Large Advanced Pressurized Water Reactors that Employ Passive Safety Features

    SciTech Connect

    Winters, J. W.; Corletti, M. M.; Hayashi, Y.

    2003-11-12

    A report of DOE sponsored portions of AP1000 Design Certification effort. On December 16, 1999, The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission issued Design Certification of the AP600 standard nuclear reactor design. This culminated an 8-year review of the AP600 design, safety analysis and probabilistic risk assessment. The AP600 is a 600 MWe reactor that utilizes passive safety features that, once actuated, depend only on natural forces such as gravity and natural circulation to perform all required safety functions. These passive safety systems result in increased plant safety and have also significantly simplified plant systems and equipment, resulting in simplified plant operation and maintenance. The AP600 meets NRC deterministic safety criteria and probabilistic risk criteria with large margins. A summary comparison of key passive safety system design features is provided in Table 1. These key features are discussed due to their importance in affecting the key thermal-hydraulic phenomenon exhibited by the passive safety systems in critical areas. The scope of some of the design changes to the AP600 is described. These changes are the ones that are important in evaluating the passive plant design features embodied in the certified AP600 standard plant design. These design changes are incorporated into the AP1000 standard plant design that Westinghouse is certifying under 10 CFR Part 52. In conclusion, this report describes the results of the representative design certification activities that were partially supported by the Nuclear Energy Research Initiative. These activities are unique to AP1000, but are representative of research activities that must be driven to conclusion to realize successful licensing of the next generation of nuclear power plants in the United States.

  1. RECENT ADDITIONS OF CRITICALITY SAFETY RELATED INTEGRAL BENCHMARK DATA TO THE ICSBEP AND IRPHEP HANDBOOKS

    SciTech Connect

    J. Blair Briggs; Lori Scott; Yolanda Rugama; Enrico Sartori

    2009-09-01

    High-quality integral benchmark experiments have always been a priority for criticality safety. However, interest in integral benchmark data is increasing as efforts to quantify and reduce calculational uncertainties accelerate to meet the demands of future criticality safety needs to support next generation reactor and advanced fuel cycle concepts. The importance of drawing upon existing benchmark data is becoming more apparent because of dwindling availability of critical facilities worldwide and the high cost of performing new experiments. Integral benchmark data from the International Handbook of Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments and the International Handbook of Reactor Physics Benchmark Experiments are widely used. Benchmark data have been added to these two handbooks since the last Nuclear Criticality Safety Division Topical Meeting in Knoxville, Tennessee (September 2005). This paper highlights these additions.

  2. Anatomical features of acute mitral valve repair dysfunction: Additional value of three-dimensional echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Derkx, Salomé; Nguyen, Virginia; Cimadevilla, Claire; Verdonk, Constance; Lepage, Laurent; Raffoul, Richard; Nataf, Patrick; Vahanian, Alec; Messika-Zeitoun, David

    2017-03-01

    Recurrence of mitral regurgitation after mitral valve repair is correlated with unfavourable left ventricular remodelling and poor outcome. This pictorial review describes the echocardiographic features of three types of acute mitral valve repair dysfunction, and the additional value of three-dimensional echocardiography.

  3. [Safety of food additives from a German and European point of view].

    PubMed

    Gürtler, R

    2010-06-01

    There are about 300 food additives permitted in the EU for which a re-evaluation program was initiated recently. Occasionally, it is speculated that the use of single food additives might be of safety concern. First results of the re-evaluation could give an impression on how such concerns were taken into account by responsible authorities, such as the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). For some of the food additives, the lowest dose resulting in adverse effects was lower in recent studies compared to previous studies. Thus, the acceptable daily intake (ADI) derived applying the common uncertainty factor was lower than the ADI derived using data from previous studies. Therefore, it has to be considered whether the conditions of use need to be modified for these food additives.

  4. 47 CFR 5.311 - Additional requirements related to safety of the public.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... safety of the public. In addition to the notification requirements of § 5.309, for experiments that may... bands and geographic area as the planned experiment and, as appropriate, their end users; (b) Rapid identification, and elimination, of any harm the experiment may cause; and (c) Identifying an alternate means...

  5. 47 CFR 5.311 - Additional requirements related to safety of the public.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... safety of the public. In addition to the notification requirements of § 5.309, for experiments that may... bands and geographic area as the planned experiment and, as appropriate, their end users; (b) Rapid identification, and elimination, of any harm the experiment may cause; and (c) Identifying an alternate means...

  6. Phosphazene Based Additives for Improvement of Safety and Battery Lifetimes in Lithium-Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Mason K Harrup; Kevin L Gering; Harry W Rollins; Sergiy V Sazhin; Michael T Benson; David K Jamison; Christopher J Michelbacher

    2011-10-01

    There need to be significant improvements made in lithium-ion battery technology, principally in the areas of safety and useful lifetimes to truly enable widespread adoption of large format batteries for the electrification of the light transportation fleet. In order to effect the transition to lithium ion technology in a timely fashion, one promising next step is through improvements to the electrolyte in the form of novel additives that simultaneously improve safety and useful lifetimes without impairing performance characteristics over wide temperature and cycle duty ranges. Recent efforts in our laboratory have been focused on the development of such additives with all the requisite properties enumerated above. We present the results of the study of novel phosphazene based electrolytes additives.

  7. Comparison of additive image fusion vs. feature-level image fusion techniques for enhanced night driving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bender, Edward J.; Reese, Colin E.; Van Der Wal, Gooitzen S.

    2003-02-01

    The Night Vision & Electronic Sensors Directorate (NVESD) has conducted a series of image fusion evaluations under the Head-Tracked Vision System (HTVS) program. The HTVS is a driving system for both wheeled and tracked military vehicles, wherein dual-waveband sensors are directed in a more natural head-slewed imaging mode. The HTVS consists of thermal and image-intensified TV sensors, a high-speed gimbal, a head-mounted display, and a head tracker. A series of NVESD field tests over the past two years has investigated the degree to which additive (A+B) image fusion of these sensors enhances overall driving performance. Additive fusion employs a single (but user adjustable) fractional weighting for all the features of each sensor's image. More recently, NVESD and Sarnoff Corporation have begun a cooperative effort to evaluate and refine Sarnoff's "feature-level" multi-resolution (pyramid) algorithms for image fusion. This approach employs digital processing techniques to select at each image point only the sensor with the strongest features, and to utilize only those features to reconstruct the fused video image. This selection process is performed simultaneously at multiple scales of the image, which are combined to form the reconstructed fused image. All image fusion techniques attempt to combine the "best of both sensors" in a single image. Typically, thermal sensors are better for detecting military threats and targets, while image-intensified sensors provide more natural scene cues and detect cultural lighting. This investigation will address the differences between additive fusion and feature-level image fusion techniques for enhancing the driver's overall situational awareness.

  8. The Wavelet Element Method. Part 2; Realization and Additional Features in 2D and 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canuto, Claudio; Tabacco, Anita; Urban, Karsten

    1998-01-01

    The Wavelet Element Method (WEM) provides a construction of multiresolution systems and biorthogonal wavelets on fairly general domains. These are split into subdomains that are mapped to a single reference hypercube. Tensor products of scaling functions and wavelets defined on the unit interval are used on the reference domain. By introducing appropriate matching conditions across the interelement boundaries, a globally continuous biorthogonal wavelet basis on the general domain is obtained. This construction does not uniquely define the basis functions but rather leaves some freedom for fulfilling additional features. In this paper we detail the general construction principle of the WEM to the 1D, 2D and 3D cases. We address additional features such as symmetry, vanishing moments and minimal support of the wavelet functions in each particular dimension. The construction is illustrated by using biorthogonal spline wavelets on the interval.

  9. Evaluating the safety risk of roadside features for rural two-lane roads using reliability analysis.

    PubMed

    Jalayer, Mohammad; Zhou, Huaguo

    2016-08-01

    The severity of roadway departure crashes mainly depends on the roadside features, including the sideslope, fixed-object density, offset from fixed objects, and shoulder width. Common engineering countermeasures to improve roadside safety include: cross section improvements, hazard removal or modification, and delineation. It is not always feasible to maintain an object-free and smooth roadside clear zone as recommended in design guidelines. Currently, clear zone width and sideslope are used to determine roadside hazard ratings (RHRs) to quantify the roadside safety of rural two-lane roadways on a seven-point pictorial scale. Since these two variables are continuous and can be treated as random, probabilistic analysis can be applied as an alternative method to address existing uncertainties. Specifically, using reliability analysis, it is possible to quantify roadside safety levels by treating the clear zone width and sideslope as two continuous, rather than discrete, variables. The objective of this manuscript is to present a new approach for defining the reliability index for measuring roadside safety on rural two-lane roads. To evaluate the proposed approach, we gathered five years (2009-2013) of Illinois run-off-road (ROR) crash data and identified the roadside features (i.e., clear zone widths and sideslopes) of 4500 300ft roadway segments. Based on the obtained results, we confirm that reliability indices can serve as indicators to gauge safety levels, such that the greater the reliability index value, the lower the ROR crash rate.

  10. Feature based Weld-Deposition for Additive Manufacturing of Complex Shapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panchagnula, Jayaprakash Sharma; Simhambhatla, Suryakumar

    2016-08-01

    Fabricating functional metal parts using Additive Manufacturing (AM) is a leading trend. However, realizing overhanging features has been a challenge due to the lack of support mechanism for metals. Powder-bed fusion techniques like, Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) employ easily-breakable-scaffolds made of the same material to realize the overhangs. However, the same approach is not extendible to deposition processes like laser or arc based direct energy deposition processes. Although it is possible to realize small overhangs by exploiting the inherent overhanging capability of the process or by blinding some small features like holes, the same cannot be extended for more complex geometries. The current work presents a novel approach for realizing complex overhanging features without the need of support structures. This is possible by using higher order kinematics and suitably aligning the overhang with the deposition direction. Feature based non-uniform slicing and non-uniform area-filling are some vital concepts required in realizing the same and are briefly discussed here. This method can be used to fabricate and/or repair fully dense and functional components for various engineering applications. Although this approach has been implemented for weld-deposition based system, the same can be extended to any other direct energy deposition processes also.

  11. An Indian boy with additional features in Pallister-Killian syndrome.

    PubMed

    Shah, Krati; George, Renu; Balla, Evangelynn Singh; Oommen, Samuel P; Padankatti, Caroline S; Srivastava, Vivi M; Danda, Sumita

    2012-09-01

    Pallister-Killian syndrome (PKS; OMIM: # 601803) is a rare sporadic genetic disorder characterized by pigmentary skin changes, distinctive dysmorphology, developmental delay, and mosaicism for tetrasomy of chromosome 12p. The authors report a case of PKS in a 2-y-old boy. He had pigmentary skin changes, characteristic facial features, developmental delay and hearing loss. He had sacral and post-auricular pits in addition, which has not yet been reported. A diagnosis of PKS was suspected on the basis of the patient's clinical features. Skin fibroblast culture was done which showed mosaic tetrasomy of isochromosome 12p consistent with Pallister-Killian syndrome. This case highlights the importance of dysmorphology as a diagnostic tool for recognition and accurate genetic counseling in genetic syndromes.

  12. High Energy Density Additives for Hybrid Fuel Rockets to Improve Performance and Enhance Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaffe, Richard L.

    2014-01-01

    We propose a conceptual study of prototype strained hydrocarbon molecules as high energy density additives for hybrid rocket fuels to boost the performance of these rockets without compromising safety and reliability. Use of these additives could extend the range of applications for which hybrid rockets become an attractive alternative to conventional solid or liquid fuel rockets. The objectives of the study were to confirm and quantify the high enthalpy of these strained molecules and to assess improvement in rocket performance that would be expected if these additives were blended with conventional fuels. We confirmed the chemical properties (including enthalpy) of these additives. However, the predicted improvement in rocket performance was too small to make this a useful strategy for boosting hybrid rocket performance.

  13. An investigation into the impact of safety features on the ergonomics of surgical scalpels.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xuefang; Thomson, Gareth; Tang, Benjie

    2009-05-01

    In the case of surgical scalpels, blade retraction and disposability have been incorporated into a number of commercial designs to address sharps injury and infection transmission issues. Despite these new designs, the traditional metal reusable scalpel is still extensively used and this paper attempts to determine whether the introduction of safety features has compromised the ergonomics and so potentially the take-up of the newer designs. Examples of scalpels have been analysed to determine the ergonomic impact of these design changes. Trials and questionnaires were carried out using both clinical and non-clinical user groups, with the trials making use of assessment of incision quality, cutting force, electromyography and video monitoring. The results showed that ergonomic performance was altered by the design changes and that while these could be for the worse, the introduction of safety features could act as a catalyst to encourage re-evaluation of the ergonomic demands of a highly traditional product.

  14. Identification of Mitral Annulus Hinge Point Based on Local Context Feature and Additive SVM Classifier.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianming; Liu, Yangchun; Xu, Wei

    2015-01-01

    The position of the hinge point of mitral annulus (MA) is important for segmentation, modeling and multimodalities registration of cardiac structures. The main difficulties in identifying the hinge point of MA are the inherent noisy, low resolution of echocardiography, and so on. This work aims to automatically detect the hinge point of MA by combining local context feature with additive support vector machines (SVM) classifier. The innovations are as follows: (1) designing a local context feature for MA in cardiac ultrasound image; (2) applying the additive kernel SVM classifier to identify the candidates of the hinge point of MA; (3) designing a weighted density field of candidates which represents the blocks of candidates; and (4) estimating an adaptive threshold on the weighted density field to get the position of the hinge point of MA and exclude the error from SVM classifier. The proposed algorithm is tested on echocardiographic four-chamber image sequence of 10 pediatric patients. Compared with the manual selected hinge points of MA which are selected by professional doctors, the mean error is in 0.96 ± 1.04 mm. Additive SVM classifier can fast and accurately identify the MA hinge point.

  15. Lithium-Ion Electrolytes Containing Flame Retardant Additives for Increased Safety Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smart, Marshall C. (Inventor); Smith, Kiah A. (Inventor); Bugga, Ratnakumar V. (Inventor); Prakash, Surya G. (Inventor); Krause, Frederick Charles (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    The invention discloses various embodiments of Li-ion electrolytes containing flame retardant additives that have delivered good performance over a wide temperature range, good cycle life characteristics, and improved safety characteristics, namely, reduced flammability. In one embodiment of the invention there is provided an electrolyte for use in a lithium-ion electrochemical cell, the electrolyte comprising a mixture of an ethylene carbonate (EC), an ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC), a fluorinated co-solvent, a flame retardant additive, and a lithium salt. In another embodiment of the invention there is provided an electrolyte for use in a lithium-ion electrochemical cell, the electrolyte comprising a mixture of an ethylene carbonate (EC), an ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC), a flame retardant additive, a solid electrolyte interface (SEI) film forming agent, and a lithium salt.

  16. [Weighing use and safety of therapeutic agents and feed additives (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    van der Wal, P

    1982-02-01

    (1) The pros and cons of using feed additives and therapeutic agents may be successfully weighed in the light of carefully considered consumer requirements. (2) The socio-economic interests of the producer and the welfare of the animal will also determine the response of the production apparatus to consumer requirements. (3) Consumption of the current amounts of products of animal origin and maintenance of price and quality will only be feasible in the event of rational large-scale production in which constituents used in nutrition, prophylaxis and therapeutics are highly important factors. (4) Using these ingredients should be preceded by accurate evaluation of their use and safety. Testing facilities, conduct of studies and reporting should be such as to make the results nationally and internationally acceptable to all those concerned. (5) In deciding whether feed constituents are acceptable in view of the established use and safety, compliance will have to be sought with those standards which are accepted in other fields of society. Measures which result in raising the price of food without actually helping to reduce the risks to the safety of man, animals and environment, are likely to be rejected by any well-informed consumer who is aware of the facts. (6) For accurate weighing of use and safety at a national level, possibilities are hardly adequate in Europe. Decisions reached within the framework of the European Community, also tuned to U.S.A.- conditions are rightly encouraged. A centrally managed professionally staffed and equipped test system in the European Community would appear to be indispensable.

  17. Controlled viral glycoprotein expression as a safety feature in a bivalent rabies-ebola vaccine.

    PubMed

    Papaneri, Amy B; Bernbaum, John G; Blaney, Joseph E; Jahrling, Peter B; Schnell, Matthias J; Johnson, Reed F

    2015-02-02

    Using a recombinant rabies (RABV) vaccine platform, we have developed several safe and effective vaccines. Most recently, we have developed a RABV-based ebolavirus (EBOV) vaccine that is efficacious in nonhuman primates. One safety feature of this vaccine is the utilization of a live but replication-deficient RABV construct. In this construct, the RABV glycoprotein (G) has been deleted from the genome, requiring G trans complementation in order for new infectious viruses to be released from the initial infected cell. Here we analyze this safety feature of the bivalent RABV-based EBOV vaccine comprised of the G-deleted RABV backbone expressing EBOV glycoprotein (GP). We found that, while the level of RABV genome in infected cells is equivalent regardless of G supplementation, the production of infectious virus is indeed restricted by the lack of G, and most importantly, that the presence of EBOV GP does not substitute for G. These findings further support the safety profile of this replication-deficient RABV-EBOV bivalent vaccine.

  18. A feature study of innovative high-speed lancing device and safety lancet.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ho; Yeh, Yao-Jen; Lee, Rahnfong; Shyu, Jenq-Huey

    2016-12-01

    The study developed two models of an innovative high-speed lancing device and safety lancet, where the specially designed structure causes high-speed motion of the lancet, resulting in only one puncture of the skin. The two experimental models and other lancing devices sold on market were compared in order to: (1) measure the forces of lancets piercing animal skin by a load cell; (2) observe the wound areas caused by lancing devices under a microscope. The experimental results showed that, after using this innovative high-speed lancing device, the maximum force of a lancet piercing skin is only 1/3 of the force of conventional lancing devices, and the duration of the former under the skin is 1/6 of the latter. In addition, the wound area caused by the innovative lancing device is 20 % smaller than those of the conventional lancing devices. Usage of this innovative high-speed safety lancet shows that its maximum skin-piercing force is only 2/3 of conventional safety lancets, its duration under the skin is 1/4 of conventional safety lancets, and the wound area is 12 % smaller. In conclusion, both the innovative high-speed lancing device and safety lancet are proved effective in alleviating pain for diabetics and shortening the recovering time for wounds, thus, providing a more comfortable process for the self-monitoring of blood glucose.

  19. Characterization and safety evaluation of a Deinococcus member as feed additive for hens.

    PubMed

    Wu, Szu-Yin; Li, I-Chen; Lin, Yi-Chin; Chen, Chin-Chu

    2016-04-01

    As previous studies mainly focus on understanding the mechanisms of radioresistance in Deinococcus bacteria, the present study aimed at characterizing and verifying the safety use of the GKB-Aid 1995 strain, a member of the radiation-resistant bacterial genus Deinococcus, as an ingredient in feed supplements. Using Vitek 2 system and 16S rRNA gene sequencing, GKB-Aid 1995 most resembles Deinococcus grandis. The Ames test, in vitro chromosomal test, in vivo micronucleus test and acute toxicity test were performed subsequently for its safety evaluation. As there is a possibility that the pigment of GKB-Aid 1995 can pass from feed to eggs intended for human consumption, an acute toxicity test was also carried out in pigmented egg yolk. The results confirmed that GKB-Aid 1995 was non-genotoxic in three genotoxicity experiments, and the LD50 of GKB-Aid 1995 and the pigmented egg yolk in ICR mice was greater than 10 and 12 g kg(-1) body weight, respectively. Overall, these data indicate that GKB-Aid 1995 is a non-toxic substance with no genotoxicity and is therefore safe to be used as a feed supplement or feed additive. This study suggests there is potential in developing GKB-Aid 1995 as an animal feed additive intended to enhance yolk coloration to meet the demand of consumers.

  20. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  1. Reporting of methodological features in observational studies of pre-harvest food safety.

    PubMed

    Sargeant, Jan M; O'Connor, Annette M; Renter, David G; Kelton, David F; Snedeker, Kate; Wisener, Lee V; Leonard, Erin K; Guthrie, Alessia D; Faires, Meredith

    2011-02-01

    Observational studies in pre-harvest food safety may be useful for identifying risk factors and for evaluating potential mitigation strategies to reduce foodborne pathogens. However, there are no structured reporting guidelines for these types of study designs in livestock species. Our objective was to evaluate the reporting of observational studies in the pre-harvest food safety literature using guidelines modified from the human healthcare literature. We identified 100 pre-harvest food safety studies published between 1999 and 2009. Each study was evaluated independently by two reviewers using a structured checklist. Of the 38 studies that explicitly stated the observational study design, 27 were described as cross-sectional studies, eight as case-control studies, and three as cohort studies. Study features reported in over 75% of the selected studies included: description of the geographic location of the studies, definitions and sources of data for outcomes, organizational level and source of data for independent variables, description of statistical methods and results, number of herds enrolled in the study and included in the analysis, and sources of study funding. However, other features were not consistently reported, including details related to eligibility criteria for groups (such as barn, room, or pen) and individuals, numbers of groups and individuals included in various stages of the study, identification of primary outcomes, the distinction between putative risk factors and confounding variables, the identification of a primary exposure variable, the referent level for evaluation of categorical variable associations, methods of controlling confounding variables and missing variables, model fit, details of subset analysis, demographic information at the sampling unit level, and generalizability of the study results. Improvement in reporting of observational studies of pre-harvest food safety will aid research readers and reviewers in interpreting and

  2. Multivariate qualitative analysis of banned additives in food safety using surface enhanced Raman scattering spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Shixuan; Xie, Wanyi; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Liqun; Wang, Yunxia; Liu, Xiaoling; Liu, Yulong; Du, Chunlei

    2015-02-01

    A novel strategy which combines iteratively cubic spline fitting baseline correction method with discriminant partial least squares qualitative analysis is employed to analyze the surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy of banned food additives, such as Sudan I dye and Rhodamine B in food, Malachite green residues in aquaculture fish. Multivariate qualitative analysis methods, using the combination of spectra preprocessing iteratively cubic spline fitting (ICSF) baseline correction with principal component analysis (PCA) and discriminant partial least squares (DPLS) classification respectively, are applied to investigate the effectiveness of SERS spectroscopy for predicting the class assignments of unknown banned food additives. PCA cannot be used to predict the class assignments of unknown samples. However, the DPLS classification can discriminate the class assignment of unknown banned additives using the information of differences in relative intensities. The results demonstrate that SERS spectroscopy combined with ICSF baseline correction method and exploratory analysis methodology DPLS classification can be potentially used for distinguishing the banned food additives in field of food safety.

  3. Multivariate qualitative analysis of banned additives in food safety using surface enhanced Raman scattering spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    He, Shixuan; Xie, Wanyi; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Liqun; Wang, Yunxia; Liu, Xiaoling; Liu, Yulong; Du, Chunlei

    2015-02-25

    A novel strategy which combines iteratively cubic spline fitting baseline correction method with discriminant partial least squares qualitative analysis is employed to analyze the surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy of banned food additives, such as Sudan I dye and Rhodamine B in food, Malachite green residues in aquaculture fish. Multivariate qualitative analysis methods, using the combination of spectra preprocessing iteratively cubic spline fitting (ICSF) baseline correction with principal component analysis (PCA) and discriminant partial least squares (DPLS) classification respectively, are applied to investigate the effectiveness of SERS spectroscopy for predicting the class assignments of unknown banned food additives. PCA cannot be used to predict the class assignments of unknown samples. However, the DPLS classification can discriminate the class assignment of unknown banned additives using the information of differences in relative intensities. The results demonstrate that SERS spectroscopy combined with ICSF baseline correction method and exploratory analysis methodology DPLS classification can be potentially used for distinguishing the banned food additives in field of food safety.

  4. Accommodation of unprotected accidents by inherent safety design features in metallic and oxide-fueled LMFBRs

    SciTech Connect

    Su, S.F.; Cahalan, J.E.; Sevy, R.H.

    1985-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a systematic study of the effectiveness of intrinsic design features to mitigate the consequences of unprotected accidents in metallic and oxide-fueled LMFBRs. The accidents analyzed belong to the class generally considered to lead to core disruption; unprotected loss-of-flow (LOF) and transient over-power (TOP). The results of the study demonstrate the potential for design features to meliorate accident consequences, and in some cases to render them benign. Emphasis is placed on the relative performance of metallic and oxide-fueled core designs, and safety margins are quantified in sensitivity studies. All analyses were carried out using the SASSYS LMFBR systems analysis code (1).

  5. Estimated Daily Intake and Safety of FD&C Food Colour Additives in the US Population.

    PubMed

    Bastaki, Maria; Farrell, Thomas; Bhusari, Sachin; Bi, Xiaoyu; Scrafford, Carolyn

    2017-03-23

    A refined exposure assessment was undertaken to calculate the Estimated Daily Intake (EDI) of the seven FD&C straight colour additives and five FD&C colour lakes ("synthetic" food colours) approved in the United States (US). The EDIs were calculated for the US population as a whole and specific age groups, including children 2-5 y, children 6-12 y, adolescents 13-18 y, and adults 19+ y. Actual use data were collected from an industry survey of companies who are users of these colour additives in a variety of products, with additional input from food colour manufacturers. Food consumption data were obtained from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). The assessment was further refined by adjusting the intake to more realistic scenarios based on the fraction of products containing colour within specific food categories using data provided by the Mintel International Group LTD. The results of the analysis indicate that a) the use levels reported by industry are consistent with the concentrations measured analytically by the US Food and Drug Administration; b) exposure to food colour additives in the US by average and high intake consumers is well below the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) of each colour additive as published by the Joint WHO/FAO Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) and allows wide margins of safety; and c) for children to reach the intake assumed in the Southampton study, they would have to consume at least 30 times more foods and beverages daily than the high consumers (95%) and the foods would have to contain four different colours at maximum use levels, a clearly unrealistic scenario. It is concluded that food colour use as currently practiced in the US is safe and does not result in excessive exposure to the population, even at conservative ranges of food consumption and levels of use.

  6. Toxicological safety assessment of genetically modified Bacillus thuringiensis with additional N-acyl homoserine lactonase gene.

    PubMed

    Peng, Donghai; Zhou, Chenfei; Chen, Shouwen; Ruan, Lifang; Yu, Ziniu; Sun, Ming

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to evaluate the toxicology safety to mammals of a genetically modified (GM) Bacillus thuringiensis with an additional N-acyl homoserine lactones gene (aiiA), which possesses insecticidal activity together with restraint of bacterial pathogenicity and is intended for use as a multifunctional biopesticide. Safety assessments included an acute oral toxicity test and 28-d animal feeding study in Wistar rats, primary eye and dermal irritation in Zealand White rabbits, and delayed contact hypersensitivity in guinea pigs. Tests were conducted using spray-dried powder preparation. This GM product showed toxicity neither in oral acute toxicity test nor in 28-d animal feeding test at a dose of 5,000 mg/kg body weight. During the animal feeding test, there were no significant differences in growth, food and water consumption, hematology, blood biochemical indices, organ weights, and histopathology finding between rats in controls and tested groups. Tested animals in primary eye and dermal irritation and delayed contact hypersensitivity test were also devoid of any toxicity compared to controls. All the above results demonstrated that the GM based multifunctional B. thuringiensis has low toxicity and low eye and dermal irritation and would not cause hypersensitivity to laboratory mammals and therefore could be regarded as safe for use as a pesticide.

  7. Use of anatomical and kinetic models in the evaluation of human food additive safety.

    PubMed

    Roth, William L

    2005-09-22

    Toxicological testing in animals is relied upon as a surrogate for clinical testing of most food additives. Both animal and human clinical test results are generally available for direct additives when high levels of exposure are expected. Limited animal studies or in vitro test results may be the only sources of toxicological data available when low levels of exposure (microg/person/day) are expected and where no effects of the additive on the food itself are desired. Safety assessment of such materials for humans requires mathematical extrapolation from any effects observed in test animals to arrive at acceptable daily intakes (ADIs) for humans. Models of anatomy may be used to estimate tissue and organ weights where that information is missing and necessary for evaluation of a data set. The effect of growth on target tissue exposure during critical phases of organ development can be more accurately assessed when models of growth and known physiological changes are combined with pharmacokinetic results for test species. Kinetic models, when combined with limited chemical property, kinetic, and distribution data, can often be used to predict steady-state plasma and tissue levels of a test material over the range of doses employed in chronic studies to aid in interpretation of effects that are often nonlinear with respect to delivered dose. A better understanding of the reasons for nonlinearity of effects in animals improves our confidence in extrapolation to humans.

  8. Preliminary Safety Analysis of the Gorleben Site: Safety Concept and Application to Scenario Development Based on a Site-Specific Features, Events and Processes (FEP) Database - 13304

    SciTech Connect

    Moenig, Joerg; Beuth, Thomas; Wolf, Jens; Lommerzheim, Andre; Mrugalla, Sabine

    2013-07-01

    Based upon the German safety criteria, released in 2010 by the Federal Ministry of the Environment (BMU), a safety concept and a safety assessment concept for the disposal of heat-generating high-level waste have both been developed in the framework of the preliminary safety case for the Gorleben site (Project VSG). The main objective of the disposal is to contain the radioactive waste inside a defined rock zone, which is called containment-providing rock zone. The radionuclides shall remain essentially at the emplacement site, and at the most, a small defined quantity of material shall be able to leave this rock zone. This shall be accomplished by the geological barrier and a technical barrier system, which is required to seal the inevitable penetration of the geological barrier by the construction of the mine. The safe containment has to be demonstrated for probable and less probable evolutions of the site, while evolutions with very low probability (less than 1 % over the demonstration period of 1 million years) need not to be considered. Owing to the uncertainty in predicting the real evolution of the site, plausible scenarios have been derived in a systematic manner. Therefore, a comprehensive site-specific features, events and processes (FEP) data base for the Gorleben site has been developed. The safety concept was directly taken into account, e.g. by identification of FEP with direct influence on the barriers that provide the containment. No effort was spared to identify the interactions of the FEP, their probabilities of occurrence, and their characteristics (values). The information stored in the data base provided the basis for the development of scenarios. The scenario development methodology is based on FEP related to an impairment of the functionality of a subset of barriers, called initial barriers. By taking these FEP into account in their probable characteristics the reference scenario is derived. Thus, the reference scenario describes a

  9. Periadnexal Mucin as an Additional Histopathologic Feature of Chronic Eczematous Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Noo Ri; Kim, Jae-Hong; Park, Hwa-Young; Yoon, Na Young

    2015-01-01

    Background Cutaneous mucinoses are a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by an abnormal amount of mucin in the skin. However, the pathomechanism of an excessive mucin deposition in the skin is still unknown. Eczematous dermatitis is sub-classified histologically into acute, subacute, and chronic variants. The characteristic histopathologic findings for chronic eczema are variable. However, periadnexal mucin deposition is not known as a feature of chronic eczema. Objective To evaluate the presence of periadnexal mucin deposition in chronic eczematous dermatitis. Methods We analyzed the skin biopsy specimens from 36 patients who were pathologically diagnosed with chronic eczematous dermatitis. Alcian blue, colloidal iron, and periodic acid-Schiff stains were used to evaluate the mucin deposition in histologic sections. Two dermatologists and two dermatopathologists evaluated the degree of mucin deposition using a 4-point scale. Results Various amounts of mucin deposition were observed in the periadnexal area of patients who were diagnosed with chronic eczema. Mucin deposition was more visible after staining with mucin-specific stains. Evaluation of the staining analysis scores revealed that the staining intensities were significantly higher in patients with chronic eczema than age- and site-matched controls (normal, acute to subacute eczema, and psoriasis vulgaris). Conclusion Periadnexal mucin (secondary mucinoses) may be an additional finding of chronic eczematous dermatitis. PMID:25834351

  10. Experimental and design experience with passive safety features of liquid metal reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Lucoff, D.M.; Waltar, A.E.; Sackett, J.I.; Salvatores, M.; Aizawa, K.

    1992-10-01

    Liquid metal cooled reactors (LMRs) have already been demonstrated to be robust machines. Many reactor designers now believe that it is possible to include in this technology sufficient passive safety that LMRs would be able to survive loss of flow, loss of heat sink, and transient overpower events, even if the plant protective system fails completely and do so without damage to the core. Early whole-core testing in Rapsodie, EBR-II. and FFTF indicate such designs may be possible. The operational safety testing program in EBR-II is demonstrating benign response of the reactor to a full range of controls failures. But additional testing is needed if transient core structural response under major accident conditions is to be properly understood. The proposed international Phase IIB passive safety tests in FFTF, being designed with a particular emphasis on providing, data to understand core bowing extremes, and further tests planned in EBR-II with processed IFR fuel should provide a substantial and unique database for validating the computer codes being used to simulate postulated accident conditions.

  11. 5 CFR 5201.105 - Additional rules for Mine Safety and Health Administration employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... company or other person engaged in mining activities subject to the Federal Mine Safety and Health Act of 1977 (Mine Safety and Health Act), 30 U.S.C. 801 et seq. A company or other person shall be deemed to... another company or other person engaged in such mining activities. A company or other person shall not...

  12. Artificial turf surfaces: perception of safety, sporting feature, satisfaction and preference of football users.

    PubMed

    Burillo, Pablo; Gallardo, Leonor; Felipe, Jose Luis; Gallardo, Ana Maria

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research is to understand the experience of the football sector on the use of artificial turf (satisfaction, safety, sporting feature, or the advantages and disadvantages). The study was conducted on a random selection of 627 male participants (404 amateur/semi-professional footballers, 101 coaches and 122 referees) that regularly train/compete on artificial turf in Spanish football leagues. The results of the skin abrasion, muscle strain and the possibility of sustaining an injury, on a Likert-type 10-point interval scale, gave a perception of 'somewhat dissatisfied' for the participants. The main advantages of artificial turf were their sports features, the evenness of the surface and the good state of conservation. Participants were satisfied with the artificial turf surface. Approximately three out of four participants gave an overall ranking of highly satisfied. The players were significantly less satisfied than the coaches and referees. The overall satisfaction with artificial turf fields was strongly influenced by previous experience, particularly those who had previously played on dirt pitches. These results highlight the versatility of artificial turf to adapt to any circumstance or requirement for local sport and top-level professional competitions alike.

  13. Duplication of distal 17q from a maternal translocation: an additional case with some unique features.

    PubMed Central

    Caine, A; Knapton, D M; Mueller, R F; Congdon, P J; Haigh, D

    1989-01-01

    A female with multiple dysmorphic features was found to have an unbalanced karyotype with duplication of the distal long arm of chromosome 17 and deletion of the terminal region of the short arm of chromosome 12. This was derived from a reciprocal translocation in the mother, 46,XX,t(12;17)(p13.3;q23). Clinical findings are presented and comparison with other reported cases of distal 17q duplication shows several unique features in our case. Images PMID:2810342

  14. Nuclear safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buden, D.

    1991-01-01

    Topics dealing with nuclear safety are addressed which include the following: general safety requirements; safety design requirements; terrestrial safety; SP-100 Flight System key safety requirements; potential mission accidents and hazards; key safety features; ground operations; launch operations; flight operations; disposal; safety concerns; licensing; the nuclear engine for rocket vehicle application (NERVA) design philosophy; the NERVA flight safety program; and the NERVA safety plan.

  15. Food additive carrageenan: Part II: A critical review of carrageenan in vivo safety studies.

    PubMed

    Weiner, Myra L

    2014-03-01

    Carrageenan (CGN) is a seaweed-derived high molecular weight (Mw) hydrocolloid, primarily used as a stabilizer and thickener in food. The safety of CGN regarding its use in food is reviewed. Based on experimental studies in animals, ingested CGN is excreted quantitatively in the feces. Studies have shown that CGN is not significantly degraded by low gastric pH or microflora in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Due to its Mw, structure and its stability when bound to protein, CGN is not significantly absorbed or metabolized. CGN also does not significantly affect the absorption of nutrients. Subchronic and chronic feeding studies in rodents indicate that CGN at doses up to 5% in the diet does not induce any toxicological effects other than soft stools or diarrhea, which are a common effect for non-digestible high molecular weight compounds. Review of several studies from numerous species indicates that food grade CGN does not produce intestinal ulceration at doses up to 5% in the diet. Effects of CGN on the immune system following parenteral administration are well known, but not relevant to food additive uses. The majority of the studies evaluating the immunotoxicity potential were conducted with CGN administered in drinking water or by oral gavage where CGN exists in a random, open structured molecular conformation, particularly the lambda form; hence, it has more exposure to the intestinal mucosa than when bound to protein in food. Based on the many animal subchronic and chronic toxicity studies, CGN has not been found to affect the immune system, as judged by lack of effects on organ histopathology, clinical chemistry, hematology, normal health, and the lack of target organ toxicities. In these studies, animals consumed CGN at orders of magnitude above levels of CGN in the human diet: ≥1000 mg/kg/d in animals compared to 18-40 mg/kg/d estimated in the human diet. Dietary CGN has been shown to lack carcinogenic, tumor promoter, genotoxic, developmental, and

  16. 75 FR 7606 - Safety and Efficacy Review for Additional Ingredients in Over-the-Counter Drug Products for Human...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-22

    ... applications (TEAs). We are currently evaluating the safety and effectiveness of these ingredients. DATES... found eligible for possible addition to an OTC drug monograph via the TEA process described in 21 CFR... inclusion in an OTC drug monograph under the TEA process on the basis of foreign marketing...

  17. Design Review Report for formal review of safety class features of exhauster system for rotary mode core sampling

    SciTech Connect

    JANICEK, G.P.

    2000-06-08

    Report documenting Formal Design Review conducted on portable exhausters used to support rotary mode core sampling of Hanford underground radioactive waste tanks with focus on Safety Class design features and control requirements for flammable gas environment operation and air discharge permitting compliance.

  18. 77 FR 71561 - Health and Safety Data Reporting; Addition of Certain Chemicals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-03

    ...) of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) to recommend chemicals and chemical mixtures to EPA for..., any chemical substance or mixture'' to submit lists of health and safety studies conducted or initiated by or for such person with respect to such substance or mixture at any time, known to such...

  19. Probabilistic cost-benefit analysis of enhanced safety features for strategic nuclear weapons at a representative location

    SciTech Connect

    Stephens, D.R.; Hall, C.H.; Holman, G.S.; Graham, K.F.; Harvey, T.F.; Serduke, F.J.D.

    1993-10-01

    We carried out a demonstration analysis of the value of developing and implementing enhanced safety features for nuclear weapons in the US stockpile. We modified an approach that the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) developed in response to a congressional directive that NRC assess the ``value-impact`` of regulatory actions for commercial nuclear power plants. Because improving weapon safety shares some basic objectives with NRC regulations, i.e., protecting public health and safety from the effects of accidents involving radioactive materials, we believe the NRC approach to be appropriate for evaluating weapons-safety cost-benefit issues. Impact analysis includes not only direct costs associated with retrofitting the weapon system, but also the expected costs (or economic risks) that are avoided by the action, i.e., the benefits.

  20. ProFold: Protein Fold Classification with Additional Structural Features and a Novel Ensemble Classifier

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Protein fold classification plays an important role in both protein functional analysis and drug design. The number of proteins in PDB is very large, but only a very small part is categorized and stored in the SCOPe database. Therefore, it is necessary to develop an efficient method for protein fold classification. In recent years, a variety of classification methods have been used in many protein fold classification studies. In this study, we propose a novel classification method called proFold. We import protein tertiary structure in the period of feature extraction and employ a novel ensemble strategy in the period of classifier training. Compared with existing similar ensemble classifiers using the same widely used dataset (DD-dataset), proFold achieves 76.2% overall accuracy. Another two commonly used datasets, EDD-dataset and TG-dataset, are also tested, of which the accuracies are 93.2% and 94.3%, higher than the existing methods. ProFold is available to the public as a web-server. PMID:27660761

  1. Identifying and establishing consensus on the most important safety features of GP computer systems: e-Delphi study.

    PubMed

    Avery, Anthony J; Savelyich, Boki S P; Sheikh, Aziz; Cantrill, Judy; Morris, Caroline J; Fernando, Bernard; Bainbridge, Mike; Horsfield, Pete; Teasdale, Sheila

    2005-01-01

    Our objective was to identify and establish consensus on the most important safety features of GP computer systems, with a particular emphasis on medicines management. We used a two-round electronic Delphi survey, completed by a 21-member multidisciplinary expert panel, all from the UK. The main outcome measure was percentage agreement of the panel members on the importance of the presence of a number of different safety features (presented as clinical statements) on GP computer systems. We found 90% or greater agreement on the importance of 32 (58%) statements. These statements, indicating issues considered to be of considerable importance (rated as important or very important), related to: computerised alerts; the need to avoid spurious alerts; making it difficult to override critical alerts; having audit trails of such overrides; support for safe repeat prescribing; effective computer-user interface; importance of call and recall management; and the need to be able to run safety reports. The high level of agreement among the expert panel members indicates clear themes and priorities that need to be addressed in any further improvement of safety features in primary care computing systems.

  2. Additional Studies of the Criticality Safety of Failed Used Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, William BJ J; Wagner, John C

    2013-01-01

    Commercial used nuclear fuel (UNF) in the United States is expected to remain in storage for periods potentially greater than 40 years. Extended storage (ES) time and irradiation to high-burnup values (>45 GWd/t) may increase the potential for fuel failure during normal and accident conditions involving storage and transportation. Fuel failure, depending on the severity, could result in changes to the geometric configuration of the fuel, which has safety and regulatory implications. The likelihood and extent of fuel reconfiguration and its impact on the safety of the UNF is not well understood. The objective of this work is to assess and quantify the impact of fuel reconfiguration due to fuel failure on criticality safety of UNF in storage and transportation casks. Criticality analyses are conducted considering representative UNF designs covering a range of enrichments and burnups in multiple cask systems. Prior work developed a set of failed fuel configuration categories and specific configurations were evaluated to understand trends and quantify the consequences of worst-case potential reconfiguration progressions. These results will be summarized here and indicate that the potential impacts on subcriticality can be rather significant for certain configurations (e.g., >20% keff). It can be concluded that the consequences of credible fuel failure configurations from ES or transportation following ES are manageable (e.g., <5% keff). The current work expands on these efforts and examines some modified scenarios and modified approaches to investigate the effectiveness of some techniques for reducing the calculated increase in keff. The areas included here are more realistic modeling of some assembly types and the effect of reconfiguration of some assemblies in the storage and transportation canister.

  3. Evaluation of Herbal Medicines: Value Addition to Traditional Medicines Through Metabolism, Pharmacokinetic and Safety Studies.

    PubMed

    Thelingwani, Roslyn; Masimirembwa, Collen

    2014-01-01

    The safety and efficacy of herbal medicines remain major issues of concern especially in the developing world where the use is high. The World Health Organisation estimates up to 80% of the population in Africa relies on herbal medicines for treatment of many diseases. Minimum safety evaluations need to be done for both the herbal and conventional drugs, in particular when there is a high likelihood of co-administration. This is particularly important in Africa where there is increased access to antiretrovirals in the treatment of HIV/AIDS, which are being used in a population background characterized by rampant use of herbal medicines. Many techniques used in the discovery and evaluation of conventional drugs can be adapted to herbal medicines. Such evaluations will add value to herbal medicines as doctors and patients will be better informed on which drugs and herbal medicines to take or not take together. This can also lead to the adoption of guidelines by regulatory agents such as the European Medicines Agency (EMA), Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and governmental agencies controlling the use of medicines. Of current interest is the evaluation of drug-herb interactions (DHI) involving the absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME) of medicines where there is a promising possibility to adopt the current FDA and EMA guidelines on the evaluation of herbal medicines for drug-drug interactions (DDI). In this review we demonstrate progress made so far in DHI and point to possible future developments that will contribute to the safe use of herbal medicines.

  4. Improvement in safety and cycle life of lithium-ion batteries by employing quercetin as an electrolyte additive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Meng-Lun; Li, Yu-Han; Yeh, Jien-Wei; Shih, Han C.

    2012-09-01

    Quercetin, an organic antioxidant, has been employed as an additive in lithium-ion cells to enhance the electrochemical performance to enhance the cycle life and the overcharging characteristics of LiPF6/EC + EMC + DMC (1 M) when used as an electrolyte. A LiCoO2/graphite full cell with 0.05% quercetin showed a significant improvement in safety associated with overcharging tolerance and thermal stability, without causing damage in C-rate capability, and even a small improvement in cycle life performance. The quercetin-containing lithium battery showed an improvement in its electrochemical properties with 92% capacity retention after 350 cycles from 2.8 to 4.3 V, at a rate of 1 C; compared to 85% capacity retention for a cell without quercetin operated under the same conditions. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) results for the LiCoO2 cathode show that the addition of 0.05% quercetin provides a significant suppression in the impedance of the cell after 60 cycles. The improvement might result from the formation of a passivation microstructure (from quercetin oxidation) on the electrode's surface. The quercetin-containing batteries provided long term cycling and a high safety performance, making them a viable power source for applications involving electric devices with significant safety requirements.

  5. Features, events, processes, and safety factor analysis applied to a near-surface low-level radioactive waste disposal facility

    SciTech Connect

    Stephens, M.E.; Dolinar, G.M.; Lange, B.A.

    1995-12-31

    An analysis of features, events, processes (FEPs) and other safety factors was applied to AECL`s proposed IRUS (Intrusion Resistant Underground Structure) near-surface LLRW disposal facility. The FEP analysis process which had been developed for and applied to high-level and transuranic disposal concepts was adapted for application to a low-level facility for which significant efforts in developing a safety case had already been made. The starting point for this process was a series of meetings of the project team to identify and briefly describe FEPs or safety factors which they thought should be considered. At this early stage participants were specifically asked not to screen ideas. This initial list was supplemented by selecting FEPs documented in other programs and comments received from an initial regulatory review. The entire list was then sorted by topic and common issues were grouped, and issues were classified in three priority categories and assigned to individuals for resolution. In this paper, the issue identification and resolution process will be described, from the initial description of an issue to its resolution and inclusion in the various levels of the safety case documentation.

  6. PAT-1 safety analysis report addendum author responses to request for additional information.

    SciTech Connect

    Weiner, Ruth F.; Schmale, David T.; Kalan, Robert J.; Akin, Lili A.; Miller, David Russell; Knorovsky, Gerald Albert; Yoshimura, Richard Hiroyuki; Lopez, Carlos; Harding, David Cameron; Jones, Perry L.; Morrow, Charles W.

    2010-09-01

    The Plutonium Air Transportable Package, Model PAT-1, is certified under Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations Part 71 by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) per Certificate of Compliance (CoC) USA/0361B(U)F-96 (currently Revision 9). The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) submitted SAND Report SAND2009-5822 to NRC that documented the incorporation of plutonium (Pu) metal as a new payload for the PAT-1 package. NRC responded with a Request for Additional Information (RAI), identifying information needed in connection with its review of the application. The purpose of this SAND report is to provide the authors responses to each RAI. SAND Report SAND2010-6106 containing the proposed changes to the Addendum is provided separately.

  7. Critical review of the safety assessment of nano-structured silica additives in food.

    PubMed

    Winkler, Hans Christian; Suter, Mark; Naegeli, Hanspeter

    2016-06-10

    The development of nano-materials is viewed as one of the most important technological advances of the 21st century and new applications of nano-sized particles in the production, processing, packaging or storage of food are expected to emerge soon. This trend of growing commercialization of engineered nano-particles as part of modern diet will substantially increase oral exposure. Contrary to the proven benefits of nano-materials, however, possible adverse health effects have generally received less attention. This problem is very well illustrated by nano-structured synthetic amorphous silica (SAS), which is a common food additive since several decades although the relevant risk assessment has never been satisfactorily completed. A no observed adverse effect level of 2500 mg SAS particles/kg body weight per day was derived from the only available long-term administration study in rodents. However, extrapolation to a safe daily intake for humans is problematic due to limitations of this chronic animal study and knowledge gaps as to possible local intestinal effects of SAS particles, primarily on the gut-associated lymphoid system. This uncertainty is aggravated by digestion experiments indicating that dietary SAS particles preserve their nano-sized structure when reaching the intestinal lumen. An important aspect is whether food-borne particles like SAS alter the function of dendritic cells that, embedded in the intestinal mucosa, act as first-line sentinels of foreign materials. We conclude that nano-particles do not represent a completely new threat and that most potential risks can be assessed following procedures established for conventional chemical hazards. However, specific properties of food-borne nano-particles should be further examined and, for that purpose, in vitro tests with decision-making cells of the immune system are needed to complement existing in vivo studies.

  8. Effects of anodizing parameters and heat treatment on nanotopographical features, bioactivity, and cell culture response of additively manufactured porous titanium.

    PubMed

    Amin Yavari, S; Chai, Y C; Böttger, A J; Wauthle, R; Schrooten, J; Weinans, H; Zadpoor, A A

    2015-06-01

    Anodizing could be used for bio-functionalization of the surfaces of titanium alloys. In this study, we use anodizing for creating nanotubes on the surface of porous titanium alloy bone substitutes manufactured using selective laser melting. Different sets of anodizing parameters (voltage: 10 or 20V anodizing time: 30min to 3h) are used for anodizing porous titanium structures that were later heat treated at 500°C. The nanotopographical features are examined using electron microscopy while the bioactivity of anodized surfaces is measured using immersion tests in the simulated body fluid (SBF). Moreover, the effects of anodizing and heat treatment on the performance of one representative anodized porous titanium structures are evaluated using in vitro cell culture assays using human periosteum-derived cells (hPDCs). It has been shown that while anodizing with different anodizing parameters results in very different nanotopographical features, i.e. nanotubes in the range of 20 to 55nm, anodized surfaces have limited apatite-forming ability regardless of the applied anodizing parameters. The results of in vitro cell culture show that both anodizing, and thus generation of regular nanotopographical feature, and heat treatment improve the cell culture response of porous titanium. In particular, cell proliferation measured using metabolic activity and DNA content was improved for anodized and heat treated as well as for anodized but not heat-treated specimens. Heat treatment additionally improved the cell attachment of porous titanium surfaces and upregulated expression of osteogenic markers. Anodized but not heat-treated specimens showed some limited signs of upregulated expression of osteogenic markers. In conclusion, while varying the anodizing parameters creates different nanotube structure, it does not improve apatite-forming ability of porous titanium. However, both anodizing and heat treatment at 500°C improve the cell culture response of porous titanium.

  9. Toxicological features of maleilated polyflavonoids from Pinus radiata (D. Don.) as potential functional additives for biomaterials design.

    PubMed

    García, Danny E; Medina, Paulina A; Zúñiga, Valentina I

    2017-03-14

    Polyflavonoids from Pinus radiata (D. Don.) are an abundant natural oligomers highly desirable as renewable chemicals. However, structural modification of polyflavonoids is a viable strategy in order to use such polyphenols as macrobuilding-blocks for biomaterial design. Polyflavonoids were esterified with three five-member cyclic anhydrides (maleic, itaconic, and citraconic) at 20 °C during 24 h in order to diversify physicochemical-, and biological-properties for agricultural, and food-packaging applications. In addition, the influence of the chemical modification, as well as the chemical structure of the grafting on toxicological features was evaluated. Structural features of derivatives were analyzed by spectroscopy (FT-IR and (1)H-NMR), and the degree of substitution was calculated. Toxicological profile was assessed by using three target species in a wide range of concentration (0.01-100 mgL(-)(1)). Effect of polyflavonoids on the growth rate (Selenastrum capricornutum), mortality (Daphnia magna), and germination and radicle length (Lactuca sativa) was determined. Chemical modification affects the toxicological profile on the derivatives in a high extent. Results described remarkable differences in function of the target specie. The bioassays indicate differences of the polyflavonoids toxicological profile associated to the chemical structure of the grafting. Results allowed conclude that polyflavonoids from pine bark show slight toxic properties.

  10. Accommodation of unprotected accidents by inherent safety design features in metallic and oxide-fueled LMFBRs

    SciTech Connect

    Cahalan, J.E.; Sevy, R.H.; Su, S.F.

    1985-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study of the effectivness of intrinsic design features to mitigate the consequences of unprotected accidents in metallic and oxide-fueled LMFBRs. The accidents analyzed belong to the class generally considered to lead to core disruption; unprotected loss-of-flow (LOF) and transient over-power (TOP). Results of the study demonstrate the potential for design features to meliorate accident consequences, and in some cases to render them benign. Emphasis is placed on the relative performance of metallic and oxide-fueled core designs.

  11. Proper spectral band adjustment for coloristic feature-based recognition of safety signs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merfort, Christian; Schneider, Daniel; Boehm, Markus

    2014-06-01

    The development of multispectral and hyperspectral systems in the area of civil security have created new opportunities with regard to mobile sampling as well as rapid detection for on-site analysis. The latest developments, especially in the area of optical detectors, and the constant improvements to microprocessor computing capacity, have had an enormous influence on coloristic analysis methods. Ongoing optimization of multispectral systems is leading to a vast quantity of new application scenarios due to the simplification of measuring systems and the independence of specialized lab environments. The objective is to adapt the developed algorithm1 to a selection of suitable spectral bands, from monochrome powder specimens to panchromatic safety signs.

  12. A review of the safety features of 6M packagings for DOE programs

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-12-01

    This report, prepared by a US Department of Energy (DOE) Task Force and organized for clarity into two-page modules, argues that the US Department of Transportation (DOT) Specification-6M packagings (hereafter referred to as 6M packaging, or simply 6M) merit continued DOE use and, if necessary, DOE certification. This report is designed to address the specific requirements of a Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP). While not a SARP, this report constitutes a compilation of all available documentation on 6M packagings. The authors individually, and the Task Force collectively, believe their investigation provides justification for the continued use of 6M packagings because they meet criteria for quality assurance and for safety under normal and accident conditions as defined by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations. This report may be used by DOE managers to assist in deliberations on future requirements for 6M packagings as they are required to support DOE programs. For the purpose of ready evaluation, this report includes categorical topics found in Nuclear Regulatory Guide 7.9, the topical guideline for SARPs. The format, however, will (it is hoped) pleasantly surprise customary reader expectations. For, while maintaining categorical headings and subheadings found in SARPs as a skeleton, the Task Force chose to adopt the document design principles developed by Hughes Aircraft in the 1960s, ''Sequential Thematic Organization of Publications'' (STOP). 37 figs.

  13. Autonomous safety and reliability features of the K-1 avionics system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, George E.; Kohrs, Dick; Bailey, Richard; Lai, Gary

    2004-03-01

    Kistler Aerospace Corporation is developing the K-1, a fully reusable, two-stage-to-orbit launch vehicle. Both stages return to the launch site using parachutes and airbags. Initial flight operations will occur from Woomera, Australia. K-1 guidance is performed autonomously. Each stage of the K-1 employs a triplex, fault tolerant avionics architecture, including three fault tolerant computers and three radiation hardened Embedded GPS/INS units with a hardware voter. The K-1 has an Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) system on each stage residing in the three vehicle computers based on similar systems in commercial aircraft. During first-stage ascent, the IVHM system performs an Instantaneous Impact Prediction (IIP) calculation 25 times per second, initiating an abort in the event the vehicle is outside a predetermined safety corridor for at least 3 consecutive calculations. In this event, commands are issued to terminate thrust, separate the stages, dump all propellant in the first-stage, and initiate a normal landing sequence. The second-stage flight computer calculates its ability to reach orbit along its state vector, initiating an abort sequence similar to the first stage if it cannot. On a nominal mission, following separation, the second-stage also performs calculations to assure its impact point is within a safety corridor. The K-1's guidance and control design is being tested through simulation with hardware-in-the-loop at Draper Laboratory. Kistler's verification strategy assures reliable and safe operation of the K-1.

  14. Generic Safety Issue (GSI) 171 -- Engineered Safety Feature (ESF) failure from a loop subsequent to LOCA: Assessment of plant vulnerability and CDF contributions

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez-Guridi, G.; Samanta, P.; Chu, L.; Yang, J.

    1998-03-01

    Generic Safety Issue 171 (GSI-171), Engineered Safety Feature (ESF) from a Loss Of Offsite Power (LOOP) subsequent to a Loss Of Coolant Accident (LOCA), deals with an accident sequence in which a LOCA is followed by a LOOP. This issue was later broadened to include a LOOP followed by a LOCA. Plants are designed to handle a simultaneous LOCA and LOOP. In this paper, the authors address the unique issues that are involved i LOCA with delayed LOOP (LOCA/LOOP) and LOOP with delayed LOCA (LOOP/LOCA) accident sequences. LOCA/LOOP accidents are analyzed further by developing event-tree/fault-tree models to quantify their contributions to core-damage frequency (CDF) in a pressurized water reactor and a boiling water reactor (PWR and a BWR). Engineering evaluation and judgments are used during quantification to estimate the unique conditions that arise in a LOCA/LOOP accident. The results show that the CDF contribution of such an accident can be a dominant contributor to plant risk, although BWRs are less vulnerable than PWRs.

  15. Exploring Typical and Atypical Safety Climate Perceptions of Practitioners in the Repair, Maintenance, Minor Alteration and Addition (RMAA) Sector in Hong Kong

    PubMed Central

    Hon, Carol K.H.; Liu, Yulin

    2016-01-01

    The safety of repair, maintenance, minor alteration and addition (RMAA) work is an under-explored area. This study explored the typical and atypical safety climate perceptions of practitioners in the RMAA sector in Hong Kong, based on a self-administered questionnaire survey of 662 local practitioners in the industry. Profile analysis, via multidimensional scaling of the respondents’ scores of three safety climate scales, identified one typical perception: high in management commitment to occupational health and safety (OHS) and employee involvement, low in applicability for safety rules and regulations, and low in responsibility for OHS. The respondents were clustered into typical and atypical perception groups according to their safety climate scores’ match to the typical perception. A comparison of demographics between the two groups with logistic regression found that work level and direct employer significantly affect their classification. A multivariate analysis of variance of safety performance measures between the two groups indicated that the typical group had a significantly higher level of safety compliance than the atypical group, with no significant difference in safety participation or injury. The significance of this study lies in revealing the typical safety climate perception profile pattern of RMAA works and offering a new perspective of safety climate research. PMID:27669269

  16. Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education in Science, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Discusses safety issues in science, including: allergic reactions to peanuts used in experiments; explosions in lead/acid batteries; and inspection of pressure vessels, such as pressure cookers or model steam engines. (MKR)

  17. Benchmarking spliced alignment programs including Spaln2, an extended version of Spaln that incorporates additional species-specific features

    PubMed Central

    Iwata, Hiroaki; Gotoh, Osamu

    2012-01-01

    Spliced alignment plays a central role in the precise identification of eukaryotic gene structures. Even though many spliced alignment programs have been developed, recent rapid progress in DNA sequencing technologies demands further improvements in software tools. Benchmarking algorithms under various conditions is an indispensable task for the development of better software; however, there is a dire lack of appropriate datasets usable for benchmarking spliced alignment programs. In this study, we have constructed two types of datasets: simulated sequence datasets and actual cross-species datasets. The datasets are designed to correspond to various real situations, i.e. divergent eukaryotic species, different types of reference sequences, and the wide divergence between query and target sequences. In addition, we have developed an extended version of our program Spaln, which incorporates two additional features to the scoring scheme of the original version, and examined this extended version, Spaln2, together with the original Spaln and other representative aligners based on our benchmark datasets. Although the effects of the modifications are not individually striking, Spaln2 is consistently most accurate and reasonably fast in most practical cases, especially for plants and fungi and for increasingly divergent pairs of target and query sequences. PMID:22848105

  18. Influence of parenteral administration routes and additional factors on vaccine safety and immunogenicity: a review of recent literature.

    PubMed

    Herzog, Christian

    2014-03-01

    Vaccines have to be administered via an appropriate route, i.e. a route, which is optimal regarding safety, immunogenicity and practicability. In addition, there are factors, such as body site, needle length, injection technique, depth of injection, type of antigen, vaccine formulation, adjuvants, age, sex, race/ethnicity, body mass, and pre-existing immunity, which can have an impact on the reactogenicity and tolerability and/or on the immunogenicity of a given vaccine. For parenteral vaccine administration there are currently three routes licensed: intramuscular, subcutaneous and intradermal, either by using conventional hypodermic needles or by using alternative or needle-free injection devices. The factors potentially impacting on the 'performance' of a given route of administration, as reported in recent literature, are outlined and discussed in view of their importance. These factors need to be accounted and controlled for when designing vaccine studies and should be reported in a transparent and standardised way in publications.

  19. Safety of lumbar puncture in comatose children with clinical features of cerebral malaria

    PubMed Central

    Moxon, Christopher A.; Zhao, Lei; Li, Chenxi; Seydel, Karl B.; MacCormick, Ian J.; Diggle, Peter J.; Mallewa, Macpherson; Solomon, Tom; Beare, Nicholas A.; Glover, Simon J.; Harding, Simon P.; Lewallen, Susan; Kampondeni, Sam; Potchen, Michael J.; Taylor, Terrie E.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: We assessed the independent association of lumbar puncture (LP) and death in Malawian children admitted to the hospital with the clinical features of cerebral malaria (CM). Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study in Malawian children with clinical features of CM. Allocation to LP was nonrandom and was associated with severity of illness. Propensity score–based analyses were used to adjust for this bias and assess the independent association between LP and mortality. Results: Data were available for 1,075 children: 866 (80.6%) underwent LP and 209 (19.4%) did not. Unadjusted mortality rates were lower in children who underwent LP (15.3% vs 26.7% in the no-LP group) but differences in covariates between the 2 groups suggested bias in LP allocation. After propensity score matching, all covariates were balanced. Propensity score–based analyses showed no change in mortality rate associated with LP: by inverse probability weighting, the average risk reduction was 2.0% at 12 hours (95% confidence interval −1.5% to 5.5%, p = 0.27) and 1.7% during hospital admission (95% confidence interval −4.5% to 7.9%, p = 0.60). Undergoing LP did not change the risk of mortality in subanalyses of children with severe brain swelling on MRI or in those with papilledema. Conclusion: In comatose children with suspected CM who were clinically stable, we found no evidence that LP increases mortality, even in children with objective signs of raised intracranial pressure. PMID:27794112

  20. The Evaluation of Triphenyl Phosphate as a Flame Retardant Additive to Improve the Safety of Lithium-Ion Battery Electrolytes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smart, M. C.; Krause, F. C.; Hwang, C.; West, W. C.; Soler, J.; Prakash, G. K. S.; Ratnakumar, B. V.

    2011-01-01

    With the intent of improving the safety characteristics of lithium ion cells, electrolytes containing flame retardant additives have been investigated. A number of triphenyl phosphate-containing electrolytes were evaluated in both coin cells and experimental three electrode lithium-ion cells (containing reference electrodes). A number of chemistries were investigated, including MCMB carbon/LiNi(0.8)Co(0.2)O2 (NCO), graphite/LiNi(0.8)Co(0.15)Al(0.05)O2 (NCA), Li/Li(Li(0.17)Ni(0.25)Mn(0.58))O2, Li/LiNiMnCoO2 (NMC) and graphite/LiNiMnCoO2 (NMC), to study the effect that different electrolyte compositions have upon performance. A wide range of TPP-containing electrolytes were demonstrated to have good compatibility with the C/NCO, C/NCA, and Li/NMC systems, however, poor performance was initially observed with the high voltage C/NMC system. This necessitated the development of improved electrolytes with stabilizing additives, leading to formulations containing lithium bis(oxalato)borate (LiBOB) that displayed substantially improved performance.

  1. Critical features of an auditable management system for an ISO 9000-compatible occupational health and safety standard.

    PubMed

    Levine, S; Dyjack, D T

    1997-04-01

    An International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 9001: 1994-harmonized occupational health and safety (OHS) management system has been written at the University of Michigan, and reviewed, revised, and accepted under the direction of the American Industrial Hygiene Association (AIHA) Occupational Health and Safety Management Systems (OHSMS) Task Force and the Board of Directors. This system is easily adaptable to the ISO 14001 format and to both OHS and environmental management system applications. As was the case with ISO 9001: 1994, this system is expected to be compatible with current production quality and OHS quality systems and standards, have forward compatibility for new applications, and forward flexibility, with new features added as needed. Since ISO 9001: 1987 and 9001: 1994 have been applied worldwide, the incorporation of harmonized OHS and environmental management system components should be acceptable to business units already performing first-party (self-) auditing, and second-party (contract qualification) auditing. This article explains the basis of this OHS management system, its relationship to ISO 9001 and 14001 standards, the philosophy and methodology of an ISO-harmonized system audit, the relationship of these systems to traditional OHS audit systems, and the authors' vision of the future for application of such systems.

  2. Clinicopathological features and surgical safety of gastric cancer in elderly patients.

    PubMed

    Lim, Joo Hyun; Lee, Dong Ho; Shin, Cheol Min; Kim, Nayoung; Park, Young Soo; Jung, Hyun Chae; Song, In Sung

    2014-12-01

    Gastric cancer is one of the most common cancers, especially among the elderly. However little is known about gastric cancer in elderly patients. This study was designed to evaluate the specific features of gastric cancer in elderly patients. Medical records of 1,107 patients who had radical gastrectomy for gastric cancer between June 2005 and December 2009 were reviewed. They were divided into young (<65 yr, n=676), young-old (65-74 yr, n=332), and old-old age group (≥75 yr, n=99). Increased CA 19-9 (5.6%, 13.4%, 14.6%, P=0.001), advanced diseases (42.5%, 47.0%, and 57.6, P=0.014), and node metastasis (37.6%, 38.9%, 51.5%, P=0.029) were more common in the young-old and old-old age groups. There were no significant differences in Helicobacter pylori status (63.6%, 56.7%, 61.2%, P=0.324) between the three groups. Surgery-related complication rates were similar in the three groups (5.3%, 5.1%, 8.1%, P=0.497). Microsatellite instability (P<0.001) and p53 overexpression (P<0.001) were more common among the elderly. The elderly group had more synchronous tumors (7.5%, 10.2%, 17.2%; P=0.006). Surgery can be applied to elderly gastric cancer without significant risk of complications. However, considering the more advanced disease and synchronous tumors among the elderly, care should be taken while deciding the extent of surgery for elderly gastric cancer.

  3. Additional guidance for including nuclear safety equivalency in the Canister Storage Building and Cold Vacuum Drying Facility final safety analysis report

    SciTech Connect

    Garvin, L.J.

    1997-05-20

    This document provides guidance for the production of safety analysis reports that must meet both DOE Order 5480.23 and STD 3009, and be in compliance with the DOE regulatory policy that imposes certain NRC requirements.

  4. A Rodent Model of Chikungunya Virus Infection in RAG1 -/- Mice, with Features of Persistence, for Vaccine Safety Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Leal, Grace; Alcorn, Maria D. H.; Weaver, Scott C.

    2015-01-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a positive sense, single stranded RNA virus in the genus Alphavirus, and the etiologic agent of epidemics of severe arthralgia in Africa, Asia, Europe and, most recently, the Americas. CHIKV causes chikungunya fever (CHIK), a syndrome characterized by rash, fever, and debilitating, often chronic arthritis. In recent outbreaks, CHIKV has been recognized to manifest more neurologic signs of illness in the elderly and those with co-morbidities. The syndrome caused by CHIKV is often self-limited; however, many patients develop persistent arthralgia that can last for months or years. These characteristics make CHIKV not only important from a human health standpoint, but also from an economic standpoint. Despite its importance as a reemerging disease, there is no licensed vaccine or specific treatment to prevent CHIK. Many studies have begun to elucidate the pathogenesis of CHIKF and the mechanism of persistent arthralgia, including the role of the adaptive immune response, which is still poorly understood. In addition, the lack of an animal model for chronic infection has limited studies of CHIKV pathogenesis as well as the ability to assess the safety of vaccine candidates currently under development. To address this deficiency, we used recombination activating gene 1 (RAG1-/-) knockout mice, which are deficient in both T and B lymphocytes, to develop a chronic CHIKV infection model. Here, we describe this model as well as its use in evaluating the safety of a live-attenuated vaccine candidate. PMID:26115459

  5. Neural Features of Processing the Enforcement Phrases Used during Occupational Health and Safety Inspections: An ERP Study.

    PubMed

    Ma, Qingguo; Shi, Liping; Hu, Linfeng; Liu, Qiang; Yang, Zheng; Wang, Qiuzhen

    2016-01-01

    The appropriate enforcement phrases used during occupational health and safety (OHS) inspection activities is a crucial factor to guarantee the compliance with OHS regulations in enterprises. However, few researchers have empirically investigated the issue of how enforcement phrases are processed. The present study explored the neural features of processing two types of enforcement phrases (severe-and-deterrent vs. mild-and-polite phrases) used during OHS inspections by applying event-related potentials (ERP) method. Electroencephalogram data were recorded while the participants distinguished between severe-and-deterrent phrases and mild-and-polite phrases depicted in written Chinese words. The ERP results showed that severe-and-deterrent phrases elicited significantly augmented P300 amplitude with a central-parietal scalp distribution compared with mild-and-polite phrases, indicating the allocation of more attention resources to and elaborate processing of the severe-and-deterrent phrases. It reveals that humans may consider the severe-and-deterrent phrases as more motivationally significant and elaborately process the severity and deterrence information contained in the enforcement phrases for the adaptive protection. The current study provides an objective and supplementary way to measure the efficiency of different enforcement phrases at neural level, which may help generate appropriate enforcement phrases and improve the performance of OHS inspections.

  6. Neural Features of Processing the Enforcement Phrases Used during Occupational Health and Safety Inspections: An ERP Study

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Qingguo; Shi, Liping; Hu, Linfeng; Liu, Qiang; Yang, Zheng; Wang, Qiuzhen

    2016-01-01

    The appropriate enforcement phrases used during occupational health and safety (OHS) inspection activities is a crucial factor to guarantee the compliance with OHS regulations in enterprises. However, few researchers have empirically investigated the issue of how enforcement phrases are processed. The present study explored the neural features of processing two types of enforcement phrases (severe-and-deterrent vs. mild-and-polite phrases) used during OHS inspections by applying event-related potentials (ERP) method. Electroencephalogram data were recorded while the participants distinguished between severe-and-deterrent phrases and mild-and-polite phrases depicted in written Chinese words. The ERP results showed that severe-and-deterrent phrases elicited significantly augmented P300 amplitude with a central-parietal scalp distribution compared with mild-and-polite phrases, indicating the allocation of more attention resources to and elaborate processing of the severe-and-deterrent phrases. It reveals that humans may consider the severe-and-deterrent phrases as more motivationally significant and elaborately process the severity and deterrence information contained in the enforcement phrases for the adaptive protection. The current study provides an objective and supplementary way to measure the efficiency of different enforcement phrases at neural level, which may help generate appropriate enforcement phrases and improve the performance of OHS inspections. PMID:27807404

  7. The Evaluation of Triphenyl Phosphate as a Flame Retardant Additive to Improve the Safety of Lithium-Ion Battery Electrolytes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smart, M. C.; Krause, F. C.; Hwang, C.; Westa, W. C.; Soler, J.; Prakash, G. K. S.; Ratnakumar, B. V.

    2011-01-01

    NASA is actively pursuing the development of advanced electrochemical energy storage and conversion devices for future lunar and Mars missions. The Exploration Technology Development Program, Energy Storage Project is sponsoring the development of advanced Li-ion batteries and PEM fuel cell and regenerative fuel cell systems for the Altair Lunar Lander, Extravehicular Activities (EVA), and rovers and as the primary energy storage system for Lunar Surface Systems. At JPL, in collaboration with NASA-GRC, NASA-JSC and industry, we are actively developing advanced Li-ion batteries with improved specific energy, energy density and safety. One effort is focused upon developing Li-ion battery electrolyte with enhanced safety characteristics (i.e., low flammability). A number of commercial applications also require Li-ion batteries with enhanced safety, especially for automotive applications.

  8. The performance improvement of automatic classification among obstructive lung diseases on the basis of the features of shape analysis, in addition to texture analysis at HRCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Youngjoo; Kim, Namkug; Seo, Joon Beom; Lee, JuneGoo; Kang, Suk Ho

    2007-03-01

    In this paper, we proposed novel shape features to improve classification performance of differentiating obstructive lung diseases, based on HRCT (High Resolution Computerized Tomography) images. The images were selected from HRCT images, obtained from 82 subjects. For each image, two experienced radiologists selected rectangular ROIs with various sizes (16x16, 32x32, and 64x64 pixels), representing each disease or normal lung parenchyma. Besides thirteen textural features, we employed additional seven shape features; cluster shape features, and Top-hat transform features. To evaluate the contribution of shape features for differentiation of obstructive lung diseases, several experiments were conducted with two different types of classifiers and various ROI sizes. For automated classification, the Bayesian classifier and support vector machine (SVM) were implemented. To assess the performance and cross-validation of the system, 5-folding method was used. In comparison to employing only textural features, adding shape features yields significant enhancement of overall sensitivity(5.9, 5.4, 4.4% in the Bayesian and 9.0, 7.3, 5.3% in the SVM), in the order of ROI size 16x16, 32x32, 64x64 pixels, respectively (t-test, p<0.01). Moreover, this enhancement was largely due to the improvement on class-specific sensitivity of mild centrilobular emphysema and bronchiolitis obliterans which are most hard to differentiate for radiologists. According to these experimental results, adding shape features to conventional texture features is much useful to improve classification performance of obstructive lung diseases in both Bayesian and SVM classifiers.

  9. [Features of alloplasmic wheat-barley substitution and addition lines (Hordeum marinum subsp. gussoneanum)-triticum aestivum].

    PubMed

    Pershina, L A; Deviatkina, E P; Belova, L I; Trubacheeva, N V; Arbuzova, V S; Kravtsova, L A

    2009-10-01

    Two alloplasmic wheat-barley substitution lines were studied: a line replaced at three pairs of chromosomes 1Hmr((IB), 5Hmar(5D), and 7Hmar(7D), and the disomic-substituted line 7Hma(7D). The lines were constructed on the basis of individual plants from BCIF8- and BC2F6 progeny of barley-wheat hybrids (H. marinum subsp. gussoneanum Hudson (=H. geniculatum All.) (2n = 28) x T. aestivum L.) (2n = 42) (Pyrotrix 28), respectively. Moreover, the alloplasmic wheat-barley ditelosomic addition line 7HLma' isolated among plants from the BC1F6 progeny of a barley-wheat amphiploid was studied, which in this work corresponds to BC2F10 and BC2F11 progeny. It was ascertained that when grown in the field, these alloplasmic lines manifest stable self-fertility. Plants of the given lines are characterized by low height, shortened ears, the fewer number of stems and ears, and of spikelets in the ear, by decreased grain productivity and weight of 1000 grains, in comparison with the common wheat cultivar Pyrotrix 28. The inhibition of trait expression in alloplasmic wheat-barley substitution and addition lines may be connected not only with the influence of wild barley chromosomes functioning in the genotypic environment of common wheat, but also with the effect of the barley cytoplasm. The alloplasmic line with substitution of chromosomes 1Hmar(1B), 5Hmar(5D), and 7Hmar(7D) or the alloplasmic line 7HLmar with ditelosomic addition have, in comparison with the common wheat cultivar Pyrotrix 28, an increased grain protein content, which is explained by the effect of wild barley H. marinum subsp. gussoneanum chromosomes.

  10. The effect of additional exposure to the unique features in a perceptual learning task can be attributed to a location bias.

    PubMed

    Recio, Sergio A; Iliescu, Adela F; Bergés, Germán D; Gil, Marta; de Brugada, Isabel

    2016-04-01

    It has been suggested that human perceptual learning could be explained in terms of a better memory encoding of the unique features during intermixed exposure. However, it is possible that a location bias could play a relevant role in explaining previous results of perceptual learning studies using complex visual stimuli. If this were the case, the only relevant feature would be the location, rather than the content, of the unique features. To further explore this possibility, we attempted to replicate the results of Lavis, Kadib, Mitchell, and Hall (2011, Experiment 2), which showed that additional exposure to the unique elements resulted in better discrimination than simple intermixed exposure. We manipulated the location of the unique elements during the additional exposure. In one experiment, they were located in the same position as that when presented together with the common element. In another experiment, the unique elements were located in the center of the screen, regardless of where they were located together with the common element. Our results showed that additional exposure only improved discrimination when the unique elements were presented in the same position as when they were presented together with the common element. The results reported here do not provide support for the explanation of the effects of additional exposure of the unique elements in terms of a better memory encoding and instead suggest an explanation in terms of location bias.

  11. Features and machine learning classification of connected speech samples from patients with autopsy proven Alzheimer's disease with and without additional vascular pathology.

    PubMed

    Rentoumi, Vassiliki; Raoufian, Ladan; Ahmed, Samrah; de Jager, Celeste A; Garrard, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Mixed vascular and Alzheimer-type dementia and pure Alzheimer's disease are both associated with changes in spoken language. These changes have, however, seldom been subjected to systematic comparison. In the present study, we analyzed language samples obtained during the course of a longitudinal clinical study from patients in whom one or other pathology was verified at post mortem. The aims of the study were twofold: first, to confirm the presence of differences in language produced by members of the two groups using quantitative methods of evaluation; and secondly to ascertain the most informative sources of variation between the groups. We adopted a computational approach to evaluate digitized transcripts of connected speech along a range of language-related dimensions. We then used machine learning text classification to assign the samples to one of the two pathological groups on the basis of these features. The classifiers' accuracies were tested using simple lexical features, syntactic features, and more complex statistical and information theory characteristics. Maximum accuracy was achieved when word occurrences and frequencies alone were used. Features based on syntactic and lexical complexity yielded lower discrimination scores, but all combinations of features showed significantly better performance than a baseline condition in which every transcript was assigned randomly to one of the two classes. The classification results illustrate the word content specific differences in the spoken language of the two groups. In addition, those with mixed pathology were found to exhibit a marked reduction in lexical variation and complexity compared to their pure AD counterparts.

  12. Combined Effects of High Pressure Processing and Addition of Soy Sauce and Olive Oil on Safety and Quality Characteristics of Chicken Breast Meat

    PubMed Central

    Kruk, Zbigniew A.; Kim, Hyun Joo; Kim, Yun Ji; Rutley, David L.; Jung, Samooel; Lee, Soo Kee; Jo, Cheorun

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the combined effect of high pressure (HP) with the addition of soy sauce and/or olive oil on the quality and safety of chicken breast meats. Samples were cut into 100 g pieces and 10% (w/w) of soy sauce (SS), 10% (w/w) of olive oil (OO), and a mixture of both 5% of soy sauce and 5% olive oil (w/w) (SO) were pressurized into meat with high pressure at 300 or 600 MPa. Cooking loss was lower in OO samples than SS samples. With increased pressure to 600 MPa, the oleic acid content of OO samples increased. The total unsaturated fatty acids were the highest in SO and OO 600 MPa samples. Lipid oxidation was retarded by addition of olive oil combined with HP. The addition of olive oil and soy sauce followed by HP decreased the amount of volatile basic nitrogen during storage and reduced the population of pathogens. Sensory evaluation indicated that the addition of olive oil enhanced the overall acceptance and willingness to buy. In conclusion, the combination of HP with the addition of soy sauce and/or olive oil is an effective technology that can improve chemical, health, sensory qualities and safety of chicken breast. PMID:25049950

  13. The efficacy and safety of maraviroc addition to a stable antiretroviral regimen in subjects with suppressed plasma HIV-RNA is not influenced by age.

    PubMed

    Blanco, José-Ramón; Arroyo-Manzano, David; Rojas-Liévano, John F; Crespo, Manuel; Bravo, Isa; Pasquau, Juan; Garcia Del Toro, Miguel; Herrero, Cristina; Rivero, Antonio; Moreno, Santiago; Llibre, Josep Maria

    2015-09-01

    There are few data about the immunovirological efficacy, safety/tolerability, and durability of maraviroc (MVC) addition to aging patients on suppressive antiretroviral therapy (cART) and undetectable viral load (<50 copies/ml). The aging population is underrepresented in most HIV clinical trials. This study included 80 patients aged ≥50 years and 161 aged <50 years and showed that after 48 weeks of treatment, there was no between-group differences in the median increase of CD4(+) T cells or the virological suppression rate. Safety and tolerability were also comparable. In multivariable analysis, the effect of age was not modified and was independent of the response to MVC. An immunological recovery of ≥100 CD4(+) T cells was significantly less common in those with a longer HIV history (≥15 years) (OR 0.43; p=0.016) or having <200/mm(3) CD4(+) T cells at MVC initiation (OR 0.27; p=0.004). Meanwhile, achieving a CD4/CD8 ratio ≥0.5 at week 48 was less likely in those with CD4(+) T cell counts <200 at MVC initiation (OR 0.09; p<0.0001) or with a previous AIDS event (OR 0.43; p=0.028). In summary, the immunovirological efficacy, safety/tolerability, and durability of MVC addition in patients virologically suppressed were independent of the patient's age at treatment onset.

  14. Effect of tiger nut fibre addition on the quality and safety of a dry-cured pork sausage ("Chorizo") during the dry-curing process.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Zapata, E; Zunino, V; Pérez-Alvarez, J A; Fernández-López, J

    2013-11-01

    There is a growing interest in the revalorization of co-products from the food industry. Co-products from tiger nuts (Cyperus esculentus) milk production are a suitable fibre source. "Chorizo" is the most popular dry-cured meat product in Spain. The aim of this work was to study the effect of the tiger nut fibre addition (0, 5, and 7.5%) on the quality (composition, physicochemical, and sensorial properties) and safety (oxidation and microbial quality) of a Spanish dry-cured sausage, during the 28days of its dry-curing process. Tiger nut fibre (TNF) addition decreased fat and increased moisture content. The addition of TNF significantly increased (p<0.05) the total dietary fibre content of "Chorizo". Lightness (L*), yellowness (b*) and redness index (a*/b*) were significantly (p<0.05) affected by the fibre content. The addition of 5% and 7.5% TNF to chorizo provided rich fibre and a healthier product. Although there were slight changes in the physicochemical properties, its quality (traditional characteristics) and its safety remained.

  15. Regulatory use of computational toxicology tools and databases at the United States Food and Drug Administration's Office of Food Additive Safety.

    PubMed

    Arvidson, Kirk B; Chanderbhan, Ronald; Muldoon-Jacobs, Kristi; Mayer, Julie; Ogungbesan, Adejoke

    2010-07-01

    Over 10 years ago, the Office of Food Additive Safety (OFAS) in the FDA's Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition implemented the formal use of structure-activity relationship analysis and quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) analysis in the premarket review of food-contact substances. More recently, OFAS has implemented the use of multiple QSAR software packages and has begun investigating the use of metabolism data and metabolism predictive models in our QSAR evaluations of food-contact substances. In this article, we provide an overview of the programs used in OFAS as well as a perspective on how to apply multiple QSAR tools in the review process of a new food-contact substance.

  16. Experimental Simulation of the Radionuclide Behaviour in the Process of Creating Additional Safety Barriers in Solid Radioactive Waste Repositories Containing Irradiated Graphite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavliuk, A. O.; Kotlyarevskiy, S. G.; Bespala, E. V.; Zakarova, E. V.; Rodygina, N. I.; Ermolaev, V. M.; Proshin, I. M.; Volkova, A.

    2016-08-01

    Results of the experimental modeling of radionuclide behavior when creating additional safety barriers in solid radioactive waste repositories are presented. The experiments were run on the repository mockup containing solid radioactive waste fragments including irradiated graphite. The repository mockup layout is given; the processes with radionuclides that occur during the barrier creation with a clayey solution and during the following barrier operation are investigated. The results obtained confirm high anti-migration and anti-filtration properties of clay used for the barrier creation even under the long-term excessive water saturation of rocks confining the repository.

  17. Efficacy and safety of addition of bevacizumab to FOLFIRI or irinotecan/bolus 5-FU/LV (IFL) in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ke; Gong, Yinya; Zhang, Qi; Shen, Yanping; Zhou, Taoqi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Recent studies have paid much attention on the safety of bevacizumab as adjuvant chemotherapy for metastatic colorectal cancer. The aim of this meta-analysis was to study the efficacy and safety of bevacizumab in combination with irinotecan, bolus followed by infusional 5-fluorouracil, and leucovorin (FOLFIRI) and, irinotecan, bolus fluorouracil, leucovorin (IFL) for patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). An electronic search of related trials was conducted from PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library databases. Risk ratio (RRs) and its 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated by using either DerSimonian–Laird method or Mantel–Haenszel method according to the heterogeneity of included articles. The risk of mortality, therapeutic efficacy, and adverse effect were meta-analyzed. In total, 6 RCTs including 2165 participants (1109 in the treatment group, 1056 in the control group) were included in this meta-analysis. Compared with FOLFIRI-panitumumab/cetuximab, the bevacizumab addition significantly reduced the complete response (CR) rate (RR [95%CI] = 0.31[0.11, 0.89], P = 0.03) and the risk of grade 3/4 adverse event (RR [95%CI] = 0.89[0.80, 0.98], P = 0.01). Compared with FOLFIRI and IFL alone, the addition of bevacizumb significantly increased the partial response (PR) and objective response (OR) rates. Compared with IFL alone, the addition of bevacizumb significantly reduced the mortality risk of PFS (RR [95%CI] = 0.53[0.42, 0.66], P < 0.00001) and OS (RR[95%CI] = 0.70[0.60, 0.82], P < 0.00001), but increased the risk of adverse events (RR[95%CI] = 1.14[1.06, 1.21], P = 0.0002). Combination chemotherapy of bevacizumab plus FOLFIRI or IFL had a relative high efficacy and acceptable safety for treatment of mCRC. PMID:27861344

  18. Efficacy and Safety of a Hyaluronic Acid Filler to Correct Aesthetically Detracting or Deficient Features of the Asian Nose: A Prospective, Open-Label, Long-Term Study

    PubMed Central

    Liew, Steven; Scamp, Terrence; de Maio, Mauricio; Halstead, Michael; Johnston, Nicole; Silberberg, Michael; Rogers, John D.

    2016-01-01

    Background There is increasing interest among patients and plastic surgeons for alternatives to rhinoplasty, a common surgical procedure performed in Asia. Objectives To evaluate the safety, efficacy, and longevity of a hyaluronic acid filler in the correction of aesthetically detracting or deficient features of the Asian nose. Methods Twenty-nine carefully screened Asian patients had their noses corrected with the study filler (Juvéderm VOLUMA [Allergan plc, Dublin, Ireland] with lidocaine injectable gel), reflecting individualized treatment goals and utilizing a standardized injection procedure, and were followed for over 12 months. Results A clinically meaningful correction (≥1 grade improvement on the Assessment of Aesthetic Improvement Scale) was achieved in 27 (93.1%) patients at the first follow-up visit. This was maintained in 28 (96.6%) patients at the final visit, based on the independent assessments of a central non-injecting physician and the patients. At this final visit, 23 (79.3%) patients were satisfied or very satisfied with the study filler and 25 (86.2%) would recommend it to others. In this small series of patients, there were no serious adverse events (AEs), with all treatment-related AEs being mild to moderate, transient injection site reactions, unrelated to the study filler. Conclusions Using specific eligibility criteria, individualized treatment goals, and a standardized injection procedure, the study filler corrected aesthetically detracting or deficient features of the Asian nose, with the therapeutic effects lasting for over 12 months, consistent with a high degree of patient satisfaction. This study supports the safety and efficacy of this HA filler for specific nose augmentation procedures in selected Asian patients. Level of Evidence: 3 Therapeutic PMID:27301371

  19. An Individual with Blepharophimosis-Ptosis-Epicanthus Inversus Syndrome (BPES) and Additional Features Expands the Phenotype Associated with Mutations in KAT6B

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Hung-Chun; Geiger, Elizabeth A.; Medne, Livija; Zackai, Elaine H.; Shaikh, Tamim H.

    2015-01-01

    Blepharophimosis-Ptosis-Epicanthus Inversus Syndrome (BPES) is an autosomal dominant disorder caused by mutations in FOXL2. We identified an individual with BPES and additional phenotypic features who did not have a FOXL2 mutation. We used whole exome sequencing to identify a de novo mutation in KAT6B (lysine acetyltransferase 6B) in this individual. The mutation was a 2 bp insertion leading to a frameshift which resulted in a premature stop codon. The resulting truncated protein does not have the C-terminal serine/methionine transcription activation domain necessary for interaction with other transcriptional and epigenetic regulators. This mutation likely has a dominant-negative or gain-of-function effect, similar to those observed in other genetic disorders resulting from KAT6B mutations, including Say-Barber-Biesecker-Young-Simpson (SBBYSS) and Genitopatellar syndrome (GTPTS). Thus, our subject’s phenotype broadens the spectrum of clinical findings associated with mutations in KAT6B. Furthermore, our results suggest that individuals with BPES without a FOXL2 mutation should be tested for KAT6B mutations. The transcriptional and epigenetic regulation mediated by KAT6B appears crucial to early developmental processes, which when perturbed can lead to a wide spectrum of phenotypic outcomes. PMID:24458743

  20. An individual with blepharophimosis-ptosis-epicanthus inversus syndrome (BPES) and additional features expands the phenotype associated with mutations in KAT6B.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hung-Chun; Geiger, Elizabeth A; Medne, Livija; Zackai, Elaine H; Shaikh, Tamim H

    2014-04-01

    Blepharophimosis-ptosis-epicanthus inversus syndrome (BPES) is an autosomal dominant disorder caused by mutations in FOXL2. We identified an individual with BPES and additional phenotypic features who did not have a FOXL2 mutation. We used whole exome sequencing to identify a de novo mutation in KAT6B (lysine acetyltransferase 6B) in this individual. The mutation was a 2-bp insertion leading to a frameshift which resulted in a premature stop codon. The resulting truncated protein does not have the C-terminal serine/methionine transcription activation domain necessary for interaction with other transcriptional and epigenetic regulators. This mutation likely has a dominant-negative or gain-of-function effect, similar to those observed in other genetic disorders resulting from KAT6B mutations, including Say-Barber-Biesecker-Young-Simpson (SBBYSS) and genitopatellar syndrome (GTPTS). Thus, our subject's phenotype broadens the spectrum of clinical findings associated with mutations in KAT6B. Furthermore, our results suggest that individuals with BPES without a FOXL2 mutation should be tested for KAT6B mutations. The transcriptional and epigenetic regulation mediated by KAT6B appears crucial to early developmental processes, which when perturbed can lead to a wide spectrum of phenotypic outcomes.

  1. Safety and Protective Effectiveness of Two Strains of Lactobacillus with Probiotic Features in an Experimental Model of Salmonellosis

    PubMed Central

    Steinberg, Raphael S.; Silva, Lilian C. S.; Souza, Tássia C.; Lima, Maurício T.; de Oliveira, Nayara L. G.; Vieira, Leda Q.; Arantes, Rosa M. E.; Miyoshi, Anderson; Nicoli, Jacques R.; Neumann, Elisabeth; Nunes, Álvaro C.

    2014-01-01

    Two strains of Lactobacillus, previously isolated from bovine faeces and tested in vitro for properties desired in probiotics, were evaluated for their in vivo effectiveness in protecting against experimental salmonellosis. L. salivarius L38 and L. acidophilus L36 previously demonstrated the ability to successfully colonize the gastrointestinal tract of germ-free mice and stimulate the immune system associated with the intestinal mucosa. L38- or L36-feeding showed no detrimental effect on the general health indicators and did not induce changes in normal architecture of liver and small intestine, indicating that the use of these strains is apparently safe. In control animals fed L38 strain, several cytokines had augmented mRNA levels that can be associated with a homeostatic state of intestinal mucosa, while L36 had less diverse regulation. IgA production and secretion in the intestinal lumen induced by infection was abrogated by pretreating with both lactobacilli. In addition, liver and small intestine histological scores and, translocation of Salmonella cells to liver and spleen, indicated that these strains did not confer protection against the infection. So, the IL-12:IL-18➔IFN-γ axis, essential for an effective immune response against Salmonella, was not favored with L38 or L36 strains. However, increased expression of IL-10 in different portions of the gastrointestinal tract of L38-fed animals is indicative of anti-inflammatory effect to be explored furthermore. PMID:25162711

  2. Safety and protective effectiveness of two strains of Lactobacillus with probiotic features in an experimental model of salmonellosis.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, Raphael S; Silva, Lilian C S; Souza, Tássia C; Lima, Maurício T; de Oliveira, Nayara L G; Vieira, Leda Q; Arantes, Rosa M E; Miyoshi, Anderson; Nicoli, Jacques R; Neumann, Elisabeth; Nunes, Alvaro C

    2014-08-26

    Two strains of Lactobacillus, previously isolated from bovine faeces and tested in vitro for properties desired in probiotics, were evaluated for their in vivo effectiveness in protecting against experimental salmonellosis. L. salivarius L38 and L. acidophilus L36 previously demonstrated the ability to successfully colonize the gastrointestinal tract of germ-free mice and stimulate the immune system associated with the intestinal mucosa. L38- or L36-feeding showed no detrimental effect on the general health indicators and did not induce changes in normal architecture of liver and small intestine, indicating that the use of these strains is apparently safe. In control animals fed L38 strain, several cytokines had augmented mRNA levels that can be associated with a homeostatic state of intestinal mucosa, while L36 had less diverse regulation. IgA production and secretion in the intestinal lumen induced by infection was abrogated by pretreating with both lactobacilli. In addition, liver and small intestine histological scores and, translocation of Salmonella cells to liver and spleen, indicated that these strains did not confer protection against the infection. So, the IL-12:IL-18àIFN-g axis, essential for an effective immune response against Salmonella, was not favored with L38 or L36 strains. However, increased expression of IL-10 in different portions of the gastrointestinal tract of L38-fed animals is indicative of anti-inflammatory effect to be explored furthermore.

  3. Characterization of pulmonary nodules on computer tomography (CT) scans: the effect of additive white noise on features selection and classification performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osicka, Teresa; Freedman, Matthew T.; Ahmed, Farid

    2007-03-01

    The goal of this project is to use computer analysis to classify small lung nodules, identified on CT, into likely benign and likely malignant categories. We compared discrete wavelet transforms (DWT) based features and a modification of classical features used and reported by others. To determine the best combination of features for classification, several intensities of white noise were added to the original images to determine the effect of such noise on classification accuracy. Two different approaches were used to determine the effect of noise: in the first method the best features for classification of nodules on the original image were retained as noise was added. In the second approach, we recalculated the results to reselect the best classification features for each particular level of added noise. The CT images are from the National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) of the National Cancer Institute (NCI). For this study, nodules were extracted in window frames of three sizes. Malignant nodules were cytologically or histogically diagnosed, while benign had two-year follow-up. A linear discriminant analysis with Fisher criterion (FLDA) approach was used for feature selection and classification, and decision matrix for matched sample to compare the classification accuracy. The initial features mode revealed sensitivity to both the amount of noise and the size of window frame. The recalculated feature mode proved more robust to noise with no change in terms of classification accuracy. This indicates that the best features for computer classification of lung nodules will differ with noise, and, therefore, with exposure.

  4. Improvement of microbiological safety and sensorial quality of pork jerky by electron beam irradiation and by addition of onion peel extract and barbecue flavor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyun-Joo; Jung, Samooel; Yong, Hae In; Bae, Young Sik; Kang, Suk Nam; Kim, Il Suk; Jo, Cheorun

    2014-05-01

    The combined effects of electron-beam (EB) irradiation and addition of onion peel (OP) extract and barbecue flavor (BF) on inactivation of foodborne pathogens and the quality of pork jerky was investigated. Prepared pork jerky samples were irradiated (0, 1, 2, and 4 kGy) and stored for 2 month at 25 °C. The D10 values of Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella typhimurium observed in the OP treated samples were 0.19, 0.18, and 0.19 kGy, whereas those in control were 0.25, 0.23, and 0.20 kGy, respectively. Irradiated samples with OP extract and BF had substantially lower total aerobic bacterial counts than the control had. Samples with added OP extract and BF had lower peroxide values than the control had. Sensory evaluation indicated that overall acceptability of treated samples was not changed up to 2 kGy. Therefore, EB irradiation, combined with OP extract and BF, has improved the microbiological safety with no negative effects on the quality of pork jerky.

  5. Hand Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hand Safety Fireworks Safety Lawnmower Safety Snowblower safety Pumpkin Carving Gardening Safety Turkey Carving Removing a Ring ... Hand Safety Fireworks Safety Lawnmower Safety Snowblower safety Pumpkin Carving Gardening Safety Turkey Carving Removing a Ring ...

  6. Profibus features intrinsic safety, interoperability

    SciTech Connect

    Bryant, M.

    1996-11-01

    The newest member of the Profibus (process fieldbus) family of interoperable field-bus protocols is {open_quotes}PA{close_quotes}, an intrinsically safe (IS) standard released more than a year ago. IS and non-IS plants using PA for process chemicals, energy production, and food manufacturing are coming online. PA was developed by vendor and user members of the Profibus standards community to meet the needs of customers in the process industries. PA complies with IEC 1158-2, which, among non-IS capabilities, specifies a low-speed, intrinsically safe fieldbus for automating explosive chemical manufacturing. PA thus provides all H1, or {open_quotes}hunk{close_quotes} 1, IS and non-IS services. Importantly, it also provides all H2, or {open_quotes}hunk{close_quotes} 2, services. As the newest segment of the site-proven system of fieldbus protocols, Profibus-PA defines by example the concepts of interoperability and interchangeability. It is a field instrument network that automatically interoperates with a large installed base of fieldbus nodes. As low-speed networks, PA and its competitor, Foundation fieldbus H1 comply with the same standard. They do the same job; auxiliary power to the application, with a data rate of 31.25 kbit/sec. Similarities include a function-block-based architecture and a device description language (DDL). They use the same physical layer for digital data transfer. A casual observer would find PA and H1 virtually the same. The key differences are in the protocol implementations. Although PA and H1 could be wired together, the messages delivered by one would make no sense to the other. At least not yet. PA protocols are capable of both IS and non-IS operations. This opens the door to a wide range of interoperable process-manufacturing requirements. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  7. Photocatalytic activation of pyridine for addition reactions: an unconventional reaction feature between a photo-induced hole and electron on TiO2.

    PubMed

    Ma, Dongge; Yan, Yan; Ji, Hongwei; Chen, Chuncheng; Zhao, Jincai

    2015-12-21

    TiO2 photocatalysis can be performed for the addition of pyridines to vinylarenes in an anti-Markovnikov manner. Seven examples with considerable yields (56-91%) and selectivity were demonstrated. A comparative survey of the involved process through ESR revealed a novel concerted two electron transfer pathway for these photocatalytic bimolecular addition reactions.

  8. The addition of STEPPS in the treatment of patients with bipolar disorder and comorbid borderline personality features: a protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Bipolar disorder (BD) and borderline personality disorder (BPD) both are severe and chronic psychiatric disorders. Both disorders have overlapping symptoms, and current research shows that the presence of a BPD has an adverse effect on the course of BD. The limited research available shows an unfavorable illness course, a worse prognosis and response to medication, longer treatment duration, more frequent psychiatric admissions, higher drop-out, increased risk of substance abuse, increased risk of suicide, and more impairment of social and occupational functioning. However, there is no research available on the effect of specific psychotherapeutic treatment for this patients. Methods/Design This paper presents the protocol of a RCT to investigate the presence of borderline personality features in patients treated for BD (study part 1) and the effectiveness of STEPPS (Systems Training for Emotional Predictability and Problem Solving) added to treatment as usual (TAU) for BD compared to TAU in patients with BD and comorbid borderline personality features (study part 2). STEPPS is a validated and effective intervention for BPD. The study population consists of patients treated for BD at specialized outpatient clinics for BD in the Netherlands. At first the prevalence of comorbid borderline personality features in outpatients with BD is investigated. Inclusion criteria for study part 2 is defined as having three or more of the DSM-IV-TR diagnostic criteria of BPD, including impulsivity and anger bursts. Primary outcomes will be the frequency and severity of manic and depressive recurrences as well as severity, course and burden of borderline personality features. Secondary outcomes will be quality of life, utilizing mental healthcare and psychopathologic symptoms not primarily related to BD or BPD. Assessment will be at baseline, at the end of the intervention, and at 12 and 18 months follow-up. Discussion This will be the first randomized controlled trial

  9. Medicine safety and children

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000619.htm Medicine safety and children To use the sharing features ... especially careful if you have toddlers around. Keep Medicines out of Reach and Sight Safety tips: DO ...

  10. 30 CFR 250.406 - What additional safety measures must I take when I conduct drilling operations on a platform that...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... when I conduct drilling operations on a platform that has producing wells or has other hydrocarbon flow... hydrocarbon flow? You must take the following safety measures when you conduct drilling operations on a platform with producing wells or that has other hydrocarbon flow: (a) You must install an...

  11. Space engine safety system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maul, William A.; Meyer, Claudia M.

    1991-01-01

    A rocket engine safety system is designed to initiate control procedures which will minimize damage to the engine and vehicle or test stand in the event of an engine failure. This report describes the features and the implementation issues associated with rocket engine safety systems. Specific concerns of safety systems applied to a space-based engine and long duration space missions are discussed. Examples of safety system features and architectures are given from recent safety monitoring investigations conducted for the Space Shuttle Main Engine and for future liquid rocket engines. Also, a general design and implementation process for rocket engine safety systems is presented.

  12. Improvement in the prediction of the translation initiation site through balancing methods, inclusion of acquired knowledge and addition of features to sequences of mRNA

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The accurate prediction of the initiation of translation in sequences of mRNA is an important activity for genome annotation. However, obtaining an accurate prediction is not always a simple task and can be modeled as a problem of classification between positive sequences (protein codifiers) and negative sequences (non-codifiers). The problem is highly imbalanced because each molecule of mRNA has a unique translation initiation site and various others that are not initiators. Therefore, this study focuses on the problem from the perspective of balancing classes and we present an undersampling balancing method, M-clus, which is based on clustering. The method also adds features to sequences and improves the performance of the classifier through the inclusion of knowledge obtained by the model, called InAKnow. Results Through this methodology, the measures of performance used (accuracy, sensitivity, specificity and adjusted accuracy) are greater than 93% for the Mus musculus and Rattus norvegicus organisms, and varied between 72.97% and 97.43% for the other organisms evaluated: Arabidopsis thaliana, Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila melanogaster, Homo sapiens, Nasonia vitripennis. The precision increases significantly by 39% and 22.9% for Mus musculus and Rattus norvegicus, respectively, when the knowledge obtained by the model is included. For the other organisms, the precision increases by between 37.10% and 59.49%. The inclusion of certain features during training, for example, the presence of ATG in the upstream region of the Translation Initiation Site, improves the rate of sensitivity by approximately 7%. Using the M-Clus balancing method generates a significant increase in the rate of sensitivity from 51.39% to 91.55% (Mus musculus) and from 47.45% to 88.09% (Rattus norvegicus). Conclusions In order to solve the problem of TIS prediction, the results indicate that the methodology proposed in this work is adequate, particularly when using the

  13. Sub-Tg features of glasses formed by cooling glycerol under pressure - Additional incompatibility of vibrational with configurational states in the depressurized, high density glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, Ove; Johari, G. P.

    2016-11-01

    The vibrational state of a glass is naturally incompatible with its configurational state, which makes the glass structurally unstable. When a glass is kept at constant temperature, both the vibrational and configurational states of a glass change with time until it becomes metastable (equilibrium) liquid and the two states become compatible. The process, known as structural relaxation, occurs at a progressively higher rate during heating, and the properties of a glass change accordingly. We add to this incompatibility by depressurizing a glass that had been formed by cooling a liquid under a high pressure, p, and then investigate the effects of the added incompatibility by studying thermal conductivity, κ , and the heat capacity per unit volume ρ Cp of the depressurized glass. We use glycerol for the purpose and study first the changes in the features of κ and of ρ Cp during glass formation on cooling under a set of different p. We then partially depressurize the glass and study the effect of the p-induced instability on the features of κ and ρ Cp as the glass is isobarically heated to the liquid state. At a given low p, the glass configuration that was formed by cooling at high-p had a higher κ than the glass configuration that was formed by cooling at a low p. The difference is more when the glass is formed at a higher p and/or is depressurized to a lower p. On heating at a low p, its κ decreases before its glass-liquid transition range is reached. The effect is the opposite of the increase in κ observed on heating a glass at the same p under which it was formed. It is caused by thermally assisted loss of the added incompatibility of configurational and vibrational states of a high-p formed glass kept at low p. If a glass formed under a low-p is pressurized and then heated under high p, it would show the opposite effect, i.e., its κ would first increase to its high p value before its glass-to-liquid transition range.

  14. Electrochemical performance evaluations and safety investigations of pentafluoro(phenoxy)cyclotriphosphazene as a flame retardant electrolyte additive for application in lithium ion battery systems using a newly designed apparatus for improved self-extinguishing time measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dagger, Tim; Lürenbaum, Constantin; Schappacher, Falko M.; Winter, Martin

    2017-02-01

    A modified self-extinguishing time (SET) device which enhances the reproducibility of the results is presented. Pentafluoro(phenoxy)cyclotriphosphazene (FPPN) is investigated as flame retardant electrolyte additive for lithium ion batteries (LIBs) in terms of thermal stability and electrochemical performance. SET measurements and adiabatic reaction calorimetry are applied to determine the flammability and the reactivity of a standard LIB electrolyte containing 5% FPPN. The results reveal that the additive-containing electrolyte is nonflammable for 10 s whereas the commercially available reference electrolyte inflames instantaneously after 1 s of ignition. The onset temperature of the safety enhanced electrolyte is delayed by ≈ 21 °C. Compatibility tests in half cells show that the electrolyte is reductively stable while the cyclic voltammogram indicates oxidative decomposition during the first cycle. Cycling experiments in full cells show improved cycling performance and rate capability, which can be attributed to cathode passivation during the first cycle. Post-mortem analysis of the electrolyte by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry confirms the presence of the additive in high amounts after 501 cycles which ensures enhanced safety of the electrolyte. The investigations present FPPN as stable electrolyte additive that improves the intrinsic safety of the electrolyte and its cycling performance at the same time.

  15. Improvement of virus safety of a S/D-treated factor VIII concentrate by additional dry heat treatment at 100 degrees C.

    PubMed

    Dichtelmüller, H; Rudnick, D; Breuer, B; Kotitschke, R; Kloft, M; Darling, A; Watson, E; Flehmig, B; Lawson, S; Frösner, G

    1996-06-01

    In order to increase the virus safety of a solvent/detergent-treated Factor VIII concentrate in regard to non-lipid coated viruses and to respond to the continuous discussion about reports on hepatitis A transmission by Factor VIII preparations, we have investigated the effect of a terminal dry heat treatment (30 min 100 degrees C) on HAV and various other viruses. By this treatment Hepatitis A virus was inactivated below detectable level after a few minutes (> 5.3 log10). Other RNA viruses such as the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (> 6.6 log10), bovine viral diarrhoea virus (> 6.6 log10) and vesicular stomatitis virus (> 5.8 log10) were also inactivated below detectable level. Pseudo rabies virus and reovirus Type 3 are inactivated by 5.7 and > 6.0 log10, respectively. SV40 and bovine parvo virus showed significant resistance to dry heat treatment. We conclude that the involvement of two strong virus inactivation steps, acting by different mechanisms, improves the virus safety of Factor VIII concentrates without destroying the Factor VIII activity. Moreover, the terminal 100 degrees C heat treatment for 30 min represents an effective measure to inactivate non-lipid enveloped viruses, in particular hepatitis A, which is resistant to solvent/detergent treatment.

  16. Community-Based Health Education Programs Designed to Improve Clinical Measures Are Unlikely to Reduce Short-Term Costs or Utilization Without Additional Features Targeting These Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Burton, Joe; Eggleston, Barry; Brenner, Jeffrey; Truchil, Aaron; Zulkiewicz, Brittany A; Lewis, Megan A

    2016-06-07

    Stakeholders often expect programs for persons with chronic conditions to "bend the cost curve." This study assessed whether a diabetes self-management education (DSME) program offered as part of a multicomponent initiative could affect emergency department (ED) visits, hospital stays, and the associated costs for an underserved population in addition to the clinical indicators that DSME programs attempt to improve. The program was implemented in Camden, New Jersey, by the Camden Coalition of Healthcare Providers to address disparities in diabetes care. Data used are from medical records and from patient-level information about hospital services from Camden's hospitals. Using multivariate regression models to control for individual characteristics, changes in utilization over time and changes relative to 2 comparison groups were assessed. No reductions in ED visits, inpatient stays, or costs for participants were found over time or relative to the comparison groups. High utilization rates and costs for diabetes are associated with longer term disease progression and its sequelae; thus, DSME or peer support may not affect these in the near term. Some clinical indicators improved among participants, and these might lead to fewer costly adverse health events in the future. DSME deployed at the community level, without explicit segmentation and targeting of high health care utilizers or without components designed to affect costs and utilization, should not be expected to reduce short-term medical needs for participating individuals or care-seeking behaviors such that utilization is reduced. Stakeholders must include financial outcomes in a program's design if those outcomes are to improve. (Population Health Management 20XX;XX:XXX-XXX).

  17. Safety analysis report 231-Z Building

    SciTech Connect

    Powers, C.S.

    1989-03-01

    This report provides an intensive review of the nuclear safety of the operation of the 231-Z Building. For background information complete descriptions of the floor plan, building services, alarm systems, and glove box systems are included in this report. In addition, references are included to The Plutonium Laboratory Radiation Work Procedures, Safety Guides, 231-Z Operating Procedures Manual and Nuclear Materials accountability Procedures. Engineered and administrative features contribute to the overall safety of personnel, the building, and environs. The consequences of credible incidents were considered and are discussed.

  18. Additional security features for optically variable foils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Allan C.; Russo, Frank

    1998-04-01

    For thousands of years, man has exploited the attraction and radiance of pure gold to adorn articles of great significance. Today, designers decorate packaging with metallic gold foils to maintain the prestige of luxury items such as perfumes, chocolates, wine and whisky, and to add visible appeal and value to wide range of products. However, today's products do not call for the hand beaten gold leaf of the Ancient Egyptians, instead a rapid production technology exists which makes use of accurately coated thin polymer films and vacuum deposited metallic layers. Stamping Foils Technology is highly versatile since several different layers may be combined into one product, each providing a different function. Not only can a foil bring visual appeal to an article, it can provide physical and chemical resistance properties and also protect an article from human forms of interference, such as counterfeiting, copying or tampering. Stamping foils have proved to be a highly effective vehicle for applying optical devices to items requiring this type of protection. Credit cards, bank notes, personal identification documents and more recently high value packaged items such as software and perfumes are protected by optically variable devices applied using stamping foil technology.

  19. Animal Drug Safety FAQs

    MedlinePlus

    ... Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Frequently Asked Questions Animal Drug Safety Frequently Asked Questions Share Tweet Linkedin Pin ... issues? Additional Information I gave my dog a drug and he got sick. How do I report ...

  20. Aging and service wear of electric motor-operated valves used in engineered safety-feature systems of nuclear power plants: Aging assessments and monitoring method evaluations

    SciTech Connect

    Haynes, H.D.

    1989-08-01

    Motor-operated valves (MOVs) are located in almost all plant fluid systems. Their failures have resulted in significant plant maintenance efforts. More important, the operational readiness if nuclear plant safety-related systems has often been affected by MOV degradation and failure. Thus, in recent years MOVs have received considerable attention by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the nuclear power industry and were identified as a component for study by the Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) Program. In support of the NPAR Program, a comprehensive Phase II aging assessment on MOVs was performed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and the results of this study are presented in this report. An evaluation of commercially available MOV monitoring methods was carried out, as well as an assessment of other potentially useful techniques. These assessments led to the identification of an effective, nonintrusive, and remote technique, namely, motor current signature analysis (MCSA). The capabilities of monitoring methods (especially MCSA) for detecting changes in operating conditions and MOV degradation were investigated in controlled laboratory tests at ORNL, in situ MOV tests at a neighboring nuclear power plant, and the Gate Valve Flow Interruption Blowdown test in Huntsville, Alabama. 17 refs., 121 figs., 10 tabs.

  1. Campus Fire Safety Today.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Mike

    2001-01-01

    Reviews information on recent college and university dormitory fire fatalities, and highlights five examples of building features reported to be major contributing factors in residence-hall fires. Explains how public awareness and expectations are affecting school dormitory safety. (GR)

  2. [Food additives and healthiness].

    PubMed

    Heinonen, Marina

    2014-01-01

    Additives are used for improving food structure or preventing its spoilage, for example. Many substances used as additives are also naturally present in food. The safety of additives is evaluated according to commonly agreed principles. If high concentrations of an additive cause adverse health effects for humans, a limit of acceptable daily intake (ADI) is set for it. An additive is a risk only when ADI is exceeded. The healthiness of food is measured on the basis of nutrient density and scientifically proven effects.

  3. Escalator design features evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmerman, W. F.; Deshpande, G. K.

    1982-01-01

    Escalators are available with design features such as dual speed (90 and 120 fpm), mat operation and flat steps. These design features were evaluated based on the impact of each on capital and operating costs, traffic flow, and safety. A human factors engineering model was developed to analyze the need for flat steps at various speeds. Mat operation of escalators was found to be cost effective in terms of energy savings. Dual speed operation of escalators with the higher speed used during peak hours allows for efficient operation. A minimum number of flat steps required as a function of escalator speed was developed to ensure safety for the elderly.

  4. TWRS safety program plan

    SciTech Connect

    Calderon, L.M., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-01

    Management of Nuclear Safety, Industrial Safety, Industrial Hygiene, and Fire Protection programs, functions, and field support resources for Tank Waste Remediation Systems (TWRS) has, until recently, been centralized in TWRS Safety, under the Emergency, Safety, and Quality organization. Industrial hygiene technician services were also provided to support operational needs related to safety basis compliance. Due to WHC decentralization of safety and reengineering efforts in West Tank Farms, staffing and safety responsibilities have been transferred to the facilities. Under the new structure, safety personnel for TWRS are assigned directly to East Tank Farms, West Tank Farms, and a core Safety Group in TWRS Engineering. The Characterization Project Operations (CPO) safety organization will remain in tact as it currently exists. Personnel assigned to East Tank Farms, West Tank Farms, and CPO will perform facility-specific or project-specific duties and provide field implementation of programs. Those assigned to the core group will focus on activities having a TWRS-wide or programmatic focus. Hanford-wide activities will be the responsibility of the Safety Center of Expertise. In order to ensure an effective and consistent safety program for TWRS under the new organization program functions, goals, organizational structure, roles, responsibilities, and path forward must be clearly established. The purpose of the TWRS Safety Program Plan is to define the overall safety program, responsibilities, relationships, and communication linkages for safety personnel under the new structure. In addition, issues associated with reorganization transition are addressed, including training, project ownership, records management, and dissemination of equipment. For the purpose of this document ``TWRS Safety`` refers to all safety professionals and technicians (Industrial Safety, Industrial Hygiene, Fire Protection, and Nuclear Safety) within the TWRS organization, regardless of their

  5. The suitability of concentration addition for predicting the effects of multi-component mixtures of up to 17 anti-androgens with varied structural features in an in vitro AR antagonist assay

    SciTech Connect

    Ermler, Sibylle; Scholze, Martin; Kortenkamp, Andreas

    2011-12-15

    The risks associated with human exposures to chemicals capable of antagonising the effects of endogenous androgens have attracted considerable recent interest. Exposure is typically to large numbers of chemicals with androgen receptor (AR) antagonist activity, yet there is limited evidence of the combined effects of multi-component mixtures of these chemicals. A few in vitro studies with mixtures of up to six AR antagonists suggest that the concept of concentration addition (CA) provides good approximations of experimentally observed mixture effects, but studies with larger numbers of anti-androgens, and with more varied structural features, are missing. Here we show that the mixture effects of up to 17 AR antagonists, comprising compounds as diverse as UV-filter substances, parabens, perfluorinated compounds, bisphenol-A, benzo({alpha})pyrene, synthetic musks, antioxidants and polybrominated biphenyls, can be predicted well on the basis of the anti-androgenicity of the single components using the concept of CA. We tested these mixtures in an in vitro AR-dependent luciferase reporter gene assay, based on MDA-kb2 cells. The effects of further mixtures, composed of four and six anti-androgens, could be predicted accurately by CA. However, there was a shortfall from expected additivity with a ten-component mixture at two different mixture ratios, but attempts to attribute these deviations to differential expression of hormone-metabolising CYP isoforms did not produce conclusive results. CA provides good approximations of in vitro mixture effects of anti-androgens with varying structural features. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Humans are exposed to a large number of androgen receptor antagonists. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer There is limited evidence of the combined effects of anti-androgenic chemicals. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We modelled the predictability of combined effects of up to 17 anti-androgens. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We tested the

  6. 16 CFR 1102.16 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... PUBLICLY AVAILABLE CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY INFORMATION DATABASE Content Requirements § 1102.16 Additional... in the Database any additional information it determines to be in the public interest,...

  7. 16 CFR 1102.16 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... PUBLICLY AVAILABLE CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY INFORMATION DATABASE Content Requirements § 1102.16 Additional... in the Database any additional information it determines to be in the public interest,...

  8. 16 CFR 1102.16 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... PUBLICLY AVAILABLE CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY INFORMATION DATABASE Content Requirements § 1102.16 Additional... in the Database any additional information it determines to be in the public interest,...

  9. Biobased lubricant additives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fully biobased lubricants are those formulated using all biobased ingredients, i.e. biobased base oils and biobased additives. Such formulations provide the maximum environmental, safety, and economic benefits expected from a biobased product. Currently, there are a number of biobased base oils that...

  10. Farm Safety

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, G. S.

    1966-01-01

    Accident and safety are related terms; the higher the accident rate in any industry, the greater is the need for safety measures designed to prevent accidents. This article discusses the accident and safety problems in agriculture, which includes horticulture and forestry. There is still a tendency among townspeople to think of the countryside as peaceful and tranquil, a place where nothing happens very quickly and far removed from violent death or crippling injury. This pleasant rustic picture has undergone a striking change in the last 30 years owing to considerable agricultural mechanization and the development of chemical pesticides, which have brought new dangers to those who live and work on the land. Although men have readily adapted themselves to new machines and methods, they have not proved as able to recognize new dangers and learn how to guard against them. In consequence, accidents have increased to such an extent that the whole industry has realized the need for positive preventive measures. In this country, it is generally accepted that an employer of labour has a responsibility to provide safe working conditions for those he employs. Farm safety legislation goes a little further and usually requires an employer to provide necessary safeguards, with the added requirement on a worker to make use of them. It is a feature of accident prevention work that it never reaches a stage when it can be regarded as complete. Even when a reduction in accidents has been achieved, the effort must be sustained or the trend will be quickly reversed. Images PMID:5904095

  11. A Radiation Safety Analysis for Lunar Lava Tubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeAngelis, G.; Wilson, J. W.; Clowdsley, M. S.; Nealy, J. E.; Humes, D. H.; Clem, J. M.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this work is an assessment of the lunar lava tubes physical characteristics and an evaluation of the their actual safety features from the point of view of the ionizing radiation environment as potential habitats for future lunar exploration crews. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  12. Food additives

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Michael

    1974-01-01

    Food additives are discussed from the food technology point of view. The reasons for their use are summarized: (1) to protect food from chemical and microbiological attack; (2) to even out seasonal supplies; (3) to improve their eating quality; (4) to improve their nutritional value. The various types of food additives are considered, e.g. colours, flavours, emulsifiers, bread and flour additives, preservatives, and nutritional additives. The paper concludes with consideration of those circumstances in which the use of additives is (a) justified and (b) unjustified. PMID:4467857

  13. CRITICALITY SAFETY CONTROLS AND THE SAFETY BASIS AT PFP

    SciTech Connect

    Kessler, S

    2009-04-21

    With the implementation of DOE Order 420.1B, Facility Safety, and DOE-STD-3007-2007, 'Guidelines for Preparing Criticality Safety Evaluations at Department of Energy Non-Reactor Nuclear Facilities', a new requirement was imposed that all criticality safety controls be evaluated for inclusion in the facility Documented Safety Analysis (DSA) and that the evaluation process be documented in the site Criticality Safety Program Description Document (CSPDD). At the Hanford site in Washington State the CSPDD, HNF-31695, 'General Description of the FH Criticality Safety Program', requires each facility develop a linking document called a Criticality Control Review (CCR) to document performance of these evaluations. Chapter 5, Appendix 5B of HNF-7098, Criticality Safety Program, provided an example of a format for a CCR that could be used in lieu of each facility developing its own CCR. Since the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) is presently undergoing Deactivation and Decommissioning (D&D), new procedures are being developed for cleanout of equipment and systems that have not been operated in years. Existing Criticality Safety Evaluations (CSE) are revised, or new ones written, to develop the controls required to support D&D activities. Other Hanford facilities, including PFP, had difficulty using the basic CCR out of HNF-7098 when first implemented. Interpretation of the new guidelines indicated that many of the controls needed to be elevated to TSR level controls. Criterion 2 of the standard, requiring that the consequence of a criticality be examined for establishing the classification of a control, was not addressed. Upon in-depth review by PFP Criticality Safety staff, it was not clear that the programmatic interpretation of criterion 8C could be applied at PFP. Therefore, the PFP Criticality Safety staff decided to write their own CCR. The PFP CCR provides additional guidance for the evaluation team to use by clarifying the evaluation criteria in DOE-STD-3007-2007. In

  14. Clustering granulometric features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brun, Marcel; Balagurunathan, Yoganand; Barrera, Junior; Dougherty, Edward R.

    2002-05-01

    Granulometric features have been widely used for classification, segmentation and recently in estimation of parameters in shape models. In this paper we study the inference of clustering based on granulometric features for a collection of structuring probes in the context of random models. We use random Boolean models to represent grains of different shapes and structure. It is known that granulometric features are excellent descriptors of shape and structure of grains. Inference based on clustering these features helps to analyze the consistency of these features and clustering algorithms. This greatly aids in classifier design and feature selection. Features and the order of their addition play a role in reducing the inference errors. We study four different types of feature addition methods and the effect of replication in reducing the inference errors.

  15. Pre-flight safety briefings, mood and information retention.

    PubMed

    Tehrani, Morteza; Molesworth, Brett R C

    2015-11-01

    Mood is a moderating factor that is known to affect performance. For airlines, the delivery of the pre-flight safety briefing prior to a commercial flight is not only an opportunity to inform passengers about the safety features on-board the aircraft they are flying, but an opportunity to positively influence their mood, and hence performance in the unlikely event of an emergency. The present research examined whether indeed the pre-flight safety briefing could be used to positively impact passengers' mood. In addition, the present research examined whether the recall of key safety messages contained within the pre-flight safety briefing was influenced by the style of briefing. Eighty-two participants were recruited for the research and divided into three groups; each group exposed to a different pre-flight cabin safety briefing video (standard, humorous, movie theme). Mood was measured prior and post safety briefing. The results revealed that pre-flight safety briefing videos can be used to manipulate passengers' mood. Safety briefings that are humorous or use movie themes to model their briefing were found to positively affect mood. However, there was a trade-off between entertainment and education, the greater the entertainment value, the poorer the retention of key safety messages. The results of the research are discussed from both an applied and theoretical perspective.

  16. Ferrocyanide Safety Program: Safety criteria for ferrocyanide watch list tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Postma, A.K.; Meacham, J.E.; Barney, G.S.

    1994-01-01

    This report provides a technical basis for closing the ferrocyanide Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) at the Hanford Site. Three work efforts were performed in developing this technical basis. The efforts described herein are: 1. The formulation of criteria for ranking the relative safety of waste in each ferrocyanide tank. 2. The current classification of tanks into safety categories by comparing available information on tank contents with the safety criteria; 3. The identification of additional information required to resolve the ferrocyanide safety issue.

  17. Patient Safety: Ten Things You Can Do to Be a Safe Patient

    MedlinePlus

    ... Emergency Preparedness & Response Environmental Health Healthy Living Injury, Violence & Safety Life Stages & Populations Travelers' Health Workplace Safety & Health Features Media Sign up for Features Get Email Updates To ...

  18. Drug Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... over-the-counter drug. The FDA evaluates the safety of a drug by looking at Side effects ... clinical trials The FDA also monitors a drug's safety after approval. For you, drug safety means buying ...

  19. Vaccine Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... FAQs about Vaccine Safety Research Publications HDM Reports ISO Scientific Agenda Ensuring Safety History Understanding Side Effects ... Datalink Publications Emergency Preparedness Vaccine Safety Partners About ISO File Formats Help: How do I view different ...

  20. Food additives

    MedlinePlus

    ... or natural. Natural food additives include: Herbs or spices to add flavor to foods Vinegar for pickling ... Certain colors improve the appearance of foods. Many spices, as well as natural and man-made flavors, ...

  1. School Safety and Security.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.

    This document offers additional guidelines for school facilities in California in the areas of safety and security, lighting, and cleanliness. It also offers a description of technology resources available on the World Wide Web. On the topic of safety and security, the document offers guidelines in the areas of entrances, doors, and controlled…

  2. Radiological Safety Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Army Ordnance Center and School, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD.

    Written to be used concurrently with the U.S. Army's Radiological Safety Course, this publication discusses the causes, sources, and detection of nuclear radiation. In addition, the transportation and disposal of radioactive materials are covered. The report also deals with the safety precautions to be observed when working with lasers, microwave…

  3. Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The results of the Panel's activities are presented in a set of findings and recommendations. Highlighted here are both improvements in NASA's safety and reliability activities and specific areas where additional gains might be realized. One area of particular concern involves the curtailment or elimination of Space Shuttle safety and reliability enhancements. Several findings and recommendations address this area of concern, reflecting the opinion that safety and reliability enhancements are essential to the continued successful operation of the Space Shuttle. It is recommended that a comprehensive and continuing program of safety and reliability improvements in all areas of Space Shuttle hardware/software be considered an inherent component of ongoing Space Shuttle operations.

  4. Recent innovations in IFR safety research

    SciTech Connect

    Wade, D.C.

    1994-03-01

    Recent progress in IFR safety research suggests potential for two extensions of passive features to improve the robustness of safety response. This report provides a discussion of these recent innovations.

  5. Potlining Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolf Keller

    2004-08-10

    In this project, a concept to improve the performance of aluminum production cells by introducing potlining additives was examined and tested. Boron oxide was added to cathode blocks, and titanium was dissolved in the metal pool; this resulted in the formation of titanium diboride and caused the molten aluminum to wet the carbonaceous cathode surface. Such wetting reportedly leads to operational improvements and extended cell life. In addition, boron oxide suppresses cyanide formation. This final report presents and discusses the results of this project. Substantial economic benefits for the practical implementation of the technology are projected, especially for modern cells with graphitized blocks. For example, with an energy savings of about 5% and an increase in pot life from 1500 to 2500 days, a cost savings of $ 0.023 per pound of aluminum produced is projected for a 200 kA pot.

  6. Phosphazene additives

    DOEpatents

    Harrup, Mason K; Rollins, Harry W

    2013-11-26

    An additive comprising a phosphazene compound that has at least two reactive functional groups and at least one capping functional group bonded to phosphorus atoms of the phosphazene compound. One of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with cellulose and the other of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with a resin, such as an amine resin of a polycarboxylic acid resin. The at least one capping functional group is selected from the group consisting of a short chain ether group, an alkoxy group, or an aryloxy group. Also disclosed are an additive-resin admixture, a method of treating a wood product, and a wood product.

  7. How important is vehicle safety in the new vehicle purchase process?

    PubMed

    Koppel, Sjaanie; Charlton, Judith; Fildes, Brian; Fitzharris, Michael

    2008-05-01

    Whilst there has been a significant increase in the amount of consumer interest in the safety performance of privately owned vehicles, the role that it plays in consumers' purchase decisions is poorly understood. The aims of the current study were to determine: how important vehicle safety is in the new vehicle purchase process; what importance consumers place on safety options/features relative to other convenience and comfort features, and how consumers conceptualise vehicle safety. In addition, the study aimed to investigate the key parameters associated with ranking 'vehicle safety' as the most important consideration in the new vehicle purchase. Participants recruited in Sweden and Spain completed a questionnaire about their new vehicle purchase. The findings from the questionnaire indicated that participants ranked safety-related factors (e.g., EuroNCAP (or other) safety ratings) as more important in the new vehicle purchase process than other vehicle factors (e.g., price, reliability etc.). Similarly, participants ranked safety-related features (e.g., advanced braking systems, front passenger airbags etc.) as more important than non-safety-related features (e.g., route navigation systems, air-conditioning etc.). Consistent with previous research, most participants equated vehicle safety with the presence of specific vehicle safety features or technologies rather than vehicle crash safety/test results or crashworthiness. The key parameters associated with ranking 'vehicle safety' as the most important consideration in the new vehicle purchase were: use of EuroNCAP, gender and education level, age, drivers' concern about crash involvement, first vehicle purchase, annual driving distance, person for whom the vehicle was purchased, and traffic infringement history. The findings from this study are important for policy makers, manufacturers and other stakeholders to assist in setting priorities with regard to the promotion and publicity of vehicle safety features

  8. AQUATOX Features and Tools

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Numerous features have been included to facilitate the modeling process, from model setup and data input, presentation and analysis of results, to easy export of results to spreadsheet programs for additional analysis.

  9. FLUOR HANFORD SAFETY MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS

    SciTech Connect

    GARVIN, L. J.; JENSEN, M. A.

    2004-04-13

    This document summarizes safety management programs used within the scope of the ''Project Hanford Management Contract''. The document has been developed to meet the format and content requirements of DOE-STD-3009-94, ''Preparation Guide for US. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Documented Safety Analyses''. This document provides summary descriptions of Fluor Hanford safety management programs, which Fluor Hanford nuclear facilities may reference and incorporate into their safety basis when producing facility- or activity-specific documented safety analyses (DSA). Facility- or activity-specific DSAs will identify any variances to the safety management programs described in this document and any specific attributes of these safety management programs that are important for controlling potentially hazardous conditions. In addition, facility- or activity-specific DSAs may identify unique additions to the safety management programs that are needed to control potentially hazardous conditions.

  10. Auto Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... kids by following simple safety measures and by teaching some basic rules. Importance of Child Safety Seats ... your child correctly — a small child in a large seat may not be the best option. Models ...

  11. Water Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Water Safety KidsHealth > For Parents > Water Safety A A ... best measure of protection. previous continue Making Kids Water Wise It's important to teach your kids proper ...

  12. Water Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Water Safety KidsHealth > For Teens > Water Safety A A ... tied to alcohol use. previous continue At the Water Park OK, so you do more splashing than ...

  13. Food Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... the safety of fish caught in your local lakes, rivers, and coastal areas. Advisories may recommend that ... Charts Picky Eating Physical Activity Food Safety Resources Kids Students Adults Families Professionals Multiple Languages MyPlate, MyWins ...

  14. Water Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Water Safety KidsHealth > For Parents > Water Safety Print A ... best measure of protection. previous continue Making Kids Water Wise It's important to teach your kids proper ...

  15. Water Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Water Safety KidsHealth > For Teens > Water Safety Print A ... tied to alcohol use. previous continue At the Water Park OK, so you do more splashing than ...

  16. Maintaining plant safety margins

    SciTech Connect

    Bergeron, P.A.

    1989-01-01

    The Final Safety Analysis Report Forms the basis of demonstrating that the plant can operate safely and meet all applicable acceptance criteria. In order to assure that this continues through each operating cycle, the safety analysis is reexamined for each reload core. Operating limits are set for each reload core to assure that safety limits and applicable acceptance criteria are not exceeded for postulated events within the design basis. These operating limits form the basis for plant operation, providing barriers on various measurable parameters. The barriers are refereed to as limiting conditions for operation (LCO). The operating limits, being influenced by many factors, can change significantly from cycle to cycle. In order to be successful in demonstrating safe operation for each reload core (with adequate operating margin), it is necessary to continue to focus on ways to maintain/improve existing safety margins. Existing safety margins are a function of the plant type (boiling water reactor/pressurized water reactor (BWR/PWR)), nuclear system supply (NSSS) vendor, operating license date, core design features, plant design features, licensing history, and analytical methods used in the safety analysis. This paper summarizes the experience at Yankee Atomic Electric Company (YAEC) in its efforts to provide adequate operating margin for the plants that it supports.

  17. Functional safety for the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulau, Scott; Williams, Timothy R.

    2012-09-01

    Since inception, the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST) has planned to implement a facility-wide functional safety system to protect personnel from harm and prevent damage to the facility or environment. The ATST will deploy an integrated safety-related control system (SRCS) to achieve functional safety throughout the facility rather than relying on individual facility subsystems to provide safety functions on an ad hoc basis. The Global Interlock System (GIS) is an independent, distributed, facility-wide, safety-related control system, comprised of commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) programmable controllers that monitor, evaluate, and control hazardous energy and conditions throughout the facility that arise during operation and maintenance. The GIS has been designed to utilize recent advances in technology for functional safety plus revised national and international standards that allow for a distributed architecture using programmable controllers over a local area network instead of traditional hard-wired safety functions, while providing an equivalent or even greater level of safety. Programmable controllers provide an ideal platform for controlling the often complex interrelationships between subsystems in a modern astronomical facility, such as the ATST. A large, complex hard-wired relay control system is no longer needed. This type of system also offers greater flexibility during development and integration in addition to providing for expanded capability into the future. The GIS features fault detection, self-diagnostics, and redundant communications that will lead to decreased maintenance time and increased availability of the facility.

  18. Airline Safety and Economy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    This video documents efforts at NASA Langley Research Center to improve safety and economy in aircraft. Featured are the cockpit weather information needs computer system, which relays real time weather information to the pilot, and efforts to improve techniques to detect structural flaws and corrosion, such as the thermal bond inspection system.

  19. Safety Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery County Public Schools, Rockville, MD.

    Safety policies, procedures, and related information are presented in this manual to assist school personnel in a continuing program of accident prevention. Chapter 1 discusses safety education and accident prevention in general. Chapter 2 covers traffic regulations relating to school safety patrols, school bus transportation, bicycles, and…

  20. NASA's Software Safety Standard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramsay, Christopher M.

    2005-01-01

    NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) relies more and more on software to control, monitor, and verify its safety critical systems, facilities and operations. Since the 1960's there has hardly been a spacecraft (manned or unmanned) launched that did not have a computer on board that provided vital command and control services. Despite this growing dependence on software control and monitoring, there has been no consistent application of software safety practices and methodology to NASA's projects with safety critical software. Led by the NASA Headquarters Office of Safety and Mission Assurance, the NASA Software Safety Standard (STD-18l9.13B) has recently undergone a significant update in an attempt to provide that consistency. This paper will discuss the key features of the new NASA Software Safety Standard. It will start with a brief history of the use and development of software in safety critical applications at NASA. It will then give a brief overview of the NASA Software Working Group and the approach it took to revise the software engineering process across the Agency.

  1. Integrating Safety Assessment Methods using the Risk Informed Safety Margins Characterization (RISMC) Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis Smith; Diego Mandelli

    2013-03-01

    Safety is central to the design, licensing, operation, and economics of nuclear power plants (NPPs). As the current light water reactor (LWR) NPPs age beyond 60 years, there are possibilities for increased frequency of systems, structures, and components (SSC) degradations or failures that initiate safety significant events, reduce existing accident mitigation capabilities, or create new failure modes. Plant designers commonly “over-design” portions of NPPs and provide robustness in the form of redundant and diverse engineered safety features to ensure that, even in the case of well-beyond design basis scenarios, public health and safety will be protected with a very high degree of assurance. This form of defense-in-depth is a reasoned response to uncertainties and is often referred to generically as “safety margin.” Historically, specific safety margin provisions have been formulated primarily based on engineering judgment backed by a set of conservative engineering calculations. The ability to better characterize and quantify safety margin is important to improved decision making about LWR design, operation, and plant life extension. A systematic approach to characterization of safety margins and the subsequent margin management options represents a vital input to the licensee and regulatory analysis and decision making that will be involved. In addition, as research and development (R&D) in the LWR Sustainability (LWRS) Program and other collaborative efforts yield new data, sensors, and improved scientific understanding of physical processes that govern the aging and degradation of plant SSCs needs and opportunities to better optimize plant safety and performance will become known. To support decision making related to economics, readability, and safety, the RISMC Pathway provides methods and tools that enable mitigation options known as margins management strategies. The purpose of the RISMC Pathway R&D is to support plant decisions for risk

  2. New Design Feature in Virginia's Public Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillespie, Monica McTeague

    A study of new design features for public schools was conducted to determine what specific design features were being implemented in Virginia's schools. This report summarizes the major trends in facility design that were discovered in the following areas: safety and security features; classroom space; technology areas; administrative spaces;…

  3. Medication safety.

    PubMed

    Keohane, Carol A; Bates, David W

    2008-03-01

    Patient safety is a state of mind, not a technology. The technologies used in the medical setting represent tools that must be properly designed, used well, and assessed on an on-going basis. Moreover, in all settings, building a culture of safety is pivotal for improving safety, and many nontechnologic approaches, such as medication reconciliation and teaching patients about their medications, are also essential. This article addresses the topic of medication safety and examines specific strategies being used to decrease the incidence of medication errors across various clinical settings.

  4. Safety assessment of the liquid-fed ceramic melter process

    SciTech Connect

    Buelt, J.L.; Partain, W.L.

    1980-08-01

    As part of its development program for the solidification of high-level nuclear waste, Pacific Northwest Laboratory assessed the safety issues for a complete liquid-fed ceramic melter (LFCM) process. The LFCM process, an adaption of commercial glass-making technology, is being developed to convert high-level liquid waste from the nuclear fuel cycle into glass. This safety assessment uncovered no unresolved or significant safety problems with the LFCM process. Although in this assessment the LFCM process was not directly compared with other solidification processes, the safety hazards of the LFCM process are comparable to those of other processes. The high processing temperatures of the glass in the LFCM pose no additional significant safety concerns, and the dispersible inventory of dried waste (calcine) is small. This safety assessment was based on the nuclear power waste flowsheet, since power waste is more radioactive than defense waste at the time of solidification, and all accident conditions for the power waste would have greater radiological consequences than those for defense waste. An exhaustive list of possible off-standard conditions and equipment failures was compiled. These accidents were then classified according to severity of consequence and type of accident. Radionuclide releases to the stack were calculated for each group of accidents using conservative assumptions regarding the retention and decontamination features of the process and facility. Two recommendations that should be considered by process designers are given in the safety assessment.

  5. Occupant safety in the Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulze, N. R.; Prichard, R. P.

    1978-01-01

    The nature of Space Shuttle missions, i.e., the inclusion of non-pilot payload specialists in addition to military test pilots, necessitates a greater attention to built in safety features than on previous spacecraft. Basic systems such as fire protection, anti-depressurization, toxicity control, and protection from radiation are handled in a manner similar to that of past missions, but some important deviations are noted, most importantly those pertaining to the provisions for on-orbit rescue. A Personnel Rescue System (PRS) is outlined, describing EVA operations whereby the pilots are able to don pressure suits and the crew can be transferred to another vehicle in balloon-like enclosures, which provide one hour's worth of life support and protection from the space environment. Also mentioned are provisions for the quick abort and reentry of the Shuttle Orbiter, as well as passive safety provisions for the Spacelab module.

  6. Influence of the addition of Lactobacillus acidophilus La-05, Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Bb-12 and inulin on the technological, physicochemical, microbiological and sensory features of creamy goat cheese.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Ilsa C; Oliveira, Maria E G; Madruga, Marta S; Gullón, Beatriz; Pacheco, Maria T B; Gomes, Ana M P; Batista, Ana S M; Pintado, Maria M E; Souza, Evandro L; Queiroga, Rita C R E

    2016-10-12

    The effects of the addition of Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-05, Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB-12 and inulin on the quality characteristics of creamy goat cheese during refrigerated storage were evaluated. The manufactured cheeses included the addition of starter culture (Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis and Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris - R-704) (CC); starter culture, L. acidophilus LA-05 and inulin (CLA); starter culture, B. lactis BB-12 and inulin (CBB); or starter culture, L. acidophilus LA-05, B. lactis BB-12 and inulin (CLB). In the synbiotic cheeses (CLA, CBB and CLB), the counts of L. acidophilus LA-05 and B. lactis BB-12 were greater than 6log CFU g(-1), the amount of inulin was greater than 6 g per 100 g, and the firmness was reduced. The cheeses evaluated had high brightness values (L*), with a predominance of yellow (b*). CC had higher contents of proteins, lipids and minerals compared to the other cheeses. There was a decrease in the amount of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and an increase of medium-chain (MCFAs) and long-chain fatty acids (LCFAs) in the synbiotic cheeses compared to CC. The amount of conjugated linoleic acid increased in CLA, CBB and CLB. The highest depth of proteolysis and the greatest changes in the release of free amino acids were found in CLB. The addition of inulin and probiotics, alone or in co-culture, did not affect the cheese acceptance. Inulin and probiotics can be used together for the production of creamy goat cheese without negatively affecting the general quality characteristics of the product, and to add value because of its synbiotic potential.

  7. JCE Feature Columns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, Jon L.

    1999-05-01

    The Features area of JCE Online is now readily accessible through a single click from our home page. In the Features area each column is linked to its own home page. These column home pages also have links to them from the online Journal Table of Contents pages or from any article published as part of that feature column. Using these links you can easily find abstracts of additional articles that are related by topic. Of course, JCE Online+ subscribers are then just one click away from the entire article. Finding related articles is easy because each feature column "site" contains links to the online abstracts of all the articles that have appeared in the column. In addition, you can find the mission statement for the column and the email link to the column editor that I mentioned above. At the discretion of its editor, a feature column site may contain additional resources. As an example, the Chemical Information Instructor column edited by Arleen Somerville will have a periodically updated bibliography of resources for teaching and using chemical information. Due to the increase in the number of these resources available on the WWW, it only makes sense to publish this information online so that you can get to these resources with a simple click of the mouse. We expect that there will soon be additional information and resources at several other feature column sites. Following in the footsteps of the Chemical Information Instructor, up-to-date bibliographies and links to related online resources can be made available. We hope to extend the online component of our feature columns with moderated online discussion forums. If you have a suggestion for an online resource you would like to see included, let the feature editor or JCE Online (jceonline@chem.wisc.edu) know about it. JCE Internet Features JCE Internet also has several feature columns: Chemical Education Resource Shelf, Conceptual Questions and Challenge Problems, Equipment Buyers Guide, Hal's Picks, Mathcad

  8. Laser Safety Inspection Criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Barat, K

    2005-02-11

    A responsibility of the Laser Safety Officer (LSO) is to perform laser safety audits. The American National Standard Z136.1 Safe use of Lasers references this requirement in several sections: (1) Section 1.3.2 LSO Specific Responsibilities states under Hazard Evaluation, ''The LSO shall be responsible for hazards evaluation of laser work areas''; (2) Section 1.3.2.8, Safety Features Audits, ''The LSO shall ensure that the safety features of the laser installation facilities and laser equipment are audited periodically to assure proper operation''; and (3) Appendix D, under Survey and Inspections, it states, ''the LSO will survey by inspection, as considered necessary, all areas where laser equipment is used''. Therefore, for facilities using Class 3B and or Class 4 lasers, audits for laser safety compliance are expected to be conducted. The composition, frequency and rigueur of that inspection/audit rests in the hands of the LSO. A common practice for institutions is to develop laser audit checklists or survey forms. In many institutions, a sole Laser Safety Officer (LSO) or a number of Deputy LSO's perform these audits. For that matter, there are institutions that request users to perform a self-assessment audit. Many items on the common audit list and the associated findings are subjective because they are based on the experience and interest of the LSO or auditor in particular items on the checklist. Beam block usage is an example; to one set of eyes a particular arrangement might be completely adequate, while to another the installation may be inadequate. In order to provide more consistency, the National Ignition Facility Directorate at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (NIF-LLNL) has established criteria for a number of items found on the typical laser safety audit form. These criteria are distributed to laser users, and they serve two broad purposes: first, it gives the user an expectation of what will be reviewed by an auditor, and second, it is an

  9. Solidifying Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Covault, Craig

    2003-01-01

    Contents include the following: 1. Solidifying Safety: NASA s new safety organization spools up, as the 1SS program grapples with long-term risk. 2. Earth to Orbit O'Keefe telling skeptical lawmakers Orbital Space Plan (OSP) will cover exploration vision. China's rapid pace.

  10. Safety Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halligan, Tom

    2009-01-01

    Colleges across the country are rising to the task by implementing safety programs, response strategies, and technologies intended to create a secure environment for teachers and students. Whether it is preparing and responding to a natural disaster, health emergency, or act of violence, more schools are making campus safety a top priority. At…

  11. Lab Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Sandra S.

    1991-01-01

    In response to the Texas Hazardous Communication Act (THCA) of 1986 which raised many new health and liability issues regarding students in science laboratories, a laboratory safety survey was generated for use in evaluating laboratory safety. This article contains the easy-to-use survey. (ZWH)

  12. Safety First

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taft, Darryl

    2011-01-01

    Ned Miller does not take security lightly. As director of campus safety and emergency management at the Des Moines Area Community College (DMACC), any threat requires serious consideration. As community college administrators adopt a more proactive approach to campus safety, many institutions are experimenting with emerging technologies, including…

  13. Nozzle Extension for Safety Air Gun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zumbrun, H. N.; Croom, Delwin R., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    New nozzle-extension design overcomes problems and incorporates original commercial nozzle, retaining intrinsic safety features. Components include extension tube, length of which made to suit application; adaptor fitting, and nozzle adaptor repinned to maintain original safety features. Design moves conical airstream to end of extension to blow machine chips away from operator. Nozzle-extension modification allows safe and efficient operation of machine tools while maintaining integrity of orginial safety-air-gun design.

  14. Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1993-03-01

    The Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel (ASAP) provided oversight on the safety aspects of many NASA programs. In addition, ASAP undertook three special studies. At the request of the Administrator, the panel assessed the requirements for an assured crew return vehicle (ACRV) for the space station and reviewed the organization of the safety and mission quality function within NASA. At the behest of Congress, the panel formed an independent, ad hoc working group to examine the safety and reliability of the space shuttle main engine. Section 2 presents findings and recommendations. Section 3 consists of information in support of these findings and recommendations. Appendices A, B, C, and D, respectively, cover the panel membership, the NASA response to the findings and recommendations in the March 1992 report, a chronology of the panel's activities during the reporting period, and the entire ACRV study report.

  15. Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel (ASAP) provided oversight on the safety aspects of many NASA programs. In addition, ASAP undertook three special studies. At the request of the Administrator, the panel assessed the requirements for an assured crew return vehicle (ACRV) for the space station and reviewed the organization of the safety and mission quality function within NASA. At the behest of Congress, the panel formed an independent, ad hoc working group to examine the safety and reliability of the space shuttle main engine. Section 2 presents findings and recommendations. Section 3 consists of information in support of these findings and recommendations. Appendices A, B, C, and D, respectively, cover the panel membership, the NASA response to the findings and recommendations in the March 1992 report, a chronology of the panel's activities during the reporting period, and the entire ACRV study report.

  16. Safety of magnetic fusion facilities: Requirements

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    This Standard identifies safety requirements for magnetic fusion facilities. Safety functions are used to define outcomes that must be achieved to ensure that exposures to radiation, hazardous materials, or other hazards are maintained within acceptable limits. Requirements applicable to magnetic fusion facilities have been derived from Federal law, policy, and other documents. In addition to specific safety requirements, broad direction is given in the form of safety principles that are to be implemented and within which safety can be achieved.

  17. Make safety awareness a priority: Use a login software in your research facility

    DOE PAGES

    Camino, Fernando E.

    2017-01-21

    We report on a facility login software, whose objective is to improve safety in multi-user research facilities. Its most important safety features are: 1) blocks users from entering the lab after being absent for more than a predetermined number of days; 2) gives users a random safety quiz question, which they need to answer satisfactorily in order to use the facility; 3) blocks unauthorized users from using the facility afterhours; and 4) displays the current users in the facility. Besides restricting access to unauthorized users, the software keeps users mindful of key safety concepts. In addition, integration of the softwaremore » with a door controller system can convert it into an effective physical safety mechanism. Depending on DOE approval, the code may be available as open source.« less

  18. Food safety.

    PubMed

    Borchers, Andrea; Teuber, Suzanne S; Keen, Carl L; Gershwin, M Eric

    2010-10-01

    Food can never be entirely safe. Food safety is threatened by numerous pathogens that cause a variety of foodborne diseases, algal toxins that cause mostly acute disease, and fungal toxins that may be acutely toxic but may also have chronic sequelae, such as teratogenic, immunotoxic, nephrotoxic, and estrogenic effects. Perhaps more worrisome, the industrial activities of the last century and more have resulted in massive increases in our exposure to toxic metals such as lead, cadmium, mercury, and arsenic, which now are present in the entire food chain and exhibit various toxicities. Industrial processes also released chemicals that, although banned a long time ago, persist in the environment and contaminate our food. These include organochlorine compounds, such as 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethene) (DDT), other pesticides, dioxins, and dioxin-like compounds. DDT and its breakdown product dichlorophenyl dichloroethylene affect the developing male and female reproductive organs. In addition, there is increasing evidence that they exhibit neurodevelopmental toxicities in human infants and children. They share this characteristic with the dioxins and dioxin-like compounds. Other food contaminants can arise from the treatment of animals with veterinary drugs or the spraying of food crops, which may leave residues. Among the pesticides applied to food crops, the organophosphates have been the focus of much regulatory attention because there is growing evidence that they, too, affect the developing brain. Numerous chemical contaminants are formed during the processing and cooking of foods. Many of them are known or suspected carcinogens. Other food contaminants leach from the packaging or storage containers. Examples that have garnered increasing attention in recent years are phthalates, which have been shown to induce malformations in the male reproductive system in laboratory animals, and bisphenol A, which negatively

  19. Software safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leveson, Nancy

    1987-01-01

    Software safety and its relationship to other qualities are discussed. It is shown that standard reliability and fault tolerance techniques will not solve the safety problem for the present. A new attitude requires: looking at what you do NOT want software to do along with what you want it to do; and assuming things will go wrong. New procedures and changes to entire software development process are necessary: special software safety analysis techniques are needed; and design techniques, especially eliminating complexity, can be very helpful.

  20. General features

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, R.E.

    1990-01-01

    The San Andreas fault system, a complex of faults that display predominantly large-scale strike slip, is part of an even more complex system of faults, isolated segments of the East Pacific Rise, and scraps of plates lying east of the East Pacific Rise that collectively separate the North American plate from the Pacific plate. This chapter briefly describes the San Andreas fault system, its setting along the Pacific Ocean margin of North America, its extent, and the patterns of faulting. Only selected characteristics are described, and many features are left for depictions on maps and figures.

  1. Sun Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... Links Buttons and Badges Stay Informed Cancer Home Sun Safety Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir The sun’s ultraviolet (UV) rays can damage your skin in ...

  2. NASA's Software Safety Standard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramsay, Christopher M.

    2007-01-01

    requirements. This allows the projects leeway to meet these requirements in many forms that best suit a particular project's needs and safety risk. In other words, it tells the project what to do, not how to do it. This update also incorporated advances in the state of the practice of software safety from academia and private industry. It addresses some of the more common issues now facing software developers in the NASA environment such as the use of Commercial-Off-the-Shelf Software (COTS), Modified OTS (MOTS), Government OTS (GOTS), and reused software. A team from across NASA developed the update and it has had both NASA-wide internal reviews by software engineering, quality, safety, and project management. It has also had expert external review. This presentation and paper will discuss the new NASA Software Safety Standard, its organization, and key features. It will start with a brief discussion of some NASA mission failures and incidents that had software as one of their root causes. It will then give a brief overview of the NASA Software Safety Process. This will include an overview of the key personnel responsibilities and functions that must be performed for safety-critical software.

  3. Current challenges and opportunities in nonclinical safety testing of biologics.

    PubMed

    Kronenberg, Sven; Baumann, Andreas; de Haan, Lolke; Hinton, Heather J; Moggs, Jonathan; Theil, Frank-Peter; Wakefield, Ian; Singer, Thomas

    2013-12-01

    Nonclinical safety testing of new biotherapeutic entities represents its own challenges and opportunities in drug development. Hot topics in this field have been discussed recently at the 2nd Annual BioSafe European General Membership Meeting. In this feature article, discussions on the challenges surrounding the use of PEGylated therapeutic proteins, selection of cynomolgus monkey as preclinical species, unexpected pharmacokinetics of biologics and the safety implications thereof are summarized. In addition, new developments in immunosafety testing of biologics, the use of transgenic mouse models and PK and safety implications of multispecific targeting approaches are discussed. Overall, the increasing complexity of new biologic modalities and formats warrants tailor-made nonclinical development strategies and experimental testing.

  4. Criticality safety enhancements for SCALE 6.2 and beyond

    SciTech Connect

    Rearden, Bradley T.; Bekar, Kursat B.; Celik, Cihangir; Clarno, Kevin T.; Dunn, Michael E.; Hart, Shane W.; Ibrahim, Ahmad M.; Johnson, Seth R.; Langley, Brandon R.; Lefebvre, Jordan P.; Lefebvre, Robert A.; Marshall, William J.; Mertyurek, Ugur; Mueller, Don; Peplow, Douglas E.; Perfetti, Christopher M.; Petrie Jr, Lester M.; Thompson, Adam B.; Wiarda, Dorothea; Wieselquist, William A.; Williams, Mark L.

    2015-09-01

    SCALE is a widely used suite of tools for nuclear systems modeling and simulation that provides comprehensive, verified and validated, user-friendly capabilities for criticality safety, reactor physics, radiation shielding, and sensitivity and uncertainty analysis. Since 1980, regulators, industry, and research institutions around the world have relied on SCALE for nuclear safety analysis and design. SCALE 6.2 provides several new capabilities and significant improvements in many existing features for criticality safety analysis. Enhancements are realized for nuclear data; multigroup resonance self-shielding; continuous-energy Monte Carlo analysis for sensitivity/uncertainty analysis, radiation shielding, and depletion; and graphical user interfaces. An overview of these capabilities is provided in this paper, and additional details are provided in several companion papers.

  5. Safety Basis Report

    SciTech Connect

    R.J. Garrett

    2002-01-14

    As part of the internal Integrated Safety Management Assessment verification process, it was determined that there was a lack of documentation that summarizes the safety basis of the current Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) site characterization activities. It was noted that a safety basis would make it possible to establish a technically justifiable graded approach to the implementation of the requirements identified in the Standards/Requirements Identification Document. The Standards/Requirements Identification Documents commit a facility to compliance with specific requirements and, together with the hazard baseline documentation, provide a technical basis for ensuring that the public and workers are protected. This Safety Basis Report has been developed to establish and document the safety basis of the current site characterization activities, establish and document the hazard baseline, and provide the technical basis for identifying structures, systems, and components (SSCs) that perform functions necessary to protect the public, the worker, and the environment from hazards unique to the YMP site characterization activities. This technical basis for identifying SSCs serves as a grading process for the implementation of programs such as Conduct of Operations (DOE Order 5480.19) and the Suspect/Counterfeit Items Program. In addition, this report provides a consolidated summary of the hazards analyses processes developed to support the design, construction, and operation of the YMP site characterization facilities and, therefore, provides a tool for evaluating the safety impacts of changes to the design and operation of the YMP site characterization activities.

  6. Tractor Safety. Unit A-9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luft, Vernon D.; Backlund, Paul

    This document is a teacher's guide for a unit in tractor and machinery safety for college freshmen. It is intended to be used for 10 hours of instruction for freshmen who are intending to work on or around machinery. Safety hazards directly and indirectly related to many types of machinery are covered in addition to tractors. The objectives of the…

  7. Aspartame: review of safety.

    PubMed

    Butchko, Harriett H; Stargel, W Wayne; Comer, C Phil; Mayhew, Dale A; Benninger, Christian; Blackburn, George L; de Sonneville, Leo M J; Geha, Raif S; Hertelendy, Zsolt; Koestner, Adalbert; Leon, Arthur S; Liepa, George U; McMartin, Kenneth E; Mendenhall, Charles L; Munro, Ian C; Novotny, Edward J; Renwick, Andrew G; Schiffman, Susan S; Schomer, Donald L; Shaywitz, Bennett A; Spiers, Paul A; Tephly, Thomas R; Thomas, John A; Trefz, Friedrich K

    2002-04-01

    Over 20 years have elapsed since aspartame was approved by regulatory agencies as a sweetener and flavor enhancer. The safety of aspartame and its metabolic constituents was established through extensive toxicology studies in laboratory animals, using much greater doses than people could possibly consume. Its safety was further confirmed through studies in several human subpopulations, including healthy infants, children, adolescents, and adults; obese individuals; diabetics; lactating women; and individuals heterozygous (PKUH) for the genetic disease phenylketonuria (PKU) who have a decreased ability to metabolize the essential amino acid, phenylalanine. Several scientific issues continued to be raised after approval, largely as a concern for theoretical toxicity from its metabolic components--the amino acids, aspartate and phenylalanine, and methanol--even though dietary exposure to these components is much greater than from aspartame. Nonetheless, additional research, including evaluations of possible associations between aspartame and headaches, seizures, behavior, cognition, and mood as well as allergic-type reactions and use by potentially sensitive subpopulations, has continued after approval. These findings are reviewed here. The safety testing of aspartame has gone well beyond that required to evaluate the safety of a food additive. When all the research on aspartame, including evaluations in both the premarketing and postmarketing periods, is examined as a whole, it is clear that aspartame is safe, and there are no unresolved questions regarding its safety under conditions of intended use.

  8. Safety issues in robotic handling of nuclear weapon parts

    SciTech Connect

    Drotning, W.; Wapman, W.; Fahrenholtz, J.

    1993-12-31

    Robotic systems are being developed by the Intelligent Systems and Robotics Center at Sandia National Laboratories to perform automated handling tasks with radioactive weapon parts. These systems will reduce the occupational radiation exposure to workers by automating operations that are currently performed manually. The robotic systems at Sandia incorporate several levels of mechanical, electrical, and software safety for handling hazardous materials. For example, tooling used by the robot to handle radioactive parts has been designed with mechanical features that allow the robot to release its payload only at designated locations in the robotic workspace. In addition, software processes check for expected and unexpected situations throughout the operations. Incorporation of features such as these provides multiple levels of safety for handling hazardous or valuable payloads with automated intelligent systems.

  9. 16 CFR 1102.16 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... PUBLICLY AVAILABLE CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY INFORMATION DATABASE (Eff. Jan. 10, 2011) Content Requirements... notices, the CPSC shall include in the Database any additional information it determines to be in...

  10. System safety education focused on flight safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, E.

    1971-01-01

    The measures necessary for achieving higher levels of system safety are analyzed with an eye toward maintaining the combat capability of the Air Force. Several education courses were provided for personnel involved in safety management. Data include: (1) Flight Safety Officer Course, (2) Advanced Safety Program Management, (3) Fundamentals of System Safety, and (4) Quantitative Methods of Safety Analysis.

  11. Fire safety. Explosion safety - Handbook

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baratov, Anatolii Nikolaevich

    The physicochemical principles underlying combustion and explosion processes are examined, and the main fire and explosion safety characteristics of materials are reviewed with particular reference to the ignition limits of combustible mixtures, the minimal oxygen content that constitutes an explosion hazard, and the flash point and ignition temperatures. Fire-fighting and explosion suppression methods and equipment are described. The discussion also covers the efficiency of fire prevention measures and safety engineering in fire fighting.

  12. Laser Safety Inspection Criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Barat, K

    2005-06-13

    A responsibility of the Laser Safety Officer (LSO) is to perform laser audits. The American National Standard Z136.1 Safe Use of Lasers references this requirement through several sections. One such reference is Section 1.3.2.8, Safety Features Audits, ''The LSO shall ensure that the safety features of the laser installation facilities and laser equipment are audited periodically to assure proper operation''. The composition, frequency and rigor of that inspection/audit rests in the hands of the LSO. A common practice for institutions is to develop laser audit checklists or survey forms It is common for audit findings from one inspector or inspection to the next to vary even when reviewing the same material. How often has one heard a comment, ''well this area has been inspected several times over the years and no one ever said this or that was a problem before''. A great number of audit items, and therefore findings, are subjective because they are based on the experience and interest of the auditor to particular items on the checklist. Beam block usage, to one set of eyes might be completely adequate, while to another, inadequate. In order to provide consistency, the Laser Safety Office of the National Ignition Facility Directorate has established criteria for a number of items found on the typical laser safety audit form. The criteria are distributed to laser users. It serves two broad purposes; first, it gives the user an expectation of what will be reviewed by an auditor. Second, it is an opportunity to explain audit items to the laser user and thus the reasons for some of these items, such as labelling of beam blocks.

  13. Time Varying Feature Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Echterhoff, J.; Simonis, I.; Atkinson, R.

    2012-04-01

    The infrastructure to gather, store and access information about our environment is improving and growing rapidly. The increasing amount of information allows us to get a better understanding of the current state of our environment, historical processes and to simulate and predict the future state of the environment. Finer grained spatial and temporal data and more reliable communications make it easier to model dynamic states and ephemeral features. The exchange of information within and across geospatial domains is facilitated through the use of harmonized information models. The Observations & Measurements (O&M) developed through OGC and standardised by ISO is an example of such a cross-domain information model. It is used in many domains, including meteorology, hydrology as well as the emergency management. O&M enables harmonized representation of common metadata that belong to the act of determining the state of a feature property, whether by sensors, simulations or humans. In addition to the resulting feature property value, information such as the result quality but especially the time that the result applies to the feature property can be represented. Temporal metadata is critical to modelling past and future states of a feature. The features, and the semantics of each property, are defined in domain specific Application Schema using the General Feature Model (GFM) from ISO 19109 and usually encoded following ISO 19136. However, at the moment these standards provide only limited support for the representation and handling of time varying feature data. Features like rivers, wildfires or gas plumes have a defined state - for example geographic extent - at any given point in time. To keep track of changes, a more complex model for example using time-series coverages is required. Furthermore, the representation and management of feature property value changes via the service interfaces defined by OGC and ISO - namely: WFS and WCS - would be rather complex

  14. Child passenger safety.

    PubMed

    Durbin, Dennis R

    2011-04-01

    Despite significant reductions in the number of children killed in motor vehicle crashes over the past decade, crashes continue to be the leading cause of death for children 4 years and older. Therefore, the American Academy of Pediatrics continues to recommend inclusion of child passenger safety anticipatory guidance at every health-supervision visit. This technical report provides a summary of the evidence in support of 5 recommendations for best practices to optimize safety in passenger vehicles for children from birth through adolescence that all pediatricians should know and promote in their routine practice. These recommendations are presented in the revised policy statement on child passenger safety in the form of an algorithm that is intended to facilitate their implementation by pediatricians with their patients and families. The algorithm is designed to cover the majority of situations that pediatricians will encounter in practice. In addition, a summary of evidence on a number of additional issues that affect the safety of children in motor vehicles, including the proper use and installation of child restraints, exposure to air bags, travel in pickup trucks, children left in or around vehicles, and the importance of restraint laws, is provided. Finally, this technical report provides pediatricians with a number of resources for additional information to use when providing anticipatory guidance to families.

  15. First Aid and Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... First-Aid Kit Food Safety for Your Family Gun Safety Halloween Candy Hints Household Safety Checklists Household ... Climbing, and Grabbing Household Safety: Preventing Injuries From Firearms Household Safety: Preventing Injuries in the Crib Household ...

  16. Disentangling the roles of safety climate and safety culture: Multi-level effects on the relationship between supervisor enforcement and safety compliance.

    PubMed

    Petitta, Laura; Probst, Tahira M; Barbaranelli, Claudio; Ghezzi, Valerio

    2017-02-01

    Despite increasing attention to contextual effects on the relationship between supervisor enforcement and employee safety compliance, no study has yet explored the conjoint influence exerted simultaneously by organizational safety climate and safety culture. The present study seeks to address this literature shortcoming. We first begin by briefly discussing the theoretical distinctions between safety climate and culture and the rationale for examining these together. Next, using survey data collected from 1342 employees in 32 Italian organizations, we found that employee-level supervisor enforcement, organizational-level safety climate, and autocratic, bureaucratic, and technocratic safety culture dimensions all predicted individual-level safety compliance behaviors. However, the cross-level moderating effect of safety climate was bounded by certain safety culture dimensions, such that safety climate moderated the supervisor enforcement-compliance relationship only under the clan-patronage culture dimension. Additionally, the autocratic and bureaucratic culture dimensions attenuated the relationship between supervisor enforcement and compliance. Finally, when testing the effects of technocratic safety culture and cooperative safety culture, neither safety culture nor climate moderated the relationship between supervisor enforcement and safety compliance. The results suggest a complex relationship between organizational safety culture and safety climate, indicating that organizations with particular safety cultures may be more likely to develop more (or less) positive safety climates. Moreover, employee safety compliance is a function of supervisor safety leadership, as well as the safety climate and safety culture dimensions prevalent within the organization.

  17. System Safety Analysis Application Guide. Safety Analysis Report Update Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., (Energy Systems) is committed to performing and documenting safety analyses for facilities it manages for the Department of Energy (DOE). Safety analyses are performed to identify hazards and potential accidents; to analyze the adequacy of measures taken to eliminate, control, or mitigate hazards; and to evaluate potential accidents and determine associated risks. Safety Analysis Reports (SARs) are prepared to document the safety analysis to ensure facilities can be operated safely and in accordance with regulations. SARs include Technical Safety Requirements (TSRs), which are specific technical and administrative requirements that prescribe limits and controls to ensure safe operation of DOE facilities. These documented descriptions and analyses contribute to the authorization basis for facility operation. Energy Systems has established a process to perform Unreviewed Safety Question Determinations (USQDs) for planned changes and as-found conditions that are not described and analyzed in existing safety analyses. The process evaluates changes and as-found conditions to determine whether revisions to the authorization basis must be reviewed and approved by DOE. There is an Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) if a change introduces conditions not bounded by the facility authorization basis. When it is necessary to request DOE approval to revise the authorization basis, preparation of a System Safety Analysis (SSA) is recommended. This application guide describes the process of preparing an SSA and the desired contents of an SSA. Guidance is provided on how to identify items and practices which are important to safety; how to determine the credibility and significance of consequences of proposed accident scenarios; how to evaluate accident prevention and mitigation features of the planned change; and how to establish special requirements to ensure that a change can be implemented with adequate safety.

  18. Safety First!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longfield, Judith

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author relates how a hands-on chemistry investigation provided her the inspiration to develop an effective safety lesson for her third grade chemistry class. She began the lesson by demonstrating the use of pH indicator paper to show that ordinary household (white) vinegar was an acid. With the students, she wondered aloud…

  19. Art Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BCATA Journal for Art Teachers, 1991

    1991-01-01

    Advocating that Canadian art programs should use and model environmentally safe practices, the articles in this journal focus on issues of safe practices in art education. Articles are: (1) "What is WHMIS?"; (2) "Safety Precautions for Specific Art Processes"; (3) "Toxic Substances"; (4) "Using Clay, Glazes, and…

  20. Home Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... in Pune (October 2015) Preventing accidental injuries to children in India. Video Changing the News with Neal McDonough: Fire Safety Together, we can change the news by learning simple, effective ways to prevent injuries to children due to fire. Infographic Escuche el Bip Donde ...

  1. Safety Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoot, James L.; Bartkowiak, Elaine T.

    1994-01-01

    Lists 72 organizations and programs that deal with child safety, grouped by the following categories: (1) general; (2) general violence; (3) gun violence; (4) media violence; (5) drugs and alcohol; (6) child abuse and at-risk children; (7) parenting programs; (8) community service programs; (9) leadership programs; (10) peer counseling; (11)…

  2. Child passenger safety.

    PubMed

    Durbin, Dennis R

    2011-04-01

    Child passenger safety has dramatically evolved over the past decade; however, motor vehicle crashes continue to be the leading cause of death of children 4 years and older. This policy statement provides 4 evidence-based recommendations for best practices in the choice of a child restraint system to optimize safety in passenger vehicles for children from birth through adolescence: (1) rear-facing car safety seats for most infants up to 2 years of age; (2) forward-facing car safety seats for most children through 4 years of age; (3) belt-positioning booster seats for most children through 8 years of age; and (4) lap-and-shoulder seat belts for all who have outgrown booster seats. In addition, a fifth evidence-based recommendation is for all children younger than 13 years to ride in the rear seats of vehicles. It is important to note that every transition is associated with some decrease in protection; therefore, parents should be encouraged to delay these transitions for as long as possible. These recommendations are presented in the form of an algorithm that is intended to facilitate implementation of the recommendations by pediatricians to their patients and families and should cover most situations that pediatricians will encounter in practice. The American Academy of Pediatrics urges all pediatricians to know and promote these recommendations as part of child passenger safety anticipatory guidance at every health-supervision visit.

  3. Safety equipment list

    SciTech Connect

    Lavender, J.C.; Roe, N.A.

    1995-04-13

    This analysis assigns preliminary safety class (SC) designations to major systems and structures associated with the Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility (MWTF) project in accordance with the Multi-Function QAPP, W-236A (Hall 1994). Also included are SC assignments for those subsystems and major components of the major systems discussed in this document (see Appendices A and B). Component safety classifications have been completed through inspection (using engineering judgement) for simple systems, and through use of logic models (i.e., fault trees) for complicated systems. This analysis is intended to augment the SC systems list supplied in Chapter 9 of the MWTF Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (WHC 1994). Whereas WHC (1994) only addresses select systems, this analysis addresses the SC ramifications of all MWTF systems and structures as identified in the Title 1 design media. This document provides additional analyses of the system safety classifications assignments, and classifies systems not addressed in WHC (1994). This analysis specifically describes the safety functions) that must be performed by each MWTF system.

  4. Vaccine safety.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Robert M

    2003-11-01

    Rates of reported adverse events are remarkably low. VAERS identifies an adverse event rate approximating 11.4 reports per 100,000 vaccine doses. Approximately 15% of these reports represent SAEs, but less than 2% involve death; in most cases, reviews have shown no causal relation between the events and the vaccine. Across the spectrum of vaccines in use (including those directed against influenza and hepatitis B virus), many claims of adverse events regarding vaccines represent typical reactions to vaccinations. These reactions can be thought of as foreign-body reactions and predominate among the inactivated vaccines. In controlled studies, the adverse event rates that occur with vaccination resemble those that occur with placebo injections. Typical reactions associated with live viral and bacterial vaccines, such as MMR and varicella vaccines, may resemble attenuated forms of the disease for which the vaccine is directed. Other claims against vaccines represent chance-coincidence or misunderstood data; further studies of claims have vindicated the overall safety of the vaccines in most cases. Two documented safety concerns with vaccines, however, have demonstrated that vaccines (like other biologics and pharmacologic) can result in harm (eg, rotavirus and OPV vaccines). The denouement with these vaccines indicates the broad postmarketing data collection and evaluation that extends efforts made with prelicensure study to balance the benefits from vaccination with the risk for harm. Overall, measures including prelicensure study and postlicensure surveillance, such as VAERS, the Vaccine Safety Datalink Project, and the Clinical Immunization Safety Assessment Centers, have resulted in an exceptional safety profile for the vaccines in use.

  5. An Overview of the Safety Case for Small Modular Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Ingersoll, Daniel T

    2011-01-01

    Several small modular reactor (SMR) designs emerged in the late 1970s and early 1980s in response to lessons learned from the many technical and operational challenges of the large Generation II light-water reactors. After the accident at the Three Mile Island plant in 1979, an ensuing reactor redesign effort spawned the term inherently safe designs, which later evolved into passively safe terminology. Several new designs were engineered to be deliberately small in order to fully exploit the benefits of passive safety. Today, new SMR designs are emerging with a similar philosophy of offering highly robust and resilient designs with increased safety margins. Additionally, because these contemporary designs are being developed subsequent to the September 11, 2001, terrorist attack, they incorporate a number of intrinsic design features to further strengthen their safety and security. Several SMR designs are being developed in the United States spanning the full spectrum of reactor technologies, including water-, gas-, and liquid-metal-cooled ones. Despite a number of design differences, most of these designs share a common set of design principles to enhance plant safety and robustness, such as eliminating plant design vulnerabilities where possible, reducing accident probabilities, and mitigating accident consequences. An important consequence of the added resilience provided by these design approaches is that the individual reactor units and the entire plant should be able to survive a broader range of extreme conditions. This will enable them to not only ensure the safety of the general public but also help protect the investment of the owner and continued availability of the power-generating asset. Examples of typical SMR design features and their implications for improved plant safety are given for specific SMR designs being developed in the United States.

  6. Safety harness

    SciTech Connect

    Gunter, L.W.

    1991-04-08

    A safety harness to be worn by a worker, especially a worker wearing a plastic suit thereunder for protection in a radioactive or chemically hostile environment. The safety harness comprises a torso surrounding portion with at least one horizontal strap for adjustably securing the harness about the torso, two vertical shoulder straps with rings just forward of the of the peak of the shoulders for attaching a life-line and a pair of adjustable leg supporting straps releasibly attachable to the torso surrounding portion. In the event of a fall, the weight of the worker, when his fall is broken and he is suspended from the rings with his body angled slightly back and chest up, will be borne by the portion of the leg straps behind his buttocks rather than between his legs. Furthermore, the supporting straps do not restrict the air supplied through hoses into his suit when so suspended.

  7. Safety harness

    DOEpatents

    Gunter, Larry W.

    1993-01-01

    A safety harness to be worn by a worker, especially a worker wearing a plastic suit thereunder for protection in a radioactive or chemically hostile environment, which safety harness comprises a torso surrounding portion with at least one horizontal strap for adjustably securing the harness about the torso, two vertical shoulder straps with rings just forward of the of the peak of the shoulders for attaching a life-line and a pair of adjustable leg supporting straps releasibly attachable to the torso surrounding portion. In the event of a fall, the weight of the worker, when his fall is broken and he is suspended from the rings with his body angled slightly back and chest up, will be borne by the portion of the leg straps behind his buttocks rather than between his legs. Furthermore, the supporting straps do not restrict the air supplied through hoses into his suit when so suspended.

  8. Correlation between safety climate and contractor safety assessment programs in construction

    PubMed Central

    Sparer, EH1; Murphy, LA; Taylor, KM; Dennerlein, Jt

    2015-01-01

    Background Contractor safety assessment programs (CSAPs) measure safety performance by integrating multiple data sources together; however, the relationship between these measures of safety performance and safety climate within the construction industry is unknown. Methods 401 construction workers employed by 68 companies on 26 sites and 11 safety managers employed by 11 companies completed brief surveys containing a nine-item safety climate scale developed for the construction industry. CSAP scores from ConstructSecure, Inc., an online CSAP database, classified these 68 companies as high or low scorers, with the median score of the sample population as the threshold. Spearman rank correlations evaluated the association between the CSAP score and the safety climate score at the individual level, as well as with various grouping methodologies. In addition, Spearman correlations evaluated the comparison between manager-assessed safety climate and worker-assessed safety climate. Results There were no statistically significant differences between safety climate scores reported by workers in the high and low CSAP groups. There were, at best, weak correlations between workers’ safety climate scores and the company CSAP scores, with marginal statistical significance with two groupings of the data. There were also no significant differences between the manager-assessed safety climate and the worker-assessed safety climate scores. Conclusions A CSAP safety performance score does not appear to capture safety climate, as measured in this study. The nature of safety climate in construction is complex, which may be reflective of the challenges in measuring safety climate within this industry. PMID:24038403

  9. Radiation Safety System

    SciTech Connect

    Vylet, Vaclav; Liu, James C.; Walker, Lawrence S.; /Los Alamos

    2012-04-04

    The goal of this work is to provide an overview of a Radiation safety system (RSS) designed for protection from prompt radiation hazard at accelerator facilities. RSS design parameters, functional requirements and constraints are derived from hazard analysis and risk assessment undertaken in the design phase of the facility. The two main subsystems of a RSS are access control system (ACS) and radiation control system (RCS). In this text, a common approach to risk assessment, typical components of ACS and RCS, desirable features and general design principles applied to RSS are described.

  10. Risk assessment for safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadlock, Charles R.; Glaser, Peter E.

    The application of probabilistic risk-assessment techniques to space missions is discussed, with a focus on the International Space Station. The types of hazards likely to be caused by random events; design, operational, and management errors; and intentional intervention are examined along with their secondary effects; and the top-level safety requirements defined by NASA are considered. It is suggested that such qualitative stipulations be supplemented with more quantitative measures such as used in the nuclear-power industry; the major features of such quantitative methods are reviewed.

  11. Safety Checklists

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-01-01

    all rags, waste, etc., soiled by combustible or flaxmable materials kept In tightly rnosed metal containers for daily disposal? 3. Are fire plans ...To prevent cold weather injuries, does the cowmander ensure that: (TBMad 81, pars, 5) a. Safety is included in planning ? b. Suitable cold weather gear...pages 2-2 thru 2-6) 2. Are prior planning and coordination of sling load operations always accomplished between the ground crews and aviation crews

  12. Safety valve

    DOEpatents

    Bergman, Ulf C.

    1984-01-01

    The safety valve contains a resilient gland to be held between a valve seat and a valve member and is secured to the valve member by a sleeve surrounding the end of the valve member adjacent to the valve seat. The sleeve is movable relative to the valve member through a limited axial distance and a gap exists between said valve member and said sleeve.

  13. Neuro-oncology update: radiation safety and nursing care during interstitial brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Randall, T.M.; Drake, D.K.; Sewchand, W.

    1987-12-01

    Radiation control and safety are major considerations for nursing personnel during the care of patients receiving brachytherapy. Since the theory and practice of radiation applications are not part of the routine curriculum of nursing programs, the education of nurses and other health care professionals in radiation safety procedures is important. Regulatory agencies recommend that an annual safety course be given to all persons frequenting, using, or associated with patients containing radioactive materials. This article presents pertinent aspects of the principles and procedures of radiation safety, the role of personnel dose-monitoring devices, and the value of additional radiation control features, such as a lead cubicle, during interstitial brain implants. One institution's protocol and procedures for the care of high-intensity iridium-192 brain implants are discussed. Preoperative teaching guidelines and nursing interventions included in the protocol focus on radiation control principles.

  14. Nuclear Powerplant Safety: Design and Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC. Nuclear Energy Office.

    The most important concern in the design, construction and operation of nuclear powerplants is safety. Nuclear power is one of the major contributors to the nation's supply of electricity; therefore, it is important to assure its safe use. Each different type of powerplant has special design features and systems to protect health and safety. One…

  15. Quo Vadis Payload Safety?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fodroci, Michael P.; Schwartz, MaryBeth

    2008-01-01

    As we complete the preparations for the fourth Hubble Space Telescope (HST) servicing mission, we note an anniversary approaching: it was 30 years ago in July that the first HST payload safety review panel meeting was held. This, in turn, was just over a year after the very first payload safety review, a Phase 0 review for the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite and its Inertial Upper Stage, held in June of 1977. In adapting a process that had been used in the review and certification of earlier Skylab payloads, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) engineers sought to preserve the lessons learned in the development of technical payload safety requirements, while creating a new process that would serve the very different needs of the new space shuttle program. Their success in this undertaking is substantiated by the fact that this process and these requirements have proven to be remarkably robust, flexible, and adaptable. Furthermore, the payload safety process has, to date, served us well in the critical mission of safeguarding our astronauts, cosmonauts, and spaceflight participants. Both the technical requirements and their interpretation, as well as the associated process requirements have grown, evolved, been streamlined, and have been adapted to fit multiple programs, including the International Space Station (ISS) program, the Shuttle/Mir program, and most recently the United States Constellation program. From its earliest days, it was anticipated that the payload safety process would be international in scope, and so it has been. European Space Agency (ESA), Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), German Space Agency (DLR), Canadian Space Agency (CSA), Russian Space Agency (RSA), and many additional countries have flown payloads on both the space shuttle and on the ISS. Our close cooperation and long-term working relationships have culminated in the franchising of the payload safety review process itself to our partners in ESA, which in

  16. [Patient safety in management contracts].

    PubMed

    Campillo-Artero, C

    2012-01-01

    Patient safety is becoming commonplace in management contracts. Since our experience in patient safety still falls short of other clinical areas, it is advisable to review some of its characteristics in order to improve its inclusion in these contracts. In this paper opinions and recommendations concerning the design and review of contractual clauses on safety are given, as well as reflections drawn from methodological papers and informal opinions of clinicians, who are most familiar with the nuances of safe and unsafe practices. After reviewing some features of these contracts, criteria for prioritizing and including safety objectives and activities in them, and key points for their evaluation are described. The need to replace isolated activities by systemic and multifaceted ones is emphasized. Errors, limitations and improvement opportunities observed when contracts are linked to indicators, information and adverse event reporting systems are analysed. Finally, the influence of the rules of the game, and clinicians behaviour are emphasised.

  17. Additional Warning System for Cross Level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewiński, Andrzej; Bester, Lucyna

    The paper contains an analysis of the safety level crossing equipped with an additional warning system for drivers that are within the level crossing before the approaching train. The proposed system is based on wireless data standard, WiMax and sensor networks WSN, placed an additional warning helps to improve safety at unguarded railway crossings. Mathematical analysis was carried out for unguarded level crossing model, and then for system with signaling the level crossing ssp and for system equipped with additional warning system for drivers. For the analysis presented models used stochastic Markov processes which allowed estimating the indicators of probabilistic studied systems.

  18. Food safety and organic meats.

    PubMed

    Van Loo, Ellen J; Alali, Walid; Ricke, Steven C

    2012-01-01

    The organic meat industry in the United States has grown substantially in the past decade in response to consumer demand for nonconventionally produced products. Consumers are often not aware that the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) organic standards are based only on the methods used for production and processing of the product and not on the product's safety. Food safety hazards associated with organic meats remain unclear because of the limited research conducted to determine the safety of organic meat from farm-to-fork. The objective of this review is to provide an overview of the published results on the microbiological safety of organic meats. In addition, antimicrobial resistance of microbes in organic food animal production is addressed. Determining the food safety risks associated with organic meat production requires systematic longitudinal studies that quantify the risks of microbial and nonmicrobial hazards from farm-to-fork.

  19. "Safety pin"--a question to its safety!

    PubMed

    Thapa Chettri, S; Bhattarai, M; Karki, S; Regmi, S; Mathur, N N

    2010-03-01

    Foreign body ingestion is not an uncommon problem in children. They can ingest various foreign objects and one of such objects is a safety pin. The ingestion of such foreign body is not widely reported in the literature. This case highlights the risk of accidental ingestion of safety pin used on child's clothing to protect him from cold that can result in lethal complications. In a poor developing country like Nepal, this case serves to address all mothers alerting them of their ignorance while using safety pin in infants. In addition, physicians are reminded to obtain a detailed inquiry of suspected foreign body ingestion in every child with the history of dysphagia.

  20. The kinematic features of motorcycles in congested urban networks.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tzu-Chang; Polak, John W; Bell, Michael G H; Wigan, Marcus R

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this paper is to compare the kinematic features of motorcycles with those of passenger cars in urban traffic. The hypothesis that motorcycles' capability to swerve in urban traffic contributes to their seemingly assertive behaviour is examined. Data for this study were collected in afternoon peak hours at Central London using video recorders. Detailed information on the trajectories of 2109 vehicles (including 477 motorcycles and 1293 passenger cars) was extracted from the video images and the observable kinematic features were analysed. In addition, a model describing the longitudinal following behaviour of motorcycles was employed to analyse the impacts of motorcycles' swerving behaviour. The model was calibrated using Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) numerical methods. The observable kinematic features show that in comparison to passenger cars, motorcycles have shorter safety gaps, higher speeds and severer acceleration and deceleration rates reflecting their generally much higher power to weight ratios and usage of available braking power. However, the data also support the hypothesis that motorcyclists maintain a considerable safety margin as they have the ability to avoid a collision by swerving away.

  1. Five major NASA health and safety issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavert, Raymond B.

    2000-01-01

    The goal has been set to establish NASA as number one in safety in the nation. This includes Systems and Mission Safety as well as Occupational Safety for all NASA employees and contractors on and off the job. There are five major health and safety issues important in the pursuit of being number one and they are: (1) Radiation (2) Hearing (3) Habitability/Toxicology (4) Extravehicular Activity (EVA) (5) Stress. The issues have features of accumulated injury since NASA's future missions involve long time human presence in space i.e., International Space Station operations and Mars missions. The objective of this paper is to discuss these five issues in terms of controlling risks and enhancing health and safety. Safety metrics are discussed in terms of the overall goal of NASA to be number one in safety. .

  2. Payload safety requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scheller, J.

    1979-01-01

    Space Shuttle payload safety requirements are summarized. Consideration is given to NASA objectives on STS payloads, payload safety documents, STS payload safety management, safety implementation possibilities, the hazard control procedure, and significant technical requirements.

  3. Safety and Liability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berthelot, Ronald J.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    This series of five articles highlights Pensacola Junior College's occupational safety course, involving simulated emergencies, Florida's standards for teacher liability, electrical safety in the classroom and laboratory, color coding for machine safety, and Florida industrial arts safety instructional materials. (SK)

  4. Evaluating the Safety Profile of Non-Active Implantable Medical Devices Compared with Medicines.

    PubMed

    Pane, Josep; Coloma, Preciosa M; Verhamme, Katia M C; Sturkenboom, Miriam C J M; Rebollo, Irene

    2017-01-01

    Recent safety issues involving non-active implantable medical devices (NAIMDs) have highlighted the need for better pre-market and post-market evaluation. Some stakeholders have argued that certain features of medicine safety evaluation should also be applied to medical devices. Our objectives were to compare the current processes and methodologies for the assessment of NAIMD safety profiles with those for medicines, identify potential gaps, and make recommendations for the adoption of new methodologies for the ongoing benefit-risk monitoring of these devices throughout their entire life cycle. A literature review served to examine the current tools for the safety evaluation of NAIMDs and those for medicines. We searched MEDLINE using these two categories. We supplemented this search with Google searches using the same key terms used in the MEDLINE search. Using a comparative approach, we summarized the new product design, development cycle (preclinical and clinical phases), and post-market phases for NAIMDs and drugs. We also evaluated and compared the respective processes to integrate and assess safety data during the life cycle of the products, including signal detection, signal management, and subsequent potential regulatory actions. The search identified a gap in NAIMD safety signal generation: no global program exists that collects and analyzes adverse events and product quality issues. Data sources in real-world settings, such as electronic health records, need to be effectively identified and explored as additional sources of safety information, particularly in some areas such as the EU and USA where there are plans to implement the unique device identifier (UDI). The UDI and other initiatives will enable more robust follow-up and assessment of long-term patient outcomes. The safety evaluation system for NAIMDs differs in many ways from those for drugs, but both systems face analogous challenges with respect to monitoring real-world usage. Certain features

  5. Module Safety Issues (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Wohlgemuth, J.

    2012-02-01

    Description of how to make PV modules so that they are less likely to turn into safety hazards. Making modules inherently safer with minimum additional cost is the preferred approach for PV. Safety starts with module design to ensure redundancy within the electrical circuitry to minimize open circuits and proper mounting instructions to prevent installation related ground faults. Module manufacturers must control the raw materials and processes to ensure that that every module is built like those qualified through the safety tests. This is the reason behind the QA task force effort to develop a 'Guideline for PV Module Manufacturing QA'. Periodic accelerated stress testing of production products is critical to validate the safety of the product. Combining safer PV modules with better systems designs is the ultimate goal. This should be especially true for PV arrays on buildings. Use of lower voltage dc circuits - AC modules, DC-DC converters. Use of arc detectors and interrupters to detect arcs and open the circuits to extinguish the arcs.

  6. 47 CFR 36.605 - Calculation of safety net additive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... exchange carrier must notify the Administrator; failure to properly notify the Administrator of eligibility... Administrator that the study area meets the stated criterion in paragraphs (a), (b), (c) of this section,...

  7. 47 CFR 36.605 - Calculation of safety net additive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... the Administrator; failure to properly notify the Administrator of eligibility shall result in... meets the stated criterion in paragraphs (a), (b), (c) of this section, the Administrator shall: (i)...

  8. 47 CFR 36.605 - Calculation of safety net additive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Administrator; failure to properly notify the Administrator of eligibility shall result in disqualification of... stated criterion in paragraphs (a), (b), (c) of this section, the Administrator shall: (i) Pay to...

  9. 49 CFR 192.171 - Compressor stations: Additional safety equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... must have adequate fire protection facilities. If fire pumps are a part of these facilities, their..., other than an electrical induction or synchronous motor, must have an automatic device to shut down the... compressor station must have vent slots or holes in the baffles of each compartment to prevent gas from...

  10. 49 CFR 192.171 - Compressor stations: Additional safety equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... must have adequate fire protection facilities. If fire pumps are a part of these facilities, their..., other than an electrical induction or synchronous motor, must have an automatic device to shut down the... compressor station must have vent slots or holes in the baffles of each compartment to prevent gas from...

  11. Safety Grooving

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Safety grooving, the cutting of grooves in concrete to increase traction and prevent injury, was first developed to reduce aircraft accidents on wet runways. Represented by the International Grooving and Grinding Association (IG&GA), the industry expanded into highway and pedestrian applications. The technique originated at Langley, which assisted in testing the grooving at airports and on highways. Skidding was reduced, stopping distance decreased, and a vehicle's cornering ability on curves was increased. The process has been extended to animal holding pens, steps, parking lots and other potentially slippery surfaces.

  12. CONVEYOR SYSTEM SAFETY ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    M. Salem

    1995-06-23

    The purpose and objective of this analysis is to systematically identify and evaluate hazards related to the Yucca Mountain Project Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) surface and subsurface conveyor system (for a list of conveyor subsystems see section 3). This process is an integral part of the systems engineering process; whereby safety is considered during planning, design, testing, and construction. A largely qualitative approach was used since a radiological System Safety Analysis is not required. The risk assessment in this analysis characterizes the accident scenarios associated with the conveyor structures/systems/components in terms of relative risk and includes recommendations for mitigating all identified risks. The priority for recommending and implementing mitigation control features is: (1) Incorporate measures to reduce risks and hazards into the structure/system/component (S/S/C) design, (2) add safety devices and capabilities to the designs that reduce risk, (3) provide devices that detect and warn personnel of hazardous conditions, and (4) develop procedures and conduct training to increase worker awareness of potential hazards, on methods to reduce exposure to hazards, and on the actions required to avoid accidents or correct hazardous conditions. The scope of this analysis is limited to the hazards related to the design of conveyor structures/systems/components (S/S/Cs) that occur during normal operation. Hazards occurring during assembly, test and maintenance or ''off normal'' operations have not been included in this analysis. Construction related work activities are specifically excluded per DOE Order 5481.1B section 4. c.

  13. Apollo experience report: Safety activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, C. N.

    1975-01-01

    A description is given of the flight safety experiences gained during the Apollo Program and safety, from the viewpoint of program management, engineering, mission planning, and ground test operations was discussed. Emphasis is placed on the methods used to identify the risks involved in flight and in certain ground test operations. In addition, there are discussions on the management and engineering activities used to eliminate or reduce these risks.

  14. Online feature selection with streaming features.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xindong; Yu, Kui; Ding, Wei; Wang, Hao; Zhu, Xingquan

    2013-05-01

    We propose a new online feature selection framework for applications with streaming features where the knowledge of the full feature space is unknown in advance. We define streaming features as features that flow in one by one over time whereas the number of training examples remains fixed. This is in contrast with traditional online learning methods that only deal with sequentially added observations, with little attention being paid to streaming features. The critical challenges for Online Streaming Feature Selection (OSFS) include 1) the continuous growth of feature volumes over time, 2) a large feature space, possibly of unknown or infinite size, and 3) the unavailability of the entire feature set before learning starts. In the paper, we present a novel Online Streaming Feature Selection method to select strongly relevant and nonredundant features on the fly. An efficient Fast-OSFS algorithm is proposed to improve feature selection performance. The proposed algorithms are evaluated extensively on high-dimensional datasets and also with a real-world case study on impact crater detection. Experimental results demonstrate that the algorithms achieve better compactness and higher prediction accuracy than existing streaming feature selection algorithms.

  15. 76 FR 64110 - Safety and Health Management Programs for Mines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-17

    ... Safety and Health Administration RIN 1219-AB71 Safety and Health Management Programs for Mines AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health Administration, Labor. ACTION: Notice of public meetings. SUMMARY: The Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) is holding a public meeting, and plans to hold additional...

  16. Evaluation of certain food additives.

    PubMed

    2012-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives, including flavouring agents, with a view to concluding as to safety concerns and to preparing specifications for identity and purity. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles governing the toxicological evaluation of and assessment of dietary exposure to food additives, including flavouring agents. A summary follows of the Committee's evaluations of technical, toxicological and dietary exposure data for five food additives (magnesium dihydrogen diphosphate; mineral oil (medium and low viscosity) classes II and III; 3-phytase from Aspergillus niger expressed in Aspergillus niger; serine protease (chymotrypsin) from Nocardiopsis prasina expressed in Bacillus licheniformis; and serine protease (trypsin) from Fusarium oxysporum expressed in Fusarium venenatum) and 16 groups of flavouring agents (aliphatic and aromatic amines and amides; aliphatic and aromatic ethers; aliphatic hydrocarbons, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids and related esters, sulfides, disulfides and ethers containing furan substitution; aliphatic linear alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes, acids and related alcohols, acetals and esters; amino acids and related substances; epoxides; furfuryl alcohol and related substances; linear and branched-chain aliphatic, unsaturated, unconjugated alcohols, aldehydes, acids and related esters; miscellaneous nitrogen-containing substances; phenol and phenol derivatives; pyrazine derivatives; pyridine, pyrrole and quinoline derivatives; saturated aliphatic acyclic branched-chain primary alcohols, aldehydes and acids; simple aliphatic and aromatic sulfides and thiols; sulfur-containing heterocyclic compounds; and sulfur-substituted furan derivatives). Specifications for the following food additives were revised: ethyl cellulose, mineral oil (medium viscosity), modified starches and titanium

  17. Generic criticality safety issues

    SciTech Connect

    Hively, L.M.

    1991-01-01

    An independent group has been designated by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., (MMES) to internally review Safety Analysis Reports for Packaging (SARPs) that describe containers for shipment of radioactive material. This group is called the Energy Systems Independent Review Group (ESIRG), reporting to the MMES Transportation Safety Manager as part of a central staff function. The ESIRG focus is Y-12 Plant packages, with additional review responsibilities for the Paducah Tiger UF{sub 6} overpack and 6M package. Review questions are posed directly to the SARP preparers. This paper addresses three generic issues that arose during the ESIRG criticality reviews: analysis tools, uncertainties in results, and resulting (finite) probability of criticality. 6 refs., 1 tab.

  18. 21 CFR 570.38 - Determination of food additive status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES Food Additive Safety § 570.38... to the proposal will constitute a waiver of the right to assert or rely on such sanction at any...

  19. SP-100 space reactor safety

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-05-01

    The SP-100 space reactor power system is being developed to meet the large electrical power requirements of civilian and military missions planned for the 1990's and beyond. It will remove the restrictions on electrical power generation that have tended to limit missions and will enable the fuller exploration and utilization of space. This booklet describes the SP-100 space reactor power system and its development. Particular emphasis is given to safety. The design aand operational features as well as the design and safety review process that will assure that the SP-100 can be launched nd operated safely are described.

  20. 10 CFR 32.23 - Same: Safety criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Same: Safety criteria. 32.23 Section 32.23 Energy NUCLEAR... BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Exempt Concentrations and Items § 32.23 Same: Safety criteria. An applicant for a license..., shielding, or other safety features of the product from wear and abuse likely to occur in normal...

  1. 10 CFR 32.27 - Same: Safety criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Same: Safety criteria. 32.27 Section 32.27 Energy NUCLEAR... BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Exempt Concentrations and Items § 32.27 Same: Safety criteria. An applicant for a license..., shielding, or other safety features of the product from wear and abuse likely to occur in normal...

  2. SAFETY IN THE DESIGN OF SCIENCE LABORATORIES AND BUILDING CODES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HOROWITZ, HAROLD

    THE DESIGN OF COLLEGE AND UNIVERSITY BUILDINGS USED FOR SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH AND EDUCATION IS DISCUSSED IN TERMS OF LABORATORY SAFETY AND BUILDING CODES AND REGULATIONS. MAJOR TOPIC AREAS ARE--(1) SAFETY RELATED DESIGN FEATURES OF SCIENCE LABORATORIES, (2) LABORATORY SAFETY AND BUILDING CODES, AND (3) EVIDENCE OF UNSAFE DESIGN. EXAMPLES EMPHASIZE…

  3. Nuclear safety policy working group recommendations on nuclear propulsion safety for the space exploration initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, Albert C.; Lee, James H.; Mcculloch, William H.; Sawyer, J. Charles, Jr.; Bari, Robert A.; Cullingford, Hatice S.; Hardy, Alva C.; Niederauer, George F.; Remp, Kerry; Rice, John W.

    1993-01-01

    An interagency Nuclear Safety Working Group (NSPWG) was chartered to recommend nuclear safety policy, requirements, and guidelines for the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) nuclear propulsion program. These recommendations, which are contained in this report, should facilitate the implementation of mission planning and conceptual design studies. The NSPWG has recommended a top-level policy to provide the guiding principles for the development and implementation of the SEI nuclear propulsion safety program. In addition, the NSPWG has reviewed safety issues for nuclear propulsion and recommended top-level safety requirements and guidelines to address these issues. These recommendations should be useful for the development of the program's top-level requirements for safety functions (referred to as Safety Functional Requirements). The safety requirements and guidelines address the following topics: reactor start-up, inadvertent criticality, radiological release and exposure, disposal, entry, safeguards, risk/reliability, operational safety, ground testing, and other considerations.

  4. 76 FR 56165 - Soliciting Input on Research and Development Priorities for Desirable Features of a Nationwide...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-12

    ... network that meets the needs of local, state, Tribal, and Federal public safety communities.\\1\\ The... safety is in areas not covered by the public safety broadband network. Network sharing: The shared use of... Desirable Features of a Nationwide Public Safety Broadband Network AGENCY: National Institute of...

  5. Nuclear Reactor Safety--The APS Submits its Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Physics Today, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Presents the summary section of the American Physical Society (APS) report on the safety features of the light-water reactor, reviews the design, construction, and operation of a reactor and outlines the primary engineered safety features. Summarizes the major recommendations of the study group. (GS)

  6. Common Day Care Safety Renovations: Descriptions, Explanations and Cost Estimates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spack, Stan

    This booklet explains some of the day care safety features specified by the new Massachusetts State Building Code (January 1, 1975) which must be met before a new day care center can be licensed. The safety features described are those which most often require renovation to meet the building code standards. Best estimates of the costs involved in…

  7. NASA Range Safety Annual Report 2007

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dumont, Alan G.

    2007-01-01

    As always, Range Safety has been involved in a number of exciting and challenging activities and events. Throughout the year, we have strived to meet our goal of protecting the public, the workforce, and property during range operations. During the past year, Range Safety was involved in the development, implementation, and support of range safety policy. Range Safety training curriculum development was completed this year and several courses were presented. Tailoring exercises concerning the Constellation Program were undertaken with representatives from the Constellation Program, the 45th Space Wing, and the Launch Constellation Range Safety Panel. Range Safety actively supported the Range Commanders Council and it subgroups and remained involved in updating policy related to flight safety systems and flight safety analysis. In addition, Range Safety supported the Space Shuttle Range Safety Panel and addressed policy concerning unmanned aircraft systems. Launch operations at Kennedy Space Center, the Eastern and Western ranges, Dryden Flight Research Center, and Wallops Flight Facility were addressed. Range Safety was also involved in the evaluation of a number of research and development efforts, including the space-based range (formerly STARS), the autonomous flight safety system, the enhanced flight termination system, and the joint advanced range safety system. Flight safety system challenges were evaluated. Range Safety's role in the Space Florida Customer Assistance Service Program for the Eastern Range was covered along with our support for the Space Florida Educational Balloon Release Program. We hope you have found the web-based format both accessible and easy to use. Anyone having questions or wishing to have an article included in the 2008 Range Safety Annual Report should contact Alan Dumont, the NASA Range Safety Program Manager located at the Kennedy Space Center, or Michael Dook at NASA Headquarters.

  8. Evaluation of certain food additives.

    PubMed

    2015-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives, including flavouring agents, and to prepare specifications for identity and purity. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles governing the toxicological evaluation of and assessment of dietary exposure to food additives, including flavouring agents. A summary follows of the Committee's evaluations of technical, toxicological and dietary exposure data for eight food additives (Benzoe tonkinensis; carrageenan; citric and fatty acid esters of glycerol; gardenia yellow; lutein esters from Tagetes erecta; octenyl succinic acid-modified gum arabic; octenyl succinic acid-modified starch; paprika extract; and pectin) and eight groups of flavouring agents (aliphatic and alicyclic hydrocarbons; aliphatic and aromatic ethers; ionones and structurally related substances; miscellaneous nitrogen-containing substances; monocyclic and bicyclic secondary alcohols, ketones and related esters; phenol and phenol derivatives; phenyl-substituted aliphatic alcohols and related aldehydes and esters; and sulfur-containing heterocyclic compounds). Specifications for the following food additives were revised: citric acid; gellan gum; polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monostearate; potassium aluminium silicate; and Quillaia extract (Type 2). Annexed to the report are tables summarizing the Committee's recommendations for dietary exposures to and toxicological evaluations of all of the food additives and flavouring agents considered at this meeting.

  9. Safety analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, John C.

    1995-01-01

    We are engaged in a research program in safety-critical computing that is based on two case studies. We use these case studies to provide application-specific details of the various research issues, and as targets for evaluation of research ideas. The first case study is the Magnetic Stereotaxis System (MSS), an investigational device for performing human neurosurgery being developed in a joint effort between the Department of Physics at the University of Virginia and the Department of Neurosurgery at the University of Iowa. The system operates by manipulating a small permanent magnet (known as a 'seed') within the brain using an externally applied magnetic field. By varying the magnitude and gradient of the external magnetic field, the seed can be moved along a non-linear path and positioned at a site requiring therapy, e.g., a tumor. The magnetic field required for movement through brain tissue is extremely high, and is generated by a set of six superconducting magnets located in a housing surrounding the patient's head. The system uses two X-ray cameras positioned at right angles to detect in real time the locations of the seed and of X-ray opaque markers affixed to the patient's skull. the X-ray images are used to locate the objects of interest in a canonical frame of reference. the second case study is the University of Virginia Research Nuclear Reactor (UVAR). It is a 2 MW thermal, concrete-walled pool reactor. The system operates using 20 to 25 plate-type fuel assemblies placed on a rectangular grid plate. There are three scramable safety rods, and one non-scramable regulating rod that can be put in automatic mode. It was originally constructed in 1959 as a 1 MW system, and it was upgraded to 2 MW in 1973. Though only a research reactor rather than a power reactor, the issues raised are significant and can be related to the problems faced by full-scale reactor systems.

  10. The Hermes safety strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosso, R.

    1992-08-01

    The principal safety objectives and safety assurance strategies of the Hermes space vehicle program are discussed. The highlights of the Hermes safety assurance strategy are reviewed with particular reference to risk identification, risk evaluation, risk reduction, and risk acceptance. The application of the safety assurance strategy to Phase I definition studies and safety objectives of the Hermes X 2000 mission are then discussed.

  11. Rebuilding a safety culture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodney, George A.

    1991-11-01

    The development of a culture of safety and NASA since the Challenger accident is reviewed. The technical elements of the strengthened NASA safety program are described, including problem reporting, risk/assessment/risk management, operational safety, and safety assurance are addressed. Future directions in the development of safety are considered.

  12. Nuclear power: Siting and safety

    SciTech Connect

    Openshaw, S.

    1986-01-01

    By 2030, half, or even two-thirds, of all electricity may be generated by nuclear power. Major reactor accidents are still expected to be rare occurrences, but nuclear safety is largely a matter of faith. Terrorist attacks, sabotage, and human error could cause a significant accident. Reactor siting can offer an additional, design-independent margin of safety. Remote geographical sites for new plants would minimize health risks, protect the industry from negative changes in public opinion concerning nuclear energy, and improve long-term public acceptance of nuclear power. U.K. siting practices usually do not consider the contribution to safety that could be obtained from remote sites. This book discusses the present trends of siting policies of nuclear power and their design-independent margin of safety.

  13. Criticality Safety Code Validation with LWBR’s SB Cores

    SciTech Connect

    Putman, Valerie Lee

    2003-01-01

    The first set of critical experiments from the Shippingport Light Water Breeder Reactor Program included eight, simple geometry critical cores built with 233UO2-ZrO2, 235UO2-ZrO2, ThO2, and ThO2-233UO2 nuclear materials. These cores are evaluated, described, and modeled to provide benchmarks and validation information for INEEL criticality safety calculation methodology. In addition to consistency with INEEL methodology, benchmark development and nuclear data are consistent with International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project methodology.Section 1 of this report introduces the experiments and the reason they are useful for validating some INEEL criticality safety calculations. Section 2 provides detailed experiment descriptions based on currently available experiment reports. Section 3 identifies criticality safety validation requirement sources and summarizes requirements that most affect this report. Section 4 identifies relevant hand calculation and computer code calculation methodologies used in the experiment evaluation, benchmark development, and validation calculations. Section 5 provides a detailed experiment evaluation. This section identifies resolutions for currently unavailable and discrepant information. Section 5 also reports calculated experiment uncertainty effects. Section 6 describes the developed benchmarks. Section 6 includes calculated sensitivities to various benchmark features and parameters. Section 7 summarizes validation results. Appendices describe various assumptions and their bases, list experimenter calculations results for items that were independently calculated for this validation work, report other information gathered and developed by SCIENTEC personnel while evaluating these same experiments, and list benchmark sample input and miscellaneous supplementary data.

  14. Product Engineering Class in the Software Safety Risk Taxonomy for Building Safety-Critical Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Janice; Victor, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    When software safety requirements are imposed on legacy safety-critical systems, retrospective safety cases need to be formulated as part of recertifying the systems for further use and risks must be documented and managed to give confidence for reusing the systems. The SEJ Software Development Risk Taxonomy [4] focuses on general software development issues. It does not, however, cover all the safety risks. The Software Safety Risk Taxonomy [8] was developed which provides a construct for eliciting and categorizing software safety risks in a straightforward manner. In this paper, we present extended work on the taxonomy for safety that incorporates the additional issues inherent in the development and maintenance of safety-critical systems with software. An instrument called a Software Safety Risk Taxonomy Based Questionnaire (TBQ) is generated containing questions addressing each safety attribute in the Software Safety Risk Taxonomy. Software safety risks are surfaced using the new TBQ and then analyzed. In this paper we give the definitions for the specialized Product Engineering Class within the Software Safety Risk Taxonomy. At the end of the paper, we present the tool known as the 'Legacy Systems Risk Database Tool' that is used to collect and analyze the data required to show traceability to a particular safety standard

  15. Note on evaluating safety performance of road infrastructure to motivate safety competition.

    PubMed

    Han, Sangjin

    2016-01-01

    Road infrastructures are usually developed and maintained by governments or public sectors. There is no competitor in the market of their jurisdiction. This monopolic feature discourages road authorities from improving the level of safety with proactive motivation. This study suggests how to apply a principle of competition for roads, in particular by means of performance evaluation. It first discusses why road infrastructure has been slow in safety oriented development and management in respect of its business model. Then it suggests some practical ways of how to promote road safety between road authorities, particularly by evaluating safety performance of road infrastructure. These are summarized as decision of safety performance indicators, classification of spatial boundaries, data collection, evaluation, and reporting. Some consideration points are also discussed to make safety performance evaluation on road infrastructure lead to better road safety management.

  16. Nuclear safety as applied to space power reactor systems

    SciTech Connect

    Cummings, G.E.

    1987-01-01

    Current space nuclear power reactor safety issues are discussed with respect to the unique characteristics of these reactors. An approach to achieving adequate safety and a perception of safety is outlined. This approach calls for a carefully conceived safety program which makes uses of lessons learned from previous terrestrial power reactor development programs. This approach includes use of risk analyses, passive safety design features, and analyses/experiments to understand and control off-design conditions. The point is made that some recent accidents concerning terrestrial power reactors do not imply that space power reactors cannot be operated safety.

  17. [Agricultural biotechnology safety assessment].

    PubMed

    McClain, Scott; Jones, Wendelyn; He, Xiaoyun; Ladics, Gregory; Bartholomaeus, Andrew; Raybould, Alan; Lutter, Petra; Xu, Haibin; Wang, Xue

    2015-01-01

    Genetically modified (GM) crops were first introduced to farmers in 1995 with the intent to provide better crop yield and meet the increasing demand for food and feed. GM crops have evolved to include a thorough safety evaluation for their use in human food and animal feed. Safety considerations begin at the level of DNA whereby the inserted GM DNA is evaluated for its content, position and stability once placed into the crop genome. The safety of the proteins coded by the inserted DNA and potential effects on the crop are considered, and the purpose is to ensure that the transgenic novel proteins are safe from a toxicity, allergy, and environmental perspective. In addition, the grain that provides the processed food or animal feed is also tested to evaluate its nutritional content and identify unintended effects to the plant composition when warranted. To provide a platform for the safety assessment, the GM crop is compared to non-GM comparators in what is typically referred to as composition equivalence testing. New technologies, such as mass spectrometry and well-designed antibody-based methods, allow better analytical measurements of crop composition, including endogenous allergens. Many of the analytical methods and their intended uses are based on regulatory guidance documents, some of which are outlined in globally recognized documents such as Codex Alimentarius. In certain cases, animal models are recommended by some regulatory agencies in specific countries, but there is typically no hypothesis or justification of their use in testing the safety of GM crops. The quality and standardization of testing methods can be supported, in some cases, by employing good laboratory practices (GLP) and is recognized in China as important to ensure quality data. Although the number of recommended, in some cases, required methods for safety testing are increasing in some regulatory agencies, it should be noted that GM crops registered to date have been shown to be

  18. 2009 NASA Range Safety Annual Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    This year, NASA Range Safety transitioned to a condensed annual report to allow for Secretariat support to the Range Safety Group, Risk Committee. Although much shorter than in previous years, this report contains full-length articles concerning various subject areas, as well as links to past reports. Additionally, summaries from various NASA Range Safety Program activities that took place throughout the year are presented, as well as information on several projects that may have a profound impact on the way business will be done in the future. The sections include a program overview and 2009 highlights; Range Safety Training; Range Safety Policy; Independent Assessments Support to Program Operations at all ranges conducting NASA launch operations; a continuing overview of emerging range safety-related technologies; and status reports from all of the NASA Centers that have Range Safety responsibilities.

  19. Novel Features for Brain-Computer Interfaces

    PubMed Central

    Woon, W. L.; Cichocki, A.

    2007-01-01

    While conventional approaches of BCI feature extraction are based on the power spectrum, we have tried using nonlinear features for classifying BCI data. In this paper, we report our test results and findings, which indicate that the proposed method is a potentially useful addition to current feature extraction techniques. PMID:18364991

  20. Car Seat Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Car Seat Safety KidsHealth > For Parents > Car Seat Safety ... certified child passenger safety technician.) Guidelines for Choosing Car Seats Choose a seat with a label that ...

  1. Surveying Science Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerlovich, Jack A.; Parsa, Rahul

    2002-01-01

    Reports the results of a National Science Teachers Association (NSTA) study that analyzed science classroom safety. Examines the potential need for a national safety indexing system to rank states with regard to science safety. (DDR)

  2. Medical Device Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Medical Devices Medical Device Safety Medical Device Safety Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... 17 More Medical Device Recalls Recent Medical Device Safety Communications FDA analyses and recommendations for patients and ...

  3. 78 FR 59906 - Pipeline Safety: Class Location Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-30

    ... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 192 Pipeline Safety: Class Location... Register on ``Class Location Requirements,'' seeking comments on whether integrity management program (IMP... gas transmission pipeline facilities, whether applying IMP requirements to additional areas...

  4. Bromine Safety

    SciTech Connect

    Meyers, B

    2001-04-09

    The production and handling in 1999 of about 200 million kilograms of bromine plus substantial derivatives thereof by Great Lakes Chemical Corp. and Albemarle Corporation in their southern Arkansas refineries gave OSHA Occupational Injury/Illness Rates (OIIR) in the range of 0.74 to 1.60 reportable OIIRs per 200,000 man hours. OIIRs for similar industries and a wide selection of other U.S. industries range from 1.6 to 23.9 in the most recent OSHA report. Occupational fatalities for the two companies in 1999 were zero compared to a range in the U.S.of zero for all computer manufacturing to 0.0445 percent for all of agriculture, forestry and fishing in the most recent OSHA report. These results show that bromine and its compounds can be considered as safe chemicals as a result of the bromine safety standards and practices at the two companies. The use of hydrobromic acid as an electrical energy storage medium in reversible PEM fuel cells is discussed. A study in 1979 of 20 megawatt halogen working fluid power plants by Oronzio de Nora Group found such energy to cost 2 to 2.5 times the prevailing base rate at that time. New conditions may reduce this relative cost. The energy storage aspect allows energy delivery at maximum demand times where the energy commands premium rates. The study also found marginal cost and performance advantages for hydrobromic acid over hydrochloric acid working fluid. Separate studies in the late 70s by General Electric also showed marginal performance advantages for hydrobromic acid.

  5. Insulin pump safety meeting: summary report.

    PubMed

    Klonoff, David C; Reyes, Juliet S

    2009-03-01

    Diabetes Technology Society convened a panel of insulin pump experts in Bethesda, Maryland, on November 12, 2008, at the request of the Food and Drug Administration. The group consisted of physicians, nurses, diabetes educators, and engineers from across the United States. The panel members (1) discussed safety features of insulin pump therapy and (2) recommended adjustments to current insulin pump design and use to enhance overall safety. Software and hardware features of insulin pumps were analyzed from engineering, medical, nursing, and pump-user perspectives. The meeting was divided into four sections: (1) Engineering Safety-Designing Software and Hardware for Insulin Pump Therapy; (2) Patient Safety-Selecting Patients and Clinical Settings for Insulin Pump Use; (3) Clinical Safety-Determining and Delivering Insulin Dosages Using Insulin Pump Therapy; and (4) Personal Experiences-A Panel Discussion about Insulin Pump Safety. Six aspects of insulin pump technology were noted to present potential safety problems: (1) software, (2) wireless communication, (3) hardware, (4) alarms, (5) human factors, and (6) bolus-dose calculation. There was consensus among meeting participants that insulin pump therapy is beneficial in patients of all ages and that insulin pump safety must be assured through careful regulation.

  6. Evaluation of certain food additives and contaminants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) met in Rome from 14 to 23 June 2011. The purpose of the committee was to provide the Codex Alimentarius Commission access with objective advice on high priority food safety matters. Specifically, the tasks before the Committee were: i) t...

  7. Clinica use of platelet additive solutions.

    PubMed

    van Rhenen, Dick J

    2007-12-01

    Randomised clinical trial (RCT) to study the clinical efficacy and safety of new platelet products using platelet additive solutions are scarce. In this paper a number of recent RCT's is discussed. It can be the start of a development where new transfusion products enter a RCT before the product is applied in clinical practice.

  8. Overview of Energy Systems` safety analysis report programs. Safety Analysis Report Update Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    The primary purpose of an Safety Analysis Report (SAR) is to provide a basis for judging the adequacy of a facility`s safety. The SAR documents the safety analyses that systematically identify the hazards posed by the facility, analyze the consequences and risk of potential accidents, and describe hazard control measures that protect the health and safety of the public and employees. In addition, some SARs document, as Technical Safety Requirements (TSRs, which include Technical Specifications and Operational Safety Requirements), technical and administrative requirements that ensure the facility is operated within prescribed safety limits. SARs also provide conveniently summarized information that may be used to support procedure development, training, inspections, and other activities necessary to facility operation. This ``Overview of Energy Systems Safety Analysis Report Programs`` Provides an introduction to the programs and processes used in the development and maintenance of the SARs. It also summarizes some of the uses of the SARs within Energy Systems and DOE.

  9. Consumer Product Safety Commission

    MedlinePlus

    ... VIDEOS REPORTS Related Links Recalls Safety Education Regulations, Laws & Standards Research & Statistics Business & Manufacturing Small Business Resources OnSafety Blogs International Newsroom ...

  10. Farm Health and Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... jobs in the United States. Farms have many health and safety hazards, including Chemicals and pesticides Machinery, ... equipment can also reduce accidents. Occupational Safety and Health Administration

  11. Nuclear criticality safety guide

    SciTech Connect

    Pruvost, N.L.; Paxton, H.C.

    1996-09-01

    This technical reference document cites information related to nuclear criticality safety principles, experience, and practice. The document also provides general guidance for criticality safety personnel and regulators.

  12. Allergic and immunologic reactions to food additives.

    PubMed

    Gultekin, Fatih; Doguc, Duygu Kumbul

    2013-08-01

    For centuries, food additives have been used for flavouring, colouring and extension of the useful shelf life of food, as well as the promotion of food safety. During the last 20 years, the studies implicating the additives contained in foods and medicine as a causative factor of allergic reactions have been proliferated considerably. In this review, we aimed to overview all of the food additives which were approved to consume in EU and find out how common and serious allergic reactions come into existence following the consuming of food additives.

  13. Food safety security: a new concept for enhancing food safety measures.

    PubMed

    Iyengar, Venkatesh; Elmadfa, Ibrahim

    2012-06-01

    The food safety security (FSS) concept is perceived as an early warning system for minimizing food safety (FS) breaches, and it functions in conjunction with existing FS measures. Essentially, the function of FS and FSS measures can be visualized in two parts: (i) the FS preventive measures as actions taken at the stem level, and (ii) the FSS interventions as actions taken at the root level, to enhance the impact of the implemented safety steps. In practice, along with FS, FSS also draws its support from (i) legislative directives and regulatory measures for enforcing verifiable, timely, and effective compliance; (ii) measurement systems in place for sustained quality assurance; and (iii) shared responsibility to ensure cohesion among all the stakeholders namely, policy makers, regulators, food producers, processors and distributors, and consumers. However, the functional framework of FSS differs from that of FS by way of: (i) retooling the vulnerable segments of the preventive features of existing FS measures; (ii) fine-tuning response systems to efficiently preempt the FS breaches; (iii) building a long-term nutrient and toxicant surveillance network based on validated measurement systems functioning in real time; (iv) focusing on crisp, clear, and correct communication that resonates among all the stakeholders; and (v) developing inter-disciplinary human resources to meet ever-increasing FS challenges. Important determinants of FSS include: (i) strengthening international dialogue for refining regulatory reforms and addressing emerging risks; (ii) developing innovative and strategic action points for intervention {in addition to Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) procedures]; and (iii) introducing additional science-based tools such as metrology-based measurement systems.

  14. Vision Zero--a road safety policy innovation.

    PubMed

    Belin, Matts-Åke; Tillgren, Per; Vedung, Evert

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine Sweden's Vision Zero road safety policy. In particular, the paper focuses on how safety issues were framed, which decisions were made, and what are the distinctive features of Vision Zero. The analysis reveals that the decision by the Swedish Parliament to adopt Vision Zero as Sweden's road safety policy was a radical innovation. The policy is different in kind from traditional traffic safety policy with regard to problem formulation, its view on responsibility, its requirements for the safety of road users, and the ultimate objective of road safety work. The paper briefly examines the implications of these findings for national and global road safety efforts that aspire to achieving innovative road safety policies in line with the Decade of Action for Road Safety 2011-2020, declared by the United Nations General Assembly in March 2010.

  15. Features of spherical torus plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, Y.K.M.; Strickler, D.J.

    1985-12-01

    The spherical torus is a very small aspect ratio (A < 2) confinement concept obtained by retaining only the indispensable components inboard to the plasma torus. MHD equilibrium calculations show that spherical torus plasmas with safety factor q > 2 are characterized by high toroidal beta (..beta../sub t/ > 0.2), low poloidal beta (..beta../sub p/ < 0.3), naturally large elongation (kappa greater than or equal to 2), large plasma current with I/sub p//(aB/sub t0/) up to about 7 MA/mT, strong paramagnetism (B/sub t//B/sub t0/ > 1.5), and strong plasma helicity (F comparable to THETA). A large near-omnigeneous region is seen at the large-major-radius, bad-curvature region of the plasma in comparison with the conventional tokamaks. These features combine to engender the spherical torus plasma in a unique physics regime which permits compact fusion at low field and modest cost. Because of its strong paramagnetism and helicity, the spherical torus plasma shares some of the desirable features of spheromak and reversed-field pinch (RFP) plasmas, but with tokamak-like confinement and safety factor q. The general class of spherical tori, which includes the spherical tokamak (q > 1), the spherical pinch (1 > q > O), and the spherical RFP (q < O), have magnetic field configurations unique in comparison with conventional tokamaks and RFPs. 22 refs., 12 figs.

  16. 21 CFR 170.38 - Determination of food additive status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Determination of food additive status. 170.38... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES Food Additive Safety § 170.38 Determination of food additive status. (a) The Commissioner may, in accordance with § 170.35(b)(4) or...

  17. 21 CFR 170.38 - Determination of food additive status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Determination of food additive status. 170.38... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES Food Additive Safety § 170.38 Determination of food additive status. (a) The Commissioner may, in accordance with § 170.35(b)(4) or...

  18. 21 CFR 170.38 - Determination of food additive status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Determination of food additive status. 170.38 Section 170.38 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES Food Additive Safety § 170.38 Determination of food additive status. (a)...

  19. Seniors' perceptions of vehicle safety risks and needs.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Lynn; Polgar, Jan Miller; Vrkljan, Brenda; Jacobson, Jill

    2010-01-01

    The investigation of vehicle safety needs for older drivers and passengers is integral for their safe transportation. A program of research on safe transportation for seniors was launched through AUTO21, a Canadian Network of Centres of Excellence. This national research network focuses on a wide range of automotive issues, from materials and design to safety and societal issues. An inductive qualitative inquiry of seniors' driving experiences, safety feature use, and strategies to prevent injury and manage risks was a first step in this program. We conducted interviews and focus groups with 58 seniors without disabilities and 9 seniors with disabilities. We identified a lack of congruity between the vehicle and safety feature design and seniors' needs. Seniors described strategies to manage their safety and that of others. Specific aspects of vehicle design, safety features, and action strategies that support safer use and operation of a vehicle by seniors are outlined.

  20. 10 CFR 35.410 - Safety instruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Safety instruction. 35.410 Section 35.410 Energy NUCLEAR... addition to the requirements of § 19.12 of this chapter, (a) The licensee shall provide radiation safety instruction, initially and at least annually, to personnel caring for patients or human research subjects...

  1. 10 CFR 35.410 - Safety instruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Safety instruction. 35.410 Section 35.410 Energy NUCLEAR... addition to the requirements of § 19.12 of this chapter, (a) The licensee shall provide radiation safety instruction, initially and at least annually, to personnel caring for patients or human research subjects...

  2. 10 CFR 35.410 - Safety instruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Safety instruction. 35.410 Section 35.410 Energy NUCLEAR... addition to the requirements of § 19.12 of this chapter, (a) The licensee shall provide radiation safety instruction, initially and at least annually, to personnel caring for patients or human research subjects...

  3. Additive Similarity Trees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sattath, Shmuel; Tversky, Amos

    1977-01-01

    Tree representations of similarity data are investigated. Hierarchical clustering is critically examined, and a more general procedure, called the additive tree, is presented. The additive tree representation is then compared to multidimensional scaling. (Author/JKS)

  4. Designing using manufacturing features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szecsi, T.; Hoque, A. S. M.

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents a design system that enables the composition of a part using manufacturing features. Features are selected from feature libraries. Upon insertion, the system ensures that the feature does not contradict the design-for-manufacture rules. This helps eliminating costly manufacturing problems. The system is developed as an extension to a commercial CAD/CAM system Pro/Engineer.

  5. Safety assessment in plant layout design using indexing approach: implementing inherent safety perspective. Part 1 - guideword applicability and method description.

    PubMed

    Tugnoli, Alessandro; Khan, Faisal; Amyotte, Paul; Cozzani, Valerio

    2008-12-15

    Layout planning plays a key role in the inherent safety performance of process plants since this design feature controls the possibility of accidental chain-events and the magnitude of possible consequences. A lack of suitable methods to promote the effective implementation of inherent safety in layout design calls for the development of new techniques and methods. In the present paper, a safety assessment approach suitable for layout design in the critical early phase is proposed. The concept of inherent safety is implemented within this safety assessment; the approach is based on an integrated assessment of inherent safety guideword applicability within the constraints typically present in layout design. Application of these guidewords is evaluated along with unit hazards and control devices to quantitatively map the safety performance of different layout options. Moreover, the economic aspects related to safety and inherent safety are evaluated by the method. Specific sub-indices are developed within the integrated safety assessment system to analyze and quantify the hazard related to domino effects. The proposed approach is quick in application, auditable and shares a common framework applicable in other phases of the design lifecycle (e.g. process design). The present work is divided in two parts: Part 1 (current paper) presents the application of inherent safety guidelines in layout design and the index method for safety assessment; Part 2 (accompanying paper) describes the domino hazard sub-index and demonstrates the proposed approach with a case study, thus evidencing the introduction of inherent safety features in layout design.

  6. Fleet Safety

    PubMed Central

    Hammer, Brian S.; Pratt, Stephanie G.; Ross, Peggy

    2015-01-01

    Millions of U.S. workers are at risk for a work-related motor vehicle crash. Fatality data show that across all industries, motor vehicle crashes are consistently the leading cause of work-related fatalities. Of 43,025 work-related fatalities reported by BLS between 2003 and 2010, 10,202 were the result of single- or multiple-vehicle crashes of workers driving or riding in a vehicle on a public roadway, and 2,707 were pedestrian workers struck by a motor vehicle. During the same period, an additional 2,487 workers died in crashes that occurred off a public roadway or on industrial premises (BLS, 2013). PMID:26251557

  7. Nuclear Powerplant Safety: Operations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC. Nuclear Energy Office.

    Powerplant systems and procedures that ensure the day-to-day health and safety of people in and around the plant is referred to as operational safety. This safety is the result of careful planning, good engineering and design, strict licensing and regulation, and environmental monitoring. Procedures that assure operational safety at nuclear…

  8. Safety Standards for Projectors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyman, Raymond

    1979-01-01

    The safety of projectors and related viewing devices for school, home, and business use is of paramount importance. The Advisory Committee on Safety (ACOS) of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) has established a working group to consider the problem of projector safety and to make recommendations for safety standards. (CMV)

  9. School Bus Safety Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    This publication provides a summary and update of school bus-safety activities conducted by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA). This report discusses Congressional mandates and NHTSA's actions to improve school-bus safety (which include programs that affect human behavior and motor-vehicle safety performance), the magnitude…

  10. Infusing Reliability Techniques into Software Safety Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shi, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Software safety analysis for a large software intensive system is always a challenge. Software safety practitioners need to ensure that software related hazards are completely identified, controlled, and tracked. This paper discusses in detail how to incorporate the traditional reliability techniques into the entire software safety analysis process. In addition, this paper addresses how information can be effectively shared between the various practitioners involved in the software safety analyses. The author has successfully applied the approach to several aerospace applications. Examples are provided to illustrate the key steps of the proposed approach.

  11. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, J. R.; St. Clair, T. L.; Burks, H. D.; Stoakley, D. M.

    1987-01-01

    A method has been found for enhancing the melt flow of thermoplastic polyimides during processing. A high molecular weight 422 copoly(amic acid) or copolyimide was fused with approximately 0.05 to 5 pct by weight of a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive, and this melt was studied by capillary rheometry. Excellent flow and improved composite properties on graphite resulted from the addition of a PMDA-aniline additive to LARC-TPI. Solution viscosity studies imply that amic acid additives temporarily lower molecular weight and, hence, enlarge the processing window. Thus, compositions containing the additive have a lower melt viscosity for a longer time than those unmodified.

  12. Launch Services Safety Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loftin, Charles E.

    2008-01-01

    NASA/KSC Launch Services Division Safety (SA-D) services include: (1) Assessing the safety of the launch vehicle (2) Assessing the safety of NASA ELV spacecraft (S/C) / launch vehicle (LV) interfaces (3) Assessing the safety of spacecraft processing to ensure resource protection of: - KSC facilities - KSC VAFB facilities - KSC controlled property - Other NASA assets (4) NASA personnel safety (5) Interfacing with payload organizations to review spacecraft for adequate safety implementation and compliance for integrated activities (6) Assisting in the integration of safety activities between the payload, launch vehicle, and processing facilities

  13. Outdoor Lighting: A Showcase of Safety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modern Schools, 1973

    1973-01-01

    Creative, constructive night lighting can, in addition to deterring vandalism, beautify parking lots, recreation fields, entrances, grassy areas, walkways, and driveways of schools; and provide safety for those using the facilities after dark. (Author)

  14. Hanford patrol firing range complex safety assessment document

    SciTech Connect

    BENDIXSEN, R.B.

    2001-09-19

    The Hanford Patrol conducts firearms training at the Hanford Patrol Training Academy located on the Hanford Site. The firearms safety training program is a requirement mandated by DOE 0 440.1A. The Order has been issued to provide standards and procedures for the safe use of firearms by DOE and contractor personnel involved in performing DOE activities at DOE installations. Additionally, DOE 0 440.1A requires that a safety analysis be prepared on the facilities and the operations of each live-fire range. Armed protective forces are required at those DOE Security areas that represent a target for radiological or toxicological sabotage (DOE Order 473.2, Protective Force Program). Hanford Patrol personnel are required to be proficient in the basic tactics necessary to engage and neutralize armed adversaries (DOE Manual 473.2-2). In particular, Special Response Teams (SRTs) must be able to operate as mobile, disciplined response teams in order to engage and defeat adversaries with advanced capabilities. The TTF will provide the necessary facilities to support this mandated training and periodic requalification of Security Police Officer III personnel onsite, reducing the costs associated with frequent travel to an offsite facility. The TTF is designed to simulate the structure of a facility or office building. The facility will be used by selected personnel in safely developing and maintaining precision shooting and tactical movement skills through the firing of live ammunition within a discriminatory target environment. This assessment is qualitative and focuses on the established controls that ensure the safe operation of the TTF. These controls include (1) design features of the TTF; (2 ) policies; (3) procedures; (4) training, qualification, and certification requirements; and (5) management oversight. This qualitative approach is consistent with safety analyses conducted for similar facilities at the DOE Central Training Academy (Kolman 1989, A Selective Safety

  15. 16 CFR 1211.9 - Additional entrapment protection requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR AUTOMATIC RESIDENTIAL GARAGE DOOR OPERATORS The Standard § 1211.9 Additional entrapment protection requirements. (a) A means to manually detach the door operator from the door shall be supplied. The gripping surface (handle) shall be colored red and shall be...

  16. 16 CFR 1211.9 - Additional entrapment protection requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR AUTOMATIC RESIDENTIAL GARAGE DOOR OPERATORS The Standard § 1211.9 Additional entrapment protection requirements. (a) A means to manually detach the door operator from the door shall be supplied. The gripping surface (handle) shall be colored red and shall be...

  17. Explosives Safety Training

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-13

    Safety Awareness in NATO and Multi- National Operations *Explosives Safety “ Rosetta Stone ” *under development Distance Learning/ Instructor-Led Training...and Multi- National Operations *Explosives Safety “ Rosetta Stone ” Ammo-18 (Basics of Naval Explosives Hazard Control) Ammo-29 (Electrical Explosives...National Operations *Explosives Safety “ Rosetta Stone ” Ammo-47 (Lightning Protection for Air Force Facilities) *Explosives Safety Awareness in NATO and

  18. Microbiological Food Safety Surveillance in China.

    PubMed

    Pei, Xiaoyan; Li, Ning; Guo, Yunchang; Liu, Xiumei; Yan, Lin; Li, Ying; Yang, Shuran; Hu, Jing; Zhu, Jianghui; Yang, Dajin

    2015-08-28

    Microbiological food safety surveillance is a system that collects data regarding food contamination by foodborne pathogens, parasites, viruses, and other harmful microbiological factors. It helps to understand the spectrum of food safety, timely detect food safety hazards, and provide relevant data for food safety supervision, risk assessment, and standards-setting. The study discusses the microbiological surveillance of food safety in China, and introduces the policies and history of the national microbiological surveillance system. In addition, the function and duties of different organizations and institutions are provided in this work, as well as the generation and content of the surveillance plan, quality control, database, and achievement of the microbiological surveillance of food safety in China.

  19. Hot Cell Facility (HCF) Safety Analysis Report

    SciTech Connect

    MITCHELL,GERRY W.; LONGLEY,SUSAN W.; PHILBIN,JEFFREY S.; MAHN,JEFFREY A.; BERRY,DONALD T.; SCHWERS,NORMAN F.; VANDERBEEK,THOMAS E.; NAEGELI,ROBERT E.

    2000-11-01

    This Safety Analysis Report (SAR) is prepared in compliance with the requirements of DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports, and has been written to the format and content guide of DOE-STD-3009-94 Preparation Guide for U. S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports. The Hot Cell Facility is a Hazard Category 2 nonreactor nuclear facility, and is operated by Sandia National Laboratories for the Department of Energy. This SAR provides a description of the HCF and its operations, an assessment of the hazards and potential accidents which may occur in the facility. The potential consequences and likelihood of these accidents are analyzed and described. Using the process and criteria described in DOE-STD-3009-94, safety-related structures, systems and components are identified, and the important safety functions of each SSC are described. Additionally, information which describes the safety management programs at SNL are described in ancillary chapters of the SAR.

  20. Safety assessment in plant layout design using indexing approach: implementing inherent safety perspective. Part 2-Domino Hazard Index and case study.

    PubMed

    Tugnoli, Alessandro; Khan, Faisal; Amyotte, Paul; Cozzani, Valerio

    2008-12-15

    The design of layout plans requires adequate assessment tools for the quantification of safety performance. The general focus of the present work is to introduce an inherent safety perspective at different points of the layout design process. In particular, index approaches for safety assessment and decision-making in the early stages of layout design are developed and discussed in this two-part contribution. Part 1 (accompanying paper) of the current work presents an integrated index approach for safety assessment of early plant layout. In the present paper (Part 2), an index for evaluation of the hazard related to the potential of domino effects is developed. The index considers the actual consequences of possible escalation scenarios and scores or ranks the subsequent accident propagation potential. The effects of inherent and passive protection measures are also assessed. The result is a rapid quantification of domino hazard potential that can provide substantial support for choices in the early stages of layout design. Additionally, a case study concerning selection among various layout options is presented and analyzed. The case study demonstrates the use and applicability of the indices developed in both parts of the current work and highlights the value of introducing inherent safety features early in layout design.

  1. Taking ownership of safety. What are the active ingredients of safety coaching and how do they impact safety outcomes in critical offshore working environments?

    PubMed

    Krauesslar, Victoria; Avery, Rachel E; Passmore, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Safety coaching interventions have become a common feature in the safety critical offshore working environments of the North Sea. Whilst the beneficial impact of coaching as an organizational tool has been evidenced, there remains a question specifically over the use of safety coaching and its impact on behavioural change and producing safe working practices. A series of 24 semi-structured interviews were conducted with three groups of experts in the offshore industry: safety coaches, offshore managers and HSE directors. Using a thematic analysis approach, several significant themes were identified across the three expert groups including connecting with and creating safety ownership in the individual, personal significance and humanisation, ingraining safety and assessing and measuring a safety coach's competence. Results suggest clear utility of safety coaching when applied by safety coaches with appropriate coach training and understanding of safety issues in an offshore environment. The current work has found that the use of safety coaching in the safety critical offshore oil and gas industry is a powerful tool in managing and promoting a culture of safety and care.

  2. Skin and Sun — Safety First | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Skin Cancer Skin and Sun – Safety First Past Issues / Summer 2013 ... time you're out in the sun. Good skin care begins with sun safety. Whether it is ...

  3. Workplace Safety and Health Topics: Safety & Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... Equipment Design in Mining Ergonomic Interventions in the Building, Repair, and Dismantling of Ships Eye Safety Fall Injuries Prevention Green, Safe, and Healthy Jobs - Prevention through Design Hierarchy ...

  4. AP1000{sup R} nuclear power plant safety overview for spent fuel cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Gorgemans, J.; Mulhollem, L.; Glavin, J.; Pfister, A.; Conway, L.; Schulz, T.; Oriani, L.; Cummins, E.; Winters, J.

    2012-07-01

    The AP1000{sup R} plant is an 1100-MWe class pressurized water reactor with passive safety features and extensive plant simplifications that enhance construction, operation, maintenance, safety and costs. The AP1000 design uses passive features to mitigate design basis accidents. The passive safety systems are designed to function without safety-grade support systems such as AC power, component cooling water, service water or HVAC. Furthermore, these passive features 'fail safe' during a non-LOCA event such that DC power and instrumentation are not required. The AP1000 also has simple, active, defense-in-depth systems to support normal plant operations. These active systems provide the first level of defense against more probable events and they provide investment protection, reduce the demands on the passive features and support the probabilistic risk assessment. The AP1000 passive safety approach allows the plant to achieve and maintain safe shutdown in case of an accident for 72 hours without operator action, meeting the expectations provided in the U.S. Utility Requirement Document and the European Utility Requirements for passive plants. Limited operator actions are required to maintain safe conditions in the spent fuel pool via passive means. In line with the AP1000 approach to safety described above, the AP1000 plant design features multiple, diverse lines of defense to ensure spent fuel cooling can be maintained for design-basis events and beyond design-basis accidents. During normal and abnormal conditions, defense-in-depth and other systems provide highly reliable spent fuel pool cooling. They rely on off-site AC power or the on-site standby diesel generators. For unlikely design basis events with an extended loss of AC power (i.e., station blackout) or loss of heat sink or both, spent fuel cooling can still be provided indefinitely: - Passive systems, requiring minimal or no operator actions, are sufficient for at least 72 hours under all possible pool

  5. [Innovative technology and blood safety].

    PubMed

    Begue, S; Morel, P; Djoudi, R

    2016-11-01

    If technological innovations are not enough alone to improve blood safety, their contributions for several decades in blood transfusion are major. The improvement of blood donation (new apheresis devices, RFID) or blood components (additive solutions, pathogen reduction technology, automated processing of platelets concentrates) or manufacturing process of these products (by automated processing of whole blood), all these steps where technological innovations were implemented, lead us to better traceability, more efficient processes, quality improvement of blood products and therefore increased blood safety for blood donors and patients. If we are on the threshold of a great change with the progress of pathogen reduction technology (for whole blood and red blood cells), we hope to see production of ex vivo red blood cells or platelets who are real and who open new conceptual paths on blood safety.

  6. 21 CFR 170.22 - Safety factors to be considered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 170.22 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES Food Additive Safety § 170.22 Safety factors to... experimentation data to man of 100 to 1, will be used; that is, a food additive for use by man will not be...

  7. 21 CFR 170.22 - Safety factors to be considered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 170.22 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES Food Additive Safety § 170.22 Safety factors to... experimentation data to man of 100 to 1, will be used; that is, a food additive for use by man will not be...

  8. 21 CFR 170.22 - Safety factors to be considered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 170.22 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES Food Additive Safety § 170.22 Safety factors to... experimentation data to man of 100 to 1, will be used; that is, a food additive for use by man will not be...

  9. Safety Critical Mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, Brandan

    2008-01-01

    Spaceflight mechanisms have a reputation for being difficult to develop and operate successfully. This reputation is well earned. Many circumstances conspire to make this so: the environments in which the mechanisms are used are extremely severe, there is usually limited or no maintenance opportunity available during operation due to this environment, the environments are difficult to replicate accurately on the ground, the expense of the mechanism development makes it impractical to build and test many units for long periods of time before use, mechanisms tend to be highly specialized and not prone to interchangeability or off-the-shelf use, they can generate and store a lot of energy, and the nature of mechanisms themselves, as a combination of structures, electronics, etc. designed to accomplish specific dynamic performance, makes them very complex and subject to many unpredictable interactions of many types. In addition to their complexities, mechanism are often counted upon to provide critical vehicle functions that can result in catastrophic events should the functions not be performed. It is for this reason that mechanisms are frequently subjected to special scrutiny in safety processes. However, a failure tolerant approach, along with good design and development practices and detailed design reviews, can be developed to allow such notoriously troublesome mechanisms to be utilized confidently in safety-critical applications.

  10. Polylactides in additive biomanufacturing.

    PubMed

    Poh, Patrina S P; Chhaya, Mohit P; Wunner, Felix M; De-Juan-Pardo, Elena M; Schilling, Arndt F; Schantz, Jan-Thorsten; van Griensven, Martijn; Hutmacher, Dietmar W

    2016-12-15

    New advanced manufacturing technologies under the alias of additive biomanufacturing allow the design and fabrication of a range of products from pre-operative models, cutting guides and medical devices to scaffolds. The process of printing in 3 dimensions of cells, extracellular matrix (ECM) and biomaterials (bioinks, powders, etc.) to generate in vitro and/or in vivo tissue analogue structures has been termed bioprinting. To further advance in additive biomanufacturing, there are many aspects that we can learn from the wider additive manufacturing (AM) industry, which have progressed tremendously since its introduction into the manufacturing sector. First, this review gives an overview of additive manufacturing and both industry and academia efforts in addressing specific challenges in the AM technologies to drive toward AM-enabled industrial revolution. After which, considerations of poly(lactides) as a biomaterial in additive biomanufacturing are discussed. Challenges in wider additive biomanufacturing field are discussed in terms of (a) biomaterials; (b) computer-aided design, engineering and manufacturing; (c) AM and additive biomanufacturing printers hardware; and (d) system integration. Finally, the outlook for additive biomanufacturing was discussed.

  11. Additive Manufactured Product Integrity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waller, Jess; Wells, Doug; James, Steve; Nichols, Charles

    2017-01-01

    NASA is providing key leadership in an international effort linking NASA and non-NASA resources to speed adoption of additive manufacturing (AM) to meet NASA's mission goals. Participants include industry, NASA's space partners, other government agencies, standards organizations and academia. Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) is identified as a universal need for all aspects of additive manufacturing.

  12. Recommended research on LNG safety

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, H.J.; Gilmore, F.R.

    1981-03-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting research on the safety and other environmental aspects of liquefied energy gases including liquefied natural gas (LNG). The effort reported here was conducted as part of the planning for further research into the safety aspects of transporting and storing LNG, with primary emphasis on public safety. Although the modern LNG industry has enjoyed excellent success in providing for safe operations, significant questions remain on the part of many, the expressions of which were intensified with the addition of marine-based LNG import terminals. Public safety with regard to large-scale importation of this fuel has received widespread attention in the US Congress, state legislatures, county and city governments, and from various individuals and public groups, with coverage in all the news media, including books published on the subject. The safety concerns have centered around the consequences to the public of a large spill of the cryogenic liquid from an ocean tanker or a larger storage tank, either of which might hold as much as 125,000 m/sup 3/ of LNG.

  13. [Nanotechnology and food safety].

    PubMed

    Baltes, Muriel H

    2008-03-01

    Nanotechnology has a very broad scope with numerous opportunities. This is particularly true as far as the food sector is concerned. In addition to being used to enhance the safety and attractiveness of foodstuffs as well as their health value, nanotechnology can be imple mented to increase their shelf life and to create new flavours. The appearance of this new technology and its use raise the question of the risks involved in exposing the body to nanoparticles. In this report, the Superior Health Council discusses the potential risks posed by nanoparticles. It also looks at the evaluation of these risks as well as the recommendations that need to be made whilst awaiting in-depth studies on the subject, especially in the field of metrology.

  14. Transportation Safety Excellence in Operations Through Improved Transportation Safety Document

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Michael A. Lehto; MAL

    2007-05-01

    requirements with waste requirements. MFC’s efforts illustrate that utilizing the requirements of other disciplines, beyond nuclear safety, can provide an efficient process. Analyzing current processes to find better ways of meeting the requirements of multiple disciplines within a safety basis can lead to a more cost-effective, streamlined process. 2) Incorporating the DOT Type A drums into the MFC TSD was efficient because safety analysts utilized a transportation plan that provided analysis that could also be used for the change to the TSD addendum. In addition, because the plan they used had already been approved and was in use by the Idaho Cleanup Project (ICP) at the INL, justification for the change to the TSD was more compelling. MFC safety analysts proved that streamlining a process can be made more feasible by drawing from analysis that has already been completed.

  15. Range Safety Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schrock, Kenneth W.; Humphries, Ricky H. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The high kinetic and potential energy of a launch vehicle mandates there be a mechanism to minimize possible damage to provide adequate safety for the launch facilities, range, and, most importantly, the general public. The Range Safety System, sometimes called the Flight Termination System or Flight Safety System, provides the required level of safety. The Range Safety System section of the Avionics chapter will attempt to describe how adequate safety is provided, the system's design, operation, and it's interface with the rest of the launch vehicle.

  16. Driver perceptions of the safety implications of quiet electric vehicles.

    PubMed

    Cocron, Peter; Krems, Josef F

    2013-09-01

    Previous research on the safety implications of quiet electric vehicles (EVs) has mostly focused on pedestrians' acoustic perception of EVs, and suggests that EVs are more difficult for pedestrians to hear and, therefore, compromise traffic safety. The two German field studies presented here examine the experiences of 70 drivers with low noise emissions of EVs and the drivers' long-term evaluation of the issue. Participants were surveyed via interviews and questionnaires before driving an EV for the first time, after 3 months of driving, and in the first study, again after 6 months. Based on participants' reports, a catalogue of safety-relevant incidents was composed in Study 1. The catalogue revealed that low noise-related critical incidents only rarely occur, and mostly take place in low-speed environments. The degree of hazard related to these incidents was rated as low to medium. In Study 1, driver concern for vulnerable road users as a result of low noise diminished with increasing driving experience, while perceived comfort due to this feature increased. These results were replicated in Study 2. In the second study, it was additionally examined, if drivers adjust their perceived risk of harming other road users over time. Results show that the affective assessment of risk also decreased with increased driving experience. Based on individual experience, drivers adjust their evaluation of noise-related hazards, suggesting that dangers associated with low noise emissions might be less significant than previously expected.

  17. 21 CFR 70.45 - Allocation of color additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Allocation of color additives. 70.45 Section 70.45 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL COLOR ADDITIVES Safety Evaluation § 70.45 Allocation of color additives. Whenever, in the consideration of...

  18. 21 CFR 70.45 - Allocation of color additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allocation of color additives. 70.45 Section 70.45 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL COLOR ADDITIVES Safety Evaluation § 70.45 Allocation of color additives. Whenever, in the consideration of...

  19. 21 CFR 70.45 - Allocation of color additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Allocation of color additives. 70.45 Section 70.45 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL COLOR ADDITIVES Safety Evaluation § 70.45 Allocation of color additives. Whenever, in the consideration of...

  20. 21 CFR 70.45 - Allocation of color additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Allocation of color additives. 70.45 Section 70.45 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL COLOR ADDITIVES Safety Evaluation § 70.45 Allocation of color additives. Whenever, in the consideration of...

  1. 21 CFR 70.45 - Allocation of color additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Allocation of color additives. 70.45 Section 70.45 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL COLOR ADDITIVES Safety Evaluation § 70.45 Allocation of color additives. Whenever, in the consideration of...

  2. 21 CFR 570.38 - Determination of food additive status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Determination of food additive status. 570.38 Section 570.38 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES Food Additive Safety §...

  3. 21 CFR 570.38 - Determination of food additive status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Determination of food additive status. 570.38 Section 570.38 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES Food Additive Safety §...

  4. 21 CFR 170.38 - Determination of food additive status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Determination of food additive status. 170.38 Section 170.38 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES Food Additive Safety § 170.38...

  5. 21 CFR 570.38 - Determination of food additive status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Determination of food additive status. 570.38 Section 570.38 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES Food Additive Safety §...

  6. 21 CFR 570.38 - Determination of food additive status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Determination of food additive status. 570.38 Section 570.38 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES Food Additive Safety §...

  7. 21 CFR 170.38 - Determination of food additive status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Determination of food additive status. 170.38 Section 170.38 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES Food Additive Safety § 170.38...

  8. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fletcher, James C. (Inventor); Pratt, J. Richard (Inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (Inventor); Burks, Harold D. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A process for preparing polyimides having enhanced melt flow properties is described. The process consists of heating a mixture of a high molecular weight poly-(amic acid) or polyimide with a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive in the range of 0.05 to 15 percent by weight of additive. The polyimide powders so obtained show improved processability, as evidenced by lower melt viscosity by capillary rheometry. Likewise, films prepared from mixtures of polymers with additives show improved processability with earlier onset of stretching by TMA.

  9. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, J. Richard (Inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (Inventor); Burks, Harold D. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A process for preparing polyimides having enhanced melt flow properties is described. The process consists of heating a mixture of a high molecular weight poly-(amic acid) or polyimide with a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive in the range of 0.05 to 15 percent by weight of the additive. The polyimide powders so obtained show improved processability, as evidenced by lower melt viscosity by capillary rheometry. Likewise, films prepared from mixtures of polymers with additives show improved processability with earlier onset of stretching by TMA.

  10. A comparison of commercial/industry and nuclear weapons safety concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, R.R.; Summers, D.A.

    1996-07-01

    In this paper the authors identify factors which influence the safety philosophy used in the US commercial/industrial sector and compare them against those factors which influence nuclear weapons safety. Commercial/industrial safety is guided by private and public safety standards. Generally, private safety standards tend to emphasize product reliability issues while public (i.e., government) safety standards tend to emphasize human factors issues. Safety in the nuclear weapons arena is driven by federal requirements and memoranda of understanding (MOUs) between the Departments of Defense and Energy. Safety is achieved through passive design features integrated into the nuclear weapon. Though the common strand between commercial/industrial and nuclear weapons safety is the minimization of risk posed to the general population (i.e., public safety), the authors found that each sector tends to employ a different safety approach to view and resolve high-consequence safety issues.

  11. Food Additives and Hyperkinesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wender, Ester H.

    1977-01-01

    The hypothesis that food additives are causally associated with hyperkinesis and learning disabilities in children is reviewed, and available data are summarized. Available from: American Medical Association 535 North Dearborn Street Chicago, Illinois 60610. (JG)

  12. Smog control fuel additives

    SciTech Connect

    Lundby, W.

    1993-06-29

    A method is described of controlling, reducing or eliminating, ozone and related smog resulting from photochemical reactions between ozone and automotive or industrial gases comprising the addition of iodine or compounds of iodine to hydrocarbon-base fuels prior to or during combustion in an amount of about 1 part iodine per 240 to 10,000,000 parts fuel, by weight, to be accomplished by: (a) the addition of these inhibitors during or after the refining or manufacturing process of liquid fuels; (b) the production of these inhibitors for addition into fuel tanks, such as automotive or industrial tanks; or (c) the addition of these inhibitors into combustion chambers of equipment utilizing solid fuels for the purpose of reducing ozone.

  13. Vocational Education Safety Instruction Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cropley, Russell, Ed.; Doherty, Susan Sloan, Ed.

    This manual describes four program areas in vocational education safety instruction: (1) introduction to a safety program; (2) resources to ensure laboratory safety; (3) safety program implementation; and (4) safety rules and safety tests. The safety rules and tests included in section four are for the most common tools and machines used in…

  14. Safety sans Frontières: An International Safety Culture Model.

    PubMed

    Reader, Tom W; Noort, Mark C; Shorrock, Steven; Kirwan, Barry

    2015-05-01

    The management of safety culture in international and culturally diverse organizations is a concern for many high-risk industries. Yet, research has primarily developed models of safety culture within Western countries, and there is a need to extend investigations of safety culture to global environments. We examined (i) whether safety culture can be reliably measured within a single industry operating across different cultural environments, and (ii) if there is an association between safety culture and national culture. The psychometric properties of a safety culture model developed for the air traffic management (ATM) industry were examined in 17 European countries from four culturally distinct regions of Europe (North, East, South, West). Participants were ATM operational staff (n = 5,176) and management staff (n = 1,230). Through employing multigroup confirmatory factor analysis, good psychometric properties of the model were established. This demonstrates, for the first time, that when safety culture models are tailored to a specific industry, they can operate consistently across national boundaries and occupational groups. Additionally, safety culture scores at both regional and national levels were associated with country-level data on Hofstede's five national culture dimensions (collectivism, power distance, uncertainty avoidance, masculinity, and long-term orientation). MANOVAs indicated safety culture to be most positive in Northern Europe, less so in Western and Eastern Europe, and least positive in Southern Europe. This indicates that national cultural traits may influence the development of organizational safety culture, with significant implications for safety culture theory and practice.

  15. Neural Net Safety Monitor Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larson, Richard R.

    2007-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) at the Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC) has been conducting flight-test research using an F-15 aircraft (figure 1). This aircraft has been specially modified to interface a neural net (NN) controller as part of a single-string Airborne Research Test System (ARTS) computer with the existing quad-redundant flight control system (FCC) shown in figure 2. The NN commands are passed to FCC channels 2 and 4 and are cross channel data linked (CCDL) to the other computers as shown. Numerous types of fault-detection monitors exist in the FCC when the NN mode is engaged; these monitors would cause an automatic disengagement of the NN in the event of a triggering fault. Unfortunately, these monitors still may not prevent a possible NN hard-over command from coming through to the control laws. Therefore, an additional and unique safety monitor was designed for a single-string source that allows authority at maximum actuator rates but protects the pilot and structural loads against excessive g-limits in the case of a NN hard-over command input. This additional monitor resides in the FCCs and is executed before the control laws are computed. This presentation describes a floating limiter (FL) concept1 that was developed and successfully test-flown for this program (figure 3). The FL computes the rate of change of the NN commands that are input to the FCC from the ARTS. A window is created with upper and lower boundaries, which is constantly floating and trying to stay centered as the NN command rates are changing. The limiter works by only allowing the window to move at a much slower rate than those of the NN commands. Anywhere within the window, however, full rates are allowed. If a rate persists in one direction, it will eventually hit the boundary and be rate-limited to the floating limiter rate. When this happens, a persistent counter begins and after a limit is reached, a NN disengage command is generated. The

  16. Feature-aided tracking (FAT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singer, Paul F.; Coursey, Amanda L.

    2004-08-01

    Association of observations and tracks is a fundamental component of most solutions to the tracking problem. Association is frequently formulated as a multiple hypothesis test. Typically, the test statistic, called the track score, is the likelihood or likelihood ratio of the observations conditioned upon the association hypotheses. Assuming that the test is reasonably efficient, further reduction in the association error probability necessitates the introduction of additional information into the track score. This additional information is embodied in quantities called track features which are to be included in the track score. In practice, the necessary conditional probabilities of the track features are unknown. The class of non-parametric hypothesis tests is designed to provide such a test in the absence of any probabilistic information about the data. However, the test statistics used in non-parametric tests cannot be used directly in the track score. The one probabilistic quantity generally available with non-parametric tests is the Type I error probability, the probability of failing to accept a true hypothesis. If the non-parametric test is distribution free then the Type I error probability is independent of the distribution of the track features. This paper presents a distribution free, non-parametric test of the track features that can be used to test the association hypotheses and a quantity that can be included in the track score is derived from the Type I error probability of the test.

  17. Motor Vehicle Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... these crashes is one part of motor vehicle safety. Here are some things you can do to ... speed or drive aggressively Don't drive impaired Safety also involves being aware of others. Share the ...

  18. Safety in Science Laboratories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education in Science, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Presents 12 amendments to the second edition of Safety in Science Laboratories. Covers topics such as regular inspection of equipment, wearing safety glasses, dating stock chemicals, and safe use of chemicals. (MA)

  19. Security vs. Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturgeon, Julie

    1999-01-01

    Provides administrative advice on how some safety experts have made college campuses safer and friendlier without breaking the budget. Tips on security and advice on safety management that encompasses the whole environment are highlighted. (GR)

  20. Spacecraft Fire Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margle, Janice M. (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    Fire detection, fire standards and testing, fire extinguishment, inerting and atmospheres, fire-related medical science, aircraft fire safety, Space Station safety concerns, microgravity combustion, spacecraft material flammability testing, and metal combustion are among the topics considered.

  1. Child Safety Seats

    MedlinePlus

    ... contacting the manufacturer, or by looking up safety complaints records on your child's safety seat at www. ... ADAM Health Solutions. About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Get email updates Subscribe to RSS Follow ...

  2. National Safety Council

    MedlinePlus

    ... Now Honor Someone Safety Awards Awards Introduction Rising Stars Workplace Safe Driver Campbell Award DSSA Green Cross ... Give Donate Now Honor Someone Safety Awards Rising Stars Workplace Safe Driver Campbell Award DSSA Green Cross ...

  3. Facility safety study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The safety of NASA's in house microelectronics facility is addressed. Industrial health standards, facility emission control requirements, operation and safety checklists, and the disposal of epitaxial vent gas are considered.

  4. FoodSafety.gov

    MedlinePlus

    ... Temperatures Food Poisoning Food Safety News for Educators Report a Problem Contaminated Carbo Load Top Searches Cumin E.Coli Salmonella Listeria Ground Turkey Botulism Tuna Stay Connected Our Partners About FoodSafety.gov ...

  5. Safety organizations and experts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandel, G.; Rubinstein, R. I.; Pinto, J. J.; Meschkow, S. Z.

    1977-01-01

    Handbook lists organizations and experts in specific, well defined areas of safety technology. Special emphasis is given to relevant safety information sources on aircraft fire hazards and aircraft interior flammability.

  6. Water safety and drowning

    MedlinePlus

    ... among people of all ages. Learning and practicing water safety is important to prevent drowning accidents. ... Water safety tips for all ages include: Learn CPR Never swim alone Never dive into water unless ...

  7. Radar SLAM using visual features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callmer, Jonas; Törnqvist, David; Gustafsson, Fredrik; Svensson, Henrik; Carlbom, Pelle

    2011-12-01

    A vessel navigating in a critical environment such as an archipelago requires very accurate movement estimates. Intentional or unintentional jamming makes GPS unreliable as the only source of information and an additional independent supporting navigation system should be used. In this paper, we suggest estimating the vessel movements using a sequence of radar images from the preexisting body-fixed radar. Island landmarks in the radar scans are tracked between multiple scans using visual features. This provides information not only about the position of the vessel but also of its course and velocity. We present here a navigation framework that requires no additional hardware than the already existing naval radar sensor. Experiments show that visual radar features can be used to accurately estimate the vessel trajectory over an extensive data set.

  8. Safety evaluation of superabsorbent baby diapers.

    PubMed

    Kosemund, Kirstin; Schlatter, Harald; Ochsenhirt, Jennifer L; Krause, Edburga L; Marsman, Daniel S; Erasala, Geetha N

    2009-03-01

    Superabsorbent disposable baby diapers are sophisticated, well-engineered products that provide many benefits including convenience, comfort, exceptional leakage protection, improved hygiene and skin care benefits compared with cloth diapers. Safety assurance is an integral part of the diaper development process at Procter & Gamble, with the goal of ensuring safety for both caregivers and babies. A systematic, stepwise approach to safety assessment starts with a thorough evaluation of new design features and materials, using the principles of general risk assessment including, as appropriate, controlled trials to assess clinical endpoints or independent scientific review of safety data. The majority of the diaper materials are polymers that are safe and do not have inherent toxicity issues. Trace amounts of non-polymeric materials, such as colorants, are assessed based on their skin contact potential. New materials or design features are introduced in marketed products only if they have been shown to be safe under the conditions of recommended or foreseeable use. The product safety continues to be confirmed after launch by means of in-market monitoring. This article provides a broad overview of human safety exposure-based risk assessment used at Procter & Gamble for absorbent hygiene products.

  9. Evaluation of certain food additives and contaminants.

    PubMed

    2013-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives and a food contaminant with a view to concluding as to safety concerns and to preparing specifications for identity and purity. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles governing the toxicological evaluation of and assessment of dietary exposure to food additives. A summary follows of the Committee's evaluations of technical, toxicological and dietary exposure data for seven food additives (advantame; glucoamylase from Trichoderma reesei expressed in Trichoderma reesei; glycerol ester of gum rosin; glycerol ester of tall oil rosin; glycerol ester of wood rosin; nisin; and octenyl succinic acid modified gum arabic) and an assessment of dietary exposure to cadmium from cocoa and cocoa products. Specifications for the following food additives were revised: annatto extracts (solvent-extracted bixin and solvent-extracted norbixin); Benzoe tonkinensis; food additives containing aluminium and/or silicon; mineral oil (medium viscosity); modified starches; paprika extract; phosphates (analytical methods for the determination of phosphorus and revision of specifications); 3-phytase from Aspergillus niger expressed in Aspergillus niger; potassium aluminium silicate; and potassium aluminium silicate-based pearlescent pigments. Annexed to the report are tables summarizing the Committee's recommendations for dietary exposures to and toxicological evaluations of the food additives and contaminant considered.

  10. Electrical safety guidelines

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    The Electrical Safety Guidelines prescribes the DOE safety standards for DOE field offices or facilities involved in the use of electrical energy. It has been prepared to provide a uniform set of electrical safety standards and guidance for DOE installations in order to affect a reduction or elimination of risks associated with the use of electrical energy. The objectives of these guidelines are to enhance electrical safety awareness and mitigate electrical hazards to employees, the public, and the environment.

  11. Aviation Safety Issues Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morello, Samuel A.; Ricks, Wendell R.

    2009-01-01

    The aviation safety issues database was instrumental in the refinement and substantiation of the National Aviation Safety Strategic Plan (NASSP). The issues database is a comprehensive set of issues from an extremely broad base of aviation functions, personnel, and vehicle categories, both nationally and internationally. Several aviation safety stakeholders such as the Commercial Aviation Safety Team (CAST) have already used the database. This broader interest was the genesis to making the database publically accessible and writing this report.

  12. Safety analysts training

    SciTech Connect

    Bolton, P.

    2000-10-01

    The purpose of this task was to support ESH-3 in providing Airborne Release Fraction and Respirable Fraction training to safety analysts at LANL who perform accident analysis, hazard analysis, safety analysis, and/or risk assessments at nuclear facilities. The task included preparation of materials for and the conduct of two 3-day training courses covering the following topics: safety analysis process; calculation model; aerosol physic concepts for safety analysis; and overview of empirically derived airborne release fractions and respirable fractions.

  13. Generic safety documentation model

    SciTech Connect

    Mahn, J.A.

    1994-04-01

    This document is intended to be a resource for preparers of safety documentation for Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico facilities. It provides standardized discussions of some topics that are generic to most, if not all, Sandia/NM facilities safety documents. The material provides a ``core`` upon which to develop facility-specific safety documentation. The use of the information in this document will reduce the cost of safety document preparation and improve consistency of information.

  14. DOE handbook electrical safety

    SciTech Connect

    1998-01-01

    Electrical Safety Handbook presents the Department of Energy (DOE) safety standards for DOE field offices or facilities involved in the use of electrical energy. It has been prepared to provide a uniform set of electrical safety guidance and information for DOE installations to effect a reduction or elimination of risks associated with the use of electrical energy. The objectives of this handbook are to enhance electrical safety awareness and mitigate electrical hazards to employees, the public, and the environment.

  15. Flexible feature interface for multimedia sources

    DOEpatents

    Coffland, Douglas R.

    2009-06-09

    A flexible feature interface for multimedia sources system that includes a single interface for the addition of features and functions to multimedia sources and for accessing those features and functions from remote hosts. The interface utilizes the export statement: export "C" D11Export void FunctionName(int argc, char ** argv,char * result, SecureSession *ctrl) or the binary equivalent of the export statement.

  16. Nuclear safety, Volume 38, Number 1, January--March 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-01

    This journal contains nine articles which fall under the following categories: (1) general safety considerations; (2) control and instrumentation; (3) design features (4) environmental effects; (5) US Nuclear Regulatory Commission information and analyses; and (6) recent developments.

  17. Development of alexithymic personality features

    PubMed Central

    Karukivi, Max; Saarijärvi, Simo

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review the current literature regarding the development of alexithymic personality features. Modern brain imaging technologies provide interesting data on the associations of alexithymia with different aberrations in brain function related to emotion regulation; however, the development of these deviations is poorly understood. A notable amount of research covers the relation of alexithymia to different environmental factors. Many of these associations, for example, with low socio-economic status and general psychopathology in childhood, are well established. However, the retrospective and cross-sectional designs commonly used in these studies, as well as the use of self-report measures, hinder the ability to firmly establish causality. Certain individual developmental factors, such as lagging speech development and congenital cardiac malformations in childhood, have been associated with the development of alexithymia. Regarding the stability of alexithymia, a systematic review of the literature was conducted for this paper. In addition to being characterized as a personality feature in the general population, alexithymia also clearly has a state-like dimension that results in increases and decreases in alexithymic features in conjunction with mental disorder symptoms. An essential question is whether the alexithymic features in adulthood are, in fact, infantile features of a restricted ability to identify and describe emotions that simply persist in individuals through adolescence to adulthood. To firmly establish the roots of alexithymia development, longitudinal studies, particularly in younger populations, are needed. Furthermore, multifaceted study settings are encouraged. PMID:25540724

  18. SNTP environmental, safety, and health

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harmon, Charles D.

    1993-01-01

    Viewgraphs on space nuclear thermal propulsion (SNTP) environmental, safety, and health are presented. Topics covered include: program safety policy; program safety policies; and DEIS public hearing comments.

  19. Evaluation of certain food additives.

    PubMed

    2009-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives, including flavouring agents, with a view to recommending acceptable daily intakes (ADIs) and to preparing specifications for identity and purity. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles governing the toxicological evaluation and assessment of intake of food additives (in particular, flavouring agents). A summary follows of the Committee's evaluations of technical, toxicological and intake data for certain food additives (asparaginase from Aspergillus niger expressed in A. niger, calcium lignosulfonate (40-65), ethyl lauroyl arginate, paprika extract, phospholipase C expressed in Pichia pastoris, phytosterols, phytostanols and their esters, polydimethylsiloxane, steviol glycosides and sulfites [assessment of dietary exposure]) and 10 groups of related flavouring agents (aliphatic branched-chain saturated and unsaturated alcohols, aldehydes, acids and related esters; aliphatic linear alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes, acids and related alcohols, acetals and esters; aliphatic secondary alcohols, ketones and related esters; alkoxy-substituted allylbenzenes present in foods and essential oils and used as flavouring agents; esters of aliphatic acyclic primary alcohols with aliphatic linear saturated carboxylic acids; furan-substituted aliphatic hydrocarbons, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids and related esters, sulfides, disulfides and ethers; miscellaneous nitrogen-containing substances; monocyclic and bicyclic secondary alcohols, ketones and related esters; hydroxy- and alkoxy-substituted benzyl derivatives; and substances structurally related to menthol). Specifications for the following food additives were revised: canthaxanthin; carob bean gum and carob bean gum (clarified); chlorophyllin copper complexes, sodium and potassium salts; Fast Green FCF; guar gum and guar gum (clarified

  20. Sports Safety - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... List of All Topics All Sports Safety - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hmong (Hmoob) Russian (Русский) Spanish (español) Vietnamese (Tiếng Việt) Hmong (Hmoob) ...

  1. Fire Safety - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Arabic (العربية) Bosnian (Bosanski) Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (español) Arabic (العربية) Fire Safety at Home English (Arabic) السلامة ...

  2. HSE's safety assessment principles for criticality safety.

    PubMed

    Simister, D N; Finnerty, M D; Warburton, S J; Thomas, E A; Macphail, M R

    2008-06-01

    The Health and Safety Executive (HSE) published its revised Safety Assessment Principles for Nuclear Facilities (SAPs) in December 2006. The SAPs are primarily intended for use by HSE's inspectors when judging the adequacy of safety cases for nuclear facilities. The revised SAPs relate to all aspects of safety in nuclear facilities including the technical discipline of criticality safety. The purpose of this paper is to set out for the benefit of a wider audience some of the thinking behind the final published words and to provide an insight into the development of UK regulatory guidance. The paper notes that it is HSE's intention that the Safety Assessment Principles should be viewed as a reflection of good practice in the context of interpreting primary legislation such as the requirements under site licence conditions for arrangements for producing an adequate safety case and for producing a suitable and sufficient risk assessment under the Ionising Radiations Regulations 1999 (SI1999/3232 www.opsi.gov.uk/si/si1999/uksi_19993232_en.pdf).

  3. Group Sparse Additive Models

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Junming; Chen, Xi; Xing, Eric P.

    2016-01-01

    We consider the problem of sparse variable selection in nonparametric additive models, with the prior knowledge of the structure among the covariates to encourage those variables within a group to be selected jointly. Previous works either study the group sparsity in the parametric setting (e.g., group lasso), or address the problem in the nonparametric setting without exploiting the structural information (e.g., sparse additive models). In this paper, we present a new method, called group sparse additive models (GroupSpAM), which can handle group sparsity in additive models. We generalize the ℓ1/ℓ2 norm to Hilbert spaces as the sparsity-inducing penalty in GroupSpAM. Moreover, we derive a novel thresholding condition for identifying the functional sparsity at the group level, and propose an efficient block coordinate descent algorithm for constructing the estimate. We demonstrate by simulation that GroupSpAM substantially outperforms the competing methods in terms of support recovery and prediction accuracy in additive models, and also conduct a comparative experiment on a real breast cancer dataset.

  4. Additive Manufacturing Infrared Inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaddy, Darrell

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing is a rapid prototyping technology that allows parts to be built in a series of thin layers from plastic, ceramics, and metallics. Metallic additive manufacturing is an emerging form of rapid prototyping that allows complex structures to be built using various metallic powders. Significant time and cost savings have also been observed using the metallic additive manufacturing compared with traditional techniques. Development of the metallic additive manufacturing technology has advanced significantly over the last decade, although many of the techniques to inspect parts made from these processes have not advanced significantly or have limitations. Several external geometry inspection techniques exist such as Coordinate Measurement Machines (CMM), Laser Scanners, Structured Light Scanning Systems, or even traditional calipers and gages. All of the aforementioned techniques are limited to external geometry and contours or must use a contact probe to inspect limited internal dimensions. This presentation will document the development of a process for real-time dimensional inspection technique and digital quality record of the additive manufacturing process using Infrared camera imaging and processing techniques.

  5. Safety as a Priority

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huntress, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    Safety should be a priority in every classroom for every age group. Most art teachers know the chemicals to avoid in the student environment. It is their responsibility as art teachers to include safety information in every lesson plan and inform each student of the safety precautions they must take with each activity, without depriving them of…

  6. Revitalizing Nuclear Safety Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC.

    This report covers the general issues involved in nuclear safety research and points out the areas needing detailed consideration. Topics included are: (1) "Principles of Nuclear Safety Research" (examining who should fund, who should conduct, and who should set the agenda for nuclear safety research); (2) "Elements of a Future…

  7. Safety in the Preschool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Settles, Mimi

    Guidelines for safety in the cooperative preschool are outlined, emphasizing control of the physical environment to insure maximum freedom for the children compatible with maximum safety. Building standards are set for stairways, rooms, lavatories, parking lots, harmful supplies, and wading pools. Orientation for safety is discussed in regard to…

  8. School Safety Audit Protocol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeMary, Jo Lynne; Owens, Marsha; Ramnarain, A. K. Vijay

    The 1997 Virginia General Assembly passed legislation directing school boards to require all schools to conduct safety audits. This audit is designed to assess the safety conditions in each public school to: (1) identify and, if necessary, develop solutions for physical safety concerns, including building security issues; and (2) identify and…

  9. Protection and Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American School Board Journal, 1964

    1964-01-01

    Several aspects of school safety and protection are presented for school administrators and architects. Among those topics discussed are--(1) life safety, (2) vandalism controlled through proper design, (3) personal protective devices, and (4) fire alarm systems. Another critical factor in providing a complete school safety program is proper…

  10. Virtual Safety Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Scott; Davis, Jason

    2003-01-01

    The Multimedia Tool Box Talk is a web-based quick reference safety guide and training tool for construction personnel. An intended outcome of this effort was to provide an efficient and effective way to locate and interpret crucial safety information while at the job site. The tool includes information from the Occupational Safety and Health…

  11. School Bus Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stroup, Karen Bruner; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Equipment to allow safe transportation of disabled children is reviewed. Such equipment includes infant car seats, child safety seats, safety vests, and accommodations for children in casts and/or braces. Five principles for evaluation and selection of safe seating options are given as are safety rules and information on standards and resources.…

  12. 77 FR 67655 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Food Additive...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-13

    ...) Moderate Category: For a food additive petition without complex chemistry, manufacturing, efficacy, or...) Complex Category: For a food additive petition with complex chemistry, manufacturing, efficacy, and/or... investigational food additive file without complex chemistry, manufacturing, efficacy, or safety issues,...

  13. Safety Pharmacology Society: 9th Annual Meeting.

    PubMed

    Cavero, Icilio

    2010-03-01

    The keynote presentation of the Safety Pharmacology (SP) Society 9th Annual Meeting addressed the urgency, for pharmaceutical organizations, to implement strategies for effectively communicating drug risks to all concerned stakeholders and, in particular, the general public. The application of chronobiology to SP investigational protocols can improve the search of drug-induced adverse effects. The Distinguished Service Award Lecture reviewed a life-long journey through trials and tribulations in the quest of the ever-distant scientific truth. The revision process of Directive 86/609/EC for improving animal welfare should be conducted with the purpose of maintaining a fair balance among animal protection, human health and research imperatives in order to prevent the migration of pharmaceutical activities outside Europe. Additional topics of interest were the behavioral, metabolic and cardiovascular problems experienced by small animals housed at the standard laboratory temperature. A technology for the automated collection of blood and urine samples in rats implanted with telemetry sensors was presented. Non-clinical, clinical, regulatory and legal aspects of abuse liability were expertly reviewed. The 'degradability' of pharmaceuticals into environment-friendly chemicals should be an actively searched and optimized feature of future pharmaceuticals in order to prevent drug pollution of ecosystems. Transgenic and diseased animal models should be selected whenever they can facilitate the determination of drug-induced adverse effects. SP strategies to investigate the safety of drug combination products were exemplified and analyzed in depth. The future of SP was proposed to lie not in the performance of regulatory studies of pharmacodynamic nature but in developing and early applying an array of screening assays for clearing clinical candidates against known drug-induced organ function injuries. In conclusion, the 2009 SP Society annual meeting offered a wealth of

  14. Phenylethynyl Containing Reactive Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G., Jr. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Phenylethynyl containing reactive additives were prepared from aromatic diamine, containing phenylethvnvl groups and various ratios of phthalic anhydride and 4-phenylethynviphthalic anhydride in glacial acetic acid to form the imide in one step or in N-methyl-2-pvrrolidinone to form the amide acid intermediate. The reactive additives were mixed in various amounts (10% to 90%) with oligomers containing either terminal or pendent phenylethynyl groups (or both) to reduce the melt viscosity and thereby enhance processability. Upon thermal cure, the additives react and become chemically incorporated into the matrix and effect an increase in crosslink density relative to that of the host resin. This resultant increase in crosslink density has advantageous consequences on the cured resin properties such as higher glass transition temperature and higher modulus as compared to that of the host resin.

  15. Fused Lasso Additive Model

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Ashley; Witten, Daniela; Simon, Noah

    2016-01-01

    We consider the problem of predicting an outcome variable using p covariates that are measured on n independent observations, in a setting in which additive, flexible, and interpretable fits are desired. We propose the fused lasso additive model (FLAM), in which each additive function is estimated to be piecewise constant with a small number of adaptively-chosen knots. FLAM is the solution to a convex optimization problem, for which a simple algorithm with guaranteed convergence to a global optimum is provided. FLAM is shown to be consistent in high dimensions, and an unbiased estimator of its degrees of freedom is proposed. We evaluate the performance of FLAM in a simulation study and on two data sets. Supplemental materials are available online, and the R package flam is available on CRAN. PMID:28239246

  16. Phenylethynyl Containing Reactive Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G., Jr. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Phenylethynyl containing reactive additives were prepared from aromatic diamines containing phenylethynyl groups and various ratios of phthalic anhydride and 4-phenylethynylphthalic anhydride in glacial acetic acid to form the imide in one step or in N-methyl-2-pyrrolidi none to form the amide acid intermediate. The reactive additives were mixed in various amounts (10% to 90%) with oligomers containing either terminal or pendent phenylethynyl groups (or both) to reduce the melt viscosity and thereby enhance processability. Upon thermal cure, the additives react and become chemically incorporated into the matrix and effect an increase in crosslink density relative to that of the host resin. This resultant increase in crosslink density has advantageous consequences on the cured resin properties such as higher glass transition temperature and higher modulus as compared to that of the host resin.

  17. The Environmental Context of Patient Safety and Medical Errors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wholey, Douglas; Moscovice, Ira; Hietpas, Terry; Holtzman, Jeremy

    2004-01-01

    The environmental context of patient safety and medical errors was explored with specific interest in rural settings. Special attention was paid to unique features of rural health care organizations and their environment that relate to the patient safety issue and medical errors (including the distribution of patients, types of adverse events…

  18. Slide Into Playground Safety: An Interview with Mark White

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Mark

    2005-01-01

    An interview with Mark White on his views of playground safety is presented in this article. Some of the featured interview questions include: (1) How did you start to focus so intently on playground safety?; (2) There was no central accumulation of injury information?; (3) What's an example of an injury report that led to an improvement?; (4)…

  19. Interactive BIM-Enabled Safety Training Piloted in Construction Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clevenger, Caroline; Lopez del Puerto, Carla; Glick, Scott

    2015-01-01

    This paper documents and assesses the development of a construction safety training module featuring interactive, BIM-enabled, 3D visualizations to test if such a tool can enhance safety training related to scaffolds. This research documents the technical challenges and the lessons learned through the development and administration of a prototype…

  20. Additives in plastics.

    PubMed Central

    Deanin, R D

    1975-01-01

    The polymers used in plastics are generally harmless. However, they are rarely used in pure form. In almost all commercial plastics, they are "compounded" with monomeric ingredients to improve their processing and end-use performance. In order of total volume used, these monomeric additives may be classified as follows: reinforcing fibers, fillers, and coupling agents; plasticizers; colorants; stabilizers (halogen stabilizers, antioxidants, ultraviolet absorbers, and biological preservatives); processing aids (lubricants, others, and flow controls); flame retardants, peroxides; and antistats. Some information is already available, and much more is needed, on potential toxicity and safe handling of these additives during processing and manufacture of plastics products. PMID:1175566

  1. Additives in plastics.

    PubMed

    Deanin, R D

    1975-06-01

    The polymers used in plastics are generally harmless. However, they are rarely used in pure form. In almost all commercial plastics, they are "compounded" with monomeric ingredients to improve their processing and end-use performance. In order of total volume used, these monomeric additives may be classified as follows: reinforcing fibers, fillers, and coupling agents; plasticizers; colorants; stabilizers (halogen stabilizers, antioxidants, ultraviolet absorbers, and biological preservatives); processing aids (lubricants, others, and flow controls); flame retardants, peroxides; and antistats. Some information is already available, and much more is needed, on potential toxicity and safe handling of these additives during processing and manufacture of plastics products.

  2. Safety and IVHM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goebel, Kai

    2012-01-01

    When we address safety in a book on the business case for IVHM, the question arises whether safety isn t inherently in conflict with the need of operators to run their systems as efficiently (and as cost effectively) as possible. The answer may be that the system needs to be just as safe as needed, but not significantly more. That begs the next question: How safe is safe enough? Several regulatory bodies provide guidelines for operational safety, but irrespective of that, operators do not want their systems to be known as lacking safety. We illuminate the role of safety within the context of IVHM.

  3. More Than Additional Space...

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CEFP Journal, 1973

    1973-01-01

    A much needed addition to the Jamestown Elementary School turned out to be more than an expansion of walls for more space. A new educational program, a limited budget, and a short time line were tackled on a team approach basis and were successfully resolved. (Author)

  4. ASME Nuclear Crane Standards for Enhanced Crane Safety and Increased Profit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parkhurst, Stephen N.

    2000-01-01

    The ASME NOG-1 standard, 'Rules for Construction of Overhead and Gantry Cranes', covers top running cranes for nuclear facilities; with the ASME NUM-1 standard, 'Rules for Construction of Cranes, Monorails, and Hoists', covering the single girder, underhung, wall and jib cranes, as well as the monorails and hoists. These two ASME nuclear crane standards provide criteria for designing, inspecting and testing overhead handling equipment with enhanced safety to meet the 'defense-in-depth' approach of the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) documents NUREG 0554 and NUREG 0612. In addition to providing designs for enhanced safety, the ASME nuclear crane standards provide a basis for purchasing overhead handling equipment with standard safety features, based upon accepted engineering principles, and including performance and environmental parameters specific to nuclear facilities. The ASME NOG-1 and ASME NUM-1 standards not only provide enhanced safety for handling a critical load, but also increase profit by minimizing the possibility of load drops, by reducing cumbersome operating restrictions, and by providing the foundation for a sound licensing position. The ASME nuclear crane standards can also increase profit by providing the designs and information to help ensure that the right standard equipment is purchased. Additionally, the ASME nuclear crane standards can increase profit by providing designs and information to help address current issues, such as the qualification of nuclear plant cranes for making 'planned engineered lifts' for steam generator replacement and decommissioning.

  5. NASA Safety Manual. Volume 3: System Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    This Volume 3 of the NASA Safety Manual sets forth the basic elements and techniques for managing a system safety program and the technical methods recommended for use in developing a risk evaluation program that is oriented to the identification of hazards in aerospace hardware systems and the development of residual risk management information for the program manager that is based on the hazards identified. The methods and techniques described in this volume are in consonance with the requirements set forth in NHB 1700.1 (VI), Chapter 3. This volume and future volumes of the NASA Safety Manual shall not be rewritten, reprinted, or reproduced in any manner. Installation implementing procedures, if necessary, shall be inserted as page supplements in accordance with the provisions of Appendix A. No portion of this volume or future volumes of the NASA Safety Manual shall be invoked in contracts.

  6. Pediatric safety pin ingestion.

    PubMed

    Sarihan, H; Kaklikkaya, I; Ozcan, F

    1998-08-01

    Fifteen consecutive children with ingested safety pins were evaluated retrospectively. Eight patients were males and seven were girls. The mean age of the patients was 5.4 years ranging from 7 months to 16 years. Two of 15 patients were mentally retarded Seven safety pins ingestion were noted by parents, three older children applied with safety pin swallowing. Three infants referred with hypersalivation and swallowing difficulty. One of two mentally retarded patients had recurrent aspiration pneumonia, the other had neck abscess. These patients' lesions were detected incidentally by thoracic X-ray. Nine safety pins were at the level of the cricopharyngeus, one at the level of the aortic arch and five at the esophagogastric junction. A right esophagoscopy was used for extraction of safety pins under general anesthesia and endotracheal intubation were used. Before esophagoscopy control plain X-ray was obtained for location of safety pin. Nine safety pins were extracted by esophagoscopy. Three safety pins spontaneously and three during anesthesia induction passed through the esophagus falling down the stomach. Five of these six safety pins were spontaneously extracted without complication. However one open safety pin lodged at the duodenum and laparotomy was required. In this article, etiology and management of safety pin ingestion in children are discussed.

  7. Highway Safety Program Manual: Volume 14: Pedestrian Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    Volume 14 of the 19-volume Highway Safety Program Manual (which provides guidance to State and local governments on preferred highway safety practices) concentrates on pedestrian safety. The purpose and objectives of a pedestrian safety program are outlined. Federal authority in the area of pedestrian safety and policies regarding a safety program…

  8. Safety: System Safety Engineering and Management

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Review system safety status and issues during each milestone decision review ( MDR ) of new or improved Army Acquisition Executive (AAE)-managed systems...under research, development, or modification. (3) Review system safety status and issues during each MDR of new or improved DISC4-managed systems. (4) Act...for acceptance in all MDR packages and forward to the appropriate decision level. Institute risk management procedures as described in appendix B and

  9. A simple graphical method for measuring inherent safety.

    PubMed

    Gupta, J P; Edwards, David W

    2003-11-14

    addition of values for disparate hazards (temperature, pressure, inventory, toxicity, flammability, etc.) is being suggested to derive an overall ISD index value since that conceals the effects of different parameters. Further, addition of numbers with different units ( degrees C for temperature, atm/bar for pressure, t for inventory, etc.) is inappropriate in scientific sense. The proposed approach has a major advantage of expanding consideration in future to incorporate economic, regulatory, pollution control and worker health aspects, as well as factors such as the experience one has or 'the comfort level' one feels with each of the processes under consideration. Additionally, it would also guide the designers and decision makers into affecting specific changes in the processes to reduce the unsafe features. We demonstrate our simple approach by using the example of six routes to make methyl methacrylate as documented by Edwards and Lawrence [Trans. IChemE, Process Safety Environ. Protect. B 71 (4) (1993) 252; Quantifying inherent safety of chemical process routes, Ph.D. Thesis, Loughborough University, Loughborough, UK, 1996] and show that the decision could well have been different if addition of disparate hazards had not been done.

  10. 30 CFR 75.1200-1 - Additional information on mine map.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Additional information on mine map. 75.1200-1... SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Maps § 75.1200-1 Additional information on mine map. Additional information required to be shown on mine maps under § 75.1200...

  11. 30 CFR 75.1200-1 - Additional information on mine map.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Additional information on mine map. 75.1200-1... SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Maps § 75.1200-1 Additional information on mine map. Additional information required to be shown on mine maps under § 75.1200...

  12. Workplace Safety: Indoor Environmental Quality

    MedlinePlus

    ... Resources Other Resources Email IEQ Questions Related Topics Asbestos Asthma and Allergies Chemical Safety Construction Safety and ... Resources Other Resources Email IEQ Questions Related Topics Asbestos Asthma and Allergies Chemical Safety Construction Safety and ...

  13. Treatment of mixed features in bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Rosenblat, Joshua D; McIntyre, Roger S

    2016-09-13

    Mood episodes with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5)-defined mixed features are highly prevalent in bipolar disorder (BD), affecting ~40% of patients during the course of illness. Mixed states are associated with poorer clinical outcomes, greater treatment resistance, higher rates of comorbidity, more frequent mood episodes, and increased rates of suicide. The objectives of the current review are to identify, summarize, and synthesize studies assessing the efficacy of treatments specifically for BD I and II mood episodes (ie, including manic, hypomanic, and major depressive episodes) with DSM-5-defined mixed features. Two randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and 6 post-hoc analyses were identified, all of which assessed the efficacy of second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) for the acute treatment of BD mood episodes with mixed features. Results from these studies provide preliminary support for SGAs as efficacious treatments for both mania with mixed features and bipolar depression with mixed features. However, there are inadequate data to definitively support or refute the clinical use of specific agents. Conventional mood stabilizing agents (eg, lithium and divalproex) have yet to have been adequately studied in DSM-5-defined mixed features. Further study is required to assess the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of treatments specifically for BD mood episodes with mixed features.

  14. Slim Battery Modelling Features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borthomieu, Y.; Prevot, D.

    2011-10-01

    Saft has developed a life prediction model for VES and MPS cells and batteries. The Saft Li-ion Model (SLIM) is a macroscopic electrochemical model based on energy (global at cell level). The main purpose is to predict the battery performances during the life for GEO, MEO and LEO missions. This model is based on electrochemical characteristics such as Energy, Capacity, EMF, Internal resistance, end of charge voltage. It uses fading and calendar law effects on energy and internal impedance vs. time, temperature, End of Charge voltage. Based on the mission profile, satellite power system characteristics, the model proposes the various battery configurations. For each configuration, the model gives the battery performances using mission figures and profiles: power, duration, DOD, end of charge voltages, temperatures during eclipses and solstices, thermal dissipations and cell failures. For the GEO/MEO missions, eclipse and solstice periods can include specific profile such as plasmic propulsion fires and specific balancing operations. For LEO missions, the model is able to simulate high power peaks to predict radar pulses. Saft's main customers have been using the SLIM model available in house for two years. The purpose is to have the satellite builder power engineers able to perform by themselves in the battery pre-dimensioning activities their own battery simulations. The simulations can be shared with Saft engineers to refine the power system designs. This model has been correlated with existing life and calendar tests performed on all the VES and MPS cells. In comparing with more than 10 year lasting life tests, the accuracy of the model from a voltage point of view is less than 10 mV at end Of Life. In addition, thethe comparison with in-orbit data has been also done. b This paper will present the main features of the SLIM software and outputs comparison with real life tests. b0

  15. Vinyl capped addition polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vannucci, Raymond D. (Inventor); Malarik, Diane C. (Inventor); Delvigs, Peter (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    Polyimide resins (PMR) are generally useful where high strength and temperature capabilities are required (at temperatures up to about 700 F). Polyimide resins are particularly useful in applications such as jet engine compressor components, for example, blades, vanes, air seals, air splitters, and engine casing parts. Aromatic vinyl capped addition polyimides are obtained by reacting a diamine, an ester of tetracarboxylic acid, and an aromatic vinyl compound. Low void materials with improved oxidative stability when exposed to 700 F air may be fabricated as fiber reinforced high molecular weight capped polyimide composites. The aromatic vinyl capped polyimides are provided with a more aromatic nature and are more thermally stable than highly aliphatic, norbornenyl-type end-capped polyimides employed in PMR resins. The substitution of aromatic vinyl end-caps for norbornenyl end-caps in addition polyimides results in polymers with improved oxidative stability.

  16. Feature space analysis of MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soltanian-Zadeh, Hamid; Windham, Joe P.; Peck, Donald J.

    1997-04-01

    This paper presents development and performance evaluation of an MRI feature space method. The method is useful for: identification of tissue types; segmentation of tissues; and quantitative measurements on tissues, to obtain information that can be used in decision making (diagnosis, treatment planning, and evaluation of treatment). The steps of the work accomplished are as follows: (1) Four T2-weighted and two T1-weighted images (before and after injection of Gadolinium) were acquired for ten tumor patients. (2) Images were analyed by two image analysts according to the following algorithm. The intracranial brain tissues were segmented from the scalp and background. The additive noise was suppressed using a multi-dimensional non-linear edge- preserving filter which preserves partial volume information on average. Image nonuniformities were corrected using a modified lowpass filtering approach. The resulting images were used to generate and visualize an optimal feature space. Cluster centers were identified on the feature space. Then images were segmented into normal tissues and different zones of the tumor. (3) Biopsy samples were extracted from each patient and were subsequently analyzed by the pathology laboratory. (4) Image analysis results were compared to each other and to the biopsy results. Pre- and post-surgery feature spaces were also compared. The proposed algorithm made it possible to visualize the MRI feature space and to segment the image. In all cases, the operators were able to find clusters for normal and abnormal tissues. Also, clusters for different zones of the tumor were found. Based on the clusters marked for each zone, the method successfully segmented the image into normal tissues (white matter, gray matter, and CSF) and different zones of the lesion (tumor, cyst, edema, radiation necrosis, necrotic core, and infiltrated tumor). The results agreed with those obtained from the biopsy samples. Comparison of pre- to post-surgery and radiation

  17. Electrophilic addition of astatine

    SciTech Connect

    Norseev, Yu.V.; Vasaros, L.; Nhan, D.D.; Huan, N.K.

    1988-03-01

    It has been shown for the first time that astatine is capable of undergoing addition reactions to unsaturated hydrocarbons. A new compound of astatine, viz., ethylene astatohydrin, has been obtained, and its retention numbers of squalane, Apiezon, and tricresyl phosphate have been found. The influence of various factors on the formation of ethylene astatohydrin has been studied. It has been concluded on the basis of the results obtained that the univalent cations of astatine in an acidic medium is protonated hypoastatous acid.

  18. Functional Generalized Additive Models.

    PubMed

    McLean, Mathew W; Hooker, Giles; Staicu, Ana-Maria; Scheipl, Fabian; Ruppert, David

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the functional generalized additive model (FGAM), a novel regression model for association studies between a scalar response and a functional predictor. We model the link-transformed mean response as the integral with respect to t of F{X(t), t} where F(·,·) is an unknown regression function and X(t) is a functional covariate. Rather than having an additive model in a finite number of principal components as in Müller and Yao (2008), our model incorporates the functional predictor directly and thus our model can be viewed as the natural functional extension of generalized additive models. We estimate F(·,·) using tensor-product B-splines with roughness penalties. A pointwise quantile transformation of the functional predictor is also considered to ensure each tensor-product B-spline has observed data on its support. The methods are evaluated using simulated data and their predictive performance is compared with other competing scalar-on-function regression alternatives. We illustrate the usefulness of our approach through an application to brain tractography, where X(t) is a signal from diffusion tensor imaging at position, t, along a tract in the brain. In one example, the response is disease-status (case or control) and in a second example, it is the score on a cognitive test. R code for performing the simulations and fitting the FGAM can be found in supplemental materials available online.

  19. SAFETY BASIS DESIGN DEVELOPMENT CHALLENGES IMECE2007-42747

    SciTech Connect

    RYAN GW

    2007-09-24

    'Designing in Safety' is a desired part of the development of any new potentially hazardous system, process, or facility. It is a required part of nuclear safety activities as specified in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 420.B, Facility Safety. This order addresses the design of nuclear related facilities developed under federal regulation IOCFR830, Nuclear Safety Management. IOCFR830 requires that safety basis documentation be provided to identify how nuclear safety is being adequately addressed as a condition for system operation (e.g., the safety basis). To support the development of the safety basis, a safety analysis is performed. Although the concept of developing a design that addresses 'Safety is simple, the execution can be complex and challenging. This paper addresses those complexities and challenges for the design activity of a system to treat sludge, a corrosion product of spent nuclear fuel, at DOE's Hanford Site in Washington State. The system being developed is referred to as the Sludge Treatment Project (STP). This paper describes the portion of the safety analysis that addresses the selection of design basis events using the experience gained from the STP and the development of design requirements for safety features associated with those events. Specifically, the paper describes the safety design process and the application of the process for two types of potential design basis accidents associated with the operation of the system, (1) flashing spray leaks and (2) splash and splatter leaks. Also presented are the technical challenges that are being addressed to develop effective safety features to deal with these design basis accidents.

  20. Fishing for Features

    ScienceCinema

    Heredia-Langner, Alejandro; Cort, John; Bailey, Vanessa

    2016-08-24

    The Fishing for Features Signature Discovery project developed a framework for discovering signature features in challenging environments involving large and complex data sets or where phenomena may be poorly characterized or understood. Researchers at PNNL have applied the framework to the optimization of biofuels blending and to discover signatures of climate change on microbial soil communities.

  1. Fishing for Features

    SciTech Connect

    Heredia-Langner, Alejandro; Cort, John; Bailey, Vanessa

    2016-07-21

    The Fishing for Features Signature Discovery project developed a framework for discovering signature features in challenging environments involving large and complex data sets or where phenomena may be poorly characterized or understood. Researchers at PNNL have applied the framework to the optimization of biofuels blending and to discover signatures of climate change on microbial soil communities.

  2. Department of Energy Construction Safety Reference Guide

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    DOE has adopted the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) regulations Title 29 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 1926 ``Safety and Health Regulations for Construction,`` and related parts of 29 CFR 1910, ``Occupational Safety and Health Standards.`` This nonmandatory reference guide is based on these OSHA regulations and, where appropriate, incorporates additional standards, codes, directives, and work practices that are recognized and accepted by DOE and the construction industry. It covers excavation, scaffolding, electricity, fire, signs/barricades, cranes/hoists/conveyors, hand and power tools, concrete/masonry, stairways/ladders, welding/cutting, motor vehicles/mechanical equipment, demolition, materials, blasting, steel erection, etc.

  3. Missouri Elementary Science Safety Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemons, Judith L.

    The purpose of this safety manual is to provide a resource to help manage and minimize potential risks in science classrooms where students spend up to 60% of instructional time engaged in hands-on activities. Information on general laboratory safety, science equipment safety, safety with plants, safety with animals, safety with chemicals, field…

  4. Safety and the Human Factor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Ann

    1982-01-01

    Discusses four elements of safety programs: (1) safety training; (2) safety inspections; (3) accident investigations; and (4) protective safety equipment. Also discusses safety considerations in water/wastewater treatment facilities focusing on falls, drowning hazards, trickling filters, confined space entry, collection/distribution system safety,…

  5. 77 FR 15976 - Additional Changes to the Schedule of Operations Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-19

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Food Safety and Inspection Service 9 CFR Parts 307 and 381 Additional Changes to the Schedule of Operations Regulations AGENCY: Food Safety and Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: The Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) is proposing to amend the meat...

  6. 77 FR 19565 - Additional Changes to the Schedule of Operations Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-02

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Food Safety and Inspection Service 9 CFR Parts 307 and 381 RIN 0583-AD48 Additional Changes to the Schedule of Operations Regulations AGENCY: Food Safety and Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Correction. SUMMARY: On March 19, 2012, the Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) published a...

  7. Defeating feature fatigue.

    PubMed

    Rust, Roland T; Thompson, Debora Viana; Hamilton, Rebecca W

    2006-02-01

    Consider a coffeemaker that offers 12 drink options, a car with more than 700 features on the dashboard, and a mouse pad that's also a clock, calculator, and FM radio. All are examples of "feature bloat", or "featuritis", the result of an almost irresistible temptation to load products with lots of bells and whistles. The problem is that the more features a product boasts, the harder it is to use. Manufacturers that increase a product's capability--the number of useful functions it can perform--at the expense of its usability are exposing their customers to feature fatigue. The authors have conducted three studies to gain a better understanding of how consumers weigh a product's capability relative to its usability. They found that even though consumers know that products with more features are harder to use, they initially choose high-feature models. They also pile on more features when given the chance to customize a product for their needs. Once consumers have actually worked with a product, however, usability starts to matter more to them than capability. For managers in consumer products companies, these findings present a dilemma: Should they maximize initial sales by designing high-feature models, which consumers consistently choose, or should they limit the number of features in order to enhance the lifetime value of their customers? The authors' analytical model guides companies toward a happy middle ground: maximizing the net present value of the typical customer's profit stream. The authors also advise companies to build simpler products, help consumers learn which products suit their needs, develop products that do one thing very well, and design market research in which consumers use actual products or prototypes.

  8. Resolving conflicting safety cultures

    SciTech Connect

    Slider, J.E. ); Patterson, M. )

    1993-01-01

    Several nuclear power plant sites have been wounded in the crossfire between two distinct corporate cultures. The traditional utility culture lies on one side and that of the nuclear navy on the other. The two corporate cultures lead to different perceptions of [open quotes]safety culture.[close quotes] This clash of safety cultures obscures a very important point about nuclear plant operations: Safety depends on organizational learning. Organizational learning provides the foundation for a perception of safety culture that transcends the conflict between utility and nuclear navy cultures. Corporate culture may be defined as the knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs shared by employees of a given company. Safety culture is the part of corporate culture concerning shared attitudes and beliefs affecting individual or public safety. If the safety culture promotes behaviors that lead to greater safety, employees will tend to [open quotes]do the right thing[close quotes] even when circumstances and formal guidance alone do not ensure that actions will be correct. Safety culture has become particularly important to nuclear plant owners and regulators as they have sought to establish and maintain a high level of safety in today's plants.

  9. Principles of safety pharmacology.

    PubMed

    Pugsley, M K; Authier, S; Curtis, M J

    2008-08-01

    Safety Pharmacology is a rapidly developing discipline that uses the basic principles of pharmacology in a regulatory-driven process to generate data to inform risk/benefit assessment. The aim of Safety Pharmacology is to characterize the pharmacodynamic/pharmacokinetic (PK/PD) relationship of a drug's adverse effects using continuously evolving methodology. Unlike toxicology, Safety Pharmacology includes within its remit a regulatory requirement to predict the risk of rare lethal events. This gives Safety Pharmacology its unique character. The key issues for Safety Pharmacology are detection of an adverse effect liability, projection of the data into safety margin calculation and finally clinical safety monitoring. This article sets out to explain the drivers for Safety Pharmacology so that the wider pharmacology community is better placed to understand the discipline. It concludes with a summary of principles that may help inform future resolution of unmet needs (especially establishing model validation for accurate risk assessment). Subsequent articles in this issue of the journal address specific aspects of Safety Pharmacology to explore the issues of model choice, the burden of proof and to highlight areas of intensive activity (such as testing for drug-induced rare event liability, and the challenge of testing the safety of so-called biologics (antibodies, gene therapy and so on.).

  10. Traceability of Software Safety Requirements in Legacy Safety Critical Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Janice L.

    2007-01-01

    How can traceability of software safety requirements be created for legacy safety critical systems? Requirements in safety standards are imposed most times during contract negotiations. On the other hand, there are instances where safety standards are levied on legacy safety critical systems, some of which may be considered for reuse for new applications. Safety standards often specify that software development documentation include process-oriented and technical safety requirements, and also require that system and software safety analyses are performed supporting technical safety requirements implementation. So what can be done if the requisite documents for establishing and maintaining safety requirements traceability are not available?

  11. Safety and licensing for small and medium power reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Trauger, D.B.

    1987-01-01

    Proposed new concepts for small and medium power reactors differ substantially from traditional Light Water Reactors (LWRs). Although designers have a large base of experience in safety and licensing, much of it is not relevant to new concepts. It can be a disadvantage if regulators apply LWR rules directly. A fresh start is appropriate. The extensive interactions between industry, regulators, and the public complicates but may enhance safety. It is basic to recognize the features that distinguish nuclear energy safety from that for other industries. These features include: nuclear reactivity, fission product radiation, and radioactive decay heat. Small and medium power reactors offer potential advantages over LWRs, particularly for reactivity and decay heat.

  12. Tank safety screening data quality objective. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, J.W.

    1995-04-27

    The Tank Safety Screening Data Quality Objective (DQO) will be used to classify 149 single shell tanks and 28 double shell tanks containing high-level radioactive waste into safety categories for safety issues dealing with the presence of ferrocyanide, organics, flammable gases, and criticality. Decision rules used to classify a tank as ``safe`` or ``not safe`` are presented. Primary and secondary decision variables used for safety status classification are discussed. The number and type of samples required are presented. A tabular identification of each analyte to be measured to support the safety classification, the analytical method to be used, the type of sample, the decision threshold for each analyte that would, if violated, place the tank on the safety issue watch list, and the assumed (desired) analytical uncertainty are provided. This is a living document that should be evaluated for updates on a semiannual basis. Evaluation areas consist of: identification of tanks that have been added or deleted from the specific safety issue watch lists, changes in primary and secondary decision variables, changes in decision rules used for the safety status classification, and changes in analytical requirements. This document directly supports all safety issue specific DQOs and additional characterization DQO efforts associated with pretreatment and retrieval. Additionally, information obtained during implementation can assist in resolving assumptions for revised safety strategies, and in addition, obtaining information which will support the determination of error tolerances, confidence levels, and optimization schemes for later revised safety strategy documentation.

  13. Impact of a patient safety curriculum for nurse anesthesia students.

    PubMed

    Ardizzone, Laura L; Enlow, William M; Evanina, Eileen Y; Schnall, Rebecca; Currie, Leanne

    2009-12-01

    Patient safety has become an important aspect of national health care initiatives. The purpose of this evaluation was to measure the impact of a patient safety education series for students enrolled in a nurse anesthesia program. Baseline surveys that measured patient safety competencies across three domains, attitudes, skills and knowledge, were administered to the students. A patient safety education series was delivered to the cohort and the survey was then readministered. Mean scores were compared using independent samples t tests. Attitude scores did not change from baseline to posttest. Participants scored higher on posttest means for both the patient safety skills and knowledge domains. Incorporating patient safety content into the nurse anesthesia master's degree curriculum may enhance clinicians' skills and knowledge related to patient safety, and the addition of a patient safety curriculum is important during the formative education process.

  14. Overview of Energy Systems' safety analysis report programs

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    The primary purpose of an Safety Analysis Report (SAR) is to provide a basis for judging the adequacy of a facility's safety. The SAR documents the safety analyses that systematically identify the hazards posed by the facility, analyze the consequences and risk of potential accidents, and describe hazard control measures that protect the health and safety of the public and employees. In addition, some SARs document, as Technical Safety Requirements (TSRs, which include Technical Specifications and Operational Safety Requirements), technical and administrative requirements that ensure the facility is operated within prescribed safety limits. SARs also provide conveniently summarized information that may be used to support procedure development, training, inspections, and other activities necessary to facility operation. This Overview of Energy Systems Safety Analysis Report Programs'' Provides an introduction to the programs and processes used in the development and maintenance of the SARs. It also summarizes some of the uses of the SARs within Energy Systems and DOE.

  15. Siloxane containing addition polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maudgal, S.; St. Clair, T. L.

    1984-01-01

    Addition polyimide oligomers have been synthesized from bis(gamma-aminopropyl) tetramethyldisiloxane and 3, 3', 4, 4'-benzophenonetetracarboxylic dianhydride using a variety of latent crosslinking groups as endcappers. The prepolymers were isolated and characterized for solubility (in amide, chlorinated and ether solvents), melt flow and cure properties. The most promising systems, maleimide and acetylene terminated prepolymers, were selected for detailed study. Graphite cloth reinforced composites were prepared and properties compared with those of graphite/Kerimid 601, a commercially available bismaleimide. Mixtures of the maleimide terminated system with Kerimid 601, in varying proportions, were also studied.

  16. Platelet additive solution - electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Azuma, Hiroshi; Hirayama, Junichi; Akino, Mitsuaki; Ikeda, Hisami

    2011-06-01

    Recent attention to solutions that replace most or all plasma in platelet concentrates, while maintaining satisfactory platelet function, is motivated by the potential of plasma reduction or depletion to mitigate various transfusion-related adverse events. This report considers the electrolytic composition of previously described platelet additive solutions, in order to draw general conclusions about what is required for platelet function and longevity. The optimal concentrations of Na(+) and Cl(-) are 69-115 mM. The presence of both K(+) and Mg(2+) in platelet suspension at nearly physiological concentrations (3-5mM and 1.5-3mM, respectively) is indispensable for good preservation capacity because both electrolytes are required to prevent platelet activation. In contrast to K(+) and Mg(2+), Ca(2+) may not be important because no free Ca(2+) is available in M-sol, which showed excellent platelet preservation capacity at less than 5% plasma concentration. The importance of bicarbonate (approximately 40 mM) can be recognized when the platelets are suspended in additive solution under less than 5% residual plasma concentration.

  17. Feature analysis for indoor radar target classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bufler, Travis D.; Narayanan, Ram M.

    2016-05-01

    This paper analyzes the spectral features from human beings and indoor clutter for building and tuning Support Vector Machines (SVMs) classifiers for the purpose of classifying stationary human targets. The spectral characteristics were obtained through simulations using Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) techniques where the radar cross section (RCS) of humans and indoor clutter objects were captured over a wide range of frequencies, polarizations, aspect angles, and materials. Additionally, experimental data was obtained using a vector network analyzer. Two different feature sets for class discrimination are used from the acquired target and clutter RCS spectral data sets. The first feature vectors consist of the raw spectral characteristics, while the second set of feature vectors are statistical features extracted over a set frequency interval. Utilizing variables of frequency and polarization, a SVM classifier can be trained to classify unknown targets as a human or clutter. Classification accuracy over 80% can be effectively achieved given appropriate features.

  18. Chemistry of Food Additives: Direct and Indirect Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pauli, George H.

    1984-01-01

    The primary component(s), impurities, and degradation products of polysorbate 80, nitrate and nitrite salts, and diethylpyrocarbonate (DEPC) are discussed. Safety considerations related to these food additives are also noted. The chick-edema factor which results from an additive in poultry feed is also discussed. (JN)

  19. Galaxy Classification without Feature Extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polsterer, K. L.; Gieseke, F.; Kramer, O.

    2012-09-01

    The automatic classification of galaxies according to the different Hubble types is a widely studied problem in the field of astronomy. The complexity of this task led to projects like Galaxy Zoo which try to obtain labeled data based on visual inspection by humans. Many automatic classification frameworks are based on artificial neural networks (ANN) in combination with a feature extraction step in the pre-processing phase. These approaches rely on labeled catalogs for training the models. The small size of the typically used training sets, however, limits the generalization performance of the resulting models. In this work, we present a straightforward application of support vector machines (SVM) for this type of classification tasks. The conducted experiments indicate that using a sufficient number of labeled objects provided by the EFIGI catalog leads to high-quality models. In contrast to standard approaches no additional feature extraction is required.

  20. Key asset - inherent safety of LMFBR Pool Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Marchaterre, J.F.; Sevy, R.H.; Lancet, R.T.; Mills, J.C.

    1984-04-01

    The safety approach used in the design of the Large Pool Plant emphasizes use of the intrinsic characteristics of Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactors to incorporate a high degree of safety in the design and reduce cost by providing simpler (more reliable) dedicated safety systems. Correspondingly, a goal was not to require the action of active systems to prevent significant core damage and/or provide large grace periods for all anticipated transients. The key safety features of the plant are presented and the analysis of representative flow and power transients are presented to show that the design goal has been satisfied.

  1. New features in MEDM.

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, K., Jr.

    1999-04-13

    MEDM, which is derived from Motif Editor and Display Manager, is the primary graphical interface to the EPICS control system. This paper describes new features that have been added to MEDM in the last two years. These features include new editing capabilities, a PV Info dialog box, a means of specifying limits and precision, a new implementation of the Cartesian Plot, new features for several objects, new capability for the Related Display, help, a user-configurable Execute Menu, reconfigured start-up options, and availability for Windows 95/98/NT. Over one hundred bugs have been fixed, and the program is quite stable and in extensive use.

  2. Hydrogen Technologies Safety Guide

    SciTech Connect

    Rivkin, C.; Burgess, R.; Buttner, W.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this guide is to provide basic background information on hydrogen technologies. It is intended to provide project developers, code officials, and other interested parties the background information to be able to put hydrogen safety in context. For example, code officials reviewing permit applications for hydrogen projects will get an understanding of the industrial history of hydrogen, basic safety concerns, and safety requirements.

  3. [Safety nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs].

    PubMed

    Oscanoa-Espinoza, Teodoro Julio

    2015-01-01

    The choice of a specific medication belonging to a drug class is under the criteria of efficacy, safety, cost and suitability. NSAIDs currently constitute one of the most consumed drug in the world, so it is very important review of the safety aspects of this drug class. This review has the objective of analyze the safety of NSAIDs on 3 main criteria: gastrolesivity, cardiotoxicity and nephrotoxicity.

  4. Thermal reactor safety

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    Information is presented concerning new trends in licensing; seismic considerations and system structural behavior; TMI-2 risk assessment and thermal hydraulics; statistical assessment of potential accidents and verification of computational methods; issues with respect to improved safety; human factors in nuclear power plant operation; diagnostics and activities in support of recovery; LOCA transient analysis; unresolved safety issues and other safety considerations; and fission product transport.

  5. Lift truck safety review

    SciTech Connect

    Cadwallader, L.C.

    1997-03-01

    This report presents safety information about powered industrial trucks. The basic lift truck, the counterbalanced sit down rider truck, is the primary focus of the report. Lift truck engineering is briefly described, then a hazard analysis is performed on the lift truck. Case histories and accident statistics are also given. Rules and regulations about lift trucks, such as the US Occupational Safety an Health Administration laws and the Underwriter`s Laboratories standards, are discussed. Safety issues with lift trucks are reviewed, and lift truck safety and reliability are discussed. Some quantitative reliability values are given.

  6. Technical Seminar: "Crash Safety"""

    NASA Video Gallery

    This seminar addresses the history and successful progress in predicting and improving the crash safety characteristics of vehicles, with particular emphasis on rotary wing aircraft and composite s...

  7. Additive composition, for gasoline

    SciTech Connect

    Vataru, M.

    1989-01-10

    An admixture is described that comprises Diesel fuel and an additive composition added thereto which is between about 0.05 to about 2.0 percent by weight of the fuel, the composition comprising: (a) between about 0.05 and 25% relative weight parts of an organic peroxide, and (b) between about 0.1 and 25% relative weight parts of detergent selected from the component group that consists of: (i) fatty amines; (ii) ethoxylated and propoxylated derivatives of fatty amines; (iii) fatty diamines; (iv) fatty imidazlines; (v) polymeric amines and derivatives thereof; (vi) combination of one or more of the (i) through (v) components with carboxylic acid or acids having from three to forth carbon atoms, (c) from about 99.0 to about 50% by weight of a hydrocarbon solvent.

  8. Teardrop bladder: additional considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Wechsler, R.J.; Brennan, R.E.

    1982-07-01

    Nine cases of teardrop bladder (TDB) seen at excretory urography are presented. In some of these patients, the iliopsoas muscles were at the upper limit of normal in size, and additional evaluation of the perivesical structures with computed tomography (CT) was necessary. CT demonstrated only hypertrophied muscles with or without perivesical fat. The psoas muscles and pelvic width were measured in 8 patients and compared with the measurements of a control group of males without TDB. Patients with TDB had large iliopsoas muscles and narrow pelves compared with the control group. The psoas muscle width/pelvic width ratio was significantly greater (p < 0.0005) in patients with TDB than in the control group, with values of 1.04 + 0.05 and 0.82 + 0.09, respectively. It is concluded that TDB is not an uncommon normal variant in black males. Both iliopsoas muscle hypertrophy and a narrow pelvis are factors that predispose a patient to TDB.

  9. New addition curing polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frimer, Aryeh A.; Cavano, Paul

    1991-01-01

    In an attempt to improve the thermal-oxidative stability (TOS) of PMR-type polymers, the use of 1,4-phenylenebis (phenylmaleic anhydride) PPMA, was evaluated. Two series of nadic end-capped addition curing polyimides were prepared by imidizing PPMA with either 4,4'-methylene dianiline or p-phenylenediamine. The first resulted in improved solubility and increased resin flow while the latter yielded a compression molded neat resin sample with a T(sub g) of 408 C, close to 70 C higher than PME-15. The performance of these materials in long term weight loss studies was below that of PMR-15, independent of post-cure conditions. These results can be rationalized in terms of the thermal lability of the pendant phenyl groups and the incomplete imidization of the sterically congested PPMA. The preparation of model compounds as well as future research directions are discussed.

  10. Perspectives on Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourell, David L.

    2016-07-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) has skyrocketed in visibility commercially and in the public sector. This article describes the development of this field from early layered manufacturing approaches of photosculpture, topography, and material deposition. Certain precursors to modern AM processes are also briefly described. The growth of the field over the last 30 years is presented. Included is the standard delineation of AM technologies into seven broad categories. The economics of AM part generation is considered, and the impacts of the economics on application sectors are described. On the basis of current trends, the future outlook will include a convergence of AM fabricators, mass-produced AM fabricators, enabling of topology optimization designs, and specialization in the AM legal arena. Long-term developments with huge impact are organ printing and volume-based printing.

  11. Sewage sludge additive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalvinskas, J. J.; Mueller, W. A.; Ingham, J. D. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    The additive is for a raw sewage treatment process of the type where settling tanks are used for the purpose of permitting the suspended matter in the raw sewage to be settled as well as to permit adsorption of the dissolved contaminants in the water of the sewage. The sludge, which settles down to the bottom of the settling tank is extracted, pyrolyzed and activated to form activated carbon and ash which is mixed with the sewage prior to its introduction into the settling tank. The sludge does not provide all of the activated carbon and ash required for adequate treatment of the raw sewage. It is necessary to add carbon to the process and instead of expensive commercial carbon, coal is used to provide the carbon supplement.

  12. Space reactor safety, 1985--1995 lessons learned

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, A.C.

    1995-12-31

    Space reactor safety activities and decisions have evolved over the last decade. Important safety decisions have been made in the SP-100, Space Exploration Initiative, NEPSTP, SNTP, and Bimodal Space Reactor programs. In addition, international guidance on space reactor safety has been instituted. Space reactor safety decisions and practices have developed in the areas of inadvertent criticality, reentry, radiological release, orbital operation, programmatic, and policy. In general, the lessons learned point out the importance of carefully reviewing previous safety practices for appropriateness to space nuclear programs in general and to the specific mission under consideration.

  13. Space reactor safety, 1985-1995 lessons learned

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Albert C.

    1996-03-01

    Space reactor safety activities and decisions have evolved over the last decade. Important safety decisions have been made in the SP-100, Space Exploration Initiative, NEPSTP, SNTP, and Bimodal Space Reactor programs. In addition, international guidance on space reactor safety has been instituted. Space reactor safety decisions and practices have developed in the areas of inadvertent criticality, reentry, radiological release, orbital operation, programmatics, and policy. In general, the lessons learned point out the importance of carefully reviewing previous safety practices for appropriateness to space nuclear programs in general and to the specific mission under consideration.

  14. Preliminary safety evaluation for the spent nuclear fuel project`s cold vacuum drying system

    SciTech Connect

    Garvin, L.J., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-01

    This preliminary safety evaluation (PSE) considers only the Cold Vacuum Drying System (CVDS) facility and its mission as it relates to the integrated process strategy (WHC 1995). The purpose of the PSE is to identify those CBDS design functions that may require safety- class and safety-significant accident prevention and mitigation features.

  15. Volcanic features of Io

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carr, M.H.; Masursky, H.; Strom, R.G.; Terrile, R.J.

    1979-01-01

    Volcanic activity is apparently higher on Io than on any other body in the Solar System. Its volcanic landforms can be compared with features on Earth to indicate the type of volcanism present on Io. ?? 1979 Nature Publishing Group.

  16. Feature Leads That Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konkle, Bruce E.

    1999-01-01

    Presents advice to scholastic journalists on writing leads for feature stories. Discusses using a summary, a question, a direct quote, a first-person account, alliteration, a shocking statement, contrast, historical reference, descriptions, narratives, metaphors, and similes. (RS)

  17. Feature Characterization Library

    SciTech Connect

    Doyle, Wendy; Gentile, Ann; McCoy, Renata

    2006-08-03

    FCLib is a data analysis toolkit constructed to meet the needs of data discovery in large-scale, spatio-temporal data such as finite element simulation data. FCLib is a C library toolkit of building blocks that can be assembled into complex analyses. Important features of FCLib include the following: (1) Support of feature-based analysis, (2) minimization of low-oevel processing, (3) ease of use, and (4) applicable to the wide variety of science domains.

  18. [Scientific drug safety information for patients' consent].

    PubMed

    Suzuki-Nishimura, Tamiko

    2011-01-01

    One of the important roles of pharmacists is to continue their contributions to new drug discovery and development. However, it seems to be very difficult to obtain patient satisfaction with new drugs. Because new medicines have both benefit and risk, there should be many systems to maximize the safety and efficacy of the drugs. In clinical trials, the rights, safety and welfare of human subjects under the investigator's care must be protected. Good Clinical Practice is a harmonized ICH-guideline, and the safety information of an investigational product is explained to patients who voluntarily enter the clinical trials. Since safety information about investigational products is still limited, subjects are informed about the results of animal experiments and those of finished clinical trials. The sponsor of clinical trials should be responsible for the on-going safety evaluation of the investigational products. When additional safety information is collected in the clinical trials, the written informed consent form should be appropriately revised. During the review process, quality, safety and efficacy of new drugs are evaluated and judged based on the scientific risk-benefit balance. The safety information collected in clinical trials is reflected in the decision-making process written in the review reports. All-case investigation should be also performed until data from a certain number of patients has been accumulated in order to collect early safety and efficacy data. Important messages written in review reports for drug safety and patient consent are explained. Risk communication will improve the application of patients' consent for new drugs.

  19. Pressure Safety Program Implementation at ORNL

    SciTech Connect

    Lower, Mark; Etheridge, Tom; Oland, C. Barry

    2013-01-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is a US Department of Energy (DOE) facility that is managed by UT-Battelle, LLC. In February 2006, DOE promulgated worker safety and health regulations to govern contractor activities at DOE sites. These regulations, which are provided in 10 CFR 851, Worker Safety and Health Program, establish requirements for worker safety and health program that reduce or prevent occupational injuries, illnesses, and accidental losses by providing DOE contractors and their workers with safe and healthful workplaces at DOE sites. The regulations state that contractors must achieve compliance no later than May 25, 2007. According to 10 CFR 851, Subpart C, Specific Program Requirements, contractors must have a structured approach to their worker safety and health programs that at a minimum includes provisions for pressure safety. In implementing the structured approach for pressure safety, contractors must establish safety policies and procedures to ensure that pressure systems are designed, fabricated, tested, inspected, maintained, repaired, and operated by trained, qualified personnel in accordance with applicable sound engineering principles. In addition, contractors must ensure that all pressure vessels, boilers, air receivers, and supporting piping systems conform to (1) applicable American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (2004) Sections I through XII, including applicable code cases; (2) applicable ASME B31 piping codes; and (3) the strictest applicable state and local codes. When national consensus codes are not applicable because of pressure range, vessel geometry, use of special materials, etc., contractors must implement measures to provide equivalent protection and ensure a level of safety greater than or equal to the level of protection afforded by the ASME or applicable state or local codes. This report documents the work performed to address legacy pressure vessel deficiencies and comply

  20. Packaging and Transportation of Additional Neptunium Oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Watkins, R.; Jordan, J.; Hensel, S.

    2010-05-05

    The Savannah River Site's HB-Line Facility completed a second neptunium oxide production campaign in which nine (9) additional cans of neptunium oxide were produced and shipped to the Idaho National Laboratory and Oak Ridge National Laboratory in the 9975 shipping container. These additional cans were from a different feed solution than the first fifty (50) cans of neptunium oxide that were previously produced and shipped via a Letter of Amendment to the 9975 Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) content table. This paper will address the challenges associated with demonstrating the neptunium oxide produced from the additional feed solution was equivalent to the original neptunium oxide and within the content description of the Letter of Amendment.

  1. Implementation of a Radiological Safety Coach program

    SciTech Connect

    Konzen, K.K.; Langsted, J.M.

    1998-02-01

    The Safe Sites of Colorado Radiological Safety program has implemented a Safety Coach position, responsible for mentoring workers and line management by providing effective on-the-job radiological skills training and explanation of the rational for radiological safety requirements. This position is significantly different from a traditional classroom instructor or a facility health physicist, and provides workers with a level of radiological safety guidance not routinely provided by typical training programs. Implementation of this position presents a challenge in providing effective instruction, requiring rapport with the radiological worker not typically developed in the routine radiological training environment. The value of this unique training is discussed in perspective with cost-savings through better radiological control. Measures of success were developed to quantify program performance and providing a realistic picture of the benefits of providing one-on-one or small group training. This paper provides a description of the unique features of the program, measures of success for the program, a formula for implementing this program at other facilities, and a strong argument for the success (or failure) of the program in a time of increased radiological safety emphasis and reduced radiological safety budgets.

  2. A thematic approach to system safety

    SciTech Connect

    Ekman, M.E.; Werner, P.W.; Covan, J.M.; D`Antonio, P.E.

    1997-12-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has refined a process for developing inherently safer system designs, based on methods used by the Laboratories to design detonation safety into nuclear weapons. The process was created when the Laboratories realized that standard engineering practices did not provide the level of safety assurance necessary for nuclear weapon operations, with their potential for catastrophic accidents. A systematic approach, which relies on mutually supportive design principles integrated through fundamental physical principles, was developed to ensure a predictably safe system response under a variety of operational and accident based stresses. Robust, safe system designs result from this thematic approach to safety, minimizing the number of safety critical features. This safety assurance process has two profound benefits: the process avoids the need to understand or limit the ultimate intensity of off normal environments and it avoids the requirement to analyze and test a bewildering and virtually infinite array of accident environment scenarios (e.g., directional threats, sequencing of environments, time races, etc.) to demonstrate conformance to all safety requirements.

  3. A thematic approach to system safety

    SciTech Connect

    Ekman, M.E.; Werner, P.W.; Covan, J.M.; D`Antonio, P.E.

    1998-12-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) has refined a process for developing inherently safer system designs based on methods used by Sandia to design detonation safety into nuclear weapons. The process was created when Sandia realized that standard engineering practices did not provide the level of safety assurance necessary for nuclear weapon operations, with their potential for catastrophic accidents. A systematic approach, which relies on mutually supportive design principles integrated through fundamental physical principles, was developed to ensure a predictably safe system response under a variety of operational and accident-based stresses. Robust, safe system designs result from this thematic approach to safety, minimizing the number of safety critical features. This safety assurance process has two profound benefits: the process avoids the need to understand or limit the ultimate intensity of off-normal environments and it avoids the requirement to analyze and test a large array of accident environment scenarios (e.g., directional threats, sequencing of environments, time races, etc.) to demonstrate conformance to all safety requirements.

  4. 10 CFR 50.43 - Additional standards and provisions affecting class 103 licenses and certifications for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... data exist on the safety features of the design to assess the analytical tools used for safety analyses... sequences, including equilibrium core conditions; or (2) There has been acceptable testing of a prototype... accident sequences, including equilibrium core conditions. If a prototype plant is used to comply with...

  5. Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility Safety Class Instrumentation & Control System Design Description

    SciTech Connect

    WHITEHURST, R.

    1999-12-01

    This document describes the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) Safety Class Instrumentation and Control system (SCIC). The SCIC provides safety functions and features to protect the environment, off-site and on-site personnel and equipment. The function of the SCIC is to provide automatic trip features, valve interlocks, alarms, indication and control for the cold vacuum drying process.

  6. A Silent Safety Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodin, James Ronald

    2006-01-01

    NASA's Columbia Accident Investigation Board (CAIB) referred 8 times to the NASA "Silent Safety Program." This term, "Silent Safety Program" was not an original observation but first appeared in the Rogers Commission's Investigation of the Challenger Mishap. The CAIB on page 183 of its report in the paragraph titled 'Encouraging Minority Opinion,' stated "The Naval Reactor Program encourages minority opinions and "bad news." Leaders continually emphasize that when no minority opinions are present, the responsibility for a thorough and critical examination falls to management. . . Board interviews revealed that it is difficult for minority and dissenting opinions to percolate up through the agency's hierarchy. . ." The first question and perhaps the only question is - what is a silent safety program? Well, a silent safety program may be the same as the dog that didn't bark in Sherlock Holmes' "Adventure of the Silver Blaze" because system safety should behave as a devil's advocate for the program barking on every occasion to insure a critical review inclusion. This paper evaluates the NASA safety program and provides suggestions to prevent the recurrence of the silent safety program alluded to in the Challenger Mishap Investigation. Specifically targeted in the CAM report, "The checks and balances the safety system was meant to provide were not working." A silent system safety program is not unique to NASA but could emerge in any and every organization. Principles developed by Irving Janis in his book, Groupthink, listed criteria used to evaluate an organization's cultural attributes that allows a silent safety program to evolve. If evidence validates Jams's criteria, then Jams's recommendations for preventing groupthink can also be used to improve a critical evaluation and thus prevent the development of a silent safety program.

  7. Effect of wine addition on microbiological characteristics, volatile molecule profiles and biogenic amine contents in fermented sausages.

    PubMed

    Coloretti, Fabio; Tabanelli, Giulia; Chiavari, Cristiana; Lanciotti, Rosalba; Grazia, Luigi; Gardini, Fausto; Montanari, Chiara

    2014-03-01

    The aim was to evaluate the effect of wine addition during manufacturing of dry fermented sausages, in terms of safety aspects (biogenic amine accumulation), aroma profile and sensory characteristics. Three batches of salami were produced: without wine addition and with 7.5% or 15% (v/w) of white wine. The fermented sausages showed characteristics that can increase product diversification. Some of the sensory features (i.e. increased salty perception) can represent an important strategy because of the trend to reduce salt intake for health reasons. The presence of wine immediately reduced the pH and is a source of ethanol, which can have an inhibitory effect against undesirable microflora. The microbiological results observed regarding Enterobacteriaceae and enterococci were encouraging. The addition of wine did not negatively affect the ripening time or increase the presence of biogenic amines. The samples containing wine showed reduced concentrations of putrescine.

  8. Highway Safety Program Manual: Volume 3: Motorcycle Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    Volume 3 of the 19-volume Highway Safety Program Manual (which provides guidance to State and local governments on preferred highway safety practices) concentrates on aspects of motorcycle safety. The purpose and specific objectives of a State motorcycle safety program are outlined. Federal authority in the highway safety area and general policies…

  9. The evaluation of the safety benefits of combined passive and on-board active safety applications.

    PubMed

    Page, Yves; Cuny, Sophie; Zangmeister, Tobias; Kreiss, Jens-Peter; Hermitte, Thierry

    2009-10-01

    One of the objectives of the European TRACE project (TRaffic Accident Causation in Europe, 2006-2008) was to estimate the proportion of injury accidents that could be avoided and/or the proportion of injury accidents where the severity could be mitigated for on-the-market safety applications, if 100 % of the car fleet would be equipped with them. We have selected for evaluation the Electronic Stability Control (ESC) and the Emergency Brake Assist (EBA) applications. As for passive safety systems, recent cars are designed to offer overall safety protection. Car structure, load limiters, front airbags, side airbags, knee airbags, pretensioners, padding and non aggressive structures in the door panel, the dashboard, the windshield, the seats, and the head rest also contribute to applying more protection. The whole safety package is very difficult to evaluate separately, one element independently segmented from the others. We decided to consider evaluating the effectiveness of the whole passive safety package, This package,, for the sake of simplicity, was the number of stars awarded at the Euro NCAP testing. The challenges were to compare the effectiveness of some safety configuration SC I, with the effectiveness of a different safety configuration SC II. A safety configuration is understood as a package of safety functions. Ten comparisons have been carried out such as the evaluation of the safety benefit of a fifth star given that the car has four stars and an EBA. The main outcome of this analysis is that any addition of a passive or active safety function selected in this analysis is producing increased safety benefits. For example, if all cars were five stars fitted with EBA and ESC, instead of four stars without ESC and EBA, injury accidents would be reduced by 47.2% for severe injuries and 69.5% for fatal injuries.

  10. The Evaluation of the Safety Benefits of Combined Passive and On-Board Active Safety Applications

    PubMed Central

    Page, Yves; Cuny, Sophie; Zangmeister, Tobias; Kreiss, Jens-Peter; Hermitte, Thierry

    2009-01-01

    One of the objectives of the European TRACE project (TRaffic Accident Causation in Europe, 2006–2008) was to estimate the proportion of injury accidents that could be avoided and/or the proportion of injury accidents where the severity could be mitigated for on-the-market safety applications, if 100 % of the car fleet would be equipped with them. We have selected for evaluation the Electronic Stability Control (ESC) and the Emergency Brake Assist (EBA) applications. As for passive safety systems, recent cars are designed to offer overall safety protection. Car structure, load limiters, front airbags, side airbags, knee airbags, pretensioners, padding and non aggressive structures in the door panel, the dashboard, the windshield, the seats, and the head rest also contribute to applying more protection. The whole safety package is very difficult to evaluate separately, one element independently segmented from the others. We decided to consider evaluating the effectivenessof the whole passive safety package, This package,, for the sake of simplicity, was the number of stars awarded at the Euro NCAP testing. The challenges were to compare the effectiveness of some safety configuration SC I, with the effectiveness of a different safety configuration SC II. A safety configuration is understood as a package of safety functions. Ten comparisons have been carried out such as the evaluation of the safety benefit of a fifth star given that the car has four stars and an EBA. The main outcome of this analysis is that any addition of a passive or active safety function selected in this analysis is producing increased safety benefits. For example, if all cars were five stars fitted with EBA and ESC, instead of four stars without ESC and EBA, injury accidents would be reduced by 47.2% for severe injuries and 69.5% for fatal injuries. PMID:20184838

  11. Additive lattice kirigami.

    PubMed

    Castle, Toen; Sussman, Daniel M; Tanis, Michael; Kamien, Randall D

    2016-09-01

    Kirigami uses bending, folding, cutting, and pasting to create complex three-dimensional (3D) structures from a flat sheet. In the case of lattice kirigami, this cutting and rejoining introduces defects into an underlying 2D lattice in the form of points of nonzero Gaussian curvature. A set of simple rules was previously used to generate a wide variety of stepped structures; we now pare back these rules to their minimum. This allows us to describe a set of techniques that unify a wide variety of cut-and-paste actions under the rubric of lattice kirigami, including adding new material and rejoining material across arbitrary cuts in the sheet. We also explore the use of more complex lattices and the different structures that consequently arise. Regardless of the choice of lattice, creating complex structures may require multiple overlapping kirigami cuts, where subsequent cuts are not performed on a locally flat lattice. Our additive kirigami method describes such cuts, providing a simple methodology and a set of techniques to build a huge variety of complex 3D shapes.

  12. Ceramics with Different Additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Juanjuan; Feng, Lajun; Lei, Ali; Zhao, Kang; Yan, Aijun

    2014-09-01

    Li2CO3, MgCO3, BaCO3, and Bi2O3 dopants were introduced into CaCu3Ti4O12 (CCTO) ceramics in order to improve the dielectric properties. The CCTO ceramics were prepared by conventional solid-state reaction method. The phase structure, microstructure, and dielectric behavior were carefully investigated. The pure structure without any impurity phases can be confirmed by the x-ray diffraction patterns. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) analysis illuminated that the grains of Ca0.90Li0.20Cu3Ti4O12 ceramics were greater than that of pure CCTO. It was important for the properties of the CCTO ceramics to study the additives in complex impedance spectroscopy. It was found that the Ca0.90Li0.20Cu3Ti4O12 ceramics had the higher permittivity (>45000), the lower dielectric loss (<0.025) than those of CCTO at 1 kHz at room temperature and good temperature stability from -30 to 75 °C.

  13. Additive lattice kirigami

    PubMed Central

    Castle, Toen; Sussman, Daniel M.; Tanis, Michael; Kamien, Randall D.

    2016-01-01

    Kirigami uses bending, folding, cutting, and pasting to create complex three-dimensional (3D) structures from a flat sheet. In the case of lattice kirigami, this cutting and rejoining introduces defects into an underlying 2D lattice in the form of points of nonzero Gaussian curvature. A set of simple rules was previously used to generate a wide variety of stepped structures; we now pare back these rules to their minimum. This allows us to describe a set of techniques that unify a wide variety of cut-and-paste actions under the rubric of lattice kirigami, including adding new material and rejoining material across arbitrary cuts in the sheet. We also explore the use of more complex lattices and the different structures that consequently arise. Regardless of the choice of lattice, creating complex structures may require multiple overlapping kirigami cuts, where subsequent cuts are not performed on a locally flat lattice. Our additive kirigami method describes such cuts, providing a simple methodology and a set of techniques to build a huge variety of complex 3D shapes. PMID:27679822

  14. Improving the design of higher-capacity railway tank cars for hazardous materials transport: optimizing the trade-off between weight and safety.

    PubMed

    Barkan, Christopher P L

    2008-12-15

    As with many aspects of modern industrial society, decision-makers face trade-offs in considering hazardous materials transportation equipment and practices. Tank cars used for transport of hazardous materials can be made more resistant to damage in accidents through use of a thicker steel tank and other protective features. However, the additional weight of these features reduces the car's capacity and thus its efficiency as a transportation vehicle. In this paper the problem of tank car safety versus weight is developed as a multi-attribute decision problem. North American railroads recently developed specifications for higher capacity tank cars for transportation of hazardous materials including enhanced safety design features. A group of tank car safety design features or "risk reduction options" (RROs) were analyzed with regard to their effect on the conditional probability of release in an accident, and their incremental effect on tank car weight. All possible combinations of these RROs were then analyzed in terms of the reduced release probability per unit of weight increase and the Pareto optimal set of options identified. This set included the combinations of RROs that provided the greatest improvement in safety with the least amount of additional weight for any desired level of tank car weight increase. The analysis was conducted for both non-insulated and insulated tank cars and used two objective functions, minimization of conditional probability of release, and minimization of expected quantity lost, given that a car was derailed in an accident. Sensitivity analyses of the effect of tank car size and use of different objective functions were conducted and the optimality results were found to be robust. The results of this analysis were used by the Association of American Railroads Tank Car Committee to develop new specifications for higher capacity non-insulated and insulated, non-pressure tank cars resulting in an estimated 32% and 24% respective

  15. Surgical Safety Training of World Health Organization Initiatives.

    PubMed

    Davis, Christopher R; Bates, Anthony S; Toll, Edward C; Cole, Matthew; Smith, Frank C T; Stark, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Undergraduate training in surgical safety is essential to maximize patient safety. This national review quantified undergraduate surgical safety training. Training of 2 international safety initiatives was quantified: (1) World Health Organization (WHO) "Guidelines for Safe Surgery" and (2) Department of Health (DoH) "Principles of the Productive Operating Theatre." Also, 13 additional safety skills were quantified. Data were analyzed using Mann-Whitney U tests. In all, 23 universities entered the study (71.9% response). Safety skills from WHO and DoH documents were formally taught in 4 UK medical schools (17.4%). Individual components of the documents were taught more frequently (47.6%). Half (50.9%) of the additional safety skills identified were taught. Surgical societies supplemented safety training, although the total amount of training provided was less than that in university curricula (P < .0001). Surgical safety training is inadequate in UK medical schools. To protect patients and maximize safety, a national undergraduate safety curriculum is recommended.

  16. Safety and Excellence. Safety in the Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrow, John

    2004-01-01

    As far as schools are concerned, there are three kinds of safety: physical, emotional, and intellectual. Excellence demands all three, while "good enough" schools are simply physically safe. How can parents and others determine whether a school is physically safe? It's always good to find out how many students were suspended at a particular…

  17. Safety for Older Consumers. Home Safety Checklist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Consumer Product Safety Commission, Washington, DC.

    A home safety checklist geared to the needs of older adults is presented in this document. The beginning of the checklist highlights potential hazards which may need to be checked in more than one area of the home, such as electric cords, smoke detectors, rugs, telephone areas, and emergency exit plans. The rest of the checklist is organized…

  18. Safety Precautions for Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Folks, John; And Others

    Safety information is discussed and outlined in this guide. Areas include: (1) general laboratory safety rules; (2) general rules and guidelines for animals in the elementary classroom; (3) general guidelines for the physical sciences; (4) general rules for using animals in investigations, with specifics on the care and handling of mammals,…

  19. Biology Laboratory Safety Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Case, Christine L.

    The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) recommends that schools prepare or adapt a biosafety manual, and that instructors develop a list of safety procedures applicable to their own lab and distribute it to each student. In this way, safety issues will be brought to each student's attention. This document is an example of such a manual. It contains…

  20. Safety Practices for Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Education Agency, Austin. Div. of Curriculum Development.

    Designed to promote the use of safe, controlled investigations in science classrooms in Texas, this publication describes procedures to help teachers ensure the safety of all students in class and on field trips. Safety in the elementary science classroom and in secondary school science courses is discussed. Included are first-aid procedures,…