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Sample records for additional significant effects

  1. Additive and non-additive effects of mixtures of short-acting intravenous anaesthetic agents and their significance for theories of anaesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Richards, C.D.; White, Ann E.

    1981-01-01

    1 The potency of a series of short-acting anaesthetics was established by measuring the duration of the loss of righting reflex following a single bolus injection into the tail vein of male Wistar rats. The agents were, in order of potency, etomidate, alphaxalone, methohexitone, alphadalone acetate and propanidid. 2 The potency of binary mixtures of these agents was also assessed to see whether the anaesthetic effects of different agents were additive as classical theories of anaesthesia suggest. Mixtures of alphaxalone and alphadalone acetate, alphaxalone and propanidid and methohexitone and propanidid all showed simple additive effects. Mixtures of alphaxalone and etomidate and of alphaxalone and methohexitone showed a greater potency than would be expected if their effects were simply additive. Mixtures of etomidate and methohexitone were not examined. 3 Mixtures of alphaxalone and either methohexitone or pentobarbitone produced a greater depression of synaptic transmission in in vitro preparations of guinea-pig olfactory cortex than would have been expected from the sum of the activities of the individual anaesthetics. Other combinations of anaesthetics did not show similar effects although the interaction between alphaxalone and etomidate was not examined. 4 Neither alphaxalone nor pentobarbitone affected the membrane: buffer partition coefficient of the other for a model membrane system. 5 These results are interpreted as evidence against the classical unitary hypotheses of anaesthetic action based on correlations of anaesthetic potency with lipid solubility and as supporting the view that different anaesthetics act on different structures in the neuronal membranes to produce anaesthesia. PMID:6268237

  2. Addition of Cryoprotectant Significantly Alters the Epididymal Sperm Proteome

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Sung-Jae; Rahman, Md Saidur; Kwon, Woo-Sung; Park, Yoo-Jin; Pang, Myung-Geol

    2016-01-01

    Although cryopreservation has been developed and optimized over the past decades, it causes various stresses, including cold shock, osmotic stress, and ice crystal formation, thereby reducing fertility. During cryopreservation, addition of cryoprotective agent (CPA) is crucial for protecting spermatozoa from freezing damage. However, the intrinsic toxicity and osmotic stress induced by CPA cause damage to spermatozoa. To identify the effects of CPA addition during cryopreservation, we assessed the motility (%), motion kinematics, capacitation status, and viability of epididymal spermatozoa using computer-assisted sperm analysis and Hoechst 33258/chlortetracycline fluorescence staining. Moreover, the effects of CPA addition were also demonstrated at the proteome level using two-dimensional electrophoresis. Our results demonstrated that CPA addition significantly reduced sperm motility (%), curvilinear velocity, viability (%), and non-capacitated spermatozoa, whereas straightness and acrosome-reacted spermatozoa increased significantly (p < 0.05). Ten proteins were differentially expressed (two decreased and eight increased) (>3 fold, p < 0.05) after CPA, whereas NADH dehydrogenase flavoprotein 2, f-actin-capping protein subunit beta, superoxide dismutase 2, and outer dense fiber protein 2 were associated with several important signaling pathways (p < 0.05). The present study provides a mechanistic basis for specific cryostresses and potential markers of CPA-induced stress. Therefore, these might provide information about the development of safe biomaterials for cryopreservation and basic ground for sperm cryopreservation. PMID:27031703

  3. The Mozart Effect: Additional Data.

    PubMed

    Hughes, John R.

    2002-04-01

    After the review of the Mozart effect was published in this journal (Hughes JR. Epilepsy Behav 2001;2:369-417), additional data from the music of Haydn and Liszt have been analyzed that may account for the decrease in seizure activity originally reported during Mozart music. Even with these added data Mozart music continued to score significantly higher than the selections from the other six composers in one of the important characteristics of this music, namely, the repetition of the melody. However Haydn's values were second highest among Mozart, J. S. Bach, Wagner, Beethoven, Chopin, and Liszt.

  4. Marker-Based Estimates Reveal Significant Non-additive Effects in Clonally Propagated Cassava (Manihot esculenta): Implications for the Prediction of Total Genetic Value and the Selection of Varieties.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, Marnin D; Kulakow, Peter; Rabbi, Ismail Y; Jannink, Jean-Luc

    2016-08-31

    In clonally propagated crops, non-additive genetic effects can be effectively exploited by the identification of superior genetic individuals as varieties. Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a clonally propagated staple food crop that feeds hundreds of millions. We quantified the amount and nature of non-additive genetic variation for three key traits in a breeding population of cassava from sub-Saharan Africa using additive and non-additive genome-wide marker-based relationship matrices. We then assessed the accuracy of genomic prediction for total (additive plus non-additive) genetic value. We confirmed previous findings based on diallel populations, that non-additive genetic variation is significant for key cassava traits. Specifically, we found that dominance is particularly important for root yield and epistasis contributes strongly to variation in CMD resistance. Further, we showed that total genetic value predicted observed phenotypes more accurately than additive only models for root yield but not for dry matter content, which is mostly additive or for CMD resistance, which has high narrow-sense heritability. We address the implication of these results for cassava breeding and put our work in the context of previous results in cassava, and other plant and animal species.

  5. Additional Guidance on Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) Regulations

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  6. Additional branches of celiac trunk and its clinical significance.

    PubMed

    Nayak, S R; Prabhu, Latha V; Krishnamurthy, A; Ganesh Kumar, C; Ramanathan, Lakshmi A; Acharya, Abhijith; Prasad Sinha, Abhishek

    2008-01-01

    The anatomical variations of the abdominal arteries are important due to its clinical significance. Various types of vascular anomalies are frequently found in human abdominal viscera, during cadaveric dissection and diagnostic radiological imaging. The present report describes a variation in the celiac trunk as found during routine dissection in a 59-year-old male cadaver. The celiac trunk (CT) was unusually lengthy and took origin from the left antero-lateral surface of the abdominal aorta. Altogether, there were five branches, including three classic branches of CT. The left phrenic artery (LPA) was the first branch of the CT. The remaining four branches were left gastric artery (LGA), splenic artery (SA), common hepatic artery (CHA) and gastroduodenal artery (GDA). There was an arterial loop between the posterior branches of the superior pancreatico-duodenal artery (SPDA), arising from the GDA, and the posterior branch of the inferior pancreatico-duodenal artery (IPDA), arising from the superior mesenteric artery (SMA). The arterial loop formed by the above arteries, supplied the head of the pancreas and duodeno-jejunal flexure. The embryological and clinical significance of above variations has been described.

  7. Additive Effects on Asymmetric Catalysis.

    PubMed

    Hong, Liang; Sun, Wangsheng; Yang, Dongxu; Li, Guofeng; Wang, Rui

    2016-03-23

    This review highlights a number of additives that can be used to make asymmetric reactions perfect. Without changing other reaction conditions, simply adding additives can lead to improved asymmetric catalysis, such as reduced reaction time, improved yield, or/and increased selectivity.

  8. Nitrogen Addition Significantly Affects Forest Litter Decomposition under High Levels of Ambient Nitrogen Deposition

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Gang; Peng, Yong; Xiao, Yin-long; Hu, Ting-xing; Zhang, Jian; Li, Xian-wei; Liu, Li; Tang, Yi

    2014-01-01

    Background Forest litter decomposition is a major component of the global carbon (C) budget, and is greatly affected by the atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition observed globally. However, the effects of N addition on forest litter decomposition, in ecosystems receiving increasingly higher levels of ambient N deposition, are poorly understood. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted a two-year field experiment in five forests along the western edge of the Sichuan Basin in China, where atmospheric N deposition was up to 82–114 kg N ha–1 in the study sites. Four levels of N treatments were applied: (1) control (no N added), (2) low-N (50 kg N ha–1 year–1), (3) medium-N (150 kg N ha–1 year–1), and (4) high-N (300 kg N ha–1 year–1), N additions ranging from 40% to 370% of ambient N deposition. The decomposition processes of ten types of forest litters were then studied. Nitrogen additions significantly decreased the decomposition rates of six types of forest litters. N additions decreased forest litter decomposition, and the mass of residual litter was closely correlated to residual lignin during the decomposition process over the study period. The inhibitory effect of N addition on litter decomposition can be primarily explained by the inhibition of lignin decomposition by exogenous inorganic N. The overall decomposition rate of ten investigated substrates exhibited a significant negative linear relationship with initial tissue C/N and lignin/N, and significant positive relationships with initial tissue K and N concentrations; these relationships exhibited linear and logarithmic curves, respectively. Conclusions/Significance This study suggests that the expected progressive increases in N deposition may have a potential important impact on forest litter decomposition in the study area in the presence of high levels of ambient N deposition. PMID:24551152

  9. Effect of glutathione addition in sparkling wine.

    PubMed

    Webber, Vanessa; Dutra, Sandra Valduga; Spinelli, Fernanda Rodrigues; Marcon, Ângela Rossi; Carnieli, Gilberto João; Vanderlinde, Regina

    2014-09-15

    This study aims to evaluate the effect of the addition of glutathione (GSH) on secondary aromas and on the phenolic compounds of sparkling wine elaborated by traditional method. It was added 10 and 20 mg L(-1) of GSH to must and to base wine. The determination of aroma compounds was performed by gas chromatography. Phenolic compounds and glutathione content were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography. Sparkling wines with addition of GSH to must showed lower levels of total phenolic compounds and hydroxycinnamic acids. Furthermore, the sparkling wine with addition of GSH to must showed higher levels of 2-phenylethanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol and diethyl succinate, and lower concentrations of ethyl decanoate, octanoic and decanoic acids. The GSH addition to the must show a greater influence on sparkling wine than to base wine, however GSH addition to base wine seems retain higher SO2 free levels. The concentration of GSH added showed no significant difference.

  10. The Additive Effects of Choice and Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karbowski, Joseph; And Others

    In separate research studies, students who were given a choice of learning materials or who had control over aversive noise, demonstrated higher motivation and better task performance. To investigate the additive effects of choice and control on perception of control, 80 male and female college students participated in a 2 (choice vs. no-choice) X…

  11. Nitrite addition to acidified sludge significantly improves digestibility, toxic metal removal, dewaterability and pathogen reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Fangzhou; Keller, Jürg; Yuan, Zhiguo; Batstone, Damien J.; Freguia, Stefano; Pikaar, Ilje

    2016-12-01

    Sludge management is a major issue for water utilities globally. Poor digestibility and dewaterability are the main factors determining the cost for sludge management, whereas pathogen and toxic metal concentrations limit beneficial reuse. In this study, the effects of low level nitrite addition to acidified sludge to simultaneously enhance digestibility, toxic metal removal, dewaterability and pathogen reduction were investigated. Waste activated sludge (WAS) from a full-scale waste water treatment plant was treated at pH 2 with 10 mg NO2‑-N/L for 5 h. Biochemical methane potential tests showed an increase in the methane production of 28%, corresponding to an improvement from 247 ± 8 L CH4/kg VS to 317 ± 1 L CH4/kg VS. The enhanced removal of toxic metals further increased the methane production by another 18% to 360 ± 6 L CH4/kg VS (a total increase of 46%). The solids content of dewatered sludge increased from 14.6 ± 1.4% in the control to 18.2 ± 0.8%. A 4-log reduction for both total coliforms and E. coli was achieved. Overall, this study highlights the potential of acidification with low level nitrite addition as an effective and simple method achieving multiple improvements in terms of sludge management.

  12. Nitrite addition to acidified sludge significantly improves digestibility, toxic metal removal, dewaterability and pathogen reduction

    PubMed Central

    Du, Fangzhou; Keller, Jürg; Yuan, Zhiguo; Batstone, Damien J.; Freguia, Stefano; Pikaar, Ilje

    2016-01-01

    Sludge management is a major issue for water utilities globally. Poor digestibility and dewaterability are the main factors determining the cost for sludge management, whereas pathogen and toxic metal concentrations limit beneficial reuse. In this study, the effects of low level nitrite addition to acidified sludge to simultaneously enhance digestibility, toxic metal removal, dewaterability and pathogen reduction were investigated. Waste activated sludge (WAS) from a full-scale waste water treatment plant was treated at pH 2 with 10 mg NO2−-N/L for 5 h. Biochemical methane potential tests showed an increase in the methane production of 28%, corresponding to an improvement from 247 ± 8 L CH4/kg VS to 317 ± 1 L CH4/kg VS. The enhanced removal of toxic metals further increased the methane production by another 18% to 360 ± 6 L CH4/kg VS (a total increase of 46%). The solids content of dewatered sludge increased from 14.6 ± 1.4% in the control to 18.2 ± 0.8%. A 4-log reduction for both total coliforms and E. coli was achieved. Overall, this study highlights the potential of acidification with low level nitrite addition as an effective and simple method achieving multiple improvements in terms of sludge management. PMID:28004811

  13. Injection Route and TLR9 Agonist Addition Significantly Impact Heroin Vaccine Efficacy

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Active immunization is an effective means of blocking the pharmacodynamic effects of drugs and holds promise as a treatment for heroin addiction. Previously, we demonstrated the efficacy of our first-generation vaccine in blocking heroin self-administration in rats, however, many vaccine components can be modified to further improve performance. Herein we examine the effects of varying heroin vaccine injection route and adjuvant formulation. Mice immunized via subcutaneous (sc) injection exhibited inferior anti-heroin titers compared to intraperitoneal (ip) and sc/ip coadministration injection routes. Addition of TLR9 agonist cytosine-guanine oligodeoxynucleotide 1826 (CpG ODN 1826) to the original alum adjuvant elicited superior antibody titers and opioid affinities compared to alum alone. To thoroughly assess vaccine efficacy, full dose–response curves were generated for heroin-induced analgesia in both hot plate and tail immersion tests. Mice treated with CpG ODN 1826 exhibited greatly shifted dose–response curves (10–13-fold vs unvaccinated controls) while non-CpG ODN vaccine groups did not exhibit the same robust effect (2–7-fold shift for ip and combo, 2–3-fold shift for sc). Our results suggest that CpG ODN 1826 is a highly potent adjuvant, and injection routes should be considered for development of small molecule–protein conjugate vaccines. Lastly, this study has established a new standard for assessing drugs of abuse vaccines, wherein a full dose–response curve should be performed in an appropriate behavioral task. PMID:24517171

  14. Significantly improved cyclability of lithium manganese oxide under elevated temperature by an easily oxidized electrolyte additive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yunmin; Rong, Haibo; Mai, Shaowei; Luo, Xueyi; Li, Xiaoping; Li, Weishan

    2015-12-01

    Spinel lithium manganese oxide, LiMn2O4, is a promising cathode for lithium ion battery in large-scale applications, because it possesses many advantages compared with currently used layered lithium cobalt oxide (LiCoO2) and olivine phosphate (LiFePO4), including naturally abundant resource, environmental friendliness and high and long work potential plateau. Its poor cyclability under high temperature, however, limits its application. In this work, we report a significant cyclability improvement of LiMn2O4 under elevated temperature by using dimethyl phenylphonite (DMPP) as an electrolyte additive. Charge/discharge tests demonstrate that the application of 0.5 wt.% DMPP yields a capacity retention improvement from 16% to 82% for LiMn2O4 after 200 cycles under 55 °C at 1 C (1C = 148 mAh g-1) between 3 and 4.5 V. Electrochemical and physical characterizations indicate that DMPP is electrochemically oxidized at the potential lower than that for lithium extraction, forming a protective cathode interphase on LiMn2O4, which suppresses the electrolyte decomposition and prevents LiMn2O4 from crystal destruction.

  15. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  16. Interactive effects of nutrient additions and predation on infaunal communities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Posey, M.H.; Alphin, T.D.; Cahoon, L.; Lindquist, D.; Becker, M.E.

    1999-01-01

    Nutrient additions represent an important anthropogenic stress on coastal ecosystems. At moderate levels, increased nutrients may lead to increased primary production and, possibly, to increased biomass of consumers although complex trophic interactions may modify or mask these effects. We examined the influence of nutrient additions and interactive effects of trophic interactions (predation) on benthic infaunal composition and abundances through small-scale field experiments in 2 estuaries that differed in ambient nutrient conditions. A blocked experimental design was used that allowed an assessment of direct nutrient effects in the presence and absence of predation by epibenthic predators as well as an assessment of the independent effects of predation. Benthic microalgal production increased with experimental nutrient additions and was greater when infaunal abundances were lower, but there were no significant interactions between these factors. Increased abundances of one infaunal taxa, Laeonereis culveri, as well as the grazer feeding guild were observed with nutrient additions and a number of taxa exhibited higher abundances with predator exclusion. In contrast to results from freshwater systems there were no significant interactive effects between nutrient additions and predator exclusion as was predicted. The infaunal responses observed here emphasize the importance of both bottom-up (nutrient addition and primary producer driven) and top-down (predation) controls in structuring benthic communities. These processes may work at different spatial and temporal scales, and affect different taxa, making observation of potential interactive effects difficult.

  17. Does the addition of writing into a pharmacy communication skills course significantly impact student communicative learning outcomes? A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Lonie, John M; Rahim, Hamid

    2010-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if the addition of a reflective writing component in a fourth year (P-2) pharmacy communication skills course would significantly affect 2 measures of learning: (1) objective multiple choice examination questions and (2) a patient counseling Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) score. Using a nonequivalent group quasi-experimental retrospective comparison design, 98 randomly selected final examination scores from students taking a non-writing intensive (NWI) communication skills course were compared with 112 randomly selected final examination scores from students that took a communication skills course in which students engaged in several reflective writing assignments. In addition, 91 randomly selected patient counseling OSCE scores from a NWI course were statistically compared with 112 scores from students that took the writing intensive (WI) course. There were statistically significant improvements in multiple choice examination scores in the group that took the reflective writing communication skills course. There was not a statistically significant difference in patient counseling OSCE scores after students completed the WI course. Studying the effects of using reflective writing assignments in communication skills courses may improve the retention and retrieval of information presented within the course.

  18. Significant Quantum Effects in Hydrogen Activation

    SciTech Connect

    Kyriakou, Georgios; Davidson, Erlend R.; Peng, Guowen; Roling, Luke T.; Singh, Suyash; Boucher, Matthew B.; Marcinkowski, Matthew D.; Mavrikakis, Manos; Michaelides, Angelos; Sykes, E. Charles H.

    2014-03-31

    Dissociation of molecular hydrogen is an important step in a wide variety of chemical, biological, and physical processes. Due to the light mass of hydrogen, it is recognized that quantum effects are often important to its reactivity. However, understanding how quantum effects impact the reactivity of hydrogen is still in its infancy. Here, we examine this issue using a well-defined Pd/Cu(111) alloy that allows the activation of hydrogen and deuterium molecules to be examined at individual Pd atom surface sites over a wide range of temperatures. Experiments comparing the uptake of hydrogen and deuterium as a function of temperature reveal completely different behavior of the two species. The rate of hydrogen activation increases at lower sample temperature, whereas deuterium activation slows as the temperature is lowered. Density functional theory simulations in which quantum nuclear effects are accounted for reveal that tunneling through the dissociation barrier is prevalent for H2 up to 190 K and for D2 up to 140 K. Kinetic Monte Carlo simulations indicate that the effective barrier to H2 dissociation is so low that hydrogen uptake on the surface is limited merely by thermodynamics, whereas the D2 dissociation process is controlled by kinetics. These data illustrate the complexity and inherent quantum nature of this ubiquitous and seemingly simple chemical process. Examining these effects in other systems with a similar range of approaches may uncover temperature regimes where quantum effects can be harnessed, yielding greater control of bond-breaking processes at surfaces and uncovering useful chemistries such as selective bond activation or isotope separation.

  19. Significant Quantum Effects in Hydrogen Activation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Dissociation of molecular hydrogen is an important step in a wide variety of chemical, biological, and physical processes. Due to the light mass of hydrogen, it is recognized that quantum effects are often important to its reactivity. However, understanding how quantum effects impact the reactivity of hydrogen is still in its infancy. Here, we examine this issue using a well-defined Pd/Cu(111) alloy that allows the activation of hydrogen and deuterium molecules to be examined at individual Pd atom surface sites over a wide range of temperatures. Experiments comparing the uptake of hydrogen and deuterium as a function of temperature reveal completely different behavior of the two species. The rate of hydrogen activation increases at lower sample temperature, whereas deuterium activation slows as the temperature is lowered. Density functional theory simulations in which quantum nuclear effects are accounted for reveal that tunneling through the dissociation barrier is prevalent for H2 up to ∼190 K and for D2 up to ∼140 K. Kinetic Monte Carlo simulations indicate that the effective barrier to H2 dissociation is so low that hydrogen uptake on the surface is limited merely by thermodynamics, whereas the D2 dissociation process is controlled by kinetics. These data illustrate the complexity and inherent quantum nature of this ubiquitous and seemingly simple chemical process. Examining these effects in other systems with a similar range of approaches may uncover temperature regimes where quantum effects can be harnessed, yielding greater control of bond-breaking processes at surfaces and uncovering useful chemistries such as selective bond activation or isotope separation. PMID:24684530

  20. Lesinurad: A significant advancement or just another addition to existing therapies of gout?

    PubMed

    Gupta, Ajay; Sharma, Pramod Kumar; Misra, Arup Kumar; Singh, Surjit

    2016-01-01

    Gout is a metabolic disorder that usually presents as recurrent episodes of acute arthritis due to deposition of crystals in joints and cartilages. Despite the availability of several drugs for gout, its management is still less than adequate. There is always a search for newer, safer, and more potent urate-lowering therapies for treating patients inadequately controlled with available drugs. Lesinurad in combination with a xanthine oxidase inhibitor provides an effective mode of therapy in the management of hyperuricemia associated with gout. Lesinurad is a selective uric acid transporter 1 (URAT1) inhibitor. URAT1 is responsible for the majority of uric acid absorption from kidneys to the circulation. Lesinurad was granted marketing approval based on three randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled; phase III clinical trials. It is devoid of interaction with organic anion transporters (OATs) such as OAT1 and 3, responsible for drug-drug interactions, an undesirable property associated with probenecid. On-going research is more focused on reducing inflammation consequent to deposition of crystals rather than production and excretion of urate. Various targets are being explored, and interleukin-1 beta inhibition seems to be one of the most promising approaches.

  1. Lesinurad: A significant advancement or just another addition to existing therapies of gout?

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Ajay; Sharma, Pramod Kumar; Misra, Arup Kumar; Singh, Surjit

    2016-01-01

    Gout is a metabolic disorder that usually presents as recurrent episodes of acute arthritis due to deposition of crystals in joints and cartilages. Despite the availability of several drugs for gout, its management is still less than adequate. There is always a search for newer, safer, and more potent urate-lowering therapies for treating patients inadequately controlled with available drugs. Lesinurad in combination with a xanthine oxidase inhibitor provides an effective mode of therapy in the management of hyperuricemia associated with gout. Lesinurad is a selective uric acid transporter 1 (URAT1) inhibitor. URAT1 is responsible for the majority of uric acid absorption from kidneys to the circulation. Lesinurad was granted marketing approval based on three randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled; phase III clinical trials. It is devoid of interaction with organic anion transporters (OATs) such as OAT1 and 3, responsible for drug-drug interactions, an undesirable property associated with probenecid. On-going research is more focused on reducing inflammation consequent to deposition of crystals rather than production and excretion of urate. Various targets are being explored, and interleukin-1 beta inhibition seems to be one of the most promising approaches. PMID:28163535

  2. Appropriate Fe (II) Addition Significantly Enhances Anaerobic Ammonium Oxidation (Anammox) Activity through Improving the Bacterial Growth Rate

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yiwen; Ni, Bing-Jie

    2015-01-01

    The application of anaerobic ammonium oxidation (Anammox) process is often limited by the slow growth rate of Anammox bacteria. As the essential substrate element that required for culturing Anammox sludge, Fe (II) is expected to affect Anammox bacterial growth. This work systematically studied the effects of Fe (II) addition on Anammox activity based on the kinetic analysis of specific growth rate using data from batch tests with an enriched Anammox sludge at different dosing levels. Results clearly demonstrated that appropriate Fe (II) dosing (i.e., 0.09 mM) significantly enhanced the specific Anammox growth rate up to 0.172 d−1 compared to 0.118 d−1 at regular Fe (II) level (0.03 mM). The relationship between Fe (II) concentration and specific Anammox growth rate was found to be well described by typical substrate inhibition kinetics, which was integrated into currently well-established Anammox model to describe the enhanced Anammox growth with Fe (II) addition. The validity of the integrated Anammox model was verified using long-term experimental data from three independent Anammox reactors with different Fe (II) dosing levels. This Fe (II)-based approach could be potentially implemented to enhance the process rate for possible mainstream application of Anammox technology, in order for an energy autarchic wastewater treatment. PMID:25644239

  3. Toxic effect of biosurfactant addition on the biodegradation of phenanthrene.

    PubMed

    Shin, Kyung-Hee; Ahn, Yeonghee; Kim, Kyoung-Woong

    2005-11-01

    The effect of the biosurfactant rhamnolipid on phenanthrene biodegradation and cell growth of phenanthrene degraders was investigated. To compare the effect of rhamnolipid addition, two bacterial strains, 3Y and 4-3, which were isolated from a diesel-contaminated site in Korea, were selected. Without the biosurfactant, large amounts of phenanthrene were degraded with both strains at neutral pH, with higher rates of phenanthrene degradation when the cell growth was higher. Upon the addition of 240 mg/L rhamnolipid, the phenanthrene degradation and optical density were reduced, with this inhibitory effect similar for both 3Y and 4-3. To explain this inhibition, the cell growths of both strains were monitored with various concentrations of rhamnolipid, which showed significant toxic effects toward strain 3Y, but was nontoxic toward 4-3. Combining the inhibitory and toxicity results with regard to the biodegradation, different mechanisms can be suggested for each strain. In the biodegradation experiments, the toxicity of rhamnolipid itself mainly was responsible for the inhibitory effect in the case of 3Y, whereas the toxicity of solubilized phenanthrene or the increased toxicity of rhamnolipid in the presence of solubilized phenanthrene could have resulted in the inhibitory effect in the case of 4-3. This study demonstrated that the effectiveness of biosurfactant-enhanced biodegradation can be significantly different depending on the strain, and the toxicity of the biosurfactant should be considered as an important factor.

  4. Effect of water on overbased sulfonate engine oil additives.

    PubMed

    Tavacoli, J W; Dowding, P J; Steytler, D C; Barnes, D J; Routh, A F

    2008-04-15

    The presence and effect of water on calcium carbonate nanoparticles used in engine additives, stabilized with a sulfonate surfactant, is investigated using small-angle neutron scattering, dynamic light scattering, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and rheometry. These techniques provide complementary data that suggests the formation of a layer of water around the core of the particles ensuring continued colloidal stability yet increasing the dispersion viscosity. Through the use of small-angle neutron scattering, the dimensions of this layer have been quantified to effectively one or two water molecules in thickness. The lack of a significant electrostatic repulsion is evidence that the water layer is insufficient to cause major dissociation of surface ions.

  5. Tin nanoparticles as an effective conductive additive in silicon anodes

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, L.; Beaudette, C.; Guo, J.; Bozhilov, K.; Mangolini, L.

    2016-01-01

    We have found that the addition of tin nanoparticles to a silicon-based anode provides dramatic improvements in performance in terms of both charge capacity and cycling stability. Using a simple procedure and off-the-shelf additives and precursors, we developed a structure in which the tin nanoparticles are segregated at the interface between the silicon-containing active layer and the solid electrolyte interface. Even a minor addition of tin, as small as ∼2% by weight, results in a significant decrease in the anode resistance, as confirmed by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. This leads to a decrease in charge transfer resistance, which prevents the formation of electrically inactive “dead spots” in the anode structure and enables the effective participation of silicon in the lithiation reaction. PMID:27484849

  6. Significant Change in Marine Plankton Structure and Carbon Production After the Addition of River Water in a Mesocosm Experiment.

    PubMed

    Fouilland, E; Trottet, A; Alves-de-Souza, C; Bonnet, D; Bouvier, T; Bouvy, M; Boyer, S; Guillou, L; Hatey, E; Jing, H; Leboulanger, C; Le Floc'h, E; Liu, H; Mas, S; Mostajir, B; Nouguier, J; Pecqueur, D; Rochelle-Newall, E; Roques, C; Salles, C; Tournoud, M-G; Vasseur, C; Vidussi, F

    2017-03-16

    Rivers are known to be major contributors to eutrophication in marine coastal waters, but little is known on the short-term impact of freshwater surges on the structure and functioning of the marine plankton community. The effect of adding river water, reducing the salinity by 15 and 30%, on an autumn plankton community in a Mediterranean coastal lagoon (Thau Lagoon, France) was determined during a 6-day mesocosm experiment. Adding river water brought not only nutrients but also chlorophyceans that did not survive in the brackish mesocosm waters. The addition of water led to initial increases (days 1-2) in bacterial production as well as increases in the abundances of bacterioplankton and picoeukaryotes. After day 3, the increases were more significant for diatoms and dinoflagellates that were already present in the Thau Lagoon water (mainly Pseudo-nitzschia spp. group delicatissima and Prorocentrum triestinum) and other larger organisms (tintinnids, rotifers). At the same time, the abundances of bacterioplankton, cyanobacteria, and picoeukaryote fell, some nutrients (NH4(+), SiO4(3-)) returned to pre-input levels, and the plankton structure moved from a trophic food web based on secondary production to the accumulation of primary producers in the mesocosms with added river water. Our results also show that, after freshwater inputs, there is rapid emergence of plankton species that are potentially harmful to living organisms. This suggests that flash flood events may lead to sanitary issues, other than pathogens, in exploited marine areas.

  7. Effects of amino acid additives during hemodialysis of children.

    PubMed

    Abitbol, C L; Mrozinska, K; Mandel, S; McVicar, M; Wapnir, R A

    1984-01-01

    The intradialytic losses into the dialysate of free amino acids (AA) and alpha-amino nitrogen were determined during the dialysis of three children. Variations in plasma AA were determined pre- and postdialysis. The effect of these losses with the addition of an Abbott General Amino Acid Mixture to the dialysate in concentrations of 8.5, 17, and 34 mg/100 ml was studied. The major determinant of AA losses was the plasma concentration of the AA before beginning the dialysis treatment. Dialysance of individual AA varied inversely with their molecular weights. A zero flux of alpha-amino nitrogen occurred at a derived concentration of 22 mg/100 ml of the AA additive in the dialysate. Plasma concentrations of nonessential amino acids were little affected by the dialysate additive. In contrast, total essential amino acid nitrogen which fell during baseline dialyses showed significant improvement when the AA solution was added to the dialysate. This study suggests that the addition of AA to the dialysate bath may be effective in decreasing AA nitrogen losses during dialysis.

  8. Gluten-free dough-making of specialty breads: Significance of blended starches, flours and additives on dough behaviour.

    PubMed

    Collar, Concha; Conte, Paola; Fadda, Costantino; Piga, Antonio

    2015-10-01

    The capability of different gluten-free (GF) basic formulations made of flour (rice, amaranth and chickpea) and starch (corn and cassava) blends, to make machinable and viscoelastic GF-doughs in absence/presence of single hydrocolloids (guar gum, locust bean and psyllium fibre), proteins (milk and egg white) and surfactants (neutral, anionic and vegetable oil) have been investigated. Macroscopic (high deformation) and macromolecular (small deformation) mechanical, viscometric (gelatinization, pasting, gelling) and thermal (gelatinization, melting, retrogradation) approaches were performed on the different matrices in order to (a) identify similarities and differences in GF-doughs in terms of a small number of rheological and thermal analytical parameters according to the formulations and (b) to assess single and interactive effects of basic ingredients and additives on GF-dough performance to achieve GF-flat breads. Larger values for the static and dynamic mechanical characteristics and higher viscometric profiles during both cooking and cooling corresponded to doughs formulated with guar gum and Psyllium fibre added to rice flour/starch and rice flour/corn starch/chickpea flour, while surfactant- and protein-formulated GF-doughs added to rice flour/starch/amaranth flour based GF-doughs exhibited intermediate and lower values for the mechanical parameters and poorer viscometric profiles. In addition, additive-free formulations exhibited higher values for the temperature of both gelatinization and retrogradation and lower enthalpies for the thermal transitions. Single addition of 10% of either chickpea flour or amaranth flour to rice flour/starch blends provided a large GF-dough hardening effect in presence of corn starch and an intermediate effect in presence of cassava starch (chickpea), and an intermediate reinforcement of GF-dough regardless the source of starch (amaranth). At macromolecular level, both chickpea and amaranth flours, singly added, determined

  9. Effectiveness of Low Temperature Additives for Biodiesel Blends

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-30

    UNCLASSIFIED EFFECTIVENESS OF LOW TEMPERATURE ADDITIVES FOR BIODIESEL BLENDS INTERIM REPORT TFLRF No. 428 by Steven R...Do not return it to the originator. UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED EFFECTIVENESS OF LOW TEMPERATURE ADDITIVES FOR BIODIESEL BLENDS...17-2010 – 06-30-2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Effectiveness of Low Temperature Additives for Biodiesel Blends 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W56HZV-09-C-0100

  10. Mechanical and Electrical Properties of a Polyimide Film Significantly Enhanced by the Addition of Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meador, Michael A.

    2005-01-01

    Single-wall carbon nanotubes have been shown to possess a combination of outstanding mechanical, electrical, and thermal properties. The use of carbon nanotubes as an additive to improve the mechanical properties of polymers and/or enhance their thermal and electrical conductivity has been a topic of intense interest. Nanotube-modified polymeric materials could find a variety of applications in NASA missions including large-area antennas, solar arrays, and solar sails; radiation shielding materials for vehicles, habitats, and extravehicular activity suits; and multifunctional materials for vehicle structures and habitats. Use of these revolutionary materials could reduce vehicle weight significantly and improve vehicle performance and capabilities.

  11. Congruence of additive and non-additive effects on gene expression estimated from pedigree and SNP data.

    PubMed

    Powell, Joseph E; Henders, Anjali K; McRae, Allan F; Kim, Jinhee; Hemani, Gibran; Martin, Nicholas G; Dermitzakis, Emmanouil T; Gibson, Greg; Montgomery, Grant W; Visscher, Peter M

    2013-05-01

    There is increasing evidence that heritable variation in gene expression underlies genetic variation in susceptibility to disease. Therefore, a comprehensive understanding of the similarity between relatives for transcript variation is warranted--in particular, dissection of phenotypic variation into additive and non-additive genetic factors and shared environmental effects. We conducted a gene expression study in blood samples of 862 individuals from 312 nuclear families containing MZ or DZ twin pairs using both pedigree and genotype information. From a pedigree analysis we show that the vast majority of genetic variation across 17,994 probes is additive, although non-additive genetic variation is identified for 960 transcripts. For 180 of the 960 transcripts with non-additive genetic variation, we identify expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) with dominance effects in a sample of 339 unrelated individuals and replicate 31% of these associations in an independent sample of 139 unrelated individuals. Over-dominance was detected and replicated for a trans association between rs12313805 and ETV6, located 4MB apart on chromosome 12. Surprisingly, only 17 probes exhibit significant levels of common environmental effects, suggesting that environmental and lifestyle factors common to a family do not affect expression variation for most transcripts, at least those measured in blood. Consistent with the genetic architecture of common diseases, gene expression is predominantly additive, but a minority of transcripts display non-additive effects.

  12. Thermal processing of EVA encapsulants and effects of formulation additives

    SciTech Connect

    Pern, F.J.; Glick, S.H.

    1996-05-01

    The authors investigated the in-situ processing temperatures and effects of various formulation additives on the formation of ultraviolet (UV) excitable chromophores, in the thermal lamination and curing of ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA) encapsulants. A programmable, microprocessor-controlled, double-bag vacuum laminator was used to study two commercial as formulated EVA films, A9918P and 15295P, and solution-cast films of Elvaxrm (EVX) impregnated with various curing agents and antioxidants. The results show that the actual measured temperatures of EVA lagged significantly behind the programmed profiles for the heating elements and were affected by the total thermal mass loaded inside the laminator chamber. The antioxidant Naugard P{trademark}, used in the two commercial EVA formulations, greatly enhances the formation of UV-excitable, short chromophores upon curing, whereas other tested antioxidants show little effect. A new curing agent chosen specifically for the EVA formulation modification produces little or no effect on chromophore formation, no bubbling problems in the glass/EVX/glass laminates, and a gel content of {approximately}80% when cured at programmed 155{degrees}C for 4 min. Also demonstrated is the greater discoloring effect with higher concentrations of curing-generated chromophores.

  13. Adverse cognitive effects of antiepileptic pharmacotherapy: Each additional drug matters.

    PubMed

    Witt, Juri-Alexander; Elger, Christian E; Helmstaedter, Christoph

    2015-11-01

    The study was set up to evaluate the impact of the total drug load of antiepileptic pharmacotherapy on cognition. Retrospective analyses were based on 834 patients with epilepsy who underwent a brief routine assessment of executive function and verbal memory (EpiTrack Plus) at our department. The total drug load was quantified in two ways: (1) number of concurrent antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) and (2) total drug load according to the defined daily dose (DDD) provided by the World Health Organization. The cognitive measures showed higher inverse correlations with the number of AEDs (executive function: r=-0.35, p<0.001; memory: r=-0.22, p<0.001) than with the total DDD (executive function: r=-0.27, p<0.001; memory: r=-0.17, p<0.001). Reanalysis with statistical control for disease severity hardly changed the aforementioned results. With each additional drug in polytherapy, we observed a significantly lower performance in executive function. In this regard an additional explorative approach revealed that regimens combining AEDs with favorable cognitive profiles were associated with higher cognitive performance. Correlations between indicators of disease severity and drug load indices were low: altogether explaining only up to 9% of the observed variance in drug load. The findings demonstrate a considerable adverse effect of a higher drug load on cognition, especially on executive functions. Simply counting the number of drugs may be sufficient as a rough estimate of the risk of side effects. However, the combination of AEDs with favorable cognitive profiles may attenuate the negative effect of the total drug load.

  14. Implementation of Complexity Analyzing Based on Additional Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Peng; Li, Na; Liang, Yanhong; Liu, Fang

    According to the Complexity Theory, there is complexity in the system when the functional requirement is not be satisfied. There are several study performances for Complexity Theory based on Axiomatic Design. However, they focus on reducing the complexity in their study and no one focus on method of analyzing the complexity in the system. Therefore, this paper put forth a method of analyzing the complexity which is sought to make up the deficiency of the researches. In order to discussing the method of analyzing the complexity based on additional effect, this paper put forth two concepts which are ideal effect and additional effect. The method of analyzing complexity based on additional effect combines Complexity Theory with Theory of Inventive Problem Solving (TRIZ). It is helpful for designers to analyze the complexity by using additional effect. A case study shows the application of the process.

  15. Effect of additives on the purification of urease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, X.; Wang, J.; Ulrich, J.

    2015-12-01

    The effect of additives on the purification of proteins was investigated. The target protein studied here is the enzyme urease. Studies on the purification of urease from jack bean meal were carried out. 32% (v/v) acetone was utilized to extract urease from the jack bean meal. Further purification by crystallization with the addition of 2-mercaptoethanol and EDTA disodium salt dehydrate was carried out. It was found out that the presence of additives can affect the selectivity of the crystallization. Increases in both purity and yield of the urease after crystallization were observed in the presence of additives, which were proven using both SDS-PAGE and activity. Urease crystals with a yield of 69.9% and a purity of 85.1% were obtained in one crystallization step in the presence of additives. Furthermore, the effect of additives on the thermodynamics and kinetics of urease crystallization was studied.

  16. Lubricant and additive effects on spur gear fatigue life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, D. P.; Zaretsky, E. V.; Scibbe, H. W.

    1985-01-01

    Spur gear endurance tests were conducted with six lubricants using a single lot of consumable-electrode vacuum melted (CVM) AISI 9310 spur gears. The sixth lubricant was divided into four batches each of which had a different additive content. Lubricants tested with a phosphorus-type load carrying additive showed a statistically significant improvement in life over lubricants without this type of additive. The presence of sulfur type antiwear additives in the lubricant did not appear to affect the surface fatigue life of the gears. No statistical difference in life was produced with those lubricants of different base stocks but with similar viscosity, pressure-viscosity coefficients and antiwear additives. Gears tested with a 0.1 wt % sulfur and 0.1 wt % phosphorus EP additives in the lubricant had reactive films that were 200 to 400 (0.8 to 1.6 microns) thick.

  17. Polymer Photooxidation: An Experiment to Demonstrate the Effect of Additives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Norman S.; McKellar, John F.

    1979-01-01

    This undergraduate experiment shows that the inclusion of an appropriate additive can have a very marked effect on the physical properties of a polymer. The polymer used is polypropylene and the additives are 2-hydroxy-4-octyloxy-benzophenone and benzophenone. (BB)

  18. Effect of Fortification and Additives on Breast Milk Osmolality.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Vijay; Job, Victoria; Thomas, Niranjan

    2016-02-01

    This study evaluated the effect of fortification and commonly used additives on the osmolality of human milk. Osmolality after fortification with milk powder and human milk fortifier increased from 303 mOsmol/kg to 397 and 373 mOsmol/kg, respectively. The maximal increase in osmolality was seen with the addition of calcium gluconate.

  19. 15 CFR 970.701 - Significant adverse environmental effects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES... effects of deep seabed mining which cumulatively during commercial recovery have the potential for significant effect. These three effects also occur during mining system tests that may be conducted under...

  20. 15 CFR 970.701 - Significant adverse environmental effects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES... effects of deep seabed mining which cumulatively during commercial recovery have the potential for significant effect. These three effects also occur during mining system tests that may be conducted under...

  1. Significantly enhanced production of acarbose in fed-batch fermentation with the addition of S-adenosylmethionine.

    PubMed

    Sun, Li-Hui; Li, Ming-Gang; Wang, Yuan-Shan; Zheng, Yu-Guo

    2012-06-01

    Acarbose, a pseudo-oligosaccharide, is widely used clinically in therapies for non-insulin-dependent diabetes. In the present study, S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) was added to selected media in order to investigate its effect on acarbose fermentation by Actinoplanes utahensis ZJB- 08196. Acarbose titer was seen to increase markedly when concentrations of SAM were added over a period of time. The effects of glucose and maltose on the production of acarbose were investigated in both batch and fed-batch fermentation. Optimal acarbose production was observed at relatively low glucose levels and high maltose levels. Based on these results, a further fed-batch experiment was designed so as to enhance the production of acarbose. Fed-batch fermentation was carried out at an initial glucose level of 10 g/l and an initial maltose level of 60 g/l. Then, 12 h post inoculation, 100 micromol/l SAM was added. In addition, 8 g/l of glucose was added every 24 h, and 20 g/l of maltose was added at 96 h. By way of this novel feeding strategy, the maximum titer of acarbose achieved was 6,113 mg/l at 192 h. To our knowledge, the production level of acarbose achieved in this study is the highest ever reported.

  2. Effects of various additives on sintering of aluminum nitride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Komeya, K.; Inoue, H.; Tsuge, A.

    1982-01-01

    Effects of thirty additives on sintering A/N were investigated. The addition of alkali earth oxides and rare earth oxides gave fully densified aluminum nitride. This is due to the formation of nitrogen-containing aluminate liquid in the system aluminum nitride-alkali earth oxides or rare earth oxides. Microstructural studies of the sintered specimens with the above two types of additives suggested that the densification was due to the liquid phase sintering. Additions of silicon compounds resulted in poor densification by the formation of highly refractory compounds such as A/N polytypes.

  3. [Kinetic analysis of additive effect on desulfurization activity].

    PubMed

    Han, Kui-hua; Zhao, Jian-li; Lu, Chun-mei; Wang, Yong-zheng; Zhao, Gai-ju; Cheng, Shi-qing

    2006-02-01

    The additive effects of A12O3, Fe2O3 and MnCO3 on CaO sulfation kinetics were investigated by thermogravimetic analysis method and modified grain model. The activation energy (Ea) and the pre-exponential factor (k0) of surface reaction, the activation energy (Ep) and the pre-exponential factor (D0) of product layer diffusion reaction were calculated according to the model. Additions of MnCO3 can enhance the initial reaction rate, product layer diffusion and the final CaO conversion of sorbents, the effect mechanism of which is similar to that of Fe2O3. The method based isokinetic temperature Ts and activation energy can not estimate the contribution of additive to the sulfation reactivity, the rate constant of the surface reaction (k), and the effective diffusivity of reactant in the product layer (Ds) under certain experimental conditions can reflect the effect of additives on the activation. Unstoichiometric metal oxide may catalyze the surface reaction and promote the diffusivity of reactant in the product layer by the crystal defect and distinct diffusion of cation and anion. According to the mechanism and effect of additive on the sulfation, the effective temperature and the stoichiometric relation of reaction, it is possible to improve the utilization of sorbent by compounding more additives to the calcium-based sorbent.

  4. Effects of some polymeric additives on the cocrystallization of caffeine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Jihae; Kim, Il Won

    2011-11-01

    Effects of polymeric additives on the model cocrystallization were examined. The model cocrystal was made from caffeine and oxalic acid, and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), poly( L-lactide) (PLLA), poly(ɛ-caprolactone) (PCL), and poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) were the additives. The cocrystals were formed as millimeter-sized crystals without additives, and they became microcrystals with PLLA and PCL, and nanocrystals with PAA. XRD and IR revealed that the cocrystal structure was unchanged despite the strong effects of the additives on the crystal morphology, although some decrease in crystallinity was observed with PAA as confirmed by DSC. The DSC study also showed that the cocrystal melted and recrystallized to form α-caffeine upon heating. The present study verified that the polymeric additives can be utilized to modulate the size and morphology of the cocrystals without interfering the intermolecular interactions essential to the integrity of the cocrystal structures.

  5. Ecotoxicological effects of activated carbon addition to sediments.

    PubMed

    Jonker, Michiel T O; Suijkerbuijk, Martin P W; Schmitt, Heike; Sinnige, Theo L

    2009-08-01

    Activated carbon (AC) addition is a recently developed technique for the remediation of sediments and soils contaminated with hydrophobic organic chemicals. Laboratory and field experiments have demonstrated that the addition of 3-4% of AC can reduce aqueous concentrations and the bioaccumulation potential of contaminants. However, one aspect of the technique that has hardly received any attention is the possible occurrence of secondary, eco(toxico)logical effects, i.e., effects of AC addition on the health, behavior, and habitat quality of local organisms. In the present study, several ecotoxicological effects were investigated in AC-water and AC-enriched (0-25%) sediment systems. It was demonstrated that (i) powdered activated carbons can be toxic to aquatic invertebrates (Lumbriculus variegatus, Daphnia magna, and Corophium volutator) based on different mechanisms and preferably should be washed prior to application; (ii) Asellus aquaticus and Corophium volutator may physically avoid AC-enriched sediments; (iii) exposure of Lumbriculus variegatus to AC-enriched sediments lead to a time and dose-dependent reduction in the worms' lipid content, which was most probably caused by the observation that (iv) worm egestion rates decreased drastically upon AC addition, indicating that the presence of AC disturbed feeding behavior; and (v) there were no obvious effects on the microbiological community structure. All in all, these results suggest potential ecotoxicological effects of powdered AC addition and stress the need for a detailed further investigation of secondary effects of the technique, prior to any large-scale field application.

  6. The effect of chemical additives on the synthesis of ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Chuang, S.S.C.

    1990-11-01

    The objective of this research is to elucidate the role of additives on the ethanol synthesis over Rh- and Ni-based catalysts. Chemical additives used for this study will include S, P, Ag, Cu, Mn, and Na which have different electronegativities. The effect of additives on the surface state of the catalysts, heat of adsorption of reactant molecules, reaction intermediates, reaction pathways, reaction kinetics, and product distributions is/will be investigated by a series of experimental studies of NO adsorption, reaction probing, study state rate measurement, and transient kinetic study. A better understanding of the role of additive on the synthesis reaction may allow them to use chemical additives to manipulate the catalytic properties of Rh- and Ni-based catalysts for producing high yields of ethanol from syngas. 49 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. The effect of chemical additives on the synthesis of ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Chuang, S.S.C.

    1990-04-09

    The objective of this research is to elucidate the role of various chemical additives on ethanol synthesis over Rh- and Ni-based catalysts. Chemical additives used for this study will include S, P, Ag, Cu, Mn, and Na which have different electronegativities. The effect of additives on the surface state of the catalysts, heat of adsorption of reactant molecules, reaction intermediates, reaction pathways, reaction kinetics, and product distributions is/will be investigated by a series of experimental studies of NO adsorption, reaction probing, study state rate measurement, and transient kinetic study. A better understanding of the role of additive on the synthesis reaction may allow us to use chemical additives to manipulate the catalytic properties of Rh- and Ni-based catalysts for producing high yields of ethanol from syngas.

  8. The effect of chemical additives on the synthesis of ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Chuang, S.S.C.

    1990-07-01

    The objective of this research is to elucidate the role of various chemical additives on ethanol synthesis over Rh- and Ni-based catalysts. Chemical additives used for this study will include S, P, Ag, Cu, Mn, and Na which have different electronegativities. The effect of additives on the surface state of the catalysts, heat of adsorption of reactant molecules, reaction intermediates, reaction pathways, reaction kinetics, and product distributions is/will be investigated by a series of experimental studies of NO adsorption, reaction probing, study state rate measurement, and transient kinetic study. A better understanding of the role of additive on the synthesis reaction may allow us to use chemical additives to manipulate the catalytic properties of Rh- and Ni-based catalysts for producing high yields of ethanol from syngas.

  9. Significant and meaningful effects in sports biomechanics research.

    PubMed

    Knudson, Duane

    2009-03-01

    Errors in statistical analysis of multiple dependent variables and in documenting the size of effects are common in the scientific and biomechanical literature. In this paper, I review these errors and several solutions that can improve the validity of sports biomechanics research reports. Studies examining multiple dependent variables should either control for the inflation of Type I errors (e.g. Holm's procedure) during multiple comparisons or use multivariate analysis of variance to focus on the structure and interaction of the dependent variables. When statistically significant differences are observed, research reports should provide confidence limits or effect sizes to document the size of the effects. Authors of sports biomechanics research reports are encouraged to analyse and present their data accounting for the experiment-wise Type I error rate, as well as reporting data documenting the size or practical significance of effects reaching their standard of statistical significance.

  10. Study on thermal effects & sulfurized additives, in lubricating greases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, Ami Atul

    Lithium Base grease constitutes about 50% of market. The greases are developed to be able to work in multiple working conditions and have longer working life. Greases with extreme pressure additives and anti-wear additives have been developed as a solution to many of the applications. These developed greases are tested under ASTM D2266 testing conditions to meet the requirements. The actual working conditions, although, differ than the real testing conditions. The loading, speed and temperature conditions can be more harsh, or fluctuating in nature. The cyclic nature of the parameters cannot be directly related to the test performance. For this purpose studies on the performance under spectrum loading, variable speed and fluctuating temperature must be performed. This study includes tests to understand the effect of thermal variation on some of the most commonly used grease additives that perform well under ASTM D2266 testing conditions. The studied additives include most widely used industrial extreme pressure additive MoS2. Performance of ZDDP which is trying to replace MoS2 in its industrial applications has also been studied. The tests cover study of extreme pressure, anti-wear and friction modifier additives to get a general idea on the effects of thermal variation in three areas. Sulphur is the most common extreme pressure additive. Sulphur based MoS 2 is extensively used grease additive. Study to understand the tribological performance of this additive through wear testing and SEM/EDX studies has been done. This performance is also studied for other metallic sulfides like WS2 and sulphur based organic compound. The aim is to study the importance of the type of bond that sulphur shares in its additive's structure on its performance. The MoS2 film formation is found to be on the basis of the FeS formation on the substrate and protection through sacrificial monolayer deposition of the MoS2 sheared structure. The free Mo then tends to oxidise. An attempt to

  11. Worksite stress management training: moderated effects and clinical significance.

    PubMed

    Flaxman, Paul E; Bond, Frank W

    2010-10-01

    Psychologically healthy participants may dilute the observed effects of worksite stress management training (SMT) programs, therefore hiding the true effectiveness of these interventions for more distressed workers. To examine this issue, 311 local government employees were randomly assigned to SMT based on acceptance and commitment therapy (SMT, n = 177) or to a waitlist control group (n = 134). The SMT program consisted of three half-day training sessions, and imparted a mixture of mindfulness and values-based action skills. Across a 6-month assessment period, SMT resulted in a significant reduction in employee distress. As predicted, the impact of SMT was significantly moderated by baseline distress, such that meaningful effects were found only among a subgroup of initially distressed workers. Furthermore, a majority (69%) of these initially distressed SMT participants improved to a clinically significant degree. The study highlights the importance of accounting for sample heterogeneity when evaluating and classifying worksite SMT programs.

  12. Statistical Significance and Effect Size: Two Sides of a Coin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fan, Xitao

    This paper suggests that statistical significance testing and effect size are two sides of the same coin; they complement each other, but do not substitute for one another. Good research practice requires that both should be taken into consideration to make sound quantitative decisions. A Monte Carlo simulation experiment was conducted, and a…

  13. 15 CFR 971.602 - Significant adverse environmental effects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR COMMERCIAL RECOVERY PERMITS... significant adverse environmental effect or impact (for the purposes of sections 103(a)(2)(D), 105(a)(4), 106.... Determinations will be based upon the best information available, including relevant environmental...

  14. 15 CFR 971.602 - Significant adverse environmental effects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR COMMERCIAL RECOVERY PERMITS... significant adverse environmental effect or impact (for the purposes of sections 103(a)(2)(D), 105(a)(4), 106.... Determinations will be based upon the best information available, including relevant environmental...

  15. 15 CFR 971.602 - Significant adverse environmental effects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR COMMERCIAL RECOVERY PERMITS... significant adverse environmental effect or impact (for the purposes of sections 103(a)(2)(D), 105(a)(4), 106.... Determinations will be based upon the best information available, including relevant environmental...

  16. 15 CFR 971.602 - Significant adverse environmental effects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR COMMERCIAL RECOVERY PERMITS... significant adverse environmental effect or impact (for the purposes of sections 103(a)(2)(D), 105(a)(4), 106.... Determinations will be based upon the best information available, including relevant environmental...

  17. The effect of one additional driver mutation on tumor progression.

    PubMed

    Reiter, Johannes G; Bozic, Ivana; Allen, Benjamin; Chatterjee, Krishnendu; Nowak, Martin A

    2013-01-01

    Tumor growth is caused by the acquisition of driver mutations, which enhance the net reproductive rate of cells. Driver mutations may increase cell division, reduce cell death, or allow cells to overcome density-limiting effects. We study the dynamics of tumor growth as one additional driver mutation is acquired. Our models are based on two-type branching processes that terminate in either tumor disappearance or tumor detection. In our first model, both cell types grow exponentially, with a faster rate for cells carrying the additional driver. We find that the additional driver mutation does not affect the survival probability of the lesion, but can substantially reduce the time to reach the detectable size if the lesion is slow growing. In our second model, cells lacking the additional driver cannot exceed a fixed carrying capacity, due to density limitations. In this case, the time to detection depends strongly on this carrying capacity. Our model provides a quantitative framework for studying tumor dynamics during different stages of progression. We observe that early, small lesions need additional drivers, while late stage metastases are only marginally affected by them. These results help to explain why additional driver mutations are typically not detected in fast-growing metastases.

  18. Significance of autobiographical episodes and spacing effects in incidental memory.

    PubMed

    Toyota, Hiroshi

    2013-10-01

    Participants were presented with target words on two occasions, and were asked each time to generate a memory of a past episode associated with the targets. Participants were also instructed to rate the importance (significance elaboration) or pleasantness of the pisode (pleasantness elaboration) in an orienting task, followed by an unexpect d recall test. Significance elaboration led to better recall than pleasantness elaboration, but only in the spaced presentation. The spaced presentation led to better tree recall than massed presentation with significance elaboration, but the difference between the two types of presentation was not observed with pleasantness elaboration. These results suggest that the significance of an episode is more critical than the pleasantness of an episode in determining the effectiveness of autobiographical elaboration in facilitating recall.

  19. Estimating Hydraulic Parameters When Poroelastic Effects Are Significant

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berg, S.J.; Hsieh, P.A.; Illman, W.A.

    2011-01-01

    For almost 80 years, deformation-induced head changes caused by poroelastic effects have been observed during pumping tests in multilayered aquifer-aquitard systems. As water in the aquifer is released from compressive storage during pumping, the aquifer is deformed both in the horizontal and vertical directions. This deformation in the pumped aquifer causes deformation in the adjacent layers, resulting in changes in pore pressure that may produce drawdown curves that differ significantly from those predicted by traditional groundwater theory. Although these deformation-induced head changes have been analyzed in several studies by poroelasticity theory, there are at present no practical guidelines for the interpretation of pumping test data influenced by these effects. To investigate the impact that poroelastic effects during pumping tests have on the estimation of hydraulic parameters, we generate synthetic data for three different aquifer-aquitard settings using a poroelasticity model, and then analyze the synthetic data using type curves and parameter estimation techniques, both of which are based on traditional groundwater theory and do not account for poroelastic effects. Results show that even when poroelastic effects result in significant deformation-induced head changes, it is possible to obtain reasonable estimates of hydraulic parameters using methods based on traditional groundwater theory, as long as pumping is sufficiently long so that deformation-induced effects have largely dissipated. ?? 2011 The Author(s). Journal compilation ?? 2011 National Ground Water Association.

  20. Effectiveness of various organometallics as antiwear additives in mineral oil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, D. H.

    1977-01-01

    Sliding friction experiments were conducted with 1045 steel contacting 302 stainless steel and lubricated with various organometallics in mineral oil. Auger emission spectroscopy was used to determine the element present in the wear contact zone. The results indicate that there are organometallics which are as effective an antiwear additives as the commonly used zinc dialkyl dithiophosphate. These include dimethyl cadmium, triphenyl lead thiomethoxide, and triphenyl tin chloride. The additives were examined in concentrations to 1 weight percent. With dimethyl cadmium at concentrations of 0.5 weight percent and above, cadmium was detected in the contact zone. Coincident with the detection of cadmium, a marked decrease in the friction coefficient was observed. All additives examined reduced friction, but only the aforementioned reduced wear to a level comparable to that observed with zinc dialkyl dithiophosphate.

  1. Modulation of additive and interactive effects by trial history revisited.

    PubMed

    Masson, Michael E J; Rabe, Maximilian M; Kliegl, Reinhold

    2017-04-01

    Masson and Kliegl (Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 39, 898-914, 2013) reported evidence that the nature of the target stimulus on the previous trial of a lexical decision task modulates the effects of independent variables on the current trial, including additive versus interactive effects of word frequency and stimulus quality. In contrast, recent reanalyses of previously published data from experiments that, unlike the Masson and Kliegl experiments, did not include semantic priming as a factor, found no evidence for modulation of additive effects of frequency and stimulus quality by trial history (Balota, Aschenbrenner, & Yap, Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 39, 1563-1571, 2013; O'Malley & Besner, Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 34, 1400-1411, 2013). We report two experiments that included semantic priming as a factor and that attempted to replicate the modulatory effects found by Masson and Kliegl. In neither experiment was additivity of frequency and stimulus quality modulated by trial history, converging with the findings reported by Balota et al. and O'Malley and Besner. Other modulatory influences of trial history, however, were replicated in the new experiments and reflect potential trial-by-trial alterations in decision processes.

  2. Survival of free and microencapsulated Bifidobacterium: effect of honey addition.

    PubMed

    Favarin, Luciana; Laureano-Melo, Roberto; Luchese, Rosa Helena

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of honey addition on the viability of free and emulsion encapsulated cells of two strains of Bifidobacterium that underwent simulation of human upper gastrointestinal transit. In the control condition, without honey, free cells were drastically reduced after exposure to gastrointestinal conditions. The reduction was more pronounced with Bifidobacterium J7 of human origin. On the other hand, when cells were encapsulated, the viability reduction was higher for strain Bifidobacterium Bb12. The microencapsulation improved the viability maintenance of both Bifidobacterium strains, in recommended amounts for probiotic activity, after exposure to simulated gastrointestinal conditions. Moreover, suspending free cells of both Bifidobacterium strains in honey solutions resulted in a protective effect, equivalent to the plain microencapsulation with sodium alginate 3%. It is concluded that microencapsulation and the addition of honey improved the ability of Bifidobacterium to tolerate gastrointestinal conditions in vitro.

  3. Percolation phenomenon in mixed reverse micelles: the effect of additives.

    PubMed

    Paul, Bidyut K; Mitra, Rajib K

    2006-03-01

    The conductivity of AOT/IPM/water reverse micellar systems as a function of temperature, has been found to be non-percolating at three different concentrations (100, 175 and 250 mM), while the addition of nonionic surfactants [polyoxyethylene(10) cetyl ether (Brij-56) and polyoxyethylene(20) cetyl ether (Brij-58)] to these systems exhibits temperature-induced percolation in conductance in non-percolating AOT/isopropyl myristate (IPM)/water system at constant compositions (i.e., at fixed total surfactant concentration, omega and X(nonionic)). The influence of total surfactant concentration (micellar concentration) on the temperature-induced percolation behaviors of these systems has been investigated. The effect of Brij-58 is more pronounced than that of Brij-56 in inducing percolation. The threshold percolation temperature, Tp has been determined for these systems in presence of additives of different molecular structures, physical parameters and/or interfacial properties. The additives have shown both assisting and resisting effects on the percolation threshold. The additives, bile salt (sodium cholate), urea, formamide, cholesteryl acetate, cholesteryl benzoate, toluene, a triblock copolymer [(EO)13(PO)30(EO)13, Pluronic, PL64], polybutadiene, sucrose esters (sucrose dodecanoates, L-1695 and sucrose monostearate S-1670), formamide distinctively fall in the former category, whereas sodium chloride, cholesteryl palmitate, crown ether, ethylene glycol constitute the latter for both systems. Sucrose dodecanoates (L-595) had almost marginal effect on the process. The observed behavior of these additives on the percolation phenomenon has been explained in terms of critical packing parameter and/or other factors, which influence the texture of the interface and solution properties of the mixed reverse micellar systems. The activation energy, Ep for the percolation process has been evaluated. Ep values for the AOT/Brij-56 systems have been found to be lower than those of

  4. Significant photoelectric property change caused by additional nano-confinement: a study of half-dimensional nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Chengming; Song, Jinhui

    2014-12-29

    How properties change as 1D nanomaterials reduce in length to 0D, that is, the properties of 0.5D nanomaterial, are studied via photoelectric changes in ZnO nanowires. The photoelectric property of this 0.5D nanomaterial changes significantly as the 3D nanoconfinement is reinforced. This finding can be expanded to more properties and materials to profoundly impact fields of nanoscience, nanodevices, and nanoelectronics.

  5. Effect of additives on physicochemical properties in amorphous starch matrices.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jun; Wang, Simon; Ludescher, Richard D

    2015-03-15

    The effect of the addition of non-reducing sugars or methylcellulose on the matrix physical properties and rate of non-enzymatic browning (NBR) between exogenous glucose+lysine in a starch-based glassy matrix were studied, using the methods of luminescence and FTIR. Amorphous starch-based matrices were formulated by rapidly dehydrating potato starch gel mixed with additives at weight ratios of 7:93 (additive:starch). Data on the phosphorescence emission energy and lifetime from erythrosin B dispersed in the matrices indicated that sugars decreased starch matrix mobility in a Tg-dependent manner, except for trehalose that interacted with starch in a unique mode, while methylcellulose, the additive with the highest Tg, increased the molecular mobility. Using FTIR, we found that methylcellulose decreased the strength of hydrogen bond network and sugars enhanced the hydrogen bond strength in the order: trehalose>maltitol>sucrose. Comparing those changes with the rate of NBR between exogenous glucose+lysine, we suggest that NBR rates are primarily influenced by matrix mobility, which is modulated by the hydrogen bond network, and interactions among components.

  6. Cantaloupe melon peroxidase: characterization and effects of additives on activity.

    PubMed

    Lamikanra, O; Watson, M A

    2000-06-01

    Peroxidase in cantaloupe melon (Cucumis melo L. var. reticulatus Naud.), a fruit commonly fresh cut processed, was characterized to determine reaction pathway, optimal conditions for activity and effect of some additives on enzymatic action. Mn2+, CaCl2, NaNO2 and kinetin had partial inhibitory effects on enzyme activity. Activity was effectively inhibited by compounds capable of chelating peroxidase heme iron such as diethyldithiocarbamate and tiron, but unaffected by EDTA. Free radical scavenger, superoxide dismutase, also had no effect on reaction velocity. Enzymatic action was consistent with that of ascorbate peroxidase based on the relatively higher affinity for ascorbate over guaiacol. Optimum activity temperature was 50-55 degrees C. The enzyme was stable at temperatures below 40 degrees C and at 50 degrees C for up to 10 min. Over 90% of total activity was lost at 80 degrees C within 5 min. Broad pH optima, 5.5-7.5 at 50 degrees C and 6-7 at 30 degrees C, were obtained. Peroxidase activity in cantaloupe was higher than those in strawberry (Fragaria ananassa Duch.) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), suggesting a relatively high oxidative stress in fresh cut cantaloupe. The potential use of ascorbate as an additive in fresh cut cantaloupe melon was demonstrated by its ability to preserve color in minimally processed fruits for 25 days at 4 degrees C, possibly as a result of an enhanced antioxidative action of the ascorbate-peroxidase complex and trace metal ion cofactors.

  7. Effects of acetylacetone additions on PZT thin film processing

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, R.W.; Assink, R.A.; Dimos, D.; Sinclair, M.B.; Boyle, T.J.; Buchheit, C.D.

    1995-02-01

    Sol-gel processing methods are frequently used for the fabrication of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) thin films for many electronic applications. Our standard approach for film fabrication utilizes lead acetate and acetic acid modified metal alkoxides of zirconium and titanium in the preparation of our precursor solutions. This report highlights some of our recent results on the effects of the addition of a second chelating ligand, acetylacetone, to this process. The authors discuss the changes in film drying behavior, densification and ceramic microstructure which accompany acetylacetone additions to the precursor solution and relate the observed variations in processing behavior to differences in chemical precursor structure induced by the acetylacetone ligand. Improvements in thin film microstructure, ferroelectric and optical properties are observed when acetylacetone is added to the precursor solution.

  8. Al addition effect of bulk MgB 2 superconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinohara, K.; Ikeda, H.; Yoshizaki, R.

    2007-10-01

    The properties of transport and magnetization have been investigated for bulk MgB2Alx superconductor with Al addition (x = 0, 0.5, 1 wt%). MgB2 bulk samples sintered at different temperatures at 650-740 °C were prepared in the undoped state. The temperature and applied field dependencies of resistivity and magnetization were measured for the samples. The sample sintered at 690 °C exhibited the highest critical current density (Jc) and the lowest resistivity. This undoped sample was chosen as a criterion sample, and the effect of Al addition on the MgB2 bulk was studied from the transport and magnetization properties in a magnetic field. For MgB2Alx bulk samples sintered at 690 °C, the resistivity increased and Jc decreased as amount of Al was increased.

  9. Effect of mixed additives on lead-acid battery electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Arup; Basumallick, Indra Narayan

    This paper describes the corrosion behaviour of the positive and negative electrodes of a lead-acid battery in 5 M H 2SO 4 with binary additives such as mixtures of phosphoric acid and boric acid, phosphoric acid and tin sulphate, and phosphoric acid and picric acid. The effect of these additives is examined from the Tafel polarisation curves, double layer capacitance and percentage of inhibition efficiency. A lead salt battery has been fabricated replacing the binary mixture with an alternative electrolyte and the above electrochemical parameters have been evaluated for this lead salt battery. The results are explained in terms of H + ion transport and the morphological change of the PbSO 4 layer.

  10. The effect of feedstock additives on FCC catalyst deactivation

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, R.; Koon, C.L.; McGhee, B.

    1995-12-31

    Fluid catalytic cracking is a major petroleum refining process and because of this the deactivation of FCC catalysts by coke deposition has been the subject of considerable investigation during the past 50 years. Nevertheless, a lack of understanding of the fundamental understanding of processes leading to coke formation still exists. Basic studies using Zeolites have usually involved excessively high levels of coke deposits compared to normal FCC operation. The present study addresses coke formation at realistic levels of 0.5 to 1.0% w/w using a standard MAT reactor in which concentrations of 1% and 10% of various additives were added to the n-hexadecane feedstock. These additives included, quinoline, phenanthrene, benzofuran, thianaphthene and indene. The coke formed was characterised by mass spectrometry and was significantly aliphatic in nature, the amount formed increasing in the order quinoline, phenanthrene, thianaphthene, benzofuran, indene. Quinoline acts primarily as a poison, whereas the other additives tend to promote coke formation in n-hexadecane cracking.

  11. Combinatorial effects on clumped isotopes and their significance in biogeochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeung, Laurence Y.

    2016-01-01

    clumped-isotope effects. These isotopic signatures, manifest as either directly bound isotope "clumps" or as features of a molecule's isotopic anatomy, are linked to molecular mechanisms and may eventually provide additional information about biogeochemical cycling on environmentally relevant spatial scales.

  12. Significant improvement in the critical current density of MgB2 bulks in situ sintered at low temperature by excess Mg addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Zongqing; Liu, Yongchang; Cai, Qi; Yu, Liming

    2014-01-01

    MgB2 bulks with excess Mg addition were rapidly synthesized by sintering at low temperature in present work. It is found that even after ball milling treatment of original powders, the reaction between Mg and B during subsequent low temperature sintering process was uncompleted within 5 h and there is still some residual Mg. On the other hand, the presence of residual Mg can make the sintering microstructure more homogeneous and dense, and also reduce lattice defects and mechanical strains. All the factors are contributed to the improvement of the grain connectivity in the samples with excess Mg addition sintered at low temperature compared to the reference MgB2 sample sintered at high temperature. Hence, Jc of these prepared samples is enhanced significantly across the whole measured fields. Especially, at 20 K, 2 T, the value of Jc in the 5 h-sintered MgB2 bulk with Mg addition is above 1 × 105 A cm-2. The technique developed in present work is an effective and low-cost way to further enhance Jc in the MgB2 superconductors without using expensive nanometer-size dopants.

  13. A climatologically significant aerosol longwave indirect effect in the Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubin, Dan; Vogelmann, Andrew M.

    2006-01-01

    The warming of Arctic climate and decreases in sea ice thickness and extent observed over recent decades are believed to result from increased direct greenhouse gas forcing, changes in atmospheric dynamics having anthropogenic origin, and important positive reinforcements including ice-albedo and cloud-radiation feedbacks. The importance of cloud-radiation interactions is being investigated through advanced instrumentation deployed in the high Arctic since 1997 (refs 7, 8). These studies have established that clouds, via the dominance of longwave radiation, exert a net warming on the Arctic climate system throughout most of the year, except briefly during the summer. The Arctic region also experiences significant periodic influxes of anthropogenic aerosols, which originate from the industrial regions in lower latitudes. Here we use multisensor radiometric data to show that enhanced aerosol concentrations alter the microphysical properties of Arctic clouds, in a process known as the `first indirect' effect. Under frequently occurring cloud types we find that this leads to an increase of an average 3.4watts per square metre in the surface longwave fluxes. This is comparable to a warming effect from established greenhouse gases and implies that the observed longwave enhancement is climatologically significant.

  14. Eddy damping effect of additional conductors in superconducting levitation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Zhao-Fei; Gou, Xiao-Fan

    2015-12-01

    Passive superconducting levitation systems consisting of a high temperature superconductor (HTSC) and a permanent magnet (PM) have demonstrated several fascinating applications such as the maglev system, flywheel energy storage. Generally, for the HTSC-PM levitation system, the HTSC with higher critical current density Jc can obtain larger magnetic force to make the PM levitate over the HTSC (or suspended below the HTSC), however, the process of the vibration of the levitated PM, provides very limited inherent damping (essentially hysteresis). To improve the dynamic stability of the levitated PM, eddy damping of additional conductors can be considered as the most simple and effective approach. In this article, for the HTSC-PM levitation system with an additional copper damper attached to the HTSC, we numerically and comprehensively investigated the damping coefficient c, damping ratio, Joule heating of the copper damper, and the vibration frequency of the PM as well. Furthermore, we comparatively studied four different arrangements of the copper damper, on the comprehensive analyzed the damping effect, efficiency (defined by c/VCu, in which VCu is the volume of the damper) and Joule heating, and finally presented the most advisable arrangement.

  15. Effects of Particle Additives on Acoustically Coupled Fuel Droplet Combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sim, Hyung Sub; Plascencia Quiroz, Miguel; Vargas, Andres; Bennewitz, John; Smith, Owen; Karagozian, Ann

    2016-11-01

    Addition of nanoscale particulates to liquid hydrocarbon fuels is suggested to have numerous benefits for combustion systems, although aggregation of metal nanoparticles can produce deleterious effects. The present experiments explore the effect of nano Aluminum (nAl) additives on the combustion of single liquid fuel droplets, with and without exposure of the droplets to standing acoustic waves. Building on prior studies, the present experiments quantify variations in the burning rate constant K for ethanol droplets with increasing concentrations of nAl in a quiescent environment. Burning fuel droplets that are continuously fed via a capillary as well as suspended (non-fed) droplets are examined. Nano Al is observed to create ejections of both particles and vapor toward the end of the burning period for non-fed droplets; this phenomenon is delayed when the droplet is replenished via continuous fuel delivery. Yet for the majority of conditions explored, increasing concentrations of nAl tend to reduce K. When ethanol droplets with nAl are exposed to standing waves, acoustic perturbations appear to delay particulate agglomeration, sustaining combustion for a longer period of time and increasing K. Supported by AFOSR Grant FA9550-15-1-0339.

  16. Probing the "additive effect" in the proline and proline hydroxamic acid catalyzed asymmetric addition of nitroalkanes to cyclic enones.

    PubMed

    Hanessian, Stephen; Govindan, Subramaniyan; Warrier, Jayakumar S

    2005-11-01

    The effect of chirality and steric bulk of 2,5-disubstituted piperazines as additives in the conjugate addition of 2-nitropropane to cyclohexenone, catalyzed by l-proline, was investigated. Neither chirality nor steric bulk affects the enantioselectivity of addition, which gives 86-93% ee in the presence of achiral and chiral nonracemic 2,5-disubstituted piperazines. Proline hydroxamic acid is shown for the first time to be an effective organocatalyst in the same Michael reaction.

  17. Immunological Effects of Probiotics and their Significance to Human Health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gill, Harsharn S.; Grover, Sunita; Batish, Virender K.; Gill, Preet

    Probiotics are defined as live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit upon the host (FAO/WHO, 2001). Lactic acid bacteria, particularly Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium species are commonly used as probiotics. Other less commonly used probiotics include the yeast Sacchromyces cerevisiae and some non-pathogenic Escherichia coli and Bacillus species. Studies over the past 20 years have demonstrated that probiotic intake is able to confer a range of health benefits including modulation of the immune system, protection against gastrointestinal and respiratory tract infections, lowering of blood cholesterol levels, attenuation of overt immuno-inflammatory disorders (such as inflammatory bowel disease, allergies) and anti-cancer effects. However, the strongest clinical evidence for probiotics relates to their effectiveness in improving gut health and modulating (via stimulation or regulation) the host immune system. This chapter provides an overview of the current status of our knowledge regarding the immunostimulatory and immunoregulatory effects of probiotics on the immune system and their significance to human health.

  18. Effectiveness of Additives in Improving Fuel Lubricity and Preventing Pump Failure at High Temperature

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    the specified 1,700 rpm, the housing pressure on pump No. 1 dropped significantly. Fuel began spewing out of test stand gear box and the pump seized...UNCLASSIFIED EFFECTIVENESS OF ADDITIVES IN IMPROVING FUEL LUBRICITY AND PREVENTING PUMP FAILURE AT HIGH TEMPERATURE INTERIM REPORT TFLRF...UNCLASSIFIED EFFECTIVENESS OF ADDITIVES IN IMPROVING FUEL LUBRICITY AND PREVENTING PUMP FAILURE AT HIGH TEMPERATURE INTERIM REPORT TFLRF No. 437

  19. Non-additive and additive genetic effects on extraversion in 3314 Dutch adolescent twins and their parents.

    PubMed

    Rettew, David C; Rebollo-Mesa, Irene; Hudziak, James J; Willemsen, Gonneke; Boomsma, Dorret I

    2008-05-01

    The influence of non-additive genetic influences on personality traits has been increasingly reported in adult populations. Less is known, however, with respect to younger samples. In this study, we examine additive and non-additive genetic contributions to the personality trait of extraversion in 1,689 Dutch twin pairs, 1,505 mothers and 1,637 fathers of the twins. The twins were on average 15.5 years (range 12-18 years). To increase statistical power to detect non-additive genetic influences, data on extraversion were also collected in parents and simultaneously analyzed. Genetic modeling procedures incorporating age as a potential modifier of heritability showed significant influences of additive (20-23%) and non-additive genetic factors (31-33%) in addition to unshared environment (46-48%) for adolescents and for their parents. The additive genetic component was slightly and positively related to age. No significant sex differences were found for either extraversion means or for the magnitude of the genetic and environmental influences. There was no evidence of non-random mating for extraversion in the parental generation. Results show that in addition to additive genetic influences, extraversion in adolescents is influenced by non-additive genetic factors.

  20. Significant thrombocytopenia associated with the addition of rituximab to a combination of fludarabine and cyclophosphamide in the treatment of relapsed follicular lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Leo, Eugen; Scheuer, Lars; Schmidt-Wolf, Ingo G H; Kerowgan, Mohammed; Schmitt, Christina; Leo, Albrecht; Baumbach, Tanja; Kraemer, Alwin; Mey, Ulrich; Benner, Axel; Parwaresch, Reza; Ho, Anthony D

    2004-10-01

    Fludarabine in combination with cyclophosphamide is an effective treatment for newly diagnosed as well as relapsed follicular lymphoma. The anti-CD20 antibody rituximab has been employed successfully for the same indications. No such data were available on a combined use of these agents. Therefore, we conducted a phase II study to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a combination of rituximab (375 mg/m2), fludarabine (4 x 25 mg/m2) and cyclophosphamide (1 x 750 mg/m2), for the treatment of relapsed follicular lymphoma. An unexpected, severe hematologic toxicity with significant, prolonged thrombocytopenias WHO grade III/IV in 6 (35%) of 17 patients treated in total occurred, leading to early termination of the trial. Cytologic and serologic analyses point toward a direct toxic effect. Older patients (mean age 64.7 vs. 56.5 yr) were significantly (P = 0.02) more likely to suffer from this toxicity, whereas no other clinical or hematologic parameter differed statistically between the patients suffering from thrombocytopenia and those who did not. The addition of rituximab to fludarabine/cyclophosphamide employed at doses given above in relapsed follicular lymphoma may have led to this increase in thrombocytopenias. Therefore, caution should be exercised when combining these drugs for the treatment of patients with relapsed follicular lymphoma, especially when treating older patients.

  1. The effect of chemical additives on the synthesis of ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Chuang, S.S.C.

    1989-04-30

    The objective of this research is to elucidate the role of various chemical additives on ethanol synthesis over Rh- and Ni-based catalysts. Chemical additives used for this study will include S, P, Ag, Cu, Mn, and Na which have different electronegativeities. The effect of additives on the surface state of the catalysts, heat of adsorption of reactant molecules, reaction intermediates, reaction pathways, reaction kinetics, and product distributions is/will be investigated by a series of experimental studies of NO adsorption, reactive probing, steady state rate measurement, and transient kinetic study. CO insertion is known to be a key step to the formation of acetaldehyde and ethanol from CO hydrogenation. Reaction of ethylene with syngas is used as a probe to determine CO insertion capabilities of metal catalysts. During the sixth quarter of the project, the mechanism of CO insertion on Ni/SiO{sub 2} was investigated by in-situ infrared spectroscopy. Ni/SiO{sub 2}, a methanation catalyst, has been shown to exhibit CO insertion activity. In situ infrared studies of CO/H{sub 2} and C{sub 2}H{sub 4}/CO/H{sub 2} reactions show that the carbonylation of Ni/SiO{sub 2} to Ni(CO){sub 4} leads to an inhibition of methanation in CO hydrogenation but an enhancement of formation of propionaldehyde in C{sub 2}H{sub 4}/CO/H{sub 2} reaction. The results suggest that the sites for propionaldehyde formation is different from those for methanation.

  2. The spherical Brazil Nut Effect and its significance to asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perera, Viranga; Jackson, Alan P.; Asphaug, Erik; Ballouz, Ronald-Louis

    2016-11-01

    Many asteroids are likely rubble-piles that are a collection of smaller objects held together by gravity and possibly cohesion. These asteroids are seismically shaken by impacts, which leads to excitation of their constituent particles. As a result it has been suggested that their surfaces and sub-surface interiors may be governed by a size sorting mechanism known as the Brazil Nut Effect. We study the behavior of a model asteroid that is a spherical, self-gravitating aggregate with a binary size-distribution of particles under the action of applied seismic shaking. We find that above a seismic threshold, larger particles rise to the surface when friction is present, in agreement with previous studies that focussed on cylindrical and rectangular box configurations. Unlike previous works we also find that size sorting takes place even with zero friction, though the presence of friction does aid the sorting process above the seismic threshold. Additionally we find that while strong size sorting can take place near the surface, the innermost regions remain unsorted under even the most vigorous shaking.

  3. Hierarchical additive effects on heterosis in rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    PubMed Central

    Dan, Zhiwu; Hu, Jun; Zhou, Wei; Yao, Guoxin; Zhu, Renshan; Huang, Wenchao; Zhu, Yingguo

    2015-01-01

    Exploitation of heterosis in crops has contributed greatly to improvement in global food and energy production. In spite of the pervasive importance of heterosis, a complete understanding of its mechanisms has remained elusive. In this study, a small test-crossed rice population was constructed to investigate the formation mechanism of heterosis for 13 traits. The results of the relative mid-parent heterosis and modes of inheritance of all investigated traits demonstrated that additive effects were the foundation of heterosis for complex traits in a hierarchical structure, and multiplicative interactions among the component traits were the framework of heterosis in complex traits. Furthermore, new balances between unit traits and related component traits provided hybrids with the opportunity to achieve an optimal degree of heterosis for complex traits. This study dissected heterosis of both reproductive and vegetative traits from the perspective of hierarchical structure for the first time. Additive multiplicative interactions of component traits were proven to be the origin of heterosis in complex traits. Meanwhile, more attention should be paid to component traits, rather than complex traits, in the process of revealing the mechanism of heterosis. PMID:26442051

  4. Efficiently and Effectively Evaluating Public Service Announcements: Additional Evidence for the Utility of Perceived Effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Bigsby, Elisabeth; Cappella, Joseph N; Seitz, Holli H

    2013-03-01

    Recent research has made significant progress identifying measures of the perceived effectiveness (PE) of persuasive messages and providing evidence of a causal link from PE to actual effectiveness (AE). This article provides additional evidence of the utility of PE through unique analysis and consideration of another dimension of PE important to understanding the PE-AE association. Current smokers (N =1,139) watched four randomly selected anti-smoking Public Service Announcements (PSAs). PE scores aggregated by message were used instead of individual PE scores to create a summed total, minimizing the likelihood that PE perceptions are consequences of an individual's intention to quit, supporting instead the PE→AE order. Linear regression analyses provide evidence of PE's positive and significant influence on smoking cessation-related behavioral intentions.

  5. Efficiently and Effectively Evaluating Public Service Announcements: Additional Evidence for the Utility of Perceived Effectiveness

    PubMed Central

    Bigsby, Elisabeth; Cappella, Joseph N.; Seitz, Holli H.

    2014-01-01

    Recent research has made significant progress identifying measures of the perceived effectiveness (PE) of persuasive messages and providing evidence of a causal link from PE to actual effectiveness (AE). This article provides additional evidence of the utility of PE through unique analysis and consideration of another dimension of PE important to understanding the PE-AE association. Current smokers (N =1,139) watched four randomly selected anti-smoking Public Service Announcements (PSAs). PE scores aggregated by message were used instead of individual PE scores to create a summed total, minimizing the likelihood that PE perceptions are consequences of an individual’s intention to quit, supporting instead the PE→AE order. Linear regression analyses provide evidence of PE’s positive and significant influence on smoking cessation-related behavioral intentions. PMID:25568588

  6. Effect of additives on jet fuel thermal stability determined using the gravimetric JFTOT

    SciTech Connect

    Pande, S.G.; Hardy, D.R.

    1996-10-01

    In an effort to address the need for improving the thermal stabilities of jet fuels, various additives are being examined. These include the antioxidant, BHT; a metal deactivator, MDA (N,N{prime}-Disalicylidene-1,2-propane diamine); a combination of BHT and MDA; and two dispersant/detergent additives, viz., a Betz and Mobil additive. In general, the additives were screened in three test fuels, viz., a refinery sampling blend (RSB), a JP-8, and a Jet A. Additive effectiveness on aging a fuel in the presence of 400 ppb copper was examined in the RSB fuel. Based on the studies conducted, the most effective additives were the MDA/BHT combination, the Betz, and the Mobil additive (when tested). For example, these additives significantly lowered the total thermal deposits formed for the copper-doped aged fuel. For the remaining two test fuels, differentiation in effectiveness among the additives screened was considerably less. These results, which are likely due to the test fuels being relatively thermally stable, focus on the necessity of using less stable fuels to better differentiate additive effectiveness.

  7. Investigation of the effectiveness of smoke suppressant fuel additives for turbojet applications. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Bramer, J.R.

    1982-10-01

    Seven fuel additives were tested to investigate their effectiveness at reducing exhaust stack gas opacity in a turbojet test cell. Exhaust particle sizes and mass concentrations were determined at the engine and stack exhausts using measurements of light transmittance at three frequencies. Particle samples were also collected at the engine exhaust and measured with a scanning electron microscope to verify the optical technique. Nitrous oxide emissions were measured at the test cell stack exhaust. Four of the additives tested were found effective at reducing stack exhaust opacity and particulate mass concentration. None of the additives had any measurable effect on particle diameters. No meaningful changes in particle size or mass occurred between the engine and stack exhausts. The optical technique for determining particle size was verified effective using the scanning electron microscope. No additive had any significant effect on nitrous oxide production.

  8. Effect of urea addition on giant reed ensilage and subsequent methane production by anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shan; Ge, Xumeng; Liew, Lo Niee; Liu, Zhe; Li, Yebo

    2015-09-01

    The effect of urea addition on giant reed ensilage and sequential anaerobic digestion (AD) of the ensiled giant reed was evaluated. The dry matter loss during ensilage (up to 90 days) with or without urea addition was about 1%. Addition of 2% urea enhanced production of lactic acid by about 4 times, and reduced production of propionic acid by 2-8 times. Besides, urea addition reduced degradation of cellulose and hemicellulose, and increased degradation of lignin in giant reed during ensilage. Ensilage with or without urea addition had no significant effects on the enzymatic digestibility of giant reed, but ensilage with urea addition achieved a cumulative methane yield of 173 L/kg VS, which was 18% higher than that of fresh giant reed. The improved methane yield of giant reed could be attributed to the production of organic acids and ethanol during ensilage.

  9. Additive thermochemical effects in turbulent erosive boundary layers

    SciTech Connect

    Buckingham, A.C.; Levatin, J.L.

    1983-01-18

    Previously obtained interior ballistics and wall boundary layer modeling results indicate that significant reduction in erosive heating can be expected when finely divided particles are dispersed through the propellant combustion flow field. Attention was first placed on the particle size influences, together with particle dispersal dynamics in both turbulent combustion core flow and the erosive wall boundary layer region. Submicron thermochemically inert particles were predicted to disperse readily to the near wall region where they were then entrained in the boundary layer. This was estimated to substantially reduce the predicted erosive heat and mass transfer and experimentally confirmed. Examination of the time-averaged turbulent boundary layer macrostructure changes indicated that inertial influences were primarily responsible for this reduction in erosive heating to gun barrel walls. The boundary layers were thickened by the additives and erosive diffusion gradients were correspondingly reduced. The isolated inertial mechanisms are now understood but are difficult to apply in general dimensional analysis scaling or in analytical heat transfer correlation predictions. Three major factors which contribute to these difficulties are: time dependence of both developing mean flow and particle field; turbulence-particle interactions; and thermochemical heat release and exchange between reactive gas components and particles, particles and wall surface, and reactive gas and wall surface. To help illustrate the influence of thes mechanisms and provide a basis for prediction, the influence of submicron additives in unsteady turbulent boundary layer growth and interaction regions adjacent to a model of a chemically active metallic (steel) surface are examined. Equilibrium chemistry is assumed for all phases.

  10. Constant-Pressure Combustion Charts Including Effects of Diluent Addition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, L Richard; Bogart, Donald

    1949-01-01

    Charts are presented for the calculation of (a) the final temperatures and the temperature changes involved in constant-pressure combustion processes of air and in products of combustion of air and hydrocarbon fuels, and (b) the quantity of hydrocarbon fuels required in order to attain a specified combustion temperature when water, alcohol, water-alcohol mixtures, liquid ammonia, liquid carbon dioxide, liquid nitrogen, liquid oxygen, or their mixtures are added to air as diluents or refrigerants. The ideal combustion process and combustion with incomplete heat release from the primary fuel and from combustible diluents are considered. The effect of preheating the mixture of air and diluents and the effect of an initial water-vapor content in the combustion air on the required fuel quantity are also included. The charts are applicable only to processes in which the final mixture is leaner than stoichiometric and at temperatures where dissociation is unimportant. A chart is also included to permit the calculation of the stoichiometric ratio of hydrocarbon fuel to air with diluent addition. The use of the charts is illustrated by numerical examples.

  11. Significance of the effect of mineral alteration of nuclide migration

    SciTech Connect

    Murakami, Takashi; Ohnuki, Toshihiko; Isobe, Hiroshi; Sato, Tsutomu; Yanase, Nobuyuki; Kimura, Hideo

    1994-12-31

    In order to clarify the effect of mineral alteration on nuclide migration, we examined the processes, mechanisms, and kinetics of chlorite weathering, and the uranium concentrations in minerals and rocks at Koongarra, Australia. The observed concentrations of uranium in rocks were compared to those calculated. The sequence of chlorite weathering may be simply expressed as a chlorite {yields} vermiculite {yields} kaolinite conversion. These minerals occur as a function of depth, which corresponds well to uranium concentrations on the meter scale. Iron minerals, closely related to the uranium redistribution, are released during the weathering. The first-order kinetic model of the weathering process suggests that the weathering rate is not constant but time-dependent. The uranium concentrations are qualitatively proportional to the extent of the weathering, the weathered part having higher uranium concentration. Uranium mainly occurs with iron minerals, and sub micron sized saleeite, a uranyl phosphate, is one of the most probable uranyl phases associated with the iron minerals. The uranium fixation mechanisms are probably saleeite microcrystal coprecipitation and sorption to the iron minerals. Our model, which describes uranium concentrations in rocks as a function of time, shows that the transition zone (a vermiculite dominant area) plays an important role in the uranium migration. We have established that weathering of chlorite has affected the redistribution of uranium for more than one million years. The present study demonstrates the significance of mineral alteration when we estimate nuclide migration for geologic time.

  12. Effects of maternally exposed colouring food additives on cognitive performance in rats.

    PubMed

    Doguc, Duygu Kumbul; Ceyhan, Betul Mermi; Ozturk, Mustafa; Gultekin, Fatih

    2013-08-01

    Artificial food colourings and additives (AFCAs) have long been suggested to adversely affect the learning and behaviour in children. In this study, we aimed to provide additional data to clarify the possible side effects of colouring additives on behaviour and memory. We administered acceptable daily intake values of AFCAs as a mixture (Eritrosin, Ponceau 4R, Allura Red AC, Sunset Yellow FCF, Tartrazin, Amaranth, Brilliant Blue, Azorubin and Indigotin) to female rats before and during gestation and then tested their effects on behaviour and on spatial working memory in their offspring. Effects on spatial learning and memory were evaluated by Morris water maze, behavioural effects were evaluated by open-field test and forced swim test. Our results showed that commonly used artificial food colourings have no adverse effects on spatial working memory and did not create a depressive behaviour in offspring. But they showed a few significant effects on locomotor activity as AFCAs increased some parameters of locomotor activity.

  13. Effects on Diagnostic Parameters After Removing Additional Synchronous Gear Meshes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decker, Harry J.

    2003-01-01

    Gear cracks are typically difficult to diagnose with sufficient time before catastrophic damage occurs. Significant damage must be present before algorithms appear to be able to detect the damage. Frequently there are multiple gear meshes on a single shaft. Since they are all synchronous with the shaft frequency, the commonly used synchronous averaging technique is ineffective in removing other gear mesh effects. Carefully applying a filter to these extraneous gear mesh frequencies can reduce the overall vibration signal and increase the accuracy of commonly used vibration metrics. The vibration signals from three seeded fault tests were analyzed using this filtering procedure. Both the filtered and unfiltered vibration signals were then analyzed using commonly used fault detection metrics and compared. The tests were conducted on aerospace quality spur gears in a test rig. The tests were conducted at speeds ranging from 2500 to 5000 revolutions per minute and torques from 184 to 228 percent of design load. The inability to detect these cracks with high confidence results from the high loading which is causing fast fracture as opposed to stable crack growth. The results indicate that these techniques do not currently produce an indication of damage that significantly exceeds experimental scatter.

  14. Ivermectin plus diethylcarbamazine: an additive effect on early microfilarial clearance.

    PubMed

    Moulia-Pelat, J P; Nguyen, L N; Glaziou, P; Chanteau, S; Ottesen, E A; Cardines, R; Martin, P M; Cartel, J L

    1994-02-01

    The effects of ivermectin, diethylcarbamazine (DEC), and the combination of both drugs on levels of microfilaremia (mf) were studied in 30 male Polynesian Wuchereria bancrofti carriers. Microfilarial densities were measured 30 min (H1/2), 1 hr (H1), and 2, 4, 8, 24, and 96 hr (H2, H4, H8, H24, and H96) after supervised single doses of ivermectin plus DEC (400 micrograms/kg plus 1 mg/kg, respectively, 400 micrograms/kg plus 3 mg/kg, respectively, and 400 micrograms/kg plus 6 mg/kg, respectively), DEC (6 mg/kg) alone, and ivermectin (400 micrograms/kg and 100 micrograms/kg, respectively) alone given to six groups of five patients each. The results showed that 1) DEC alone or combined with ivermectin induced a rapid clearance of mf after drug intake; at H1/2, the number of circulating microfilariae was reduced to 16%, 8%, 28%, and 31%, respectively, of pretreatment values in the groups receiving ivermectin plus DEC (400 micrograms/kg plus 1 mg/kg, 400 micrograms/kg plus 3 mg/kg, and 400 micrograms/kg plus 6 mg/kg) and DEC (6 mg/kg) alone; 2) ivermectin alone induced a rapid increase of mf densities during the first 2 hr, followed by a sharp decrease from H4 to H96; and 3) between H8 and H96, mf clearance was almost complete with the combination of ivermectin and DEC. A comparison among groups did not show any synergistic interaction between ivermectin and DEC on the clearance of microfilaria, with the effect of each drug being additive to each another.

  15. Effect of surfactant addition on phenanthrene biodegradation in sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Tsomides, H.J.; Hughes, J.B.; Thomas, J.M.; Ward, C.H.

    1995-12-31

    A laboratory study was conducted to determine whether commercial surfactants enhance the bioremediation of PAH-contaminated sediments. Phenanthrene was chosen as a representative PAH. An inoculum of PAH-degrading microorganisms, enriched from an aquatic sediment, was used in sediment-water slurry microcosm biodegradation experiments. Of seven nonionic surfactants tested, only one (Triton X-100) did not inhibit phenanthrene mineralization at concentrations above the critical micelle concentration (CMC). Temporal studies on Triton X-100 revealed that while it initially inhibited mineralization in sediment-free microcosms, after 1 week Triton X-100 slightly improved phenanthrene biotransformation and mineralization in microcosms with and without sediment. For all treatments, phenanthrene disappearance was complete after 9 d. and mineralization reached 50 to 65% after 12 d. Sorption to the sediment appears to have reduced the free aqueous surfactant concentration, thereby reducing surfactant toxicity to the microorganisms. These results suggest that many surfactants are toxic to PAH-degrading microorganisms, and while surfactant addition may not always have adverse effects on biodegradation, the use of surfactants might not be necessary to achieve complete contaminant removal.

  16. Effect of surfactant addition on phenanthrene biodegradation in sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Tsomides, H.J.; Hughes, J.B.; Thomas, J.M.; Ward, C.H.

    1995-06-01

    A laboratory study was conducted to determine whether commercial surfactants enhance the bioremediation of PAH-contaminated sediments. Phenanthrene was chosen as a representative PAH; an inoculum of PAH-degrading microorganisms, enriched from an aquatic sediment, was used in sediment-water slurry microcosm biodegradation experiments. Of seven non-ionic surfactants tested, only one (Triton X-100) did not inhibit phenanthrene mineralization at concentrations above the critical micelle concentration (CMC). Temporal studies on Triton X-100 revealed that while it initially inhibited mineralization in sediment-free microcosms, after 1 week Triton X-100 slightly improved phenanthrene biotransformation and mineralization in microcosms with and without sediment. For all treatments, phenanthrene disappearance was complete after 9 d, and mineralization reached 50 to 65% after 12 d. Sorption to the sediment appears to have reduced the free aqueous surfactant concentration, thereby reducing surfactant toxicity to the microorganisms. These results suggest that many surfactants are toxic to PAH-degrading microorganisms, and while surfactant addition may not always have adverse effects on biodegradation, the use of surfactants might not be desirable to achieve complete contamination removal.

  17. Relative effectiveness of additive pain interventions during vaccination in infants

    PubMed Central

    Taddio, Anna; Riddell, Rebecca Pillai; Ipp, Moshe; Moss, Steven; Baker, Stephen; Tolkin, Jonathan; Malini, Dave; Feerasta, Sharmeen; Govan, Preeya; Fletcher, Emma; Wong, Horace; McNair, Caitlin; Mithal, Priyanjali; Stephens, Derek

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Vaccine injections can cause acute pain and distress in infants, which can contribute to dissatisfaction with the vaccination experience and vaccine hesitancy. We sought to compare the effectiveness of additive pain interventions administered consistently during vaccine injections in the first year of life. METHODS: We conducted a multicentre, longitudinal, double-blind, add-on, randomized controlled trial. Healthy infants were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 levels of pain management for all vaccine injections at 2, 4, 6 and 12 months: (i) placebo control; (ii) parent-directed video education about infant soothing; (iii) the video plus sucrose administered orally or (iv) the video plus sucrose plus liposomal lidocaine applied topically. All infants benefit from injection techniques that minimize pain. We used a double-dummy design; hence all parents watched a video (active psychological intervention or placebo) and all infants received oral solution (sucrose or placebo) and topical cream (lidocaine or placebo). We assessed infant distress during 3 phases — preinjection (baseline), vaccine injection (needle), and 1 minute postinjection (recovery) — using the Modified Behavioural Pain Scale (range 0–10). We compared scores between groups and across infant ages using a mixed-model repeated-measures analysis. RESULTS: A total of 352 infants participated in the study, from Jan. 17, 2012, to Feb. 2, 2016. Demographics did not differ among intervention groups (p > 0.05). Baseline pain scores did not differ among intervention groups (p = 0.4), but did differ across ages (p < 0.001). Needle pain scores differed among groups (p = 0.003) and across ages (p < 0.001). The mean (± standard deviation) needle score was 6.3 (± 0.8) in the video–sucrose–lidocaine group compared with 6.7 (± 0.8) in each of the other groups. There were no other between-group differences. Recovery scores did not differ among groups (p = 0.98), but did differ across ages (p < 0

  18. Chemistry of Food Additives: Direct and Indirect Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pauli, George H.

    1984-01-01

    The primary component(s), impurities, and degradation products of polysorbate 80, nitrate and nitrite salts, and diethylpyrocarbonate (DEPC) are discussed. Safety considerations related to these food additives are also noted. The chick-edema factor which results from an additive in poultry feed is also discussed. (JN)

  19. Significant parent-of-origin effects in cucumber

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cucumber is a useful plant to study organellar effects because chloroplasts are maternally and mitochondria paternally transmitted. We produced doubled haploids (DH) from divergent cucumber populations, generated reciprocal crosses in a diallel mating scheme, measured weights of plants approximately...

  20. Concentration Addition, Independent Action and Generalized Concentration Addition Models for Mixture Effect Prediction of Sex Hormone Synthesis In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Hadrup, Niels; Taxvig, Camilla; Pedersen, Mikael; Nellemann, Christine; Hass, Ulla; Vinggaard, Anne Marie

    2013-01-01

    Humans are concomitantly exposed to numerous chemicals. An infinite number of combinations and doses thereof can be imagined. For toxicological risk assessment the mathematical prediction of mixture effects, using knowledge on single chemicals, is therefore desirable. We investigated pros and cons of the concentration addition (CA), independent action (IA) and generalized concentration addition (GCA) models. First we measured effects of single chemicals and mixtures thereof on steroid synthesis in H295R cells. Then single chemical data were applied to the models; predictions of mixture effects were calculated and compared to the experimental mixture data. Mixture 1 contained environmental chemicals adjusted in ratio according to human exposure levels. Mixture 2 was a potency adjusted mixture containing five pesticides. Prediction of testosterone effects coincided with the experimental Mixture 1 data. In contrast, antagonism was observed for effects of Mixture 2 on this hormone. The mixtures contained chemicals exerting only limited maximal effects. This hampered prediction by the CA and IA models, whereas the GCA model could be used to predict a full dose response curve. Regarding effects on progesterone and estradiol, some chemicals were having stimulatory effects whereas others had inhibitory effects. The three models were not applicable in this situation and no predictions could be performed. Finally, the expected contributions of single chemicals to the mixture effects were calculated. Prochloraz was the predominant but not sole driver of the mixtures, suggesting that one chemical alone was not responsible for the mixture effects. In conclusion, the GCA model seemed to be superior to the CA and IA models for the prediction of testosterone effects. A situation with chemicals exerting opposing effects, for which the models could not be applied, was identified. In addition, the data indicate that in non-potency adjusted mixtures the effects cannot always be

  1. Effect of a phytogenic feed additive on the susceptibility of Onchorhynchus mykiss to Aeromonas salmonicida.

    PubMed

    Menanteau-Ledouble, S; Krauss, I; Santos, G; Fibi, S; Weber, B; El-Matbouli, M

    2015-06-29

    In recent years, feed additives have increasingly been adopted by the aquaculture industry. These supplements not only offer an alternative to antibiotics but have also been linked to enhanced growth performance. However, the literature is still limited and provides contradictory information on their effectiveness. This is mainly due to the wide variety of available products and their complex mechanisms of action. Phytogenic feed additives have been shown to have antimicrobial effects and can improve growth performance. In the present study, we investigated the susceptibility of several fish pathogenic bacteria to a phytogenic essential oil product in vitro. In addition, we determined the protective effect of a commercial phytogenic feed additive containing oregano, anis and citrus oils on the resistance of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss to infection by Aeromonas salmonicida. The bacterium was administered through 3 different routes: intra-peritoneal injection, immersion in a bacterial solution and cohabitation with infected fish. Mortality rates were significantly lower in infected rainbow trout that had received the feed additive: the overall mortality rate across all routes of infection was 18% in fish fed a diet containing the additive compared to 37% in fish that received unsupplemented feed. The route of infection also significantly impacted mortality, with average mortality rates of 60, 17.5 and 5% for intra-peritoneal injection, immersion and cohabitation, respectively. In general, fish were better protected against infection by immersion than infection by injection.

  2. Widespread non-additive and interaction effects within HLA loci modulate the risk of autoimmune diseases

    PubMed Central

    Lenz, Tobias L.; Deutsch, Aaron J.; Han, Buhm; Hu, Xinli; Okada, Yukinori; Eyre, Stephen; Knapp, Michael; Zhernakova, Alexandra; Huizinga, Tom W.J.; Abecasis, Goncalo; Becker, Jessica; Boeckxstaens, Guy E.; Chen, Wei-Min; Franke, Andre; Gladman, Dafna D.; Gockel, Ines; Gutierrez-Achury, Javier; Martin, Javier; Nair, Rajan P.; Nöthen, Markus M.; Onengut-Gumuscu, Suna; Rahman, Proton; Rantapää-Dahlqvist, Solbritt; Stuart, Philip E.; Tsoi, Lam C.; Van Heel, David A.; Worthington, Jane; Wouters, Mira M.; Klareskog, Lars; Elder, James T.; Gregersen, Peter K.; Schumacher, Johannes; Rich, Stephen S.; Wijmenga, Cisca; Sunyaev, Shamil R.; de Bakker, Paul I.W.; Raychaudhuri, Soumya

    2015-01-01

    Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes confer strong risk for autoimmune diseases on a log-additive scale. Here we speculated that differences in autoantigen binding repertoires between a heterozygote’s two expressed HLA variants may result in additional non-additive risk effects. We tested non-additive disease contributions of classical HLA alleles in patients and matched controls for five common autoimmune diseases: rheumatoid arthritis (RA, Ncases=5,337), type 1 diabetes (T1D, Ncases=5,567), psoriasis vulgaris (Ncases=3,089), idiopathic achalasia (Ncases=727), and celiac disease (Ncases=11,115). In four out of five diseases, we observed highly significant non-additive dominance effects (RA: P=2.5×1012; T1D: P=2.4×10−10; psoriasis: P=5.9×10−6; celiac disease: P=1.2×10−87). In three of these diseases, the dominance effects were explained by interactions between specific classical HLA alleles (RA: P=1.8×10−3; T1D: P=8.6×1027; celiac disease: P=6.0×10−100). These interactions generally increased disease risk and explained moderate but significant fractions of phenotypic variance (RA: 1.4%, T1D: 4.0%, and celiac disease: 4.1%, beyond a simple additive model). PMID:26258845

  3. Parent socialization effects in different cultures: significance of directive parenting.

    PubMed

    Sorkhabi, Nadia

    2012-06-01

    In this article, the controversy of divergent findings in research on parental socialization effects in different cultures is addressed. Three explanations intended to address divergent findings of socialization effects in different cultures, as advanced by researchers who emphasize cultural differences, are discussed. These include cultural differences in socialization values and goals of parents, parental emotional and cognitive characteristics associated with parenting styles, and adolescents' interpretations or evaluations of their parents' parenting styles. The empirical evidence for and against each of these arguments is examined and an alternative paradigm for understanding and empirical study of developmental outcomes associated with parenting styles in different cultures is suggested. Baumrind's directive parenting style is presented as an alternative to the authoritarian parenting style in understanding the positive developmental effects associated with "strict" parenting in cultures said to have a collectivist orientation. Directions for research on the three explanations are mentioned.

  4. Effects of additives on volume change on melting, surface tension, and viscosity of liquid aluminum oxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bates, J. L.; Rasmussen, J. J.

    1972-01-01

    The effects of various oxide additives on the volume change on melting, the surface tension, and the viscosity of liquid Al2O3 were studied. Additives of Sm2O3, MgO, and Y2O3 which form solid solutions, compounds, and multiphase solids with Al2O3 were studied. A review of the property data for Al2O3 and Al2O3 containing oxide additives is presented. Oxide additives to Al2O3 reduce the volume change on melting and with the exception of SiO2 lower the viscosity; surface tensions change with oxide additives, but changes vary with different container material. Viscosity and volume change on melting appeared to be significantly more important for studying the properties of liquid oxides than surface tension. Supercooling of 270 K of yttrium aluminum garnet was observed.

  5. The Significance of Congruent Communication in Effective Classroom Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Dave F.

    2005-01-01

    Effective communication is the basis of developing an environment of mutual respect between students and teachers. The more congruent the communication is between students and teachers, the more likely students are to become willing participants in the learning process, and the more likely it is that the teacher can maintain a comfortable…

  6. Pedagogical Significance of Wikis: Towards Gaining Effective Learning Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewege, Chandana Rathnasiri; Perera, Liyanage Chamila Roshani

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the effectiveness and pedagogical implications of integrating wikis into the curriculum and the subsequent learning outcomes of a group of Net-Gens who enrolled in an International Marketing course. The research problem of the study is: "What are the learning outcomes and pedagogical…

  7. Effects of Video Games as Reinforcers for Computerized Addition Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Axelrod, Saul; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Four 2nd-grade students completed addition problems on a computer, using video games as reinforcers. Two variable ratio schedules of reinforcement failed to increase student accuracy or the rate of correct responses. In a no-games reinforcement condition, students had more opportunities to respond and had a greater number of correct answers.…

  8. Effects of soil warming and nitrogen addition on soil respiration in a New Zealand tussock grassland.

    PubMed

    Graham, Scott L; Hunt, John E; Millard, Peter; McSeveny, Tony; Tylianakis, Jason M; Whitehead, David

    2014-01-01

    Soil respiration (RS) represents a large terrestrial source of CO2 to the atmosphere. Global change drivers such as climate warming and nitrogen deposition are expected to alter the terrestrial carbon cycle with likely consequences for RS and its components, autotrophic (RA) and heterotrophic respiration (RH). Here we investigate the impacts of a 3°C soil warming treatment and a 50 kg ha(-1) y(-1) nitrogen addition treatment on RS, RH and their respective seasonal temperature responses in an experimental tussock grassland. Average respiration in untreated soils was 0.96±0.09 μmol m(-2) s(-1) over the course of the experiment. Soil warming and nitrogen addition increased RS by 41% and 12% respectively. These treatment effects were additive under combined warming and nitrogen addition. Warming increased RH by 37% while nitrogen addition had no effect. Warming and nitrogen addition affected the seasonal temperature response of RS by increasing the basal rate of respiration (R10) by 14% and 20% respectively. There was no significant interaction between treatments for R10. The treatments had no impact on activation energy (E0). The seasonal temperature response of RH was not affected by either warming or nitrogen addition. These results suggest that the additional CO2 emissions from New Zealand tussock grassland soils as a result of warming-enhanced RS constitute a potential positive feedback to rising atmospheric CO2 concentration.

  9. Hydrogen bonding mediated enantioselective organocatalysis in brine: significant rate acceleration and enhanced stereoselectivity in enantioselective Michael addition reactions of 1,3-dicarbonyls to β-nitroolefins.

    PubMed

    Bae, Han Yong; Some, Surajit; Oh, Joong Suk; Lee, Yong Seop; Song, Choong Eui

    2011-09-14

    Brine provides remarkable rate acceleration and a higher level of stereoselectivity over organic solvents, due to the hydrophobic hydration effect, in the enantioselective Michael addition reactions of 1,3-dicarbonyls to β-nitroolefins using chiral H-donors as organocatalysts.

  10. The Spherical Brazil Nut Effect and its Significance to Asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perera, Viranga; Jackson, Alan P.; Asphaug, Erik; Ballouz, Ronald-Louis

    2015-11-01

    Asteroids are intriguing remnant objects from the early solar system. They can inform us on how planets formed, they could possibly impact the earth in the future, and they likely contain precious metals; for those reasons, there will be future exploration and mining space missions to them. Telescopic observations and spacecraft data have helped us understand basic properties such as their size, mass, spin rate, orbital elements, and their surface properties. However, their interior structures have remained elusive. In order to fully characterize the interiors of these bodies, seismic data will be necessary. However, we can infer their interior structures by combining several key factors that we know about them: 1). Past work has shown that asteroids between 150 m to 10 km in size are rubble-piles that are a collection of particles held together by gravity and possibly cohesion. 2). Asteroid surfaces show cratering that suggests that past impacts would have seismically shaken these bodies. 3). Spacecraft images show that some asteroids have large protruding boulders on their surfaces. A rubble-pile object made of particles of different sizes and that undergoes seismic shaking will experience granular flow. Specifically, a size sorting effect known as the Brazil Nut Effect will lead larger particles to move towards the surface while smaller particles will move downwards. Previous work has suggested that this effect could possibly explain not only why there are large boulders on the surfaces of some asteroids but also might suggest that the interior particles of these bodies would be organized by size. Previous works have conducted computer simulations and lab experiments; however, all the particle configurations used have been either cylindrical or rectangular boxes. In this work we present a spherical configuration of self-gravitating particles that is a better representation of asteroids. Our results indicate that while friction is not necessary for the Brazil Nut

  11. Effect of shaddock albedo addition on the properties of frankfurters.

    PubMed

    Shan, Bing; Li, Xingmin; Pan, Teng; Zheng, Limin; Zhang, Hao; Guo, Huiyuan; Jiang, Lu; Zhen, Shaobo; Ren, Fazheng

    2015-07-01

    To explore the potential as a natural auxiliary emulsifier, shaddock albedo was added into frankfurters at six different levels: 0.0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, 10 and 12.5 %. The emulsion capacity (EC) of meat batters and cooking properties of frankfurters were evaluated. EC of meat batters was improved with the addition of shaddock albedo and the maximum value was reached at the 5 % albedo concentration. The addition of shaddock albedo resulted in lower cooking losses of frankfurters, with the lowest value obtained at the 7.5 % level. The presence of shaddock albedo decreased the total expressible fluid (TEF) and the proportion of fat in total expressible fluid (PF) which indicated the emulsion stability of frankfurters and the lowest values both occurred at the concentration of 7.5 %. Shaddock albedo inclusion increased the lightness and yellowness of frankfurters and decreased redness. Texture profile analysis showed increased hardness and decreased chewiness of frankfurters with the addition of shaddock albedo. Consequently, shaddock albedo could be a potential source of auxiliary emulsifier filler for emulsion-type meat products.

  12. The Effect of Tungsten Additions on Disk Alloy CH98

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gayda, John; Gabb, Timothy P.

    2003-01-01

    Gas turbine engines for future subsonic transports will probably have higher pressure ratios which will require nickelbase superalloy disks with 1300 to 1400 F temperature capability. Several advanced disk alloys are being developed to fill this need. One of these, CH98, is a promising candidate for gas turbine engines and is being studied in NASA s Advanced Subsonic Technology (AST) program. For large disks, residual stresses generated during quenching from solution heat treatments are often reduced by a stabilization heat treatment, in which the disk is heated in the range of 1500 to 1600 F for several hours followed by a static air cool and age. The reduction in residual stress levels lessens distortion during machining of disks. Previous work on CH98 has indicated that stabilization treatments will decrease creep capability, however, tungsten additions appear to improve the creep capability of stabilized and aged CH98. In this study, a systematic variation of tungsten additions to CH98 was investigated. Specifically, the 1300 F tensile, creep, and fatigue crack growth properties of stabilized CH 98 were assessed with varying levels of tungsten additions.

  13. Effect of the Addition of Schisandra chinensis Powder on the Physico-chemical Characteristics of Sausage

    PubMed Central

    Jin, S. K.; Park, J. H.

    2013-01-01

    The individual and interactive effects of Schisandra chinensis powder (SCP) and sodium nitrite additions on color, pH, water holding capacity, residual nitrite, 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), volatile basic nitrogen, texture properties, fatty acids, amino acids and sensory evaluation of cooked pork sausages were investigated after 20 d of storage at 4°C. The powders (0, 0.5 and 1.0%) were added to sausages either alone or in combination with nitrite (0 and 100 ppm). SCP added-sausages showed lower L* (lightness) and W (whiteness) values, and higher b* (yellowness) values than sausage containing no nitrite, and exhibited the highest a* values at a 0.5% addition (p<0.05). Residual nitrite and TBARS values were found to be significantly reduced as the addition levels of SCP increased (p<0.05). As the addition of SCP increased, the sausage showed gradually decreased brittleness, cohesiveness, springiness, gumminess and chewiness, while adhesiveness increased. Polyunsaturated fatty acid, n-6 and n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratio concentrations were significantly higher in sausages containing SCP (p<0.05). The addition of SCP to sausage significantly (p<0.05) increased the ammonia content (by 0.5% SCP) and aromatic amino acid concentrations (by 1.0% SCP) (p<0.05). Inclusion of SCP in sausage meat resulted in a significant deterioration in quality characteristics of flavor, springiness, juiciness and overall acceptability (p<0.05). As expected, the observed changes in a*, W, pH, shear force, texture property, TBARS, fatty acid, amino acid and sensory score of sausages, depended on the rate of addition of nitrite (p<0.05). These results suggest that SCP addition is not an effective way of improving the sensory evaluation of sausages, but may beneficially affect TBARS, nitrite scavenging activity, fatty acid and amino acid content in pork sausages. PMID:25049766

  14. The Effect of Fluorocarbon Surfactant Additives on the Effective Viscosity of Acetone Solutions of Cellulose Diacetate,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-26

    34 FOREIGN TECHNOLOGY DIVISION i00 Lfl .. THE EFFECT OF FLUOROCARBON SURFACTANT ADDITIVES ON THE EFFECTIVE VISCOSITY OF ACETONE SOLUTIONS OF CELLULOSE...ADDITIVES ON TH~ .. t- ’_ ition EFFECTIVE VISCOSITY OF ACETONE SOLUTIONS OF CELLULOSE DIACETATE D~rbt~l By: L.A. Shits, N. Yu. Kal’nova Codesuton English...VISCOSITY OF ACETONE SOLUTIONS OF CELLULOSE DIACETATE L. A. Shits, N. Yu. Kal’nova (Institute of Physical Chemistry of the AS USSR, Moscow) ! - The

  15. Effects of an additional dimension in the Young experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Barros, Allan Kardec

    2015-09-15

    The results of the Young experiment can be analyzed either by classical or Quantum Physics. The later one though leads to a more complete interpretation, based on two different patterns that appear when one works either with single or double slits. Here we show that the two patterns can be derived from a single principle, in the context of General Relativity, if one assumes an additional spatial dimension to the four known today. The found equations yield the same results as those in Quantum Mechanics.

  16. Additive Effects From Interspersed Adjunct Questions In Prose Text.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sagaria, Sabato D.; Di Vesta, Francis J.

    A total of 150 undergraduate students randomly assigned to five experimental groups studied ten paragraphs with questions interspersed at different locations in the text. Performance on incidental items was significantly lower (p < .05) in the question before (QB) than in the question after (QA), question before and after (QBA), and the…

  17. Effects of Fuel Specification and Additives on Soot Formation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-12-01

    develop models destined for gas turbine design. Present knowledge of these effects is limited to systems which are either too simple to adequately...information essential. To answer these technical questions, a multifaceted study was undertaken to 0) test candidate model laboratory combustors in the...effectiveness of the ASTM smoke point in predict- ing sooting behavior in complex flows. Two candidate model laboratory combustors were used -- a swirl

  18. Nitrogen Addition Altered the Effect of Belowground C Allocation on Soil Respiration in a Subtropical Forest

    PubMed Central

    He, Tongxin; Wang, Qingkui; Wang, Silong; Zhang, Fangyue

    2016-01-01

    The availabilities of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) in soil play an important role in soil carbon dioxide (CO2) emission. However, the variation in the soil respiration (Rs) and response of microbial community to the combined changes in belowground C and N inputs in forest ecosystems are not yet fully understood. Stem girdling and N addition were performed in this study to evaluate the effects of C supply and N availability on Rs and soil microbial community in a subtropical forest. The trees were girdled on 1 July 2012. Rs was monitored from July 2012 to November 2013, and soil microbial community composition was also examined by phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) 1 year after girdling. Results showed that Rs decreased by 40.5% with girdling alone, but N addition only did not change Rs. Interestingly, Rs decreased by 62.7% under the girdling with N addition treatment. The reducing effect of girdling and N addition on Rs differed between dormant and growing seasons. Girdling alone reduced Rs by 33.9% in the dormant season and 54.8% in the growing season compared with the control. By contrast, girdling with N addition decreased Rs by 59.5% in the dormant season and 65.4% in the growing season. Girdling and N addition significantly decreased the total and bacterial PLFAs. Moreover, the effect of N addition was greater than girdling. Both girdling and N addition treatments separated the microbial groups on the basis of the first principal component through principal component analysis compared with control. This indicated that girdling and N addition changed the soil microbial community composition. However, the effect of girdling with N addition treatment separated the microbial groups on the basis of the second principal component compared to N addition treatment, which suggested N addition altered the effect of girdling on soil microbial community composition. These results suggest that the increase in soil N availability by N deposition alters the effect of

  19. Effects of additional food in a delayed predator-prey model.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, Banshidhar; Poria, Swarup

    2015-03-01

    We examine the effects of supplying additional food to predator in a gestation delay induced predator-prey system with habitat complexity. Additional food works in favor of predator growth in our model. Presence of additional food reduces the predatory attack rate to prey in the model. Supplying additional food we can control predator population. Taking time delay as bifurcation parameter the stability of the coexisting equilibrium point is analyzed. Hopf bifurcation analysis is done with respect to time delay in presence of additional food. The direction of Hopf bifurcations and the stability of bifurcated periodic solutions are determined by applying the normal form theory and the center manifold theorem. The qualitative dynamical behavior of the model is simulated using experimental parameter values. It is observed that fluctuations of the population size can be controlled either by supplying additional food suitably or by increasing the degree of habitat complexity. It is pointed out that Hopf bifurcation occurs in the system when the delay crosses some critical value. This critical value of delay strongly depends on quality and quantity of supplied additional food. Therefore, the variation of predator population significantly effects the dynamics of the model. Model results are compared with experimental results and biological implications of the analytical findings are discussed in the conclusion section.

  20. [Effects of superphosphate addition on NH3 and greenhouse gas emissions during vegetable waste composting].

    PubMed

    Yang, Yan; Sun, Qin-ping; Li, Ni; Liu, Chun-sheng; Li, Ji-jin; Liu, Ben-sheng; Zou, Guo-yuan

    2015-01-01

    To study the effects of superphosphate (SP) on the NH, and greenhouse gas emissions, vegetable waste composting was performed for 27 days using 6 different treatments. In addition to the controls, five vegetable waste mixtures (0.77 m3 each) were treated with different amounts of the SP additive, namely, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20% and 25%. The ammonia volatilization loss and greenhouse gas emissions were measured during composting. Results indicated that the SP additive significantly decreased the ammonia volatilization and greenhouse gas emissions during vegetable waste composting. The additive reduced the total NH3 emission by 4.0% to 16.7%. The total greenhouse gas emissions (CO2-eq) of all treatments with SP additives were decreased by 10.2% to 20.8%, as compared with the controls. The NH3 emission during vegetable waste composting had the highest contribution to the greenhouse effect caused by the four different gases. The amount of NH3 (CO2-eq) from each treatment ranged from 59.90 kg . t-1 to 81.58 kg . t-1; NH3(CO2-eq) accounted for 69% to 77% of the total emissions from the four gases. Therefore, SP is a cost-effective phosphorus-based fertilizer that can be used as an additive during vegetable waste composting to reduce the NH3 and greenhouse gas emissions as well as to improve the value of compost as a fertilizer.

  1. Dose effect in the wood plastic composite formation in the presence of additives and co-additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Mubarak A.; Ali, K. M. Idriss

    1994-10-01

    Wood plastic composite (WPC) formation was studied with simul wood and butylmethacrylate (BMA) at different compositions with swelling solvent methanol in the presence of a set of multifunctional acrylate monomer additives like N-vinyl Pyrrolidone (NVP), tripropylene glycol diacrylate (TPGDA) and trimethylol propane triacrylate (TMPTA) at a different doses between 1 and 3 Mrad using Co 60 gamma source. This was further investigated using another set of additives chosen from oligomers such as epoxy acrylate (EA), urethane acrylate (UA) and polyester acrylate (PEA). TMPTA yielded the highest polymer loading at relatively low dose (2 Mrad). Effect of co-additives like sulfuric acid (H + ions), copper sulphate (Cu 2+ ions) and urea was investigated in these series. Tensile strength (TS) of the composites were determined and the highest TS values were obtained with the composite produced in presence of urea.

  2. Interactive effects between N addition and disturbance on boreal forest ecosystem structure and function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordin, Annika; Strengbom, Joachim; From, Fredrik

    2014-05-01

    In management of boreal forests, nitrogen (N) enrichment from atmospheric deposition or from forest fertilization can appear in combination with land-use related disturbances, i.e. tree harvesting by clear-felling. Long-term interactive effects between N enrichment and disturbance on boreal forest ecosystem structure and function are, however, poorly known. We investigated effects of N enrichment by forest fertilization done > 25 years ago on forest understory species composition in old-growth (undisturbed) forests, and in forests clear-felled 10 years ago (disturbed). In clear-felled forests we also investigated effects of the previous N addition on growth of tree saplings. The results show that the N enrichment effect on the understory species composition was strongly dependent on the disturbance caused by clear-felling. In undisturbed forests, there were small or no effects on understory species composition from N addition. In contrast, effects were large in forests first exposed to N addition and subsequently disturbed by clear-felling. Effects of N addition differed among functional groups of plants. Abundance of graminoids increased (+232%) and abundance of dwarf shrubs decreased (-44%) following disturbance in N fertilized forests. For vascular plants, the two perturbations had contrasting effects on α-(within forests) and β-diversity (among forests): in disturbed forests, N addition reduced, or had no effect on α-diversity, while β-diversity increased. For bryophytes, negative effects of disturbance on α-diversity were smaller in N fertilized forests than in forests not fertilized, while neither N addition nor disturbance had any effects on β-diversity. Moreover, sapling growth in forests clear-felled 10 years ago was significantly higher in previously N fertilized forests than in forests not fertilized. Our study show that effects of N addition on plant communities may appear small, short-lived, or even absent until exposed to a disturbance. This

  3. Effect of vermiculite addition on compost produced from Korean food wastes.

    PubMed

    Seo, J Y; Heo, J S; Kim, T H; Joo, W H; Crohn, D M

    2004-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of vermiculite addition on composting food wastes from Korean households, food wastes were composted in three small bins to which different additives were added. The following three bins were employed: in Case I, only recycled compost was composted; in Case II, food wastes with recycled compost; and in Case III, food wastes with recycled compost and vermiculite. In the experiment performed for 30 days, it was confirmed that the supplementary addition of vermiculite to the composting mixture did not significantly improve the weight loss rate and the decomposition rate of food wastes. Due to dilution through the use of inorganic vermiculite, the vermiculite addition reduced the organic matter concentration of the composting mixtures. Vermiculite addition did not raise the pH value. Weight losses of roughly 70% were observed based on calculating moisture loss as well as dry food waste loss and not considering additives, while dry food waste loss was 29.4% and 35.8% with and without the addition of vermiculite, respectively. For these experiments, the major portion of the weight loss was the loss of water. The results indicate a need to differentiate between weight loss percentages and decomposition percentages, and a need to indicate if either of these percentages includes or excludes the mass of additives.

  4. Investigation of Fuel Additive Effects on Sooting Flames

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-07-28

    Ndubizu, C. C., and B. T. Zinn : Effects of Metallic Aditive Upon Soot Formation in Polymer Diffusion Flames. Combust, Flame 46, 301-314 (1982). 3.4...Plenum Press, New York, p. 143 (1981). 3.28 Wersborg, B. L., .1. B. Howard , and G. C. Williams: Physical Mechanisms in Carbon 3 Formation in Flames

  5. Nutrient additions in pristine Patagonian Sphagnum bog vegetation: can phosphorus addition alleviate (the effects of) increased nitrogen loads.

    PubMed

    Fritz, C; van Dijk, G; Smolders, A J P; Pancotto, V A; Elzenga, T J T M; Roelofs, J G M; Grootjans, A P

    2012-05-01

    Sphagnum-bog ecosystems have a limited capability to retain carbon and nutrients when subjected to increased nitrogen (N) deposition. Although it has been proposed that phosphorus (P) can dilute negative effects of nitrogen by increasing biomass production of Sphagnum mosses, it is still unclear whether P-addition can alleviate physiological N-stress in Sphagnum plants. A 3-year fertilisation experiment was conducted in lawns of a pristine Sphagnum magellanicum bog in Patagonia, where competing vascular plants were practically absent. Background wet deposition of nitrogen was low (≈ 0.1-0.2 g · N · m(-2) · year(-1)). Nitrogen (4 g · N · m(-2) · year(-1)) and phosphorus (1 g · P · m(-2) · year(-1)) were applied, separately and in combination, six times during the growing season. P-addition substantially increased biomass production of Sphagnum. Nitrogen and phosphorus changed the morphology of Sphagnum mosses by enhancing height increment, but lowering moss stem density. In contrast to expectations, phosphorus failed to alleviate physiological stress imposed by excess nitrogen (e.g. amino acid accumulation, N-saturation and decline in photosynthetic rates). We conclude that despite improving growth conditions by P-addition, Sphagnum-bog ecosystems remain highly susceptible to nitrogen additions. Increased susceptibility to desiccation by nutrients may even worsen the negative effects of excess nitrogen especially in windy climates like in Patagonia.

  6. Effects of Ga Addition on Interfacial Reactions Between Sn-Based Solders and Ni

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chao-Hong; Li, Kuan-Ting

    2016-12-01

    The use of Ga as a micro-alloying element in Sn-based solders can change the microstructure of solder joints to improve the mechanical properties, and even suppress the interfacial intermetallic compound (IMC) growth. This research investigated the effects of Ga addition (0.2-1 wt.%Ga) on the IMC formation and morphological evolution in the Sn-based solder joints with Ni substrate. In the soldering reaction at 250°C and with less than 0.2 wt.%Ga addition, the formed phase was Ni3Sn4. When the Ga addition increased to 0.5 wt.%, it changed to a thin Ni2Ga3 layer of ˜1 μm thick, which stably existed at the interface in the initial 1-h reaction. Subsequently, the whole Ni2Ga3 layer detached from the Ni substrate and drifted into the molten solder. The Ni3Sn4 phase became dominant in the later stage. Notably, the Ga addition significantly reduced the grain size of Ni3Sn4, resulting in the massive spalling of Ni3Sn4 grains. With 1 wt.%Ga addition, the Ni2Ga3 layer remained very thin with no significant growth, and it stably existed at the interface for more than 10 h. In addition, the solid-state reactions were examined at temperatures of 160°C to 200°C. With addition of 0.5 wt.%Ga, the Ni3Sn4 phase dominated the whole reaction. By contrast, with increasing to 1 wt.%Ga, only a thin Ni2Ga3 layer was found even after aging at 160°C for more than 1200 h. The 1 wt.%Ga addition in solder can effectively inhibit the Ni3Sn4 formation in soldering and the long-term aging process.

  7. Effects of maternally exposed food coloring additives on laryngeal histology in rats.

    PubMed

    Başak, Kayhan; Doguç, Duygu Kumbul; Aylak, Firdevs; Karadayi, Nimet; Gültekin, Fatih

    2014-01-01

    Experimental reports showed carcinogenic effects of artificial food colors and additives (AFCAs) on many organs, including the head and neck region. We aimed to investigate the effect of AFCAs on laryngeal histomorphology and immunohistochemical expression in maternally exposed rats. "No observable adverse effect levels" of commonly used AFCAs as a mixture were given to female rats before and during gestation. Histopathological and immunohistochemical findings were evaluated in their offspring. Significant decreasing in goblet cell count and cilia loss were observed with AFCAs in maternally exposed rats (p<0.05). Immunohistochemically, the Ki67 index was significantly increased and villin expression was significantly reduced in laryngeal epithelium in the study group (p<0.05), whereas expression of cyclooxygenase type 2, Muc-2, Muc-5AC, p53, and epidermal growth factor receptors did not differ between the groups. This study demonstrated that maternal exposure of AFCAs plays a role in the mucosal defense system and possibly in carcinogenesis.

  8. The additive effects of minoxidil and retinol on human hair growth in vitro.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Hyeon Gyeong; Chang, In-Young; Pyo, Hyun Keol; Kang, Yong Jung; Lee, Seung Ho; Kwon, Oh Sang; Cho, Kwang Hyun; Eun, Hee Chul; Kim, Kyu Han

    2007-01-01

    Minoxidil enhances hair growth by prolonging the anagen phase and induces new hair growth in androgenetic alopecia (AGA), whereas retinol significantly improves scalp skin condition and promotes hair growth. We investigated the combined effects of minoxidil and retinol on human hair growth in vitro and on cultured human dermal papilla cells (DPCs) and epidermal keratinocytes (HaCaT). The combination of minoxidil and retinol additively promoted hair growth in hair follicle organ cultures. In addition, minoxidil plus retinol more effectively elevated phosphorylated Erk, phosphorylated Akt levels, and the Bcl-2/Bax ratio than minoxidil alone in DPCs and HaCaT. We found that the significant hair shaft elongation demonstrated after minoxidil plus retinol treatment would depend on the dual kinetics associated with the activations of Erk- and Akt-dependent pathways and the prevention of apoptosis by increasing the Bcl-2/Bax ratio.

  9. Dextransucrase production using cashew apple juice as substrate: effect of phosphate and yeast extract addition.

    PubMed

    Chagas, Clarice M A; Honorato, Talita L; Pinto, Gustavo A S; Maia, Geraldo A; Rodrigues, Sueli

    2007-05-01

    Cashew apples are considered agriculture excess in the Brazilian Northeast because cashew trees are cultivated primarily with the aim of cashew nut production. In this work, the use of cashew apple juice as a substrate for Leuconostoc mesenteroides cultivation was investigated. The effect of yeast extract and phosphate addition was evaluated using factorial planning tools. Both phosphate and yeast extract addition were significant factors for biomass growth, but had no significant effect on maximum enzyme activity. The enzyme activities found in cashew apple juice assays were at least 3.5 times higher than the activity found in the synthetic medium. Assays with pH control (pH = 6.5) were also carried out. The pH-controlled fermentation enhanced biomass growth, but decreased the enzyme activity. Crude enzyme free of cells produced using cashew apple juice was stable for 16 h at 30 degrees C at a pH of 5.0.

  10. Effects of experimental nitrogen and phosphorus addition on litter decomposition in an old-growth tropical forest.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hao; Dong, Shaofeng; Liu, Lei; Ma, Chuan; Zhang, Tao; Zhu, Xiaomin; Mo, Jiangming

    2013-01-01

    The responses of litter decomposition to nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) additions were examined in an old-growth tropical forest in southern China to test the following hypotheses: (1) N addition would decrease litter decomposition; (2) P addition would increase litter decomposition, and (3) P addition would mitigate the inhibitive effect of N addition. Two kinds of leaf litter, Schima superba Chardn. & Champ. (S.S.) and Castanopsis chinensis Hance (C.C.), were studied using the litterbag technique. Four treatments were conducted at the following levels: control, N-addition (150 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1)), P-addition (150 kg P ha(-1) yr(-1)) and NP-addition (150 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1) plus 150 kg P ha(-1) yr(-1)). While N addition significantly decreased the decomposition of both litters, P addition significantly inhibited decomposition of C.C., but did not affect the decomposition of S.S. The negative effect of N addition on litter decomposition might be related to the high N-saturation in this old-growth tropical forest; however, the negative effect of P addition might be due to the suppression of "microbial P mining". Significant interaction between N and P addition was found on litter decomposition, which was reflected by the less negative effect in NP-addition plots than those in N-addition plots. Our results suggest that P addition may also have negative effect on litter decomposition and that P addition would mitigate the negative effect of N deposition on litter decomposition in tropical forests.

  11. Effects of Experimental Nitrogen and Phosphorus Addition on Litter Decomposition in an Old-Growth Tropical Forest

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hao; Dong, Shaofeng; Liu, Lei; Ma, Chuan; Zhang, Tao; Zhu, Xiaomin; Mo, Jiangming

    2013-01-01

    The responses of litter decomposition to nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) additions were examined in an old-growth tropical forest in southern China to test the following hypotheses: (1) N addition would decrease litter decomposition; (2) P addition would increase litter decomposition, and (3) P addition would mitigate the inhibitive effect of N addition. Two kinds of leaf litter, Schima superba Chardn. & Champ. (S.S.) and Castanopsis chinensis Hance (C.C.), were studied using the litterbag technique. Four treatments were conducted at the following levels: control, N-addition (150 kg N ha−1 yr−1), P-addition (150 kg P ha−1 yr−1) and NP-addition (150 kg N ha−1 yr−1 plus 150 kg P ha−1 yr−1). While N addition significantly decreased the decomposition of both litters, P addition significantly inhibited decomposition of C.C., but did not affect the decomposition of S.S. The negative effect of N addition on litter decomposition might be related to the high N-saturation in this old-growth tropical forest; however, the negative effect of P addition might be due to the suppression of “microbial P mining”. Significant interaction between N and P addition was found on litter decomposition, which was reflected by the less negative effect in NP-addition plots than those in N-addition plots. Our results suggest that P addition may also have negative effect on litter decomposition and that P addition would mitigate the negative effect of N deposition on litter decomposition in tropical forests. PMID:24391895

  12. Tribological characteristics of bisphenol AF bis(diphenyl phosphate) as an antiwear additive in polyalkylene glycol and polyurea grease for significantly improved lubrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Lili; Wu, Xinhu; Zhao, Gaiqing; Wang, Xiaobo

    2016-02-01

    A new antiwear additive of Bisphenol AF bis(diphenyl phosphate) (BAFDP) was synthesized and characterized. The tribological behaviors of the additive for polyalkylene glycol (PAG) and polyurea grease (PG) application in steel/steel contacts were evaluated on an Optimol SRV-IV oscillating reciprocating friction and wear tester at elevated temperature. The results revealed that BAFDP could drastically reduce friction and wear of sliding pairs in both PAG and also in PG at 100 °C. The tribological properties of BAFDP are superior to the normally used zinc dialkyldithiophosphate-based additive package (ZDDP) in PAG and PG. Moreover, BAFDP as additive for PAG and PG displays relatively significant tribological properties in temperature-ramp tests by performing well at 50-300 °C, indicating the excellent high temperature friction reduction and anti-wear capacity of BAFDP. XPS results showed that boundary lubrication films composed of Fe(OH)O, Fe3O4, FePO4, FeF2, FeF3, compounds containing the Psbnd O bonds, nitrogen oxide, and so forth, were formed on the worn surface, which contributed to excellent friction reduction and antiwear performance.

  13. Synergistic Effects Between Phosphonium-Alkylphosphate Ionic Liquids and Zinc Dialkyldithiophosphate (ZDDP) as Lubricant Additives

    DOE PAGES

    Qu, Jun; Barnhill, William C.; Luo, Huimin; ...

    2015-07-14

    Unique synergistic effects between phosphonium-alkylphosphate ionic liquids and zinc dialkyldithiophosphate (ZDDP) are discovered when used together as lubricant additives, resulting in significant friction and wear reduction along with distinct tribofilm composition and mechanical properties. The synergism is attributed to the 30-70× higher-than-nominal concentrations of hypothetical new compounds (via anion exchange between IL and ZDDP) on the fluid surface/interface.

  14. Effects of Litter and Nutrient Additions on Soil Carbon Cycling in a Tropical Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cusack, D. F.; Halterman, S.; Turner, B. L.; Tanner, E.; Wright, S. J.

    2014-12-01

    Soil carbon (C) dynamics present one of the largest sources of uncertainty in global C cycle models, with tropical forest soils containing some of the largest terrestrial C stocks. Drastic changes in soil C storage and loss are likely to occur if global change alters plant net primary production (NPP) and/or nutrient availability in these ecosystems. We assessed the effects of litter removal and addition, as well as fertilization with nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and/or potassium (K), on soil C stocks in a tropical seasonal forest in Panama after ten and sixteen years, respectively. We used a density fractionation scheme to assess manipulation effects on rapidly and slowly cycling pools of C. Soil samples were collected in the wet and dry seasons from 0-5 cm and 5-10 cm depths in 15- 45x45 m plots with litter removal, 2x litter addition, and control (n=5), and from 32- 40x40 m fertilization plots with factorial additions of N, P, and K. We hypothesized that litter addition would increase all soil C fractions, but that the magnitude of the effect on rapidly-cycling C would be dampened by a fertilization effect. Results for the dry season show that the "free light" C fraction, or rapidly cycling soil C pool, was significantly different among the three litter treatments, comprising 5.1 ± 0.9 % of total soil mass in the litter addition plots, 2.7 ± 0.3 % in control plots, and 1.0 ± 0.1 % in litter removal plots at the 0-5cm depth (means ± one standard error, p < 0.05). Bulk soil C results are similar to observed changes in the rapidly cycling C pool for the litter addition and removal. Fertilization treatments on average diminished this C pool size relative to control plots, although there was substantial variability among fertilization treatments. In particular, addition of N and P together did not significantly alter rapidly cycling C pool sizes (4.1 ± 1.2 % of total soil mass) relative to controls (3.5 ± 0.4 %), whereas addition of P alone resulted in

  15. Effect of combined herbal feed additives on methane, total gas production and rumen fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Chaturvedi, Indu; Dutta, Tapas Kumar; Singh, Pawan Kumar; Sharma, Ashwani

    2015-01-01

    The present study was to evaluate effect of herbal feed additives on methane and total gas production during the rumen fermentation for environment and animal health concern. Different parts of the five medicinal plants were selected such as leaf and small stems of Ocimum sanctum (Tulsi), roots of Curcuma longa (Haldi), fruits of Emblica officinalis (Amla), leaves of Azadirachta indica (Neem) and leaves and small stem of Clerodendrum phlomidis (Arni) for our study. Addition of different herbal additive combinations did not influence IVDMD and total gas production however methane production (mg/g of substrate DM) was significantly (P<0.05) reduced in Amla: Neem and Neem: Arni combinations. Total nitrogen significantly (P<0.01) increased in the combinations of Tulsi: Haldi and Amla: Neem. TCA–ppt-N is significantly (P<0.01) increased in Tulsi: Haldi, Haldi: Amla, Amla: Neem and Neem: Arni however NH3-N (mg/dl) significantly decreased in all treatments. We conclude that the screening of plant combinations, Amla: Neem and Neem: Arni have potential to decrease methane production and our herbal feed supplements have no side-effects on the ruminant in small amount. PMID:26124571

  16. Gamma radiation effects on siloxane-based additive manufactured structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmalzer, Andrew M.; Cady, Carl M.; Geller, Drew; Ortiz-Acosta, Denisse; Zocco, Adam T.; Stull, Jamie; Labouriau, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Siloxane-basedadditive manufactured structures prepared by the direct ink write (DIW) technology were exposed to ionizing irradiation in order to gauge radiolysis effects on structure-property relationships. These well-defined 3-D structures were subjected to moderate doses of gamma irradiation in an inert atmosphere and characterized by a suite of experimental methods. Changes in thermal, chemical, microstructure, and mechanical properties were evaluated by DSC, TGA, FT-IR, mass spectroscopy, EPR, solvent swelling, SEM, and uniaxial compressive load techniques. Our results demonstrated that 3-D structures made from aromatic-free siloxane resins exhibited hardening after being exposed to gamma radiation. This effect was accompanied by gas evolution, decreasing in crystallization levels, decreasing in solvent swelling and damage to the microstructure. Furthermore, long-lived radiation-induced radicals were not detected by EPR methods. Our results are consistent with cross-link formation being the dominant degradation mechanism over chain scission reactions. On the other hand, 3-D structures made from high phenyl content siloxane resins showed little radiation damage as evidenced by low off gassing.

  17. Dissociating compatibility effects and distractor costs in the additional singleton paradigm.

    PubMed

    Folk, Charles L

    2013-01-01

    The interpretation of identity compatibility effects associated with irrelevant items outside the nominal focus of attention has fueled much of the debate over early versus late selection and perceptual load theory. However, compatibility effects have also played a role in the debate over the extent to which the involuntary allocation of spatial attention (i.e., attentional capture) is completely stimulus-driven or whether it is contingent on top-down control settings. For example, in the context of the additional singleton paradigm, irrelevant color singletons have been found to produce not only an overall cost in search performance but also significant compatibility effects. This combination of search costs and compatibility effects has been taken as evidence that spatial attention is indeed allocated in a bottom-up fashion to the salient but irrelevant singletons. However, it is possible that compatibility effects in the additional singleton paradigm reflect parallel processing of identity associated with low perceptual load rather than an involuntary shift of spatial attention. In the present experiments, manipulations of load were incorporated into the traditional additional singleton paradigm. Under low-load conditions, both search costs and compatibility effects were obtained, replicating previous studies. Under high-load conditions, search costs were still present, but compatibility effects were eliminated. This dissociation suggests that the costs associated with irrelevant singletons may reflect filtering processes rather than the allocation of spatial attention.

  18. [The significance and effect of guidelines 2. Observations concerning validation and recommendations with respect to guidelines].

    PubMed

    Craandijk, J

    2017-02-01

    The proper functioning of guidelines depends in part on correct validation. Validation requires an established norm. The professional and proto-pro-fessional paradigm uses different standards for validation based on different epistemological assumptions. Several different fundamental principles are also applied among healthcare professionals themselves. This leads to an insurmountable methodological difference whereby validation is not possible or meaningful at the moment. An important role seems reserved for the epistemology of the humanities to explain and interpret the guidelines. In addition, the operationalization of guidelines does not seem to be straightforward. The use of guidelines shows that unintended effects, such as the exclusion of patients from insurance and reimbursement, arise. In addition the number of guidelines is increasing to such an extent that implementation and enforcement are in danger of being compromised. Recommendations are made to monitor the significance and effect of guidelines.

  19. Effect of indium addition in U-Zr metallic fuel on lanthanide migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yeon Soo; Wiencek, T.; O'Hare, E.; Fortner, J.; Wright, A.; Cheon, J. S.; Lee, B. O.

    2017-02-01

    Advanced fast reactor concepts to achieve ultra-high burnup (∼50%) require prevention of fuel-cladding chemical interaction (FCCI). Fission product lanthanide accumulation at high burnup is substantial and significantly contributes to FCCI upon migration to the cladding interface. Diffusion barriers are typically used to prevent interaction of the lanthanides with the cladding. A more active method has been proposed which immobilizes the lanthanides through formation of stable compounds with an additive. Theoretical analysis showed that indium, thallium, and antimony are good candidates. Indium was the strongest candidate because of its low reactivity with iron-based cladding alloys. Characterization of the as-fabricated alloys was performed to determine the effectiveness of the indium addition in forming compounds with lanthanides, represented by cerium. Tests to examine how effectively the dopant prevents lanthanide migration under a thermal gradient were also performed. The results showed that indium effectively prevented cerium migration.

  20. Effect of Exogenous Phytase Addition on Soil Phosphatase Activities: a Fluorescence Spectroscopy Study.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiao-zhu; Chen, Zhen-hua; Zhang, Yu-lan; Chen, Li-jun

    2015-05-01

    The utilization of organic phosphorus (P) has directly or indirectly improved after exogenous phytase was added to soil. However, the mechanism by which exogenous phytase affected the soil phosphatases (phosphomonoesterase and phosphodiesterase) activities was not clear. The present work was aimed to study red soil, brown soil and cinnamon soil phosphomonoesterase (acid and alkaline) (AcP and AlP) and phosphodiesterase (PD) activities responding to the addition of exogenous phytase (1 g phytase/50 g air dry soil sample) based on the measurements performed via a fluorescence detection method combined with 96 microplates using a TECAN Infinite 200 Multi-Mode Microplate Reader. The results indicated that the acid phosphomonoesterase activity was significantly enhanced in red soil (p≤0. 01), while it was significantly reduced in cinnamon soil; alkaline phosphomonoesterase activity was significantly enhanced in cinnamon soil (p≤ 0. 01), while it was significantly reduced in red soil; phosphodiesterase activity was increased in three soils but it was significantly increased in brown soil (p≤0. 01) after the addition of exogenous phytase. The activities still remained strong after eight days in different soils, which indicated that exogenous phytase addition could be enhance soil phosphatases activities effectively. This effect was not only related to soil properties, such as pH and phosphorus forms, but might also be related to the excreted enzyme amount of the stimulating microorganism. Using fluorescence spectroscopy to study exogenous phytase addition influence on soil phosphatase activities was the first time at home and abroad. Compared with the conventional spectrophotometric method, the fluorescence microplate method is an accurate, fast and simple to use method to determine the relationships among the soil phosphatases activities.

  1. Ontogeny of additive and maternal genetic effects: lessons from domestic mammals.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Alastair J; Reale, Denis

    2006-01-01

    Evolution of size and growth depends on heritable variation arising from additive and maternal genetic effects. Levels of heritable (and nonheritable) variation might change over ontogeny, increasing through "variance compounding" or decreasing through "compensatory growth." We test for these processes using a meta-analysis of age-specific weight traits in domestic ungulates. Generally, mean standardized variance components decrease with age, consistent with compensatory growth. Phenotypic convergence among adult sheep occurs through decreasing environmental and maternal genetic variation. Maternal variation similarly declines in cattle. Maternal genetic effects are thus reduced with age (both in absolute and relative terms). Significant trends in heritability (decreasing in cattle, increasing in sheep) result from declining maternal and environmental components rather than from changing additive variation. There was no evidence for increasing standardized variance components. Any compounding must therefore be masked by more important compensatory processes. While extrapolation of these patterns to processes in natural population is difficult, our results highlight the inadequacy of assuming constancy in genetic parameters over ontogeny. Negative covariance between direct and maternal genetic effects was common. Negative correlations with additive and maternal genetic variances indicate that antagonistic pleiotropy (between additive and maternal genetic effects) may maintain genetic variance and limit responses to selection.

  2. Effects of water and nitrogen addition on ecosystem carbon exchange in a meadow steppe.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yunbo; Jiang, Qi; Yang, Zhiming; Sun, Wei; Wang, Deli

    2015-01-01

    A changing precipitation regime and increasing nitrogen deposition are likely to have profound impacts on arid and semiarid ecosystem C cycling, which is often constrained by the timing and availability of water and nitrogen. However, little is known about the effects of altered precipitation and nitrogen addition on grassland ecosystem C exchange. We conducted a 3-year field experiment to assess the responses of vegetation composition, ecosystem productivity, and ecosystem C exchange to manipulative water and nitrogen addition in a meadow steppe. Nitrogen addition significantly stimulated aboveground biomass and net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE), which suggests that nitrogen availability is a primary limiting factor for ecosystem C cycling in the meadow steppe. Water addition had no significant impacts on either ecosystem C exchange or plant biomass, but ecosystem C fluxes showed a strong correlation with early growing season precipitation, rather than whole growing season precipitation, across the 3 experimental years. After we incorporated water addition into the calculation of precipitation regimes, we found that monthly average ecosystem C fluxes correlated more strongly with precipitation frequency than with precipitation amount. These results highlight the importance of precipitation distribution in regulating ecosystem C cycling. Overall, ecosystem C fluxes in the studied ecosystem are highly sensitive to nitrogen deposition, but less sensitive to increased precipitation.

  3. Effects of Water and Nitrogen Addition on Ecosystem Carbon Exchange in a Meadow Steppe

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yunbo; Jiang, Qi; Yang, Zhiming; Sun, Wei; Wang, Deli

    2015-01-01

    A changing precipitation regime and increasing nitrogen deposition are likely to have profound impacts on arid and semiarid ecosystem C cycling, which is often constrained by the timing and availability of water and nitrogen. However, little is known about the effects of altered precipitation and nitrogen addition on grassland ecosystem C exchange. We conducted a 3-year field experiment to assess the responses of vegetation composition, ecosystem productivity, and ecosystem C exchange to manipulative water and nitrogen addition in a meadow steppe. Nitrogen addition significantly stimulated aboveground biomass and net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE), which suggests that nitrogen availability is a primary limiting factor for ecosystem C cycling in the meadow steppe. Water addition had no significant impacts on either ecosystem C exchange or plant biomass, but ecosystem C fluxes showed a strong correlation with early growing season precipitation, rather than whole growing season precipitation, across the 3 experimental years. After we incorporated water addition into the calculation of precipitation regimes, we found that monthly average ecosystem C fluxes correlated more strongly with precipitation frequency than with precipitation amount. These results highlight the importance of precipitation distribution in regulating ecosystem C cycling. Overall, ecosystem C fluxes in the studied ecosystem are highly sensitive to nitrogen deposition, but less sensitive to increased precipitation. PMID:26010888

  4. Effect of Mo Addition on the Transformation Stasis Phenomenon During the Isothermal Formation of Bainitic Ferrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Congyu; Chen, Hao; Zhu, Kangying; Zhang, Chi; Yang, Zhigang

    2016-12-01

    The effect of Mo addition on the transformation stasis (TS) phenomenon during bainitic transformation has been investigated in Fe-0.2C-1.5Mn-1.5Si-(0.2, 1.5, 3)Mo (wt pct) alloys. Both diffusionless and diffusional models failed in predicting the TS that is strongly affected by Mo concentration in experiment. The Gibbs energy balance approach could capture TS in alloys with 0.2 and 1.5 wt pct Mo, but significantly underestimate bainite fraction at stasis for alloy with 3 wt pct Mo, which is deduced to arise from the so-called anti-coupled solute drag effect.

  5. Effect of medium additives during liquid storage on developmental competence of in vitro matured bovine oocytes.

    PubMed

    Suttirojpattana, Tayita; Somfai, Tamas; Matoba, Satoko; Parnpai, Rangsun; Nagai, Takashi; Geshi, Masaya

    2017-02-01

    Our aim was to improve the developmental competence of bovine oocytes during their liquid storage by using additives. In vitro matured oocytes were stored for 20 h at 25°C in HEPES buffered TCM 199 medium (base medium). After storage, in vitro embryo development after in vitro fertilization was compared to those of non-stored (control) ones. Addition of 10% (v/v) newborn calf serum or 10.27 mmol/L pyruvate alone to the base medium did not improve blastocyst formation rates in stored oocytes; however, their simultaneous addition significantly improved the rate compared with those stored in base medium (P < 0.05). Supplementation of the holding medium with dithiothreitol (DTT) at any concentrations did not improve embryo development from stored oocytes. Although supplementation with cyclosporine A (CsA) significantly reduced apoptosis and membrane damage rates during storage, it did not improve the developmental competence of oocytes. 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy) ethane N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid tetrakis-acetoxymethyl ester and ruthenium red had no effect on oocyte apoptotic rates. Blastocyst formation rates in all stored groups remained significantly lower than that of the control. In conclusion, pyruvate and serum had a synergic effect to moderate the reduction of oocyte quality during storage, whereas mitochondrial membrane pore inhibitor CsA and the antioxidant DTT did not affect their developmental competence.

  6. Effect of medium additives during liquid storage on developmental competence of in vitro matured bovine oocytes

    PubMed Central

    Suttirojpattana, Tayita; Matoba, Satoko; Parnpai, Rangsun; Nagai, Takashi; Geshi, Masaya

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Our aim was to improve the developmental competence of bovine oocytes during their liquid storage by using additives. In vitro matured oocytes were stored for 20 h at 25°C in HEPES buffered TCM 199 medium (base medium). After storage, in vitro embryo development after in vitro fertilization was compared to those of non‐stored (control) ones. Addition of 10% (v/v) newborn calf serum or 10.27 mmol/L pyruvate alone to the base medium did not improve blastocyst formation rates in stored oocytes; however, their simultaneous addition significantly improved the rate compared with those stored in base medium (P < 0.05). Supplementation of the holding medium with dithiothreitol (DTT) at any concentrations did not improve embryo development from stored oocytes. Although supplementation with cyclosporine A (CsA) significantly reduced apoptosis and membrane damage rates during storage, it did not improve the developmental competence of oocytes. 1,2‐bis(2‐aminophenoxy) ethane N,N,N’,N’‐tetraacetic acid tetrakis‐acetoxymethyl ester and ruthenium red had no effect on oocyte apoptotic rates. Blastocyst formation rates in all stored groups remained significantly lower than that of the control. In conclusion, pyruvate and serum had a synergic effect to moderate the reduction of oocyte quality during storage, whereas mitochondrial membrane pore inhibitor CsA and the antioxidant DTT did not affect their developmental competence. PMID:27169667

  7. Effect of argon addition on plasma parameters and dust charging in hydrogen plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Kakati, B. Kausik, S. S.; Saikia, B. K.; Bandyopadhyay, M.; Saxena, Y. C.

    2014-10-28

    Experimental results on effect of adding argon gas to hydrogen plasma in a multi-cusp dusty plasma device are reported. Addition of argon modifies plasma density, electron temperature, degree of hydrogen dissociation, dust current as well as dust charge. From the dust charging profile, it is observed that the dust current and dust charge decrease significantly up to 40% addition of argon flow rate in hydrogen plasma. But beyond 40% of argon flow rate, the changes in dust current and dust charge are insignificant. Results show that the addition of argon to hydrogen plasma in a dusty plasma device can be used as a tool to control the dust charging in a low pressure dusty plasma.

  8. Effect of Addition of Fentanyl to Xylocaine Hydrochloride in Brachial Plexus Block by Supraclavicular Approach

    PubMed Central

    Paluvadi, Venkata Raghavendra; Manne, Venkata Sesha Sai Krishna

    2017-01-01

    Aim: This study was designed to quantitatively compare the effects of 1.5% xylocaine with 1.5% xylocaine and fentanyl (1 μg/kg) mixture for supraclavicular brachial plexus block. Materials and Methods: Sixty patients between the age group of 20–60 and scheduled for upper limb surgery were divided into two groups (xylocaine group and xylocaine plus fentanyl group). After performing supraclavicular brachial plexus block, an assessment was made for onset of analgesia, duration and degree of analgesia, block intensity, and for any other side effects. Results: Mean duration of analgesia is Group I is 2.1 h and in Group II is 8.1 h; a four-fold increase in duration of analgesia. Conclusion: Addition of fentanyl to xylocaine for supraclavicular brachial plexus block has no significant effect on onset or quality of analgesia, but duration of analgesia is significantly prolonged. PMID:28298769

  9. Effects of water addition on soil arthropods and soil characteristics in a precipitation-limited environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chikoski, Jennifer M.; Ferguson, Steven H.; Meyer, Lense

    2006-09-01

    We investigated the effect of water addition and season on soil arthropod abundance and soil characteristics (%C, %N, C:N, moisture, pH). The experimental design consisted of 24 groups of five boxes distributed within a small aspen stand in Saskatchewan, Canada. The boxes depressed the soil to create a habitat with suitable microclimate for soil arthropods, and by overturning boxes we counted soil arthropods during weekly surveys from April to September 1999. Soil samples were collected at two-month intervals and water was added once per week to half of the plots. Of the eleven recognizable taxonomic units identified, only mites (Acari) and springtails (Collembola) responded to water addition by increasing abundance, whereas ants decreased in abundance with water addition. During summer, springtail numbers increased with water addition, whereas pH was a stronger determinant of mite abundance. In autumn, springtails were positively correlated with water and negatively correlated with mites, whereas mite abundance was negatively correlated with increasing C:N ratio, positively correlated to water addition, and negatively correlated with springtail abundance. Although both mite and springtail numbers decreased in autumn with a decrease in soil moisture, mites became more abundant than springtails suggesting a predator-prey (mite-springtail) relationship. Water had a significant effect on both springtails and mites in summer and autumn supporting the assertion that prairie soil communities are water limited.

  10. Biochar mitigates negative effects of salt additions on two herbaceous plant species.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Sean C; Frye, Susan; Gale, Nigel; Garmon, Matthew; Launchbury, Rebecca; Machado, Natasha; Melamed, Sarah; Murray, Jessica; Petroff, Alexandre; Winsborough, Carolyn

    2013-11-15

    Addition of pyrolyzed biomass ("biochar") to soils has commonly been shown to increase crop yields and alleviate plant stresses associated with drought and exposure to toxic materials. Here we investigate the ability of biochar (at two dosages: 5 and 50 t ha(-1)) to mitigate salt-induced stress, simulating road salt additions in a factorial glasshouse experiment involving the broadleaved herbaceous plants Abutilon theophrasti and Prunella vulgaris. Salt additions of 30 g m(-2) NaCl to unamended soils resulted in high mortality rates for both species. Biochar (Fagus grandifolia sawdust pyrolyzed at 378 °C), when applied at 50 t ha(-1) as a top dressing, completely alleviated salt-induced mortality in A. theophrasti and prolonged survival of P. vulgaris. Surviving A. theophrasti plants that received both 50 t ha(-1) biochar and salt addition treatments showed growth rates and physiological performance similar to plants without salt addition. Biochar treatments alone also substantially increased biomass of P. vulgaris, with a ∼50% increase relative to untreated controls at both biochar dosages. Biochar did not significantly affect photosynthetic carbon gain (Amax), water use efficiency, or chlorophyll fluorescence (Fv/Fm) in either species. Our results indicate that biochar can ameliorate salt stress effects on plants through salt sorption, suggesting novel applications of biochar to mitigate effects of salinization in agricultural, urban, and contaminated soils.

  11. Towards understanding the effects of additives on the vermicomposting of sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Xing, Meiyan; Lv, Baoyi; Zhao, Chunhui; Yang, Jian

    2015-03-01

    This work evaluated the effects of additives on the chemical properties of the final products (vermicompost) from vermicomposting of sewage sludge and the adaptable characteristics of Eisenia fetida during the process. An experimental design with different ratios of sewage sludge and the additives (cattle dung or pig manure) was conducted. The results showed that the vermicomposting reduced total organic carbon and the quotient of total organic carbon to total nitrogen (C/N ratio) of the initial mixtures and enhanced the stability and agronomical value of the final products. Notably, principal component analysis indicated that the additives had significant effects on the characteristics of the vermicomposts. Moreover, the vermibeds containing cattle dung displayed a better earthworm growth and reproduction than those with pig manure. Additionally, redundancy analysis demonstrated that electrical conductivity (EC), pH, and C/N ratio played crucial roles on earthworm growth and reproduction. In all, the additives with high C/N ratio, pH buffering capacity, and low EC are recommended to be used for vermicomposting of sewage sludge.

  12. Effects of nitrogen and phosphorus additions on soil methane uptake in disturbed forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Mianhai; Zhang, Tao; Liu, Lei; Zhang, Wei; Lu, Xiankai; Mo, Jiangming

    2016-12-01

    Atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition is generally thought to suppress soil methane (CH4) uptake in natural forests, and phosphorus (P) input may alleviate this negative effect. However, it remains unclear how N and P inputs control soil CH4 uptake in disturbed forests. In this study, soil CH4 uptake rates were measured in two disturbed forests, including a secondary forest (with previous, but not recent, disturbance) and a plantation forest (with recent continuous disturbance), in southern China for 34 months of N and/or P additions: control, N addition (150 kg N ha-1 yr-1), P addition (150 kg P ha-1 yr-1), and NP addition (150 kg N ha-1 yr-1 plus 150 kg P ha-1 yr-1). Mean CH4 uptake rate in control plots was significantly higher in the secondary forest (24.40 ± 0.81 µg CH4-C m-2 h-1) than in the plantation forest (17.07 ± 0.70 µg CH4-C m-2 h-1). CH4 uptake rate had negative relationships with soil water-filled pore space in both forests. In the secondary forest, N, P, and NP additions significantly decreased CH4 uptake by 39.7%, 27.8%, and 37.6%, respectively, but had no significant effects in the plantation forest, indicating that P input does not alleviate the suppression of CH4 uptake by N deposition. Taken together, our findings suggest that reducing anthropogenic disturbance, including harvesting of forest floor, and anthropogenic N and P inputs will increase soil CH4 uptake in disturbed forests, which is important in view of the increased trends in global warming during recent decades.

  13. Effect of Grape Pomace Powder Addition on TBARS and Color of Cooked Pork Sausages during Storage.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Kyeong Seon; Shim, Kwan Seob; Shin, Daekeun

    2014-01-01

    To determine the effects of grape skin and seed pomace (GSP) additions on the lipid oxidation susceptibility and the color change of cooked pork sausages, the chemical characteristics of GSP itself and the addition for two different levels of GSP (0.5 and 1.0% GSP, respectively) to sausages were examined. Both the redness and blueness of the GSP were significantly reduced as the pH level was increased from 5 to 7, but a reverse result was determined in the color tint and yellowness (p<0.05). The GSP polyphenol and flavonoid contents were influenced by the percentages of methanol solvents, and more flavonoids were established when 100% of methanol was applied as a solvent to the GSP. But, similar results were not observed in the polyphenol of GSP. In cooked pork sausages, significant decreases in the lightness and redness were found in both the 0.5% and 1.0% of GSP sausages during the storage period (p<0.05). However, an incompatible effect was observed in terms of yellowness, which increased as compared to the control sausage after 6 days of storage. The 0.5% addition of GSP decreased the levels of TBARS (p<0.05), but the ability of GSP to minimize lipid oxidation was not dose dependent. Therefore, the results indicated that the GSP is an efficient suppressor of lipid oxidation and has latent effects as a natural antioxidant when 0.5% of GSP is added to the cooked pork sausages.

  14. Effects of Nitrogen and Phosphorus Additions on Carbon Cycling of Tropical Mountain Rainforests in Hainan, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, J.

    2015-12-01

    Nitrogen (N) and Phosphorus (P) deposition is projected to increase significantly in tropical regions in the coming decades, which has changed and will change the structure and function of ecosystems, and affects on ecosystem Carbon (C) cycle. As an important part in global C cycle, how the C cycle of tropical rainforests will be influenced by the N and P deposition should be focused on. This study simulated N and P deposition in a primary and secondary forest of tropical mountain rainforest in Jianfengling, Hainan, China, during five-year field experiment to evaluate the effects of N and P deposition on C cycling processes and relate characteristics. Six levels of N and P treatments were treated: Control, Low-N, Medium-N, High-N, P and N+P. The relative growth rates (RGR) of tree layer in treatment plots were different from that in control plots after years of N and P addition. Simulated N and P deposition also increased ANPP in primary forest. N and P addition changed the growth of trees by altering soil nutrient and microbial activities. N and P addition increased soil organic carbon (SOC) and total N (TN) content, and significantly increased soil total P (TP) content, not changing soil pH. During the whole process of N and P addition, as net nitrification rate and net N mineralization rate were promoted by N and P addition, and effective N content (nitrate) of soil increased in the plot treated with N treatments compared to the control treatment. The microbial P content was increased by N and P addition, and microbial N was not changed. The increasing N deposition may enhance soil nutrient and stimulate growth of trees, which will lead to an increase of the C sequestration.

  15. Effect of lubricant extreme pressure additives on rolling element fatigue life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, R. J.; Zaretsky, E. V.

    1973-01-01

    The effects of surface active additives on rolling-element fatigue life were investigated with the five-ball fatigue tester at conditions where classical subsurface initiated rolling-element fatigue is the sole mode of failure. Test balls of AISI 52100, AISI M-50, and AISI 1018 were run with an acid-treated white oil containing either 2.5 percent sulfurized terpene, 1 percent didodecyl phosphite, or 5 percent chlorinated wax. In general, it was found that the influence of surface active additives was detrimental to rolling-element fatigue life. The chlorinated-wax additive significantly reduced fatigue life by a factor of 7. The base oil with the 2.5 percent sulfurized-terpene additive can reduce fatigue life by as much as 50 percent. No statistical change in fatigue life occurred with the base oil having the 1 percent didodecyl-phosphite additive. The additives used with the base oil did not change the ranking of the bearing steels where rolling-element fatigue life was of subsurface origin.

  16. Additive effects of neurofeedback on the treatment of ADHD: A randomized controlled study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun-Jeong; Jung, Chul-Ho

    2017-02-01

    Neurofeedback (NF) has been identified as a "possibly efficacious" treatment in current evidence-based reviews; therefore, more research is needed to determine its effects. The current study examined the potential additive effect of NF for children diagnosed with ADHD beginning a medication trial first. Thirty-six children (6-12 years) with a DSM-IV-TR diagnosis of ADHD were randomly assigned to an NF with medication (NF condition) or a medication only condition. Children in the NF group attended 20 twice-weekly sessions. Outcome measures included individual cognitive performance scores (ADS, K-WISC-III), ADHD rating scores completed by their parents (ARS, CRS) and brainwave indices of left and right hemispheres before and after NF treatment. Significant additive treatment effect in any of the symptom variables was found and a reduction of theta waves in both the right and left hemispheres was recorded in NF condition participants. However our randomized controlled study could not demonstrate superior effects of combined NF on intelligent functioning compared to the medication treatment only. This study suggested any possible evidence of positive and additive treatment effects of NF on brainwaves and ADHD symptomatology.

  17. Age and work environment characteristics in relation to sleep: Additive, interactive and curvilinear effects.

    PubMed

    Parkes, Katharine R

    2016-05-01

    Although additive combinations of age and work environment characteristics have been found to predict sleep impairment, possible age x work environment interactions have been largely disregarded. The present study examined linear and curvilinear interactions of age with work environment measures in relation to sleep quality and duration. Survey data were collected from offshore day-shift personnel (N = 901). Main effects and interactions of the age terms with work environment measures (job demand, control, and social support, physical environment and strenuous work) were evaluated. Sleep duration was predicted by a curvilinear interaction, age(2) x job demand (p < .005), and by the age x social support interaction (p < .002); sleep quality was predicted by age x job demand (p < .002). Job control and physical environment showed significant additive effects. At a time when older employees are encouraged to remain in the workforce, the findings serve to increase understanding of how ageing and work demands jointly contribute to sleep impairment.

  18. Effect of GdL Addition on Physico-chemical Properties of Fermented Sausages during Ripening.

    PubMed

    Yim, Dong-Gyun; Jang, Kyoung-Hwan; Chung, Ku-Young

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of glucono-δ-lactone (GdL) addition on physicochemical and microbiological characteristics of fermented sausages during ripening and drying. Five batches of sausages were produced under ripening conditions: without GdL and with 0, 0.1, 0.25, 0.5 and 0.75% of GdL addition. Samples from each treatment were taken for physicochemical and microbiological analyses on the 0, 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, 15, 20 and 25th day of ripening. Chemical analysis showed a significant decrease in moisture content of sausages with increasing amounts of GdL added (p<0.05). The moisture contents decreased, whereas the fat, protein and ash contents increased throughout ripening (p<0.05). Increasing levels of GdL caused a decrease in the pH values (p<0.05), which can have an inhibitory effect against microflora. Water holding capacity content of samples decreased with increasing GdL concentration (p<0.05). The shear force values of fermented sausages showed the highest in T4 (p<0.05). During ripening, the shear force values of sausages were increased on the 25th day compared to day 0 (p<0.05). The higher GdL level produced lighter and more yellow sausages. The addition of 0.75% GdL was effective in controlling bacteria counts. Addition of GdL in sausages resulted in the physicochemical and microbiological attributes equal to or better than no addition of GdL without any harmful effect.

  19. EFFECTS OF ADDITION RATE AND ACID MATRIX ON THE DESTRUCTION OF AMMONIUM BY THE SEMI-CONTINUOUS ADDITION OF SODIUM NITRITE DURING EVAPORATION

    SciTech Connect

    Kyser, E

    2007-08-27

    The destruction of ammonium by the semi-continuous addition of sodium nitrite during acidic evaporation can be achieved with a wide range of waste compositions. The efficiency of nitrite utilization for ammonium destruction was observed to vary from less than 20% to 60% depending on operating conditions. The effects of nitric acid concentration and nitrite addition rate are dominant factors that affect the efficiency of nitrite utilization for ammonium destruction. Reducing the acid concentration by performing acid recovery via steam stripping prior to performing nitrite destruction of ammonium will require more nitrite due to the low destruction efficiency. The scale-up of the baseline rate nitrite addition rate from the 100 mL to the 1600 gallon batch size has significant uncertainty and poses the risk of lower efficiency at the plant scale. Experience with plant scale processing will improve confidence in the application of nitrite destruction of ammonium to different waste streams.

  20. Event-related potential practice effects on the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT)

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Jeffrey M.; Fox, Alison M.

    2012-01-01

    Practice can change the nature and quality of a stimulus-response relationship. The current study observed the effects of repeated administration of the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT) in 12 healthy individuals, in an effort to establish distinct profiles associated with novel and practiced processing. Over four training sessions the mean number of correct responses on this demanding test of attention significantly improved and was approaching ceiling for most task conditions. Behavioural improvements were associated with significantly reduced amplitude of late Processing Negativity, a frontally distributed component of the event-related potential waveform associated with voluntary, limited-capacity activity within higher-order attentional systems. These results suggest that PASAT performance became more efficient as practice seemingly eased the strategic planning and coordination requirements the task places on frontally-mediated executive attention resources. The findings of the current study extend our understanding of the functional and behavioural mechanisms underlying the effects of practice. PMID:23717344

  1. Current challenges in contaminant effects monitoring: Multiple stressors and ecological significance

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, S.M.; Ham, K.D.

    1996-09-01

    Aquatic ecosystems are complex entities that are controlled and regulated by a multitude of physicochemical and biological processes. In addition, aquatic organisms experience a variety of natural and man-induced stressors, both of which vary spatially and temporally. The high variability in environmental factors combined with synergistic and cumulative interactions of these factors in aquatic ecosystems complicate the interpretation and evaluation of the effects of contaminant-related stressors on organisms. With this in mind, some main challenges facing those concerned with assessing the effects of environmental contaminants on organisms are (1) the influence of multiple stressors on stress responses in biological systems, (2) determining causal relationships between various levels of biological response to stressors, and (3) identifying early warning indicators or measures of organism impairment that have biological significance before irreversible or serious disability occurs. In all these areas, the health of biological systems (from the individual level to the population and community levels) has as its basis the physiological performance of the organism. Therefore, aspects of contaminant effects monitoring which include physiological measures of health should not only be utilized as measures of deviations from normal function, but should also be applied in the larger context of helping to understand multiple stressor effects, causal relationships between different levels of biological response, and early warning indicators of biologically significant effects.

  2. Effects of two warm-mix additives on aging, rheological and failure properties of asphalt cements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omari, Isaac Obeng

    Sustainable road construction and maintenance could be supported when excellent warm-mix additives are employed in the modification of asphalt. These warm-mix additives provide remedies for today's requirements such as fatigue cracking resistance, durability, thermal cracking resistance, rutting resistance and resistance to moisture damage. Warm-mix additives are based on waxes and surfactants which reduce energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions significantly during the construction phase of the pavement. In this study, the effects of two warm mix additives, siloxane and oxidised polyethylene wax, on roofing asphalt flux (RAF) and asphalt modified with waste engine oil (655-7) were investigated to evaluate the rheological, aging and failure properties of the asphalt binders. In terms of the properties of these two different asphalts, RAF has proved to be superior quality asphalt whereas 655-7 is poor quality asphalt. The properties of the modified asphalt samples were measured by Superpave(TM) tests such as Dynamic Shear Rheometer (DSR) test and Bending Beam Rheometer (BBR) test as well as modified protocols such as the extended BBR (eBBR) test (LS-308) and the Double- Edge-Notched Tension (DENT) test (LS-299) after laboratory aging. In addition, the Avrami theory was used to gain an insight on the crystallization of asphalt or the waxes within the asphalt binder. This study has however shown that the eBBR and DENT tests are better tools for providing accurate specification tests to curb thermal and fatigue cracking in contemporary asphalt pavements.

  3. Modest additive effects of integrated vector control measures on malaria prevalence and transmission in western Kenya

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The effect of integrating vector larval intervention on malaria transmission is unknown when insecticide-treated bed-net (ITN) coverage is very high, and the optimal indicator for intervention evaluation needs to be determined when transmission is low. Methods A post hoc assignment of intervention-control cluster design was used to assess the added effect of both indoor residual spraying (IRS) and Bacillus-based larvicides (Bti) in addition to ITN in the western Kenyan highlands in 2010 and 2011. Cross-sectional, mass parasite screenings, adult vector populations, and cohort of active case surveillance (ACS) were conducted before and after the intervention in three study sites with two- to three-paired intervention-control clusters at each site each year. The effect of larviciding, IRS, ITNs and other determinants of malaria risk was assessed by means of mixed estimating methods. Results Average ITN coverage increased from 41% in 2010 to 92% in 2011 in the study sites. IRS intervention had significant added impact on reducing vector density in 2010 but the impact was modest in 2011. The effect of IRS on reducing parasite prevalence was significant in 2011 but was seasonal specific in 2010. ITN was significantly associated with parasite densities in 2010 but IRS application was significantly correlated with reduced gametocyte density in 2011. IRS application reduced about half of the clinical malaria cases in 2010 and about one-third in 2011 compare to non-intervention areas. Conclusion Compared with a similar study conducted in 2005, the efficacy of the current integrated vector control with ITN, IRS, and Bti reduced three- to five-fold despite high ITN coverage, reflecting a modest added impact on malaria transmission. Additional strategies need to be developed to further reduce malaria transmission. PMID:23870708

  4. Effect of pentosans addition on pasting properties of flours of eight hard white spring wheat cultivars.

    PubMed

    Arif, Saqib; Ali, Tahira Mohsin; Ul Afzal, Qurat; Ahmed, Mubarik; Siddiqui, Asim Jamal; Hasnain, Abid

    2014-06-01

    The effects of water extractable pentosans (WEP) and water unextractable pentosans (WUP) on pasting properties in flours of eight different hard white spring wheat (HWSW) cultivars was studied. WEP and WUP isolated from a hard wheat flour were added to each of the cultivars at 1% and 2% level. The results indicated that WEP exhibited a pronounced effect on pasting properties as compared to WUP and variety. Univariate analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to evaluate sources of variation. The variety significantly (P < 0.001) influenced all the pasting parameters. WUP caused significant (P < 0.001) variation in paste viscosities (except breakdown). WEP influenced more pronouncedly the hot paste, cold paste, breakdown and setback viscosities with F values-221.802, 214.286, 98.073 and 120.159, respectively. Variety-by-WEP interaction exhibited significant (P < 0.01) influence on pasting time, peak, hot paste and cold paste viscosities. Whereas, variety-by-WUP interaction only significantly (P < 0.001) influenced the pasting- time and -temperature. Duncan's test was used to analyze the significant difference (P < 0.05) within the variety. The results revealed that WUP did not induce significant (P < 0.05) influence on all the pasting parameters, whereas, WEP influenced significantly (P < 0.05) the paste viscosities of some of the varieties. It was also found that the addition of WEP remarkably reduced the setback, hot paste, cold paste viscosities and increased the breakdown viscosity in all cultivar flours. The effect of WEP was greater at higher level of supplementation on paste viscosities.

  5. Additive effects of vertebrate predators on insects in a Puerto Rican coffee plantation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Borkhataria, R.R.; Collazo, J.A.; Groom, M.J.

    2006-01-01

    A variety of studies have established the value of shaded coffee plantations as habitat for birds. While the value of birds as biological controls in coffee has received some attention, the interactions between birds and other predators of insects have not been tested. We used exclosures to examine the effects of vertebrate predators on the arthropods associated with coffee, in particular the coffee leafminer (Leucoptera coffeella) and the flatid planthopper Petrusa epilepsis, in a shaded coffee plantation in Puerto Rico. We used a 2 x 2 factorial design with four treatments: exclusion of birds, lizards, birds and lizards, and control (no exclusion). Abundance of insects >5 mm increased when birds or both birds and lizards were removed. Birds and lizards had an additive effect for insects <5 mm and for all insects combined. Coffee leafminers showed a weak response to removal of predators while planthopper abundance increased significantly in the absence of avian predators. Arthropod predators and parasitoids did not differ significantly between treatments. Our findings suggest that vertebrate insectivores have an additive effect on insects in coffee and may help control abundances of some coffee pests. Equally important, we present evidence suggesting that they do not interfere with other known natural enemies of coffee pests. ?? 2006 by the Ecological Society of America.

  6. The effect of acidic and basic additives on the enantioseparation of basic drugs using polysaccharide-based chiral stationary phases.

    PubMed

    Ye, Yun K; Stringham, Rodger W

    2006-08-01

    The enantioseparation of nine commercially available basic drugs was achieved on polysaccharide-based chiral stationary phases with the acidic additive ethanesulfonic acid and the basic additive butylamine. Seven different commercially available CSPs were used for the study (AD, AS, OD, OJ, OG, OB, and OC). Mobile phase additives have been proven to be essential in obtaining satisfactory enantio-resolution in terms of both efficiency and selectivity. Significantly improved selectivities were obtained for the basic probe drugs with the acidic additive, ethanesulfonic acid, rather than the basic additive, butylamine. This is best seen with Chiralpak AS CSP. No enantioseparation for the nine drugs was observed when butylamine was used as an additive; however, satisfactory enantioseparation for the nine drugs was achieved using ethanesulfonic acid. Higher column efficiencies were observed with the acidic additive, especially when isopropanol was used as a modifier. Higher sensitivity was also achieved with ethanesulfonic acid because of the significantly lower background at the UV detection wavelength. The acidic additive was demonstrated to be superior to the basic additive for the enantioseparation of basic drugs using seven different polysaccharide-based CSPs. These results are counterintuitive to the common "rule of thumb" in enantioseparation that states acidic additives work best for acidic analytes and basic additives work best for basic analytes. The beneficial effects of acidic additive in enantioseparations observed in this study could significantly improve the applicability of polysaccharide-based CSPs for the enantioseparation of basic analytes.

  7. Addition of a third field significantly increases dose to the brachial plexus for patients undergoing tangential whole-breast therapy after lumpectomy

    SciTech Connect

    Stanic, Sinisa; Mathai, Mathew; Mayadev, Jyoti S.; Do, Ly V.; Purdy, James A.; Chen, Allen M.

    2012-07-01

    Our goal was to evaluate brachial plexus (BP) dose with and without the use of supraclavicular (SCL) irradiation in patients undergoing breast-conserving therapy with whole-breast radiation therapy (RT) after lumpectomy. Using the standardized Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG)-endorsed guidelines delineation, we contoured the BP for 10 postlumpectomy breast cancer patients. The radiation dose to the whole breast was 50.4 Gy using tangential fields in 1.8-Gy fractions, followed by a conedown to the operative bed using electrons (10 Gy). The prescription dose to the SCL field was 50.4 Gy, delivered to 3-cm depth. The mean BP volume was 14.5 {+-} 1.5 cm{sup 3}. With tangential fields alone, the median mean dose to the BP was 0.57 Gy, the median maximum dose was 1.93 Gy, and the irradiated volume of the BP receiving 40, 45, and 50 Gy was 0%. When the third (SCL field) was added, the dose to the BP was significantly increased (P = .01): the median mean dose to the BP was 40.60 Gy, and the median maximum dose was 52.22 Gy. With 3-field RT, the median irradiated volume of the BP receiving 40, 45, and 50 Gy was 83.5%, 68.5%, and 24.6%, respectively. The addition of the SCL field significantly increases dose to the BP. The possibility of increasing the risk of BP morbidity should be considered in the context of clinical decision making.

  8. Effects of V addition on recrystallization resistance of 7150 aluminum alloy after simulative hot deformation

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, Jing; Shi, Cangji; Chen, X.-Grant

    2014-10-15

    The effects of different V contents (0.01 to 0.19 wt.%) on the recrystallization resistance of 7150 aluminum alloys during post-deformation heat treatment were investigated. The microstructural evolutions at as-cast, as-homogenized conditions and after post-deformation annealing were studied using optical, scanning electron and transmission electron microscopes and using the electron backscattered diffraction technique. The precipitation of Al{sub 21}V{sub 2} dispersoids was observed in alloys containing 0.11 to 0.19 wt.% V after homogenization. The dispersoids were mainly distributed in the dendrite cells, and the precipitate-free zones occurred in the interdendritic regions and near grain boundaries. V addition could significantly enhance the recrystallization resistance during post-deformation annealing, particularly in the presence of a great number of Al{sub 21}V{sub 2} dispersoids. Recrystallized grain growth was effectively restricted because of the dispersoid pinning effect. The alloy containing 0.15 wt.% V exhibited the highest recrystallization resistance amongst all V-containing alloys studied. - Highlights: • Investigated the effect of V level on microstructure and flow stress of 7150 alloys • Characterized microstructures using optical microscopy, SEM, TEM and EBSD • Described the precipitation behavior of V-dispersoids in the dendritic structure • Studied the V effect on recrystallization resistance during post heat treatment • V addition greatly enhanced the recrystallization resistance during annealing.

  9. Effect of the chlortetracycline addition method on methane production from the anaerobic digestion of swine wastewater.

    PubMed

    Huang, Lu; Wen, Xin; Wang, Yan; Zou, Yongde; Ma, Baohua; Liao, Xindi; Liang, Juanboo; Wu, Yinbao

    2014-10-01

    Effects of antibiotic residues on methane production in anaerobic digestion are commonly studied using the following two antibiotic addition methods: (1) adding manure from animals that consume a diet containing antibiotics, and (2) adding antibiotic-free animal manure spiked with antibiotics. This study used chlortetracycline (CTC) as a model antibiotic to examine the effects of the antibiotic addition method on methane production in anaerobic digestion under two different swine wastewater concentrations (0.55 and 0.22mg CTC/g dry manure). The results showed that CTC degradation rate in which manure was directly added at 0.55mg CTC/g (HSPIKE treatment) was lower than the control values and the rest of the treatment groups. Methane production from the HSPIKE treatment was reduced (p<0.05) by 12% during the whole experimental period and 15% during the first 7days. The treatments had no significant effect on the pH and chemical oxygen demand value of the digesters, and the total nitrogen of the 0.55mg CTC/kg manure collected from mediated swine was significantly higher than the other values. Therefore, different methane production under different antibiotic addition methods might be explained by the microbial activity and the concentrations of antibiotic intermediate products and metabolites. Because the primary entry route of veterinary antibiotics into an anaerobic digester is by contaminated animal manure, the most appropriate method for studying antibiotic residue effects on methane production may be using manure from animals that are given a particular antibiotic, rather than adding the antibiotic directly to the anaerobic digester.

  10. Litter Decomposition in a Semiarid Dune Grassland: Neutral Effect of Water Supply and Inhibitory Effect of Nitrogen Addition

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yulin; Ning, Zhiying; Cui, Duo; Mao, Wei; Bi, Jingdong; Zhao, Xueyong

    2016-01-01

    Background The decomposition of plant material in arid ecosystems is considered to be substantially controlled by water and N availability. The responses of litter decomposition to external N and water, however, remain controversial, and the interactive effects of supplementary N and water also have been largely unexamined. Methodology/Principal Findings A 3.5-year field experiment with supplementary nitrogen and water was conducted to assess the effects of N and water addition on mass loss and nitrogen release in leaves and fine roots of three dominant plant species (i.e., Artemisia halondendron, Setaria viridis, and Phragmites australis) with contrasting substrate chemistry (e.g. N concentration, lignin content in this study) in a desertified dune grassland of Inner Mongolia, China. The treatments included N addition, water addition, combination of N and water, and an untreated control. The decomposition rate in both leaves and roots was related to the initial litter N and lignin concentrations of the three species. However, litter quality did not explain the slower mass loss in roots than in leaves in the present study, and thus warrant further research. Nitrogen addition, either alone or in combination with water, significantly inhibited dry mass loss and N release in the leaves and roots of the three species, whereas water input had little effect on the decomposition of leaf litter and fine roots, suggesting that there was no interactive effect of supplementary N and water on litter decomposition in this system. Furthermore, our results clearly indicate that the inhibitory effects of external N on dry mass loss and nitrogen release are relatively strong in high-lignin litter compared with low-lignin litter. Conclusion/Significance These findings suggest that increasing precipitation hardly facilitates ecosystem carbon turnover but atmospheric N deposition can enhance carbon sequestration and nitrogen retention in desertified dune grasslands of northern China

  11. Effect of PMMA filler particles addition on the physical properties of resin composite.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Yoshiko; Takagaki, Tomohiro; Okuda, Makoto; Ikeda, Masaomi; Kadoma, Yoshinori; Yamauchi, Junichi; Okada, Koichi; Sadr, Alireza; Nikaido, Toru; Tagami, Junji

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of additional polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) fillers on the physical properties of experimental resin composites. PMMA particles (d=30 µm) were added to an experimental methacrylate-based resin composite in five concentrations of 0, 2.0, 4.8, 9.1, and 23.1 wt%. Properties such as contact angle, water sorption and compressive strength were measured and the fractured specimens were observed with a scanning electron microscope. The results showed that a small amount (2 wt%) of additional PMMA fillers inhibited the crack propagation and enhanced compressive strengths of the resin composites, without a significant change in water contact angle of surface or increased water sorption. However, in higher portions, the mechanical properties were not improved as a debonding at the interface between untreated fillers and the matrix, or failure within the organic filler could reduce the compressive yield strength of the composite.

  12. Meta-analysis using effect size distributions of only statistically significant studies.

    PubMed

    van Assen, Marcel A L M; van Aert, Robbie C M; Wicherts, Jelte M

    2015-09-01

    Publication bias threatens the validity of meta-analytic results and leads to overestimation of the effect size in traditional meta-analysis. This particularly applies to meta-analyses that feature small studies, which are ubiquitous in psychology. Here we develop a new method for meta-analysis that deals with publication bias. This method, p-uniform, enables (a) testing of publication bias, (b) effect size estimation, and (c) testing of the null-hypothesis of no effect. No current method for meta-analysis possesses all 3 qualities. Application of p-uniform is straightforward because no additional data on missing studies are needed and no sophisticated assumptions or choices need to be made before applying it. Simulations show that p-uniform generally outperforms the trim-and-fill method and the test of excess significance (TES; Ioannidis & Trikalinos, 2007b) if publication bias exists and population effect size is homogenous or heterogeneity is slight. For illustration, p-uniform and other publication bias analyses are applied to the meta-analysis of McCall and Carriger (1993) examining the association between infants' habituation to a stimulus and their later cognitive ability (IQ). We conclude that p-uniform is a valuable technique for examining publication bias and estimating population effects in fixed-effect meta-analyses, and as sensitivity analysis to draw inferences about publication bias.

  13. Toxic effects of some synthetic food colorants and/or flavor additives on male rats.

    PubMed

    El-Wahab, Hanan Mohamed Fathy Abd; Moram, Gehan Salah El-Deen

    2013-03-01

    The objective of the present work was to evaluate the broadest toxic effect of some synthetic additives of colorants and/or flavors on different body organs and metabolic aspects in rats. A number of chemical food color and flavor additives are routinely added during processing to improve the aesthetic appearance of the dietary items. However, many of them are toxic after prolonged use. In this experiment, a total of 100 male albino rats of Spargue Dawley strain were divided into 10 groups: G(1) was fed basal diet and served as control, G(2): basal diet + Brilliant blue (blue dye, No. 2, 124 mg/kg diet), G(3): basal diet + carmoisine (red dye, No. 3, 70 mg/kg diet), G(4): basal diet + tartrazine (yellow dye, FD & C yellow No. 5, 75 mg/kg diet), G(5): basal diet + trans-anethole (4.5 g/kg diet) G(6): basal diet + propylene glycol (0.25 g/kg diet), G(7): basal diet + vanillin(1.25 g/kg diet), G(8): basal diet + Brilliant blue + propylene glycol, G(9): basal diet + carmoisine + trans-anethole, G(10): basal diet + tartrazine + vanillin for 42 successive days. All food colorants mixed with or without flavor additives induced a significant decrease in body weight, hemoglobin concentration and red blood cell count. Also there was a significant decrease in reduced glutathione content; glutathione-S-transferase and superoxide dismutase activities in both blood and liver compared to control group. On the other hand, a significant increase in serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase activities, bilirubin, urea, creatinine, total protein and albumin were observed in all test groups when compared to control group. Finally, it is advisable to limit the uses of these food colorants and/or food flavor additives especially those used by children.

  14. Aromatase inhibiting and combined estrogenic effects of parabens and estrogenic effects of other additives in cosmetics

    SciTech Connect

    Meeuwen, J.A. van Son, O. van; Piersma, A.H.; Jong, P.C. de; Berg, M. van den

    2008-08-01

    There is concern widely on the increase in human exposure to exogenous (anti)estrogenic compounds. Typical are certain ingredients in cosmetic consumer products such as musks, phthalates and parabens. Monitoring a variety of human samples revealed that these ingredients, including the ones that generally are considered to undergo rapid metabolism, are present at low levels. In this in vitro research individual compounds and combinations of parabens and endogenous estradiol (E{sub 2}) were investigated in the MCF-7 cell proliferation assay. The experimental design applied a concentration addition model (CA). Data were analyzed with the estrogen equivalency (EEQ) and method of isoboles approach. In addition, the catalytic inhibitory properties of parabens on an enzyme involved in a rate limiting step in steroid genesis (aromatase) were studied in human placental microsomes. Our results point to an additive estrogenic effect in a CA model for parabens. In addition, it was found that parabens inhibit aromatase. Noticeably, the effective levels in both our in vitro systems were far higher than the levels detected in human samples. However, estrogenic compounds may contribute in a cumulative way to the circulating estrogen burden. Our calculation for the extra estrogen burden due to exposure to parabens, phthalates and polycyclic musks indicates an insignificant estrogenic load relative to the endogenous or therapeutic estrogen burden.

  15. [Effects of nitrogen and water addition on soil bacterial diversity and community structure in temperate grasslands in northern China].

    PubMed

    Yang, Shan; Li, Xiao-bing; Wang, Ru-zhen; Cai, Jiang-ping; Xu, Zhu-wen; Zhang, Yu-ge; Li, Hui; Jiang, Yong

    2015-03-01

    In this study, we measured the responses of soil bacterial diversity and community structure to nitrogen (N) and water addition in the typical temperate grassland in northern China. Results showed that N addition significantly reduced microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and microbial biomass nitrogen (MBN) under regular precipitation treatment. Similar declined trends of MBC and MBN caused by N addition were also found under increased precipitation condition. Nevertheless, water addition alleviated the inhibition by N addition. N addition exerted no significant effects. on bacterial α-diversity indices, including richness, Shannon diversity and evenness index under regular precipitation condition. Precipitation increment tended to increase bacterial α-diversity, and the diversity indices of each N gradient under regular precipitation were much lower than that of the corresponding N addition rate under increased precipitation. Correlation analysis showed that soil moisture, nitrate (NO3(-)-N) and ammonium (NH4+-N) were significantly negatively correlated with bacterial evenness index, and MBC and MBN had a significant positive correlation with bacterial richness and evenness. Non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) ordination illustrated that the bacterial communities were significantly separated by N addition rates, under both water ambient and water addition treatments. Redundancy analysis (RDA) revealed that soil MBC, MBN, pH and NH4+-N were the key environmental factors for shaping bacterial communities.

  16. Effect of Fruit Pomace Addition on Shortbread Cookies to Improve Their Physical and Nutritional Values.

    PubMed

    Tańska, Małgorzata; Roszkowska, Beata; Czaplicki, Sylwester; Borowska, Eulalia Julitta; Bojarska, Justyna; Dąbrowska, Aneta

    2016-09-01

    Fruit pomace remaining after juice extraction is still a source of bioactive compounds. Especially rich in these compounds is the pomace from blackcurrant fruit and from fruits of little-known horticultural plants, like: rowan, rosehip and elderberry. The addition of fruit pomace to bakery and confectionery products, especially to those made of white flour, may significantly enrich their composition with dietary fiber, vitamins and phenolic compounds. This study was aimed at determining the effect of 20 % addition of fruit pomace from rosehip, rowan, blackcurrant and elderberry on the properties of shortbread cookies. The pomace-containing cookies, compared to those without additives, were characterized by a darker color with a higher contribution of yellowness, and by higher hardness. The overall organoleptic assessment was comparable for all types of cookies, however the cookies with pomace were characterized by more perceptible taste and aroma, and were sourer. The extracts from pomace-supplemented cookies had a significantly stronger antioxidant capacity than that from the cookies without pomace, but they were ineffective in inhibiting lipid oxidation. The study showed that fruit pomace could improve the nutritional value of shortbread cookies. Furthermore, non-typical color of such a new product may be attractive to consumers.

  17. Recovery of genomic DNA from archived PCR product mixes for subsequent multiplex amplification and typing of additional loci: forensic significance for older unsolved criminal cases.

    PubMed

    Patchett, Kylie L; Cox, Ken J; Burns, Dennis M

    2002-07-01

    A method for genomic DNA recovery from different types of PCR product mixes suitable for multiplex amplification and typing using the Profiler Plus STR typing system has been investigated. The application of this method is of significance in cases where the original DNA samples have been exhausted due to repeated typing analyses in an effort to maximize their evidentiary value. Such cases typically involve samples analyzed using the available DNA typing systems of the time which gave a markedly lower power of discrimination, either alone or in combination, compared to that of modern multiplex STR typing systems. It was found that an effective method for recovering genomic DNA from HLA-DQA1 +PM and CTT triplex amplification mixes, suitable for reproducible achievement of the complete Profiler Plus profile, involved the use of Amicon Microcon-100 microconcentrators. Interestingly, this method was not required to achieve the complete nine STR profile using D1S80 amplification mixes.

  18. Effect of additives on the anisotropic etching of silicon by using a TMAH based solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jun, Ki-Hwa; Kim, Bum-Joon; Kim, Jung-Sik

    2015-09-01

    In this study, the anisotropic etching properties of single crystal silicon were examined using a tetramethyl ammonium hydroxide (TMAH). The variations in the Si etching rate and surface morphology at different etching temperatures and TMAH concentrations were evaluated. The effects of different additives were also examined. As the THAM concentration (10-25 wt. %) decreased, the etching rate increased from 10 μm/h to 70 μm/h at temperatures between 70°C and 90°C. On the other hand, the etched surface roughness became degraded as the hillock density and corner undercut ratio increased. To solve these problems, four additives, pyrazine, ammonium persulfate (AP), ammonium hydrogen sulfate (AHS), and isopropyl alcohol (IPA), were added to the TMAH solution. The experimental results showed that these additives play an important role in increasing the etching rate up to 10-20%. The etched surface was also improved significantly by the decreased hillock density on the surface. The addition of IPA to the TMAH solution showed excellent results in improving the etched surface flatness and the undercutting compensation. On the other hand, one of the characteristics of IPA is the decrease in etching rate with increasing amount of IPA. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  19. Consistent effects of canopy vs. understory nitrogen addition on the soil exchangeable cations and microbial community in two contrasting forests.

    PubMed

    Shi, Leilei; Zhang, Hongzhi; Liu, Tao; Zhang, Weixin; Shao, Yuanhu; Ha, Denglong; Li, Yuanqiu; Zhang, Chuangmao; Cai, Xi-an; Rao, Xingquan; Lin, Yongbiao; Zhou, Lixia; Zhao, Ping; Ye, Qing; Zou, Xiaoming; Fu, Shenglei

    2016-05-15

    Anthropogenic N deposition has been well documented to cause substantial impacts on the chemical and biological properties of forest soils. In most studies, however, atmospheric N deposition has been simulated by directly adding N to the forest floor. Such studies thus ignored the potentially significant effect of some key processes occurring in forest canopy (i.e., nitrogen retention) and may therefore have incorrectly assessed the effects of N deposition on soils. Here, we conducted an experiment that included both understory addition of N (UAN) and canopy addition of N (CAN) in two contrasting forests (temperate deciduous forest vs. subtropical evergreen forest). The goal was to determine whether the effects on soil exchangeable cations and microbial biomass differed between CAN and UAN. We found that N addition reduced pH, BS (base saturation) and exchangeable Ca and increased exchangeable Al significantly only at the temperate JGS site, and reduced the biomass of most soil microbial groups only at the subtropical SMT site. Except for soil exchangeable Mn, however, effects on soil chemical properties and soil microbial community did not significantly differ between CAN and UAN. Although biotic and abiotic soil characteristics differ significantly and the responses of both soil exchangeable cations and microbial biomass were different between the two study sites, we found no significant interactive effects between study site and N treatment approach on almost all soil properties involved in this study. In addition, N addition rate (25 vs. 50 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1)) did not show different effects on soil properties under both N addition approaches. These findings did not support previous prediction which expected that, by bypassing canopy effects (i.e., canopy retention and foliage fertilization), understory addition of N would overestimate the effects of N deposition on forest soil properties, at least for short time scale.

  20. Effect of Grape Pomace Powder Addition on TBARS and Color of Cooked Pork Sausages during Storage

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Kyeong Seon; Shim, Kwan Seob; Shin, Daekeun

    2014-01-01

    To determine the effects of grape skin and seed pomace (GSP) additions on the lipid oxidation susceptibility and the color change of cooked pork sausages, the chemical characteristics of GSP itself and the addition for two different levels of GSP (0.5 and 1.0% GSP, respectively) to sausages were examined. Both the redness and blueness of the GSP were significantly reduced as the pH level was increased from 5 to 7, but a reverse result was determined in the color tint and yellowness (p<0.05). The GSP polyphenol and flavonoid contents were influenced by the percentages of methanol solvents, and more flavonoids were established when 100% of methanol was applied as a solvent to the GSP. But, similar results were not observed in the polyphenol of GSP. In cooked pork sausages, significant decreases in the lightness and redness were found in both the 0.5% and 1.0% of GSP sausages during the storage period (p<0.05). However, an incompatible effect was observed in terms of yellowness, which increased as compared to the control sausage after 6 days of storage. The 0.5% addition of GSP decreased the levels of TBARS (p<0.05), but the ability of GSP to minimize lipid oxidation was not dose dependent. Therefore, the results indicated that the GSP is an efficient suppressor of lipid oxidation and has latent effects as a natural antioxidant when 0.5% of GSP is added to the cooked pork sausages. PMID:26760939

  1. Response to selection in finite locus models with non-additive effects.

    PubMed

    Esfandyari, Hadi; Henryon, Mark; Berg, Peer; Thomasen, Jorn Rind; Bijma, Piter; Sørensen, Anders Christian

    2017-01-12

    Under the finite-locus model in the absence of mutation, the additive genetic variation is expected to decrease when directional selection is acting on a population, according to quantitative-genetic theory. However, some theoretical studies of selection suggest that the level of additive variance can be sustained or even increased when non-additive genetic effects are present. We tested the hypothesis that finite-locus models with both additive and non-additive genetic effects maintain more additive genetic variance (V_A) and realize larger medium-to-long term genetic gains than models with only additive effects when the trait under selection is subject to truncation selection. Four genetic models that included additive, dominance, and additive-by-additive epistatic effects were simulated. The simulated genome for individuals consisted of 25 chromosomes, each with a length of 1M. One hundred bi-allelic QTL, four on each chromosome, were considered. In each generation, 100 sires and 100 dams were mated, producing five progeny per mating. The population was selected for a single trait (h(2)=0.1) for 100 discrete generations with selection on phenotype or BLUP-EBV. V_A decreased with directional truncation selection even in presence of non-additive genetic effects. Non-additive effects influenced long-term response to selection and among genetic models additive gene action had highest response to selection. In addition, in all genetic models, BLUP-EBV resulted in a greater fixation of favourable and unfavourable alleles and higher response than phenotypic selection. In conclusion, for the schemes we simulated, the presence of non-additive genetic effects had little effect in changes of additive variance and V_A decreased by directional selection.

  2. Effect of alloying additions on secondary hardening behavior of Mo-containing steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, H.; Lee, J. H.; Lee, K. B.; Kim, C. M.; Yang, H. R.

    1997-03-01

    The effect of alloying additions on secondary hardening behavior in Fe-Mo-C steels has been investigated by means of the successive alloying additions of Cr, Co, and Ni. The Cr additions promote M3C cementite formation. The Ni additions destabilize the cementite formation, while the Co additions retard dislocation recovery and present the necessary sites for M2C formation which provides the secondary hardening.

  3. Significance of Timing on Effect of Metaphylactic Toltrazuril Treatment against Eimeriosis in Calves.

    PubMed

    Enemark, Heidi Larsen; Dahl, Jan; Enemark, Jörg Matthias Dehn

    2015-08-01

    In this multicentric, randomised, blinded and placebo-controlled field study, the effect of treatment with toltrazuril (Baycox(®) Bovis, Bayer) on oocyst excretion, diarrhoea score and weight gain was studied in Danish dairy herds with confirmed history of eimeriosis (coccidiosis) and prevalence of Eimeria bovis and Eimeria zuernii. Three commercial herds and a total of 71 calves, aged 48 - 135 days, were included. Treatment with a single oral dose of toltrazuril (15 mg/kg) was given after relocation to common pens and one week before expected outbreak of eimeriosis. The effect of treatment was followed by weekly faecal sampling and weighing initially and at the end of a study period of 8 weeks. In Herd 2 and 3 toltrazuril treated calves gained on average 7.95 kg more than placebo treated calves (p = 0.007), and both oocyst excretion and prevalence of Eimeria spp. were significantly reduced the first weeks post treatment. In Herd 1, by contrast, the farmer made some unforeseen changes in the management which entailed relocation to large deep-litter pens 3 - 6 weeks post treatment. In addition, many calves were not treated metaphylactically while few calves excreted oocysts when the trial was initiated. Thus, no significant difference in weight gain was found between toltrazuril and placebo treated calves (p = 0.523), and the oocyst excretion of toltrazuril treated calves was significantly higher during week 7 and 8. Significant differences in faecal scores were observed between the herds (p<0.002) but not between treatment groups in any of the herds. In conclusion, timing of treatment is crucial for optimal effect of metaphylactic toltrazuril treatment on weight gain and oocyst excretion.

  4. An additional fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl (Fmoc) moiety in di-Fmoc-functionalized L-lysine induces pH-controlled ambidextrous gelation with significant advantages.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Samala Murali Mohan; Shanmugam, Ganesh; Duraipandy, Natarajan; Kiran, Manikantan Syamala; Mandal, Asit Baran

    2015-11-07

    In recent years, several fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl (Fmoc)-functionalized amino acids and peptides have been used to construct hydrogels, which find a wide range of applications. Although several hydrogels have been prepared from mono Fmoc-functionalized amino acids, herein, we demonstrate the importance of an additional Fmoc-moiety in the hydrogelation of double Fmoc-functionalized L-lysine [Fmoc(Nα)-L-lysine(NεFmoc)-OH, (Fmoc-K(Fmoc))] as a low molecular weight gelator (LMWG). Unlike other Fmoc-functionalized amino acid gelators, Fmoc-K(Fmoc) exhibits pH-controlled ambidextrous gelation (hydrogelation at different pH values as well as organogelation), which is significant among the gelators. Distinct fibrous morphologies were observed for Fmoc-K(Fmoc) hydrogels formed at different pH values, which are different from organogels in which Fmoc-K(Fmoc) showed bundles of long fibers. In both hydrogels and organogels, the self-assembly of Fmoc-K(Fmoc) was driven by aromatic π-π stacking and hydrogen bonding interactions, as evidenced from spectroscopic analyses. Characterization of Fmoc-K(Fmoc) gels using several biophysical methods indicates that Fmoc-K(Fmoc) has several advantages and significant importance as a LMWG. The advantages of Fmoc-K(Fmoc) include pH-controlled ambidextrous gelation, pH stimulus response, high thermal stability (∼100 °C) even at low minimum hydrogelation concentration (0.1 wt%), thixotropic property, high kinetic and mechanical stability, dye removal properties, cell viability to the selected cell type, and as a drug carrier. While single Fmoc-functionalized L-lysine amino acids failed to exhibit gelation under similar experimental conditions, the pH-controlled ambidextrous gelation of Fmoc-K(Fmoc) demonstrates the benefit of a second Fmoc moiety in inducing gelation in a LMWG. We thus strongly believe that the current findings provide a lead to construct or design various new synthetic Fmoc-based LMW organic gelators for several

  5. Experimental study on agitated drying characteristics of sewage sludge under the effects of different additive agents.

    PubMed

    Deng, Wenyi; Su, Yaxin

    2014-07-01

    Drying experiments of dewatered sewage sludge (DSS) were conducted on a agitated paddle dryer, and the effects of additive agents, i.e., CaO, pulverized coal (PC), heavy oil (HO), and dried sludge ("DS" through back mixing) on the agitated drying characteristics of DSS were investigated. The results indicated that CaO can significantly increase the drying rate of DSS. The drying rate at CaO/DSS (mass ratio)=1/100 was 135% higher than that of CaO/DSS=0. Pulverized coal has no obvious effect on drying rate, but the increase of PC/DSS can promote breaking up of sludge lump. Heavy oil was found to be slightly effective in improving the drying rate of DSS in the examined experimental range of HO/DSS=0-1/20. It is also found that HO can reduce the torque of the dryer shaft, due to its lubrication effect. Back mixing of DS was found to be effective in alleviating the unfavorable effect of the lumpy phase by improving the mixing effect of the paddle dryer. There was a marked increase of drying rate with an increase of the DS/DSS in the experimental range of DS/DSS=0-1/3.

  6. The effect of the addition of different fibres on the transverse and impact strength of acrylic resin denture base material.

    PubMed

    Rahamneh, A; Jagger, D C; Harrison, A

    2003-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of the addition of different types of fibres on the transverse and impact strength of acrylic resin denture base material. The addition of glass fibres (strand) and polyethylene fibres produced a non significant increase in the modulus of elasticity, compared with the control of conventional heat-cured acrylic resin. The addition of glass fibres (woven and strand), polyethylene and carbon fibres to acrylic resin produced a non significant increase in the modulus of rupture. The addition of carbon, glass (strand) and polyethylene fibres produced a significant increase in the impact strength. Within the limitations of this study the addition of silk fibres did not produce an improvement in the mechanical properties.

  7. Additive Effects of Nicotine and High-Fat Diet on Hepatic Steatosis in Male Mice

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Theodore C.; Sinha-Hikim, Indrani; Parveen, Meher; Najjar, Sonia M.; Liu, Yanjun; Mangubat, Michael; Shin, Chang-Sung; Lyzlov, Alexei; Ivey, Rasheed; Shaheen, Magda; French, Samuel W.

    2012-01-01

    Smoking is a major risk factor for diabetes and cardiovascular disease and may contribute to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. We hypothesize that in the presence of nicotine, high-fat diet (HFD) causes more severe hepatic steatosis in obese mice. Adult C57BL6 male mice were fed a normal chow diet or HFD and received twice daily injections of nicotine (0.75 mg/kg body weight, ip) or saline for 10 wk. Light microscopic image analysis revealed significantly higher lipid accumulation in livers from mice on HFD plus nicotine (190 ± 19 μm2), compared with mice on HFD alone (28 ± 1.2 μm2). A significant reduction in the percent volume of endoplasmic reticulum (67.8%) and glycogen (49.2%) was also noted in hepatocytes from mice on HFD plus nicotine, compared with mice on HFD alone. The additive effects of nicotine on the severity of HFD-induced hepatic steatosis was associated with significantly greater oxidative stress, increased hepatic triglyceride levels, higher incidence of hepatocellular apoptosis, inactivation (dephosphorylation) of AMP-activated protein kinase, and activation of its downstream target acetyl-coenzyme A-carboxylase. Treatment with acipimox, an inhibitor of lipolysis, significantly reduced nicotine plus HFD-induced hepatic lipid accumulation. We conclude that: 1) greater oxidative stress coupled with inactivation of AMP-activated protein kinase mediate the additive effects of nicotine and HFD on hepatic steatosis in obese mice and 2) increased lipolysis is an important contributor to hepatic steatosis. We surmise that nicotine exposure is likely to exacerbate the metabolic abnormalities induced by high-fat intake in obese patients. PMID:23093702

  8. The effect of additional etching and curing mechanism of composite resin on the dentin bond strength

    PubMed Central

    Lee, In-Su; Son, Sung-Ae; Hur, Bock; Kwon, Yong-Hoon

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of additional acid etching and curing mechanism (light-curing or self-curing) of a composite resin on the dentin bond strength and compatibility of one-step self-etching adhesives. MATERIALS AND METHODS Sixteen human permanent molars were randomly divided into eight groups according to the adhesives used (All-Bond Universal: ABU, Clearfil S3 Bond: CS3), additional acid etching (additional acid etching performed: EO, no additional acid etching performed: EX), and composite resins (Filtek Z-250: Z250, Clearfil FII New Bond: CFNB). Group 1: ABU-EO-Z250, Group 2: ABU-EO-CFNB, Group 3: ABU-EX-Z250, Group 4: ABU-EX-CFNB, Group 5: CS3-EO-Z250, Group 6: CS3-EO-CFNB, Group 7: CS3-EX-Z250, Group 8: CS3-EX-CFNB. After bonding procedures, composite resins were built up on dentin surfaces. After 24-hour water storage, the teeth were sectioned to make 10 specimens for each group. The microtensile bond strength test was performed using a microtensile testing machine. The failure mode of the fractured specimens was examined by means of an optical microscope at ×20 magnification. The data was analyzed using a one-way ANOVA and Scheffe's post-hoc test (α=.05). RESULTS Additional etching groups showed significantly higher values than the no additional etching group when using All-Bond Universal. The light-cured composite resin groups showed significantly higher values than the self-cured composite resin groups in the Clearfil S3 Bond. CONCLUSION The additional acid etching is beneficial for the dentin bond strength when using low acidic one-step self-etch adhesives, and low acidic one-step self-etch adhesives are compatible with self-cured composite resin. The acidity of the one-step self-etch adhesives is an influencing factor in terms of the dentin bonding strength and incompatibility with a self-cured composite resin. PMID:24353889

  9. Cost and effectiveness of an eye care adherence program for Philadelphia children with significant visual impairment.

    PubMed

    Pizzi, Laura T; Snitzer, Melanie; Amos, Tony; Prioli, Katherine M; Steele, Deon; Levin, Alex V

    2015-06-01

    The follow-up rate among children with vision problems in the authors' outreach programs has been <5%. The authors therefore developed a social worker (SW) intervention, the Children's Eye Care Adherence Program (CECAP), for Philadelphia school children. The objective of this study was to measure CECAP's effectiveness and cost, as well as to identify barriers to care through a conceptual framework and geomapping software. A SW reviewed records to identify children needing follow-up and phoned families to identify and resolve barriers to eye care and scheduled appointments. Effectiveness was defined as the percent completing ≥ 1 follow-up visit within the physician-recommended time frame. Cost was measured for SW time (SW wage rates+benefits) and additional materials (forms, postage, phone charges). Barriers were organized into a conceptual framework depicting predisposing factors, system factors, and financial factors. Geomapping software was used to illustrate follow-up rates. In all, 120 patients required additional pediatric ophthalmic care; 71 patients were contacted and returned for care (59.2%); 49 patients were contacted but did not return (40.8%). SW time was 3h rs/patient for those who returned and 2 hrs/patient for those who did not return. Based on the CECAP program total cost ($14,249) and the reimbursement payment ($6265.66), the net cost of the CECAP program was $7983.59. Predisposing factors were the primary barrier theme for patients who did not follow up. CECAP significantly improved adherence to eye care but comes at an additional cost. Future efforts should focus on reducing operational efficiencies and targeting CECAP based on predictors of follow-up.

  10. Effects of feed additives on rumen and blood profiles during a starch and fructose challenge.

    PubMed

    Golder, H M; Celi, P; Rabiee, A R; Lean, I J

    2014-02-01

    We evaluated the effect of feed additives on the risk of ruminal acidosis in Holstein heifers (n = 40) fed starch and fructose in a challenge study. Heifers were randomly allocated to feed additive groups (n = 8 heifers/group): (1) control (no additives); (2) virginiamycin (VM); (3) monensin + tylosin (MT); (4) monensin + live yeast (MLY); and (5) sodium bicarbonate + magnesium oxide (BUF). Heifers were fed 2.5% of body weight (BW) dry matter intake (DMI) per day of a total mixed ration (62:38 forage:concentrate) and feed additives for a 20-d adaptation period. Fructose (0.1% of BW/d) was included for the last 10d of the adaptation period. On d 21, heifers were fed to target a DMI of 1.0% of BW of wheat, fructose at 0.2% of BW, and their feed additives. Rumen fluid samples obtained by stomach tube and blood samples were collected weekly as well as during a 3.6-h period on challenge day (d 21). Virginiamycin and BUF groups maintained a consistently high DMI across the 20-d adaptation period. The MLY heifers had low DMI of the challenge ration. Average daily gain and feed conversion ratio were not affected by feed additives. All rumen and plasma measures changed weekly over adaptation and over the challenge sampling period with the exception of rumen total lactate and histamine concentrations, plasma oxidative stress index, and ceruloplasmin. Substantial within- and between-group variation was observed in rumen and plasma profiles at challenge sampling. No significant group changes were observed in rumen total volatile fatty acids, propionate, acetate-to-propionate ratio, isobutyrate, caproate, isovalerate, total lactate, d- and l-lactate, and pH measures on challenge day. Acetate concentration was increased in the BUF and control groups on challenge day. Butyrate concentration was lower in the MLY and MT groups compared with other groups at challenge. Valerate concentrations were lowest in the control, VM, and BUF groups and lactate concentrations were numerically

  11. Effect of alcohol addition on the movement of petroleum hydrocarbon fuels in soil.

    PubMed

    Adam, Gillian; Gamoh, Keiji; Morris, David G; Duncan, Harry

    2002-03-08

    Groundwater contamination by fuel spills from aboveground and underground storage tanks has been of growing concern in recent years. This problem has been magnified by the addition of oxygenates, such as ethanol and methyl-tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) to fuels to reduce vehicular emissions to the atmosphere. These additives, although beneficial in reducing atmospheric pollution, may, however, increase groundwater contamination due to the co-solvency of petroleum hydrocarbons and by the provision of a preferential substrate for microbial utilisation. With the introduction of ethanol to diesel fuel imminent and the move away from MTBE use in many states of the USA, the environmental implications associated with ethanol additive fuels must be thoroughly investigated. Diesel fuel movement was followed in a 1-m soil column and the effect of ethanol addition to diesel fuel on this movement determined. The addition of 5% ethanol to diesel fuel was found to enhance the downward migration of the diesel fuel components, thus increasing the risk of groundwater contamination. A novel method using soil packed HPLC columns allowed the influence of ethanol on individual aromatic hydrocarbon movement to be studied. The levels of ethanol addition investigated were at the current additive level (approx. 25%) for ethanol additive fuels in Brazil and values above (50%) and below (10%) this level. An aqueous ethanol concentration above 10% was required for any movement to occur. At 25% aqueous ethanol, the majority of hydrocarbons were mobilised and the retention behaviour of the soil column lessened. At 50% aqueous ethanol, all the hydrocarbons were found to move unimpeded through the columns. The retention behaviour of the soil was found to change significantly when both organic matter content and silt/clay content was reduced. Unexpectedly, sandy soil with low organic matter and low silt/clay was found to have a retentive behaviour similar to sandy subsoil with moderate silt

  12. Experimental investigation of the effect of HBr additions on the lasing characteristics of a CuBr laser

    SciTech Connect

    Shiyanov, D V; Sukhanov, V B; Andrienko, Oleg S; Evtushenko, Gennadii S

    2004-07-31

    It was experimentally determined that introducing small additions of HBr into the active elements of a CuBr laser is similar to the addition of hydrogen and significantly improves the output laser parameters. The effect of additions to small-volume active elements is most pronounced (up to a five-fold increase in output power) and is less pronounced in large-volume active elements (up to a twofold increase). A special-purpose HBr generator was elaborated, making it possible to promptly provide the requisite concentration of the active addition in a sealed-off active element. (lasers, active media)

  13. The effect of oxidant addition on ferrous iron removal from multi-element acidic sulphate solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mbedzi, Ndishavhelafhi; Ibana, Don; Dyer, Laurence; Browner, Richard

    2017-01-01

    This study was an investigation on the hydrolytic precipitation of iron from simulated pregnant leach solution (PLS) of nickel laterite atmospheric leaching. The effect of equilibrium pH, temperature and the addition of oxidant on total iron (ferrous (Fe (II)) and ferric (Fe (III)), aluminium and chromium removal was investigated together with the associated nickel and cobalt losses to the precipitate. Systematic variations of the experimental variables revealed ≥99% of the ferric iron can be removed from solution at conditions similar to those used in standard partial neutralisation in zinc and nickel production, pH of 2.5 and temperature less than 100 °C with minimal losses (<0.5%) of both nickel and cobalt. Temperature variation from 55 to 90 °C had no significant effect on the magnitude of Fe (III) precipitation but led to a significant increase in aluminium removal from 67% to 95% and improved the filterability of the precipitates. There was no ferrous iron precipitation even at a pH of 3.75 in the absence of an oxidant with its removal (98%) achieved by oxidative precipitation with oxygen gas at pH 3.5. Unlike Fe (III) precipitation, the operating temperature significantly affects oxidative precipitation of Fe (II). Hence, in practical application, the hydrolytic precipitation and oxidation to remove iron must be operated at 85 °C to ensure both ferrous and ferric iron are precipitated.

  14. Additive and non-additive effects of simulated leaf and inflorescence damage on survival, growth and reproduction of the perennial herb Arabidopsis lyrata.

    PubMed

    Puentes, Adriana; Ågren, Jon

    2012-08-01

    Herbivores may damage both leaves and reproductive structures, and although such combined damage may affect plant fitness non-additively, this has received little attention. We conducted a 2-year field experiment with a factorial design to examine the effects of simulated leaf (0, 12.5, 25, or 50% of leaf area removed) and inflorescence damage (0 vs. 50% of inflorescences removed) on survival, growth and reproduction in the perennial herb Arabidopsis lyrata. Leaf and inflorescence damage negatively and independently reduced flower, fruit and seed production in the year of damage; leaf damage also reduced rosette size by the end of the first season and flower production in the second year. Leaf damage alone reduced the proportion of flowers forming a fruit and fruit production per plant the second year, but when combined with inflorescence damage no such effect was observed (significant leaf × inflorescence damage interaction). Damage to leaves (sources) caused a greater reduction in future reproduction than did simultaneous damage to leaves and inflorescences (sinks). This demonstrates that a full understanding of the effects of herbivore damage on plant fitness requires that consequences of damage to vegetative and reproductive structures are evaluated over more than 1 year and that non-additive effects are considered.

  15. Significant Effect of Valproate Augmentation Therapy in Patients With Schizophrenia: A Meta-analysis Study.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Ping-Tao; Chen, Yen-Wen; Chung, Weilun; Tu, Kun-Yu; Wang, Hung-Yu; Wu, Ching-Kuan; Lin, Pao-Yen

    2016-01-01

    Valproate is an anticonvulsant, which is also widely used for treating psychiatric disorders. Some clinical trials have demonstrated benefits of valproate augmentation therapy in schizophrenia. Previous meta-analysis showed inconsistent findings because of limited literature at that time. The aim of this study is to update the newer published data by conducting a meta-analysis of clinical efficacy of valproate augmentation therapy in patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Data sources include electronic research through platform of PubMed. Study eligibility criteria, participants, and interventions were as follows: the inclusion criteria included articles discussing comparisons of the treatment effect in schizophrenic patients treated with antipsychotic augmented with valproate and antipsychotics with/without placebo; articles on clinical trials in humans. The exclusion criteria were case reports or series and nonclinical trials. We compared the effect between antipsychotic treatment with valproate augmentation and antipsychotic monotherapy. Data from clinical trials were pooled by random-effects model, and possible confounding variables were examined through meta-regression and subgroup analysis. Data from 11 articles including 889 patients were included into current meta-analysis. We found patients treated with antipsychotics with valproate augmentation showed significantly more improvement in total psychopathology than those treated with antipsychotics only (P = 0.02). Results from open trials, but not from randomized controlled trials (P = 0.20), showed significant improvement (P = 0.01). In addition, the significance only persisted in the studies conducted with a shorter treatment duration (P < 0.001) rather than longer treatment duration (P = 0.23). There is no difference in the dropout rate between valproate augmentation and antipsychotic treatment only (P = 0.14). We could not perform a detailed meta-analysis for

  16. Impact of Zn, Mg, Ni and Co elements on glass alteration: Additive effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aréna, H.; Godon, N.; Rébiscoul, D.; Podor, R.; Garcès, E.; Cabie, M.; Mestre, J.-P.

    2016-03-01

    The minor elements present in the nuclear glass composition or coming from the groundwater of the future repository may impact glass alteration. In this study, the effects of Zn, Mg, Ni and Co on the International Simple Glass (ISG) alteration were studied throughout 511 days of aqueous leaching experiments. The aim was to determine their additive or competitive effect on glass alteration and the nature of the alteration products. The four elements were introduced separately or altogether in solution as XCl2 chloride salts (X = Zn, Mg, Ni or Co) with monthly additions to compensate for their consumption. The alteration kinetics were determined by leachate analyses (ICP-AES) and alteration products were characterized in terms of composition, morphology and microstructure (SEM, TEM-EDX, ToF-SIMS and XRD). Results indicate that when they are introduced separately, Zn, Mg, Ni and Co have the same qualitative and quantitative effect on glass alteration kinetics and on pH: they form secondary phases leading to a pH decrease and a significant increase in glass alteration. The secondary phases were identified as silicates of the added X element: trioctahedral smectites with a stoichiometry of[(Si(4-a) Ala) (X(3-b) Alb) O10 (OH)2](a+b)- [Xc Nad Cae] (2c+d+2e) + with a = 0.11 to 0.45, b = 0.00 to 0.29, c = 0, d = 0.19 to 0.74 and e = 0.10 to 0.14. . It was shown that as pH stabilizes at a minimum value, X-silicates no longer precipitate, thus leading to a significant drop in the glass alteration rate. This pH value depends on X and it has been identified as being 8 for Mg-silicates, probably around 7.3 for Ni and Co-silicates and less than 6.2 for Zn-silicates. When tested together, the effects of these four elements on glass alteration are additive and lead to the formation of a mix of X-silicates that precipitate as long as their constitutive elements are available and the pH is above their respective minimum value. This study brings new quantitative information about the

  17. The Effect of the Addition of Encapsulated Collagen Hydrolysate on Some Quality Characteristics of Sucuk

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The effect of addition commercial fish collagen hydrolysate and encapsulated fish collagen hydrolysate on the quality characteristics of sucuk (a traditional Turkish dry-fermented sausage) was investigated. Fish collagen hydrolysates were encapsulated with maltodextrin (MD) which has two different dextrose equivalent (12DE and 19 DE), with two different types of core/coating material ratios (10% peptide : 90% MD, 20% peptide : 80% MD). Than six group of sucuk dough (control, peptide, MD1210, MD1220, MD1910, MD1920) prepared and naturally fermented. The effects of the ripening period (28 d), treatment (peptide and encapsulated peptide addition) ‘ripening period × treatment’ interaction on sucuk’s pH, lactic acid contents, aw values and moisture contents were statistically significant (p<0.01). The pH, moisture and aw decrease and lactic acid concentration increses during ripening period. The highest pH was observed with peptide added group (5.41), and encapsulated peptide added groups (4.76-4.77) were lower than the control group (5.26). Lactic acid concentration was affected from treatment and all treatment groups lactic acid concentration (0.185-0.190%) were higher than the control group (0.164%). Antioxidant and Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition activities of water soluble protein extracts were significantly (p<0.01) increased during ripening time. Antioxidant activity reached the highest level at 28th d. There was no significant increase observed after fermentation for both activities. Antioxidant activity of encapsulated peptide added (%39.56-40.48) groups were higher than control (34.28%) and peptide added (33.99%) groups except MD1920 (38.30%). The effect of the ripening period of the sucuk samples on TBA values was found to be statistically significant (p<0.01) while treatment and ‘ripening period × treatment’ interaction were not to be significant (p<0.05). The value of hardness was the highest in the encapsulated peptide added groups (29

  18. Effects of methanol-containing additive on emission characteristics from a heavy-duty diesel engine.

    PubMed

    Chao, M R; Lin, T C; Chao, H R; Chang, F H; Chen, C B

    2001-11-12

    This study was aimed to investigate the effect of methanol-containing additive (MCA) on the regulated emissions of hydrocarbons (HC), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), particulate matter (PM), as well as the unregulated carbon dioxide (CO2) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from a diesel engine. The engine was tested on a series of diesel fuels blended with five additive levels (0, 5, 8, 10 and 15% of MCA by volume). Emissions tests were performed under both cold- and hot-start transient heavy-duty federal test procedure (HD-FTP) cycles and two selected steady-state modes. Results show that MCA addition slightly decreases PM emissions but generally increases both THC and CO emissions. Decrease in NOx emissions was found common in all MCA blends. As for unregulated emissions, CO2 emissions did not change significantly for all MCA blends, while vapor-phase and particle-associated PAHs emissions in high load and transient cycle tests were relatively low compared to the base diesel when either 5 or 8% MCA was used. This may be attributed to the lower PAHs levels in MCA blends. Finally, the particle-associated PAHs emissions also showed trends quite similar to that of the PM emissions in this study.

  19. Magnetic Force Microscopy Study of Zr2Co11 -Based Nanocrystalline Materials: Effect of Mo Addition

    DOE PAGES

    Yue, Lanping; Jin, Yunlong; Zhang, Wenyong; ...

    2015-01-01

    Tmore » he addition of Molybdenum was used to modify the nanostructure and enhance coercivity of rare-earth-free Zr2Co11-based nanocrystalline permanent magnets. he effect of Mo addition on magnetic domain structures of melt spun nanocrystalline Zr16Co84-xMox(x=0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2.0) ribbons has been investigated. It was found that magnetic properties and local domain structures are strongly influenced by Mo doping. he coercivity of the samples increases with the increase in Mo content (x≤1.5). he maximum energy product(BH)maxincreases with increasingxfrom 0.5 MGOe forx=0to a maximum value of 4.2 MGOe forx=1.5. he smallest domain size with a relatively short magnetic correlation length of 128 nm and largest root-mean-square phase shiftΦrmsvalue of 0.66° are observed for thex=1.5. he optimal Mo addition promotes magnetic domain structure refinement and thus leads to a significant increase in coercivity and energy product in this sample.« less

  20. Effect of additives on the properties of polyaniline nanofibers prepared by high gravity chemical oxidative polymerization.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yibo; Arowo, Moses; Wu, Wei; Chen, Jianfeng

    2015-05-12

    Polyaniline (PANI) nanofibers with improved properties were prepared by high gravity chemical oxidative polymerization in a rotating packed bed with the assistance of p-aminodiphenylamine (AD) and p-phenylenediamine (AP). The effects of reactor type, additive dosage, reaction temperature, and high-gravity level on the properties of products were investigated in detail. Three conclusions were made: (1) a small amount of additive can significantly improve some properties of the nanofibers such as uniformity, specific surface area, and specific capacitance; (2) in order to obtain high-quality nanofibers, the high-gravity level should coordinate with the reaction rate; (3) the molecular weight and conductivity of PANI decrease with the increase of additive dosage. The products have larger specific surface areas of up to 73.9 and 68.4 m(2)/g and consequently improved specific capacitance of up to 527.5 and 552 F/g for the PANI nanofibers prepared with AD and AP, respectively. However, the specific surface area and specific capacitance of pure PANI are only 49.1 m(2)/g and 333.3 F/g, respectively. This research provides a simple, reliable, and scalable method to produce PANI nanofibers of high performances.

  1. Effects of protein and peptide addition on lipid oxidation in powder model system.

    PubMed

    Park, Eun Young; Murakami, Hiroshi; Mori, Tomohiko; Matsumura, Yasuki

    2005-01-12

    The effect of protein and peptide addition on the oxidation of eicosapentaenoic acid ethyl ester (EPE) encapsulated by maltodextrin (MD) was investigated. The encapsulated lipid (powder lipid) was prepared in two steps, i.e., mixing of EPE with MD solutions (+/- protein and peptides) to produce emulsions and freeze-drying of the resultant emulsions. EPE oxidation in MD powder progressed more rapidly in the humid state [relative humidity (RH) = 70%] than in the dry state (RH = 10%). The addition of soy protein, soy peptide, and gelatin peptides improved the oxidation stability of EPE encapsulated by MD, and the inhibition of lipid oxidation by the protein and the peptides was more dramatic in the humid state. Especially, the oxidation of EPE was almost perfectly suppressed when the lipid was encapsulated with MD + soy peptide during storage in the humid state for 7 days. Several physical properties such as the lipid particle size of the emulsions, the fraction of nonencapsulated lipids, scanning electron microscopy images of powder lipids, and the mobility of the MD matrix were investigated to find the modification of encapsulation behavior by the addition of the protein and peptides, but no significant change was observed. On the other hand, the protein and peptides exhibited a strong radical scavenging activity in the powder systems as well as in the solution systems. These results suggest that a chemical mechanism such as radical scavenging ability plays an important role in the suppression of EPE oxidation in MD powder by soy proteins, soy peptides, and gelatin peptides.

  2. Oil-Soluble Polymer Brush Grafted Nanoparticles as Effective Lubricant Additives for Friction and Wear Reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, Roger A. E.; Wang, Kewei; Qu, Jun; Zhao, Bin

    2016-06-06

    Developments of high performance lubricants are driven by increasingly growing industrial demands and environmental concerns. We demonstrate oil-soluble polymer brush-grafted inorganic nanoparticles (hairy NPs) as highly effective lubricant additives for friction and wear reduction. A series of oil-miscible poly(lauryl methacrylate) brush-grafted silica and titania NPs were synthesized by surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization. Moreover, these hairy NPs showed exceptional stability in poly(alphaolefin) (PAO) base oil; no change in transparency was observed after being kept at -20, 22, and 100°C for ≥55 days. High-contact stress ball-on-flat reciprocating sliding tribological tests at 100°C showed that addition of 1 wt% of hairy NPs into PAO led to significant reductions in coefficient of friction (up to ≈40%) and wear volume (up to ≈90%). The excellent lubricating properties of hairy NPs were further elucidated by the characterization of the tribofilm formed on the flat. These hairy NPs represent a new type of lubricating oil additives with high efficiency in friction and wear reduction.

  3. Oil-Soluble Polymer Brush Grafted Nanoparticles as Effective Lubricant Additives for Friction and Wear Reduction

    DOE PAGES

    Wright, Roger A. E.; Wang, Kewei; Qu, Jun; ...

    2016-06-06

    Developments of high performance lubricants are driven by increasingly growing industrial demands and environmental concerns. We demonstrate oil-soluble polymer brush-grafted inorganic nanoparticles (hairy NPs) as highly effective lubricant additives for friction and wear reduction. A series of oil-miscible poly(lauryl methacrylate) brush-grafted silica and titania NPs were synthesized by surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization. Moreover, these hairy NPs showed exceptional stability in poly(alphaolefin) (PAO) base oil; no change in transparency was observed after being kept at -20, 22, and 100°C for ≥55 days. High-contact stress ball-on-flat reciprocating sliding tribological tests at 100°C showed that addition of 1 wt% of hairy NPsmore » into PAO led to significant reductions in coefficient of friction (up to ≈40%) and wear volume (up to ≈90%). The excellent lubricating properties of hairy NPs were further elucidated by the characterization of the tribofilm formed on the flat. These hairy NPs represent a new type of lubricating oil additives with high efficiency in friction and wear reduction.« less

  4. Oil-Soluble Polymer Brush Grafted Nanoparticles as Effective Lubricant Additives for Friction and Wear Reduction.

    PubMed

    Wright, Roger A E; Wang, Kewei; Qu, Jun; Zhao, Bin

    2016-07-18

    The development of high performance lubricants has been driven by increasingly growing industrial demands and environmental concerns. Herein, we demonstrate oil-soluble polymer brush-grafted inorganic nanoparticles (hairy NPs) as highly effective lubricant additives for friction and wear reduction. A series of oil-miscible poly(lauryl methacrylate) brush-grafted silica and titania NPs were synthesized by surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization. These hairy NPs showed exceptional stability in poly(alphaolefin) (PAO) base oil; no change in transparency was observed after being kept at -20, 22, and 100 °C for ≥55 days. High-contact stress ball-on-flat reciprocating sliding tribological tests at 100 °C showed that addition of 1 wt % of hairy NPs into PAO led to significant reductions in coefficient of friction (up to ≈40 %) and wear volume (up to ≈90 %). The excellent lubricating properties of hairy NPs were further elucidated by the characterization of the tribofilm formed on the flat. These hairy NPs represent a new type of lubricating oil additives with high efficiency in friction and wear reduction.

  5. How a patent ductus arteriosus effects the premature lamb's ability to handle additional volume loads.

    PubMed

    Clyman, R I; Roman, C; Heymann, M A; Mauray, F

    1987-11-01

    A model of patent ductus arteriosus in premature lambs was created to examine the lamb's ability to handle the volume load imposed by a patent ductus arteriosus and to determine the lamb's ability to handle any additional volume load. Fifteen preterm lambs [133 +/- 2 (+/- SD) days gestation, term 145 days], whose ductal diameter could be regulated with a mechanical occluder, were studied to determine the independent effects of ductus patency and a saline volume load (50 ml/kg over 3 min) on left ventricular output and its distribution. During a saline infusion, preterm lambs with a closed ductus could only increase their stroke volume by 40% above baseline stroke volume. When challenged with a saline infusion, lambs with an open ductus still were able to increase their stroke volume significantly; the maximal increase in stroke volume during the saline load with the ductus open was 70% above baseline stroke volume. We hypothesize that the associated reduced left ventricular afterload plays a significant role in the preterm lamb's ability to increase its stroke volume when challenged with a patent ductus arteriosus. Even with a patent ductus arteriosus, the lamb still has the ability to handle additional volume loads.

  6. Effect of alloy additions on wear resistance of nickel based hardfacing

    SciTech Connect

    Su, Y.L.; Chen, K.Y.

    1997-03-01

    The purpose of this research is to study the influence of the microstructure and hardness of the nickel based hardfacing alloy on wear resistance of deposit layers when different alloy elements are added. Different deposit layers were obtained by SMAW in which AWS RNiCr bare electrodes were coated by fluxes, to which different measures of ferro-niobium, ferro-chromium, and carbon had been added. The result of the experiment showed that when subject to abrasive wear, if the abrasive particles were silicon carbide, the increase of the volume fraction of the hard phase had only a slight effect on improving the wear resistance of the deposit layers. On adhesive wear, the niobium added specimens formed some spherical niobium carbide particles in the matrix of the deposit layer which reduced the friction coefficient of the specimens. The addition of carbon and chromium can enhance macrohardness and wear resistance of the welding deposit significantly. This same addition will also aid wear resistance by forming a continuous phase in the microstructure of the deposit metal. While there was no significant difference between the macrohardnesses of the metals, the form of this precipitate in the deposit metals was actually the most important factor in their wear resistance.

  7. Effect of reduction of strategic Columbium addition in 718 Alloy on the structure and properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ziegler, K. R.; Wallace, J. F.

    1985-01-01

    A series of alloys was developed having a base composition similar to Inconel 718, with reduced Cb levels of 3.00 and 1.10 wt% Cb. Substitutions of 3.0% W, 3.0W + 0.9V or Mo increased from 3.0% to 5.8% were made for the Cb in these alloys. Two additional alloys, one containing 3.49% Cb and 1.10% Ti and another containing 3.89% Cb and 1.29% Ti were also studied. Tensile properties at rooom and elevated temperatures, stress-rupture tests, and an analysis of extracted phases were carried out for each of the alloys. Additions of solid solution elements to a reduced Cb alloy had no significant effect on the properties of the alloys under either process condition. The solution and age alloys with substitutions of 1.27% i at 3.89% Cb had tensile properties similar top hose of the original alloy and stress-rupture properties superior to the original alloy. The improved stress-rupture properties were the result of significant precipitation of Ni3Ti-gamma prime in the alloy, which is more stable than gamma' at the elevated temperatures. At lower temperatures, the new alloy benefits from gamma' strengthening. With more precise control and proper processing, the reduced Cb direct-age alloy could substitute for Alloy 718 in high strength applications.

  8. Effect of Crumb Rubber and Warm Mix Additives on Asphalt Aging, Rheological, and Failure Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrawal, Prashant

    Asphalt-rubber mixtures have been shown to have useful properties with respect to distresses observed in asphalt concrete pavements. The most notable change in properties is a large increase in viscosity and improved low-temperature cracking resistance. Warm mix additives can lower production and compaction temperatures. Lower temperatures reduce harmful emissions and lower energy consumption, and thus provide environmental benefits and cut costs. In this study, the effects of crumb rubber modification on various asphalts such as California Valley, Boscan, Alaska North Slope, Laguna and Cold Lake were also studied. The materials used for warm mix modification were obtained from various commercial sources. The RAF binder was produced by Imperial Oil in their Nanticoke, Ontario, refinery on Lake Erie. A second commercial PG 52-34 (hereafter denoted as NER) was obtained/sampled during the construction of a northern Ontario MTO contract. Some regular tests such as Dynamic Shear Rheometer (DSR) and Bending Beam Rheometer (BBR), Multiple Stress Creep Recovery (MSCR) and some modified new protocols such as the extended BBR test (LS-308) and the Double-Edge Notched Tension (DENT) test (LS-299) are used to study, the effect of warm mix and a host of other additives on rheological, aging and failure properties. A comparison in the properties of RAF and NER asphalts has also been made as RAF is good quality asphalt and NER is bad quality asphalt. From the studies the effect of additives on chemical and physical hardening tendencies was found to be significant. The asphalt samples tested in this study showed a range of tendencies for chemical and physical hardening.

  9. Additive Effect of rPb27 Immunization and Chemotherapy in Experimental Paracoccidioidomycosis

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Viviane C.; Martins, Estefânia M. N.; Boeloni, Jankerle N.; Coitinho, Juliana B.; Serakides, Rogéria; Goes, Alfredo M.

    2011-01-01

    Paracoccidioidomycosis, PCM, the major systemic mycosis in Latin America, is caused by the termally dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and requires extended periods of chemotherapy with a significant frequency of relapsing disease. The search for new alternatives of treatment is necessary. rPb27 is an antigenic protein from P. brasiliensis that already showed a significant protective activity as a vaccine for PCM in experimental models. The cDNA of rPb27 was subcloned into a pET-DEST 42 plasmid, expressed in E. coli with a his-tag and purified by affinity chromatography. Immunization with this recombinant protein and chemotherapy were used together in an attempt to improve treatment of PCM. For this, BALB/c mice were challenged with pathogenic P. brasiliensis strain and after immunized with rPb27, in the presence of Corynebacterium parvum and Al(OH)3, some groups were also treated with fluconazole. After 40 days of treatment, the combined drug/rPb27 administration controlled PCM in the liver and spleen, with long lasting protection, and largely preserved tissues structures of these organs. Additionally, in the lungs after 40 days of treatment there was a significant reduction in the fungal load and size of lesions. At the same time, the levels of TNF-α were higher than infected-only mice. Moreover, significant levels of anti-rPb27 specific IgG1, IgG2a and IgG2b isotypes were detected in the sera of mice immunized with rPb27 fluconazole treated or not. These results showed an additive protective effect of rPb27 immunization and chemotherapy, suggesting that an rPb27-based vaccine can be used to enhance PCM antifungal treatment. PMID:21423771

  10. [Additive effect of marihuana and retrovirus in the anergy of natural killer cells in mice].

    PubMed

    Ongrádi, J; Specter, S; Horváth, A; Friedman, H

    1999-01-10

    Among the immunosuppressive effects of marijuana, impairment of natural killer cell activity is significant. HIV also inhibits these cells. Friend leukemia virus complex and its helper component Rowson-Parr virus induce early immunosuppression in mice resembling human AIDS, and late leukemia, providing a small animal AIDS model. Leukemia susceptible BALB/c and resistant C57BL/6 mice were infected with these viruses. At different time points, their natural killer cells separated from spleens were treated with 0 to 10 micrograms/ml tetrahydrocannabinol, subsequently mixed with Yac-1 target cells for 4 and 18 h. The natural killer cell activity in both mouse strains infected by either virus complex or helper virus weakened on days 2 to 4 postinfection, normalized by day 8 and enhanced on days 11 to 14. Natural killer cell activity upon the effect of low concentration (1.0 to 2.5 micrograms/ml) of tetrahydrocannabinol slightly increased in BALB/c, was unaffected in C57BL/6, especially in 18 h assays. In the combined effects of marijuana and retrovirus, damages by marijuana dominated over those of retroviruses. Inhibition or reactive enhancement of natural killer cell activity on the effect of viruses are similar to those of infected but marijuana-free counterparts, but on the level of uninfected cells treated with marijuana. The effects of marijuana and retrovirus are additive resulting in anergy of natural killer cells.

  11. Additive effects of beta-alanine and sodium bicarbonate on upper-body intermittent performance.

    PubMed

    Tobias, Gabriel; Benatti, Fabiana Braga; de Salles Painelli, Vitor; Roschel, Hamilton; Gualano, Bruno; Sale, Craig; Harris, Roger C; Lancha, Antonio Herbert; Artioli, Guilherme Gianinni

    2013-08-01

    We examined the isolated and combined effects of beta-alanine (BA) and sodium bicarbonate (SB) on high-intensity intermittent upper-body performance in judo and jiu-jitsu competitors. 37 athletes were assigned to one of four groups: (1) placebo (PL)+PL; (2) BA+PL; (3) PL+SB or (4) BA+SB. BA or dextrose (placebo) (6.4 g day⁻¹) was ingested for 4 weeks and 500 mg kg⁻¹ BM of SB or calcium carbonate (placebo) was ingested for 7 days during the 4th week. Before and after 4 weeks of supplementation, the athletes completed four 30-s upper-body Wingate tests, separated by 3 min. Blood lactate was determined at rest, immediately after and 5 min after the 4th exercise bout, with perceived exertion reported immediately after the 4th bout. BA and SB alone increased the total work done in +7 and 8 %, respectively. The co-ingestion resulted in an additive effect (+14 %, p < 0.05 vs. BA and SB alone). BA alone significantly improved mean power in the 2nd and 3rd bouts and tended to improve the 4th bout. SB alone significantly improved mean power in the 4th bout and tended to improve in the 2nd and 3rd bouts. BA+SB enhanced mean power in all four bouts. PL+PL did not elicit any alteration on mean and peak power. Post-exercise blood lactate increased with all treatments except with PL+PL. Only BA+SB resulted in lower ratings of perceived exertion (p = 0.05). Chronic BA and SB supplementation alone equally enhanced high-intensity intermittent upper-body performance in well-trained athletes. Combined BA and SB promoted a clear additive ergogenic effect.

  12. Additive effect of linseed oil supplementation on the lipid profiles of older adults

    PubMed Central

    Avelino, Ana Paula A; Oliveira, Gláucia MM; Ferreira, Célia CD; Luiz, Ronir R; Rosa, Glorimar

    2015-01-01

    Background Linseed oil has been investigated as a rich source of n-3 series polyunsaturated fatty acids, which mainly produce a non-atherogenic lipid profile. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of linseed oil supplementation associated with nutritional guidelines on the lipid profiles of older adults, according to the intake of saturated fatty acids (SFA). Methods We conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial with 110 older adults randomized in two groups: placebo and linseed oil. The linseed oil group received supplementation with 3 g of linseed oil. Both groups received nutritional guidance and were supplemented for 90 days with monthly blood collection for biochemical analysis. The dietary intake of saturated fat was subdivided into low (<7% SFA/day of the total energy value) and high consumption groups (>7% SFA/day of the total energy value). Results Low SFA (<7% SFA/day of total energy value) consumption was associated with lower total cholesterol concentrations. However, we observed that the linseed oil group, including older adults who consumed >7% SFA/day, had a greater reduction in total cholesterol than the placebo group (P=0.020). The same was observed for low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (P<0.050), suggesting an additive effect of linseed oil and diet. High-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentrations were increased significantly in only the linseed group, suggesting that the nutritional intervention alone did not improve HDL cholesterol. Conclusion The results suggest that the nutritional intervention was effective, but linseed oil showed notable effects by increasing the HDL cholesterol concentration. In addition, consumption of <7% SFA/day of the total energy value increased the effect of linseed oil, demonstrating the importance of reducing the consumption of saturated fat. PMID:26543357

  13. Modulation of Additive and Interactive Effects in Lexical Decision by Trial History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masson, Michael E. J.; Kliegl, Reinhold

    2013-01-01

    Additive and interactive effects of word frequency, stimulus quality, and semantic priming have been used to test theoretical claims about the cognitive architecture of word-reading processes. Additive effects among these factors have been taken as evidence for discrete-stage models of word reading. We present evidence from linear mixed-model…

  14. Toward a mechanistic understanding of the effect of biochar addition on soil water retention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, S.; Chang, N.; Guo, M.; Imhoff, P. T.

    2014-12-01

    Biochar (BC) is a carbon-rich product produced by thermal degradation of biomass in an oxygen-free environment, whose application to sediment is said to improve water retention. However, BC produced from different feedstocks and pyrolyzed at different temperatures have distinct properties, which may alter water retention in ways difficult to predict a priori. Our goal is to develop a mechanistic understanding of BC addition on water retention by examining the impact of BC from two feedstocks, poultry litter (PL) and hardwood (HW), on the soil-water retention curves (SWRC) of a uniform sand and a sandy loam (SL). For experiments with sand, BC and sand were sieved to the same particle size (~ 0.547 mm) to minimize effects of BC addition on particle size distribution. Experiments with SL contained the same sieved BC. PL and HW bicohars were added at 2 and 7% (w/w), and water retention was measured from 0 to -4.38 × 106 cm-H2O. Both BCs increased porosities for sand and SL, up to 39 and 13% for sand and SL, respectively, with 7% HW BC addition. The primary cause for these increases was the internal porosity of BC particles. While the matric potential for air-entry was unchanged with BC addition, BC amendment increased water retention for sand and SL in the capillary region (0 to -15,000 cm-H2O) by an average of 26 and 33 % for 7% PL and HW BC in sand, respectively, but only 7 and 14 % for 7% PL and HW BC in SL. The most dramatic influence of BC amendment on water retention occurred in the adsorption region (< -15,000 cm-H2O), where water retention increased by a factor of 11 and 22 for 7% PL and HW BC in sand, respectively, but by 140 and 190 % for 7% PL and HW BC in SL, respectively. The impact of BC on water retention in these sediments is explained primarily by the additional surface area and internal porosity of PL and HW BC particles. van Genuchten (VG) models were fitted to the water retention data. For SL where the impact of BC addition on water retention was

  15. The additive effect on suicidality of family history of suicidal behavior and early traumatic experiences.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Castroman, J; Guillaume, S; Olié, E; Jaussent, I; Baca-García, E; Courtet, P

    2015-01-01

    Family history of suicidal behavior and personal history of childhood abuse are reported risk factors for suicide attempts and suicide completion. We aim to quantify the additive effect of family history of suicidal behavior and different subtypes of childhood abuse on suicidal behavior. We examined a sample of 496 suicide attempters, comparing individuals with family history of suicidal behavior and personal history of childhood (physical or sexual) abuse, individuals with family history of suicidal behavior only, individuals with history of early traumatic experiences only, and individuals with none of these two risk factors with regards to suicidal features. An additive effect was found for the age at the first attempt in suicide attempters with both family history of suicidal behavior and either physical or sexual abuse. No significant interactions were found between family history of suicidal behavior and childhood trauma in relation to any characteristics of suicidal behavior. Subjects presenting family history of suicidal behavior and childhood abuse attempt suicide earlier in life than subjects with just one or none of them, particularly if they were sexually abused. Other suicidality indexes were only partially or not associated with this combination of risk factors. A careful assessment of patients with both family history of suicidal behavior and childhood abuse could help to prevent future suicide attempts, particularly in young people.

  16. The effect of accelerated ageing on performance properties of addition type silicone biomaterials.

    PubMed

    Stathi, K; Tarantili, P A; Polyzois, G

    2010-05-01

    The UV-protection provided to addition type silicone elastomers by various colorants, such as conventional dry earth pigments, as well as the so called "functional or reactive" pigments, was investigated. Moreover, the effect of a UV light absorber and a silica filler was also explored. Under the experimental parameters of this work, the exposure of silicone to UV radiation resulted in some changes of the IR absorbance, thermal decomposition after 400 degrees C, T(g) and tensile properties, whereas the storage modulus of samples was not affected. The obtained spectroscopic data, as well as the results of TGA and storage modulus, were interpreted by assuming that chain scission takes place during aging, whereas the improvement of tensile strength allows the hypothesis of a post-curing process, initiated by UV radiation. Therefore, the increase of T(g) could partly be due to the above reason and, furthermore, to the contribution of a rearrangement of chain fragments within the free volume of the elastomeric material. Regarding the evaluation of various coloring agents used in this work, the obtained results show that dry pigments are more sensitive to accelerated ageing conditions in comparison with functional liquid pigments. Moreover, the hydrophobic character of silicone matrix is enhanced, with the addition of this type pigments because of the vinyl functional silanes groups present in their chemical structure. Finally, it should be noted that the incorporation of silica nanofiller did not seem to prevent the silicone elastomer from degradation upon UV irradiation, but showed a significant reinforcing effect.

  17. Effect of PAC addition on immersed ultrafiltration for the treatment of algal-rich water.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Tian, Jiayu; Nan, Jun; Gao, ShanShan; Liang, Heng; Wang, Meilian; Li, Guibai

    2011-02-28

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of powdered activated carbon (PAC) addition on the treatment of algal-rich water by immersed ultrafiltration (UF), in terms of permeate quality and membrane fouling. Experiments were performed with a hollow-fiber polyvinyl chloride ultrafiltration membrane at a laboratory scale, 20-25°C and 10 L/(m(2) h) constant permeate flux. UF could achieve an absolute removal of Microcystis aeruginosa cells, but a poor removal of algogenic organic matter (AOM) released into water, contaminants responsible for severe membrane fouling. The addition of 4 g/L PAC to the immersed UF reactor significantly alleviated the development of trans-membrane pressure and enhanced the removal of dissovled organic carbon (by 10.9±1.7%), UV(254) (by 27.1±1.7%), and microcystins (expressed as MC-LR(eq), by 40.8±4.2%). However, PAC had little effect on the rejection of hydrophilic high molecular weight AOM such as carbohydrates and proteins. It was also identified that PAC reduced the concentrations of carbohydrates and proteins in the reactor due to decreased light intensity, as well as the MC-LR(eq) concentration by PAC adsorption.

  18. Effect of Sn addition on the microstructure and superelasticity in Ti-Nb-Mo-Sn alloys.

    PubMed

    Zhang, D C; Yang, S; Wei, M; Mao, Y F; Tan, C G; Lin, J G

    2012-09-01

    Ti-7.5Nb-4Mo-xSn (x=0-4at%) alloys were developed as the biomedical materials. The effect of the Sn content on the microstructure and superelasticity of the alloys was investigated. It is found that Sn is a strong stabilizer of the β phase, which is effective in suppressing the formation of α″ and ω phases in the alloys. Moreover, the Sn addition has a significant impact on the mechanical properties of the alloys. With the increase of Sn addition, the yield stress of the alloys increase, but their elastic modulus, the fracture strength and the ductility decrease, and the deformation mode of the alloys changes from (322) twining to α″ transformation and then to slip. The Ti-7.5Nb-4Mo-1Sn and Ti-7.5Nb-4Mo-3Sn alloys exhibit a good superelasticity with a high σ(SIM) due to the relatively high athermal ω phases containing or the solution hardening at room temperature. Under the maximum strain of 5%, Ti-7.5Nb-4Mo-3Sn (at%) alloy exhibits higher super elastic stability than that of Ti-7.5Nb-4Mo-1Sn alloy.

  19. Amorphouslike chemical vapor deposited tungsten diffusion barrier for copper metallization and effects of nitrogen addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Kow-Ming; Yeh, Ta-Hsun; Deng, I.-Chung; Shih, Chieh-Wen

    1997-08-01

    In this article, we propose an amorphouslike chemical vapor deposited tungsten (CVD-W) thin film as a diffusion barrier for copper metallization. Experimental results gave no evidence of interdiffusion and structural change for Cu/amorphouslike CVD-W/Si samples annealed up to 675 °C for 30 min in N2. At higher temperatures (700 °C), Cu penetration results in the formation of η''-Cu3Si precipitates at the CVD-W/Si interface. This is due to the crystallization of the amorphouslike CVD-W film above 650 °C, rendering the grain-boundary structure and, hence, fast pathways for Cu diffusion. The Cu/amorphouslike CVD-W/p+n diodes, thus, sustain large increases in reverse leakage current. In addition, the effects of nitrogen addition by using an in situ nitridation on the amorphouslike CVD-W film are also discussed. The effectiveness of the nitrided barrier is attributed to the blocking of the grain boundaries in the tungsten film by nitrogen atoms. This slows down Cu diffusion significantly. Physical and chemical analyses indicate that interfaces in the Cu/WNx/W/Si multilayer maintain their integrity while the annealing is carried out at 750 °C. Moreover, the reverse leakage current densities of Cu/WNx/W/p+n diodes remain at 10-7 A/cm2 after 725 °C annealing.

  20. Effect of a phytogenic feed additive on performance, ovarian morphology, serum lipid parameters and egg sensory quality in laying hen

    PubMed Central

    Saki, Ali Asghar; Aliarabi, Hassan; Hosseini Siyar, Sayed Ali; Salari, Jalal; Hashemi, Mahdi

    2014-01-01

    This present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary inclusion of 4, 8 and 12 g kg-1 phytogenic feed additives mixture on performance, egg quality, ovary parameters, serum biochemical parameters and yolk trimethylamine level in laying hens. The results of experiment have shown that egg weight was increased by supplementation of 12 g kg-1 feed additive whereas egg production, feed intake and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were not significantly affected. There were no significant differences in egg quality parameters by supplementation of phytogenic feed additive, whereas yolk trimethylamine level was decreased as the feed additive level increased. The sensory evaluation parameters did not differ significantly. No significant differences were found in serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels between the treatments but low- and high-density lipoprotein were significantly increased. Number of small follicles and ovary weight were significantly increased by supplementation of 12 g kg-1 feed additive. Overall, dietary supplementation of polyherbal additive increased egg weigh, improved ovary characteristics and declined yolk trimethylamine level. PMID:25610580

  1. Effect of a phytogenic feed additive on performance, ovarian morphology, serum lipid parameters and egg sensory quality in laying hen.

    PubMed

    Saki, Ali Asghar; Aliarabi, Hassan; Hosseini Siyar, Sayed Ali; Salari, Jalal; Hashemi, Mahdi

    2014-01-01

    This present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary inclusion of 4, 8 and 12 g kg(-1) phytogenic feed additives mixture on performance, egg quality, ovary parameters, serum biochemical parameters and yolk trimethylamine level in laying hens. The results of experiment have shown that egg weight was increased by supplementation of 12 g kg(-1) feed additive whereas egg production, feed intake and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were not significantly affected. There were no significant differences in egg quality parameters by supplementation of phytogenic feed additive, whereas yolk trimethylamine level was decreased as the feed additive level increased. The sensory evaluation parameters did not differ significantly. No significant differences were found in serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels between the treatments but low- and high-density lipoprotein were significantly increased. Number of small follicles and ovary weight were significantly increased by supplementation of 12 g kg(-1) feed additive. Overall, dietary supplementation of polyherbal additive increased egg weigh, improved ovary characteristics and declined yolk trimethylamine level.

  2. Effect of Addition of Fentanyl and Clonidine to Local Anesthetic Solution in Peribulbar Block

    PubMed Central

    Nehra, Poonam; Oza, Vrinda; Parmar, Vandana; Fumakiya, Pooja

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To compare the effect of addition of fentanyl and clonidine as adjuvants to bupivacaine and lignocaine in peribulbar block. Methods: The study was conducted on 105 adult patients of either sex, of ASA grade I and II undergoing ophthalmic surgeries. Patients were randomly divided into 3 groups of 35 each. All the patients were given peribulbuar block with 5ml lignocaine 2% +3 ml bupivacaine 0.5% +1 ml hyaluronidase (250 IU). In addition to this 1 ml normal saline was added to Group S, 25 μg fentanyl to Group F and 25 μg clonidine to Group C. Onset and duration of globe and lid akinesia, duration of sensory blockage and analgesia, hemodynamic parameters, number of rescue analgesic and visual analogue score were recorded. Results: The mean time of onset of globe and lid akinesia was significantly faster in group F and group C compared to group S, mean duration of globe and lid akinesia was longer in Group F (207.71 + 13.54 and 143.14 + 7.86 min) and group C (213.52 + 14.52 and 162.06 + 17.1 min) compared to group S (117.78 + 10.42 and 87.64 + 9.76 min). The mean duration of analgesia was significantly longer in group F (217.71 + 12.67) and C (258.82 + 14.50 min) as compared to group S (131.39 + 9.63 min). Conclusion: Addition of fentanyl or clonidine as adjuvant to local anaesthetic in peribulbar block provides faster onset and prolonged analgesia compared to local anaesthetic alone.

  3. The addition of rituximab to fludarabine and cyclophosphamide chemotherapy results in a significant improvement in overall survival in patients with newly diagnosed mantle cell lymphoma: results of a randomized UK National Cancer Research Institute trial

    PubMed Central

    Rule, Simon; Smith, Paul; Johnson, Peter W.M.; Bolam, Simon; Follows, George; Gambell, Joanne; Hillmen, Peter; Jack, Andrew; Johnson, Stephen; Kirkwood, Amy A; Kruger, Anton; Pocock, Christopher; Seymour, John F.; Toncheva, Milena; Walewski, Jan; Linch, David

    2016-01-01

    Mantle cell lymphoma is an incurable and generally aggressive lymphoma that is more common in elderly patients. Whilst a number of different chemotherapeutic regimens are active in this disease, there is no established gold standard therapy. Rituximab has been used widely to good effect in B-cell malignancies but there is no evidence that it improves outcomes when added to chemotherapy in this disease. We performed a randomized, open-label, multicenter study looking at the addition of rituximab to the standard chemotherapy regimen of fludarabine and cyclophosphamide in patients with newly diagnosed mantle cell lymphoma. A total of 370 patients were randomized. With a median follow up of six years, rituximab improved the median progression-free survival from 14.9 to 29.8 months (P<0.001) and overall survival from 37.0 to 44.5 months (P=0.005). This equates to absolute differences of 9.0% and 22.1% for overall and progression-free survival, respectively, at two years. Overall response rates were similar, but complete response rates were significantly higher in the rituximab arm: 52.7% vs. 39.9% (P=0.014). There was no clinically significant additional toxicity observed with the addition of rituximab. Overall, approximately 18% of patients died of non-lymphomatous causes, most commonly infections. The addition of rituximab to fludarabine and cyclophosphamide chemotherapy significantly improves outcomes in patients with mantle cell lymphoma. However, these regimens have significant late toxicity and should be used with caution. This trial has been registered (ISRCTN81133184 and clinicaltrials.gov:00641095) and is supported by the UK National Cancer Research Network. PMID:26611473

  4. The addition of rituximab to fludarabine and cyclophosphamide chemotherapy results in a significant improvement in overall survival in patients with newly diagnosed mantle cell lymphoma: results of a randomized UK National Cancer Research Institute trial.

    PubMed

    Rule, Simon; Smith, Paul; Johnson, Peter W M; Bolam, Simon; Follows, George; Gambell, Joanne; Hillmen, Peter; Jack, Andrew; Johnson, Stephen; Kirkwood, Amy A; Kruger, Anton; Pocock, Christopher; Seymour, John F; Toncheva, Milena; Walewski, Jan; Linch, David

    2016-02-01

    Mantle cell lymphoma is an incurable and generally aggressive lymphoma that is more common in elderly patients. Whilst a number of different chemotherapeutic regimens are active in this disease, there is no established gold standard therapy. Rituximab has been used widely to good effect in B-cell malignancies but there is no evidence that it improves outcomes when added to chemotherapy in this disease. We performed a randomized, open-label, multicenter study looking at the addition of rituximab to the standard chemotherapy regimen of fludarabine and cyclophosphamide in patients with newly diagnosed mantle cell lymphoma. A total of 370 patients were randomized. With a median follow up of six years, rituximab improved the median progression-free survival from 14.9 to 29.8 months (P<0.001) and overall survival from 37.0 to 44.5 months (P=0.005). This equates to absolute differences of 9.0% and 22.1% for overall and progression-free survival, respectively, at two years. Overall response rates were similar, but complete response rates were significantly higher in the rituximab arm: 52.7% vs. 39.9% (P=0.014). There was no clinically significant additional toxicity observed with the addition of rituximab. Overall, approximately 18% of patients died of non-lymphomatous causes, most commonly infections. The addition of rituximab to fludarabine and cyclophosphamide chemotherapy significantly improves outcomes in patients with mantle cell lymphoma. However, these regimens have significant late toxicity and should be used with caution. This trial has been registered (ISRCTN81133184 and clinicaltrials.gov:00641095) and is supported by the UK National Cancer Research Network.

  5. Addition of an N-terminal epitope tag significantly increases the activity of plant fatty acid desaturases expressed in yeast cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae shows great potential for development of bioreactor systems geared towards the production of high-value lipids such as polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids, the yields of which are largely dependent on the activity of ectopically-expressed enzymes. Here we show that the addit...

  6. Rheological parameters of dough with inulin addition and its effect on bread quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bojnanska, T.; Tokar, M.; Vollmannova, A.

    2015-04-01

    The rheological properties of enriched flour prepared with an addition of inulin were studied. The addition of inulin caused changes of the rheological parameters of the recorder curve. 10% and more addition significantly extended development time and on the farinogram were two peaks of consistency, what is a non-standard shape. With increasing addition of inulin resistance to deformation grows and dough is difficult to process, over 15% addition make dough short and unsuitable for making bread. Bread volume, the most important parameter, significantly decreased with inulin addition. Our results suggest a level of 5% inulin to produce a functional bread of high sensory acceptance and a level of 10% inulin produce a bread of satisfactory sensory acceptance. Bread with a level over 10% of inulin was unsatisfactory.

  7. Effects of litter addition on ectomycorrhizal associates of a lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) stand in Yellowstone National Park

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cullings, Kenneth W.; New, Michael H.; Makhija, Shilpa; Parker, V. Thomas

    2003-01-01

    Increasing soil nutrients through litter manipulation, pollution, or fertilization can adversely affect ectomycorrhizal (EM) communities by inhibiting fungal growth. In this study, we used molecular genetic methods to determine the effects of litter addition on the EM community of a Pinus contorta stand in Yellowstone National Park that regenerated after a stand-replacing fire. Two controls were used; in unmodified control plots nothing was added to the soil, and in perlite plots perlite, a chemically neutral substance, was added to maintain soil moisture and temperature at levels similar to those under litter. We found that (i) species richness did not change significantly following perlite addition (2.6 +/- 0.3 species/core in control plots, compared with 2.3 +/- 0.3 species/core in perlite plots) but decreased significantly (P < 0.05) following litter addition (1.8 +/- 0.3 species/core); (ii) EM infection was not affected by the addition of perlite but increased significantly (P < 0.001) in response to litter addition, and the increase occurred only in the upper soil layer, directly adjacent to the added litter; and (iii) Suillus granulatus, Wilcoxina mikolae, and agaricoid DD were the dominant organisms in controls, but the levels of W. mikolae and agaricoid DD decreased significantly in response to both perlite and litter addition. The relative levels of S. granulatus and a fourth fungus, Cortinariaceae species 2, increased significantly (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05, respectively) following litter addition. Thus, litter addition resulted in some negative effects that may be attributable to moisture-temperature relationships rather than to the increased nutrients associated with litter. Some species respond positively to litter addition, indicating that there are differences in their physiologies. Hence, changes in the EM community induced by litter accumulation also may affect ecosystem function.

  8. Effects of meat addition on pasta structure, nutrition and in vitro digestibility.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tingting; Hamid, Nazimah; Kantono, Kevin; Pereira, Loveena; Farouk, Mustafa M; Knowles, Scott O

    2016-12-15

    In our study, semolina flour was substituted with beef emulsion (EM) at three different levels of 15, 30 and 45% (w/w) to develop a pasta with enhanced nutritional profile. The protein, fat, and water content significantly increased with addition of meat. The addition of meat enhanced the pasta gluten network. The redness and yellowness of cooked pasta increased with meat addition. Tensile strength increased from 0.018N/mm(2) in the control sample to 0.046N/mm(2) in 45% beef emulsion (45EM) sample. All meat-containing samples had significantly higher elasticity than control (0.039N/mm(2)). GI significantly decreased and IVPD value increased in 45EM sample. Five essential amino acids (leucine, lysine, methionine, threonine, tryptophan) in pasta digesta increased significantly with increasing meat addition.

  9. Thermoplastic starch/polyester films: effects of extrusion process and poly (lactic acid) addition.

    PubMed

    Shirai, Marianne Ayumi; Olivato, Juliana Bonametti; Garcia, Patrícia Salomão; Müller, Carmen Maria Olivera; Grossmann, Maria Victória Eiras; Yamashita, Fabio

    2013-10-01

    Biodegradable films were produced using the blown extrusion method from blends that contained cassava thermoplastic starch (TPS), poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (PBAT) and poly(lactic acid) (PLA) with two different extrusion processes. The choice of extrusion process did not have a significant effect on the mechanical properties, water vapor permeability (WVP) or viscoelasticity of the films, but the addition of PLA decreased the elongation, blow-up ratio (BUR) and opacity and increased the elastic modulus, tensile strength and viscoelastic parameters of the films. The films with 20% PLA exhibited a lower WVP due to the hydrophobic nature of this polymer. Morphological analyses revealed the incompatibility between the polymers used.

  10. Multi-unit floating alginate system: effect of additives on ciprofloxacin release.

    PubMed

    Srinatha, A; Pandit, Jayanta K

    2008-09-01

    In an attempt to fabricate floating beads of ciprofloxacin, drugloaded alginate beads were prepared by simultaneous external and internal gelation. The effect of blending of alginate with gellan, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, starch, and chitosan on the bead properties were evaluated. Beads were spherical with incorporation efficiency in the range of 52.81 +/- 2.64 to 78.95 +/- 1.92%. Beads exhibited buoyancy over a period of 7-24 hr based on the formulation variables. In vitro release of ciprofloxacin from the alginate beads in simulated gastric fluid (SGF) (0.1 N HCl, pH 1.2), was influenced significantly (p < 0.001) by the properties and concentration of additives. Among the polymers incorporated into alginate beads. Hydroxy propyl methylcellulose (HPMC) provided an extended release over 7 hr. The drug release predominately followed Higuchi's square root model.

  11. Effects of a phytogenic feed additive on growth performance and ileal nutrient digestibility in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Amad, A A; Männer, K; Wendler, K R; Neumann, K; Zentek, J

    2011-12-01

    A study was undertaken to examine the effects of a phytogenic feed additive (PFA) containing essential oils of thyme and star anise as lead active components on the growth performance and apparent ileal nutrient digestibility in broiler chickens. In total, 528 one-day-old Cobb male broilers were randomly divided into 4 dietary treatment groups with 6 replicate pens per treatment group (22 birds each). The dietary treatments were a control starter and grower basal diet without PFA or 150, 750, or 1,500 mg/kg of PFA. Body weight, weight gain, and feed intake were not significantly influenced by the feed additive, but the feed conversion ratio during the grower (22-42 d) and overall (1-42 d) periods improved linearly (P < 0.05) by the administration of PFA compared with that of the control diet. The average weights of the liver, heart, kidneys, and spleen were not significantly affected by the PFA. The results of the apparent ileal digestibility of crude ash, CP, crude fat, calcium, and phosphorus showed a linear increase (P < 0.05) related to the increase of PFA dose in the diet. Therefore, the means of digestibility of these nutrients were significantly higher in birds fed the PFA for all categories of age compared with the digestibility of these nutrients in the controls. In conclusion, the mode of action of the tested PFA can be explained by an improvement in the nutrient digestibility in the small intestine. The underlying physiological mechanisms, however, need to be characterized further.

  12. Effect of Operating Parameters and Chemical Additives on Crystal Habit and Specific Cake Resistance of Zinc Hydroxide Precipitates

    SciTech Connect

    Alwin, Jennifer Louise

    1999-08-01

    The effect of process parameters and chemical additives on the specific cake resistance of zinc hydroxide precipitates was investigated. The ability of a slurry to be filtered is dependent upon the particle habit of the solid and the particle habit is influenced by certain process variables. The process variables studied include neutralization temperature, agitation type, and alkalinity source used for neutralization. Several commercially available chemical additives advertised to aid in solid/liquid separation were also examined in conjunction with hydroxide precipitation. A statistical analysis revealed that the neutralization temperature and the source of alkalinity were statistically significant in influencing the specific cake resistance of zinc hydroxide precipitates in this study. The type of agitation did not significantly effect the specific cake resistance of zinc hydroxide precipitates. The use of chemical additives in conjunction with hydroxide precipitation had a favorable effect on the filterability. The morphology of the hydroxide precipitates was analyzed using scanning electron microscopy.

  13. Effect of Oxygen-affinity Additives on the Superconducting Properties of Magnesium Diboride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, J.-J.; Ahn, J.-H.

    We examined the effect of oxygen-affinity additives on the superconducting properties of magnesium diborides. The additives were elemental Y, Sm, Ca, Li compounds (LiH, LiBH4), polyethylene and polyethylene glycol, which have a higher oxygen-affinity than magnesium. The formation of magnesium oxide during in-situ sintering of magnesium diboride was inhibited by the addition of such materials. The critical current density was not improved by the additives of Y, Sm, Ca and lithium compounds in spite of reduced oxide phases. Only the addition of polyethylene and polyethylene glycol resulted in the enhanced superconducting property.

  14. Effect of Addition of Natural Antioxidants on the Shelf-Life of "Chorizo", a Spanish Dry-Cured Sausage.

    PubMed

    Pateiro, Mirian; Bermúdez, Roberto; Lorenzo, José Manuel; Franco, Daniel

    2015-01-14

    The dose effect of the addition of natural antioxidants (tea, chestnut, grape seed and beer extracts) on physicochemical, microbiological changes and on oxidative stability of dry-cured "chorizo", as well as their effect during the storage under vacuum conditions was evaluated. Color parameters were significantly (p < 0.05) affected by the addition of antioxidants so that samples that contained antioxidants were more effective in maintaining color. The improving effects were dose-dependent with highest values with the dose of 50 mg/kg during ripening and depend on the extract during vacuum packaging. Addition of antioxidants decreased (p < 0.05) the oxidation, showing thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) values below 0.4 mg MDA/kg. Natural antioxidants matched or even improved the results obtained for butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). Regarding texture profile analysis (TPA) analysis, hardness values significantly (p < 0.001) decreased with the addition of antioxidants, obtaining the lower results with the dose of 200 mg/kg both during ripening and vacuum packaging. Antioxidants reduced the counts of total viable counts (TVC), lactic acid bacteria (LAB), mold and yeast. Free fatty acid content during ripening and under vacuum conditions showed a gradual and significant (p < 0.05) release as a result of lipolysis. At the end of ripening, the addition of GRA1000 protected chorizos from oxidative degradation.

  15. Breakage and re-growth of flocs: effect of additional doses of coagulant species.

    PubMed

    Yu, Wenzheng; Gregory, John; Campos, Luiza C

    2011-12-15

    Several polyaluminum chloride (PACl) coagulants were prepared, with different OH/Al ratios (B values), and characterized by Ferron assay. These were used in studies of floc formation, breakage and re-growth with kaolin suspensions under controlled shear conditions, using a continuous optical monitoring method. Particular attention was paid to the effect of small additional coagulant dosages, added during the floc breakage period, on the re-growth of broken flocs. The results showed that the re-growth ability was greatly dependent on the nature of the PACl species added as second coagulant. The re-growth ability of broken flocs was greatest when the second coagulant was PACl(0) (i.e. AlCl(3), with B = 0) and least with PACl(25) (B = 2.5). In the latter case there was no effect on floc re-growth, irrespective of the initial coagulant used. PACls with intermediate B values gave some improvement in floc re-growth, but less than that with PACl(0). Additional dosage of PACl(0) gave re-grown flocs about the same size or even larger than those before breakage. The re-growth of broken flocs is significantly correlated with the species Al(a) (monomeric) and Al(b) (polymeric), as determined by Ferron assay. The amorphous hydroxide precipitate formed from PACl(0), (mainly Al(a)) can greatly improve the adhesion between broken flocs and give complete re-growth. However, for PACl(25), mostly composed of Al(b), the nature of the precipitate is different and there is no effect on floc re-growth.

  16. Effect of the addition of rice straw on microbial community in a sewage sludge digester.

    PubMed

    Nakakihara, E; Ikemoto-Yamamoto, R; Honda, R; Ohtsuki, S; Takano, M; Suetsugu, Y; Watanabe, H

    2014-01-01

    Rice straw was added to a sewage sludge digester and its effects on methane production, dewatering characteristics, and microbial communities in the digested sludge were examined by a continuous digestion experiment under mesophilic conditions (35 °C). Stable gas generation was monitored in all digestion experiments. Methane yield from raw sludge, chopped rice straw and softened rice straw were estimated to be 0.27, 0.18 and 0.26 NL/g total solids load, respectively. The capillary suction time of digested sludge was decreased by the addition of rice straw. Archaeal and bacterial communities in the sludge were elucidated by PCR-DGGE (polymerase chain reaction--denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis) targeting 16S rRNA genes. The Shannon index of DGGE profiles indicated that bacterial diversity increased with the addition of softened rice straw. DNA sequences of significant bands of the digested sludge were most closely related to Methanosaeta concilii (97.4% identity) and Methanoculleus bourgensis (100% identity). Meanwhile, those in the co-digested sludge with rice straw were most closely related to Methanosarcina barkeri (98.4% identity) and Methanoculleus bourgensis (99.3% identity). Although both Methanosaeta spp. and Methanosarcina spp. metabolize acetate to methane, Methanosarcina spp. have a competitive advantage at acetate concentrations of >70 mg/L. Results suggested that the quantity of acetate produced during rice straw degradation may change the archaeal community.

  17. [Effect of additives on the amination of 2-oxoglutaric acid by gamma-radiation].

    PubMed

    Ema, K; Hikichi, T; Shinagawa, M

    1977-07-01

    The effect of added substances was studied on the yield of glutamic acid produced by gamma-ray irradiation of 2-oxoglutaric acid and ammonia in aqueous solution. The contents of amino acids in the irradiated solutions were determined with amino acids analyzer. Sodium nitrate, allyl alcohol or sodium formate was used as an added substance. The yield of glutamic acid significantly decreased by the addition of nitrate, and it was little affected by the addition of allyl alcohol. In the presence of formate the yield increased from G = 0.4 (2-oxoglutaric acid 0.05M and ammonium hydroxide 2M) to G = 1.1. As a result, it was found that hydrated electron contributes on the formation of glutamic acid, but hydroxyl radical does not. The yield showed a maximum at ca. 0.1 M ammonium hydroxide concentration. These facts indicate that NH2 radical does not contribute to the formation of glutamic acid. As a reaction mechanism, it can be explained that 2-oxoglutaric acid which had been reduced by hydrated electron reacts with ammonia.

  18. Effects of Additives, Photodegradation, and Water-tree Degradation on the Photoluminescence in Polyethylene and Polypropylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Toshihide; Fuse, Norikazu; Ohki, Yoshimichi

    Photoluminescence (PL) spectra induced by irradiation of ultraviolet photons are compared among low-density polyethylene (LDPE), crosslinked polyethylene (XLPE), and polypropylene (PP). Three PL bands appear around 4.2, 3.6, and 3.1 eV in LDPE and XLPE, while similar three PL bands are observed at similar energies in PP. The PL spectra and their decay profiles are independent of the presence of additives and are also independent of whether the samples were crosslinked or not. These results indicate that neither the additives nor the crosslinking has any significant effects on the respective three PLs in PE and PP. When the sample was pre-irradiated by the ultraviolet photons under different atmospheres (air, O2, and vacuum), all the PL intensities decrease with the progress of the pre-irradiation regardless of whether the sample is PE or PP. Therefore, all the PLs are considered to result from impurities. In all the pre-irradiated samples, a new PL band appears at 2.9 eV, of which intensity is stronger when the oxygen partial pressure during the pre-irradiation was lower. This PL is considered to be due to photo-induced conjugated double bonds. It has also been confirmed that water-tree degradation in LDPE or in XLPE does not contribute to PL.

  19. Hydraulic and Geomorphic Effects of Large Woody Debris Additions in the Narraguagus Watershed, Coastal Maine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, E.; Snyder, N. P.

    2009-12-01

    Maine coastal rivers host the last remaining runs of endangered anadromous Atlantic salmon in the United States, whose populations have declined from ~500,000 returning adults in the 1880s to only ~1000 in 2000. Restoration projects focus on these rivers, and recent efforts involve adding large woody debris (LWD) to small tributaries to improve salmon rearing habitat. LWD changes the hydraulics and geomorphology of small streams by acting as a barrier to flow and resulting in decreased velocity zones, scour pools, and sediment storage and sorting. We quantify the effects of LWD additions in early August 2008 on hydraulics and substrate in Baker Brook, a west-flowing tributary of the Narraguagus River. Hydraulically, we focus on the treatment reach nearest the confluence with the Narraguagus River (Baker1). We study substrate in this and the upstream treatment location (Baker3). Both study locations are divided into two reaches, treatment (received cut wood) and control (did not receive cut wood). The reaches are further divided into 50 m sub-reaches based on gradient (1-2%). We seek to answer two research questions: (1) how much does mean velocity through the study sub-reaches change as a result of additions; and (2) does sediment storage and sorting result from the LWD additions? We measured reach-average velocities (Ureach) in Baker1 using the salt dilution method in May, July, August and October 2008 and May 2009. We use rating curves to compare the post-treatment to the pre-treatment Ureach-stage relationship. No reach-average change was quantified during the low-to-moderate flows we observed. We found a localized change in cross-sectionally averaged velocity (U⊥) measured with a flow meter in one sub-reach, but this is because an added tree intersected the cross-section where measurements were recorded. We quantified pre- and post-treatment sub-reach substrate median grain size (D50) with intensive clast counts in July 2008 and May 2009. Two of the three

  20. Additivity of Feature-Based and Symmetry-Based Grouping Effects in Multiple Object Tracking.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chundi; Zhang, Xuemin; Li, Yongna; Lyu, Chuang

    2016-01-01

    Multiple object tracking (MOT) is an attentional process wherein people track several moving targets among several distractors. Symmetry, an important indicator of regularity, is a general spatial pattern observed in natural and artificial scenes. According to the "laws of perceptual organization" proposed by Gestalt psychologists, regularity is a principle of perceptual grouping, such as similarity and closure. A great deal of research reported that feature-based similarity grouping (e.g., grouping based on color, size, or shape) among targets in MOT tasks can improve tracking performance. However, no additive feature-based grouping effects have been reported where the tracking objects had two or more features. "Additive effect" refers to a greater grouping effect produced by grouping based on multiple cues instead of one cue. Can spatial symmetry produce a similar grouping effect similar to that of feature similarity in MOT tasks? Are the grouping effects based on symmetry and feature similarity additive? This study includes four experiments to address these questions. The results of Experiments 1 and 2 demonstrated the automatic symmetry-based grouping effects. More importantly, an additive grouping effect of symmetry and feature similarity was observed in Experiments 3 and 4. Our findings indicate that symmetry can produce an enhanced grouping effect in MOT and facilitate the grouping effect based on color or shape similarity. The "where" and "what" pathways might have played an important role in the additive grouping effect.

  1. Non-additive effects of intra- and interspecific competition between two larval salamanders.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Thomas L; Whiteman, Howard H

    2015-05-01

    Assessment of the relative strengths of intra- and interspecific competition has increased in recent years and is critical to understanding the importance of competition. Yet, whether intra- and interspecific competition can have non-additive effects has rarely been tested. The resulting fitness consequences of such non-additive interactions are important to provide the context necessary to advance our understanding of competition theory. We compared the strength of additive and non-additive intra- and interspecific competition by manipulating densities of a pair of larval salamanders (Ambystoma talpoideum and A. maculatum) in experimental mesocosms within a response surface design. Intraspecific density had the strongest effect on the strength of competition for both species, and few observed comparisons indicated interspecific competition was an important factor in predicting body size, growth or larval period length of either species. Non-additive effects of intra- and interspecific competition influenced some response variables, including size and mass at metamorphosis in A. maculatum, but at a reduced strength compared to intraspecific effects alone. Intraspecific competition was thus the dominant biotic interaction, but non-additive effects also impact the outcome of competition in these species, validating the importance of testing for and incorporating non-additive density effects into competition models.

  2. Non-additive effects of litter diversity on greenhouse gas emissions from alpine steppe soil in Northern Tibet.

    PubMed

    Chen, Youchao; Sun, Jian; Xie, Fangting; Yan, Yan; Wang, Xiaodan; Cheng, Genwei; Lu, Xuyang

    2015-12-04

    While litter decomposition is a fundamental ecological process, previous studies have mainly focused on the decay of single species. In this study, we conducted a litter-mixing experiment to investigate litter diversity effects on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from an alpine steppe soil in Northern Tibet. Significant non-additive effects of litter diversity on GHG dynamics can be detected; these non-additive effects were the result of species composition rather than species richness. Synergistic effects were frequent for CO2 and N2O emissions, as they were found to occur in 70.5% and 47.1% of total cases, respectively; antagonistic effects on CH4 uptake predominated in 60.3% of the cases examined. The degree of synergism and antagonism may be significantly impacted by litter chemical traits, such as lignin and N, lignin:N ratio, and total phenols during decomposition (P < 0.05). In addition, the relationship between chemical traits and litter-mixing effects changed over incubation time. Our study provides an opportunity to gain insight into the relationship between litter diversity and soil ecological processes. The results indicate that higher plant diversity may generally enhance CO2 and N2O emissions while inhibiting CH4 uptake; meanwhile, the direction and strength of non-additive effects appear to be related to litter chemical traits.

  3. Synergistic effect of additives including multifunctional acrylates in wood plastic composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Mubarak A.; Idriss Ali, K. M.; Garnett, John L.

    1993-07-01

    Wood Plastic Composite (WPC) was prepared with simul (soft wood, density = 0.4g/cc) and butylmethacrylate (BMA) monomer using 10% methanol as the swelling agent. Effect of additives including (i) multifunctional acrylates such as tripropylene glycol diacrylate (TPGDA), trimethylol propane triacrylate (TMPTA) (ii) oligomer acrylates like the urethane (UA), epoxy (EA) and polyester (PEA) acrylates and (iii) N-vinyl pyrrolidone (NVP) was investigated using 1 to 3 Mrad dose at 0.8 Mrad/h. Synergistic increases in polymer loading yields was achieved in presence of the additives, particularly with the trifunctional acrylate (TMPTA). In addition, acid as well as urea were also used as co-additives and synergistic enhancement in yields of polymer loading were obtained. The synergistic polymer loading by acid addition causes substantial decrease in tensile strength of the composite; but other additives and co-additives increase both the polymer loading and the tensile strength in these systems.

  4. Effects of Coating Materials and Mineral Additives on Nitrate Reduction by Zerovalent Iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, K. H.; Jeong, H. Y.; Lee, S.; Kang, N.; Choi, H. J.; Park, M.

    2015-12-01

    In efforts to facilitate nitrate removal, a variety of coating materials and mineral additives were assessed for their effects on the nitrate reduction by zerovalent iron (ZVI). Coated ZVIs were prepared by reacting Fe particles with Cr(III), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), and S(-II) solutions under anoxic conditions, with the resultant materials named Cr/Fe, Co/Fe, Ni/Fe, Cu/Fe, and FeS/Fe, respectively. The mineral additives used, synthesized or purchased, included goethite, magnetite, and hydrous ferric oxide (HFO). Kinetic experiments were performed using air-tight serum vials containing 1.0 g Fe (uncoated or coated forms) in 15 mL of 100 mg NO3×N/L solutions with pH buffered at 7.0. To monitor the reaction progress, the solution phase was analyzed for NO3-, NO2-, and NH4+ on an ion chromatography, while the headspace was analyzed for H2, N2, and O2 on a gas chromatography. By uncoated Fe, ca. 60% of nitrate was reductively transformed for 3.6 h, with NH4+ being the predominant product. Compared with uncoated one, Cr/Fe, Co/Fe, and Cu/Fe showed faster removal rates of nitrate. The observed reactivity enhancement was thought to result from additional reduction of nitrate by H atoms adsorbed on the surface of Cr, Co, or Cu metal. In contrast, both Ni/Fe and FeS/Fe showed slower removal of nitrate than uncoated Fe. In both cases, the coating, which highly disfavors the adsorption of nitrate, would form on the Fe surface. When goethite, HFO, and magnetite were amended, the nitrate reduction by Fe was significantly increased, with the effect being most evident with HFO. Although not capable of reducing nitrate, the mineral additives would serve as crystal nuclei for the corrosion products of Fe, thus making the development of passivation layers on the Fe surface less. In the future, we will perform a kinetic modeling of the experimental data to assess the relative contribution of multiple reaction paths in the nitrate reduction by Fe.

  5. Seasonal variation exceeds effects of salmon carcass additions on benthic food webs in the Elwha River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morley, S.A.; Coe, H.J.; Duda, J.J.; Dunphy, L.S.; McHenry, M.L.; Beckman, B.R.; Elofson, M.; Sampson, E. M.; Ward, L.

    2016-01-01

    Dam removal and other fish barrier removal projects in western North America are assumed to boost freshwater productivity via the transport of marine-derived nutrients from recolonizing Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.). In anticipation of the removal of two hydroelectric dams on the Elwha River in Washington State, we tested this hypothesis with a salmon carcass addition experiment. Our study was designed to examine how background nutrient dynamics and benthic food webs vary seasonally, and how these features respond to salmon subsidies. We conducted our experiment in six side channels of the Elwha River, each with a spatially paired reference and treatment reach. Each reach was sampled on multiple occasions from October 2007 to August 2008, before and after carcass placement. We evaluated nutrient limitation status; measured water chemistry, periphyton, benthic invertebrates, and juvenile rainbow trout (O. mykiss) response; and traced salmon-derived nutrient uptake using stable isotopes. Outside of winter, algal accrual was limited by both nitrogen and phosphorous and remained so even in the presence of salmon carcasses. One month after salmon addition, dissolved inorganic nitrogen levels doubled in treatment reaches. Two months after addition, benthic algal accrual was significantly elevated. We detected no changes in invertebrate or fish metrics, with the exception of 15N enrichment. Natural seasonal variability was greater than salmon effects for the majority of our response metrics. Yet seasonality and synchronicity of nutrient supply and demand are often overlooked in nutrient enhancement studies. Timing and magnitude of salmon-derived nitrogen utilization suggest that uptake of dissolved nutrients was favored over direct consumption of carcasses. The highest proportion of salmon-derived nitrogen was incorporated by herbivores (18–30%) and peaked 1–2 months after carcass addition. Peak nitrogen enrichment in predators (11–16%) occurred 2–3

  6. Effect of different oxytetracycline addition methods on its degradation behavior in soil.

    PubMed

    Chen, Gui-Xiu; He, Wei-Wei; Wang, Yan; Zou, Yong-De; Liang, Juan-Boo; Liao, Xin-Di; Wu, Yin-Bao

    2014-05-01

    The degradation behavior of veterinary antibiotics in soil is commonly studied using the following methods of adding antibiotics to the soil: (i) adding manure collected from animals fed with a diet containing antibiotics, (ii) adding antibiotic-free animal manure spiked with antibiotics and (iii) directly adding antibiotics. No research simultaneously comparing different antibiotic addition methods was found. Oxytetracycline (OTC) was used as a model antibiotic to compare the effect of the three commonly used antibiotic addition methods on OTC degradation behavior in soil. The three treatment methods have similar trends, though OTC degradation half-lives show the following significant differences (P<0.05): manure from swine fed OTC (treatment A)significantly enhanced EC, enzyme activity, microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen when compared to the treatment without manure (C), thus increasing degradation of OTC in the soil. Because the main entry route for veterinary antibiotics into soil is via the manure of animals given with antibiotics, the most appropriate method to study the degradation and ecotoxicity of antibiotic residues in soil may be to use manure from animals that are given a particular antibiotic, rather than by adding it directly to the soil.

  7. Effectiveness of the Touch Math Technique in Teaching Basic Addition to Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yikmis, Ahmet

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to reveal whether the touch math technique is effective in teaching basic addition to children with autism. The dependent variable of this study is the children's skills to solve addition problems correctly, whereas teaching with the touch math technique is the independent variable. Among the single-subject research models, a…

  8. Metabolic effects of ß-glucans addition to corn maize flour

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The addition of ß-glucans to degermed precooked corn maize flour produced favorably low metabolic responses in healthy young subjects. The increase in viscosity in the small intestine during the digestion period is the proposed mechanism for this effect. The addition of ß-glucans to corn maize pro...

  9. Parental Anxiety and Child Symptomatology: An Examination of Additive and Interactive Effects of Parent Psychopathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burstein, Marcy; Ginsburg, Golda S.; Tein, Jenn-Yun

    2010-01-01

    The current study examined relations between parent anxiety and child anxiety, depression, and externalizing symptoms. In addition, the study tested the additive and interactive effects of parent anxiety with parent depression and externalizing symptoms in relation to child symptoms. Forty-eight parents with anxiety disorders and 49 parents…

  10. Additivity of Feature-Based and Symmetry-Based Grouping Effects in Multiple Object Tracking

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chundi; Zhang, Xuemin; Li, Yongna; Lyu, Chuang

    2016-01-01

    Multiple object tracking (MOT) is an attentional process wherein people track several moving targets among several distractors. Symmetry, an important indicator of regularity, is a general spatial pattern observed in natural and artificial scenes. According to the “laws of perceptual organization” proposed by Gestalt psychologists, regularity is a principle of perceptual grouping, such as similarity and closure. A great deal of research reported that feature-based similarity grouping (e.g., grouping based on color, size, or shape) among targets in MOT tasks can improve tracking performance. However, no additive feature-based grouping effects have been reported where the tracking objects had two or more features. “Additive effect” refers to a greater grouping effect produced by grouping based on multiple cues instead of one cue. Can spatial symmetry produce a similar grouping effect similar to that of feature similarity in MOT tasks? Are the grouping effects based on symmetry and feature similarity additive? This study includes four experiments to address these questions. The results of Experiments 1 and 2 demonstrated the automatic symmetry-based grouping effects. More importantly, an additive grouping effect of symmetry and feature similarity was observed in Experiments 3 and 4. Our findings indicate that symmetry can produce an enhanced grouping effect in MOT and facilitate the grouping effect based on color or shape similarity. The “where” and “what” pathways might have played an important role in the additive grouping effect. PMID:27199875

  11. The effect of alkaline additives on the performance of surfactant systems designed to recover light oils

    SciTech Connect

    French, T.R.; Josephson, C.B.; Evans, D.B.

    1991-02-01

    Surfactant flooding is flexible because of the ability to optimize formulations for a wide range of reservoir conditions and crude oil types. The objective for this work was to determine if the addition of alkaline additives will allow the design of surfactant formulations that are effective for the recovery of crude oil, while, at the same time, maintaining the surfactant concentration at a much lower level than has previously been used for micellar flooding. Specifically, the focus of the work was on light, midcontinent crudes that typically have very low acid contents. These oils are typical of much of the midcontinent resource. The positive effect of alkaline additives on the phase behavior of the surfactant formulations and acidic crude oils is well known. The extension to nonacidic and slightly acidic oils is not obvious. Three crude oils, a variety of commercial surfactants, and several alkaline additives were tested. The oils had acid numbers that ranged from 0.13, which is quite low, to less than 0.01 mg KOH/g of oil. Alkaline additives were found to be very effective in recovering Delaware-Childers (OK) oil at elevated temperatures, but much less effective at reservoir temperatures. Alkaline additives were very effective with Teapot Dome (WY) oil. With Teapot Dome oil, surfactant/alkali systems produced ultralow IFT values and recovered 60% of the residual oil that remained after waterflooding. The effect of alkaline additives on recovering Hepler (KS) oil was minimal. The results of this work indicate that alkaline additives do have merit for use in surfactant flooding of low acid crude oils; however, no universal statement about applicability can be made. Each oil behaves differently, with this treatment, and the effect of alkaline additives must be determined (at reservoir conditions) for each oil. 23 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Effect of phosphogypsum and dicyandiamide as additives on NH3, N20 and CH4 emissions during composting.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yiming; Li, Guoxue; Luo, Wenhai; Schuchardt, Frank; Jiang, Tao; Xu, Degang

    2013-07-01

    A laboratory scale experiment of composting in a forced aeration system using pig manure with cornstalks was carried out to investigate the effects of both phosphogypsum and dicyandiamide (DCD, C2H4N4) as additives on gaseous emissions and compost quality. Besides a control, there were three amended treatments with different amounts of additives. The results indicated that the phosphogypsum addition at the rate of 10% of mixture dry weight decreased NH3 and CH4 emissions significantly during composting. The addition of DCD at the rate of 0.2% of mixture dry weight together with 10% of phosphogypsum further reduced the N2O emission by affecting the nitrification process. Reducing the phosphogypsum addition to 5% in the presence of 0.2% DCD moderately increased the NH3 emissions but not N2O emission. The additives increased the ammonium content and electrical conductivity significantly in the final compost. No adverse effect on organic matter degradation or the germination index of the compost was found in the amended treatments. It was recommended that phosphogypsum and DCD could be used in composting for the purpose of reducing NH3, CH4 and N2O emissions. Optimal conditions and dose of DCD additive during composting should be determined with different materials and composting systems in further study.

  13. Chemical and Physical Reactions of Wellbore Cement under CO2 Storage Conditions: Effects of Cement Additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutchko, B. G.; Strazisar, B. R.; Huerta, N.; Lowry, G. V.; Dzombak, D. A.; Thaulow, N.

    2008-12-01

    Sequestration of CO2 into geologic formations requires long-term storage and low leakage rates to be effective. Active and abandoned wells in candidate storage formations must be evaluated as potential leakage points. Wellbore integrity is an important part of an overall integrated assessment program being developed at NETL to assess potential risks at CO2 storage sites. Such a program is needed for ongoing policy and regulatory decisions for geologic carbon sequestration. The permeability and integrity of the cement in the well is a primary factor affecting its ability to prevent leakage. Cement must be able to maintain low permeability over lengthy exposure to reservoir conditions in a CO2 injection and storage scenario. Although it is known that cement may be altered by exposure to CO2, the results of ongoing research indicate that cement curing conditions, fluid properties, and cement additives play a significant role in the rate of alteration and reaction. The objective of this study is to improve understanding of the factors affecting wellbore cement integrity for large-scale geologic carbon sequestration projects. Due to the high frequency use of additives (pozzolan) in wellbore cement, it is also essential to understand the reaction of these cement-pozzolan systems upon exposure to CO2 under sequestration conditions (15.5 MPa and 50°C). Laboratory experiments were performed to determine the physical and chemical changes, as well as the rate of alteration of commonly used pozzolan-cement systems under simulated sequestration reservoir conditions, including both supercritical CO2 and CO2-saturated brine. The rate of alteration of the cement-pozzolan systems is considerably faster than with neat cement. However, the alteration of physical properties is much less significant with the pozzolanic blends. Permeability of a carbonated pozzolanic cement paste remains sufficiently small to block significant vertical migration of CO2 in a wellbore. All of the

  14. Effect of tutorial input in addition to augmented feedback on manual dexterity training and its retention.

    PubMed

    Wierinck, E; Puttemans, V; van Steenberghe, D

    2006-02-01

    Virtual reality (VR) simulators can be used as tools in manual dexterity training. The visual feedback guides the subject towards proper performance but creates, at the same time, some dependency on this feedback. To overcome this drawback, the effect of adjunct tutorial input on motor learning behaviour was examined. Novice dental students were randomly assigned to one of two training groups or to a non-training control group, given the task of preparing a geometrical class 1 cavity in phantom teeth. The feedback (FB) group trained under augmented visual feedback conditions, provided by the VR system (DentSim). The feedback-plus (FB+) group received, in addition, standardised expert input to enrich the augmented feedback information. The control group, consisting of same year students, did not participate in any training programme. All preparations were evaluated by the VR scoring system. Performance analyses revealed an overall trend towards significant improvement with practice for the training groups. Performance of the FB+ group was most accurate across training. After 1 day and 3 weeks of no practice, both training groups outperformed the control group. After 4 months, however, only the FB+ condition was significantly more accurate than the control group. The same tendency was noted for the transfer tests. Consequently, cavity preparation experience on a VR system under the condition of frequently provided feedback supplemented with expert input was most beneficial to long time learning.

  15. The Effect of Alloy Additions on Superplasticity in Thermomechanically Processed High Magnesium Aluminum-Magnesium Alloys.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-12-01

    AD-Ri55 142 THE EFFECT OF ALLOY ADDITIONS ON SUPERPLASTICITY IN I/2 THERMOMECHANICALLY PR-.(U) NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL UNCLSSIIED MONTEREY CA R J...Ln Monterey, California DTr J U N 1985 * THESIS THE EFFECT OF ALLOY ADDITIONS ON SUPERPLASTICITY IN THERMOMECHANICALLY PROCESSED HIGH MAGNESIUM *0...ALUMINUM-MAGNESIUM ALLOYS >by 0 (Richard J. Self December 1984 C-31 Thesis Advisor: Terry McNelley Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited

  16. An electrical conductivity method for measuring the effects of additives on effective diffusivities in Portland cement pastes

    SciTech Connect

    Kyi, A.A. ); Batchelor, B. . Civil Engineering)

    1994-01-01

    Effective diffusivities are important in describing corrosion and leaching of contaminants in cementitious systems. An electrical conductivity procedure has been used to measure the effective diffusivities of compounds in cementitious systems containing the additives fly ash, silica fume, sodium silicate and bentonite. Silica fume was the most effective additive in reducing the effective diffusivity, but fly ash was the most cost effective. Diffusivities that have been measured with techniques that rely on flux of a compound through the solid were generally lower than those measured with the electrical conductivity procedure. Porosity and bulk density are not well correlated with effective diffusivity in systems containing additives.

  17. Effect of fluorapatite additive on the mechanical properties of tricalcium phosphate-zirconia composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sallemi, I.; Ben Ayed, F.; Bouaziz, J.

    2012-02-01

    The effect of fluorapatite addition on the mechanical properties of tricalcium phosphate - 50 wt% zirconia composites was investigated during the sintering process. The Brazilian test was used to measure the mechanical resistance of bioceramics. The mechanical properties of composites increase with the sintering temperature and with fluorapatite additive. At 1400°C, the fluorapatite additive ameliorates the densification and the mechanical resistance of tricalcium phosphate - 50 wt% zirconia composites. The 31P magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance analysis of tricalcium phosphate - zirconia composites sintered with fluorapatite additives reveals the presence of tetrahedral P sites.

  18. An atomic view of additive mutational effects in a protein structure

    SciTech Connect

    Skinner, M.M.; Terwilliger, T.C.

    1996-04-01

    Substitution of a single amino acid in a protein will often lead to substantial changes in properties. If these properties could be altered in a rational way then proteins could be readily generated with functions tailored to specific uses. When amino acid substitutions are made at well-separated locations in a single protein, their effects are generally additive. Additivity of effects of amino acid substitutions is very useful because the properties of proteins with any combination of substitutions can be inferred directly from those of the proteins with single changes. It would therefore be of considerable interest to have a means of knowing whether substitutions at a particular pair of sites in a protein are likely to lead to additive effects. The structural basis for additivity of effects of mutations on protein function was examined by determining crystal structures of single and double mutants in the hydrophobic core of gene V protein. Structural effects of mutations were found to be cumulative when two mutations were made in a single protein. Additivity occurs in this case because the regions structurally affected by mutations at the two sites do not overlap even though the sites are separated by only 9 {angstrom}. Structural distortions induced by mutations in gene V protein decrease rapidly, but not isotropically, with distance from the site of mutation. It is anticipated that cases where structural and functional effects of mutations will be additive could be identified simply by examining whether the regions structurally affected by each component mutation overlap.

  19. Effect of additive on electrochemical corrosion properties of plasma electrolytic oxidation coatings formed on CP Ti under different processing frequency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babaei, Mahdi; Dehghanian, Changiz; Vanaki, Mojtaba

    2015-12-01

    The plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) coating containing zirconium oxide was fabricated on CP Ti at different processing frequencies viz., 100 Hz and 1000 Hz in a (Na2ZrO3, Na2SiO3)-additive containing NaH2PO4-based solution, and long-term electrochemical corrosion behavior of the coatings was studied using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution. Electrochemical degradation behavior of two-layered coatings formed at different frequencies was turned out to be governed by concentration of electrolyte additive. With increasing additive concentration, the coating obtained at frequency of 1000 Hz exhibited enhanced corrosion resistance. However, corrosion resistance of the coating prepared at 100 Hz was found to decrease with increased additive, which was attributed to intensified microdischarges damaging the protective effect of inner layer. Nevertheless, the electrolyte additive was found to mitigate the long-term degradation of the coatings to a significant extent.

  20. Protective effect of two yeast based feed additives on pigs chronically exposed to deoxynivalenol and zearalenone.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Alexandra C; See, M Todd; Kim, Sung Woo

    2014-12-12

    To evaluate the effects of the mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZEA) on pigs and the benefits of two mycotoxin mitigation strategies, gilts (n = 84, 9.1 ± 0.1 kg) were allotted to four treatments: CON (control); MT (4.8 mg/kg feed DON and 0.3 mg/kg feed ZEA); MT-YC (MT + 2 g/kg of yeast cell wall product); and MT-YF (MT + 2 g/kg of yeast fermentation product). After 42 days of feeding, pigs fed MT had reduced (p < 0.05) growth performance compared with pigs fed CON. Pigs fed MT-YF had greater (p < 0.05) average daily gain and tended to have greater (p = 0.080) average daily feed intake than MT, whereas pigs fed MT-YC did not differ from MT. Oxidative DNA damage increased (p < 0.05) in MT, whereas pigs fed MT-YF tended to have lower (p = 0.067) oxidative stress. Liver hydropic degeneration was increased (p < 0.05) in MT in contrast to CON and MT-YF, and tended to be greater (p = 0.079) than MT-YC. Collectively, feeding diets contaminated with mycotoxins significantly reduced growth performance and impacted pig health. The yeast additives had varied ability to reduce mycotoxin effects on pig growth and health, but may still play a beneficial role in reducing the overall impacts of a mycotoxin challenge on pigs.

  1. Effect of addition of semi refined carrageenan on mechanical characteristics of gum arabic edible film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setyorini, D.; Nurcahyani, P. R.

    2016-04-01

    Currently the seaweed is processed flour and Semi Refined Carraagenan (SRC). However, total production is small, but both of these products have a high value and are used in a wide variety of products such as cosmetics, processed foods, medicines, and edible film. The aim of this study were (1) to determine the effect of SRC on mechanical characteristics of edible film, (2) to determine the best edible film which added by SRC with different concentration. The edible film added by SRC flour which divided into three concentrations of SRC. There are 1.5%; 3%; and 4.5% of SRC, then added 3% glycerol and 0.6% arabic gum. The mechanical properties of the film measured by a universal testing machine Orientec Co. Ltd., while the water vapor permeability measured by the gravimetric method dessicant modified. The experimental design used was completely randomized design with a further test of Duncan. The result show SRC concentration differences affect the elongation breaking point and tensile strength. But not significant effect on the thickness, yield strength and the modulus of elasticity. The best edible film is edible film with the addition of SRC 4.5%.

  2. Effect of a chromium-containing fuel additive on hot corrosion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowell, C. E.; Deadmore, D. L.

    1976-01-01

    Four superalloys were tested at 900 C in high velocity combustion gases containing synthetic sea salt and, in some cases, a chromium containing fuel additive. While the additive reduced hot corrosion of the alloys over the 100 hour test period, the attack was not eliminated nor was the mode of attack changed. Reduction of the number of thermal cycles had as large a beneficial effect as the Cr additive. Intermittent washing during testing had either small beneficial or adverse effects depending on the alloy.

  3. Effect of Surface-active Additives on Physical Properties of Slurries of Vapor-process Magnesium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinns, Murray L

    1955-01-01

    The presence of 3 to 5 percent surface-active additive gave the lowest Brookfield apparent viscosity, plastic viscosity, and yield value that were obtained for slurry fuels containing approximately 50 percent vapor-process magnesium in JP-1 fuel. The slurries settled little and were easily remixed. A polyoxyethylene dodecyl alcohol was the most effective of 13 additives tested in reducing the Brookfield apparent viscosity and the yield value of the slurry. The seven most effective additives all had a hydroxyl group plus an ester or polyoxethylene group in the molecule. The densities of some of the slurries were measured.

  4. Effect of water quality improvement on the remediation of river sediment due to the addition of calcium nitrate.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoning; Tao, Yi; Zhou, Kuiyu; Zhang, Qiqi; Chen, Guangyao; Zhang, Xihui

    2017-01-01

    In situ sediment remediation technique is commonly used to control the release of pollutants from sediment. Addition of calcium nitrate to sediment has been applied to control the release of phosphorus from sediments. In this study, laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of water quality improvement on the remediation of river sediment with the addition of calcium nitrate. The results demonstrated that the redox-potential of sediments increased from -282mV to -130mV after 28days of calcium nitrate treatment. The acid volatile sulphide in the sediments significantly decreased (by 54.9% to 57.1%), whereas the total organic carbon decreased by 9.7% to 10.2%. However, the difference between these and water quality improvement was not significant. Due to the addition of calcium nitrate, low phosphate concentration in the water column and interstitial phosphate in the sediment were observed, indicating that the calcium nitrate was beneficial to controlling the release of phosphorus from river sediment. The decrease in phosphorus release could be attributed to the fixation of iron-phosphorus and calcium-phosphorus due to the addition of calcium nitrate. The addition of calcium nitrate to sediment caused the oxidation of sulphide to sulphate, hence resulting in high nitrate and sulphate concentrations in the water column, and high interstitial nitrate and sulphate concentrations in the sediment. The results also showed that only the water quality improvement had a significant effect on the interstitial nitrate and sulphate concentrations in the sediment.

  5. The effects of copper additives on the quantity and cell viability of adherent Staphylococcus epidermidis in silicone implants.

    PubMed

    Gosau, Martin; Prantl, Lukas; Feldmann, Martina; Kokott, Andreas; Hahnel, Sebastian; Burgers, Ralf

    2010-04-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the antibacterial effect of copper additives in silicone implants. Specimens of a standard silicone material used in breast augmentation and modified copper-loaded silicone specimens were prepared and incubated in a Staphylococcus epidermidis suspension (2 h, 37 degrees C). After the quantification of adhering staphylococci using a biofluorescence assay (Resazurin), the viability of the adhering bacterial cells was quantified by live or dead cell labeling in combination with fluorescence microscopy. In the Resazurin fluorometric quantification, a higher amount of adhering S. epidermidis cells was detected on pure silicone (4612 [2319/7540] relative fluorescence units [rfu]) than on silicone with copper additives (2701 [2158/4153] rfu). Additionally, a significantly higher amount of adhering bacterial cells (5.07% [2.03%/8.93%]) was found for pure silicone than for silicone with copper additives (1.72% [1.26%/2.32%]); (p < 0.001). Calculations from live or dead staining showed that the percentage of dead S. epidermidis cells adhered on pure silicone (52.1%) was significantly lower than on silicone with copper additives (79.7%); (p < 0.001). In vitro, silicone material with copper additives showed antibacterial effects against S. epidermidis. Copper-loaded silicone may prevent bacterial colonization, resulting in lower infection rates of silicone implants.

  6. Effects of nitrogen and phosphorus additions on soil microbial biomass and community structure in two reforested tropical forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lei; Gundersen, Per; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Tao; Chen, Hao; Mo, Jiangming

    2015-09-01

    Elevated nitrogen (N) deposition may aggravate phosphorus (P) deficiency in forests in the warm humid regions of China. To our knowledge, the interactive effects of long-term N deposition and P availability on soil microorganisms in tropical replanted forests remain unclear. We conducted an N and P manipulation experiment with four treatments: control, N addition (15 g N m-2·yr-1), P addition (15 g P m-2·yr-1), and N and P addition (15 + 15 g N and P m-2·yr-1, respectively) in disturbed (planted pine forest with recent harvests of understory vegetation and litter) and rehabilitated (planted with pine, but mixed with broadleaf returning by natural succession) forests in southern China. Nitrogen addition did not significantly affect soil microbial biomass, but significantly decreased the abundance of gram-negative bacteria PLFAs in both forest types. Microbial biomass increased significantly after P addition in the disturbed forest but not in the rehabilitated forest. No interactions between N and P additions on soil microorganisms were observed in either forest type. Our results suggest that microbial growth in replanted forests of southern China may be limited by P rather than by N, and this P limitation may be greater in disturbed forests.

  7. Effects of nitrogen and phosphorus additions on soil microbial biomass and community structure in two reforested tropical forests.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lei; Gundersen, Per; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Tao; Chen, Hao; Mo, Jiangming

    2015-09-23

    Elevated nitrogen (N) deposition may aggravate phosphorus (P) deficiency in forests in the warm humid regions of China. To our knowledge, the interactive effects of long-term N deposition and P availability on soil microorganisms in tropical replanted forests remain unclear. We conducted an N and P manipulation experiment with four treatments: control, N addition (15 g N m(-2)·yr(-1)), P addition (15 g P m(-2)·yr(-1)), and N and P addition (15 + 15 g N and P m(-2)·yr(-1), respectively) in disturbed (planted pine forest with recent harvests of understory vegetation and litter) and rehabilitated (planted with pine, but mixed with broadleaf returning by natural succession) forests in southern China. Nitrogen addition did not significantly affect soil microbial biomass, but significantly decreased the abundance of gram-negative bacteria PLFAs in both forest types. Microbial biomass increased significantly after P addition in the disturbed forest but not in the rehabilitated forest. No interactions between N and P additions on soil microorganisms were observed in either forest type. Our results suggest that microbial growth in replanted forests of southern China may be limited by P rather than by N, and this P limitation may be greater in disturbed forests.

  8. Effects of nitrogen and phosphorus additions on soil microbial biomass and community structure in two reforested tropical forests

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Lei; Gundersen, Per; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Tao; Chen, Hao; Mo, Jiangming

    2015-01-01

    Elevated nitrogen (N) deposition may aggravate phosphorus (P) deficiency in forests in the warm humid regions of China. To our knowledge, the interactive effects of long-term N deposition and P availability on soil microorganisms in tropical replanted forests remain unclear. We conducted an N and P manipulation experiment with four treatments: control, N addition (15 g N m−2·yr−1), P addition (15 g P m−2·yr−1), and N and P addition (15 + 15 g N and P m−2·yr−1, respectively) in disturbed (planted pine forest with recent harvests of understory vegetation and litter) and rehabilitated (planted with pine, but mixed with broadleaf returning by natural succession) forests in southern China. Nitrogen addition did not significantly affect soil microbial biomass, but significantly decreased the abundance of gram-negative bacteria PLFAs in both forest types. Microbial biomass increased significantly after P addition in the disturbed forest but not in the rehabilitated forest. No interactions between N and P additions on soil microorganisms were observed in either forest type. Our results suggest that microbial growth in replanted forests of southern China may be limited by P rather than by N, and this P limitation may be greater in disturbed forests. PMID:26395406

  9. Kinetic effect of Pd additions on the hydrogen uptake of chemically activated, ultramicroporous carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Bhat, Vinay V; Contescu, Cristian I; Gallego, Nidia C

    2010-01-01

    The effect of mixing chemically-activated ultramicroporous carbon (UMC) with Pd nanopowder is investigated. Results show that Pd addition doubles the rate of hydrogen uptake, but does not enhance the hydrogen capacity or improve desorption kinetics. The effect of Pd on the rate of hydrogen adsorption supports the occurrence of the hydrogen spillover mechanism in the Pd - UMC system.

  10. Decomposition of conifer tree bark under field conditions: effects of nitrogen and phosphorus additions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes de Gerenyu, Valentin; Kurganova, Irina; Kapitsa, Ekaterina; Shorokhova, Ekaterina

    2016-04-01

    In forest ecosystems, the processes of decomposition of coarse woody debris (CWD) can contribute significantly to the emission component of carbon (C) cycle and thus accelerate the greenhouse effect and global climate change. A better understanding of decomposition of CWD is required to refine estimates of the C balance in forest ecosystems and improve biogeochemical models. These estimates will in turn contribute to assessing the role of forests in maintaining their long-term productivity and other ecosystems services. We examined the decomposition rate of coniferous bark with added nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) fertilizers in experiment under field conditions. The experiment was carried out in 2015 during 17 weeks in Moscow region (54o50'N, 37o36'E) under continental-temperate climatic conditions. The conifer tree bark mixture (ca. 70% of Norway spruce and 30% of Scots pine) was combined with soil and placed in piles of soil-bark substrate (SBS) with height of ca. 60 cm and surface area of ca. 3 m2. The dry mass ratio of bark to soil was 10:1. The experimental design included following treatments: (1) soil (Luvisols Haplic) without bark, (S), (2) pure SBS, (3) SBS with N addition in the amount of 1% of total dry bark mass (SBS-N), and (4) SBS with N and P addition in the amount of 1% of total dry bark mass for each element (SBS-NP). The decomposition rate expressed as CO2 emission flux, g C/m2/h was measured using closed chamber method 1-3 times per week from July to early November using LiCor 6400 (Nebraska, USA). During the experiment, we also controlled soil temperature at depths of 5, 20, 40, and 60 cm below surface of SBS using thermochrons iButton (DS1921G, USA). The pattern of CO2 emission rate from SBS depended strongly on fertilizing. The highest decomposition rates (DecR) of 2.8-5.6 g C/m2/h were observed in SBS-NP treatment during the first 6 weeks of experiment. The decay process of bark was less active in the treatment with only N addition. In this

  11. The Effects of Warming and Nitrogen Addition on Soil Nitrogen Cycling in a Temperate Grassland, Northeastern China

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Lin-Na; Lü, Xiao-Tao; Liu, Yang; Guo, Ji-Xun; Zhang, Nan-Yi; Yang, Jian-Qin; Wang, Ren-Zhong

    2011-01-01

    Background Both climate warming and atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition are predicted to affect soil N cycling in terrestrial biomes over the next century. However, the interactive effects of warming and N deposition on soil N mineralization in temperate grasslands are poorly understood. Methodology/Principal Findings A field manipulation experiment was conducted to examine the effects of warming and N addition on soil N cycling in a temperate grassland of northeastern China from 2007 to 2009. Soil samples were incubated at a constant temperature and moisture, from samples collected in the field. The results showed that both warming and N addition significantly stimulated soil net N mineralization rate and net nitrification rate. Combined warming and N addition caused an interactive effect on N mineralization, which could be explained by the relative shift of soil microbial community structure because of fungal biomass increase and strong plant uptake of added N due to warming. Irrespective of strong intra- and inter-annual variations in soil N mineralization, the responses of N mineralization to warming and N addition did not change during the three growing seasons, suggesting independence of warming and N responses of N mineralization from precipitation variations in the temperate grassland. Conclusions/Significance Interactions between climate warming and N deposition on soil N cycling were significant. These findings will improve our understanding on the response of soil N cycling to the simultaneous climate change drivers in temperate grassland ecosystem. PMID:22096609

  12. Differences in the effects of solution additives on heat- and refolding-induced aggregation.

    PubMed

    Hamada, Hiroyuki; Takahashi, Ryouta; Noguchi, Takumi; Shiraki, Kentaro

    2008-01-01

    Although a number of low-molecular-weight additives have been developed to suppress protein aggregation, it is unclear whether these aggregation suppressors affect various aggregation processes in the same manner. In this study, we evaluated the differences in the effect of solution additives on heat- and refolding-induced aggregation in the presence of guanidine (Gdn), arginine (Arg), and spermidine (Spd), and the comparable analysis showed the following differences: (i) Gdn did not suppress thermal aggregation but increased the yield of oxidative refolding. (ii) Spd showed the highest effect for heat-induced aggregation suppression among tested compounds, although it promoted aggregation in oxidative refolding. (iii) Arg was effective for both aggregation processes. Lysozyme solubility assay and thermal unfolding experiment showed that Spd was preferentially excluded from native lysozyme and Arg and Gdn solubilized the model state of intermediates during oxidative refolding. This preference of additives to protein surfaces is the cause of the different effect on aggregation suppression.

  13. Synthesis of DHA/EPA-rich phosphatidylcholine by immobilized phospholipase A1: effect of water addition and vacuum condition.

    PubMed

    Li, Daoming; Qin, Xiaoli; Wang, Weifei; Li, Zhigang; Yang, Bo; Wang, Yonghua

    2016-08-01

    DHA/EPA-rich phosphatidylcholine (PC) was successfully synthesized by immobilized phospholipase A1 (PLA1)-catalyzed transesterification of PC and DHA/EPA-rich ethyl esters in a solvent-free system. Effects of reaction temperature, water addition and substrate mass ratio on the incorporation of DHA/EPA were evaluated using response surface methods (RSM). Water addition had most significant effect on the incorporation. Reaction temperature and substrate mass ratio, however, had no significant effect on the incorporation. The maximal incorporation was 19.09 % (24 h) under the following conditions: temperature 55.7 °C, water addition 1.1 wt % and substrate mass ratio (ethyl esters/PC) 6.8:1. Furthermore, effects of water addition (from 0 to 1.25 wt %) on DHA/EPA incorporation and the composition of products were further investigated. The immobilized PLA1 was more active when water addition was above 0.5 wt %. By monitoring the reaction processes with different water addition, a possible reaction scheme was proposed for transesterification of PC with DHA/EPA-rich ethyl esters. In summary, PC and sn2-lysophosphatidylocholine (LPC) were predominant in the mixtures at early stages of reaction, whereas sn1-LPC and glycerophosphocholine (GPC) predominant at later stages. The vacuum employed after 24 h significantly increased the incorporation of DHA/EPA and the composition of PC, and the highest incorporation (30.31 %) of DHA/EPA was obtained at 72 h and the yield of PC was 47.2 %.

  14. Additive effects of Na+ and Cl- ions on barley growth under salinity stress.

    PubMed

    Tavakkoli, Ehsan; Fatehi, Foad; Coventry, Stewart; Rengasamy, Pichu; McDonald, Glenn K

    2011-03-01

    Soil salinity affects large areas of the world's cultivated land, causing significant reductions in crop yield. Despite the fact that most plants accumulate both sodium (Na(+)) and chloride (Cl(-)) ions in high concentrations in their shoot tissues when grown in saline soils, most research on salt tolerance in annual plants has focused on the toxic effects of Na(+) accumulation. It has previously been suggested that Cl(-) toxicity may also be an important cause of growth reduction in barley plants. Here, the extent to which specific ion toxicities of Na(+) and Cl(-) reduce the growth of barley grown in saline soils is shown under varying salinity treatments using four barley genotypes differing in their salt tolerance in solution and soil-based systems. High Na(+), Cl(-), and NaCl separately reduced the growth of barley, however, the reductions in growth and photosynthesis were greatest under NaCl stress and were mainly additive of the effects of Na(+) and Cl(-) stress. The results demonstrated that Na(+) and Cl(-) exclusion among barley genotypes are independent mechanisms and different genotypes expressed different combinations of the two mechanisms. High concentrations of Na(+) reduced K(+) and Ca(2+) uptake and reduced photosynthesis mainly by reducing stomatal conductance. By comparison, high Cl(-) concentration reduced photosynthetic capacity due to non-stomatal effects: there was chlorophyll degradation, and a reduction in the actual quantum yield of PSII electron transport which was associated with both photochemical quenching and the efficiency of excitation energy capture. The results also showed that there are fundamental differences in salinity responses between soil and solution culture, and that the importance of the different mechanisms of salt damage varies according to the system under which the plants were grown.

  15. Additive effects prevail: The response of biota to multiple stressors in an intensively monitored watershed.

    PubMed

    Gieswein, Alexander; Hering, Daniel; Feld, Christian K

    2017-03-21

    Freshwater ecosystems are impacted by a range of stressors arising from diverse human-caused land and water uses. Identifying the relative importance of single stressors and understanding how multiple stressors interact and jointly affect biology is crucial for River Basin Management. This study addressed multiple human-induced stressors and their effects on the aquatic flora and fauna based on data from standard WFD monitoring schemes. For altogether 1095 sites within a mountainous catchment, we used 12 stressor variables covering three different stressor groups: riparian land use, physical habitat quality and nutrient enrichment. Twenty-one biological metrics calculated from taxa lists of three organism groups (fish, benthic invertebrates and aquatic macrophytes) served as response variables. Stressor and response variables were subjected to Boosted Regression Tree (BRT) analysis to identify stressor hierarchy and stressor interactions and subsequently to Generalised Linear Regression Modelling (GLM) to quantify the stressors standardised effect size. Our results show that riverine habitat degradation was the dominant stressor group for the river fauna, notably the bed physical habitat structure. Overall, the explained variation in benthic invertebrate metrics was higher than it was in fish and macrophyte metrics. In particular, general integrative (aggregate) metrics such as % Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera and Trichoptera (EPT) taxa performed better than ecological traits (e.g. % feeding types). Overall, additive stressor effects dominated, while significant and meaningful stressor interactions were generally rare and weak. We concluded that given the type of stressor and ecological response variables addressed in this study, river basin managers do not need to bother much about complex stressor interactions, but can focus on the prevailing stressors according to the hierarchy identified.

  16. Effects of nitrogen additions on above- and belowground carbon dynamics in two tropical forests

    SciTech Connect

    Cusack, D.; Silver, W.L.; Torn, M.S.; McDowell, W.H.

    2011-04-15

    Anthropogenic nitrogen (N) deposition is increasing rapidly in tropical regions, adding N to ecosystems that often have high background N availability. Tropical forests play an important role in the global carbon (C) cycle, yet the effects of N deposition on C cycling in these ecosystems are poorly understood. We used a field N-fertilization experiment in lower and upper elevation tropical rain forests in Puerto Rico to explore the responses of above- and belowground C pools to N addition. As expected, tree stem growth and litterfall productivity did not respond to N fertilization in either of these Nrich forests, indicating a lack of N limitation to net primary productivity (NPP). In contrast, soil C concentrations increased significantly with N fertilization in both forests, leading to larger C stocks in fertilized plots. However, different soil C pools responded to N fertilization differently. Labile (low density) soil C fractions and live fine roots declined with fertilization, while mineral-associated soil C increased in both forests. Decreased soil CO2 fluxes in fertilized plots were correlated with smaller labile soil C pools in the lower elevation forest (R2 = 0.65, p\\0.05), and with lower live fine root biomass in the upper elevation forest (R2 = 0.90, p\\0.05). Our results indicate that soil C storage is sensitive to N deposition in tropical forests, even where plant productivity is not N-limited. The mineral-associated soil C pool has the potential to respond relatively quickly to N additions, and can drive increases in bulk soil C stocks in tropical forests.

  17. Risk assessment for the combinational effects of food color additives: neural progenitor cells and hippocampal neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Park, Mikyung; Park, Hee Ra; Kim, So Jung; Kim, Min-Sun; Kong, Kyoung Hye; Kim, Hyun Soo; Gong, Ein Ji; Kim, Mi Eun; Kim, Hyung Sik; Lee, Byung Mu; Lee, Jaewon

    2009-01-01

    In 2006, the Korea Food and Drug Administration reported that combinations of dietary colors such as allura red AC (R40), tartrazine (Y4), sunset yellow FCF (Y5), amaranth (R2), and brilliant blue FCF (B1) are widely used in food manufacturing. Although individual tar food colors are controlled based on acceptable daily intake (ADI), there is no apparent information available for how combinations of these additives affect food safety. In the current study, the potencies of single and combination use of R40, Y4, Y5, R2, and B1 were examined on neural progenitor cell (NPC) toxicity, a biomarker for developmental stage, and neurogenesis, indicative of adult central nervous system (CNS) functions. R40 and R2 reduced NPC proliferation and viability in mouse multipotent NPC, in the developing CNS model. Among several combinations tested in mouse model, combination of Y4 and B1 at 1000-fold higher than average daily intake in Korea significantly decreased numbers of newly generated cells in adult mouse hippocampus, indicating potent adverse actions on hippocampal neurogenesis. However, other combinations including R40 and R2 did not affect adult hippocampal neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus. Evidence indicates that single and combination use of most tar food colors may be safe with respect to risk using developmental NPC and adult hippocampal neurogenesis. However, the response to excessively high dose combination of Y4 and B1 is suggestive of synergistic effects to suppress proliferation of NPC in adult hippocampus. Data indicated that combinations of tar colors may adversely affect both developmental and adult hippocampal neurogenesis; thus, further extensive studies are required to assess the safety of these additive combinations.

  18. The effects of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system additives on solid by-products. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Huyck, K.A.; Tatum, G.S.; DeKraker, D.P.

    1995-12-01

    This study was designed to examine characteristics of by-products from flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems that use performance-enhancing additives. The by-products were evaluated for handling, disposal, properties, and utilization potential. This study was designed to identify potential operation-limiting consequences (fatal flaws) caused by using FGD system additives. It was not intended to be an all-encompassing study of the possible process, environmental, and utilization circumstances at each plant. Seven utilities conducting additive testing agreed to provide samples for this study both before and during their testing. Solid samples were collected from FGD systems using the following additives: di-basic acid (DBA), which is a mixture of succinic, glutaric, and adipic acids; formate; sulfur; ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA); and chloride. Changes in handling properties that may alter process operations were observed at sites where DBS was used. Changes in leaching behavior, permeability and unconfined compressive strength (properties that affect by-product disposal properties) showed no clear trend for additive or system type. The intent of this study is to provide an overall assessment of potential system-limiting effects of FGD additive use. There were no overriding problems relating to disposal with the use of additives. However, properties of solids produced with and without additives should be tested at each site prior to use of an FGD system additive. This is necessary because of the variability in state disposal and permitting requirements and the influence of specific operating conditions on by-product properties.

  19. Effects of magnetic ion-exchange resin addition during coagulation on floc properties and membrane filtration.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yang Hun; Kweon, Ji Hyang; Jeong, Young Mi; Kwon, Soonbuhm; Kim, Hyung-Soo

    2010-03-01

    The application of magnetic ion-exchange resin (MIEX) during chemical coagulation was investigated for the removal of organic matters responsible for fouling in membrane processes. Two different coagulants were used-polyaluminium chloride (PAC1) and polyaluminum chloride silicate (PACS). The MIEX addition during coagulation with both PAC1 and PACS considerably enhanced removal of dissolved organic carbon. Coagulation with MIEX treatment substantially removed all portions of natural organic matter (NOM), while the MIEX treatment alone effectively removed the hydrophobic and transphilic portions of NOM. The enhanced NOM removal by PAC1 coagulation with the addition of MIEX had positive effects on membrane flux at moderate transmembrane pressure conditions. However, the almost identical flux patterns were reported in the experiments of coagulation with PACS and PACS with MIEX addition. The results of the specific cake resistances indicated that the MIEX addition substantially decreased the resistances. The larger size distributions of PAC1 with MIEX corresponded well with the flux improvement.

  20. Effect of the additional anode layers on the absorption enhancement characteristic of plasmonic organic solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, Sanghyuk; Kim, Jungho

    2014-12-01

    We numerically investigate the effect of additional anode layers on the absorption enhancement characteristic of pyramidal-grating plasmonic organic solar cells (OSCs) using the finite element method. The behaviors of the plasmonic absorption enhancement are compared between a “simple” structure consisting of only the active and metal cathode layers and a “practical” structure with the additional anode layers. The plasmonic absorption enhancement is identified by comparing the polarization-dependent absorbance spectra between the planar and plasmonic OSCs. When the active-layer thickness is small, the plasmonic resonance condition changes owing to the addition of the anode layers. When the active-layer thickness is large, the plasmonic resonance condition and corresponding absorption behavior show a slight difference irrespective of the inclusion of the additional anode layers. Therefore, the additional anode layers should be included in the optical analysis and design of plasmonic OSCs when the active-layer thickness is small.

  1. Solvent additive effects on small molecule crystallization in bulk heterojunction solar cells probed during spin casting.

    PubMed

    Perez, Louis A; Chou, Kang Wei; Love, John A; van der Poll, Thomas S; Smilgies, Detlef-M; Nguyen, Thuc-Quyen; Kramer, Edward J; Amassian, Aram; Bazan, Guillermo C

    2013-11-26

    Solvent additive processing can lead to drastic improvements in the power conversion efficiency (PCE) in solution processable small molecule (SPSM) bulk heterojunction solar cells. In situ grazing incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering is used to investigate the kinetics of crystallite formation during and shortly after spin casting. The additive is shown to have a complex effect on structural evolution invoking polymorphism and enhanced crystalline quality of the donor SPSM.

  2. Effect of additive on alfalfa silage fermentation characteristics and feedlot performance of steers.

    PubMed

    Mader, T L; Britton, R A; Krause, V E; Pankaskie, D E

    1985-07-01

    In each of two trials four large plastic bags were filled with approximately 72 mt of first cutting, early bloom alfalfa (35% dry matter). Fresh alfalfa in two bags was treated with .5 kg/metric ton of a commercial silage additive (Silo-Best). Two bags were left untreated. When compared with steers fed untreated alfalfa silage, weight gains, intakes, and feed efficiencies were not significantly (P greater than .05) altered for steers fed treated silage. However, laboratory analysis showed silage treatment increased in vitro dry matter digestibility (57.0 versus 60.6%) and decreased silage pH (4.98 versus 4.83). Concentrations of propionic and butyric acid were decreased by the additive. Data suggest that anaerobic fermentation was enhanced with the additive. Slight but significant improvements of silage in vitro dry matter digestibility, obtained by treating alfalfa silage with the inoculant-type preservative, did not result in improved performance in feeding trials.

  3. Contribution of temperament to eating disorder symptoms in emerging adulthood: Additive and interactive effects.

    PubMed

    Burt, Nicole M; Boddy, Lauren E; Bridgett, David J

    2015-08-01

    Temperament characteristics, such as higher negative emotionality (NE) and lower effortful control (EC), are individual difference risk factors for developmental psychopathology. Research has also noted relations between temperament and more specific manifestations of psychopathology, such as eating disorders (EDs). Although work is emerging that indicates that NE and EC may additively contribute to risk for ED symptoms, no studies have considered the interactive effects of NE and EC in relation to ED symptoms. In the current investigation, we hypothesized that (1) low EC would be associated with increased ED symptoms, (2) high NE would be associated with increased ED symptoms, and (3) these temperament traits would interact, such that the relationship between NE and ED symptoms would be strongest in the presence of low EC. After controlling for gender and child trauma history, emerging adults' (N=160) lower EC (i.e., more difficulties with self-regulation) was associated with more ED symptoms. NE did not emerge as a direct predictor of ED symptoms. However, the anticipated interaction of these temperament characteristics on ED symptoms was found. The association between NE and ED symptoms was only significant in the context of low EC. These findings provide evidence that elevated NE may only be a risk factor for the development of eating disorders when individuals also have self-regulation difficulties. The implications of these findings for research and interventions are discussed.

  4. Effect of two natural light regimes and nutrient addition on the forest herb Begonia decandra (Begoniaceae).

    PubMed

    Cordero, R A

    2000-01-01

    The effect of two natural light-growing conditions (understory versus light gaps) and the interaction with nutrient availability (through fertilization) were studied in the understory herb Begonia decandra, in the Luquillo Experimental Forest in Puerto Rico. Sixteen potted plants obtained from cuttings were randomly chosen and distributed in each of eighth forest environments (four light gaps and four understories), for a total of 128 plants. Fertilizer was applied to half of the plants in each site. After seven months in the two given microenvironments, increased light and fertilization resulted in greater growth and some changes in the biomass allocation patterns. All measured variables responded similarly to reported changes for tree seedlings and saplings from other tropical and subtropical regions. Total growth parameters (height, biomass and leaf area) were very sensitive to increases in the main resource (light). The addition of nutrients was less important in producing changes in the allocation variables (root to shoot ratio, leaf area ratio, and specific leaf mass) under conditions of high light availability. Changes due to nutrient levels were relatively greater on plants grown under under-story conditions. Also, small light differences among sites can cause significant changes in the variables related to total growth. Lastly, plant mortality in the nutrient treatments was found to be independent of mortality in two forest light environments. Some hypotheses about resource acquisition and plant growth are not supported by this data.

  5. Cheese whey as substrate of batch hydrogen production: effect of temperature and addition of buffer.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Páez, K M; Poggi-Varaldo, H M; García-Mena, J; Ponce-Noyola, M T; Ramos-Valdivia, A C; Barrera-Cortés, J; Robles-González, I V; Ruiz-Ordáz, N; Villa-Tanaca, L; Rinderknecht-Seijas, N

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of buffer addition and process temperature (ambient and 35°C) on H2 production in batch fermentation of cheese whey (CW). When the H2 production reached a plateau, the headspace of the reactors were flushed with N2 and reactors were re-incubated. Afterwards, only the reactors with phosphate buffer showed a second cycle of H2 production and 48% more H2 was obtained. The absence of a second cycle in non-buffered reactors could be related to a lower final pH than in the buffered reactors; the low pH could drive the fermentation to solvents production. Indeed a high solvent production was observed in non-buffered bioreactors as given by low ρ ratios (defined as the ratio between sum of organic acid production and sum of solvents production). Regarding the process temperatures, no significant difference between the H2 production of reactors incubated at ambient temperature and at 35°C was described. After flushing the headspace of bioreactors with N2 at the end of the second cycle, the H2 production did not resume (in all reactors).

  6. Effect of dimethyl sulfoxide addition on ultrasonic degradation of methylene blue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimakage, Kaho; Kobayashi, Daisuke; Naya, Masakazu; Matsumoto, Hideyuki; Shimada, Yuichiro; Otake, Katsuto; Shono, Atsushi

    2016-07-01

    The ultrasonic degradation of methylene blue was carried out in the absence and presence of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as a radical scavenger for various frequencies, and the effects of DMSO addition on the degradation rate constant estimated by assuming first-order kinetics were investigated. The degradation reaction rate decreased with DMSO addition, and hydroxyl radicals were observed to play important roles in the degradation of methylene blue. However, the degradation reaction did not stop with DMSO addition, and the degradation rate constant in the presence of DMSO was not affected by ultrasonic frequency.

  7. Effects of Metal Powder Addition in Ni-Sheathed PIT MgB2 Tapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tachikawa, K.; Yamada, Y.; Katagiri, K.; Kumakura, H.; Iwamoto, A.; Watanabe, K.

    2004-06-01

    The effect of different metal powder additions on the transport current and stress/strain performance of ex-situ processed MgB2 tapes with Ni sheath has been studied. The metal powder added to the core exhibits elongated morphology after the fabrication. The addition of low melting point metal powder, e.g. In and Sn, produces an appreciable increase in the Jc of MgB2 core. An addition of 10 vol% In enhances Jc by a factor of 6 to 7 after the combination of rolling and annealing at 200 °C, up to the order of 105 A/cm2 at 0.5 T and 4.2 K. An addition of 10 vol% Sn enhances Jc by a factor of ˜ 3. The In and Sn additions also appreciably increase the n-value of the current-voltage transition. Both In and Sn metals infiltrate into gaps between MgB2 grains, improving the linkage of the grains. Current may transfer through the impregnated metal by the proximity effect. Furthermore, the metal powder addition appreciably improves the strain tolerance in MgB2 tapes. The low melting point metal powder addition is a relatively simple and easy approach to yield better transport current and stress/strain performance in ex-situ MgB2 tapes.

  8. Testing Mediation in Structural Equation Modeling: The Effectiveness of the Test of Joint Significance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leth-Steensen, Craig; Gallitto, Elena

    2016-01-01

    A large number of approaches have been proposed for estimating and testing the significance of indirect effects in mediation models. In this study, four sets of Monte Carlo simulations involving full latent variable structural equation models were run in order to contrast the effectiveness of the currently popular bias-corrected bootstrapping…

  9. High School Teachers with Significant Teaching Experience Support the Effectiveness of Direct Instructional Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nikolaros, John

    2014-01-01

    This research study was conducted to examine the effectiveness of direct instructional strategies regarding the achievement of students with ED. High school teachers with significant years of teaching experience in an urban setting support the effectiveness of direct instructional strategies. Teachers with 11-20 and 21-30 years of teaching…

  10. Effect of exogenous phosphorus addition on soil respiration in Calamagrostis angustifolia freshwater marshes of Northeast China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Changchun; Liu, Deyan; Song, Yanyu; Yang, Guisheng; Wan, Zhongmei; Li, Yingchen; Xu, Xiaofeng

    2011-03-01

    Anthropogenic activities have increased phosphorus (P) inputs to wetland ecosystems. However, little is known about the effect of P enrichment on soil respiration in these ecosystems. To understand the effect of P enrichment on soil respiration, we conducted a field experiment in Calamagrostis angustifolia-dominated freshwater marshes, the Sanjiang Plain, Northeast China. We investigated soil respiration in the first growing season after P addition at four rates (0, 1.2, 4.8 and 9.6 g P m-2 year-1). In addition, we also examined aboveground biomass, soil labile C fractions (dissolved organic C, DOC; microbial biomass C, MBC; easily oxidizable C, EOC) and enzyme activities (invertase, urease and acid phosphatase activities) following one year of P addition. P addition decreased soil respiration during the growing season. Dissolved organic C in soil pore water increased after P addition at both 5 and 15 cm depths. Moreover, increased P input generally inhibited soil MBC and enzyme activities, and had no effects on aboveground biomass and soil EOC. Our results suggest that, in the short-term, soil respiration declines under P enrichment in C. angustifolia-dominated freshwater marshes of Northeast China, and its extent varies with P addition levels.

  11. Effect of additives on isothermal crystallization kinetics and physical characteristics of coconut oil.

    PubMed

    Chaleepa, Kesarin; Szepes, Anikó; Ulrich, Joachim

    2010-05-01

    The effect of lauric acid and low-HLB sucrose esters (L-195, S170) on the isothermal crystallization of coconut oil was investigated by differential scanning calorimetry. The fundamental crystallization parameters, such as induction time of nucleation and crystallization rate, were obtained by using the Gompertz equation. The Gibb's free energy of nucleation was calculated via the Fisher-Turnbull equation based on the equilibrium melting temperature. All additives, investigated in this work, proved to have an inhibition effect on nucleation and crystallization kinetics of coconut oil. Our results revealed that the inhibition effect is related to the dissimilarity of the molecular characteristics between coconut oil and the additives. The equilibrium melting temperature (T(m) degrees ) of the coconut oil-additive mixtures estimated by the Hoffman-Weeks method was decreased with the addition of lauric acid and increased by using sucrose esters as additives. Micrographs showing simultaneous crystallization of coconut oil and lauric acid indicated that strong molecular interaction led to the increase in lamellar thickness resulting in the T(m) degrees depression of coconut oil. The addition of L-195 modified the crystal morphology of coconut oil into large, dense, non-porous crystals without altering the polymorphic occurrence of coconut oil. The enhancement in lamellar thickness and crystal perfection supported the T(m) degrees elevation of coconut oil.

  12. Different responses of alpine plants to nitrogen addition: effects on plant-plant interactions

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jun; Luo, Peng; Yang, Hao; Mou, Chengxiang; Mo, Li

    2016-01-01

    The different responses of plant species to resource stress are keys to understand the dynamics of plant community in a changing environment. To test the hypothesis that nitrogen (N) increase would benefit N competitive species, rather than N stress-tolerant species, to compete with neighbours, we conducted an experiment with neighbour removal, N addition and soil moisture as treatments in an alpine grassland on the southeastern Tibetan Plateau. Both growths and competitive-response abilities (CRA, the ability to tolerate the inhibitory effects of neighbors) of Kobresia macrantha, Polygonum viviparum and Potentilla anserine in wet site were facilitated by N addition, conversely, both growths and CRA of Taraxacum mongolicum and Ligularia virgaurea were suppressed by N addition, indicating that the responses of CRA of target species under N addition were consistent with the N utilization strategies of them. Moreover, the facilitative effects of N addition on competitive-response abilities of Kobresia macrantha and Polygonum viviparum were not found at the dry site, illustrating that soil moisture can alter the changes of neighbour effects caused by N addition. Life strategy of dominant species in plant community on the undisturbed southeastern Tibetan Plateau may shift from N stress-tolerant to N competitive, if the N increases continuously. PMID:27922131

  13. The Effect of Chilling and Ce Addition on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Al-23Si Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vijeesh, V.; Narayan Prabhu, K.

    2017-01-01

    The present work involves the study of the effect of varying concentration of Ce addition on microstructure and mechanical properties of Al-23%Si alloys. Melt-treated alloys were solidified in copper, brass, stainless steel molds to assess the effect of cooling rate. The effect on microstructure was assessed by measuring the fineness of primary silicon and eutectic silicon particle characteristics. The Ce melt treatment transformed the coarse and irregular primary silicon into refined polyhedral silicon crystals, and the effect was more significant at higher cooling rates. Although the melt treatment had refined the eutectic silicon at lower cooling rates, it did not show any considerable effect on the eutectic silicon at higher cooling rates. The mechanical properties of the alloy increased significantly with increase in cooling rates and cerium concentration. Analysis of the results and literature reveals that the refined primary silicon was formed as a result of an invariant reaction between Ce compounds and primary silicon at higher temperatures.

  14. Anthelmintic effects of phytogenic feed additives in Ascaris suum inoculated pigs.

    PubMed

    van Krimpen, M M; Binnendijk, G P; Borgsteede, F H M; Gaasenbeek, C P H

    2010-03-25

    Two experiments were performed to determine the anthelmintic effect of some phytogenic feed additives on a mild infection of Ascaris suum in growing and finishing pigs. Usually, an infection of A. suum is controlled by using conventional synthetic drugs. Organic farmers, however, prefer a non-pharmaceutical approach to worm control. Therefore, phytotherapy could be an appropriate alternative. In the first experiment, a commercial available organic starter diet was supplemented with 3% of a herb mixture, adding 1% Thymus vulgaris, 1% Melissa officinalis and 1% Echinacea purpurea to the diet, or with 4% of a herb mixture, thereby adding the mentioned herbs plus 1% Camellia sinensis (black tea). A negative control group (no treatment) and a positive control group (treatment with conventional synthetic drug flubendazole) were included. In the second experiment, the anthelmintic properties against A. suum of three individual herbs, Carica papaya, Peumus boldus and Artemisia vulgaris, each in a dose of 1%, were tested. Pigs were infected with 1000 infective worm eggs each. Each experiment was performed with 32 individually housed growing pigs (8 replicates/treatment), which were monitored for 67 days. It was hypothesized that the herbs would block the cycles of the larvae, thereby preventing the development of adult worms. Therefore, phytogenic feed additives were not supplied during the whole experimental period, but only from the start until D39. Pigs were inoculated with infective worm eggs during five consecutive days (D17-D21). At D67 all pigs were dissected, whereafter livers were checked for the presence of white spots. Also numbers of worms in the small intestine were counted. In experiment 1, the numbers of worm-infected pigs were similar for both the herb supplemented (groups 3 and 4) and the unsupplemented (group 1) treatments (5-6 pigs of 8), while the treatment with flubendazole (group 2) resulted in 0 infected pigs. In experiment 2, herb addition (groups 2

  15. Short and mid-term effects of different biochar additions on soil GHG fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maier, Regine; Soja, Gerhard; Friesl-Hanl, Wolfgang; Dunst, Gerald; Kitzler, Barbara

    2015-04-01

    The application of biochar (BC) to soils may have a positive influence on physico-chemical soil properties and the mitigation of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Furthermore, biochar contributes to a long-term soil carbon sequestration. The aim of this study is to explore short and mid-term effects (one day up to six months) of different BC-compost applications on soil GHG emissions, particularly CO2, CH4, N2O and NOx. In addition, compounds of the nitrogen cycle like NH4+, NO3- and the microbial biomass nitrogen (Nmic) were measured. For this purpose a field experiment in Kaindorf (Styria/Austria, gleyic Cambisol, loamy, 376 m.a.s.l.) with 16 plots and four different treatments was conducted. K = no BC-compost mixture but fertilized (NH4SO4) corresponding to T3 in 2013; T1 = 1 % BC-compost mixture, no addition of N in 2013 and 2014; T2 = 0.5 % BC-compost mixture, + 175 kg N ha-1 in 2013 and 2014; T3 = 1% BC-compost mixture, + 350 kg N ha-1 in 2013. Nitrogen was added as (NH4)2SO4 directly to the freshly produced biochar before mixing it with compost. Greenhouse gas fluxes (CO2, CH4, N2O) were measured monthly from closed chambers in the field over a period of six months, starting 30 days before BC application and ended shortly before harvesting in September. For the analysis of nitric oxide (NO) fluxes intact soil cylinders were taken from each plot and incubated at the laboratory at ambient air temperature. Mineral N contents were measured by the extraction with KCl-solution and the microbial biomass with chloroform-fumigation extraction (CFE). Biochar application to our agricultural soil showed no reduction potential of NO emissions, but N2O fluxes were significantly lower at T1 and T3 compared to treatment K. Gaseous N fluxes of the pure BC-compost mixture and the additional N fertilization with (NH4)2SO4 led to enormous gaseous N losses in form of N2O and NO. However, after application to the soil, fluxes were only higher for a short time period. We suggest

  16. Additive Effect on Soybean Peroxidase-Catalyzed Removal of Anilines from Water

    PubMed Central

    Mazloum, Samar; Al-Ansari, Mohammed Mousa; Taylor, Keith; Bewtra, Jatinder K.; Biswas, Niharendu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Soybean peroxidase has been shown to be effective in removal of aromatic compounds from wastewater, while the use of additives effectively reduces enzyme concentration requirement, hence overall treatment cost. Enzymatic treatment, an oxidative polymerization, was successful in removal of over 95% of both aniline and o-anisidine. The originality of this study lies in the findings that the additives, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate (SDBS), Triton X-100, and sodium dodecanoate (SDOD), reduced enzyme concentration requirement, while polyethylene glycol (PEG, average molar mass of 3350 g/mol) had no effect on the required enzyme concentration. In addition, the presence of SDS also enhanced treatment by improving precipitation and color removal. These results are enabling advancement of soybean peroxidase-catalyzed treatment of anilines found in wastewaters as a new sustainable method. PMID:26989345

  17. [Effects of menthol as an additive in tobacco products and the need for regulation].

    PubMed

    Kahnert, S; Nair, U; Mons, U; Pötschke-Langer, M

    2012-03-01

    Menthol is the most widely used and the most prominent tobacco additive in tobacco products advertised and marketed by the tobacco industry. Besides its characteristic flavor, it possesses a variety of pharmacological properties facilitating tobacco smoke inhalation and potentiating dependence. These properties of menthol not only favor tobacco initiation and consumption but can also prevent smoking cessation. This article summarizes the effect of menthol as an additive in tobacco products and its effect on tobacco consumption that causes a number of chronic diseases and premature death and, therefore, counteracts tobacco control measures. Currently, there is no legislative regulation in Germany that considers the health hazard, addiction-enhancing and attractiveness-increasing properties of additives permitted in tobacco products. Effective regulation or even a ban could contribute to a reduction of tobacco consumption and, hence, save many people from a long-lasting tobacco dependence.

  18. Mechanisms and modeling of the effects of additives on the nitrogen oxides emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kundu, Krishna P.; Nguyen, Hung Lee; Kang, M. Paul

    1991-01-01

    A theoretical study on the emission of the oxides of nitrogen in the combustion of hydrocarbons is presented. The current understanding of the mechanisms and the rate parameters for gas phase reactions were used to calculate the NO(x) emission. The possible effects of different chemical species on thermal NO(x), on a long time scale were discussed. The mixing of these additives at various stages of combustion were considered and NO(x) concentrations were calculated; effects of temperatures were also considered. The chemicals such as hydrocarbons, H2, CH3OH, NH3, and other nitrogen species were chosen as additives in this discussion. Results of these calculations can be used to evaluate the effects of these additives on the NO(x) emission in the industrial combustion system.

  19. Effect of two-stage coagulant addition on coagulation-ultrafiltration process for treatment of humic-rich water.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ting; Chen, Zhong-lin; Yu, Wen-zheng; Shen, Ji-min; Gregory, John

    2011-08-01

    A novel two-stage coagulant addition strategy applied in a coagulation-ultrafiltration (UF) process for treatment of humic-rich water at neutral pH was investigated in this study. When aluminum sulfate (alum) doses were set at a ratio of 3:1 added during rapid mix stage and half way through flocculation stage, the integrated process of two-stage alum addition achieved almost the same organic matter removal as that of conventional one-stage alum addition at the same overall dose. Whereas membrane fouling could be effectively mitigated by the two-stage addition exhibited by trans-membrane pressure (TMP) developments. The TMP developments were found to be primarily attributed to external fouling on membrane surface, which was closely associated with floc characteristics. The results of jar tests indicated that the average size of flocs formed in two-stage addition mode roughly reached one half larger than that in one-stage addition mode, which implied a beneficial effect on membrane fouling reduction. Moreover, the flocs with more irregular structure and lower effective density resulted from the two-stage alum addition, which caused higher porosity of cake layer formed by such flocs on membrane surface. Microscopic observations of membrane surface demonstrated that internal fouling in membrane pores could be also remarkably limited by two-stage alum addition. It is likely that the freshly formed hydroxide precipitates were distinct in surface characteristics from the aged precipitates due to formation of more active groups or adsorption of more labile aluminum species. Consequently, the flocs could further connect and aggregate to contribute to preferable properties for filtration performance of the coagulation-UF process. As a simple and efficient approach, two-stage coagulant addition strategy could have great practical significance in coagulation-membrane processes.

  20. Effect of modifying additions on the physicomechanical properties of composites based on polyethylene and wastes from linen yarn production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kayaks, Ya. A.; Bulmanis, V. N.; Reikhmane, S. A.; Tsiprin, M. G.

    1997-07-01

    This article examines the feasibility of using coupling agents to alleviate the shortcomings characteristics of materials that contain natural fibers: low water resistance and a high degree of heterogeneity. A determination is made of the effect of additions of polyisocyanate and stearic acid on the fluidity of the melts and the strainstrength properties and water resistance of polyethylene composites containing mixtures of wastes from linen yarn production. It is shown that an addition of stearic acid significantly improves the dispersion of fibers in the composites, which in turn leads to a reduction in melt fluidity and an increase in elastic modulus in the high-filler-content region compared to composites that do not have additions of stearic acid. Additions of polyisocyanate appreciably increase the strength and water resistance of the given composites.

  1. Curcuma longa as feed additive in broiler birds and its patho-physiological effects.

    PubMed

    Kumari, P; Gupta, M K; Ranjan, R; Singh, K K; Yadava, R

    2007-03-01

    Broiler birds (Vencob chicken of 3 days old) when given feed mixed with powdered rhizome of Curcuma longa (CL; @ 1 g/kg) for 42 days of age, showed significant decrease in serum uric acid and albumin as compared to control, whereas significant increase was recorded in the level of serum total protein and globulin. Level of serum glucose, alkaline phosphatase, aspartate amino transferase and calcium showed no significant variation between the two groups. Micronutrient assay revealed significantly higher level of manganese, zinc, iron and copper in treated group as compared to control group. HA/HI test revealed better humoral response against RD vaccine in CL administered birds. Haematological study showed significantly higher haemoglobin and absolute neutrophil count in treated group. Addition of CL as feed additive also resulted in better growth rate, feed consumption and F:C efficiency in the treated birds. Thus, it could be concluded that powdered CL might be a useful feed additive, since it enhanced the F:C efficiency and had nephroprotective properties.

  2. Does the model of additive effect in placebo research still hold true? A narrative review

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Bettina; Weger, Ulrich; Heusser, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Personalised and contextualised care has been turned into a major demand by people involved in healthcare suggesting to move toward person-centred medicine. The assessment of person-centred medicine can be most effectively achieved if treatments are investigated using ‘with versus without’ person-centredness or integrative study designs. However, this assumes that the components of an integrative or person-centred intervention have an additive relationship to produce the total effect. Beecher’s model of additivity assumes an additive relation between placebo and drug effects and is thus presenting an arithmetic summation. So far, no review has been carried out assessing the validity of the additive model, which is to be questioned and more closely investigated in this review. Initial searches for primary studies were undertaken in July 2016 using Pubmed and Google Scholar. In order to find matching publications of similar magnitude for the comparison part of this review, corresponding matches for all included reviews were sought. A total of 22 reviews and 3 clinical and experimental studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The results pointed to the following factors actively questioning the additive model: interactions of various effects, trial design, conditioning, context effects and factors, neurobiological factors, mechanism of action, statistical factors, intervention-specific factors (alcohol, caffeine), side-effects and type of intervention. All but one of the closely assessed publications was questioning the additive model. A closer examination of study design is necessary. An attempt in a more systematic approach geared towards solutions could be a suggestion for future research in this field. PMID:28321318

  3. Analysis of error-prone survival data under additive hazards models: measurement error effects and adjustments.

    PubMed

    Yan, Ying; Yi, Grace Y

    2016-07-01

    Covariate measurement error occurs commonly in survival analysis. Under the proportional hazards model, measurement error effects have been well studied, and various inference methods have been developed to correct for error effects under such a model. In contrast, error-contaminated survival data under the additive hazards model have received relatively less attention. In this paper, we investigate this problem by exploring measurement error effects on parameter estimation and the change of the hazard function. New insights of measurement error effects are revealed, as opposed to well-documented results for the Cox proportional hazards model. We propose a class of bias correction estimators that embraces certain existing estimators as special cases. In addition, we exploit the regression calibration method to reduce measurement error effects. Theoretical results for the developed methods are established, and numerical assessments are conducted to illustrate the finite sample performance of our methods.

  4. Improved magneto-caloric effect of the Gd50Co50 metallic glass by minor Si addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, B. Z.; Yu, P.; Ding, D.; Wu, C.; Xia, L.

    2017-02-01

    In the present work, we studied the effect of minor Si addition on the magneto-caloric effect (MCE) of the Gd50Co50 metallic glass. The Gd50Co50-xSix (x=2, 5) as-spun ribbons show typical amorphous characteristics in structure and magneto-caloric behaviors. The peak values for the magnetic entropy change (-ΔSmpeak) of the Gd50Co50-xSix (x=0, 2, 5) metallic glasses increase significantly with the addition of Si. The mechanism for the enhanced MCE by minor addition of Si was investigated by revealing the relationship between -ΔSmpeak and the Curie temperature in the Gd-Co-based amorphous ribbons.

  5. [Effect of the incorporation of additives on the aging of corn starch gels and "arepas"].

    PubMed

    Rivero de Padua, M; Verde, O; Lucena de Orellana, M; Arias, J

    1988-12-01

    This research was carried out to investigate the effect of the incorporation of various additives on the ageing of corn starch and arepas. Starches were extracted from the endosperm of degerminated corn by a wet milling process, and its retrogradation, with or without the incorporation of additives was evaluated using the Brabender amilograph and by measuring the viscosity changes of the starch gels through time, using a Brookfield viscometer model RVT. The most effective additives in retarding the rate of ageing of starch gels, were used in the arepas. Likewise, trained panelists were utilized to find the levels of the additives incorporated in the arepas, by running taste threshold tests for each one of the additives. Textural changes of the arepas--maintained at two different storage temperatures, 9 degrees and 23 degrees C--were evaluated using an Instron texturometer. Preliminary tests with the corn starch allowed to choose the following additives: distilled monoglicerides, guar gum and hydrogenated vegetable oil. The effect of 15 different combinations of these additives on the texture of arepas was then studied, and findings revealed that only three of them were able to totally revert the retrogradation process, and maintain the hardness and elasticity within the expected range of a fresh-made arepa, when this is reheated until reaching a maximum temperature of 49 degrees C. A 66% of the hardening of the arepas prepared without additives can be reverted with the reheating process, but only if the product has not suffered dehydration. When stored for 24 hours at room temperature, unpacked arepas have a surface moisture loss of 47%, and even if reheated, hardening becomes irreversible in 84.6% of them.

  6. Effect of Ag, Ni and Bi Additions on Solderability of Lead-Free Solders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nobari, Amir Hossein; Maalekian, Mehran; Seelig, Karl; Pekguleryuz, Mihriban

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the effects of Ag, Ni and Bi additions on the melting, solidification, fluidity and wetting behavior of Sn-0.7Cu base solder alloy are studied. The addition of a small amount of Ni reduces the undercooling and improves the feeding distance (fluidity length); however, Ni does not improve the wetting and the spreading performance. The effect of Ni on the fluidity length of Ag-containing Sn-0.7Cu (SAC alloy) is marginal. Bi and Ag both improve wetting performance and also lower the melting temperature; however, they do not improve the fluidity; instead, they reduce the maximum length of fluidity.

  7. Additive antidepressant-like effects of fasting with imipramine via modulation of 5-HT2 receptors in the mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Bingjin; Zhao, Jing; Lv, Jiayin; Tang, Fang; Liu, Lei; Sun, Zhihui; Wang, Liang; Siwela, Sibongile P; Wang, Yinuo; Song, Yunong; Manchishi, Stephen M; Cui, Ranji

    2014-01-03

    Recently, studies show that intermittent fasting and caloric restriction may improve symptoms of depression. However, there is little scientific evidence regarding the literature on the antidepressant-like effects of acute fasting. The present study aims to investigate the antidepressant-like effects and its influence on brain levels of the transcription factor cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) and its phosphorylated form (p-CREB) in different time periods of fasting mice. Furthermore, the additive antidepressant-like effects of fasting with imipramine and the possible involvement of the 5-HT2 receptors were examined. In the present study 9h, but not 3h and 18h of fasting significantly reduced immobility time in the forced swimming test (FST) without alteration in locomotor activity in the open field test. 9h fasting also enhanced the ratio of p-CREB/CREB in the frontal cortex and hippocampus. Co-administration of 9h of fasting and imipramine (30mg/kg, i.p) produced the additive antidepressant-like effects in the FST and increased the ratio of p-CREB/CREB. Meanwhile, the additive effects were partially reversed by treatment with a 5-HT2A/2C receptor agonist, (±)-1-(2, 5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminopropane hydrochloride (DOI) (5mg/kg, s.c). Furthermore, the antidepressant-like effects of 9h fasting was also blocked by DOI compared to the non-fasting control group. Serum corticosterone level, but not 5-HT and noradrenaline, was significantly increased in a time-dependent manner following different time periods of fasting. Taken together, these results suggest that acute fasting produces antidepressant-like effects via enhancement of the p-CREB/CREB ratio, and additive antidepressant-like effects of fasting with imipramine may be related to modulating 5-HT2 receptors.

  8. Effect of Alum Additions to Poultry Litter on In-House Ammonia and Greenhouse Gas Concentrations and Emissions.

    PubMed

    Eugene, Branly; Moore, Philip A; Li, Hong; Miles, Dana; Trabue, Steven; Burns, Robert; Buser, Michael

    2015-09-01

    Alum [Al(SO4) ·14HO] addition to poultry litter has been shown to reduce ammonia (NH) concentrations in poultry houses; however, its effects on greenhouse gas (GHG; NO, CH, and CO) emissions is unknown. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of alum additions on (i) in-house NH and GHG concentrations, (ii) NH and GHG emissions, and (iii) litter chemical properties. Two identical broiler houses located in northwest Arkansas were used for this study: one house was a control and the other was treated with alum between each flock of birds. Ventilation rates were coupled with in-house NH and GHG measurements to determine emission rates. Overall, alum additions significantly reduced the daily average in-house NH concentration by 42% (8.9 vs. 15.4 μL L), and the overall NH emission rate was reduced by 47% (7.2 vs. 13.4 kg d house). The average cumulative NH emission for the three flocks was 330 kg house flock for the alum-treated house and 617 kg house flock for the control. Concentrations and emissions of nitrous oxide (NO) and methane (CH) from the alum-treated house were not significantly different than the untreated house. However, carbon dioxide (CO) emissions were significantly higher from the untreated house than the alum-treated house. Alum also significantly increased litter N content and reduced the C/N ratio. These results indicate that the addition of alum to poultry litter is not only an effective management practice for reducing in-house NH concentrations and emissions but also significantly reduces CO emissions from poultry facilities.

  9. Effects of ripening duration and rosemary powder addition on salchichon modified sausage quality.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jong-Hyun; Shim, Kwan-Seob; Shin, Daekeun

    2015-05-01

    The ripening durations and ingredients for the Salchichon sausages were modified to increase pork rear leg consumption by Korean consumers. The salchichon, a ripened pork sausage, was produced to evaluate the efficacy of two different ripening durations with and without rosemary powder on salchichon sausage quality, and the treatments were: i) 45 days of ripening without rosemary, ii) 60 days of ripening without rosemary, iii) 45 days of ripening with 0.05% rosemary, and iv) 60 days of ripening with 0.05% rosemary. Significant differences were observed in both moisture and fat content for ripening durations, with the highest moisture and least fat content observed in salchichon modified sausage (SMS) ripened for 45 days. Ripening duration and rosemary addition appeared to influence water activity (aw) of salchichon sausages. The aw of SMS ripened for 45 days was 0.80, whereas the other had aw values <0.80. Lactic acid bacteria were predominant, as Korean traditional fermented red pepper paste was added to sausages; however, the Bacillus cereus population was significantly affected by rosemary powder addition. Chewiness and gumminess decreased significantly due to the addition of rosemary powder compared to SMS without rosemary powder, and both 45 days of ripening and rosemary powder addition influenced the hardness of SMS. In conclusion, ripening duration of SMS for 45 days in the presence of rosemary powder provided superior SMS quality with an economical ripening duration compared to that of ripening with rosemary powder or ripening for 60 days.

  10. Effect of fluoride addition on the properties of dental alginate impression materials.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yong-Keun; Lim, Bum-Soon; Kim, Cheol-We

    2004-03-01

    Fluoride-containing dental alginate impression materials can exert a considerable reduction in enamel solubility. The objective was to evaluate the effects of fluoride addition in the alginate impression materials on the properties and subsequent release of fluoride. Four experimental alginate impression materials were studied. Materials were mixed with distilled water (control) or 100-ppm fluoride solution. One or two percent NaF, or 1% SnF2 was added to the materials, which were mixed with distilled water. Fluoride release, flexibility, recovery from deformation, setting time, compressive strength and elastic modulus were determined in accordance with the ISO 1563 and ANSI/ADA Spec. 18. Fluoride release increased after addition of fluoride, and the released amount was 0.762-14.761 ppm. Addition of NaF or SnF2 resulted in higher fluoride release than the control group (p < 0.05). After fluoride addition, flexibility was 15.45-20.27%, and the recovery from deformation did not change except one material. Compressive strength after fluoride addition was 0.36-1.12 MPa. Addition of NaF or SnF2 in an alginate impression material may result in effective release of fluoride without deteriorating the properties of material itself.

  11. Effects of silicon additions on the mechanical properties and microstructure of high speed steels

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, F.; Ding, P.; Zhou, S.; Kang, M.; Edmonds, D.V.

    1997-11-01

    The effects of silicon additions up to 3.5 wt% on the mechanical properties and microstructure of high speed steels 6W3Mo2Cr4V, W3Mo2Cr4V and W9Mo3Cr4V have been investigated. In order to understand these effects further, a Fe-16Mo-0.9C alloy is also used. The results show silicon additions can increase the temper hardness of steels Fe-16Mo-0.9C, 6W3Mo2Cr4V and W3Mo2Cr4V, bu yield an opposite influence on the temper hardness in W9Mo3Cr4V steels. A critical tempering temperature exists for the bending strength of high speed steels containing silicon. If tempering is carried out at temperatures lower than the critical temperature, the bending strength of the high speed steels can be improved by the addition of silicon, otherwise their bending strength is decreased. Transmission electron microscopy reveals that silicon additions can obviously refine secondary hardening carbides and inhibit the formation of M{sub 3}C cementite at peak temperature. However, they are also found to accelerate both the depletion of martensite and the formation of coarse M{sub 6}C precipitates during tempering. The mechanism whereby silicon additions affect the secondary hardness of high speed steels is discussed in detail, and the types of high speed steel in which silicon additions can be used are suggested.

  12. The effect of tailor-made additives on crystal growth of methyl paraben: Experiments and modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Zhihui; Liu, Yong; Song, Yang; Guan, Guoqiang; Jiang, Yanbin

    2017-03-01

    In this study, methyl paraben (MP) was selected as the model component, and acetaminophen (APAP), p-methyl acetanilide (PMAA) and acetanilide (ACET), which share the similar molecular structure as MP, were selected as the three tailor-made additives to study the effect of tailor-made additives on the crystal growth of MP. HPLC results indicated that the MP crystals induced by the three additives contained MP only. Photographs of the single crystals prepared indicated that the morphology of the MP crystals was greatly changed by the additives, but PXRD and single crystal diffraction results illustrated that the MP crystals were the same polymorph only with different crystal habits, and no new crystal form was found compared with other references. To investigate the effect of the additives on the crystal growth, the interaction between additives and facets was discussed in detail using the DFT methods and MD simulations. The results showed that APAP, PMAA and ACET would be selectively adsorbed on the growth surfaces of the crystal facets, which induced the change in MP crystal habits.

  13. Effects of biochar addition on the sorption of polar herbicides in paddy soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Jaramillo, Manuel; Cox, Lucía; Hermosín, Mari Carmen; Helmus, Rick; Parsons, John R.; Kalbitz, Karsten

    2016-04-01

    Organic amendments, and their water soluble fraction, induce an important impact on pesticide dissipation in soils, affecting their adsorption and transport processes through various chemical interactions. Although in most cases addition of organic amendments increases sorption, leaching of the pesticides can be either reduced or promoted. Because of that, their effect on pesticide behavior must be assessed in order to optimize their use. The major objectives of this study were to investigate the impact of biochar and biochar water extractable substances (BWES) on the sorption behavior of two polar herbicides, azimsulfuron and penoxsulam, in two amended and unamended paddy soils under flooded conditions. The adsorption - desorption of these herbicides was studied in soils amended with fresh biochar and in soils amended with a washed version of the biochar, simulating the conditions of a soil recently amended and a soil where biochar was applied longer time before and most part of the BWES has been already removed because of the flooded conditions. Therefore, sorption on biochar was assessed before and after removing 80% of its water extractable substances, separately and in combination with each soil (at 2 and 5% w/w). BWES were analyzed by high resolution mass spectrometry. The most abundant fractions present in the high mass range were nitrogen-containing molecules. The aromatic character of the DOC-extracts of the unamended and amended soils, based on the specific UV absorbance at 280 nm (SUVA280), was increased with the amendment in all the conditions tested. Adsorption data of both herbicides fitted very well to the Freundlich equation, with R2 values higher than 0.9 in all the conditions tested. Sorption isotherms were in all cases nonlinear, with Nf values <1, resembling L-type isotherms. Biochar had a very different effect on the sorptive properties of each soil. The highest sorption affinity of azimsulfuron to amended soils was observed for the soils

  14. How to get statistically significant effects in any ERP experiment (and why you shouldn't).

    PubMed

    Luck, Steven J; Gaspelin, Nicholas

    2017-01-01

    ERP experiments generate massive datasets, often containing thousands of values for each participant, even after averaging. The richness of these datasets can be very useful in testing sophisticated hypotheses, but this richness also creates many opportunities to obtain effects that are statistically significant but do not reflect true differences among groups or conditions (bogus effects). The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate how common and seemingly innocuous methods for quantifying and analyzing ERP effects can lead to very high rates of significant but bogus effects, with the likelihood of obtaining at least one such bogus effect exceeding 50% in many experiments. We focus on two specific problems: using the grand-averaged data to select the time windows and electrode sites for quantifying component amplitudes and latencies, and using one or more multifactor statistical analyses. Reanalyses of prior data and simulations of typical experimental designs are used to show how these problems can greatly increase the likelihood of significant but bogus results. Several strategies are described for avoiding these problems and for increasing the likelihood that significant effects actually reflect true differences among groups or conditions.

  15. Perceptual significance of seat-dip effect related direct sound coloration in concert halls.

    PubMed

    Tahvanainen, Henna; Haapaniemi, Aki; Lokki, Tapio

    2017-03-01

    In concert halls, the spectrum of direct sound (here 0 to 15 ms) is influenced by the seat-dip effect that causes selective low frequency attenuation. The seat-dip effect has been considered to be detrimental to the acoustic quality of halls, yet there is little evidence about the perceptual significance of the effect. This paper studies the discrimination and preference of seat-dip effect related changes in the direct sound, with realistic auralization of multichannel anechoic orchestra recordings in halls measured with the loudspeaker orchestra. Comparisons are made with a free-field direct sound and direct sound magnitude changes typically associated with the seat-dip effect. Overall, the differences were not significantly audible, except with a subgroup of participants in one out of four halls, and two out of three comparisons. Furthermore, participants' preference for the uncolored direct sound was significant in the halls with less reflected energy, but non-significant in the halls with more reflected energy. The results imply that for most seats in adequately reverberant halls, typical seat-dip effect related coloration in the direct sound can be perceptually negligible.

  16. The effect of lactic acid bacterial starter culture and chemical additives on wilted rice straw silage.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan-Su; Shi, Wei; Huang, Lin-Ting; Ding, Cheng-Long; Dai, Chuan-Chao

    2016-04-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are suitable for rice straw silage fermentation, but have been studied rarely, and rice straw as raw material for ensiling is difficult because of its disadvantages, such as low nutrition for microbial activities and low abundances of natural populations of LAB. So we investigated the effect of application of LAB and chemical additives on the fermentation quality and microbial community of wilted rice straw silage. Treatment with chemical additives increased the concentrations of crude protein (CP), water soluble carbohydrate (WSC), acetic acid and lactic acid, reduced the concentrations of acid detergent fiber (ADF) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF), but did not effectively inhibit the growth of spoilage organisms. Inoculation with LABs did not improve the nutritional value of the silage because of poor growth of LABs in wilted rice straw. Inoculation with LAB and addition of chemical materials improved the quality of silage similar to the effects of addition of chemical materials alone. Growth of aerobic and facultatively anaerobic bacteria was inhibited by this mixed treatment and the LAB gradually dominated the microbial community. In summary, the fermentation quality of wilted rice straw silage had improved by addition of LAB and chemical materials.

  17. Effect of Fuel Additives on Spray Performance of Alternative Jet Fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kannaiyan, Kumaran; Sadr, Reza

    2015-11-01

    Role of alternative fuels on reducing the combustion pollutants is gaining momentum in both land and air transport. Recent studies have shown that addition of nanoscale metal particles as fuel additives to liquid fuels have a positive effect not only on their combustion performance but also in reducing the pollutant formation. However, most of those studies are still in the early stages of investigation with the addition of nanoparticles at low weight percentages. Such an addition can affect the hydrodynamic and thermo-physical properties of the fuel. In this study, the near nozzle spray performance of gas-to-liquid jet fuel with and without the addition of alumina nanoparticles are investigated at macro- and microscopic levels using optical diagnostic techniques. At macroscopic level, the addition of nanoparticles is seen to enhance the sheet breakup process when compared to that of the base fuel. Furthermore, the microscopic spray characteristics such as droplet size and velocity are also found to be affected. Although the addition of nanoscale metal particles at low weight percentages does not affect the bulk fluid properties, the atomization process is found to be affected in the near nozzle region. Funded by Qatar National Research Fund.

  18. Effect of fructo-oligosaccharide and isomalto-oligosaccharide addition on baking quality of frozen dough.

    PubMed

    Park, Eun Young; Jang, Sung-Bum; Lim, Seung-Taik

    2016-12-15

    The baking quality of frozen doughs containing different levels of fructo-oligosaccharides (FO) or isomalto-oligosaccharides (IMO) (3-9%, w/w flour), and stored for 0-8weeks at -18°C, was examined. The addition of FO or IMO increased the proof volume of the dough and the loaf volume of bread prepared from frozen dough. A 6% addition of FO or IMO was optimum, giving the highest proof volume and bread loaf volume, but a higher concentration than 6% induced low baking quality including lower proof volume and bread loaf volume. The bread crumb was moister and softer after the addition of FO or IMO before, and even after, frozen storage. Darker crumb colour was observed in the bread after the addition of FO or IMO. The oligosaccharides added to the frozen dough were effective in improving the quality of bread made from frozen dough, except for resulting in a darker bread crumb.

  19. Assessment of additive/nonadditive effects in structure-activity relationships: implications for iterative drug design.

    PubMed

    Patel, Yogendra; Gillet, Valerie J; Howe, Trevor; Pastor, Joaquin; Oyarzabal, Julen; Willett, Peter

    2008-12-11

    Free-Wilson (FW) analysis is common practice in medicinal chemistry and is based on the assumption that the contributions to activity made by substituents at different substitution positions are additive. We analyze eight near complete combinatorial libraries assayed on several different biological response(s) (GPCR, ion channel, kinase and P450 targets) and show that only half-exhibit clear additive behavior, which leads us to question the concept of additivity that is widely taken for granted in drug discovery. Next, we report a series of retrospective experiments in which subsets are extracted from the libraries for FW analysis to determine the minimum attributes (size, distribution of substituents, and activity range) necessary to reach the same conclusion about additive/nonadditive effects. These attributes can provide guidelines on when it is appropriate to apply FW analysis as well as for library design, and they also have important implications for further steps in iterative drug design.

  20. Additive effects of maternal iron deficiency and prenatal immune activation on adult behaviors in rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Louise; Boksa, Patricia

    2014-08-01

    Both iron deficiency (ID) and infection are common during pregnancy and studies have described altered brain development in offspring as a result of these individual maternal exposures. Given their high global incidence, these two insults may occur simultaneously during pregnancy. We recently described a rat model which pairs dietary ID during pregnancy and prenatal immune activation. Pregnant rats were placed on iron sufficient (IS) or ID diets from embryonic day 2 (E2) until postnatal day 7, and administered the bacterial endotoxin, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or saline on E15/16. In this model, LPS administration on E15 caused greater induction of the pro-inflammatory cytokines, interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α, in ID dams compared to IS dams. This suggested that the combination of prenatal immune activation on a background of maternal ID might have more adverse neurodevelopmental consequences for the offspring than exposure to either insult alone. In this study we used this model to determine whether combined exposure to maternal ID and prenatal immune activation interact to affect juvenile and adult behaviors in the offspring. We assessed behaviors relevant to deficits in humans or animals that have been associated with exposure to either maternal ID or prenatal immune activation alone. Adult offspring from ID dams displayed significant deficits in pre-pulse inhibition of acoustic startle and in passive avoidance learning, together with increases in cytochrome oxidase immunohistochemistry, a marker of metabolic activity, in the ventral hippocampus immediately after passive avoidance testing. Offspring from LPS treated dams showed a significant increase in social behavior with unfamiliar rats, and subtle locomotor changes during exploration in an open field and in response to amphetamine. Surprisingly, there was no interaction between effects of the two insults on the behaviors assessed, and few observed alterations in juvenile behavior. Our findings

  1. Effects of mineral additions on durability and physico-mechanical properties of mortar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Logbi, A.; Kriker, A.; Snisna, Z.

    2017-02-01

    This paper consists of an experimental study of the effect of some mineral admixtures on the properties of mortar. Blast furnace Slag of El-Hadjar, natural pozzolan of Beni saf and limestone of Ghardaia, all from Algeria, are crushed in high fineness and incorporated in the cement with different contents (15 % 20 % and 10%) respectively, in order to perform the physico-mechanical characteristics and durability of the mortar. The replacement of cement by 15% of natural pozzolan, or 20% of the Blast furnace Slag improves the mechanical performances of mortar in early and long ages than the mortar without additions, but 10% of limestone fillers have a positive effect only at early age. For durability the three additions have developed a beneficial effect on mechanical resistance under the free aquifers water, while their effects are different on capillary absorption.

  2. Testcross additive and dominance effects in best linear unbiased prediction of maize single-cross performance.

    PubMed

    Bernardo, R

    1996-11-01

    Best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP) has been found to be useful in maize (Zea mays L.) breeding. The advantage of including both testcross additive and dominance effects (Intralocus Model) in BLUP, rather than only testcross additive effects (Additive Model), has not been clearly demonstrated. The objective of this study was to compare the usefulness of Intralocus and Additive Models for BLUP of maize single-cross performance. Multilocation data from 1990 to 1995 were obtained from the hybrid testing program of Limagrain Genetics. Grain yield, moisture, stalk lodging, and root lodging of untested single crosses were predicted from (1) the performance of tested single crosses and (2) known genetic relationships among the parental inbreds. Correlations between predicted and observed performance were obtained with a delete-one cross-validation procedure. For the Intralocus Model, the correlations ranged from 0.50 to 0.66 for yield, 0.88 to 0.94 for moisture, 0.47 to 0.69 for stalk lodging, and 0.31 to 0.45 for root lodging. The BLUP procedure was consistently more effective with the Intralocus Model than with the Additive Model. When the Additive Model was used instead of the Intralocus Model, the reductions in the correlation were largest for root lodging (0.06-0.35), smallest for moisture (0.00-0.02), and intermediate for yield (0.02-0.06) and stalk lodging (0.02-0.08). The ratio of dominance variance (v D) to total genetic variance (v G) was highest for root lodging (0.47) and lowest for moisture (0.10). The Additive Model may be used if prior information indicates that VD for a given trait has little contribution to VG. Otherwise, the continued use of the Intralocus Model for BLUP of single-cross performance is recommended.

  3. The effect of additive compounds on glycerol-induced damage to human chondrocytes.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Joshua; Laouar, Leila; Elliott, Janet A W; Korbutt, Gregory S; Jomha, Nadr M

    2017-04-01

    High concentrations of cryoprotective agents are required for cryopreservation techniques such as vitrification. Glycerol is a common cryoprotective agent used in cryopreservation protocols but this agent is toxic at high concentrations. This work is an attempt to mitigate the toxic effects of high concentrations of glycerol on intact chondrocytes in human knee articular cartilage from total knee arthroplasty patients by simultaneous exposure to glycerol and a variety of additive compounds. The resulting cell viability in the cartilage samples as measured by membrane integrity staining showed that, in at least one concentration or in combination, all of the tested additive compounds (tetramethylpyrazine, ascorbic acid, chondroitin sulphate, glucosamine sulphate) were able to reduce the deleterious effects of glycerol exposure when examination of membrane integrity took place on a delayed time frame. The use of additive compounds to reduce cryoprotectant toxicity in articular cartilage may help improve cell recovery after cryopreservation.

  4. Effects of magnesium chloride and organic additives on the synthesis of aragonite precipitated calcium carbonate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Woon Kyoung; Ko, Sang-Jin; Lee, Seung Woo; Cho, Kye-Hong; Ahn, Ji-Whan; Han, Choon

    2008-05-01

    The synthesis of aragonite precipitated calcium carbonate by treating a suspension of Ca(OH) 2 with CO 2 gas was investigated with regard to the effects of Mg 2+ ions and organic additives on polymorphism and alternative orientations. In the presence of a small amount of Mg 2+, Mg-calcite formed, but as the Mg 2+ ion concentration increased, the amount of Mg-calcite decreased and the amount of aragonite increased. Thus, the formation of Mg-calcite is suppressed and only aragonite is formed in the presence of 60 mol% MgCl 2. As the Mg 2+ ion concentration increased, the aragonite that formed was found to have decreased in terms of its longitude and aspect ratio. Furthermore, the effect of Mg 2+ ions in conjunction with organic additives was also investigated with regard to polymorphs and morphology and the structure-forming properties of the organic additives.

  5. [The real-world effectiveness of personal protective equipment and additional risks for workers' health].

    PubMed

    Denisov, É I; Morozova, T V; Adeninskaia, E E; Kur'erov, N N

    2013-01-01

    The effectiveness of personal protective equipment (PPE) of hearing, respiratory organs and hands is considered. It is shown that real effect of PPE is twice lower than declared by supplier; this presumes some derating system. The aspects of discomfort and additional risks are analyzed. The hygienic and physiologic evaluation of PPE is required along with elaboration of an official document (OSH standard or sanitary regulation) on selection, personal fit, organization of use and individual training of workers and their motivation.

  6. The Effectiveness of an Additional Stretching Exercise Program in Improving Flexibility Level among Preschool Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Wee Akina Sia Seng; Rengasamy, Shabeshan A/L; Raju, Subramaniam A/L

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effectiveness of a two minutes' additional stretching exercise program in a 30 minutes games teaching lesson in improving the flexibility level of 6 year old preschool boys (M = 5.92, SD = 0.27) in a preschool in Malaysia. Fifty (50) preschool boys were selected for the study based on the intact sampling…

  7. Thermodynamic method of calculating the effect of alloying additives on interphase interaction in composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tuchinsky, L. I.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of alloying additives to the matrix of a composite on the high temperature solubility rate of a single component fiber was analyzed thermodynamically. With an example of binary Ni alloys, with Group IV-VI transition metals reinforced with W fibers, agreement between the calculated and experimental data was demonstrated.

  8. 20 CFR 725.309 - Additional claims; effect of a prior denial of benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Additional claims; effect of a prior denial of benefits. 725.309 Section 725.309 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT STANDARDS ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, AS AMENDED CLAIMS FOR BENEFITS...

  9. Biodegradability testing of synthetic ester lubricants--effects of additives and usage.

    PubMed

    Eisentraeger, Adolf; Schmidt, Martin; Murrenhoff, Hubertus; Dott, Wolfgang; Hahn, Stefan

    2002-07-01

    The optimised biodegradability test system "O2/CO2 Headspace Test with GC-TCD" is used for the assessment of synthetic ester lubricants. The effects of both additives and usage on biodegradability are examined and discussed. Ester based cutting fluids and hydraulic fluids with and without additives are used under defined conditions at machine tools and hydraulic and plain bearing test benches. The lubricants are characterised additionally with respect to kinematic viscosity, acidity and elemental composition. Furthermore, a formulated mineral oil is characterised before and after usage at an hydraulic test bench. The results clearly show that the mineral oil is far less biodegradable than the ester oils and that their biodegradability is not affected by usage. Biodegradability of the ester oils is mainly depending on the characteristics of the base fluids and not affected by the additives. Antioxidants are influencing stability respectively biodegradability indirectly, since they prevent oxopolymerisation effects. Other effects of usage on biodegradation are not detected. In this context, the antioxidants ensure ready biodegradability and have a positive effect on the environmental fate of synthetic ester lubricants.

  10. EFFECT OF A WHOLE-CATCHMENT N ADDITION ON STREAM DETRITUS PROCESSING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Bear Brook Watershed in Maine (BBWM) is a paired catchment study investigating ecosystem effects of N and S deposition. Because of the decade long (NH4)2SO4 addition, the treatment catchment has higher stream NO3 and enriched foliar N concentrations compared to the reference ...

  11. Additive Effects of Stimulus Quality and Word Frequency on Eye Movements during Chinese Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Pingping; Li, Xingshan; Han, Buxin

    2015-01-01

    Eye movements of Chinese readers were recorded for sentences in which high- and low-frequency target words were presented normally or with reduced stimulus quality in two experiments. We found stimulus quality and word frequency produced strong additive effects on fixation durations for target words. The results demonstrate that stimulus quality…

  12. The Effect of Enzyme Addition on Anaerobic Digestion of Jose Tall Wheat Grass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of the addition of enzyme products containing cellulase, hemicellulase, and Beta-glucosidase to anaerobic digestion systems were studied. Anaerobic digestion tests were performed using batch reactors operated at 35°C. The application of enzyme products in three digestion configurations w...

  13. 20 CFR 410.535 - Reductions; effect of an additional claim for benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Reductions; effect of an additional claim for benefits. 410.535 Section 410.535 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, TITLE IV-BLACK LUNG BENEFITS (1969- ) Payment of Benefits §...

  14. 20 CFR 410.535 - Reductions; effect of an additional claim for benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reductions; effect of an additional claim for benefits. 410.535 Section 410.535 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, TITLE IV-BLACK LUNG BENEFITS (1969- ) Payment of Benefits §...

  15. Additive protective effects of the addition of lactic acid and adrenaline on excitability and force in isolated rat skeletal muscle depressed by elevated extracellular K+

    PubMed Central

    de Paoli, Frank Vincenzo; Overgaard, Kristian; Pedersen, Thomas Holm; Nielsen, Ole Bækgaard

    2007-01-01

    During strenuous exercise, extracellular K+ ([K+]o) is increased, which potentially can reduce muscle excitability and force production. In addition, exercise leads to accumulation of lactate and H+ and increased levels of circulating catecholamines. Individually, reduced pH and increased catecholamines have been shown to counteract the depressing effect of elevated K+. This study examines (i) whether the effects of addition of lactic acid and adrenaline on the excitability of isolated muscles are caused by separate mechanisms and are additive and (ii) whether the effect of adding lactic acid or increasing CO2 is related to a reduction of intra- or extracellular pH. Rat soleus muscles were incubated at a [K+]o of 15 mm, which reduced tetanic force by 85%. Subsequent addition of 20 mm lactic acid or 10−5m adrenaline led to a small recovery of force, but when added together induced an almost complete force recovery. Compound action potentials showed that the force recovery was associated with recovery of muscle excitability. The improved excitability after addition of adrenaline was associated with increased Na+–K+ pump activity resulting in hyperpolarization and an increase in the chemical Na+ gradient. In contrast, addition of lactic acid had no effect on the membrane potential or the Na+–K+ pump activity, but most likely increased excitability via a reduction in intracellular pH. It is concluded that the protective effects of acidosis and adrenaline on muscle excitability and force took place via different mechanisms and were additive. The results suggest that circulating catecholamines and development of acidosis during exercise may improve the tolerance of muscles to elevated [K+]o. PMID:17347268

  16. Additive protective effects of the addition of lactic acid and adrenaline on excitability and force in isolated rat skeletal muscle depressed by elevated extracellular K+.

    PubMed

    de Paoli, Frank Vincenzo; Overgaard, Kristian; Pedersen, Thomas Holm; Nielsen, Ole Baekgaard

    2007-06-01

    During strenuous exercise, extracellular K(+) ([K(+)](o)) is increased, which potentially can reduce muscle excitability and force production. In addition, exercise leads to accumulation of lactate and H(+) and increased levels of circulating catecholamines. Individually, reduced pH and increased catecholamines have been shown to counteract the depressing effect of elevated K(+). This study examines (i) whether the effects of addition of lactic acid and adrenaline on the excitability of isolated muscles are caused by separate mechanisms and are additive and (ii) whether the effect of adding lactic acid or increasing CO(2) is related to a reduction of intra- or extracellular pH. Rat soleus muscles were incubated at a [K(+)](o) of 15 mM, which reduced tetanic force by 85%. Subsequent addition of 20 mM lactic acid or 10(-5) M adrenaline led to a small recovery of force, but when added together induced an almost complete force recovery. Compound action potentials showed that the force recovery was associated with recovery of muscle excitability. The improved excitability after addition of adrenaline was associated with increased Na(+)-K(+) pump activity resulting in hyperpolarization and an increase in the chemical Na(+) gradient. In contrast, addition of lactic acid had no effect on the membrane potential or the Na(+)-K(+) pump activity, but most likely increased excitability via a reduction in intracellular pH. It is concluded that the protective effects of acidosis and adrenaline on muscle excitability and force took place via different mechanisms and were additive. The results suggest that circulating catecholamines and development of acidosis during exercise may improve the tolerance of muscles to elevated [K(+)](o).

  17. Effect of vermicomposting on concentration and speciation of heavy metals in sewage sludge with additive materials.

    PubMed

    He, Xin; Zhang, Yaxin; Shen, Maocai; Zeng, Guangming; Zhou, Mucen; Li, Meirong

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the total content and speciation of heavy metals (As, Cr, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) during vermicomposting of sewage sludge by Eisenia fetida earthworm with different additive materials (soil, straw, fly ash and sawdust). Results showed that the pH, total organic carbon were reduced, while the electric conductivity and germination index increased after a combined composting - vermicomposting process. The addition of bulking agents accelerated the stabilization of sludge and eliminated its toxicity. The total heavy metals after vermicomposting in 10 scenarios were lowered as compared with the initial values and the control without amendment. BCR sequential extraction indicated that vermicomposting significantly decreased the mobility of all heavy metals by increasing the residual fractions. The activity of earthworms and appropriate addition of amendment materials played a positive role in sequestering heavy metals during the treatment of sewage sludge.

  18. Effects of waste glass additions on quality of textile sludge-based bricks.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Ari; Urabe, Takeo; Kishimoto, Naoyuki; Mizuhara, Shinji

    2015-01-01

    This research investigated the utilization of textile sludge as a substitute for clay in brick production. The addition of textile sludge to a brick specimen enhanced its pores, thus reducing the quality of the product. However, the addition of waste glass to brick production materials improved the quality of the brick in terms of both compressive strength and water absorption. Maximum compressive strength was observed with the following composition of waste materials: 30% textile sludge, 60% clay and 10% waste glass. The melting of waste glass clogged up pores on the brick, which improved water absorption performance and compressive strength. Moreover, a leaching test on a sludge-based brick to which 10% waste glass did not detect significant heavy metal compounds in leachates, with the product being in conformance with standard regulations. The recycling of textile sludge for brick production, when combined with waste glass additions, may thus be promising in terms of both product quality and environmental aspects.

  19. [Effects of nitrogen addition on soil physico-chemical properties and enzyme activities in desertified steppe].

    PubMed

    Su, Jie-Qiong; Li, Xin-Rong; Bao, Jing-Ting

    2014-03-01

    To investigate the impacts of nitrogen (N) enrichment on soil physico-chemical property and soil enzyme activities in desert ecosystems, a field experiment by adding N at 0, 1.75, 3.5, 7, or 14 g N x m(-2) a(-1) was conducted in a temperate desert steppe in the southeastern fringe of the Tengger Desert. The results showed that N addition led to accumulations of total N, NO(3-)-N, NH(4+)-N, and available N in the upper soil (0-10 cm) and subsoil (10-20 cm), however, reductions in soil pH were observed, causing soil acidification to some extent. N addition pronouncedly inhibited soil enzyme activities, which were different among N addition levels, soil depths, and years, respectively. Soil enzyme activities were significantly correlated with the soil N level, soil pH, and soil moisture content, respectively.

  20. Effects of chemical additives on filtration and rheological characteristics of MBR sludge.

    PubMed

    Koseoglu, H; Yigit, N O; Civelekoglu, G; Harman, B I; Kitis, M

    2012-08-01

    The main goal of this study was to control the fouling phenomena in MBR using chemical additives. In the first phase of the study, SMP removal and bound EPS formation capacity of chemical additives were determined. Highest SMP removal (72%) was achieved by the Poly-2 additive. In the second phase of the study, short term filtration tests were conducted. Poly-1 exhibited highest performance based on membrane resistance, permeability and average TMP. According to the results obtained from constant shear rate tests in fourth phase, no significant change in viscosity with time was observed. Studies for the adaptation of rheograms to common flow models showed that chitosan and starch was not able to fit to Ostwald de Waele and Bingham models. At a shear rate of 73.4 s(-1) viscosities of all samples were close to each other. Chitosan and starch achieved highest viscosity values at the shear rate of 0.6 s(-1).

  1. Effect of inorganic additives on the growth of silica-carbonate biomorphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakouzi, Elias; Rendina, Ryan; Palui, Goutam; Steinbock, Oliver

    2016-10-01

    Silica-barium carbonate biomorphs are complex precipitate microstructures that form by purely inorganic processes. They display life-like morphologies with smoothly curved surfaces that are not restricted to crystallographic symmetries. We investigate the morphogenetic influence of inorganic dopants that compete with the barium carbonate precipitation. Trace deposition of alkaline earth or transition metal additives causes significant changes to the crystal morphologies. In the case of Pb2+ and Ag+ ions, biomorph growth is disrupted by the formation of competing precipitates. Similarly, the addition of Ca2+, Mg2+, and Zn2+ induces the rapid crystallization of witherite or amorphous silica-carbonate aggregates at enhanced growth rates. By comparison, the addition of strontium ions results in the assembly of classic biomorphs such as cardioid sheets and helices. The procedures reported here exemplify the use of co-depositing agents to influence the compositional and crystallographic properties in a manner similar to magnesium-doped biogenic calcites.

  2. The Effect Of ZnO Addition On Co/C Catalyst For Vapor And Aqueous Phase Reforming Of Ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, Stephen; Sun, Junming; Hong, Yongchun; Karim, Ayman M.; Datye, Abhaya K.; Wang, Yong

    2014-02-05

    The effect of ZnO addition on the oxidation behavior of Co along with catalytic performance in vapor and aqueous phase reforming of ethanol were investigated on Co supported on carbon black (XC-72R). Carbon was selected to minimize the support interactions. Effect of ZnO addition during both vapor and aqueous phase reforming were compared at 250 °C. ZnO addition inhibited the reduction of cobalt oxides by H2 and created surface sites for H2O activation. During vapor phase reforming at 450 °C the redox of cobalt, driven by steam oxidation and H2 reduction, trended to an equilibrium of Co0/Co2+. ZnO showed no significant effect on cobalt oxidation, inferred from the minor changes of C1 product yield. Surface sites created by ZnO addition enhanced water activation and oxidation of surface carbon species, increasing CO2 selectivity. At 250 °C cobalt reduction was minimal, in situ XANES demonstrated that ZnO addition significantly facilitated oxidation of Co0 under vapor phase reforming conditions, demonstrated by lower C1 product yield. Sites introduced by ZnO addition improved the COx selectivity at 250 °C. Both Co/C and Co-ZnO/C rapidly oxidized under aqueous phase reaction conditions at 250 °C, showing negligible activity in aqueous phase reforming. This work suggests that ZnO affects the activation of H2O for Co catalysts in ethanol reforming.

  3. [Effects of applying nitrogen fertilizer and fertilizer additive on rice yield and rice plant nitrogen uptake, translocation, and utilization].

    PubMed

    Li, Wen-jun; Xia, Yong-qiu; Yang, Xiao-yun; Guo, Miao; Yan, Xiao-yuan

    2011-09-01

    A field experiment was conducted in the Taihu Lake region of southern Jiangsu to study the effects of applying nitrogen (N) fertilizer and fertilizer additive on the rice yield and the rice plant N uptake, translocation, and utilization. Applying N fertilizer had significant positive effects on the rice yield, accumulative absorbed N at all growth stages and at each growth stage, and N translocation rate after anthesis (P < 0.01). However, when the N application rate exceeded 200 kg x hm(-2), its yield-increasing effect was not significant (P > 0.05). The N translocation rate after anthesis and the N fertilizer use efficiency decreased with increasing N application rate. Applying fertilizer additive further improved the rice yield, accumulative absorbed N, N translocation rate after anthesis, and N fertilizer use efficiency, and this effect was more evident when the N application rate was equal to or greater than 200 kg x hm(-2). Relatively high rice yield and N use efficiency were achieved when applying 150 kg x hm(-2) of N fertilizer without the application of fertilizer additive.

  4. Low-dose adolescent nicotine and methylphenidate have additive effects on adult behavior and neurochemistry.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, Tracey L; Smith, Laura N; Bachus, Susan E; McDonald, Craig G; Fryxell, Karl J; Smith, Robert F

    2013-02-01

    Adolescents with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) have higher rates of smoking than adolescents without ADHD. Since methylphenidate is the primary drug used to treat ADHD, it is likely that many adolescents are exposed to both methylphenidate and nicotine. Recent studies have established that adolescent nicotine induces long-term changes in several neurobehavioral variables. Limited data also suggest that adolescent methylphenidate may affect neural development. Nicotine tolerance is a well-established behavioral phenomenon in rodents, yet the underlying mechanism remains elusive. Recent theories suggest that changes in ventral striatal dopamine indices may relate to nicotine tolerance. As an initial determination of whether nicotine and methylphenidate have additive effects on neurobehavioral development, the present study investigated the combined effects of adolescent nicotine [2mg/kg/d] alone or in conjunction with methylphenidate [1.5mg/kg, 2× daily] following a one-month drug free period on adult behavioral tolerance to nicotine [0.5mg/kg s.c.] and its relation to dopamine receptor mRNA expression in the ventral striatum. Animals with chronic combined (nicotine+methylphenidate) adolescent exposure displayed stronger tolerance as adults to the nicotine-induced locomotor effects in comparison to animals with adolescent exposure to nicotine alone, methylphenidate alone, or controls. Combined chronic adolescent exposure significantly elevated adult D3nf mRNA expression levels in the nucleus accumbens, however a single nicotine injection in adults increased D3nf mRNA levels in naïve animals and decreased D3nf mRNA levels in those that had been previously exposed to combined stimulants during adolescence. Conversely, a single adult nicotine injection increased D1 mRNA levels in the adult nucleus accumbens, particularly in the shell, but only in rats previously exposed to nicotine or methylphenidate as adolescents. To our knowledge this is the first

  5. Effects of Nitrogen Addition on Nitrogen Resorption in Temperate Shrublands in Northern China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianhua; Li, He; Shen, Haihua; Chen, Yahan; Fang, Jingyun; Tang, Zhiyao

    2015-01-01

    Nutrient resorption from senescing leaves is a key mechanism of nutrient conservation for plants. The nutrient resorption efficiency is highly dependent on leaf nutrient status, species identity and soil nutrient availability. Nitrogen is a limiting nutrient in most ecosystems, it is widely reported that nitrogen resorption efficiency (NRE) was highly dependent on the soil nitrogen availability and vary with N deposition. The effects of nitrogen deposition on NRE and nitrogen concentration in green and senescing leaves have been well established for forests and grasslands; in contrast, little is known on how plants in shrublands respond to nitrogen deposition across the world. In this study, we conducted a two-year nitrogen addition manipulation experiment to explore the responses of nitrogen concentration in green and senescing leaves, and NRE of seven dominant species, namely, Vitex negundo, Wikstroemia chamaedaphne, Carex rigescens and Cleistogenes chinensis from the Vitex negundo community, and Spirea trilobata, Armeniaca sibirica, V. negundo, C. rigescens and Spodiopogon sibiricus from the Spirea trilobata community, to nitrogen deposition in two typical shrub communities of Mt. Dongling in northern China. Results showed that NRE varied remarkably among different life forms, which was lowest in shrubs, highest in grasses, and intermediate in forbs, implying that shrubs may be most capable of obtaining nitrogen from soil, grasses may conserve more nitrogen by absorption from senescing leaves, whereas forbs may adopt both mechanisms to compete for limited nitrogen supply from the habitats. As the N addition rate increases, N concentration in senescing leaves ([N]s) increased consistent from all species from both communities, that in green leaves ([N]g) increased for all species from the Vitex negundo community, while no significant responses were found for all species from the Spirea trilobata community; NRE decreased for all species except A. sibirica from the

  6. Effects of Nitrogen Addition on Nitrogen Resorption in Temperate Shrublands in Northern China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jianhua; Li, He; Shen, Haihua; Chen, Yahan; Fang, Jingyun; Tang, Zhiyao

    2015-01-01

    Nutrient resorption from senescing leaves is a key mechanism of nutrient conservation for plants. The nutrient resorption efficiency is highly dependent on leaf nutrient status, species identity and soil nutrient availability. Nitrogen is a limiting nutrient in most ecosystems, it is widely reported that nitrogen resorption efficiency (NRE) was highly dependent on the soil nitrogen availability and vary with N deposition. The effects of nitrogen deposition on NRE and nitrogen concentration in green and senescing leaves have been well established for forests and grasslands; in contrast, little is known on how plants in shrublands respond to nitrogen deposition across the world. In this study, we conducted a two-year nitrogen addition manipulation experiment to explore the responses of nitrogen concentration in green and senescing leaves, and NRE of seven dominant species, namely, Vitex negundo, Wikstroemia chamaedaphne, Carex rigescens and Cleistogenes chinensis from the Vitex negundo community, and Spirea trilobata, Armeniaca sibirica, V. negundo, C. rigescens and Spodiopogon sibiricus from the Spirea trilobata community, to nitrogen deposition in two typical shrub communities of Mt. Dongling in northern China. Results showed that NRE varied remarkably among different life forms, which was lowest in shrubs, highest in grasses, and intermediate in forbs, implying that shrubs may be most capable of obtaining nitrogen from soil, grasses may conserve more nitrogen by absorption from senescing leaves, whereas forbs may adopt both mechanisms to compete for limited nitrogen supply from the habitats. As the N addition rate increases, N concentration in senescing leaves ([N]s) increased consistent from all species from both communities, that in green leaves ([N]g) increased for all species from the Vitex negundo community, while no significant responses were found for all species from the Spirea trilobata community; NRE decreased for all species except A. sibirica from the

  7. Econometric analysis of the changing effects in wind strength and significant wave height on the probability of casualty in shipping.

    PubMed

    Knapp, Sabine; Kumar, Shashi; Sakurada, Yuri; Shen, Jiajun

    2011-05-01

    This study uses econometric models to measure the effect of significant wave height and wind strength on the probability of casualty and tests whether these effects changed. While both effects are in particular relevant for stability and strength calculations of vessels, it is also helpful for the development of ship construction standards in general to counteract increased risk resulting from changing oceanographic conditions. The authors analyzed a unique dataset of 3.2 million observations from 20,729 individual vessels in the North Atlantic and Arctic regions gathered during the period 1979-2007. The results show that although there is a seasonal pattern in the probability of casualty especially during the winter months, the effect of wind strength and significant wave height do not follow the same seasonal pattern. Additionally, over time, significant wave height shows an increasing effect in January, March, May and October while wind strength shows a decreasing effect, especially in January, March and May. The models can be used to simulate relationships and help understand the relationships. This is of particular interest to naval architects and ship designers as well as multilateral agencies such as the International Maritime Organization (IMO) that establish global standards in ship design and construction.

  8. Effect of ensiling and silage additives on fatty acid composition of ryegrass and corn experimental silages.

    PubMed

    Alves, S P; Cabrita, A R J; Jerónimo, E; Bessa, R J B; Fonseca, A J M

    2011-08-01

    Two experiments were conducted using laboratory mini-silos to study the effect of ensiling and silage additives on fatty acid (FA) composition, including minor or unusual FA, of ryegrass and corn silages. Ryegrass was ensiled for 12 wk with no additives, with the addition of a bacterial inoculant or formic acid. Corn was ensiled for 9 wk without additives, with the addition of a bacterial inoculant or calcium formate. Ensiling affected both total FA content and FA composition of ryegrass silages. Total FA concentration increased (P < 0.001) during ryegrass ensiling. The proportions (g/100 g of total FA) of the major unsaturated FA, 18:3n-3 and 18:2n-6, were not affected (P > 0.05) by ensiling. However, their concentration (mg/g of DM) in silages was greater (P=0.017 and P=0.001, respectively) than in fresh ryegrass. Two 18:2 FA (trans-11,cis-15 and cis-9,cis-15) that were not originally present in the fresh ryegrass were detected in silages. Silage additives affected the FA composition of ryegrass silages, mostly by increasing the proportions of SFA, but not on total FA concentration. Ensiling did not affect (P=0.83) total FA content of corn silages; however, FA composition was affected, mostly by decreasing the proportions of 18:2n-6 and 18:3n-3. Silage additives had no effect on corn silage FA composition. Exposing corn silages to air resulted in no oxidation of FA or reduction in total FA content or composition.

  9. The Effect of Silicon and Aluminum Additions on the Oxidation Resistance of Lean Chromium Stainless Steels

    SciTech Connect

    Dunning, J.S.; Alman, D.E.; Rawers, J.C.

    2001-09-01

    The effect of Si and Al additions on the oxidation of lean chromium austenitic stainless steels has been studied. A baseline composition of Fe-16Cr-16Ni-2Mn-1Mo was selected to allow combined Si and Al additions of up to 5 wt. pct. in a fully austenitic alloy. The baseline composition was selected using a net Cr equivalent equation to predict the onset of G-ferrite formation in austenite. Cyclic oxidation tests in air for 1000 hours were carried out on alloys with Si only or combined Si and Al additions in the temperature range 700 C to 800 C. Oxidation resistance of alloys with Si only additions were outstanding, particularly at 800 C. It was evident that different rate controlling mechanisms for oxidation were operative at 700 C and 800 C in the Si alloys. In addition, Si alloys pre-oxidized at 800 C, showed a zero weight gain in subsequent testing for 1000 hours at 700 C. The rate controlling mechanism in alloys with combined Si and Al addition for oxidation at 800 C was also different than alloys with Si only. SEM and ESCA analysis of the oxide films and base material at the oxide/base metal interface were conducted to study potential rate controlling mechanisms.

  10. Effects of water and nitrogen addition on species turnover in temperate grasslands in northern China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhuwen; Wan, Shiqiang; Ren, Haiyan; Han, Xingguo; Li, Mai-He; Cheng, Weixin; Jiang, Yong

    2012-01-01

    Global nitrogen (N) deposition and climate change have been identified as two of the most important causes of current plant diversity loss. However, temporal patterns of species turnover underlying diversity changes in response to changing precipitation regimes and atmospheric N deposition have received inadequate attention. We carried out a manipulation experiment in a steppe and an old-field in North China from 2005 to 2009, to test the hypothesis that water addition enhances plant species richness through increase in the rate of species gain and decrease in the rate of species loss, while N addition has opposite effects on species changes. Our results showed that water addition increased the rate of species gain in both the steppe and the old field but decreased the rates of species loss and turnover in the old field. In contrast, N addition increased the rates of species loss and turnover in the steppe but decreased the rate of species gain in the old field. The rate of species change was greater in the old field than in the steppe. Water interacted with N to affect species richness and species turnover, indicating that the impacts of N on semi-arid grasslands were largely mediated by water availability. The temporal stability of communities was negatively correlated with rates of species loss and turnover, suggesting that water addition might enhance, but N addition would reduce the compositional stability of grasslands. Experimental results support our initial hypothesis and demonstrate that water and N availabilities differed in the effects on rate of species change in the temperate grasslands, and these effects also depend on grassland types and/or land-use history. Species gain and loss together contribute to the dynamic change of species richness in semi-arid grasslands under future climate change.

  11. Effective Mechanical Properties of Lattice Material Fabricated by Material Extrusion Additive Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Sang-In; Choi, Seung-kyum; Rosen, David W; Duty, Chad E

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a two-step homogenization method is proposed and implemented for evaluating effective mechanical properties of lattice structured material fabricated by the material extrusion additive manufacturing process. In order to consider the characteristics of the additive manufacturing process in estimation procedures, the levels of scale for homogenization are divided into three stages the levels of layer deposition, structural element, and lattice structure. The method consists of two transformations among stages. In the first step, the transformation between layer deposition and structural element levels is proposed to find the geometrical and material effective properties of structural elements in the lattice structure. In the second step, the method to estimate effective mechanical properties of lattice material is presented, which uses a unit cell and is based on the discretized homogenization method for periodic structure. The method is implemented for cubic lattice structure and compared to experimental results for validation purposes.

  12. Additive Effects of Alcohols, Their Acidic By-Products, and Temperature on the Yeast Pachysolen tannophilus.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, M de F; Lee, H; Collins-Thompson, D L

    1990-02-01

    The effects of alcohols on the growth and fermentation of the yeast Pachysolen tannophilus were investigated at both 30 and 35 degrees C. Addition of alcohols to the culture medium decreased both the growth rate and the final cell yield in a dose-dependent manner, and this decrease was more severe at 35 degrees C. The concentration for 50% growth rate inhibition decreased as the chain length of the alcohol increased. In fermentations using a high initial cell density, production of acids was always observed when the medium was supplemented with alcohols. Supplementation of the culture medium with a short-chain alcohol plus the corresponding acid was shown to exert an additive deleterious effect on fermentation, and this effect increased with temperature. Production of acids was associated with the presence of alcohol dehydrogenase activity in cell extracts.

  13. The effect of diamic acid additives on the dielectric constant of polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoakley, Diane M.; St. Clair, Anne K.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of six selected diamic acids additives (including 2,2-prime bis(3,4-dicarboxyphenyl) hexafluoropropane dianhydride-aniline (An); 4,4-prime-oxydiphthalic anhydride-An, 3,3-prime diaminodiphenyl sulfone-phthalic anhydride (PA); 4,4-prime-oxydianiline-PA; 2,2-bis 4(4-aminophenoxy)phenyl hexafluoropropane-PA; and 2,2-bis 4(3-aminophenoxy)phenyl hexafluoropropane-PA) on the dielectric constants of low-dielectric-constant polyimide resins was evaluated. It was found that the effect of the incorporation of the diamic acids on reducing the dielectric constant of polyimides may be limited as the dielectric constant of the base resin itself becomes very low. The additives were found to lower the resin's values of glass transition temperature, with no effect on thermooxidative stability.

  14. Predicting the effects of nanoscale cerium additives in diesel fuel on regional-scale air quality.

    PubMed

    Erdakos, Garnet B; Bhave, Prakash V; Pouliot, George A; Simon, Heather; Mathur, Rohit

    2014-11-04

    Diesel vehicles are a major source of air pollutant emissions. Fuel additives containing nanoparticulate cerium (nCe) are currently being used in some diesel vehicles to improve fuel efficiency. These fuel additives also reduce fine particulate matter (PM2.5) emissions and alter the emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and hydrocarbon (HC) species, including several hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). To predict their net effect on regional air quality, we review the emissions literature and develop a multipollutant inventory for a hypothetical scenario in which nCe additives are used in all on-road and nonroad diesel vehicles. We apply the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model to a domain covering the eastern U.S. for a summer and a winter period. Model calculations suggest modest decreases of average PM2.5 concentrations and relatively larger decreases in particulate elemental carbon. The nCe additives also have an effect on 8 h maximum ozone in summer. Variable effects on HAPs are predicted. The total U.S. emissions of fine-particulate cerium are estimated to increase 25-fold and result in elevated levels of airborne cerium (up to 22 ng/m3), which might adversely impact human health and the environment.

  15. Investigation of the effects of short chain processing additives on polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, J. J.; Stclair, T. L.; Pratt, J. R.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of low level concentrations of several short chain processing additives on the properties of the 4,4'-bis(3,4-dicarboxyphenoxy) diphenylsulfide dianhydride (BDSDA)/4,4'-diaminodiphenyl ether (ODA)/1,3'-diaminobenzene (m-phenylene diamine) (MPA) (422) copolyimide were investigated. It was noted that 5 percent MPD/phthalic anhydride (PA) is more effective than 5 percent ODA/PA and BDSDA/aniline (AN) in strengthening the host material. However, the introduction of 10 percent BDSDA/AN produces disproportionately high effects on free volume and free electron density in the host copolyimide.

  16. Additive antithrombotic effect of ASP6537, a selective cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 inhibitor, in combination with clopidogrel in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Sakata, Chinatsu; Suzuki, Ken-Ichi; Morita, Yoshiaki; Kawasaki, Tomihisa

    2017-03-05

    Clopidogrel (Plavix(®), Sanofi-Aventis), the adenosine diphosphate P2Y12 receptor antagonist, is reported to be effective in the prevention of cardiovascular events and is often used in combination with aspirin, particularly in high-risk patients. ASP6537 is a reversible cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 inhibitor that is under investigation as an anti-platelet agent. First, we investigated the reversibility of the antiplatelet effect of ASP6537 and its interaction with ibuprofen to compare the usability of ASP6537 with that of aspirin. We then evaluated the antithrombotic effect of ASP6537 in combination with clopidogrel using a FeCl3-induced thrombosis model in guinea pigs. ASP6537 exerted reversible antiplatelet activity, and no pharmacodynamic interaction with ibuprofen was noted. When administered as monotherapy, ASP6537 exerted a significant antithrombotic effect at ≥3mg/kg, while aspirin inhibited thrombosis at 100mg/kg. ASP6537 exerted significant additive effects in combination with clopidogrel, and the minimum antithrombotic dose was reduced by concomitant administration of clopidogrel. Our study showed that ASP6537 did not interact with ibuprofen and has clear additive effects in combination with clopidogrel. ASP6537 may therefore represent a promising antiplatelet agent for use in clinical settings in combination with clopidogrel.

  17. The Effect of Gaseous Additives on Dynamic Pressure Output and Ignition Sensitivity of Nanothermites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puszynski, Jan; Doorenbos, Zac; Walters, Ian; Redner, Paul; Kapoor, Deepak; Swiatkiewicz, Jacek

    2011-06-01

    This contribution addresses important combustion characteristics of nanothermite systems. In this research the following nanothermites were investigated: a) Al-Bi2O3, b)Al-Fe2O3 and c)Al-Bi2O3-Fe2O3. The effect of various gasifying additives (such as nitrocellulose (NC) and cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB)) as well as reactant stoichiometry, reactant particle size and shape on processability, ignition delay time and dynamic pressure outputs at different locations in a combustion chamber will be presented. In addition, this contribution will report electrostatic and friction sensitivities of standard and modified nanothermites.

  18. Effects of Ce additions on the age hardening response of Mg–Zn alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Langelier, Brian Esmaeili, Shahrzad

    2015-03-15

    The effects of Ce additions on the precipitation hardening behaviour of Mg–Zn are examined for a series of alloys, with Ce additions at both alloying and microalloying levels. The alloys are artificially aged, and studied using hardness measurement and X-ray diffraction, as well as optical and transmission electron microscopy. It is found that the age-hardening effect is driven by the formation of fine precipitates, the number density of which is related to the Zn content of the alloy. Conversely, the Ce content is found to slightly reduce hardening. When the alloy content of Ce is high, large secondary phase particles containing both Ce and Zn are present, and remain stable during solutionizing. These particles effectively reduce the amount of Zn available as solute for precipitation, and thereby reduce hardening. Combining hardness results with thermodynamic analysis of alloy solute levels also suggests that Ce can have a negative effect on hardening when present as solutes at the onset of ageing. This effect is confirmed by designing a pre-ageing heat treatment to preferentially remove Ce solutes, which is found to restore the hardening capability of an Mg–Zn–Ce alloy to the level of the Ce-free alloy. - Highlights: • The effects of Ce additions on precipitation in Mg–Zn alloys are examined. • Additions of Ce to Mg–Zn slightly reduce the age-hardening response. • Ce-rich secondary phase particles deplete the matrix of Zn solute. • Hardening is also decreased when Ce is present in solution. • Pre-ageing to preferentially precipitate out Ce restores hardening capabilities.

  19. Addition of alarm pheromone components improves the effectiveness of desiccant dusts against Cimex lectularius.

    PubMed

    Benoit, Joshua B; Phillips, Seth A; Croxall, Travis J; Christensen, Brady S; Yoder, Jay A; Denlinger, David L

    2009-05-01

    We demonstrate that the addition of bed bug, Cimex lectularius, alarm pheromone to desiccant formulations greatly enhances their effectiveness during short-term exposure. Two desiccant formulations, diatomaceous earth (DE) and Dri-die (silica gel), were applied at the label rate with and without bed bug alarm pheromone components, (E)-2-hexenal, (E)-2-octenal, and a (E)-2-hexenal:(E)-2-octenal blend. First-instar nymphs and adult females were subjected to 10-min exposures, and water loss rates were used to evaluate the response. Optimal effectiveness was achieved with a pheromone concentration of 0.01 M. With Dri-die alone, the water loss was 21% higher than in untreated controls, and water loss increased nearly two times with (E)-2-hexenal and (E)-2-octenal and three times with the (E)-2-hexenal: (E)-2-octenal blend. This shortened survival of first-instar nymphs from 4 to 1 d, with a similar reduction noted in adult females. DE was effective only if supplemented with pheromone, resulting in a 50% increase in water loss over controls with the (E)-2-hexenal:(E)-2-octenal blend, and a survival decrease from 4 to 2 d in first-instar nymphs. Consistently, the addition of the pheromone blend to desiccant dust was more effective than adding either component by itself or by using Dri-die or DE alone. Based on observations in a small microhabitat, the addition of alarm pheromone components prompted bed bugs to leave their protective harborages and to move through the desiccant, improving the use of desiccants for control. We concluded that short exposure to Dri-die is a more effective treatment against bed bugs than DE and that the effectiveness of the desiccants can be further enhanced by incorporation of alarm pheromone. Presumably, the addition of alarm pheromone elevates excited crawling activity, thereby promoting cuticular changes that increase water loss.

  20. Rainfall reduction amplifies the stimulatory effect of nitrogen addition on N2O emissions from a temperate forest soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, Shicong; Chen, Zhijie; Han, Shijie; Wang, Fang; Zhang, Junhui

    2017-02-01

    Soil is a significant source of atmospheric N2O, and soil N2O emissions at a global scale are greatly affected by environment changes that include continuous deposition of atmospheric nitrogen and changing precipitation distribution. However, to date, field simulations of multiple factors that control the interaction between nitrogen deposition and precipitation on forest soil N2O emissions are scarce. In this study, we conducted a 2-year continuous assessment of N2O emissions from November 2012 to October 2014 at a nitrogen addition and rainfall reduction manipulation platform in an old broad-leaved Korean pine mixed forest at Changbai Mountain in northeastern China. We found that N2O emissions from control plots were 1.25 ± 0.22 kg N2O-N ha‑1 a‑1. Nitrogen addition significantly increased N2O emissions, with the emission factor of 1.59%. A 30% reduction in rainfall decreased N2O emissions by 17–45%. However, in combination, nitrogen addition and rainfall reduction increased N2O emissions by 58–140%, with the emission factor of 3.19%, and had a larger promotional effect than the addition of nitrogen alone. Our results indicated that drought slightly decreases forest soil N2O emission; however, with increasing deposition of atmospheric N in temperate forest soils, the effect of drought might become altered to increase N2O emission.

  1. Nutrient and water addition effects on day- and night-time conductance and transpiration in a C3 desert annual.

    PubMed

    Ludwig, Fulco; Jewitt, Rebecca A; Donovan, Lisa A

    2006-06-01

    Recent research has shown that many C3 plant species have significant stomatal opening and transpire water at night even in desert habitats. Day-time stomatal regulation is expected to maximize carbon gain and prevent runaway cavitation, but little is known about the effect of soil resource availability on night-time stomatal conductance (g) and transpiration (E). Water (low and high) and nutrients (low and high) were applied factorially during the growing season to naturally occurring seedlings of the annual Helianthus anomalus. Plant height and biomass were greatest in the treatment where both water and nutrients were added, confirming resource limitations in this habitat. Plants from all treatments showed significant night-time g (approximately 0.07 mol m(-2) s(-1)) and E (approximately 1.5 mol m(-2) s(-1)). In July, water and nutrient additions had few effects on day- or night-time gas exchange. In August, however, plants in the nutrient addition treatments had lower day-time photosynthesis, g and E, paralleled by lower night-time g and E. Lower predawn water potentials and higher integrated photosynthetic water-use efficiency suggests that the nutrient addition indirectly induced a mild water stress. Thus, soil resources can affect night-time g and E in a manner parallel to day-time, although additional factors may also be involved.

  2. Rainfall reduction amplifies the stimulatory effect of nitrogen addition on N2O emissions from a temperate forest soil

    PubMed Central

    Geng, Shicong; Chen, Zhijie; Han, Shijie; Wang, Fang; Zhang, Junhui

    2017-01-01

    Soil is a significant source of atmospheric N2O, and soil N2O emissions at a global scale are greatly affected by environment changes that include continuous deposition of atmospheric nitrogen and changing precipitation distribution. However, to date, field simulations of multiple factors that control the interaction between nitrogen deposition and precipitation on forest soil N2O emissions are scarce. In this study, we conducted a 2-year continuous assessment of N2O emissions from November 2012 to October 2014 at a nitrogen addition and rainfall reduction manipulation platform in an old broad-leaved Korean pine mixed forest at Changbai Mountain in northeastern China. We found that N2O emissions from control plots were 1.25 ± 0.22 kg N2O-N ha−1 a−1. Nitrogen addition significantly increased N2O emissions, with the emission factor of 1.59%. A 30% reduction in rainfall decreased N2O emissions by 17–45%. However, in combination, nitrogen addition and rainfall reduction increased N2O emissions by 58–140%, with the emission factor of 3.19%, and had a larger promotional effect than the addition of nitrogen alone. Our results indicated that drought slightly decreases forest soil N2O emission; however, with increasing deposition of atmospheric N in temperate forest soils, the effect of drought might become altered to increase N2O emission. PMID:28233839

  3. Evaluating Statistical Significance Using Corrected and Uncorrected Magnitude of Effect Size Estimates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Patricia; Lawson, Stephen

    Magnitude of effect measures (MEMs), when adequately understood and correctly used, are important aids for researchers who do not want to rely solely on tests of statistical significance in substantive result interpretation. The MEM tells how much of the dependent variable can be controlled, predicted, or explained by the independent variables.…

  4. Significant Differences in Pediatric Psychotropic Side Effects: Implications for School Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kubiszyn, Thomas; Mire, Sarah; Dutt, Sonia; Papathopoulos, Katina; Burridge, Andrea Backsheider

    2012-01-01

    Some side effects (SEs) of increasingly prescribed psychotropic medications can impact student performance in school. SE risk varies, even among drugs from the same class (e.g., antidepressants). Knowing which SEs occur significantly more often than others may enable school psychologists to enhance collaborative risk-benefit analysis, medication…

  5. Industry research on the use and effects of levulinic acid: a case study in cigarette additives.

    PubMed

    Keithly, Lois; Ferris Wayne, Geoffrey; Cullen, Doris M; Connolly, Gregory N

    2005-10-01

    Public health officials and tobacco researchers have raised concerns about the possible contributions of additives to the toxicity of cigarettes. However, little attention has been given to the process whereby additives promote initiation and addiction. Levulinic acid is a known cigarette additive. Review of internal tobacco industry documents indicates that levulinic acid was used to increase nicotine yields while enhancing perceptions of smoothness and mildness. Levulinic acid reduces the pH of cigarette smoke and desensitizes the upper respiratory tract, increasing the potential for cigarette smoke to be inhaled deeper into the lungs. Levulinic acid also may enhance the binding of nicotine to neurons that ordinarily would be unresponsive to nicotine. These findings held particular interest in the internal development of ultralight and so-called reduced-exposure cigarette prototypes. Industry studies found significantly increased peak plasma nicotine levels in smokers of ultralight cigarettes following addition of levulinic acid. Further, internal studies observed changes in mainstream and sidestream smoke composition that may present increased health risks. The use of levulinic acid illustrates the need for regulatory authority over tobacco products as well as better understanding of the role of additives in cigarettes and other tobacco products.

  6. Effect of lubricant extreme-pressure additives on surface fatigue life of AISI 9310 spur gears

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scibbe, H. W.; Townsend, D. P.; Aron, P. R.

    1984-01-01

    Surface fatigue tests were conducted with AISI 9310 spur gears using a formulated synthetic tetraester oil (conforming to MIL-L-23699 specifications) as the lubricant containing either sulfur or phosphorus as the EP additive. Four groups of gears were tested. One group of gears tested without an additive in the lubricant acted as the reference oil. In the other three groups either a 0.1 wt % sulfur or phosphorus additive was added to the tetraester oil to enhance gear surface fatigue life. Test conditions included a gear temperature of 334 K (160 F), a maximum Hertz stress of 1.71 GPa (248 000 psi), and a speed of 10,000 rpm. The gears tested with a 0.1 wt % phosphorus additive showed pitting fatigue life 2.6 times the life of gears tested with the reference tetraester based oil. Although fatigue lives of two groups of gears tested with the sulfur additive in the oil showed improvement over the control group gear life, the results, unlike those obtained with the phosphorus oil, were not considered to be statistically significant.

  7. Effect of additives on the compressive strength and setting time of a Portland cement.

    PubMed

    Machado, Desirée Freitas Mryczka; Bertassoni, Luiz Eduardo; Souza, Evelise Machado de; Almeida, Janaina Bertoncelo de; Rached, Rodrigo Nunes

    2010-01-01

    Improvements in strength and setting time of Portland cements (PC) are needed to enhance their performance as endodontic and load bearing materials. This study sought to enhance the compressive strength and setting time of a PC by adding one of the following additives: 20% and 30% poly-methylmethacrylate (PMMA), 20% and 30% irregular and spherical amalgam alloys, and 10% CaCl(2). The control consisted of unreinforced PC specimens. Setting time was determined using a Gillmore apparatus according to standardized methods while compressive strength was measured using a universal testing machine after 21 hours or 60 days of water storage. Data were analyzed by ANOVA, Tukey and Games-Howell tests (alpha = 5%). All additives significantly decreased both initial and final setting times as compared with the PC-control (p < .05). 30% PMMA and 30% irregular alloy had the lowest values of initial setting time. 30% irregular alloy also produced the lowest values of final setting time while 30% spherical alloy yielded the highest (p < .05). No differences were detected between the compressive strength values of 21 hours and 60 days. While 10% CaCl(2), 20% and 30% PMMA produced values significantly lower than the PC-control, 30% spherical alloy significantly improved the compressive strength of the reinforced PC (p < .05). In summary, all additives significantly reduced the setting time and 30% spherical amalgam alloy yielded a significant increase in compressive strength for the tested PC, which might represent an improved composition for PCs to expand their use as endodontic and potentially load bearing materials.

  8. Explanation of non-additive effects in mixtures of similar mode of action chemicals.

    PubMed

    Kamo, Masashi; Yokomizo, Hiroyuki

    2015-09-01

    Many models have been developed to predict the combined effect of drugs and chemicals. Most models are classified into two additive models: independent action (IA) and concentration addition (CA). It is generally considered if the modes of action of chemicals are similar then the combined effect obeys CA; however, many empirical studies report nonlinear effects deviating from the predictions by CA. Such deviations are termed synergism and antagonism. Synergism, which leads to a stronger toxicity, requires more careful management, and hence it is important to understand how and which combinations of chemicals lead to synergism. In this paper, three types of chemical reactions are mathematically modeled and the cause of the nonlinear effects among chemicals with similar modes of action was investigated. Our results show that combined effects obey CA only when the modes of action are exactly the same. Contrary to existing knowledge, combined effects are generally nonlinear even if the modes of action of the chemicals are similar. Our results further show that the nonlinear effects vanish out when the chemical concentrations are low, suggesting that the current management procedure of assuming CA is rarely inappropriate because environmental concentrations of chemicals are generally low.

  9. Genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of Sunset Yellow and Brilliant Blue, colorant food additives, on human blood lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Kus, Esra; Eroglu, Halil Erhan

    2015-01-01

    The synthetic dyes over fifty are used in many areas including the food industry around the world. Sunset Yellow FCF and Brilliant Blue FCF are used as colorant food additives in many food products. The present study investigated the genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of Sunset Yellow and Brilliant Blue. Genotoxic and cytotoxic activities of the food additives were evaluated in lymphocyte cell cultures using mitotic index, replication index and micronucleus assay. Mitotic index frequencies and replication index values were decreased and micronucleus frequency was increased with increasing concentrations of Sunset Yellow and Brilliant Blue. The changes in mitotic index and micronucleus are statistically significant (p<0.05). The results show that the Sunset Yellow and Brilliant Blue can have cytotoxic and genotoxic potential. It care must be taken when using these materials as a food additive.

  10. Effect on the operation properties of DMBR with the addition of GAC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jizhi; Zhang, Qian; Hong, Junming

    2017-01-01

    The membrane bioreactor and dynamic membrane bioreactor were used to examine the effect of granular activated carbon (GAC) on the treatment of synthetic wastewater. After the addition of different volume fractions GAC in the DMBR, the operation parameters, effluent COD, NH4 +-N, NO3 --N, TN concentrations and sludge viscosity of the bioreactor was investigated. The results showed that the addition of GAC could relieve the membrane fouling and improve the removal efficiencies of pollutants in the DMBR. The effluent concentrations of pollutants were linear correlation with the addition of volume fractions of GAC in the bioreactor. The value of R2 of each modulation was almost more than 0.9. The sludge viscosity was almost not affected by the volume fractions of GAC in the bioreactor. The best volume fractions of GAC were 20% in the DMBR.

  11. The effects of beryllium additions on the oxidation of nickel aluminide and titanium aluminide based intermetallics

    SciTech Connect

    Hanrahan, R.J. Jr.; Chen, K.C.; Brady, M.P.

    1998-12-31

    The effects of Be additions on the oxidation behavior of {beta}-NiAl in moist air at 1,000 C and borderline alumina-forming {gamma} (TiAl) + Laves Ti-Al-Cr based alloys at 800 C and 1,000 C in dry and moist air were investigated. The addition of Be to {beta}-NiAl suppressed the formation of transient alumina, and resulted in the formation of a protective BeAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel phase. In dry air, the addition of Be to the Ti-Al-Cr alloys also resulted in the formation of a protective BeAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel phase. In moist air, only Ti-Al-Cr-Be alloys with a high Cr content (10 to 15 a/o) formed the protective BeAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} scale.

  12. The effects of beryllium additions on the oxidation of nickel aluminide and titanium aluminide based intermetallics

    SciTech Connect

    Hanrahan, R.J. Jr.; Chen, K.C.; Brady, M.P.

    1998-11-01

    The effects of Be additions on the oxidation behavior of {beta}-NiAl in moist air at 1,000 C as well as on the borderline alumina-forming {gamma} + Laves Ti-Al-Cr based alloys at 800 C and 1,000 C in dry and moist air were investigated. The addition of Be to {beta}-NiAl suppressed the formation of transient alumina and resulted in the formation of a protective BeAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel phase. In dry air, the addition of Be to the Ti-Al-Cr alloys also resulted in the formation of a protective BeAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel phase. In moist air, only Ti-Al-Cr-Be alloys with a high Cr content (10 to 15 a/o) formed the protective BeAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} scale.

  13. Effect of Nitrogen Additives on Flame Retardant Action of Tributyl Phosphate: Phosphorus – Nitrogen Synergism

    SciTech Connect

    Gaan, Sabyasachi; Sun, Gang; Hutches, Katherine; Engelhard, Mark H.

    2008-01-01

    The effect of nitrogen additives like urea, guanidine carbonate and melamine formaldehyde on the flame retardant efficacy of tributyl phosphate (TBP) has been investigated. From the LOI tests on treated cotton it is clear that the nitrogen additives have synergistic action. Estimation of activation energy of decomposition of treated cotton indicated that nitrogen additives enhance the thermal stability during the burning process. SEM pictures of chars formed after LOI test showed the formation of protective polymeric coating on the surface. The surface of chars formed were evaluated using FTIR-ATR and XPS analysis which showed that the coating was composed of Phosphorus-Nitrogen-Oxygen containing species. Formation of this coating during the burning process could lead to the synergistic interaction of phosphorus and nitrogen. Based on the experimental data we have further proposed several reaction mechanisms which could contribute to synergistic action and formation of protective coating on the surface of char.

  14. Effect of hot pressing additives on the leachability of hot pressed sodium hydrous titanium oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Valentine, T.M.; Sambell, R.A.J.

    1980-01-01

    Sodium hydrous titanium oxide is an ion exchange resin which can be used for immobilizing medium level waste (MLW) liquors. When hot pressed, it undergoes conversion to a ceramic. Three low melting point materials (borax, bismuth trioxide, and a mixture of PbO/CuO) were added to the (Na)HTiO and the effect that each of these had on aiding densification was assessed. Hot pressing temperature, applied pressure, and percentage addition of hot pressing aid were varied. Percentage open porosity, flexural strength, and leachability were measured. There was a linear relationship between the percentage open porosity and the logarithm of the leach rate for a constant percentage addition of each additive.

  15. Effect of additives on mechanical properties of macroporous silicon carbide ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eom, Jung-Hye; Kim, Young-Wook

    2010-06-01

    Macroporous SiC ceramics were fabricated by carbothermal reduction of polysiloxane-derived SiOC containing hollow microspheres, followed by sintering and subsequent annealing. The effects of the additive composition and the annealing temperature on the porosity, microstructure, and mechanical strength of the resulting porous ceramics were investigated. Varying the additive composition was found to result in different porosities, microstructures, and mechanical properties. When the samples were sintered at 1750 °C and then annealed at 1900 °C for 4 h, the SiC prepared with 3% Al2O3 and 2% Y2O3 showed the highest strength (a flexural strength of 55 MPa and a compressive strength of 289 MPa, at a porosity of 45 %). The present results suggest that judicious selection of the sintering additive composition is very important for improving the mechanical properties of macroporous SiC ceramics.

  16. Vector Addition: Effect of the Context and Position of the Vectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barniol, Pablo; Zavala, Genaro

    2010-10-01

    In this article we investigate the effect of: 1) the context, and 2) the position of the vectors, on 2D vector addition tasks. We administered a test to 512 students completing introductory physics courses at a private Mexican university. In the first part, we analyze students' responses in three isomorphic problems: displacements, forces, and no physical context. Students were asked to draw two vectors and the vector sum. We analyzed students' procedures detecting the difficulties when drawing the vector addition and proved that the context matters, not only compared to the context-free case but also between the contexts. In the second part, we analyze students' responses with three different arrangements of the sum of two vectors: tail-to-tail, head-to-tail and separated vectors. We compared the frequencies of the errors in the three different positions to deduce students' conceptions in the addition of vectors.

  17. Effects of chemical additives on hydrocarbon disappearance and biodegradation in freshwater marsh microcosms.

    PubMed

    Nyman, J A; Klerks, P L; Bhattacharyya, S

    2007-09-01

    We determined how a cleaner and a dispersant affected hydrocarbon biodegradation in wetland soils dominated by the plant Panicum hemitomon, which occurs throughout North and South America. Microcosms received no hydrocarbons, South Louisiana crude, or diesel; and no additive, a dispersant, or a cleaner. We determined the concentration of four total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) measures and 43 target hydrocarbons in water and sediment fractions 1, 7, 31, and 186 days later. Disappearance was distinguished from biodegradation via hopane-normalization. After 186 days, TPH disappearance ranged from 24% to 97%. There was poor correlation among the four TPH measures, which indicated that each quantified a different suite of hydrocarbons. Hydrocarbon disappearance and biodegradation were unaltered by these additives under worse-case scenarios. Any use of these additives must generate benefits that outweigh the lack of effect on biodegradation demonstrated in this report, and the increase in toxicity that we reported earlier.

  18. Theoretical investigation of the effect of hydrogen addition on the formation and properties of soliton in direct current argon plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saikia, P.; Goswami, K. S.; Saikia, B. K.

    2014-03-01

    In this study the effect of hydrogen addition on the formation and properties of soliton in direct-current (DC) argon plasma is theoretically investigated. By coupling fluid equations with Poisons equation for such multi-component plasma, the Mach number and amplitude of the soliton are determined following pseudo potential method. Addition of hydrogen in argon discharge leads to the decrease of electron, Ar+ ion density while a reverse trend was observed for ArH+ and hydrogen like ions. It was found that presence of hydrogen like ions in argon plasma affects the formation of soliton with its amplitude significantly decreases as concentration of hydrogen increases. On the other hand, increase in ion to electron temperature ratios of the lighter ions in the discharge also has a significant influence on the amplitude and formation of soliton. The inverse relation between solitons width and amplitude is found to be consistent for the entire range of study.

  19. Theoretical investigation of the effect of hydrogen addition on the formation and properties of soliton in direct current argon plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Saikia, P. Goswami, K. S.; Saikia, B. K.

    2014-03-15

    In this study the effect of hydrogen addition on the formation and properties of soliton in direct-current (DC) argon plasma is theoretically investigated. By coupling fluid equations with Poisons equation for such multi-component plasma, the Mach number and amplitude of the soliton are determined following pseudo potential method. Addition of hydrogen in argon discharge leads to the decrease of electron, Ar{sup +} ion density while a reverse trend was observed for ArH{sup +} and hydrogen like ions. It was found that presence of hydrogen like ions in argon plasma affects the formation of soliton with its amplitude significantly decreases as concentration of hydrogen increases. On the other hand, increase in ion to electron temperature ratios of the lighter ions in the discharge also has a significant influence on the amplitude and formation of soliton. The inverse relation between solitons width and amplitude is found to be consistent for the entire range of study.

  20. Coexposure to phytoestrogens and bisphenol a mimics estrogenic effects in an additive manner.

    PubMed

    Katchy, Anne; Pinto, Caroline; Jonsson, Philip; Nguyen-Vu, Trang; Pandelova, Marchela; Riu, Anne; Schramm, Karl-Werner; Samarov, Daniel; Gustafsson, Jan-Åke; Bondesson, Maria; Williams, Cecilia

    2014-03-01

    Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDC) are abundant in our environment. A number of EDCs, including bisphenol A (BPA) can bind to the estrogen receptors (ER), ERα and ERβ, and may contribute to estrogen-linked diseases such as breast cancer. Early exposure is of particular concern; many EDCs cross the placenta and infants have measurable levels of, eg, BPA. In addition, infants are frequently fed soy-based formula (SF) that contains phytoestrogens. Effects of combined exposure to xeno- and phytoestrogens are poorly studied. Here, we extensively compared to what extent BPA, genistein, and an extract of infant SF mimic estrogen-induced gene transcription and cell proliferation. We investigated ligand-specific effects on ER activation in HeLa-ERα and ERβ reporter cells; on proliferation, genome-wide gene regulation and non-ER-mediated effects in MCF7 breast cancer cells; and how coexposure influenced these effects. The biological relevance was explored using enrichment analyses of differentially regulated genes and clustering with clinical breast cancer profiles. We demonstrate that coexposure to BPA and genistein, or SF, results in increased functional and transcriptional estrogenic effects. Using statistical modeling, we determine that BPA and phytoestrogens act in an additive manner. The proliferative and transcriptional effects of the tested compounds mimic those of 17β-estradiol, and are abolished by cotreatment with an ER antagonist. Gene expression profiles induced by each compound clustered with poor prognosis breast cancer, indicating that exposure may adversely affect breast cancer prognosis. This study accentuates that coexposure to BPA and soy-based phytoestrogens results in additive estrogenic effects, and may contribute to estrogen-linked diseases, including breast cancer.

  1. Hydrothermal treatment of incineration fly ash for PCDD/Fs decomposition: the effect of iron addition.

    PubMed

    Chen, De-Zhen; Hu, Yu-Yan; Zhang, Peng-Fei

    2012-12-01

    The catalytic effect of Fe addition on the decomposition of polychlorinated dibenzo-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) contained in municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash during the hydrothermal process was investigated. Influencing factors, such as Fe addition mode, reaction time and cooling procedure after reaction, were tested to evaluate their effects. Experimental results indicated that Fe addition in the form of a mixture of ferrous sulphate and ferric sulphate enhanced decomposition of PCDD/Fs contained in the MSWI fly ash, particularly for the decomposition of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-dioxin and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-furan under the reaction temperature of 563 K. The decomposition rate of PCDD/Fs reached 90.33% by international toxicity equivalent (I-TEQ) when Fe was added as a mixture of ferrous and ferric sulphates by 5% (wt/wt) with the Fe (III)/Fe (II) ratio being 2; without Fe addition, the decomposition rate of PCDD/Fs was only 46.17% by I-TEQ in the same process. Fe addition in the form of ferrous sulphate alone also showed an enhancing effect on PCDD/Fs decomposition, but the associated decomposition rates were relatively lower, suggesting iron oxides formed from the mixture of ferric and ferrous sulphates are more favourable catalysts. At the same time, the cooling procedure after the hydrothermal reaction became more flexible if Fe was added in the form of a mixture of ferric and ferrous sulphates. Although a longer reaction time was helpful to increase decomposition rates of PCDD/Fs, 1 h was proved to be a reasonable time under this condition.

  2. Contextual cognitive-behavioral therapy for severely disabled chronic pain sufferers: effectiveness and clinically significant change.

    PubMed

    McCracken, Lance M; MacKichan, Fiona; Eccleston, Christopher

    2007-04-01

    Interdisciplinary pain management programs have an established record of significantly improving the functioning of persons disabled with chronic pain. There is a group of pain sufferers, however, who have difficulty accessing these programs and for whom the effectiveness of these treatments in unknown, these are patients whose mobility and self-care deficits leave them unable to meet the practical demands of many treatment environments. The purpose of this study was to examine the results of a treatment program designed to meet the needs of these highly disabled individuals (n=53) in comparison to results obtained from a standard less-disabled group attending treatment at the same facility (n=234). Results from the highly disabled patients showed statistically significant change after treatment in eight of nine outcome variables, including improvements in pain-related distress, disability, depression, pain-related anxiety, daytime rest, and performance during an activity tolerance test. Effect size calculations showed a number of large treatment effects, for psychosocial disability, depression, and acceptance of pain. Analysis of reliable change and clinical significance demonstrated that results were not merely statistically significant but clinically meaningful. Results appeared stable at three months following treatment. This research plays an important part in establishing an evidence base to inform service development, ensuring that chronic pain services do not exclude people on the basis of the severity of their disability.

  3. Effect of Cephalaria syriaca addition on rheological properties of composite flour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karaoðlu, M. M.

    2012-10-01

    The study was carried out to investigate the effect of whole and defatted Cephalaria syriaca flour on the rheological properties of composite flours that used in bran bread production. Cephalaria syriaca products were used to replace 0.25, 0.75, 1.25, 1.75, and 2.25% of wheat-wheat bran composite flour, and its rheological and fermentative properties were measured by farinograph, extensograph and rheofermentometre. The data showed that the rheological parameters of flours were greatly modified by addition of Cephalaria syriaca. The rheological properties of wheatwheat bran composite flour added with whole and defatted Cephalaria syriaca flour were considerably improved with regard to especially extensograph characteristics such as dough resistance, area (energy), ratio number and rheofermentometer parameters such as Hm, T1, Tx, volume loss and gas retention, as compared to control. However addition of Cephalaria syriaca products adversely affected the farinograph characteristics. Generally, these effects of both whole and defatted Cephalaria syriaca flour increased, as the addition level increased. Maximum Tx, gas retention and area (energy) of dough were obtained from wheat-wheat bran composite flour added with 1.75% whole Cephalaria syriaca flour, while the highest dough stability was at addition level of 0.25% whole Cephalaria syriaca flour.

  4. Effect of boron addition on the structure and magnetic properties of CoPt nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Khemjeen, Yutthaya; Pinitsoontorn, Supree Chompoosor, Apiwat

    2015-05-07

    The effect of B addition on CoPt nanoparticles was investigated. The CoPt-B nanoparticles were synthesized by means of the polyol process. Transmission electron microscopy has shown that the as-synthesized particles have a spherical morphology with average size about 2–3 nm. The X-ray absorption spectroscopy and the X-ray diffraction technique showed the effect of B concentration on phase transformation. The addition of B at up to 60% promoted the formation of the L1{sub 0} phase when the nanoparticles were subjected to annealing at 600 °C. If the B content is higher than 60%, the phase transition is suppressed. The evidence of B addition on the structure of CoPt nanoparticles was further supported by the magnetic measurements. The results show that the coercivity of the annealed CoPt-B nanoparticles was enhanced by the B additions from 20% to 60%, with the maximum coercivity of 12 000 Oe for the CoPt-40%B sample.

  5. The effect of various additives on Bayer digestion of diasporic bauxite

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Lunhe; Xu Qili; Wang Xiangli

    1996-10-01

    In this paper, the effect of about ten kinds of additives on Bayer digestion of diasporic bauxite has been investigated. The experiment results has showed that mineral additives such as dolomite, chlorite, medicinal stone, magnesite have a great influence upon the alumina extraction efficiency of diasporite and the scaling property of slurry. Nevertheless, a great quantity of additives must be used, the digestive result of bauxite is not satisfactory (except dolime). So it is difficult to put into practice. In addition, the authors treated lime and red mud or slurry with sodium aluminate liquor to achieve synthesis catalyzators on the definite conditions. Compared to the results when lime was being added, the alumina extraction efficiency of diasporite increased 2--4% when this kind of synthesis catalyzator was being added under otherwise equal conditions, and their molar ratio of digestion liquor (Na{sub 2}O/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) decreased 0.03--0.11. The effect is obvious and the technology is simple. The experiment results proved that the synthesis catalyzator have industrial applying value.

  6. Effects of chitosan fiber addition on the properties of polyurethane with thermo-responsive shape memory.

    PubMed

    Kawaguchi, Kyotaro; Iijima, Masahiro; Miyakawa, Hiroshi; Ohta, Mitsuru; Muguruma, Takeshi; Endo, Kazuhiko; Nakazawa, Futoshi; Mizoguchi, Itaru

    2016-03-30

    We investigated the effects of the addition of chitosan fiber (biomass nanofiber made by Sugino (BiNFi-s)) to polyether-based thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) on material properties. BiNFi-s (2 and 5 wt %)/TPU composite materials were prepared via compression molding, and glass fiber (2 and 5 wt %)/TPU composite materials and plain TPU were also prepared for comparison. The glass transition temperature was analyzed using differential scanning calorimetry, and the crystal structure was investigated using X-ray diffraction. 20-mm-long test specimens with cross-sectional dimensions of 1 mm × 1 mm were cut from sheets of the composite materials, and three-point bending tests were carried out using a universal testing machine to investigate their mechanical properties and shape memory. The addition of BiNFi-s or glass fiber to TPU did not influence the glass transition temperature, although the crystal structure changed from semi-crystalline to amorphous. The elastic modulus increased 40% by the addition of 5 wt % BiNFi-s (2.31 MPa) compared with plain TPU (1.65 MPa), and these composites exhibited shape recovery with clinically relevant changes in temperature. The addition of 5 wt % BiNFi-s into TPU resulted in an improvement in the elastic modulus without any decrease in the shape memory effect. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2016.

  7. Co-digestion of manure and industrial waste--The effects of trace element addition.

    PubMed

    Nordell, Erik; Nilsson, Britt; Nilsson Påledal, Sören; Karisalmi, Kaisa; Moestedt, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Manure is one of the most common substrates for biogas production. Manure from dairy- and swine animals are often considered to stabilize the biogas process by contributing nutrients and trace elements needed for the biogas process. In this study two lab-scale reactors were used to evaluate the effects of trace element addition during co-digestion of manure from swine- and dairy animals with industrial waste. The substrate used contained high background concentrations of both cobalt and nickel, which are considered to be the most important trace elements. In the reactor receiving additional trace elements, the volatile fatty acids (VFA) concentration was 89% lower than in the control reactor. The lower VFA concentration contributed to a more digested digestate, and thus lower methane emissions in the subsequent storage. Also, the biogas production rate increased with 24% and the biogas production yield with 10%, both as a result of the additional trace elements at high organic loading rates. All in all, even though 50% of the feedstock consisted of manure, trace element addition resulted in multiple positive effects and a more reliable process with stable and high yield.

  8. Effects of the addition of dimer acid alkyl esters on the properties of ethyl cellulose.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sangjun; Ko, Kwang-Hwan; Shin, Jihoon; Kim, Nam-Kyun; Kim, Young-Wun; Kim, Joon-Seop

    2015-05-05

    In this study, we synthesized dimer acid (DA) esters, having short to long alkyl chains, (DA-Cn) by the Diels-Alder reaction and subsequent esterification reaction of fatty acids that were prepared by the hydrolysis of waste vegetable oil. It was found that the DA-Cn were thermally more stable than common petroleum-based plasticizer DOP. When the DOP, DA, or DA-Cn with short alkyl chains were added to ethyl cellulose (EC), the optical clarity and SEM images of the samples showed their good miscibility with those additives in a micro-scale. It was also found that the rubbery modulus of the EC decreased with increasing amount of additives; the type of the additives did not affect the rates of the decrease in the rubbery modulus. The main transition temperatures of the EC containing either DA or DA-C1 or DA-C4 decreased with increasing amounts of those additives and were comparable to that of the DOP-containing EC. The above findings suggested that the DA and its esters with short alkyl chains could act as effective plasticizer and, thus, could be used instead of the DOP. In addition, the results obtained from tensile testing and leaching experiments implied that the DA might be better plasticizer than the DA-C1 and DA-C4, at least in some cases, because of hydrogen-bonding with the EC.

  9. Effect of additives on size and shape of lithium carbonate crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taborga, P.; Brito, I.; Graber, T. A.

    2017-02-01

    Generally, properties such internal structure, shape, and size distribution influence the reactivity, fluidity and wettability of the crystals, and may be modified by the use of additives such as polyelectrolytes or surfactants. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different additives on the size and morphology of lithium carbonate crystals obtained by reactive crystallization from solutions of LiCl and Na2CO3. The additives used were: polyethylenimine (PEI), polyethylene glycol (PEG), poly (4-styrenesulfonic acid), (P4SA), polyacrylic acid (PAA), sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), and sodium dodecyl benzenesulfonate (SDBS). Obtained crystals were observed using scanning electron microscopy, the crystal size distribution was determined by a size image analyzer, and the crystal structure were analyzed by X-ray diffraction. The results showed that the presence of PEI, PEG and P4SA, increased the length of the lithium carbonate particles. The presence of SDS decreases the crystals size. Using SDBS as additive, the crystals had a needle-like shape, Finally PAA allowed the production of Li2CO3 spherulites. Crystal structure of lithium carbonate did not change in the presence of the tested additives.

  10. Effect of the BSCCO superconducting properties by tiny Y2O3 addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Yan; Sun, Aimin; Xu, Bin; Zhang, Hongtao; Zhang, Meng

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, the effect of tiny Y2O3 addition in (Bi,Pb)-2223 superconductor prepared by solid state reaction technique was studied. The properties of samples have been investigated via X-ray diffraction (XRD), resistance-temperature (R-T) curve, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). XRD data indicated that all samples are multiphase and the major phases are high-temperature phases and low-temperature phases. The volume fraction of (Bi,Pb)-2223 is not great change with tiny Y2O3 addition. All samples exhibit superconducting phase with the critical transition temperature and one-step transition, however, the transition width was decreased with the Y2O3 addition up to 0.04 wt.% and sharp increased with the excessive oxide addition. SEM pictures show that the Y2O3 appeared on the flake-type grains surface obviously, but the number and size of the hole between grains are decreased in the 0.04 wt.% addition.

  11. CAN Canopy Addition of Nitrogen Better Illustrate the Effect of Atmospheric Nitrogen Deposition on Forest Ecosystem?

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Shen, Weijun; Zhu, Shidan; Wan, Shiqiang; Luo, Yiqi; Yan, Junhua; Wang, Keya; Liu, Lei; Dai, Huitang; Li, Peixue; Dai, Keyuan; Zhang, Weixin; Liu, Zhanfeng; Wang, Faming; Kuang, Yuanwen; Li, Zhian; Lin, Yongbiao; Rao, Xingquan; Li, Jiong; Zou, Bi; Cai, Xian; Mo, Jiangming; Zhao, Ping; Ye, Qing; Huang, Jianguo; Fu, Shenglei

    2015-06-10

    Increasing atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition could profoundly impact community structure and ecosystem functions in forests. However, conventional experiments with understory addition of N (UAN) largely neglect canopy-associated biota and processes and therefore may not realistically simulate atmospheric N deposition to generate reliable impacts on forest ecosystems. Here we, for the first time, designed a novel experiment with canopy addition of N (CAN) vs. UAN and reviewed the merits and pitfalls of the two approaches. The following hypotheses will be tested: i) UAN overestimates the N addition effects on understory and soil processes but underestimates those on canopy-associated biota and processes, ii) with low-level N addition, CAN favors canopy tree species and canopy-dwelling biota and promotes the detritus food web, and iii) with high-level N addition, CAN suppresses canopy tree species and other biota and favors rhizosphere food web. As a long-term comprehensive program, this experiment will provide opportunities for multidisciplinary collaborations, including biogeochemistry, microbiology, zoology, and plant science to examine forest ecosystem responses to atmospheric N deposition.

  12. CAN Canopy Addition of Nitrogen Better Illustrate the Effect of Atmospheric Nitrogen Deposition on Forest Ecosystem?

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wei; Shen, Weijun; Zhu, Shidan; Wan, Shiqiang; Luo, Yiqi; Yan, Junhua; Wang, Keya; Liu, Lei; Dai, Huitang; Li, Peixue; Dai, Keyuan; Zhang, Weixin; Liu, Zhanfeng; Wang, Faming; Kuang, Yuanwen; Li, Zhian; Lin, Yongbiao; Rao, Xingquan; Li, Jiong; Zou, Bi; Cai, Xian; Mo, Jiangming; Zhao, Ping; Ye, Qing; Huang, Jianguo; Fu, Shenglei

    2015-01-01

    Increasing atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition could profoundly impact community structure and ecosystem functions in forests. However, conventional experiments with understory addition of N (UAN) largely neglect canopy-associated biota and processes and therefore may not realistically simulate atmospheric N deposition to generate reliable impacts on forest ecosystems. Here we, for the first time, designed a novel experiment with canopy addition of N (CAN) vs. UAN and reviewed the merits and pitfalls of the two approaches. The following hypotheses will be tested: i) UAN overestimates the N addition effects on understory and soil processes but underestimates those on canopy-associated biota and processes, ii) with low-level N addition, CAN favors canopy tree species and canopy-dwelling biota and promotes the detritus food web, and iii) with high-level N addition, CAN suppresses canopy tree species and other biota and favors rhizosphere food web. As a long-term comprehensive program, this experiment will provide opportunities for multidisciplinary collaborations, including biogeochemistry, microbiology, zoology, and plant science to examine forest ecosystem responses to atmospheric N deposition. PMID:26059183

  13. CAN Canopy Addition of Nitrogen Better Illustrate the Effect of Atmospheric Nitrogen Deposition on Forest Ecosystem?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wei; Shen, Weijun; Zhu, Shidan; Wan, Shiqiang; Luo, Yiqi; Yan, Junhua; Wang, Keya; Liu, Lei; Dai, Huitang; Li, Peixue; Dai, Keyuan; Zhang, Weixin; Liu, Zhanfeng; Wang, Faming; Kuang, Yuanwen; Li, Zhian; Lin, Yongbiao; Rao, Xingquan; Li, Jiong; Zou, Bi; Cai, Xian; Mo, Jiangming; Zhao, Ping; Ye, Qing; Huang, Jianguo; Fu, Shenglei

    2015-06-01

    Increasing atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition could profoundly impact community structure and ecosystem functions in forests. However, conventional experiments with understory addition of N (UAN) largely neglect canopy-associated biota and processes and therefore may not realistically simulate atmospheric N deposition to generate reliable impacts on forest ecosystems. Here we, for the first time, designed a novel experiment with canopy addition of N (CAN) vs. UAN and reviewed the merits and pitfalls of the two approaches. The following hypotheses will be tested: i) UAN overestimates the N addition effects on understory and soil processes but underestimates those on canopy-associated biota and processes, ii) with low-level N addition, CAN favors canopy tree species and canopy-dwelling biota and promotes the detritus food web, and iii) with high-level N addition, CAN suppresses canopy tree species and other biota and favors rhizosphere food web. As a long-term comprehensive program, this experiment will provide opportunities for multidisciplinary collaborations, including biogeochemistry, microbiology, zoology, and plant science to examine forest ecosystem responses to atmospheric N deposition.

  14. Relative Importance and Additive Effects of Maternal and Infant Risk Factors on Childhood Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Rosas-Salazar, Christian; James, Kristina; Escobar, Gabriel; Gebretsadik, Tebeb; Li, Sherian Xu; Carroll, Kecia N.; Walsh, Eileen; Mitchel, Edward; Das, Suman; Kumar, Rajesh; Yu, Chang; Dupont, William D.; Hartert, Tina V.

    2016-01-01

    Background Environmental exposures that occur in utero and during early life may contribute to the development of childhood asthma through alteration of the human microbiome. The objectives of this study were to estimate the cumulative effect and relative importance of environmental exposures on the risk of childhood asthma. Methods We conducted a population-based birth cohort study of mother-child dyads who were born between 1995 and 2003 and were continuously enrolled in the PRIMA (Prevention of RSV: Impact on Morbidity and Asthma) cohort. The individual and cumulative impact of maternal urinary tract infections (UTI) during pregnancy, maternal colonization with group B streptococcus (GBS), mode of delivery, infant antibiotic use, and older siblings at home, on the risk of childhood asthma were estimated using logistic regression. Dose-response effect on childhood asthma risk was assessed for continuous risk factors: number of maternal UTIs during pregnancy, courses of infant antibiotics, and number of older siblings at home. We further assessed and compared the relative importance of these exposures on the asthma risk. In a subgroup of children for whom maternal antibiotic use during pregnancy information was available, the effect of maternal antibiotic use on the risk of childhood asthma was estimated. Results Among 136,098 singleton birth infants, 13.29% developed asthma. In both univariate and adjusted analyses, maternal UTI during pregnancy (odds ratio [OR] 1.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.18, 1.25; adjusted OR [AOR] 1.04, 95%CI 1.02, 1.07 for every additional UTI) and infant antibiotic use (OR 1.21, 95%CI 1.20, 1.22; AOR 1.16, 95%CI 1.15, 1.17 for every additional course) were associated with an increased risk of childhood asthma, while having older siblings at home (OR 0.92, 95%CI 0.91, 0.93; AOR 0.85, 95%CI 0.84, 0.87 for each additional sibling) was associated with a decreased risk of childhood asthma, in a dose-dependent manner. Compared with vaginal

  15. [Effect of the addition of soy flour and whey protein concentrate on bread quality and mineral dialyzability].

    PubMed

    Visentín, Alexis N; Drago, Silvina R; Osella, Carlos A; de la Torre, María A; Sánchez, Hugo D; González, Rolando J

    2009-09-01

    The effects of the addition of soy flour and whey protein concentrate (WPC) on dough properties and mold bread quality were studied. Farinograph and alveograph were used to evaluate dough properties. Mold bread quality was evaluated by assessing sensory attributes using a trained panel and analyzing some nutritional characteristics, such as: protein chemical score, available lysine, and potential availability of fortified iron and also of the intrinsic calcium and zinc. Addition of soy flour and WPC caused significant changes on dough properties. Chemical score of bread was increased from 40.2 to 41.4 when 6% WPC was used, from 40.2 to 52.2 when 6% soy flour was added and up to 60.0 when substitution was made with 6% WPC plus 6% soy flour. This last improvement was obtained without impairing sensory attributes. The highest value of available lysine loss during baking, corresponded to the blend containing WPC, but it was reduced when WPC was used together with soy flour. WPC addition increased calcium content but reduced potential availability of iron and zinc. This negative effect on iron availability was overcome by adding mineral absorption promoters, being EDTA the most effective. On the other hand addition of 6% soy flour improved protein value without affecting mineral availability.

  16. The effects of nutrient additions on particulate and dissolved primary production in surface waters of three Mediterranean eddies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagaria, A.; Psarra, S.; Lefèvre, D.; van Wambeke, F.; Courties, C.; Pujo-Pay, M.; Oriol, L.; Tanaka, T.; Christaki, U.

    2010-12-01

    The effects of additions of nitrogen (+N), phosphorus (+P), alone and in combination, were assessed during three microcosm experiments performed with surface waters of three anticyclonic eddies, located in the Western, Central and Eastern Mediterranean. We examined the effects of nutrient additions on rates of dissolved and particulate primary production and on metabolic rates of the osmotrophic community (phytoplankton and heterotrophic prokaryotes). The experiments were performed in June/July 2008 during the BOUM (Biogeochemistry from the Oligotrophic to the Ultra-oligotrophic Mediterranean) cruise. In all three experiments, particulate primary production was significantly stimulated by the additions of nitrogen (+N, +NP) while no effect was observed with the addition of phosphorus alone. Percent extracellular release (PER) showed an inverse relation with total primary production (PPtotal), displaying the lowest values (4-8%) in the +NP treatment. Among the three treatments, the +NP had the strongest effect on the community metabolic rates leading to positive net community production values (NCP>0). These changes of NCP were mainly due to enhanced gross community production (GCP) rather than lower respiration rates (CR). In +NP treatments autotrophic production (whether expressed as GCP or PPtotal) was high enough to fulfil the carbon requirements of the heterotrophic prokaryotes, with phytoplankton and heterotrophic prokaryote production positively correlated. Addition of nitrogen alone (+N) had a smaller effect on community production, resulting in metabolically balanced systems (NCP≍0). Finally, heterotrophic conditions persisted in the +P treatment at the central and eastern stations, and gross production was not sufficient to supply bacterial carbon demand, evidence of a decoupling of phytoplankton production and consumption by heterotrophic prokaryotes.

  17. Effect of Dysprosia Additive on the Consolidation of CeO2 by Spark Plasma Sintering

    SciTech Connect

    K. Choi; R. E. Reavis; D. D. Osterberg; B. J. Jacques; D. P. Butt; R. D. Mariani; D. E. Burkes; Z. A. Munir

    2012-05-01

    The influence of dysprosia addition on the sintering and resulting microstructure of nano-grained CeO2 ceramics was investigated as functions of the spark plasma sintering (SPS) parameters. The addition of Dy2O3 (forming a solid solution) resulted in an increase in relative density and a decrease in grain size. The relative density of samples with Dy2O3 content of 6 and 10 mol% was over 95% when sintered at 1050 C under 500 MPa for holding times as short as 5 minutes. The application of high pressure facilitated the consolidation to relatively high densities with minimal grain growth. Heating rate and holding time, however, had insignificant effect on density but a measurable effect on grain size.

  18. Effect of Ca and Zn additions on the mechanical properties of Mg produced by powder metallurgy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guleryuz, L. F.; Ipek, R.; Arıtman, I.; Karaoglu, S.

    2017-02-01

    Magnesium and its alloys are among important research topics in view of their excellent biocompatibility.In this study mechanical and microstructure properties of hot sintered Mg-Zn-Ca alloys were studied.The effects of the addition of different amounts Ca and Zn were added to the base material has been processed by powder metallurgy method.resulting microstructures densities and compression test behaviors of the Mg-based alloys were studied.Visual inspection using SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope) analyses indicates that the microstructure of the composite is also greatly effected by these parameters. In addition, EDS (Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy) analyses were performed for reliable determination of the chemical composition.

  19. Reducing the matrix effects in chemical analysis: fusion of isotope dilution and standard addition methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagliano, Enea; Meija, Juris

    2016-04-01

    The combination of isotope dilution and mass spectrometry has become an ubiquitous tool of chemical analysis. Often perceived as one of the most accurate methods of chemical analysis, it is not without shortcomings. Current isotope dilution equations are not capable of fully addressing one of the key problems encountered in chemical analysis: the possible effect of sample matrix on measured isotope ratios. The method of standard addition does compensate for the effect of sample matrix by making sure that all measured solutions have identical composition. While it is impossible to attain such condition in traditional isotope dilution, we present equations which allow for matrix-matching between all measured solutions by fusion of isotope dilution and standard addition methods.

  20. Ring Substituent Effects on the Thiol Addition and Hydrolysis Reactions of N-Arylmaleimides.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yingche; Tsao, Kelvin; De Francesco, Élise; Keillor, Jeffrey W

    2015-12-18

    Maleimide groups are used extensively in bioconjugation reactions, but limited kinetic information is available regarding their thiol addition and hydrolysis reactions. We prepared a series of fluorogenic coumarin maleimide derivatives that differ by the substituent on their maleimide C═C bond. Fluorescence-based kinetic studies of the reaction with β-mercaptoethanol (BME) yielded the second-order rate constants (k2), while pH-rate studies from pH 7 to 9 gave base-catalyzed hydrolysis rate constants (kOH). Linear free-energy relationships were studied through the correlation of log k2 and log kOH to both electronic (σ(+)) and steric (Es(norm)) parameters of the C═C substituent. These correlations revealed the thiol addition reaction is primarily sensitive to the electronic effects, while steric effects dominate the hydrolysis reaction. These mechanistic studies provide the basis for the design of novel bioconjugation reactants or fluorogenic labeling agents.

  1. Is the additional greenhouse effect already evident in the current climate?

    PubMed

    Raschke, E

    2001-11-01

    Several greenhouse gases, which are in part or entirely produced by human activities, have accumulated in the atmosphere since approximately the middle of the 19th century. They are assumed to have an additional greenhouse effect causing a further increase of atmospheric temperatures near the ground and a decrease in the layers above approximately 15 km altitude. The currently observed near-surface warming over nearly the entire globe is already considered by a large fraction of our society to be result of this additional greenhouse effect. Complete justification of this assumption is, however, not yet possible, because there are still too many unknowns in our knowledge of participating processes and in our modeling capabilities.

  2. Ecological significance of residual exposures and effects from the Exxon Valdez oil spill.

    PubMed

    Harwell, Mark A; Gentile, John H

    2006-07-01

    An ecological significance framework is used to assess the ecological condition of Prince William Sound (PWS), Alaska, USA, in order to address the current management question: 17 y following the Exxon Valdez oil spill (EVOS), are there any remaining and continuing ecologically significant exposures or effects on the PWS ecosystem caused by EVOS? We examined the extensive scientific literature funded by the Exxon Valdez Trustees or by ExxonMobil to assess exposures and effects from EVOS. Criteria to assess ecological significance include whether a change in a valued ecosystem component (VEC) is sufficient to affect the structure, function, and/or health of the system and whether such a change exceeds natural variability. The EVOS occurred on 24 March 1989, releasing over 250,000 barrels of crude oil into PWS. Because PWS is highly dynamic, the residual oil was largely eliminated in the first few years, and now only widely dispersed, highly weathered, or isolated small pockets of residual contamination remain. Many other sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) exist in PWS from past or present human activities or natural oil seeps. Multiple-lines-of-evidence analyses indicate that residual PAHs from EVOS no longer represent an ecologically significant exposure risk to PWS. To assess the ecological significance of any residual effects from EVOS, we examined the literature on more than 20 VECs, including primary producers, filter feeders, fish and bird primary consumers, fish and bird top predators, a bird scavenger, mammalian primary consumers and top predators, biotic communities, ecosystem-level properties of trophodynamics and biogeochemical processes, and landscape-level properties of habitat mosaic and wilderness quality. None of these has any ecologically significant effects that are detectable at present, with the exception of 1 pod of orcas and possibly 1 subpopulation of sea otters; however, in both those cases, PWS-wide populations appear to have

  3. Health Effects Associated with Inhalation Exposure to Diesel Emission Generated with and without CeO2 Nano Fuel Additive

    EPA Science Inventory

    Diesel exhaust (DE) exposure induces adverse cardiopulmonary effects. Addition of nano cerium (Ce) oxide additive to diesel fuel (DECe) increases fuel burning efficiency resulting in altered emission characteristics and potentially altered health effects. We hypothesized that inh...

  4. Effect of Chromium Addition to the Low Temperature Hot Corrosion Resistance of Platinum Modified Aluminide Coatings.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-12-01

    Diffusion aluminide coatings were the first coatings developed for hot corrosion resistance. Aluminum is applied to the surface of the superalloy by a...D.H., "Mechanisms of Formation of Diffusion Aluminide Coatings on Nickel-oase Superalloys , Oxidation of Metals, v. 3, pp. 475-477, 1971. 17. Lehnert...Classification) E.FFECT OF CHROMIUJM ADDITION TO THE LOW TEMPERATURE HOT CORROSION RESISTANCE OF PLATINUM MODIFIED ALUMINIDE COATINGS 2 PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Dust

  5. UNDERSTANDING THE EFFECTS OF SURFACTANT ADDITION ON RHEOLOGY USING LASER SCANNING CONFOCAL MICROSCOPY

    SciTech Connect

    White, T

    2007-05-08

    The effectiveness of three dispersants to modify rheology was examined using rheology measurements and laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM) in simulated waste solutions. All of the dispersants lowered the yield stress of the slurries below the baseline samples. The rheology curves were fitted reasonably to a Bingham Plastic model. The three-dimensional LSCM images of simulants showed distinct aggregates were greatly reduced after the addition of dispersants leading to a lowering of the yield stress of the simulated waste slurry solutions.

  6. Effect of the addition of ground rosemary on the quality and shelf-life of turkey meatballs during refrigerated storage.

    PubMed

    Karpińska-Tymoszczyk, M

    2008-11-01

    1. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of the addition of ground rosemary on the quality and shelf-life of turkey meatballs. Heat-treated vacuum-packed turkey meatballs were stored at 3 +/- 1 degrees C. 2. The rate of oxidative and hydrolytic changes during refrigerated storage was slower in meatballs containing 1% of rosemary. The samples with rosemary were characterised by significantly lower values of pH and water activity than control samples. The addition of rosemary inhibited the growth of psychrotrophic, coliform and Clostridium sp. bacteria. 3. The sensory quality of meatballs decreased over storage, first in control samples and later also in those containing rosemary. Warmed-over flavour was detected after 12 d of storage in meatballs spiced with rosemary and after 3 d in control samples. A sour flavour was not perceptible in meatballs containing rosemary. The obtained results confirm the beneficial effect of rosemary added to poultry meat products.

  7. Effect of organometallic fuel additives on nanoparticle emissions from a gasoline passenger car.

    PubMed

    Gidney, Jeremy T; Twigg, Martyn V; Kittelson, David B

    2010-04-01

    Particle size measurements were performed on the exhaust of a car operating on a chassis dynamometer fueled with standard gasoline and gasoline containing low levels of Pb, Fe, and Mn organometallic additives. When additives were present there was a distinct nucleation mode consisting primarily of sub-10 nm nanoparticles. At equal molar dosing Mn and Fe gave similar nanoparticle concentrations at the tailpipe, whereas Pb gave a considerably lower concentration. A catalytic stripper was used to remove the organic component of these particles and revealed that they were mainly solid and, because of their association with inorganic additives, presumably inorganic. Solid nucleation mode nanoparticles of similar size and concentration to those observed here from a gasoline engine with Mn and Fe additives have also been observed from modern heavy-duty diesel engines without aftertreatment at idle, but these solid particles are a small fraction of the primarily volatile nucleation mode particles emitted. The solid nucleation mode particles emitted by the diesel engines are likely derived from metal compounds in the lubrication oil, although carbonaceous particles cannot be ruled out. Significantly, most of these solid nanoparticles emitted by both engine types fall below the 23 nm cutoff of the PMP number regulation.

  8. Effect of additives on gas-phase catalysis with immobilised Thermoanaerobacter species alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH T).

    PubMed

    Trivedi, A H; Spiess, A C; Daussmann, T; Büchs, J

    2006-07-01

    This paper presents a strategy for preparing an efficient immobilised alcohol dehydrogenase preparation for a gas-phase reaction. The effects of additives such as buffers and sucrose on the immobilisation efficiency (residual activity and protein loading) and on the gas-phase reaction efficiency (initial reaction rate and half-life) of Thermoanaerobacter sp. alcohol dehydrogenase were studied. The reduction of acetophenone to 1-phenylethanol under in situ cofactor regeneration using isopropanol as co-substrate was used as a model reaction at fixed reaction conditions (temperature and thermodynamic activities). A strongly enhanced thermostability of the enzyme in the gas-phase reaction was achieved when the enzyme was immobilised with 50 mM phosphate buffer (pH 7) containing sucrose five times the protein amount (on weight/weight basis). This resulted in a remarkable productivity of 200 g L(-1) day(-1) even at non-optimised reaction conditions. The interaction of additives with the enzyme and water affects the immobilisation and gas-phase efficiencies of the enzyme. However, it was not possible to predict the effect of additives on the gas-phase reaction efficiency even after knowing their effect on the immobilisation efficiency.

  9. Interactive effects of nitrogen addition, warming and invasion across organizational levels in an old-field plant community.

    PubMed

    Gornish, Elise S

    2014-10-08

    Response to global change is dependent on the level of biological organization (e.g. the ecologically relevant spatial scale) in which species are embedded. For example, individual responses can affect population-level responses, which, in turn, can affect community-level responses. Although relationships are known to exist among responses to global change across levels of biological organization, formal investigations of these relationships are still uncommon. I conducted an exploratory analysis to identify how nitrogen addition and warming by open top chambers might affect plants across spatial scales by estimating treatment effect size at the leaf level, the plant level and the community level. Moreover, I investigated if the presence of Pityopsis aspera, an experimentally introduced plant species, modified the relationship between spatial scale and effect size across treatments. I found that, overall, the spatial scale significantly contributes to differences in effect size, supporting previous work which suggests that mechanisms driving biotic response to global change are scale dependent. Interestingly, the relationship between spatial scale and effect size in both the absence and presence of experimental invasion is very similar for nitrogen addition and warming treatments. The presence of invasion, however, did not affect the relationship between spatial scale and effect size, suggesting that in this system, invasion may not exacerbate or attenuate climate change effects. This exercise highlights the value of moving beyond integration and scaling to the practice of directly testing for scale effects within single experiments.

  10. Effect of the interaction between dye and acetic acid on the decomposition of Basic Green 4 with additive by ozone.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Arizbeth A; Poznyak, Tatiana I; Chairez, Jorge I

    2014-01-01

    This research investigated the ozonation of Basic Green 4 (BG4) under the presence of acetic acid (AA). This acid is used as a textile additive for many industrial dyes derived from triphenylmethane. Determining the effect of this additive on discoloration, degradation dynamics, and final by-product distribution is the main objective of this study. The reaction system was the ozonation of a dye solution in co-solvents. This solution (dye and AA) was considered a simplified version of real BG4 dyeing wastewaters supplied with additives. The dye concentration was set to 50, 150, and 250 mg/L without pH adjustment (pH = 3). This low value was forced by the AA. Ozonation reaction with dye was mainly done by a direct molecular mechanism. The discoloration dynamics of BG4 without and with the additive were determined by ultraviolet and visible wavelength spectroscopy. The dye decomposition and the intermediate and final product formation-decomposition dynamics were followed by high-performance liquid chromatography. The effects of AA in the ozonation results were significant in the following ways: 1) a possible complex, formed between AA and the dye, changed ozone consumption; 2) the presence of additive decelerated the dye discoloration and decomposition; and 3) the number of by-products was dissimilar in both systems, with and without the additive the ozonation. The accumulation of organic acids with low molecular weight was determined in both systems, with and without the additive. Only one by-product was obtained in ozonation when AA participated in the reactor. A possible reaction mechanism is proposed for the system dye-AA-ozone.

  11. Non-additive effects of herbivores and pollinators on Erysimum mediohispanicum (Cruciferae) fitness.

    PubMed

    Gómez, José M

    2005-04-01

    In this study, the non-additivity of effects of herbivores and pollinator on fitness of the plant Erysimum mediohispanicum (Cruciferae) has been experimentally tested. The abundance and diversity of the pollinator assemblage of plants excluded from and exposed to mammalian herbivores, and the combined effect of pollinators and herbivores on plant reproduction were determined over a period of 2 years. Pollinator abundance was higher and diversity was lower on plants excluded from herbivores. Furthermore, the experimental exclusions demonstrated that both pollinators and herbivores affected plant fitness, but their effects were not independent. Herbivores only had a detrimental effect on plant fitness when pollinators were present. Similarly, pollinators enhanced fitness only when herbivores were excluded. This outcome demonstrates that the importance of pollinators for plant fitness depends on the occurrence of herbivores, and suggests that herbivores may hamper pollinator-mediated adaptation in plants.

  12. p-Curve and Effect Size: Correcting for Publication Bias Using Only Significant Results.

    PubMed

    Simonsohn, Uri; Nelson, Leif D; Simmons, Joseph P

    2014-11-01

    Journals tend to publish only statistically significant evidence, creating a scientific record that markedly overstates the size of effects. We provide a new tool that corrects for this bias without requiring access to nonsignificant results. It capitalizes on the fact that the distribution of significant p values, p-curve, is a function of the true underlying effect. Researchers armed only with sample sizes and test results of the published findings can correct for publication bias. We validate the technique with simulations and by reanalyzing data from the Many-Labs Replication project. We demonstrate that p-curve can arrive at conclusions opposite that of existing tools by reanalyzing the meta-analysis of the "choice overload" literature.

  13. Effects of aluminum additions to gas atomized reaction synthesis produced oxide dispersion strengthened alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spicher, Alexander Lee

    The production of an aluminum containing ferritic oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) alloy was investigated. The production method used in this study was gas atomization reaction synthesis (GARS). GARS was chosen over the previously commercial method of mechanical alloying (MA) process due to complications from this process. The alloy compositions was determined from three main components; corrosion resistance, dispersoid formation, and additional elements. A combination of Cr and Al were necessary in order to create a protective oxide in the steam atmosphere that the boiler tubing in the next generation of coal-fired power plants would be exposed to. Hf and Y were chosen as dispersoid forming elements due to their increased thermal stability and potential to avoid decreased strength caused by additions of Al to traditional ODS materials. W was used as an additive due to benefits as a strengthener as well as its benefits for creep rupture time. The final composition chosen for the alloy was Fe-16Cr-12Al-0.9W-0.25Hf-0.2Y at%. The aforementioned alloy, GA-1-198, was created through gas atomization with atomization gas of Ar-300ppm O2. The actual composition created was found to be Fe-15Cr-12.3Al-0.9W-0.24Hf-0.19Y at%. An additional alloy that was nominally the same without the inclusion of aluminum was created as a comparison for the effects on mechanical and corrosion properties. The actual composition of the comparison alloy, GA-1-204, was Fe-16Cr-0Al-0.9W-0.25Hf-0.24Y at%. An investigation on the processing parameters for these alloys was conducted on the GA-1-198 alloy. In order to predict the necessary amount of time for heat treatment, a diffusion study was used to find the diffusion rate of oxygen in cast alloys with similar composition. The diffusion rate was found to be similar to that of other GARS compositions that have been created without the inclusion of aluminum. The effect of heat treatment time was investigated with temperatures of 950°C, 1000

  14. Unconventional scaling and significant enhancement of the spin Seebeck effect in multilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos, R.; Kikkawa, T.; Aguirre, M. H.; Lucas, I.; Anadón, A.; Oyake, T.; Uchida, K.; Adachi, H.; Shiomi, J.; Algarabel, P. A.; Morellón, L.; Maekawa, S.; Saitoh, E.; Ibarra, M. R.

    2015-12-01

    Spin Seebeck effects (SSEs) have been investigated in highly crystalline magnetic multilayer [Fe3O4/Pt] n films. Voltage as well as power generated by the SSE were found to be significantly enhanced with increasing the number of layers n . This voltage enhancement defies the simple understanding of the SSE and suggests that spin current flowing between the magnetic layers in the thickness direction plays an important role in multilayer SSE systems and the observed voltage enhancement.

  15. Potential Additives to Promote Seal Swell in Synthetic Fuels and Their Effect on Thermal Stability

    SciTech Connect

    Link, D.D.; Gormley, R.J.; Baltrus, J.P.; Anderson, R.R.; Zandhuis, P.H.

    2008-03-01

    Synthetic fuels derived from the Fischer–Tropsch (F-T) process using natural gas or coal-derived synthesis gas as feedstocks can be used for powering ground vehicles, aircraft, and ships. Because of their chemical and physical properties, F-T fuels will probably require additives in order to meet specifications with respect to lubricity and seal swell capability for use in ground and air vehicles. Using both experimental and computational studies, the propensity of certain species to enhance the seal swell characteristics of synthetic fuels and surrogates has been determined, and promising additives have been identified. Important structural characteristics for potential additives, namely an aromatic ring along with a polar constituent, are described. The thermal stability of synthetic and surrogate fuels containing the single-component additive benzyl alcohol, which is representative of this structural class, has been determined by batch stressing of the mixtures at 350 °C for up to 12 h. Synthetic fuels spiked with benzyl alcohol at concentrations (vol %) of 1.0, 0.75, and 0.5 have demonstrated the ability to swell nitrile rubber o-rings to a comparable degree as petroleum jet fuel. Further, batch reactor studies have shown that addition of benzyl alcohol does not degrade the thermal oxidative stability of the fuel based on gravimetric analysis of the solid deposits after stressing. GC-MS was used to characterize the products from thermal stressing of neat and additized surrogate jet fuel, and their compositions were compared with respect to the creation of certain species and their potential effect on deposition.

  16. Synergistic effect between nano-ceramic lubricating additives and electroless deposited Ni-W-P coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Min; Cheng, Wushan; Zhao, Zuxin; Huang, Xiaobo

    2013-01-01

    The major solving ways for the material wear are surface modification and lubrication. Currently, the researches at home and abroad are all limited to the single study of either nano-lubricating oil additive or electroless deposited coating. The surface coating has high hardness and high wear resistance, however, the friction reduction performance of the coating with high hardness is not good, the thickness of the coating is limited, and the coating can not regenerate after wearing. The nano-lubricating additives have good tribological performance and self-repair function, but under heavy load, the self-repair rate to the worn surface with the nano-additives is smaller than the wearing rate of the friction pair. To solve the above problems, the Ni-W-P alloy coating and deposition process with excellent anti-wear, and suitable for industrial application were developed, the optimum bath composition and process can be obtained by studying the influence of the bath composition, temperature and PH value to the deposition rate and the plating solution stability. The tribological properties as well as anti-wear and friction reduction mechanism of wear self-repair nano-ceramic lubricating additives are also studied. The ring-block abrasion testing machine and energy dispersive spectrometer are used to explore the internal relation between the coating and the nano-lubricating oil additives, and the tribology mechanism, to seek the synergetic effect between the two. The test results show that the wear resistance of Ni-W-P alloy coating (with heat treatment and in oil with nano-ceramic additives) has increased hundreds times than 45 steel as the metal substrate in basic oil, the friction reduction performance is improved. This research breaks through the bottleneck of previous separate research of the above-mentioned two methods, and explores the combination use of the two methods in industrial field.

  17. Discrete Fourier Transform: statistical effect size and significance of Fourier components.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crockett, Robin

    2016-04-01

    A key analytical technique in the context of investigating cyclic/periodic features in time-series (and other sequential data) is the Discrete (Fast) Fourier Transform (DFT/FFT). However, assessment of the statistical effect-size and significance of the Fourier components in the DFT/FFT spectrum can be subjective and variable. This presentation will outline an approach and method for the statistical evaluation of the effect-size and significance of individual Fourier components from their DFT/FFT coefficients. The effect size is determined in terms of the proportions of the variance in the time-series that individual components account for. The statistical significance is determined using an hypothesis-test / p-value approach with respect to a null hypothesis that the time-series has no linear dependence on a given frequency (of a Fourier component). This approach also allows spectrograms to be presented in terms of these statistical parameters. The presentation will use sunspot cycles as an illustrative example.

  18. Effect of partially protected butyrate used as feed additive on growth and intestinal metabolism in sea bream (Sparus aurata).

    PubMed

    Robles, R; Lozano, A B; Sevilla, A; Márquez, L; Nuez-Ortín, W; Moyano, F J

    2013-12-01

    Butyrate is a short-chain fatty acid extensively used in animal nutrition since it promotes increases in body weight and other multiple beneficial effects on the intestinal tract. Although such effects have been demonstrated in several species, very few studies have assessed them in fish. On the other hand, little is known about the metabolic processes underlying these effects. In the present work, growth parameters and changes in more than 80 intestinal metabolites (nucleotides, amino acids and derivatives, glycolytic intermediates, redox coenzymes and lipid metabolism coenzymes) have been quantified in juvenile sea bream fed a butyrate-supplemented diet. Results showed a significant increase in the weight of fish receiving butyrate, while metabolomics provided some clues on the suggested effects of this feed additive. It seems that butyrate increased the availability of several essential amino acids and nucleotide derivatives. Also, the energy provision for enteric cells might have been enhanced by a decrease in glucose and amino acid oxidation related to the use of butyrate as fuel. Additionally, butyrate might have increased transmethylation activity. This work represents an advance in the knowledge of the metabolic consequences of using butyrate as an additive in fish diets.

  19. Effect of relative humidity and additives on the reaction of sulfur dioxide with calcium hydroxide

    SciTech Connect

    Ruiz-Alsop, R.N.

    1986-01-01

    The objective of this research was to investigate the effect of process variables and additives on the reaction rate of Ca(OH)/sub 2/ with SO/sub 2/ at conditions similar to these encountered in the bag filters used to collect solids following flue gas desulfurization by spray drying. The effect of Ca(OH)/sub 2/ loading, temperature, relative humidity, and inlet SO/sub 2/ concentration were investigated. Of these variables, relative humidity showed the greatest impact on the reaction rate. The effect of small amounts of additives were also investigated. Of the additives tried (buffer acids, organic deliquescents, and inorganic deliquescents) deliquescent salts were the only additives that improved reactivity. A shrinking core model with zero order kinetics in SO/sub 2/ was used to model experimental data. An empirical correlation was included in the model to account for shape and surface roughness of the Ca(OH)/sub 2/ particles. The diffusion coefficient of the SO/sub 2/ through the product layer was found to increase linearly with relative humidity, and the kinetic rate constant increases exponentially with relative humidity. With a few exceptions the model was able to predict the experimental data within the margin of experimental error (+/- 10%). At high relative humidity and/or high SO/sub 2/ concentration, reaction kinetics control the overall reaction rate, while at low relative humidity and/or low SO/sub 2/ concentration, SO/sub 2/ diffusion through the product layer controls the rate. The reaction solids were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, powder x-ray diffraction, Coulter counter size distribution BET (N/sub 2/) surface area, energy dispersive spectrometry, and differential scanning calorimetry.

  20. [Inhibitory effect of essential oils, food additives, peracetic acid and detergents on bacterial histidine decarboxylase].

    PubMed

    Kamii, Eri; Terada, Gaku; Akiyama, Jyunki; Isshiki, Kenji

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine whether various essential oils, food additives, peracetic acid and detergents inhibit bacterial histidine decarboxylase. Crude extract of Morganella morganii NBRC3848 was prepared and incubated with various agents. Histidine decarboxylase activity was significantly inhibited (p<0.05) by 26 of 45 compounds tested. Among the 26 agents, sodium hypochlorite completely decomposed both histidine and histamine, while peracetic acid caused slight decomposition. Histidine and histamine were stable in the presence of the other 24 agents. These results indicated that 25 of the agents examined were inhibitors of histidine decarboxylase.

  1. Effects of Ga addition on the mechanical properties of 35Ag-30Pd-20Au-15Cu alloy.

    PubMed

    Yamanaka, Masahiko; Goto, Shin-ichi; Churnjitapirom, Pornkiat; Ogura, Hideo

    2002-12-01

    Ten 35Ag-30Pd-20Au-15Cu alloys containing 0.00, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.00, 1.25, 1.50, 2.00, 4.00, or 6.00% Ga were experimentally prepared to investigate the effect of Ga on their mechanical properties in addition to their use for denture frameworks, connectors and clasps. The effect of Ga addition on the mechanical properties was marked with a significant increase in the tensile strength, 0.2% off-set proof stress (proof stress) and Vickers hardness observed at low Ga contents (0.25-2.00%). On the other hand, the elongation significantly decreased with the addition of Ga at all contents used in this study. The tensile strength, proof stress and Vickers hardness of the 35Ag-30Pd-20Au-15Cu alloys containing 0.25-2.00% Ga were in the range of 809-957 MPa, 669-857 MPa and 260-301 MPa, respectively. These values are similar to those of Co-Cr alloys, suggesting that 0.25-2.00% Ga alloys can be used for denture frameworks, clasps and connectors.

  2. The Effects of Pre-Fermentative Addition of Oenological Tannins on Wine Components and Sensorial Qualities of Red Wine.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kai; Escott, Carlos; Loira, Iris; Del Fresno, Juan Manuel; Morata, Antonio; Tesfaye, Wendu; Calderon, Fernando; Benito, Santiago; Suárez-Lepe, Jose Antonio

    2016-10-31

    Today in the wine industry, oenological tannins are widely used to improve wine quality and prevent oxidation in wine aging. With the development of tannin products, new oenological tannins are developed with many specific functions, such as modifying antioxidant effect, colour stabilization and aroma modifications. The aim of this work is to investigate effects of pre-fermentative addition of oenological tannins on wine colour, anthocyanins, volatile compounds and sensorial properties. In this case, Syrah juice was extracted with classic flash thermovinification from fresh must in order to release more colour and tannins. Three types of oenological tannins, which are, respectively, derived from grape skin, seed (Vitis vinifera) and French oak (Quercus robur and Querrus petraea), were selected to carry out the experiments with seven treatments. Results indicated that tannin treatments significantly improved wine aroma complexity and sensorial properties. However, the concentration of some stable pigments such as Vitisin A, Vitisin A-Ac and Vitisin B was negatively affected by tannin additions. Nevertheless, by means of cluster analysis and principal component analysis, it was observed that higher alcohols were significantly promoted by grape seed tannin while most anthocyanins can be improved by addition of grape tannins. In conclusion, low amount of oenological tannin derived from grape seed is a promising method to be applied especially for young red wine making.

  3. Effects of emulsifier addition on the crystallization and melting behavior of palm olein and coconut oil.

    PubMed

    Maruyama, Jessica Mayumi; Soares, Fabiana Andreia Schafer De Martini; D'Agostinho, Natalia Roque; Gonçalves, Maria Inês Almeida; Gioielli, Luiz Antonio; da Silva, Roberta Claro

    2014-03-12

    Two commercial emulsifiers (EM1 and EM2), containing predominantly monoacylglycerols (MAGs), were added in proportiond of 1.0 and 3.0% (w/w) to coconut oil and palm olein. EM1 consisted of approximately 90% MAGs, whereas EM2 consisted of approximately 50% MAGs. The crystallization behavior of these systems was evaluated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and microscopy under polarized light. On the basis of DSC results, it was clear that the addition of EM2 accelerated the crystallization of coconut oil and delayed the crystallization of palm olein. In both oils EM2 addition led to the formation of smaller spherulites, and these effects improved the possibilities for using these fats as ingredients. In coconut oil the spherulites were maintained even at higher temperatures (20 °C). The addition of EM1 to coconut oil changed the crystallization pattern. In palm olein, the addition of 3.0% (w/w) of this emulsifier altered the pattern of crystallization of this fat.

  4. Soluble organic additive effects on stress development during drying of calcium carbonate suspensions.

    PubMed

    Wedin, Pär; Lewis, Jennifer A; Bergström, Lennart

    2005-10-01

    The effect of polymer, plasticizer, and surfactant additives on stress development during drying of calcium carbonate particulate coatings was studied using a controlled-environment apparatus that simultaneously monitors drying stress, weight loss, and relative humidity. We found that the calcium carbonate coatings display a drying stress evolution typical of granular films, which is characterized by a sharp capillary-induced stress rise followed by a rapid stress relaxation. The addition of a soluble polymer to the CaCO3 suspension resulted in a two-stage stress evolution process. The initial stress rise stems from capillary-pressure-induced stresses within the film, while the second, larger stress rise occurs due to solidification and shrinkage of the polymeric species. Measurements on the corresponding pure polymer solutions established a clear correlation between the magnitude of residual stress in both the polymer and CaCO3-polymer films to the physical properties of the polymer phase, i.e. its glass transition temperature, T(g), and Young's modulus. The addition of small organic molecules can reduce the residual stress observed in the CaCO3-polymer films; e.g., glycerol, which acts as a plasticizer, reduces the drying stress by lowering T(g), while surfactant additions reduce the surface tension of the liquid phase, and, hence, the magnitude of the capillary pressure within the film.

  5. Nitrogen-addition effects on leaf traits and photosynthetic carbon gain of boreal forest understory shrubs.

    PubMed

    Palmroth, Sari; Bach, Lisbet Holm; Nordin, Annika; Palmqvist, Kristin

    2014-06-01

    Boreal coniferous forests are characterized by fairly open canopies where understory vegetation is an important component of ecosystem C and N cycling. We used an ecophysiological approach to study the effects of N additions on uptake and partitioning of C and N in two dominant understory shrubs: deciduous Vaccinium myrtillus in a Picea abies stand and evergreen Vaccinium vitis-idaea in a Pinus sylvestris stand in northern Sweden. N was added to these stands for 16 and 8 years, respectively, at rates of 0, 12.5, and 50 kg N ha(-1) year(-1). N addition at the highest rate increased foliar N and chlorophyll concentrations in both understory species. Canopy cover of P. abies also increased, decreasing light availability and leaf mass per area of V. myrtillus. Among leaves of either shrub, foliar N content did not explain variation in light-saturated CO2 exchange rates. Instead photosynthetic capacity varied with stomatal conductance possibly reflecting plant hydraulic properties and within-site variation in water availability. Moreover, likely due to increased shading under P. abies and due to water limitations in the sandy soil under P. sylvestris, individuals of the two shrubs did not increase their biomass or shift their allocation between above- and belowground parts in response to N additions. Altogether, our results indicate that the understory shrubs in these systems show little response to N additions in terms of photosynthetic physiology or growth and that changes in their performance are mostly associated with responses of the tree canopy.

  6. Effect of additives on tribochemical stability of greases with easter base oil

    SciTech Connect

    Nikonorov, E.M.; Demina, L.V.; Skryabina, T.G.; Sosulina, L.N.

    1984-03-01

    This article investigates the possibility of improving the tribochemical stability of soap-base grease formulated with polyol ester oils, by the use of additives of the phenol and amine types. Model greases formulated with a pentaerythritol ester (PET) and the polyester PAK, taken in a 9:1 ratio, were examined. The tribochemical stability of the greases was evaluated according to the rate of conversion of their dispersion medium in a rolling friction zone. The rate of additive exhaustion was evaluated by analogy with the rate of triboconversion of the dispersion medium. The additives used were phenyl-..cap alpha..-naphthylamine (PAN), diphenylamine (DPA), 2, 6-di-tert-butyl-p-cresol (ionol), a technical-grade dialkylated diphenylamine (DAT), and mixtures of the inhibitors. It is determined that the greatest effect in increasing the tribochemical stability is achieved by the introduction of combinations of additives: DAT + ionol (in Li and cCa greases) and PAN + DAT (in cCa grease).

  7. Effect of dietary addition of seaweed and licorice on the immune performance of pigs.

    PubMed

    Katayama, Masafumi; Fukuda, Tomokazu; Okamura, Toshihiro; Suzuki, Eisaku; Tamura, Katsuo; Shimizu, Yuuko; Suda, Yoshihito; Suzuki, Keiichi

    2011-04-01

    In pig production, dietary additive antibiotics are usually used for growth stimulation and disease prevention, although there is public concern about the increased incidence of resistant antibiotics and food safety. It is possible that such antibiotics might be replaced by naturally derived products such as seaweed and licorice. In this study, we evaluated the effect of dietary addition of seaweed and licorice on enhancing the immune function in swine. The animals of each group (eight animals per group) were sensitized at day 42 and 49, and the immunoglobulin production and the expression of cytokines were detected by the ELISA and real-time PCR. As the results, saliva IgA production of the seaweed-treated group increased around five times compared to that of control (day 56). Delayed hypersensitivity reaction and IgG production of the seaweed-treated group increased around 1.8-2.0 times. In addition, enhanced saliva IgA production was detected at day 50 (around two times) and day 51 (around five times) by the licorice treatment, and lower expression level of tumor necrosis factor-α messenger RNA at day 51 (around 1/25) was observed in the licorice treatment. We conclude that the replacement of antibiotics by naturally derived dietary additives might be feasible for immune system enhancement.

  8. Long term effect of MnO2 powder addition on nitrogen removal by anammox process.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Sen; Bi, Zhen; Zhou, Jiti; Cheng, Yingjun; Zhang, Jie; Bhatti, Zafar

    2012-11-01

    This study examined long-term effect of MnO(2) powder (average diameter of 4-7 μm) on nitrogen removal in anammox process. Two lab-scale up-flow anammox reactors were operated for 380 days, one with and one without MnO(2) powder addition. During the period when only substrate concentrations varied, the maximum nitrogen removal rate in the reactor with MnO(2) addition reached 920.9 g-N/m(3)/d. This value was 2-folds higher than that (464.6 g-N/m(3)/d) of the reactor without MnO(2) addition. The crude enzyme activities of the anammox biomass from the two reactors was measured as 0.531±0.019 and 0.298±0.007 μmol cytochrome c reduced/mg protein/min, respectively. Transmission electron microscopy observation demonstrated more undefined particles existing inside anammox bacterial cell in the reactor with MnO(2) powder addition. Furthermore, filament-like structures inside anammoxosome were observed, which formed a net-like structure with particles as the connecting nodes. The experiment results demonstrated that MnO(2) improved nitrogen removal performance of anammox process.

  9. Effect of the Additives on the Desulphurization Rate of Flash Hydrated and Agglomerated CFB Fly Ash

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, D. X.; Li, H. L.; Xu, M.; Lu, J. F.; Liu, Q.; Zhang, J. S.; Yue, G. X.

    CFB fly ash from separators was mixed with water or the mixture of water and additives under the temperature of 363K by use of a blender. Then, this compound of fly ash and water or additives was pumped into a CFB combustion chamber by a sludge pump. Because the temperature of flue gas was high in CFB, the fly ash was hydrated fast and agglomerated in the same time. Through this process, the size of agglomerating fly ash is larger than the original particle and the relative residence time of agglomerated fly ash in CFB becomes longer. Therefore, the rate of utility of calcium in fly ash improves and the content of carbon in fly ash decreases. This results in a low Ca/S and low operational cost for CFB boiler. The additive is one key factor, which affects the rate of desulfurization of agglomerated fly ash. Effect of different additives on rate of desulfurization is not same. Cement and limestone are beneficiated to sulfur removal of agglomerated fly ash, but sodium silicate does not devote to the rate of sulfur removal of agglomerated fly ash.

  10. Rheological behavior and organoleptic effects of ovalbumin addition in yogurt mousse production.

    PubMed

    Menéndez, M; Paredes, B; Iglesias, O; Rendueles, M; Díaz, M

    2006-03-01

    Yogurt mousse is a novel, high added-value dairy product that has been well received by the market. This paper presents a study of the effect of the addition of ovalbumin to the product on its rheological and organoleptic qualities. The ovalbumin was previously separated from egg white with a high grade of purity using an ion exchange resin synthesized by the authors. Diverse rheological tests at different temperatures and corresponding sensorial assessments were conducted to compare samples without and with added ovalbumin. The obtained results confirm that the product is viscoelastic and combines the properties of foams and emulsions; the elastic component is greater than the viscous component. Moreover, at temperatures ranging from 5 to 15 degrees C, a usual interval of consumption, the product behaves rheologically in a similar way. Conversely, the addition of ovalbumin under the assayed conditions also makes the elastic character of the product increase at a given temperature. Finally, the sensorial assessment tests and determinations of stability and volume yield enabled us to verify that the addition of ovalbumin at an amount of 1.3% hardly alters the stability, resistance to shear stress, or the texture and improves the degree of foaming. Therefore, the product with additive is of good commercial quality.

  11. Effects of beta-glucan addition to a probiotic containing yogurt.

    PubMed

    Vasiljevic, T; Kealy, T; Mishra, V K

    2007-09-01

    This study investigated the effects of addition of beta-glucan from 2 different cereal sources (oat and barley) on growth and metabolic activity of Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis (Bb-12) as determined by plating on a selective medium in yogurt during prolonged cold storage. These yogurt batches were compared to unsupplemented and inulin supplemented controls. All batches were also assessed for syneresis. Oat beta-glucan addition resulted in improved probiotic viability and stability comparable to that of inulin. It also enhanced lactic and propionic acid production. The barley beta-glucan addition suppressed proteolytic activity more than that from oat. These improvements were hindered by greater syneresis caused likely by thermodynamic incompatibility. Small amplitude oscillatory measurements of acidified model mixture of beta-glucan/skim milk solids showed formation of casein gel within the beta-glucan network. Binary mixtures of beta-glucan and skim milk solids had apparent pseudoplastic and non-Newtonian behavior governed mainly by beta-glucan contribution. Above critical concentrations, the mixtures underwent phase separation with the lower phase rich in protein. The phase diagram also showed that the addition of beta-glucan may be possible at or below 0.24 w/w%.

  12. Combined effect of sourdough lactic acid bacteria and additives on bread firmness and staling.

    PubMed

    Corsetti, A; Gobbetti, M; De Marco, B; Balestrieri, F; Paoletti, F; Russi, L; Rossi, J

    2000-07-01

    The effect of various sourdoughs and additives on bread firmness and staling was studied. Compared to the bread produced with Saccharomyces cerevisiae 141, the chemical acidification of dough fermented by S. cerevisiae 141 or the use of sourdoughs increased the volume of the breads. Only sourdough fermentation was effective in delaying starch retrogradation. The effect depended on the level of acidification and on the lactic acid bacteria strain. The effect of sourdough made of S. cerevisiae 141-Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis 57-Lactobacillus plantarum 13 was improved when fungal alpha-amylase or amylolytic strains such as L. amylovorus CNBL1008 or engineered L. sanfranciscensis CB1 Amy were added. When pentosans or pentosans, endoxylanase enzyme, and L. hilgardii S32 were added to the same sourdough, a greater delay of the bread firmness and staling was found. When pentosans were in part hydrolyzed by the endoxylanase enzyme, the bread also had the highest titratable acidity, due to the fermentation of pentoses by L. hilgardii S32. The addition of the bacterial protease to the sourdough increased the bread firmness and staling.

  13. Effects of native species diversity and resource additions on invader impact.

    PubMed

    Maron, John L; Marler, Marilyn

    2008-07-01

    Theory and empirical work have demonstrated that diverse communities can inhibit invasion. Yet, it is unclear how diversity influences invader impact, how impact varies among exotics, and what the relative importance of diversity is versus extrinsic factors that themselves can influence invasion. To address these issues, we established plant assemblages that varied in native species and functional richness and crossed this gradient in diversity with resource (water) addition. Identical assemblages were either uninvaded or invaded with one of three exotic forbs: spotted knapweed (Centaurea maculosa), dalmatian toadflax (Linaria dalmatica), or sulfur cinquefoil (Potentilla recta). To determine impacts, we measured the effects of exotics on native biomass and, for spotted knapweed, on soil moisture and nitrogen levels. Assemblages with high species richness were less invaded and less impacted than less diverse assemblages. Impact scaled with exotic biomass; spotted knapweed had the largest impact on native biomass compared with the other exotics. Although invasion depressed native biomass, the net result was to increase total community yield. Water addition increased invasibility (for knapweed only) but had no effect on invader impact. Together, these results suggest that diversity inhibits invasion and reduces impact more than resource additions facilitate invasion or impact.

  14. Effect of organic residues addition on the technological properties of clay bricks.

    PubMed

    Demir, Ismail

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the utilization potential of several organic residues in clay bricks. Sawdust, tobacco residues, and grass are widespread by-products of industrial and agricultural processes in Turkey. These residue materials have long cellulose fibres. Sawdust and tobacco residues generally are used as fuel, and the grass is utilized for agricultural purposes. The insulation capacity of brick increases with the increasing porosity of the clay body. Combustible, organic types of pore-forming additives are most frequently used for this purpose. For this reason, increasing amounts of organic residues (0%, 2.5%, 5% and 10% in wt.) were mixed with raw brick-clay. All samples were fired at 900 degrees C. Effects on shaping, plasticity, density, and mechanical properties were investigated. The organic residue additions were found to be effective for pore-forming in the clay body with the clay maintaining acceptable mechanical properties. It was observed that the fibrous nature of the residues did not create extrusion problems. However, higher residue addition required a higher water content to ensure the right plasticity. As a result, sawdust, tobacco residues, and grass can be utilized in an environmentally safe way as organic pore-forming agents in brick-clay.

  15. Effect of the La alloying addition on the antibacterial capability of 316L stainless steel.

    PubMed

    Yuan, J P; Li, W; Wang, C

    2013-01-01

    316L stainless steel is widely used for fashion jewelry but it can carry a large number of bacteria and cause the potential risk of infection since it has no antimicrobial ability. In this paper, La is used as an alloying addition. The antibacterial capability, corrosion resistance and processability of the La-modified 316L are investigated by microscopic observation, thin-film adhering quantitative bacteriostasis, electrochemical measurement and mechanical test. The investigations reveal that the La-containing 316L exhibits the Hormesis effect against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 and Escherichia coli DH5α, 0.05 wt.% La stimulates their growth, as La increases, the modified 316L exhibits the improved antibacterial effect. The more amount of La is added, the better antibacterial ability is achieved, and 0.42 wt.% La shows excellent antibacterial efficacy. No more than 0.11 wt.% La addition improves slightly the corrosion resistance in artificial sweat and has no observable impact on the processability of 316L, while a larger La content degrades them. Therefore, the addition of La alone in 316L is difficult to obtain the optimal combination of corrosion resistance, antibacterial capability and processability. In spite of that, 0.15 wt.% La around is inferred to be the trade-off for the best overall performance.

  16. Effect of calcium chloride addition on ice cream structure and quality.

    PubMed

    Costa, F F; Resende, J V; Abreu, L R; Goff, H D

    2008-06-01

    The influence of calcium fortification by the addition of calcium chloride on quality parameters of ice cream based on physical properties was investigated, as was the effect of kappa-carrageenan at modifying the effects of this calcium fortification. Four ice cream mixes of conventional composition, with added kappa-carrageenan (0 or 0.025%) and added calcium chloride (0 or 4.4 g L(-1) = 40 mM of added Ca(2+)), were prepared. Modulated temperature-differential scanning calorimetry was used to investigate the effect of calcium chloride on the nucleation temperature, enthalpy of melting, and freezing point depression. The protein composition of 15.4% (wt/wt) reconstituted skim milk powder solutions with or without 4.4 g L(-1) added CaCl(2) and in the supernatant after ultracentrifugation was determined. Fat particle size distributions in ice cream were characterized by light scattering. Ice crystal sizes before and after temperature cycling were determined by cold-stage light microscopy. The results demonstrated that the addition of calcium chloride led to a substantial increase in ice crystal sizes and in fat partial coalescence, which were exacerbated by the addition of kappa-carrageenan. These results can be explained by the interaction between Ca(2+) ions and casein micelles, rather than any effects on freezing point depression. The calcium ions led to a more compact micelle, less serum beta-casein, and high fat destabilization, all of which would be expected to reduce macromolecular structure and volume occupancy in the unfrozen phase, which led to increased rates of ice recrystallization.

  17. Investigating critical effects of variegated lubricants, glidants and hydrophilic additives on lag time of press coated ethylcellulose tablets.

    PubMed

    Patadia, Riddhish; Vora, Chintan; Mittal, Karan; Mashru, Rajashree

    2016-01-01

    The research envisaged focuses on vital impacts of variegated lubricants, glidants and hydrophilic additives on lag time of press coated ethylcellulose (EC) tablets using prednisone as a model drug. Several lubricants and glidants such as magnesium stearate, colloidal SiO2, sodium stearyl fumarate, talc, stearic acid, polyethylene glycol (6000) and glyceryl behenate were investigated to understand their effects on lag time by changing their concentrations in outer coat. Further, the effects of hydrophilic additives on lag time were examined for hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (E5), hydroxypropylcellulose (EF and SSL), povidone (K30), copovidone, polyethylene glycol (4000), lactose and mannitol. In vitro drug release testing revealed that each selected lubricant/glidant, if present even at concentration of 0.25% w/w, significantly reduced the lag time of press coated tablets. Specifically, colloidal SiO2 and/or magnesium stearate were detrimental while other lubricants/glidants were relatively less injurious. Among hydrophilic additives, freely water soluble fillers had utmost influence in lag time, whereas, comparatively less impact was observed with polymeric binders. Concisely, glidant and lubricant should be chosen to have minimal impact on lag time and further judicious selection of hydrophilic additives should be exercised for modulating lag time of pulsatile release formulations.

  18. Effects of chemical additives on the fermentation quality and N distribution of alfalfa silage in south of China.

    PubMed

    Li, Ping; Ji, Shuren; Hou, Chen; Tang, Haiyang; Wang, Qian; Shen, Yixin

    2016-12-01

    In order to better utilize the last cut alfalfa harvested before killing frost in a high moisture environment, the effects of chemical additives on the quality of alfalfa silage were studied in south of China. The alfalfa was freshly harvested at branching stage, and wilted by dry matter content of about 300 g/kg (fresh matter basis). Silage was prepared by using a small-scale silage fermentation system, where sucrose, potassium citrate, sodium carbonate, formic acid, acetic acid and propionic acid were used as silage additives, and no additives served as control. These silos were stored at ambient temperature (5-20°C), and the silage qualities were analyzed after 120 days of fermentation. All additive treatments affected the chemical composition and N distribution, increased the water-soluble content and crude protein contents, decreased non-protein nitrogen (NPN) content, and enhanced the in vitro ruminal dry matter digestibility (except for sodium carbonate). Silages treated with organic acids were preserved with significantly (P < 0.05) lower pH value, ethanol content and NPN content compared with control. When the fermentation quality, chemical composition and N distribution were considered, the treatment with sucrose or organic acids resulted in high quality of alfalfa silage ensiled before killing frost, with formic acid having the best effect.

  19. Effect of polyglycerol esters additive on palm oil crystallization using focused beam reflectance measurement and differential scanning calorimetry.

    PubMed

    Saw, M H; Hishamuddin, E; Chong, C L; Yeoh, C B; Lim, W H

    2017-01-01

    The effect of 0.1-0.7% (w/w) of polyglycerol esters (PGEmix-8) on palm oil crystallization was studied using focused beam reflectance measurement (FBRM) to analyze the in-line changes of crystal size distribution during the crystallization. FBRM results show that 0.1-0.5% (w/w) of PGEmix-8 did not significantly affect nucleation but slightly retarded crystal growth. The use of 0.7% (w/w) additive showed greater heterogeneous nucleation compared to those with lower dosages of additive. Crystal growth was also greatly reduced when using 0.7% (w/w) dosage. The morphological study indicated that the palm oil crystals were smaller and more even in size than when more additive was added. Isothermal crystallization studies using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) showed increased inhibitory effects on palm oil crystal growth with increasing concentration of PGEmix-8. These results imply that PGEmix-8 is a nucleation enhancing and crystal growth retarding additive in palm oil crystallization at 0.7% (w/w) dosage.

  20. Effect of Additives on Green Sand Molding Properties using Design of Experiments and Taguchi's Quality Loss Function - An Experimental Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desai, Bhagyashree; Mokashi, Pavani; Anand, R. L.; Burli, S. B.; Khandal, S. V.

    2016-09-01

    The experimental study aims to underseek the effect of various additives on the green sand molding properties as a particular combination of additives could yield desired sand properties. The input parameters (factors) selected were water and powder (Fly ash, Coconut shell and Tamarind) in three levels. Experiments were planned using design of experiments (DOE). On the basis of plans, experiments were conducted to understand the behavior of sand mould properties such as compression strength, shear strength, permeability number with various additives. From the experimental results it could be concluded that the factors have significant effect on the sand properties as P-value found to be less than 0.05 for all the cases studied. The optimization based on quality loss function was also performed. The study revealed that the quality loss associated with the tamarind powder was lesser compared to other additives selected for the study. The optimization based on quality loss function and the parametric analysis using ANOVA suggested that the tamarind powder of 8 gm per Kg of molding sand and moisture content of 7% yield better properties to obtain sound castings.

  1. Effect of metal oxides addition on the superconducting properties of YBaCuO.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang-Heon; Choi, Yong

    2011-07-01

    The superconducting properties of YBCO superconductor with ZrO2 addition prepared by different contents were prepared by a unique method so called thermal pyrolysis process to study the effect of the zirconium oxide on the electromagnetic properties and superconducting mechanism of the superconductor. The critical temperature of YBCO superconductor was not predominately dependent upon the zirconium oxide. The maximum magnetism was observed by adding 2% zirconium oxide. The addition of zirconium oxide forming a pinning center of magnetic flux due to ZrO2 phase which was related to the change of electromagnetic properties of the YBCO superconductor. The result indicates that magnetization is proportional to the number of magnetic flux lines passing through the sample. The added ZrO2 appear to contribute the increasing Vickers hardness.

  2. Effect of Pd Additions on the Invariant Reactions in the Ag-CuOx System

    SciTech Connect

    Darsell, Jens T.; Weil, K. Scott

    2006-02-01

    Palladium was added as a ternary component to a series of copper oxide-silver alloys in an effort increase the use temperature of these materials for potential ceramic brazing applications. Phase equilibria at low palladium and copper oxide concentrations in the Pd-CuOx-Ag system were determined experimentally using differential scanning calorimetry, microstructural analysis, and X-ray diffraction. Small additions of palladium were generally found to increase the temperature of the eutectic reaction present in the pseudobinary system, but have little effect on a higher temperature monotectic reaction. However once enough palladium was added (~5 mol%) to increase the new eutectic temperature to that of the original pseudobinary monotectic reaction, the pseudoternary monotectic temperature correspondingly began to move upward as well. The addition of palladium also forced the eutectic point to slightly lower silver concentrations, again causing a convergence with the former monotectic line.

  3. Noiseless intensity amplification of repetitive signals by coherent addition using the temporal Talbot effect

    PubMed Central

    Maram, Reza; Van Howe, James; Li, Ming; Azaña, José

    2014-01-01

    Amplification of signal intensity is essential for initiating physical processes, diagnostics, sensing, communications and measurement. During traditional amplification, the signal is amplified by multiplying the signal carriers through an active gain process, requiring the use of an external power source. In addition, the signal is degraded by noise and distortions that typically accompany active gain processes. We show noiseless intensity amplification of repetitive optical pulse waveforms with gain from 2 to ~20 without using active gain. The proposed method uses a dispersion-induced temporal self-imaging (Talbot) effect to redistribute and coherently accumulate energy of the original repetitive waveforms into fewer replica waveforms. In addition, we show how our passive amplifier performs a real-time average of the wave-train to reduce its original noise fluctuation, as well as enhances the extinction ratio of pulses to stand above the noise floor. Our technique is applicable to repetitive waveforms in any spectral region or wave system. PMID:25319207

  4. Effects on stress rupture life and tensile strength of tin additions to Inconel 718

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dreshfield, R. L.; Johnson, W.

    1982-01-01

    Because Inconel 718 represents a major use of columbium and a large potential source of columbium for aerospace alloys could be that of columbium derived from tin slags, the effects of tin additions to Inconel 718 at levels which might be typical of or exceed those anticipated if tin slag derived columbium were used as a melting stock were investigated. Tin was added to 15 pound Inconel 718 heats at levels varying from none added to approximately 10,000 ppm (1 wt%). Limited 1200 F stress rupture testing was performed at stresses from 68,000 to 115,000 psi and a few tensile tests were performed at room temperature, 800 and 1200 F. Additions of tin in excess of 800 ppm were detrimental to ductility and stress rupture life.

  5. Effect of additions of aluminosilicate and silicate materials on the softening temperature of chromite ore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhdanov, A. V.; Nurmaganbetova, B. N.; Pavlov, V. A.

    2015-07-01

    The temperatures of the beginning and end of softening and the temperature range of softening of the fines of the rich chromite ore of the Donskoy Ore Mining & Processing Plant in Kazakhstan are experimentally determined. The following natural and technical silica-containing materials, which are considered as fluxing additions to decrease the melting temperature of the chromite ore, are investigated: aluminosilicate clays, microsilica, and quartzite of various fractions. The effect of additions of the natural and technical silica-containing materials on the temperatures of the beginning and end of softening and the temperature range of softening of the chromite ore of DODPE is analyzed. The influences of various materials and their fraction compositions on the temperature of softening of the chromite ores are compared.

  6. Inhaled diesel emissions generated with cerium oxide nanoparticle fuel additive induce adverse pulmonary and systemic effects.

    PubMed

    Snow, Samantha J; McGee, John; Miller, Desinia B; Bass, Virginia; Schladweiler, Mette C; Thomas, Ronald F; Krantz, Todd; King, Charly; Ledbetter, Allen D; Richards, Judy; Weinstein, Jason P; Conner, Teri; Willis, Robert; Linak, William P; Nash, David; Wood, Charles E; Elmore, Susan A; Morrison, James P; Johnson, Crystal L; Gilmour, Matthew Ian; Kodavanti, Urmila P

    2014-12-01

    Diesel exhaust (DE) exposure induces adverse cardiopulmonary effects. Cerium oxide nanoparticles added to diesel fuel (DECe) increases fuel burning efficiency but leads to altered emission characteristics and potentially altered health effects. Here, we evaluated whether DECe results in greater adverse pulmonary effects compared with DE. Male Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to filtered air, DE, or DECe for 5 h/day for 2 days. N-acetyl glucosaminidase activity was increased in bronchial alveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of rats exposed to DECe but not DE. There were also marginal but insignificant increases in several other lung injury biomarkers in both exposure groups (DECe > DE for all). To further characterize DECe toxicity, rats in a second study were exposed to filtered air or DECe for 5 h/day for 2 days or 4 weeks. Tissue analysis indicated a concentration- and time-dependent accumulation of lung and liver cerium followed by a delayed clearance. The gas-phase and high concentration of DECe increased lung inflammation at the 2-day time point, indicating that gas-phase components, in addition to particles, contribute to pulmonary toxicity. This effect was reduced at 4 weeks except for a sustained increase in BALF γ-glutamyl transferase activity. Histopathology and transmission electron microscopy revealed increased alveolar septa thickness due to edema and increased numbers of pigmented macrophages after DECe exposure. Collectively, these findings indicate that DECe induces more adverse pulmonary effects on a mass basis than DE. In addition, lung accumulation of cerium, systemic translocation to the liver, and delayed clearance are added concerns to existing health effects of DECe.

  7. Inhaled Diesel Emissions Generated with Cerium Oxide Nanoparticle Fuel Additive Induce Adverse Pulmonary and Systemic Effects

    PubMed Central

    Snow, Samantha J.; McGee, John; Miller, Desinia B.; Bass, Virginia; Schladweiler, Mette C.; Thomas, Ronald F.; Krantz, Todd; King, Charly; Ledbetter, Allen D.; Richards, Judy; Weinstein, Jason P.; Conner, Teri; Willis, Robert; Linak, William P.; Nash, David; Wood, Charles E.; Elmore, Susan A.; Morrison, James P.; Johnson, Crystal L.; Gilmour, Matthew Ian; Kodavanti, Urmila P.

    2014-01-01

    Diesel exhaust (DE) exposure induces adverse cardiopulmonary effects. Cerium oxide nanoparticles added to diesel fuel (DECe) increases fuel burning efficiency but leads to altered emission characteristics and potentially altered health effects. Here, we evaluated whether DECe results in greater adverse pulmonary effects compared with DE. Male Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to filtered air, DE, or DECe for 5 h/day for 2 days. N-acetyl glucosaminidase activity was increased in bronchial alveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of rats exposed to DECe but not DE. There were also marginal but insignificant increases in several other lung injury biomarkers in both exposure groups (DECe > DE for all). To further characterize DECe toxicity, rats in a second study were exposed to filtered air or DECe for 5 h/day for 2 days or 4 weeks. Tissue analysis indicated a concentration- and time-dependent accumulation of lung and liver cerium followed by a delayed clearance. The gas-phase and high concentration of DECe increased lung inflammation at the 2-day time point, indicating that gas-phase components, in addition to particles, contribute to pulmonary toxicity. This effect was reduced at 4 weeks except for a sustained increase in BALF γ-glutamyl transferase activity. Histopathology and transmission electron microscopy revealed increased alveolar septa thickness due to edema and increased numbers of pigmented macrophages after DECe exposure. Collectively, these findings indicate that DECe induces more adverse pulmonary effects on a mass basis than DE. In addition, lung accumulation of cerium, systemic translocation to the liver, and delayed clearance are added concerns to existing health effects of DECe. PMID:25239632

  8. Additive effects of physical stress and herbivores on intertidal seaweed biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Williams, Susan L; Bracken, Matthew E S; Jones, Emily

    2013-05-01

    Patterns in rocky intertidal seaweed biodiversity influence the resilience and functioning of these important primary producer communities. In turn, seaweed biodiversity patterns are the result of many ecological factors. We determined the influences of thermal and desiccation stress, herbivory, and nutrients on seaweed biodiversity on a northern California rocky shoreline. In a fully crossed design at two tidal heights at wave-protected and exposed sites, we deployed screens to reduce stress, removed herbivores, and added nutrients for 18 months. The treatments reduced temperature, increased relative humidity, decreased herbivore abundances, and increased nitrogen in both seawater and seaweeds. Seaweed abundance and biodiversity (cover, biomass, species richness, diversity, evenness, and community composition) were influenced by tidal height, physical stress, and herbivores. Wave exposure affected all response variables except biomass and evenness. Stress and herbivores had independent additive effects on seaweed abundance and diversity. Physical stress did not make the community as a whole more susceptible to herbivores, and screens had overarching positive effects on seaweed biodiversity even though they also had positive effects on herbivore abundance. Nutrients had virtually no effect on seaweed biodiversity, and we observed no bottom-up effects of nutrient addition on herbivore density or biomass. Small green algae and diatoms were important contributors to overall algal cover and to changes in composition across treatments, but larger macroalgae dominated the species richness response. The striking absence of interactions between stress and herbivory highlights how seaweed communities can respond independently to important drivers of biodiversity. Thus, nonadditive, potentially synergistic effects do not necessarily complicate the understanding of how seaweed biodiversity responds to environmental change.

  9. Anaerobic digestion of Jatropha curcas L. press cake and effects of an iron-additive.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Thomas

    2011-11-01

    Oil production from Jatropha curcas L. seeds generates large amounts of Jatropha press cake (JPC) which can be utilized as a substrate for biogas production. The objective of this work was to investigate anaerobic mono-digestion of JPC and the effects of an iron additive (IA) on gas quality and process stability during the increase of the organic loading rate (OLR). With the increase of the OLR from 1.3 to 3.2 g(VS) L(-1) day(-1), the biogas yield in the reference reactor (RR) without IA decreased from 512 to 194 L(N) kg(VS) (-1) and the CH₄ concentration decreased from 69.3 to 44.4%. In the iron additive reactor (IAR), the biogas yield decreased from 530 to 462 L(N) kg(VS) (-1) and the CH₄ concentration decreased from 69.4 to 61.1%. The H₂S concentration in the biogas was reduced by addition of the IA to values below 258 ppm in the IAR while H₂S concentration in the RR increased and exceeded the detection limit of 5000 ppm. The acid capacity (AC) in the RR increased to more than 20 g L(-1), indicating an accumulation of organic acids caused by process instability. AC values in the IAR remained stable at values below 5 g L(-1). The results demonstrate that JPC can be used as sole substrate for anaerobic digestion up to an OLR of 2.4 g(VS) l(-1) day(-1). The addition of IA has effectively decreased the H(2)S content in the biogas and has improved the stability of the anaerobic process and the biogas quality.

  10. Thermodynamic Effect of Platinum Addition to beta-NiAl: An Initial Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    An initial investigation was conducted to determine the effect of platinum addition on the activities of aluminum and nickel in beta-NiAl(Pt) over the temperature range 1354 to 1692 K. These measurements were made with a multiple effusion-cell configured mass spectrometer (multi-cell KEMS). The results of this study show that Pt additions act to decreased alpha(Al) and increased the alpha(Ni) in beta-NiAl(Pt) for constant X(sub Ni)/X(sub Al) approx. = 1.13, while at constant X(sub Al) the affect of Pt on Al is greatly reduced. The measured partial enthalpies of mixing indicate Al-atoms have a strong self interaction while Ni- and Pt-atoms in have similar interactions with Al-atoms. Conversely the binding of Ni-atoms in beta-NiAl decreases with Pt addition independent of Al concentration. These initial results prove the technique can be applied to the Ni-Al-Pt system but more activity measurements are required to fully understand the thermodynamics of this system and how Pt additions improved the scaling behavior of nickel-based superalloys. In addition, with the choice of a suitable oxide material for the effusion-cell, the "closed" isothermal nature of the effusion-cell allows the direct investigation of an alloy-oxide equilibrium which resembles the "local-equilibrium" description of the metal-scale interface observed during high temperature oxidation. It is proposed that with an Al(l) + Al2O3(s) experimental reference state together with the route measurement of the relative partial-pressures of Al(g) and Al2O(g) allows the activities of O and Al2O3 to be determined along with the activities of Ni and Al. These measurements provide a direct method of investigating the thermodynamics of the metal-scale interface of a TGO-scale.

  11. Effects of hypolimnetic oxygen addition on mercury bioaccumulation in Twin Lakes, Washington, USA.

    PubMed

    Beutel, Marc; Dent, Stephen; Reed, Brandon; Marshall, Piper; Gebremariam, Seyoum; Moore, Barry; Cross, Benjamin; Gantzer, Paul; Shallenberger, Ed

    2014-10-15

    Twin Lakes, located on the Confederated Tribes of the Colville Indian Reservation in eastern Washington, USA, include North Twin Lake (NT) and South Twin Lake (ST). The mesotrophic, dimictic lakes are important recreational fishing sites for both warm-water bass and cold-water trout. To improve summertime cold-water habitat for trout in NT, dissolved oxygen (DO) addition to the hypolimnion, using liquid oxygen as an oxygen gas source, started in 2009. This study assessed mercury (Hg) in the water column, zooplankton and fish, and related water quality parameters, in Twin Lakes from 2009 to 2012. Because methylmercury (MeHg) buildup in lake bottom water is commonly associated with hypolimnetic anoxia, hypolimnetic oxygenation was hypothesized to reduce Hg in bottom waters and biota in NT relative to ST. Oxygen addition led to significantly higher DO (mean hypolimnetic DO: 2-8 mg/L versus <1 mg/L) and lower MeHg (peak mean hypolimnetic MeHg: 0.05-0.2 ng/L versus 0.15-0.4 ng/L) in North Twin. In North Twin, years with higher DO (2009 and 2011) exhibited lower MeHg in bottom waters and lower total Hg in zooplankton, inferring a positive linkage between oxygen addition and lower bioaccumulation. However, when comparing between the two lakes, Hg levels were significantly higher in zooplankton (total Hg range: 100-200 versus 50-100 μg/kg dry weight) and trout (spring 2010 stocking cohort of eastern brook trout mean total Hg: 74.9 versus 49.9 μg/kg wet weight) in NT relative to ST. Lower Hg bioaccumulation in ST compared to NT may be related to bloom dilution in chlorophyll-rich bottom waters, a vertical disconnect between the location of zooplankton and MeHg in the water column, and high binding affinity between sulfide and MeHg in bottom waters.

  12. Simple additive simulation overestimates real influence: altered nitrogen and rainfall modulate the effect of warming on soil carbon fluxes.

    PubMed

    Ni, Xiangyin; Yang, Wanqin; Qi, Zemin; Liao, Shu; Xu, Zhenfeng; Tan, Bo; Wang, Bin; Wu, Qinggui; Fu, Changkun; You, Chengming; Wu, Fuzhong

    2016-12-09

    Experiments and models have led to a consensus that there is positive feedback between carbon (C) fluxes and climate warming. However, the effect of warming may be altered by regional and global changes in nitrogen (N) and rainfall levels, but the current understanding is limited. Through synthesizing global data on soil C pool, input and loss from experiments simulating N deposition, drought and increased precipitation, we quantified the responses of soil C fluxes and equilibrium to the three single factors and their interactions with warming. We found that warming slightly increased the soil C input and loss by 5% and 9%, respectively, but had no significant effect on the soil C pool. Nitrogen deposition alone increased the soil C input (+20%), but the interaction of warming and N deposition greatly increased the soil C input by 49%. Drought alone decreased the soil C input by 17%, while the interaction of warming and drought decreased the soil C input to a greater extent (-22%). Increased precipitation stimulated the soil C input by 15%, but the interaction of warming and increased precipitation had no significant effect on the soil C input. However, the soil C loss was not significantly affected by any of the interactions, although it was constrained by drought (-18%). These results implied that the positive C fluxes-climate warming feedback was modulated by the changing N and rainfall regimes. Further, we found that the additive effects of [warming × N deposition] and [warming × drought] on the soil C input and of [warming × increased precipitation] on the soil C loss were greater than their interactions, suggesting that simple additive simulation using single-factor manipulations may overestimate the effects on soil C fluxes in the real world. Therefore, we propose that more multifactorial experiments should be considered in studying Earth systems.

  13. Strength in numbers: Combining neck vibration and prism adaptation produces additive therapeutic effects in unilateral neglect

    PubMed Central

    Saevarsson, Styrmir; Kristjánsson, Árni; Halsband, Ulrike

    2010-01-01

    Unilateral neglect is a multifaceted disorder. Many authors have, for this reason, speculated that the best treatment for neglect will involve combinations of different therapeutic techniques. Two well known interventions, neck vibration (NV) and prism adaptation (PA), have often been considered to be among the most effective treatments for neglect. Here, two experiments were performed to explore possible additive benefits when these interventions are used in combination to treat chronic neglect. Both experimental groups received NV for 20 minutes, while the second group received simultaneous PA. The effects of treatment were measured with a time-restricted and feedback-based visual search task, which has previously been found to abolish the beneficial effects of PA, and with standard neglect tests. Baseline and intervention measures were performed on separate days. Findings for both groups indicated improved visual search following intervention, but the patients that underwent the combined intervention (NVPA) showed clear improvements on visual search based paper and pencil neglect tests unlike the NV-only group. Overall, our results suggest that PA strengthens the effects of NV and that feedback-based tasks do not abolish beneficial effects of PA, when NV is applied simultaneously. The results support the view that the most effective treatment for neglect will involve the combination of different treatments. PMID:20503132

  14. Subjective Significance Shapes Arousal Effects on Modified Stroop Task Performance: A Duality of Activation Mechanisms Account

    PubMed Central

    Imbir, Kamil K.

    2016-01-01

    Activation mechanisms such as arousal are known to be responsible for slowdown observed in the Emotional Stroop and modified Stroop tasks. Using the duality of mind perspective, we may conclude that both ways of processing information (automatic or controlled) should have their own mechanisms of activation, namely, arousal for an experiential mind, and subjective significance for a rational mind. To investigate the consequences of both, factorial manipulation was prepared. Other factors that influence Stroop task processing such as valence, concreteness, frequency, and word length were controlled. Subjective significance was expected to influence arousal effects. In the first study, the task was to name the color of font for activation charged words. In the second study, activation charged words were, at the same time, combined with an incongruent condition of the classical Stroop task around a fixation point. The task was to indicate the font color for color-meaning words. In both studies, subjective significance was found to shape the arousal impact on performance in terms of the slowdown reduction for words charged with subjective significance. PMID:26869974

  15. Effect of addition of a probiotic micro-organism to broiler diet on intestinal mucosal architecture and electrophysiological parameters.

    PubMed

    Awad, W A; Ghareeb, K; Böhm, J

    2010-08-01

    Probiotics might be one of the solutions to reduce the effects of the recent ban on antimicrobial growth promoters in feed. However, the mode of action of probiotics still not fully understood. Therefore, evaluating probiotics (microbial feed additives) is essential. Thus the objective of this work was to investigate the efficacy of a new microbial feed additive (Lactobacillus salivarius and Lactobacillus reuteri) in broiler nutrition. The body weight (BW), average daily weight gain was relatively increased by the dietary inclusion of Lactobacillus sp. in broiler diets. Furthermore, the Lactobacillus feed additive influenced the histomorphological measurements of small intestinal villi. The addition of Lactobacillus sp. increased (p < 0.05) the villus height (VH)/crypt depth ratio and the VH was numerically increased in duodenum. The duodenal crypt depth remained unaffected (p > 0.05), while the ileal crypt depth was decreased by dietary supplementation of Lactobacillus sp. compared with the control. At the end of the feeding period, the basal and glucose stimulated short-circuit current (Isc) and electrical tissue conductivity were measured in the isolated gut mucosa to characterize the electrical properties of the gut. The addition of glucose on the mucosal side in Ussing chamber produced a significant increase (p = 0.001) in Isc in both jejunum and colon relative to the basal values in Lactobacillus probiotic group. This increase in Isc for probiotic group in jejunum is equivalent to an increase of about two times that for the basal values, while in the control group is about half fold that for the basal value. In addition, the DeltaIsc after glucose addition to the large intestine was greater than the DeltaIsc in the small intestine in both control and probiotic group. Moreover in both jejunum and colon, the increase in Isc for birds fed Lactobacillus was higher than their control counterparts (p < or = 0.1). This result suggests that the addition of

  16. High significance detection of the tSZ effect relativistic corrections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurier, G.

    2016-12-01

    The thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (tSZ) effect is produced by the interaction of cosmic microwave background (CMB) photons with the hot (a few keV) and diffuse gas of electrons inside galaxy clusters integrated along the line of sight. This effect produces a distortion of CMB blackbody emission law. This distortion law depends on the electronic temperature of the intra-cluster hot gas, Te, through the so-called tSZ relativistic corrections. In this work, we have performed a statistical analysis of the tSZ spectral distortion on large galaxy cluster samples. We performed a stacking analysis for several electronic temperature bins, using both spectroscopic measurements of X-ray temperatures and a scaling relation between X-ray luminosities and electronic temperatures. We report the first high significance detection of the relativistic tSZ at a significance of 5.3σ. We also demonstrate that the observed tSZ relativistic corrections are consistent with X-ray deduced temperatures. This measurement of the tSZ spectral law demonstrates that tSZ effect spectral distorsion can be used as a probe to measure galaxy cluster temperatures.

  17. Radiation-induced bystander effect in healthy G(o) human lymphocytes: biological and clinical significance.

    PubMed

    Belloni, Paola; Latini, Paolo; Palitti, Fabrizio

    2011-08-01

    To study the bystander effects, G(0) human peripheral blood lymphocytes were X-irradiated with 0.1, 0.5 and 3 Gy. After 24h, cell-free conditioned media from irradiated cultures were transferred to unexposed lymphocytes. Following 48 h of medium transfer, viability, induction of apoptosis, telomere shortening, reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and micronuclei (after stimulation) were analyzed. A statistically significant decrement in cell viability, concomitant with the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, telomere shortening, increases in hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and superoxide anion (O(2)(-)) with depletion of intracellular glutathione (GSH) level, and higher frequencies of micronuclei, were observed in bystander lymphocytes incubated with medium from 0.5 and 3 Gy irradiated samples, compared to lymphocytes unexposed. Furthermore, no statistically significant difference between the response to 0.5 and 3 Gy of irradiation in bystander lymphocytes, was found. However, when lymphocytes were irradiated with 0.1 Gy, no bystander effect with regard to viability, apoptosis, telomere length, and micronuclei was observed, although a high production of ROS level persisted. Radiation in the presence of the radical scavenger dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) suppressed oxidative stress induced by 3 Gy of X-rays with the effective elimination of bystander effects, suggesting a correlation between ROS and bystander signal formation in irradiated cells. The data propose that bystander effect might be mostly due to the reactions of radiation induced free radicals on DNA, with the existence of a threshold at which the bystander signal is not operative (0.1 Gy dose of X-rays). Our results may have clinical implications for health risk associated with radiation exposure.

  18. Additive anti-inflammatory effect of formoterol and budesonide on human lung fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Spoelstra, F; Postma, D; Hovenga, H; Noordhoek, J; Kauffman, H

    2002-01-01

    Background: It has been shown that treatment with a long acting ß2 agonist in addition to a glucocorticoid is beneficial in the treatment of asthma. In asthma inflammatory cells, particularly eosinophils, migrate into the pulmonary tissue and airway lumen by means of adhesion molecules expressed on resident tissue cells—that is, fibroblasts—and become activated by cytokines and adhesive interactions. A study was undertaken to determine whether an interaction exists between the long acting ß2 agonist formoterol and the glucocorticoid budesonide on inhibition of adhesion molecule expression, as well as chemo/cytokine production by human lung fibroblasts. Methods: Lung fibroblasts were preincubated with therapeutically relevant drug concentrations of 10-8 M to 10-10 M. Cells were stimulated with interleukin (IL)-1ß (1 or 10 U/ml) for 8 hours and supernatants were collected for measurement of GM-CSF and IL-8 concentrations. The cells were fixed and subjected to a cell surface ELISA technique to measure the expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1. Results: Formoterol exerted an additive effect on the inhibition of IL-1ß stimulated ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 upregulation and GM-CSF production by budesonide in concentrations of 10-9 M and above (p<0.05). IL-8 production was not influenced by formoterol. Conclusion: Formoterol exerts an additive effect on the anti-inflammatory properties of budesonide. In vitro data support the finding that the combination of budesonide and formoterol in asthma treatment strengthens the beneficial effect of either drug alone. PMID:11867828

  19. Cytotoxic Effects of Temozolomide and Radiation are Additive- and Schedule-Dependent

    SciTech Connect

    Chalmers, Anthony J.; Ruff, Elliot M.; Martindale, Christine; Lovegrove, Nadia; Short, Susan C.

    2009-12-01

    Purpose: Despite aggressive therapy comprising radical radiation and temozolomide (TMZ) chemotherapy, the prognosis for patients with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) remains poor, particularly if tumors express O{sup 6}-methylguanine-DNA-methyltransferase (MGMT). The interactions between radiation and TMZ remain unclear and have important implications for scheduling and for developing strategies to improve outcomes. Methods and Materials: Factors determining the effects of combination therapy on clonogenic survival, cell-cycle checkpoint signaling and DNA repair were investigated in four human glioma cell lines (T98G, U373-MG, UVW, U87-MG). Results: Combining TMZ and radiation yielded additive cytotoxicity, but only when TMZ was delivered 72 h before radiation. Radiosensitization was not observed. TMZ induced G2/M cell-cycle arrest at 48-72 h, coincident with phosphorylation of Chk1 and Chk2. Additive G2/M arrest and Chk1/Chk2 phosphorylation was only observed when TMZ preceded radiation by 72 h. The ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) inhibitor KU-55933 increased radiation sensitivity and delayed repair of radiation-induced DNA breaks, but did not influence TMZ effects. The multiple kinase inhibitor caffeine enhanced the cytotoxicity of chemoradiation and exacerbated DNA damage. Conclusions: TMZ is not a radiosensitizing agent but yields additive cytotoxicity in combination with radiation. Our data indicate that TMZ treatment should commence at least 3 days before radiation to achieve maximum benefit. Activation of G2/M checkpoint signaling by TMZ and radiation has a cytoprotective effect that can be overcome by dual inhibition of ATM and ATR. More specific inhibition of checkpoint signaling will be required to increase treatment efficacy without exacerbating toxicity.

  20. Effect of additional optical pumping injection into the ground-state ensemble on the gain and the phase recovery acceleration of quantum-dot semiconductor optical amplifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jungho

    2014-02-01

    The effect of additional optical pumping injection into the ground-state ensemble on the ultrafast gain and the phase recovery dynamics of electrically-driven quantum-dot semiconductor optical amplifiers is numerically investigated by solving 1088 coupled rate equations. The ultrafast gain and the phase recovery responses are calculated with respect to the additional optical pumping power. Increasing the additional optical pumping power can significantly accelerate the ultrafast phase recovery, which cannot be done by increasing the injection current density.

  1. [Effects of biochar addition into soils in semiarid land on water infiltration under the condition of the same bulk density].

    PubMed

    Qi, Rui-Peng; Zhang, Lei; Yan, Yong-Hao; Wen, Man; Zheng, Ji-Yong

    2014-08-01

    , and the interactive effect had statistically significant effect on the soil permeability and stable infiltration rate in the two soils. In conclusion, the biochar had different effects on the soils with different textures, moreover, there was a positive correlation relationship between the impact and the addition amount.

  2. Effects of Additive on the Mechanical Properties of Bamboo/pbs Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Yeon-Hee; Yoon, Han-Ki; Takagi, Hitoshi; Ohkita, Kazuya

    Compared with general composites which are produced from fossil fuel, biodegradable resins have received considerable attention as an environment-friendly material. Bamboo fiber has relatively high strength compared with other natural fibers. Therefore, the focus of this study is to produce bamboo fiber reinforced Poly butylene succinate (PBS) composites by injection molding and to study the effects of additive on mechanical properties of this bamboo/PBS composite. The injection-molding is a highly productive fabrication technique. Bamboo/PBS composites were examined by flexural test and Vickers hardness. Also we examined fracture surface and microstructure of the bamboo/PBS composites by microscope.

  3. Effect of Oxygen addition on altitude blowout and relight of an experimental combustor segment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norgren, C. T.; Ingebo, R. D.

    1974-01-01

    The effect of oxygen addition on the low pressure altitude blowout limits of an experimental combustor segment was investigated. Data were obtained for two inlet-air temperatures, two inlet-airflow rates, and a constant fuel-air ratio of 0.020 with Jet A fuel. It was shown that the pressure at blowout could be reduced to correspond to an increase in altitude of 4.6 kilometers with oxygen flow rates of 8 to 16 percent by weight of the total fuel flow.

  4. Thermodynamic network model for predicting effects of substrate addition and other perturbations on subsurface microbial communities

    SciTech Connect

    Jack Istok; Melora Park; James McKinley; Chongxuan Liu; Lee Krumholz; Anne Spain; Aaron Peacock; Brett Baldwin

    2007-04-19

    The overall goal of this project is to develop and test a thermodynamic network model for predicting the effects of substrate additions and environmental perturbations on microbial growth, community composition and system geochemistry. The hypothesis is that a thermodynamic analysis of the energy-yielding growth reactions performed by defined groups of microorganisms can be used to make quantitative and testable predictions of the change in microbial community composition that will occur when a substrate is added to the subsurface or when environmental conditions change.

  5. Effect of Zn additions on precipitation during aging of alloy 8090

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kilmer, R. J.; Stoner, G. E.

    1991-01-01

    Precipitation events have been observed by TEM under two different aging conditions in three 'stretched' alloys, whose compositions are encompassed by the 8090 composition window but contain Zn additions of up to 1.07 wt pct. DSC was also used to obtain deeper insight of the precipitation-event effects obtainable through Zn content variation; it was thereby revealed that Zn is incorporated into the delta-prime phase, perhaps stabilizing it. Coarse, Zn-containing precipitates can form on the boundaries and within the interiors of the grains, when the Zn content reaches the presently investigated maximum of 1.07 wt pct.

  6. Suppression of flow pulsation activity by relaxation process of additive effect on viscous media transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharlamov, S.; Dedeyev, P.; Meucci, L.; Shenderova, I.; Manastirniy, A.; Usenko, M.

    2015-11-01

    The article presents the analysis of the processes occurring together with the turbulent transfer of impulse in mixture of hydrocarbon fluid and polymer solutions (anti-turbulent additives). The study evaluates complex shear flows by popular theoretical and practical methods. Understanding of hydrodynamic and dissipative effects of laminar-turbulent transition tightening and turbulence suppression is provided. The peculiarities of "thin" flow structure in pipeline zones with complex shape walls are evaluated. Recommendations to forecast the local flow parameters, calculation of hydraulic resistance are given.

  7. Effects of metal salt addition on odor and process stability during the anaerobic digestion of municipal waste sludge.

    PubMed

    Abbott, Timothy; Eskicioglu, Cigdem

    2015-12-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) is an effective way to recover energy and nutrients from organic waste; however, several issues including the solubilization of bound nutrients and the production of corrosive, highly odorous and toxic volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) in AD biogas can limit its wider adoption. This study explored the effects of adding two different doses of ferric chloride, aluminum sulfate and magnesium hydroxide directly to the feed of complete mix semi-continuously fed mesophilic ADs on eight of the most odorous VSCs in AD biogas at three different organic loading rates (OLR). Ferric chloride was shown to be extremely effective in reducing VSCs by up to 87%, aluminum sulfate had the opposite effect and increased VSC levels by up to 920%, while magnesium hydroxide was not shown to have any significant impact. Ferric chloride, aluminum sulfate and magnesium hydroxide were effective in reducing the concentration of orthophosphate in AD effluent although both levels of alum addition caused digester failure at elevated OLRs. Extensive foaming was observed within the magnesium hydroxide dosed digesters, particularly at higher doses and high OLRs. Certain metal salt additions may be a valuable tool in overcoming barriers to AD and to meet regulatory targets.

  8. The effect of activated carbon addition on membrane bioreactor processes for wastewater treatment and reclamation - A critical review.

    PubMed

    Skouteris, George; Saroj, Devendra; Melidis, Paraschos; Hai, Faisal I; Ouki, Sabèha

    2015-06-01

    This review concentrates on the effect of activated carbon (AC) addition to membrane bioreactors (MBRs) treating wastewaters. Use of AC-assisted MBRs combines adsorption, biodegradation and membrane filtration. This can lead to advanced removal of recalcitrant pollutants and mitigation of membrane fouling. The relative contribution of adsorption and biodegradation to overall removal achieved by an AC-assisted MBR process can vary, and "biological AC" may not fully develop due to competition of target pollutants with bulk organics in wastewater. Thus periodic replenishment of spent AC is necessary. Sludge retention time (SRT) governs the frequency of spent AC withdrawal and addition of fresh AC, and is an important parameter that significantly influences the performance of AC-assisted MBRs. Of utmost importance is AC dosage because AC overdose may aggravate membrane fouling, increase sludge viscosity, impair mass transfer and reduce sludge dewaterability.

  9. Compensation and additivity of anthropogenic mortality: life-history effects and review of methods.

    PubMed

    Péron, Guillaume

    2013-03-01

    Demographic compensation, the increase in average individual performance following a perturbation that reduces population size, and, its opposite, demographic overadditivity (or superadditivity) are central processes in both population ecology and wildlife management. A continuum of population responses to changes in cause-specific mortality exists, of which additivity and complete compensation constitute particular points. The position of a population on that continuum influences its ability to sustain exploitation and predation. Here I describe a method for quantifying where a population is on the continuum. Based on variance-covariance formulae, I describe a simple metric for the rate of compensation-additivity. I synthesize the results from 10 wildlife capture-recapture monitoring programmes from the literature and online databases, reviewing current statistical methods and the treatment of common sources of bias. These results are used to test hypotheses regarding the effects of life-history strategy, population density, average cause-specific mortality and age class on the rate of compensation-additivity. This comparative analysis highlights that long-lived species compensate less than short-lived species and that populations below their carrying capacity compensate less than those above.

  10. Effects of resource addition on recovery of production and plant functional composition in degraded semiarid grasslands.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qing; Hooper, David U; Li, Hui; Gong, Xiao Ying; Peng, Fei; Wang, Hong; Dittert, Klaus; Lin, Shan

    2017-02-28

    Degradation of semiarid ecosystems from overgrazing threatens a variety of ecosystem services. Rainfall and nitrogen commonly co-limit production in semiarid grassland ecosystems; however, few studies have reported how interactive effects of precipitation and nitrogen addition influence the recovery of grasslands degraded by overgrazing. We conducted a 6-year experiment manipulating precipitation (natural precipitation and simulated wet year precipitation) and nitrogen (0, 25 and 50 kg N ha(-1)) addition at two sites with different histories of livestock grazing (moderately and heavily grazed) in Inner Mongolian steppe. Our results suggest that recovery of plant community composition and recovery of production can be decoupled. Perennial grasses provide long-term stability of high-quality forage production in this system. Supplemental water combined with exclosures led, in the heavily grazed site, to the strongest recovery of perennial grasses, although widespread irrigation of rangeland is not a feasible management strategy in many semiarid and arid regions. N fertilization combined with exclosures, but without water addition, increased dominance of unpalatable annual species, which in turn retarded growth of perennial species and increased inter-annual variation in primary production at both sites. Alleviation of grazing pressure alone allowed recovery of desired perennial species via successional processes in the heavily grazed site. Our experiments suggest that recovery of primary production and desirable community composition are not necessarily correlated. The use of N fertilization for the management of overgrazed grassland needs careful and systematic evaluation, as it has potential to impede, rather than aid, recovery.

  11. Monitoring Residual Solvent Additives and Their Effects in Solution Processed Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fogel, Derek M.; Basham, James I.; Engmann, Sebastian; Pookpanratana, Sujitra J.; Bittle, Emily G.; Jurchescu, Oana D.; Gundlach, David J.

    2015-03-01

    High boiling point solvent additives are a widely adopted approach for increasing bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cell efficiency. However, experiments show residual solvent can persist for hours after film deposition, and certain common additives are unstable or reactive. We report here on the effects of residual 1,8-diiodooctane on the electrical performance of poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) (P3HT): phenyl-C71-butyric acid methyl ester (PC[71]BM) BHJ photovoltaic cells. We optimized our fabrication process for efficiency at an active layer thickness of 220 nm, and all devices were processed in parallel to minimize unintentional variations between test structures. The one variable in this study is the active layer post spin drying time. Immediately following the cathode deposition, we measured the current-voltage characteristics at one sun equivalent illumination intensity, and performed impedance spectroscopy to quantify charge density, lifetime, and recombination process. Spectroscopic ellipsometry, FTIR, and XPS are also used to monitor residual solvent and correlated with electrical performance. We find that residual additive degrades performance by increasing the series resistance and lowering efficiency, fill factor, and free carrier lifetime.

  12. Effect of additives on the tensile performance and protein solubility of industrial oilseed residual based plastics.

    PubMed

    Newson, William R; Kuktaite, Ramune; Hedenqvist, Mikael S; Gällstedt, Mikael; Johansson, Eva

    2014-07-16

    Ten chemical additives were selected from the literature for their proposed modifying activity in protein-protein interactions. These consisted of acids, bases, reducing agents, and denaturants and were added to residual deoiled meals of Crambe abyssinica (crambe) and Brassica carinata (carinata) to modify the properties of plastics produced through hot compression molding at 130 °C. The films produced were examined for tensile properties, protein solubility, molecular weight distribution, and water absorption. Of the additives tested, NaOH had the greatest positive effect on tensile properties, with increases of 105% in maximum stress and 200% in strain at maximum stress for crambe and a 70% increase in strain at maximum stress for carinata. Stiffness was not increased by any of the applied additives. Changes in tensile strength and elongation for crambe and elongation for carinata were related to changes in protein solubility. Increased pH was the most successful in improving the protein aggregation and mechanical properties within the complex chemistry of residual oilseed meals.

  13. Effect of carbon nanotube addition on the wear behavior of basalt/epoxy woven composites.

    PubMed

    Kim, M T; Rhee, K Y; Lee, B H; Kim, C J

    2013-08-01

    The effect of acid-treated carbon nanotube (CNT) addition on the wear and dynamic mechanical thermal properties of basalt/epoxy woven composites was investigated in this study. Basalt/CNT/epoxy composites were fabricated by impregnating woven basalt fibers into epoxy resin mixed with 1 wt% CNTs which were acid-treated. Wear and DMA (dynamic mechanical analyzer) tests were performed on basalt/epoxy composites and basalt/CNT/epoxy composites. The results showed that the addition of the acid-treated CNTs improved the wear properties of basalt/epoxy woven composites. Specifically, the friction coefficient of the basalt/epoxy composite was stabilized in the range of 0.5-0.6 while it fell in the range of 0.3-0.4 for basalt/CNT/epoxy composites. The wear volume loss of the basalt/CNT/epoxy composites was approximately 68% lower than that of the basalt/epoxy composites. The results also showed that the glass transition temperature of basalt/CNT/epoxy composites was higher than that of basalt/epoxy composites. The improvement of wear properties of basalt/epoxy composites by the addition of acid-treated CNTs was caused by the homogeneous load transfer between basalt fibers and epoxy matrix due to the reinforcement of CNTs.

  14. Synergistic, additive, and antagonistic effects of food mixtures on total antioxidant capacities.

    PubMed

    Wang, Sunan; Meckling, Kelly A; Marcone, Massimo F; Kakuda, Yukio; Tsao, Rong

    2011-02-09

    Different foods possess different bioactive compounds with varied antioxidant capacities. When foods are consumed together, the total antioxidant capacity of food mixtures may be modified via synergistic, additive, or antagonistic interactions among these components, which may in turn alter their physiological impacts. The main objective of this study was to investigate these interactions and identify any synergistic combinations. Eleven foods from three categories, including fruits (raspberry, blackberry, and apple), vegetables (broccoli, tomato, mushroom, and purple cauliflower), and legumes (soybean, adzuki bean, red kidney bean, and black bean) were combined in pairs. Four assays (total phenolic content, ferric reducing antioxidant power, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, radical scavenging capacity, and oxygen radical absorbance capacity) were used to evaluate the antioxidant capacities of individual foods and their combinations. The results indicated that within the same food category, 13, 68, and 21% of the combinations produced synergistic, additive, and antagonistic interactions, respectively, while the combinations produced 21, 54, and 25% synergistic, additive, and antagonistic effects, respectively, across food categories. Combining specific foods across categories (e.g., fruit and legume) was more likely to result in synergistic antioxidant capacity than combinations within a food group. Combining raspberry and adzuki bean extracts demonstrated synergistic interactions in all four chemical-based assays. Compositional changes did not seem to have occurred in the mixture. Results in this study suggest the importance of strategically selecting foods or diets to maximum synergisms as well as to minimum antagonisms in antioxidant activity.

  15. The Effect of Manganese Additions on the Reactive Evaporation of Chromium in Ni-Cr Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, Gordon R.; Alman, David E.

    2004-10-20

    Chromium is used as an alloy addition in stainless steels and nickel-chromium alloys to form protective chromium oxide scales. Chromium oxide undergoes reactive evaporation in high temperature exposures in the presence of oxygen and/or water vapor. The deposition of gaseous chromium species onto solid oxide fuel cell electrodes can reduce the efficiency of the fuel cell. Manganese additions to the alloy can reduce the activity of chromium in the oxide, either from solid solution replacement of chromium with manganese (at low levels of manganese) or from the formation of manganese-chromium spinels (at high levels of manganese). This reduction in chromium activity leads to a predicted reduction in chromium evaporation by as much as a factor of 35 at 800 C and 55 at 700 C. The results of evaporation loss measurements on nickel-chromium-manganese alloys are compared with the predicted reduction. Quantifying the effects of manganese additions on chromium evaporation should aid alloy development of metallic interconnects and balance-of-plant alloys.

  16. Effect of lysine addition on growth of black iguana (Ctenosaura pectinata).

    PubMed

    Guzmán, Juan José Ortiz; Luis, Arcos-García José; Martínez, Germán D Mendoza; Pérez, Fernando Xicoténcatl Plata; Mascorro, Gisela Fuentes; Inzunza, Gabriela Ruelas

    2013-01-01

    The effects of the addition of lysine to commercial feed given to captive black iguana (Ctenosaura pectinata) were evaluated in terms of growth and feed digestibility. Twenty-eight-day-old black iguana with an initial weight of 5.5 ± 0.3 g were housed individually in cages measuring 45 × 45 × 45 cm. The experiment lasted 150 days. The ambient temperature ranged from 28 to 35°C with a relative humidity of 60 to 95%. Treatments consisted of the addition of different percentages of lysine to the feed (0.0, 0.1, 0.2, and 0.3%, dry matter [DM] base). There was a linear response (P < 0.01) in daily gain (68, 112, 118, and 151 mg/d) and daily intake (251, 289, 297, and 337 mg/d) for levels from 0 to 0.3%, respectively, as well in the growth in head size, snout-vent length, and total length. The digestibility of DM, neutral detergent fiber, and acid detergent fiber were reduced linearly (P < 0.01) as lysine levels increased. Intake and digestibility were negatively correlated (r = -0.74; P < 0.001). It is concluded that the addition of lysine to the black iguana diet in the first months of life is important to stimulate growth and intake.

  17. Renormalization and additional degrees of freedom within the chiral effective theory for spin-1 resonances

    SciTech Connect

    Kampf, Karol; Novotny, Jiri; Trnka, Jaroslav

    2010-06-01

    We study in detail various aspects of the renormalization of the spin-1 resonance propagator in the effective field theory framework. First, we briefly review the formalisms for the description of spin-1 resonances in the path integral formulation with the stress on the issue of propagating degrees of freedom. Then we calculate the one-loop 1{sup --} meson self-energy within the resonance chiral theory in the chiral limit using different methods for the description of spin-1 particles, namely, the Proca field, antisymmetric tensor field, and the first-order formalisms. We discuss in detail technical aspects of the renormalization procedure which are inherent to the power-counting nonrenormalizable theory and give a formal prescription for the organization of both the counterterms and one-particle irreducible graphs. We also construct the corresponding propagators and investigate their properties. We show that the additional poles corresponding to the additional one-particle states are generated by loop corrections, some of which are negative norm ghosts or tachyons. We count the number of such additional poles and briefly discuss their physical meaning.

  18. Effect of commercial mineral-based additives on composting and compost quality.

    PubMed

    Himanen, M; Hänninen, K

    2009-08-01

    The effectiveness of two commercial additives meant to improve the composting process was studied in a laboratory-scale experiment. Improver A (sulphates and oxides of iron, magnesium, manganese, and zinc mixed with clay) and B (mixture of calcium hydroxide, peroxide, and oxide) were added to source-separated biowaste:peat mixture (1:1, v/v) in proportions recommended by the producers. The composting process (T, emissions of CO(2), NH(3), and CH(4)) and the quality of the compost (pH, conductivity, C/N ratio, water-soluble NH(4)-N and NO(3)-N, water- and NaOH-soluble low-weight carboxylic acids, nutrients, heavy metals and phytotoxicity to Lepidium sarivum) were monitored during one year. Compared with the control, the addition of improver B increased pH by two units, led to an earlier elimination of water-soluble ammonia, an increase in nitrates, a 10-fold increase in concentrations of acetic acid, and shortened phytotoxicity period by half; as negative aspect it led to volatilization of ammonia. The addition of improver A led to a longer thermophilic stage by one week and lower concentrations of low-weight carboxylic acids (both water- and NaOH-extractable) with formic and acetic of similar amounts, however, most of the aspects claimed by the improver's producer were not confirmed in this trial.

  19. The Effect of Additional Dead Space on Respiratory Exchange Ratio and Carbon Dioxide Production Due to Training

    PubMed Central

    Smolka, Lukasz; Borkowski, Jacek; Zaton, Marek

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of implementing additional respiratory dead space during cycloergometry-based aerobic training. The primary outcome measures were respiratory exchange ratio (RER) and carbon dioxide production (VCO2). Two groups of young healthy males: Experimental (Exp, n = 15) and Control (Con, n = 15), participated in this study. The training consisted of 12 sessions, performed twice a week for 6 weeks. A single training session consisted of continuous, constant-rate exercise on a cycle ergometer at 60% of VO2max which was maintained for 30 minutes. Subjects in Exp group were breathing through additional respiratory dead space (1200ml), while subjects in Con group were breathing without additional dead space. Pre-test and two post-training incremental exercise tests were performed for the detection of gas exchange variables. In all training sessions, pCO2 was higher and blood pH was lower in the Exp group (p < 0.001) ensuring respiratory acidosis. A 12-session training program resulted in significant increase in performance time in both groups (from 17”29 ± 1”31 to 18”47 ± 1”37 in Exp; p=0.02 and from 17”20 ± 1”18 to 18”45 ± 1”44 in Con; p = 0.02), but has not revealed a significant difference in RER and VCO2 in both post-training tests, performed at rest and during submaximal workload. We interpret the lack of difference in post-training values of RER and VCO2 between groups as an absence of inhibition in glycolysis and glycogenolysis during exercise with additional dead space. Key Points The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of implementing additional respiratory dead space during cycloergometry-based aerobic training on respiratory exchange ratio and carbon dioxide production. In all training sessions, respiratory acidosis was gained by experimental group only. No significant difference in RER and VCO2 between experimental and control group due to the trainings. The lack of

  20. The effect of additional dead space on respiratory exchange ratio and carbon dioxide production due to training.

    PubMed

    Smolka, Lukasz; Borkowski, Jacek; Zaton, Marek

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of implementing additional respiratory dead space during cycloergometry-based aerobic training. The primary outcome measures were respiratory exchange ratio (RER) and carbon dioxide production (VCO2). Two groups of young healthy males: Experimental (Exp, n = 15) and Control (Con, n = 15), participated in this study. The training consisted of 12 sessions, performed twice a week for 6 weeks. A single training session consisted of continuous, constant-rate exercise on a cycle ergometer at 60% of VO2max which was maintained for 30 minutes. Subjects in Exp group were breathing through additional respiratory dead space (1200ml), while subjects in Con group were breathing without additional dead space. Pre-test and two post-training incremental exercise tests were performed for the detection of gas exchange variables. In all training sessions, pCO2 was higher and blood pH was lower in the Exp group (p < 0.001) ensuring respiratory acidosis. A 12-session training program resulted in significant increase in performance time in both groups (from 17"29 ± 1"31 to 18"47 ± 1"37 in Exp; p=0.02 and from 17"20 ± 1"18 to 18"45 ± 1"44 in Con; p = 0.02), but has not revealed a significant difference in RER and VCO2 in both post-training tests, performed at rest and during submaximal workload. We interpret the lack of difference in post-training values of RER and VCO2 between groups as an absence of inhibition in glycolysis and glycogenolysis during exercise with additional dead space. Key PointsThe purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of implementing additional respiratory dead space during cycloergometry-based aerobic training on respiratory exchange ratio and carbon dioxide production.In all training sessions, respiratory acidosis was gained by experimental group only.No significant difference in RER and VCO2 between experimental and control group due to the trainings.The lack of difference in post

  1. Toward better assessment of tornado potential in typhoons: Significance of considering entrainment effects for CAPE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sueki, Kenta; Niino, Hiroshi

    2016-12-01

    The characteristics of typhoons that spawned tornadoes (tornadic typhoons: TTs) in Japan from 1991 to 2013 were investigated by composite analysis using the Japanese 55 year Reanalysis and compared with those of typhoons that did not spawn tornadoes (nontornadic typhoons: NTs). We found that convective available potential energy (CAPE), which considers the effects of entrainment (entraining CAPE: E-CAPE), and storm-relative environmental helicity (SREH) are significantly large in the northeast quadrant of TTs where tornadoes frequently occur and that E-CAPE and SREH in that quadrant for TTs are larger than those for NTs. On the other hand, ordinary CAPE without entrainment does not account for the spatial distribution of tornado occurrences nor does it distinguish TTs from NTs. E-CAPE is sensitive to humidity in the midtroposphere; thus, it is effective for detecting a conditionally unstable layer up to about 550 hPa, which is distinctive of TTs.

  2. Simulation of flow in a continuous galvanizing bath: Part I. Thermal effects of ingot addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ajersch, F.; Ilinca, F.; Hétu, J.-F.

    2004-02-01

    A numerical analysis has been developed to simulate the velocity and temperature fields in an industrial galvanizing bath for the continuous coating of steel strip. Operating variables such as ingot addition, line speed, and inductor mixing were evaluated in order to determine their effect on the velocity and temperature distribution in the bath. The simulations were carried out using high-performance computational fluid-dynamics software developed at the Industrial Materials Institute of the National Research Council Canada (IMI-NRC) in solving the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations for steady-state and transient turbulent flow using the k-ɛ model. Cases with and without te