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Sample records for additional safety margin

  1. Risk Informed Margins Management as part of Risk Informed Safety Margin Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis Smith

    2014-06-01

    The ability to better characterize and quantify safety margin is important to improved decision making about Light Water Reactor (LWR) design, operation, and plant life extension. A systematic approach to characterization of safety margins and the subsequent margin management options represents a vital input to the licensee and regulatory analysis and decision making that will be involved. In addition, as research and development in the LWR Sustainability (LWRS) Program and other collaborative efforts yield new data, sensors, and improved scientific understanding of physical processes that govern the aging and degradation of plant SSCs needs and opportunities to better optimize plant safety and performance will become known. To support decision making related to economics, readability, and safety, the Risk Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) Pathway provides methods and tools that enable mitigation options known as risk informed margins management (RIMM) strategies.

  2. RISK-INFORMED SAFETY MARGIN CHARACTERIZATION

    SciTech Connect

    Nam Dinh; Ronaldo Szilard

    2009-07-01

    The concept of safety margins has served as a fundamental principle in the design and operation of commercial nuclear power plants (NPPs). Defined as the minimum distance between a system’s “loading” and its “capacity”, plant design and operation is predicated on ensuring an adequate safety margin for safety-significant parameters (e.g., fuel cladding temperature, containment pressure, etc.) is provided over the spectrum of anticipated plant operating, transient and accident conditions. To meet the anticipated challenges associated with extending the operational lifetimes of the current fleet of operating NPPs, the United States Department of Energy (USDOE), the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) have developed a collaboration to conduct coordinated research to identify and address the technological challenges and opportunities that likely would affect the safe and economic operation of the existing NPP fleet over the postulated long-term time horizons. In this paper we describe a framework for developing and implementing a Risk-Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) approach to evaluate and manage changes in plant safety margins over long time horizons.

  3. Integrating Safety Assessment Methods using the Risk Informed Safety Margins Characterization (RISMC) Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis Smith; Diego Mandelli

    2013-03-01

    Safety is central to the design, licensing, operation, and economics of nuclear power plants (NPPs). As the current light water reactor (LWR) NPPs age beyond 60 years, there are possibilities for increased frequency of systems, structures, and components (SSC) degradations or failures that initiate safety significant events, reduce existing accident mitigation capabilities, or create new failure modes. Plant designers commonly “over-design” portions of NPPs and provide robustness in the form of redundant and diverse engineered safety features to ensure that, even in the case of well-beyond design basis scenarios, public health and safety will be protected with a very high degree of assurance. This form of defense-in-depth is a reasoned response to uncertainties and is often referred to generically as “safety margin.” Historically, specific safety margin provisions have been formulated primarily based on engineering judgment backed by a set of conservative engineering calculations. The ability to better characterize and quantify safety margin is important to improved decision making about LWR design, operation, and plant life extension. A systematic approach to characterization of safety margins and the subsequent margin management options represents a vital input to the licensee and regulatory analysis and decision making that will be involved. In addition, as research and development (R&D) in the LWR Sustainability (LWRS) Program and other collaborative efforts yield new data, sensors, and improved scientific understanding of physical processes that govern the aging and degradation of plant SSCs needs and opportunities to better optimize plant safety and performance will become known. To support decision making related to economics, readability, and safety, the RISMC Pathway provides methods and tools that enable mitigation options known as margins management strategies. The purpose of the RISMC Pathway R&D is to support plant decisions for risk

  4. A risk-informed approach to safety margins analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis Smith; Diego Mandelli

    2013-07-01

    The Risk Informed Safety Margins Characterization (RISMC) Pathway is a systematic approach developed to characterize and quantify safety margins of nuclear power plant structures, systems and components. The model has been tested on the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at Idaho National Lab.

  5. Subsystem fragility: Seismic Safety Margins Research Program (Phase I)

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, R. P.; Campbell, R. D.; Hardy, G.; Banon, H.

    1981-10-01

    Seismic fragility levels of safety related equipment are developed for use in a seismic oriented Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) being conducted as part of the Seismic Safety Margins Research Program (SSMRP). The Zion Nuclear Power Plant is being utilized as a reference plant and fragility descriptions are developed for specific and generic safety related equipment groups in Zion. Both equipment fragilities and equipment responses are defined in probabilistic terms to be used as input to the SSMRP event tree/fault tree models of the Zion systems. 65 refs., 14 figs., 11 tabs.

  6. Developing Probabilistic Safety Performance Margins for Unknown and Underappreciated Risks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benjamin, Allan; Dezfuli, Homayoon; Everett, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Probabilistic safety requirements currently formulated or proposed for space systems, nuclear reactor systems, nuclear weapon systems, and other types of systems that have a low-probability potential for high-consequence accidents depend on showing that the probability of such accidents is below a specified safety threshold or goal. Verification of compliance depends heavily upon synthetic modeling techniques such as PRA. To determine whether or not a system meets its probabilistic requirements, it is necessary to consider whether there are significant risks that are not fully considered in the PRA either because they are not known at the time or because their importance is not fully understood. The ultimate objective is to establish a reasonable margin to account for the difference between known risks and actual risks in attempting to validate compliance with a probabilistic safety threshold or goal. In this paper, we examine data accumulated over the past 60 years from the space program, from nuclear reactor experience, from aircraft systems, and from human reliability experience to formulate guidelines for estimating probabilistic margins to account for risks that are initially unknown or underappreciated. The formulation includes a review of the safety literature to identify the principal causes of such risks.

  7. Adhesive bond cryogenic lens cell margin of safety test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stubbs, David M.; Hom, Craig L.; Holmes, Howard C.; Cannon-Morret, Joseph C.; Lindstrom, Obert F.; Irwin, J. Wes; Ryder, Leigh A.; Hix, Troy T.; Bonvallet, Jane A.; Hu, Hsin-Kuei S.; Chapman, Ira V.; Lomax, Curtis; Kvamme, E. Todd; Feller, Gregory S.; Haynes, Mark M.

    2011-09-01

    The Near Infrared Camera (NIRCam) instrument for NASA's James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) has an optical prescription which employs four triplet lens cells. The instrument will operate at 35K after experiencing launch loads at approximately 295K and the optic mounts must accommodate all associated thermal and mechanical stresses, plus maintain an exceptional wavefront during operation. Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company (LMSSC) was tasked to design and qualify the bonded cryogenic lens assemblies for room temperature launch, cryogenic operation, and thermal survival (25K) environments. The triplet lens cell designs incorporated coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) matched bond pad-to-optic interfaces, in concert with flexures to minimize bond line stress and induced optical distortion. A companion finite element study determined the bonded system's sensitivity to bond line thickness, adhesive modulus, and adhesive CTE. The design team used those results to tailor the bond line parameters, minimizing stress transmitted into the optic. The challenge for the Margin of Safety (MOS) team was to design and execute a test that verified all bond pad/adhesive/ optic substrate combinations had the required safety factor to generate confidence in a very low probability optic bond failure during the warm launch and cryogenic survival conditions. Because the survival temperature was specified to be 25K, merely dropping the test temperature to verify margin was not possible. A shear/moment loading device was conceived that simultaneously loaded the test coupons at 25K to verify margin. This paper covers the design/fab/SEM measurement/thermal conditioning of the MOS test articles, the thermal/structural analysis, the test apparatus, and the test execution/results.

  8. Study of a safety margin system for powered-lift STOL aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heffley, R. K.; Jewell, W. F.

    1978-01-01

    A study was conducted to explore the feasibility of a safety margin system for powered-lift aircraft which require a backside piloting technique. The objective of the safety margin system was to present multiple safety margin criteria as a single variable which could be tracked manually or automatically and which could be monitored for the purpose of deriving safety margin status. The study involved a pilot-in-the-loop analysis of several safety margin system concepts and a simulation experiment to evaluate those concepts which showed promise of providing a good solution. A system was ultimately configured which offered reasonable compromises in controllability, status information content, and the ability to regulate the safety margin at some expense of the allowable low speed flight path envelope.

  9. Workshop on Program for Elimination of Requirements Marginal to Safety: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Dey, M.; Arsenault, F.; Patterson, M.; Gaal, M.

    1993-09-01

    These are the proceedings of the Public Workshop on the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s Program for Elimination of Requirements Marginal to Safety. The workshop was held at the Holiday Inn, Bethesda, on April 27 and 28, 1993. The purpose of the workshop was to provide an opportunity for public and industry input to the program. The workshop addressed the institutionalization of the program to review regulations with the purpose of eliminating those that are marginal. The objective is to avoid the dilution of safety efforts. One session was devoted to discussion of the framework for a performance-based regulatory approach. In addition, panelists and attendees discussed scope, schedules and status of specific regulatory items: containment leakage testing requirements, fire protection requirements, requirements for environmental qualification of electrical equipment, requests for information under 10CFR50.54(f), requirements for combustible gas control systems, and quality assurance requirements.

  10. Evaluation of Margins of Safety in Brazed Joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flom, Yury; Wang, Len; Powell, Mollie M.; Soffa, Matthew A.; Rommel, Monica L.

    2009-01-01

    One of the essential steps in assuring reliable performance of high cost critical brazed structures is the assessment of the Margin of Safety (MS) of the brazed joints. In many cases the experimental determination of the failure loads by destructive testing of the brazed assembly is not practical and cost prohibitive. In such cases the evaluation of the MS is performed analytically by comparing the maximum design loads with the allowable ones and incorporating various safety or knock down factors imposed by the customer. Unfortunately, an industry standard methodology for the design and analysis of brazed joints has not been developed. This paper provides an example of an approach that was used to analyze an AlBeMet 162 (38%Be-62%Al) structure brazed with the AWS BAlSi-4 (Al-12%Si) filler metal. A practical and conservative interaction equation combining shear and tensile allowables was developed and validated to evaluate an acceptable (safe) combination of tensile and shear stresses acting in the brazed joint. These allowables are obtained from testing of standard tensile and lap shear brazed specimens. The proposed equation enables the assessment of the load carrying capability of complex brazed joints subjected to multi-axial loading.

  11. Seismic Safety Margins Research Program. Phase I, final report - overview

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, P. D.; Dong, R. G.; Bernreuter, D. L.; Bohn, M. P.; Chuang, T. Y.; Cummings, G. E.; Johnson, J. J.; Mensing, R. W.; Wells, J. E.

    1981-03-06

    The Seismic Safety Margins Research Program (SSMRP) is a multiyear, multiphase program whose overall objective is to develop improved methods for seismic safety assessments of nuclear power plants, using a probabilistic computational procedure. The program is being carried out at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and is sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research. Phase I of the SSMRP was successfully completed in January 1981: A probabilistic computational procedure for the seismic risk assessment of nuclear power plants has been developed and demonstrated. The methodology is implemented by three computer programs: HAZARD, which assesses the seismic hazard at a given site, SMACS, which computes in-structure and subsystem seismic responses, and SEISIM, which calculates system failure probabilities and radioactive release probabilities, given (1) the response results of SMACS, (2) a set of event trees, (3) a family of fault trees, (4) a set of structural and component fragility descriptions, and (5) a curve describing the local seismic hazard. The practicality of this methodology was demonstrated by computing preliminary release probabilities for Unit 1 of the Zion Nuclear Power Plant north of Chicago, Illinois. Studies have begun aimed at quantifying the sources of uncertainty in these computations. Numerous side studies were undertaken to examine modeling alternatives, sources of error, and available analysis techniques. Extensive sets of data were amassed and evaluated as part of projects to establish seismic input parameters and to produce the fragility curves. 66 refs., 29 figs., 10 tabs.

  12. 47 CFR 36.605 - Calculation of safety net additive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Calculation of safety net additive. 36.605... § 36.605 Calculation of safety net additive. (a) “Safety net additive support.” A rural incumbent local exchange carrier shall receive safety net additive support if it satisfies the conditions set forth...

  13. 47 CFR 36.605 - Calculation of safety net additive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Calculation of safety net additive. 36.605... § 36.605 Calculation of safety net additive. (a) “Safety net additive support.” A rural incumbent local exchange carrier shall receive safety net additive support if it satisfies the conditions set forth...

  14. 47 CFR 36.605 - Calculation of safety net additive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Calculation of safety net additive. 36.605... § 36.605 Calculation of safety net additive. (a) “Safety net additive support.” Beginning January 1... costs, shall be eligible to receive safety net additive pursuant to paragraph (c) of this section....

  15. 47 CFR 36.605 - Calculation of safety net additive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Calculation of safety net additive. 36.605... § 36.605 Calculation of safety net additive. (a) “Safety net additive support.” Beginning January 1... costs, shall be eligible to receive safety net additive pursuant to paragraph (c) of this section....

  16. Margin of Safety Definition and Examples Used in Safety Basis Documents and the USQ Process

    SciTech Connect

    Beaulieu, R. A.

    2013-10-03

    The Nuclear Safety Management final rule, 10 CFR 830, provides an undefined term, margin of safety (MOS). Safe harbors listed in 10 CFR 830, Table 2, such as DOE-STD-3009 use but do not define the term. This lack of definition has created the need for the definition. This paper provides a definition of MOS and documents examples of MOS as applied in a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) approved safety basis for an existing nuclear facility. If we understand what MOS looks like regarding Technical Safety Requirements (TSR) parameters, then it helps us compare against other parameters that do not involve a MOS. This paper also documents parameters that are not MOS. These criteria could be used to determine if an MOS exists in safety basis documents. This paper helps DOE, including the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) and its contractors responsible for the safety basis improve safety basis documents and the unreviewed safety question (USQ) process with respect to MOS.

  17. Treatment of Passive Component Reliability in Risk-Informed Safety Margin Characterization FY 2010 Report

    SciTech Connect

    Robert W Youngblood

    2010-09-01

    The Risk-Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) pathway is a set of activities defined under the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program. The overarching objective of RISMC is to support plant life-extension decision-making by providing a state-of-knowledge characterization of safety margins in key systems, structures, and components (SSCs). A technical challenge at the core of this effort is to establish the conceptual and technical feasibility of analyzing safety margin in a risk-informed way, which, unlike conventionally defined deterministic margin analysis, is founded on probabilistic characterizations of SSC performance.

  18. Risk-Informed Safety Margin Characterization Methods Development Work

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Curtis L; Ma, Zhegang; Tom Riley; Mandelli, Diego; Nielsen, Joseph W; Alfonsi, Andrea; Rabiti, Cristian

    2014-09-01

    This report summarizes the research activity developed during the Fiscal year 2014 within the Risk Informed Safety Margin and Characterization (RISMC) pathway within the Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) campaign. This research activity is complementary to the one presented in the INL/EXT-??? report which shows advances Probabilistic Risk Assessment Analysis using RAVEN and RELAP-7 in conjunction to novel flooding simulation tools. Here we present several analyses that prove the values of the RISMC approach in order to assess risk associated to nuclear power plants (NPPs). We focus on simulation based PRA which, in contrast to classical PRA, heavily employs system simulator codes. Firstly we compare, these two types of analyses, classical and RISMC, for a Boiling water reactor (BWR) station black out (SBO) initiating event. Secondly we present an extended BWR SBO analysis using RAVEN and RELAP-5 which address the comments and suggestions received about he original analysis presented in INL/EXT-???. This time we focus more on the stochastic analysis such probability of core damage and on the determination of the most risk-relevant factors. We also show some preliminary results regarding the comparison between RELAP5-3D and the new code RELAP-7 for a simplified Pressurized Water Reactors system. Lastly we present some conceptual ideas regarding the possibility to extended the RISMC capabilities from an off-line tool (i.e., as PRA analysis tool) to an online-tool. In this new configuration, RISMC capabilities can be used to assist and inform reactor operator during real accident scenarios.

  19. Brazed Joints Design and Allowables: Discuss Margins of Safety in Critical Brazed Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    FLom, Yury

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation tutorial discusses margins of safety in critical brazed structures. It reviews: (1) the present situation (2) definition of strength (3) margins of safety (4) design allowables (5) mechanical testing (6) failure criteria (7) design flowchart (8) braze gap (9) residual stresses and (10) delayed failures. This presentation addresses the strength of the brazed joints, the methods of mechanical testing, and our ability to evaluate the margins of safety of the brazed joints as it applies to the design of critical and expensive brazed assemblies.

  20. A safety margin and flight reference system and display for powered-lift aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heffley, R. K.; Hardy, G. H.

    1978-01-01

    A study was conducted to explore the feasibility of a safety margin and flight reference system for those powered-lift aircraft which require a backside piloting technique. The main objective was to display multiple safety margin criteria as a single variable which could be tracked both manually and automatically and which could be monitored in order to derive safety margin status. The study involved a pilot-in-the-loop analysis of several system concepts and a simulator experiment to evaluate those concepts showing promise. A system was ultimately configured which yielded reasonable compromises in controllability, status information content, and the ability to regulate safety margins at some expense of the allowable low speed flight path envelope.

  1. Flexible Control of Safety Margins for Action Based on Environmental Variability

    PubMed Central

    Hadjiosif, Alkis M.

    2015-01-01

    To reduce the risk of slip, grip force (GF) control includes a safety margin above the force level ordinarily sufficient for the expected load force (LF) dynamics. The current view is that this safety margin is based on the expected LF dynamics, amounting to a static safety factor like that often used in engineering design. More efficient control could be achieved, however, if the motor system reduces the safety margin when LF variability is low and increases it when this variability is high. Here we show that this is indeed the case by demonstrating that the human motor system sizes the GF safety margin in proportion to an internal estimate of LF variability to maintain a fixed statistical confidence against slip. In contrast to current models of GF control that neglect the variability of LF dynamics, we demonstrate that GF is threefold more sensitive to the SD than the expected value of LF dynamics, in line with the maintenance of a 3-sigma confidence level. We then show that a computational model of GF control that includes a variability-driven safety margin predicts highly asymmetric GF adaptation between increases versus decreases in load. We find clear experimental evidence for this asymmetry and show that it explains previously reported differences in how rapidly GFs and manipulatory forces adapt. This model further predicts bizarre nonmonotonic shapes for GF learning curves, which are faithfully borne out in our experimental data. Our findings establish a new role for environmental variability in the control of action. PMID:26085634

  2. Estimation of Inherent Safety Margins in Loaded Commercial Spent Nuclear Fuel Casks

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Banerjee, Kaushik; Robb, Kevin R.; Radulescu, Georgeta; Scaglione, John M.

    2016-06-15

    We completed a novel assessment to determine the unquantified and uncredited safety margins (i.e., the difference between the licensing basis and as-loaded calculations) available in as-loaded spent nuclear fuel (SNF) casks. This assessment was performed as part of a broader effort to assess issues and uncertainties related to the continued safety of casks during extended storage and transportability following extended storage periods. Detailed analyses crediting the actual as-loaded cask inventory were performed for each of the casks at three decommissioned pressurized water reactor (PWR) sites to determine their characteristics relative to regulatory safety criteria for criticality, thermal, and shielding performance.more » These detailed analyses were performed in an automated fashion by employing a comprehensive and integrated data and analysis tool—Used Nuclear Fuel-Storage, Transportation & Disposal Analysis Resource and Data System (UNF-ST&DARDS). Calculated uncredited criticality margins from 0.07 to almost 0.30 Δkeff were observed; calculated decay heat margins ranged from 4 to almost 22 kW (as of 2014); and significant uncredited transportation dose rate margins were also observed. The results demonstrate that, at least for the casks analyzed here, significant uncredited safety margins are available that could potentially be used to compensate for SNF assembly and canister structural performance related uncertainties associated with long-term storage and subsequent transportation. The results also suggest that these inherent margins associated with how casks are loaded could support future changes in cask licensing to directly or indirectly credit the margins. Work continues to quantify the uncredited safety margins in the SNF casks loaded at other nuclear reactor sites.« less

  3. 49 CFR 192.171 - Compressor stations: Additional safety equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compressor stations: Additional safety equipment... Pipeline Components § 192.171 Compressor stations: Additional safety equipment. (a) Each compressor station... operation may not be affected by the emergency shutdown system. (b) Each compressor station prime...

  4. System Guidelines for EMC Safety-Critical Circuits: Design, Selection, and Margin Demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawton, R. M.

    1996-01-01

    Demonstration of safety margins for critical points (circuits) has traditionally been required since it first became a part of systems-level Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) requirements of MIL-E-6051C. The goal of this document is to present cost-effective guidelines for ensuring adequate Electromagnetic Effects (EME) safety margins on spacecraft critical circuits. It is for the use of NASA and other government agencies and their contractors to prevent loss of life, loss of spacecraft, or unacceptable degradation. This document provides practical definition and treatment guidance to contain costs within affordable limits.

  5. Risk-Informed Safety Margin Characterization Case Study: Selection of Electrical Equipment to Be Subjected to Environmental Qualification

    SciTech Connect

    D. P. Blanchard; R. W. Youngblood

    2014-06-01

    performance margin. The paper describes the resulting component types that were selected by Prevention Analysis and identifies the accident sequence characteristics that cause these component types to be important from an EQ and aging perspective (and, hence, worthwhile evaluating the extent of safety margin). In addition, component types not selected as needing significant margin from an EQ and aging perspective are discussed and an engineering rationale is developed justifying the lack of need to apply resources to demonstrating margin for these component types. This rationale is in terms of design features of the plant and operating characteristics that make these component types less important from an EQ and aging perspective. While the case study focuses on EQ and aging of equipment and cables located inside the containment of this PWR, the prevention analysis method is demonstrated to be an effective technique for identification of minimal collections of components that would be effective in managing safety for a variety of issues associated with aging and long-term operation of the fleet of plants.

  6. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program Risk Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) Advanced Test Reactor Demonstration Case Study

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis Smith; David Schwieder; Cherie Phelan; Anh Bui; Paul Bayless

    2012-08-01

    Safety is central to the design, licensing, operation, and economics of Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). Consequently, the ability to better characterize and quantify safety margin holds the key to improved decision making about LWR design, operation, and plant life extension. A systematic approach to characterization of safety margins and the subsequent margins management options represents a vital input to the licensee and regulatory analysis and decision making that will be involved. The purpose of the RISMC Pathway R&D is to support plant decisions for risk-informed margins management with the aim to improve economics, reliability, and sustain safety of current NPPs. Goals of the RISMC Pathway are twofold: (1) Develop and demonstrate a risk-assessment method coupled to safety margin quantification that can be used by NPP decision makers as part of their margin recovery strategies. (2) Create an advanced “RISMC toolkit” that enables more accurate representation of NPP safety margin. This report describes the RISMC methodology demonstration where the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) was used as a test-bed for purposes of determining safety margins. As part of the demonstration, we describe how both the thermal-hydraulics and probabilistic safety calculations are integrated and used to quantify margin management strategies.

  7. System Guidelines for EMC Safety-Critical Circuits: Design, Selection, and Margin Demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawton, R. M.

    1996-01-01

    Demonstration of required safety margins on critical electrical/electronic circuits in large complex systems has become an implementation and cost problem. These margins are the difference between the activation level of the circuit and the electrical noise on the circuit in the actual operating environment. This document discusses the origin of the requirement and gives a detailed process flow for the identification of the system electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) critical circuit list. The process flow discusses the roles of engineering disciplines such as systems engineering, safety, and EMC. Design and analysis guidelines are provided to assist the designer in assuring the system design has a high probability of meeting the margin requirements. Examples of approaches used on actual programs (Skylab and Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster) are provided to show how variations of the approach can be used successfully.

  8. 9. BUILDING 65 ADDITION. LASER SAFETY TEAM. FLOOR PLAN, ELEVATIONS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. BUILDING 65 ADDITION. LASER SAFETY TEAM. FLOOR PLAN, ELEVATIONS, ETC. March 21, 1973 - Frankford Arsenal, Building No. 65, South of Tacony Street between Bridge Street & tracks of former Pennsylvania Railroad, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  9. Estimation Of TMDLs And Margin Of Safety Under Conditions Of Uncertainty

    EPA Science Inventory

    In TMDL development, an adequate margin of safety (MOS) is required in the calculation process to provide a cushion needed because of uncertainties in the data and analysis. Current practices, however, rarely factor analysis' uncertainty in TMDL development and the MOS is largel...

  10. Subsystem response review. Seismic Safety Margins Research Program

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, R. P.; Campbell, R. D.; Wesley, D. A.; Kamil, H.; Gantayat, A.; Vasudevan, R.

    1981-02-01

    A study was conducted to document the state of the art in seismic qualification of nuclear power plant components and subsystems by analysis and testing and to identify the sources and magnitude of the uncertainties associated with analysis and testing methods. The uncertainties are defined in probabilistic terms for use in probabilistic seismic risk studies. Recommendations are made for the most appropriate subsystem response analysis methods to minimize response uncertainties. Additional studies, to further quantify testing uncertainties, are identified. Although the general effect of non-linearities on subsystem response is discussed, recommendations and conclusions are based principally on linear elastic analysis and testing models.

  11. Seismic Safety Margins Research Program: Phase II program plan (FY 83-FY 84)

    SciTech Connect

    Bohn, M.P.; Bernreuter, D.L.; Cover, L.E.; Johnson, J.J.; Shieh, L.C.; Shukla, S.N.; Wells, J.E.

    1982-08-02

    The Seismic Safety Margins Research Program (SSMRP) is an NRC-funded, multiyear program conducted by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Its goal is to develop a complete, fully coupled analysis procedure (including methods and computer codes) for estimating the risk of an earthquake-caused radioactive release from a commercial nuclear power plant. The analysis procedure is based upon a state-of-the-art evaluation of the current seismic analysis and design process and explicitly includes the uncertainties inherent in such a process. The results will be used to improve seismic licensing requirements for nuclear power plants. As currently planned, the SSMRP will be completed in September, 1984. This document presents the program plan for work to be done during the remainder of the program. In Phase I of the SSMRP, the necessary tools (both computer codes and data bases) for performing a detailed seismic risk analysis were identified and developed. Demonstration calculations were performed on the Zion Nuclear Power Plant. In the remainder of the program (Phase II) work will be concentrated on developing a simplified SSMRP methodology for routine probabilistic risk assessments, quantitative validation of the tools developed and application of the simplified methodology to a Boiling Water Reactor. (The Zion plant is a pressurized water reactor.) In addition, considerable effort will be devoted to making the codes and data bases easily accessible to the public.

  12. Margins of safety provided by COSHH Essentials and the ILO Chemical Control Toolkit.

    PubMed

    Jones, Rachael M; Nicas, Mark

    2006-03-01

    COSHH Essentials, developed by the UK Health and Safety Executive, and the Chemical Control Toolkit (Toolkit) proposed by the International Labor Organization, are 'control banding' approaches to workplace risk management intended for use by proprietors of small and medium-sized businesses. Both systems group chemical substances into hazard bands based on toxicological endpoint and potency. COSSH Essentials uses the European Union's Risk-phrases (R-phrases), whereas the Toolkit uses R-phrases and the Globally Harmonized System (GHS) of Classification and Labeling of Chemicals. Each hazard band is associated with a range of airborne concentrations, termed exposure bands, which are to be attained by the implementation of recommended control technologies. Here we analyze the margin of safety afforded by the systems and, for each hazard band, define the minimal margin as the ratio of the minimum airborne concentration that produced the toxicological endpoint of interest in experimental animals to the maximum concentration in workplace air permitted by the exposure band. We found that the minimal margins were always <100, with some ranging to <1, and inversely related to molecular weight. The Toolkit-GHS system generally produced margins equal to or larger than COSHH Essentials, suggesting that the Toolkit-GHS system is more protective of worker health. Although, these systems predict exposures comparable with current occupational exposure limits, we argue that the minimal margins are better indicators of health protection. Further, given the small margins observed, we feel it is important that revisions of these systems provide the exposure bands to users, so as to permit evaluation of control technology capture efficiency. PMID:16172140

  13. Transient analyses and thermal-hydraulic safety margins for the Greek Research Reactor (GRRI)

    SciTech Connect

    Woodruff, W.L.; Deen, J.R.; Papastergiou, C.

    1995-02-01

    Various core configurations for the Greek research reactor (GRR1) have been considered in assessing the safety issues of adding a beryllium reflector to the existing water reflected HEU core and the transition from HEU to an all LEU core. The assessment has included both steady-state and transient analyses of safety margins and limits. A small all fresh Be reflected HEU core with a rather large nuclear peaking factor can still be operated safely, and thus adding a Be reflector to the larger depleted HEU core should not pose a problem. The transition mixed core with 50% LEU elements has larger void and Doppler coefficients than the HEU reference core and gives a lower peak clad temperature under transient conditions. The transition cores should give ever increasing margins to plate melting and fission product release as LEU elements are added to the core.

  14. Seismic Safety Margins Research Program. Phase I. Interim definition of terms

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, P.D.; Dong, R.G.

    1980-12-19

    This report documents interim definitions of terms in the Seismic Safety Margins Research Program (SSMRP). Intent is to establish a common-based terminology integral to the probabilistic methods that predict more realistically the behavior of nuclear power plants during an earthquake. These definitions are a response to a request by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards at its meeting held November 15-16, 1979.

  15. Oxygen safety margins set thermal limits in an insect model system.

    PubMed

    Boardman, Leigh; Terblanche, John S

    2015-06-01

    A mismatch between oxygen availability and metabolic demand may constrain thermal tolerance. While considerable support for this idea has been found in marine organisms, results from insects are equivocal and raise the possibility that mode of gas exchange, oxygen safety margins and the physico-chemical properties of the gas medium influence heat tolerance estimates. Here, we examined critical thermal maximum (CTmax) and aerobic scope under altered oxygen supply and in two life stages that varied in metabolic demand in Bombyx mori (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae). We also systematically examined the influence of changes in gas properties on CTmax. Larvae have a lower oxygen safety margin (higher critical oxygen partial pressure at which metabolism is suppressed relative to metabolic demand) and significantly higher CTmax under normoxia than pupae (53°C vs 50°C). Larvae, but not pupae, were oxygen limited with hypoxia (2.5 kPa) decreasing CTmax significantly from 53 to 51°C. Humidifying hypoxic air relieved the oxygen limitation effect on CTmax in larvae, whereas variation in other gas properties did not affect CTmax. Our data suggest that oxygen safety margins set thermal limits in air-breathing invertebrates and the magnitude of this effect potentially reconciles differences in oxygen limitation effects on thermal tolerance found among diverse taxa to date. PMID:26041031

  16. Risk Informed Safety Margin Characterization Case Study: Selection of Electrical Equipment To Be Subjected to Environmental Qualification

    SciTech Connect

    D. Blanchard; R. Youngblood

    2012-04-01

    In general, the margins-based safety case helps the decision-maker manage plant margins most effectively. It tells the plant decision-maker such things as what margin is present (at the plant level, at the functional level, at the barrier level, at the component level), and where margin is thin or perhaps just degrading. If the plant is safe, it tells the decision-maker why the plant is safe and where margin needs to be maintained, and perhaps where the plant can afford to relax.

  17. Risk Informed Safety Margin Characterization Case Study: Selection of Electrical Equipment To Be Subjected to Environmental Qualification

    SciTech Connect

    R. Youngblood; D. Blanchard

    2011-09-01

    In general, the margins-based safety case helps the decision-maker manage plant margins most effectively. It tells the plant decision-maker such things as what margin is present (at the plant level, at the functional level, at the barrier level, at the component level), and where margin is thin or perhaps just degrading. If the plant is safe, it tells the decision-maker why the plant is safe and where margin needs to be maintained, and perhaps where the plant can afford to relax.

  18. Validity of the rule-of-fractions for assuring criticality safety margins

    SciTech Connect

    Finch, D.R.; Williamson, T.G.

    1991-10-01

    A computational study was performed to determine the validity of the Rule-Of-Fractions for assuring criticality safety margins. The form of the Rule-of-Fractions examined was the equation: {summation}{sub i} A{sub i}/ a{sub i} {le} 1 where a{sub i} is the quantity of fissile/fissionable nuclide present, and A{sub i} is the quantity of the same nuclide i that corresponds to a known margin in K{sub eff}. The study considered binary mixtures of two nuclides that exactly satisfied the equality condition of the equation. K{sub eff} values of homogeneous and heterogeneous binary mixtures of fissile/fissionable nuclides in metal and solution form were considered in spherical geometry. Results were compared to Rule-Of-Fraction predicted K{sub eff} values using an assumed linear relationship. Calculations were performed with the ANISN code with Hansen-Roach and ENDF/B-IV cross sections. The results of this study demonstrated that the Rule-Of-Fractions in the above equation does not always maintain criticality safety margins in K{sub eff} for mixtures of nuclides.

  19. Seismic Safety Margins Research Program (Phase I). Project IV. Structural building response; Structural Building Response Review

    SciTech Connect

    Healey, J.J.; Wu, S.T.; Murga, M.

    1980-02-01

    As part of the Phase I effort of the Seismic Safety Margins Research Program (SSMRP) being performed by the University of California Lawrence Livermore Laboratory for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the basic objective of Subtask IV.1 (Structural Building Response Review) is to review and summarize current methods and data pertaining to seismic response calculations particularly as they relate to the objectives of the SSMRP. This material forms one component in the development of the overall computational methodology involving state of the art computations including explicit consideration of uncertainty and aimed at ultimately deriving estimates of the probability of radioactive releases due to seismic effects on nuclear power plant facilities.

  20. Development of the seismic input for use in the seismic safety margins research program

    SciTech Connect

    Bernreuter, D.L.; Chung, D.H.

    1980-01-29

    This paper briefly outlines the overall systems approach being developed for the Seismic Safety Margins Research Program. The unique features of the approach being taken to reduce the uncertainty in the seismic input for this program are discussed. These unique features will include extensive use of expert opinion, earthquake rupture simulation studies and the way in which the seismic hazard is incorporated into the overall systems analysis. Some very preliminary results are also given for the Zion site which is the power plant chosen for analysis in Phase I of the program.

  1. Risk-Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC): Integrated Treatment of Aleatory and Epistemic Uncertainty in Safety Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    R. W. Youngblood

    2010-10-01

    The concept of “margin” has a long history in nuclear licensing and in the codification of good engineering practices. However, some traditional applications of “margin” have been carried out for surrogate scenarios (such as design basis scenarios), without regard to the actual frequencies of those scenarios, and have been carried out with in a systematically conservative fashion. This means that the effectiveness of the application of the margin concept is determined in part by the original choice of surrogates, and is limited in any case by the degree of conservatism imposed on the evaluation. In the RISMC project, which is part of the Department of Energy’s “Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program” (LWRSP), we are developing a risk-informed characterization of safety margin. Beginning with the traditional discussion of “margin” in terms of a “load” (a physical challenge to system or component function) and a “capacity” (the capability of that system or component to accommodate the challenge), we are developing the capability to characterize probabilistic load and capacity spectra, reflecting both aleatory and epistemic uncertainty in system response. For example, the probabilistic load spectrum will reflect the frequency of challenges of a particular severity. Such a characterization is required if decision-making is to be informed optimally. However, in order to enable the quantification of probabilistic load spectra, existing analysis capability needs to be extended. Accordingly, the INL is working on a next-generation safety analysis capability whose design will allow for much more efficient parameter uncertainty analysis, and will enable a much better integration of reliability-related and phenomenology-related aspects of margin.

  2. Handbook of nuclear power plant seismic fragilities, Seismic Safety Margins Research Program

    SciTech Connect

    Cover, L.E.; Bohn, M.P.; Campbell, R.D.; Wesley, D.A.

    1983-12-01

    The Seismic Safety Margins Research Program (SSMRP) has a gola to develop a complete fully coupled analysis procedure (including methods and computer codes) for estimating the risk of an earthquake-induced radioactive release from a commercial nuclear power plant. As part of this program, calculations of the seismic risk from a typical commercial nuclear reactor were made. These calculations required a knowledge of the probability of failure (fragility) of safety-related components in the reactor system which actively participate in the hypothesized accident scenarios. This report describes the development of the required fragility relations and the data sources and data reduction techniques upon which they are based. Both building and component fragilities are covered. The building fragilities are for the Zion Unit 1 reactor which was the specific plant used for development of methodology in the program. Some of the component fragilities are site-specific also, but most would be usable for other sites as well.

  3. Seismic safety margins research program. Project I SONGS 1 AFWS Project

    SciTech Connect

    Chuang, T.Y.; Smith, P.D.; Dong, R.G.; Bernreuter, D.L.; Bohn, M.P.; Cummings, G.E.; Wells, J.E.

    1981-02-24

    The seismic qualification requirements of auxiliary feedwater systems (AFWS) of Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR) were developed over a number of years. These are formalized in the publication General Design Criteria (Appendix A to 10CFR50). The full recognition of the system as an engineered safety feature did not occur until publication of the Standard Review Plan (1975). Efforts to determine how to backfit seismic requirements to earlier plants has been undertaken primarily in the Systematic Evaluation Program (SEP) for a limited number of operating reactors. Nuclear Reactor Research (RES) and NRR have requested LLNL to perform a probabilistic study on the AFWS of San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station (SONGS) Unit 1 utilizing the tools developed by the Seismic Safety Margins Research Program (SSMRP). The main objectives of this project are to: identify the weak links of AFWS; compare the failure probabilities of SONGS 1 and Zion 1 AFWS: and compare the seismic responses due to different input spectra and design values.

  4. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program Risk-Informed Safety Margins Characterization (RISMC) PathwayTechnical Program Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis Smith; Cristian Rabiti; Richard Martineau

    2012-11-01

    Safety is central to the design, licensing, operation, and economics of Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). As the current Light Water Reactor (LWR) NPPs age beyond 60 years, there are possibilities for increased frequency of Systems, Structures, and Components (SSCs) degradations or failures that initiate safety-significant events, reduce existing accident mitigation capabilities, or create new failure modes. Plant designers commonly “over-design” portions of NPPs and provide robustness in the form of redundant and diverse engineered safety features to ensure that, even in the case of well-beyond design basis scenarios, public health and safety will be protected with a very high degree of assurance. This form of defense-in-depth is a reasoned response to uncertainties and is often referred to generically as “safety margin.” Historically, specific safety margin provisions have been formulated, primarily based on “engineering judgment.”

  5. Does Establishing a Safety Margin Reduce Local Recurrence in Subsegmental Transarterial Chemoembolization for Small Nodular Hepatocellular Carcinomas?

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Hyo-Jin; Kim, Young Il; Kim, Hyo-Cheol; Jae, Hwan Jun; Hur, Saebeom

    2015-01-01

    Objective To test the hypothesis that a safety margin may affect local tumor recurrence (LTR) in subsegmental chemoembolization. Materials and Methods In 101 patients with 128 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) nodules (1-3 cm in size and ≤ 3 in number), cone-beam CT-assisted subsegmental lipiodol chemoembolization was performed. Immediately thereafter, a non-contrast thin-section CT image was obtained to evaluate the presence or absence of intra-tumoral lipiodol uptake defect and safety margin. The effect of lipiodol uptake defect and safety margin on LTR was evaluated. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to indentify determinant factors of LTR. Results Of the 128 HCC nodules in 101 patients, 49 (38.3%) nodules in 40 patients showed LTR during follow-up period (median, 34.1 months). Cumulative 1- and 2-year LTR rates of nodules with lipiodol uptake defect (n = 27) and those without defect (n = 101) were 58.1% vs. 10.1% and 72.1% vs. 19.5%, respectively (p < 0.001). Among the 101 nodules without a defect, the 1- and 2-year cumulative LTR rates for nodules with complete safety margin (n = 52) and those with incomplete safety margin (n = 49) were 9.8% vs. 12.8% and 18.9% vs. 19.0% (p = 0.912). In multivariate analyses, ascites (p = 0.035), indistinct tumor margin on cone-beam CT (p = 0.039), heterogeneous lipiodol uptake (p = 0.023), and intra-tumoral lipiodol uptake defect (p < 0.001) were determinant factors of higher LTR. Conclusion In lipiodol chemoembolization, the safety margin in completely lipiodolized nodule without defect will not affect LTR in small nodular HCCs. PMID:26357501

  6. MNSR transient analyses and thermal-hydraulic safety margins for HEU and LEU cores using PARET

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, Arne P.; Jonah, S.A.

    2008-07-15

    Thermal-hydraulic performance characteristics of Miniature Neutron Source Reactors under long-term steady-state and transient conditions are investigated. Safety margins and limiting conditions attained during these events are determined. Modeling extensions are presented that enable the PARET/ANL code to realistically track primary loop heatup, heat exchange to the pool, and heat loss from the pool to air over the pool. Comparisons are made of temperature predictions for HEU and LEU fueled cores under transient conditions. Results are obtained using three different natural convection heat transfer correlations: the original (PARET/ANL version 5), Churchill-Chu, and an experiment- based correlation from the China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE). The MNSR, either fueled by HEU or by LEU, satisfies the design limits for long-term transient operation. (author)

  7. Determination of safety margins for whole blood concentrations of alcohol and nineteen drugs in driving under the influence cases.

    PubMed

    Kristoffersen, Lena; Strand, Dag Helge; Liane, Veronica Horpestad; Vindenes, Vigdis; Tvete, Ingunn Fride; Aldrin, Magne

    2016-02-01

    Legislative limits for driving under the influence of 20 non-alcohol drugs were introduced in Norway in February 2012. Per se limits corresponding to blood alcohol concentrations (BAC) of 0.2g/kg were established for 20 psychoactive drugs, and limits for graded sanctions corresponding to BACs of 0.5 and 1.2g/kg were determined for 13 of these drugs. This new legislation made it possible for the courts to make sentences based on the analytical results, similar to the situation for alcohol. To ensure that the reported concentration is as least as high as the true concentration, with a 99% safety level, safety margins had to be calculated for each of the substances. Diazepam, tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and alcohol were used as model substances to establish a new model for estimating the safety margins. The model was compared with a previous used model established several years ago, by a similar yet much simpler model, and they were found to be in agreement. The measurement uncertainties depend on the standard batch used, the work list and the measurements' replicate. A Bayesian modelling approach was used to determine the parameters in the model, using a dataset of 4700 diazepam positive specimens and 5400 THC positive specimens. Different safety margins were considered for low and high concentration levels of diazepam (≤2μM (0.6mg/L) and >2μM) and THC (≤0.01μM (0.003mg/L) and >0.01μM). The safety margins were for diazepam 19.5% (≤2μM) and 34% (>2μM), for THC 19.5% (≤0.01μM) and 24.9% (>0.01μM). Concentration dependent safety margins for BAC were based on a dataset of 29500 alcohol positive specimens, and were in the range 10.4% (0.1g/kg) to 4.0% (4.0g/kg) at a 99% safety level. A simplified approach was used to establish safety margins for the compounds amphetamine, MDMA, methamphetamine, alprazolam, phenazepam, flunitrazepam, clonazepam, nitrazepam, oxazepam, buprenorphine, GHB, methadone, ketamine, cocaine, morphine, zolpidem and zopiclone. The

  8. The Development of Dynamic Human Reliability Analysis Simulations for Inclusion in Risk Informed Safety Margin Characterization Frameworks

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey C. Joe; Diego Mandelli; Ronald L. Boring; Curtis L. Smith; Rachel B. Shirley

    2015-07-01

    The United States Department of Energy is sponsoring the Light Water Reactor Sustainability program, which has the overall objective of supporting the near-term and the extended operation of commercial nuclear power plants. One key research and development (R&D) area in this program is the Risk-Informed Safety Margin Characterization pathway, which combines probabilistic risk simulation with thermohydraulic simulation codes to define and manage safety margins. The R&D efforts to date, however, have not included robust simulations of human operators, and how the reliability of human performance or lack thereof (i.e., human errors) can affect risk-margins and plant performance. This paper describes current and planned research efforts to address the absence of robust human reliability simulations and thereby increase the fidelity of simulated accident scenarios.

  9. Derivation of improved load transformation matrices for launchers-spacecraft coupled analysis, and direct computation of margins of safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, M.; Reynolds, J.; Ricks, E.

    1989-01-01

    Load and stress recovery from transient dynamic studies are improved upon using an extended acceleration vector in the modal acceleration technique applied to structural analysis. Extension of the normal LTM (load transformation matrices) stress recovery to automatically compute margins of safety is presented with an application to the Hubble space telescope.

  10. Additional information for impact response of the restart safety rods

    SciTech Connect

    Yau, W.W.F.

    1991-10-14

    WSRC-RP-91-677 studied the structural response of the safety rods under the conditions of brake failure and accidental release. It was concluded that the maximum impact loading to the safety rod is 6020 pounds based on conservative considerations that energy dissipation attributable to fluid resistance and reactor superstructure flexibility. The staffers of the Defense Nuclear Facility Safety Board reviewed the results and inquired about the extent of conservatism. By request of the RESTART team, I reassessed the impact force due to these conservative assumptions. This memorandum reports these assessments.

  11. 21 CFR 70.42 - Criteria for evaluating the safety of color additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Criteria for evaluating the safety of color additives. 70.42 Section 70.42 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL COLOR ADDITIVES Safety Evaluation § 70.42 Criteria for evaluating the safety of...

  12. 21 CFR 170.20 - General principles for evaluating the safety of food additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... proposed experiments to determine its safety, the Commissioner will advise a person who wishes to establish the safety of a food additive whether he believes the experiments planned will yield data adequate...

  13. 21 CFR 70.42 - Criteria for evaluating the safety of color additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... experiments to determine its safety, the Commissioner will advise a person who wishes to establish the safety of a color additive whether he believes the experiments planned will yield data adequate for...

  14. 21 CFR 570.20 - General principles for evaluating the safety of food additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... and the proposed experiments to determine its safety, the Commissioner will advise a person who wishes to establish the safety of a food additive whether he believes the experiments planned will...

  15. 21 CFR 170.20 - General principles for evaluating the safety of food additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... proposed experiments to determine its safety, the Commissioner will advise a person who wishes to establish the safety of a food additive whether he believes the experiments planned will yield data adequate...

  16. 21 CFR 170.20 - General principles for evaluating the safety of food additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... proposed experiments to determine its safety, the Commissioner will advise a person who wishes to establish the safety of a food additive whether he believes the experiments planned will yield data adequate...

  17. 21 CFR 70.42 - Criteria for evaluating the safety of color additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... experiments to determine its safety, the Commissioner will advise a person who wishes to establish the safety of a color additive whether he believes the experiments planned will yield data adequate for...

  18. 21 CFR 570.20 - General principles for evaluating the safety of food additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... and the proposed experiments to determine its safety, the Commissioner will advise a person who wishes to establish the safety of a food additive whether he believes the experiments planned will...

  19. 21 CFR 70.42 - Criteria for evaluating the safety of color additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... experiments to determine its safety, the Commissioner will advise a person who wishes to establish the safety of a color additive whether he believes the experiments planned will yield data adequate for...

  20. 21 CFR 570.20 - General principles for evaluating the safety of food additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... and the proposed experiments to determine its safety, the Commissioner will advise a person who wishes to establish the safety of a food additive whether he believes the experiments planned will...

  1. 21 CFR 570.20 - General principles for evaluating the safety of food additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... and the proposed experiments to determine its safety, the Commissioner will advise a person who wishes to establish the safety of a food additive whether he believes the experiments planned will...

  2. 21 CFR 70.42 - Criteria for evaluating the safety of color additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... experiments to determine its safety, the Commissioner will advise a person who wishes to establish the safety of a color additive whether he believes the experiments planned will yield data adequate for...

  3. 21 CFR 170.20 - General principles for evaluating the safety of food additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... proposed experiments to determine its safety, the Commissioner will advise a person who wishes to establish the safety of a food additive whether he believes the experiments planned will yield data adequate...

  4. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program Technical Basis Guide Describing How to Perform Safety Margin Configuration Risk Management

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis Smith; James Knudsen; Bentley Harwood

    2013-08-01

    The INL has carried out a demonstration of the RISMC approach for the purpose of configuration risk management. We have shown how improved accuracy and realism can be achieved by simulating changes in risk – as a function of different configurations – in order to determine safety margins as the plant is modified. We described the various technical issues that play a role in these configuration-based calculations with the intent that future applications can take advantage of the analysis benefits while avoiding some of the technical pitfalls that are found for these types of calculations. Specific recommendations have been provided on a variety of topics aimed at improving the safety margin analysis and strengthening the technical basis behind the analysis process.

  5. 5 CFR 8301.104 - Additional rules for employees of the Food Safety and Inspection Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Food Safety and Inspection Service. 8301.104 Section 8301.104 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF....104 Additional rules for employees of the Food Safety and Inspection Service. Any employee of the Food Safety and Inspection Service not otherwise required to obtain approval for outside employment...

  6. 5 CFR 8301.104 - Additional rules for employees of the Food Safety and Inspection Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Food Safety and Inspection Service. 8301.104 Section 8301.104 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF....104 Additional rules for employees of the Food Safety and Inspection Service. Any employee of the Food Safety and Inspection Service not otherwise required to obtain approval for outside employment...

  7. 5 CFR 8301.104 - Additional rules for employees of the Food Safety and Inspection Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Food Safety and Inspection Service. 8301.104 Section 8301.104 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF....104 Additional rules for employees of the Food Safety and Inspection Service. Any employee of the Food Safety and Inspection Service not otherwise required to obtain approval for outside employment...

  8. 5 CFR 8301.104 - Additional rules for employees of the Food Safety and Inspection Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Food Safety and Inspection Service. 8301.104 Section 8301.104 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF....104 Additional rules for employees of the Food Safety and Inspection Service. Any employee of the Food Safety and Inspection Service not otherwise required to obtain approval for outside employment...

  9. 5 CFR 8301.104 - Additional rules for employees of the Food Safety and Inspection Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Food Safety and Inspection Service. 8301.104 Section 8301.104 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF....104 Additional rules for employees of the Food Safety and Inspection Service. Any employee of the Food Safety and Inspection Service not otherwise required to obtain approval for outside employment...

  10. Dynamic System Model of LS-VHTR to Estimate Design Parameter Impacts on Safety Margin and Reactor Economics

    SciTech Connect

    Qualls, A.L.; Wilson Jr, T.L.

    2006-07-01

    Early reactor analysis work for the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Liquid Salt - Very High Temperature Reactor (LS-VHTR) concept has focused primarily on detailed analyses of the core. This paper discusses ongoing analyses of the balance of plant and how it impacts overall system design. A dynamic system model of the end-to-end LS-VHTR has been developed to investigate the impact of major design parameters on systems performance, safety margin, and plant economics. The core model uses simplified thermal-hydraulic analyses to calculate four characteristic radial coolant channel parameters during transients. The core model is coupled to a multi-reheat Brayton power conversion system model through an intermediate salt-coolant loop model. A passive, safety-related heat-removal system is modeled for reactor pressure vessel protection. Critical parameters, such as peak fuel and vessel temperatures and peak temperatures and pressures in the power conversion loop, are estimated during proposed transients. The impacts of design parameters on component design requirements, safety margin, and economics are to be investigated. Transients initially analyzed will include loss-of-coolant-flow accidents. For initial transients, the axial- and radial-power profiles within the core will remain constant, with power levels decreasing in proportion to the time-dependent decay heating rate of the fuel. Later transients will represent spatial core power shifts during transients without scram. Results from simplified economic models will support relative comparisons among system design options. (authors)

  11. Effect of Pipe Size on the Leak-Before-Break Recommended Safety Margins in a Typical Pressurized Water Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Bhowmick, D.C.; Swamy, S.A.; Udyawar, A.

    2006-07-01

    NRC regulations require that nuclear power plants be designed and built to shut down safely in the event of a sudden pipe break. The leak-before-break (LBB) methodology is accepted as a technically justifiable approach for eliminating postulation of double-ended guillotine break (DEGB) in high energy piping systems. This is the result of extensive research, development, and rigorous evaluations by the NRC and the commercial nuclear power industry since the early 1970's. The DEGB postulation is responsible for the hundreds of pipe whip restraints and jet shields found in commercial nuclear plants. These restraints and jet shields not only cost many millions of dollars to design and construct, but also cause plant congestion leading to reduced reliability in in-service inspection and increased man-rem exposure. The LBB applications gathered momentum since the latter part of the 80's. The benefits of LBB are multi-fold with the maximum benefits derived based on the extent of LBB applications. While the LBB has been applied to many large diameter piping systems, it is highly desirable to extend the applications to other smaller diameter high energy piping systems. However, it is intuitively obvious that demonstration of all the recommended LBB safety margins becomes increasingly difficult as the pipe size under consideration is reduced. In this paper an attempt is made to quantify the pipe size effect on the safety margins investigating the level of difficulty. (authors)

  12. Generic analyses for evaluation of low Charpy upper-shelf energy effects on safety margins against fracture of reactor pressure vessel materials

    SciTech Connect

    Dickson, T.L.

    1993-07-01

    Appendix G to 10 CFR Part 50 requires that reactor pressure vessel beltline material maintain Charpy upper-shelf energies of no less than 50 ft-lb during the plant operating life, unless it is demonstrated in a manner approved by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), that lower values of Charpy upper-shelf energy provide margins of safety against fracture equivalent to those in Appendix G to Section XI of the ASME Code. Analyses based on acceptance criteria and analysis methods adopted in the ASME Code Case N-512 are described herein. Additional information on material properties was provided by the NRC, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, Materials Engineering Branch. These cases, specified by the NRC, represent generic applications to boiling water reactor and pressurized water reactor vessels. This report is designated as HSST Report No. 140.

  13. Seismic safety margins research program. Phase I. Final report: plant/site selection and data collection (Project I)

    SciTech Connect

    Chuang, T. Y.

    1981-05-01

    Project I of Phase I of the Seismic Safety Margins Research Program (SSMRP) comprised two parts: the selection of a representative nuclear power plant/site for study in Phase I and the collection of data needed by the other SSMRP projects. Unit 1 of the Zion Nuclear Power Plant in Zion, Illinois, was selected for the SSMRP Phase I studies. The Zion plant and its site were found to be reasonably representative of operating and future plants with regard to its nuclear steam supply system; the type of containment structure (prestressed concrete); its electrical capacity (1100 MWe); its location (the Midwest); the peak seismic accelaration used for design (0.17g); and the properties of the underlying soil (the low-strain shear-wave velocity is 1650 ft/s in a 50- to 100-ft-thick layer of soil overlying sedimentary bedrock).

  14. 21 CFR 570.20 - General principles for evaluating the safety of food additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false General principles for evaluating the safety of food additives. 570.20 Section 570.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES Food...

  15. Analysis of occupational accidents: prevention through the use of additional technical safety measures for machinery

    PubMed Central

    Dźwiarek, Marek; Latała, Agata

    2016-01-01

    This article presents an analysis of results of 1035 serious and 341 minor accidents recorded by Poland's National Labour Inspectorate (PIP) in 2005–2011, in view of their prevention by means of additional safety measures applied by machinery users. Since the analysis aimed at formulating principles for the application of technical safety measures, the analysed accidents should bear additional attributes: the type of machine operation, technical safety measures and the type of events causing injuries. The analysis proved that the executed tasks and injury-causing events were closely connected and there was a relation between casualty events and technical safety measures. In the case of tasks consisting of manual feeding and collecting materials, the injuries usually occur because of the rotating motion of tools or crushing due to a closing motion. Numerous accidents also happened in the course of supporting actions, like removing pollutants, correcting material position, cleaning, etc. PMID:26652689

  16. Analysis of occupational accidents: prevention through the use of additional technical safety measures for machinery.

    PubMed

    Dźwiarek, Marek; Latała, Agata

    2016-01-01

    This article presents an analysis of results of 1035 serious and 341 minor accidents recorded by Poland's National Labour Inspectorate (PIP) in 2005-2011, in view of their prevention by means of additional safety measures applied by machinery users. Since the analysis aimed at formulating principles for the application of technical safety measures, the analysed accidents should bear additional attributes: the type of machine operation, technical safety measures and the type of events causing injuries. The analysis proved that the executed tasks and injury-causing events were closely connected and there was a relation between casualty events and technical safety measures. In the case of tasks consisting of manual feeding and collecting materials, the injuries usually occur because of the rotating motion of tools or crushing due to a closing motion. Numerous accidents also happened in the course of supporting actions, like removing pollutants, correcting material position, cleaning, etc. PMID:26652689

  17. Safety basis for the 241-AN-107 mixer pump installation and caustic addition

    SciTech Connect

    Van Vleet, R.J.

    1994-10-05

    This safety Basis was prepared to determine whether or not the proposed activities of installing a 76 HP jet mixer pump and the addition of approximately 50,000 gallons of 19 M (50:50 wt %) aqueous caustic are within the safety envelope as described by Tank Farms (chapter six of WHC-SD-WM-ISB-001, Rev. 0). The safety basis covers the components, structures and systems for the caustic addition and mixer pump installation. These include: installation of the mixer pump and monitoring equipment; operation of the mixer pump, process monitoring equipment and caustic addition; the pump stand, caustic addition skid, the electrical skid, the video camera system and the two densitometers. Also covered is the removal and decontamination of the mixer pump and process monitoring system. Authority for this safety basis is WHC-IP-0842 (Waste Tank Administration). Section 15.9, Rev. 2 (Unreviewed Safety Questions) of WHC-IP-0842 requires that an evaluation be performed for all physical modifications.

  18. RECENT ADDITIONS OF CRITICALITY SAFETY RELATED INTEGRAL BENCHMARK DATA TO THE ICSBEP AND IRPHEP HANDBOOKS

    SciTech Connect

    J. Blair Briggs; Lori Scott; Yolanda Rugama; Enrico Sartori

    2009-09-01

    High-quality integral benchmark experiments have always been a priority for criticality safety. However, interest in integral benchmark data is increasing as efforts to quantify and reduce calculational uncertainties accelerate to meet the demands of future criticality safety needs to support next generation reactor and advanced fuel cycle concepts. The importance of drawing upon existing benchmark data is becoming more apparent because of dwindling availability of critical facilities worldwide and the high cost of performing new experiments. Integral benchmark data from the International Handbook of Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments and the International Handbook of Reactor Physics Benchmark Experiments are widely used. Benchmark data have been added to these two handbooks since the last Nuclear Criticality Safety Division Topical Meeting in Knoxville, Tennessee (September 2005). This paper highlights these additions.

  19. 47 CFR 5.311 - Additional requirements related to safety of the public.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... safety of the public. In addition to the notification requirements of § 5.309, for experiments that may... bands and geographic area as the planned experiment and, as appropriate, their end users; (b) Rapid identification, and elimination, of any harm the experiment may cause; and (c) Identifying an alternate means...

  20. 47 CFR 5.311 - Additional requirements related to safety of the public.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... safety of the public. In addition to the notification requirements of § 5.309, for experiments that may... bands and geographic area as the planned experiment and, as appropriate, their end users; (b) Rapid identification, and elimination, of any harm the experiment may cause; and (c) Identifying an alternate means...

  1. Triclosan: a critical review of the experimental data and development of margins of safety for consumer products.

    PubMed

    Rodricks, Joseph V; Swenberg, James A; Borzelleca, Joseph F; Maronpot, Robert R; Shipp, Annette M

    2010-05-01

    Triclosan (2,4,4'-trichloro-2'-hydroxy-diphenyl ether) is an antibacterial compound that has been used in consumer products for about 40 years. The tolerability and safety of triclosan has been evaluated in human volunteers with little indication of toxicity or sensitization. Although information in humans from chronic usage of personal care products is not available, triclosan has been extensively studied in laboratory animals. When evaluated in chronic oncogenicity studies in mice, rats, and hamsters, treatment-related tumors were found only in the liver of male and female mice. Application of the Human Relevance Framework suggested that these tumors arose by way of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) activation, a mode of action not considered to be relevant to humans. Consequently, a Benchmark Dose (BMDL(10)) of 47 mg/kg/day was developed based on kidney toxicity in the hamster. Estimates of the amount of intake from in the use of representative personal care products for men, women, and children were derived in two ways: (1) using known or assumed triclosan levels in various consumer products and assumed usage patterns (product-based estimates); and (2) using upper bound measured urinary triclosan levels from human volunteers (biomonitoring-based estimates) using data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. For the product-based estimates, the margin of safety (MOS) for the combined exposure estimates of intake from the use of all triclosan-containing products considered were approximately 1000, 730, and 630 for men, women, and children, respectively. The MOS calculated from the biomonitoring-based estimated intakes were 5200, 6700, and 11,750 for men, women, and children, respectively. Based on these results, exposure to triclosan in consumer products is not expected to cause adverse health effects in children or adults who use these products as intended. PMID:20377306

  2. Quantifying reactor safety margins: Part 1: An overview of the code scaling, applicability, and uncertainty evaluation methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Boyack, B.E.; Duffey, R.B.; Griffith, P.; Katsma, K.R.; Lellouche, G.S.; Levy, S.; Rohatgi, U.S.; Wilson, G.E.; Wulff, W.; Zuber, N.

    1988-01-01

    In August 1988, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) approved the final version of a revised rule on the acceptance of emergency core cooling systems (ECCS) entitled ''Emergency Core Cooling System; Revisions to Acceptance Criteria.'' The revised rule states an alternate ECCS performance analysis, based on best-estimate methods, may be used to provide more realistic estimates of plant safety margins, provided the licensee quantifies the uncertainty of the estimates and included that uncertainty when comparing the calculated results with prescribed acceptance limits. To support the revised ECCS rule, the NRC and its contractors and consultants have developed and demonstrated a method called the Code Scaling, Applicability, and Uncertainty (CSAU) evaluation methodology. It is an auditable, traceable, and practical method for combining quantitative analyses and expert opinions to arrive at computed values of uncertainty. This paper provides an overview of the CSAU evaluation methodology and its application to a postulated cold-leg, large-break loss-of-coolant accident in a Westinghouse four-loop pressurized water reactor with 17 /times/ 17 fuel. The code selected for this demonstration of the CSAU methodology was TRAC-PF1/MOD1, Version 14.3. 23 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  3. MNSR transient analyses and thermal hydraulic safety margins for HEU and LEU cores using the RELAP5-3D code

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, F.E.; Thomas, J.; Liaw, J.; Matos, J.E.

    2008-07-15

    For safety analyses to support conversion of MNSR reactors from HEU fuel to LEU fuel, a RELAP5-3D model was set up to simulate the entire MNSR system. This model includes the core, the beryllium reflectors, the water in the tank and the water in the surrounding pool. The MCNP code was used to obtain the power distributions in the core and to obtain reactivity feedback coefficients for the transient analyses. The RELAP5-3D model was validated by comparing measured and calculated data for the NIRR-1 reactor in Nigeria. Comparisons include normal operation at constant power and a 3.77 mk rod withdrawal transient. Excellent agreement was obtained for core coolant inlet and outlet temperatures for operation at constant power, and for power level, coolant inlet temperature, and coolant outlet temperature for the rod withdrawal transient. In addition to the negative reactivity feedbacks from increasing core moderator and fuel temperatures, it was necessary to calculate and include positive reactivity feedback from temperature changes in the radial beryllium reflector and changes in the temperature and density of the water in the tank above the core and at the side of the core. The validated RELAP5-3D model was then used to analyze 3.77 mk rod withdrawal transients for LEU cores with two UO{sub 2} fuel pin designs. The impact of cracking of oxide LEU fuel is discussed. In addition, steady-state power operation at elevated power levels was evaluated to determine steady-state safety margins for onset of nucleate boiling and for onset of significant voiding. (author)

  4. Phosphazene Based Additives for Improvement of Safety and Battery Lifetimes in Lithium-Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Mason K Harrup; Kevin L Gering; Harry W Rollins; Sergiy V Sazhin; Michael T Benson; David K Jamison; Christopher J Michelbacher

    2011-10-01

    There need to be significant improvements made in lithium-ion battery technology, principally in the areas of safety and useful lifetimes to truly enable widespread adoption of large format batteries for the electrification of the light transportation fleet. In order to effect the transition to lithium ion technology in a timely fashion, one promising next step is through improvements to the electrolyte in the form of novel additives that simultaneously improve safety and useful lifetimes without impairing performance characteristics over wide temperature and cycle duty ranges. Recent efforts in our laboratory have been focused on the development of such additives with all the requisite properties enumerated above. We present the results of the study of novel phosphazene based electrolytes additives.

  5. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  6. Evaluation of safety margins of Chenopodium album seed decoction: 14-day subacute toxicity and microbicidal activity studies

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Sperm immobilizing activity and plausible mechanism of action of Chenopodium album seed decoction (CAD) have been elucidated in our earlier studies. The present study has been carried out to explore the safety standards of CAD along with microbicidal properties as prerequisite for its use as a topically applicable vaginal contraceptive. Methods The safety standards of CAD were assessed by a) Hemolytic index determination using rabbit erythrocytes, to set the doses of the other experiments, b) Dermal irritancy test using refined version of Draize scoring system on rabbits, c) Possible effect on local tissues and reproductive performance in female rats after fourteen daily single dose application, d) PCNA staining- to evaluate the effect of CAD on vaginal tissue proliferation, e) TUNEL assay- to examine its ability to induce in situ apoptosis in the vaginal tissue sections of the treated animals, and f) Microbicidal activity- to explore the effect of CAD on the growth of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Candida albicans. Results In vitro irritation studies on rabbit erythrocytes revealed the hemolytic index of CAD to be 8.2 mg/ml. The dermal irritation test showed it to be a non-irritant even at higher doses. Intra vaginal application of CAD in rat vagina for 14 consecutive days caused slight reversible inflammation on vaginal epithelial cells at doses as high as 82 mg/ml. However, at this dose level it neither had any adverse effect on vaginal tissue proliferation nor did it cause in situ apoptosis as evident from PCNA staining and TUNEL assay. Fertility and fecundity were restored 4-15 days after withdrawal of CAD application. At dose level 10 times that of its spermicidal MEC (minimum effective concentration), CAD did not block the growth of Lactobacillus, although the size of individual colony was marginally reduced. However, growth of the pathogenic fungus Candida albicans was completely inhibited with 20 mg/ml of CAD. Conclusion The overall result

  7. High Energy Density Additives for Hybrid Fuel Rockets to Improve Performance and Enhance Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaffe, Richard L.

    2014-01-01

    We propose a conceptual study of prototype strained hydrocarbon molecules as high energy density additives for hybrid rocket fuels to boost the performance of these rockets without compromising safety and reliability. Use of these additives could extend the range of applications for which hybrid rockets become an attractive alternative to conventional solid or liquid fuel rockets. The objectives of the study were to confirm and quantify the high enthalpy of these strained molecules and to assess improvement in rocket performance that would be expected if these additives were blended with conventional fuels. We confirmed the chemical properties (including enthalpy) of these additives. However, the predicted improvement in rocket performance was too small to make this a useful strategy for boosting hybrid rocket performance.

  8. Lithium-Ion Electrolytes Containing Flame Retardant Additives for Increased Safety Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smart, Marshall C. (Inventor); Smith, Kiah A. (Inventor); Bugga, Ratnakumar V. (Inventor); Prakash, Surya G. (Inventor); Krause, Frederick Charles (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    The invention discloses various embodiments of Li-ion electrolytes containing flame retardant additives that have delivered good performance over a wide temperature range, good cycle life characteristics, and improved safety characteristics, namely, reduced flammability. In one embodiment of the invention there is provided an electrolyte for use in a lithium-ion electrochemical cell, the electrolyte comprising a mixture of an ethylene carbonate (EC), an ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC), a fluorinated co-solvent, a flame retardant additive, and a lithium salt. In another embodiment of the invention there is provided an electrolyte for use in a lithium-ion electrochemical cell, the electrolyte comprising a mixture of an ethylene carbonate (EC), an ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC), a flame retardant additive, a solid electrolyte interface (SEI) film forming agent, and a lithium salt.

  9. [Weighing use and safety of therapeutic agents and feed additives (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    van der Wal, P

    1982-02-01

    (1) The pros and cons of using feed additives and therapeutic agents may be successfully weighed in the light of carefully considered consumer requirements. (2) The socio-economic interests of the producer and the welfare of the animal will also determine the response of the production apparatus to consumer requirements. (3) Consumption of the current amounts of products of animal origin and maintenance of price and quality will only be feasible in the event of rational large-scale production in which constituents used in nutrition, prophylaxis and therapeutics are highly important factors. (4) Using these ingredients should be preceded by accurate evaluation of their use and safety. Testing facilities, conduct of studies and reporting should be such as to make the results nationally and internationally acceptable to all those concerned. (5) In deciding whether feed constituents are acceptable in view of the established use and safety, compliance will have to be sought with those standards which are accepted in other fields of society. Measures which result in raising the price of food without actually helping to reduce the risks to the safety of man, animals and environment, are likely to be rejected by any well-informed consumer who is aware of the facts. (6) For accurate weighing of use and safety at a national level, possibilities are hardly adequate in Europe. Decisions reached within the framework of the European Community, also tuned to U.S.A.- conditions are rightly encouraged. A centrally managed professionally staffed and equipped test system in the European Community would appear to be indispensable. PMID:7058519

  10. Multivariate qualitative analysis of banned additives in food safety using surface enhanced Raman scattering spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Shixuan; Xie, Wanyi; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Liqun; Wang, Yunxia; Liu, Xiaoling; Liu, Yulong; Du, Chunlei

    2015-02-01

    A novel strategy which combines iteratively cubic spline fitting baseline correction method with discriminant partial least squares qualitative analysis is employed to analyze the surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy of banned food additives, such as Sudan I dye and Rhodamine B in food, Malachite green residues in aquaculture fish. Multivariate qualitative analysis methods, using the combination of spectra preprocessing iteratively cubic spline fitting (ICSF) baseline correction with principal component analysis (PCA) and discriminant partial least squares (DPLS) classification respectively, are applied to investigate the effectiveness of SERS spectroscopy for predicting the class assignments of unknown banned food additives. PCA cannot be used to predict the class assignments of unknown samples. However, the DPLS classification can discriminate the class assignment of unknown banned additives using the information of differences in relative intensities. The results demonstrate that SERS spectroscopy combined with ICSF baseline correction method and exploratory analysis methodology DPLS classification can be potentially used for distinguishing the banned food additives in field of food safety.

  11. Multivariate qualitative analysis of banned additives in food safety using surface enhanced Raman scattering spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    He, Shixuan; Xie, Wanyi; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Liqun; Wang, Yunxia; Liu, Xiaoling; Liu, Yulong; Du, Chunlei

    2015-02-25

    A novel strategy which combines iteratively cubic spline fitting baseline correction method with discriminant partial least squares qualitative analysis is employed to analyze the surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy of banned food additives, such as Sudan I dye and Rhodamine B in food, Malachite green residues in aquaculture fish. Multivariate qualitative analysis methods, using the combination of spectra preprocessing iteratively cubic spline fitting (ICSF) baseline correction with principal component analysis (PCA) and discriminant partial least squares (DPLS) classification respectively, are applied to investigate the effectiveness of SERS spectroscopy for predicting the class assignments of unknown banned food additives. PCA cannot be used to predict the class assignments of unknown samples. However, the DPLS classification can discriminate the class assignment of unknown banned additives using the information of differences in relative intensities. The results demonstrate that SERS spectroscopy combined with ICSF baseline correction method and exploratory analysis methodology DPLS classification can be potentially used for distinguishing the banned food additives in field of food safety. PMID:25300041

  12. Immunotoxicity of the colour additive caramel colour III; a review on complicated issues in the safety evaluation of a food additive.

    PubMed

    Houben, G F; Penninks, A H

    1994-08-12

    Food additives can be regarded as the safest constituents of our daily food. Nevertheless, complicated issues with respect to their safety evaluation do also occur. In this review paper, some of these issues are illustrated by the description and evaluation of the research on the immunotoxicity of the food additive Caramel Colour III. Caramel Colour III is commonly used as a color additive in many products for human consumption. Toxicity studies conducted in the seventies demonstrated that administration of Caramel Colour III can cause a reduction in total white blood cell counts in rats, due to reduced lymphocyte counts. Studies reviewed in this paper demonstrated several other effects of Caramel Colour III on the immune system of rodents, including disturbed immune functions and changed resistance in infection models. In addition, studies in rats demonstrated that most of the effects occur only when the animals are fed a diet low in vitamin B6. The imidazole derivative 2-acetyl-4(5)-(1,2,3,4-tetrahydroxy-butyl)-imidazole (THI) was found to be responsible for the immunotoxicity. Issues such as the mechanism of action of THI and the role of vitamin B6 are discussed. Finally, the results of a human intervention study and the observed effect levels of THI in rats are discussed in terms of safety of the use of Caramel Colour III in our daily food supply. PMID:8079366

  13. Seismic Safety Margins Research Programs. Assessment of potential increases in risk due to degradation of steam generator and reactor coolant pump supports. [PWR

    SciTech Connect

    Bohn, M. P.; Wells, J. E.; Shieh, L. C.; Cover, L. E.; Streit, R. L.

    1983-08-01

    During the NRC licensing review for the North Anna Units 1 and 2 pressurized-water reactors (PWRs), questions were raised regarding the potential for low-fracture toughness of steam-generator and reactor-coolant-pump supports. Because other PWRs may face similar problems, this issue was incorporated into the NRC Program for Resolution of Generic Issues. The work described in this report was performed to provide the NRC with a quantitative evaluation of the value/impact implications of the various options of resolving the fracture-toughness question. This report presents an assessment of the probabilistic risk associated with nil-ductility failures of steam-generator and reactor-coolant-pump structural-support systems during seismic events, performed using the Seismic Safety Margins Research Program codes and data bases.

  14. Organizing marginalized workers.

    PubMed

    Taylor, A K

    1999-01-01

    Figures from the U.S. Department of Labor show that low-wage or marginalized workers are more likely to be injured on the job and suffer more work-related medical conditions than better-paid workers. Despite an increasingly hostile organizing climate, market globalization, and corporate downsizing, significant progress has been made in organizing marginalized workers. A multifaceted, comprehensive organizing strategy, incorporating union-building strategies that include (but are not limited to) safety and health, must be used by unions to successfully organize marginalized workers and obtain the first contract. PMID:10378982

  15. 77 FR 71561 - Health and Safety Data Reporting; Addition of Certain Chemicals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-03

    ...This final rule requires manufacturers (including importers) of cadmium or cadmium compounds, including as part of an article, that have been, or are reasonably likely to be, incorporated into consumer products to report certain unpublished health and safety studies to EPA. The Interagency Testing Committee (ITC), established under section 4(e) of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) to......

  16. 21 CFR 170.20 - General principles for evaluating the safety of food additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) Upon written request describing the proposed use of an additive and the proposed experiments to... additive whether he believes the experiments planned will yield data adequate for an evaluation of...

  17. Food additives.

    PubMed

    Berglund, F

    1978-01-01

    The use of additives to food fulfils many purposes, as shown by the index issued by the Codex Committee on Food Additives: Acids, bases and salts; Preservatives, Antioxidants and antioxidant synergists; Anticaking agents; Colours; Emulfifiers; Thickening agents; Flour-treatment agents; Extraction solvents; Carrier solvents; Flavours (synthetic); Flavour enhancers; Non-nutritive sweeteners; Processing aids; Enzyme preparations. Many additives occur naturally in foods, but this does not exclude toxicity at higher levels. Some food additives are nutrients, or even essential nutritents, e.g. NaCl. Examples are known of food additives causing toxicity in man even when used according to regulations, e.g. cobalt in beer. In other instances, poisoning has been due to carry-over, e.g. by nitrate in cheese whey - when used for artificial feed for infants. Poisonings also occur as the result of the permitted substance being added at too high levels, by accident or carelessness, e.g. nitrite in fish. Finally, there are examples of hypersensitivity to food additives, e.g. to tartrazine and other food colours. The toxicological evaluation, based on animal feeding studies, may be complicated by impurities, e.g. orthotoluene-sulfonamide in saccharin; by transformation or disappearance of the additive in food processing in storage, e.g. bisulfite in raisins; by reaction products with food constituents, e.g. formation of ethylurethane from diethyl pyrocarbonate; by metabolic transformation products, e.g. formation in the gut of cyclohexylamine from cyclamate. Metabolic end products may differ in experimental animals and in man: guanylic acid and inosinic acid are metabolized to allantoin in the rat but to uric acid in man. The magnitude of the safety margin in man of the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) is not identical to the "safety factor" used when calculating the ADI. The symptoms of Chinese Restaurant Syndrome, although not hazardous, furthermore illustrate that the whole ADI

  18. Additional Studies of the Criticality Safety of Failed Used Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, William BJ J; Wagner, John C

    2013-01-01

    Commercial used nuclear fuel (UNF) in the United States is expected to remain in storage for periods potentially greater than 40 years. Extended storage (ES) time and irradiation to high-burnup values (>45 GWd/t) may increase the potential for fuel failure during normal and accident conditions involving storage and transportation. Fuel failure, depending on the severity, could result in changes to the geometric configuration of the fuel, which has safety and regulatory implications. The likelihood and extent of fuel reconfiguration and its impact on the safety of the UNF is not well understood. The objective of this work is to assess and quantify the impact of fuel reconfiguration due to fuel failure on criticality safety of UNF in storage and transportation casks. Criticality analyses are conducted considering representative UNF designs covering a range of enrichments and burnups in multiple cask systems. Prior work developed a set of failed fuel configuration categories and specific configurations were evaluated to understand trends and quantify the consequences of worst-case potential reconfiguration progressions. These results will be summarized here and indicate that the potential impacts on subcriticality can be rather significant for certain configurations (e.g., >20% keff). It can be concluded that the consequences of credible fuel failure configurations from ES or transportation following ES are manageable (e.g., <5% keff). The current work expands on these efforts and examines some modified scenarios and modified approaches to investigate the effectiveness of some techniques for reducing the calculated increase in keff. The areas included here are more realistic modeling of some assembly types and the effect of reconfiguration of some assemblies in the storage and transportation canister.

  19. Evaluation of Herbal Medicines: Value Addition to Traditional Medicines Through Metabolism, Pharmacokinetic and Safety Studies.

    PubMed

    Thelingwani, Roslyn; Masimirembwa, Collen

    2014-01-01

    The safety and efficacy of herbal medicines remain major issues of concern especially in the developing world where the use is high. The World Health Organisation estimates up to 80% of the population in Africa relies on herbal medicines for treatment of many diseases. Minimum safety evaluations need to be done for both the herbal and conventional drugs, in particular when there is a high likelihood of co-administration. This is particularly important in Africa where there is increased access to antiretrovirals in the treatment of HIV/AIDS, which are being used in a population background characterized by rampant use of herbal medicines. Many techniques used in the discovery and evaluation of conventional drugs can be adapted to herbal medicines. Such evaluations will add value to herbal medicines as doctors and patients will be better informed on which drugs and herbal medicines to take or not take together. This can also lead to the adoption of guidelines by regulatory agents such as the European Medicines Agency (EMA), Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and governmental agencies controlling the use of medicines. Of current interest is the evaluation of drug-herb interactions (DHI) involving the absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME) of medicines where there is a promising possibility to adopt the current FDA and EMA guidelines on the evaluation of herbal medicines for drug-drug interactions (DDI). In this review we demonstrate progress made so far in DHI and point to possible future developments that will contribute to the safe use of herbal medicines. PMID:25658125

  20. Improvement in safety and cycle life of lithium-ion batteries by employing quercetin as an electrolyte additive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Meng-Lun; Li, Yu-Han; Yeh, Jien-Wei; Shih, Han C.

    2012-09-01

    Quercetin, an organic antioxidant, has been employed as an additive in lithium-ion cells to enhance the electrochemical performance to enhance the cycle life and the overcharging characteristics of LiPF6/EC + EMC + DMC (1 M) when used as an electrolyte. A LiCoO2/graphite full cell with 0.05% quercetin showed a significant improvement in safety associated with overcharging tolerance and thermal stability, without causing damage in C-rate capability, and even a small improvement in cycle life performance. The quercetin-containing lithium battery showed an improvement in its electrochemical properties with 92% capacity retention after 350 cycles from 2.8 to 4.3 V, at a rate of 1 C; compared to 85% capacity retention for a cell without quercetin operated under the same conditions. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) results for the LiCoO2 cathode show that the addition of 0.05% quercetin provides a significant suppression in the impedance of the cell after 60 cycles. The improvement might result from the formation of a passivation microstructure (from quercetin oxidation) on the electrode's surface. The quercetin-containing batteries provided long term cycling and a high safety performance, making them a viable power source for applications involving electric devices with significant safety requirements.

  1. PAT-1 safety analysis report addendum author responses to request for additional information.

    SciTech Connect

    Weiner, Ruth F.; Schmale, David T.; Kalan, Robert J.; Akin, Lili A.; Miller, David Russell; Knorovsky, Gerald Albert; Yoshimura, Richard Hiroyuki; Lopez, Carlos; Harding, David Cameron; Jones, Perry L.; Morrow, Charles W.

    2010-09-01

    The Plutonium Air Transportable Package, Model PAT-1, is certified under Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations Part 71 by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) per Certificate of Compliance (CoC) USA/0361B(U)F-96 (currently Revision 9). The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) submitted SAND Report SAND2009-5822 to NRC that documented the incorporation of plutonium (Pu) metal as a new payload for the PAT-1 package. NRC responded with a Request for Additional Information (RAI), identifying information needed in connection with its review of the application. The purpose of this SAND report is to provide the authors responses to each RAI. SAND Report SAND2010-6106 containing the proposed changes to the Addendum is provided separately.

  2. Robustness of RISMC Insights under Alternative Aleatory/Epistemic Uncertainty Classifications: Draft Report under the Risk-Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) Pathway of the DOE Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program

    SciTech Connect

    Unwin, Stephen D.; Eslinger, Paul W.; Johnson, Kenneth I.

    2012-09-20

    The Risk-Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) pathway is a set of activities defined under the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program. The overarching objective of RISMC is to support plant life-extension decision-making by providing a state-of-knowledge characterization of safety margins in key systems, structures, and components (SSCs). A technical challenge at the core of this effort is to establish the conceptual and technical feasibility of analyzing safety margin in a risk-informed way, which, unlike conventionally defined deterministic margin analysis, would be founded on probabilistic characterizations of uncertainty in SSC performance. In the context of probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) technology, there has arisen a general consensus about the distinctive roles of two types of uncertainty: aleatory and epistemic, where the former represents irreducible, random variability inherent in a system, whereas the latter represents a state of knowledge uncertainty on the part of the analyst about the system which is, in principle, reducible through further research. While there is often some ambiguity about how any one contributing uncertainty in an analysis should be classified, there has nevertheless emerged a broad consensus on the meanings of these uncertainty types in the PRA setting. However, while RISMC methodology shares some features with conventional PRA, it will nevertheless be a distinctive methodology set. Therefore, the paradigms for classification of uncertainty in the PRA setting may not fully port to the RISMC environment. Yet the notion of risk-informed margin is based on the characterization of uncertainty, and it is therefore critical to establish a common understanding of uncertainty in the RISMC setting.

  3. Critical review of the safety assessment of nano-structured silica additives in food.

    PubMed

    Winkler, Hans Christian; Suter, Mark; Naegeli, Hanspeter

    2016-01-01

    The development of nano-materials is viewed as one of the most important technological advances of the 21st century and new applications of nano-sized particles in the production, processing, packaging or storage of food are expected to emerge soon. This trend of growing commercialization of engineered nano-particles as part of modern diet will substantially increase oral exposure. Contrary to the proven benefits of nano-materials, however, possible adverse health effects have generally received less attention. This problem is very well illustrated by nano-structured synthetic amorphous silica (SAS), which is a common food additive since several decades although the relevant risk assessment has never been satisfactorily completed. A no observed adverse effect level of 2500 mg SAS particles/kg body weight per day was derived from the only available long-term administration study in rodents. However, extrapolation to a safe daily intake for humans is problematic due to limitations of this chronic animal study and knowledge gaps as to possible local intestinal effects of SAS particles, primarily on the gut-associated lymphoid system. This uncertainty is aggravated by digestion experiments indicating that dietary SAS particles preserve their nano-sized structure when reaching the intestinal lumen. An important aspect is whether food-borne particles like SAS alter the function of dendritic cells that, embedded in the intestinal mucosa, act as first-line sentinels of foreign materials. We conclude that nano-particles do not represent a completely new threat and that most potential risks can be assessed following procedures established for conventional chemical hazards. However, specific properties of food-borne nano-particles should be further examined and, for that purpose, in vitro tests with decision-making cells of the immune system are needed to complement existing in vivo studies. PMID:27287345

  4. The Evaluation of Triphenyl Phosphate as a Flame Retardant Additive to Improve the Safety of Lithium-Ion Battery Electrolytes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smart, M. C.; Krause, F. C.; Hwang, C.; West, W. C.; Soler, J.; Prakash, G. K. S.; Ratnakumar, B. V.

    2011-01-01

    With the intent of improving the safety characteristics of lithium ion cells, electrolytes containing flame retardant additives have been investigated. A number of triphenyl phosphate-containing electrolytes were evaluated in both coin cells and experimental three electrode lithium-ion cells (containing reference electrodes). A number of chemistries were investigated, including MCMB carbon/LiNi(0.8)Co(0.2)O2 (NCO), graphite/LiNi(0.8)Co(0.15)Al(0.05)O2 (NCA), Li/Li(Li(0.17)Ni(0.25)Mn(0.58))O2, Li/LiNiMnCoO2 (NMC) and graphite/LiNiMnCoO2 (NMC), to study the effect that different electrolyte compositions have upon performance. A wide range of TPP-containing electrolytes were demonstrated to have good compatibility with the C/NCO, C/NCA, and Li/NMC systems, however, poor performance was initially observed with the high voltage C/NMC system. This necessitated the development of improved electrolytes with stabilizing additives, leading to formulations containing lithium bis(oxalato)borate (LiBOB) that displayed substantially improved performance.

  5. Operating without a Safety Net: Gay Male Adolescents and Emerging Adults' Experiences of Marginalization and Migration, and Implications for Theory of Syndemic Production of Health Disparities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruce, Douglas; Harper, Gary W.

    2011-01-01

    Health disparities among gay men (HIV, substance use, depression) have been described as a mutually occurring "syndemic" that is socially produced through two overarching dynamics: marginalization and migration. Although the syndemic theory proposes a developmental trajectory, it has been largely based on epidemiological studies of adult gay men…

  6. Safety evaluation studies of SGF gum--a potential food additive from the seed of Sesbania cannabina.

    PubMed

    Li, X L; Xu, E Y; Xu, G C; Shang, R M; Wang, Y M; Chen, J; Huang, F C

    1988-01-01

    SGF gum, derived from the plant Sesbania cannabina, has properties very similar to those of guar gum. Because it is much cheaper than guar, SGF gum is of interest as a possible new food additive. It has therefore been tested in rats for acute, short-term and subchronic toxicity, teratogenicity and effects on reproductive performance, and a 1% concentration in the diet has been identified as the no-effect level. The tests complied with the guidelines issued by the Chinese authorities. Mutagenicity studies, Ames tests and a micronucleus test gave negative results, and a dominant lethal test in mice was negative at the 1% dietary level, although at 5 and 10% the results were equivocal. No adverse changes were elicited in 23 human volunteers who consumed a total of 960 mg SGF gum during a 30-day period during which they consumed, daily, 80 g ice-cream containing 0.04% SGF gum instead of the usual thickener. On the basis of applying a 100-fold safety factor to the findings in the animal studies, an acceptable human daily intake of 6 mg/kg is suggested. PMID:3209133

  7. Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education in Science, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Discusses safety issues in science, including: allergic reactions to peanuts used in experiments; explosions in lead/acid batteries; and inspection of pressure vessels, such as pressure cookers or model steam engines. (MKR)

  8. Additional guidance for including nuclear safety equivalency in the Canister Storage Building and Cold Vacuum Drying Facility final safety analysis report

    SciTech Connect

    Garvin, L.J.

    1997-05-20

    This document provides guidance for the production of safety analysis reports that must meet both DOE Order 5480.23 and STD 3009, and be in compliance with the DOE regulatory policy that imposes certain NRC requirements.

  9. SU-E-T-573: The Robustness of a Combined Margin Recipe for Uncertainties During Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Stroom, J; Vieira, S; Greco, C

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To investigate the variability of a safety margin recipe that combines CTV and PTV margins quadratically, with several tumor, treatment, and user related factors. Methods: Margin recipes were calculated by monte-carlo simulations in 5 steps. 1. A spherical tumor with or without isotropic microscopic was irradiated with a 5 field dose plan2. PTV: Geometric uncertainties were introduced using systematic (Sgeo) and random (sgeo) standard deviations. CTV: Microscopic disease distribution was modelled by semi-gaussian (Smicro) with varying number of islets (Ni)3. For a specific uncertainty set (Sgeo, sgeo, Smicro(Ni)), margins were varied until pre-defined decrease in TCP or dose coverage was fulfilled. 4. First, margin recipes were calculated for each of the three uncertainties separately. CTV and PTV recipes were then combined quadratically to yield a final recipe M(Sgeo, sgeo, Smicro(Ni)).5. The final M was verified by simultaneous simulations of the uncertainties.Now, M has been calculated for various changing parameters like margin criteria, penumbra steepness, islet radio-sensitivity, dose conformity, and number of fractions. We subsequently investigated A: whether the combined recipe still holds in all these situations, and B: what the margin variation was in all these cases. Results: We found that the accuracy of the combined margin recipes remains on average within 1mm for all situations, confirming the correctness of the quadratic addition. Depending on the specific parameter, margin factors could change such that margins change over 50%. Especially margin recipes based on TCP-criteria are more sensitive to more parameters than those based on purely geometric Dmin-criteria. Interestingly, measures taken to minimize treatment field sizes (by e.g. optimizing dose conformity) are counteracted by the requirement of larger margins to get the same tumor coverage. Conclusion: Margin recipes combining geometric and microscopic uncertainties quadratically are

  10. Craniocaudal Safety Margin Calculation Based on Interfractional Changes in Tumor Motion in Lung SBRT Assessed With an EPID in Cine Mode

    SciTech Connect

    Ueda, Yoshihiro; Miyazaki, Masayoshi; Nishiyama, Kinji; Suzuki, Osamu; Tsujii, Katsutomo; Miyagi, Ken

    2012-07-01

    Purpose: To evaluate setup error and interfractional changes in tumor motion magnitude using an electric portal imaging device in cine mode (EPID cine) during the course of stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and to calculate margins to compensate for these variations. Materials and Methods: Subjects were 28 patients with Stage I NSCLC who underwent SBRT. Respiratory-correlated four-dimensional computed tomography (4D-CT) at simulation was binned into 10 respiratory phases, which provided average intensity projection CT data sets (AIP). On 4D-CT, peak-to-peak motion of the tumor (M-4DCT) in the craniocaudal direction was assessed and the tumor center (mean tumor position [MTP]) of the AIP (MTP-4DCT) was determined. At treatment, the tumor on cone beam CT was registered to that on AIP for patient setup. During three sessions of irradiation, peak-to-peak motion of the tumor (M-cine) and the mean tumor position (MTP-cine) were obtained using EPID cine and in-house software. Based on changes in tumor motion magnitude ( Increment M) and patient setup error ( Increment MTP), defined as differences between M-4DCT and M-cine and between MTP-4DCT and MTP-cine, a margin to compensate for these variations was calculated with Stroom's formula. Results: The means ({+-}standard deviation: SD) of M-4DCT and M-cine were 3.1 ({+-}3.4) and 4.0 ({+-}3.6) mm, respectively. The means ({+-}SD) of Increment M and Increment MTP were 0.9 ({+-}1.3) and 0.2 ({+-}2.4) mm, respectively. Internal target volume-planning target volume (ITV-PTV) margins to compensate for Increment M, Increment MTP, and both combined were 3.7, 5.2, and 6.4 mm, respectively. Conclusion: EPID cine is a useful modality for assessing interfractional variations of tumor motion. The ITV-PTV margins to compensate for these variations can be calculated.

  11. The Evaluation of Triphenyl Phosphate as a Flame Retardant Additive to Improve the Safety of Lithium-Ion Battery Electrolytes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smart, M. C.; Krause, F. C.; Hwang, C.; Westa, W. C.; Soler, J.; Prakash, G. K. S.; Ratnakumar, B. V.

    2011-01-01

    NASA is actively pursuing the development of advanced electrochemical energy storage and conversion devices for future lunar and Mars missions. The Exploration Technology Development Program, Energy Storage Project is sponsoring the development of advanced Li-ion batteries and PEM fuel cell and regenerative fuel cell systems for the Altair Lunar Lander, Extravehicular Activities (EVA), and rovers and as the primary energy storage system for Lunar Surface Systems. At JPL, in collaboration with NASA-GRC, NASA-JSC and industry, we are actively developing advanced Li-ion batteries with improved specific energy, energy density and safety. One effort is focused upon developing Li-ion battery electrolyte with enhanced safety characteristics (i.e., low flammability). A number of commercial applications also require Li-ion batteries with enhanced safety, especially for automotive applications.

  12. Operating Without a Safety Net: Gay Male Adolescents and Emerging Adults’ Experiences of Marginalization and Migration, and Implications for Theory of Syndemic Production of Health Disparities

    PubMed Central

    Bruce, Douglas; Harper, Gary W.

    2011-01-01

    Health disparities among gay men (HIV, substance use, depression) have been described as a mutually occurring “syndemic” that is socially produced through two overarching dynamics: marginalization and migration. Although the syndemic theory proposes a developmental trajectory, it has been largely based on epidemiological studies of adult gay men and has not been examined using qualitative data from gay male adolescents and emerging adults describing their developmental experience. We conducted interviews with 54 HIV-positive gay and bisexual male adolescents and emerging adults at four sites in the United States. This study provides examples of developmental trajectories that help explain the early onset of socially produced health disparities among some gay male adolescents and emerging adults, but also the development of risk factors that may follow some gay men into adulthood. PMID:21398621

  13. Estimation of health risks and safety margins due to inhalation of ultrafine particles and nanoparticles in selected occupational, consumer and environmental settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hänninen, Otto; Brüske-Hohlfeld, Irene; Loh, Miranda; Stoeger, Tobias; Kreyling, Wolfgang; Schmid, Otmar; Peters, Annette

    2009-05-01

    Nanoparticles exhibit properties different from those of the same bulk materials leading to unknown toxicological implications that have evoked concern for (1) occupational, (2) consumer and (3) environmental safety. The current work utilizes epidemiological and toxicological data for screening level assessment of these risks using various suggested health relevant dose metrics (mass, particle number and surface area) to (i) quantify the potential risk levels and to (ii) compare the properties of these alternative risk assessment methods.

  14. Marginal lung donors: A diminishing margin of safety?

    PubMed

    Botha, Phil; Fisher, Andrew J; Dark, John H

    2006-11-27

    Lung donor shortages have resulted in the critical appraisal of cadaveric donor acceptability criteria and the gradual relaxation of once strict guidelines. Many centers have reported their results with these "extended criteria" donors and an increasing number of multicenter registry studies have also been published. The results have been contradictory and leave many questions unanswered. Important new data has however come to light since the last review of the subject by the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation Pulmonary Council. We review the current literature focusing on recent developments in the pursuit of an expanded lung donor pool with acceptable outcomes. PMID:17130774

  15. Quantifying reactor safety margins: Application of CSAU (Code Scalability, Applicability and Uncertainty) methodology to LBLOCA: Part 3, Assessment and ranging of parameters for the uncertainty analysis of LBLOCA codes

    SciTech Connect

    Wulff, W.; Boyack, B.E.; Duffey, R.B.; Griffith, P.; Katsma, K.R.; Lellouche, G.S.; Levy, S.; Rohatgi, U.S.; Wilson, G.E.; Zuber, N.

    1988-01-01

    Comparisons of results from TRAC-PF1/MOD1 code calculations with measurements from Separate Effects Tests, and published experimental data for modeling parameters have been used to determine the uncertainty ranges of code input and modeling parameters which dominate the uncertainty in predicting the Peak Clad Temperature for a postulated Large Break Loss of Coolant Accident (LBLOCA) in a four-loop Westinghouse Pressurized Water Reactor. The uncertainty ranges are used for a detailed statistical analysis to calculate the probability distribution function for the TRAC code-predicted Peak Clad Temperature, as is described in an attendant paper. Measurements from Separate Effects Tests and Integral Effects Tests have been compared with results from corresponding TRAC-PF1/MOD1 code calculations to determine globally the total uncertainty in predicting the Peak Clad Temperature for LBLOCAs. This determination is in support of the detailed statistical analysis mentioned above. The analyses presented here account for uncertainties in input parameters, in modeling and scaling, in computing and in measurements. The analyses are an important part of the work needed to implement the Code Scalability, Applicability and Uncertainty (CSAU) methodology. CSAU is needed to determine the suitability of a computer code for reactor safety analyses and the uncertainty in computer predictions. The results presented here are used to estimate the safety margin of a particular nuclear reactor power plant for a postulated accident. 25 refs., 10 figs., 11 tabs.

  16. Combined effects of high pressure processing and addition of soy sauce and olive oil on safety and quality characteristics of chicken breast meat.

    PubMed

    Kruk, Zbigniew A; Kim, Hyun Joo; Kim, Yun Ji; Rutley, David L; Jung, Samooel; Lee, Soo Kee; Jo, Cheorun

    2014-02-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the combined effect of high pressure (HP) with the addition of soy sauce and/or olive oil on the quality and safety of chicken breast meats. Samples were cut into 100 g pieces and 10% (w/w) of soy sauce (SS), 10% (w/w) of olive oil (OO), and a mixture of both 5% of soy sauce and 5% olive oil (w/w) (SO) were pressurized into meat with high pressure at 300 or 600 MPa. Cooking loss was lower in OO samples than SS samples. With increased pressure to 600 MPa, the oleic acid content of OO samples increased. The total unsaturated fatty acids were the highest in SO and OO 600 MPa samples. Lipid oxidation was retarded by addition of olive oil combined with HP. The addition of olive oil and soy sauce followed by HP decreased the amount of volatile basic nitrogen during storage and reduced the population of pathogens. Sensory evaluation indicated that the addition of olive oil enhanced the overall acceptance and willingness to buy. In conclusion, the combination of HP with the addition of soy sauce and/or olive oil is an effective technology that can improve chemical, health, sensory qualities and safety of chicken breast. PMID:25049950

  17. Combined Effects of High Pressure Processing and Addition of Soy Sauce and Olive Oil on Safety and Quality Characteristics of Chicken Breast Meat

    PubMed Central

    Kruk, Zbigniew A.; Kim, Hyun Joo; Kim, Yun Ji; Rutley, David L.; Jung, Samooel; Lee, Soo Kee; Jo, Cheorun

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the combined effect of high pressure (HP) with the addition of soy sauce and/or olive oil on the quality and safety of chicken breast meats. Samples were cut into 100 g pieces and 10% (w/w) of soy sauce (SS), 10% (w/w) of olive oil (OO), and a mixture of both 5% of soy sauce and 5% olive oil (w/w) (SO) were pressurized into meat with high pressure at 300 or 600 MPa. Cooking loss was lower in OO samples than SS samples. With increased pressure to 600 MPa, the oleic acid content of OO samples increased. The total unsaturated fatty acids were the highest in SO and OO 600 MPa samples. Lipid oxidation was retarded by addition of olive oil combined with HP. The addition of olive oil and soy sauce followed by HP decreased the amount of volatile basic nitrogen during storage and reduced the population of pathogens. Sensory evaluation indicated that the addition of olive oil enhanced the overall acceptance and willingness to buy. In conclusion, the combination of HP with the addition of soy sauce and/or olive oil is an effective technology that can improve chemical, health, sensory qualities and safety of chicken breast. PMID:25049950

  18. Effect of tiger nut fibre addition on the quality and safety of a dry-cured pork sausage ("Chorizo") during the dry-curing process.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Zapata, E; Zunino, V; Pérez-Alvarez, J A; Fernández-López, J

    2013-11-01

    There is a growing interest in the revalorization of co-products from the food industry. Co-products from tiger nuts (Cyperus esculentus) milk production are a suitable fibre source. "Chorizo" is the most popular dry-cured meat product in Spain. The aim of this work was to study the effect of the tiger nut fibre addition (0, 5, and 7.5%) on the quality (composition, physicochemical, and sensorial properties) and safety (oxidation and microbial quality) of a Spanish dry-cured sausage, during the 28days of its dry-curing process. Tiger nut fibre (TNF) addition decreased fat and increased moisture content. The addition of TNF significantly increased (p<0.05) the total dietary fibre content of "Chorizo". Lightness (L*), yellowness (b*) and redness index (a*/b*) were significantly (p<0.05) affected by the fibre content. The addition of 5% and 7.5% TNF to chorizo provided rich fibre and a healthier product. Although there were slight changes in the physicochemical properties, its quality (traditional characteristics) and its safety remained. PMID:23793111

  19. Determination of all feasible robust PID controllers for open-loop unstable plus time delay processes with gain margin and phase margin specifications.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuan-Jay

    2014-03-01

    This paper proposes a novel alternative method to graphically compute all feasible gain and phase margin specifications-oriented robust PID controllers for open-loop unstable plus time delay (OLUPTD) processes. This method is applicable to general OLUPTD processes without constraint on system order. To retain robustness for OLUPTD processes subject to positive or negative gain variations, the downward gain margin (GM(down)), upward gain margin (GM(up)), and phase margin (PM) are considered. A virtual gain-phase margin tester compensator is incorporated to guarantee the concerned system satisfies certain robust safety margins. In addition, the stability equation method and the parameter plane method are exploited to portray the stability boundary and the constant gain margin (GM) boundary as well as the constant PM boundary. The overlapping region of these boundaries is graphically determined and denotes the GM and PM specifications-oriented region (GPMSOR). Alternatively, the GPMSOR characterizes all feasible robust PID controllers which achieve the pre-specified safety margins. In particular, to achieve optimal gain tuning, the controller gains are searched within the GPMSOR to minimize the integral of the absolute error (IAE) or the integral of the squared error (ISE) performance criterion. Thus, an optimal PID controller gain set is successfully found within the GPMSOR and guarantees the OLUPTD processes with a pre-specified GM and PM as well as a minimum IAE or ISE. Consequently, both robustness and performance can be simultaneously assured. Further, the design procedures are summarized as an algorithm to help rapidly locate the GPMSOR and search an optimal PID gain set. Finally, three highly cited examples are provided to illustrate the design process and to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. PMID:24462232

  20. Marginalization and health geomatics.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Gregory L; Kinman, Edward L; Miller, Louise C; Patrick, Timothy B

    2003-01-01

    Marginalized groups have been defined as groups that have been peripheralized from the center of society. Increasing nursing knowledge of marginalized groups and the dynamics of population diversity will enable nurses to better recognize shifting health patterns, plan for utilization of health services, and determine ethnic and cultural differences that exist in marginalized populations. The authors of this article review theoretical models responsible for defining the concept marginalization, describe geographical information systems as a recommended tool to evaluate marginalized groups, and provide a case study utilizing tools and maps as a means of assessing marginal situations. PMID:14643736

  1. Seismic Safety Margins Research Program, Phase I. Project II: seismic input. Compilation, assessment and expansion of the strong earthquake ground motion data base

    SciTech Connect

    Crouse, C B; Hileman, J A; Turner, B E; Martin, G R

    1980-04-01

    A catalog has been prepared which contains information for: (1) world-wide, ground-motion accelerograms, (2) the accelerograph sites where these records were obtained, and (3) the seismological parameters of the causative earthquakes. The catalog is limited to data for those accelerograms which have been digitized and published. In addition, the quality and completeness of these data are assessed. This catalog is unique because it is the only publication which contains comprehensive information on the recording conditions of all known digitized accelerograms. However, information for many accelerograms is missing. Although some literature may have been overlooked, most of the missing data has not been published. Nevertheless, the catalog provides a convenient reference and useful tool for earthquake engineering research and applications.

  2. Structural design/margin assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, R. S.

    1993-01-01

    Determining structural design inputs and the structural margins following design completion is one of the major activities in space exploration. The end result is a statement of these margins as stability, safety factors on ultimate and yield stresses, fracture limits (fracture control), fatigue lifetime, reuse criteria, operational criteria and procedures, stability factors, deflections, clearance, handling criteria, etc. The process is normally called a load cycle and is time consuming, very complex, and involves much more than structures. The key to successful structural design is the proper implementation of the process. It depends on many factors: leadership and management of the process, adequate analysis and testing tools, data basing, communications, people skills, and training. This process and the various factors involved are discussed.

  3. Marginal Costing Techniques for Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Richard; Brinkman, Paul

    The techniques for calculating marginal costs in higher education are examined in detail. Marginal costs, as defined in economics, is the change in total cost associated with producing one additional unit of output. In higher education, the most frequently selected unit of output is a full-time-equivalent student or, alternatively, a student…

  4. Using in vitro/in silico data for consumer safety assessment of feed flavoring additives--A feasibility study using piperine.

    PubMed

    Thiel, A; Etheve, S; Fabian, E; Leeman, W R; Plautz, J R

    2015-10-01

    Consumer health risk assessment for feed additives is based on the estimated human exposure to the additive that may occur in livestock edible tissues compared to its hazard. We present an approach using alternative methods for consumer health risk assessment. The aim was to use the fewest possible number of animals to estimate its hazard and human exposure without jeopardizing the safety upon use. As an example we selected the feed flavoring substance piperine and applied in silico modeling for residue estimation, results from literature surveys, and Read-Across to assess metabolism in different species. Results were compared to experimental in vitro metabolism data in rat and chicken, and to quantitative analysis of residues' levels from the in vivo situation in livestock. In silico residue modeling showed to be a worst case: the modeled residual levels were considerably higher than the measured residual levels. The in vitro evaluation of livestock versus rodent metabolism revealed no major differences in metabolism between the species. We successfully performed a consumer health risk assessment without performing additional animal experiments. As shown, the use and combination of different alternative methods supports animal welfare consideration and provides future perspective to reducing the number of animals. PMID:26107290

  5. [Marginalization and health. Introduction].

    PubMed

    Yunes, J

    1992-06-01

    The relationship between marginalization and health is clear. In Mexico, for example, life expectancy is 53 years for the poorest population sectors and 20 years more for the wealthiest. Infant mortality in poor Colombian families is twice that of wealthier families, and one-third of developing countries the rural population is only half as likely as the urban to have access to health services. Women in the Southern hemisphere are 12 times likelier than those in the Northern to die of maternal causes. The most important step in arriving at a solution to the inequity may be to analyze in depth the relationship between marginality and health. Marginality may be defined as the lack of participation of individuals or groups in certain key phases of societal life, such as production, consumption, or political decision making. Marginality came to be viewed as a social problem only with recognition of the rights of all individuals to participate in available social goods. Marginality is always relative, and marginal groups exist because central groups determine the criteria for inclusion in the marginal and central groups. Marginality thus always refers to a concrete society at a specific historical moment. Marginal groups may be of various types. At present, marginal groups include women, rural populations, people with AIDS or mental illness or certain other health conditions, refugees, ethnic or religious groups, homosexuals, and the poor, who are the largest group of marginal persons in the world. Even in developed countries, 100-200 million persons live below the poverty line. Latin America is struggling to emerge from its marginal status in the world. The economic crisis of the 1980s increased poverty in the region, and 40% are not considered impoverished. Latin America is a clear example of the relationship between marginality and health. Its epidemiologic profile is intimately related to nutrition, availability of potable water, housing, and environmental

  6. New insights on shear margin gravitational evolution through time. The case of the equatorial margins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loncke, L.; Basile, C.; Gaullier, V.; Maillard, A.; Patriat, M.; Sage, F.; Roest, W.

    2009-04-01

    30% of passive margins in the world correspond to shear margins. Unlike divergent margins, those margins present a very sharp ocean-continent boundary which is expressed by steep surface slopes and complex rift structures. In addition of tilted blocks, wrench and strike-slip faults frequently deform the continental crust. High marginal ridges, rising 1-3 km over the adjacent margin typically form along the continental side of the margin. The best known example of transform margin is the Côte d'Ivoire-Ghana margin, highly investigated in the 1980's. New observations along the French-Guiana shear margin (GUYAPLAC survey, 2003) have evidenced massive early (immediately after rifting) and late collapses of the margin. These collapses concern huge volumes: remobilized masses that reach nearly 15000 km3 have been identified in the abyssal plain. No marginal ridge has been observed there. These observations have been compared to results published for the Surinam prolongation of this shear segment (Gouyet, 1988; Erbacher et al., 2004). There also, collapses and slope instabilities are evident, though part of a marginal ridge remains present. Finally, published data from the western Côte d'Ivoire transform margin (De Caprona, 1992) show wide collapses, some deep-seated, and other shallow. Sinking of entire parts of shear margins by gravity collapses appears thus rather common. These observations show that the post-rift gravity collapse of shear margins has been largely underestimated, and has even not been considered in evolutional models of transform margins, despite the fact this has important implications on the geometry and balance of those margins. On the basis of these observations, we propose a tentative scenario for the equatorial Atlantic shear margin gravitational evolution. References: Gouyet, S., 1988. Evolution tectono-sédimentaire des marges guyannaise et Nord-Brésilienne au cours de l'ouverture de l'Atlantique Sud. PhD Thesis, univ Pau et des pays de l

  7. Southern African continental margin: Dynamic processes of a transform margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsiegla, N.; Stankiewicz, J.; Gohl, K.; Ryberg, T.; Uenzelmann-Neben, G.

    2009-03-01

    Dynamic processes at sheared margins associated with the formation of sedimentary basins and marginal ridges are poorly understood. The southern African margin provides an excellent opportunity to investigate the deep crustal structure of a transform margin and to characterize processes acting at these margins by studying the Agulhas-Falkland Fracture Zone, the Outeniqua Basin, and the Diaz Marginal Ridge. To do this, we present the results of the combined seismic land-sea experiments of the Agulhas-Karoo Geoscience Transect. Detailed velocity-depth models show crustal thicknesses varying from ˜42 km beneath the Cape Fold Belt to ˜28 km beneath the shelf. The Agulhas-Falkland Fracture Zone is embedded in a 50 km wide transitional zone between continental and oceanic crust. The oceanic crust farther south exhibits relatively low average crustal velocities (˜6.0 km/s), which can possibly be attributed to transform-ridge intersection processes and the thermal effects of the adjacent continental crust during its formation. Crustal stretching factors derived from the velocity-depth models imply that extension in the Outeniqua Basin acted on regional as well as more local scales. We highlight evidence for two episodes of crustal stretching. The first, with a stretching factor β of 1.6, is interpreted to have influenced the entire Outeniqua Basin. The stresses possibly originated from the beginning breakup between Africa and Antarctica (˜169-155 Ma). The second episode can be associated with a transtensional component of the shear motion along the Agulhas-Falkland Transform from ˜136 Ma. This episode caused additional crustal stretching with β = 1.3 and is established to only have affected the southern parts of the basin. Crustal velocities directly beneath the Outeniqua Basin are consistent with the interpretation of Cape Supergroup rocks underlying most parts of the basin and the Diaz Marginal Ridge. We propose that the formation of this ridge can be either

  8. Efficacy and Safety Assessment of the Addition of Bevacizumab to Adjuvant Therapy Agents in Cancer Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadizar, Fariba; Onland-Moret, N. Charlotte; de Boer, Anthonius; Liu, Geoffrey; Maitland-van der Zee, Anke H.

    2015-01-01

    Aim To evaluate the efficacy and safety of bevacizumab in the adjuvant cancer therapy setting within different subset of patients. Methods & Design/ Results PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane and Clinical trials.gov databases were searched for English language studies of randomized controlled trials comparing bevacizumab and adjuvant therapy with adjuvant therapy alone published from January 1966 to 7th of May 2014. Progression free survival, overall survival, overall response rate, safety and quality of life were analyzed using random- or fixed-effects models according to the PRISMA guidelines. We obtained data from 44 randomized controlled trials (30,828 patients). Combining bevacizumab with different adjuvant therapies resulted in significant improvement of progression free survival (log hazard ratio, 0.87; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.84–0.89), overall survival (log hazard ratio, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.94–0.98) and overall response rate (relative risk, 1.46; 95% CI: 1.33–1.59) compared to adjuvant therapy alone in all studied tumor types. In subgroup analyses, there were no interactions of bevacizumab with baseline characteristics on progression free survival and overall survival, while overall response rate was influenced by tumor type and bevacizumab dose (p-value: 0.02). Although bevacizumab use resulted in additional expected adverse drug reactions except anemia and fatigue, it was not associated with a significant decline in quality of life. There was a trend towards a higher risk of several side effects in patients treated by high-dose bevacizumab compared to the low-dose e.g. all grade proteinuria (9.24; 95% CI: 6.60–12.94 vs. 2.64; 95% CI: 1.29–5.40). Conclusions Combining bevacizumab with different adjuvant therapies provides a survival benefit across all major subsets of patients, including by tumor type, type of adjuvant therapy, and duration and dose of bevacizumab therapy. Though bevacizumab was associated with increased risks of some adverse drug

  9. Ocean margins workshop

    SciTech Connect

    1990-12-31

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is announcing the refocusing of its marine research program to emphasize the study of ocean margins and their role in modulating, controlling, and driving Global Change phenomena. This is a proposal to conduct a workshop that will establish priorities and an implementation plan for a new research initiative by the Department of Energy on the ocean margins. The workshop will be attended by about 70 scientists who specialize in ocean margin research. The workshop will be held in the Norfolk, Virginia area in late June 1990.

  10. Comparative assessment of endocrine modulators with oestrogenic activity: I. Definition of a hygiene-based margin of safety (HBMOS) for xeno-oestrogens against the background of European developments.

    PubMed

    Bolt, H M; Janning, P; Michna, H; Degen, G H

    2001-01-01

    A novel concept - the hygiene-based margin of safety (HBMOS) - is suggested for the assessment of the impact of potential endocrine modulators. It integrates exposure scenarios and potency data for industrial chemicals and naturally occurring dietary compounds with oestrogenic activity. An HBMOS is defined as a quotient of estimated daily intakes weighted by the relative in vivo potencies of these compounds. The Existing Chemicals Programme of the European Union provides Human and Environmental Risk Assessments of Existing Chemicals which include human exposure scenarios. Such exposure scenarios, along with potency estimates for endocrine activities, may provide a basis for a quantitative comparison of the potential endocrine-modulating effects of industrial chemicals with endocrine modulators as natural constituents of human diet. Natural phyto-oestrogens exhibit oestrogenic activity in vitro and in vivo. Important phyto-oestrogens for humans are isoflavones (daidzein, genistein) and lignans, with the highest quantities found in soybeans and flaxseed, respectively. Daily isoflavone exposures calculated for infants on soy-based formulae were in the ranges of 4.5-8 mg/kg body wt.; estimates for adults range up to 1 mg/kg body wt. The Senate Commission on the Evaluation of Food Safety (SKLM) of the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft has also indicated a wide range of dietary exposures. For matters of risk assessment, the SKLM has based recommendations on dietary exposure scenarios, implying a daily intake of phyto-oestrogens in the order of 1 mg/kg body wt. On the basis of information compiled within the Existing Chemicals Programme of the EU, it appears that a daily human exposure to nonylphenol of 2 microg/kg body wt. may be a worst-case assumption, but which is based on valid scenarios. The intake of octylphenol is much lower, due to a different use pattern and applications, and may be neglected. Data from migration studies led to estimations of the daily human

  11. Improvement of microbiological safety and sensorial quality of pork jerky by electron beam irradiation and by addition of onion peel extract and barbecue flavor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyun-Joo; Jung, Samooel; Yong, Hae In; Bae, Young Sik; Kang, Suk Nam; Kim, Il Suk; Jo, Cheorun

    2014-05-01

    The combined effects of electron-beam (EB) irradiation and addition of onion peel (OP) extract and barbecue flavor (BF) on inactivation of foodborne pathogens and the quality of pork jerky was investigated. Prepared pork jerky samples were irradiated (0, 1, 2, and 4 kGy) and stored for 2 month at 25 °C. The D10 values of Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella typhimurium observed in the OP treated samples were 0.19, 0.18, and 0.19 kGy, whereas those in control were 0.25, 0.23, and 0.20 kGy, respectively. Irradiated samples with OP extract and BF had substantially lower total aerobic bacterial counts than the control had. Samples with added OP extract and BF had lower peroxide values than the control had. Sensory evaluation indicated that overall acceptability of treated samples was not changed up to 2 kGy. Therefore, EB irradiation, combined with OP extract and BF, has improved the microbiological safety with no negative effects on the quality of pork jerky.

  12. Marginalization of Vocational Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tinsley, Howard E. A.

    2001-01-01

    Although vocational psychology has diverse theoretical models and an empirical tradition, it is marginalized within counseling psychology. Its vitality is weakened by those who take a dabbler, pundit, or booster approach to scholarship. (Contains 46 references.) (SK)

  13. Marginal energy prices report

    SciTech Connect

    Chaitkin, Stuart; Biermayer, Peter; Bretz, Sarah; Brown, Steve; Constantine, Sachu; Fisher, Diane; Hakim, Sajid; Liew, Lucy; Lutz, Jim; Marnay, Chris; McMahon, James E.; Moezzi, Mithra; Osborn, Julie; Rawner, Esther; Roberson, Judy; Rosenquist, Greg; Ryan, Nancy; Turiel, Isaac; Wiel, Stephen

    1999-06-24

    This report responds to a recommendation from the Department of Energy's (DOE) Advisory Committee on Appliance Energy Efficiency Standards. It presents the derivation of estimated consumer marginal energy prices for the commercial and residential sectors for use in the life-cycle cost (LCC) analyses for four of the high priority appliances' energy efficiency standards rule makings --clothes washers, water heaters,fluorescent lamp ballasts, and central airconditioners/heat pumps. Marginal prices as discussed here are those prices consumers pay (or save) for their last units of energy used (or saved). Marginal prices reflect a change in a consumer's bill (that might be associated with new energy efficiency standards) divided by the corresponding change in the amount of energy the consumer used.

  14. Estimation of the full marginal costs of port related truck traffic.

    PubMed

    Berechman, Joseph

    2009-11-01

    NY region is expected to grow by additional 1 million people by 2020, which translates into roughly 70 million more tons of goods to be delivered annually. Due to lack of rail capacity, mainly trucks will haul this volume of freight, challenging an already much constrained highway network. What are the total costs associated with this additional traffic, in particular, congestion, safety and emission? Since a major source of this expected flow is the Port of New York-New Jersey, this paper focuses on the estimation of the full marginal costs of truck traffic resulting from the further expansion of the port's activities. PMID:19796817

  15. Negative Stress Margins - Are They Real?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raju, Ivatury S.; Lee, Darlene S.; Mohaghegh, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Advances in modeling and simulation, new finite element software, modeling engines and powerful computers are providing opportunities to interrogate designs in a very different manner and in a more detailed approach than ever before. Margins of safety are also often evaluated using local stresses for various design concepts and design parameters quickly once analysis models are defined and developed. This paper suggests that not all the negative margins of safety evaluated are real. The structural areas where negative margins are frequently encountered are often near stress concentrations, point loads and load discontinuities, near locations of stress singularities, in areas having large gradients but with insufficient mesh density, in areas with modeling issues and modeling errors, and in areas with connections and interfaces, in two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) transitions, bolts and bolt modeling, and boundary conditions. Now, more than ever, structural analysts need to examine and interrogate their analysis results and perform basic sanity checks to determine if these negative margins are real.

  16. Acidalia Planitia Channel Margin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    The THEMIS VIS camera is capable of capturing color images of the Martian surface using five different color filters. In this mode of operation, the spatial resolution and coverage of the image must be reduced to accommodate the additional data volume produced from using multiple filters. To make a color image, three of the five filter images (each in grayscale) are selected. Each is contrast enhanced and then converted to a red, green, or blue intensity image. These three images are then combined to produce a full color, single image. Because the THEMIS color filters don't span the full range of colors seen by the human eye, a color THEMIS image does not represent true color. Also, because each single-filter image is contrast enhanced before inclusion in the three-color image, the apparent color variation of the scene is exaggerated. Nevertheless, the color variation that does appear is representative of some change in color, however subtle, in the actual scene. Note that the long edges of THEMIS color images typically contain color artifacts that do not represent surface variation.

    This false color image shows craters and a channel margin, in the region of southern Acidalia Planitia where Tiu and Ares Valles empty into the planitia. This image was collected during the Northern Spring season.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 23.8, Longitude 327.5 East (32.5 West). 37 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion

  17. Deep continental margin reflectors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ewing, J.; Heirtzler, J.; Purdy, M.; Klitgord, Kim D.

    1985-01-01

    In contrast to the rarity of such observations a decade ago, seismic reflecting and refracting horizons are now being observed to Moho depths under continental shelves in a number of places. These observations provide knowledge of the entire crustal thickness from the shoreline to the oceanic crust on passive margins and supplement Consortium for Continental Reflection Profiling (COCORP)-type measurements on land.

  18. Predicting service life margins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Egan, G. F.

    1971-01-01

    Margins are developed for equipment susceptible to malfunction due to excessive time or operation cycles, and for identifying limited life equipment so monitoring and replacing is accomplished before hardware failure. Method applies to hardware where design service is established and where reasonable expected usage prediction is made.

  19. Hourly marginal emissions tool

    EPA Science Inventory

    The hourly marginal emissions tool is an excel workbook that estimates the hourly NOx, SO2 and CO2 emission reductions of energy efficiency and renewable energy policies and programs in the electric power sector. It will be based on EPA's proposed "Road map for Incorporating ene...

  20. Marginalization and School Nursing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Julia Ann

    2004-01-01

    The concept of marginalization was first analyzed by nursing researchers Hall, Stevens, and Meleis. Although nursing literature frequently refers to this concept when addressing "at risk" groups such as the homeless, gays and lesbians, and those infected with HIV/AIDS, the concept can also be applied to nursing. Analysis of current school nursing…

  1. Contribution Margin Budgeting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tambrino, Paul A.

    2001-01-01

    Describes Iowa Valley Community College District's Contribution Margin Budgeting (CMB) program, successfully implemented to stave off bankruptcy. In this program, each responsibility center receives credit for all income generated and is charged for all expenditures, and each must build its own reserve against revenue shortfalls and unanticipated…

  2. Marginality and Triangle Inequality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nánásiová, O. L̆ga; Valášková, L̆ubica

    2010-12-01

    In this paper we study conditions for the existence of a 3-dimensional s-map on a quantum logic under assumption that marginal s-maps are known. We show that the existence of such a 3-dimensional s-map depends on the triangle inequality of d-map, which on a Boolean algebra represents a measure of symmetric difference.

  3. Volcanic passive margins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geoffroy, Laurent

    2005-12-01

    Compared to non-volcanic ones, volcanic passive margins mark continental break-up over a hotter mantle, probably subject to small-scale convection. They present distinctive genetic and structural features. High-rate extension of the lithosphere is associated with catastrophic mantle melting responsible for the accretion of a thick igneous crust. Distinctive structural features of volcanic margins are syn-magmatic and continentward-dipping crustal faults accommodating the seaward flexure of the igneous crust. Volcanic margins present along-axis a magmatic and tectonic segmentation with wavelength similar to adjacent slow-spreading ridges. Their 3D organisation suggests a connection between loci of mantle melting at depths and zones of strain concentration within the lithosphere. Break-up would start and propagate from localized thermally-softened lithospheric zones. These 'soft points' could be localized over small-scale convection cells found at the bottom of the lithosphere, where adiabatic mantle melting would specifically occur. The particular structure of the brittle crust at volcanic passive margins could be interpreted by active and sudden oceanward flow of both the unstable hot mantle and the ductile part of the lithosphere during the break-up stage. To cite this article: L. Geoffroy, C. R. Geoscience 337 (2005).

  4. The Brazilian continental margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, L. R.; Coutinho, P. N.

    1981-04-01

    The Brazilian continental margin, with its interesting morphology, structure and sediments, has become better known only during the last two decades. Six physiographical provinces can be recognized at the continental margin and the adjacent coast: (1) Cabo Orange-Parnaiba delta; (2) Parnaiba delta-Cabo Sa˜o Roque; (3) Cabo Sa˜o Roque-Belmonte; (4) Belmonte-Cabo Frio; (5) Cabo Frio-Cabo Santa Marta; and (6) Cabo Santa Marta-Chui. The shelf is rather wide near the Amazon Mouth, becoming narrower eastwards, continuing very narrow along the northeastern and eastern coast, and becoming wider again in the south towards the Plate River. Prominent morphological features along the margin are the Amazon cone, the marginal plateaus off northeastern Brazil, the Sa˜o Francisco cone and canyon, the Abrolhos Bank, and the deep-sea plateaus of Pernambuco and Sa˜o Paulo. On the shelf proper a number of relief elements exist, such as sand waves east of the Amazon, submarine terraces at various places, and irregularities of structural origin. The shelf break is rather smooth in the far north and south, more abrupt in the remainder. Surface sediments of the Brazilian shelf show five distinct facies types: littoral quartz sands, mud, transition sand-mud, coralline algae, and biodetrital. The terrigenous elastic fractions dominate off the Amazon and in southern Brazil; between these areas they occupy a very narrow strip near the coast. The carbonate facies, predominantly composed of calcareous algae, is abundant between the Parnaiba delta and Cabo Frio; to the south this facies is more biodetrital and restricted to the outer shelf. Economically important on the Brazilian continental margin besides oil, are sands and gravels, carbonate deposits, evaporites and some subsurface coal. Other possible mineral resources could be phosphate, heavy minerals and clays for ceramics.

  5. Initial Results from the 2002 Gulf of California Conjugate Margin Seismic Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holbrook, S.; Lizarralde, D.; Kent, G.; Harding, A.; Fletcher, J.; Gonzalez-Fernandez, A.; Umhoefer, P.; Axen, G.

    2003-04-01

    The Gulf of California, which marks the ongoing separation of Baja California from mainland Mexico, is one of the few locales where active continental breakup can be studied along unambiguous flow lines that join clear conjugate margin pairs. In Fall 2002, we conducted an onshore-offshore seismic experiment across the conjugate rifted margins of the Gulf of California in several rift segments. The joint U.S.-Mexico project, sponsored principally by the MARGINS program of the U.S. National Science Foundation, aimed to image crustal structure across conjugate margins of four major basins to determine the modes of extension and the influence of sedimentation and magmatism on breakup. Here we present an overview of the experiment, which was substantially altered at sea due to concerns for marine-mammal safety, and present some preliminary findings. Three flow-line transects were acquired, in the Alarcon Basin, the Guaymas Basin, and between Cabo and Tres Marias Islands. In addition, a fourth transect across the Baja Peninsula was acquired. Data acquired included (1) multichannel seismic reflection data using the R/V Ewing’s 20-gun array and 480-channel, 6-km-long streamer, (2) wide-angle reflection/refraction data recorded on ocean-bottom seismometers, from 206 deployments conducted by the R/V New Horizon, and (3) onshore-offshore data recorded on portable seismometers deployed up to 100 km inland on all transects. Initial results from the experiment include (1) clear evidence for asymmetric basement structure on the conjugate rifted margins and across the active mid-ocean spreading center, of the Guaymas Basin, (2) the suggestion of substantial magmatism in an early failed rift of the Alarcon Basin, and (3) active subduction beneath the margin at the Tres Marias islands. In addition, we will discuss new procedures for mitigating effects on marine mammals that may have a significant impact on future U.S.-sponsored seismic reflection activities.

  6. 30 CFR 250.406 - What additional safety measures must I take when I conduct drilling operations on a platform that...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... when I conduct drilling operations on a platform that has producing wells or has other hydrocarbon flow... hydrocarbon flow? You must take the following safety measures when you conduct drilling operations on a platform with producing wells or that has other hydrocarbon flow: (a) You must install an...

  7. Strategies for managing margins.

    PubMed

    2012-08-01

    Potential Medicare and Medicaid reimbursement cuts have made it critical for home health agencies to manage their gross and net operating profit margins. Agencies need to develop tools to analyze their margins and make sure they are following best practices. Try as you may, your agency might still face the question, "Why am I not meeting my budget?" Get some answers in this session from David Berman and Andrea L. Devoti. Berman is a principal at Simione Healthcare Consultants in Hamden, CT, where he is responsible for merchant acquisitions, business valuation due diligence, and oversight of the financial monitor benchmarking tool besides serving as interim chief financial officer. Devoti is chairman of the NAHC board and President & CEO of Neighborhood Health Visiting Nurse Association in West Chester PA. PMID:23074756

  8. East Africa continental margins

    SciTech Connect

    Bosellini, A.

    1986-01-01

    New well data from Somalia, together with the history of sea-floor spreading in the Indian Ocean derived from magnetic anomalies, show that the East African margins from latitude 15/sup 0/S into the Gulf of Aden comprise four distinct segments that formed successively by the southward drift of Madagascar from Somalia during the Middle to Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous, by the northeastward drift of India along the Owen Transform during the Late Cretaceous and Paleocene, and by the opening of the Gulf of Aden during the Neogene.

  9. Amphetamine margin in sports

    SciTech Connect

    Laties, V.G.; Weiss, B.

    1981-10-01

    The amphetamines can enhance athletic performance. That much seem clear from the literature, some of which is reviewed here. Increases in endurance have been demonstrated in both humans and rats. Smith and Beecher, 20 years ago, showed improvement of running, swimming, and weight throwing in highly trained athletes. Laboratory analogs of such performances have also been used and similar enhancement demonstrated. The amount of change induced by the amphetamines is usually small, of the order of a few percent. Nevertheless, since a fraction of a percent improvement can make the difference between fame and oblivion, the margin conferred by these drugs can be quite important.

  10. Structural Margins Assessment Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, Robert S.

    1988-01-01

    A general approach to the structural design and verification used to determine the structural margins of the space vehicle elements under Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) management is described. The Space Shuttle results and organization will be used as illustrations for techniques discussed. Given also are: (1) the system analyses performed or to be performed by, and (2) element analyses performed by MSFC and its contractors. Analysis approaches and their verification will be addressed. The Shuttle procedures are general in nature and apply to other than Shuttle space vehicles.

  11. Ferritin associates with marginal band microtubules

    SciTech Connect

    Infante, Anthony A.; Infante, Dzintra; Chan, M.-C.; How, P.-C.; Kutschera, Waltraud; Linhartova, Irena; Muellner, Ernst W.; Wiche, Gerhard; Propst, Friedrich . E-mail: friedrich.propst@univie.ac.at

    2007-05-01

    We characterized chicken erythrocyte and human platelet ferritin by biochemical studies and immunofluorescence. Erythrocyte ferritin was found to be a homopolymer of H-ferritin subunits, resistant to proteinase K digestion, heat stable, and contained iron. In mature chicken erythrocytes and human platelets, ferritin was localized at the marginal band, a ring-shaped peripheral microtubule bundle, and displayed properties of bona fide microtubule-associated proteins such as tau. Red blood cell ferritin association with the marginal band was confirmed by temperature-induced disassembly-reassembly of microtubules. During erythrocyte differentiation, ferritin co-localized with coalescing microtubules during marginal band formation. In addition, ferritin was found in the nuclei of mature erythrocytes, but was not detectable in those of bone marrow erythrocyte precursors. These results suggest that ferritin has a function in marginal band formation and possibly in protection of the marginal band from damaging effects of reactive oxygen species by sequestering iron in the mature erythrocyte. Moreover, our data suggest that ferritin and syncolin, a previously identified erythrocyte microtubule-associated protein, are identical. Nuclear ferritin might contribute to transcriptional silencing or, alternatively, constitute a ferritin reservoir.

  12. Becoming Marginalized in a Middle School Physical Education Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Barbara Tyree; Goc-Karp, Grace

    This study examined the effects of social competence, group formation, and group behavior on the marginalization of students in a 7th-grade physical education setting. Marginalized students are defined as those in the class, but not "of" the class. In addition, factors such as individual and team activity and teacher expectations help to explore…

  13. Marginal Pricing and Student Investment in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemelt, Steven W.; Stange, Kevin M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of marginal price on students' educational investments using rich administrative data on students at Michigan public universities. Marginal price refers to the amount colleges charge for each additional credit taken in a semester. Institutions differ in how they price credits above the full-time minimum (of 12…

  14. Criticality Safety Analysis Of As-loaded Spent Nuclear Fuel Casks

    SciTech Connect

    Banerjee, Kaushik; Scaglione, John M

    2015-01-01

    The final safety analysis report (FSAR) or the safety analysis report (SAR) for a particular spent nuclear fuel (SNF) cask system documents models and calculations used to demonstrate that a system meets the regulatory requirements under all normal, off-normal, and accident conditions of spent fuel storage, and normal and accident conditions of transportation. FSAR/SAR calculations and approved content specifications are intended to be bounding in nature to certify cask systems for a variety of fuel characteristics with simplified SNF loading requirements. Therefore, in general, loaded cask systems possess excess and uncredited criticality margins (i.e., the difference between the licensing basis and the as-loaded calculations). This uncredited margin could be quantified by employing more detailed cask-specific evaluations that credit the actual as-loaded cask inventory, and taking into account full (actinide and fission product) burnup credit. This uncredited criticality margin could be potentially used to offset (1) uncertainties in the safety basis that needs to account for the effects of system aging during extended dry storage prior to transportation, and (2) increases in SNF system reactivity over a repository performance period (e.g., 10,000 years or more) as the system undergoes degradation and internal geometry changes. This paper summarizes an assessment of cask-specific, as-loaded criticality margins for SNF stored at eight reactor sites (215 loaded casks were analyzed) under fully flooded conditions to assess the margins available during transportation after extended storage. It is observed that the calculated keff margin varies from 0.05 to almost 0.3 Δkeff for the eight selected reactor sites, demonstrating that significant uncredited safety margins are present. In addition, this paper evaluates the sufficiency of this excess margin in applications involving direct disposal of currently loaded SNF casks.

  15. Marginally Stable Nuclear Burning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strohmayer, Tod E.; Altamirano, D.

    2012-01-01

    Thermonuclear X-ray bursts result from unstable nuclear burning of the material accreted on neutron stars in some low mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs). Theory predicts that close to the boundary of stability oscillatory burning can occur. This marginally stable regime has so far been identified in only a small number of sources. We present Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) observations of the bursting, high- inclination LMXB 4U 1323-619 that reveal for the first time in this source the signature of marginally stable burning. The source was observed during two successive RXTE orbits for approximately 5 ksec beginning at 10:14:01 UTC on March 28, 2011. Significant mHz quasi- periodic oscillations (QPO) at a frequency of 8.1 mHz are detected for approximately 1600 s from the beginning of the observation until the occurrence of a thermonuclear X-ray burst at 10:42:22 UTC. The mHz oscillations are not detected following the X-ray burst. The average fractional rms amplitude of the mHz QPOs is 6.4% (3 - 20 keV), and the amplitude increases to about 8% below 10 keV.This phenomenology is strikingly similar to that seen in the LMXB 4U 1636-53. Indeed, the frequency of the mHz QPOs in 4U 1323-619 prior to the X-ray burst is very similar to the transition frequency between mHz QPO and bursts found in 4U 1636-53 by Altamirano et al. (2008). These results strongly suggest that the observed QPOs in 4U 1323-619 are, like those in 4U 1636-53, due to marginally stable nuclear burning. We also explore the dependence of the energy spectrum on the oscillation phase, and we place the present observations within the context of the spectral evolution of the accretion-powered flux from the source.

  16. Policy goals for health and safety.

    PubMed

    Lind, N C

    1995-12-01

    Health management and safety regulation are separate disciplines but share the aim to extend expectancy of life in good health. The need to improve cost-effectiveness calls for their co-ordinated management according to a unified rationale. Three guiding principles of accountability, demonstrable net benefit and a uniform measure of performance, have been laid out in Canada by the Joint Committee on Health and Safety. They call for open accounting in terms of (health-related quality-adjusted) life expectancy. The principles are utilitarian in format but, it is argued, inequity is naturally diminished in the process of optimizing cost-effectiveness through maximum marginal returns. Comments are made on practical implementation. The need for public consent in practice calls for two additional principles reflecting fair procedure and sovereignty of the citizens. It is concluded that public health and safety measures should be surveyed, documented for cost-effectiveness and prioritized for improvement. PMID:8559978

  17. Hand Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... en gatillo See More... Hand Anatomy Hand Safety Fireworks Safety Lawnmower Safety Snowblower safety Pumpkin Carving Gardening ... en gatillo See More... Hand Anatomy Hand Safety Fireworks Safety Lawnmower Safety Snowblower safety Pumpkin Carving Gardening ...

  18. Hand Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... Fireworks Safety Lawnmower Safety Snowblower safety Pumpkin Carving Gardening Safety Turkey Carving Removing a Ring Español Artritis ... Fireworks Safety Lawnmower Safety Snowblower safety Pumpkin Carving Gardening Safety Turkey Carving Removing a Ring Español Artritis ...

  19. Assessment of the impact of scheduled postmarketing safety summary analyses on regulatory actions.

    PubMed

    Sekine, S; Pinnow, E E; Wu, E; Kurtzig, R; Hall, M; Dal Pan, G J

    2016-07-01

    In addition to standard postmarketing drug safety monitoring, Section 915 of the Food and Drug Administration Amendments Act of 2007 (FDAAA) requires the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to conduct a summary analysis of adverse event reports to identify risks of a drug or biologic product 18 months after product approval, or after 10,000 patients have used the product, whichever is later. We assessed the extent to which these analyses identified new safety signals and resultant safety-related label changes. Among 458 newly approved products, 300 were the subjects of a scheduled analysis; a new safety signal that resulted in a safety-related label change was found for 11 of these products. Less than 2% of 713 safety-related label changes were based on the scheduled analyses. Our study suggests that the safety summary analyses provide only marginal value over other pharmacovigilance activities. PMID:26853718

  20. Assessment of the Impact of Scheduled Postmarketing Safety Summary Analyses on Regulatory Actions

    PubMed Central

    Sekine, S; Pinnow, EE; Wu, E; Kurtzig, R; Hall, M; Dal Pan, GJ

    2016-01-01

    In addition to standard postmarketing drug safety monitoring, Section 915 of the Food and Drug Administration Amendments Act of 2007 (FDAAA) requires the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to conduct a summary analysis of adverse event reports to identify risks of a drug or biologic product 18 months after product approval, or after 10,000 patients have used the product, whichever is later. We assessed the extent to which these analyses identified new safety signals and resultant safety-related label changes. Among 458 newly approved products, 300 were the subjects of a scheduled analysis; a new safety signal that resulted in a safety-related label change was found for 11 of these products. Less than 2% of 713 safety-related label changes were based on the scheduled analyses. Our study suggests that the safety summary analyses provide only marginal value over other pharmacovigilance activities. PMID:26853718

  1. Ivory Coast-Ghana margin: model of a transform margin

    SciTech Connect

    Mascle, J.; Blarez, E.

    1987-05-01

    The authors present a marine study of the eastern Ivory Coast-Ghana continental margins which they consider one of the most spectacular extinct transform margins. This margin has been created during Early-Lower Cretaceous time and has not been submitted to any major geodynamic reactivation since its fabric. Based on this example, they propose to consider during the evolution of the transform margin four main and successive stages. Shearing contact is first active between two probably thick continental crusts and then between progressively thinning continental crusts. This leads to the creation of specific geological structures such as pull-apart graben, elongated fault lineaments, major fault scarps, shear folds, and marginal ridges. After the final continental breakup, a hot center (the mid-oceanic ridge axis) is progressively drifting along the newly created margin. The contact between two lithospheres of different nature should necessarily induce, by thermal exchanges, vertical crustal readjustments. Finally, the transform margin remains directly adjacent to a hot but cooling oceanic lithosphere; its subsidence behavior should then progressively be comparable to the thermal subsidence of classic rifted margins.

  2. An assessment of seismic margins in nuclear plant piping

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, W.P.; Jaquay, K.R.; Chokshi, N.C.; Terao, D.

    1996-03-01

    Interim results of an ongoing program to assist the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in developing regulatory positions on the seismic analyses of piping and overall safety margins of piping systems are reported. Results of: (1) reviews of seismic testing of piping components performed as part of the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI)/NRC Piping and Fitting Dynamic Reliability (PFDR) Program, and (2) assessments of safety margins inherent in the ASME Code, Section III, piping seismic design criteria as revised by the 1994 Addenda are reported. The reviews indicate that the margins inherent in the revised criteria may be less than acceptable and that modifications to these criteria may be required.

  3. The marginalization of hormesis.

    PubMed

    Calabrese, E J; Baldwin, L A

    2000-01-01

    Despite the substantial development and publication of highly reproducible toxicological data, the concept of hormetic dose-response relationships was never integrated into the mainstream of toxicological thought. Review of the historical foundations of the interpretation of the bioassay and assessment of competitive theories of dose-response relationships lead to the conclusion that multiple factors contributed to the marginalization of hormesis during the middle and subsequent decades of the 20th century. These factors include: (a) the close-association of hormesis with homeopathy lead to the hostility of modern medicine toward homeopathy thereby creating a guilt by association framework, and the carry-over influence of that hostility in the judgements of medically-based pharmacologists/ toxicologists toward hormesis; (b) the emphasis of high dose effects linked with a lack of appreciation of the significance of the implications of low dose stimulatory effects; (c) the lack of an evolutionary-based mechanism(s) to account for hormetic effects; and (d) the lack of appropriate scientific advocates to counter aggressive and intellectually powerful critics of the hormetic perspective. PMID:10745293

  4. The marginalization of hormesis.

    PubMed

    Calabrese, E J; Baldwin, L A

    1999-01-01

    Despite the substantial development and publication of highly reproducible toxicological data, the concept of hormetic dose-response relationships was never integrated into the mainstream of toxicological thought. Review of the historical foundations of the interpretation of the bioassay and assessment of competitive theories of dose-response relationships lead to the conclusion that multiple factors contributed to the marginalization of hormesis during the middle and subsequent decades of the 20th Century. These factors include the following: (a) the close association of hormesis with homeopathy, which led to the hostility of modern medicine toward homeopathy, thereby creating a guilt-by-association framework, and the carryover influence of that hostility toward hormesis in the judgements of medically based pharmacologists/toxicologists; (b) the emphasis of high-dose effects linked with a lack of appreciation of the significance of the implications of low-dose stimulatory effects; (c) the lack of an evolution-based mechanism(s) to account for hormetic effects; and (d) lack of appropriate scientific advocates to counter aggressive and intellectually powerful critics of the hormetic perspective. PMID:10207983

  5. Evolution of Northeast Atlantic magmatic continental margins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    England, Richard; Cornwell, David; Ramsden, Alice

    2014-05-01

    from fissures which are now observed as the ODRS. The oceanward dip on the ODRS is predominantly the result of post-eruption differential subsidence, as opposed to syn-eruption extension. The timing of intrusion of the lower crustal sill complexes remains unclear but they are most likely to have been emplaced as the supply of magma increased, which implies they are a late stage addition. The structure of the Main Ethiopian rift appears to have been influenced by the pre-existing basement structure at an early stage in the rift process, defining the geometry of the rift and providing a control on the later magmatic phase and modification of the crust. This early influence of existing structure is less clear on the NE Atlantic margins and in the UK and Irish sectors it is difficult to link substantial along strike variations in the properties of the margin to variations in basement structures which can be traced across the continental shelf. It is possible that such variations are completely overprinted by magmatic additions to the crust to the point at which they no longer influence the break-up mechanism.

  6. [Food additives and healthiness].

    PubMed

    Heinonen, Marina

    2014-01-01

    Additives are used for improving food structure or preventing its spoilage, for example. Many substances used as additives are also naturally present in food. The safety of additives is evaluated according to commonly agreed principles. If high concentrations of an additive cause adverse health effects for humans, a limit of acceptable daily intake (ADI) is set for it. An additive is a risk only when ADI is exceeded. The healthiness of food is measured on the basis of nutrient density and scientifically proven effects. PMID:24772784

  7. Continental margin sedimentation: from sediment transport to sequence stratigraphy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nittrouer, Charles A., (Edited By); Austin, James A.; Field, Michael E.; Kravitz, Joseph H.; Syvitski, James P.M.; Wiberg, Patricia L.

    2007-01-01

    This volume on continental margin sedimentation brings together an expert editorial and contributor team to create a state-of-the-art resource. Taking a global perspective, the book spans a range of timescales and content, ranging from how oceans transport particles, to how thick rock sequences are formed on continental margins. - Summarizes and integrates our understanding of sedimentary processes and strata associated with fluvial dispersal systems on continental shelves and slopes - Explores timescales ranging from particle transport at one extreme, to deep burial at the other - Insights are presented for margins in general, and with focus on a tectonically active margin (northern California) and a passive margin (New Jersey), enabling detailed examination of the intricate relationships between a wide suite of sedimentary processes and their preserved stratigraphy - Includes observational studies which document the processes and strata found on particular margins, in addition to numerical models and laboratory experimentation, which provide a quantitative basis for extrapolation in time and space of insights about continental-margin sedimentation - Provides a research resource for scientists studying modern and ancient margins, and an educational text for advanced students in sedimentology and stratigraphy

  8. How to make offshore marginal fields work for everyone

    SciTech Connect

    Blandford, P.R.

    1995-12-31

    Marginal fields make positive impact on certain oil and gas companies` financial performances. These developments are integrated into the operator`s operational and philosophical mindset, so that they optimize return and establish a reasonable reserve base for the company. Having a portfolio of marginal field developments is definitely a part of the offshore business, and oil field suppliers and subcontractors will continue to develop technology and methods to ensure the fields are exploited. It goes without saying that the continued production of marginal fields helps a lot of consumers and the companies that make up the energy chain that gets it to them. There are marginal fields all over the world and the market can only grow as more and more of the resources decline and industrialization expands demand. The projections for 2020 state that fossil fuels will remain the major supply link to dependable and affordable energy, particularly as additional oil and gas infrastructures are built and installed. Likened to the commodity, oil and gas companies and the energy industry have slowly evolved to the point where they are making a difference for people worldwide. As long as there is product to produce, most companies and consumers do not really care what type of reservoir started it all. More often then not, it probably started out as a marginal prospect. The paper discusses the energy picture today, marginal field update, offshore marginal field geography, and independent and marginal field developments.

  9. Divergent/passive margin basins

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, J.D. ); Santogrossi, P.A. )

    1989-01-01

    This book discusses the detailed geology of the four divergent margin basins and establishes a set of analog scenarios which can be used for future petroleum exploration. The divergent margin basins are the Campos basin of Brazil, the Gabon basin, the Niger delta, and the basins of the northwest shelf of Australia. These four petroleum basins present a wide range of stratigraphic sequences and structural styles that represent the diverse evolution of this large and important class of world petroleum basins.

  10. Steel Industry Marginal Opportunity Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2005-09-01

    The Steel Industry Marginal Opportunity Analysis (PDF 347 KB) identifies opportunities for developing advanced technologies and estimates both the necessary funding and the potential payoff. This analysis determines what portion of the energy bandwidth can be captured through the adoption of state-of-the-art technology and practices. R&D opportunities for addressing the remainder of the bandwidth are characterized and plotted on a marginal opportunity curve.

  11. MRI-Based Assessment of Safe Margins in Tumor Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Bellanova, Laura; Schubert, Thomas; Cartiaux, Olivier; Lecouvet, Frédéric; Galant, Christine; Banse, Xavier; Docquier, Pierre-Louis

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. In surgical oncology, histological analysis of excised tumor specimen is the conventional method to assess the safety of the resection margins. We tested the feasibility of using MRI to assess the resection margins of freshly explanted tumor specimens in rats. Materials and Methods. Fourteen specimen of sarcoma were resected in rats and analysed both with MRI and histologically. Slicing of the specimen was identical for the two methods and corresponding slices were paired. 498 margins were measured in length and classified using the UICC classification (R0, R1, and R2). Results. The mean difference between the 498 margins measured both with histology and MRI was 0.3 mm (SD 1.0 mm). The agreement interval of the two measurement methods was [−1.7 mm; 2.2 mm]. In terms of the UICC classification, a strict correlation was observed between MRI- and histology-based classifications (κ = 0.84, P < 0.05). Discussion. This experimental study showed the feasibility to use MRI images of excised tumor specimen to assess the resection margins with the same degree of accuracy as the conventional histopathological analysis. When completed, MRI acquisition of resected tumors may alert the surgeon in case of inadequate margin and help advantageously the histopathological analysis. PMID:24701131

  12. MRI-Based Assessment of Safe Margins in Tumor Surgery.

    PubMed

    Bellanova, Laura; Schubert, Thomas; Cartiaux, Olivier; Lecouvet, Frédéric; Galant, Christine; Banse, Xavier; Docquier, Pierre-Louis

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. In surgical oncology, histological analysis of excised tumor specimen is the conventional method to assess the safety of the resection margins. We tested the feasibility of using MRI to assess the resection margins of freshly explanted tumor specimens in rats. Materials and Methods. Fourteen specimen of sarcoma were resected in rats and analysed both with MRI and histologically. Slicing of the specimen was identical for the two methods and corresponding slices were paired. 498 margins were measured in length and classified using the UICC classification (R0, R1, and R2). Results. The mean difference between the 498 margins measured both with histology and MRI was 0.3 mm (SD 1.0 mm). The agreement interval of the two measurement methods was [-1.7 mm; 2.2 mm]. In terms of the UICC classification, a strict correlation was observed between MRI- and histology-based classifications (κ = 0.84, P < 0.05). Discussion. This experimental study showed the feasibility to use MRI images of excised tumor specimen to assess the resection margins with the same degree of accuracy as the conventional histopathological analysis. When completed, MRI acquisition of resected tumors may alert the surgeon in case of inadequate margin and help advantageously the histopathological analysis. PMID:24701131

  13. Food additives

    MedlinePlus

    Food additives are substances that become part of a food product when they are added during the processing or making of that food. "Direct" food additives are often added during processing to: Add nutrients ...

  14. Biobased lubricant additives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fully biobased lubricants are those formulated using all biobased ingredients, i.e. biobased base oils and biobased additives. Such formulations provide the maximum environmental, safety, and economic benefits expected from a biobased product. Currently, there are a number of biobased base oils that...

  15. Food additives

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Michael

    1974-01-01

    Food additives are discussed from the food technology point of view. The reasons for their use are summarized: (1) to protect food from chemical and microbiological attack; (2) to even out seasonal supplies; (3) to improve their eating quality; (4) to improve their nutritional value. The various types of food additives are considered, e.g. colours, flavours, emulsifiers, bread and flour additives, preservatives, and nutritional additives. The paper concludes with consideration of those circumstances in which the use of additives is (a) justified and (b) unjustified. PMID:4467857

  16. Nuclear safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buden, D.

    1991-01-01

    Topics dealing with nuclear safety are addressed which include the following: general safety requirements; safety design requirements; terrestrial safety; SP-100 Flight System key safety requirements; potential mission accidents and hazards; key safety features; ground operations; launch operations; flight operations; disposal; safety concerns; licensing; the nuclear engine for rocket vehicle application (NERVA) design philosophy; the NERVA flight safety program; and the NERVA safety plan.

  17. 16 CFR 1102.16 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... PUBLICLY AVAILABLE CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY INFORMATION DATABASE Content Requirements § 1102.16 Additional... in the Database any additional information it determines to be in the public interest,...

  18. 16 CFR 1102.16 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... PUBLICLY AVAILABLE CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY INFORMATION DATABASE Content Requirements § 1102.16 Additional... in the Database any additional information it determines to be in the public interest,...

  19. 16 CFR 1102.16 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... PUBLICLY AVAILABLE CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY INFORMATION DATABASE Content Requirements § 1102.16 Additional... in the Database any additional information it determines to be in the public interest,...

  20. Sedimentary loading, lithospheric flexure and subduction initiation at passive margins

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, S.G. . Dept. of Earth Sciences)

    1992-01-01

    Recent theoretical models have demonstrated the difficulty of subduction initiation at passive margins, whether subduction is assumed to initiate by overcoming the shear resistance on a thrust fault through the lithosphere or by failure of the entire lithosphere in bending due to sedimentary loading. A mechanism for subduction initiation at passive margins that overcomes these difficulties incorporates the increased subsidence of a marginal basin during decoupling of a previously locked margin. A passive margin may decouple by reactivation of rift-related faults in a local extensional or strike-slip setting. Flexure of marginal basins by sedimentary loading is modeled here by the bending of infinite and semi-infinite elastic plates under a triangular load. The geometry of a mature marginal basin fits the deflection produced by loading of an infinite plate in which the flexural rigidity of continental lithosphere is larger than that of oceanic lithosphere. Decoupling of such a locked passive margin by fault reactivation may cause the lithospheric bending behavior of the margin to change from that of an infinite plate to that of a semi-infinite plate, with a resultant increase in deflection of the marginal basin. The increase in deflection depends on the flexural rigidities of continental and oceanic lithosphere. For flexural rigidities of 10[sup 30]-10[sup 31] dyn-cm (elastic lithosphere thicknesses 24--51 km), the difference in deflections between infinite and semi-infinite plates is 15--17 km, so that decoupling sinks the top of the oceanic lithosphere to depths of ca 35 km. Additional sedimentation within the basin and phase changes within the oceanic crust may further increase this deflection. Subduction may initiate if the top of the oceanic lithosphere sinks to the base of the adjacent elastic lithosphere.

  1. Implications of Monte Carlo Statistical Errors in Criticality Safety Assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Pevey, Ronald E.

    2005-09-15

    Most criticality safety calculations are performed using Monte Carlo techniques because of Monte Carlo's ability to handle complex three-dimensional geometries. For Monte Carlo calculations, the more histories sampled, the lower the standard deviation of the resulting estimates. The common intuition is, therefore, that the more histories, the better; as a result, analysts tend to run Monte Carlo analyses as long as possible (or at least to a minimum acceptable uncertainty). For Monte Carlo criticality safety analyses, however, the optimization situation is complicated by the fact that procedures usually require that an extra margin of safety be added because of the statistical uncertainty of the Monte Carlo calculations. This additional safety margin affects the impact of the choice of the calculational standard deviation, both on production and on safety. This paper shows that, under the assumptions of normally distributed benchmarking calculational errors and exact compliance with the upper subcritical limit (USL), the standard deviation that optimizes production is zero, but there is a non-zero value of the calculational standard deviation that minimizes the risk of inadvertently labeling a supercritical configuration as subcritical. Furthermore, this value is shown to be a simple function of the typical benchmarking step outcomes--the bias, the standard deviation of the bias, the upper subcritical limit, and the number of standard deviations added to calculated k-effectives before comparison to the USL.

  2. DETERMINATION OF THE APPROPRIATE FQPA SAFETY FACTOR(S) IN THE ORGANOPHOSPHOROUS PESTICIDE CUMULATIVE RISK ASSESSMENT: SUSCEPTIBILITY AND SENSITIVITY TO THE COMMON MECHANISM, ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE INHIBITION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Food Quality Protection Act of 1996 (FQPA) directs EPA, in setting pesticide tolerances, to use an additional tenfold margin of safety to protect infants and children taking into account the potential for pre- and postnatal toxicity and the completeness of the toxicology and ...

  3. Principles of Safety Pharmacology

    PubMed Central

    Pugsley, M K; Authier, S; Curtis, M J

    2008-01-01

    Safety Pharmacology is a rapidly developing discipline that uses the basic principles of pharmacology in a regulatory-driven process to generate data to inform risk/benefit assessment. The aim of Safety Pharmacology is to characterize the pharmacodynamic/pharmacokinetic (PK/PD) relationship of a drug's adverse effects using continuously evolving methodology. Unlike toxicology, Safety Pharmacology includes within its remit a regulatory requirement to predict the risk of rare lethal events. This gives Safety Pharmacology its unique character. The key issues for Safety Pharmacology are detection of an adverse effect liability, projection of the data into safety margin calculation and finally clinical safety monitoring. This article sets out to explain the drivers for Safety Pharmacology so that the wider pharmacology community is better placed to understand the discipline. It concludes with a summary of principles that may help inform future resolution of unmet needs (especially establishing model validation for accurate risk assessment). Subsequent articles in this issue of the journal address specific aspects of Safety Pharmacology to explore the issues of model choice, the burden of proof and to highlight areas of intensive activity (such as testing for drug-induced rare event liability, and the challenge of testing the safety of so-called biologics (antibodies, gene therapy and so on.). PMID:18604233

  4. Atlantic marginal basins of Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, G.T.

    1988-02-01

    The over 10,000-km long Atlantic margin of Africa is divisible into thirty basins or segments of the margin that collectively contain over 18.6 x 10/sup 6/ km/sup 3/ of syn-breakup and post-breakup sediments. Twenty of these basins contain a sufficiently thick volume of sediments to be considered prospects. These basins lie, at least partially, within the 200 m isobath. The distribution of source rocks is broad enough to give potential to each of these basins. The sedimentation patterns, tectonics, and timing of events differ from basin to basin and are related directly to the margin's complex history. Two spreading modes exist: rift and transform. Rifting dates from Late Triassic-Early Jurassic in the northwest to Early Cretaceous south of the Niger Delta. A complex transform fault system separated these two margins. Deep-water communication between the two basins became established in the middle Cretaceous. This Mesozoic-Cenozoic cycle of rifting and seafloor spreading has segmented the margin and where observable, basins tend to be bounded by these segments.

  5. The northern Egyptian continental margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badawy, Ahmed; Mohamed, Gad; Omar, Khaled; Farid, Walid

    2015-01-01

    Africa displays a variety of continental margin structures, tectonics and sedimentary records. The northern Egyptian continental margin represents the NE portion of the North African passive continental margin. Economically, this region is of great importance as a very rich and productive hydrocarbon zone in Egypt. Moreover, it is characterized by remarkable tectonic setting accompanied by active tectonic processes from the old Tethys to recent Mediterranean. In this article, seismicity of the northern Egyptian continental margin has been re-evaluated for more than 100-years and the source parameters of three recent earthquakes (October 2012, January 2013 and July 2013) have been estimated. Moment tensor inversions of 19th October 2012 and 17th January 2013 earthquakes reveal normal faulting mechanism with strike-slip component having seismic moment of 3.5E16 N m and 4.3E15 N m respectively. The operation of the Egyptian National Seismic Network (ENSN) since the end of 1997 has significantly enhanced the old picture of earthquake activity across northern Egyptian continental margin whereas; the record-ability (annual rate) has changed from 2-events/year to 54-event/year before and after ENSN respectively. The spatial distribution of earthquakes foci indicated that the activity tends to cluster at three zones: Mediterranean Ridge (MR), Nile Cone (NC) and Eratosthenes Seamount (ERS). However, two seismic gaps are reported along Levant Basin (LEV) and Herodotus Basin (HER).

  6. Neotectonics in the northern equatorial Brazilian margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossetti, Dilce F.; Souza, Lena S. B.; Prado, Renato; Elis, Vagner R.

    2012-08-01

    An increasing volume of publications has addressed the role of tectonics in inland areas of northern Brazil during the Neogene and Quaternary, despite its location in a passive margin. Hence, northern South America plate in this time interval might have not been as passive as usually regarded. This proposal needs further support, particularly including field data. In this work, we applied an integrated approach to reveal tectonic structures in Miocene and late Quaternary strata in a coastal area of the Amazonas lowland. The investigation, undertaken in Marajó Island, mouth of the Amazonas River, consisted of shallow sub-surface geophysical data including vertical electric sounding and ground penetrating radar. These methods were combined with morphostructural analysis and sedimentological/stratigraphic data from shallow cores and a few outcrops. The results revealed two stratigraphic units, a lower one with Miocene age, and an upper one of Late Pleistocene-Holocene age. An abundance of faults and folds were recorded in the Miocene deposits and, to a minor extent, in overlying Late Pleistocene-Holocene strata. In addition to characterize these structures, we discuss their origin, considering three potential mechanisms: Andean tectonics, gravity tectonics related to sediment loading in the Amazon Fan, and rifting at the continental margin. Amongst these hypotheses, the most likely is that the faults and folds recorded in Marajó Island reflect tectonics associated with the history of continental rifting that gave rise to the South Atlantic Ocean. This study supports sediment deposition influenced by transpression and transtension associated with strike-slip divergence along the northern Equatorial Brazilian margin in the Miocene and Late Pleistocene-Holocene. This work records tectonic evidence only for the uppermost few ten of meters of this sedimentary succession. However, available geological data indicate a thickness of up to 6 km, which is remarkably thick for

  7. Certifying nonlocality from separable marginals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vértesi, Tamás; Laskowski, Wiesław; Pál, Károly F.

    2014-01-01

    Imagine three parties, Alice, Bob, and Charlie, who share a state of three qubits such that all two-party reduced states A-B, A-C, and B-C are separable. Suppose that they have information only about these marginals but not about the global state. According to recent results, there exists an example for a set of three separable two-party reduced states that is only compatible with an entangled global state. In this paper, we show a stronger result by exhibiting separable two-party reduced states A-B, A-C, and B-C, such that any global state compatible with these marginals is nonlocal. Hence, we obtain that nonlocality of multipartite states can be certified from information only about separable marginals.

  8. 17 CFR 41.45 - Required margin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Required margin. 41.45 Section... PRODUCTS Customer Accounts and Margin Requirements § 41.45 Required margin. (a) Applicability. Each security futures intermediary shall determine the required margin for the security futures and...

  9. 17 CFR 41.45 - Required margin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Required margin. 41.45 Section... PRODUCTS Customer Accounts and Margin Requirements § 41.45 Required margin. (a) Applicability. Each security futures intermediary shall determine the required margin for the security futures and...

  10. 17 CFR 242.403 - Required margin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Required margin. 242.403...) REGULATIONS M, SHO, ATS, AC, AND NMS AND CUSTOMER MARGIN REQUIREMENTS FOR SECURITY FUTURES Customer Margin Requirements for Security Futures § 242.403 Required margin. (a) Applicability. Each security...

  11. 12 CFR 220.4 - Margin account.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Margin account. 220.4 Section 220.4 Banks and... BROKERS AND DEALERS (REGULATION T) § 220.4 Margin account. (a) Margin transactions. (1) All transactions not specifically authorized for inclusion in another account shall be recorded in the margin...

  12. The multifaceted West Greenland passive margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breuer, Sonja; Damm, Volkmar; Block, Martin; Schreckenberger, Bernd; Heyde, Ingo; Nelson, Catherine; Kouwe, Wim

    2013-04-01

    The Baffin Bay located between Greenland and Canada, is the northward extension of the Labrador Sea. The Davis Strait High separates these two marine basins. The evolution of these basins is closely linked, and is as well affiliated to the opening of the North Atlantic Ocean. The opening history started in the Cretaceous with the formation of several terrestrial rift basins with a block-faulted, metamorphic Precambrian basement. The further opening of the Baffin Bay coincides with the volcanic activity (60.9-52.5 Ma) along the West Greenland margin (Storey et al., 1998). The subsequent seafloor spreading in the Baffin Bay is linked to the Labrador Sea by the Ungava Fault Zone (UFZ), which is the most prominent transform fault in this region. Two main problems are still unsolved: 1) There are clear indications for normal seafloor spreading in the Baffin Bay like the seaward dipping reflectors (SDRs) on the Canadian side (Skaarup et al., 2006) and on the Greenland side based on our data. On the other hand, associated magnetic spreading anomalies are not yet discovered in the Baffin Bay or are not formed. These findings may either point to slow or ultraslow spreading or underlying strongly extended continental crust and/or serpentinised mantle. 2) The Greenlandic margin is much wider than the Canadian. In addition, a breakup unconformity can only be traced on the Greenland side and is not reported for the Canadian side. Which process causes this asymmetric margin and differences in shelf width? Is it a result of asymmetric spreading or connected to volcanic activity during breakup processes? In summer 2008, a marine geoscientific expedition (MSM09/03) was conducted with the research vessel "Maria S. Merian" in the Davis Strait and southern Baffin Bay. Approximately 1800 km of multichannel reflection seismic data were acquired. To supplement the database, a subsequent marine geoscientific expedition ARK-XXV/3 with RV POLARSTERN in summer 2010 was conducted. In our

  13. Determining Adequate Margins in Head and Neck Cancers: Practice and Continued Challenges.

    PubMed

    Williams, Michelle D

    2016-09-01

    Margin assessment remains a critical component of oncologic care for head and neck cancer patients. As an integrated team, both surgeons and pathologists work together to assess margins in these complex patients. Differences in method of margin sampling can impact obtainable information and effect outcomes. Additionally, what distance is an "adequate or clear" margin for patient care continues to be debated. Ultimately, future studies and potentially secondary modalities to augment pathologic assessment of margin assessment (i.e., in situ imaging or molecular assessment) may enhance local control in head and neck cancer patients. PMID:27469263

  14. ''Substantial Margin of Safety'': A New Approach to HLW Disposition

    SciTech Connect

    Power, M. S.

    2002-02-28

    In the Spring of 2001, the National Research Council published ''Disposition of High-Level Waste and Spent Nuclear Fuel: The Continuing Societal and Technical Challenges.'' (1) While finding the technical case for deep geologic disposal of high-level waste and spent fuel robust, the report focused new attention on societal issues and decision-making. The report appeared against a backdrop of heightened controversy about the development of a geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This paper identifies three principal reasons for the National Research Council committee's finding that ''Difficulties in achieving public support have been seriously underestimated in the past, and opportunities to gain public trust have been missed.''

  15. Aviation safety and maintenance under major organizational changes, investigating non-existing accidents.

    PubMed

    Herrera, Ivonne A; Nordskag, Arve O; Myhre, Grete; Halvorsen, Kåre

    2009-11-01

    The objective of this paper is to discuss the following questions: Do concurrent organizational changes have a direct impact on aviation maintenance and safety, if so, how can this be measured? These questions were part of the investigation carried out by the Accident Investigation Board, Norway (AIBN). The AIBN investigated whether Norwegian aviation safety had been affected due to major organizational changes between 2000 and 2004. The main concern was the reduction in safety margins and its consequences. This paper presents a summary of the techniques used and explains how they were applied in three airlines and by two offshore helicopter operators. The paper also discusses the development of safety related indicators in the aviation industry. In addition, there is a summary of the lessons learned and safety recommendations. The Norwegian Ministry of Transport has required all players in the aviation industry to follow up the findings and recommendations of the AIBN study. PMID:19819363

  16. Bromine Safety

    SciTech Connect

    Meyers, B

    2001-04-09

    The production and handling in 1999 of about 200 million kilograms of bromine plus substantial derivatives thereof by Great Lakes Chemical Corp. and Albemarle Corporation in their southern Arkansas refineries gave OSHA Occupational Injury/Illness Rates (OIIR) in the range of 0.74 to 1.60 reportable OIIRs per 200,000 man hours. OIIRs for similar industries and a wide selection of other U.S. industries range from 1.6 to 23.9 in the most recent OSHA report. Occupational fatalities for the two companies in 1999 were zero compared to a range in the U.S.of zero for all computer manufacturing to 0.0445 percent for all of agriculture, forestry and fishing in the most recent OSHA report. These results show that bromine and its compounds can be considered as safe chemicals as a result of the bromine safety standards and practices at the two companies. The use of hydrobromic acid as an electrical energy storage medium in reversible PEM fuel cells is discussed. A study in 1979 of 20 megawatt halogen working fluid power plants by Oronzio de Nora Group found such energy to cost 2 to 2.5 times the prevailing base rate at that time. New conditions may reduce this relative cost. The energy storage aspect allows energy delivery at maximum demand times where the energy commands premium rates. The study also found marginal cost and performance advantages for hydrobromic acid over hydrochloric acid working fluid. Separate studies in the late 70s by General Electric also showed marginal performance advantages for hydrobromic acid.

  17. Increasing safety of a robotic system for inner ear surgery using probabilistic error modeling near vital anatomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dillon, Neal P.; Siebold, Michael A.; Mitchell, Jason E.; Blachon, Gregoire S.; Balachandran, Ramya; Fitzpatrick, J. Michael; Webster, Robert J.

    2016-03-01

    Safe and effective planning for robotic surgery that involves cutting or ablation of tissue must consider all potential sources of error when determining how close the tool may come to vital anatomy. A pre-operative plan that does not adequately consider potential deviations from ideal system behavior may lead to patient injury. Conversely, a plan that is overly conservative may result in ineffective or incomplete performance of the task. Thus, enforcing simple, uniform-thickness safety margins around vital anatomy is insufficient in the presence of spatially varying, anisotropic error. Prior work has used registration error to determine a variable-thickness safety margin around vital structures that must be approached during mastoidectomy but ultimately preserved. In this paper, these methods are extended to incorporate image distortion and physical robot errors, including kinematic errors and deflections of the robot. These additional sources of error are discussed and stochastic models for a bone-attached robot for otologic surgery are developed. An algorithm for generating appropriate safety margins based on a desired probability of preserving the underlying anatomical structure is presented. Simulations are performed on a CT scan of a cadaver head and safety margins are calculated around several critical structures for planning of a robotic mastoidectomy.

  18. Potlining Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolf Keller

    2004-08-10

    In this project, a concept to improve the performance of aluminum production cells by introducing potlining additives was examined and tested. Boron oxide was added to cathode blocks, and titanium was dissolved in the metal pool; this resulted in the formation of titanium diboride and caused the molten aluminum to wet the carbonaceous cathode surface. Such wetting reportedly leads to operational improvements and extended cell life. In addition, boron oxide suppresses cyanide formation. This final report presents and discusses the results of this project. Substantial economic benefits for the practical implementation of the technology are projected, especially for modern cells with graphitized blocks. For example, with an energy savings of about 5% and an increase in pot life from 1500 to 2500 days, a cost savings of $ 0.023 per pound of aluminum produced is projected for a 200 kA pot.

  19. Phosphazene additives

    SciTech Connect

    Harrup, Mason K; Rollins, Harry W

    2013-11-26

    An additive comprising a phosphazene compound that has at least two reactive functional groups and at least one capping functional group bonded to phosphorus atoms of the phosphazene compound. One of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with cellulose and the other of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with a resin, such as an amine resin of a polycarboxylic acid resin. The at least one capping functional group is selected from the group consisting of a short chain ether group, an alkoxy group, or an aryloxy group. Also disclosed are an additive-resin admixture, a method of treating a wood product, and a wood product.

  20. Assessment of breast tumor margins via quantitative diffuse reflectance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, J. Quincy; Bydlon, Torre M.; Kennedy, Stephanie A.; Geradts, Joseph; Wilke, Lee G.; Barry, William; Richards, Lisa M.; Junker, Marlee K.; Gallagher, Jennifer; Ramanujam, Nimmi

    2010-02-01

    A particular application of interest for tissue reflectance spectroscopy in the UV-Visible is intraoperative detection of residual cancer at the margins of excised breast tumors, which could prevent costly and unnecessary repeat surgeries. Our multi-disciplinary group has developed an optical imaging device, which is capable of surveying the entire specimen surface down to a depth of 1-2mm, all within a short time as required for intraoperative use. In an IRB-approved study, reflectance spectral images were acquired from 54 margins in 48 patients. Conversion of the spectral images to quantitative tissue parameter maps was facilitated by a fast scalable inverse Monte-Carlo model. Data from margin parameter images were reduced to image-descriptive scalar values and compared to gold-standard margin pathology. The utility of the device for classification of margins was determined via the use of a conditional inference tree modeling approach, and was assessed both as a function of type of disease present at the margin, as well as a function of distance of disease from the issue surface. Additionally, the influence of breast density on the diagnostic parameters, as well as the accuracy of the device, was evaluated.

  1. N Reactor operational safety summary

    SciTech Connect

    Franz, G.R.; Quapp, W.J.; Ogden, D.M.

    1988-08-01

    This report is a safety summary of the N Reactor. Beginning with its conceptual design in the mid-1950`s, and throughout its 23 years of operation, continuous efforts have been made to ensure safe N Reactor operation and protection of the public health and safety. The N Reactor Updated Safety Analysis Report, completed in 1978(UNC1978), and its subsequent amendments document the safety bases of N Reactor. Following the April 1986 Chernobyl accident in the Soviet Union, a major effort to confirm N Reactor safety and further increase its safety margin was initiated. This effort, called the Safety Enhancement Program, reassessed the N Reactor using the latest accepted analysis techniques and commercial light-water reactor guidelines, where applicable. 122 refs., 38 figs., 10 tabs.

  2. [Marginality, ethnic groups and health].

    PubMed

    Corretger, J M; Fortuny, C; Botet, F; Valls, O

    1992-06-01

    Main marginated ethnic groups in Span are to be found among gypsies and 3rd world immigrants. The first group include about 250,000 persons and the second group more tan half a million people. Their origins and their being past of the less fortunate social layers made them a group of health risk. Pediatric pathologies are those favored by socio-economic shortcomings as well as hygienic-sanitary deficiencies. Imported pediatric pathologies have a small incident. PMID:1636945

  3. Passive margin formation, Timor Sea, Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Hillis, R.R. )

    1990-06-01

    Recent ODP data show that sea-floor spreading began in the Argo Abyssal Plain in the earliest Cretaceous, and not the Callovian-Oxfordian as had previously been believed. These data are now consistent with the Callovian-Valanginian rifting observed on seismic records over the adjacent continental shelf (Vulcan subbasin, western Timor Sea). Tectonic subsidence plots have been constructed for well, extrapolated well, and significant off-well (seismically based) locations in the Vulcan subbasin and adjacent highs. The fully corrected plots show relatively little tectonic subsidence during the Callovian-Valanginian rift phase, even in the depocenter of the Swan Graben, where the Callovian-Valanginian interval reaches its maximum thickness. This is atypical for a passive margin basin. Assuming an extensional origin for the margin, the absence of tectonic subsidence is considered to indicate that continental rifting in the area was wet (accompanied by major volcanic activity). Recent studies have shown that extensive volcanism may occur where rift zones cut through regions of anomalously hot mantle (100-200{degree}C above normal). The addition to the crust of igneous material, the density of which has been modified by adiabatic decompression, inhibits syn-rift subsidence. A wet rifting model also has implications for the origin of the nearby marginal plateaux such as the Scott Plateau. Their relatively thick crust and lack of subsidence may be due to igneous underplating associated with wet rifting. As such the plateaux may be regarded as transitional between oceanic and continental crust. The post-Valanginian Cretaceous subsidence of the Vulcan subbasin and adjacent areas is consistent with typical post-rift thermal subsidence, the predicted exponentially decaying subsidence history for a wet rift being indistinguishable from that of a dry rift.

  4. TWRS safety program plan

    SciTech Connect

    Calderon, L.M., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-01

    Management of Nuclear Safety, Industrial Safety, Industrial Hygiene, and Fire Protection programs, functions, and field support resources for Tank Waste Remediation Systems (TWRS) has, until recently, been centralized in TWRS Safety, under the Emergency, Safety, and Quality organization. Industrial hygiene technician services were also provided to support operational needs related to safety basis compliance. Due to WHC decentralization of safety and reengineering efforts in West Tank Farms, staffing and safety responsibilities have been transferred to the facilities. Under the new structure, safety personnel for TWRS are assigned directly to East Tank Farms, West Tank Farms, and a core Safety Group in TWRS Engineering. The Characterization Project Operations (CPO) safety organization will remain in tact as it currently exists. Personnel assigned to East Tank Farms, West Tank Farms, and CPO will perform facility-specific or project-specific duties and provide field implementation of programs. Those assigned to the core group will focus on activities having a TWRS-wide or programmatic focus. Hanford-wide activities will be the responsibility of the Safety Center of Expertise. In order to ensure an effective and consistent safety program for TWRS under the new organization program functions, goals, organizational structure, roles, responsibilities, and path forward must be clearly established. The purpose of the TWRS Safety Program Plan is to define the overall safety program, responsibilities, relationships, and communication linkages for safety personnel under the new structure. In addition, issues associated with reorganization transition are addressed, including training, project ownership, records management, and dissemination of equipment. For the purpose of this document ``TWRS Safety`` refers to all safety professionals and technicians (Industrial Safety, Industrial Hygiene, Fire Protection, and Nuclear Safety) within the TWRS organization, regardless of their

  5. Space-Based Telemetry And Range Safety Flight Demonstration #1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demspm. Erol; Valencia, Lisa M.; Simpson, James C.; Whiteman, Donald E.; Bundick, Steven N.; Wampler, David; Birr, Richard

    2004-01-01

    The basic ability of STARS to maintain a satellite communications link with TDRSS satellites during dynamic aircraft flights was successfully demonstrated during FD 1. The Range Safety and Range User systems' link margins were measured. The ability to acquire/reacquire and maintain lock between a high-dynamic vehicle and a satellite-based system was demonstrated. The Range Safety system simultaneously received and processed command links from space and ground transmitters and provided near real-time Range Safety telemetry to DFRC, which then sent it in near real time to KSC, GSFC, and WFF for monitoring. The GPS receiver maintained track except during extremely dynamic maneuvers. The Range User system sent data at three different data rates. There were excellent cooperation and support from the different Centers, contractors, and Ranges. A large amount of data was recorded and extensive post-flight analysis was performed. The Range User TDRSS link margin met or exceeded the predicted performance at three different data rates. The Range Safety launch-head link margins generally agreed with the predicted performance. The UPS positions and velocities agreed with those from tracking radar to within about 20 m and a few rn/s. The link margins for the Range Safety TDRSS telemetry link were less than expected. The link margin for one TDRSS command link LPT channel was occasionally much less than the other. Additional post-flight testing has yet to identify the root causes of these results. There were many lessons learned from this first set of test flights. The most important one is that more time and testing are needed for each step to deal with the inevitable problems. It is vital that these lessons be among the primary areas of study that will carry over from FD#1 to FD#2, which is currently scheduled for early FY05 at DFRC and will use a specially designed Ku-band phased array antenna for the Range User system. The next series of flight demonstrations scheduled for

  6. Influence of margin segmentation upon the break-up of the Hatton Bank rifted margin, NE Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliott, Gavin M.; Parson, Lindsay M.

    2008-10-01

    The Hatton Bank margin, flanking the Iceland Basin, is an example of a volcanic rifted margin and has been studied to examine the along margin tectono-magmatic variability. Integration of 5660 km of new seismic reflection profiles with > 60,000 km 2 of new multibeam bathymetry has allowed the margin to be divided into three segments, each of which are flanked by oceanic crust. The southernmost segment is characterised by a series of inner and outer seaward dipping reflector (SDR) packages, which are separated by an "Outer High" feature. The outer SDRs are truncated by Endymion Spur, a chain of steep sided, volcanic cones connected by narrow septa or necks. The central segment has no Inner SDR package and is characterised by the presence of a continental block, the Hatton Bank Block (HBB). The northern segment is adjacent to Lousy Bank, with a wider region of SDRs recognised than to the south, and characterised by many volcanic cones. The variations in the distribution of the SDRs along the margin, the presence of the HBB and Endymion Spur all suggest that the break-up process was not a uniform smooth process along-strike. Structural segmentation controlled the variations along the margin with break-up initiated in the south, producing the SDR packages. The HBB prompted the focus of break-up to relocate outboard of the block. The northern segment was closest to the Iceland "hot-spot", and regular seafloor spreading did not become established until Chron 21. Shortly after break-up, the eruption of Endymion Spur occurred and may have been triggered by the passage of a pulse of hot asthenospheric material along the margin. The margin segmentation pattern we describe controlled the location of the enhanced volcanism along the Endymion Spur to the southern sector. In addition the segmentation has influenced the break-up style (presence or absence of SDR) and also the location and nature of post break-up volcanism.

  7. Lithosphere structure and subsidence evolution of the conjugate S-African and Argentine margins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dressel, Ingo; Scheck-Wenderoth, Magdalena; Cacace, Mauro; Götze, Hans-Jürgen; Franke, Dieter

    2016-04-01

    The bathymetric evolution of the South Atlantic passive continental margins is a matter of debate. Though it is commonly accepted that passive margins experience thermal subsidence as a result of lithospheric cooling as well as load induced subsidence in response to sediment deposition it is disputed if the South Atlantic passive margins were affected by additional processes affecting the subsidence history after continental breakup. We present a subsidence analysis along the SW African margin and offshore Argentina and restore paleobathymetries to assess the subsidence evolution of the margin. These results are discussed with respect to mechanisms behind margin evolution. Therefore, we use available information about the lithosphere-scale present-day structural configuration of these margins as a starting point for the subsidence analysis. A multi 1D backward modelling method is applied to separate individual subsidence components such as the thermal- as well as the load induced subsidence and to restore paleobathymetries for the conjugate margins. The comparison of the restored paleobathymetries shows that the conjugate margins evolve differently: Continuous subsidence is obtained offshore Argentina whereas the subsidence history of the SW African margin is interrupted by phases of uplift. This differing results for both margins correlate also with different structural configurations of the subcrustal mantle. In the light of these results we discuss possible implications for uplift mechanisms.

  8. Silenced, Silence, Silent: Motherhood in the Margins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Lorelei; Austin, Helena

    2007-01-01

    This project explores the experiences of women who mother children with ADHD. The authors use the metaphor of the text and the margin. The text is the "motherhood myth" that describes a particular sort of "good" mothering. The margin is the space beyond that text. This marginal space is inhabited by some or all of the mothers they spoke with, some…

  9. The clinical significance of marginal fit.

    PubMed

    Larson, Thomas D

    2012-01-01

    Clinical evaluation of restoration acceptability includes marginal adaptation, restoration and preservation of anatomic form, color match, cavosurface discoloration, and presence of marginal caries. This paper will review what is known about marginal fit of all materials relative to their acceptable fit. Some explanation will be given of how material properties affect marginal fit, what the expected longevity of different materials is relative to marginal fit, and how marginal fit affects development of secondary or marginal caries. Marginal fit is assumed to affect restoration longevity by either encouraging or discouraging microleakage and development of secondary or marginal caries. Marginal fit and its effect on the health of the gingival tissues have been reviewed in an earlier paper on polishing and will not be reviewed here. Is there some correlation between marginal fit of the various materials used in restorative dentistry and this assumption? This paper will review the literature found on Medline and present the science behind the clinical significance of marginal fit utilizing in vitro studies where necessary and in vivo studies whenever possible. Numerous authors replicating these studies are used to improve reliability and replicability. PMID:22439529

  10. Diminishing Marginal Utility in Economics Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dittmer, Timothy

    2005-01-01

    Many introductory microeconomics textbook authors derive the law of demand from the assumption of diminishing marginal utility. Authors of intermediate and graduate textbooks derive demand from diminishing marginal rate of substitution and ordinal preferences. These approaches are not interchangeable; diminishing marginal utility for all goods is…

  11. 17 CFR 31.18 - Margin calls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Margin calls. 31.18 Section 31....18 Margin calls. (a) No leverage transaction merchant shall liquidate a leverage contract because of a margin deficiency without effecting personal contact with the leverage customer. If a...

  12. 17 CFR 31.18 - Margin calls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Margin calls. 31.18 Section 31....18 Margin calls. (a) No leverage transaction merchant shall liquidate a leverage contract because of a margin deficiency without effecting personal contact with the leverage customer. If a...

  13. Fertility-related research needs among women at the margins.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Sheree R; Baral, Stefan

    2015-05-01

    Fertility-related research encompasses fertility intentions, preconception care, research amongst pregnant women, and post-partum outcomes of mothers and children. However, some women remain under-represented within this domain of study. Women frequently missing within fertility-related research include those who are already the most vulnerable to health disparities, including female sex workers, lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender women, women living with HIV, and women who use drugs. Yet characterization of the needs of these women is important, given their unique fertility-related concerns, including risks and barriers to care emanating from social stigmas and discrimination. This synthesis provides an overview of fertility-related evidence, highlighting where there are clear research gaps among marginalized women and the potential implications of these data shortfalls. Overall, research among marginalized women to date has addressed pregnancy prevention and in some cases fertility intentions, but the majority of studies have focused on post-conception pregnancy safety and the well-being of the child. However, among female sex workers specifically, data on pregnancy safety and the well-being of the child are largely unavailable. Within each marginalized group, preconception care and effectiveness of conception methods are consistently understudied. Ultimately, the absence of epidemiologic, clinical and programmatic evidence limits the availability and quality of reproductive health services for all women and prevents social action to address these gaps. PMID:26278831

  14. Three-dimensional marginal separation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duck, Peter W.

    1988-01-01

    The three dimensional marginal separation of a boundary layer along a line of symmetry is considered. The key equation governing the displacement function is derived, and found to be a nonlinear integral equation in two space variables. This is solved iteratively using a pseudo-spectral approach, based partly in double Fourier space, and partly in physical space. Qualitatively, the results are similar to previously reported two dimensional results (which are also computed to test the accuracy of the numerical scheme); however quantitatively the three dimensional results are much different.

  15. Managing margins through physician engagement.

    PubMed

    Sears, Nicholas J

    2012-07-01

    Hospitals should take the following steps as they seek to engage physicians in an enterprisewide effort to effectively manage margins: Consider physicians' daily professional practice requirements and demands for time in balancing patient care and administrative duties. Share detailed transactional supply data with physicians to give them a behind-the-scenes look at the cost of products used for procedures. Institute physician-led management and monitoring of protocol compliance and shifts in utilization to promote clinical support for change. Select a physician champion to provide the framework for managing initiatives with targeted, efficient communication. PMID:22788036

  16. Continental margin tectonics - Forearc processes

    SciTech Connect

    Lundberg, N.; Reed, D.L. )

    1991-01-01

    Recent studies of convergent plate margins and the structural development of forearc terranes are summarized in a critical review of U.S. research from the period 1987-1990. Topics addressed include the geometry of accretionary prisms (Coulomb wedge taper and vertical motion in response to tectonic processes), offscraping vs underplating or subduction, the response to oblique convergence, fluids in forearc settings, the thermal framework and the effects of fluid advection, and serpentinite seamounts. Also included is a comprehensive bibliography for the period.

  17. Determination of pyrotechnic functional margin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, Laurence J.; Schimmel, Morry L.

    1993-01-01

    Following the failure of a previously qualified pyrotechnically actuated pin puller design, an investigation led to a redesign and requalification. The emphasis of the second qualification was placed on determining the functional margin of the pin puller by comparing the energy deliverable by the pyrotechnic cartridge to the energy required to accomplish the function. Also determined were the effects of functional variables. This paper describes the failure investigation, the test methods employed and the results of the evaluation, and provides a recommended approach to assure the successful functioning of pyrotechnic devices.

  18. Determination of pyrotechnic functional margin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, Laurence J.; Schimmel, Morry L.

    1992-01-01

    Following the failure of a previously qualified pyrotechnically actuated pin puller design, an investigation led to a redesign and requalification. The emphasis of the second qualification was placed on determining the functional margin of the pin puller by comparing the energy deliverable by the pyrotechnic cartridge to the energy required to accomplish the function. Also determined were the effects of functional variables. This paper describes the failure investigation, the test methods employed and the results of the evaluation, and provides a recommended approach to assure the successful functioning of pyrotechnic devices.

  19. Marginal Lands: Concept, Assessment and Management

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Shujiang; Post, Wilfred M; West, Tristram O.; Bandaru, Vara Prasad; Izaurralde, Dr. R. Cesar; Wang, Dali; Nichols, Dr Jeff A

    2013-01-01

    Marginal lands have received wide attention for their potential to improve food security and support bioenergy production. However, environmental, ecosystem service, and sustainability concerns have been widely raised over the use of marginal land. Knowledge of the extent, location, and quality of marginal lands as well as their assessment and management are limited and diverse. This paper provides a review of the historical development of marginal concept, its application and assessment. Limitations and priority research needs of marginal land assessment and management were discussed.

  20. The margitron: a generalized perceptron with margin.

    PubMed

    Panagiotakopoulos, Constantinos; Tsampouka, Petroula

    2011-03-01

    We identify the classical perceptron algorithm with margin as a member of a broader family of large margin classifiers, which we collectively call the margitron. The margitron, (despite its) sharing the same update rule with the perceptron, is shown in an incremental setting to converge in a finite number of updates to solutions possessing any desirable fraction of the maximum margin. We also report on experiments comparing the margitron with decomposition support vector machines, cutting-plane algorithms, and gradient descent methods on hard margin tasks involving linear kernels which are equivalent to 2-norm soft margin. Our results suggest that the margitron is very competitive. PMID:21216709

  1. Leukocyte margination at arteriole shear rate

    PubMed Central

    Takeishi, Naoki; Imai, Yohsuke; Nakaaki, Keita; Yamaguchi, Takami; Ishikawa, Takuji

    2014-01-01

    Abstract We numerically investigated margination of leukocytes at arteriole shear rate in straight circular channels with diameters ranging from 10 to 22 μm. Our results demonstrated that passing motion of RBCs effectively induces leukocyte margination not only in small channels but also in large channels. A longer time is needed for margination to occur in a larger channel, but once a leukocyte has marginated, passing motion of RBCs occurs continuously independent of the channel diameter, and leukocyte margination is sustained for a long duration. We also show that leukocytes rarely approach the wall surface to within a microvillus length at arteriole shear rate. PMID:24907300

  2. [The economic margins of activities of a bovine practitioner on dairy farms].

    PubMed

    van Genugten, A J M; van Haaften, J A; Hogeveen, H

    2011-11-01

    Because of lower margins and market liberalisation veterinarians and farmers are increasingly negotiating rates. Therefore, the margins of veterinarians are under pressure. In addition, the sales if drugs, performance of operations or giving of advice are more and more separated. These developments give veterinarians uncertainty about the profitability of their activities for dairy farmers. Not much is known about margins on veterinary activities on dairy farms. Moreover, it is interesting to see how much margins of the bovine practitioner differ between veterinary practises and dairy farms. In this study, invoices for bovine activities of 14 veterinary practises were combined with milk production registration data of the dairy farms of these practices. This way, the gross margin per bovine practitioner could be studied for the different veterinary practise. Moreover the relation between gross margin and specification of the veterinary practise could be studied. Finally, the gross margin per dairy farm and the factors that influenced this gross margin were studied. The most important result was the observation that the gross margin per bovine practitioner was dependent on the number of dairy farms per practitioner, the margin on drugs and the region of the veterinary practise. The size of the veterinary practise, the share of the dairy farming within the practise and the source of the gross margin (drugs, time or operations) did not influence the gross margin. Variables that explained the gross margin per dairy farm were, amongst others, the number of dairy cows, the milk production level of the farms and participation in PIR-DAP (a system to support the veterinarians herd health and management program). There is no relation of gross margin per dairy farm and the veterinary practise or region. PMID:22164468

  3. Seismic margins and calibration of piping systems

    SciTech Connect

    Shieh, L.C.; Tsai, N.C.; Yang, M.S.; Wong, W.L.

    1985-01-01

    The Seismic Safety Margins Research Program (SSMRP) is a US Nuclear Regulatory Commission-funded, multiyear program conducted by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Its objective is to develop a complete, fully coupled analysis procedure for estimating the risk of earthquake-induced radioactive release from a commercial nuclear power plant and to determine major contributors to the state-of-the-art seismic and systems analysis process and explicitly includes the uncertainties in such a process. The results will be used to improve seismic licensing requirements for nuclear power plants. In Phase I of SSMRP, the overall seismic risk assessment methodology was developed and assembled. The application of this methodology to the seismic PRA (Probabilistic Risk Assessment) at the Zion Nuclear Power Plant has been documented. This report documents the method deriving response factors. The response factors, which relate design calculated responses to best estimate values, were used in the seismic response determination of piping systems for a simplified seismic probablistic risk assessment. 13 references, 31 figures, 25 tables.

  4. 42 CFR 86.20 - Additional conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES GRANTS FOR EDUCATION PROGRAMS IN OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH Occupational Safety and Health Training Grants § 86.20 Additional conditions. The Secretary may with respect...

  5. Dynamics of the continental margins

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-11-01

    On 18--20 June 1990, over 70 oceanographers conducting research in the ocean margins of North America attended a workshop in Virginia Beach, Virginia. The purpose of the workshop was to provide the Department of Energy with recommendations for future research on the exchange of energy-related materials between the coastal and interior ocean and the relationship between the ocean margins and global change. The workshop was designed to optimize the interaction of scientists from specific research disciplines (biology, chemistry, physics and geology) as they developed hypotheses, research questions and topics and implementation plans. The participants were given few restraints on the research they proposed other than realistic time and monetary limits. The interdisciplinary structure of the meeting promoted lively discussion and creative research plans. The meeting was divided into four working groups based on lateral, vertical, air/sea and sediment/water processes. Working papers were prepared and distributed before the meeting. During the meeting the groups revised the papers and added recommendations that appear in this report, which was reviewed by an Executive Committee.

  6. Gain-phase margin analysis of dynamic fuzzy control systems.

    PubMed

    Perng, Jau-Woei; Wu, Bing-Fei; Chin, Hung-I; Lee, Tsu-Tian

    2004-10-01

    In this paper, we apply some effective methods, including the gain-phase margin tester, describing function and parameter plane, to predict the limit cycles of dynamic fuzzy control systems with adjustable parameters. Both continuous-time and sampled-data fuzzy control systems are considered. In general, fuzzy control systems are nonlinear. By use of the classical method of describing functions, the dynamic fuzzy controller may be linearized first. According to the stability equations and parameter plane methods, the stability of the equivalent linearized system with adjustable parameters is then analyzed. In addition, a simple approach is also proposed to determine the gain margin and phase margin which limit cycles can occur for robustness. Two examples of continuous-time fuzzy control systems with and without nonlinearity are presented to demonstrate the design procedure. Finally, this approach is also extended to a sampled-data fuzzy control system. PMID:15503509

  7. Ferrocyanide Safety Program: Safety criteria for ferrocyanide watch list tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Postma, A.K.; Meacham, J.E.; Barney, G.S.

    1994-01-01

    This report provides a technical basis for closing the ferrocyanide Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) at the Hanford Site. Three work efforts were performed in developing this technical basis. The efforts described herein are: 1. The formulation of criteria for ranking the relative safety of waste in each ferrocyanide tank. 2. The current classification of tanks into safety categories by comparing available information on tank contents with the safety criteria; 3. The identification of additional information required to resolve the ferrocyanide safety issue.

  8. Marginal abatement cost curve for NOx incorporating controls, renewable electricity, energy efficiency and fuel switching

    EPA Science Inventory

    A marginal abatement cost curve (MACC) traces out the relationship between the quantity of pollution abated and the marginal cost of abating each additional unit. In the context of air quality management, MACCs typically are developed by sorting end-of-pipe controls by their resp...

  9. 26 CFR 1.925(b)-1T - Temporary regulations; marginal costing rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... applicable or that income is under the exceptions in section 954(b)(4). In addition, the marginal costing... purposes of the full costing method. (4) Application of limitation on FSC income (“no loss” rules). The...: (i) 23% of maximum combined taxable income determined under the marginal costing rules, (ii) 23%...

  10. 26 CFR 1.925(b)-1T - Temporary regulations; marginal costing rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... that income is under the exceptions in section 954(b)(4). In addition, the marginal costing rules do... purposes of the full costing method. (4) Application of limitation on FSC income (“no loss” rules). The...: (i) 23% of maximum combined taxable income determined under the marginal costing rules, (ii) 23%...

  11. Chapter 34: Geology and petroleum potential of the rifted margins of the Canada Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Houseknecht, D.W.; Bird, K.J.

    2011-01-01

    Three sides of the Canada Basin are bordered by high-standing, conjugate rift shoulders of the Chukchi Borderland, Alaska and Canada. The Alaska and Canada margins are mantled with thick, growth-faulted sediment prisms, and the Chukchi Borderland contains only a thin veneer of sediment. The rift-margin strata of Alaska and Canada reflect the tectonics and sediment dispersal systems of adjacent continental regions whereas the Chukchi Borderland was tectonically isolated from these sediment dispersal systems. Along the eastern Alaska-southern Canada margin, termed herein the 'Canning-Mackenzie deformed margin', the rifted margin is deformed by ongoing Brooks Range tectonism. Additional contractional structures occur in a gravity fold belt that may be present along the entire Alaska and Canada margins of the Canada Basin. Source-rock data inboard of the rift shoulders and regional palaeogeographic reconstructions suggest three potential source-rock intervals: Lower Cretaceous (Hauterivian-Albian), Upper Cretaceous (mostly Turonian) and Lower Palaeogene. Burial history modelling indicates favourable timing for generation from all three intervals beneath the Alaska and Canada passive margins, and an active petroleum system has been documented in the Canning-Mackenzie deformed margin. Assessment of undiscovered petroleum resources indicates the greatest potential in the Canning-Mackenzie deformed margin and significant potential in the Canada and Alaska passive margins. ?? 2011 The Geological Society of London.

  12. Summertime Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... Violence & Safety Life Stages & Populations Travelers' Health Workplace Safety & Health Features Media Sign up for Features Get Email Updates ... Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Emails CDC Features Summertime Safety Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir The feature ...

  13. Drug Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... over-the-counter drug. The FDA evaluates the safety of a drug by looking at Side effects ... clinical trials The FDA also monitors a drug's safety after approval. For you, drug safety means buying ...

  14. Safety Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, James H.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Five articles in this issue focus on safety education in agricultural laboratories. Topics discussed include teacher liability; elements of a safety instruction program; state and federal safety standards; ground fault current protection; and eye protection requirements and equipment. (SK)

  15. Nuclear Protections and Safety Act of 1987. Report of the Committee on Governmental Affairs, United States Senate together with Additional Views to Accompany S. 1085, One Hundredth Congress, First Session

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    The Senate report on S. 1085 suggests several amendments to the recommended bill which would make oversight of nuclear facility safety an independent board. The legislation responds to concerns that there is no justification for DOE facilities to be exempt from this kind of oversight, and that health and safety standards are as important at nuclear weapons and materials facilities as elsewhere. The report traces the emergence of the nuclear age and the different treatment of government and commercial facilities. There is evidence of a lack of concern for employee health and safety at some government installations. The report summarizes the four titles of the bill, reviews the four days of public hearings, and analyzes the bill by section. It notes changes that will result in the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, and the Department of Energy Organization Act.

  16. Operating margin of Soviet RBMK-1000 nuclear power reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, J.M.; Robinson, G.E. . Dept. of Nuclear Engineering); Hochreiter, L.E. )

    1991-12-01

    This paper reports on a coupled thermal- hydraulic analysis that is performed for the Soviet-designed RBMK-1000 nuclear power reactor to assess the operating margin to critical heat flux (CHF); the Chernobyl-4 reactor serves as the principal model for this study. Calculations are performed using a simplified subchannel analysis. The overall analysis involves an iterative search to determine the individual subchannel flow rates, and a boiling transition analysis is performed to obtain a measure of the core operating margin. The operating margin is determined via two distinct methods. The first involves a calculation of the core critical power ratio (CPR) using an empirically derived correlation that the Soviets developed expressly for the RBMK-1000. Additionally, various subchannel CHF correlations typical of those used in the design of nuclear-powered reactors in the United States are also employed. When the Soviet critical power correlation is used, the calculations carried out for both normal operating and reference overpower conditions result in CPRs of 1.115 and 1.019, respectively. In most cases, the subchannel CHF correlations indicate that additional operating margin over that calculated by the Soviet critical power correlation exists for this design.

  17. Radiological Safety Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Army Ordnance Center and School, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD.

    Written to be used concurrently with the U.S. Army's Radiological Safety Course, this publication discusses the causes, sources, and detection of nuclear radiation. In addition, the transportation and disposal of radioactive materials are covered. The report also deals with the safety precautions to be observed when working with lasers, microwave…

  18. School Safety and Security.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.

    This document offers additional guidelines for school facilities in California in the areas of safety and security, lighting, and cleanliness. It also offers a description of technology resources available on the World Wide Web. On the topic of safety and security, the document offers guidelines in the areas of entrances, doors, and controlled…

  19. AFR-100 safety analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Sumner, T.; Moisseytsev, A.; Wei, T. Y. C.

    2012-07-01

    The Advanced Fast Reactor-100 (AFR-100) is Argonne National Laboratory's 250 MWth metal-fueled modular sodium-cooled pool-type fast reactor concept. [1] A series of accident sequences that focused on the AFR-100's ability to provide protection against reactor damage during low probability accident sequences resulting from multiple equipment failures were examined. Protected and Unprotected Loss of Flow (PLOF and ULOF) and Unprotected Transient Over-Power (UTOP) accidents were simulated using the SAS4A/SASSYS-1 safety analysis code. The large heat capacity of the sodium in the pool-type reactor allows the AFR-100 to absorb large amounts of energy during a PLOF with relatively small temperature increases throughout the system. During a ULOF with a 25-second flow halving time, coolant and cladding temperatures peak around 720 deg. C within the first minute before reactivity feedback effects decrease power to match the flow. Core radial expansion and fuel Doppler provide the necessary feedback during the UTOP to bring the system back to critical before system temperatures exceed allowable limits. Simulation results indicate that adequate ULOF safety margins exist for the AFR-100 design with flow halving times of twenty-five seconds. Significant safety margins are maintained for PLOF accidents as well as UTOP accidents if a rod stop is used. (authors)

  20. Assessment of seismic margin calculation methods

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, R.P.; Murray, R.C.; Ravindra, M.K.; Reed, J.W.; Stevenson, J.D.

    1989-03-01

    Seismic margin review of nuclear power plants requires that the High Confidence of Low Probability of Failure (HCLPF) capacity be calculated for certain components. The candidate methods for calculating the HCLPF capacity as recommended by the Expert Panel on Quantification of Seismic Margins are the Conservative Deterministic Failure Margin (CDFM) method and the Fragility Analysis (FA) method. The present study evaluated these two methods using some representative components in order to provide further guidance in conducting seismic margin reviews. It is concluded that either of the two methods could be used for calculating HCLPF capacities. 21 refs., 9 figs., 6 tabs.

  1. High resolution geomorphic map of a submerged marginal plateau, northern Lord Howe Rise, east Australian margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nichol, Scott L.; Heap, Andrew D.; Daniell, James

    2011-04-01

    High resolution multibeam bathymetry is used to map and interpret seabed geomorphology for part of the northern Lord Howe Rise plateau in the Tasman Sea. A mapping system of geomorphic units and elements is used, extending the previous hierarchy of geomorphic provinces and features used for the Australian margin. The mapped area covers ˜25,500 km 2 and incorporates broad ridges, valleys and plateaus. Superimposed on these features are clusters of volcanic peaks, smaller ridges, holes, scarps and aprons. An additional characteristic of the seabed in this area is an extensive network of polygonal furrows that covers the plateau and the lower slopes of larger ridges. These furrows are formed in stiff, unconsolidated carbonate ooze that forms a near-continuous sediment cover across the area. Peaks are the only geomorphic feature not fully draped in pelagic ooze. The distribution of geomorphic units suggests strong controls from underlying geological structures. In water depths of 1400 to 1600 m some peaks occur in clusters on ridges that sit above acoustic basement highs and volcanic intrusions. Elsewhere, broad plateaus and valleys slope to the southwest following the regional dip of the Lord Howe Rise plateau. In contrast, localised geomorphic elements such as moats and holes have likely explanation in terms of spatial variations in sedimentation rates in relation to bathymetric highs. Polygonal furrows are attributed to dewatering processes. The geomorphology of the seabed mapped in this study incorporates examples of forms that have not been previously mapped in such detail on the Australian margin. These are unlikely to be unique to the mapped area of the Lord Howe Rise and can be expected to occur elsewhere on the Rise and presumably on other parts of the Australian margin with a similar geological history.

  2. Tectonic signatures on active margins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hogarth, Leah Jolynn

    High-resolution Compressed High-Intensity Radar Pulse (CHIRP) surveys offshore of La Jolla in southern California and the Eel River in northern California provide the opportunity to investigate the role of tectonics in the formation of stratigraphic architecture and margin morphology. Both study sites are characterized by shore-parallel tectonic deformation, which is largely observed in the structure of the prominent angular unconformity interpreted as the transgressive surface. Based on stratal geometry and acoustic character, we identify three sedimentary sequences offshore of La Jolla: an acoustically laminated estuarine unit deposited during early transgression, an infilling or "healing-phase" unit formed during the transgression, and an upper transparent unit. The estuarine unit is confined to the canyon edges in what may have been embayments during the last sea-level rise. The healing-phase unit appears to infill rough areas on the transgressive surface that may be related to relict fault structures. The upper transparent unit is largely controlled by long-wavelength tectonic deformation due to the Rose Canyon Fault. This unit is also characterized by a mid-shelf (˜40 m water depth) thickness high, which is likely a result of hydrodynamic forces and sediment grain size. On the Eel margin, we observe three distinct facies: a seaward-thinning unit truncated by the transgressive surface, a healing-phase unit confined to the edges of a broad structural high, and a highly laminated upper unit. The seaward-thinning wedge of sediment below the transgressive surface is marked by a number of channels that we interpret as distributary channels based on their morphology. Regional divergence of the sequence boundary and transgressive surface with up to ˜8 m of sediment preserved across the interfluves suggests the formation of subaerial accommodation during the lowstand. The healing-phase, much like that in southern California, appears to infill rough areas in the

  3. Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The results of the Panel's activities are presented in a set of findings and recommendations. Highlighted here are both improvements in NASA's safety and reliability activities and specific areas where additional gains might be realized. One area of particular concern involves the curtailment or elimination of Space Shuttle safety and reliability enhancements. Several findings and recommendations address this area of concern, reflecting the opinion that safety and reliability enhancements are essential to the continued successful operation of the Space Shuttle. It is recommended that a comprehensive and continuing program of safety and reliability improvements in all areas of Space Shuttle hardware/software be considered an inherent component of ongoing Space Shuttle operations.

  4. Evaluation of fission product worth margins in PWR spent nuclear fuel burnup credit calculations.

    SciTech Connect

    Blomquist, R.N.; Finck, P.J.; Jammes, C.; Stenberg, C.G.

    1999-02-17

    Current criticality safety calculations for the transportation of irradiated LWR fuel make the very conservative assumption that the fuel is fresh. This results in a very substantial overprediction of the actual k{sub eff} of the transportation casks; in certain cases, this decreases the amount of spent fuel which can be loaded in a cask, and increases the cost of transporting the spent fuel to the repository. Accounting for the change of reactivity due to fuel depletion is usually referred to as ''burnup credit.'' The US DOE is currently funding a program aimed at establishing an actinide only burnup credit methodology (in this case, the calculated reactivity takes into account the buildup or depletion of a limited number of actinides). This work is undergoing NRC review. While this methodology is being validated on a significant experimental basis, it implicitly relies on additional margins: in particular, the absorption of neutrons by certain actinides and by all fission products is not taken into account. This provides an important additional margin and helps guarantee that the methodology is conservative provided these neglected absorption are known with reasonable accuracy. This report establishes the accuracy of fission product absorption rate calculations: (1) the analysis of European fission product worth experiments demonstrates that fission product cross-sections available in the US provide very good predictions of fission product worth; (2) this is confirmed by a direct comparison of European and US cross section evaluations; (3) accuracy of Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) fission product content predictions is established in a recent ORNL report where several SNF isotopic assays are analyzed; and (4) these data are then combined to establish in a conservative manner the fraction of the predicted total fission product absorption which can be guaranteed based on available experimental data.

  5. Storm tracks near marginal stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambaum, Maarten; Novak, Lenka

    2015-04-01

    The variance of atmospheric storm tracks is characterised by intermittent bursts of activity interspersed with relatively quiescent periods. Most of the poleward heat transport by storm tracks is due to a limited number of strong heat flux events, which occur in a quasi-periodic fashion. This behaviour is in contradiction with the usual conceptual model of the storm tracks, which relies on high growth rate background flows which then spawn weather systems that grow in an exponential or non-normal fashion. Here we present a different conceptual model of the atmospheric storm tracks which is built on the observation that, when including diabatic and other dissipative effects, the storm track region is in fact most of the time marginally stable. The ensuing model is a nonlinear oscillator, very similar to Volterra-Lotka predator-prey models. We demonstrate the extensions of this model to a stochastically driven nonlinear oscillator. The model produces quasi-periodic behaviour dominated by intermittent heat flux events. Perhaps most surprisingly, we will show strong evidence from re-analysis data for our conceptual model: the re-analysis data produces a phase-space plot that is very similar indeed to the phase-space plot for our nonlinear oscillator model.

  6. A margin based approach to determining sample sizes via tolerance bounds.

    SciTech Connect

    Newcomer, Justin T.; Freeland, Katherine Elizabeth

    2013-09-01

    This paper proposes a tolerance bound approach for determining sample sizes. With this new methodology we begin to think of sample size in the context of uncertainty exceeding margin. As the sample size decreases the uncertainty in the estimate of margin increases. This can be problematic when the margin is small and only a few units are available for testing. In this case there may be a true underlying positive margin to requirements but the uncertainty may be too large to conclude we have sufficient margin to those requirements with a high level of statistical confidence. Therefore, we provide a methodology for choosing a sample size large enough such that an estimated QMU uncertainty based on the tolerance bound approach will be smaller than the estimated margin (assuming there is positive margin). This ensures that the estimated tolerance bound will be within performance requirements and the tolerance ratio will be greater than one, supporting a conclusion that we have sufficient margin to the performance requirements. In addition, this paper explores the relationship between margin, uncertainty, and sample size and provides an approach and recommendations for quantifying risk when sample sizes are limited.

  7. Marginal Basins of the Western Pacific: An Overview (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, S. D.

    2010-12-01

    Marginal ocean basins of the Western Pacific fall into several distinct categories based on their mechanisms of formation: 1) Back-arc basins that likely formed associated with island arc rifting and seafloor spreading, such as the Mariana Trough and the Shikoku-Parece Vela Basin. 2) Ocean basins that formed through processes related to continental rifting, such as the South China Sea and the Sea of Japan, and 3) marginal basins of ambiguous or uncertain origin such as the West Philippine Basin and the Celebes Sea, that may have originated by back-arc spreading, by entrapment of a fragment of an older ocean basin, or by rifting from the Southeast Asian continental margin. The origin of the largest of the western Pacific marginal basins, the West Philippine Basin, has been suggested to be either by back-arc rifting or through entrapment from a major ocean basin. Based on the geological/tectonic characteristics of ocean basin margins, the compositions and ages of oceanic basement, and the stratigraphic and paleomagnetic data from the marginal basins, only the Japan Sea, the South China Sea, the Andaman Sea, and perhaps the Celebes Sea are likely candidates for being formed in relation to the uplift off the Tibetan Plateau. While the age of formation of the West Philippine Basin (55-39 Ma) is roughly synchronous with Tibetan Plateau uplift, the lack of continental crustal blocks or continentally-derived sediment argues against an Asian continental margin origin for the West Philippine Basin. In addition, the evidence for active plate boundaries in the Philippines and along the western side of the West Philippine Basin at this time suggests that it was isolated from Asian deformation perhaps related to Tibetan Plateau uplift. The Celebes Sea is of similar age to the West Philippine Basin, and paleomagnetic data from basement rocks indicates that has moved less than 150 relative to Southeast Asia since it was formed. This evidence, coupled with N-MORB samples recovered

  8. The crustal structure of the southern Argentine margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Katharina; Franke, Dieter; Schnabel, Michael; Schreckenberger, Bernd; Heyde, Ingo; Krawczyk, Charlotte M.

    2012-06-01

    Multichannel reflection seismic profiles, combined with gravimetric and magnetic data provide insight into the crustal structure of the southernmost Argentine margin, at the transition from a rifted to a transform margin and outline the extent of the North Falkland Graben. Based on these data, we establish a regional stratigraphic model for the post-rift sediments, comprising six marker horizons with a new formation in the Barremian/Lower Cretaceous. Our observations support that a N-S trending subsidiary branch of the North Falkland Graben continues along the continental shelf and slope to the Argentine basin. During the rift phase, a wide shelf area was affected by the E-W extension, subsequently forming the North Falkland Graben and the subsidiary branch along which finally breakup occurred. We propose the division of the margin in two segments: a N-S trending rifted margin and an E-W trending transform margin. This is further underpinned by crustal scale gravity modelling. Three different tectono-dynamic processes shaped the study area. (1) The Triassic/Early Jurassic extensional phase resulting in the formation of the North Falkland Graben and additional narrower rift grabens ended synchronously with the breakup of the South Atlantic in the early Valanginian. (2) Extensional phase related to the opening of the South Atlantic. (3) The transform margin was active in the study area from about Hauterivian times and activity lasted until late Cretaceous/early Cenozoic. Both, the rifted margin and the transform margin are magma-poor. Very limited structures may have a volcanic origin but are suggested to be post-rift. The oceanic crust was found to be unusually thin, indicating a deficit in magma supply during formation. These findings in combination with the proposed breakup age in the early Valanginian that considerably predates the formation of the Paraná-Etendeka continental flood basalt provinces in Brazil and Namibia question the influence of the Tristan da

  9. Tumor margin detection using optical biopsy techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yan; Liu, Cheng-hui; Li, Jiyou; Li, Zhongwu; Zhou, Lixin; Chen, Ke; Pu, Yang; He, Yong; Zhu, Ke; Li, Qingbo; Alfano, Robert R.

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study is to use the Resonance Raman (RR) and fluorescence spectroscopic technique for tumor margin detection with high accuracy based on native molecular fingerprints of breast and gastrointestinal (GI) tissues. This tumor margins detection method utilizes advantages of RR spectroscopic technique in situ and in real-time to diagnose tumor changes providing powerful tools for clinical guiding intraoperative margin assessments and postoperative treatments. The tumor margin detection procedures by RR spectroscopy were taken by scanning lesion from center or around tumor region in ex-vivo to find the changes in cancerous tissues with the rim of normal tissues using the native molecular fingerprints. The specimens used to analyze tumor margins include breast and GI carcinoma and normal tissues. The sharp margin of the tumor was found by the changes of RR spectral peaks within 2 mm distance. The result was verified using fluorescence spectra with 300 nm, 320 nm and 340 nm excitation, in a typical specimen of gastric cancerous tissue within a positive margin in comparison with normal gastric tissues. This study demonstrates the potential of RR and fluorescence spectroscopy as new approaches with labeling free to determine the intraoperative margin assessment.

  10. Marginalization in Random Nonlinear Neural Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasudeva Raju, Rajkumar; Pitkow, Xaq

    2015-03-01

    Computations involved in tasks like causal reasoning in the brain require a type of probabilistic inference known as marginalization. Marginalization corresponds to averaging over irrelevant variables to obtain the probability of the variables of interest. This is a fundamental operation that arises whenever input stimuli depend on several variables, but only some are task-relevant. Animals often exhibit behavior consistent with marginalizing over some variables, but the neural substrate of this computation is unknown. It has been previously shown (Beck et al. 2011) that marginalization can be performed optimally by a deterministic nonlinear network that implements a quadratic interaction of neural activity with divisive normalization. We show that a simpler network can perform essentially the same computation. These Random Nonlinear Networks (RNN) are feedforward networks with one hidden layer, sigmoidal activation functions, and normally-distributed weights connecting the input and hidden layers. We train the output weights connecting the hidden units to an output population, such that the output model accurately represents a desired marginal probability distribution without significant information loss compared to optimal marginalization. Simulations for the case of linear coordinate transformations show that the RNN model has good marginalization performance, except for highly uncertain inputs that have low amplitude population responses. Behavioral experiments, based on these results, could then be used to identify if this model does indeed explain how the brain performs marginalization.

  11. 17 CFR 242.403 - Required margin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Required margin. 242.403 Section 242.403 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS M, SHO, ATS, AC, AND NMS AND CUSTOMER MARGIN REQUIREMENTS FOR SECURITY FUTURES Customer...

  12. 12 CFR 220.4 - Margin account.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... exceptions and special provisions. (2) Short sale against the box. A short sale “against the box” shall be treated as a long sale for the purpose of computing the equity and the required margin. (3) When-issued...) of this section as the amount to be added to the required margin in respect of short sales shall...

  13. From Marginalization to Integrated Language Minority Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Jong, Ester J.

    It is argued that language minority education has generally been perceived as a separate program or model, and as a result has often become marginalized within its larger school setting, which negatively influences students, teachers, and the program. An alternative approach to program design, intended to avoid this marginalization by making…

  14. Effect of Margin Design and Processing Steps on Marginal Adaptation of Captek Restorations

    PubMed Central

    Shih, Amy; Flinton, Robert; Vaidyanathan, Jayalakshmi; Vaidyanathan, Tritala

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the effect of four margin designs on marginal adaptation of Captek crowns during selected processing steps. Twenty-four Captek crowns were fabricated, six each of four margin designs: shoulder (Group A), chamfer (Group B), chamfer with bevel (Group C), and shoulder with bevel (Group D). Marginal discrepancies between crowns and matching dies were measured at selected points for each sample at the coping stage (Stage 1), following porcelain application (Stage 2) and cementation (Stage 3). Digital imaging methods were used to measure marginal gap. The results indicate decreasing trend of margin gap as a function of margin design in the order A>B>C>D. Between processing steps, the trend was in the order Stage 3 < Stage 1 < Stage 2. Porcelain firing had no significant effect on marginal adaptation, but cementation decreased the marginal gap. Generally, the margin gap in Captek restorations were in all cases less than the reported acceptable range of margin gaps for ceramometal restorations. These results are clinically favorable outcomes and may be associated with the ductility and burnishability of matrix phase in Captek metal coping margins. PMID:21991488

  15. The impact of use of an intraoperative margin assessment device on re-excision rates.

    PubMed

    Sebastian, Molly; Akbari, Stephanie; Anglin, Beth; Lin, Erin H; Police, Alice M

    2015-01-01

    Historically there has been a high rate of surgical interventions to obtain clear margins for breast cancer patients undergoing breast conserving local therapy. An intraoperative margin assessment tool (MarginProbe) has been approved for use in the US since 2013. This study is the first compilation of data from routine use of the device, to assess the impact of device utilization on re-excision rates. We present a retrospective, observational, review from groups of consecutive patients, before and after the implementation of intraoperative use of the device during lumpectomy procedures. Lesions were localized by standard methods. The intraoperative margin assessment device was used on all circumferential margins of the main specimen, but not on any additional shavings. A positive reading by the device led to an additional shaving of the corresponding cavity location. Specimens were also, when feasible, imaged intra-operatively by X-ray, and additional shavings were taken if needed based on clinical assessment. For each surgeon, historical re-excision rates were established based on a consecutive set of patients from a time period proximal to initiation of use of the device. From March 2013 to April 2014 the device was routinely used by 4 surgeons in 3 centers. In total, 165 cases lumpectomy cases were performed. Positive margins resulted in additional re-excision procedures in 9.7% (16/165) of the cases. The corresponding historical set from 2012 and 2013 consisted of 186 Lumpectomy cases, in which additional re-excision procedures were performed in 25.8% (48/186) of the cases. The reduction in the rate of re-excision procedures was significant 62% (P < 0.0001). Use of an intraoperative margin assessment device contributes to achieving clear margins and reducing re-excision procedures. As in some cases positive margins were found on shavings, future studies of interest may include an analysis of the effect of using the device on the shavings intra

  16. Marginal Consistency: Upper-Bounding Partition Functions over Commutative Semirings.

    PubMed

    Werner, Tomás

    2015-07-01

    Many inference tasks in pattern recognition and artificial intelligence lead to partition functions in which addition and multiplication are abstract binary operations forming a commutative semiring. By generalizing max-sum diffusion (one of convergent message passing algorithms for approximate MAP inference in graphical models), we propose an iterative algorithm to upper bound such partition functions over commutative semirings. The iteration of the algorithm is remarkably simple: change any two factors of the partition function such that their product remains the same and their overlapping marginals become equal. In many commutative semirings, repeating this iteration for different pairs of factors converges to a fixed point when the overlapping marginals of every pair of factors coincide. We call this state marginal consistency. During that, an upper bound on the partition function monotonically decreases. This abstract algorithm unifies several existing algorithms, including max-sum diffusion and basic constraint propagation (or local consistency) algorithms in constraint programming. We further construct a hierarchy of marginal consistencies of increasingly higher levels and show than any such level can be enforced by adding identity factors of higher arity (order). Finally, we discuss instances of the framework for several semirings, including the distributive lattice and the max-sum and sum-product semirings. PMID:26352452

  17. Toward Microendoscopic Electrical Impedance Tomography for Intraoperative Surgical Margin Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Halter, Ryan J.; Kim, Young-Joong

    2015-01-01

    No clinical protocols are routinely used to intraoperatively assess surgical margin status during prostate surgery. Instead, margins are evaluated through pathological assessment of the prostate following radical prostatectomy, when it is too late to provide additional surgical intervention. An intraoperative device potentially capable of assessing surgical margin status based on the electrical property contrast between benign and malignant prostate tissue has been developed. Specifically, a microendoscopic electrical impedance tomography (EIT) probe has been constructed to sense and image, at near millimeter resolution, the conductivity contrast within heterogeneous biological tissues with the goal of providing surgeons with real-time assessment of margin pathologies. This device consists of a ring of eight 0.6-mm diameter electrodes embedded in a 5-mm diameter probe tip to enable access through a 12-mm laparoscopic port. Experiments were performed to evaluate the volume of tissue sensed by the probe. The probe was also tested with inclusions in gelatin, as well as on a sample of porcine tissue with clearly defined regions of adipose and muscle. The probe's area of sensitivity consists of a circular area of 9.1 mm2 and the maximum depth of sensitivity is approximately 1.5 mm. The probe is able to distinguish between high contrast muscle and adipose tissue on a sub-mm scale (~500 μm). These preliminary results suggest that EIT is possible in a probe designed to fit within a 12-mm laparoscopic access port. PMID:24951675

  18. Seismological constraints on lithospheric structure beneath rifted margins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fishwick, Stewart

    2014-05-01

    There is considerable variation in both topography and crustal architecture along passive margins worldwide. However, the variations in lithospheric mantle structure are less well studied. This is, perhaps, in part due to the technical challenge for offshore-onshore passive seismology and also the lower resolution obtained in most mantle studies, particularly when compared to detailed imaging of the crust available from reflection seismology. The available large scale observations of mantle structure (predominately from surface waves), and crustal structure (from receiver functions) for the continental region adjacent to the margins are reviewed. Results for Africa and Australia show clear correlations between the mantle structure and the present day topography of the margin, and this relationship is explored from a worldwide perspective. Seismic studies can also provide information on lithospheric thickness at the margin, which can be used as an additional constraint for the thermal modelling of basin structure. In this case the limitations include the depth resolution of the method, and the particular proxy used to extract a lithospheric thickness estimate from a seismic model. Perhaps most importantly, is to remember that these seismological observations tell us only the existing structure. The challenge remains how to decipher whether the present structures relate to inherited pre-rift architecture; to alteration of lithospheric mantle during rifting, or to much later post rift changes associated with separate tectonic events.

  19. Brain death and marginal grafts in liver transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez-Castro, M B; Gracia-Sancho, J; Peralta, C

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that most organs for transplantation are currently procured from brain-dead donors; however, the presence of brain death is an important risk factor in liver transplantation. In addition, one of the mechanisms to avoid the shortage of liver grafts for transplant is the use of marginal livers, which may show higher risk of primary non-function or initial poor function. To our knowledge, very few reviews have focused in the field of liver transplantation using brain-dead donors; moreover, reviews that focused on both brain death and marginal grafts in liver transplantation, both being key risk factors in clinical practice, have not been published elsewhere. The present review aims to describe the recent findings and the state-of-the-art knowledge regarding the pathophysiological changes occurring during brain death, their effects on marginal liver grafts and summarize the more controversial topics of this pathology. We also review the therapeutic strategies designed to date to reduce the detrimental effects of brain death in both marginal and optimal livers, attempting to explain why such strategies have not solved the clinical problem of liver transplantation. PMID:26043077

  20. FLUOR HANFORD SAFETY MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS

    SciTech Connect

    GARVIN, L. J.; JENSEN, M. A.

    2004-04-13

    This document summarizes safety management programs used within the scope of the ''Project Hanford Management Contract''. The document has been developed to meet the format and content requirements of DOE-STD-3009-94, ''Preparation Guide for US. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Documented Safety Analyses''. This document provides summary descriptions of Fluor Hanford safety management programs, which Fluor Hanford nuclear facilities may reference and incorporate into their safety basis when producing facility- or activity-specific documented safety analyses (DSA). Facility- or activity-specific DSAs will identify any variances to the safety management programs described in this document and any specific attributes of these safety management programs that are important for controlling potentially hazardous conditions. In addition, facility- or activity-specific DSAs may identify unique additions to the safety management programs that are needed to control potentially hazardous conditions.

  1. Selective Harvesting of Marginating-pulmonary Leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Shaashua, Lee; Sorski, Liat; Melamed, Rivka; Ben-Eliyahu, Shamgar

    2016-01-01

    Marginating-pulmonary (MP) leukocytes are leukocytes that adhere to the inner endothelium of the lung capillaries. MP-leukocytes were shown to exhibit unique composition and characteristics compared to leukocytes of other immune compartments. Evidence suggests higher cytotoxicity of natural killer cells, and a distinct pro- and anti-inflammatory profile of the MP-leukocyte population compared to circulating or splenic immunocytes. The method presented herein enables selective harvesting of MP-leukocytes by forced perfusion of the lungs in either mice or rats. In contrast to other methods used to extract lung-leukocytes, such as tissue grinding and biological degradation, this method exclusively yields leukocytes from the lung capillaries, uncontaminated with parenchymal, interstitial, and broncho-alveolar cells. In addition, the perfusion technique better preserves the integrity and the physiological milieu of MP-leukocytes, without inducing physiological responses due to tissue processing. This unique MP leukocyte population is strategically located to identify and react towards abnormal circulating cells, as all circulating malignant cells and infected cells are detained while passing through the lung capillaries, physically interacting with endothelial cells and resident leukocytes,. Thus, selective harvesting of MP-leukocytes and their study under various conditions may advance our understanding of their biological and clinical significance, specifically with respect to controlling circulating aberrant cells and lung-related diseases. PMID:27023665

  2. Marginal and happy? The need for uniqueness predicts the adjustment of marginal immigrants.

    PubMed

    Debrosse, Régine; de la Sablonnière, Roxane; Rossignac-Milon, Maya

    2015-12-01

    Marginalization is often presented as the strategy associated with the worst adjustment for immigrants. This study identifies a critical variable that buffers marginal immigrants from the negative effects of marginalization on adjustment: The need for uniqueness. In three studies, we surveyed immigrants recruited on university campuses (n = 119, n = 116) and in the field (n = 61). Among marginal immigrants, a higher need for uniqueness predicted higher self-esteem (Study 1), affect (Study 2), and life satisfaction (Study 3), and marginally higher happiness (Study 2) and self-esteem (Study 3). No relationship between the need for uniqueness and adjustment was found among non-marginal immigrants. The adaptive value of the need for uniqueness for marginal immigrants is discussed. PMID:25903084

  3. Cenozoic ice volume and margin erosion

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, K.C.; Fairbanks, R.G.; Mountain, G.S.

    1985-01-01

    Cenozoic benthic foraminiferal oxygen isotopic data indicates that the world was glaciated in the early Oligocene, middle Oligocene, latest Oligocene, and middle Miocene to Recent, but are insufficient to resolve if the world was ice free at other times. The authors relate Oligocene and younger intervals of ice growth to continental margin erosional events. Relationships between eustasy and continental margin sedimentation are controversial. Coastal onlap is indirectly linked with rising sea level, occurring either when subsidence exceeds the rate of sea level fall or during sea-level rise. Although chronostratigraphic breaks are often local in origin, inter-regional unconformities result from eustatic lowerings. Strong evidence for eustatic lowerings is provided by the incision of canyons on margins. Chronostratigraphic breaks and canyons have noted on the US and Irish margins near the lower/upper Oligocene and middle/upper Miocene boundaries. These periods of margin erosion are temporally linked with oxygen isotopic evidence for ice growth, with erosion correlating with the greatest rate of ice growth. If the Eocene was ice free, there may have been mechanistic differences between Eocene erosion and Oligocene to Recent glacio-eustatic erosion. The authors present seismic stratigraphic evidence from the New Jersey margin that indicates contrasting styles of margin erosion between the Lower Tertiary and Upper Tertiary.

  4. New Exploration of Kerguelen Plateau Margins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vially, R.; Roest, W. R.; Loubrieu, B.; Courreges, E.; Lecomte, J.; Patriat, M.; Pierre, D.; Schaming, M.; Schmitz, J.

    2008-12-01

    France ratified the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea in 1996, and has since undertaken an ambitious program of bathymetric and seismic data acquisition (EXTRAPLAC Program) to support claims for the extension of the legal continental shelf, in accordance with Article 76 of this convention. For this purpose, three oceanographic surveys took place on board of the R/V Marion Dufresne II on the Kerguelen Plateau, in Southern Indian Ocean: MD137-Kergueplac1 (February 2004), MD150-Kergueplac2 (October 2005) and MD165-Kergueplac3 (January 2008), operated by the French Polar Institute. Thus, more than 20 000 km of multibeam bathymetric, magnetic and gravimetric profiles, and almost 6 000 km of seismic profiles where acquired during a total of 62 days of survey in the study area. Ifremer's "rapid seismic" system was used, comprised of 4 guns and a 24 trace digital streamer, operated at speeds up to 10 knots. In addition to its use for the Extraplac Program, the data set issued from these surveys gives the opportunity to improve our knowledge of the structure of the Kerguelen Plateau and more particularly of its complex margins. In this poster, we will show the high resolution bathymetry (200 m) data set, that allows us to specify the irregular morphology of the sea floor in the north Kerguelen Plateau, characterised by ridges and volcanoes chains, radial to the plateau, that intersect the oceanic basin on the NE edge of the Kerguelen Plateau. We will also show magnetic and gravity data, which help us to understand the setting up of the oceanic plateau and the kinematics reconstructions. The seismic profiles show that the acoustic basement of the plateau is not much tectonised, and displays a very smooth texture, clearly contrasting it from typical oceanic basement. Both along the edge of the plateau as in the abyssal plain, sediments have variable thicknesses. The sediments on the margin of the plateau are up to 1200 meters thick and display irregular

  5. Vaccine Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... During Pregnancy Frequently Asked Questions about Vaccine Recalls Historical Vaccine Safety Concerns FAQs about GBS and Menactra ... CISA Resources for Healthcare Professionals Evaluation Current Studies Historical Background 2001-12 Publications Technical Reports Vaccine Safety ...

  6. Aerospace safety advisory panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel (ASAP) monitored NASA's activities and provided feedback to the NASA Administrator, other NASA officials and Congress throughout the year. Particular attention was paid to the Space Shuttle, its launch processing and planned and potential safety improvements. The Panel monitored Space Shuttle processing at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and will continue to follow it as personnel reductions are implemented. There is particular concern that upgrades in hardware, software, and operations with the potential for significant risk reduction not be overlooked due to the extraordinary budget pressures facing the agency. The authorization of all of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) Block II components portends future Space Shuttle operations at lower risk levels and with greater margins for handling unplanned ascent events. Throughout the year, the Panel attempted to monitor the safety activities related to the Russian involvement in both space and aeronautics programs. This proved difficult as the working relationships between NASA and the Russians were still being defined as the year unfolded. NASA's concern for the unique safety problems inherent in a multi-national endeavor appears appropriate. Actions are underway or contemplated which should be capable of identifying and rectifying problem areas. The balance of this report presents 'Findings and Recommendations' (Section 2), 'Information in Support of Findings and Recommendations' (Section 3) and Appendices describing Panel membership, the NASA response to the March 1994 ASAP report, and a chronology of the panel's activities during the reporting period (Section 4).

  7. Nanodrugs: pharmacokinetics and safety.

    PubMed

    Onoue, Satomi; Yamada, Shizuo; Chan, Hak-Kim

    2014-01-01

    To date, various nanodrug systems have been developed for different routes of administration, which include dendrimers, nanocrystals, emulsions, liposomes, solid lipid nanoparticles, micelles, and polymeric nanoparticles. Nanodrug systems have been employed to improve the efficacy, safety, physicochemical properties, and pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic profile of pharmaceutical substances. In particular, functionalized nanodrug systems can offer enhanced bioavailability of orally taken drugs, prolonged half-life of injected drugs (by reducing immunogenicity), and targeted delivery to specific tissues. Thus, nanodrug systems might lower the frequency of administration while providing maximized pharmacological effects and minimized systemic side effects, possibly leading to better therapeutic compliance and clinical outcomes. In spite of these attractive pharmacokinetic advantages, recent attention has been drawn to the toxic potential of nanodrugs since they often exhibit in vitro and in vivo cytotoxicity, oxidative stress, inflammation, and genotoxicity. A better understanding of the pharmacokinetic and safety characteristics of nanodrugs and the limitations of each delivery option is necessary for the further development of efficacious nanodrugs with high therapeutic potential and a wide safety margin. This review highlights the recent progress in nanodrug system development, with a focus on the pharmacokinetic advantages and safety challenges. PMID:24591825

  8. Assessment of Reactivity Margins and Loading Curves for PWR Burnup Credit Cask Designs

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, J.C.

    2002-12-17

    This report presents studies to assess reactivity margins and loading curves for pressurized water reactor (PWR) burnup-credit criticality safety evaluations. The studies are based on a generic high-density 32-assembly cask and systematically vary individual calculational (depletion and criticality) assumptions to demonstrate the impact on the predicted effective neutron multiplication factor, k{sub eff}, and burnup-credit loading curves. The purpose of this report is to provide a greater understanding of the importance of input parameter variations and quantify the impact of calculational assumptions on the outcome of a burnup-credit evaluation. This study should provide guidance to regulators and industry on the technical areas where improved information will most enhance the estimation of accurate subcritical margins. Based on these studies, areas where future work may provide the most benefit are identified. The report also includes an evaluation of the degree of burnup credit needed for high-density casks to transport the current spent nuclear fuel inventory. By comparing PWR discharge data to actinide-only based loading curves and determining the number of assemblies that meet the loading criteria, this evaluation finds that additional negative reactivity (through either increased credit for fuel burnup or cask design/utilization modifications) is necessary to accommodate the majority of current spent fuel assemblies in high-capacity casks. Assemblies that are not acceptable for loading in the prototypic high-capacity cask may be stored or transported by other means (e.g., lower capacity casks that utilize flux traps and/or increased fixed poison concentrations or high-capacity casks with design/utilization modifications).

  9. Margin and complication rates in clampless partial nephrectomy: a comparison of open, laparoscopic and robotic surgeries.

    PubMed

    Mearini, Luigi; Nunzi, Elisabetta; Vianello, Alberto; Di Biase, Manuel; Porena, Massimo

    2016-06-01

    In performing partial nephrectomy (PN), surgeons focus on complete removal of tumor, preservation of renal function, the absence of major perioperative complications, expressed by the formula margin, ischemia and complication (MIC). The aim of current study was to perform a single-institution comparison of clampless open (OPN), laparoscopic (LPN) or robot-assisted (RAPN) PN as well as to evaluate pre-, intra- and postoperative factors that may influence achievement of ideal MIC. All consecutive clampless OPN, LPN or RAPN performed by experienced surgeons between 2006 and 2015 were included in the analysis. MIC was defined as negative surgical margin plus zero-ischemia plus absence of any grade ≥3 complications according to Clavien-Dindo classification. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression models were fitted to predict the MIC. Odds ratios with 95 % confidence intervals were calculated. 80 patients underwent OPN, 66 LPN and 31 RAPN, and both groups had similar characteristics. The MIC rate was 67.5, 86.3 and 83.3 % in the OPN, LPN and RAPN groups, respectively (p = 0.016). At logistic regression analysis, surgical approach (p = 0.03) and operative time (p = 0.008) were independent predictors of the MIC rate. When stratified according to the surgical approach, preoperative aspects and dimensions used for an anatomical classification (PADUA) score, LPN, RAPN and operative time were independent predictors of MIC rate (p = 0.0488, p = 0.0494, p = 0.0479 and p = 0.0108, respectively). Clampless LPN and RAPN have an efficacy and safety profile that is on par with OPN, offering the additional benefits of a reduced operative time, blood loss, on demand ischemia and rate of high-grade complications. PMID:27083923

  10. 12 CFR 220.12 - Supplement: margin requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Supplement: margin requirements. 220.12 Section... SYSTEM CREDIT BY BROKERS AND DEALERS (REGULATION T) § 220.12 Supplement: margin requirements. The required margin for each security position held in a margin account shall be as follows: (a) Margin...

  11. 12 CFR 220.12 - Supplement: margin requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Supplement: margin requirements. 220.12 Section... SYSTEM CREDIT BY BROKERS AND DEALERS (REGULATION T) § 220.12 Supplement: margin requirements. The required margin for each security position held in a margin account shall be as follows: (a) Margin...

  12. Safety Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery County Public Schools, Rockville, MD.

    Safety policies, procedures, and related information are presented in this manual to assist school personnel in a continuing program of accident prevention. Chapter 1 discusses safety education and accident prevention in general. Chapter 2 covers traffic regulations relating to school safety patrols, school bus transportation, bicycles, and…

  13. The Late Paleozoic Southern Margin of the Siberian paleocontinent: transformation from an active continental margin to intracontinental rifting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlovsky, A. M.; Yarmolyuk, V. V.; Sal'Nikova, E. B.

    2009-04-01

    The large volcanoplutonic belt was formed on the southern margin of Siberian paleocontinent in the Early Carboniferous-Early Permian. Now it's stretched through whole Mongolia and the adjacent region of China. In the belt structure there are defined the successive rock complexes: the older one represented by differentiated basalt-andesite-rhyodacite series and younger bimodal complex of basalt-comendite-trachyrhyolite composition. The granodiorite-plagiogranite and diorite-monzonite-granodiorite plutonic massifs are associated with the former, while peralkaline granite massifs are characteristic of the latter. Geochronological results and geological relations between rocks of the bimodal and differentiated complexes showed first that rocks of the differentiated complex originated 350 to 330 Ma ago at the initial stage of forming of the marginal continental belt, linked with development active continental margin. This is evident from geochronological dates obtained for the Adzh-Bogd and Edrengiyn-Nuruu massifs and for volcanic associations of the complex. The dates are consistent with paleontological data. The bimodal association was formed later, 320 to 290 Ma ago. The time span separating formation of two igneous complexes ranges from several to 20-30 m.y. in different areas of the marginal belt. The bimodal magmatism was interrelated with rifting responsible for development of the Gobi-Tien Shan rift zone in the belt axial part and the Main Mongolian lineament along the belt northern boundary. Loci of bimodal rift magmatism likely migrated with time: the respective magmatic activity first initiated on the west of the rift system and then advanced gradually eastward with development of rift structures. Normal granitoids untypical but occurring nevertheless among the products of rift magmatism in addition to peralkaline massifs are assumed to have been formed, when the basic magmatism associated with rifting stimulated crustal anatexis and generation of crustal

  14. Radiofrequency ablation technique eradicating palpebral margin neoplasm

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Tian-Yu; Wang, Xing-Lin; Suo, Wei; He, Qing-Hua; Xiao, Hong-Yu

    2011-01-01

    AIM To report the study on radiofrequency ablation technique for eradication of palpebral margin neoplasm and its clinical effects. METHODS One hundred and six cases with the palpebral margin neoplasm were performed surgical removal with radiofrequency ablation technique. The 1-2 months postoperative follow-up was investigated and the lost cases were excluded from statistics. The continuing follow-up lasted about 6-16months. RESULTS One hundred cases underwent one treatment and 6 cases underwent two treatments. Six cases were missed. All the cases followed up healed well without pigmentation or scar left, nor eyelash loss or palpebral margin deformation. No case was recurrent. CONCLUSION Radiofrequency ablation has significant efficiency in eradicating the palpebral margin neoplasm. PMID:22553639

  15. 17 CFR 31.18 - Margin calls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... after contact is effected in which to respond to a margin call. Twenty-four hours, excluding Saturdays... contract for a period of 5 business days at the then prevailing bid price in the case of a long...

  16. 17 CFR 31.18 - Margin calls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... after contact is effected in which to respond to a margin call. Twenty-four hours, excluding Saturdays... contract for a period of 5 business days at the then prevailing bid price in the case of a long...

  17. 17 CFR 31.18 - Margin calls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... after contact is effected in which to respond to a margin call. Twenty-four hours, excluding Saturdays... contract for a period of 5 business days at the then prevailing bid price in the case of a long...

  18. Importance of surgical margins in rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Mukkai Krishnamurty, Devi; Wise, Paul E

    2016-03-01

    Distal resection margin (DRM) and circumferential resection margin (CRM) are two important considerations in rectal cancer management. Although guidelines recommend a 2 cm DRM, studies have shown that a shorter DRM is adequate, especially in patients receiving neoadjuvant chemoradiation. Standardization of total mesorectal excision has greatly improved quality of CRM. Although more patients are undergoing sphincter-saving procedures, abdominoperineal resection is indicated for very distal tumors, and pelvic exenteration is often necessary for tumors involving pelvic organs. PMID:27094456

  19. Marginal accuracy of temporary composite crowns.

    PubMed

    Tjan, A H; Tjan, A H; Grant, B E

    1987-10-01

    An in vitro study was conducted to quantitatively compare the marginal adaptation of temporary crowns made from Protemp material with those made from Scutan, Provisional, and Trim materials. A direct technique was used to make temporary restorations on prepared teeth with an impression as a matrix. Protem, Trim, and Provisional materials produced temporary crowns of comparable accuracy. Crowns made from Scutan material had open margins. PMID:2959770

  20. Statistical Analysis of Thermal Analysis Margin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrison, Matthew B.

    2011-01-01

    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center requires that each project demonstrate a minimum of 5 C margin between temperature predictions and hot and cold flight operational limits. The bounding temperature predictions include worst-case environment and thermal optical properties. The purpose of this work is to: assess how current missions are performing against their pre-launch bounding temperature predictions and suggest any possible changes to the thermal analysis margin rules

  1. Parameter margins for stabilized conservative multilinear systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warren, Wayne; Wie, Bong

    1991-01-01

    Simple and elegant derivations of recent results concerning the computation of infinity-norm real-parameter margins for stabilized, mass-spring dynamical systems with the masses and the spring constraints as uncertain parameters are presented. The authors introduce the concept of critical frequency and gain for stabilized conservative systems whose uncertain parameters do not necessarily appear multilinearly in the numerator and denominator of the plant transfer function. An approach to parameter margin computation is presented.

  2. 77 FR 41899 - Indirect Food Additives: Polymers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-17

    ... the Federal Register of February 17, 2012 (77 FR 9608), FDA announced that a food additive petition..., discussed further in this document. A. The Safety of BPA As indicated in the filing notice (77 FR 9608 at..., FDA is actively assessing the safety of BPA (see 75 FR 17145, April 5, 2010; see also...

  3. Marginalizing Instrument Systematics in HST WFC3 Transit Light Curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakeford, H. R.; Sing, D. K.; Evans, T.; Deming, D.; Mandell, A.

    2016-03-01

    Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) infrared observations at 1.1-1.7 μm probe primarily the H2O absorption band at 1.4 μm, and have provided low-resolution transmission spectra for a wide range of exoplanets. We present the application of marginalization based on Gibson to analyze exoplanet transit light curves obtained from HST WFC3 to better determine important transit parameters such as Rp/R*, which are important for accurate detections of H2O. We approximate the evidence, often referred to as the marginal likelihood, for a grid of systematic models using the Akaike Information Criterion. We then calculate the evidence-based weight assigned to each systematic model and use the information from all tested models to calculate the final marginalized transit parameters for both the band-integrated and spectroscopic light curves to construct the transmission spectrum. We find that a majority of the highest weight models contain a correction for a linear trend in time as well as corrections related to HST orbital phase. We additionally test the dependence on the shift in spectral wavelength position over the course of the observations and find that spectroscopic wavelength shifts {δ }λ (λ ) best describe the associated systematic in the spectroscopic light curves for most targets while fast scan rate observations of bright targets require an additional level of processing to produce a robust transmission spectrum. The use of marginalization allows for transparent interpretation and understanding of the instrument and the impact of each systematic evaluated statistically for each data set, expanding the ability to make true and comprehensive comparisons between exoplanet atmospheres.

  4. The basins on the Argentine continental margin

    SciTech Connect

    Urien, C.M.

    1996-08-01

    After the stabilization of the central Gondwana Craton, orogenic belts were accreted, as a result of convergence events and an extensive passive margin developed in southwestern Gondwana. Thermal subsidence in Parana, Karoo-Ventania basins and the Late Paleozoic-Early Mesozoic rifts, were modified by the Gondwana breakup and the South Atlantic opening. Early Paleozoic marine transgressions deposited the Table Mountain Group in Ventania. In southwestern Patagonia foreland clastics were deposited. Magmatic arcs and marine units indicate a tectonic trough was formed, alternating with continental sequences, over Late Paleozoic metamorphics and intrusives, resulting from plastered terrains along the Gondwana margin. In Patagonia, Permo-Carboniferous continental and glacio marine clastics infill the basins, while in Ventania, paralic sequences, grade from neritic to continental to the northeast, extending beneath the continental margin. The Triassic-Jurassic rift basins progressed onto regional widespread acid lavas and were infilled by lagoonal organic-rich sequences. Early drift phase built basins transverse to the margin, with fluvio-lacustrine sequences: Salado, Colorado, Valdes-Rawson, San Julian and North Malvinas intracratonic basins, which underwent transtensional faulting. Post-Oxfordian to Neocomian brackish sequences, onlapped the conjugate basins during the margin`s drift, with petroleum systems, as in Austral and Malvinas. In the Valanginian, basic extrusions commenced to form on the continental border, heralding the oceanic phase. Due to thermal subsidence, offlaping sediments prograded onto the remaining half-grabens. Several petroleum systems, proven and hypothetical, are identified in this region.

  5. 17 CFR 41.47 - Withdrawal of margin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... after such withdrawal is sufficient to satisfy the required margin for the security futures and related... PRODUCTS Customer Accounts and Margin Requirements § 41.47 Withdrawal of margin. (a) By the...

  6. Stability margins in a design method for 2-dimensional recursive digital filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crebbin, G.; Attikiouzel, J.

    1982-06-01

    The present investigation is concerned with the extension of a concept of stability margin introduced by Crebbin and Attikiouzel (1981). When implemented as a constraint in a 2-D filter design problem, the stability margin guarantees stability, and, in addition, has a moderating effect on the behavior in either the frequency or the spatial domain. An investigation is conducted regarding the possibility of incorporating stability margins into available automated design methods, and a description is provided of a design method which uses the simplex algorithm reported by Nelder and Mead (1975). The considered algorithm is well suited to handle the constraints imposed by stability and by stability margins. Attention is given to filter structures, the design program, additional computing time for stability testing, problems of stable-only design methods, and relationships between pole position, frequency response, and spatial response.

  7. A randomized trial to compare the safety of rivaroxaban vs aspirin in addition to either clopidogrel or ticagrelor in acute coronary syndrome: The design of the GEMINI-ACS-1 phase II study.

    PubMed

    Povsic, Thomas J; Roe, Matthew T; Ohman, Erik Magnus; Steg, Philippe Gabriel; James, Stefan; Plotnikov, Alexei; Mundl, Hardi; Welsh, Robert; Bode, Christoph; Gibson, Charles Michael

    2016-04-01

    Dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT), the combination of aspirin and a P2Y12 inhibitor, given for 12 months remains the standard of care after presentation with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) because it has been shown to be associated with a significant reduction in ischemic events compared with aspirin monotherapy. The factor Xa inhibitor rivaroxaban was shown to be associated with a significant reduction in the composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, and stroke, and resulted in a nominal reduction in cardiovascular death, when added to background DAPT in the ATLAS ACS 2-TIMI 51 trial; however, there was excessive bleeding with this "triple-therapy" approach. The combination of rivaroxaban with P2Y12 inhibition in a "dual-pathway" approach may be an effective therapeutic regimen for the treatment of ACS, given the known importance of P2Y12 inhibition after stenting and intriguing data that the combination of an anticoagulant with clopidogrel after stenting in patients with atrial fibrillation appears an attractive option to this patient population. GEMINI-ACS-1 is a prospective, randomized, double-dummy, double-blind, active-controlled trial that will assess the safety of dual antithrombotic therapy (rivaroxaban [2.5 mg twice daily] + P2Y12 inhibitor) as compared with DAPT (aspirin [100 mg] + P2Y12 inhibitor) within 10 days of an ACS event in 3,000 patients. Patients will be randomized in a 1:1 ratio stratified by intended P2Y12 inhibitor use (clopidogrel 75 mg daily or ticagrelor 90 mg twice daily), with 1500 patients expected in each P2Y12 inhibitor strata. The primary end point is Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction clinically significant bleeding (major, minor, or requiring medical attention). The exploratory efficacy determination will be a composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, and stent thrombosis. GEMINI-ACS-1 will assess the safety and feasibility of dual antithrombotic therapy with rivaroxaban and a P2Y

  8. The geodynamics of the Levant margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben-Avraham, Z.

    2006-12-01

    The Levant continental margin, offshore Israel, Lebanon and Syria, is usually defined as a passive margin that was formed through rifting processes. During the formation two major continental fragments are assumed to separate from the northern edge of the Afro-Arabian plate to form the Levant basin: the Tauride and Eratosthenes blocks. Today an oceanic crust and, in places, a very thin continental crust are present between the Levant margin and Eratosthenes seamount. The margin can be divided into two distinct provinces that are separated by the Carmel Structure, which extends from seawards to the northwest across the continental shelf and slope. The preservation of segmentation, both in the shallow and in the deep structure, insinuates that the two segments were formed through different continental breakup processes, which continue to dictate the style of sediment accumulation. The nature and development of the continental margin offshore Israel were the subject of numerous studies, which suggest that the southern Levant segment (south of the Carmel Structure) was formed through continental rifting processes. In contrast, the northern segment, from the Carmel structure northwards and offshore southern Lebanon, was hardly studied before. Recent studies however indicate that the northern segment shows a strong similarity to classical transform margins in the world. In view of the new classification of the northern Levant margin a modified scenario is suggested for: (a) the initial stages in which the Levant margin was formed; and (b) the present day structural differences between the two segments of the margin. At present, the northern Levant continental margin is being reactivated by transpressional faulting of the marine continuation of the Carmel fault which bends northward at the base of the continental slope due to the rheological discontinuity in this region. This fault system coincides with the sharp continental-oceanic crustal transition, and acts as an

  9. 16 CFR 1102.16 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... PUBLICLY AVAILABLE CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY INFORMATION DATABASE (Eff. Jan. 10, 2011) Content Requirements... notices, the CPSC shall include in the Database any additional information it determines to be in...

  10. Centrifugal Compressor Surge Margin Improved With Diffuser Hub Surface Air Injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skoch, Gary J.

    2002-01-01

    Aerodynamic stability is an important parameter in the design of compressors for aircraft gas turbine engines. Compression system instabilities can cause compressor surge, which may lead to the loss of an aircraft. As a result, engine designers include a margin of safety between the operating line of the engine and the stability limit line of the compressor. The margin of safety is typically referred to as "surge margin." Achieving the highest possible level of surge margin while meeting design point performance objectives is the goal of the compressor designer. However, performance goals often must be compromised in order to achieve adequate levels of surge margin. Techniques to improve surge margin will permit more aggressive compressor designs. Centrifugal compressor surge margin improvement was demonstrated at the NASA Glenn Research Center by injecting air into the vaned diffuser of a 4:1-pressure-ratio centrifugal compressor. Tests were performed using injector nozzles located on the diffuser hub surface of a vane-island diffuser in the vaneless region between the impeller trailing edge and the diffuser-vane leading edge. The nozzle flow path and discharge shape were designed to produce an air stream that remained tangent to the hub surface as it traveled into the diffuser passage. Injector nozzles were located near the leading edge of 23 of the 24 diffuser vanes. One passage did not contain an injector so that instrumentation located in that passage would be preserved. Several orientations of the injected stream relative to the diffuser vane leading edge were tested over a range of injected flow rates. Only steady flow (nonpulsed) air injection was tested. At 100 percent of the design speed, a 15-percent improvement in the baseline surge margin was achieved with a nozzle orientation that produced a jet that was bisected by the diffuser vane leading edge. Other orientations also improved the baseline surge margin. Tests were conducted at speeds below the

  11. Offshore Benin, a classic passive margin

    SciTech Connect

    Mathalone, J.M.P. )

    1991-03-01

    Offshore Benin comprises a narrow east-west continental shelf, some 30 km wide. A sharp shelf break running parallel to the coast borders the shelf, whereupon water depths rapidly increase to over 7000 ft. The area lies within the Dahomey Embayment, one of a series of Cretaceous and younger basins lining the coast of Africa that owe their inception to the Late Mesozoic break-up of the Gondwanaland Continent. The basin extends some 100 km inland, but sedimentary section is thin onshore compared to a maximum of 20,000 ft of sediment offshore. Initial sedimentation in this basin was of Neocomian alluvial and lacustrine clastics. These were deposited in east-west-trending narrow half-grabens associated with the initial break up of the South American and African continents. They are covered unconformably by more extensive Albian and Cenomanian transgressive clastics and shallow marine Turonian sandstones which are the main reservoir at Seme, Benin's only oilfield. The Senonian section offshore comprises passive margin deep sea clastic sediments prograding southwards. Very large proximal deep sea channels up to 2500 ft thick are developed in this interval. These channels are associated with excellent petroleum source rocks, averaging 4-5% oil-prone organic carbon, and form the main exploration target in the area when configured in a trap morphology. Seismic data quality is excellent in the region allowing detailed examination of the relationships between the rifted section and later units. In addition, these data illustrate clearly both internal and external morphology of the Senonian proximal deep sea channels.

  12. Fluid-escape structures and slope instabilities along the French Guiana margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loncke, L.; Gaullier, V.; Basile, C.; Maillard, A.; Patriat, M.; Vendeville, B. C.; Folens, L.; Roest, W.

    2009-04-01

    Many of the world's passive margins are shear margins. Those margins present a very steep ocean-continent boundary which is expressed by high surface-slope gradients. In this type of margins, complex rift structures including wrench and strike-slip faults affect the continental crust. These rift basins usually trap organic matter, hence kerogen that later become hydrocarbons. Along the Guiana margin, late cretaceous black Shales provide additional organic matter. The French Guiana margin has been recently surveyed (GUYAPLAC cruise, 2003) allowing the discovery of a giant pockmark field likely caused by active degassing of deep reservoirs and expressed at the surface through giant elongated pock-marks. These pockmarks are systematically associated with massive slope instabilities and underlying polygonal fault network. Major seaward collapses seem to have affected the margin, and the breakup unconformity is tilted seaward. We believe that fluid overpressure above Cretaceous under-consolidated organic rocks may have destabilized part of the sedimentary cover, allowing massive escape of fluids toward the surface, as is suggested further North by geotechnical analyses made after leg ODP 207 (O'Regan & Moran, 2007). A compactional origin of fluids is also possible. In any case, the specific structural pattern of the Guiana transform margin, with a seaward tilted geometry and no marginal ridge, may favour particularly active fluid releases and slope instabilities (favoured by the decrease in sediment's strength related to high pore-fluid pressure). As suggested by O'Regan & Moran (2007) it is possible also that fluid migration occurs along the break-up unconformity, which crops out along the very steep continental slope. If this is correct, a great part of fossil hydrocarbon resources may escape to the surface along of the Guiana and Surinam continental margins. References: O'Regan M. & K. Moran, 2007. Compressibility, permeability and stress history of sediments from

  13. National Safety Council

    MedlinePlus

    ... Introduction Safety Management Systems Workplace Safety Consulting Employee Perception Surveys Research Journey to Safety Excellence Join the ... Safety Safety Management Systems Workplace Safety Consulting Employee Perception Surveys Research Journey to Safety Excellence Join the ...

  14. Probabilistic margin evaluation on accidental transients for the ASTRID reactor project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marquès, Michel

    2014-06-01

    ASTRID is a technological demonstrator of Sodium cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) under development. The conceptual design studies are being conducted in accordance with the Generation IV reactor objectives, particularly in terms of improving safety. For the hypothetical events, belonging to the accidental category "severe accident prevention situations" having a very low frequency of occurrence, the safety demonstration is no more based on a deterministic demonstration with conservative assumptions on models and parameters but on a "Best-Estimate Plus Uncertainty" (BEPU) approach. This BEPU approach ispresented in this paper for an Unprotected Loss-of-Flow (ULOF) event. The Best-Estimate (BE) analysis of this ULOFt ransient is performed with the CATHARE2 code, which is the French reference system code for SFR applications. The objective of the BEPU analysis is twofold: first evaluate the safety margin to sodium boiling in taking into account the uncertainties on the input parameters of the CATHARE2 code (twenty-two uncertain input parameters have been identified, which can be classified into five groups: reactor power, accident management, pumps characteristics, reactivity coefficients, thermal parameters and head losses); secondly quantify the contribution of each input uncertainty to the overall uncertainty of the safety margins, in order to refocusing R&D efforts on the most influential factors. This paper focuses on the methodological aspects of the evaluation of the safety margin. At least for the preliminary phase of the project (conceptual design), a probabilistic criterion has been fixed in the context of this BEPU analysis; this criterion is the value of the margin to sodium boiling, which has a probability 95% to be exceeded, obtained with a confidence level of 95% (i.e. the M5,95percentile of the margin distribution). This paper presents two methods used to assess this percentile: the Wilks method and the Bootstrap method ; the effectiveness of the two methods

  15. Marginal Hepatectomy in the Rat

    PubMed Central

    Madrahimov, Nodir; Dirsch, Olaf; Broelsch, Christoph; Dahmen, Uta

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Based on the 3-dimensional visualization of vascular supply and drainage, a vessel-oriented resection technique was optimized. The new surgical technique was used to determine the maximal reduction in liver mass enabling a 50% 1-week survival rate. Background Data: Determination of the minimal liver mass is necessary in clinical as well as in experimental liver surgery. In rats, survival seems to depend on the surgical technique applied. Extended hepatectomy with removal of 90% of the liver mass was long regarded as a lethal model. Introduction of a vessel-oriented approach enabled long-term survival in this model. Methods: The lobar and vascular anatomy of rat livers was visualized by plastination of the whole organ, respectively, by corrosion casts of the portal vein, hepatic artery and liver veins. The three-dimensional models were used to extract the underlying anatomic structure. In 90% partial hepatectomy, the liver parenchyma was clamped close to the base of the respective liver lobes (left lateral, median and right, liver lobe). Piercing sutures were placed through the liver parenchyma, so that the stem of portal vein and the accompanying hepatic artery but also the hepatic vein were included. Results: A 1-week survival rate of 100% was achieved after 90% hepatectomy. Extending the procedure to 95% resection by additional removal of the upper caudate lobe led to a 1-week survival rate of 66%; 97% partial hepatectomy, accomplished by additional resection of the lower caudate lobe only leaving the paracaval parts of the liver behind, resulted in 100% lethality within 4 days. Conclusions: Using a anatomically based, vessel-oriented, parenchyma-preserving surgical technique in 95% liver resections led to long-term survival. This represents the maximal reduction of liver mass compatible with survival. PMID:16794393

  16. Probabilistic objective functions for margin-less IMRT planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohoslavsky, Román; Witte, Marnix G.; Janssen, Tomas M.; van Herk, Marcel

    2013-06-01

    We present a method to implement probabilistic treatment planning of intensity-modulated radiation therapy using custom software plugins in a commercial treatment planning system. Our method avoids the definition of safety-margins by directly including the effect of geometrical uncertainties during optimization when objective functions are evaluated. Because the shape of the resulting dose distribution implicitly defines the robustness of the plan, the optimizer has much more flexibility than with a margin-based approach. We expect that this added flexibility helps to automatically strike a better balance between target coverage and dose reduction for surrounding healthy tissue, especially for cases where the planning target volume overlaps organs at risk. Prostate cancer treatment planning was chosen to develop our method, including a novel technique to include rotational uncertainties. Based on population statistics, translations and rotations are simulated independently following a marker-based IGRT correction strategy. The effects of random and systematic errors are incorporated by first blurring and then shifting the dose distribution with respect to the clinical target volume. For simplicity and efficiency, dose-shift invariance and a rigid-body approximation are assumed. Three prostate cases were replanned using our probabilistic objective functions. To compare clinical and probabilistic plans, an evaluation tool was used that explicitly incorporates geometric uncertainties using Monte-Carlo methods. The new plans achieved similar or better dose distributions than the original clinical plans in terms of expected target coverage and rectum wall sparing. Plan optimization times were only about a factor of two higher than in the original clinical system. In conclusion, we have developed a practical planning tool that enables margin-less probability-based treatment planning with acceptable planning times, achieving the first system that is feasible for clinical

  17. The Northwestern Atlantic Moroccan Margin From Deep Multichannel Seismic Reflection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malod, J. A.; Réhault, J. P.; Sahabi, M.; Géli, L.; Matias, L.; Zitellini, N.; Sismar Group

    The NW Atlantic Moroccan margin, a conjugate of the Nova Scotia margin, is one of the oldest passive margins of the world. Continental break up occurred in the early Jurassic and the deep margin is characterized by a large salt basin. The SISMAR cruise (9 April to 4 May 2001) acquired 3667 km of 360 channel seismic reflection profiles. In addition, refraction data were recorded by means of 48 OBH/OBS deployments. Simultaneously, some of the marine profiles were extended onshore with 16 portable seismic land stations. WNW-ESE profiles 4 and 5 off El Jadida show a good section of the margin. The crustal thinning in this region is fairly abrupt. These profiles image the crust above a strong seismic reflector at about 12 s.twt., interpreted as the Moho. The crust exhibits several different characteristics from the continent towards the ocean.: - highly diffractive with a thickness larger than 25 km beneath the shelf. - stratified at a deep level and topped by few "tilted blocks" with a diffractive acoustic facies and for which 2 hypotheses are proposed: either continental crust tilted during the rifting or large landslides of crustal and sedimentary material slid down later. Liassic evapor- ites are present but seem less thick than to the south. - layered with seaward dipping reflectors: this type of crust correlates with the magnetic anomaly S1 and corresponds to the continent-ocean transition. - diffractive with an oceanic character. Oceanwards, the crust becomes more typically oceanic, but shows internal reflectors that may be re- lated to compressional reactivation during the Tertiary attested by large scale inverted basins. Our results allow us to discuss the nature and location of the continent-ocean transition at a regional scale and the rifting to spreading evolution of the very ma- ture continental margin off El Jadida. This provide us with some constraints for the initial reconstruction between Africa, North America and Iberia. Moreover, these re- sults help

  18. Regional and sectoral marginal abatement cost curves for NOx incorporating controls, renewable electricity, energy efficiency and fuel switching

    EPA Science Inventory

    A marginal abatement cost curve (MACC) traces out the relationship between the quantity of pollution abated and the marginal cost of abating each additional unit. In the context of air quality management, MACCs typically are developed by sorting end-of-pipe controls by their resp...

  19. Seismic margin assessment of evolutionary light water reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Ali, S.A.; Bagchi, G.

    1996-12-01

    The objectives of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff`s review of the evolutionary light water reactors (ELWR) probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) are drawn from 10 CFR Part 52, the Commission`s Severe Reactor Accident Policy Statement regarding future designs and existing plants, the Commission`s Safety Goal Policy Statement, The Commission approved positions concerning the analyses of external and events contained in SECY-93-087, and NRC interest in the use of PRA to help improve future reactor designs. In general, these objectives have been achieved by the ELWR PRAs and the NRC staff`s review. The staff`s applicable regulation for the analysis of external events for the ELWR PRAs is as follows. The probabilistic risk assessment required by 10 CFR 52.47(a)(1)(v) must include an assessment of internal and external events. For external events, simplified probabilistic methods and margins methods may be used to assess the capacity of the standard design to withstand the effects of events such as fires and earthquakes. Traditional probabilistic techniques should be used to evaluate internal floods. For earthquakes, a seismic margin analysis must consider the effects of earthquakes with accelerations approximately one and two-thirds the acceleration of the safe-shutdown earthquake (SSE).

  20. An Overview of the Safety Case for Small Modular Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Ingersoll, Daniel T

    2011-01-01

    Several small modular reactor (SMR) designs emerged in the late 1970s and early 1980s in response to lessons learned from the many technical and operational challenges of the large Generation II light-water reactors. After the accident at the Three Mile Island plant in 1979, an ensuing reactor redesign effort spawned the term inherently safe designs, which later evolved into passively safe terminology. Several new designs were engineered to be deliberately small in order to fully exploit the benefits of passive safety. Today, new SMR designs are emerging with a similar philosophy of offering highly robust and resilient designs with increased safety margins. Additionally, because these contemporary designs are being developed subsequent to the September 11, 2001, terrorist attack, they incorporate a number of intrinsic design features to further strengthen their safety and security. Several SMR designs are being developed in the United States spanning the full spectrum of reactor technologies, including water-, gas-, and liquid-metal-cooled ones. Despite a number of design differences, most of these designs share a common set of design principles to enhance plant safety and robustness, such as eliminating plant design vulnerabilities where possible, reducing accident probabilities, and mitigating accident consequences. An important consequence of the added resilience provided by these design approaches is that the individual reactor units and the entire plant should be able to survive a broader range of extreme conditions. This will enable them to not only ensure the safety of the general public but also help protect the investment of the owner and continued availability of the power-generating asset. Examples of typical SMR design features and their implications for improved plant safety are given for specific SMR designs being developed in the United States.

  1. Practical insights and lessons learned from implementing a seismic margins approach to an IPEEE relay evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Anoba, R.; Laur, M.; Heiba, M.; Barak, D.

    1996-12-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s (NRC) guidance, NUREG-1407, on performing Individual Plant Examinations for External Events (IPEEE) allows a Seismic Margins Assessment (SMA) to address the IPEEE seismic issue regarding the survivability of plant equipment during a seismic event and the capability of the plant to safely shutdown following the seismic event. The NRC guidance further allows the use of the NRC SMA approach or the Electric Power Research (EPRI) approach to evaluate these issues. In addition, the NRC`s Unresolved Safety Issue A-46 (USI A-46) can also be efficiently addressed with the EPRI SMA evaluation. These methodologies are useful in determining a minimum list of equipment required for safe shutdown (i.e., Safe Shutdown Equipment Lists). The resultant Safe Shutdown Equipment List, SSEL, is used to identify the electrically powered equipment required for safe shutdown for which a relay evaluation is required. The evaluation of relays associated with safe shutdown equipment is necessary since equipment can fail to operate properly due to mechanical failure or improper operation/actuation due to relay failure. SAIC has performed relay evaluations on five nuclear power plants. This paper is intended to summarize the practical insights and lessons learned from use of the EPRI SMA approach.

  2. Collapse of modern carbonate platform margins

    SciTech Connect

    Mullins, H.T.; Hine, A.C.; Gardulski, A.

    1985-01-01

    Modern carbonate platform margins in the Florida-Bahama region have been viewed as depositional or constructional features. However, recent studies have shown that carbonate escarpments, such as the Blake-Bahama and West Florida Escarpments, are erosional in origin where the platform margins have a scalloped or horse-shoe shape. Seismic reflection data from one of these crescentic features along the west Florida platform margin indicate that it originated by large scale gravity collapse (slump). This collapse structure extends for at least 120 km along the margin and has removed about 350 m of strata as young as early Neogene. Although at least three generations of slope failure are recognized, catastrophic collapse appears to have occurred in the mid-Miocene. Gravitational instability due to high rates of sediment accumulation may have been the triggering mechanism. These data suggest that submarine slumping is an important process in the retreat of limestone escarpments and in the generation of carbonate megabreccia debris flows. Scalloped platform margins occur on satellite images of northern Exuma Sound and Columbus Basin in the Bahamas. The authors suggest that large-scale submarine slumping can cause elongation of structurally controlled intraplatform basins (Exuma South), and produce anomalous horse-shoe shaped basins (Columbus Basin) by mega-collapse processes.

  3. Abrupt plate accelerations shape rifted continental margins.

    PubMed

    Brune, Sascha; Williams, Simon E; Butterworth, Nathaniel P; Müller, R Dietmar

    2016-08-11

    Rifted margins are formed by persistent stretching of continental lithosphere until breakup is achieved. It is well known that strain-rate-dependent processes control rift evolution, yet quantified extension histories of Earth's major passive margins have become available only recently. Here we investigate rift kinematics globally by applying a new geotectonic analysis technique to revised global plate reconstructions. We find that rifted margins feature an initial, slow rift phase (less than ten millimetres per year, full rate) and that an abrupt increase of plate divergence introduces a fast rift phase. Plate acceleration takes place before continental rupture and considerable margin area is created during each phase. We reproduce the rapid transition from slow to fast extension using analytical and numerical modelling with constant force boundary conditions. The extension models suggest that the two-phase velocity behaviour is caused by a rift-intrinsic strength--velocity feedback, which can be robustly inferred for diverse lithosphere configurations and rheologies. Our results explain differences between proximal and distal margin areas and demonstrate that abrupt plate acceleration during continental rifting is controlled by the nonlinear decay of the resistive rift strength force. This mechanism provides an explanation for several previously unexplained rapid absolute plate motion changes, offering new insights into the balance of plate driving forces through time. PMID:27437571

  4. Theory of margination in confined multicomponent suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henriquez Rivera, Rafael; Sinha, Kushal; Graham, Michael

    2015-11-01

    In blood flow, leukocytes and platelets tend to segregate near the vessel walls; this is known as margination. Margination of leukocytes and platelets is important in physiological processes, medical diagnostics and drug delivery. A mechanistic theory is developed to describe flow-induced segregation in confined multicomponent suspensions of deformable particles such as blood. The theory captures the essential features of margination by describing it in terms of two key competing processes in these systems at low Reynolds number: wall-induced migration and hydrodynamic pair collisions. The theory also includes the effect of physical properties of the deformable particles and molecular diffusion. Several regimes of segregation are identified, depending on the value of a ``margination parameter'' M. Moreover, there is a critical value of M below which a sharp ``drainage transition'' occurs: one component is completely depleted from the bulk flow to the vicinity of the walls. Direct hydrodynamic simulations also display this transition in suspensions where the components differ in size or flexibility. The developed mechanistic theory leads to substantial insight into the origins of margination and will help in guiding development of new technologies involving multicomponent suspensions. This work was supported by NSF grant CBET-1436082.

  5. Fluid and Solute Fluxes from the Deformation Front to the Upper Slope at the Cascadia Margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berg, R. D.; Solomon, E. A.; Johnson, H. P.; Culling, D. P.; Harris, R. N.

    2014-12-01

    Fluid expulsion from accretionary convergent margins may be an important factor in global geochemical cycling and biogeochemical processes. However, the rates and distribution of fluid flow at these margins are not well known. To better understand these processes at the Cascadia margin, we collected 35 short (<1m) sediment cores and 23 Mosquito fluid flow meter measurements along a transect from the deformation front to the upper slope offshore of the Washington coast as part of a coupled heat and fluid flow survey. We identified two active seep areas, one emergent at 1990 mbsl, and one long-lived at 1050 mbsl. At both sites we observed carbonate deposits several meters thick and hundreds of meters in horizontal dimension. Thermogenic hydrocarbons measured in pore waters at the long-lived seep site indicate deeply-sourced fluids originating at >80oC, likely migrating along faults. In addition, pore water solute profiles from the emergent seep site suggest active shallow circulation in the upper sediment column, with implications for the seep biological community and fluid budget of the margin. Pore fluid advection rates along the transect are used to characterize the geographic distribution and geologic controls on active fluid pathways. Pore water solute profiles from the sediment cores are integrated with the measured fluid advection rates to calculate solute fluxes out of the margin. Our transect of fluid flow and pore water chemistry measurements from the Cascadia margin will help to better understand fluid and geochemical cycling at accretionary convergent margins.

  6. New Methods and Tools to Perform Safety Analysis within RISMC

    SciTech Connect

    Diego Mandelli; Curtis Smith; Cristian Rabiti; Andrea Alfonsi; Robert Kinoshita; Joshua Cogliati

    2013-11-01

    The Risk Informed Safety Margins Characterization (RISMC) Pathway uses a systematic approach developed to characterize and quantify safety margins of nuclear power plant structures, systems and components. What differentiates the RISMC approach from traditional probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) is the concept of safety margin. In PRA, a safety metric such as core damage frequency (CDF) is generally estimated using static fault-tree and event-tree models. However, it is not possible to estimate how close we are to physical safety limits (say peak clad temperature) for most accident sequences described in the PRA. In the RISMC approach, what we want to understand is not just the frequency of an event like core damage, but how close we are (or not) to this event and how we might increase our safety margin through margin management strategies in a Dynamic PRA (DPRA) fashion. This paper gives an overview of methods that are currently under development at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) with the scope of advance the current state of the art of dynamic PRA.

  7. Civility norms, safety climate, and safety outcomes: a preliminary investigation.

    PubMed

    McGonagle, Alyssa K; Walsh, Benjamin M; Kath, Lisa M; Morrow, Stephanie L

    2014-10-01

    Working environments that are both civil and safe are good for business and employee well-being. Civility has been empirically linked to such important outcomes as organizational performance and individuals' positive work-related attitudes, yet research relating civility to safety is lacking. In this study, we link perceptions of civility norms to perceptions of safety climate and safety outcomes. Drawing on social exchange theory, we proposed and tested a model in 2 samples wherein civility norms indirectly relate to safety outcomes through associations with various safety climate facets. Our results supported direct relationships between civility and management safety climate and coworker safety climate. Additionally, indirect effects of civility norms on unsafe behaviors and injuries were observed. Indirect effects of civility norms on unsafe behaviors were observed through coworker safety climate and work-safety tension. Indirect effects of civility norms on injuries were observed through management safety climate and work-safety tension for full-time employees, although these effects did not hold for part-time employees. This study provides initial evidence that researchers and practitioners may want to look beyond safety climate to civility norms to more comprehensively understand the origins of unsafe behaviors and injuries and to develop appropriate preventive interventions. PMID:24933595

  8. Marginal Stability Dynamics for Energetic Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berk, Herbert

    2009-11-01

    Marginal stability in plasmas characteristically sets a stiff limit to the range of that can be achieved. Below this limit, the system is governed by classical. Near marginal stability, however, plasmas may be subject to rapid processes, resulting in a system that hovers near marginality. This scenario emerged from nonlinear studies of energetic particle relaxation and may be to more general plasma transport. We describe results from several such which include. [1] Avalanches---Near marginal stability, an important point is whether an instability driven by resonant particles where the distribution function has ``free energy'' will cause global radial diffusion. For that,modes need to overlap. This process can be continuous or bursty, the latter having been recently observed in NSTX and DIII-D. [2] Frequency chirping---Recent simulations by Vann showed that marginal stability can be sustained when there is only one unstable linear mode, due to the mechanism of spontaneous frequency sweeping. Although a single mode near stability should not cause dramatic relaxation, nevertheless in the Vann simulations, the achievement of marginal stability induced a continual chirping of that had removed energy from the bulk of the region where the external beam to deposit free energy. The distribution was then found to hover near stability. This mechanism may apply to the n=0 GAM where frequency sweeping might be a mechanism for extracting energy from alpha particles in a burning plasma, thereby reducing the stored alpha particle pressure. One way to implement this is to have the n=0 geodesic acoustic modes (GAM) be preferentially excited, since energy rather than momentum (leading to spatial diffusion) is then primarily extracted from alpha particles.

  9. Manufacturing Marginality among Women and Latinos in Neoliberal America.

    PubMed

    Massey, Douglas S

    2014-01-01

    Intersectionality is the study of how categorical distinctions made on the basis of race, class, and gender interact to generate inequality, and this concept has become a primary lens by which scholars have come to model social stratification in the United States. In addition to the historically powerful interaction between race and class, gender interactions have become increasingly powerful in exacerbating class inequalities while the growing exclusion of foreigners on the basis of legal status has progressively marginalized Latinos in U.S. society. As a result, poor whites and immigrant-origin Latinos have increasingly joined African Americans at the bottom of American society to form a new, expanded underclass. PMID:25309007

  10. Manufacturing Marginality among Women and Latinos in Neoliberal America

    PubMed Central

    Massey, Douglas S.

    2014-01-01

    Intersectionality is the study of how categorical distinctions made on the basis of race, class, and gender interact to generate inequality, and this concept has become a primary lens by which scholars have come to model social stratification in the United States. In addition to the historically powerful interaction between race and class, gender interactions have become increasingly powerful in exacerbating class inequalities while the growing exclusion of foreigners on the basis of legal status has progressively marginalized Latinos in U.S. society. As a result, poor whites and immigrant-origin Latinos have increasingly joined African Americans at the bottom of American society to form a new, expanded underclass. PMID:25309007

  11. Safety Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halligan, Tom

    2009-01-01

    Colleges across the country are rising to the task by implementing safety programs, response strategies, and technologies intended to create a secure environment for teachers and students. Whether it is preparing and responding to a natural disaster, health emergency, or act of violence, more schools are making campus safety a top priority. At…

  12. Solidifying Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Covault, Craig

    2003-01-01

    Contents include the following: 1. Solidifying Safety: NASA s new safety organization spools up, as the 1SS program grapples with long-term risk. 2. Earth to Orbit O'Keefe telling skeptical lawmakers Orbital Space Plan (OSP) will cover exploration vision. China's rapid pace.

  13. Safety First

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taft, Darryl

    2011-01-01

    Ned Miller does not take security lightly. As director of campus safety and emergency management at the Des Moines Area Community College (DMACC), any threat requires serious consideration. As community college administrators adopt a more proactive approach to campus safety, many institutions are experimenting with emerging technologies, including…

  14. Marginal deformations of nonrelativistic field theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallayev, Davron; Vázquez-Poritz, Justin F.; Zhang, Zhibai

    2014-11-01

    We construct the supergravity duals of marginal deformations of a (0, 2) Landau-Ginsburg theory that describes the supersymmetric lowest Landau level. These deformations preserve supersymmetry and it is proposed that they are associated with the introduction of a phase in the (0, 2) superpotential. We also consider marginal deformations of various field theories that exhibit Schrödinger symmetry and Lifshitz scaling. This includes countably infinite examples with dynamical exponent z =2 based on the Sasaki-Einstein spaces Yp ,q and Lp ,q ,r, as well as an example with general dynamical exponent z ≥1 .

  15. Algorithms for computing the multivariable stability margin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tekawy, Jonathan A.; Safonov, Michael G.; Chiang, Richard Y.

    1989-01-01

    Stability margin for multiloop flight control systems has become a critical issue, especially in highly maneuverable aircraft designs where there are inherent strong cross-couplings between the various feedback control loops. To cope with this issue, we have developed computer algorithms based on non-differentiable optimization theory. These algorithms have been developed for computing the Multivariable Stability Margin (MSM). The MSM of a dynamical system is the size of the smallest structured perturbation in component dynamics that will destabilize the system. These algorithms have been coded and appear to be reliable. As illustrated by examples, they provide the basis for evaluating the robustness and performance of flight control systems.

  16. Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel (ASAP) provided oversight on the safety aspects of many NASA programs. In addition, ASAP undertook three special studies. At the request of the Administrator, the panel assessed the requirements for an assured crew return vehicle (ACRV) for the space station and reviewed the organization of the safety and mission quality function within NASA. At the behest of Congress, the panel formed an independent, ad hoc working group to examine the safety and reliability of the space shuttle main engine. Section 2 presents findings and recommendations. Section 3 consists of information in support of these findings and recommendations. Appendices A, B, C, and D, respectively, cover the panel membership, the NASA response to the findings and recommendations in the March 1992 report, a chronology of the panel's activities during the reporting period, and the entire ACRV study report.

  17. Impact of Margin Assessment Method on Positive Margin Rate and Total Volume Excised

    PubMed Central

    Moo, Tracy-Ann; Choi, Lydia; Culpepper, Candice; Olcese, Cristina; Heerdt, Alexandra; Sclafani, Lisa; King, Tari A.; Reiner, Anne S.; Patil, Sujata; Brogi, Edi; Morrow, Monica; Van Zee, Kimberly J.

    2014-01-01

    Background For breast-conserving surgery (BCS), the method of margin assessment that most frequently achieves negative margins without increasing volume of tissue excised is uncertain. We examined our institutional experience with 3 different margin assessment methods used by 6 experienced breast surgeons. Methods Patients undergoing BCS for invasive carcinoma during July-December of a representative year during which each method was performed (Perpendicular, 2003; Tangential, 2004; Cavity-Shave, 2011) were included. Effect of margin method on positive margin rate at first excision, and total volume excised to achieve negative margins, were evaluated by multivariable analysis, by surgeon, and by tumor size and presence of extensive intraductal component (EIC). Results 555 patients were identified: Perpendicular, 140; Tangential, 124; Cavity-Shave, 291. Tangential method had a higher rate of positive margins at first excision than Perpendicular and Cavity-Shave methods (49%, 15%, 11%, respectively; p<0.0001). Median volumes to achieve negative margins were similar (55ml, Perpendicular; 64ml Tangential; 62ml Cavity-Shave, p=0.24). Four of 6 surgeons had the lowest rate of positive margins with Cavity-Shave method—significant when compared to Tangential (p<0.0001), but not Perpendicular (p=0.37). Comparison of volume excised using the 3 methods was variable by surgeon (p<0.0001). Perpendicular method was optimal for T1 tumors without EIC; Cavity-Shave tended to be superior for T2/3 tumors and/or EIC. Conclusions While the Cavity-Shave method may decrease rates of positive margins, its effect on volume is variable among surgeons and may result in an increase in total volume excised for some surgeons, and for small tumors without EIC. PMID:24046114

  18. 17 CFR 242.405 - Withdrawal of margin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... account after such withdrawal is sufficient to satisfy the required margin for the security futures and...) REGULATIONS M, SHO, ATS, AC, AND NMS AND CUSTOMER MARGIN REQUIREMENTS FOR SECURITY FUTURES Customer Margin Requirements for Security Futures § 242.405 Withdrawal of margin. (a) By the customer. Except as...

  19. 17 CFR 41.47 - Withdrawal of margin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Withdrawal of margin. 41.47... PRODUCTS Customer Accounts and Margin Requirements § 41.47 Withdrawal of margin. (a) By the customer... deposited as margin for positions in an account may be withdrawn, provided that the equity in the...

  20. 17 CFR 242.405 - Withdrawal of margin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Withdrawal of margin. 242.405...) REGULATIONS M, SHO, ATS, AC, AND NMS AND CUSTOMER MARGIN REQUIREMENTS FOR SECURITY FUTURES Customer Margin Requirements for Security Futures § 242.405 Withdrawal of margin. (a) By the customer. Except as...

  1. On the Evolution of Glaciated Continental Margins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sverre Laberg, Jan; Rydningen, Tom Arne; Safronova, Polina A.; Forwick, Matthias

    2016-04-01

    Glaciated continental margins, continental margins where a grounded ice sheet repeatedly has been at or near the shelf break, are found at both northern and southern high-latitudes. Their evolution are in several aspects different from their low-latitude counterparts where eustatic sea-level variations possess a fundamental control on their evolution and where fluvial systems provide the main sediment input. From studies of the Norwegian - Barents Sea - Svalbard and NE Greenland continental margins we propose the following factors as the main control on the evolution of glaciated continental margins: 1) Pre-glacial relief controlling the accommodation space, 2) Ice sheet glaciology including the location of fast-flowing ice streams where source area morphology exerts a fundamental control, 3) Composition of the glacigenic sediments where the clay content in previous studies have been found to be important, and 4) Sea-level controlled both by eustacy and isostacy. From three case studies, 1) the western Barents Sea, 2) part of the North Norwegian (Troms), and 3) the Mid-Norwegian margin, the influence on these factors for the sea-floor morphology, sedimentary processes of the continental slope - deep sea and continental margin architecture are discussed. The pre-glacial relief of the mid-Norwegian and Troms margins relates to the onset of rifting and plate break-up from the early Cenozoic while for the SW Barents Sea, plate shear was followed by rifting. A wide zone of extended continental crust occurs offshore mid-Norway while this zone is much narrower offshore Troms leading to a more pronounced pre-glacial relief. Regarding sediment delivery and ice sheet glaciology the western Barents Sea exemplifies very high sediment input corresponding to an estimated average erosion of the source area of ~0.4 mm/yr (SW Barents Sea), much of which is related to subglacial erosion of Mesozoic - Cenozoic sedimentary rocks from large paleo-ice streams. The mid-Norwegian margin

  2. Stressing, Hydraulic and Locking Processes at Ice Stream Margins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perol, T.; Platt, J. D.; Rice, J. R.; Suckale, J.

    2012-12-01

    stress, and determine under what conditions the channel locks the margin. For sharp transitions outside a channel the additional yield stress associated with the channel partially offsets the far-field loading, with this effect increasing with channel proximity. By considering many possible locations for the transition we determine minimally stressed locations, which we interpret as favorable locking points. Real ice is not a Newtonian fluid, but instead follows Glen's law. Using the asymptotic solution [Rice 1967] for anti-plane loading of a crack in a nonlinear elastic body reinterpreted for Glen creep, we identify surfaces of zero traction. This allows us to construct solutions with rounded notch roots, and determine a scaling for the maximum stress as a function of the notch radius of curvature. Associating that radius with the radius of a drainage channel we determine the maximum near-channel shear stress. The solution based on Glen's law predicts a significantly lower maximum shear stress than the Newtonian solution. We also produce numerical solutions for the semi-circular channel geometry, Glen's law, and a variable yield stress along the deforming portion of the bed, allowing us to test these analytic predictions against more realistic solutions.

  3. Perceived marginalization and aggression: a longitudinal study with low-educated adolescents.

    PubMed

    Issmer, Christian; Wagner, Ulrich

    2015-03-01

    Social exclusion can evoke aggression. In the past two decades research has demonstrated this effect both for interpersonal and societal forms of exclusion. In addition, recent violent uprisings, like the London riots in August 2011, have been linked to social exclusion in the media. However, so far there is a lack of longitudinal studies which examine the aggression-enhancing effect of societal-level exclusion (i.e., marginalization) in disadvantaged groups. This research investigates the impact of perceived marginalization on aggression in a sample of N = 181 adolescents with a low educational background by means of a two-wave longitudinal study. The results of structural equation analyses are consistent with the hypothesis that perceived marginalization enhances aggression, and that this effect is mediated by the extent of negative societal meta-stereotypes. Furthermore, the reverse path from aggression to perceptions of marginalization is also significant. We discuss the implications of these findings and highlight practical consequences. PMID:24889808

  4. [In vivo and in vitro study of the marginal sealing in ceramic-covered gold inlays].

    PubMed

    Kaán, B; Eichner, K; Kaán, M; Fejérdy, P; Róth, L

    1998-12-01

    In the view of the patients, Galvano-Inlays fulfil esthetic requirements in contrast to cast restaurations. However, it was decided to evaluate the fine gold margins. The marginal seal of Galvano-Inlays in different stages of production was evaluated by means of light microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. In addition Galvano-Inlays which had been in the mouth for two years, were evaluated in the same way. Besides good contact of the fine gold to the tooth, marginal discrepancies in the range of 60 to 160 microns were found which can hardly be improved by means of burnishing. After all, the insufficiency results from the inevitable gap of cementation or from breaking failure of the polished and thus hardened margin of the fine gold. PMID:9876455

  5. Novel Methods of Intraoperative Localization and Margin Assessment of Pulmonary Nodules.

    PubMed

    Keating, Jane; Singhal, Sunil

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer screening has lead to frequent diagnosis of solitary pulmonary nodules, many of which require surgical biopsy for diagnosis and intervention. Subcentimeter and central nodules are particularly difficult to visualize or palpate during surgery, thus nodule localization can be a difficult problem for the thoracic surgeon. Although minimally invasive techniques including transthoracic computed tomography and bronchoscopic-guided biopsy may establish a diagnosis, these methods do not help locate nodules during surgery and can lead to inadequate tissue sampling. Therefore, surgical biopsy is often required for diagnosis and management of solitary pulmonary nodules. Additionally, after an excision, intraoperative margin assessment is important to prevent local recurrence. This is important for bronchial margins following lobectomy or parenchymal margins following sublobar resection. First, we examine methods of preoperative lesion marking, including wire placement, dye marking, ultrasound, fluoroscopy, and molecular imaging. Second, we describe the current state of the art in intraoperative margin assessment techniques. PMID:27568150

  6. Test to Determine Margin-to-Failure for Hy-100 Steel with Undermatched Welds

    SciTech Connect

    K.R. Arpin; T.F. Trimble

    2003-04-01

    This test program was undertaken to determine the flaw tolerance and to quantify the strength margin-to-failure of high yield strength steel fillet welded specimens. The tests demonstrate adequate margin-to-failure for HY-100 specimens fabricated with matched welding systems. In the use of high yield (HY) steel materials in designs required to accommodate rapidly applied dynamic loads, the concern was raised where the possibility of decreased flaw tolerance and premature failure by unstable ductile tearing could limit their use. Tests were developed and conducted to demonstrate adequate margin-to-failure in HY-100 fillet and partial penetration welded structures. In addition, inelastic analytical predictions were performed to assess the accuracy of such predictive tools compared to actual test data. Results showed that adequate margin-to-failure exists when using matched welding systems.

  7. SU-E-J-188: Theoretical Estimation of Margin Necessary for Markerless Motion Tracking

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, R; Block, A; Harkenrider, M; Roeske, J

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To estimate the margin necessary to adequately cover the target using markerless motion tracking (MMT) of lung lesions given the uncertainty in tracking and the size of the target. Methods: Simulations were developed in Matlab to determine the effect of tumor size and tracking uncertainty on the margin necessary to achieve adequate coverage of the target. For simplicity, the lung tumor was approximated by a circle on a 2D radiograph. The tumor was varied in size from a diameter of 0.1 − 30 mm in increments of 0.1 mm. From our previous studies using dual energy markerless motion tracking, we estimated tracking uncertainties in x and y to have a standard deviation of 2 mm. A Gaussian was used to simulate the deviation between the tracked location and true target location. For each size tumor, 100,000 deviations were randomly generated, the margin necessary to achieve at least 95% coverage 95% of the time was recorded. Additional simulations were run for varying uncertainties to demonstrate the effect of the tracking accuracy on the margin size. Results: The simulations showed an inverse relationship between tumor size and margin necessary to achieve 95% coverage 95% of the time using the MMT technique. The margin decreased exponentially with target size. An increase in tracking accuracy expectedly showed a decrease in margin size as well. Conclusion: In our clinic a 5 mm expansion of the internal target volume (ITV) is used to define the planning target volume (PTV). These simulations show that for tracking accuracies in x and y better than 2 mm, the margin required is less than 5 mm. This simple simulation can provide physicians with a guideline estimation for the margin necessary for use of MMT clinically based on the accuracy of their tracking and the size of the tumor.

  8. New Insights into Passive Margin Development from a Global Deep Seismic Reflection Dataset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellingham, Paul; Pindell, James; Graham, Rod; Horn, Brian

    2014-05-01

    The kinematic and dynamic evolution of the world's passive margins is still poorly understood. Yet the need to replace reserves, a high oil price and advances in drilling technology have pushed the international oil and gas industry to explore in the deep and ultra-deep waters of the continental margins. To support this exploration and help understand these margins, ION-GXT has acquired, processed and interpreted BasinSPAN surveys across many of the world's passive margins. Observations from these data lead us to consider the modes of subsidence and uplift at both volcanic and non-volcanic margins. At non-volcanic margins, it appears that frequently much of the subsidence post-dates major rifting and is not thermal in origin. Rather the subsidence is associated with extensional displacement on a major fault or shear zone running at least as deep as the continental Moho. We believe that the subsidence is structural and is probably associated with the pinching out (boudinage) of the Lower Crust so that the Upper crust effectively collapses onto the mantle. Eventually this will lead to the exhumation of the sub-continental mantle at the sea bed. Volcanic margins present more complex challenges both in terms of imaging and interpretation. The addition of volcanic and plutonic material into the system and dynamic effects all impact subsidence and uplift. However, we will show some fundamental observations regarding the kinematic development of volcanic margins and especially SDRs which demonstate that the process of collapse and the development of shear zones within and below the crust are also in existence at this type of margin. A model is presented of 'magma welds' whereby packages of SDRs collapse onto an emerging sub-crustal shear zone and it is this collapse which creates the commonly observed SDR geometry. Examples will be shown from East India, Newfoundland, Brazil, Argentina and the Gulf of Mexico.

  9. Comparison of submarine gully morphologies in passive and active margin settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, C.; Shumaker, L.; Johnstone, S.; Graham, S. A.

    2015-12-01

    Passive and active tectonic margins have inherently different hypsometry, due to local patterns of deformation and subsequent impacts on the style of sedimentation. One way we can analyze and compare the two settings is through observation of submarine gullies, which are small channel features that form along the continental slope as it descends to the ocean floor. By documenting the geometries of gullies that have formed on passive margins and gullies that have formed on active margins, we attempt to distinguish differences in gully morphologies in these two settings. We manually mapped over 600 gullies and interfluves from shaded relief and contour maps generated from bathymetric data across the globe, including the coast of California, the Beaufort Sea, and the Black Sea. We extrapolated and plotted elevation profiles of the gullies along their downslope distance, and compared a range of gully properties, such as length, spacing, and slope, to look at the correlations among those elements of gullies and their tectonic setting. We find that gullies forming on active margins show the greatest variability in their slopes, exhibiting both the steepest and the shallowest slopes of the dataset. The slopes of the passive margin gullies fall within the range of the active margin gully slopes, but interestingly, we note patterns in the ranges of gully steepness at different localities. These results differ from our our anticipation that active margin gullies are steeper than passive margin gullies, but suggest that gullies in all settings display a variety of morphologies. Additional mapping of active margin gullies will better determine if there are morphological differences between the two settings.

  10. Improvement of the thermal margins in the Swedish Ringhals-3 PWR by introducing new fuel assemblies with thorium

    SciTech Connect

    Lau, C. W.; Demaziere, C.; Nylen, H.; Sandberg, U.

    2012-07-01

    Thorium is a fertile material and most of the past research has focused on breeding thorium to fissile material. In this paper, the focus is on using thorium to improve the thermal margins by homogeneously distributing thorium in the fuel pellets. A proposed uranium-thorium-based fuel assembly is simulated for the Swedish Ringhals-3 PWR core in a realistic demonstration. All the key safety parameters, such as isothermal temperature coefficient of reactivity, Doppler temperature of reactivity, boron worth, shutdown margins and fraction of delayed neutrons are studied in this paper, and are within safety limits for the new core design using the uranium-thorium-based fuel assemblies. The calculations were performed by the two-dimensional transport code CASMO-4E and the two group steady-state three dimensional nodal code SIMULATE-3 from Studsvik Scandpower. The results showed that the uranium-thorium-based fuel assembly improves the thermal margins, both in the pin peak power and the local power (Fq). The improved thermal margins would allow more flexible core designs with less neutron leakage or could be used in power uprates to offer efficient safety margins. (authors)

  11. 30 CFR 250.803 - Additional production system requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Additional production system requirements. 250... Production Safety Systems § 250.803 Additional production system requirements. (a) For all production platforms, you must comply with the following production safety system requirements, in addition to...

  12. 30 CFR 250.803 - Additional production system requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Additional production system requirements. 250... Production Safety Systems § 250.803 Additional production system requirements. (a) For all production platforms, you must comply with the following production safety system requirements, in addition to...

  13. Food safety.

    PubMed

    Borchers, Andrea; Teuber, Suzanne S; Keen, Carl L; Gershwin, M Eric

    2010-10-01

    Food can never be entirely safe. Food safety is threatened by numerous pathogens that cause a variety of foodborne diseases, algal toxins that cause mostly acute disease, and fungal toxins that may be acutely toxic but may also have chronic sequelae, such as teratogenic, immunotoxic, nephrotoxic, and estrogenic effects. Perhaps more worrisome, the industrial activities of the last century and more have resulted in massive increases in our exposure to toxic metals such as lead, cadmium, mercury, and arsenic, which now are present in the entire food chain and exhibit various toxicities. Industrial processes also released chemicals that, although banned a long time ago, persist in the environment and contaminate our food. These include organochlorine compounds, such as 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethene) (DDT), other pesticides, dioxins, and dioxin-like compounds. DDT and its breakdown product dichlorophenyl dichloroethylene affect the developing male and female reproductive organs. In addition, there is increasing evidence that they exhibit neurodevelopmental toxicities in human infants and children. They share this characteristic with the dioxins and dioxin-like compounds. Other food contaminants can arise from the treatment of animals with veterinary drugs or the spraying of food crops, which may leave residues. Among the pesticides applied to food crops, the organophosphates have been the focus of much regulatory attention because there is growing evidence that they, too, affect the developing brain. Numerous chemical contaminants are formed during the processing and cooking of foods. Many of them are known or suspected carcinogens. Other food contaminants leach from the packaging or storage containers. Examples that have garnered increasing attention in recent years are phthalates, which have been shown to induce malformations in the male reproductive system in laboratory animals, and bisphenol A, which negatively

  14. Origin of rigidity in marginal solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bi, Dapeng

    Granular materials are seemingly simple — they are a collection of particles large enough to be seen by eye, yet they exhibit a large range of totally different behaviors: liquid, gas and solid. We study various interesting aspects of granular materials: (1)First, analysis of experimental data yields a completely new route in which a granular fluid becomes a solid. These new states, know as shear jammed(SJ) granular matter, are an addition to the jamming framework proposed over 10 years ago. (2)We then focus on the emergence of shear-rigidity in granular materials which have no energetically preferred density modulations. In contrast to traditional solids, the emergence of mechanical rigidity in these marginal granular solids is a collective process, which is controlled solely by boundary forces, the constraints of force and torque balance, and the positivity of the contact forces. We develop a theoretical framework and show that these solids have internal patterns that are most naturally represented in the space of gauge fields that impose the constraints. Broken translational invariance in gauge space is a necessary condition for rigidity in granular solids. We use this theoretical framework to understand the stress fluctuations and the ability to resist deformations in SJ states. (3)We generalize the stress ensemble framework to a full tensor representation. In this framework, the angoricity is an intensive quantity, which is conjugate to the stress rather than the energy. We compare the predictions of this framework in SJ states and explain stress fluctuations in SJ states.(4)We also construct a dynamical framework to model deformation and stress avalanches in a slowly driven granular matter. The model assumes small patches of the driven granular material undergoing a stochastic evolution in a stress landscape, elastic deformations are equivalent to tilting the landscape while rearrangements correspond to hopping between different metastable states in this

  15. Keeping Academically Marginal Youth in School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alpert, Geoffrey; Dunham, Roger

    1986-01-01

    From among factors theoretically considered relevant to preventing school dropouts, empirical procedures identified five variables that predicted most of the variance among marginal youth: (1) extent of misbehavior in school; (2) belief in school's relevance to employment; (3) feelings of success in school; (4) parental monitoring of behavior; (5)…

  16. Late quaternary sequence stratigraphy, South Florida margin

    SciTech Connect

    Locker, S.D.; Hine, A.C.

    1995-12-01

    Late Quaternary sea-level change and the Florida Current have combined to produce a progradational shelf-slope margin along the western portion of the south Florida Platform facing the Straits of Florida. Analysis of high resolution seismic reflection profiles suggest at least eight 5th order late Quaternary sequences downlap onto the Pourtales Terrace at 250 m water depth. Along most of the south Florida margin, this Late Quaternary section is very thin, and only where significant accumulations occur can the stratigraphic patterns produced by sea-level change be clearly observed. Recognition of systems tracts and their boundaries from high-resolution seismic data is important for prediction of sedimentary facies and stratigraphic development of margins. Many south Florida seismic boundaries can be fit to the Exxon sequence stratigraphy model. Others appear to reflect the added effect of bottom-current erosion that complicates the signal produced by sea-level change. Overall, the sea-level signal appears to dominate the stratigraphic record, especially from the 2-dimensional perspective of dip-oriented seismic profiles. However, the 3-dimensional geometry of deposits are strongly influenced by along slope accumulation patterns controlled by the Florida Current. This study provides new insight on the importance of both geostrophic boundary currents and sea-level change in controlling stratigraphic development of a carbonate platform margin. Similar anomalously thick slope deposits in ancient sequences may indicate similar controls on accumulation and could lend to predictions of related paleo-platform configurations.

  17. Second Language Learners' Use of Marginal Glosses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Donnell, Mary E.

    2012-01-01

    The use of marginal reading glosses by 18 second language (L2) learners is examined through a quantitative and qualitative analysis of audiotaped think-aloud protocols. How these readers interact with the glosses is identified and divided into five categories or gloss interactions. Examples from each are presented. The primary research question…

  18. 12 CFR 220.4 - Margin account.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM CREDIT BY... requirement under this part shall be unavailable to satisfy any other requirement. (d) Liquidation in lieu of... liquidation is required, whichever is less. If the margin deficiency created or increased is $1000 or less,...

  19. 5TH BIOTECHNOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS OCEAN MARGINS PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    DR. ARTURO MASSOL, PROGRAM CHAIR; DR. ROSA BUXEDA, PROGRAM CO-CHAIR

    2004-01-08

    BI-OMP supports DOE's mission in Climate Change Research. The program provides the fundamental understanding of the linkages between carbon and nitrogen cycles in ocean margins. Researchers are providing a mechanistic understanding of these cycles, using the tools of modern molecular biology. The models that will allow policy makers to determine safe levels of greenhouse gases for the Earth System.

  20. Female Special Education Directors: Doubly Marginalized.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keefe, Charlotte Hendrick; Parmley, Pamela

    2003-01-01

    A qualitative study of five Texas female special education directors found that although participants achieved an administrative position, they were marginalized due to their leadership style, gender discrimination, and socialization. Participants also indicated a negative connection between being in special education administration and top-level…

  1. On the marginal stability of upwind schemes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gressier, J.; Moschetta, J.-M.

    Following Quirk's analysis of Roe's scheme, general criteria are derived to predict the odd-even decoupling. This analysis is applied to Roe's scheme, EFM Pullin's scheme, EIM Macrossan's scheme and AUSM Liou's scheme. Strict stability is shown to be desirable to avoid most of these flaws. Finally, the link between marginal stability and accuracy on shear waves is established.

  2. Young People Speaking Back from the Margins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smyth, John

    2010-01-01

    The diminished educational opportunities and subsequent life chances of many marginalized young people have been dramatic, even to the point of being catastrophic. But they are not hapless victims, nor are they passive recipients of deficit categories like "at riskness", placed upon them by the media, politicians, agencies, and some academics.…

  3. Japan's Winning Margins. Management, Training, and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorriman, John; Kenjo, Takashi

    This book explains the fundamental reasons for Japan's astonishing commercial success in relation to its Western competitors. Chapter 1 is an introduction. Chapter 2 discusses implications of Japanese history for education, training, and management. Chapter 3 looks at the first winning margin--education. It covers the following: Japan's long…

  4. Marginalization in neural circuits with divisive normalization

    PubMed Central

    Beck, J.M.; Latham, P.E.; Pouget, A.

    2011-01-01

    A wide range of computations performed by the nervous system involves a type of probabilistic inference known as marginalization. This computation comes up in seemingly unrelated tasks, including causal reasoning, odor recognition, motor control, visual tracking, coordinate transformations, visual search, decision making, and object recognition, to name just a few. The question we address here is: how could neural circuits implement such marginalizations? We show that when spike trains exhibit a particular type of statistics – associated with constant Fano factors and gain-invariant tuning curves, as is often reported in vivo – some of the more common marginalizations can be achieved with networks that implement a quadratic nonlinearity and divisive normalization, the latter being a type of nonlinear lateral inhibition that has been widely reported in neural circuits. Previous studies have implicated divisive normalization in contrast gain control and attentional modulation. Our results raise the possibility that it is involved in yet another, highly critical, computation: near optimal marginalization in a remarkably wide range of tasks. PMID:22031877

  5. Confronting the Marginalization of Culturally Responsive Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sleeter, Christine E.

    2012-01-01

    Globally, over the last two decades, attention to culturally responsive, multicultural approaches to teaching have largely been supplanted by standardized curricula and pedagogy that derive from neoliberal business models of school reform. In this essay, I discuss three factors that contribute to the marginalization of culturally responsive…

  6. 12 CFR 48.9 - Margin requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., in retail forex transactions must collect from each retail forex customer an amount of margin not less than: (1) Two percent of the notional value of the retail forex transaction for major currency pairs and 5 percent of the notional value of the retail forex transaction for all other currency...

  7. 12 CFR 240.9 - Margin requirements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... required. A banking institution engaging, or offering to engage, in retail forex transactions must collect from each retail forex customer an amount of margin not less than: (1) Two percent of the notional value of the retail forex transaction for major currency pairs and 5 percent of the notional value...

  8. 12 CFR 349.9 - Margin requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... depository institution engaging, or offering to engage, in retail forex transactions must collect from each retail forex customer an amount of margin not less than: (1) Two percent of the notional value of the retail forex transaction for major currency pairs and 5 percent of the notional value of the retail...

  9. 12 CFR 349.9 - Margin requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... depository institution engaging, or offering to engage, in retail forex transactions must collect from each retail forex customer an amount of margin not less than: (1) Two percent of the notional value of the retail forex transaction for major currency pairs and 5 percent of the notional value of the retail...

  10. 12 CFR 48.9 - Margin requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., in retail forex transactions must collect from each retail forex customer an amount of margin not less than: (1) Two percent of the notional value of the retail forex transaction for major currency pairs and 5 percent of the notional value of the retail forex transaction for all other currency...

  11. 12 CFR 349.9 - Margin requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... depository institution engaging, or offering to engage, in retail forex transactions must collect from each retail forex customer an amount of margin not less than: (1) Two percent of the notional value of the retail forex transaction for major currency pairs and 5 percent of the notional value of the retail...

  12. 12 CFR 48.9 - Margin requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., in retail forex transactions must collect from each retail forex customer an amount of margin not less than: (1) Two percent of the notional value of the retail forex transaction for major currency pairs and 5 percent of the notional value of the retail forex transaction for all other currency...

  13. Software safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leveson, Nancy

    1987-01-01

    Software safety and its relationship to other qualities are discussed. It is shown that standard reliability and fault tolerance techniques will not solve the safety problem for the present. A new attitude requires: looking at what you do NOT want software to do along with what you want it to do; and assuming things will go wrong. New procedures and changes to entire software development process are necessary: special software safety analysis techniques are needed; and design techniques, especially eliminating complexity, can be very helpful.

  14. Predicting Rifted Continental Margin Subsidence History From Satellite Gravity Derived Crustal Thinning: Application to North Atlantic Margins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurst, N. W.; Kusznir, N. J.; Roberts, A. M.; White, R. S.

    2004-05-01

    -bathymetry indicators observed in ODP and DSDP wells. Due to errors in the location of Continent-Ocean Boundary within the ocean isochron data set an alternative method may be used to determine the thermal gravity correction. This alternative method ignores the ocean isochron data and the thermal gravity correction is determined using only the rift age specified for continental breakup and lithosphere beta stretching factors derived from crustal basement thickness from gravity inversion. This method has the advantage that it does not assume the location of the COB but has the disadvantage that it fails to predict the increasing thermal gravity correction towards the ocean ridge, and hence overpredicts margin crustal thickness and underpredicts margin beta stretching factors. Failure to include volcanic addition in the gravity inversion for crustal basement thickness results in an overestimate of basement thickness, an underestimate of beta stretching factor and resulting overprediction of palaeo-bathymetry. Sensitivity to lithosphere flexural strength during flexural backstripping has been carried out. This work forms part of the NERC Margins iSIMM project. iSIMM investigators are from Liverpool and Cambridge Universities, Schlumberger Cambridge Research and Badley Geoscience, supported by the NERC, the DTI, Agip UK, BP, Amerada Hess Ltd, Anadarko, Conoco-Phillips, Shell, Statoil and WesternGeco.

  15. Addition of rapamycin and hydroxychloroquine to metronomic chemotherapy as a second line treatment results in high salvage rates for refractory metastatic solid tumors: a pilot safety and effectiveness analysis in a small patient cohort

    PubMed Central

    Chi, Kwan-Hwa; Ko, Hui-Ling; Yang, Kai-Lin; Lee, Cheng-Yen; Chi, Mau-Shin; Kao, Shang-Jyh

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Autophagy is an important oncotarget that can be modulated during anti-cancer therapy. Enhancing autophagy using chemotherapy and rapamycin (Rapa) treatment and then inhibiting it using hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) could synergistically improve therapy outcome in cancer patients. It is still unclear whether addition of Rapa and HCQ to chemotherapy could be used for reversing drug resistance. PATIENTS AND METHODS Twenty-five stage IV cancer patients were identified. They had no clinical response to first-line metronomic chemotherapy; the patients were salvaged by adding an autophagy inducer (Rapa, 2 mg/day) and an autophagosome inhibitor (HCQ, 400 mg/day) to their current metronomic chemotherapy for at least 3 months. Patients included 4 prostate, 4 bladder, 4 lung, 4 breast, 2 colon, and 3 head and neck cancer patients as well as 4 sarcoma patients. RESULTS Chemotherapy was administered for a total of 137 months. The median duration of chemotherapy cycles per patient was 4 months (95% confidence interval, 3–7 months). The overall response rate to this treatment was of 40%, with an 84% disease control rate. The most frequent and clinically significant toxicities were myelotoxicities. Grade ≥3 leucopenia occurred in 6 patients (24%), grade ≥3 thrombocytopenia in 8 (32%), and anemia in 3 (12%). None of them developed febrile neutropenia. Non-hematologic toxicities were fatigue (total 32%, with 1 patient developing grade 3 fatigue), diarrhea (total 20%, 1 patient developed grade 3 fatigue), reversible grade 3 cardiotoxicity (1 patient), and grade V liver toxicity from hepatitis B reactivation (1 patient). CONCLUSION Our results of Rapa, HCQ and chemotherapy triplet combination suggest autophagy is a promising oncotarget and warrants further investigation in phase II studies. PMID:25944689

  16. Facing the Recession: How Did Safety-Net Hospitals Fare Financially Compared with Their Peers?

    PubMed Central

    Reiter, Kristin L; Jiang, H Joanna; Wang, Jia

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the effect of the recession on the financial performance of safety-net versus non-safety-net hospitals. Data Sources/Study Setting Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Hospital Cost and Utilization Project State Inpatient Databases, Medicare Cost Reports, American Hospital Association Annual Survey, InterStudy, and Area Health Resource File. Study Design Retrospective, longitudinal panel of hospitals, 2007–2011. Safety-net hospitals were identified using percentage of patients who were Medicaid or uninsured. Generalized estimating equations were used to estimate average effects of the recession on hospital operating and total margins, revenues and expenses in each year, 2008–2011, comparing safety-net with non-safety-net hospitals. Data Collection/Extraction Methods 1,453 urban, nonfederal, general acute hospitals in 32 states with complete data. Principal Findings Safety-net hospitals, as identified in 2007, had lower operating and total margins. The gap in operating margin between safety-net and non-safety-net hospitals was sustained throughout the recession; however, total margin was more negatively affected for non-safety-net hospitals in 2008. Higher percentages of Medicaid and uninsured patients were associated with lower revenue in private hospitals in all years, and lower revenue and expenses in public hospitals in 2011. Conclusions Safety-net hospitals may not be disproportionately vulnerable to macro-economic fluctuations, but their significantly lower margins leave less financial cushion to weather sustained financial pressure. PMID:25220012

  17. Gas hydrates of outer continental margins

    SciTech Connect

    Kvenvolden, K.A. )

    1990-05-01

    Gas hydrates are crystalline substances in which a rigid framework of water molecules traps molecules of gas, mainly methane. Gas-hydrate deposits are common in continental margin sediment in all major oceans at water depths greater than about 300 m. Thirty-three localities with evidence for gas-hydrate occurrence have been described worldwide. The presence of these gas hydrates has been inferred mainly from anomalous lacoustic reflectors seen on marine seismic records. Naturally occurring marine gas hydrates have been sampled and analyzed at about tensites in several regions including continental slope and rise sediment of the eastern Pacific Ocean and the Gulf of Mexico. Except for some Gulf of Mexico gas hydrate occurrences, the analyzed gas hydrates are composed almost exclusively of microbial methane. Evidence for the microbial origin of methane in gas hydrates includes (1) the inverse relation between methane occurence and sulfate concentration in the sediment, (2) the subparallel depth trends in carbon isotopic compositions of methane and bicarbonate in the interstitial water, and (3) the general range of {sup 13}C depletion ({delta}{sub PDB}{sup 13}C = {minus}90 to {minus}60 {per thousand}) in the methane. Analyses of gas hydrates from the Peruvian outer continental margin in particular illustrate this evidence for microbially generated methane. The total amount of methane in gas hydrates of continental margins is not known, but estimates of about 10{sup 16} m{sup 3} seem reasonable. Although this amount of methane is large, it is not yet clear whether methane hydrates of outer continental margins will ever be a significant energy resource; however, these gas hydrates will probably constitute a drilling hazard when outer continental margins are explored in the future.

  18. Convergent Margin Structure and a Unifying Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Huene, R.; Ranero, C. R.; Scholl, D. W.

    2008-12-01

    Marine observations of the past decade resolve 3 domains of different mechanics in space that probably respond differently from each other during an earthquake cycle. Accretion is common along thickly (>1 km) sedimented trenches and slowly (<50km/myr) converging margins. Erosion is common where convergence is greater which also reduces trench sediment thickness by rapid subduction. However erosion and accretion can be coeval, for instance, subducted seamounts erode the upper plate as adjacent sediment accretes. Trench sediment abundance appears to be a master control of tectonic erosion or accretion. Subducting plate relief and bending, fluid systems, input plate temperature, and material differences seem less important. From recent observations a unifying framework concept to aid interpretations of both accreting and eroding margins is proposed. Over a long term (Ma) the subduction channel accepts a finite amount of material. The excess amount will accrete and a shortage of trench sediment enhances erosion (Cloos and Shreve, 1988). If conditions remain consistent over ~1 Ma periods, the margin configuration becomes typically accretionary or erosional. In each margin segment the short term inter plate friction and material strength changes during the earthquake cycle as proposed by Wang and Hu, 2006. Mechanics probably changes locally during the cycle as well. K. Wang, Y. Hu, Accretionary prisms in subduction earthquake cycles: the theory of dynamic Coulomb wedge, J. Geophys. Res. 111 (2006) B06410, doi:10.1029/2005JB004094. Cloos, M., and R.L. Shreve, (1988), Subduction channel model of prism accretion, melange formation, sediment subduction, and subduction erosion at convergent plate margins: 2. Implications and discussion, Pageoph, v. 129, n. ¾ 501-545

  19. Laser impingement on bare and encased high explosives: safety limits

    SciTech Connect

    Roeske, F

    1999-03-15

    During the course of experiments involving high explosives, (HE), alignment lasers are often employed where the laser beam impinges upon a metal encased HE sample or on the bare HE itself during manned operations. While most alignment lasers are of low enough power so as not to be of concern, safety questions arise when considering the maximum credible power output of the laser in a failure mode, or when multiple laser spots are focused onto the experiment simultaneously. Safety questions also arise when the focused laser spot size becomes very small, on the order of 100 {micro}m or less. This paper addresses these concerns by describing a methodology for determining safety margins for laser impingement on metal encased HE as well as one for bare HE. A variety of explosives encased in Al, Cu, Ta and stainless steel were tested using the first of these techniques. Additional experiments were performed using the second method where the laser beam was focused directly on eight different samples of pressed-powder HE.

  20. Effect of two prophylaxis methods on marginal gap of Cl Vresin-modified glass-ionomer restorations

    PubMed Central

    Kimyai, Soodabeh; Pournaghi-Azar, Fatemeh; Daneshpooy, Mehdi; Abed Kahnamoii, Mehdi; Davoodi, Farnaz

    2016-01-01

    Background. This study evaluated the effect of two prophylaxis techniques on the marginal gap of CI V resin-modified glass-ionomer restorations. Methods. Standard Cl V cavities were prepared on the buccal surfaces of 48 sound bovine mandibular incisors in this in vitro study. After restoration of the cavities with GC Fuji II LC resin-modified glass-ionomer, the samples were randomly assigned to 3 groups of 16. In group 1, the prophylactic procedures were carried out with rubber cup and pumice powder and in group 2 with air-powder polishing device (APD). In group 3 (control), the samples did not undergo any prophylactic procedures. Then the marginal gaps were measured. Two-way ANOVA was used to compare marginal gaps at the occlusal and gingival margins between the groups. Post hoc Tukey test was used for two-by-two comparisons. Statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. Results. There were significant differences in the means of marginal gaps in terms of prophylactic techniques (P < 0.001), with significantly larger marginal gaps in the APD group compared to the pumice and rubber cup group, which in turn exhibited significantly larger marginal gaps compared to the control group (P < 0.0005). In addition, the means of marginal gaps were significant in terms of the margin type (P < 0.001), with significantly larger gaps at gingival margins compared to the occlusal margins (P < 0.0005). Conclusion. The prophylactic techniques used in this study had a negative effect on the marginal gaps of Cl V resin-modified glass-ionomer restorations. PMID:27092211

  1. Effect of two prophylaxis methods on marginal gap of Cl Vresin-modified glass-ionomer restorations.

    PubMed

    Kimyai, Soodabeh; Pournaghi-Azar, Fatemeh; Daneshpooy, Mehdi; Abed Kahnamoii, Mehdi; Davoodi, Farnaz

    2016-01-01

    Background. This study evaluated the effect of two prophylaxis techniques on the marginal gap of CI V resin-modified glass-ionomer restorations. Methods. Standard Cl V cavities were prepared on the buccal surfaces of 48 sound bovine mandibular incisors in this in vitro study. After restoration of the cavities with GC Fuji II LC resin-modified glass-ionomer, the samples were randomly assigned to 3 groups of 16. In group 1, the prophylactic procedures were carried out with rubber cup and pumice powder and in group 2 with air-powder polishing device (APD). In group 3 (control), the samples did not undergo any prophylactic procedures. Then the marginal gaps were measured. Two-way ANOVA was used to compare marginal gaps at the occlusal and gingival margins between the groups. Post hoc Tukey test was used for two-by-two comparisons. Statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. Results. There were significant differences in the means of marginal gaps in terms of prophylactic techniques (P < 0.001), with significantly larger marginal gaps in the APD group compared to the pumice and rubber cup group, which in turn exhibited significantly larger marginal gaps compared to the control group (P < 0.0005). In addition, the means of marginal gaps were significant in terms of the margin type (P < 0.001), with significantly larger gaps at gingival margins compared to the occlusal margins (P < 0.0005). Conclusion. The prophylactic techniques used in this study had a negative effect on the marginal gaps of Cl V resin-modified glass-ionomer restorations. PMID:27092211

  2. Magmatism at passive margins: Effect of depth-dependent rifting and depleted continental lithospheric counterflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Gang; Huismans, Ritske

    2016-04-01

    Rifted continental margins may have a variety of structural and magmatic styles, resulting in narrow or wide, magma-dominated or magma-poor conjugate margins. Some magma-poor margins differ from the classical uniform extension (McKenzie) model in that continental crust breaks up significantly earlier or later than continental mantle lithosphere and establishment of mature mid-ocean ridge is significantly delayed. The best-known examples are observed at: 1) the Iberia-Newfoundland conjugate margins (Type I) with a narrow transition between oceanic and continental crust; and 2) ultra-wide central South Atlantic margins (Type II) where the continental crust spans wide regions while the mantle lithosphere beneath has been removed. These margins are explained by depth-dependent extension. In this study, we perform 2D thermo-mechanical finite element numerical experiments to investigate magmatism at passive margins with depth-dependent extension. A melting prediction model is coupled with the thermo-mechanical model, in which temperature, density and viscosity feedbacks are considered. For the standard models, the crust is either strong and coupled (Type I-A models), or weak and decoupled (Type II-A models) with mantle lithosphere. In addition, models with a buoyant, depleted (cratonic) lower mantle lithosphere (referred as C models) are also investigated. We illustrate that Type I-A/C models develop Type I narrow margins, whereas Type II-A/C models develop Type II wide margins. In the C models, the buoyant lower mantle lithosphere flows laterally towards the ridge (i.e. the counterflow), resulting in the exhumation (in Type I-C models) or underplating (in Type II-C models) of the continental mantle lithosphere. Magmatic productivity is strongly prohibited when counterflow is developed. We argue that Type I-A and I-C models are comparable with the Aden Gulf rifted margins and the Iberia-Newfoundland conjugate margins, respectively. The Type II-A/C models are consistent

  3. Bias and Uncertainty of Critical Experiment Models with CSAS25 from SCALE4.4a for Criticality Safety Analyses On the HP J-5600 (CMODB) Workstation

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.H.; Keener, H.J.; DeClue, J.F.; Krass, A.W.; Cain, V.R.

    2001-02-01

    This report documents establishment of bias, bias trends and uncertainty for validation of the CSAS25 control module from the SCALE 4.4a computer code system for use in evaluating criticality safety of uranium systems. The 27-group ENDF/B-IV, 44-group ENDF/B-V, and 238-group ENDF/B-V cross-section libraries were used. The criticality validation calculations were performed using over 500 benchmark cases from Volumes II and IV of the ''International Handbook of Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments,'' published by the Nuclear Energy Agency Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (NEA/OECD). Based on statistical analysis of the calculation results, the bias, bias trends and uncertainty of the benchmark calculations have been established for these benchmark experiments. Numerical methods for applying margins are briefly described, but the determination of appropriate correlating parameter and values for additional margin, applicable to a particular analysis, must be determined as part of process analysis. As such, this document does not specify upper subcritical limits as has been done in the past. A follow-on report will be written to assess the methods for determination of an upper safety limit in more detail, provide comparisons, and recommend a preferred method. Analysts using these results are responsible for exercising sound engineering judgment using strong technical arguments to develop a margin in k{sub eff} or other correlating parameter that is sufficiently large to ensure that conditions (calculated by this method to be subcritical by this margin) will actually be subcritical. Documentation of determination and justification of the appropriate margin in the analyst's evaluation, in conjunction with this report, will constitute the complete Validation Report in accordance with ANSI/ANS-8.1-1998, Section 4.3.6(4).

  4. Tractor Safety. Unit A-9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luft, Vernon D.; Backlund, Paul

    This document is a teacher's guide for a unit in tractor and machinery safety for college freshmen. It is intended to be used for 10 hours of instruction for freshmen who are intending to work on or around machinery. Safety hazards directly and indirectly related to many types of machinery are covered in addition to tractors. The objectives of the…

  5. Safety Tips.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagel, Miriam C., Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Outlines a cooperative effort in Iowa to eliminate dangerous or unwanted chemicals from school science storerooms. Also reviews the Council of State Science Supervisor's safety program and discusses how to prevent cuts and punctures from jagged glass tubing. (JN)

  6. Food Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... are four basic steps to food safety at home: Clean - always wash your fruits and vegetables, hands, counters, and cooking utensils. Separate - keep raw foods to themselves. Germs can spread from one food ...

  7. Safety Basis Report

    SciTech Connect

    R.J. Garrett

    2002-01-14

    As part of the internal Integrated Safety Management Assessment verification process, it was determined that there was a lack of documentation that summarizes the safety basis of the current Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) site characterization activities. It was noted that a safety basis would make it possible to establish a technically justifiable graded approach to the implementation of the requirements identified in the Standards/Requirements Identification Document. The Standards/Requirements Identification Documents commit a facility to compliance with specific requirements and, together with the hazard baseline documentation, provide a technical basis for ensuring that the public and workers are protected. This Safety Basis Report has been developed to establish and document the safety basis of the current site characterization activities, establish and document the hazard baseline, and provide the technical basis for identifying structures, systems, and components (SSCs) that perform functions necessary to protect the public, the worker, and the environment from hazards unique to the YMP site characterization activities. This technical basis for identifying SSCs serves as a grading process for the implementation of programs such as Conduct of Operations (DOE Order 5480.19) and the Suspect/Counterfeit Items Program. In addition, this report provides a consolidated summary of the hazards analyses processes developed to support the design, construction, and operation of the YMP site characterization facilities and, therefore, provides a tool for evaluating the safety impacts of changes to the design and operation of the YMP site characterization activities.

  8. 49 CFR 389.25 - Additional rule making proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 389.25 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS RULEMAKING PROCEDURES-FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS Procedures for Adoption of Rules § 389.25 Additional...

  9. 49 CFR 389.25 - Additional rule making proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 389.25 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS RULEMAKING PROCEDURES-FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS Procedures for Adoption of Rules § 389.25 Additional...

  10. Future coral reef habitat marginality: Temporal and spatial effects of climate change in the Pacific basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guinotte, J.M.; Buddemeier, R.W.; Kleypas, J.A.

    2003-01-01

    Marginal reef habitats are regarded as regions where coral reefs and coral communities reflect the effects of steady-state or long-term average environmental limitations. We used classifications based on this concept with predicted time-variant conditions of future climate to develop a scenario for the evolution of future marginality. Model results based on a conservative scenario of atmospheric CO2 increase were used to examine changes in sea surface temperature and aragonite saturation state over the Pacific Ocean basin until 2069. Results of the projections indicated that essentially all reef locations are likely to become marginal with respect to aragonite saturation state. Significant areas, including some with the highest biodiversity, are expected to experience high-temperature regimes that may be marginal, and additional areas will enter the borderline high temperature range that have experienced significant ENSO-related bleaching in the recent past. The positive effects of warming in areas that are presently marginal in terms of low temperature were limited. Conditions of the late 21st century do not lie outside the ranges in which present-day marginal reef systems occur. Adaptive and acclimative capabilities of organisms and communities will be critical in determining the future of coral reef ecosystems.

  11. Estimated limits of IMRT dose escalation using varied planning target volume margins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goulet, Christopher C.; Herman, Michael G.; Hillman, David W.; Davis, Brian J.

    2008-07-01

    To estimate the limits of dose escalation for prostate cancer as a function of planning target volume (PTV) margins, the maximum achievable dose (MAD) was determined through iterative plan optimizations from data sets of 18 patients until the dose constraints for rectum, bladder and PTV could no longer be met. PTV margins of 10, 5 and 3 mm yielded a mean MAD of 83.0 Gy (range, 73.8-108.0 Gy), 113.1 Gy (range, 90.0-151.2 Gy) and 135.9 Gy (range, 102.6-189.0 Gy), respectively. All comparisons of MAD among margin groups were statistically significant (P < 0.001). Comparison of prostate volumes of 30-50 mL (n = 8) with volumes of 51-70 mL (n = 7) and 71-105 mL (n = 3) showed an inverse relationship with MAD. Decreases in PTV margin significantly decreased the PTV overlap of the rectum (P < 0.001 for all margin comparisons). With decreases in the PTV margin and maintenance of identical dose constraints, doses well above those currently prescribed for treatment of localized prostate cancer appear feasible. However, the dose escalation suggested by these findings is a theoretical estimate, and additional dose constraints will likely be necessary to limit toxicity to normal tissue.

  12. Determination of core design thermal safety limits for a two-loop pressurized water reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Kostadinov, V.

    1996-04-01

    Results are given of independent research of core thermal design limits for the Nuklearna Elektrarna Krsko (NEK) nuclear power plant; procedures for two-loop pressurized water reactor plant core design safety limit calculation are used. Emphasis is placed on researching the vessel exit boiling and the hot-channel exit quality limits and their impact on the maximum available design safety operating range and thermal operating margin of the NEK reactor core. For this purpose, the LIMITS computer code is developed. Based on the modified, well-tried COBRA-IV-I computer code, the departure of nuclear boiling ratio core safety limits are calculated. The original results complement well those of the NEK Final Safety Analysis Report. The procedures and the methods for determining the reactor core design thermal limits are successfully proven despite the unavailability of proprietary data, different models, and computer codes. In addition to the acquired capability of in-house independent checking of the vendor`s results, the bases are set for further independent analyses of the limiting safety system settings for the NEK core.

  13. Child passenger safety.

    PubMed

    Durbin, Dennis R

    2011-04-01

    Despite significant reductions in the number of children killed in motor vehicle crashes over the past decade, crashes continue to be the leading cause of death for children 4 years and older. Therefore, the American Academy of Pediatrics continues to recommend inclusion of child passenger safety anticipatory guidance at every health-supervision visit. This technical report provides a summary of the evidence in support of 5 recommendations for best practices to optimize safety in passenger vehicles for children from birth through adolescence that all pediatricians should know and promote in their routine practice. These recommendations are presented in the revised policy statement on child passenger safety in the form of an algorithm that is intended to facilitate their implementation by pediatricians with their patients and families. The algorithm is designed to cover the majority of situations that pediatricians will encounter in practice. In addition, a summary of evidence on a number of additional issues that affect the safety of children in motor vehicles, including the proper use and installation of child restraints, exposure to air bags, travel in pickup trucks, children left in or around vehicles, and the importance of restraint laws, is provided. Finally, this technical report provides pediatricians with a number of resources for additional information to use when providing anticipatory guidance to families. PMID:21422094

  14. Geomorphologic Structures on the South Cretan Margin, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nomikou, Paraskevi; Lykousis, Vasilis; Alexandri, Matina; Rousakis, Grigoris; Sakellariou, Dimitris; Lampridou, Danai; Alves, Tiago; Ballas, Dionysios

    2015-04-01

    Geomorphologic Structures on the South Cretan Margin, Greece Nomikou P.1, Lykousis V.2, Alexandri M.2, Rousakis G.2, Sakellariou D.2, Lampridou D.1 , Alves T.3, Ballas D.2 1University of Athens, Department of Geology and Geoenvironment, Panepistimioupoli Zografou, 15784 Athens, Greece. 2Inst. of Oceanography, Hellenic Centre for Marine Research, Anavyssos, Greece. 33D Seismic Laboratory, School of Earth and Ocean Sciences, Cardiff University, Main Building-Park Place, CF10 3AT Cardiff, UK. The swath bathymetric survey of the South Cretan Margin has been conducted during the HERMES-1 (May-June 2005) and HERMES-2 (September-October 2005) cruises onboard R/V "AEGAEO" using the 20 kHz, SEABEAM 2120 system. High-resolution multibeam bathymetry outlines in unprecedented detail the shape and the morphological features of the region. One of the most dominant geomorphological structures of the southwest Cretan slope is the submarine Samaria Canyon (Western Cretan Trough) which is characterized by high relief steep walls and V-shaped cross sections. Despite the fact that the trough trends predominantly northeastward, with a central axis oriented from east to west, the head displays a north-trending hook termination on the continental shelf. The minimum depth of its axis is 1400 m and the thalweg ranges from 1500 to 3500m. In addition, abrupt alternation in the axial trend of the canyon is observed, accompanied by sharp changes in axial gradient and in the geometry of the canyon profile ending in a flat area of 3600 m depth. From Paleochora up to Sindonia, numerous small canyons trending N-S crosscut the steep Cretan southern margin, that reaches the 2000 m isobath. These are transversal to the main direction E-W of the slope. Furthermore, the detailed bathymetric map reveals the morphology of several troughs bounded by steep flanks. Their flat bottom may reach up to 3000m water depth. The most characteristic one, Ptolemy trough (eastern South Cretan Trough), is located in

  15. Numerical simulation of platelet margination in microcirculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Hong; Shaqfeh, Eric

    2009-11-01

    The adhesion of platelets to vascular walls is the first step in clotting. This process critically depends on the preferential concentration of platelets near walls. The presence of red blood cells, which are the predominant blood constituents, is known to affect the steady state platelet concentration and the dynamic platelet margination, but the underlying mechanism is not well understood to-day. We use a direct numerical simulation to study the platelet margination process, with particular emphasis on the Stokesian hydrodynamic interactions among red cells, platelets, and vessel walls. Well-known mechanical models are used for the shearing and bending stiffness of red cell membranes, and the stiffer platelets are modeled as rigid discoids. A boundary integral formulation is used to solve the flow field, where the numerical solution procedure is accelerated by a parallel O(N N) smooth particle-mesh Ewald method. The effects of red cell hematocrit and deformability will be discussed.

  16. Earthquakes at North Atlantic passive margins

    SciTech Connect

    Gregersen, S. ); Basham, P.W. )

    1989-01-01

    The main focus of this volume is the earthquakes that occur at and near the continental margins on both sides of the North Atlantic. The book, which contains the proceedings of the NATO workshop on Causes and Effects of Earthquakes at Passive Margins and in Areas of Postglacial Rebound on Both Sides of the North Atlantic, draws together the fields of geophysics, geology and geodesy to address the stress and strain in the Earth's crust. The resulting earthquakes produced on ancient geological fault zones and the associated seismic hazards these pose to man are also addressed. Postglacial rebound in North America and Fennoscandia is a minor source of earthquakes today, during the interglacial period, but evidence is presented to suggest that the ice sheets suppressed earthquake strain while they were in place, and released this strain as a pulse of significant earthquakes after the ice melted about 9000 years ago.

  17. The initiation of orogenic margin reverse faulting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, R. C.

    2002-04-01

    Laboratory values of rock friction coefficients suggest that reverse faulting should be very difficult to initiate by simple horizontal compression of the crust. Values of stresses required by Andersonian faulting may be an order of magnitude higher than those actually present in orogenic margins. A simple stress balance calculation shows that the effect of the excess lithostatic pressure under an elevated orogen, if transmitted laterally through a crustal ductile layer to the orogenic margin, is to provide sufficient hydraulic lift under the orogen flanks to initiate reverse faulting by direct lift, even with rock friction coefficients of order 0.8. The required orogenic elevation above surrounding ``normal'' lithosphere is about one fifth of the thickness of the brittle crust of the orogen. This elevation may be as small as 2 km in tectonically active regions. The mechanism works even in the absence of regional lithospheric compressive stresses.

  18. Systematic mapping of the Spanish continental margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acosta, Juan; Muñoz, Araceli; Uchupi, Elazar

    2012-07-01

    For economic, environmental, recreational, military, and political reasons it is critical for coastal states to have up-to-date information on their marine margins. Spain began to acquire such data 17 years ago. From 1995 to the present, the Spanish Oceanographic Institute (IEO), a research organization of the state, has carried out a systematic geological and geophysical study of the Spanish margins. Among these projects are (1) the hydrographic and oceanographic study of the Spanish Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) that was implemented by the Navy Hydrographic Institute (IHM); (2) the Espace Project, a study of the Spanish continental shelf; and (3) the Capesme Project, which created fisheries maps of the Mediterranean Sea. The latter two projects were carried out in collaboration with the Secretariat General of the Sea (SGM).

  19. Marginal breaking of conformal SUSY QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cleary, Kevin F.; Terning, John

    2016-07-01

    We provide an example of a 4D theory that exhibits the Contino-Pomarol-Rattazzi mechanism, where breaking conformal symmetry by an almost marginal operator leads to a light pseudo-Goldstone boson, the dilaton, and a parametrically suppressed contribution to vacuum energy. We consider SUSY QCD at the edge of the conformal window and break conformal symmetry by weakly gauging a subgroup of the flavor symmetry. Using Seiberg duality we show that for a range of parameters the singlet meson in the dual theory reaches the unitarity bound, however, this theory does not have a stable vacuum. We stabilize the vacuum with soft breaking terms, compute the mass of the dilaton, and determine the range of parameters where the leading contribution to the dilaton mass is from the almost marginal coupling.

  20. Stepwise Signal Extraction via Marginal Likelihood

    PubMed Central

    Du, Chao; Kao, Chu-Lan Michael

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies the estimation of stepwise signal. To determine the number and locations of change-points of the stepwise signal, we formulate a maximum marginal likelihood estimator, which can be computed with a quadratic cost using dynamic programming. We carry out extensive investigation on the choice of the prior distribution and study the asymptotic properties of the maximum marginal likelihood estimator. We propose to treat each possible set of change-points equally and adopt an empirical Bayes approach to specify the prior distribution of segment parameters. Detailed simulation study is performed to compare the effectiveness of this method with other existing methods. We demonstrate our method on single-molecule enzyme reaction data and on DNA array CGH data. Our study shows that this method is applicable to a wide range of models and offers appealing results in practice. PMID:27212739

  1. [Safety of intensive sweeteners].

    PubMed

    Lugasi, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    Nowadays low calorie or intesive sweeteners are getting more and more popular. These sweeteners can be placed to the market and used as food additives according to the recent EU legislation. In the meantime news are coming out one after the other stating that many of these artificial intensive sweeteners can cause cancer - the highest risk has been attributed to aspartam. Low calorie sweeteners, just like all the other additives can be authorized after strickt risk assessment procedure according to the recent food law. Only after the additive has gone through these procedure can be placed to the list of food additives, which contains not only the range of food these additives can be used, but also the recommended highest amount of daily consumption. European Food Safety Authority considering the latest scientific examination results, evaluates regularly the safety of sweeteners authorized earlier. Until now there is no evidence found to question the safety of the authorized intensive sweeteners. Orv. Hetil., 2016, 157(Suppl. 1), 14-28. PMID:27088715

  2. Evaluation of certain food additives.

    PubMed

    2012-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives, including flavouring agents, with a view to concluding as to safety concerns and to preparing specifications for identity and purity. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles governing the toxicological evaluation of and assessment of dietary exposure to food additives, including flavouring agents. A summary follows of the Committee's evaluations of technical, toxicological and dietary exposure data for five food additives (magnesium dihydrogen diphosphate; mineral oil (medium and low viscosity) classes II and III; 3-phytase from Aspergillus niger expressed in Aspergillus niger; serine protease (chymotrypsin) from Nocardiopsis prasina expressed in Bacillus licheniformis; and serine protease (trypsin) from Fusarium oxysporum expressed in Fusarium venenatum) and 16 groups of flavouring agents (aliphatic and aromatic amines and amides; aliphatic and aromatic ethers; aliphatic hydrocarbons, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids and related esters, sulfides, disulfides and ethers containing furan substitution; aliphatic linear alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes, acids and related alcohols, acetals and esters; amino acids and related substances; epoxides; furfuryl alcohol and related substances; linear and branched-chain aliphatic, unsaturated, unconjugated alcohols, aldehydes, acids and related esters; miscellaneous nitrogen-containing substances; phenol and phenol derivatives; pyrazine derivatives; pyridine, pyrrole and quinoline derivatives; saturated aliphatic acyclic branched-chain primary alcohols, aldehydes and acids; simple aliphatic and aromatic sulfides and thiols; sulfur-containing heterocyclic compounds; and sulfur-substituted furan derivatives). Specifications for the following food additives were revised: ethyl cellulose, mineral oil (medium viscosity), modified starches and titanium

  3. Visualizing MARGINS Data in Undergraduate Courses using GeoMapApp (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wetzel, L. R.

    2009-12-01

    Undergraduates can explore continental margins and plate boundaries through two exercises, Profiling Earth's Surface using GeoMapApp and What Kind of Continental Margin am I? Active or Passive? Both activities introduce students to GeoMapApp, an easy-to-use mapping program focused on marine geology and geophysics developed at Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory. In the Profiling Earth's Surface exercise, students relate large-scale continental and oceanic landforms to lithospheric plates, the underlying asthenosphere, earthquakes, and volcanoes. After using GeoMapApp to create a profile showing elevation, students add additional geologic features by hand. In the What Kind of Continental Margin am I? activity, students use GeoMapApp to investigate earthquake data to locate subducting slabs; examine topographic data to determine volcanic arc locations relative to trenches; and integrate earthquake, volcano, and bathymetric data to distinguish between passive and active margins. A webinar recorded in the summer of 2009, Teaching with MARGINS Data and GeoMapApp, illustrates how to use this and two other related activities. Students in introductory-level courses are likely to take about an hour to complete each exercise. To use GeoMapApp, students must download the freely available software to their Mac or PC (www.geomapapp.org) and maintain an internet connection to access base maps and datasets. On-line tutorials describing specific GeoMapApp functions are available to assist both students and faculty. Both activities were created in direct response to the NSF-funded Mini-Lessons initiative to develop undergraduate teaching modules to utilize MARGINS resources, including scientific data and visualization tools such as GeoMapApp. The exercises and the webinar are part of the MARGINS Data in the Classroom collection available at the on-line Science Education Resource Center at Carleton College (serc.carleton.edu/margins).

  4. Sequence stratigraphy and continental margin development of the northwestern shelf of the South China Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, P.P.H. ); Zhi Yuong Chen; Qi Min Zhang )

    1993-05-01

    Based on the sequence stratigraphic analyses of the Tertiary in the northwestern continental margin of the South China Sea, this paper summarizes the regional tectonics and their influences on the basin developments and discusses the systems tract distributions through the continental margin growth. The study area is underlain by two Tertiary basins separated by a major basin boundary fault across which two distinctly different basin structural styles developed. The Qiongdongnan basin shows characteristic rift structures and is closely related to the opening of the South China Sea. The Yinggehai basin is filled with thick Neogene monoclines overlying basement without apparent rift structures. The Yinggehai's genesis has been linked to the tectonism along the Red River suture zone. The margin development is characterized by depositional environments of sediment influx constantly exceeding accommodation space. Under these environments, the highstand deltas frequently developed near shelf edges, where vertically stacked shallow water sands of both highstand deltas and lowstand wedges/deltas could produce favorable exploration targets. High rates of sedimentation in the study area allow the identification of fourth-order cyclicity in the Quaternary. Regional sequence stratigraphic correlations suggest that many sequence boundaries appear to be synchronous, but not all boundaries exist in all basins along the eastern and southern continental margins of mainland China. The margin evolved through the repeated development of lowstand fans, lowstand wedges, transgressive systems tracts, and highstand deltas. Prior to the Pliocene, the shelf was sourced both from Vietnam and Hainan Island and, as a result, two shelf margins developed. The southwestern margin stopped growing in the late Miocene, and the northern margin continued to prograde with possible additional sediment inputs through the Red River system in the Quaternary. 29 refs., 22 figs.

  5. Subglacial hydrology as a control on ice stream shear margin locations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perol, Thibaut; Rice, James R.; Platt, John D.; Suckale, Jenny

    2015-11-01

    Ice streams are fast-flowing bands of ice separated from the nearly stagnant ice in the adjacent ridge by zones of highly localized deformation known as shear margins. However, it is presently unclear what mechanisms can control the location of shear margins. Within the shear margin, the transition from a slipping bed beneath the ice stream to a locked bed beneath the ridge concentrates stresses. We show that subglacial hydrology can select the shear margin location by strengthening the till within the margin. Our study uses a two-dimensional thermo-mechanical model in a cross-section perpendicular to the direction of flow. We show that the intense straining at the shear margins can generate large temperate regions within the deforming ice. Assuming that the melt generated in the temperate ice collects in a drainage channel at the base, we show that the channel locally decreases the pore pressure in the till. For a Coulomb-plastic rheology, this depressed pore pressure leads to a basal strength substantially higher than that inferred under the majority of the stream. Our results show that the additional basal resistance produced by the channel can reduce the stresses concentrated on the locked bed. Matching the model to surface velocity data at Whillans ice stream margin, we show that a stable shear margin occurs when the slipping-to-locked bed transition is less than 500 m away from a channel operating at an effective pressure of 200 kPa if the basal hydraulic transmissivity is equivalent to that of a water-film 0.2 mm thick.

  6. System safety education focused on flight safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, E.

    1971-01-01

    The measures necessary for achieving higher levels of system safety are analyzed with an eye toward maintaining the combat capability of the Air Force. Several education courses were provided for personnel involved in safety management. Data include: (1) Flight Safety Officer Course, (2) Advanced Safety Program Management, (3) Fundamentals of System Safety, and (4) Quantitative Methods of Safety Analysis.

  7. An Artificial Immune Univariate Marginal Distribution Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qingbin; Kang, Shuo; Gao, Junxiang; Wu, Song; Tian, Yanping

    Hybridization is an extremely effective way of improving the performance of the Univariate Marginal Distribution Algorithm (UMDA). Owing to its diversity and memory mechanisms, artificial immune algorithm has been widely used to construct hybrid algorithms with other optimization algorithms. This paper proposes a hybrid algorithm which combines the UMDA with the principle of general artificial immune algorithm. Experimental results on deceptive function of order 3 show that the proposed hybrid algorithm can get more building blocks (BBs) than the UMDA.

  8. Analyzing marginal cases in differential shotgun proteomics

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Paulo C.; Fischer, Juliana S. G.; Perales, Jonas; Yates, John R.; Barbosa, Valmir C.; Bareinboim, Elias

    2011-01-01

    Summary: We present an approach to statistically pinpoint differentially expressed proteins that have quantitation values near the quantitation threshold and are not identified in all replicates (marginal cases). Our method uses a Bayesian strategy to combine parametric statistics with an empirical distribution built from the reproducibility quality of the technical replicates. Availability:The software is freely available for academic use at http://pcarvalho.com/patternlab. Contact: paulo@pcarvalho.com Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:21075743

  9. Multiple uplift phases inferred from the Southwest African Atlantic margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheck-Wenderoth, Magdalena; Cacace, Mauro; Dressel, Ingo

    2015-04-01

    The South Atlantic basins offshore Namibia and South Africa stored more than 10 km thick sedimentary successions that are separated by major unconformities into several sequences. These sedimentary units rest on a thinned continental crust of a magmatic passive margin. Using a 3D forward modelling approach considering flexural compensation of a rheologically differentiated lithosphere in response to sedimentary loading after stretching on one hand and the thermal feed-back between cooling of the stretched lithosphere and insulating sediments on the other hand we derive quantitative estimates on how vertical movements have influenced the margin after stretching. The approach combines the consideration of observations on sediment configuration as well as on crustal thickness (ß-factor) with the process of lithosphere thinning and subsequent thermal re-equilibration. These estimates are conservative estimates as they are based on the preserved sediments only whereas eroded sediments are not considered. Nevertheless, the approach considers thermo-mechanical coupling in 3D and both initial conditions as well as sedimentary history are constrained by observations. Specific effects include the delayed thermal re-equilibration of the thinned lithosphere due to deposition of insulating sediments and the related thermal feedback on lithosphere rheology and therefore on the flexural response to sediment loading. Our results indicate that in addition to predominantly continuous subsidence also phases of uplift have affected the southwestern African margin during the syn-rift and post-rift evolution. The spatio-temporal variation of vertical movements is controlled by the amount of initial thinning of the lithosphere, the variation of rheological characteristics (lithology and temperature) but also by the distribution of sediment supply (loading and thermal insulation).

  10. On Bayesian estimation of marginal structural models.

    PubMed

    Saarela, Olli; Stephens, David A; Moodie, Erica E M; Klein, Marina B

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of inverse probability of treatment (IPT) weighting in estimation of marginal treatment effects is to construct a pseudo-population without imbalances in measured covariates, thus removing the effects of confounding and informative censoring when performing inference. In this article, we formalize the notion of such a pseudo-population as a data generating mechanism with particular characteristics, and show that this leads to a natural Bayesian interpretation of IPT weighted estimation. Using this interpretation, we are able to propose the first fully Bayesian procedure for estimating parameters of marginal structural models using an IPT weighting. Our approach suggests that the weights should be derived from the posterior predictive treatment assignment and censoring probabilities, answering the question of whether and how the uncertainty in the estimation of the weights should be incorporated in Bayesian inference of marginal treatment effects. The proposed approach is compared to existing methods in simulated data, and applied to an analysis of the Canadian Co-infection Cohort. PMID:25677103

  11. Ocean Margins Programs, Phase I research summaries

    SciTech Connect

    Verity, P.

    1994-08-01

    During FY 1992, the DOE restructured its regional coastal-ocean programs into a new Ocean Margins Program (OMP), to: Quantify the ecological and biogeochemical processes and mechanisms that affect the cycling, flux, and storage of carbon and other biogenic elements at the land/ocean interface; Define ocean-margin sources and sinks in global biogeochemical cycles, and; Determine whether continental shelves are quantitatively significant in removing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and isolating it via burial in sediments or export to the interior ocean. Currently, the DOE Ocean Margins Program supports more than 70 principal and co-principal investigators, spanning more than 30 academic institutions. Research funded by the OMP amounted to about $6.9M in FY 1994. This document is a collection of abstracts summarizing the component projects of Phase I of the OMP. This phase included both research and technology development, and comprised projects of both two and three years duration. The attached abstracts describe the goals, methods, measurement scales, strengths and limitations, and status of each project, and level of support. Keywords are provided to index the various projects. The names, addresses, affiliations, and major areas of expertise of the investigators are provided in appendices.

  12. Origin and Dynamics of Depositionary Forearc Margins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vannucchi, Paola; Morgan, Jason

    2015-04-01

    Depositionary forearcs are built by terrigenous sediments that never reach the axis of a trench. It has been usually thought that at subduction zones, terrigenous sediments shed from the continent drape the upper plate slope, accumulate in aprons or forearc basins, and can easily reach the trench as turbidites or mass slope deposits. Here we propose a new framework for forearc evolution that focuses on the potential feedbacks between subduction tectonics, sedimentation and geomorphology that take place during an extreme event of subduction erosion, such as the onset of subduction of a major aseismic ridge. There subduction erosion has the potential to rapidly remove the upper plate basement, and replace it from above by rapidly redeposited sediments. This feedback can lead to the creation of "depositionary forearcs", a forearc structure that extends the traditional division of forearcs into accretionary vs. erosive subduction margins, and which emphasizes the dynamic evolution processes at these margins. We need to further recognize that subduction forearcs are usually shaped by interactions between slow long term processes and severe punctuated events reflecting the sudden influences of large-scale morphological variations in the incoming plate. Both types of processes contribute to the large-scale morphology of the forearc, with sudden events associated with a replacive depositionary mode that can suddenly create a sub-section of a typical forearc margin.

  13. Subglacial hydrology as a control on ice stream shear margin locations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perol, T.; Rice, J. R.; Platt, J. D.; Suckale, J.

    2015-12-01

    Ice streams are fast-flowing bands of ice separated from the nearly stagnant ice in the adjacent ridge by zones of highly localized deformation known as shear margins. However, it is presently unclear what mechanisms can control the location of shear margins, and possibly allow them to migrate. Within the shear margin, the transition from a freely slipping bed beneath the ice stream to a locked bed beneath the ridge concentrates stresses on the locked bed. We show that subglacial hydrological processes can select the shear margin location by strengthening the subglacial till within the margin, reducing the stress concentration associated with the transition from a slipping to a locked bed. Our study uses a two-dimensional thermo-mechanical model in a cross-section perpendicular to the direction of flow. We show that the intense straining at the shear margins can generate large temperate regions within the deforming ice. Assuming that the melt generated in the temperate ice collects in a drainage channel at the base of the margin, we show that the channel locally decreases the pore pressure in the subglacial till. For a Coulomb-plastic rheology, this depressed pore pressure leads to a basal shear strength substantially higher than that inferred under the majority of the stream. Our results show that the additional basal resistance produced by the channel can offset the large stresses concentrated on the locked bed, allowing the drainage channel to select the margin location. Matching the model to surface velocity data near Dragon Margin within Whillans ice stream B2, we show that a stable shear margin occurs when the slipping-to-locked bed transition is less than 500 m away from a channel operating at an effective pressure of 200 kPa if the basal hydraulic transmissivity is equivalent to that of a water-film ~0.2 mm thick. Extending these results we explore how the shear margin location varies with the effective pressure of the channel and hydraulic properties of

  14. A margin model to account for respiration-induced tumour motion and its variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coolens, Catherine; Webb, Steve; Shirato, H.; Nishioka, K.; Evans, Phil M.

    2008-08-01

    In order to reduce the sensitivity of radiotherapy treatments to organ motion, compensation methods are being investigated such as gating of treatment delivery, tracking of tumour position, 4D scanning and planning of the treatment, etc. An outstanding problem that would occur with all these methods is the assumption that breathing motion is reproducible throughout the planning and delivery process of treatment. This is obviously not a realistic assumption and is one that will introduce errors. A dynamic internal margin model (DIM) is presented that is designed to follow the tumour trajectory and account for the variability in respiratory motion. The model statistically describes the variation of the breathing cycle over time, i.e. the uncertainty in motion amplitude and phase reproducibility, in a polar coordinate system from which margins can be derived. This allows accounting for an additional gating window parameter for gated treatment delivery as well as minimizing the area of normal tissue irradiated. The model was illustrated with abdominal motion for a patient with liver cancer and tested with internal 3D lung tumour trajectories. The results confirm that the respiratory phases around exhale are most reproducible and have the smallest variation in motion amplitude and phase (approximately 2 mm). More importantly, the margin area covering normal tissue is significantly reduced by using trajectory-specific margins (as opposed to conventional margins) as the angular component is by far the largest contributor to the margin area. The statistical approach to margin calculation, in addition, offers the possibility for advanced online verification and updating of breathing variation as more data become available.

  15. 49 CFR 192.171 - Compressor stations: Additional safety equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... must have adequate fire protection facilities. If fire pumps are a part of these facilities, their operation may not be affected by the emergency shutdown system. (b) Each compressor station prime mover... operates with pressure gas injection must be equipped so that stoppage of the engine automatically...

  16. Radial gravitational gliding on passive margins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cobbold, P. R.; Szatmari, P.

    1991-03-01

    Gravitational gliding of uppermost sediments down a passive margin is possible if there is a basal layer of evaporite or other soft material to allow detachment. In examples from the Gulf of Mexico and the Brazilian margin, gliding has produced three main structural domains: an uppermost domain of downdip extension; an intermediate domain of rigid gliding; and a lowermost domain of downdip contraction. Domain boundaries are established by changes in slope. In this paper, we examine three kinds of gravitational gliding, depending on the paths followed by material particles. In ideal parallel gliding, particle paths are parallel straight lines, trending downslope. This should occur where the margin is perfectly straight. In ideal radial gliding, particle paths are radii of a circle and the margin is shaped like a circular cone. Natural margins will not have ideal shapes; but divergent gliding will tend to occur off coastal salients; convergent gliding, off coastal re-entrants. A simple kinematic model based on ductile behaviour illustrates some essential features of radial gliding. Changes in radius during divergent gliding produce strike-parallel extension; during convergent gliding, they produce strike-parallel contraction. Vertical strains also differ. Divergent gliding produces an uppermost domain of strong vertical thinning, balanced by extensions in all horizontal directions. Similarly, convergent gliding produces a lowermost domain of strong vertical thickening, balanced by contractions in all horizontal directions. These deformed states cannot be restored by simple techniques based on section balancing. We have done three experiments using analogue materials: sand, to model the brittle behaviour of sediments; silicone putty, to model the ductile behaviour of basal layers of evaporite. The experiments were properly scaled to account for gravitational forces. Experiment I reproduced convergent gliding above a basement with a conical upper surface. Strike

  17. First Aid and Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... First-Aid Kit Food Safety for Your Family Gun Safety Halloween Candy Hints Household Safety Checklists Household ... Climbing, and Grabbing Household Safety: Preventing Injuries From Firearms Household Safety: Preventing Injuries in the Crib Household ...

  18. Distinguishing Terrestrial Organic Carbon in Marginal Sediments of East China Sea and Northern South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kandasamy, Selvaraj; Lin, Baozhi; Wang, Huawei; Liu, Qianqian; Liu, Zhifei; Lou, Jiann-Yuh; Chen, Chen-Tung Arthur; Mayer, Lawrence M.

    2016-04-01

    Knowledge about the sources, transport pathways and behavior of terrestrial organic carbon in continental margins adjoining to large rivers has improved in recent decades, but uncertainties and complications still exist with human-influenced coastal regions in densely populated wet tropics and subtropics. In these regions, the monsoon and other episodic weather events exert strong climatic control on mineral and particulate organic matter delivery to the marginal seas. Here we investigate elemental (TOC, TN and bromine-Br) and stable carbon isotopic (δ13C) compositions of organic matter (OM) in surface sediments and short cores collected from active (SW Taiwan) and passive margin (East China Sea) settings to understand the sources of OM that buried in these settings. We used sedimentary bromine to total organic carbon (Br/TOC) ratios to apportion terrigenous from marine organic matter, and find that Br/TOC may serve as an additional, reliable proxy for sedimentary provenance in both settings. Variations in Br/TOC are consistent with other provenance indicators in responding to short-lived terrigenous inputs. Because diagenetic alteration of Br is insignificant on shorter time scales, applying Br/TOC ratios as a proxy to identify organic matter source along with carbon isotope mixing models may provide additional constraints on the quantity and transformation of terrigenous organics in continental margins. We apply this combination of approaches to land-derived organic matter in different depositional environments of East Asian marginal seas.

  19. Surgical resection margins after breast-conserving surgery: Senonetwork recommendations.

    PubMed

    Galimberti, Viviana; Taffurelli, Mario; Leonardi, Maria Cristina; Aristei, Cynthia; Trentin, Chiara; Cassano, Enrico; Pietribiasi, Francesca; Corso, Giovanni; Munzone, Elisabetta; Tondini, Carlo; Frigerio, Alfonso; Cataliotti, Luigi; Santini, Donatella

    2016-06-01

    This paper reports findings of the "Focus on Controversial Areas" Working Party of the Italian Senonetwork, which was set up to improve the care of breast cancer patients. After reviewing articles in English on the MEDLINE system on breast conserving surgery for invasive carcinoma, the Working Party presents their recommendations for identifying risk factors for positive margins, suggests how to manage them so as to achieve the highest possible percentage of negative margins, and proposes standards for investigating resection margins and therapeutic approaches according to margin status. When margins are positive, approaches include re-excision, mastectomy, or, as second-line treatment, radiotherapy with a high boost dose. When margins are negative, boost administration and its dose depend on the risk of local recurrence, which is linked to biopathological tumor features and surgical margin width. Although margin status does not affect the choice of systemic therapy, it may delay the start of chemotherapy when further surgery is required. PMID:27103209

  20. Robust Flutter Margin Analysis that Incorporates Flight Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lind, Rick; Brenner, Martin J.

    1998-01-01

    An approach for computing worst-case flutter margins has been formulated in a robust stability framework. Uncertainty operators are included with a linear model to describe modeling errors and flight variations. The structured singular value, mu, computes a stability margin that directly accounts for these uncertainties. This approach introduces a new method of computing flutter margins and an associated new parameter for describing these margins. The mu margins are robust margins that indicate worst-case stability estimates with respect to the defined uncertainty. Worst-case flutter margins are computed for the F/A-18 Systems Research Aircraft using uncertainty sets generated by flight data analysis. The robust margins demonstrate flight conditions for flutter may lie closer to the flight envelope than previously estimated by p-k analysis.

  1. 21 CFR 570.38 - Determination of food additive status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES Food Additive Safety § 570.38... to the proposal will constitute a waiver of the right to assert or rely on such sanction at any...

  2. 21 CFR 570.38 - Determination of food additive status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES Food Additive Safety § 570.38... to the proposal will constitute a waiver of the right to assert or rely on such sanction at any...

  3. 21 CFR 570.38 - Determination of food additive status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES Food Additive Safety § 570.38... to the proposal will constitute a waiver of the right to assert or rely on such sanction at any...

  4. 21 CFR 570.38 - Determination of food additive status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES Food Additive Safety § 570.38... to the proposal will constitute a waiver of the right to assert or rely on such sanction at any...

  5. 21 CFR 570.38 - Determination of food additive status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES Food Additive Safety § 570.38... to the proposal will constitute a waiver of the right to assert or rely on such sanction at any...

  6. Quantifying the margin sharpness of lesions on radiological images for content-based image retrieval

    SciTech Connect

    Xu Jiajing; Napel, Sandy; Greenspan, Hayit; Beaulieu, Christopher F.; Agrawal, Neeraj; Rubin, Daniel

    2012-09-15

    Purpose: To develop a method to quantify the margin sharpness of lesions on CT and to evaluate it in simulations and CT scans of liver and lung lesions. Methods: The authors computed two attributes of margin sharpness: the intensity difference between a lesion and its surroundings, and the sharpness of the intensity transition across the lesion boundary. These two attributes were extracted from sigmoid curves fitted along lines automatically drawn orthogonal to the lesion margin. The authors then represented the margin characteristics for each lesion by a feature vector containing histograms of these parameters. The authors created 100 simulated CT scans of lesions over a range of intensity difference and margin sharpness, and used the concordance correlation between the known parameter and the corresponding computed feature as a measure of performance. The authors also evaluated their method in 79 liver lesions (44 patients: 23 M, 21 F, mean age 61) and 58 lung nodules (57 patients: 24 M, 33 F, mean age 66). The methodology presented takes into consideration the boundary of the liver and lung during feature extraction in clinical images to ensure that the margin feature do not get contaminated by anatomy other than the normal organ surrounding the lesions. For evaluation in these clinical images, the authors created subjective independent reference standards for pairwise margin sharpness similarity in the liver and lung cohorts, and compared rank orderings of similarity used using our sharpness feature to that expected from the reference standards using mean normalized discounted cumulative gain (NDCG) over all query images. In addition, the authors compared their proposed feature with two existing techniques for lesion margin characterization using the simulated and clinical datasets. The authors also evaluated the robustness of their features against variations in delineation of the lesion margin by simulating five types of deformations of the lesion margin

  7. Evaluation of certain food additives.

    PubMed

    2015-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives, including flavouring agents, and to prepare specifications for identity and purity. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles governing the toxicological evaluation of and assessment of dietary exposure to food additives, including flavouring agents. A summary follows of the Committee's evaluations of technical, toxicological and dietary exposure data for eight food additives (Benzoe tonkinensis; carrageenan; citric and fatty acid esters of glycerol; gardenia yellow; lutein esters from Tagetes erecta; octenyl succinic acid-modified gum arabic; octenyl succinic acid-modified starch; paprika extract; and pectin) and eight groups of flavouring agents (aliphatic and alicyclic hydrocarbons; aliphatic and aromatic ethers; ionones and structurally related substances; miscellaneous nitrogen-containing substances; monocyclic and bicyclic secondary alcohols, ketones and related esters; phenol and phenol derivatives; phenyl-substituted aliphatic alcohols and related aldehydes and esters; and sulfur-containing heterocyclic compounds). Specifications for the following food additives were revised: citric acid; gellan gum; polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monostearate; potassium aluminium silicate; and Quillaia extract (Type 2). Annexed to the report are tables summarizing the Committee's recommendations for dietary exposures to and toxicological evaluations of all of the food additives and flavouring agents considered at this meeting. PMID:26118220

  8. Signal Characterization for TDRSS Support of Range Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kozaitis, Sam

    2001-01-01

    This work involves the analysis of signal attenuation using the NASA Tracking and Data Relay Satellite/Space Network to provide range safety and flight termination system support for expendable launch vehicles and the space shuttle. We found that at least one of the two operational TDRSS satellites could provide flight termination operating at about 250bps. Lowering the data rate could provide a larger link margin. The other satellite's signal would be attenuated below an acceptable link margin due to rocket exhaust. Lowering the data rate could provide a larger link margin.

  9. [Evaluation of safe resection margins in rectal carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Hovorková, E; Hadži-Nikolov, D; Ferko, A; Örhalmi, J; Chobola, M; Ryška, A

    2014-02-01

    The fact that surgically well performed total mesorectal excision with negative circumferential resection margin represents one of the most important prognostic factors in colorectal carcinoma is already well known. These parameters significantly affect the incidence of local tumour recurrence as well as distant metastasis, and are thus related to the duration of patient survival. The surgeons task is to perform mesorectal excision as completely as possible, i.e., to remove the rectum with an intact cylinder of mesorectal fat. The approach of the pathologist to evaluation of total mesorectal excision specimens differs greatly from that of resection specimens from other parts of the large bowel. Besides evaluation of the usual parameters for colon cancer staging, it is essential to assess certain additional factors specific to rectal carcinomas, namely tumour distance from circumferential (radial) resection margins and the quality of the mesorectal excision. In order to accurately evaluate these parameters, knowledge of a wide range of clinical data is indispensable (results of preoperative imaging, intraoperative findings). For objective evaluation of these parameters it is necessary to introduce standardized procedures for resection specimen processing and macro and microscopic examination. This approach is based mainly on standardized macroscopic photo-documentation of the integrity of the mesorectal surface. Parallel transverse sections of the resection specimens are made with targeted tissue sampling for histological examination. It is essential to have close cooperation between surgeons and pathologists within a multidisciplinary team enabling mutual feedback. PMID:24702293

  10. When is Transplantation with a "Marginal Kidney" Justifiable?

    PubMed

    Rouchi, Alireza Heidary; Mahdavi-Mazdeh, Mitra

    2016-01-01

    The ability of kidney transplantation to improve quality of life has made this therapeutic modality the treatment of choice among renal replacement therapies; however, the continuing organ shortage has forced the use of marginal kidneys as a supplementary source of allografts. It has been repeatedly suggested that failed kidney transplant recipients have greater morbidity and mortality compared with dialysis patients with no renal transplant history. Achieving an optimal balance between the advantages of kidney transplant and disadvantages of allografts with marginal quality is a topic of controversy in transplant medicine. The major and potentially life-threatening complications of immunosuppressive therapies and shorter lifespan following graft failure necessitate a reappraisal of kidney transplant programs from expanded-criteria deceased donors, which can neither necessarily give dialysis patients a better quality of life nor a significant survival benefit, especially in settings with additional diminished graft survival due to HLA-mismatch. It should be offered just to those with short life expectancy and with HLA-matching. The last item is very important in countries without mandatory HLA-matching protocols for kidney transplantation programs. PMID:27457730

  11. Marginally hydrophobic transmembrane α-helices shaping membrane protein folding

    PubMed Central

    De Marothy, Minttu T; Elofsson, Arne

    2015-01-01

    Cells have developed an incredible machinery to facilitate the insertion of membrane proteins into the membrane. While we have a fairly good understanding of the mechanism and determinants of membrane integration, more data is needed to understand the insertion of membrane proteins with more complex insertion and folding pathways. This review will focus on marginally hydrophobic transmembrane helices and their influence on membrane protein folding. These weakly hydrophobic transmembrane segments are by themselves not recognized by the translocon and therefore rely on local sequence context for membrane integration. How can such segments reside within the membrane? We will discuss this in the light of features found in the protein itself as well as the environment it resides in. Several characteristics in proteins have been described to influence the insertion of marginally hydrophobic helices. Additionally, the influence of biological membranes is significant. To begin with, the actual cost for having polar groups within the membrane may not be as high as expected; the presence of proteins in the membrane as well as characteristics of some amino acids may enable a transmembrane helix to harbor a charged residue. The lipid environment has also been shown to directly influence the topology as well as membrane boundaries of transmembrane helices—implying a dynamic relationship between membrane proteins and their environment. PMID:25970811

  12. Alkalinity distribution in the western North Atlantic Ocean margins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Wei-Jun; Hu, Xinping; Huang, Wei-Jen; Jiang, Li-Qing; Wang, Yongchen; Peng, Tsung-Hung; Zhang, Xin

    2010-08-01

    Total alkalinity (TA) distribution and its relationship with salinity (S) along the western North Atlantic Ocean (wNAO) margins from the Labrador Sea to tropical areas are examined in this study. Based on the observed TA-S patterns, the mixing processes that control alkalinity distribution in these areas can be categorized into a spectrum of patterns that are bracketed by two extreme mixing types, i.e., alongshore current-dominated and river-dominated. Alongshore current-dominated mixing processes exhibit a segmented mixing line with a shared mid-salinity end-member. In such cases (i.e., Labrador Sea, Gulf of Maine, etc.), the y-intercept of the high salinity segment of the mixing line is generally higher than the local river alkalinity values, and it reflects the mixing history of the alongshore current. In contrast, in river-dominated mixing (Amazon River, Caribbean Sea, etc.), good linear relationships between alkalinity and salinity are generally observed, and the zero salinity intercepts of the TA-S regressions roughly match those of the regional river alkalinity values. TA-S mixing lines can be complicated by rapid changes in the river end-member value and by another river nearby with a different TA value (e.g., Mississippi-Atchafalaya/Gulf of Mexico). In the wNAO margins, regression intercepts and river end-members have a clear latitudinal distribution pattern, increasing from a low of ˜300 μmol kg-1 in the Amazon River plume to a high value between ˜500-1100 μmol kg-1 in the middle and high latitude margins. The highest value of ˜2400 μmol kg-1 is observed in the Mississippi River influenced areas. In addition to mixing control, biological processes such as calcification and benthic alkalinity production may also affect ocean margin alkalinity distribution. Therefore, deriving inorganic carbon system information in coastal oceans using alkalinity-salinity relationships, in particular, those of generic nature, may lead to significant errors.

  13. 21 CFR 170.38 - Determination of food additive status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES Food Additive Safety § 170.38 Determination of food additive status. (a) The... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Determination of food additive status. 170.38... determining that a substance is not GRAS and is a food additive subject to section 409 of the Act. (b)(1)...

  14. 10 CFR 35.310 - Safety instruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Safety instruction. 35.310 Section 35.310 Energy NUCLEAR... Required § 35.310 Safety instruction. In addition to the requirements of § 19.12 of this chapter, (a) A licensee shall provide radiation safety instruction, initially and at least annually, to personnel...

  15. 10 CFR 35.310 - Safety instruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Safety instruction. 35.310 Section 35.310 Energy NUCLEAR... Required § 35.310 Safety instruction. In addition to the requirements of § 19.12 of this chapter, (a) A licensee shall provide radiation safety instruction, initially and at least annually, to personnel...

  16. 10 CFR 35.310 - Safety instruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Safety instruction. 35.310 Section 35.310 Energy NUCLEAR... Required § 35.310 Safety instruction. In addition to the requirements of § 19.12 of this chapter, (a) A licensee shall provide radiation safety instruction, initially and at least annually, to personnel...

  17. 10 CFR 35.310 - Safety instruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Safety instruction. 35.310 Section 35.310 Energy NUCLEAR... Required § 35.310 Safety instruction. In addition to the requirements of § 19.12 of this chapter, (a) A licensee shall provide radiation safety instruction, initially and at least annually, to personnel...

  18. 10 CFR 35.310 - Safety instruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Safety instruction. 35.310 Section 35.310 Energy NUCLEAR... Required § 35.310 Safety instruction. In addition to the requirements of § 19.12 of this chapter, (a) A licensee shall provide radiation safety instruction, initially and at least annually, to personnel...

  19. Audit Report The Procurement of Safety Class/Safety-Significant Items at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    2009-04-01

    the Savannah River Site. Our review disclosed that the Department had procured and installed safety-class and safety-significant SSCs that did not meet NQA-1 quality standards. Specifically, we identified multiple instances in which critical components did not meet required quality and safety standards. For example: (1) Three structural components were procured and installed by the prime contractor at Savannah River during construction of the MOX Facility that did not meet the technical specifications for items relied on for safety. These substandard items necessitated costly and time consuming remedial action to, among other things, ensure that nonconforming materials and equipment would function within safety margins; (2) In six instances, items used in the construction of TEF failed to satisfy quality standards. In one of these situations, operating procedures had to be modified to ensure that the problem item did not compromise safety; and (3) Finally, at the ISP, one component that did not meet quality standards was procured. The failure of the item could have resulted in a spill of up to 15,000 gallons of high-level radioactive waste. Based on an extensive examination of relevant internal controls and procurement practices, we concluded that these failures were attributable to inadequate attention to quality assurance at Savannah River. Simply put, Departmental controls were not adequate to prevent and/or detect quality assurance problems. For example, Federal and prime contractor officials did not expressly require that subcontractors or lower-tiered vendors comply with quality assurance requirements. Additionally, management did not effectively communicate quality assurance concerns between the several Departmental program elements operating at Savannah River. The procurement and installation of these nonconforming components resulted in cost increases. For example, as of October 2008, the MOX Facility had incurred costs of more than $680,000 due to problems

  20. Child passenger safety.

    PubMed

    Durbin, Dennis R

    2011-04-01

    Child passenger safety has dramatically evolved over the past decade; however, motor vehicle crashes continue to be the leading cause of death of children 4 years and older. This policy statement provides 4 evidence-based recommendations for best practices in the choice of a child restraint system to optimize safety in passenger vehicles for children from birth through adolescence: (1) rear-facing car safety seats for most infants up to 2 years of age; (2) forward-facing car safety seats for most children through 4 years of age; (3) belt-positioning booster seats for most children through 8 years of age; and (4) lap-and-shoulder seat belts for all who have outgrown booster seats. In addition, a fifth evidence-based recommendation is for all children younger than 13 years to ride in the rear seats of vehicles. It is important to note that every transition is associated with some decrease in protection; therefore, parents should be encouraged to delay these transitions for as long as possible. These recommendations are presented in the form of an algorithm that is intended to facilitate implementation of the recommendations by pediatricians to their patients and families and should cover most situations that pediatricians will encounter in practice. The American Academy of Pediatrics urges all pediatricians to know and promote these recommendations as part of child passenger safety anticipatory guidance at every health-supervision visit. PMID:21422088

  1. 29 CFR 1911.4 - Additional or alternative procedural requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY OR HEALTH STANDARDS § 1911.4 Additional or alternative procedural requirements. Upon... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Additional or alternative procedural requirements. 1911.4 Section 1911.4 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND...

  2. 29 CFR 1911.4 - Additional or alternative procedural requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY OR HEALTH STANDARDS § 1911.4 Additional or alternative procedural requirements. Upon... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Additional or alternative procedural requirements. 1911.4 Section 1911.4 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND...

  3. 29 CFR 1911.4 - Additional or alternative procedural requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY OR HEALTH STANDARDS § 1911.4 Additional or alternative procedural requirements. Upon... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Additional or alternative procedural requirements. 1911.4 Section 1911.4 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND...

  4. Carbonate comparison of west Florida continental margin with margins of eastern United States

    SciTech Connect

    Doyle, L.J.

    1986-05-01

    Temperate carbonate margins may have as many similarities to clastic margins as to other carbonate systems. An example is the west Florida continental margin north of Florida Bay, a vast area of more than 150,000 km/sup 2/. The facies of this area differ from those of other Holocene carbonates, such as the Bahama Banks, the Great Barrier Reef, and the Caribbean and Pacific bioherms. The west Florida margin is analogous to the predominantly clastic southeastern US in both physiology and sedimentary processes. The shelf facies is a veneer of carbonate sand, primarily molluscan shell fragments, with low sedimentation rates. It is similar to the southeastern US sand veneer with the clastic component removed. Like the US system, the west Florida shelf has a ridge and swale topography replete with sedimentary structures, such as sand waves, with a series of drainage systems incised into its surface at lower stands of sea level. On the outer edge, it is commonly bounded by outcrops with considerable positive relief. The upper slope of the west Florida margin is a calcilutite, a Holocene chalk deposit accumulating at rates of tens of centimeters/1000 years, comparable to the clastic lutite depositional rates of the eastern US continental slope, and two orders of magnitude higher than deep-sea oozes of similar composition. These relatively high rates are probably caused by fines pumped from and across the coarser shelf-sand sheets in both systems.

  5. Reading Repression: Textualizing the Linguistic Marginalization of Nonnative English-Speaking Teachers in Arizona

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blum, Avram; Johnson, Eric J.

    2012-01-01

    This discussion draws attention to the discriminatory efforts of policymakers in Arizona to professionally marginalize public school teachers deemed to have an accent. In addition to debunking the linguistic and pedagogic validity of this policy, we emphasize the role of the media in the (re)construction and justification of language ideologies…

  6. Observations of long delays to detonation in propellant for tests with marginal card gaps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olinger, B.

    1980-01-01

    Using the large-scale card gap tests with pin and high-speed framing camera techniques, VRP propellant, and presumably others, were found to transit to detonation at marginal gaps after a long delay. In addition, manganin-constantan gauge measurements were made in the card gap stack.

  7. Playground Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sipes, James L.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the issues of risk, liability, and fun when landscaping playgrounds with safety in mind. The importance of playground surfaces and several preventive measures landscapers can use to reduce the risk of injury are discussed. Concluding comments address playground design features and liability. (GR)

  8. School Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    The Newsletter of the Comprehensive Center-Region VI, 1999

    1999-01-01

    The articles in this issue dealing with school safety discusses what rural and small urban settings are doing to prevent violence and to educate young people about prosocial alternatives to violence. The research is quite clear that female, minority, and gay students are the targets of a disproportionate amount of harassment and violence, both in…

  9. Safety First!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longfield, Judith

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author relates how a hands-on chemistry investigation provided her the inspiration to develop an effective safety lesson for her third grade chemistry class. She began the lesson by demonstrating the use of pH indicator paper to show that ordinary household (white) vinegar was an acid. With the students, she wondered aloud…

  10. Art Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BCATA Journal for Art Teachers, 1991

    1991-01-01

    Advocating that Canadian art programs should use and model environmentally safe practices, the articles in this journal focus on issues of safe practices in art education. Articles are: (1) "What is WHMIS?"; (2) "Safety Precautions for Specific Art Processes"; (3) "Toxic Substances"; (4) "Using Clay, Glazes, and Kilns Safely in the Classroom"…

  11. Principals' Perceived Supervisory Behaviors Regarding Marginal Teachers in Two States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Range, Bret; Hewitt, Paul; Young, Suzie

    2014-01-01

    This descriptive study used an online survey to determine how principals in two states viewed the supervision of marginal teachers. Principals ranked their own evaluation of the teacher as the most important factor when identifying marginal teachers and relied on informal methods to diagnose marginal teaching. Female principals rated a majority of…

  12. 17 CFR 23.703 - Investment of segregated margin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Investment of segregated... Transactions § 23.703 Investment of segregated margin. (a) Margin that is segregated pursuant to an election... commercial arrangement, in writing, regarding the investment of such Margin, and the related allocation...

  13. 17 CFR 260.7a-19 - Margin for binding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Margin for binding. 260.7a-19...) GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS, TRUST INDENTURE ACT OF 1939 Formal Requirements § 260.7a-19 Margin for... and documents filed as a part thereof, shall have a back or stitching margin of at least 11/2...

  14. 17 CFR 260.7a-19 - Margin for binding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Margin for binding. 260.7a-19...) GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS, TRUST INDENTURE ACT OF 1939 Formal Requirements § 260.7a-19 Margin for... and documents filed as a part thereof, shall have a back or stitching margin of at least 11/2...

  15. 46 CFR 171.015 - Location of margin line.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Location of margin line. 171.015 Section 171.015... PERTAINING TO VESSELS CARRYING PASSENGERS General § 171.015 Location of margin line. (a) A vessel with a... (FP) and the after perpendicular (AP) is at least 12 inches (30.5 cm), the margin line must be...

  16. 46 CFR 171.015 - Location of margin line.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Location of margin line. 171.015 Section 171.015... PERTAINING TO VESSELS CARRYING PASSENGERS General § 171.015 Location of margin line. (a) A vessel with a... (FP) and the after perpendicular (AP) is at least 12 inches (30.5 cm), the margin line must be...

  17. Seismic margins assessment of the plutonium processing facility Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Goen, L.K.; Salmon, M.W.

    1995-12-01

    Results of the recently completed seismic evaluation at the Los Alamos National Laboratory site indicate a need to consider seismic loads greater than design basis for many structures systems and components (SSCs). DOE Order 5480.28 requires that existing SSCs be evaluated to determine their ability to withstand the effects of earthquakes when changes in the understanding of this hazard results in greater loads. In preparation for the implementation of DOE Order 5480.28 and to support the update of the facility Safety Analysis Report, a seismic margin assessment of SSCs necessary for a monitored passive safe shutdown of the Plutonium Processing Facility (PF-4) was performed. The seismic margin methodology is given in EPRI NP-6041-SL, ``A Methodology for Assessment of Nuclear Power Plant Seismic Margin (Revision 1)``. In this methodology, high confidence of low probability of failure (HCLPF) capacities for SSCs are estimated in a deterministic manner. For comparison to the performance goals given in DOE Order 5480.28, the results of the seismic margins assessment were used to estimate the annual probability of failure for the evaluated SSCs. In general, the results show that the capacity for the SSCs comprising PF-4 is high. This is to be expected for a newer facility as PF-4 was designed in the early 1970`s. The methodology and results of this study are presented in this paper.

  18. The coding genome of splenic marginal zone lymphoma: activation of NOTCH2 and other pathways regulating marginal zone development

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, Davide; Trifonov, Vladimir; Fangazio, Marco; Bruscaggin, Alessio; Rasi, Silvia; Spina, Valeria; Monti, Sara; Vaisitti, Tiziana; Arruga, Francesca; Famà, Rosella; Ciardullo, Carmela; Greco, Mariangela; Cresta, Stefania; Piranda, Daniela; Holmes, Antony; Fabbri, Giulia; Messina, Monica; Rinaldi, Andrea; Wang, Jiguang; Agostinelli, Claudio; Piccaluga, Pier Paolo; Lucioni, Marco; Tabbò, Fabrizio; Serra, Roberto; Franceschetti, Silvia; Deambrogi, Clara; Daniele, Giulia; Gattei, Valter; Marasca, Roberto; Facchetti, Fabio; Arcaini, Luca; Inghirami, Giorgio; Bertoni, Francesco; Pileri, Stefano A.; Deaglio, Silvia; Foà, Robin; Pasqualucci, Laura; Rabadan, Raul

    2012-01-01

    Splenic marginal zone lymphoma (SMZL) is a B cell malignancy of unknown pathogenesis, and thus an orphan of targeted therapies. By integrating whole-exome sequencing and copy-number analysis, we show that the SMZL exome carries at least 30 nonsilent gene alterations. Mutations in NOTCH2, a gene required for marginal-zone (MZ) B cell development, represent the most frequent lesion in SMZL, accounting for ∼20% of cases. All NOTCH2 mutations are predicted to cause impaired degradation of the NOTCH2 protein by eliminating the C-terminal PEST domain, which is required for proteasomal recruitment. Among indolent B cell lymphoproliferative disorders, NOTCH2 mutations are restricted to SMZL, thus representing a potential diagnostic marker for this lymphoma type. In addition to NOTCH2, other modulators or members of the NOTCH pathway are recurrently targeted by genetic lesions in SMZL; these include NOTCH1, SPEN, and DTX1. We also noted mutations in other signaling pathways normally involved in MZ B cell development, suggesting that deregulation of MZ B cell development pathways plays a role in the pathogenesis of ∼60% SMZL. These findings have direct implications for the treatment of SMZL patients, given the availability of drugs that can target NOTCH, NF-κB, and other pathways deregulated in this disease. PMID:22891273

  19. Safety-I, Safety-II and Resilience Engineering.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Mary; Deutsch, Ellen S

    2015-12-01

    In the quest to continually improve the health care delivered to patients, it is important to understand "what went wrong," also known as Safety-I, when there are undesired outcomes, but it is also important to understand, and optimize "what went right," also known as Safety-II. The difference between Safety-I and Safety-II are philosophical as well as pragmatic. Improving health care delivery involves understanding that health care delivery is a complex adaptive system; components of that system impact, and are impacted by, the actions of other components of the system. Challenges to optimal care include regular, irregular and unexampled threats. This article addresses the dangers of brittleness and miscalibration, as well as the value of adaptive capacity and margin. These qualities can, respectively, detract from or contribute to the emergence of organizational resilience. Resilience is characterized by the ability to monitor, react, anticipate, and learn. Finally, this article celebrates the importance of humans, who make use of system capabilities and proactively mitigate the effects of system limitations to contribute to successful outcomes. PMID:26549146

  20. Unitary-process discrimination with error margin

    SciTech Connect

    Hashimoto, T.; Hayashi, A.; Horibe, M.; Hayashi, M.

    2010-06-15

    We investigate a discrimination scheme between unitary processes. By introducing a margin for the probability of an erroneous guess, this scheme interpolates the two standard discrimination schemes: minimum-error and unambiguous discrimination. We present solutions for two cases. One is the case of two unitary processes with general prior probabilities. The other is the case with a group symmetry: The processes comprise a projective representation of a finite group. In the latter case, we found that unambiguous discrimination is a kind of 'all or nothing': The maximum success probability is either 0 or 1. We also thoroughly analyze how entanglement with an auxiliary system improves discrimination performance.

  1. Deep Structures of The Angola Margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moulin, M.; Contrucci, I.; Olivet, J.-L.; Aslanian, D.; Géli, L.; Sibuet, J.-C.

    1 Ifremer Centre de Brest, DRO/Géosciences Marines, B.P. 70, 29280 Plouzané cedex (France) mmoulin@ifremer.fr/Fax : 33 2 98 22 45 49 2 Université de Bretagne Occidentale, Institut Universitaire Europeen de la Mer, Place Nicolas Copernic, 29280 Plouzane (France) 3 Total Fina Elf, DGEP/GSR/PN -GEOLOGIE, 2,place de la Coupole-La Defense 6, 92078 Paris la Defense Cedex Deep reflection and refraction seismic data were collected in April 2000 on the West African margin, offshore Angola, within the framework of the Zaiango Joint Project, conducted by Ifremer and Total Fina Elf Production. Vertical multichannel reflection seismic data generated by a « single-bubble » air gun array array (Avedik et al., 1993) were recorded on a 4.5 km long, digital streamer, while refraction and wide angle reflection seismic data were acquired on OBSs (Ocean Bottom Seismometers). Despite the complexity of the margin (5 s TWT of sediment, salt tectonics), the combination of seismic reflection and refraction methods results in an image and a velocity model of the ground structures below the Aptian salt layer. Three large seismic units appear in the reflection seismic section from the deep part on the margin under the base of salt. The upper seismic unit is layered with reflectors parallel to the base of the salt ; it represents unstructured sediments, filling a basin. The middle unit is seismically transparent. The lower unit is characterized by highly energetic reflectors. According to the OBS refraction data, these two units correspond to the continental crust and the base of the high energetic unit corresponds to the Moho. The margin appears to be divided in 3 domains, from east to west : i) a domain with an unthinned, 30 km thick, continental crust ; ii) a domain located between the hinge line and the foot of the continental slope, where the crust thins sharply, from 30 km to less than 7 km, this domain is underlain by an anormal layer with velocities comprising between 7,2 and 7

  2. Remote sensing of the marginal ice zone during Marginal Ice Zone Experiment (MIZEX) 83

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shuchman, R. A.; Campbell, W. J.; Burns, B. A.; Ellingsen, E.; Farrelly, B. A.; Gloersen, P.; Grenfell, T. C.; Hollinger, J.; Horn, D.; Johannessen, J. A.

    1984-01-01

    The remote sensing techniques utilized in the Marginal Ice Zone Experiment (MIZEX) to study the physical characteristics and geophysical processes of the Fram Strait Region of the Greenland Sea are described. The studies, which utilized satellites, aircraft, helicopters, and ship and ground-based remote sensors, focused on the use of microwave remote sensors. Results indicate that remote sensors can provide marginal ice zone characteristics which include ice edge and ice boundary locations, ice types and concentration, ice deformation, ice kinematics, gravity waves and swell (in the water and the ice), location of internal wave fields, location of eddies and current boundaries, surface currents and sea surface winds.

  3. Deep crustal structure and continent-ocean boundary along the Galicia continental margin (NW Iberia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Druet, María; Muñoz-Martín, Alfonso; Carbó, Andrés; Acosta, Juan; Granja Bruña, José Luis; Llanes, Pilar; Vázquez, Juan-Tomás; Ercilla, Gemma

    2016-04-01

    The Galicia continental margin is a magma-poor rifted margin with an extremely complex structure. Its formation involves several rifting episodes during the Mesozoic in the vicinity of a ridge triple junction, which produces a change in the orientation of the main structures. In addition, there is an overimposed Cenozoic partial tectonic inversion along its northern border. Although this continental margin has been widely studied since the 70's, most studies have focused on its western part in the transition to the Iberia Abyssal Plain, and there is a significant lack of information on the north and northwestern flanks of this margin. This fact, along with its great structural complexity, has resulted in the absence of a previous comprehensive regional geodynamic model integrating all the processes observed. In the present study we integrate a large volume of new geophysical data (gravity, swath bathymetry and 2D multichannel reflection seismic). Data come from the systematic mapping of the Spanish EEZ project which provides a dense grid of gravity data and full seafloor coverage with swath bathymetry, and from the ERGAP project which provides serially-arranged 2D seismic reflection profiles across the NW Iberia margin. The combined interpretation and modelling of this new information has arisen significant constraints on the origin, the deep crustal structure and the physiographic complexity of the margin, as well as on the characterization of the along- and across-strike variation of the ocean-continent transition along NW Iberia margin. The analysis of this information leads us to propose a conceptual model for the initiation of the tectonic inversion of a magma-poor rifted margin. Finally, a framework for the geodynamic evolution of the Galicia margin has been constructed, involving three main stages: A) an early stage from the end of rifting and oceanic drift in the Bay of Biscay (Santonian); B) an intermediate stage with the beginning of tectonic inversion in

  4. Max-margin Multiple-Instance Learning via Semidefinite Programming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Yuhong

    In this paper, we present a novel semidefinite programming approach for multiple-instance learning. We first formulate the multiple-instance learning as a combinatorial maximum margin optimization problem with additional instance selection constraints within the framework of support vector machines. Although solving this primal problem requires non-convex programming, we nevertheless can then derive an equivalent dual formulation that can be relaxed into a novel convex semidefinite programming (SDP). The relaxed SDP has mathcal{O}(T) free parameters where T is the number of instances, and can be solved using a standard interior-point method. Empirical study shows promising performance of the proposed SDP in comparison with the support vector machine approaches with heuristic optimization procedures.

  5. Characterizing entanglement with global and marginal entropic measures

    SciTech Connect

    Adesso, Gerardo; Illuminati, Fabrizio; De Siena, Silvio

    2003-12-01

    We qualify the entanglement of arbitrary mixed states of bipartite quantum systems by comparing global and marginal mixednesses quantified by different entropic measures. For systems of two qubits we discriminate the class of maximally entangled states with fixed marginal mixednesses, and determine an analytical upper bound relating the entanglement of formation to the marginal linear entropies. This result partially generalizes to mixed states the quantification of entanglement with marginal mixednesses holding for pure states. We identify a class of entangled states that, for fixed marginals, are globally more mixed than product states when measured by the linear entropy. Such states cannot be discriminated by the majorization criterion.

  6. Tectonic significance of Synrift sediment packages across the Congo continental margin

    SciTech Connect

    McGinnis, J.P.; Karner, G.D.; Driscoll, N.W. ); Brumbaugh, W.D. ); Cameron, N. )

    1993-09-01

    The tectonic and stratigraphic development of the Congo continental margin reflects the timing, magnitude, and distribution of lithospheric extension responsible for its formation. Details of the lithospheric extension process are recorded in the stratigraphic successions preserved along and across the margin. By using the stratal relationships (e.g., onlap, downlap, and truncation) and lithofacies determined from seismic reflection and exploratory well data as input into our basin-modeling strategy, we have developed an integrated approach to determine the relationship between the timing, magnitude, and distribution of lithospheric extension across the margin. Two hinge zones, an eastern and Atlantic hinge formed along the Congo margin in response to discrete extensional events occurring from the Berriasian to the Aptian. The eastern hinge zone demarcates the eastern limit of the broadly distributed Berriasian extension. This extension resulted in the formation of deep anoxic, lacustrine systems. In contrast, the Atlantic hinge, located [approximately]90 km west of the eastern hinge, marks the eastern limit of a second phase of extension, which began in the Hauterivian. Consequent footwall uplift and rotation exposed the earlier synrift and prerift stratigraphy to at least wave base causing varying amounts of erosional truncation across the Atlantic hinge zone along much of the Gabon, Congo, and Angola margins. The absence of the Melania Formation across the Congo margin implies that uplift of the Atlantic hinge was relatively minor compared to that across the Angola and Gabon margins. In addition, material eroded from the adjacent and topographically higher hinge zones may in part account for the thick wedge of sediment deposited seaward of the Congo Atlantic hinge. A third phase of extension reactivated both the eastern and Atlantic hinge zones and was responsible for creating the accommodation space for Marnes Noires source rock deposition.

  7. Spectrally encoded confocal microscopy for diagnosing breast cancer in excision and margin specimens.

    PubMed

    Brachtel, Elena F; Johnson, Nicole B; Huck, Amelia E; Rice-Stitt, Travis L; Vangel, Mark G; Smith, Barbara L; Tearney, Guillermo J; Kang, Dongkyun

    2016-04-01

    A large percentage of breast cancer patients treated with breast conserving surgery need to undergo multiple surgeries due to positive margins found during post-operative margin assessment. Carcinomas could be removed completely during the initial surgery and additional surgery avoided if positive margins can be determined intraoperatively. Spectrally encoded confocal microscopy (SECM) is a high-speed reflectance confocal microscopy technology that has a potential to rapidly image the entire surgical margin at subcellular resolution and accurately determine margin status intraoperatively. In this study, in order to test the feasibility of using SECM for intraoperative margin assessment, we have evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of SECM for detecting various types of breast cancers. Forty-six surgically removed breast specimens were imaged with an SECM system. Side-by-side comparison between SECM and histologic images showed that SECM images can visualize key histomorphologic patterns of normal/benign and malignant breast tissues. Small (500 μm × 500 μm) spatially registered SECM and histologic images (n=124 for each) were diagnosed independently by three pathologists with expertise in breast pathology. Diagnostic accuracy of SECM for determining malignant tissues was high, average sensitivity of 0.91, specificity of 0.93, positive predictive value of 0.95, and negative predictive value of 0.87. Intra-observer agreement and inter-observer agreement for SECM were also high, 0.87 and 0.84, respectively. Results from this study suggest that SECM may be developed into an intraoperative margin assessment tool for guiding breast cancer excisions. PMID:26779830

  8. Safety and maintenance - a delicate balance

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez, R.G.

    1997-01-01

    Process safety and maintenance programs comprise the second largest component of controllable operating costs to the refiner, next to energy. Leadership in managing the cost of and implementing these programs correlates well to leadership in cost performance and profitability. With all the turbulence facing the refining industry, one positive result is that refinery management is teaming up with employees to implement systems and procedures necessary to operate efficiently and safely. The refining industry is in a state of economic upheaval as it evolves into the 21st century. With the trend toward downsizing and re-engineering, one would anticipate more safety related incidents. Yet, despite less-than-healthy margins and streamlined staffing, it may be surprising to many (including a number of consumer watchdog groups) that today`s refiners are operating with some of the best safety records ever. Some of these safety programs are discussed.

  9. Hierarchical Marginal Land Assessment for Land Use Planning

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Shujiang; Post, Wilfred M; Wang, Dali; Nichols, Dr Jeff A; Bandaru, Vara Prasad

    2013-01-01

    Marginal land provides an alternative potential for food and bioenergy production in the face of limited land resources; however, effective assessment of marginal lands is not well addressed. Concerns over environmental risks, ecosystem services and sustainability for marginal land have been widely raised. The objective of this study was to develop a hierarchical marginal land assessment framework for land use planning and management. We first identified major land functions linking production, environment, ecosystem services and economics, and then classified land resources into four categories of marginal land using suitability and limitations associated with major management goals, including physically marginal land, biologically marginal land, environmental-ecological marginal land, and economically marginal land. We tested this assessment framework in south-western Michigan, USA. Our results indicated that this marginal land assessment framework can be potentially feasible on land use planning for food and bioenergy production, and balancing multiple goals of land use management. We also compared our results with marginal land assessment from the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) and land capability classes (LCC) that are used in the US. The hierarchical assessment framework has advantages of quantitatively reflecting land functions and multiple concerns. This provides a foundation upon which focused studies can be identified in order to improve the assessment framework by quantifying high-resolution land functions associated with environment and ecosystem services as well as their criteria are needed to improve the assessment framework.

  10. Safety harness

    DOEpatents

    Gunter, Larry W.

    1993-01-01

    A safety harness to be worn by a worker, especially a worker wearing a plastic suit thereunder for protection in a radioactive or chemically hostile environment, which safety harness comprises a torso surrounding portion with at least one horizontal strap for adjustably securing the harness about the torso, two vertical shoulder straps with rings just forward of the of the peak of the shoulders for attaching a life-line and a pair of adjustable leg supporting straps releasibly attachable to the torso surrounding portion. In the event of a fall, the weight of the worker, when his fall is broken and he is suspended from the rings with his body angled slightly back and chest up, will be borne by the portion of the leg straps behind his buttocks rather than between his legs. Furthermore, the supporting straps do not restrict the air supplied through hoses into his suit when so suspended.

  11. Detailed surveys of offshore Peru margin

    SciTech Connect

    Hussong, D.M.; Taylor, B.; Kulm, L.D.; Hilde, T.W.C.

    1986-07-01

    The complex and highly variable structure of the submarine continental margin of central Peru is revealed by geophysical surveys and geologic sampling completed in 1985. The surveys were conducted in preparation for deep scientific drilling to be undertaken by the Ocean Drilling Program in November-December 1986. More than 11,000 km/sup 2/ of sea floor were mapped using the SeaMARC II side-scan sonar and bathymetry system; 1500 km of multichannel seismic reflection profiles and 4000 km of single-channel seismic data were shot; and many coring, dredging, and heat-flow stations were obtained. The data permit construction of detailed three-dimensional geologic maps of the region. These maps show that the ancient metamorphic rocks of South America extend close to the trench axis and apparently have undergone a history of truncation and subsidence related to the subduction of the Nazca oceanic plate. Adjacent segments of the Peru forearc have dramatically different structure and appear to have had differing tectonic histories. The margin is disrupted by extensive (primarily tensional) faulting; the larger faults extend perpendicular to the strike of the trench and often serve as conduits for diapirs and mud volcanoes. Living chemosynthetic clams were dredged from 3800-m depth along one of these fault trends, suggesting that active fluid venting occurs at depth on the continental wall of the Peru Trench.

  12. On recent developments in marginal separation theory

    PubMed Central

    Braun, S.; Scheichl, S.

    2014-01-01

    Thin aerofoils are prone to localized flow separation at their leading edge if subjected to moderate angles of attack α. Although ‘laminar separation bubbles’ at first do not significantly alter the aerofoil performance, they tend to ‘burst’ if α is increased further or if perturbations acting upon the flow reach a certain intensity. This then either leads to global flow separation (stall) or triggers the laminar–turbulent transition process within the boundary layer flow. This paper addresses the asymptotic analysis of the early stages of the latter phenomenon in the limit as the characteristic Reynolds number , commonly referred to as marginal separation theory. A new approach based on the adjoint operator method is presented that enables the fundamental similarity laws of marginal separation theory to be derived and the analysis to be extended to higher order. Special emphasis is placed on the breakdown of the flow description, i.e. the formation of finite-time singularities (a manifestation of the bursting process), and on its resolution being based on asymptotic arguments. The passage to the subsequent triple-deck stage is described in detail, which is a prerequisite for carrying out a future numerical treatment of this stage in a proper way. Moreover, a composite asymptotic model is developed in order for the inherent ill-posedness of the Cauchy problems associated with the current flow description to be resolved. PMID:24936013

  13. Review and Assessment of JPL's Thermal Margins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siebes, G.; Kingery, C.; Farguson, C.; White, M.; Blakely, M.; Nunes, J.; Avila, A.; Man, K.; Hoffman, A.; Forgrave, J.

    2012-01-01

    JPL has captured its experience from over four decades of robotic space exploration into a set of design rules. These rules have gradually changed into explicit requirements and are now formally implemented and verified. Over an extended period of time, the initial understanding of intent and rationale for these rules has faded and rules are now frequently applied without further consideration. In the meantime, mission classes and their associated risk postures have evolved, coupled with resource constraints and growing design diversity, bringing into question the current "one size fits all" thermal margin approach. This paper offers a systematic review of the heat flow path from an electronic junction to the eventual heat rejection to space. This includes the identification of different regimes along this path and the associated requirements. The work resulted in a renewed understanding of the intent behind JPL requirements for hot thermal margins and a framework for relevant considerations, which in turn enables better decision making when a deviation to these requirements is considered.

  14. Financial incentives for marginal oil and gas production

    SciTech Connect

    Terzian, G.A.; Enright, J.M.; Brashear, J.P.

    1995-12-31

    Congress and the Administration are considering Federal tax incentives to improve the economics of marginal oil and gas wells. The effectiveness of these will depend on the specific provisions of the incentive, primarily whether they can be used by the large percentage of marginal well operators in AMT or without taxable income. Comprehensive assessment of Federal marginal well incentives requires a methodology that accounts for the diversity of marginal production operations. This paper presents a marginal well database, model, and methodology designed specifically to assess the costs and benefits of Federal tax incentives for marginal wells. Selected results are presented, along with general conclusions about Federal marginal well tax incentives based on numerous analyses.

  15. Safety valve

    DOEpatents

    Bergman, Ulf C.

    1984-01-01

    The safety valve contains a resilient gland to be held between a valve seat and a valve member and is secured to the valve member by a sleeve surrounding the end of the valve member adjacent to the valve seat. The sleeve is movable relative to the valve member through a limited axial distance and a gap exists between said valve member and said sleeve.

  16. Farm Safety

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, G. S.

    1966-01-01

    Accident and safety are related terms; the higher the accident rate in any industry, the greater is the need for safety measures designed to prevent accidents. This article discusses the accident and safety problems in agriculture, which includes horticulture and forestry. There is still a tendency among townspeople to think of the countryside as peaceful and tranquil, a place where nothing happens very quickly and far removed from violent death or crippling injury. This pleasant rustic picture has undergone a striking change in the last 30 years owing to considerable agricultural mechanization and the development of chemical pesticides, which have brought new dangers to those who live and work on the land. Although men have readily adapted themselves to new machines and methods, they have not proved as able to recognize new dangers and learn how to guard against them. In consequence, accidents have increased to such an extent that the whole industry has realized the need for positive preventive measures. In this country, it is generally accepted that an employer of labour has a responsibility to provide safe working conditions for those he employs. Farm safety legislation goes a little further and usually requires an employer to provide necessary safeguards, with the added requirement on a worker to make use of them. It is a feature of accident prevention work that it never reaches a stage when it can be regarded as complete. Even when a reduction in accidents has been achieved, the effort must be sustained or the trend will be quickly reversed. Images PMID:5904095

  17. Isostatic and dynamic support of high topography on a North Atlantic passive margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedersen, Vivi K.; Huismans, Ritske S.; Moucha, Robert

    2016-07-01

    Substantial controversy surrounds the origin of high topography along passive continental margins. Here we focus on the well-documented elevated passive margin in southwestern Scandinavia, and quantify the relative contributions of crustal isostasy and dynamic topography in controlling the present topography. We find that majority of the topography is compensated by the crustal structure, suggesting a topographic age that is in accord with the 400 Myr old Caledonian orogenesis. In addition, we propose that dynamic uplift of ∼300 m has rejuvenated existing topography locally in the coastal region over the last 10 Myr. Such uplift, combined with a general sea level fall, can help explain a variety of observations that have traditionally been interpreted in favor of a peneplain uplift model. We conclude that high topography along the Scandinavian margin cannot represent remnants of a peneplain uplifted within the last 20 Myr. The topography must have been high since the Caledonian orogeny.

  18. Seismic evidence for widespread serpentinized forearc upper mantle along the Cascadia margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brocher, Thomas M.; Parsons, Tom; Tréhu, Anne M.; Snelson, Catherine M.; Fisher, Michael A.

    2003-03-01

    Petrologic models suggest that dehydration and metamorphism of subducting slabs release water that serpentinizes the overlying forearc mantle. To test these models, we use the results of controlled-source seismic surveys and earthquake tomography to map the upper mantle along the Cascadia margin forearc. We find anomalously low upper-mantle velocities and/or weak wide-angle reflections from the top of the upper mantle in a narrow region along the margin, compatible with recent teleseismic studies and indicative of a serpentinized upper mantle. The existence of a hydrated forearc upper-mantle wedge in Cascadia has important geological and geophysical implications. For example, shearing within the upper mantle, inferred from seismic reflectivity and consistent with its serpentinite rheology, may occur during aseismic slow slip events on the megathrust. In addition, progressive dehydration of the hydrated mantle wedge south of the Mendocino triple junction may enhance the effects of a slab gap during the evolution of the California margin.

  19. Reconstructing conjugate margins of the Canada-Amerasian basin: New tectonic constraints from deep seismic data and gravity profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helwig, J.; Ady, B.; Kumar, N.; Granath, J. W.; Dinkelman, M. G.; Bird, D. E.; Emmet, P. A.

    2010-12-01

    Over the past 5 years, decreasing sea ice and increasing scientific and economic interest in the Arctic have prompted new geological and geophysical studies that advance knowledge of the northern continental margins of North America. We report here on ArcticSPAN™ 40-km deep, PSDM (Pre-Stack Depth Migrated) marine seismic reflection profiles and gravity data from the Beaufort Sea of Canada and the US Chukchi Sea that constrain the position of the continent-ocean boundary and the relict spreading center of the Canada Basin, displaying significant variations in the orientation, geometry and deep crustal structure of the passive margin facing the Arctic Ocean. In the Canadian Beaufort Sea three distinct segments of the margin correspond to contrasts of pre-rift foundations: 1. the rifted, rotated Arctic Alaska Terrane west of the Mackenzie Delta (Beaufort segment); 2. the transform-faulted Laurentian crust of the Tuktoyaktuk margin (Tuk segment); and, 3. the rifted Laurentian crust of the Banks Island segment. The thick late Mesozoic-Cenozoic clastic prism of the continental margin was centered in the Mackenzie delta area by Mesozoic rifting of the Canada Basin. The northerly Paleocene-Miocene sweep of Cordilleran deformation modified the passive margin, overprinting the offshore Mackenzie Delta. The interpreted tectonic architecture of the three segments of the Beaufort passive margin demonstrates their distinct roles in opening of the Canada Basin. Two conjugate rifted margin segments (Beaufort and Banks Island) and a linking transform fault margin (Tuk) formed during the separation of the Arctic Alaska Terrane from northwestern Laurentia, in accord with a Jurassic-Aptian rotational model of Canada Basin opening. But the orientation of the Tuk transform segment indicates that a single pole of rotation cannot describe the opening of the basin. Additional seismic profiles from investigations of the Chukchi Sea margin display passive margin structures and rift to pre

  20. Quo Vadis Payload Safety?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fodroci, Michael P.; Schwartz, MaryBeth

    2008-01-01

    As we complete the preparations for the fourth Hubble Space Telescope (HST) servicing mission, we note an anniversary approaching: it was 30 years ago in July that the first HST payload safety review panel meeting was held. This, in turn, was just over a year after the very first payload safety review, a Phase 0 review for the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite and its Inertial Upper Stage, held in June of 1977. In adapting a process that had been used in the review and certification of earlier Skylab payloads, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) engineers sought to preserve the lessons learned in the development of technical payload safety requirements, while creating a new process that would serve the very different needs of the new space shuttle program. Their success in this undertaking is substantiated by the fact that this process and these requirements have proven to be remarkably robust, flexible, and adaptable. Furthermore, the payload safety process has, to date, served us well in the critical mission of safeguarding our astronauts, cosmonauts, and spaceflight participants. Both the technical requirements and their interpretation, as well as the associated process requirements have grown, evolved, been streamlined, and have been adapted to fit multiple programs, including the International Space Station (ISS) program, the Shuttle/Mir program, and most recently the United States Constellation program. From its earliest days, it was anticipated that the payload safety process would be international in scope, and so it has been. European Space Agency (ESA), Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), German Space Agency (DLR), Canadian Space Agency (CSA), Russian Space Agency (RSA), and many additional countries have flown payloads on both the space shuttle and on the ISS. Our close cooperation and long-term working relationships have culminated in the franchising of the payload safety review process itself to our partners in ESA, which in

  1. Unreviewed Safety Question Determination for TOPAZ II uranium fuel pellet production at the Plutonium Handling Facility (PF-4), Technical Area 55, Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, D.J.P.

    1993-09-29

    Enriched uranium oxide, nitride, and carbide fuel pellets have been produced at PF-4 since the facility became operational in the late 1970s. The TOPAZ II reactors require fuel enriched to 97% uranium-235. Approximately 75 kilograms (kgs) of uranium will be processed per year in support of this program. The amount of fuel processed per year at PF-4 will not be increased for these programs, but the batch size will be increased to approximately 3 kgs of uranium. The current DOE-approved Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) calls for batches containing 45 grams (gms) of plutonium-239 and 172 gms of uranium-235. The impact of increasing the uranium batch size on the facility authorization basis is analyzed in the attached Safety Evaluation Worksheet. In addition, the structural modification for the transformer and vacuum pump installation, required to support the operation, is evaluated. Based on the attached Safety Evaluation, it has been determined that the change in uranium batch size does not constitute an Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ), the increase in uranium batch size does not increase the probability or consequences of any accidents previously analyzed and does not create the possibility for a new type of accident or reduce the margin of safety in the Operational Safety Requirements (OSRs). Similarly, the structural modifications required for the transformer and vacuum pump installation do not increase the probability or consequence of any accident previously analyzed and do not create the possibility for a new type of accident or reduce any margin of safety in the OSRS.

  2. Evaluation of certain food additives and contaminants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) met in Rome from 14 to 23 June 2011. The purpose of the committee was to provide the Codex Alimentarius Commission access with objective advice on high priority food safety matters. Specifically, the tasks before the Committee were: i) t...

  3. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, J. R.; St. Clair, T. L.; Burks, H. D.; Stoakley, D. M.

    1987-01-01

    A method has been found for enhancing the melt flow of thermoplastic polyimides during processing. A high molecular weight 422 copoly(amic acid) or copolyimide was fused with approximately 0.05 to 5 pct by weight of a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive, and this melt was studied by capillary rheometry. Excellent flow and improved composite properties on graphite resulted from the addition of a PMDA-aniline additive to LARC-TPI. Solution viscosity studies imply that amic acid additives temporarily lower molecular weight and, hence, enlarge the processing window. Thus, compositions containing the additive have a lower melt viscosity for a longer time than those unmodified.

  4. Identifying Factors and Techniques to Decrease the Positive Margin Rate in Partial Mastectomies: Have We Missed the Mark?

    PubMed

    Edwards, Sara B; Leitman, I Michael; Wengrofsky, Aaron J; Giddins, Marley J; Harris, Emily; Mills, Christopher B; Fukuhara, Shinichi; Cassaro, Sebastiano

    2016-05-01

    Breast conservation therapy (BCT) has a reported incidence of positive margins ranging widely in the literature from 20% to 70%. Efforts have been made to refine standards for partial mastectomy and to predict which patients are at highest risk for incomplete excision. Most have focused on histology and demographics. We sought to further define modifiable risk factors for positive margins and residual disease. A retrospective study was conducted of 567 consecutive partial mastectomies by 21 breast and general surgeons from 2009 to 2012. Four hundred fourteen cases of neoplasm were reviewed for localization, intraoperative assessment, excision technique, rates, and results of re-excision/mastectomy. Histologic margins were positive in 23% of patients, 25% had margins 0.1-0.9 mm, and 7% had tumor within 1-1.9 mm. Residual tumor was identified at-in 61 cases: 38% (disease at margin), 21% (0.1-0.9 mm), and 14% (1-1.9 mm). Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) was present in 85% of residual disease on re-excision and correlated to higher rates of re-excision (p = <0.001), residual disease, and subsequent mastectomy. The use of multiple needles to localize neoplasms was associated with 2-3 times the likelihood for positive margins than when a single needle was required. The removal of additional margins at initial surgery correlated with improved rates of complete excision when DCIS was present. Patients must have careful analysis of specimen margins at the time of surgery and may benefit from additional tissue excision or routine shaving of the cavity of resection. Surgeons should conduct careful patient selection for BCT, in the context of multifocal, and multicentric disease. Patients for whom tumor localization requires bracketing may be at higher risk for positive margins and residual disease and should be counseled accordingly. PMID:26854189

  5. Investigating Continental Margins: An Activity to Help Students Better Understand the Continental Margins of North America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poli, Maria-Serena; Capodivacca, Marco

    2011-01-01

    Continental margins are an important part of the ocean floor. They separate the land above sea level from the deep ocean basins below and occupy about 11% of Earth's surface. They are also economically important, as they harbor both mineral resources and some of the most valuable fisheries in the world. In this article students investigate North…

  6. Singular perturbation margin and generalised gain margin for nonlinear time-invariant systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiaojing; Zhu, J. Jim

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, singular perturbation margin (SPM) and generalised gain margin (GGM) are proposed as the classical phase margin and gain margin like stability metrics for nonlinear systems established from the view of the singular perturbation and the regular perturbation, respectively. The problem of SPM and GGM assessment of a nonlinear nominal system is formulated. The SPM and GGM formulations are provided as the functions of radius of attraction (ROA), which is introduced as a conservative measure of the domain of attraction (DOA). Furthermore, the ROA constrained SPM and GGM analysis are processed through two stages: (1) the SPM and GGM assessment for nonlinear systems at the equilibrium point, based on the SPM and GGM equilibrium theorems, including time-invariant and time-varying cases (Theorem 5.3, Theorem 5.2, Theorem 5.4 and Theorem 5.5); (2) the establishment of the relationship between the SPM or GGM and the ROA for nonlinear time-invariant systems through the construction of the Lyapunov function for the singularly perturbed model (Theorem 6.1 and Section 6.2.3).

  7. Talking (and Not Talking) about Race, Social Class and Dis/Ability: Working Margin to Margin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferri, Beth A.; Connor, David J.

    2014-01-01

    In this article we examine some of the omnipresent yet unacknowledged discourses of social and economic disadvantage and dis/ability within schools in the US. First, we document ways that social class, race, and dis/ability function within schools to further disadvantage and exclude already marginalized students. Next, we show how particular ways…

  8. Partitioning of deformation along a reactivated rifted margin: example of the northern Ligurian margin.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sage, Françoise; Beslier, Marie-Odile; Gaullier, Virginie; Larroque, Christophe; Dessa, Jean-Xavier; Mercier de Lepinay, Bernard; Corradi, Nicola; Migeon, Sébastien; Katz, Hélène; Ruiz Constan, Ana

    2013-04-01

    The northern Ligurian margin, of Oligo-Miocene age, is currently undergoing compression related to microplate motions and/or to gravity spreading of the Alpine chain located immediately north of it. Active thrust faults and folds have previously been identified below the margin, together with a global uplift of the continental edge, since at least the Messinian. The seismicity that goes with the present-day margin contraction (e.g. Mw 6.9, 1887/02/23) extends to the axis of the adjacent oceanic basin (e.g. ML 6.0, 1963/07/19; ML 5.4, 2011/07/07). However, we do not know of any recent or active crustal contractional structure within this oceanic domain. In this study, we use new 12-channel high-resolution seismic data (FABLES seismic cruise, 2012, R/V Tethys II) in order to image the sedimentary cover of the Ligurian oceanic basin, up to ~3km below the seabed, including the Plio-Quaternary and the Messinian sediment down to the bottom of the Messinian salt layer. Because the Messinian event is well dated (5.96-5.32 Ma) and well identified in the seismic data, it forms a clear marker that we use to characterize the recent deformation related to both mobile salt motion and crustal tectonics. About 50 km south of the margin offshore of Italy, we identify huge and complex salt walls that elongate SW-NE. Such salt walls, which cannot be explained by salt tectonics only, are interpreted as evidence of deep-seated crustal deformation. They form en echelon structures that are well expressed in the seabed morphology, and do not correspond to any significant vertical throw at the base of the salt layer. This suggests that within the deep basin, mainly strike-slip faulting accommodates long-term crustal deformation. It thus offers a contrast with the margin where deformation is mainly marked by shortening and reverse faulting, with vertical throws of several hundred meters. This discrepancy in the tectonic styles between the margin and the adjacent oceanic basin suggests some

  9. New magnetic anomaly map of the East Antarctic continental margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golynsky, Alexander; Ivanov, Sergey; Kazankov, Andrey

    2010-05-01

    Marine magnetic survey coverage of the southern part of Indian Ocean is to a certain extent limited for defining the magnetic pattern of the continental margin of East Antarctica. The USA research vessels collected the bulk of the marine magnetic data in the beginning of 1960's. During the succeeding years Australian, German, Japanese, Russian and other international scientific programs made major contributions to the network of marine magnetic data. Since the beginning of new century only two nations (Russian and Australian) have acquired the marine magnetic data in the southern part of Indian Ocean. The marine surveys in the Cosmonaut Sea, the western part of the Cooperation Sea in the Davis and Mawson Seas were accomplished by the PMGRE in 2000-2009 field seasons. The marine magnetic data collected during two seasons (2001-2002) within the AASOPP Project which was established in early 2000 to define the outer limits of the continental shelf offshore of the Australian Antarctic Territory (AAT) covered the full length of the AAT from 40OE to 160OE. The new magnetic anomaly map of the East Antarctic continental margin incorporates all available data acquired by the international community since the IGY 1957-58 through to 2009. Results of the compilation do not radically alter recent models describing first-order motions between the Antarctic, Australian and Indian plates, but they help to resolve uncertainties in early break-up history of opening between these plates. The timing and direction of early seafloor spreading in the area off the Antarctic margin, once conjugate to part of the Southern Greater Indian margin and to Australian margin, along the largely unknown region of the Enderby Basin, Davis Sea and Mawson Sea has been analyzed by many authors using different data sets. It is highly likely that spreading in the Enderby Basin occurred around the same time as the well documented M-sequence (anomalies M10 to M0) off the Perth Basin, Western Australia

  10. Engine Development Design Margins Briefing Charts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bentz, Chuck

    2006-01-01

    New engines experience durability problems after entering service. The most prevalent and costly is the hot section, particularly the high-pressure turbine. The origin of durability problems can be traced back to: 1) the basic aero-mechanical design systems, assumptions, and design margins used by the engine designers, 2) the available materials systems, and 3) to a large extent, aggressive marketing in a highly competitive environment that pushes engine components beyond the demonstrated capability of the basic technology available for the hardware designs. Unfortunately the user must operate the engine in the service environment in order to learn the actual thrust loading and the time at max effort take-off conditions used in service are needed to determine the hot section life. Several hundred thousand hours of operational service will be required before the demonstrated reliability of a fleet of engines or the design deficiencies of the engine hot section parts can be determined. Also, it may take three to four engine shop visits for heavy maintenance on the gas path hardware to establish cost effective build standards. Spare parts drive the oerator's engine maintenance costs but spare parts also makes lots of money for the engine manufacturer during the service life of an engine. Unless competition prevails for follow-on engine buys, there is really no motivation for an OEM to spend internal money to improve parts durability and reduce earnings derived from a lucrative spare parts business. If the hot section life is below design goals or promised values, the OEM migh argue that the engine is being operated beyond its basic design intent. On the other hand, the airframer and the operator will continue to remind the OEM that his engine was selected based on a lot of promises to deliver spec thrust with little impact on engine service life if higher thrust is used intermittently. In the end, a standoff prevails and nothing gets fixed. This briefing will propose

  11. 21 CFR 170.38 - Determination of food additive status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Determination of food additive status. 170.38 Section 170.38 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES Food Additive Safety § 170.38 Determination of food additive status. (a)...

  12. 21 CFR 170.38 - Determination of food additive status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Determination of food additive status. 170.38 Section 170.38 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES Food Additive Safety § 170.38 Determination of food additive status. (a)...

  13. 21 CFR 170.38 - Determination of food additive status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES Food Additive Safety § 170.38 Determination of food additive status. (a) The Commissioner may, in accordance with § 170.35(b)(4) or (c)(5... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Determination of food additive status....

  14. 21 CFR 170.38 - Determination of food additive status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES Food Additive Safety § 170.38 Determination of food additive status. (a) The Commissioner may, in accordance with § 170.35(b)(4) or (c)(5... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Determination of food additive status....

  15. Module Safety Issues (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Wohlgemuth, J.

    2012-02-01

    Description of how to make PV modules so that they are less likely to turn into safety hazards. Making modules inherently safer with minimum additional cost is the preferred approach for PV. Safety starts with module design to ensure redundancy within the electrical circuitry to minimize open circuits and proper mounting instructions to prevent installation related ground faults. Module manufacturers must control the raw materials and processes to ensure that that every module is built like those qualified through the safety tests. This is the reason behind the QA task force effort to develop a 'Guideline for PV Module Manufacturing QA'. Periodic accelerated stress testing of production products is critical to validate the safety of the product. Combining safer PV modules with better systems designs is the ultimate goal. This should be especially true for PV arrays on buildings. Use of lower voltage dc circuits - AC modules, DC-DC converters. Use of arc detectors and interrupters to detect arcs and open the circuits to extinguish the arcs.

  16. Prediction and diagnosis of clinical outcomes affecting restoration margins.

    PubMed

    Dennison, J B; Sarrett, D C

    2012-04-01

    The longevity of dental restorations is largely dependent on the continuity at the interface between the restorative material and adjacent tooth structure (the restoration margin). Clinical decisions on restoration repair or replacement are usually based upon the weakest point along that margin interface. Physical properties of a restorative material, such as polymerisation shrinkage, water sorption, solubility, elastic modulus and shear strength, all have an effect on stress distribution and can significantly affect margin integrity. This review will focus on two aspects of margin deterioration in the oral environment: the in vitro testing of margin seal using emersion techniques to simulate the oral environment and to predict clinical margin failure and the relationship between clinically observable microleakage and secondary caries. The many variables associated with in vitro testing of marginal leakage and the interpretation of the data are presented in detail. The most recent studies of marginal leakage mirror earlier methodology and lack validity and reliability. The lack of standardised testing procedures makes it impossible to compare studies or to predict the clinical performance of adhesive materials. Continual repeated in vitro studies contribute little to the science in this area. Clinical evidence is cited to refute earlier conclusions that clinical microleakage (penetrating margin discoloration) leads to caries development and is an indication for restoration replacement. Margin defects, without visible evidence of soft dentin on the wall or base of the defect, should be monitored, repaired or resealed, in lieu of total restoration replacement. PMID:22066463

  17. Apollo experience report: Safety activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, C. N.

    1975-01-01

    A description is given of the flight safety experiences gained during the Apollo Program and safety, from the viewpoint of program management, engineering, mission planning, and ground test operations was discussed. Emphasis is placed on the methods used to identify the risks involved in flight and in certain ground test operations. In addition, there are discussions on the management and engineering activities used to eliminate or reduce these risks.

  18. Safety and Liability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berthelot, Ronald J.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    This series of five articles highlights Pensacola Junior College's occupational safety course, involving simulated emergencies, Florida's standards for teacher liability, electrical safety in the classroom and laboratory, color coding for machine safety, and Florida industrial arts safety instructional materials. (SK)

  19. Northeast Atlantic Igneous Province volcanic margin development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mjelde, R.; Breivik, A. J.; Faleide, J. I.

    2009-04-01

    Early Eocene continental breakup in the NE Atlantic Volcanic Province (NAIP) was associated with voluminous extrusive and intrusive magmatism, and initial seafloor spreading produced anomalously thick oceanic crust. Recent publications based on crustal-scale wide-angle seismic data show that there is a positive correlation between igneous crustal thickness (H) and average P-wave velocity (Vp) on all investigated margins in the NAIP. Vp can be used as a proxy for crustal composition, which can be related to the mode of mantle melting. A positive H-Vp correlation indicates that excessive mantle melting the first few million years after breakup was driven by an initial increased temperature that cools off as seafloor spreading develops, consistent with a mantle plume model. Variations in mantle composition can explain excess magmatism, but will generate a negative H-Vp correlation. Active mantle convection may increase the flux of mantle rocks through the melting zone above the rate of passive corner flow, which can also produce excessive magmatism. This would produce little H-Vp correlation, and place the curve lower than the passive flow melting curve in the diagram. We have compiled earlier published results with our own analyses of published and unpublished data from different groups to look for systematic variations in the mantle melting mode along the NAIP margins. Earlier studies (Holbrook et al., 2002, White et al, 2008) on the southeast Greenland conjugate system, indicate that the thick igneous crust of the southern NAIP (SE Greenland ? Hatton Bank) was dominated by increased mantle temperature only, while magmatism closer to the southern side of and including the Greenland-Iceland-Færøy Ridge (GIFR) was created by combined temperature increase and active mantle convection. Recent publications (Breivik et al., 2008, White et al, 2008) north of the GIFR for the Norway Basin segment, indicate temperature dominated magmatism between the Jan Mayen Fracture

  20. MARGINAL EXPENSE OIL WELL WIRELESS SURVEILLANCE MEOWS

    SciTech Connect

    Mason M. Medizade; John R. Ridgely; Donald G. Nelson

    2004-11-01

    A marginal expense oil well wireless surveillance system to monitor system performance and production from rod-pumped wells in real time from wells operated by Vaquero Energy in the Edison Field, Main Area of Kern County in California has been successfully designed and field tested. The surveillance system includes a proprietary flow sensor, a programmable transmitting unit, a base receiver and receiving antenna, and a base station computer equipped with software to interpret the data. First, the system design is presented. Second, field data obtained from three wells is shown. Results of the study show that an effective, cost competitive, real-time wireless surveillance system can be introduced to oil fields across the United States and the world.

  1. JGR and marginal ice zone processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    As a follow-up to the special sessions on marginal ice zone (MIZ) processes at the AGU 1981 Fall Meeting in San Francisco and to sessions scheduled for the upcoming AGU/ASLO Meeting in San Antonio, a collection of papers on MIZ research is planned for the Journal of Geophysical Research.Tentative titles for manuscripts should be sent as soon as possible to Robin D. Muench, Coordinator JGR/MIZ Issue, SAI/Northwest, 13400B Northrup Way #36, Bellevue, WA 98005. Finished manuscripts, due April 1, 1982, should be sent directly to A.D. Kirwan, Jr., coeditor of JGR, Oceans and Atmospheres, Department of Marine Science, University of South Florida, 140 Seventh Ave. South, St. Petersburg, FL 33701. Authors are requested to specify that manuscripts are for the special MIZ issue.

  2. HIDUTYDRV Code, A Fuel Product Margin Tool

    SciTech Connect

    Krammen, Michael A.; Karoutas, Zeses E.; Grill, Steven F.; Sutharshan, Balendra

    2007-07-01

    HIDUTYDRV is a computer code currently used in core design to model the best estimate steady-state fuel rod corrosion performance for Westinghouse's CE-design 14x14 and 16x16 fuel. The fuel rod oxide thickness, sub-cooled nucleate boiling (referred to as mass evaporation or steaming), and fuel duty indices can be predicted for individual rods or up to every fuel rod in the quarter core at every nuclear fuel management depletion time-step as a function of axial elevation within the core. Best estimate operating margins for fuel components whose performance depends on the local power and thermal hydraulic conditions are candidates for analysis with HIDUTYDRV. HIDUTYDRV development will focus on fuel component parameters associated with known leakers for addressing INPO goals to eliminate fuel leakers by 2010. (authors)

  3. Additive usage levels.

    PubMed

    Langlais, R

    1996-01-01

    With the adoption of the European Parliament and Council Directives on sweeteners, colours and miscellaneous additives the Commission is now embarking on the project of coordinating the activities of the European Union Member States in the collection of the data that are to make up the report on food additive intake requested by the European Parliament. This presentation looks at the inventory of available sources on additive use levels and concludes that for the time being national legislation is still the best source of information considering that the directives have yet to be transposed into national legislation. Furthermore, this presentation covers the correlation of the food categories as found in the additives directives with those used by national consumption surveys and finds that in a number of instances this correlation still leaves a lot to be desired. The intake of additives via food ingestion and the intake of substances which are chemically identical to additives but which occur naturally in fruits and vegetables is found in a number of cases to be higher than the intake of additives added during the manufacture of foodstuffs. While the difficulties are recognized in contributing to the compilation of food additive intake data, industry as a whole, i.e. the food manufacturing and food additive manufacturing industries, are confident that in a concerted effort, use data on food additives by industry can be made available. Lastly, the paper points out that with the transportation of the additives directives into national legislation and the time by which the food industry will be able to make use of the new food legislative environment several years will still go by; food additives use data by the food industry will thus have to be reviewed at the beginning of the next century. PMID:8792135

  4. Safety Grooving

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Safety grooving, the cutting of grooves in concrete to increase traction and prevent injury, was first developed to reduce aircraft accidents on wet runways. Represented by the International Grooving and Grinding Association (IG&GA), the industry expanded into highway and pedestrian applications. The technique originated at Langley, which assisted in testing the grooving at airports and on highways. Skidding was reduced, stopping distance decreased, and a vehicle's cornering ability on curves was increased. The process has been extended to animal holding pens, steps, parking lots and other potentially slippery surfaces.

  5. Delivering safety

    SciTech Connect

    Baldwin, N.D.; Spooner, K.G.; Walkden, P.

    2007-07-01

    In the United Kingdom there have been significant recent changes to the management of civil nuclear liabilities. With the formation in April 2005 of the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA), ownership of the civil nuclear licensed sites in the UK, including the Magnox Reactor Stations, passed to this new organisation. The NDAs mission is to seek acceleration of the nuclear clean up programme and deliver increased value for money and, consequently, are driving their contractors to seek more innovative ways of performing work. British Nuclear Group manages the UK Magnox stations under contract to the NDA. This paper summarises the approach being taken within its Reactor Sites business to work with suppliers to enhance working arrangements at sites, improve the delivery of decommissioning programmes and deliver improvements in safety and environmental performance. The UK Magnox stations are 1. generation gas-graphite reactors, constructed in the 1950's and 1960's. Two stations are currently still operating, three are shut-down undergoing defueling and the other five are being decommissioned. Despite the distractions of industry restructuring, an uncompromising policy of demanding improved performance in conjunction with improved safety and environmental standards has been adopted. Over the past 5 years, this policy has resulted in step-changes in performance at Reactor Sites, with increased electrical output and accelerated defueling and decommissioning. The improvements in performance have been mirrored by improvements in safety (DACR of 0 at 5 sites); environmental standards (reductions in energy and water consumption, increased waste recycling) and the overall health of the workforce (20% reduction in sickness absence). These achievements have, in turn, been recognised by external bodies, resulting in several awards, including: the world's first ISRS and IERS level 10 awards (Sizewell, 2006), the NUMEX plant maintenance award (Bradwell, 2006), numerous Ro

  6. Marginally Relevant Topics in Conformal Field Theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cleary, Kevin Francis

    We consider a set of topics in conformal field theory. We provide an example of a 4D theory that exhibits the Contino-Pomarol-Rattazzi mechanism, where breaking conformal symmetry by an almost marginal operator leads to a light pseudo-Goldstone boson, the dilaton, and a parametrically suppressed contribution to vacuum energy. We consider SUSY QCD at the edge of the conformal window and break conformal symmetry by weakly gauging a subgroup of the flavor symmetry. Using Seiberg duality we show that for a range of parameters the singlet meson in the dual theory reaches the unitarity bound, however, this theory does not have a stable vacuum. We stabilize the vacuum with soft breaking terms, compute the mass of the dilaton, and determine the range of parameters where the leading contribution to the dilaton mass is from the almost marginal coupling. We also weigh in on a widely held belief that increasing bounds on the gluino mass, which feeds down to the stop mass through renormalization group running, are making a light stop increasingly unlikely. Here we present a counter-example. We examine the case of the Minimal Composite Supersymmetric Standard Model which has a light composite stop. The large anomalous dimension of the stop from strong dynamics pushes the stop mass toward a quasi-fixed point in the infrared, which is smaller than standard estimates by a factor of a large logarithm. The gluino can be about three times heavier than the stop, which is comparable to hierarchy achieved with supersoft Dirac gluino masses. Thus, in this class of models, a heavy gluino is not necessarily indicative of a heavy stop.

  7. An additional middle cuneiform?

    PubMed Central

    Brookes-Fazakerley, S.D.; Jackson, G.E.; Platt, S.R.

    2015-01-01

    Additional cuneiform bones of the foot have been described in reference to the medial bipartite cuneiform or as small accessory ossicles. An additional middle cuneiform has not been previously documented. We present the case of a patient with an additional ossicle that has the appearance and location of an additional middle cuneiform. Recognizing such an anatomical anomaly is essential for ruling out second metatarsal base or middle cuneiform fractures and for the preoperative planning of arthrodesis or open reduction and internal fixation procedures in this anatomical location. PMID:26224890

  8. Safety climate and self-reported injury: assessing the mediating role of employee safety control.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yueng-Hsiang; Ho, Michael; Smith, Gordon S; Chen, Peter Y

    2006-05-01

    To further reduce injuries in the workplace, companies have begun focusing on organizational factors which may contribute to workplace safety. Safety climate is an organizational factor commonly cited as a predictor of injury occurrence. Characterized by the shared perceptions of employees, safety climate can be viewed as a snapshot of the prevailing state of safety in the organization at a discrete point in time. However, few studies have elaborated plausible mechanisms through which safety climate likely influences injury occurrence. A mediating model is proposed to link safety climate (i.e., management commitment to safety, return-to-work policies, post-injury administration, and safety training) with self-reported injury through employees' perceived control on safety. Factorial evidence substantiated that management commitment to safety, return-to-work policies, post-injury administration, and safety training are important dimensions of safety climate. In addition, the data support that safety climate is a critical factor predicting the history of a self-reported occupational injury, and that employee safety control mediates the relationship between safety climate and occupational injury. These findings highlight the importance of incorporating organizational factors and workers' characteristics in efforts to improve organizational safety performance. PMID:16442068

  9. Localized Deformation along an Inverted Rifted Margin: Example of the Northern Ligurian Margin, Western Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    SAGE, F.; Beslier, M.; Mercier De Lepinay, B. F.; Béthoux, N.; Gaullier, V.; Larroque, C.; Corradi, N.; Schenini, L.; Dessa, J.; Bigot, A.; Migeon, S.; Ruiz-Constán, A.

    2013-12-01

    Along rifted margins, continental edges are heterogeneous systems that juxtapose lithospheres with different nature, mechanical behavior and structural inheritance. In this study, we focus on the northern Ligurian margin to examine how such complex systems might deform when they are submitted to a compressive stress field. The northern Ligurian margin, of Oligo-Miocene age, has been undergoing contraction over at least the past ~ 6 Ma. Active thrust faults and folds responsible for the regional uplift of the continental edge have previously been identified below the margin. Although seismicity extends as far as the axis of the basin, no recent or active crustal compressional structure has been identified so far in the oceanic domain. We used new 12-channel high-resolution seismic data (FABLES cruise, 2012) and other seismic reflexion lines from the last decades to image the sedimentary cover in the Ligurian oceanic basin, down to the bottom of the Messinian salt layer ~ 3 km below the seafloor. Because the Messinian event is well dated over the Mediterranean (5.96-5.32 Ma) and well identified in the seismic data, it forms a clear marker characterizing the recent deformation related to both salt and crustal tectonics. Noticeable deformation within the oceanic domain is restricted to large, SW-NE elongated salt walls located 10 to 40 km from the margin toe, over a 70-km length. The salt walls have a specific structure and arrangement that cannot result from salt tectonics only. We thus interpret them as resulting from combined deep-seated crustal and thin-skinned deformations. However, although the salt walls are well expressed in the seafloor morphology, their seismic images do not reveal any significant vertical throw across their trace, and they gradually disappear toward the SW. We thus interpret the salt walls as strike-slip structures with possibly very moderate compression. Overall, the post-Messinian deformation taken along these features is likely moderate

  10. Breakup magmatism style on the North Atlantic Igneous Province: insight from Mid-Norwegian volcanic margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansour Abdelmalak, Mohamed; Faleide, Jan Inge; Planke, Sverre; Theissen-Krah, Sonja; Zastrozhnov, Dmitrii; Breivik, Asbjørn Johan; Gernigon, Laurent; Myklebust, Reidun

    2014-05-01

    The distribution of breakup-related igneous rocks on rifted margins provide important constraints on the magmatic processes during continental extension and lithosphere separation which lead to a better understanding of the melt supply from the upper mantle and the relationship between tectonic setting and volcanism. The results can lead to a better understanding of the processes forming volcanic margins and thermal evolution of associated prospective basins. We present a revised mapping of the breakup-related igneous rocks in the NE Atlantic area, which are mainly based on the Mid-Norwegian (case example) margin. We divided the breakup related igneous rocks into (1) extrusive complexes, (2) shallow intrusive complexes (sills/dykes) and (3) deep intrusive complexes (Lower Crustal Body: LCB). The extrusive complex has been mapped using the seismic volcanostratigraphic method. Several distinct volcanic seismic facies units have been identified. The top basalt reflection is easily identified because of the high impedance contrast between the sedimentary and volcanic rocks resulting in a major reflector. The basal sequence boundary is frequently difficult to identify but it lies usually over the intruded sedimentary basin. Then the base is usually picked above the shallow sill intrusions identified on seismic profile. The mapping of the top and the base of the basaltic sequences allows us to determine the basalt thickness and estimate the volume of the magma production on the Mid- Norwegian margin. The thicker part of the basalt corresponds to the seaward dipping reflector (SDR). The magma feeder system, mainly formed by dyke and sill intrusions, represents the shallow intrusive complex. Deeper interconnected high-velocity sills are also mappable in the margin. Interconnected sill complexes can define continuous magma network >10 km in vertical ascent. The large-scale sill complexes, in addition to dyke swarm intrusions, represent a mode of vertical long-range magma

  11. Do Medicare Advantage plans select enrollees in higher margin clinical categories?

    PubMed

    Newhouse, Joseph P; McWilliams, J Michael; Price, Mary; Huang, Jie; Fireman, Bruce; Hsu, John

    2013-12-01

    margin HCC's in Medicare more generally. These results do not permit a conclusion on overall social efficiency, but we note that selection according to margin could be socially efficient. In addition, our findings suggest there are omitted interaction terms in the risk adjustment model that Medicare currently uses. PMID:24308879

  12. Do Medicare Advantage Plans Select Enrollees in Higher Margin Clinical Categories?

    PubMed Central

    Newhouse, Joseph P.; McWilliams, J. Michael; Price, Mary; Huang, Jie; Fireman, Bruce; Hsu, John

    2013-01-01

    of high margin HCC’s in Medicare more generally. These results do not permit a conclusion on overall social efficiency, but we note that selection according to margin could be socially efficient. In addition, our findings suggest there are omitted interaction terms in the risk adjustment model that Medicare currently uses. PMID:24308879

  13. Scientific Ocean Drilling to Assess Submarine Geohazards along European Margins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ask, M. V.; Camerlenghi, A.; Kopf, A.; Morgan, J. K.; Ocean DrillingSeismic Hazard, P. E.

    2008-12-01

    Submarine geohazards are some of the most devastating natural events in terms of lives lost and economic impact. Earthquakes pose a big threat to society and infrastructure, but the understanding of their episodic generation is incomplete. Tsunamis are known for their potential of striking coastlines world-wide. Other geohazards originating below the sea surface are equally dangerous for undersea structures and the coastal population: submarine landslides and volcanic islands collapse with little warning and devastating consequences. The European scientific community has a strong focus on geohazards along European and nearby continental margins, especially given their high population densities, and long historic and prehistoric record of hazardous events. For example, the Mediterranean is surrounded by very densely-populated coastline and is the World's leading holiday destination, receiving up 30% of global tourism. In addition, its seafloor is criss-crossed by hydrocarbon pipelines and telecommunication cables. However, the governing processes and recurrence intervals of geohazards are still poorly understood. Examples include, but are not limited to, earthquakes and volcanic eruptions along the active tectonic margins of the Mediterranean and Sea of Marmara, landslides on both active and passive margins, and tsunamites and seismites in the sedimentary record that suggest a long history of similar events. The development of geophysical networks, drilling, sampling and long-term monitoring are crucial to the understanding of earthquake, landslide, and tsunami processes, and to mitigate the associated risks in densely populated and industrialized regions such as Europe. Scientific drilling, particularly in the submarine setting, offers a unique tool to obtain drill core samples, borehole measurements and long-term observations. Hence, it is a critical technology to investigate past, present, and possible future influences of hazardous processes in this area. The

  14. Northern Mozambique: Crustal structure across a sheared margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bätzel, Maren; Franke, Dieter; Heyde, Ingo; Schreckenberger, Bernd; Jokat, Wilfried

    2015-04-01

    The rifting of Gondwana started some 180 million years ago. The continental drift created some of the oldest ocean basins along Eastern Africa, the Somali and the Mozambique basins. As a consequence of the relative movements between Africa and Antarctica-India-Madagascar a shear margin developed along the present day coastline of northern Mozambique and Tanzania. In addition, the N-S oriented offshore Davie Ridge is believed to have formed during the shear movements between both parts of Gondwana. However, whether the Davie Ridge is of continental origin or has been formed by magmatic processes during the continental drift is unknown, since any crustal information is missing so far. Previous studies in this area are rare and only few seismic reflection data sets from the 1970s and 1980s are available. In 2014 four seismic refraction data along east-west-orientated profiles as well as gravity and magnetic field data across the Davie Ridge with RV Sonne were collected to determine its crustal composition as well as the position of the continent-ocean-transition. Here, we present a first P-wave velocity model across the Mozambican sheared margin at 13° S. The profile is situated in a region where the ridge topography vanishes. In total, 20 OBS/OBH systems were used on profile 20140130 over the Davie Ridge. Most of the instruments recorded data with a very good quality. In the best records, P-wave phases can be observed at a source-receiver offset of 110 km. The total thickness of the sediments is about 5 km in the Comores Basin and about 3 km offshore Mozambique. The sediments show at 3.5 and 5 km depth unusual high seismic velocities of 4.0-4.6 km/s. Our results indicate a shallow Moho close to the shelf break. Here, the crust thins to 4 km. This area is assumed to be the western part of the Davie-Ridge and might represent a sharp transition (50 km) from continental to oceanic crust, which is typical for a sheared margin. East of the Davie Ridge the data indicate a

  15. Diffusion behaviour of additives in polypropylene in correlation with polymer properties.

    PubMed

    Begley, T H; Brandsch, J; Limm, W; Siebert, H; Piringer, O

    2008-11-01

    The migration behaviour of polymer additives in 17 polypropylene (PP) samples is described. These samples cover the major types of PP used in food packaging. The diffusion coefficients of additives with relatively small molecular masses, M(r) = 136 (limonene), as well as the migration of typical antioxidants used in PP up to M(r) = 1178 (IRGANOX 1010), were measured at different temperatures. In addition, the diffusion data and percentages of xylene-soluble fractions were correlated. This enables a prediction of the migration behaviour of a PP sample by testing its 'isotactic index' with xylene. The results clearly indicate that PP can be subdivided, from the migration point of view, into the monophasic homopolymer (h-PP), the monophasic random copolymer (r-PP), and the heterophasic copolymer (heco-PP). The diffusion coefficients for r-PP are at least one order of magnitude higher than those of h-PP and comparable with the values for heco-PP. Upper limits for the diffusion values can be calculated based on the safety margin required by consumer protection laws. PMID:19680849

  16. 10 CFR 70.62 - Safety program and integrated safety analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Safety program and integrated safety analysis. 70.62 Section 70.62 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DOMESTIC LICENSING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Additional Requirements for Certain Licensees Authorized To Possess a Critical Mass of Special Nuclear Material § 70.62 Safety program...

  17. Formation and evolution of magma-poor margins, an example of the West Iberia margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez-Gussinye, Marta; Andres-Martinez, Miguel; Morgan, Jason P.; Ranero, Cesar R.; Reston, Tim

    2016-04-01

    The West Iberia-Newfoundland (WIM-NF) conjugate margins have been geophysically and geologically surveyed for the last 30 years and have arguably become a paradigm for magma-poor extensional margins. Here we present a coherent picture of the WIM-NF rift to drift evolution that emerges from these observations and numerical modeling, and point out important differences that may exist with other magma-poor margins world-wide. The WIM-NF is characterized by a continental crust that thins asymmetrically and a wide and symmetric continent-ocean transition (COT) interpreted to consist of exhumed and serpentinised mantle with magmatic products increasing oceanward. The architectural evolution of these margins is mainly dominated by cooling under very slow extension velocities (<~6 mm/yr half-rate) and a lower crust that most probably was not extremely weak at the start of rifting. These conditions lead to a system where initially deformation is distributed over a broad area and the upper, lower crust and lithosphere are decoupled. As extension progresses upper, lower, crust and mantle become tightly coupled and deformation localizes due to strengthening and cooling during rifting. Coupling leads to asymmetric asthenospheric uplift and weakening of the hanginwall of the active fault, where a new fault forms. This continued process leads to the formation of an array of sequential faults that dip and become younger oceanward. Here we show that these processes acting in concert: 1) reproduce the margin asymmetry observed at the WIM-NF, 2) explain the fault geometry evolution from planar, to listric to detachment like by having one common Andersonian framework, 3) lead to the symmetric exhumation of mantle with little magmatism, and 4) explain the younging of the syn-rift towards the basin centre and imply that unconformities separating syn- and post-rift may be diachronous and younger towards the ocean. Finally, we show that different lower crustal rheologies lead to different

  18. Neoichnology at lake margins: Implications for paleo-lake systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamer, Jessica M. M.; Sheldon, Nathan D.

    2010-07-01

    Neoichnological studies provide significant information that can aid in the interpretation of ancient ichnological assemblages. Here we examine, for the first time, the pattern in both vertebrate and invertebrate trace distribution and abundance that can be seen in two geographically separate, but broadly analogous, contemporary semi-arid climate lake margin settings in an effort to describe taphonomic processes relevant to paleo-lake systems. Lake margin to supralittoral zone transects were made at Ruby Reservoir, Montana (USA) and La Sotonera, Spain and vegetation cover, trace cover %, trace diversity, and substrate characteristics were recorded. Similar patterns in trace distribution were seen through the eulittoral to supralittoral zones, with the majority of traces identified within a single transect present at both sites. However, a few traces attributed to larger organisms were found to be unique to each and in some instances, could to be assigned to a specific trace maker. The eulittoral zone was considered to have characteristics attributable to the Scoyenia ichnofacies, however, analysis of the supralittoral zone shows some characteristics of both the Coprinisphaera and the Mermia ichnofacies. In addition, a transitional zone between a Scoyenia-like ichnofacies and a fully terrestrial assemblage was found, which may enable continental ichnofacies to be further refined for application to paleo-lake systems. Study of the distribution of traces with distance along the transects also suggests taphonomic biases against the preservation of certain types of traces (e.g., avian) due to seasonal fluctuations of the lake level and the subsequent reduced preservation potential for lake-proximal traces.

  19. Suitability of marginal biomass-derived biochars for soil amendment.

    PubMed

    Buss, Wolfram; Graham, Margaret C; Shepherd, Jessica G; Mašek, Ondřej

    2016-03-15

    The term "marginal biomass" is used here to describe materials of little or no economic value, e.g. plants grown on contaminated land, food waste or demolition wood. In this study 10 marginal biomass-derived feedstocks were converted into 19 biochars at different highest treatment temperatures (HTT) using a continuous screw-pyrolysis unit. The aim was to investigate suitability of the resulting biochars for land application, judged on the basis of potentially toxic element (PTE) concentration, nutrient content and basic biochar properties (pH, EC, ash, fixed carbon). It was shown that under typical biochar production conditions the percentage content of several PTEs (As, Al, Zn) and nutrients (Ca, Mg) were reduced to some extent, but also that biochar can be contaminated by Cr and Ni during the pyrolysis process due to erosion of stainless steel reactor parts (average+82.8% Cr, +226.0% Ni). This can occur to such an extent that the resulting biochar is rendered unsuitable for soil application (maximum addition +22.5 mg Cr kg(-1) biochar and +44.4 mg Ni kg(-1) biochar). Biomass grown on land heavily contaminated with PTEs yielded biochars with PTE concentrations above recommended threshold values for soil amendments. Cd and Zn were of particular concern, exceeding the lowest threshold values by 31-fold and 7-fold respectively, despite some losses into the gas phase. However, thermal conversion of plants from less severely contaminated soils, demolition wood and food waste anaerobic digestate (AD) into biochar proved to be promising for land application. In particular, food waste AD biochar contained very high nutrient concentrations, making it interesting for use as fertiliser. PMID:26789369

  20. A marginal benefit approach for vaccinating influenza “superspreaders”

    PubMed Central

    Skene, Katherine J.; Paltiel, A. David; Shim, Eunha; Galvani, Alison P.

    2014-01-01

    Background There is widespread recognition that interventions targeting “superspreaders” are more effective at containing epidemics than strategies aimed at the broader population. However, little attention has been devoted to determining optimal levels of coverage for targeted vaccination strategies, given the nonlinear relationship between program scale and the costs and benefits of identifying and successfully administering vaccination to potential superspreaders. Methods We developed a framework for such an assessment derived from a transmission model of seasonal influenza parameterized to emulate typical seasonal influenza epidemics in the US. We used this framework to estimate how the marginal benefit of expanded targeted vaccination changes with the proportion of the target population already vaccinated. Results The benefit of targeting additional superspreaders varies considerably as a function of both the baseline vaccination coverage and proximity to the herd immunity threshold. The general form of the marginal benefit function starts low, particularly for severe epidemics, increases monotonically until its peak at the point of herd immunity, and then plummets rapidly. Limitations We present a simplified transmission model, primarily designed to convey qualitative insight rather than quantitative precision. With appropriate contact data, future work could address more complex population structures, such as age structure and assortative mixing patterns. Our illustrative example highlights the general economic and epidemiological findings of our method, but does not contrive to address intervention design, policy, and resource allocation issues related to practical implementation of this particular scenario. Conclusions Our approach offers a means of estimating willingness to pay for search costs associated with targeted vaccination of superspreaders, which can inform policies regarding whether a targeted intervention should be implemented and, if so