Science.gov

Sample records for additional simplifying assumptions

  1. Effects of simplifying assumptions on optimal trajectory estimation for a high-performance aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kern, Lura E.; Belle, Steve D.; Duke, Eugene L.

    1990-01-01

    When analyzing the performance of an aircraft, certain simplifying assumptions, which decrease the complexity of the problem, can often be made. The degree of accuracy required in the solution may determine the extent to which these simplifying assumptions are incorporated. A complex model may yield more accurate results if it describes the real situation more thoroughly. However, a complex model usually involves more computation time, makes the analysis more difficult, and often requires more information to do the analysis. Therefore, to choose the simplifying assumptions intelligently, it is important to know what effects the assumptions may have on the calculated performance of a vehicle. Several simplifying assumptions are examined, the effects of simplified models to those of the more complex ones are compared, and conclusions are drawn about the impact of these assumptions on flight envelope generation and optimal trajectory calculation. Models which affect an aircraft are analyzed, but the implications of simplifying the model of the aircraft itself are not studied. The examples are atmospheric models, gravitational models, different models for equations of motion, and constraint conditions.

  2. The simplified reference tissue model: model assumption violations and their impact on binding potential.

    PubMed

    Salinas, Cristian A; Searle, Graham E; Gunn, Roger N

    2015-02-01

    Reference tissue models have gained significant traction over the last two decades as the methods of choice for the quantification of brain positron emission tomography data because they balance quantitative accuracy with less invasive procedures. The principal advantage is the elimination of the need to perform arterial cannulation of the subject to measure blood and metabolite concentrations for input function generation. In particular, the simplified reference tissue model (SRTM) has been widely adopted as it uses a simplified model configuration with only three parameters that typically produces good fits to the kinetic data and a stable parameter estimation process. However, the model's simplicity and its ability to generate good fits to the data, even when the model assumptions are not met, can lead to misplaced confidence in binding potential (BPND) estimates. Computer simulation were used to study the bias introduced in BPND estimates as a consequence of violating each of the four core SRTM model assumptions. Violation of each model assumption led to bias in BPND (both over and underestimation). Careful assessment of the bias in SRTM BPND should be performed for new tracers and applications so that an appropriate decision about its applicability can be made. PMID:25425078

  3. SU-E-T-293: Simplifying Assumption for Determining Sc and Sp

    SciTech Connect

    King, R; Cheung, A; Anderson, R; Thompson, G; Fletcher, M

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Scp(mlc,jaw) is a two-dimensional function of collimator field size and effective field size. Conventionally, Scp(mlc,jaw) is treated as separable into components Sc(jaw) and Sp(mlc). Scp(mlc=jaw) is measured in phantom and Sc(jaw) is measured in air with Sp=Scp/Sc. Ideally, Sc and Sp would be able to predict measured values of Scp(mlc,jaw) for all combinations of mlc and jaw. However, ideal Sc and Sp functions do not exist and a measured two-dimensional Scp dataset cannot be decomposed into a unique pair of one-dimensional functions.If the output functions Sc(jaw) and Sp(mlc) were equal to each other and thus each equal to Scp(mlc=jaw){sup 0.5}, this condition would lead to a simpler measurement process by eliminating the need for in-air measurements. Without the distorting effect of the buildup-cap, small-field measurement would be limited only by the dimensions of the detector and would thus be improved by this simplification of the output functions. The goal of the present study is to evaluate an assumption that Sc=Sp. Methods: For a 6 MV x-ray beam, Sc and Sp were determined both by the conventional method and as Scp(mlc=jaw){sup 0.5}. Square field benchmark values of Scp(mlc,jaw) were then measured across the range from 2×2 to 29×29. Both Sc and Sp functions were then evaluated as to their ability to predict these measurements. Results: Both methods produced qualitatively similar results with <4% error for all cases and >3% error in 1 case. The conventional method produced 2 cases with >2% error, while the squareroot method produced only 1 such case. Conclusion: Though it would need to be validated for any specific beam to which it might be applied, under the conditions studied, the simplifying assumption that Sc = Sp is justified.

  4. Feasibility of a simplified fuel additive evaluation protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Lister, S.J.; Hunzinger, R.D.; Taghizadeh, A.

    1998-12-31

    This report describes the work carried out during the four stages of the first phase of a project that involved the determination of the feasibility of replacing the Association of American Railroads Recommended Practice (ARRP) 503 protocol for testing diesel fuel oil additives with a new procedure using the single cylinder research engine SCRE-251 as the laboratory test engine, which tests for both engine performance as well as emissions compliance. The report begins with a review of the literature on fuel additive testing, then reviews the new US Environmental Protection Agency regulations regarding locomotive diesel emissions. This is followed by a review of the ARRP 503 protocol and the proposed new procedure, a comparison of the ARRP 503 test engines and the SCRE-251, and a study of the SCRE-251`s ability to represent a multi-cylinder medium-speed diesel engine. Appendices include fuel additive manufacturers` information sheets.

  5. Backward and forward blocking in human electrodermal conditioning: blocking requires an assumption of outcome additivity.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Chris J; Lovibond, Peter F

    2002-10-01

    Blocking was observed in two human Pavlovian conditioning studies in which colour cues signalled shock. Both forward (Experiment 1) and backward (Experiment 2) blocking was demonstrated, but only when prior verbal and written instructions suggested that if two signals of shock (A+ and B+) were presented together, a double shock would result (AB++). In this case, participants could assume that the outcome magnitude was additive. Participants given non-additivity instructions (A+ and B+ combined would result in the same outcome, a single shock) failed to show blocking. Modifications required for associative models of learning, and normative statistical accounts of causal induction, to account for the impact of additivity instructions on the blocking effect, are discussed. It is argued that the blocking shown in the present experiments resulted from the operation, not of an error-correction learning rule, nor of a simple contingency detection mechanism, but of a more complex inferential process based on propositional knowledge. Consistent with the present data, blocking is a logical outcome of an A+/AB+ design only if participants can assume that outcomes will be additive. PMID:12350284

  6. Thermoregulatory response to an organophosphate and carbamate insecticide mixture: testing the assumption of dose-additivity.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Christopher J; Herr, David W; Gennings, Chris; Graff, Jaimie E; McMurray, Matthew; Stork, LeAnna; Coffey, Todd; Hamm, Adam; Mack, Cina M

    2006-01-01

    Most toxicity data are based on studies using single compounds. This study assessed if there is an interaction between mixtures of the anticholinesterase insecticides chlorpyrifos (CHP) and carbaryl (CAR) using hypothermia and cholinesterase (ChE) inhibition as toxicological endpoints. Core temperature (T(c)) was continuously monitored by radiotelemetry in adult Long-Evans rats administered CHP at doses ranging from 0 to 50mg/kg and CAR doses of 0-150 mg/kg. The temperature index (TI), an integration of the change in T(c) over a 12h period, was quantified. Effects of mixtures of CHP and CAR in 2:1 and 1:1 ratios on the TI were examined and the data analyzed using a statistical model designed to assess significant departures from additivity for chemical mixtures. CHP and CAR elicited a marked hypothermia and dose-related decrease in the TI. The TI response to a 2:1 ratio of CHP:CAR was significantly less than that predicted by additivity. The TI response to a 1:1 ratio of CHP and CAR was not significantly different from the predicted additivity. Plasma and brain ChE activity were measured 4h after dosing with CHP, CAR, and mixtures in separate groups of rats. There was a dose-additive interaction for the inhibition of brain ChE for the 2:1 ratio, but an antagonistic effect for the 1:1 ratio. The 2:1 and 1:1 mixtures had an antagonistic interaction on plasma ChE. Overall, the departures from additivity for the physiological (i.e., temperature) and biochemical (i.e., ChE inhibition) endpoints for the 2:1 and 1:1 mixtures studies did not coincide as expected. An interaction between CHP and CAR appears to depend on the ratio of compounds in the mixture as well as the biological endpoint. PMID:16182429

  7. The effects of material property assumptions on predicted meltpool shape for laser powder bed fusion based additive manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teng, Chong; Ashby, Kathryn; Phan, Nam; Pal, Deepankar; Stucker, Brent

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to provide guidance on material specifications for powders used in laser powder bed fusion based additive manufacturing (AM) processes. The methodology was to investigate how different material property assumptions in a simulation affect meltpool prediction and by corrolary how different material properties affect meltpool formation in AM processes. The sensitvity of meltpool variations to each material property can be used as a guide to help drive future research and to help prioritize material specifications in requirements documents. By identifying which material properties have the greatest affect on outcomes, metrology can be tailored to focus on those properties which matter most; thus reducing costs by eliminating unnecessary testing and property charaterizations. Futhermore, this sensitivity study provides insight into which properties require more accurate measurements, thus motivating development of new metrology methods to measure those properties accurately.

  8. Rearchitecting IT: Simplify. Simplify

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panettieri, Joseph C.

    2006-01-01

    Simplifying and securing an IT infrastructure is not easy. It frequently requires rethinking years of hardware and software investments, and a gradual migration to modern systems. Even so, writes the author, universities can take six practical steps to success: (1) Audit software infrastructure; (2) Evaluate current applications; (3) Centralize…

  9. Non-driving intersegmental knee moments in cycling computed using a model that includes three-dimensional kinematics of the shank/foot and the effect of simplifying assumptions.

    PubMed

    Gregersen, Colin S; Hull, M L

    2003-06-01

    Assessing the importance of non-driving intersegmental knee moments (i.e. varus/valgus and internal/external axial moments) on over-use knee injuries in cycling requires the use of a three-dimensional (3-D) model to compute these loads. The objectives of this study were: (1) to develop a complete, 3-D model of the lower limb to calculate the 3-D knee loads during pedaling for a sample of the competitive cycling population, and (2) to examine the effects of simplifying assumptions on the calculations of the non-driving knee moments. The non-driving knee moments were computed using a complete 3-D model that allowed three rotational degrees of freedom at the knee joint, included the 3-D inertial loads of the shank/foot, and computed knee loads in a shank-fixed coordinate system. All input data, which included the 3-D segment kinematics and the six pedal load components, were collected from the right limb of 15 competitive cyclists while pedaling at 225 W and 90 rpm. On average, the peak varus and internal axial moments of 7.8 and 1.5 N m respectively occurred during the power stroke whereas the peak valgus and external axial moments of 8.1 and 2.5 N m respectively occurred during the recovery stroke. However, the non-driving knee moments were highly variable between subjects; the coefficients of variability in the peak values ranged from 38.7% to 72.6%. When it was assumed that the inertial loads of the shank/foot for motion out of the sagittal plane were zero, the root-mean-squared difference (RMSD) in the non-driving knee moments relative to those for the complete model was 12% of the peak varus/valgus moment and 25% of the peak axial moment. When it was also assumed that the knee joint was revolute with the flexion/extension axis perpendicular to the sagittal plane, the RMSD increased to 24% of the peak varus/valgus moment and 204% of the peak axial moment. Thus, the 3-D orientation of the shank segment has a major affect on the computation of the non-driving knee

  10. False assumptions.

    PubMed

    Swaminathan, M

    1997-01-01

    Indian women do not have to be told the benefits of breast feeding or "rescued from the clutches of wicked multinational companies" by international agencies. There is no proof that breast feeding has declined in India; in fact, a 1987 survey revealed that 98% of Indian women breast feed. Efforts to promote breast feeding among the middle classes rely on such initiatives as the "baby friendly" hospital where breast feeding is promoted immediately after birth. This ignores the 76% of Indian women who give birth at home. Blaming this unproved decline in breast feeding on multinational companies distracts attention from more far-reaching and intractable effects of social change. While the Infant Milk Substitutes Act is helpful, it also deflects attention from more pressing issues. Another false assumption is that Indian women are abandoning breast feeding to comply with the demands of employment, but research indicates that most women give up employment for breast feeding, despite the economic cost to their families. Women also seek work in the informal sector to secure the flexibility to meet their child care responsibilities. Instead of being concerned about "teaching" women what they already know about the benefits of breast feeding, efforts should be made to remove the constraints women face as a result of their multiple roles and to empower them with the support of families, governmental policies and legislation, employers, health professionals, and the media. PMID:12321627

  11. Simplified Vicarious Radiometric Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanley, Thomas; Ryan, Robert; Holekamp, Kara; Pagnutti, Mary

    2010-01-01

    ground target areas having different reflectance values. The target areas can be natural or artificial and must be large enough to minimize adjacent-pixel contamination effects. The radiative coupling between the atmosphere and the terrain needs to be approximately the same for the two targets. This condition can be met for relatively uniform backgrounds when the distance between the targets is within a few hundred meters. For each target area, the radiance leaving the ground in the direction of the satellite is measured with a radiometrically calibrated spectroradiometer. Using the radiance measurements from the two targets, atmospheric adjacency and atmospheric scattering effects can be subtracted, thereby eliminating many assumptions about the atmosphere and the radiative interaction between the atmosphere and the terrain. In addition, the radiometrically calibrated spectroradiometer can be used with a known reflectance target to estimate atmospheric transmission and diffuse- to-global ratios without the need for ancillary sun photometers. Several comparisons between the simplified method and traditional techniques were found to agree within a few percent. Hence, the simplified method reduces the overall complexity of performing vicarious calibrations and can serve as a method for validating traditional radiative transfer models

  12. Stress inversion assumptions review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lejri, Mostfa; Maerten, Frantz; Maerten, Laurent; Joonnenkindt, Jean Pierre; Soliva, Roger

    2014-05-01

    Wallace (1951) and Bott (1959) were the first to introduce the idea that the slip on each fault surface has the same direction and sense as the maximum shear stress resolved on that surface. This hypothesis are based on the assumptions that (i) faults are planar, (ii) blocks are rigid, (iii) neither stress perturbations nor block rotations along fault surfaces occur and (iv), the applied stress state is uniform. However, this simplified hypothesis is questionable since complex fault geometries, heterogeneous fault slip directions, evidences of stress perturbations in microstructures and block rotations along fault surfaces were reported in the literature. Earlier numerical geomechanical models confirmed that the striation lines (slip vectors) are not necessarily parallel to the maximum shear stress vector but is consistent with local stress perturbations. This leads us to ask as to what extent the Wallace and Bott simplifications are reliable as a basis hypothesis for stress inversion. In this presentation, a geomechanical multi-parametric study using 3D boundary element method (BEM), covering (i) fault geometries such as intersected faults or corrugated fault surfaces, (ii) the full range of Andersonian state of stress, (iii) fault friction, (iv) half space effect and (v), rock properties, is performed in order to understand the effect of each parameter on the angular misfit between geomechanical slip vectors and the resolved shear stresses. It is shown that significant angular misfits can be found under specific configurations and therefore we conclude that stress inversions based on the Wallace-Bott hypothesis might sometime give results that should be interpreted with care. Major observations are that (i) applying optimum tectonic stress conditions on complex fault geometries can increase the angular misfit, (ii) elastic material properties, combined to half-space effect, can enhance this effect, and (iii) an increase of the sliding friction leads to a

  13. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  14. The assumptions of computing

    SciTech Connect

    Huggins, J.K.

    1994-12-31

    The use of computers, like any technological activity, is not content-neutral. Users of computers constantly interact with assumptions regarding worthwhile activity which are embedded in any computing system. Directly questioning these assumptions in the context of computing allows us to develop an understanding of responsible computing.

  15. Adult Learning Assumptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baskas, Richard S.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine Knowles' theory of andragogy and his six assumptions of how adults learn while providing evidence to support two of his assumptions based on the theory of andragogy. As no single theory explains how adults learn, it can best be assumed that adults learn through the accumulation of formal and informal…

  16. Testing Our Fundamental Assumptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    fundamental assumptions.A recent focus set in the Astrophysical Journal Letters, titled Focus on Exploring Fundamental Physics with Extragalactic Transients, consists of multiple published studies doing just that.Testing General RelativitySeveral of the articles focus on the 4th point above. By assuming that the delay in photon arrival times is only due to the gravitational potential of the Milky Way, these studies set constraints on the deviation of our galaxys gravitational potential from what GR would predict. The study by He Gao et al. uses the different photon arrival times from gamma-ray bursts to set constraints at eVGeV energies, and the study by Jun-Jie Wei et al. complements this by setting constraints at keV-TeV energies using photons from high-energy blazar emission.Photons or neutrinos from different extragalactic transients each set different upper limits on delta gamma, the post-Newtonian parameter, vs. particle energy or frequency. This is a test of Einsteins equivalence principle: if the principle is correct, delta gamma would be exactly zero, meaning that photons of different energies move at the same velocity through a vacuum. [Tingay Kaplan 2016]S.J. Tingay D.L. Kaplan make the case that measuring the time delay of photons from fast radio bursts (FRBs; transient radio pulses that last only a few milliseconds) will provide even tighter constraints if we are able to accurately determine distances to these FRBs.And Adi Musser argues that the large-scale structure of the universe plays an even greater role than the Milky Way gravitational potential, allowing for even stricter testing of Einsteins equivalence principle.The ever-narrower constraints from these studies all support GR as a correct set of rules through which to interpret our universe.Other Tests of Fundamental PhysicsIn addition to the above tests, Xue-Feng Wu et al. show that FRBs can be used to provide severe constraints on the rest mass of the photon, and S. Croft et al. even touches on what we

  17. Testing Our Fundamental Assumptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    fundamental assumptions.A recent focus set in the Astrophysical Journal Letters, titled Focus on Exploring Fundamental Physics with Extragalactic Transients, consists of multiple published studies doing just that.Testing General RelativitySeveral of the articles focus on the 4th point above. By assuming that the delay in photon arrival times is only due to the gravitational potential of the Milky Way, these studies set constraints on the deviation of our galaxys gravitational potential from what GR would predict. The study by He Gao et al. uses the different photon arrival times from gamma-ray bursts to set constraints at eVGeV energies, and the study by Jun-Jie Wei et al. complements this by setting constraints at keV-TeV energies using photons from high-energy blazar emission.Photons or neutrinos from different extragalactic transients each set different upper limits on delta gamma, the post-Newtonian parameter, vs. particle energy or frequency. This is a test of Einsteins equivalence principle: if the principle is correct, delta gamma would be exactly zero, meaning that photons of different energies move at the same velocity through a vacuum. [Tingay Kaplan 2016]S.J. Tingay D.L. Kaplan make the case that measuring the time delay of photons from fast radio bursts (FRBs; transient radio pulses that last only a few milliseconds) will provide even tighter constraints if we are able to accurately determine distances to these FRBs.And Adi Musser argues that the large-scale structure of the universe plays an even greater role than the Milky Way gravitational potential, allowing for even stricter testing of Einsteins equivalence principle.The ever-narrower constraints from these studies all support GR as a correct set of rules through which to interpret our universe.Other Tests of Fundamental PhysicsIn addition to the above tests, Xue-Feng Wu et al. show that FRBs can be used to provide severe constraints on the rest mass of the photon, and S. Croft et al. even touches on what we

  18. Neuron Model with Simplified Memristive Ionic Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hegab, Almoatazbellah M.; Salem, Noha M.; Radwan, Ahmed G.; Chua, Leon

    2015-06-01

    A simplified neuron model is introduced to mimic the action potential generated by the famous Hodgkin-Huxley equations by using the genetic optimization algorithm. Comparison with different neuron models is investigated, and it is confirmed that the sodium and potassium channels in our simplified neuron model are made out of memristors. In addition, the channel equations in the simplified model may be adjusted to introduce a simplified memristor model that is in accordance with the theoretical conditions of the memristive systems.

  19. A simplified determination of total concentrations of Ca, Fe, Mg and Mn in addition to their bioaccessible fraction in popular instant coffee brews.

    PubMed

    Stelmach, Ewelina; Szymczycha-Madeja, Anna; Pohl, Pawel

    2016-04-15

    A direct analysis of instant coffee brews with HR-CS-FAAS spectrometry to determine the total Ca, Fe, Mg and Mn content has been developed and validated. The proposed method is simple and fast; it delivers good analytical performance; its accuracy being within -3% to 3%, its precision--2-3% and detection limits--0.03, 0.04, 0.004 and 0.01 mg l(-1) for Ca, Fe, Mg and Mn, respectively. In addition, Ca, Fe, Mg and Mn bioaccessibility in instant coffee brews was measured by means of the in vitro gastrointestinal digestion with the use of simulated gastric and intestinal juice solutions. Absorption of metals in intestinal villi was simulated by means of ultrafiltration over semi-permeable membrane with a molecular weight cut-off of 5 kDa. Ca, Fe, Mg and Mn concentrations in permeates of instant coffee gastrointestinal incubates were measured with HR-CS-FAA spectrometry. PMID:26616965

  20. A simplified determination of total concentrations of Ca, Fe, Mg and Mn in addition to their bioaccessible fraction in popular instant coffee brews.

    PubMed

    Stelmach, Ewelina; Szymczycha-Madeja, Anna; Pohl, Pawel

    2016-04-15

    A direct analysis of instant coffee brews with HR-CS-FAAS spectrometry to determine the total Ca, Fe, Mg and Mn content has been developed and validated. The proposed method is simple and fast; it delivers good analytical performance; its accuracy being within -3% to 3%, its precision--2-3% and detection limits--0.03, 0.04, 0.004 and 0.01 mg l(-1) for Ca, Fe, Mg and Mn, respectively. In addition, Ca, Fe, Mg and Mn bioaccessibility in instant coffee brews was measured by means of the in vitro gastrointestinal digestion with the use of simulated gastric and intestinal juice solutions. Absorption of metals in intestinal villi was simulated by means of ultrafiltration over semi-permeable membrane with a molecular weight cut-off of 5 kDa. Ca, Fe, Mg and Mn concentrations in permeates of instant coffee gastrointestinal incubates were measured with HR-CS-FAA spectrometry.

  1. Impact of unseen assumptions on communication of atmospheric carbon mitigation options

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliot, T. R.; Celia, M. A.; Court, B.

    2010-12-01

    With the rapid access and dissemination of information made available through online and digital pathways, there is need for a concurrent openness and transparency in communication of scientific investigation. Even with open communication it is essential that the scientific community continue to provide impartial result-driven information. An unknown factor in climate literacy is the influence of an impartial presentation of scientific investigation that has utilized biased base-assumptions. A formal publication appendix, and additional digital material, provides active investigators a suitable framework and ancillary material to make informed statements weighted by assumptions made in a study. However, informal media and rapid communiqués rarely make such investigatory attempts, often citing headline or key phrasing within a written work. This presentation is focused on Geologic Carbon Sequestration (GCS) as a proxy for the wider field of climate science communication, wherein we primarily investigate recent publications in GCS literature that produce scenario outcomes using apparently biased pro- or con- assumptions. A general review of scenario economics, capture process efficacy and specific examination of sequestration site assumptions and processes, reveals an apparent misrepresentation of what we consider to be a base-case GCS system. The authors demonstrate the influence of the apparent bias in primary assumptions on results from commonly referenced subsurface hydrology models. By use of moderate semi-analytical model simplification and Monte Carlo analysis of outcomes, we can establish the likely reality of any GCS scenario within a pragmatic middle ground. Secondarily, we review the development of publically available web-based computational tools and recent workshops where we presented interactive educational opportunities for public and institutional participants, with the goal of base-assumption awareness playing a central role. Through a series of

  2. Simplified computer program for the analysis of phase change in liquid face seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birchak, M.; Hughes, W. F.

    1977-01-01

    A simplified computer program is presented which allows for the prediction of boiling (phase change) in liquid face seals. The program determines if and when boiling occurs and then calculates the location of the boiling interface, pressure and temperature profiles, and load. The main assumption which allows for a simplified analysis is the assumption of an isothermal gas phase.

  3. Simplified propagation of standard uncertainties

    SciTech Connect

    Shull, A.H.

    1997-06-09

    An essential part of any measurement control program is adequate knowledge of the uncertainties of the measurement system standards. Only with an estimate of the standards` uncertainties can one determine if the standard is adequate for its intended use or can one calculate the total uncertainty of the measurement process. Purchased standards usually have estimates of uncertainty on their certificates. However, when standards are prepared and characterized by a laboratory, variance propagation is required to estimate the uncertainty of the standard. Traditional variance propagation typically involves tedious use of partial derivatives, unfriendly software and the availability of statistical expertise. As a result, the uncertainty of prepared standards is often not determined or determined incorrectly. For situations meeting stated assumptions, easier shortcut methods of estimation are now available which eliminate the need for partial derivatives and require only a spreadsheet or calculator. A system of simplifying the calculations by dividing into subgroups of absolute and relative uncertainties is utilized. These methods also incorporate the International Standards Organization (ISO) concepts for combining systematic and random uncertainties as published in their Guide to the Expression of Measurement Uncertainty. Details of the simplified methods and examples of their use are included in the paper.

  4. Stealth Supersymmetry simplified

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, JiJi; Krall, Rebecca; Pinner, David; Reece, Matthew; Ruderman, Joshua T.

    2016-07-01

    In Stealth Supersymmetry, bounds on superpartners from direct searches can be notably weaker than in standard supersymmetric scenarios, due to suppressed missing energy. We present a set of simplified models of Stealth Supersymmetry that motivate 13 TeV LHC searches. We focus on simplified models within the Natural Supersymmetry framework, in which the gluino, stop, and Higgsino are assumed to be lighter than other superpartners. Our simplified models exhibit novel decay patterns that differ significantly from topologies of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model, with and without R-parity. We determine limits on stops and gluinos from searches at the 8 TeV LHC. Existing searches constitute a powerful probe of Stealth Supersymmetry gluinos with certain topologies. However, we identify simplified models where the gluino can be considerably lighter than 1 TeV. Stops are significantly less constrained in Stealth Supersymmetry than the MSSM, and we have identified novel stop decay topologies that are completely unconstrained by existing LHC searches.

  5. Sampling Assumptions in Inductive Generalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Navarro, Daniel J.; Dry, Matthew J.; Lee, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    Inductive generalization, where people go beyond the data provided, is a basic cognitive capability, and it underpins theoretical accounts of learning, categorization, and decision making. To complete the inductive leap needed for generalization, people must make a key "sampling" assumption about how the available data were generated. Previous…

  6. Learning Assumptions for Compositional Verification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cobleigh, Jamieson M.; Giannakopoulou, Dimitra; Pasareanu, Corina; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Compositional verification is a promising approach to addressing the state explosion problem associated with model checking. One compositional technique advocates proving properties of a system by checking properties of its components in an assume-guarantee style. However, the application of this technique is difficult because it involves non-trivial human input. This paper presents a novel framework for performing assume-guarantee reasoning in an incremental and fully automated fashion. To check a component against a property, our approach generates assumptions that the environment needs to satisfy for the property to hold. These assumptions are then discharged on the rest of the system. Assumptions are computed by a learning algorithm. They are initially approximate, but become gradually more precise by means of counterexamples obtained by model checking the component and its environment, alternately. This iterative process may at any stage conclude that the property is either true or false in the system. We have implemented our approach in the LTSA tool and applied it to the analysis of a NASA system.

  7. Modern Cosmology: Assumptions and Limits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Jai-Chan

    2012-06-01

    Physical cosmology tries to understand the Universe at large with its origin and evolution. Observational and experimental situations in cosmology do not allow us to proceed purely based on the empirical means. We examine in which sense our cosmological assumptions in fact have shaped our current cosmological worldview with consequent inevitable limits. Cosmology, as other branches of science and knowledge, is a construct of human imagination reflecting the popular belief system of the era. The question at issue deserves further philosophic discussions. In Whitehead's words, ``philosophy, in one of its functions, is the critic of cosmologies.'' (Whitehead 1925).

  8. Hidden assumptions in environmental research.

    PubMed

    Guidotti, T L

    1992-10-01

    A major challenge in both the design of epidemiologic studies of exposure to toxic agents and the interpretation of the findings is to recognize and to accommodate the complex biologic assumptions that underlie population-based research. Environmental health research is grounded on a scientific foundation that blends toxicology with epidemiology. Toxicology without human population studies often leads to findings uninterpretable for purposes of risk assessment. Epidemiologic studies are often less helpful than they could be because the variation in response is seldom addressed, the effects under study are often small in magnitude and easily confounded, and exposure estimates are crude. The net bias is to reduce the risk estimate, perhaps substantially. Biological variation has usually been treated as "noise" in the system but it is a more basic problem that lends itself to investigation and quantification. Improved modeling of the biological determinants of response is needed if results are to be generalizable and interpretable in mechanistic terms.

  9. Faulty assumptions for repository requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Sutcliffe, W G

    1999-06-03

    Long term performance requirements for a geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste are based on assumptions concerning water use and subsequent deaths from cancer due to ingesting water contaminated with radio isotopes ten thousand years in the future. This paper argues that the assumptions underlying these requirements are faulty for a number of reasons. First, in light of the inevitable technological progress, including efficient desalination of water, over the next ten thousand years, it is inconceivable that a future society would drill for water near a repository. Second, even today we would not use water without testing its purity. Third, today many types of cancer are curable, and with the rapid progress in medical technology in general, and the prevention and treatment of cancer in particular, it is improbable that cancer caused by ingesting contaminated water will be a sign&ant killer in the far future. This paper reviews the performance requirements for geological repositories and comments on the difficulties in proving compliance in the face of inherent uncertainties. The already tiny long-term risk posed by a geologic repository is presented and contrasted with contemporary every day risks. A number of examples of technological progress, including cancer treatments, are advanced. The real and significant costs resulting from the overly conservative requirements are then assessed. Examples are given of how money (and political capital) could be put to much better use to save lives today and in the future. It is concluded that although a repository represents essentially no long-term risk, monitored retrievable dry storage (above or below ground) is the current best alternative for spent fuel and high-level nuclear waste.

  10. Assumptions of the QALY procedure.

    PubMed

    Carr-Hill, R A

    1989-01-01

    The Quality Adjusted Life Year (QALY) has been proposed as a useful index for those managing the provision of health care because it enables the decision-maker to compare the 'value' of different health care programmes and in a way which, potentially at least, reflects social preferences about the appropriate pattern of provision. The index depends on a combination of a measure of morbidity and the risk of mortality. Methodological debate has tended to concentrate on the technicalities of producing a scale of health; and philosophical argument has concentrated on the ethics of interpersonal comparison. There is little recognition of the fragility of the theoretical assumptions underpinning the proposed combination of morbidity and risk of mortality. The context in which the proposed indices are being developed is examined in Section 2. Whilst most working in the field of health measurement eschew over-simplification, it is clear that the application of micro-economics to management is greatly facilitated if a single index can be agreed. The various approaches to combining morbidity and mortality are described in Section 3. The crucial assumptions concern the measurement and valuation of morbidity; the procedures used for scaling morbidity with mortality; and the role of risk. The nature of the valuations involved are examined in Section 4. It seems unlikely that they could ever be widely acceptable; the combination with death and perfect health poses particular problems; and aggregation across individuals compounds the problem. There are also several technical difficulties of scaling and of allowing for risk which have been discussed elsewhere and so are only considered briefly in Section 5 of this paper.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2762872

  11. Investigations in a Simplified Bracketed Grid Approach to Metrical Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Patrick Pei

    2010-01-01

    In this dissertation, I examine the fundamental mechanisms and assumptions of the Simplified Bracketed Grid Theory (Idsardi 1992) in two ways: first, by comparing it with Parametric Metrical Theory (Hayes 1995), and second, by implementing it in the analysis of several case studies in stress assignment and syllabification. Throughout these…

  12. Implant success!!!.....simplified.

    PubMed

    Luthra, Kaushal K

    2009-01-01

    The endeavor towards life-like restoration has helped nurture new vistas in the art and science of implant dentistry. The protocol of "restoration-driven implant placement" ensures that the implant is an apical extension of the ideal future restoration and not the opposite. Meticulous pre-implant evaluation of soft and hard tissues, diagnostic cast and use of aesthetic wax-up and radiographic template combined with surgical template can simplify the intricate roadmap for appropriate implant treatment.By applying the harmony of artistic skill, scientific knowledge and clinical expertise, we can simply master the outstanding implant success in requisites of aesthetics, phonetics and function.

  13. Simplified tritium permeation model

    SciTech Connect

    Longhurst, G.R.

    1993-09-17

    In this model I seek to provide a simplified approach to solving permeation problems addressed by TMAP4. I will assume that there are m one-dimensional segments with thickness L{sub i}, i = 1, 2, {hor_ellipsis}, m, joined in series with an implantation flux, J{sub i}, implanting at the single depth, {delta}, in the first segment. From material properties and heat transfer considerations, I calculate temperatures at each face of each segment, and from those temperatures I find local diffusivities and solubilities. I assume recombination coefficients K{sub r}{sub 1} and K{sub r}{sub 2} are known at the upstream and downstream faces, respectively, but the model will generate Baskes recombination coefficient values on demand. Here I first develop the steady-state concentration equations and then show how trapping considerations can lead to good estimates of permeation transient times.

  14. A simplified model for glass formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uhlmann, D. R.; Onorato, P. I. K.; Scherer, G. W.

    1979-01-01

    A simplified model of glass formation based on the formal theory of transformation kinetics is presented, which describes the critical cooling rates implied by the occurrence of glassy or partly crystalline bodies. In addition, an approach based on the nose of the time-temperature-transformation (TTT) curve as an extremum in temperature and time has provided a relatively simple relation between the activation energy for viscous flow in the undercooled region and the temperature of the nose of the TTT curve. Using this relation together with the simplified model, it now seems possible to predict cooling rates using only the liquidus temperature, glass transition temperature, and heat of fusion.

  15. Microbial life detection with minimal assumptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kounaves, Samuel P.; Noll, Rebecca A.; Buehler, Martin G.; Hecht, Michael H.; Lankford, Kurt; West, Steven J.

    2002-02-01

    To produce definitive and unambiguous results, any life detection experiment must make minimal assumptions about the nature of extraterrestrial life. The only criteria that fits this definition is the ability to reproduce and in the process create a disequilibrium in the chemical and redox environment. The Life Detection Array (LIDA), an instrument proposed for the 2007 NASA Mars Scout Mission, and in the future for the Jovian moons, enables such an experiment. LIDA responds to minute biogenic chemical and physical changes in two identical 'growth' chambers. The sensitivity is provided by two differentially monitored electrochemical sensor arrays. Growth in one of the chambers alters the chemistry and ionic properties and results in a signal. This life detection system makes minimal assumptions; that after addition of water the microorganism replicates and in the process will produce small changes in its immediate surroundings by consuming, metabolizing, and excreting a number of molecules and/or ionic species. The experiment begins by placing an homogenized split-sample of soil or water into each chamber, adding water if soil, sterilizing via high temperature, and equilibrating. In the absence of any microorganism in either chamber, no signal will be detected. The inoculation of one chamber with even a few microorganisms which reproduce, will create a sufficient disequilibrium in the system (compared to the control) to be detectable. Replication of the experiment and positive results would lead to a definitive conclusion of biologically induced changes. The split sample and the nanogram inoculation eliminates chemistry as a causal agent.

  16. Critical assumptions: thinking critically about critical thinking.

    PubMed

    Riddell, Thelma

    2007-03-01

    The concept of critical thinking has been featured in nursing literature for the past 20 years. It has been described but not defined by both the American Association of Colleges of Nursing and the National League for Nursing, although their corresponding accreditation bodies require that critical thinking be included in nursing curricula. In addition, there is no reliable or valid measurement tool for critical thinking ability in nursing. As a result, there is a lack of research support for the assumptions that critical thinking can be learned and that critical thinking ability improves clinical competence. Brookfield suggested that commitments should be made only after a period of critically reflective analysis, during which the congruence between perceptions and reality are examined. In an evidence-based practice profession, we, as nurse educators, need to ask ourselves how we can defend our assumptions that critical thinking can be learned and that critical thinking improves the quality of nursing practice, especially when there is virtually no consensus on a definition.

  17. Assumptions for fault tolerant quantum computing

    SciTech Connect

    Knill, E.; Laflamme, R.

    1996-06-01

    Assumptions useful for fault tolerant quantum computing are stated and briefly discussed. We focus on assumptions related to properties of the computational system. The strongest form of the assumptions seems to be sufficient for achieving highly fault tolerant quantum computation. We discuss weakenings which are also likely to suffice.

  18. Teaching Critical Thinking by Examining Assumptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yanchar, Stephen C.; Slife, Brent D.

    2004-01-01

    We describe how instructors can integrate the critical thinking skill of examining theoretical assumptions (e.g., determinism and materialism) and implications into psychology courses. In this instructional approach, students formulate questions that help them identify assumptions and implications, use those questions to identify and examine the…

  19. The Importance of Learning to Make Assumptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortus, David

    2009-01-01

    Making assumptions is an important step in solving many real-world problems. This study investigated whether participants who could solve well-defined physics problems could also solve a real-world physics problem that involved the need to make assumptions. The participants, who all had at least a BA in physics, were videotaped "thinking aloud"…

  20. The Self in Guidance: Assumptions and Challenges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Richard; Payne, John

    1997-01-01

    Examines the assumptions of "self" made in the professional and managerial discourses of guidance. Suggests that these assumptions obstruct the capacity of guidance workers to explain their own practices. Drawing on contemporary debates over identity, modernity, and postmodernity, argues for a more explicit debate about the self in guidance. (RJM)

  1. 5 CFR 841.405 - Economic assumptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Economic assumptions. 841.405 Section 841... (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES RETIREMENT SYSTEM-GENERAL ADMINISTRATION Government Costs § 841.405 Economic assumptions. The determinations of the normal cost percentage will be based on the economic...

  2. Assumptions to the Annual Energy Outlook

    EIA Publications

    2015-01-01

    This report presents the major assumptions of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) used to generate the projections in the Annual Energy Outlook, including general features of the model structure, assumptions concerning energy markets, and the key input data and parameters that are the most significant in formulating the model results.

  3. Broadening and Simplifying the First SETI Protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michaud, M. A. G.

    The Declaration of Principles Concerning Activities Following the Detection of Extraterrestrial Intelligence, known informally as the First SETI Protocol, is the primary existing international guidance on this subject. During the fifteen years since the document was issued, several people have suggested revisions or additional protocols. This article proposes a broadened and simplified text that would apply to the detection of alien technology in our solar system as well as to electromagnetic signals from more remote sources.

  4. Growth adjusted sonographic age. A simplified method.

    PubMed

    Sabbagha, R E; Hughey, M; Depp, R

    1978-03-01

    It recently has been shown that the sonar predictive accuracy of gestational age can be markedly enhanced by separating fetuses into one of three cephalic growth patterns, namely, large, average, and small. In this way it becomes possible to adjust fetal age in relation to biparietal diameter (BPD) growth. In this report we are defining the application of a growth adjusted sonographic age (GASA). Additionally, we are introducing a table which simplifies the assignment of GASA on a routine basis.

  5. 47 CFR 214.3 - Assumptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... (3 CFR, 1966-1970 Comp., p. 820), and other emergency plans regarding the allocation and use of... COORDINATION OF THE RADIO SPECTRUM DURING A WARTIME EMERGENCY § 214.3 Assumptions. When the provisions of...

  6. 47 CFR 214.3 - Assumptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... (3 CFR, 1966-1970 Comp., p. 820), and other emergency plans regarding the allocation and use of... COORDINATION OF THE RADIO SPECTRUM DURING A WARTIME EMERGENCY § 214.3 Assumptions. When the provisions of...

  7. 47 CFR 214.3 - Assumptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... (3 CFR, 1966-1970 Comp., p. 820), and other emergency plans regarding the allocation and use of... COORDINATION OF THE RADIO SPECTRUM DURING A WARTIME EMERGENCY § 214.3 Assumptions. When the provisions of...

  8. 47 CFR 214.3 - Assumptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... (3 CFR, 1966-1970 Comp., p. 820), and other emergency plans regarding the allocation and use of... COORDINATION OF THE RADIO SPECTRUM DURING A WARTIME EMERGENCY § 214.3 Assumptions. When the provisions of...

  9. 47 CFR 214.3 - Assumptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... (3 CFR, 1966-1970 Comp., p. 820), and other emergency plans regarding the allocation and use of... COORDINATION OF THE RADIO SPECTRUM DURING A WARTIME EMERGENCY § 214.3 Assumptions. When the provisions of...

  10. Shattering world assumptions: A prospective view of the impact of adverse events on world assumptions.

    PubMed

    Schuler, Eric R; Boals, Adriel

    2016-05-01

    Shattered Assumptions theory (Janoff-Bulman, 1992) posits that experiencing a traumatic event has the potential to diminish the degree of optimism in the assumptions of the world (assumptive world), which could lead to the development of posttraumatic stress disorder. Prior research assessed the assumptive world with a measure that was recently reported to have poor psychometric properties (Kaler et al., 2008). The current study had 3 aims: (a) to assess the psychometric properties of a recently developed measure of the assumptive world, (b) to retrospectively examine how prior adverse events affected the optimism of the assumptive world, and (c) to measure the impact of an intervening adverse event. An 8-week prospective design with a college sample (N = 882 at Time 1 and N = 511 at Time 2) was used to assess the study objectives. We split adverse events into those that were objectively or subjectively traumatic in nature. The new measure exhibited adequate psychometric properties. The report of a prior objective or subjective trauma at Time 1 was related to a less optimistic assumptive world. Furthermore, participants who experienced an intervening objectively traumatic event evidenced a decrease in optimistic views of the world compared with those who did not experience an intervening adverse event. We found support for Shattered Assumptions theory retrospectively and prospectively using a reliable measure of the assumptive world. We discuss future assessments of the measure of the assumptive world and clinical implications to help rebuild the assumptive world with current therapies. (PsycINFO Database Record

  11. The helical decomposition and the instability assumption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waleffe, Fabian A.

    1993-01-01

    Direct numerical simulations show that the triadic transfer function T(k,p,q) peaks sharply when q (or p) is much smaller than k. The triadic transfer function T(k,p,q) gives the rate of energy input into wave number k from all interactions with modes of wave number p and q, where k, p, q form a triangle. This observation was thought to suggest that energy is cascaded downscale through non-local interactions with local transfer and that there was a strong connection between large and small scales. Both suggestions were in contradiction with the classical Kolmogorov picture of the energy cascade. The helical decomposition was found useful in distinguishing between kinematically independent interactions. That analysis has gone beyond the question of non-local interaction with local transfer. In particular, an assumption about the statistical direction of triadic energy transfer in any kinematically independent interaction was introduced (the instability assumption). That assumption is not necessary for the conclusions about non-local interactions with local transfer recalled above. In the case of turbulence under rapid rotation, the instability assumption leads to the prediction that energy is transferred in spectral space from the poles of the rotation axis toward the equator. The instability assumption is thought to be of general validity for any type of triad interactions (e.g. internal waves). The helical decomposition and the instability assumption offer detailed information about the homogeneous statistical dynamics of the Navier-Stokes equations. The objective was to explore the validity of the instability assumption and to study the contributions of the various types of helical interactions to the energy cascade and the subgrid-scale eddy-viscosity. This was done in the context of spectral closures of the Direct Interaction or Quasi-Normal type.

  12. SEA - A Simplified Employee Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Busby, L

    2001-04-23

    This paper presents a proposal for modifying the current employee annual evaluation process in SCAD. It purports to simplify that process, primarily by breaking up the resultant document into a set of more or less independent components. It claims to reduce the overall time and effort required from each actor.

  13. 75 FR 81459 - Simplified Proceedings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-28

    ... filing person's address, business telephone number, cell telephone number if available, fax number if..., business telephone number, cell telephone number if available, fax number if available, and e-mail address... Simplified Proceedings in certain civil penalty proceedings. 75 FR 28223. The Commission explained that...

  14. Simplifying the Water Poverty Index

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Danny I.; Ogwang, Tomson; Opio, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, principal components methodology is used to derive simplified and cost effective indexes of water poverty. Using a well known data set for 147 countries from which an earlier five-component water poverty index comprising of "Resources," "Access," "Capacity," "Use" and "Environment" was constructed, we find that a simplified…

  15. Simplified Relativistic Force Transformation Equation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Benjamin U.

    1979-01-01

    A simplified relativistic force transformation equation is derived and then used to obtain the equation for the electromagnetic forces on a charged particle, calculate the electromagnetic fields due to a point charge with constant velocity, transform electromagnetic fields in general, derive the Biot-Savart law, and relate it to Coulomb's law.…

  16. Life Support Baseline Values and Assumptions Document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Molly S.; Ewert, Michael K.; Keener, John F.; Wagner, Sandra A.

    2015-01-01

    The Baseline Values and Assumptions Document (BVAD) provides analysts, modelers, and other life support researchers with a common set of values and assumptions which can be used as a baseline in their studies. This baseline, in turn, provides a common point of origin from which many studies in the community may depart, making research results easier to compare and providing researchers with reasonable values to assume for areas outside their experience. With the ability to accurately compare different technologies' performance for the same function, managers will be able to make better decisions regarding technology development.

  17. Assessing Statistical Model Assumptions under Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varotsos, Konstantinos V.; Giannakopoulos, Christos; Tombrou, Maria

    2016-04-01

    The majority of the studies assesses climate change impacts on air-quality using chemical transport models coupled to climate ones in an off-line mode, for various horizontal resolutions and different present and future time slices. A complementary approach is based on present-day empirical relations between air-pollutants and various meteorological variables which are then extrapolated to the future. However, the extrapolation relies on various assumptions such as that these relationships will retain their main characteristics in the future. In this study we focus on the ozone-temperature relationship. It is well known that among a number of meteorological variables, temperature is found to exhibit the highest correlation with ozone concentrations. This has led, in the past years, to the development and application of statistical models with which the potential impact of increasing future temperatures on various ozone statistical targets was examined. To examine whether the ozone-temperature relationship retains its main characteristics under warmer temperatures we analyze the relationship during the heatwaves events of 2003 and 2006 in Europe. More specifically, we use available gridded daily maximum temperatures (E-OBS) and hourly ozone observations from different non-urban stations (EMEP) within the areas that were impacted from the two heatwave events. In addition, we compare the temperature distributions of the two events with temperatures from two different future time periods 2021-2050 and 2071-2100 from a number of regional climate models developed under the framework of the Cordex initiative (http://www.cordex.org) with a horizontal resolution of 12 x 12km, based on different IPCC RCPs emissions scenarios. A statistical analysis is performed on the ozone-temperature relationship for each station and for the two aforementioned years which are then compared against the ozone-temperature relationships obtained from the rest of the available dataseries. The

  18. Formalization and Analysis of Reasoning by Assumption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosse, Tibor; Jonker, Catholijn M.; Treur, Jan

    2006-01-01

    This article introduces a novel approach for the analysis of the dynamics of reasoning processes and explores its applicability for the reasoning pattern called reasoning by assumption. More specifically, for a case study in the domain of a Master Mind game, it is shown how empirical human reasoning traces can be formalized and automatically…

  19. 24 CFR 58.4 - Assumption authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., decision-making, and action that would otherwise apply to HUD under NEPA and other provisions of law that... environmental review, decision-making and action for programs authorized by the Native American Housing... separate decision regarding assumption of responsibilities for each of these Acts and communicate...

  20. Publish unexpected results that conflict with assumptions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Some widely held scientific assumptions have been discredited, whereas others are just inappropriate for many applications. Sometimes, a widely-held analysis procedure takes on a life of its own, forgetting the original purpose of the analysis. The peer-reviewed system makes it difficult to get a pa...

  1. 10 CFR 436.14 - Methodological assumptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Procedures for Life Cycle Cost Analyses § 436.14 Methodological assumptions. (a) Each Federal Agency shall... the Life Cycle Costing Manual for the Federal Energy Management Program (NIST 85-3273) and determined... of the fiscal year in the Annual Supplement to the Life Cycle Costing Manual for the Federal...

  2. 10 CFR 436.14 - Methodological assumptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Procedures for Life Cycle Cost Analyses § 436.14 Methodological assumptions. (a) Each Federal Agency shall... the Life Cycle Costing Manual for the Federal Energy Management Program (NIST 85-3273) and determined... of the fiscal year in the Annual Supplement to the Life Cycle Costing Manual for the Federal...

  3. Assumptions of Multiple Regression: Correcting Two Misconceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Matt N.; Gomez Grajales, Carlos Alberto; Kurkiewicz, Dason

    2013-01-01

    In 2002, an article entitled "Four assumptions of multiple regression that researchers should always test" by Osborne and Waters was published in "PARE." This article has gone on to be viewed more than 275,000 times (as of August 2013), and it is one of the first results displayed in a Google search for "regression…

  4. Extracurricular Business Planning Competitions: Challenging the Assumptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Kayleigh; McGowan, Pauric; Smith, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Business planning competitions [BPCs] are a commonly offered yet under-examined extracurricular activity. Given the extent of sceptical comment about business planning, this paper offers what the authors believe is a much-needed critical discussion of the assumptions that underpin the provision of such competitions. In doing so it is suggested…

  5. 10 CFR 436.14 - Methodological assumptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Methodological assumptions. 436.14 Section 436.14 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION FEDERAL ENERGY MANAGEMENT AND PLANNING PROGRAMS Methodology and... discount to present values the future cash flows established in either current or constant...

  6. 10 CFR 436.14 - Methodological assumptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Methodological assumptions. 436.14 Section 436.14 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION FEDERAL ENERGY MANAGEMENT AND PLANNING PROGRAMS Methodology and... discount to present values the future cash flows established in either current or constant...

  7. 10 CFR 436.14 - Methodological assumptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Procedures for Life Cycle Cost Analyses § 436.14 Methodological assumptions. (a) Each Federal Agency shall... the Life Cycle Costing Manual for the Federal Energy Management Program (NIST 85-3273) and determined... of the fiscal year in the Annual Supplement to the Life Cycle Costing Manual for the Federal...

  8. Culturally Biased Assumptions in Counseling Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedersen, Paul B.

    2003-01-01

    Eight clusters of culturally biased assumptions are identified for further discussion from Leong and Ponterotto's (2003) article. The presence of cultural bias demonstrates that cultural bias is so robust and pervasive that is permeates the profession of counseling psychology, even including those articles that effectively attack cultural bias…

  9. Artificial Intelligence: Underlying Assumptions and Basic Objectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cercone, Nick; McCalla, Gordon

    1984-01-01

    Presents perspectives on methodological assumptions underlying research efforts in artificial intelligence (AI) and charts activities, motivations, methods, and current status of research in each of the major AI subareas: natural language understanding; computer vision; expert systems; search, problem solving, planning; theorem proving and logic…

  10. Causal Mediation Analysis: Warning! Assumptions Ahead

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keele, Luke

    2015-01-01

    In policy evaluations, interest may focus on why a particular treatment works. One tool for understanding why treatments work is causal mediation analysis. In this essay, I focus on the assumptions needed to estimate mediation effects. I show that there is no "gold standard" method for the identification of causal mediation effects. In…

  11. 29 CFR 4281.14 - Mortality assumptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., TERMINATION, AND OTHER RULES APPLICABLE TO MULTIEMPLOYER PLANS DUTIES OF PLAN SPONSOR FOLLOWING MASS WITHDRAWAL Valuation of Plan Benefits and Plan Assets § 4281.14 Mortality assumptions. (a) General rule... for disabled lives (other than Social Security disability). The mortality rates applicable...

  12. Mexican-American Cultural Assumptions and Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carranza, E. Lou

    The search for presuppositions of a people's thought is not new. Octavio Paz and Samuel Ramos have both attempted to describe the assumptions underlying the Mexican character. Paz described Mexicans as private, defensive, and stoic, characteristics taken to the extreme in the "pachuco." Ramos, on the other hand, described Mexicans as being…

  13. Critically Challenging Some Assumptions in HRD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Donnell, David; McGuire, David; Cross, Christine

    2006-01-01

    This paper sets out to critically challenge five interrelated assumptions prominent in the (human resource development) HRD literature. These relate to: the exploitation of labour in enhancing shareholder value; the view that employees are co-contributors to and co-recipients of HRD benefits; the distinction between HRD and human resource…

  14. Deep Borehole Field Test Requirements and Controlled Assumptions.

    SciTech Connect

    Hardin, Ernest

    2015-07-01

    This document presents design requirements and controlled assumptions intended for use in the engineering development and testing of: 1) prototype packages for radioactive waste disposal in deep boreholes; 2) a waste package surface handling system; and 3) a subsurface system for emplacing and retrieving packages in deep boreholes. Engineering development and testing is being performed as part of the Deep Borehole Field Test (DBFT; SNL 2014a). This document presents parallel sets of requirements for a waste disposal system and for the DBFT, showing the close relationship. In addition to design, it will also inform planning for drilling, construction, and scientific characterization activities for the DBFT. The information presented here follows typical preparations for engineering design. It includes functional and operating requirements for handling and emplacement/retrieval equipment, waste package design and emplacement requirements, borehole construction requirements, sealing requirements, and performance criteria. Assumptions are included where they could impact engineering design. Design solutions are avoided in the requirements discussion. Deep Borehole Field Test Requirements and Controlled Assumptions July 21, 2015 iv ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This set of requirements and assumptions has benefited greatly from reviews by Gordon Appel, Geoff Freeze, Kris Kuhlman, Bob MacKinnon, Steve Pye, David Sassani, Dave Sevougian, and Jiann Su.

  15. Simplifier: a web tool to eliminate redundant NGS contigs

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Rommel Thiago Jucá; Carneiro, Adriana Ribeiro; Azevedo, Vasco; Schneider, Maria Paula; Barh, Debmalya; Silva, Artur

    2012-01-01

    Modern genomic sequencing technologies produce a large amount of data with reduced cost per base; however, this data consists of short reads. This reduction in the size of the reads, compared to those obtained with previous methodologies, presents new challenges, including a need for efficient algorithms for the assembly of genomes from short reads and for resolving repetitions. Additionally after abinitio assembly, curation of the hundreds or thousands of contigs generated by assemblers demands considerable time and computational resources. We developed Simplifier, a stand-alone software that selectively eliminates redundant sequences from the collection of contigs generated by ab initio assembly of genomes. Application of Simplifier to data generated by assembly of the genome of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis strain 258 reduced the number of contigs generated by ab initio methods from 8,004 to 5,272, a reduction of 34.14%; in addition, N50 increased from 1 kb to 1.5 kb. Processing the contigs of Escherichia coli DH10B with Simplifier reduced the mate-paired library 17.47% and the fragment library 23.91%. Simplifier removed redundant sequences from datasets produced by assemblers, thereby reducing the effort required for finalization of genome assembly in tests with data from Prokaryotic organisms. Availability Simplifier is available at http://www.genoma.ufpa.br/rramos/softwares/simplifier.xhtmlIt requires Sun jdk 6 or higher. PMID:23275695

  16. Simplifying plasma chemistry via ILDM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehman, T.; Kemaneci, E.; Graef, W.; van Dijk, J.

    2016-02-01

    A plasma fluid model containing a large number of chemical species and reactions yields a high computational load. One of the methods to overcome this difficulty is to apply Chemical Reduction Techniques as used in combustion engineering. The chemical reduction technique that we study here is ILDM (Intrinsic Lower Dimensional Manifold). The ILDM method is used to simplify an argon plasma model and then a comparison is made with a CRM (Collisional Radiative Model).

  17. Equations simplify dynamic analysis of deepwater drilling risers

    SciTech Connect

    Huagui, Li )

    1993-12-13

    A set of nonlinear equations with practical simplifying assumptions on the governing motion equations and operational boundary conditions can improve the dynamic analysis of marine drilling risers. The dynamic analysis of marine drilling risers includes time domain and frequency domain analyses. This article simplifies the four-order nonlinear partial differential equation and boundary conditions used to describe marine drilling riser motion. The nonlinear dynamic analysis is numerically simulated by using a finite difference method. The top tension on marine risers was studied using four sea states that correspond to increasingly difficult drilling modes. The results from this numerical method are consistent with those from an analysis of a riser in operation. The paper describes the mathematical model, the numerical method, and drilling limitations, and gives an example calculation.

  18. Simplified environmental study on innovative bridge structure.

    PubMed

    Bouhaya, Lina; Le Roy, Robert; Feraille-Fresnet, Adélaïde

    2009-03-15

    The aim of this paper is to present a simplified life cycle assessment on an innovative bridge structure, made of wood and ultra high performance concrete, which combines mechanical performance with minimum environmental impact. The environmental analysis was conducted from cradle to grave using the Life Cycle Assessment method. It was restricted to energy release and greenhouse gas emissions. Assumptions are detailed for each step of the analysis. For the wood end-of-life, three scenarios were proposed: dumping, burning, and recycling. Results show that the most energy needed is in the production phase, which represents 73.4% of the total amount. Analysis shows that the renewable energy is about 70% of the production energy. Wood, through its biomass CO2, contributes positively to the environmental impact. It was concluded that no scenario can be the winner on both impacts. Indeed, the end-of-life wood recycling gives the best impact on CO2 release, whereas burning wood, despite its remarkable energy impact is the worst. According to the emphasis given to each impact, designers will be able to choose one or the other. PMID:19368215

  19. A note on the assumption of quasiequilibrium in semiconductor junction devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Von Roos, O.

    1977-01-01

    It is shown that the quasi-equilibrium theory for p-n junctions, as originally proposed by Shockley (1949), does not apply under conditions involving an application of comparatively low external voltages. A numerical example indicates that the quasi-equilibrium assumption must be discarded as soon as the voltage is increased beyond a certain critical value, although the system may still be in a low-level injection regime. It is currently not known which set of simplifying assumptions may replace the quasi-equilibrium assumptions. Possible analytic simplification relations applicable to moderate or high injection levels can, perhaps, be based on an approach considered by Mari (1968) and Choo (1971, 1972).

  20. Occupancy estimation and the closure assumption

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rota, Christopher T.; Fletcher, Robert J.; Dorazio, Robert M.; Betts, Matthew G.

    2009-01-01

    1. Recent advances in occupancy estimation that adjust for imperfect detection have provided substantial improvements over traditional approaches and are receiving considerable use in applied ecology. To estimate and adjust for detectability, occupancy modelling requires multiple surveys at a site and requires the assumption of 'closure' between surveys, i.e. no changes in occupancy between surveys. Violations of this assumption could bias parameter estimates; however, little work has assessed model sensitivity to violations of this assumption or how commonly such violations occur in nature. 2. We apply a modelling procedure that can test for closure to two avian point-count data sets in Montana and New Hampshire, USA, that exemplify time-scales at which closure is often assumed. These data sets illustrate different sampling designs that allow testing for closure but are currently rarely employed in field investigations. Using a simulation study, we then evaluate the sensitivity of parameter estimates to changes in site occupancy and evaluate a power analysis developed for sampling designs that is aimed at limiting the likelihood of closure. 3. Application of our approach to point-count data indicates that habitats may frequently be open to changes in site occupancy at time-scales typical of many occupancy investigations, with 71% and 100% of species investigated in Montana and New Hampshire respectively, showing violation of closure across time periods of 3 weeks and 8 days respectively. 4. Simulations suggest that models assuming closure are sensitive to changes in occupancy. Power analyses further suggest that the modelling procedure we apply can effectively test for closure. 5. Synthesis and applications. Our demonstration that sites may be open to changes in site occupancy over time-scales typical of many occupancy investigations, combined with the sensitivity of models to violations of the closure assumption, highlights the importance of properly addressing

  1. Simplified tools for evaluating domestic ventilation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Maansson, L.G.; Orme, M.

    1999-07-01

    Within an International Energy Agency (IEA) project, Annex 27, experts from 8 countries (Canada, France, Italy, Japan, The Netherlands, Sweden, UK and USA) have developed simplified tools for evaluating domestic ventilation systems during the heating season. Tools for building and user aspects, thermal comfort, noise, energy, life cycle cost, reliability and indoor air quality (IAQ) have been devised. The results can be used both for dwellings at the design stage and after construction. The tools lead to immediate answers and indications about the consequences of different choices that may arise during discussion with clients. This paper presents an introduction to these tools. Examples applications of the indoor air quality and energy simplified tools are also provided. The IAQ tool accounts for constant emission sources, CO{sub 2}, cooking products, tobacco smoke, condensation risks, humidity levels (i.e., for judging the risk for mould and house dust mites), and pressure difference (for identifying the risk for radon or land fill spillage entering the dwelling or problems with indoor combustion appliances). An elaborated set of design parameters were worked out that resulted in about 17,000 combinations. By using multi-variate analysis it was possible to reduce this to 174 combinations for IAQ. In addition, a sensitivity analysis was made using 990 combinations. The results from all the runs were used to develop a simplified tool, as well as quantifying equations relying on the design parameters. A computerized energy tool has also been developed within this project, which takes into account air tightness, climate, window airing pattern, outdoor air flow rate and heat exchange efficiency.

  2. Keeping Things Simple: Why the Human Development Index Should Not Diverge from Its Equal Weights Assumption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stapleton, Lee M.; Garrod, Guy D.

    2007-01-01

    Using a range of statistical criteria rooted in Information Theory we show that there is little justification for relaxing the equal weights assumption underlying the United Nation's Human Development Index (HDI) even if the true HDI diverges significantly from this assumption. Put differently, the additional model complexity that unequal weights…

  3. A Proposal for Testing Local Realism Without Using Assumptions Related to Hidden Variable States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryff, Luiz Carlos

    1996-01-01

    A feasible experiment is discussed which allows us to prove a Bell's theorem for two particles without using an inequality. The experiment could be used to test local realism against quantum mechanics without the introduction of additional assumptions related to hidden variables states. Only assumptions based on direct experimental observation are needed.

  4. Simplifying microbial electrosynthesis reactor design.

    PubMed

    Giddings, Cloelle G S; Nevin, Kelly P; Woodward, Trevor; Lovley, Derek R; Butler, Caitlyn S

    2015-01-01

    Microbial electrosynthesis, an artificial form of photosynthesis, can efficiently convert carbon dioxide into organic commodities; however, this process has only previously been demonstrated in reactors that have features likely to be a barrier to scale-up. Therefore, the possibility of simplifying reactor design by both eliminating potentiostatic control of the cathode and removing the membrane separating the anode and cathode was investigated with biofilms of Sporomusa ovata. S. ovata reduces carbon dioxide to acetate and acts as the microbial catalyst for plain graphite stick cathodes as the electron donor. In traditional 'H-cell' reactors, where the anode and cathode chambers were separated with a proton-selective membrane, the rates and columbic efficiencies of microbial electrosynthesis remained high when electron delivery at the cathode was powered with a direct current power source rather than with a potentiostat-poised cathode utilized in previous studies. A membrane-less reactor with a direct-current power source with the cathode and anode positioned to avoid oxygen exposure at the cathode, retained high rates of acetate production as well as high columbic and energetic efficiencies. The finding that microbial electrosynthesis is feasible without a membrane separating the anode from the cathode, coupled with a direct current power source supplying the energy for electron delivery, is expected to greatly simplify future reactor design and lower construction costs.

  5. Simplifying microbial electrosynthesis reactor design.

    PubMed

    Giddings, Cloelle G S; Nevin, Kelly P; Woodward, Trevor; Lovley, Derek R; Butler, Caitlyn S

    2015-01-01

    Microbial electrosynthesis, an artificial form of photosynthesis, can efficiently convert carbon dioxide into organic commodities; however, this process has only previously been demonstrated in reactors that have features likely to be a barrier to scale-up. Therefore, the possibility of simplifying reactor design by both eliminating potentiostatic control of the cathode and removing the membrane separating the anode and cathode was investigated with biofilms of Sporomusa ovata. S. ovata reduces carbon dioxide to acetate and acts as the microbial catalyst for plain graphite stick cathodes as the electron donor. In traditional 'H-cell' reactors, where the anode and cathode chambers were separated with a proton-selective membrane, the rates and columbic efficiencies of microbial electrosynthesis remained high when electron delivery at the cathode was powered with a direct current power source rather than with a potentiostat-poised cathode utilized in previous studies. A membrane-less reactor with a direct-current power source with the cathode and anode positioned to avoid oxygen exposure at the cathode, retained high rates of acetate production as well as high columbic and energetic efficiencies. The finding that microbial electrosynthesis is feasible without a membrane separating the anode from the cathode, coupled with a direct current power source supplying the energy for electron delivery, is expected to greatly simplify future reactor design and lower construction costs. PMID:26029199

  6. Water resources of Assumption Parish, Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prakken, Lawrence B.; Lovelace, John K.

    2013-01-01

    Information concerning the availability, use, and quality of water in Assumption Parish, Louisiana, is critical for proper water-supply management. The purpose of this fact sheet is to present information that can be used by water managers, parish residents, and others for management of this vital resource. Information on the availability, past and current use, use trends, and water quality from groundwater and surface-water sources in the parish is presented. Previously published reports and data stored in the U.S. Geological Survey’s National Water Information System (http://waterdata.usgs.gov/nwis) are the primary sources of the information presented here. In 2010, about 21.4 million gallons per day (Mgal/d) of water were withdrawn in Assumption Parish, including about 12.4 Mgal/d from surface-water sources and 9.03 Mgal/d from groundwater sources. Withdrawals for industrial use accounted for about 16.4 Mgal/d or 76 percent of the total water withdrawn. Other categories of use included public supply, rural domestic, livestock, general irrigation, and aquaculture.Water-use data collected at 5-year intervals from 1960 to 2010 indicated that water withdrawals peaked in 2000 at about 29.7 Mgal/d.

  7. Simplified compact containment BWR plant

    SciTech Connect

    Heki, H.; Nakamaru, M.; Tsutagawa, M.; Hiraiwa, K.; Arai, K.; Hida, T.

    2004-07-01

    The reactor concept considered in this paper has a small power output, a compact containment and a simplified BWR configuration with comprehensive safety features. The Compact Containment Boiling Water Reactor (CCR), which is being developed with matured BWR technologies together with innovative systems/components, is expected to prove attractive in the world energy markets due to its flexibility in regard to both energy demands and site conditions, its high potential for reducing investment risk and its safety features facilitating public acceptance. The flexibility is achieved by CCR's small power output of 300 MWe class and capability of long operating cycle (refueling intervals). CCR is expected to be attractive from view point of investment due to its simplification/innovation in design such as natural circulation core cooling with the bottom located short core, internal upper entry control rod drives (CRDs) with ring-type dryers and simplified ECCS system with high pressure containment concept. The natural circulation core eliminates recirculation pumps and the maintenance of such pumps. The internal upper entry CRDs reduce the height of the reactor vessel (RPV) and consequently reduce the height of the primary containment vessel (PCV). The safety features mainly consist of large water inventory above the core without large penetration below the top of the core, passive cooling system by isolation condenser (IC), passive auto catalytic recombiner and in-vessel retention (IVR) capability. The large inventory increases the system response time in the case of design-base accidents, including loss of coolant accidents. The IC suppresses PCV pressure by steam condensation without any AC power. The recombiner decreases hydrogen concentration in the PCV in the case of a severe accident. Cooling the molten core inside the RPV if the core should be damaged by loss of core coolability could attain the IVR. The feasibility of CCR safety system has been confirmed by LOCA

  8. Simplified Radioimmunoassay for Diagnostic Serology

    PubMed Central

    Hutchinson, Harriet D.; Ziegler, Donald W.

    1972-01-01

    A simplified, indirect radioimmunoassay is described for Escherichia coli, vaccinia virus, and herpesvirus. The antigens were affixed to glass cover slips; thus both the primary and secondary reactions take place on the cover slips, and the unbound antiserum is easily separated from the bound antiserum by rinsing. Rabbit or human immune sera were reacted with the antigens, and the primary immune complex was quantitated by a secondary reaction with 125I-indicator globulin (anti-rabbit or anti-human). A direct relationship between the antiserum concentration and the 125I absorption was established. Variations in titers were detectable, and the titers were comparable to complement fixation titers. Homologous and heterologous reactions were distinguishable. The method affords an objective, quantitative, and qualitative evaluation of antibody, and results are reproducible. PMID:4344958

  9. Simplified experimental human dermatophytosis model.

    PubMed

    Aly, R; Maibach, H I; Ho, I; Abrams, B B

    1992-02-01

    The authors have improved and simplified previous methods for producing localized mycotic skin infections in an attempt to compare topical antifungal agents for their bioequivalency. Healthy human volunteers who had negative results for commercial, purified Trichophyton antigen (Trichophytin) were inoculated with Trichophyton mentagrophytes on two sites on each forearm in a randomized study designed to compare the antifungal activities of two ciclopirox olamine formulations. The lesions, easily induced by the authors' method, were localized and did not spread under the occlusive dressings. Infections established at the four sites on 26 subjects were treated twice daily for 14 days with the two active drug formulations and their vehicles. There were no significant differences in culture-documented cure rates or alleviation of clinical signs and symptoms between ciclopirox olamine lotion and cream. Each drug was significantly better than its vehicle. The authors' method seems to be effective and suitable for therapeutic studies.

  10. Simplified Solutions for Activity Deposited on Moving Filter Media.

    PubMed

    Smith, David L; Chabot, George E

    2016-10-01

    Simplified numerical solutions for particulate activity viewed on moving filter continuous air monitors are developed. The monitor configurations include both rectangular window (RW) and circular window (CW) types. The solutions are demonstrated first for a set of basic airborne radioactivity cases, for a series of concentration pulses, and for indicating the effects of step changes in reactor coolant system (RCS) leakage for a pressurized water reactor. The method is also compared to cases from the prior art. These simplified solutions have additional benefits: They are easily adaptable to multiple radionuclides, they will accommodate collection and detection efficiencies that vary in known ways across the collection area, and they also ease the solution programming.

  11. Flat sheet metal girders with very thin metal web. Part I : general theories and assumptions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, Herbert

    1931-01-01

    The object of this report was to develop the structural method of sheet metal girders and should for that reason be considered solely from this standpoint. The ensuing methods were based on the assumption of the infinitely low stiffness in bending of the metal web. This simplifies the basis of calculations to such an extent that many questions of great practical importance can be examined which otherwise cannot be included in any analysis of the bending stiffness of the buckled plate. This report refers to such points as the safety in buckling of uprights to the effect of bending flexibility of spars, to spars not set parallel, etc.

  12. Transsexual parenthood and new role assumptions.

    PubMed

    Faccio, Elena; Bordin, Elena; Cipolletta, Sabrina

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the parental role of transsexuals and compares this to common assumptions about transsexuality and parentage. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 14 male-to-female transsexuals and 14 men, half parents and half non-parents, in order to explore four thematic areas: self-representation of the parental role, the description of the transsexual as a parent, the common representations of transsexuals as a parent, and male and female parental stereotypes. We conducted thematic and lexical analyses of the interviews using Taltac2 software. The results indicate that social representations of transsexuality and parenthood have a strong influence on processes of self-representation. Transsexual parents accurately understood conventional male and female parental prototypes and saw themselves as competent, responsible parents. They constructed their role based on affection toward the child rather than on the complementary role of their wives. In contrast, men's descriptions of transsexual parental roles were simpler and the descriptions of their parental role coincided with their personal experiences. These results suggest that the transsexual journey toward parenthood involves a high degree of re-adjustment, because their parental role does not coincide with a conventional one.

  13. Culturally grounded review of research assumptions.

    PubMed

    Hufford, D J

    1996-07-01

    In this article 11 assumptions underlying many discussions of alternative medicine are discussed and critiqued: that (1) cultural factors merely constitute noise in research data that can be removed by proper design; (2) the only proper goal of alternative medicine research is the incorporation of effective practices into medicine; (3) physicians are the primary consumers of good alternative medicine research; (4) control of pathology is the sole measure of the effectiveness of alternative medicine; (5) effects on pathology can be fully separated from effects on perception or quality of life; (6) effects on individual health should be the sole focus of alternative medical research; (7) medicine is aware of all sicknesses appropriate for alternative medicine research; (8) subjective data are less valuable than objective data; (9) the best leads for research come from recognizable systems with advocates; (10) more "modern-looking," highly articulated forms are necessarily better research "bets"; and (11) all good candidates for alternative medicine research are recognized as health practices by those who use them. PMID:8795922

  14. Assumptions and ambiguities in nonplanar acoustic soliton theory

    SciTech Connect

    Verheest, Frank; Hellberg, Manfred A.

    2014-02-15

    There have been many recent theoretical investigations of the nonlinear evolution of electrostatic modes with cylindrical or spherical symmetry. Through a reductive perturbation analysis based on a quasiplanar stretching, a modified form of the Korteweg-de Vries or related equation is derived, containing an additional term which is linear in the electrostatic potential and singular at time t = 0. Unfortunately, these analyses contain several restrictive assumptions and ambiguities which are normally neither properly explained nor discussed, and severely limit the applicability of the technique. Most glaring are the use of plane-wave stretchings, the assumption that shape-preserving cylindrical modes can exist and that, although time is homogeneous, the origin of time (which can be chosen arbitrarily) needs to be avoided. Hence, only in the domain where the nonlinear modes are quasiplanar, far from the axis of cylindrical or from the origin of spherical symmetry can acceptable but unexciting results be obtained. Nonplanar nonlinear modes are clearly an interesting topic of research, as some of these phenomena have been observed in experiments. However, it is argued that a proper study of such modes needs numerical simulations rather than ill-suited analytical approximations.

  15. 48 CFR 453.213 - Simplified Acquisition and other simplified purchase procedures (AD-838).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... other simplified purchase procedures (AD-838). 453.213 Section 453.213 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CLAUSES AND FORMS FORMS Prescription of Forms 453.213 Simplified Acquisition and other simplified purchase procedures (AD-838). Form AD-838, Purchase Order, is prescribed...

  16. Roy's specific life values and the philosophical assumption of humanism.

    PubMed

    Hanna, Debra R

    2013-01-01

    Roy's philosophical assumption of humanism, which is shaped by the veritivity assumption, is considered in terms of her specific life values and in contrast to the contemporary view of humanism. Like veritivity, Roy's philosophical assumption of humanism unites a theocentric focus with anthropological values. Roy's perspective enriches the mainly secular, anthropocentric assumption. In this manuscript, the basis for Roy's perspective of humanism will be discussed so that readers will be able to use the Roy adaptation model in an authentic manner.

  17. The Role of Couples’ Interacting World Assumptions and Relationship Adjustment in Women’s Postdisaster PTSD Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Monson, Candice M.; Gradus, Jaimie L.; La Bash, Heidi A. J.; Griffin, Michael G.; Resick, Patricia A.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined 58 heterosexual couples’ interacting assumptions about the world and relationship adjustment in predicting wives’ posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms after severe flooding. Both partners completed the World Assumptions Scale (Janoff-Bulman, 1989), and wives reported on their intimate relationship adjustment and PTSD symptomatology. Neither husbands’ nor wives’ assumptions alone predicted wives’ PTSD symptoms. However, the interaction of husbands’ and wives’ benevolent world assumptions significantly predicted wives’ PTSD symptoms. When husbands held less benevolent world assumptions, there was a negative association between wives’ assumptions and PTSD symptoms. Additionally, wives’ relationship adjustment predicted their PTSD symptomatology when taking into account individual and interacting self-worth assumptions. Implications for understanding the role of intimate relationships in postdisaster mental health and interpersonally oriented prevention efforts are discussed. PMID:19626677

  18. Explaining the Pleistocene megafaunal extinctions: Models, chronologies, and assumptions

    PubMed Central

    Brook, Barry W.; Bowman, David M. J. S.

    2002-01-01

    Understanding of the Pleistocene megafaunal extinctions has been advanced recently by the application of simulation models and new developments in geochronological dating. Together these have been used to posit a rapid demise of megafauna due to over-hunting by invading humans. However, we demonstrate that the results of these extinction models are highly sensitive to implicit assumptions concerning the degree of prey naivety to human hunters. In addition, we show that in Greater Australia, where the extinctions occurred well before the end of the last Ice Age (unlike the North American situation), estimates of the duration of coexistence between humans and megafauna remain imprecise. Contrary to recent claims, the existing data do not prove the “blitzkrieg” model of overkill. PMID:12417761

  19. Finite Element Modeling of a Cylindrical Contact Using Hertzian Assumptions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knudsen, Erik

    2003-01-01

    The turbine blades in the high-pressure fuel turbopump/alternate turbopump (HPFTP/AT) are subjected to hot gases rapidly flowing around them. This flow excites vibrations in the blades. Naturally, one has to worry about resonance, so a damping device was added to dissipate some energy from the system. The foundation is now laid for a very complex problem. The damper is in contact with the blade, so now there are contact stresses (both normal and tangential) to contend with. Since these stresses can be very high, it is not all that difficult to yield the material. Friction is another non-linearity and the blade is made out of a Nickel-based single-crystal superalloy that is orthotropic. A few approaches exist to solve such a problem and computer models, using contact elements, have been built with friction, plasticity, etc. These models are quite cumbersome and require many hours to solve just one load case and material orientation. A simpler approach is required. Ideally, the model should be simplified so the analysis can be conducted faster. When working with contact problems determining the contact patch and the stresses in the material are the main concerns. Closed-form solutions for non-conforming bodies, developed by Hertz, made out of isotropic materials are readily available. More involved solutions for 3-D cases using different materials are also available. The question is this: can Hertzian1 solutions be applied, or superimposed, to more complicated problems-like those involving anisotropic materials? That is the point of the investigation here. If these results agree with the more complicated computer models, then the analytical solutions can be used in lieu of the numerical solutions that take a very long time to process. As time goes on, the analytical solution will eventually have to include things like friction and plasticity. The models in this report use no contact elements and are essentially an applied load problem using Hertzian assumptions to

  20. Asymptotic derivation of the multigroup P{sub 1} and Simplified P{sub N} equations with anisotropic scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, E.W.; Morel, J.E.; McGhee, J.M.

    1994-10-01

    The multigroup and P{sub 1} and Simplified P{sub N} equations are shown to be a family of asymptotic approximation to the multigroup transport equation with anisotropic scattering. The physical assumptions are that the material system is optically thick, the probability of absorption is small, and the mean scattering angle {anti {mu}}{sub o} is not close to unity.

  1. Green technologies--assumption of economic recovery.

    PubMed

    Siljeg, Mario; Zorić, Sandra Tucak; Vucinić, Aleksandra Anić; Kalambura, Sanja; Cemerin, Vedrana; Jovicić, Nives

    2014-03-01

    Green technologies include implementation of technological projects in the field of environmental protection through all associated components, such as: waters, soil, air or biodiversity. Hence, such projects potentially become a driving force of new economic momentum in the conditions of post-crisis recovery. In addition, the support of this segment by the institutions of the European Union, either in terms of organization through the establishment of rules and systems for monitoring and control of environmental protection measures, and most importantly in terms of finances, by supporting the development of infrastructure for environmental protection, is today an indisputable category. The aim of the research is to show the potential of green technologies in the initiation of economic activities based on content analysis of the collected literature, as well as to determine the correlation between green technologies and environmental protection and the measures for the reduction of the impact of energy sector on the greenhouse gas emissions.

  2. Additional comments on the assumption of homogenous survival rates in modern bird banding estimation models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, J.D.; Stokes, S.L.; Hines, J.E.; Conroy, M.J.

    1982-01-01

    We examined the problem of heterogeneous survival and recovery rates in bird banding estimation models. We suggest that positively correlated subgroup survival and recovery probabilities may result from winter banding operations and that this situation will produce positively biased survival rate estimates. The magnitude of the survival estimate bias depends on the proportion of the population in each subgroup. Power of the suggested goodness-of-fit test to reject the inappropriate model for heterogeneous data sets was low for all situations examined and was poorest for positively related subgroup survival and recovery rates. Despite the magnitude of some of the biases reported and the relative inability to detect heterogeneity, we suggest that levels of heterogeneity normally encountered in real data sets will produce relatively small biases of average survival rates.

  3. 3. 6 simplified methods for design

    SciTech Connect

    Nickell, R.E.; Yahr, G.T.

    1981-01-01

    Simplified design analysis methods for elevated temperature construction are classified and reviewed. Because the major impetus for developing elevated temperature design methodology during the past ten years has been the LMFBR program, considerable emphasis is placed upon results from this source. The operating characteristics of the LMFBR are such that cycles of severe transient thermal stresses can be interspersed with normal elevated temperature operational periods of significant duration, leading to a combination of plastic and creep deformation. The various simplified methods are organized into two general categories, depending upon whether it is the material, or constitutive, model that is reduced, or the geometric modeling that is simplified. Because the elastic representation of material behavior is so prevalent, an entire section is devoted to elastic analysis methods. Finally, the validation of the simplified procedures is discussed.

  4. Veitch diagram plotter simplifies Boolean functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubin, D. K.

    1964-01-01

    This device for simplifying the plotting of a Veitch diagram consists of several overlays for blocking out the unwanted squares. This method of plotting the various input combinations to a computer is used in conjunction with the Boolean functions.

  5. Post-traumatic stress and world assumptions: the effects of religious coping.

    PubMed

    Zukerman, Gil; Korn, Liat

    2014-12-01

    Religiosity has been shown to moderate the negative effects of traumatic event experiences. The current study was designed to examine the relationship between post-traumatic stress (PTS) following traumatic event exposure; world assumptions defined as basic cognitive schemas regarding the world; and self and religious coping conceptualized as drawing on religious beliefs and practices for understanding and dealing with life stressors. This study examined 777 Israeli undergraduate students who completed several questionnaires which sampled individual world assumptions and religious coping in addition to measuring PTS, as manifested by the PTSD check list. Results indicate that positive religious coping was significantly associated with more positive world assumptions, while negative religious coping was significantly associated with more negative world assumptions. Additionally, negative world assumptions were significantly associated with more avoidance symptoms, while reporting higher rates of traumatic event exposure was significantly associated with more hyper-arousal. These findings suggest that religious-related cognitive schemas directly affect world assumptions by creating protective shields that may prevent the negative effects of confronting an extreme negative experience.

  6. Simplified Rotation In Acoustic Levitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barmatz, M. B.; Gaspar, M. S.; Trinh, E. H.

    1989-01-01

    New technique based on old discovery used to control orientation of object levitated acoustically in axisymmetric chamber. Method does not require expensive equipment like additional acoustic drivers of precisely adjustable amplitude, phase, and frequency. Reflecting object acts as second source of sound. If reflecting object large enough, close enough to levitated object, or focuses reflected sound sufficiently, Rayleigh torque exerted on levitated object by reflected sound controls orientation of object.

  7. Fluid-Structure Interaction Modeling of Intracranial Aneurysm Hemodynamics: Effects of Different Assumptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajabzadeh Oghaz, Hamidreza; Damiano, Robert; Meng, Hui

    2015-11-01

    Intracranial aneurysms (IAs) are pathological outpouchings of cerebral vessels, the progression of which are mediated by complex interactions between the blood flow and vasculature. Image-based computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has been used for decades to investigate IA hemodynamics. However, the commonly adopted simplifying assumptions in CFD (e.g. rigid wall) compromise the simulation accuracy and mask the complex physics involved in IA progression and eventual rupture. Several groups have considered the wall compliance by using fluid-structure interaction (FSI) modeling. However, FSI simulation is highly sensitive to numerical assumptions (e.g. linear-elastic wall material, Newtonian fluid, initial vessel configuration, and constant pressure outlet), the effects of which are poorly understood. In this study, a comprehensive investigation of the sensitivity of FSI simulations in patient-specific IAs is investigated using a multi-stage approach with a varying level of complexity. We start with simulations incorporating several common simplifications: rigid wall, Newtonian fluid, and constant pressure at the outlets, and then we stepwise remove these simplifications until the most comprehensive FSI simulations. Hemodynamic parameters such as wall shear stress and oscillatory shear index are assessed and compared at each stage to better understand the sensitivity of in FSI simulations for IA to model assumptions. Supported by the National Institutes of Health (1R01 NS 091075-01).

  8. Effects of various assumptions on the calculated liquid fraction in isentropic saturated equilibrium expansions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bursik, J. W.; Hall, R. M.

    1980-01-01

    The saturated equilibrium expansion approximation for two phase flow often involves ideal-gas and latent-heat assumptions to simplify the solution procedure. This approach is well documented by Wegener and Mack and works best at low pressures where deviations from ideal-gas behavior are small. A thermodynamic expression for liquid mass fraction that is decoupled from the equations of fluid mechanics is used to compare the effects of the various assumptions on nitrogen-gas saturated equilibrium expansion flow starting at 8.81 atm, 2.99 atm, and 0.45 atm, which are conditions representative of transonic cryogenic wind tunnels. For the highest pressure case, the entire set of ideal-gas and latent-heat assumptions are shown to be in error by 62 percent for the values of heat capacity and latent heat. An approximation of the exact, real-gas expression is also developed using a constant, two phase isentropic expansion coefficient which results in an error of only 2 percent for the high pressure case.

  9. Simplified models for LHC new physics searches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves, Daniele; Arkani-Hamed, Nima; Arora, Sanjay; Bai, Yang; Baumgart, Matthew; Berger, Joshua; Buckley, Matthew; Butler, Bart; Chang, Spencer; Cheng, Hsin-Chia; Cheung, Clifford; Sekhar Chivukula, R.; Cho, Won Sang; Cotta, Randy; D'Alfonso, Mariarosaria; El Hedri, Sonia; Essig (Editor, Rouven; Evans, Jared A.; Fitzpatrick, Liam; Fox, Patrick; Franceschini, Roberto; Freitas, Ayres; Gainer, James S.; Gershtein, Yuri; Gray, Richard; Gregoire, Thomas; Gripaios, Ben; Gunion, Jack; Han, Tao; Haas, Andy; Hansson, Per; Hewett, JoAnne; Hits, Dmitry; Hubisz, Jay; Izaguirre, Eder; Kaplan, Jared; Katz, Emanuel; Kilic, Can; Kim, Hyung-Do; Kitano, Ryuichiro; Koay, Sue Ann; Ko, Pyungwon; Krohn, David; Kuflik, Eric; Lewis, Ian; Lisanti (Editor, Mariangela; Liu, Tao; Liu, Zhen; Lu, Ran; Luty, Markus; Meade, Patrick; Morrissey, David; Mrenna, Stephen; Nojiri, Mihoko; Okui, Takemichi; Padhi, Sanjay; Papucci, Michele; Park, Michael; Park, Myeonghun; Perelstein, Maxim; Peskin, Michael; Phalen, Daniel; Rehermann, Keith; Rentala, Vikram; Roy, Tuhin; Ruderman, Joshua T.; Sanz, Veronica; Schmaltz, Martin; Schnetzer, Stephen; Schuster (Editor, Philip; Schwaller, Pedro; Schwartz, Matthew D.; Schwartzman, Ariel; Shao, Jing; Shelton, Jessie; Shih, David; Shu, Jing; Silverstein, Daniel; Simmons, Elizabeth; Somalwar, Sunil; Spannowsky, Michael; Spethmann, Christian; Strassler, Matthew; Su, Shufang; Tait (Editor, Tim; Thomas, Brooks; Thomas, Scott; Toro (Editor, Natalia; Volansky, Tomer; Wacker (Editor, Jay; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Yavin, Itay; Yu, Felix; Zhao, Yue; Zurek, Kathryn; LHC New Physics Working Group

    2012-10-01

    This document proposes a collection of simplified models relevant to the design of new-physics searches at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and the characterization of their results. Both ATLAS and CMS have already presented some results in terms of simplified models, and we encourage them to continue and expand this effort, which supplements both signature-based results and benchmark model interpretations. A simplified model is defined by an effective Lagrangian describing the interactions of a small number of new particles. Simplified models can equally well be described by a small number of masses and cross-sections. These parameters are directly related to collider physics observables, making simplified models a particularly effective framework for evaluating searches and a useful starting point for characterizing positive signals of new physics. This document serves as an official summary of the results from the ‘Topologies for Early LHC Searches’ workshop, held at SLAC in September of 2010, the purpose of which was to develop a set of representative models that can be used to cover all relevant phase space in experimental searches. Particular emphasis is placed on searches relevant for the first ˜50-500 pb-1 of data and those motivated by supersymmetric models. This note largely summarizes material posted at http://lhcnewphysics.org/, which includes simplified model definitions, Monte Carlo material, and supporting contacts within the theory community. We also comment on future developments that may be useful as more data is gathered and analyzed by the experiments.

  10. Simplified Models for LHC New Physics Searches

    SciTech Connect

    Alves, Daniele; Arkani-Hamed, Nima; Arora, Sanjay; Bai, Yang; Baumgart, Matthew; Berger, Joshua; Buckley, Matthew; Butler, Bart; Chang, Spencer; Cheng, Hsin-Chia; Cheung, Clifford; Chivukula, R.Sekhar; Cho, Won Sang; Cotta, Randy; D'Alfonso, Mariarosaria; El Hedri, Sonia; Essig, Rouven,; Evans, Jared A.; Fitzpatrick, Liam; Fox, Patrick; Franceschini, Roberto; /more authors..

    2012-06-01

    This document proposes a collection of simplified models relevant to the design of new-physics searches at the LHC and the characterization of their results. Both ATLAS and CMS have already presented some results in terms of simplified models, and we encourage them to continue and expand this effort, which supplements both signature-based results and benchmark model interpretations. A simplified model is defined by an effective Lagrangian describing the interactions of a small number of new particles. Simplified models can equally well be described by a small number of masses and cross-sections. These parameters are directly related to collider physics observables, making simplified models a particularly effective framework for evaluating searches and a useful starting point for characterizing positive signals of new physics. This document serves as an official summary of the results from the 'Topologies for Early LHC Searches' workshop, held at SLAC in September of 2010, the purpose of which was to develop a set of representative models that can be used to cover all relevant phase space in experimental searches. Particular emphasis is placed on searches relevant for the first {approx} 50-500 pb{sup -1} of data and those motivated by supersymmetric models. This note largely summarizes material posted at http://lhcnewphysics.org/, which includes simplified model definitions, Monte Carlo material, and supporting contacts within the theory community. We also comment on future developments that may be useful as more data is gathered and analyzed by the experiments.

  11. On an Additive Semigraphoid Model for Statistical Networks With Application to Pathway Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Bing; Chun, Hyonho; Zhao, Hongyu

    2014-01-01

    We introduce a nonparametric method for estimating non-gaussian graphical models based on a new statistical relation called additive conditional independence, which is a three-way relation among random vectors that resembles the logical structure of conditional independence. Additive conditional independence allows us to use one-dimensional kernel regardless of the dimension of the graph, which not only avoids the curse of dimensionality but also simplifies computation. It also gives rise to a parallel structure to the gaussian graphical model that replaces the precision matrix by an additive precision operator. The estimators derived from additive conditional independence cover the recently introduced nonparanormal graphical model as a special case, but outperform it when the gaussian copula assumption is violated. We compare the new method with existing ones by simulations and in genetic pathway analysis. PMID:26401064

  12. Investigating the Assumptions of Uses and Gratifications Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lometti, Guy E.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Discusses a study designed to determine empirically the gratifications sought from communication channels and to test the assumption that individuals differentiate channels based on gratifications. (MH)

  13. Simplified Solutions for Activity Deposited on Moving Filter Media.

    PubMed

    Smith, David L; Chabot, George E

    2016-10-01

    Simplified numerical solutions for particulate activity viewed on moving filter continuous air monitors are developed. The monitor configurations include both rectangular window (RW) and circular window (CW) types. The solutions are demonstrated first for a set of basic airborne radioactivity cases, for a series of concentration pulses, and for indicating the effects of step changes in reactor coolant system (RCS) leakage for a pressurized water reactor. The method is also compared to cases from the prior art. These simplified solutions have additional benefits: They are easily adaptable to multiple radionuclides, they will accommodate collection and detection efficiencies that vary in known ways across the collection area, and they also ease the solution programming. PMID:27575345

  14. Simplified scheme for routine identification of human Staphylococcus species.

    PubMed

    Kloos, W E; Schleifer, K H

    1975-01-01

    From a total of 40 characters that were previously used to differentiate species of staphylococci, 13 key characters were selected to make a simplified scheme that could be easily used by the routine clinical laboratory for identifying human staphylococci. These key characters included coagulase activity, hemolysis, nitrate reduction, and aerobic acid production from fructose, xylose, arabinose, ribose, maltose, lactose, sucrose, trehalose, mannitol, and xylitol. In the simplified scheme, 924 strains of staphylococci were placed into 11 positions, each of which contained the major portion (greater than or equal to 80%) of strains of one of the recognized species. Several positions contained a rare or few uncommon strains of one or more additional species and these could be resolved on the basis of other key characters.

  15. A Simplified HTTR Diffusion Theory Benchmark

    SciTech Connect

    Rodolfo M. Ferrer; Abderrafi M. Ougouag; Farzad Rahnema

    2010-10-01

    The Georgia Institute of Technology (GA-Tech) recently developed a transport theory benchmark based closely on the geometry and the features of the HTTR reactor that is operational in Japan. Though simplified, the benchmark retains all the principal physical features of the reactor and thus provides a realistic and challenging test for the codes. The purpose of this paper is twofold. The first goal is an extension of the benchmark to diffusion theory applications by generating the additional data not provided in the GA-Tech prior work. The second goal is to use the benchmark on the HEXPEDITE code available to the INL. The HEXPEDITE code is a Green’s function-based neutron diffusion code in 3D hexagonal-z geometry. The results showed that the HEXPEDITE code accurately reproduces the effective multiplication factor of the reference HELIOS solution. A secondary, but no less important, conclusion is that in the testing against actual HTTR data of a full sequence of codes that would include HEXPEDITE, in the apportioning of inevitable discrepancies between experiment and models, the portion of error attributable to HEXPEDITE would be expected to be modest. If large discrepancies are observed, they would have to be explained by errors in the data fed into HEXPEDITE. Results based on a fully realistic model of the HTTR reactor are presented in a companion paper. The suite of codes used in that paper also includes HEXPEDITE. The results shown here should help that effort in the decision making process for refining the modeling steps in the full sequence of codes.

  16. On local total strain redistribution using a simplified cyclic inelastic analysis based on an elastic solution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hwang, S. Y.; Kaufman, A.

    1985-01-01

    Strain redistribution corrections were developed for a simplified inelastic analysis procedure to economically calculate material cyclic response at the critical location of a structure for life prediction purposes. The method was based on the assumption that the plastic region in the structure is local and the total strain history required for input can be defined from elastic finite element analyses. Cyclic stress-strain behavior was represented by a bilinear kinematic hardening model. The simplified procedure has been found to predict stress-strain response with reasonable accuracy for thermally cycled problems but needs improvement for mechanically load cycled problems. This study derived and incorporated Neuber type corrections in the simplified procedure to account for local total strain redistribution under cyclic mechanical loading. The corrected simplified method was exercised on a mechanically load cycled benchmark notched plate problem. Excellent agreement was found between the predicted material response and nonlinear finite element solutions for the problem. The simplified analysis computer program used 0.3 percent of the CPU time required for a nonlinear finite element analysis.

  17. When Proofs Reflect More on Assumptions than Conclusions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawkins, Paul Christian

    2014-01-01

    This paper demonstrates how questions of "provability" can help students engaged in reinvention of mathematical theory to understand the axiomatic game. While proof demonstrates how conclusions follow from assumptions, "provability" characterizes the dual relation that assumptions are "justified" when they afford…

  18. Performance Appraisal Is Based on Five Major Assumptions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silver, Harvey A.

    This review of the performance appraisal process discusses the major assumptions on which performance appraisal is based, the general goals of performance appraisal, and the characteristics of effective performance appraisal programs. The author stresses the dependence of the process on the assumption that human behavior can be changed; he…

  19. 46 CFR 174.070 - General damage stability assumptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false General damage stability assumptions. 174.070 Section 174.070 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY... Units § 174.070 General damage stability assumptions. For the purpose of determining compliance...

  20. 46 CFR 174.070 - General damage stability assumptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false General damage stability assumptions. 174.070 Section 174.070 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY... Units § 174.070 General damage stability assumptions. For the purpose of determining compliance...

  1. 46 CFR 174.070 - General damage stability assumptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false General damage stability assumptions. 174.070 Section 174.070 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY... Units § 174.070 General damage stability assumptions. For the purpose of determining compliance...

  2. 10 CFR 71.83 - Assumptions as to unknown properties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Assumptions as to unknown properties. 71.83 Section 71.83... Operating Controls and Procedures § 71.83 Assumptions as to unknown properties. When the isotopic abundance... unknown properties have credible values that will cause the maximum neutron multiplication....

  3. 10 CFR 71.83 - Assumptions as to unknown properties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Assumptions as to unknown properties. 71.83 Section 71.83... Operating Controls and Procedures § 71.83 Assumptions as to unknown properties. When the isotopic abundance... unknown properties have credible values that will cause the maximum neutron multiplication....

  4. 10 CFR 71.83 - Assumptions as to unknown properties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Assumptions as to unknown properties. 71.83 Section 71.83... Operating Controls and Procedures § 71.83 Assumptions as to unknown properties. When the isotopic abundance... unknown properties have credible values that will cause the maximum neutron multiplication....

  5. 10 CFR 71.83 - Assumptions as to unknown properties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Assumptions as to unknown properties. 71.83 Section 71.83... Operating Controls and Procedures § 71.83 Assumptions as to unknown properties. When the isotopic abundance... unknown properties have credible values that will cause the maximum neutron multiplication....

  6. Assumptions of Value-Added Models for Estimating School Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reardon, Sean F.; Raudenbush, Stephen W.

    2009-01-01

    The ability of school (or teacher) value-added models to provide unbiased estimates of school (or teacher) effects rests on a set of assumptions. In this article, we identify six assumptions that are required so that the estimands of such models are well defined and the models are able to recover the desired parameters from observable data. These…

  7. 10 CFR 71.83 - Assumptions as to unknown properties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Assumptions as to unknown properties. 71.83 Section 71.83... Operating Controls and Procedures § 71.83 Assumptions as to unknown properties. When the isotopic abundance... fissile material in any package is not known, the licensee shall package the fissile material as if...

  8. 29 CFR Appendix C to Part 4044 - Loading Assumptions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Loading Assumptions C Appendix C to Part 4044 Labor... ASSETS IN SINGLE-EMPLOYER PLANS Pt. 4044, App. C Appendix C to Part 4044—Loading Assumptions If the total value of the plan's benefit liabilities (as defined in 29 U.S.C. § 1301(a)(16)), exclusive of...

  9. 43 CFR 2201.1-3 - Assumption of costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Assumption of costs. 2201.1-3 Section 2201... Exchanges-Specific Requirements § 2201.1-3 Assumption of costs. (a) Generally, parties to an exchange will...-Federal party; and (5) There are no other practicable means available to the authorized officer of...

  10. 36 CFR 254.7 - Assumption of costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Assumption of costs. 254.7... ADJUSTMENTS Land Exchanges § 254.7 Assumption of costs. (a) Generally, each party to an exchange will bear... (5) There are no other practicable means available to the authorized officer for meeting...

  11. 40 CFR 144.66 - State assumption of responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false State assumption of responsibility. 144.66 Section 144.66 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAM Financial Responsibility: Class I Hazardous Waste Injection Wells § 144.66 State assumption...

  12. Development of long operating cycle simplified BWR

    SciTech Connect

    Heki, H.; Nakamaru, M.; Maruya, T.; Hiraiwa, K.; Arai, K.; Narabayash, T.; Aritomi, M.

    2002-07-01

    This paper describes an innovative plant concept for long operating cycle simplified BWR (LSBWR) In this plant concept, 1) Long operating cycle ( 3 to 15 years), 2) Simplified systems and building, 3) Factory fabrication in module are discussed. Designing long operating core is based on medium enriched U-235 with burnable poison. Simplified systems and building are realized by using natural circulation with bottom located core, internal CRD and PCV with passive system and an integrated reactor and turbine building. This LSBWR concept will have make high degree of safety by IVR (In Vessel Retention) capability, large water inventory above the core region and no PCV vent to the environment due to PCCS (Passive Containment Cooling System) and internal vent tank. Integrated building concept could realize highly modular arrangement in hull structure (ship frame structure), ease of seismic isolation capability and high applicability of standardization and factory fabrication. (authors)

  13. Hypersonic Vehicle Propulsion System Simplified Model Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stueber, Thomas J.; Raitano, Paul; Le, Dzu K.; Ouzts, Peter

    2007-01-01

    This document addresses the modeling task plan for the hypersonic GN&C GRC team members. The overall propulsion system modeling task plan is a multi-step process and the task plan identified in this document addresses the first steps (short term modeling goals). The procedures and tools produced from this effort will be useful for creating simplified dynamic models applicable to a hypersonic vehicle propulsion system. The document continues with the GRC short term modeling goal. Next, a general description of the desired simplified model is presented along with simulations that are available to varying degrees. The simulations may be available in electronic form (FORTRAN, CFD, MatLab,...) or in paper form in published documents. Finally, roadmaps outlining possible avenues towards realizing simplified model are presented.

  14. Error analysis of the converted wave deduced by equivalent velocity assumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wei; Wang, Yun; Yin, Junjie; Gao, Xing

    2012-05-01

    Based on the assumption of the equivalent velocity and offset, the converted wave travel-time equation, which has a double square root due to the asymmetric ray-path of the down-going P-wave and the up-coming S-wave, can be transformed into a single square root equation if the common scatterpoint (CSP) gathers are binned. This method simplifies the equation and decreases the errors of converted wave migration transferred by P-wave velocity error, compared to the equivalent offset method (EOM) migration proposed by Bancroft, Geiger and Foltinek . In this paper, the errors caused by the introduction of equivalent velocity for the PS-wave are analysed in detail. The discrete errors and effects introduced by discretization of the equivalent offset are presented, and finally the conditions for applying CSP gathers for PS-wave processing under the control of reasonable error limits are derived.

  15. SIMPLIFIED LAPAROSCOPIC CHOLECYSTECTOMY WITH TWO INCISIONS

    PubMed Central

    ABAID, Rafael Antoniazzi; CECCONELLO, Ivan; ZILBERSTEIN, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    Background Laparoscopic cholecystectomy has traditionally been performed with four incisions to insert four trocars, in a simple, efficient and safe way. Aim To describe a simplified technique of laparoscopic cholecystectomy with two incisions, using basic conventional instrumental. Technique In one incision in the umbilicus are applied two trocars and in epigastrium one more. The use of two trocars on the same incision, working in "x" does not hinder the procedure and does not require special instruments. Conclusion Simplified laparoscopic cholecystectomy with two incisions is feasible and easy to perform, allowing to operate with ergonomy and safety, with good cosmetic result. PMID:25004296

  16. Heavy Flavor Simplified Models at the LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Essig, Rouven; Izaguirre, Eder; Kaplan, Jared; Wacker, Jay G.; /SLAC

    2012-04-03

    We consider a comprehensive set of simplified models that contribute to final states with top and bottom quarks at the LHC. These simplified models are used to create minimal search strategies that ensure optimal coverage of new heavy flavor physics involving the pair production of color octets and triplets. We provide a set of benchmarks that are representative of model space, which can be used by experimentalists to perform their own optimization of search strategies. For data sets larger than 1 fb{sup -1}, same-sign dilepton and 3b search regions become very powerful. Expected sensitivities from existing and optimized searches are given.

  17. simplified aerosol representations in global modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinne, Stefan; Peters, Karsten; Stevens, Bjorn; Rast, Sebastian; Schutgens, Nick; Stier, Philip

    2015-04-01

    The detailed treatment of aerosol in global modeling is complex and time-consuming. Thus simplified approaches are investigated, which prescribe 4D (space and time) distributions of aerosol optical properties and of aerosol microphysical properties. Aerosol optical properties are required to assess aerosol direct radiative effects and aerosol microphysical properties (in terms of their ability as aerosol nuclei to modify cloud droplet concentrations) are needed to address the indirect aerosol impact on cloud properties. Following the simplifying concept of the monthly gridded (1x1 lat/lon) aerosol climatology (MAC), new approaches are presented and evaluated against more detailed methods, including comparisons to detailed simulations with complex aerosol component modules.

  18. A simplified technique of performing splenorenal shunt (Omar's technique).

    PubMed

    Shah, Omar Javed; Robbani, Irfan

    2005-01-01

    The splenorenal shunt procedure introduced by Robert Linton in 1947 is still used today in those regions of the world where portal hypertension is a common problem. However, because most surgeons find Linton's shunt procedure technically difficult, we felt that a simpler technique was needed. We present the surgical details and results of 20 splenorenal anastomosis procedures performed within a period of 30 months. Half of the patients (Group I) underwent Linton's conventional technique of splenorenal shunt; the other half (Group II) underwent a newly devised, simplified shunt technique. This new technique involves dissection of the fusion fascia of Toldt. The outcome of the 2 techniques was identical with respect to the reduction of preshunt portal pressure. However, our simplified technique was advantageous in that it significantly reduced the duration of surgery (P <0.001) and the amount of intraoperative blood loss (P <0.003). No patient died after either operation. Although Linton's splenorenal shunt is difficult and technically demanding, it is still routinely performed. The new technique described here, in addition to being simpler, helps achieve good vascular control, permits easier dissection of the splenic vein, enables an ideal anastomosis, decreases intraoperative blood loss, and reduces the duration of surgery. Therefore, we recommend the routine use of this simplified technique (Omar's technique) for the surgical treatment of portal hypertension. PMID:16429901

  19. 47 CFR 51.320 - Assumption of responsibility by the Commission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Assumption of responsibility by the Commission. 51.320 Section 51.320 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) INTERCONNECTION Additional Obligations of Incumbent Local Exchange Carriers §...

  20. Implications of the homogeneous turbulence assumption on the aero-optic linking equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hugo, Ronald J.; Jumper, Eric J.

    1995-09-01

    This paper investigates the validity of applying the simplified (under the assumptions of isotropic and homogeneous turbulence) aero-optic linking equation to a flowfield that is known to consist of anisotropic and nonhomogeneous turbulence. The investigation is performed in the near nozzle-region of a heated two-dimensional jet, and the study makes use of a conditional sampling experiment to acquire a spatio-temporal temperature field data base for the heated jet flowfield. After compensating for the bandwidth limitations of constant-current-wire temperature measurements, the temperature field data base is applied to the computation of optical degradation through both direct methods and indirect methods relying on the aero-optic linking equation. The simplified version of the linking equation was found to provide very good agreement with direct calculations provided that the length scale of the density fluctuations was interpreted as being the integral scale, with the limits of the integration being the two first zero crossings of the covariance coefficient function.

  1. Basic Rules of Alphabetical Sequence Simplified.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saint Michael's Coll., Winooski, VT. Library.

    As developed by the nonprofessional staff of St. Michael's College Library, Basic Rules of Alphabetic Sequence Simplified (BRASS) is a refined system of alphabetic filing for library card catalogs. It is designed to be a concise set of principles, consistently applied, making it therefore faster than other standard filing systems. BRASS consists…

  2. Gaining Algorithmic Insight through Simplifying Constraints.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ginat, David

    2002-01-01

    Discusses algorithmic problem solving in computer science education, particularly algorithmic insight, and focuses on the relevance and effectiveness of the heuristic simplifying constraints which involves simplification of a given problem to a problem in which constraints are imposed on the input data. Presents three examples involving…

  3. Simplified Recipes for Day Care Centers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asmussen, Patricia D.

    The spiral-bound collection of 156 simplified recipes is designed to help those who prepare food for groups of children at day care centers. The recipes provide for 25 child-size servings to meet the nutritional needs and appetites of children from 2 to 6 years of age. The first section gives general information on ladle and scoop sizes, weights…

  4. Simplified Fabrication of Helical Copper Antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petro, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    A simplified technique has been devised for fabricating helical antennas for use in experiments on radio-frequency generation and acceleration of plasmas. These antennas are typically made of copper (for electrical conductivity) and must have a specific helical shape and precise diameter.

  5. Sensitivity of Rooftop PV Projections in the SunShot Vision Study to Market Assumptions

    SciTech Connect

    Drury, E.; Denholm, P.; Margolis, R.

    2013-01-01

    The SunShot Vision Study explored the potential growth of solar markets if solar prices decreased by about 75% from 2010 to 2020. The SolarDS model was used to simulate rooftop PV demand for this study, based on several PV market assumptions--future electricity rates, customer access to financing, and others--in addition to the SunShot PV price projections. This paper finds that modeled PV demand is highly sensitive to several non-price market assumptions, particularly PV financing parameters.

  6. Supporting calculations and assumptions for use in WESF safetyanalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Hey, B.E.

    1997-03-07

    This document provides a single location for calculations and assumptions used in support of Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF) safety analyses. It also provides the technical details and bases necessary to justify the contained results.

  7. 29 CFR 4231.10 - Actuarial calculations and assumptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... MULTIEMPLOYER PLANS § 4231.10 Actuarial calculations and assumptions. (a) Most recent valuation. All calculations required by this part must be based on the most recent actuarial valuation as of the date...

  8. 7 CFR 1980.366 - Transfer and assumption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... desires RHS to note the transfer and assumption on the loan note guarantee. If a new note is obtained, it... Master Interest Assistance Agreement may be transferred to an eligible transferee. Equity sharing, if...

  9. Simplifying CEA through Excel, VBA, and Subeq

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, Ryan

    2004-01-01

    Many people use compound equilibrium programs for very different reasons, varying from refrigerators to light bulbs to rockets. A commonly used equilibrium program is CEA. CEA can take various inputs such as pressure, temperature, and volume along with numerous reactants and run them through equilibrium equations to obtain valuable output information, including products formed and their relative amounts. A little over a year ago, Bonnie McBride created the program subeq with the goal to simplify the calling of CEA. Subeq was also designed to be called by other programs, including Excel, through the use of Visual Basic for Applications (VBA). The largest advantage of using Excel is that it allows the user to input the information in a colorful and user-friendly environment while allowing VBA to run subeq, which is in the form of a FORTRAN DLL (Dynamic Link Library). Calling subeq in this form makes it much faster than if it were converted to VBA. Since subeq requires such large lists of reactant and product names, all of which can't be passed in as an array, subeq had to be changed to accept very long strings of reactants and products. To pass this string and adjust the transfer of input and output parameters, the subeq DLL had to be changed. One program that does this is Compaq Visual FORTRAN, which allows DLLs to be edited, debugged, and compiled. Compaq Visual FORTRAN uses FORTRAN 90/95, which has additional features to that of FORTRAN 77. My goals this summer include finishing up the excel spreadsheet of subeq, which I started last summer, and putting it on the Internet so that others can use it without having to download my spreadsheet. To finish up the spreadsheet I will need to work on debugging current options and problems. I will also work on making it as robust as possible, so that all errors that may arise will be clearly communicated to the user. New features will be added old ones will be changed as I receive comments from people using the spreadsheet

  10. A VLSI architecture for simplified arithmetic Fourier transform algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, Irving S.; Shih, Ming-Tang; Truong, T. K.; Hendon, E.; Tufts, D. W.

    1992-01-01

    The arithmetic Fourier transform (AFT) is a number-theoretic approach to Fourier analysis which has been shown to perform competitively with the classical FFT in terms of accuracy, complexity, and speed. Theorems developed in a previous paper for the AFT algorithm are used here to derive the original AFT algorithm which Bruns found in 1903. This is shown to yield an algorithm of less complexity and of improved performance over certain recent AFT algorithms. A VLSI architecture is suggested for this simplified AFT algorithm. This architecture uses a butterfly structure which reduces the number of additions by 25 percent of that used in the direct method.

  11. Citizen preparedness for disasters: are current assumptions valid?

    PubMed

    Uscher-Pines, Lori; Chandra, Anita; Acosta, Joie; Kellermann, Arthur

    2012-06-01

    US government programs and communications regarding citizen preparedness for disasters rest on several untested, and therefore unverified, assumptions. We explore the assumptions related to citizen preparedness promotion and argue that in spite of extensive messaging about the importance of citizen preparedness and countless household surveys purporting to track the preparedness activities of individuals and households, the role individual Americans are being asked to play is largely based on conventional wisdom. Recommendations for conceptualizing and measuring citizen preparedness are discussed.

  12. Faulty assumptions: A comment on Blanton, Jaccard, Gonzales, and Christie (2006)

    PubMed Central

    Nosek, Brian A.; Sriram, N.

    2007-01-01

    Blanton, Jaccard, Gonzales, and Christie (BJGC, 2006) assert that the Implicit Association Test (IAT) imposes a model that portrays relative preferences as the additive difference between single attitudes. This assertion is misplaced because relative preferences do not necessarily reduce to component attitudes. BJGC also assume that the IAT conditions represent two indicators of the same construct. This assumption is incorrect, and is the cause of their poor-fitting models. The IAT, like other experimental paradigms, contrasts performance between interdependent conditions, and cannot be reduced to component parts. This is true whether calculating a simple difference between conditions, or using the IAT D score. D – an individual effect size that is monotonically related to Cohen's d – codifies the interdependency between IAT conditions. When their unjustified psychometric assumptions are replaced with plausible assumptions, the models fit their data very well, and basis for their poor-fitting models becomes clear. PMID:18438456

  13. Lithosphere-scale geodynamics in the Rhodope: assumptions and implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moulas, Evangelos; Burg, Jean-Pierre; Kostopoulos, Dimitrios; Schenker, Filippo

    2014-05-01

    The Rhodope Metamorphic Complex (RMC) is a synmetamorphic nappe stack located in the hinterland of the Hellenide orogen which is part of the Alpine-Himalayan chain. Advances in analytical instrumentation in petrology over the last 10 years made possible the documentation of high-to ultrahigh-pressure conditions in this complex. Despite the wealth of petrologic P-T-t data and the multitude of generic models on the evolution of the RMC, only few geodynamic restorations project long enough back in time to cover the entire life span of the orogen since the Jurassic. There are many reasons for the different (and often contrasting) models proposed for the RMC that deserve to be mentioned. Here, we present the different reconstructions published together with the assumptions on which they were built and their geodynamic implications. We then proceed to carefully assess those implications individually from the mineral to the lithosphere scale. Our assessment poses important constrains on the pressure, temperature and deformation history of the complex on a regional scale that cannot be satisfied by all reconstructions. Such constrains involve the length of the subducting plate, the thermal histories of the metamorphic rocks, the age response of the isotopic systems and last, but not least, the structural record of km-scale movements that can be identified in the field. In addition, the presence of ultrahigh-pressure rocks is restricted to shear zones all across the RMC and this requires an explanation. We examine the possibility of non-lithostatic pressure variations within crustal-scale ductile shear zones.

  14. The simplified version of Boyle's Law leads to errors in the measurement of thoracic gas volume.

    PubMed

    Coates, A L; Desmond, K J; Demizio, D L

    1995-09-01

    When using Boyle's Law for thoracic gas volume (Vtg) measurement, it is generally assumed that the alveolar pressure (Palv) does not differ from barometric pressure (Pbar) at the start of rarefaction and compression and that the product of the change in volume and pressure (delta P x delta V) is negligibly small. In a gentle panting maneuver in which the difference between Palv and Pbar is small, errors introduced by these assumptions are likely to be small; however, this is not the case when Vtg is measured using a single vigorous inspiratory effort. Discrepancies in the Vtg between the "complex" version of Boyle's Law, which does not ignore delta P x delta V and accounts for large swings in Palv, and the "simplified" version, during both a panting maneuver and a single inspiratory effort were calculated for normal control subjects and patients with cystic fibrosis or asthma. Defining the Vtg from the complete version as "correct," the errors introduced by the simplified version ranged from -3 to +3% for the panting maneuver whereas they ranged from 2 to 9% for the inspiratory maneuver. Using the simplified equation, the Vtg for the inspiratory maneuver was 0.135 +/- 0.237 L greater (p < 0.02) than for the panting maneuver. This discrepancy disappeared when the complete equation was used. While the errors introduced by the use of the simplified version of Boyle's Law are small, they are systematic and unnecessary. PMID:7663807

  15. Simplified models of mixed dark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Cheung, Clifford; Sanford, David E-mail: dsanford@caltech.edu

    2014-02-01

    We explore simplified models of mixed dark matter (DM), defined here to be a stable relic composed of a singlet and an electroweak charged state. Our setup describes a broad spectrum of thermal DM candidates that can naturally accommodate the observed DM abundance but are subject to substantial constraints from current and upcoming direct detection experiments. We identify ''blind spots'' at which the DM-Higgs coupling is identically zero, thus nullifying direct detection constraints on spin independent scattering. Furthermore, we characterize the fine-tuning in mixing angles, i.e. well-tempering, required for thermal freeze-out to accommodate the observed abundance. Present and projected limits from LUX and XENON1T force many thermal relic models into blind spot tuning, well-tempering, or both. This simplified model framework generalizes bino-Higgsino DM in the MSSM, singlino-Higgsino DM in the NMSSM, and scalar DM candidates that appear in models of extended Higgs sectors.

  16. Simplified dichromated gelatin hologram recording process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Georgekutty, Tharayil G.; Liu, Hua-Kuang

    1987-01-01

    A simplified method for making dichromated gelatin (DCG) holographic optical elements (HOE) has been discovered. The method is much less tedious and it requires a period of processing time comparable with that for processing a silver halide hologram. HOE characteristics including diffraction efficiency (DE), linearity, and spectral sensitivity have been quantitatively investigated. The quality of the holographic grating is very high. Ninety percent or higher diffraction efficiency has been achieved in simple plane gratings made by this process.

  17. A simplified solar cell array modelling program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, R. D.

    1982-01-01

    As part of the energy conversion/self sufficiency efforts of DSN engineering, it was necessary to have a simplified computer model of a solar photovoltaic (PV) system. This article describes the analysis and simplifications employed in the development of a PV cell array computer model. The analysis of the incident solar radiation, steady state cell temperature and the current-voltage characteristics of a cell array are discussed. A sample cell array was modelled and the results are presented.

  18. Cloud computing can simplify HIT infrastructure management.

    PubMed

    Glaser, John

    2011-08-01

    Software as a Service (SaaS), built on cloud computing technology, is emerging as the forerunner in IT infrastructure because it helps healthcare providers reduce capital investments. Cloud computing leads to predictable, monthly, fixed operating expenses for hospital IT staff. Outsourced cloud computing facilities are state-of-the-art data centers boasting some of the most sophisticated networking equipment on the market. The SaaS model helps hospitals safeguard against technology obsolescence, minimizes maintenance requirements, and simplifies management.

  19. Cloud computing can simplify HIT infrastructure management.

    PubMed

    Glaser, John

    2011-08-01

    Software as a Service (SaaS), built on cloud computing technology, is emerging as the forerunner in IT infrastructure because it helps healthcare providers reduce capital investments. Cloud computing leads to predictable, monthly, fixed operating expenses for hospital IT staff. Outsourced cloud computing facilities are state-of-the-art data centers boasting some of the most sophisticated networking equipment on the market. The SaaS model helps hospitals safeguard against technology obsolescence, minimizes maintenance requirements, and simplifies management. PMID:21866720

  20. Simplified robot arm dynamics for control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bejczy, A. K.; Paul, R. P.

    1981-01-01

    A brief summary and evaluation is presented on the use of symbolic state equation techniques in order to represent robot arm dynamics with sufficient accuracy for controlling arm motion. The use of homogeneous transformations and the Lagrangian formulation of mechanics offers a convenient frame for the derivation, analysis and simplification of complex robot dynamics equations. It is pointed out that simplified state equations can represent robot arm dynamics with good accuracy.

  1. European simplified boiling water reactor (ESBWR) plant

    SciTech Connect

    Posta, B.A.; Goldenberg, E.A.; Sawhney, P.S.; Rao, A.S.

    1996-07-01

    This paper covers innovative ideas which made possible the redesign of the US 660-MW Simplified Boiling Water Reactor (SBWR) Reactor Island for a 1,200-MW size reactor while actually reducing the building cost. This was achieved by breaking down the Reactor Island into multiple buildings separating seismic-1 from non-seismic-1 areas, providing for better space utilization, shorter construction schedule, easier maintainability and better postaccident accessibility.

  2. Simplifying tool usage in teleoperative tasks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindsay, Thomas; Paul, Richard P.

    1993-03-01

    Modern robotic research has presented the opportunity for enhanced teleoperative systems. Teleprogramming has been developed for teleoperation in time-delayed environments, but can also lead to increased productivity in non-delayed teleoperation. Powered tools are used to increase the abilities of the remote manipulator. However, tools add to the complexity of the system, both in terms of control and sensing. Teleprogramming can be used to simplify the operators interaction with the manipulator/tool system. Further, the adaptive sensing algorithm of the remote site system (using an instrumented compliant wrist for feedback) simplifies the sensory requirements of the system. Current remote-site implementation of a teleprogramming tool-usage strategy that simplifies tool use is described in this document. The use of powered tools in teleoperation tasks is illustrated by two examples, one using an air-powered impact wrench, and the other using an electric winch. Both of these tools are implemented at our remote site workcell, consisting of a Puma 560 robot working on the task of removing the top of a large box.

  3. Why is it Doing That? - Assumptions about the FMS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feary, Michael; Immanuel, Barshi; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    In the glass cockpit, it's not uncommon to hear exclamations such as "why is it doing that?". Sometimes pilots ask "what were they thinking when they set it this way?" or "why doesn't it tell me what it's going to do next?". Pilots may hold a conceptual model of the automation that is the result of fleet lore, which may or may not be consistent with what the engineers had in mind. But what did the engineers have in mind? In this study, we present some of the underlying assumptions surrounding the glass cockpit. Engineers and designers make assumptions about the nature of the flight task; at the other end, instructor and line pilots make assumptions about how the automation works and how it was intended to be used. These underlying assumptions are seldom recognized or acknowledged, This study is an attempt to explicitly arti culate such assumptions to better inform design and training developments. This work is part of a larger project to support training strategies for automation.

  4. The steady-state assumption in oscillating and growing systems.

    PubMed

    Reimers, Alexandra-M; Reimers, Arne C

    2016-10-01

    The steady-state assumption, which states that the production and consumption of metabolites inside the cell are balanced, is one of the key aspects that makes an efficient analysis of genome-scale metabolic networks possible. It can be motivated from two different perspectives. In the time-scales perspective, we use the fact that metabolism is much faster than other cellular processes such as gene expression. Hence, the steady-state assumption is derived as a quasi-steady-state approximation of the metabolism that adapts to the changing cellular conditions. In this article we focus on the second perspective, stating that on the long run no metabolite can accumulate or deplete. In contrast to the first perspective it is not immediately clear how this perspective can be captured mathematically and what assumptions are required to obtain the steady-state condition. By presenting a mathematical framework based on the second perspective we demonstrate that the assumption of steady-state also applies to oscillating and growing systems without requiring quasi-steady-state at any time point. However, we also show that the average concentrations may not be compatible with the average fluxes. In summary, we establish a mathematical foundation for the steady-state assumption for long time periods that justifies its successful use in many applications. Furthermore, this mathematical foundation also pinpoints unintuitive effects in the integration of metabolite concentrations using nonlinear constraints into steady-state models for long time periods.

  5. The steady-state assumption in oscillating and growing systems.

    PubMed

    Reimers, Alexandra-M; Reimers, Arne C

    2016-10-01

    The steady-state assumption, which states that the production and consumption of metabolites inside the cell are balanced, is one of the key aspects that makes an efficient analysis of genome-scale metabolic networks possible. It can be motivated from two different perspectives. In the time-scales perspective, we use the fact that metabolism is much faster than other cellular processes such as gene expression. Hence, the steady-state assumption is derived as a quasi-steady-state approximation of the metabolism that adapts to the changing cellular conditions. In this article we focus on the second perspective, stating that on the long run no metabolite can accumulate or deplete. In contrast to the first perspective it is not immediately clear how this perspective can be captured mathematically and what assumptions are required to obtain the steady-state condition. By presenting a mathematical framework based on the second perspective we demonstrate that the assumption of steady-state also applies to oscillating and growing systems without requiring quasi-steady-state at any time point. However, we also show that the average concentrations may not be compatible with the average fluxes. In summary, we establish a mathematical foundation for the steady-state assumption for long time periods that justifies its successful use in many applications. Furthermore, this mathematical foundation also pinpoints unintuitive effects in the integration of metabolite concentrations using nonlinear constraints into steady-state models for long time periods. PMID:27363728

  6. Food additives

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Michael

    1974-01-01

    Food additives are discussed from the food technology point of view. The reasons for their use are summarized: (1) to protect food from chemical and microbiological attack; (2) to even out seasonal supplies; (3) to improve their eating quality; (4) to improve their nutritional value. The various types of food additives are considered, e.g. colours, flavours, emulsifiers, bread and flour additives, preservatives, and nutritional additives. The paper concludes with consideration of those circumstances in which the use of additives is (a) justified and (b) unjustified. PMID:4467857

  7. Simplified Analysis of Pulse Detonation Rocket Engine Blowdown Gasdynamics and Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, C. I.; Rodgers, Stephen L. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Pulse detonation rocket engines (PDREs) offer potential performance improvements over conventional designs, but represent a challenging modellng task. A simplified model for an idealized, straight-tube, single-shot PDRE blowdown process and thrust determination is described and implemented. In order to form an assessment of the accuracy of the model, the flowfield time history is compared to experimental data from Stanford University. Parametric Studies of the effect of mixture stoichiometry, initial fill temperature, and blowdown pressure ratio on the performance of a PDRE are performed using the model. PDRE performance is also compared with a conventional steady-state rocket engine over a range of pressure ratios using similar gasdynamic assumptions.

  8. Provably-Secure (Chinese Government) SM2 and Simplified SM2 Key Exchange Protocols

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Junghyun; Kim, Moonseong

    2014-01-01

    We revisit the SM2 protocol, which is widely used in Chinese commercial applications and by Chinese government agencies. Although it is by now standard practice for protocol designers to provide security proofs in widely accepted security models in order to assure protocol implementers of their security properties, the SM2 protocol does not have a proof of security. In this paper, we prove the security of the SM2 protocol in the widely accepted indistinguishability-based Bellare-Rogaway model under the elliptic curve discrete logarithm problem (ECDLP) assumption. We also present a simplified and more efficient version of the SM2 protocol with an accompanying security proof. PMID:25276863

  9. Double barreled Uncertainties: Behavioral Assumptions and Geophysical Sensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, S. H.

    2008-12-01

    How many people will there be in the world, what standards of living will they demand and what technologies will they use to achieve such standards is the first area of uncertainties--it determines the behavioral assumptions behind emissions scenarios. It will be argued that overshoot scenarios of greenhouse gas concentrations will be the most probable behavioral assumption. Then, estimating climate sensitivity uncertainties from available literature constitutes the second area of uncertainty, that is a co-factor with emissions uncertainties in determining eventual climate changes and impacts.

  10. A Simplified Model of Choice Behavior under Uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ching-Hung; Lin, Yu-Kai; Song, Tzu-Jiun; Huang, Jong-Tsun; Chiu, Yao-Chu

    2016-01-01

    The Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) has been standardized as a clinical assessment tool (Bechara, 2007). Nonetheless, numerous research groups have attempted to modify IGT models to optimize parameters for predicting the choice behavior of normal controls and patients. A decade ago, most researchers considered the expected utility (EU) model (Busemeyer and Stout, 2002) to be the optimal model for predicting choice behavior under uncertainty. However, in recent years, studies have demonstrated that models with the prospect utility (PU) function are more effective than the EU models in the IGT (Ahn et al., 2008). Nevertheless, after some preliminary tests based on our behavioral dataset and modeling, it was determined that the Ahn et al. (2008) PU model is not optimal due to some incompatible results. This study aims to modify the Ahn et al. (2008) PU model to a simplified model and used the IGT performance of 145 subjects as the benchmark data for comparison. In our simplified PU model, the best goodness-of-fit was found mostly as the value of α approached zero. More specifically, we retested the key parameters α, λ, and A in the PU model. Notably, the influence of the parameters α, λ, and A has a hierarchical power structure in terms of manipulating the goodness-of-fit in the PU model. Additionally, we found that the parameters λ and A may be ineffective when the parameter α is close to zero in the PU model. The present simplified model demonstrated that decision makers mostly adopted the strategy of gain-stay loss-shift rather than foreseeing the long-term outcome. However, there are other behavioral variables that are not well revealed under these dynamic-uncertainty situations. Therefore, the optimal behavioral models may not have been found yet. In short, the best model for predicting choice behavior under dynamic-uncertainty situations should be further evaluated. PMID:27582715

  11. A Simplified Model of Choice Behavior under Uncertainty

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ching-Hung; Lin, Yu-Kai; Song, Tzu-Jiun; Huang, Jong-Tsun; Chiu, Yao-Chu

    2016-01-01

    The Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) has been standardized as a clinical assessment tool (Bechara, 2007). Nonetheless, numerous research groups have attempted to modify IGT models to optimize parameters for predicting the choice behavior of normal controls and patients. A decade ago, most researchers considered the expected utility (EU) model (Busemeyer and Stout, 2002) to be the optimal model for predicting choice behavior under uncertainty. However, in recent years, studies have demonstrated that models with the prospect utility (PU) function are more effective than the EU models in the IGT (Ahn et al., 2008). Nevertheless, after some preliminary tests based on our behavioral dataset and modeling, it was determined that the Ahn et al. (2008) PU model is not optimal due to some incompatible results. This study aims to modify the Ahn et al. (2008) PU model to a simplified model and used the IGT performance of 145 subjects as the benchmark data for comparison. In our simplified PU model, the best goodness-of-fit was found mostly as the value of α approached zero. More specifically, we retested the key parameters α, λ, and A in the PU model. Notably, the influence of the parameters α, λ, and A has a hierarchical power structure in terms of manipulating the goodness-of-fit in the PU model. Additionally, we found that the parameters λ and A may be ineffective when the parameter α is close to zero in the PU model. The present simplified model demonstrated that decision makers mostly adopted the strategy of gain-stay loss-shift rather than foreseeing the long-term outcome. However, there are other behavioral variables that are not well revealed under these dynamic-uncertainty situations. Therefore, the optimal behavioral models may not have been found yet. In short, the best model for predicting choice behavior under dynamic-uncertainty situations should be further evaluated. PMID:27582715

  12. A Simplified Model of Choice Behavior under Uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ching-Hung; Lin, Yu-Kai; Song, Tzu-Jiun; Huang, Jong-Tsun; Chiu, Yao-Chu

    2016-01-01

    The Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) has been standardized as a clinical assessment tool (Bechara, 2007). Nonetheless, numerous research groups have attempted to modify IGT models to optimize parameters for predicting the choice behavior of normal controls and patients. A decade ago, most researchers considered the expected utility (EU) model (Busemeyer and Stout, 2002) to be the optimal model for predicting choice behavior under uncertainty. However, in recent years, studies have demonstrated that models with the prospect utility (PU) function are more effective than the EU models in the IGT (Ahn et al., 2008). Nevertheless, after some preliminary tests based on our behavioral dataset and modeling, it was determined that the Ahn et al. (2008) PU model is not optimal due to some incompatible results. This study aims to modify the Ahn et al. (2008) PU model to a simplified model and used the IGT performance of 145 subjects as the benchmark data for comparison. In our simplified PU model, the best goodness-of-fit was found mostly as the value of α approached zero. More specifically, we retested the key parameters α, λ, and A in the PU model. Notably, the influence of the parameters α, λ, and A has a hierarchical power structure in terms of manipulating the goodness-of-fit in the PU model. Additionally, we found that the parameters λ and A may be ineffective when the parameter α is close to zero in the PU model. The present simplified model demonstrated that decision makers mostly adopted the strategy of gain-stay loss-shift rather than foreseeing the long-term outcome. However, there are other behavioral variables that are not well revealed under these dynamic-uncertainty situations. Therefore, the optimal behavioral models may not have been found yet. In short, the best model for predicting choice behavior under dynamic-uncertainty situations should be further evaluated.

  13. Pullback attractors of the two-dimensional non-autonomous simplified Ericksen-Leslie system for nematic liquid crystal flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, Bo; Li, Fang

    2016-08-01

    This paper is concerned with the long-time behaviour of the two-dimensional non-autonomous simplified Ericksen-Leslie system for nematic liquid crystal flows introduced in Lin and Liu (Commun Pure Appl Math, 48:501-537, 1995) with a non-autonomous forcing bulk term and order parameter field boundary conditions. In this paper, we prove the existence of pullback attractors and estimate the upper bound of its fractal dimension under some suitable assumptions.

  14. Experience with simplified inelastic analysis of piping designed for elevated temperature service

    SciTech Connect

    Severud, L.K.

    1980-03-01

    Screening rules and preliminary design of FFTF piping were developed in 1974 based on expected behavior and engineering judgment, approximate calculations, and a few detailed inelastic analyses of pipelines. This paper provides findings from six additional detailed inelastic analyses with correlations to the simplified analysis screening rules. In addition, simplified analysis methods for treating weldment local stresses and strains as well as fabrication induced flaws are described. Based on the FFTF experience, recommendations for future Code and technology work to reduce design analysis costs are identified.

  15. Sensitivity Analysis for Hierarchical Models Employing "t" Level-1 Assumptions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seltzer, Michael; Novak, John; Choi, Kilchan; Lim, Nelson

    2002-01-01

    Examines the ways in which level-1 outliers can impact the estimation of fixed effects and random effects in hierarchical models (HMs). Also outlines and illustrates the use of Markov Chain Monte Carlo algorithms for conducting sensitivity analyses under "t" level-1 assumptions, including algorithms for settings in which the degrees of freedom at…

  16. Assumptions regarding right censoring in the presence of left truncation

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Jing; Betensky, Rebecca A.

    2014-01-01

    Clinical studies using complex sampling often involve both truncation and censoring, where there are options for the assumptions of independence of censoring and event and for the relationship between censoring and truncation. In this paper, we clarify these choices, show certain equivalences, and provide examples. PMID:24683283

  17. 40 CFR 261.150 - State assumption of responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State assumption of responsibility. 261.150 Section 261.150 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) IDENTIFICATION AND LISTING OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Financial Requirements for Management...

  18. Checking the Assumptions of Rasch's Model for Speed Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jansen, M. G. H.; Glas, C. A. W.

    2005-01-01

    Two new tests for a model for the response times on pure speed tests by Rasch (1960) are proposed. The model is based on the assumption that the test response times are approximately gamma distributed, with known index parameters and unknown rate parameters. The rate parameters are decomposed in a subject ability parameter and a test difficulty…

  19. The quantum formulation derived from assumptions of epistemic processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helland, Inge S.

    2015-04-01

    Motivated by Quantum Bayesianism I give background for a general epistemic approach to quantum mechanics, where complementarity and symmetry are the only essential features. A general definition of a symmetric epistemic setting is introduced, and for this setting the basic Hilbert space formalism is arrived at under certain technical assumptions. Other aspects of ordinary quantum mechanics will be developed from the same basis elsewhere.

  20. 40 CFR 144.66 - State assumption of responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false State assumption of responsibility. 144.66 Section 144.66 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAM Financial Responsibility: Class I...

  1. 40 CFR 144.66 - State assumption of responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false State assumption of responsibility. 144.66 Section 144.66 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAM Financial Responsibility: Class I...

  2. 40 CFR 144.66 - State assumption of responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false State assumption of responsibility. 144.66 Section 144.66 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAM Financial Responsibility: Class I...

  3. Qualifications and Assignments of Alternatively Certified Teachers: Testing Core Assumptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen-Vogel, Lora; Smith, Thomas M.

    2007-01-01

    By analyzing data from the Schools and Staffing Survey, the authors empirically test four of the core assumptions embedded in current arguments for expanding alternative teacher certification (AC): AC attracts experienced candidates from fields outside of education; AC attracts top-quality, well-trained teachers; AC disproportionately trains…

  4. Male and Female Assumptions About Colleagues' Views of Their Competence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heilman, Madeline E.; Kram, Kathy E.

    1983-01-01

    Compared the assumptions of 100 male and female employees about colleagues' views of their performance on a joint task. Results indicated women anticipated more blame for a joint failure, less credit for a joint success, and a work image of lesser effectiveness, regardless of the co-worker's sex. (JAC)

  5. Transformation in Reverse: Naive Assumptions of an Urban Educator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagiwara, Sumi; Wray, Susan

    2009-01-01

    The complexity of urban contexts is often subsumed into generalizations and deficit assumptions of urban communities and its members by those unfamiliar with urban culture. This is especially true for teachers seeking work in urban schools. This article addresses the complex interpretations of urban through the lens of a White male graduate…

  6. 40 CFR 264.150 - State assumption of responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State assumption of responsibility. 264.150 Section 264.150 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND...

  7. Challenging Our Assumptions: Helping a Baby Adjust to Center Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliot, Enid

    2003-01-01

    Contends that assumptions concerning infants' adjustment to child center care need to be tempered with attention to observation, thought, and commitment to each individual baby. Describes the Options Daycare program for pregnant teens and young mothers. Presents a case study illustrating the need for openness in strategy and planning for…

  8. Predicting 21st Century School Enrollments: Assumptions, Tools and Tips.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dembowski, Frederick L.; Van Hoesen, Steven

    1997-01-01

    Enrollment forecasting is based on six basic environmental assumptions: fertility and birth rates, infant mortality rates, economic conditions, organizational structure and boundaries, organizational and administrative policy, and natural disasters and climatic conditions. The most common mathematical forecasting methods include cohort-survival…

  9. 7 CFR 1779.88 - Transfers and assumptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... collateral against loss, and has otherwise fulfilled all of the regulations of this part to the best of the... in the best interest of the Agency. (e) Processing transfers and assumptions. (1) In any transfer and... with prior Agency written concurrence and only when the value of the collateral being transferred is...

  10. 7 CFR 3575.88 - Transfers and assumptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... determines that such waiver is in the best interest of the Agency. (e) Processing transfers and assumptions... collateral being transferred is at least equal to the amount of the loan, or part of the loan, being assumed..., used due diligence to maintain the collateral against loss, and has otherwise fulfilled all of...

  11. Viruses, Murphy's Law, and the Dangers of Assumptions....

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lester, Dan

    1999-01-01

    An experienced library technology manager relates what happened in the wake of a serious library computer virus attack, which he accidentally unleashed. The narrative describes the combination of coincidences, mistakes, assumptions, and delays that caused the incident, and outlines the 10 key lessons learned. (AEF)

  12. 46 CFR 174.070 - General damage stability assumptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false General damage stability assumptions. 174.070 Section 174.070 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY SPECIAL RULES PERTAINING TO SPECIFIC VESSEL TYPES Special Rules Pertaining to Mobile Offshore...

  13. 46 CFR 174.070 - General damage stability assumptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General damage stability assumptions. 174.070 Section 174.070 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY SPECIAL RULES PERTAINING TO SPECIFIC VESSEL TYPES Special Rules Pertaining to Mobile Offshore...

  14. Using Contemporary Art to Challenge Cultural Values, Beliefs, and Assumptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, Wanda B.

    2006-01-01

    Art educators, like many other educators born or socialized within the main-stream culture of a society, seldom have an opportunity to identify, question, and challenge their cultural values, beliefs, assumptions, and perspectives because school culture typically reinforces those they learn at home and in their communities (Bush & Simmons, 1990).…

  15. Woman's Moral Development in Search of Philosophical Assumptions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sichel, Betty A.

    1985-01-01

    Examined is Carol Gilligan's thesis that men and women use different moral languages to resolve moral dilemmas, i.e., women speak a language of caring and responsibility, and men speak a language of rights and justice. Her thesis is not grounded with adequate philosophical assumptions. (Author/RM)

  16. 7 CFR 4287.134 - Transfer and assumption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... and income in the foreseeable future. (d) Proceeds. Any proceeds received from the sale of collateral... be entered as net collateral (recovery). Approved protective advances and accrued interest thereon... provide equity for a transfer and assumption must be considered as a new loan under subpart B of part...

  17. Evaluation of assumptions in soil moisture triple collocation analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Triple collocation analysis (TCA) enables estimation of error variances for three or more products that retrieve or estimate the same geophysical variable using mutually-independent methods. Several statistical assumptions regarding the statistical nature of errors (e.g., mutual independence and ort...

  18. Hidden Assumptions, Attitudes, and Procedures in Failing Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunzelmann, Betsy

    2008-01-01

    Many hidden assumptions, attitudes, and procedures are practiced routinely in schools without much thought or analysis. One possible explanation for their occurrence is that educators become comfortable with familiar routines and believe they must be doing OK because that's the way schools have always operated. Another likely possibility involves…

  19. 40 CFR 144.66 - State assumption of responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... 144.66 Section 144.66 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAM Financial Responsibility: Class I Hazardous Waste Injection Wells § 144.66 State assumption of responsibility. (a) If a State either assumes...

  20. Attributions, World Assumptions, and Recovery from Sexual Assault.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ullman, Sarah E.

    1997-01-01

    Examined how sexual assault history and attributions of blame were related to measures of recovery from, and cognitive adaptation to, trauma in a convenience sample of sexual assault victims (N=155). Results indicate that attributions of blame were related to assumptions about self and world but were unrelated to self-rated recovery. (RJM)

  1. Making Predictions about Chemical Reactivity: Assumptions and Heuristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maeyer, Jenine; Talanquer, Vicente

    2013-01-01

    Diverse implicit cognitive elements seem to support but also constrain reasoning in different domains. Many of these cognitive constraints can be thought of as either implicit assumptions about the nature of things or reasoning heuristics for decision-making. In this study we applied this framework to investigate college students'…

  2. 7 CFR 1980.476 - Transfer and assumptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Transfer and assumptions. 1980.476 Section 1980.476 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  3. 7 CFR 1980.476 - Transfer and assumptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Transfer and assumptions. 1980.476 Section 1980.476 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  4. 7 CFR 1980.476 - Transfer and assumptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Transfer and assumptions. 1980.476 Section 1980.476 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  5. 7 CFR 1980.476 - Transfer and assumptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Transfer and assumptions. 1980.476 Section 1980.476 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  6. 7 CFR 1980.476 - Transfer and assumptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Transfer and assumptions. 1980.476 Section 1980.476 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  7. Models for waste life cycle assessment: review of technical assumptions.

    PubMed

    Gentil, Emmanuel C; Damgaard, Anders; Hauschild, Michael; Finnveden, Göran; Eriksson, Ola; Thorneloe, Susan; Kaplan, Pervin Ozge; Barlaz, Morton; Muller, Olivier; Matsui, Yasuhiro; Ii, Ryota; Christensen, Thomas H

    2010-12-01

    A number of waste life cycle assessment (LCA) models have been gradually developed since the early 1990 s, in a number of countries, usually independently from each other. Large discrepancies in results have been observed among different waste LCA models, although it has also been shown that results from different LCA studies can be consistent. This paper is an attempt to identify, review and analyse methodologies and technical assumptions used in various parts of selected waste LCA models. Several criteria were identified, which could have significant impacts on the results, such as the functional unit, system boundaries, waste composition and energy modelling. The modelling assumptions of waste management processes, ranging from collection, transportation, intermediate facilities, recycling, thermal treatment, biological treatment, and landfilling, are obviously critical when comparing waste LCA models. This review infers that some of the differences in waste LCA models are inherent to the time they were developed. It is expected that models developed later, benefit from past modelling assumptions and knowledge and issues. Models developed in different countries furthermore rely on geographic specificities that have an impact on the results of waste LCA models. The review concludes that more effort should be employed to harmonise and validate non-geographic assumptions to strengthen waste LCA modelling.

  8. Higher Education and the Catholic Church: Some Underlying Assumptions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hellwig, Monika

    2000-01-01

    Identifies and discusses three areas in which Catholic higher education institutions and the Catholic Church may be proceeding on radically different assumptions: (1) ecclesiology, the understanding of the nature and function of the church; (2) institutional history, how institutions have developed from their foundations to the present; and (3)…

  9. Philosophical Assumptions and Contemporary Research Perspectives: A Course Supplement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, Gene D.

    To supplement course materials for classes in communication theory and research methods, this paper compares philosophical assumptions underlying three approaches to communication research: scientific, which stresses quantitative methods of analysis; humanistic, which encompasses many conflicting techniques but has as a common element--the…

  10. 29 CFR 2200.203 - Commencing Simplified Proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Commencing Simplified Proceedings. 2200.203 Section 2200.203 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH REVIEW COMMISSION RULES OF PROCEDURE Simplified Proceedings § 2200.203 Commencing Simplified Proceedings. (a)...

  11. 29 CFR 2200.203 - Commencing Simplified Proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Commencing Simplified Proceedings. 2200.203 Section 2200.203 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH REVIEW COMMISSION RULES OF PROCEDURE Simplified Proceedings § 2200.203 Commencing Simplified Proceedings. (a)...

  12. 29 CFR 2200.203 - Commencing Simplified Proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Commencing Simplified Proceedings. 2200.203 Section 2200.203 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH REVIEW COMMISSION RULES OF PROCEDURE Simplified Proceedings § 2200.203 Commencing Simplified Proceedings. (a)...

  13. Simplified Explosive Joining of Tubes to Fittings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, L. J.; Bailey, J. W.; Perry, R.; Finch, M. S.

    1987-01-01

    Technique simplifies tube-to-fitting joining, as compared to fusion welding, and provides improvement on standard procedures used to join tubes explosively to tube fittings. Special tool inserted into tube to be joined. Tool allows strip of ribbon explosive to be placed right at joint. Ribbon explosive and mild detonating fuse allows use of smaller charge. Assembled tool storable, and process amenable to automation. Assembly of components, insertion of tool into weld site, and joining operation mechanized without human contact. Used to assemble components in nuclear reactors or in other environments hostile to humans.

  14. Simplified dynamic buckling assessment of steel containments

    SciTech Connect

    Farrar, C.R.; Duffey, T.A.; Renick, D.H.

    1993-02-01

    A simplified, three-degree-of-freedom analytical procedure for performing a response spectrum buckling analysis of a thin containment shell is developed. Two numerical examples with R/t values which bound many existing steel containments are used to illustrate the procedure. The role of damping on incipient buckling acceleration level is evaluated for a regulatory seismic spectrum using the two numerical examples. The zero-period acceleration level that causes incipient buckling in either of the two containments increases 31% when damping is increased from 1% to 4% of critical. Comparisons with finite element results on incipient buckling levels are favorable.

  15. Chronic Meningitis: Simplifying a Diagnostic Challenge.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Kelly; Whiting, Chris

    2016-03-01

    Chronic meningitis can be a diagnostic dilemma for even the most experienced clinician. Many times, the differential diagnosis is broad and encompasses autoimmune, neoplastic, and infectious etiologies. This review will focus on a general approach to chronic meningitis to simplify the diagnostic challenges many clinicians face. The article will also review the most common etiologies of chronic meningitis in some detail including clinical presentation, diagnostic testing, treatment, and outcomes. By using a case-based approach, we will focus on the key elements of clinical presentation and laboratory analysis that will yield the most rapid and accurate diagnosis in these complicated cases.

  16. Impact of one-layer assumption on diffuse reflectance spectroscopy of skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hennessy, Ricky; Markey, Mia K.; Tunnell, James W.

    2015-02-01

    Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) can be used to noninvasively measure skin properties. To extract skin properties from DRS spectra, you need a model that relates the reflectance to the tissue properties. Most models are based on the assumption that skin is homogenous. In reality, skin is composed of multiple layers, and the homogeneity assumption can lead to errors. In this study, we analyze the errors caused by the homogeneity assumption. This is accomplished by creating realistic skin spectra using a computational model, then extracting properties from those spectra using a one-layer model. The extracted parameters are then compared to the parameters used to create the modeled spectra. We used a wavelength range of 400 to 750 nm and a source detector separation of 250 μm. Our results show that use of a one-layer skin model causes underestimation of hemoglobin concentration [Hb] and melanin concentration [mel]. Additionally, the magnitude of the error is dependent on epidermal thickness. The one-layer assumption also causes [Hb] and [mel] to be correlated. Oxygen saturation is overestimated when it is below 50% and underestimated when it is above 50%. We also found that the vessel radius factor used to account for pigment packaging is correlated with epidermal thickness.

  17. Impact of one-layer assumption on diffuse reflectance spectroscopy of skin.

    PubMed

    Hennessy, Ricky; Markey, Mia K; Tunnell, James W

    2015-02-01

    Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) can be used to noninvasively measure skin properties. To extract skin properties from DRS spectra, you need a model that relates the reflectance to the tissue properties. Most models are based on the assumption that skin is homogenous. In reality, skin is composed of multiple layers, and the homogeneity assumption can lead to errors. In this study, we analyze the errors caused by the homogeneity assumption. This is accomplished by creating realistic skin spectra using a computational model, then extracting properties from those spectra using a one-layer model. The extracted parameters are then compared to the parameters used to create the modeled spectra. We used a wavelength range of 400 to 750 nm and a source detector separation of 250 μm. Our results show that use of a one-layer skin model causes underestimation of hemoglobin concentration [Hb] and melanin concentration [mel]. Additionally, the magnitude of the error is dependent on epidermal thickness. The one-layer assumption also causes [Hb] and [mel] to be correlated. Oxygen saturation is overestimated when it is below 50% and underestimated when it is above 50%. We also found that the vessel radius factor used to account for pigment packaging is correlated with epidermal thickness. PMID:25649627

  18. Impact of one-layer assumption on diffuse reflectance spectroscopy of skin

    PubMed Central

    Hennessy, Ricky; Markey, Mia K.; Tunnell, James W.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) can be used to noninvasively measure skin properties. To extract skin properties from DRS spectra, you need a model that relates the reflectance to the tissue properties. Most models are based on the assumption that skin is homogenous. In reality, skin is composed of multiple layers, and the homogeneity assumption can lead to errors. In this study, we analyze the errors caused by the homogeneity assumption. This is accomplished by creating realistic skin spectra using a computational model, then extracting properties from those spectra using a one-layer model. The extracted parameters are then compared to the parameters used to create the modeled spectra. We used a wavelength range of 400 to 750 nm and a source detector separation of 250  μm. Our results show that use of a one-layer skin model causes underestimation of hemoglobin concentration [Hb] and melanin concentration [mel]. Additionally, the magnitude of the error is dependent on epidermal thickness. The one-layer assumption also causes [Hb] and [mel] to be correlated. Oxygen saturation is overestimated when it is below 50% and underestimated when it is above 50%. We also found that the vessel radius factor used to account for pigment packaging is correlated with epidermal thickness. PMID:25649627

  19. Quantum cryptography in real-life applications: Assumptions and security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yi

    Quantum cryptography, or quantum key distribution (QKD), provides a means of unconditionally secure communication. The security is in principle based on the fundamental laws of physics. Security proofs show that if quantum cryptography is appropriately implemented, even the most powerful eavesdropper cannot decrypt the message from a cipher. The implementations of quantum crypto-systems in real life may not fully comply with the assumptions made in the security proofs. Such discrepancy between the experiment and the theory can be fatal to the security of a QKD system. In this thesis we address a number of these discrepancies. A perfect single-photon source is often assumed in many security proofs. However, a weak coherent source is widely used in a real-life QKD implementation. Decoy state protocols have been proposed as a novel approach to dramatically improve the performance of a weak coherent source based QKD implementation without jeopardizing its security. Here, we present the first experimental demonstrations of decoy state protocols. Our experimental scheme was later adopted by most decoy state QKD implementations. In the security proof of decoy state protocols as well as many other QKD protocols, it is widely assumed that a sender generates a phase-randomized coherent state. This assumption has been enforced in few implementations. We close this gap in two steps: First, we implement and verify the phase randomization experimentally; second, we prove the security of a QKD implementation without the coherent state assumption. In many security proofs of QKD, it is assumed that all the detectors on the receiver's side have identical detection efficiencies. We show experimentally that this assumption may be violated in a commercial QKD implementation due to an eavesdropper's malicious manipulation. Moreover, we show that the eavesdropper can learn part of the final key shared by the legitimate users as a consequence of this violation of the assumptions.

  20. Simplified signal processing for impedance spectroscopy with spectrally sparse sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Annus, P.; Land, R.; Reidla, M.; Ojarand, J.; Mughal, Y.; Min, M.

    2013-04-01

    Classical method for measurement of the electrical bio-impedance involves excitation with sinusoidal waveform. Sinusoidal excitation at fixed frequency points enables wide variety of signal processing options, most general of them being Fourier transform. Multiplication with two quadrature waveforms at desired frequency could be easily accomplished both in analogue and in digital domains, even simplest quadrature square waves can be considered, which reduces signal processing task in analogue domain to synchronous switching followed by low pass filter, and in digital domain requires only additions. So called spectrally sparse excitation sequences (SSS), which have been recently introduced into bio-impedance measurement domain, are very reasonable choice when simultaneous multifrequency excitation is required. They have many good properties, such as ease of generation and good crest factor compared to similar multisinusoids. Typically, the usage of discrete or fast Fourier transform in signal processing step is considered so far. Usage of simplified methods nevertheless would reduce computational burden, and enable simpler, less costly and less energy hungry signal processing platforms. Accuracy of the measurement with SSS excitation when using different waveforms for quadrature demodulation will be compared in order to evaluate the feasibility of the simplified signal processing. Sigma delta modulated sinusoid (binary signal) is considered to be a good alternative for a synchronous demodulation.

  1. Earthquake response analysis of RC bridges using simplified modeling approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Do Hyung; Kim, Dookie; Park, Taehyo

    2009-07-01

    In this paper, simplified modeling approaches describing the hysteretic behavior of reinforced concrete bridge piers are proposed. For this purpose, flexure-axial and shear-axial interaction models are developed and implemented into a nonlinear finite element analysis program. Comparative verifications for reinforced concrete columns prove that the analytical predictions obtained with the new formulations show good correlation with experimental results under various levels of axial forces and section types. In addition, analytical correlation studies for the inelastic earthquake response of reinforced concrete bridge structures are also carried out using the simplified modeling approaches. Relatively good agreement is observed in the results between the current modeling approach and the elaborated fiber models. It is thus encouraging that the present developments and approaches are capable of identifying the contribution of deformation mechanisms correctly. Subsequently, the present developments can be used as a simple yet effective tool for the deformation capacity evaluation of reinforced concrete columns in general and reinforced concrete bridge piers in particular.

  2. Simplifying informed consent for biorepositories: Stakeholder perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Beskow, Laura M.; Friedman, Joelle Y.; Hardy, Natalie C.; Lin, Li; Weinfurt, Kevin P.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Complex and sometimes controversial information must be conveyed during the consent process for participation in biorepositories, and studies suggest that consent documents in general are growing in length and complexity. As a first step toward creating a simplified biorepository consent form, we gathered data from multiple stakeholders about what information was most important for prospective participants to know when making a decision about taking part in a biorepository. Methods We recruited 52 research participants, 12 researchers, and 20 institutional review board representatives from Durham and Kannapolis, NC. These subjects were asked to read a model biorepository consent form and highlight sentences they deemed most important. Results On average, IRB representatives identified 72.3% of the sentences as important; researchers selected 53.0%, and participants 40.4% (P = 0.0004). Participants most often selected sentences about the kinds of individual research results that might be offered, privacy risks, and large-scale data sharing. Researchers highlighted sentences about the biorepository's purpose, privacy protections, costs, and participant access to individual results. IRB representatives highlighted sentences about collection of basic personal information, medical record access, and duration of storage. Conclusion The differing mandates of these three groups can translate into widely divergent opinions about what information is important and appropriate to include a consent form. These differences could frustrate efforts to move simplified forms—for biobanking as well as for other kinds of research—into actual use, despite continued calls for such forms. PMID:20697289

  3. Simplified dynamic models of grass field ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Qingcun; Zeng, Xiaodong; Lu, Peisheng

    1994-12-01

    Some simplified dynamic models of grass field ecosystem are developed and investigated. The maximum simplified one consists of two variables, living grass biomass and soil wetness. The analyses of such models show that there exists only desert regime without grasses if the precipitation p is less than a critical value p c ; the grass biomass continuously depends on p if the interaction between grass biomass and the soil wetness is weak, but the strong interaction results in the bifurcation of grass biomass in the vicinity of p c : the grass biomass is rich as p > p c , but it becomes desertification as p

  4. Bion, basic assumptions, and violence: a corrective reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Roth, Bennett

    2013-10-01

    Group psychoanalytic theory rests on many of the same psychoanalytic assumptions as individual psychoanalytic theory but has been slow in developing its own language and unique understanding of conflict within the group, as many group phenomena are not the same as individual psychic events. Regressive fantasies and alliances within and to the group are determined by group composition and the interaction of fantasies among members and leader. Bion's useful but incomplete early abstract formulation of psychic regression in groups was the initial attempt to move beyond Freud's largely sociological view. This paper explores some of the origins of Bion's neglect of murderous violence in groups as a result of his own experiences in the first European war. In the following, I present evidence for the existence of a violent basic assumption and offer evidence as to Bion's avoidance of murderous and violent acts. PMID:24004012

  5. Testing Modeling Assumptions in the West Africa Ebola Outbreak

    PubMed Central

    Burghardt, Keith; Verzijl, Christopher; Huang, Junming; Ingram, Matthew; Song, Binyang; Hasne, Marie-Pierre

    2016-01-01

    The Ebola virus in West Africa has infected almost 30,000 and killed over 11,000 people. Recent models of Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) have often made assumptions about how the disease spreads, such as uniform transmissibility and homogeneous mixing within a population. In this paper, we test whether these assumptions are necessarily correct, and offer simple solutions that may improve disease model accuracy. First, we use data and models of West African migration to show that EVD does not homogeneously mix, but spreads in a predictable manner. Next, we estimate the initial growth rate of EVD within country administrative divisions and find that it significantly decreases with population density. Finally, we test whether EVD strains have uniform transmissibility through a novel statistical test, and find that certain strains appear more often than expected by chance. PMID:27721505

  6. Nonextensive thermodynamic relations based on the assumption of temperature duality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yahui; Du, Jiulin

    2016-11-01

    The nonextensive thermodynamic relations are expressed under the assumption of temperature duality, endowing the "physical temperature" and the "Lagrange temperature" in different physical senses. Based on this assumption, two sets of parallel Legendre transform structures are given. One is called "physical" set, and the other is called "Lagrange" set. In these two formalisms, the thermodynamic quantities and the thermodynamic relations are both liked through the Tsallis factor. Application of the two sets of the thermodynamic relations to the self-gravitating system shows that the heat capacity defined in the classical thermodynamics has no relevance to the stability of the system. Instead, the newly defined heat capacity can determine the stability of the system.

  7. An epidemic model to evaluate the homogeneous mixing assumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turnes, P. P.; Monteiro, L. H. A.

    2014-11-01

    Many epidemic models are written in terms of ordinary differential equations (ODE). This approach relies on the homogeneous mixing assumption; that is, the topological structure of the contact network established by the individuals of the host population is not relevant to predict the spread of a pathogen in this population. Here, we propose an epidemic model based on ODE to study the propagation of contagious diseases conferring no immunity. The state variables of this model are the percentages of susceptible individuals, infectious individuals and empty space. We show that this dynamical system can experience transcritical and Hopf bifurcations. Then, we employ this model to evaluate the validity of the homogeneous mixing assumption by using real data related to the transmission of gonorrhea, hepatitis C virus, human immunodeficiency virus, and obesity.

  8. Simplified Equations of Motion for the RADIAL AXIAL Vibrations of Fluid Filled Pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finnveden, S.

    1997-12-01

    The equations of motion for straight fluid filled pipes are greatly simplified. It is found, for frequencies below a third of the ring frequency, that the radial-axial waves in cylinders are as if the circumferential motion were inextensional. This is the fundamental assumption for the analysis. The derivation is also based on the assumption of long axial wavelengths, resulting in the axial inertia of the fluid and the axial flexural stiffness of the pipe wall being negligible. The formulation is restricted to frequencies well below the cut-on of higher order fluid modes. For such frequencies, the compressibility of the fluid is neglected and the internal fluid loading, on the pipe, is approximated as an increase in the radial inertia. Upon this basis, the equations of motion, for each circumferential mode, are similar to those for a Timoshenko beam on a Winkler foundation. Numerical experiments are made, comparing the approximate theory with results from calculations from the Helmholtz equation for the fluid and accurate thin-walled cylinder theory. Criteria of the application of the simplified theory are formulated.

  9. Tax Subsidies for Employer-Sponsored Health Insurance: Updated Microsimulation Estimates and Sensitivity to Alternative Incidence Assumptions

    PubMed Central

    Miller, G Edward; Selden, Thomas M

    2013-01-01

    Objective To estimate 2012 tax expenditures for employer-sponsored insurance (ESI) in the United States and to explore the sensitivity of estimates to assumptions regarding the incidence of employer premium contributions. Data Sources Nationally representative Medical Expenditure Panel Survey data from the 2005–2007 Household Component (MEPS-HC) and the 2009–2010 Insurance Component (MEPS IC). Study Design We use MEPS HC workers to construct synthetic workforces for MEPS IC establishments, applying the workers' marginal tax rates to the establishments' insurance premiums to compute the tax subsidy, in aggregate and by establishment characteristics. Simulation enables us to examine the sensitivity of ESI tax subsidy estimates to a range of scenarios for the within-firm incidence of employer premium contributions when workers have heterogeneous health risks and make heterogeneous plan choices. Principal Findings We simulate the total ESI tax subsidy for all active, civilian U.S. workers to be $257.4 billion in 2012. In the private sector, the subsidy disproportionately flows to workers in large establishments and establishments with predominantly high wage or full-time workforces. The estimates are remarkably robust to alternative incidence assumptions. Conclusions The aggregate value of the ESI tax subsidy and its distribution across firms can be reliably estimated using simplified incidence assumptions. PMID:23398400

  10. Local strain redistribution corrections for a simplified inelastic analysis procedure based on an elastic finite-element analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, A.; Hwang, S. Y.

    1985-01-01

    Strain redistribution corrections were developed for a simplified inelastic analysis procedure to economically calculate material cyclic response at the critical location of a structure for life prediction proposes. The method was based on the assumption that the plastic region in the structure is local and the total strain history required for input can be defined from elastic finite-element analyses. Cyclic stress-strain behavior was represented by a bilinear kinematic hardening model. The simplified procedure predicts stress-strain response with reasonable accuracy for thermally cycled problems but needs improvement for mechanically load-cycled problems. Neuber-type corrections were derived and incorporated in the simplified procedure to account for local total strain redistribution under cyclic mechanical loading. The corrected simplified method was used on a mechanically load-cycled benchmark notched-plate problem. The predicted material response agrees well with the nonlinear finite-element solutions for the problem. The simplified analysis computer program was 0.3% of the central processor unit time required for a nonlinear finite-element analysis.

  11. Simplified method for determining fracture toughness of two dental ceramics.

    PubMed

    Sinavarat, Potchaman; Anunmana, Chuchai; Muanjit, Thitima

    2016-01-01

    This study compared the fracture toughness values (KIC), which were derived from simplified techniques: the indentation fracture (IF), the indentation strength (IS), and fractographic approach to that from a standard testing using surface cracks in flexure (SCF). Forty bar specimens, twenty IPS Empress(®) Esthetic and twenty IPS e.max(®)Ceram were prepared. Ten specimens in each material were tested by IF technique, IS technique and fractographic approach, and additional 10 specimens were tested by the SCF technique. This study showed that the mean KIC derived from fractographic approach were not significantly different from that of the SCF in both materials (p>0.05) whereas the mean KIC from indentation techniques rarely agreed with those of the standard technique. The KIC determination is sensitive to the methods used that affect accuracy. Consequently, test selection should be based on a sound understanding and inherent limitations of each technique.

  12. Stability analysis and numerical simulation of simplified solid rocket motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyer, G.; Casalis, G.; Estivalèzes, J.-L.

    2013-08-01

    This paper investigates the Parietal Vortex Shedding (PVS) instability that significantly influences the Pressure Oscillations of the long and segmented solid rocket motors. The eigenmodes resulting from the stability analysis of a simplified configuration, namely, a cylindrical duct with sidewall injection, are presented. They are computed taking into account the presence of a wall injection defect, which is shown to induce hydrodynamic instabilities at discrete frequencies. These instabilities exhibit eigenfunctions in good agreement with the measured PVS vortical structures. They are successfully compared in terms of temporal evolution and frequencies to the unsteady hydrodynamic fluctuations computed by numerical simulations. In addition, this study has shown that the hydrodynamic instabilities associated with the PVS are the driving force of the flow dynamics, since they are responsible for the emergence of pressure waves propagating at the same frequency.

  13. Detailed and simplified nonequilibrium helium ionization in the solar atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Golding, Thomas Peter; Carlsson, Mats; Leenaarts, Jorrit E-mail: mats.carlsson@astro.uio.no

    2014-03-20

    Helium ionization plays an important role in the energy balance of the upper chromosphere and transition region. Helium spectral lines are also often used as diagnostics of these regions. We carry out one-dimensional radiation-hydrodynamics simulations of the solar atmosphere and find that the helium ionization is set mostly by photoionization and direct collisional ionization, counteracted by radiative recombination cascades. By introducing an additional recombination rate mimicking the recombination cascades, we construct a simplified three-level helium model atom consisting of only the ground states. This model atom is suitable for modeling nonequilibrium helium ionization in three-dimensional numerical models. We perform a brief investigation of the formation of the He I 10830 and He II 304 spectral lines. Both lines show nonequilibrium features that are not recovered with statistical equilibrium models, and caution should therefore be exercised when such models are used as a basis for interpretating observations.

  14. 78 FR 23945 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Entry and Immediate Delivery Application and Simplified...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-23

    ... (78 FR 9719) on February 11, 2013, allowing for a 60-day comment period. This notice allows for an additional 30 days for public comments. This process is conducted in accordance with 5 CFR 1320.10. DATES.... Guidance on using Simplified Entry may be found at...

  15. Phosphazene additives

    DOEpatents

    Harrup, Mason K; Rollins, Harry W

    2013-11-26

    An additive comprising a phosphazene compound that has at least two reactive functional groups and at least one capping functional group bonded to phosphorus atoms of the phosphazene compound. One of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with cellulose and the other of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with a resin, such as an amine resin of a polycarboxylic acid resin. The at least one capping functional group is selected from the group consisting of a short chain ether group, an alkoxy group, or an aryloxy group. Also disclosed are an additive-resin admixture, a method of treating a wood product, and a wood product.

  16. Potlining Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolf Keller

    2004-08-10

    In this project, a concept to improve the performance of aluminum production cells by introducing potlining additives was examined and tested. Boron oxide was added to cathode blocks, and titanium was dissolved in the metal pool; this resulted in the formation of titanium diboride and caused the molten aluminum to wet the carbonaceous cathode surface. Such wetting reportedly leads to operational improvements and extended cell life. In addition, boron oxide suppresses cyanide formation. This final report presents and discusses the results of this project. Substantial economic benefits for the practical implementation of the technology are projected, especially for modern cells with graphitized blocks. For example, with an energy savings of about 5% and an increase in pot life from 1500 to 2500 days, a cost savings of $ 0.023 per pound of aluminum produced is projected for a 200 kA pot.

  17. Constructing Simplified Plans via Truth Criteria Approximation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chien, S.; DeJong, G.

    1994-01-01

    This paper has presented an approach to dealing with the complexity of explanation-based learning plans in complex domains. This approach uses a simplified algorithm to construct plans, and employs later refinements to repair bugs in constructed plans. This algorithm has the theoretical properties of completeness and convergence upon soundness. This incremental reasoning planning and learning algorithm has been implemented using a partial-order constraint posting planner and empirically compared to a conventional exhaustive reasoning partial-order constraint-posting planner and learning algorithm. This comparison showed that 1) incremental reasoning significantly reduced learning costs compared to exhaustive reasoning, 2) Explanation-based Learning (EBL) reduced failures from incremental reasoning, 3) EBL with incremental reasoning required less search to solve problems than EBL with exhaustive reasoning.

  18. Space station ECLSS simplified integrated test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schunk, Richard G.; Bagdigian, Robert M.; Carrasquillo, Robyn L.; Ogle, Kathyrn Y.; Wieland, Paul O.

    1989-01-01

    A discussion of the Space Station Simplified Integrated Test (SIT) was conducted. The first in a series of three integrated Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system tests, the primary objectives of the SIT were to verify proper operation of ECLS subsystems functioning in an integrated fashion as well as to gather preliminary performance data for the partial ECLS system used in the test. A description of the SIT configuration, a summary of events, a discussion of anomalies that occurred during the test, and detailed results and analysis from individual measurements and water and gas samples taken during the test are included. The preprototype ECLS hardware used in the test is reported providing an overall process description and theory of operation for each hardware item.

  19. Simplifying cardiovascular magnetic resonance pulse sequence terminology.

    PubMed

    Friedrich, Matthias G; Bucciarelli-Ducci, Chiara; White, James A; Plein, Sven; Moon, James C; Almeida, Ana G; Kramer, Christopher M; Neubauer, Stefan; Pennell, Dudley J; Petersen, Steffen E; Kwong, Raymond Y; Ferrari, Victor A; Schulz-Menger, Jeanette; Sakuma, Hajime; Schelbert, Erik B; Larose, Éric; Eitel, Ingo; Carbone, Iacopo; Taylor, Andrew J; Young, Alistair; de Roos, Albert; Nagel, Eike

    2014-01-01

    We propose a set of simplified terms to describe applied Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance (CMR) pulse sequence techniques in clinical reports, scientific articles and societal guidelines or recommendations. Rather than using various technical details in clinical reports, the description of the technical approach should be based on the purpose of the pulse sequence. In scientific papers or other technical work, this should be followed by a more detailed description of the pulse sequence and settings. The use of a unified set of widely understood terms would facilitate the communication between referring physicians and CMR readers by increasing the clarity of CMR reports and thus improve overall patient care. Applied in research articles, its use would facilitate non-expert readers' understanding of the methodology used and its clinical meaning. PMID:25551695

  20. Aeroacoustic Analysis of a Simplified Landing Gear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lockard, David P.; Khorrami, Mehdi, R.; Li, Fei

    2004-01-01

    A hybrid approach is used to investigate the noise generated by a simplified landing gear without small scale parts such as hydraulic lines and fasteners. The Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings equation is used to predict the noise at far-field observer locations from flow data provided by an unsteady computational fluid dynamics calculation. A simulation with 13 million grid points has been completed, and comparisons are made between calculations with different turbulence models. Results indicate that the turbulence model has a profound effect on the levels and character of the unsteadiness. Flow data on solid surfaces and a set of permeable surfaces surrounding the gear have been collected. Noise predictions using the porous surfaces appear to be contaminated by errors caused by large wake fluctuations passing through the surfaces. However, comparisons between predictions using the solid surfaces with the near-field CFD solution are in good agreement giving confidence in the far-field results.

  1. Nonlinear optimization simplified by hypersurface deformation

    SciTech Connect

    Stillinger, F.H.; Weber, T.A.

    1988-09-01

    A general strategy is advanced for simplifying nonlinear optimization problems, the ant-lion method. This approach exploits shape modifications of the cost-function hypersurface which distend basins surrounding low-lying minima (including global minima). By intertwining hypersurface deformations with steepest-descent displacements, the search is concentrated on a small relevant subset of all minima. Specific calculations demonstrating the value of this method are reported for the partitioning of two classes of irregular but nonrandom graphs, the prime-factor graphs and the pi graphs. We also indicate how this approach can be applied to the traveling salesman problem and to design layout optimization, and that it may be useful in combination with simulated annealing strategies.

  2. Immunodiagnosis simplified: Memorandum from a WHO Meeting*

    PubMed Central

    1984-01-01

    Technologies suitable for the development of simplified immunodiagnostic tests were reviewed by a Working Group of the WHO Advisory Committee on Medical Research in Geneva in June 1983. They included agglutination tests and use of artificial particles coated with immunoglobulins, direct visual detection of antigen-antibody reactions, enzyme-immunoassays, and immunofluorescence and fluoroimmunoassays. The use of monoclonal antibodies in immunodiagnosis and of DNA/RNA probes to identify viruses was also discussed in detail. The need for applicability of these tests at three levels, i.e., field conditions (or primary health care level), local laboratories, and central laboratories, was discussed and their use at the field level was emphasized. PMID:6375885

  3. Entropy reduction via simplified image contourization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, Martin J.

    1993-01-01

    The process of contourization is presented which converts a raster image into a set of plateaux or contours. These contours can be grouped into a hierarchical structure, defining total spatial inclusion, called a contour tree. A contour coder has been developed which fully describes these contours in a compact and efficient manner and is the basis for an image compression method. Simplification of the contour tree has been undertaken by merging contour tree nodes thus lowering the contour tree's entropy. This can be exploited by the contour coder to increase the image compression ratio. By applying general and simple rules derived from physiological experiments on the human vision system, lossy image compression can be achieved which minimizes noticeable artifacts in the simplified image.

  4. Simplified Model of Nonlinear Landau Damping

    SciTech Connect

    N. A. Yampolsky and N. J. Fisch

    2009-07-16

    The nonlinear interaction of a plasma wave with resonant electrons results in a plateau in the electron distribution function close to the phase velocity of the plasma wave. As a result, Landau damping of the plasma wave vanishes and the resonant frequency of the plasma wave downshifts. However, this simple picture is invalid when the external driving force changes the plasma wave fast enough so that the plateau cannot be fully developed. A new model to describe amplification of the plasma wave including the saturation of Landau damping and the nonlinear frequency shift is proposed. The proposed model takes into account the change of the plasma wave amplitude and describes saturation of the Landau damping rate in terms of a single fluid equation, which simplifies the description of the inherently kinetic nature of Landau damping. A proposed fluid model, incorporating these simplifications, is verified numerically using a kinetic Vlasov code.

  5. Combustion Safety Simplified Test Protocol Field Study

    SciTech Connect

    Brand, L.; Cautley, D.; Bohac, D.; Francisco, P.; Shen, L.; Gloss, S.

    2015-11-01

    Combustions safety is an important step in the process of upgrading homes for energy efficiency. There are several approaches used by field practitioners, but researchers have indicated that the test procedures in use are complex to implement and provide too many false positives. Field failures often mean that the house is not upgraded until after remediation or not at all, if not include in the program. In this report the PARR and NorthernSTAR DOE Building America Teams provide a simplified test procedure that is easier to implement and should produce fewer false positives. A survey of state weatherization agencies on combustion safety issues, details of a field data collection instrumentation package, summary of data collected over seven months, data analysis and results are included. The project team collected field data on 11 houses in 2015.

  6. Simplifying the circuit of Josephson parametric converters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdo, Baleegh; Brink, Markus; Chavez-Garcia, Jose; Keefe, George

    Josephson parametric converters (JPCs) are quantum-limited three-wave mixing devices that can play various important roles in quantum information processing in the microwave domain, including amplification of quantum signals, transduction of quantum information, remote entanglement of qubits, nonreciprocal amplification, and circulation of signals. However, the input-output and biasing circuit of a state-of-the-art JPC consists of bulky components, i.e. two commercial off-chip broadband 180-degree hybrids, four phase-matched short coax cables, and one superconducting magnetic coil. Such bulky hardware significantly hinders the integration of JPCs in scalable quantum computing architectures. In my talk, I will present ideas on how to simplify the JPC circuit and show preliminary experimental results

  7. Simplified fundamental force and mass measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, I. A.

    2016-08-01

    The watt balance relates force or mass to the Planck constant h, the metre and the second. It enables the forthcoming redefinition of the unit of mass within the SI by measuring the Planck constant in terms of mass, length and time with an uncertainty of better than 2 parts in 108. To achieve this, existing watt balances require complex and time-consuming alignment adjustments limiting their use to a few national metrology laboratories. This paper describes a simplified construction and operating principle for a watt balance which eliminates the need for the majority of these adjustments and is readily scalable using either electromagnetic or electrostatic actuators. It is hoped that this will encourage the more widespread use of the technique for a wide range of measurements of force or mass. For example: thrust measurements for space applications which would require only measurements of electrical quantities and velocity/displacement.

  8. Simplified hollow-core photonic crystal fiber.

    PubMed

    Gérôme, Frédéric; Jamier, Raphaël; Auguste, Jean-Louis; Humbert, Georges; Blondy, Jean-Marc

    2010-04-15

    An original design of hollow-core photonic crystal fiber composed of a thin silica ring suspended in air by six silica struts is proposed. This structure can be viewed as a simplified Kagomé-lattice fiber reduced to one layer of air holes. By working on the core surround parameters, an efficient antiresonant air guiding was successfully demonstrated. Two large low-loss windows (visible/IR) were measured with a minimum attenuation less than 0.2 dB radicalm at yellow wavelengths, comparable with state-of-the-art designs. The curvature behavior was also studied, showing low bending loss sensitivity for the fundamental transmission band. These relevant features might open a new route to propose original hollow-core fiber designs while making their production simpler and faster than previously.

  9. Thermodynamic behaviour of simplified geothermal reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Hiriart, G.; Sanchez, E.

    1985-01-22

    Starting from the basic laws of conservation of mass and energy, the differential equations that represent the thermodynamic behavior of a simplified geothermal reservoir are derived. Its application is limited to a reservoir of high permeability as it usually occurs in the central zone of a geothermal field. A very practical method to solve numerically the equations is presented, based on the direct use of the steam tables. The method, based in one general equation, is extended and illustrated with a numerical example to the case of segregated mass extraction, variable influx and heat exchange between rock and fluid. As it is explained, the method can be easily coupled to several influx models already developed somewhere else. The proposed model can become an important tool to solve practical problems, where like in Los Azufres Mexico, the geothermal field can be divided in an inner part where flashing occurs and an exterior field where storage of water plays the main role.

  10. Structure and strategy in encoding simplified graphs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schiano, Diane J.; Tversky, Barbara

    1992-01-01

    Tversky and Schiano (1989) found a systematic bias toward the 45-deg line in memory for the slopes of identical lines when embedded in graphs, but not in maps, suggesting the use of a cognitive reference frame specifically for encoding meaningful graphs. The present experiments explore this issue further using the linear configurations alone as stimuli. Experiments 1 and 2 demonstrate that perception and immediate memory for the slope of a test line within orthogonal 'axes' are predictable from purely structural considerations. In Experiments 3 and 4, subjects were instructed to use a diagonal-reference strategy in viewing the stimuli, which were described as 'graphs' only in Experiment 3. Results for both studies showed the diagonal bias previously found only for graphs. This pattern provides converging evidence for the diagonal as a cognitive reference frame in encoding linear graphs, and demonstrates that even in highly simplified displays, strategic factors can produce encoding biases not predictable solely from stimulus structure alone.

  11. Evaluating Organic Aerosol Model Performance: Impact of two Embedded Assumptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, W.; Giroux, E.; Roth, H.; Yin, D.

    2004-05-01

    Organic aerosols are important due to their abundance in the polluted lower atmosphere and their impact on human health and vegetation. However, modeling organic aerosols is a very challenging task because of the complexity of aerosol composition, structure, and formation processes. Assumptions and their associated uncertainties in both models and measurement data make model performance evaluation a truly demanding job. Although some assumptions are obvious, others are hidden and embedded, and can significantly impact modeling results, possibly even changing conclusions about model performance. This paper focuses on analyzing the impact of two embedded assumptions on evaluation of organic aerosol model performance. One assumption is about the enthalpy of vaporization widely used in various secondary organic aerosol (SOA) algorithms. The other is about the conversion factor used to obtain ambient organic aerosol concentrations from measured organic carbon. These two assumptions reflect uncertainties in the model and in the ambient measurement data, respectively. For illustration purposes, various choices of the assumed values are implemented in the evaluation process for an air quality model based on CMAQ (the Community Multiscale Air Quality Model). Model simulations are conducted for the Lower Fraser Valley covering Southwest British Columbia, Canada, and Northwest Washington, United States, for a historical pollution episode in 1993. To understand the impact of the assumed enthalpy of vaporization on modeling results, its impact on instantaneous organic aerosol yields (IAY) through partitioning coefficients is analysed first. The analysis shows that utilizing different enthalpy of vaporization values causes changes in the shapes of IAY curves and in the response of SOA formation capability of reactive organic gases to temperature variations. These changes are then carried into the air quality model and cause substantial changes in the organic aerosol modeling

  12. A CRITICAL EXAMINATION OF THE FUNDAMENTAL ASSUMPTIONS OF SOLAR FLARE AND CORONAL MASS EJECTION MODELS

    SciTech Connect

    Spicer, D. S.; Bingham, R.; Harrison, R.

    2013-05-01

    The fundamental assumptions of conventional solar flare and coronal mass ejection (CME) theory are re-examined. In particular, the common theoretical assumption that magnetic energy that drives flares and CMEs can be stored in situ in the corona with sufficient energy density is found wanting. In addition, the observational constraint that flares and CMEs produce non-thermal electrons with fluxes of order 10{sup 34}-10{sup 36} electrons s{sup -1}, with energies of order 10-20 keV, must also be explained. This constraint when imposed on the ''standard model'' for flares and CMEs is found to miss the mark by many orders of magnitude. We suggest, in conclusion, there are really only two possible ways to explain the requirements of observations and theory: flares and CMEs are caused by mass-loaded prominences or driven directly by emerging magnetized flux.

  13. Assumption tests regarding the ‘narrow’ rectangles dimensions of the open thin wall sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oanta, E.; Panait, C.; Sabau, A.; Barhalescu, M.; Dascalescu, A. E.

    2016-08-01

    Computer based analytic models that use the strength of materials theory are inheriting the accuracy given by the basic simplifying hypotheses. The according assumptions were rationally conceived hundreds of years ago in an age when there was no computing instrument, therefore the minimization of the necessary volume of calculi was an important requirement. An initial study was an attempt to evaluate how ‘thin’ may be the walls of an open section in order to have accurate results using the analytic calculus method. In this initial study there was compared the calculus of the rectangular sections loaded by twisting moments vs. a narrow section under the same load. Being compared analytic methods applied for a simple shape section, a more thorough study was required. In this way, we consider a thin wall open section loaded by a twisting moment, section which is discretized in ‘narrow’ rectangles. The ratio of the sides of the ‘narrow’ rectangles is the variable of the study. We compare the results of the finite element analysis to the results of the analytic method. The conclusions are important for the development of computer based analytic models which use parametrized sections for which different sets of calculus relations may be used.

  14. Paleostress inversion: A multi-parametric geomechanical evaluation of the Wallace-Bott assumptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lejri, Mostfa; Maerten, Frantz; Maerten, Laurent; Soliva, Roger

    2015-08-01

    Wallace (1951) and Bott (1959) were the first to introduce the idea that the slip on each fault surface has the same direction and sense as the maximum shear stress resolved on that surface. However, this simplified hypothesis is questionable since fault mechanical interactions may induce slip reorientations. Earlier numerical geomechanical models confirmed that the slickenlines (slip vectors) are not necessarily parallel to the maximum resolved shear stress but are consistent with local stress perturbations. This leads us to ask as to what extent the Wallace and Bott simplifications are reliable as a basis hypothesis for stress inversion from fault slip data. Here, a geomechanical multi-parametric study using a 3D boundary element method, covering (i) fault geometries such as intersected faults or corrugated fault surfaces, (ii) the full range of Andersonian state of stress, (iii) fault friction, (iv) fault fluid pressure, (v) half space effect and (vi), rock properties, is performed in order to understand the effect of each parameter on the misfit angle between geomechanical slip vectors and the resolved shear stresses. It is shown that significant misfit angles can be found under specific configurations invalidating the Wallace and Bott assumptions, even though fault friction tends to minimize the misfit. We therefore conclude that in such cases, stress inversions based on fault slip data should be interpreted with care.

  15. Augmenting simplified habit reversal in the treatment of oral-digital habits exhibited by individuals with mental retardation.

    PubMed

    Long, E S; Miltenberger, R G; Ellingson, S A; Ott, S M

    1999-01-01

    We investigated whether a simplified habit reversal treatment eliminates fingernail biting and related oral-digital habits exhibited by individuals with mild to moderate mental retardation. Although simplified habit reversal did little to decrease the target behaviors for 3 of 4 participants, simplified habit reversal plus additional treatment procedures decreased the behavior to near-zero levels for all participants. These procedures included remote prompting, remote contingencies involving differential reinforcement plus response cost, and differential reinforcement of nail growth. Limitations of habit reversal for individuals with mental retardation along with directions for future research involving therapist-mediated treatment procedures, particularly those involving remote prompting and remote contingencies, are discussed.

  16. User assumptions about information retrieval systems: Ethical concerns

    SciTech Connect

    Froehlich, T.J.

    1994-12-31

    Information professionals, whether designers, intermediaries, database producers or vendors, bear some responsibility for the information that they make available to users of information systems. The users of such systems may tend to make many assumptions about the information that a system provides, such as believing: that the data are comprehensive, current and accurate, that the information resources or databases have same degree of quality and consistency of indexing; that the abstracts, if they exist, correctly and adequate reflect the content of the article; that there is consistency informs of author names or journal titles or indexing within and across databases; that there is standardization in and across databases; that once errors are detected, they are corrected; that appropriate choices of databases or information resources are a relatively easy matter, etc. The truth is that few of these assumptions are valid in commercia or corporate or organizational databases. However, given these beliefs and assumptions by many users, often promoted by information providers, information professionals, impossible, should intervene to warn users about the limitations and constraints of the databases they are using. With the growth of the Internet and end-user products (e.g., CD-ROMs), such interventions have significantly declined. In such cases, information should be provided on start-up or through interface screens, indicating to users, the constraints and orientation of the system they are using. The principle of {open_quotes}caveat emptor{close_quotes} is naive and socially irresponsible: information professionals or systems have an obligation to provide some framework or context for the information that users are accessing.

  17. Diversion assumptions for high-powered research reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Binford, F.T.

    1984-01-01

    This study deals with diversion assumptions for high-powered research reactors -- specifically, MTR fuel; pool- or tank-type research reactors with light-water moderator; and water, beryllium, or graphite reflectors, and which have a power level of 25 MW(t) or more. The objective is to provide assistance to the IAEA in documentation of criteria and inspection observables related to undeclared plutonium production in the reactors described above, including: criteria for undeclared plutonium production, necessary design information for implementation of these criteria, verification guidelines including neutron physics and heat transfer, and safeguards measures to facilitate the detection of undeclared plutonium production at large research reactors.

  18. Simplified Ion Thruster Xenon Feed System for NASA Science Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, John Steven; Randolph, Thomas M.; Hofer, Richard R.; Goebel, Dan M.

    2009-01-01

    The successful implementation of ion thruster technology on the Deep Space 1 technology demonstration mission paved the way for its first use on the Dawn science mission, which launched in September 2007. Both Deep Space 1 and Dawn used a "bang-bang" xenon feed system which has proven to be highly successful. This type of feed system, however, is complex with many parts and requires a significant amount of engineering work for architecture changes. A simplified feed system, with fewer parts and less engineering work for architecture changes, is desirable to reduce the feed system cost to future missions. An attractive new path for ion thruster feed systems is based on new components developed by industry in support of commercial applications of electric propulsion systems. For example, since the launch of Deep Space 1 tens of mechanical xenon pressure regulators have successfully flown on commercial spacecraft using electric propulsion. In addition, active proportional flow controllers have flown on the Hall-thruster-equipped Tacsat-2, are flying on the ion thruster GOCE mission, and will fly next year on the Advanced EHF spacecraft. This present paper briefly reviews the Dawn xenon feed system and those implemented on other xenon electric propulsion flight missions. A simplified feed system architecture is presented that is based on assembling flight-qualified components in a manner that will reduce non-recurring engineering associated with propulsion system architecture changes, and is compared to the NASA Dawn standard. The simplified feed system includes, compared to Dawn, passive high-pressure regulation, a reduced part count, reduced complexity due to cross-strapping, and reduced non-recurring engineering work required for feed system changes. A demonstration feed system was assembled using flight-like components and used to operate a laboratory NSTAR-class ion engine. Feed system components integrated into a single-string architecture successfully operated

  19. A simplified strong ion model for acid-base equilibria: application to horse plasma.

    PubMed

    Constable, P D

    1997-07-01

    The Henderson-Hasselbalch equation and Stewart's strong ion model are currently used to describe mammalian acid-base equilibria. Anomalies exist when the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation is applied to plasma, whereas the strong ion model does not provide a practical method for determining the total plasma concentration of nonvolatile weak acids ([Atot]) and the effective dissociation constant for plasma weak acids (Ka). A simplified strong ion model, which was developed from the assumption that plasma ions act as strong ions, volatile buffer ions (HCO-3), or nonvolatile buffer ions, indicates that plasma pH is determined by five independent variables: PCO2, strong ion difference, concentration of individual nonvolatile plasma buffers (albumin, globulin, and phosphate), ionic strength, and temperature. The simplified strong ion model conveys on a fundamental level the mechanism for change in acid-base status, explains many of the anomalies when the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation is applied to plasma, is conceptually and algebraically simpler than Stewart's strong ion model, and provides a practical in vitro method for determining [Atot] and Ka of plasma. Application of the simplified strong ion model to CO2-tonometered horse plasma produced values for [Atot] (15.0 +/- 3.1 meq/l) and Ka (2.22 +/- 0.32 x 10(-7) eq/l) that were significantly different from the values commonly assumed for human plasma ([Atot] = 20.0 meq/l, Ka = 3.0 x 10(-7) eq/l). Moreover, application of the experimentally determined values for [Atot] and Ka to published data for the horse (known PCO2, strong ion difference, and plasma protein concentration) predicted plasma pH more accurately than the values for [Atot] and Ka commonly assumed for human plasma. Species-specific values for [Atot] and Ka should be experimentally determined when the simplified strong ion model (or strong ion model) is used to describe acid-base equilibria.

  20. Analysis of Modeling Assumptions used in Production Cost Models for Renewable Integration Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Stoll, Brady; Brinkman, Gregory; Townsend, Aaron; Bloom, Aaron

    2016-01-01

    Renewable energy integration studies have been published for many different regions exploring the question of how higher penetration of renewable energy will impact the electric grid. These studies each make assumptions about the systems they are analyzing; however the effect of many of these assumptions has not been yet been examined and published. In this paper we analyze the impact of modeling assumptions in renewable integration studies, including the optimization method used (linear or mixed-integer programming) and the temporal resolution of the dispatch stage (hourly or sub-hourly). We analyze each of these assumptions on a large and a small system and determine the impact of each assumption on key metrics including the total production cost, curtailment of renewables, CO2 emissions, and generator starts and ramps. Additionally, we identified the impact on these metrics if a four-hour ahead commitment step is included before the dispatch step and the impact of retiring generators to reduce the degree to which the system is overbuilt. We find that the largest effect of these assumptions is at the unit level on starts and ramps, particularly for the temporal resolution, and saw a smaller impact at the aggregate level on system costs and emissions. For each fossil fuel generator type we measured the average capacity started, average run-time per start, and average number of ramps. Linear programming results saw up to a 20% difference in number of starts and average run time of traditional generators, and up to a 4% difference in the number of ramps, when compared to mixed-integer programming. Utilizing hourly dispatch instead of sub-hourly dispatch saw no difference in coal or gas CC units for either start metric, while gas CT units had a 5% increase in the number of starts and 2% increase in the average on-time per start. The number of ramps decreased up to 44%. The smallest effect seen was on the CO2 emissions and total production cost, with a 0.8% and 0

  1. Simplified Modeling of Oxidation of Hydrocarbons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bellan, Josette; Harstad, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    A method of simplified computational modeling of oxidation of hydrocarbons is undergoing development. This is one of several developments needed to enable accurate computational simulation of turbulent, chemically reacting flows. At present, accurate computational simulation of such flows is difficult or impossible in most cases because (1) the numbers of grid points needed for adequate spatial resolution of turbulent flows in realistically complex geometries are beyond the capabilities of typical supercomputers now in use and (2) the combustion of typical hydrocarbons proceeds through decomposition into hundreds of molecular species interacting through thousands of reactions. Hence, the combination of detailed reaction- rate models with the fundamental flow equations yields flow models that are computationally prohibitive. Hence, further, a reduction of at least an order of magnitude in the dimension of reaction kinetics is one of the prerequisites for feasibility of computational simulation of turbulent, chemically reacting flows. In the present method of simplified modeling, all molecular species involved in the oxidation of hydrocarbons are classified as either light or heavy; heavy molecules are those having 3 or more carbon atoms. The light molecules are not subject to meaningful decomposition, and the heavy molecules are considered to decompose into only 13 specified constituent radicals, a few of which are listed in the table. One constructs a reduced-order model, suitable for use in estimating the release of heat and the evolution of temperature in combustion, from a base comprising the 13 constituent radicals plus a total of 26 other species that include the light molecules and related light free radicals. Then rather than following all possible species through their reaction coordinates, one follows only the reduced set of reaction coordinates of the base. The behavior of the base was examined in test computational simulations of the combustion of

  2. The extended evolutionary synthesis: its structure, assumptions and predictions

    PubMed Central

    Laland, Kevin N.; Uller, Tobias; Feldman, Marcus W.; Sterelny, Kim; Müller, Gerd B.; Moczek, Armin; Jablonka, Eva; Odling-Smee, John

    2015-01-01

    Scientific activities take place within the structured sets of ideas and assumptions that define a field and its practices. The conceptual framework of evolutionary biology emerged with the Modern Synthesis in the early twentieth century and has since expanded into a highly successful research program to explore the processes of diversification and adaptation. Nonetheless, the ability of that framework satisfactorily to accommodate the rapid advances in developmental biology, genomics and ecology has been questioned. We review some of these arguments, focusing on literatures (evo-devo, developmental plasticity, inclusive inheritance and niche construction) whose implications for evolution can be interpreted in two ways—one that preserves the internal structure of contemporary evolutionary theory and one that points towards an alternative conceptual framework. The latter, which we label the ‘extended evolutionary synthesis' (EES), retains the fundaments of evolutionary theory, but differs in its emphasis on the role of constructive processes in development and evolution, and reciprocal portrayals of causation. In the EES, developmental processes, operating through developmental bias, inclusive inheritance and niche construction, share responsibility for the direction and rate of evolution, the origin of character variation and organism–environment complementarity. We spell out the structure, core assumptions and novel predictions of the EES, and show how it can be deployed to stimulate and advance research in those fields that study or use evolutionary biology. PMID:26246559

  3. Literal grid map models for animal navigation: Assumptions and predictions.

    PubMed

    Turner, Rebecca M; Walker, Michael M; Postlethwaite, Claire M

    2016-09-01

    Many animals can navigate from unfamiliar locations to a familiar target location with no outward route information or direct sensory contact with the target or any familiar landmarks. Several models have been proposed to explain this phenomenon, one possibility being a literal interpretation of a grid map. In this paper we systematically compare four such models, which we label: Correct Bicoordinate navigation, both Target and Release site based, Approximate Bicoordinate navigation, and Directional navigation. Predictions of spatial patterns of initial orientation errors and efficiencies depend on a combination of assumptions about the navigation mechanism and the geometry of the environmental coordinate fields used as model inputs. When coordinates axes are orthogonal at the target the predictions from the Correct Bicoordinate (Target based) model and Approximate Bicoordinate model are identical. However, if the coordinate axes are non-orthogonal different regional patterns of initial orientation errors and efficiencies can be expected from these two models. Field anomalies produce high magnitudes of orientation errors close to the target, while region-wide nonlinearity leads to orientation errors increasing with distance from the target. In general, initial orientation error patterns are more useful for distinguishing between different assumption combinations than efficiencies. We discuss how consideration of model predictions may be helpful in the design of experiments.

  4. The contour method cutting assumption: error minimization and correction

    SciTech Connect

    Prime, Michael B; Kastengren, Alan L

    2010-01-01

    The recently developed contour method can measure 2-D, cross-sectional residual-stress map. A part is cut in two using a precise and low-stress cutting technique such as electric discharge machining. The contours of the new surfaces created by the cut, which will not be flat if residual stresses are relaxed by the cutting, are then measured and used to calculate the original residual stresses. The precise nature of the assumption about the cut is presented theoretically and is evaluated experimentally. Simply assuming a flat cut is overly restrictive and misleading. The critical assumption is that the width of the cut, when measured in the original, undeformed configuration of the body is constant. Stresses at the cut tip during cutting cause the material to deform, which causes errors. The effect of such cutting errors on the measured stresses is presented. The important parameters are quantified. Experimental procedures for minimizing these errors are presented. An iterative finite element procedure to correct for the errors is also presented. The correction procedure is demonstrated on experimental data from a steel beam that was plastically bent to put in a known profile of residual stresses.

  5. The adaptive bleaching hypothesis: experimental tests of critical assumptions.

    PubMed

    Kinzie, R A; Takayama, M; Santos, S R; Coffroth, M A

    2001-02-01

    Coral bleaching, the loss of color due to loss of symbiotic zooxanthellae or their pigment, appears to be increasing in intensity and geographic extent, perhaps related to increasing sea surface temperatures. The adaptive bleaching hypothesis (ABH) posits that when environmental circumstances change, the loss of one or more kinds of zooxanthellae is rapidly, sometimes unnoticeably, followed by formation of a new symbiotic consortium with different zooxanthellae that are more suited to the new conditions in the host's habitat. Fundamental assumptions of the ABH include (1) different types of zooxanthellae respond differently to environmental conditions, specifically temperature, and (2) bleached adults can secondarily acquire zooxanthellae from the environment. We present simple tests of these assumptions and show that (1) genetically different strains of zooxanthellae exhibit different responses to elevated temperature, (2) bleached adult hosts can acquire algal symbionts with an apparently dose-dependent relationship between the concentration of zooxanthellae and the rate of establishment of the symbiosis, (3) and finally, bleached adult hosts can acquire symbionts from the water column.

  6. Estimation of cold extremes and the identical distribution assumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parey, Sylvie

    2016-04-01

    Extreme, generally not observed, values of meteorological (or other) hazards are estimated by use of observed time series and application of the statistical extreme value theory. This theory is based on the essential assumption that the events are independent and identically distributed. This assumption is generally not verified for meteorological hazards, firstly because these phenomena are seasonal, and secondly because climate change may induce temporal trends. These issues can be dealt with, by selecting the season of occurrence or handling trends in the extreme distribution parameters for example. When recently updating extreme cold temperatures, we faced different rather new difficulties: the threshold choice, when applying the Peak Over Threshold (POT) approach happened to be exceptionally difficult, and when applying block maxima, different block sizes could lead to significantly different return levels. A more detailed analysis of the exceedances of different cold thresholds showed that when the threshold becomes more extreme, the exceedances are not identically distributed across the years. This behaviour could have been related to the preferred phase of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) during each winter, and the return level estimation has then been based on a sub-sampling between negative and positive NAO winters. The approach and the return level estimation from the sub-samples will be illustrated with an example.

  7. Stable isotopes and elasmobranchs: tissue types, methods, applications and assumptions.

    PubMed

    Hussey, N E; MacNeil, M A; Olin, J A; McMeans, B C; Kinney, M J; Chapman, D D; Fisk, A T

    2012-04-01

    Stable-isotope analysis (SIA) can act as a powerful ecological tracer with which to examine diet, trophic position and movement, as well as more complex questions pertaining to community dynamics and feeding strategies or behaviour among aquatic organisms. With major advances in the understanding of the methodological approaches and assumptions of SIA through dedicated experimental work in the broader literature coupled with the inherent difficulty of studying typically large, highly mobile marine predators, SIA is increasingly being used to investigate the ecology of elasmobranchs (sharks, skates and rays). Here, the current state of SIA in elasmobranchs is reviewed, focusing on available tissues for analysis, methodological issues relating to the effects of lipid extraction and urea, the experimental dynamics of isotopic incorporation, diet-tissue discrimination factors, estimating trophic position, diet and mixing models and individual specialization and niche-width analyses. These areas are discussed in terms of assumptions made when applying SIA to the study of elasmobranch ecology and the requirement that investigators standardize analytical approaches. Recommendations are made for future SIA experimental work that would improve understanding of stable-isotope dynamics and advance their application in the study of sharks, skates and rays. PMID:22497393

  8. Underlying assumptions of human spaceflight in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Launius, Roger D.

    2008-03-01

    Throughout the 50 years of the space age, a basic assumption has reigned that human exploration represented the epitome of the endeavor. Both the United States and the Soviet Union founded their efforts on that belief and remain to the date dominant forces in the human exploration and development of space. But why did the two superpowers locked in the cold war struggle pursue human spaceflight? The answer usually given involves the quest for pride and prestige in the cold war rivalry as each sought to best the other in a complex and expensive game of "one-upmanship." Without denying the significance of the cold war in prying open the treasury of the United States for human spaceflight, the endeavor seems to have been attractive in the first place because of several underlying assumptions that are deeply seated in the American values. This essay suggests that Americans embraced human space exploration because of its potential for extending human dominion into space and for the promise of colonization and expansion, although that has usually been at best a subtext for the effort. When thinking about these human activities over the long term, moreover, it raises important and difficult questions about the evolution and survival of the species.

  9. The extended evolutionary synthesis: its structure, assumptions and predictions.

    PubMed

    Laland, Kevin N; Uller, Tobias; Feldman, Marcus W; Sterelny, Kim; Müller, Gerd B; Moczek, Armin; Jablonka, Eva; Odling-Smee, John

    2015-08-22

    Scientific activities take place within the structured sets of ideas and assumptions that define a field and its practices. The conceptual framework of evolutionary biology emerged with the Modern Synthesis in the early twentieth century and has since expanded into a highly successful research program to explore the processes of diversification and adaptation. Nonetheless, the ability of that framework satisfactorily to accommodate the rapid advances in developmental biology, genomics and ecology has been questioned. We review some of these arguments, focusing on literatures (evo-devo, developmental plasticity, inclusive inheritance and niche construction) whose implications for evolution can be interpreted in two ways—one that preserves the internal structure of contemporary evolutionary theory and one that points towards an alternative conceptual framework. The latter, which we label the 'extended evolutionary synthesis' (EES), retains the fundaments of evolutionary theory, but differs in its emphasis on the role of constructive processes in development and evolution, and reciprocal portrayals of causation. In the EES, developmental processes, operating through developmental bias, inclusive inheritance and niche construction, share responsibility for the direction and rate of evolution, the origin of character variation and organism-environment complementarity. We spell out the structure, core assumptions and novel predictions of the EES, and show how it can be deployed to stimulate and advance research in those fields that study or use evolutionary biology.

  10. Literal grid map models for animal navigation: Assumptions and predictions.

    PubMed

    Turner, Rebecca M; Walker, Michael M; Postlethwaite, Claire M

    2016-09-01

    Many animals can navigate from unfamiliar locations to a familiar target location with no outward route information or direct sensory contact with the target or any familiar landmarks. Several models have been proposed to explain this phenomenon, one possibility being a literal interpretation of a grid map. In this paper we systematically compare four such models, which we label: Correct Bicoordinate navigation, both Target and Release site based, Approximate Bicoordinate navigation, and Directional navigation. Predictions of spatial patterns of initial orientation errors and efficiencies depend on a combination of assumptions about the navigation mechanism and the geometry of the environmental coordinate fields used as model inputs. When coordinates axes are orthogonal at the target the predictions from the Correct Bicoordinate (Target based) model and Approximate Bicoordinate model are identical. However, if the coordinate axes are non-orthogonal different regional patterns of initial orientation errors and efficiencies can be expected from these two models. Field anomalies produce high magnitudes of orientation errors close to the target, while region-wide nonlinearity leads to orientation errors increasing with distance from the target. In general, initial orientation error patterns are more useful for distinguishing between different assumption combinations than efficiencies. We discuss how consideration of model predictions may be helpful in the design of experiments. PMID:27266672

  11. Time derivatives of the spectrum: Relaxing the stationarity assumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prieto, G. A.; Thomson, D. J.; Vernon, F. L.

    2005-12-01

    Spectrum analysis of seismic waveforms has played a significant role towards the understanding of multiple aspects of Earth structure and earthquake source physics. In recent years the multitaper spectrum estimation approach (Thomson, 1982) has been applied to geophysical problems providing not only reliable estimates of the spectrum, but also estimates of spectral uncertainties (Thomson and Chave, 1991). However, these improved spectral estimates were developed under the assumption of local stationarity and provide an incomplete description of the observed process. It is obvious that due to the intrinsic attenuation of the Earth, the amplitudes, and thus the frequency contents are changing with time as waves pass through a seismic station. There have been incredible improvements in different techniques to analyze non-stationary signals, including wavelet decomposition, Wigner-Ville spectrum and the dual-frequency spectrum. We apply one of the recently developed techniques, the Quadratic Inverse Theory (Thomson, 1990, 1994), combined with the multitaper technique to look at the time derivatives of the spectrum. If the spectrum is reasonably white in a certain bandwidth, using QI theory, we can estimate the derivatives of the spectrum at each frequency. We test synthetic signals to corroborate the approach and apply it the records of small earthquakes at local distances. This is a first approach to try and combine the classical spectrum analysis without the assumption of stationarity that is generally taken.

  12. Searching for meaning in loss: are clinical assumptions correct.

    PubMed

    Davis, C G; Wortman, C B; Lehman, D R; Silver, R C

    2000-09-01

    Three assumptions guiding research and clinical intervention strategies for people coping with sudden, traumatic loss are that (a) people confronting such losses inevitably search for meaning, (b) over time most are able to find meaning and put the issue aside, and (c) finding meaning is critical for adjustment or healing. We review existing empirical research that addresses these assumptions and present evidence from a study of 124 parents coping with the death of their infant and a study of 93 adults coping with the loss of their spouse or child to a motor vehicle accident. Results of these studies indicate that (a) a significant subset of individuals do not search for meaning and yet appear relatively well-adjusted to their loss; (b) less than half of the respondents in each of these samples report finding any meaning in their loss, even more than a year after the event; and (c) those who find meaning, although better adjusted than those who search but are unable to find meaning, do not put the issue of meaning aside and move on. Rather, they continue to pursue the issue of meaning as fervently as those who search but do not find meaning. Implications for both research and clinical intervention are discussed.

  13. Simplified probabilistic risk assessment in fuel reprocessing

    SciTech Connect

    Solbrig, C.W.

    1993-03-01

    An evaluation was made to determine if a backup mass tracking computer would significantly reduce the probability of criticality in the fuel reprocessing of the Integral Fast Reactor. Often tradeoff studies, such as this, must be made that would greatly benefit from a Probably Risk Assessment (PRA). The major benefits of a complete PRA can often be accrued with a Simplified Probabilistic Risk Assessment (SPRA). An SPRA was performed by selecting a representative fuel reprocessing operation (moving a piece of fuel) for analysis. It showed that the benefit of adding parallel computers was small compared to the benefit which could be obtained by adding parallelism to two computer input steps and two of the weighing operations. The probability of an incorrect material moves with the basic process is estimated to be 4 out of 100 moves. The actual values of the probability numbers are considered accurate to within an order of magnitude. The most useful result of developing the fault trees accrue from the ability to determine where significant improvements in the process can be made. By including the above mentioned parallelism, the error move rate can be reduced to 1 out of 1000.

  14. Simplified probabilistic risk assessment in fuel reprocessing

    SciTech Connect

    Solbrig, C.W.

    1993-01-01

    An evaluation was made to determine if a backup mass tracking computer would significantly reduce the probability of criticality in the fuel reprocessing of the Integral Fast Reactor. Often tradeoff studies, such as this, must be made that would greatly benefit from a Probably Risk Assessment (PRA). The major benefits of a complete PRA can often be accrued with a Simplified Probabilistic Risk Assessment (SPRA). An SPRA was performed by selecting a representative fuel reprocessing operation (moving a piece of fuel) for analysis. It showed that the benefit of adding parallel computers was small compared to the benefit which could be obtained by adding parallelism to two computer input steps and two of the weighing operations. The probability of an incorrect material moves with the basic process is estimated to be 4 out of 100 moves. The actual values of the probability numbers are considered accurate to within an order of magnitude. The most useful result of developing the fault trees accrue from the ability to determine where significant improvements in the process can be made. By including the above mentioned parallelism, the error move rate can be reduced to 1 out of 1000.

  15. Simplified methods for calculating photodissociation rates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shimazaki, T.; Ogawa, T.; Farrell, B. C.

    1977-01-01

    Simplified methods for calculating the transmission of solar UV radiation and the dissociation coefficients of various molecules are compared. A significant difference sometimes appears in calculations of the individual band, but the total transmission and the total dissociation coefficients integrated over the entire SR (solar radiation) band region agree well between the methods. The ambiguities in the solar flux data affect the calculated dissociation coefficients more strongly than does the method. A simpler method is developed for the purpose of reducing the computation time and computer memory size necessary for storing coefficients of the equations. The new method can reduce the computation time by a factor of more than 3 and the memory size by a factor of more than 50 compared with the Hudson-Mahle method, and yet the result agrees within 10 percent (in most cases much less) with the original Hudson-Mahle results, except for H2O and CO2. A revised method is necessary for these two molecules, whose absorption cross sections change very rapidly over the SR band spectral range.

  16. Simplified Dynamic Analysis of Grinders Spindle Node

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demec, Peter

    2014-12-01

    The contribution deals with the simplified dynamic analysis of surface grinding machine spindle node. Dynamic analysis is based on the use of the transfer matrix method, which is essentially a matrix form of method of initial parameters. The advantage of the described method, despite the seemingly complex mathematical apparatus, is primarily, that it does not require for solve the problem of costly commercial software using finite element method. All calculations can be made for example in MS Excel, which is advantageous especially in the initial stages of constructing of spindle node for the rapid assessment of the suitability its design. After detailing the entire structure of spindle node is then also necessary to perform the refined dynamic analysis in the environment of FEM, which it requires the necessary skills and experience and it is therefore economically difficult. This work was developed within grant project KEGA No. 023TUKE-4/2012 Creation of a comprehensive educational - teaching material for the article Production technique using a combination of traditional and modern information technology and e-learning.

  17. Combustion Safety Simplified Test Protocol Field Study

    SciTech Connect

    Brand, L; Cautley, D.; Bohac, D.; Francisco, P.; Shen, L.; Gloss, S.

    2015-11-05

    "9Combustions safety is an important step in the process of upgrading homes for energy efficiency. There are several approaches used by field practitioners, but researchers have indicated that the test procedures in use are complex to implement and provide too many false positives. Field failures often mean that the house is not upgraded until after remediation or not at all, if not include in the program. In this report the PARR and NorthernSTAR DOE Building America Teams provide a simplified test procedure that is easier to implement and should produce fewer false positives. A survey of state weatherization agencies on combustion safety issues, details of a field data collection instrumentation package, summary of data collected over seven months, data analysis and results are included. The project provides several key results. State weatherization agencies do not generally track combustion safety failures, the data from those that do suggest that there is little actual evidence that combustion safety failures due to spillage from non-dryer exhaust are common and that only a very small number of homes are subject to the failures. The project team collected field data on 11 houses in 2015. Of these homes, two houses that demonstrated prolonged and excessive spillage were also the only two with venting systems out of compliance with the National Fuel Gas Code. The remaining homes experienced spillage that only occasionally extended beyond the first minute of operation. Combustion zone depressurization, outdoor temperature, and operation of individual fans all provide statistically significant predictors of spillage.

  18. Simplified tube models for entangled supramolecular polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boudara, Victor; Read, Daniel

    2015-03-01

    This presentation describes current efforts investigating non-linear rheology of entangled, supramolecular polymeric materials. We describe two recently developed models: 1) We have developed a simplified model for the rheology of entangled telechelic star polymers. This is based on a pre-averaged orientation tensor, a stretch equation, and stretch-dependant probability of detachment of the sticker. In both linear and non-linear regimes, we produce maps of the whole parameter space, indicating the parameter values for which qualitative changes in response to flow are predicted. Results in the linear rheology regime are consistent with previous more detailed models and are in qualitative agreement with experimental data. 2) Using the same modelling framework, we investigate entangled linear polymers with stickers along the backbone. We use a set of coupled equations to describe the stretch between each stickers, and use equations similar to our star model for attachment/detachment of the sticky groups. This model is applicable to industrial polymers such as entangled thermoplastic elasomers, or functionalised model linear polymers. The work leading to these results has received funding from the People Programme (Marie Curie Actions) of the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under REA Grant Agreement No. 607937 (SUPOLEN).

  19. Surgical quality assessment. A simplified approach.

    PubMed

    DeLong, D L

    1991-10-01

    The current approach to QA primarily involves taking action when problems are discovered and designing a documentation system that records the deliverance of quality care. Involving the entire staff helps eliminate problems before they occur. By keeping abreast of current problems and soliciting input from staff members, the QA at our hospital has improved dramatically. The cross-referencing of JCAHO and AORN standards on the assessment form and the single-sheet reporting form expedite the evaluation process and simplify record keeping. The bulletin board increases staff members' understanding of QA and boosts morale and participation. A sound and effective QA program does not require reorganizing an entire department, nor should it invoke negative connotations. Developing an effective QA program merely requires rethinking current processes. The program must meet the department's specific needs, and although many departments concentrate on documentation, auditing charts does not give a complete picture of the quality of care delivered. The QA committee must employ a variety of data collection methods on multiple indicators to ensure an accurate representation of the care delivered, and they must not overlook any issues that directly affect patient outcomes. PMID:1952907

  20. Simplified liquid oxygen propellant conditioning concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cleary, N. L.; Holt, K. A.; Flachbart, R. H.

    1995-01-01

    Current liquid oxygen feed systems waste propellant and use hardware, unnecessary during flight, to condition the propellant at the engine turbopumps prior to launch. Simplified liquid oxygen propellant conditioning concepts are being sought for future launch vehicles. During a joint program, four alternative propellant conditioning options were studied: (1) passive recirculation; (2) low bleed through the engine; (3) recirculation lines; and (4) helium bubbling. The test configuration for this program was based on a vehicle design which used a main recirculation loop that was insulated on the downcomer and uninsulated on the upcomer. This produces a natural convection recirculation flow. The test article for this program simulated a feedline which ran from the main recirculation loop to the turbopump. The objective was to measure the temperature profile of this test article. Several parameters were varied from the baseline case to determine their effects on the temperature profile. These parameters included: flow configuration, feedline slope, heat flux, main recirculation loop velocity, pressure, bleed rate, helium bubbling, and recirculation lines. The heat flux, bleed rate, and recirculation configurations produced the greatest changes from the baseline temperature profile. However, the temperatures in the feedline remained subcooled. Any of the options studied could be used in future vehicles.

  1. Simplified Pattern Recognition Based On Multiaperture Optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Richard T.; Lin, Shih-Chao

    1987-05-01

    Multiaperture optics systems are similar in design to the concepts applying to the insect eye. Digitizing at the detector level is inherent in these systems. The fact that each eyelet forms one pixel of the overall image lends itself to optical preprocessing. There-fore a simplified pattern recognition scheme can be used in connection with multiaperture optics systems. The pattern recognition system used is based on the conjecture that all shapes encountered can be dissected into a set of rectangles. This is accomplished by creating a binary image and comparing each row of numbers starting at the top of the frame with the next row below. A set of rules is established which decides if the binary ones of the next row are to be incorporated in the present rectangle or start a new rectangle. The number and aspect ratios of the rectangles formed constitute a recognition code. These codes are kept and updated in a library. Since the same shape may give rise to different recognition codes depending on the attitude of the shape in respect to the detector grid, all shapes are rotated and normalized prior to dissecting. The rule is that the pattern is turned to maximize the number of straight edges which line up with the detector grid. The mathematical mechanism for rotation of the shape is described. Assuming a-priori knowledge of the size of the object exists, the normalization procedure can be used for distance determination. The description of the hardware for acquisition of the image is provided.

  2. Interferometric phase reconstruction using simplified coherence network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Kui; Song, Ruiqing; Wang, Hui; Wu, Di; Wang, Hua

    2016-09-01

    Interferometric time-series analysis techniques, which extend the traditional differential radar interferometry, have demonstrated a strong capability for monitoring ground surface displacement. Such techniques are able to obtain the temporal evolution of ground deformation within millimeter accuracy by using a stack of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images. In order to minimize decorrelation between stacked SAR images, the phase reconstruction technique has been developed recently. The main idea of this technique is to reform phase observations along a SAR stack by taking advantage of a maximum likelihood estimator which is defined on the coherence matrix estimated from each target. However, the phase value of a coherence matrix element might be considerably biased when its corresponding coherence is low. In this case, it will turn to an outlying sample affecting the corresponding phase reconstruction process. In order to avoid this problem, a new approach is developed in this paper. This approach considers a coherence matrix element to be an arc in a network. A so-called simplified coherence network (SCN) is constructed to decrease the negative impact of outlying samples. Moreover, a pointed iterative strategy is designed to resolve the transformed phase reconstruction problem defined on a SCN. For validation purposes, the proposed method is applied to 29 real SAR images. The results demonstrate that the proposed method has an excellent computational efficiency and could obtain more reliable phase reconstruction solutions compared to the traditional method using phase triangulation algorithm.

  3. Camera traps and mark-resight models: The value of ancillary data for evaluating assumptions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsons, Arielle W.; Simons, Theodore R.; Pollock, Kenneth H.; Stoskopf, Michael K.; Stocking, Jessica J.; O'Connell, Allan F.

    2015-01-01

    Unbiased estimators of abundance and density are fundamental to the study of animal ecology and critical for making sound management decisions. Capture–recapture models are generally considered the most robust approach for estimating these parameters but rely on a number of assumptions that are often violated but rarely validated. Mark-resight models, a form of capture–recapture, are well suited for use with noninvasive sampling methods and allow for a number of assumptions to be relaxed. We used ancillary data from continuous video and radio telemetry to evaluate the assumptions of mark-resight models for abundance estimation on a barrier island raccoon (Procyon lotor) population using camera traps. Our island study site was geographically closed, allowing us to estimate real survival and in situ recruitment in addition to population size. We found several sources of bias due to heterogeneity of capture probabilities in our study, including camera placement, animal movement, island physiography, and animal behavior. Almost all sources of heterogeneity could be accounted for using the sophisticated mark-resight models developed by McClintock et al. (2009b) and this model generated estimates similar to a spatially explicit mark-resight model previously developed for this population during our study. Spatially explicit capture–recapture models have become an important tool in ecology and confer a number of advantages; however, non-spatial models that account for inherent individual heterogeneity may perform nearly as well, especially where immigration and emigration are limited. Non-spatial models are computationally less demanding, do not make implicit assumptions related to the isotropy of home ranges, and can provide insights with respect to the biological traits of the local population.

  4. Assessing the robustness of quantitative fatty acid signature analysis to assumption violations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bromaghin, Jeffrey; Budge, Suzanne M.; Thiemann, Gregory W.; Rode, Karyn D.

    2016-01-01

    In most QFASA applications, investigators will generally have some knowledge of the prey available to predators and be able to assess the completeness of prey signature data and sample additional prey as necessary. Conversely, because calibration coefficients are derived from feeding trials with captive animals and their values may be sensitive to consumer physiology and nutritional status, their applicability to free-ranging animals is difficult to establish. We therefore recommend that investigators first make any improvements to the prey signature data that seem warranted and then base estimation on the Aitchison distance measure, as it appears to minimize risk from violations of the assumption that is most difficult to verify.

  5. Simplified Analysis of Pulse Detonation Rocket Engine B1owdown Gasdynamics and Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Christopher I.

    2001-01-01

    -state rocket engine is provided. The effect of constant-gamma and equilibrium chemistry assumptions is also examined. Additionally, in order to form an assessment of the accuracy of the model, the flowfield time history is compared to experimental data from Stanford University.

  6. Commentary: profiling by appearance and assumption: beyond race and ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Sapién, Robert E

    2010-04-01

    In this issue, Acquaviva and Mintz highlight issues regarding racial profiling in medicine and how it is perpetuated through medical education: Physicians are taught to make subjective determinations of race and/or ethnicity in case presentations, and such assumptions may affect patient care. The author of this commentary believes that the discussion should be broadened to include profiling on the basis of general appearance. The author reports personal experiences as someone who has profiled and been profiled by appearance-sometimes by skin color, sometimes by other physical attributes. In the two cases detailed here, patient care could have been affected had the author not become aware of his practices in such situations. The author advocates raising awareness of profiling in the broader sense through training. PMID:20354369

  7. Uncovering Metaethical Assumptions in Bioethical Discourse across Cultures.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Laura Specker

    2016-03-01

    Much of bioethical discourse now takes place across cultures. This does not mean that cross-cultural understanding has increased. Many cross-cultural bioethical discussions are marked by entrenched disagreement about whether and why local practices are justified. In this paper, I argue that a major reason for these entrenched disagreements is that problematic metaethical commitments are hidden in these cross-cultural discourses. Using the issue of informed consent in East Asia as an example of one such discourse, I analyze two representative positions in the discussion and identify their metaethical commitments. I suggest that the metaethical assumptions of these positions result from their shared method of ethical justification: moral principlism. I then show why moral principlism is problematic in cross-cultural analyses and propose a more useful method for pursuing ethical justification across cultures. PMID:27157111

  8. Visceral perception versus visceral detection: disentangling methods and assumptions.

    PubMed

    Pennebaker, J W; Hoover, C W

    1984-09-01

    A within-subject experiment compared three paradigms commonly used in visceral perception: self-report, heartbeat tracking, and signal detection. Eighteen undergraduates estimated heart rate using each technique while engaging in a number of separate tasks conducted a week apart. Although all three techniques significantly tapped accuracy of heart rate perception, only the self-report and signal detection methods were reliable over time. Most important, there was no relationship involving any of the methods in measuring accuracy. The findings suggest some fundamental differences in the assumptions and perceptual properties of the various paradigms. A distinction is made between visceral perception and detection. Perception implies the subject's use of both internal physiological and external environmental information in the perception of visceral state. Detection connotes the subject's use of only physiological information--to the exclusion of all other factors. The relevance of these approaches for biofeedback and real-world symptom perception is discussed.

  9. Cost and Performance Assumptions for Modeling Electricity Generation Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Tidball, Rick; Bluestein, Joel; Rodriguez, Nick; Knoke, Stu

    2010-11-01

    The goal of this project was to compare and contrast utility scale power plant characteristics used in data sets that support energy market models. Characteristics include both technology cost and technology performance projections to the year 2050. Cost parameters include installed capital costs and operation and maintenance (O&M) costs. Performance parameters include plant size, heat rate, capacity factor or availability factor, and plant lifetime. Conventional, renewable, and emerging electricity generating technologies were considered. Six data sets, each associated with a different model, were selected. Two of the data sets represent modeled results, not direct model inputs. These two data sets include cost and performance improvements that result from increased deployment as well as resulting capacity factors estimated from particular model runs; other data sets represent model input data. For the technologies contained in each data set, the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) was also evaluated, according to published cost, performance, and fuel assumptions.

  10. Uncovering Metaethical Assumptions in Bioethical Discourse across Cultures.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Laura Specker

    2016-03-01

    Much of bioethical discourse now takes place across cultures. This does not mean that cross-cultural understanding has increased. Many cross-cultural bioethical discussions are marked by entrenched disagreement about whether and why local practices are justified. In this paper, I argue that a major reason for these entrenched disagreements is that problematic metaethical commitments are hidden in these cross-cultural discourses. Using the issue of informed consent in East Asia as an example of one such discourse, I analyze two representative positions in the discussion and identify their metaethical commitments. I suggest that the metaethical assumptions of these positions result from their shared method of ethical justification: moral principlism. I then show why moral principlism is problematic in cross-cultural analyses and propose a more useful method for pursuing ethical justification across cultures.

  11. First possession: an assumption guiding inferences about who owns what.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Ori

    2008-04-01

    How do we determine who owns what? This article reports evidence indicating that we typically assume that the first person who possesses an object is its owner. In Experiments 1 and 2, participants read cartoons in which two children each take a turn playing with a toy. Participants selected the character who first possessed the toy when judging who owned it, but not when judging which character liked it more. In Experiment 3, participants read stories based on the Pierson v. Post (1805) property law case. In line with the appellate court's ruling in that case, participants selected the character who first captured and possessed an animal as its owner over another character who had pursued it earlier. Together, these findings provide evidence for an assumption that specifically guides our reasoning about ownership and that may lead everyday intuitions about property to be generally consistent with property law.

  12. Experimental assessment of unvalidated assumptions in classical plasticity theory.

    SciTech Connect

    Brannon, Rebecca Moss; Burghardt, Jeffrey A.; Bauer, Stephen J.; Bronowski, David R.

    2009-01-01

    This report investigates the validity of several key assumptions in classical plasticity theory regarding material response to changes in the loading direction. Three metals, two rock types, and one ceramic were subjected to non-standard loading directions, and the resulting strain response increments were displayed in Gudehus diagrams to illustrate the approximation error of classical plasticity theories. A rigorous mathematical framework for fitting classical theories to the data, thus quantifying the error, is provided. Further data analysis techniques are presented that allow testing for the effect of changes in loading direction without having to use a new sample and for inferring the yield normal and flow directions without having to measure the yield surface. Though the data are inconclusive, there is indication that classical, incrementally linear, plasticity theory may be inadequate over a certain range of loading directions. This range of loading directions also coincides with loading directions that are known to produce a physically inadmissible instability for any nonassociative plasticity model.

  13. Linear irreversible heat engines based on local equilibrium assumptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izumida, Yuki; Okuda, Koji

    2015-08-01

    We formulate an endoreversible finite-time Carnot cycle model based on the assumptions of local equilibrium and constant energy flux, where the efficiency and the power are expressed in terms of the thermodynamic variables of the working substance. By analyzing the entropy production rate caused by the heat transfer in each isothermal process during the cycle, and using the endoreversible condition applied to the linear response regime, we identify the thermodynamic flux and force of the present system and obtain a linear relation that connects them. We calculate the efficiency at maximum power in the linear response regime by using the linear relation, which agrees with the Curzon-Ahlborn (CA) efficiency known as the upper bound in this regime. This reason is also elucidated by rewriting our model into the form of the Onsager relations, where our model turns out to satisfy the tight-coupling condition leading to the CA efficiency.

  14. Ancestral assumptions and the clinical uncertainty of evolutionary medicine.

    PubMed

    Cournoyea, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Evolutionary medicine is an emerging field of medical studies that uses evolutionary theory to explain the ultimate causes of health and disease. Educational tools, online courses, and medical school modules are being developed to help clinicians and students reconceptualize health and illness in light of our evolutionary past. Yet clinical guidelines based on our ancient life histories are epistemically weak, relying on the controversial assumptions of adaptationism and advocating a strictly biophysical account of health. To fulfill the interventionist goals of clinical practice, it seems that proximate explanations are all we need to develop successful diagnostic and therapeutic guidelines. Considering these epistemic concerns, this article argues that the clinical relevance of evolutionary medicine remains uncertain at best.

  15. Deconstructing Community for Conservation: Why Simple Assumptions are Not Sufficient.

    PubMed

    Waylen, Kerry Ann; Fischer, Anke; McGowan, Philip J K; Milner-Gulland, E J

    2013-01-01

    Many conservation policies advocate engagement with local people, but conservation practice has sometimes been criticised for a simplistic understanding of communities and social context. To counter this, this paper explores social structuring and its influences on conservation-related behaviours at the site of a conservation intervention near Pipar forest, within the Seti Khola valley, Nepal. Qualitative and quantitative data from questionnaires and Rapid Rural Appraisal demonstrate how links between groups directly and indirectly influence behaviours of conservation relevance (including existing and potential resource-use and proconservation activities). For low-status groups the harvesting of resources can be driven by others' preference for wild foods, whilst perceptions of elite benefit-capture may cause reluctance to engage with future conservation interventions. The findings reiterate the need to avoid relying on simple assumptions about 'community' in conservation, and particularly the relevance of understanding relationships between groups, in order to understand natural resource use and implications for conservation. PMID:23956483

  16. Fact and assumption in studies on the origins of life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirie, N. W.

    1985-09-01

    Proteins and nucleic acids organise metabolic systems very efficiently. Original forms of life may have depended on less efficient mechanisms which have been superseded in the course of evolutionary selection. Discussion and experiment on the origins of life should therefore not depend on the assumption that substances and mechanisms, now seemingly essential, were essential initially. Instead we should consider what might happen in a few million years on moist mineral surfaces, smeared with bituminous material, and exposed to UV light in a reducing atmosphere in the absence of predators. What little evidence can be gathered from differences in compositon and metabolic behaviour between ancient and recently evolved species suggests that the trend in biochemical evolution is towards simplification.

  17. Dynamic Group Diffie-Hellman Key Exchange under standard assumptions

    SciTech Connect

    Bresson, Emmanuel; Chevassut, Olivier; Pointcheval, David

    2002-02-14

    Authenticated Diffie-Hellman key exchange allows two principals communicating over a public network, and each holding public-private keys, to agree on a shared secret value. In this paper we study the natural extension of this cryptographic problem to a group of principals. We begin from existing formal security models and refine them to incorporate major missing details (e.g., strong-corruption and concurrent sessions). Within this model we define the execution of a protocol for authenticated dynamic group Diffie-Hellman and show that it is provably secure under the decisional Diffie-Hellman assumption. Our security result holds in the standard model and thus provides better security guarantees than previously published results in the random oracle model.

  18. Commentary: profiling by appearance and assumption: beyond race and ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Sapién, Robert E

    2010-04-01

    In this issue, Acquaviva and Mintz highlight issues regarding racial profiling in medicine and how it is perpetuated through medical education: Physicians are taught to make subjective determinations of race and/or ethnicity in case presentations, and such assumptions may affect patient care. The author of this commentary believes that the discussion should be broadened to include profiling on the basis of general appearance. The author reports personal experiences as someone who has profiled and been profiled by appearance-sometimes by skin color, sometimes by other physical attributes. In the two cases detailed here, patient care could have been affected had the author not become aware of his practices in such situations. The author advocates raising awareness of profiling in the broader sense through training.

  19. SSPTA- SIMPLIFIED SHUTTLE PAYLOAD THERMAL ANALYZER

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skladany, J. T.

    1994-01-01

    The Simplified Shuttle Payload Thermal Analyzer program (SSPTA) was developed to aid in the evaluation of thermal design concepts of instruments to be flown in the Space Shuttle cargo bay. SSPTA consists of a collection of programs that are currently used in the thermal analysis of spacecraft and have been modified for quick, preliminary analysis of payloads. SSPTA includes a reduced math model of the Shuttle cargo bay to simplify use of the program for payload analysis. One of the prime objectives in developing SSPTA was to create a program which was easy to use. With SSPTA, the user required input is simple and the user is free from many of the concerns of computer usage such as disk space handling, tape usage, and complicated program control. Although SSPTA was designed primarily to analyze Shuttle payloads, it can easily be used to perform thermal analysis in other situations. SSPTA is comprised of a system of data files called 'bins', a master program, and a set of thermal subprograms. The bin system is a collection of disk files which contain data required by or computed by the thermal subprograms. SSPTA currently has the capability of handling 50 bins. The master program serves primarily as a manager for the bin system and its interaction with the thermal subprograms. Input to the master program consists of simple user commands which direct the data manipulation procedures, prepare the data for these procedures, and call the appropriate thermal subprograms. The subprograms of SSPTA are all based on programs which have been used extensively in the analysis of orbiting spacecraft and space hardware. Subprogram CONSHAD uses the user supplied geometric radiation model to compute black body view factors, shadow factors, and a description of the surface model. The subprogram WORKSHEET uses the surface model description, optical property data, and node assignment data to prepare input for SCRIPTF. Subprogram SCRIPTF computes the inverses of the infrared (IR) and

  20. Potentialities of TEC topping: A simplified view of parametric effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, J. F.

    1980-01-01

    An examination of the benefits of thermionic-energy-conversion (TEC)-topped power plants and methods of increasing conversion efficiency are discussed. Reductions in the cost of TEC modules yield direct decreases in the cost of electricity (COE) from TEC-topped central station power plants. Simplified COE, overall-efficiency charts presented illustrate this trend. Additional capital-cost diminution results from designing more compact furnaces with considerably increased heat transfer rates allowable and desirable for high temperature TEC and heat pipes. Such improvements can evolve of the protection from hot corrosion and slag as well as the thermal expansion compatibilities offered by silicon-carbide clads on TEC-heating surfaces. Greater efficiencies and far fewer modules are possible with high-temperature, high-power-density TEC: This decreases capital and fuel costs much more and substantially increases electric power outputs for fixed fuel inputs. In addition to more electricity, less pollution, and lower costs, TEC topping used directly in coal-combustion products contributes balance-of-payment gains.

  1. Potentialities of TEC topping: a simplified view of parametric effects

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, J.F.

    1980-01-01

    Reductions in the cost of thermionic-energy-conversion (TEC) modules yield direct decreases in cost of electricity (COE) from TEC-topped central-station power plants. Simplified COE, overall-efficiency charts presented illustrate this trend. Additional capital-cost diminution will result from designing more compact furnaces with considerably increased heat-transfer rates allowable and desirable for high-temperature TEC and heat pipes. Such improvements can evolve because of the protection from hot corrosion and slag as well as the thermal-expansion compatibilities offered by silicon-carbide clads on TEC-heating surfaces. Greater efficiencies and far fewer modules are possible with high-temperature, high-power-density TEC: This will decrease capital and fuel costs much more - and substantially increase electric-power outputs for fixed fuel inputs. In addition to more electricity, less pollution, and lower costs, TEC topping used directly in coal-combustion products will contribute to balance-of-payment gains and national energy independence.

  2. Halo-independent direct detection analyses without mass assumptions

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Adam J.; Fox, Patrick J.; Kahn, Yonatan; McCullough, Matthew

    2015-10-06

    Results from direct detection experiments are typically interpreted by employing an assumption about the dark matter velocity distribution, with results presented in the m{sub χ}−σ{sub n} plane. Recently methods which are independent of the DM halo velocity distribution have been developed which present results in the v{sub min}−g-tilde plane, but these in turn require an assumption on the dark matter mass. Here we present an extension of these halo-independent methods for dark matter direct detection which does not require a fiducial choice of the dark matter mass. With a change of variables from v{sub min} to nuclear recoil momentum (p{sub R}), the full halo-independent content of an experimental result for any dark matter mass can be condensed into a single plot as a function of a new halo integral variable, which we call h-til-tilde(p{sub R}). The entire family of conventional halo-independent g-tilde(v{sub min}) plots for all DM masses are directly found from the single h-tilde(p{sub R}) plot through a simple rescaling of axes. By considering results in h-tilde(p{sub R}) space, one can determine if two experiments are inconsistent for all masses and all physically possible halos, or for what range of dark matter masses the results are inconsistent for all halos, without the necessity of multiple g-tilde(v{sub min}) plots for different DM masses. We conduct a sample analysis comparing the CDMS II Si events to the null results from LUX, XENON10, and SuperCDMS using our method and discuss how the results can be strengthened by imposing the physically reasonable requirement of a finite halo escape velocity.

  3. Halo-independent direct detection analyses without mass assumptions

    DOE PAGES

    Anderson, Adam J.; Fox, Patrick J.; Kahn, Yonatan; McCullough, Matthew

    2015-10-06

    Results from direct detection experiments are typically interpreted by employing an assumption about the dark matter velocity distribution, with results presented in the mχ – σn plane. Recently methods which are independent of the DM halo velocity distribution have been developed which present results in the vmin – g~ plane, but these in turn require an assumption on the dark matter mass. Here we present an extension of these halo-independent methods for dark matter direct detection which does not require a fiducial choice of the dark matter mass. With a change of variables from vmin to nuclear recoil momentum (pR),more » the full halo-independent content of an experimental result for any dark matter mass can be condensed into a single plot as a function of a new halo integral variable, which we call tilde h(pR). The entire family of conventional halo-independent tilde g~(vmin) plots for all DM masses are directly found from the single tilde h~(pR) plot through a simple rescaling of axes. By considering results in tildeh~(pR) space, one can determine if two experiments are inconsistent for all masses and all physically possible halos, or for what range of dark matter masses the results are inconsistent for all halos, without the necessity of multiple tilde g~(vmin) plots for different DM masses. As a result, we conduct a sample analysis comparing the CDMS II Si events to the null results from LUX, XENON10, and SuperCDMS using our method and discuss how the results can be strengthened by imposing the physically reasonable requirement of a finite halo escape velocity.« less

  4. Halo-independent direct detection analyses without mass assumptions

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Adam J.; Fox, Patrick J.; Kahn, Yonatan; McCullough, Matthew E-mail: pjfox@fnal.gov E-mail: matthew.mccullough@cern.ch

    2015-10-01

    Results from direct detection experiments are typically interpreted by employing an assumption about the dark matter velocity distribution, with results presented in the m{sub χ}−σ{sub n} plane. Recently methods which are independent of the DM halo velocity distribution have been developed which present results in the v{sub min}− g-tilde plane, but these in turn require an assumption on the dark matter mass. Here we present an extension of these halo-independent methods for dark matter direct detection which does not require a fiducial choice of the dark matter mass. With a change of variables from v{sub min} to nuclear recoil momentum (p{sub R}), the full halo-independent content of an experimental result for any dark matter mass can be condensed into a single plot as a function of a new halo integral variable, which we call h-tilde (p{sub R}). The entire family of conventional halo-independent g-tilde (v{sub min}) plots for all DM masses are directly found from the single h-tilde (p{sub R}) plot through a simple rescaling of axes. By considering results in h-tilde (p{sub R}) space, one can determine if two experiments are inconsistent for all masses and all physically possible halos, or for what range of dark matter masses the results are inconsistent for all halos, without the necessity of multiple g-tilde (v{sub min}) plots for different DM masses. We conduct a sample analysis comparing the CDMS II Si events to the null results from LUX, XENON10, and SuperCDMS using our method and discuss how the results can be strengthened by imposing the physically reasonable requirement of a finite halo escape velocity.

  5. Halo-independent direct detection analyses without mass assumptions

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Adam J.; Fox, Patrick J.; Kahn, Yonatan; McCullough, Matthew

    2015-10-06

    Results from direct detection experiments are typically interpreted by employing an assumption about the dark matter velocity distribution, with results presented in the mχ – σn plane. Recently methods which are independent of the DM halo velocity distribution have been developed which present results in the vmin – g~ plane, but these in turn require an assumption on the dark matter mass. Here we present an extension of these halo-independent methods for dark matter direct detection which does not require a fiducial choice of the dark matter mass. With a change of variables from vmin to nuclear recoil momentum (pR), the full halo-independent content of an experimental result for any dark matter mass can be condensed into a single plot as a function of a new halo integral variable, which we call tilde h(pR). The entire family of conventional halo-independent tilde g~(vmin) plots for all DM masses are directly found from the single tilde h~(pR) plot through a simple rescaling of axes. By considering results in tildeh~(pR) space, one can determine if two experiments are inconsistent for all masses and all physically possible halos, or for what range of dark matter masses the results are inconsistent for all halos, without the necessity of multiple tilde g~(vmin) plots for different DM masses. As a result, we conduct a sample analysis comparing the CDMS II Si events to the null results from LUX, XENON10, and SuperCDMS using our method and discuss how the results can be strengthened by imposing the physically reasonable requirement of a finite halo escape velocity.

  6. Simplified overturn stability monitoring of agricultural tractors.

    PubMed

    Nichol, C I; Sommer, H J; Murphy, D J

    2005-02-01

    Agricultural tractors are the most common source of farm work fatalities in the U.S., with overturns the most common type of incident. For the year 2001, there were 15 tractor-related fatalities in Pennsylvania, 9 of which were due to tractor rollover. A new device using low-cost sensors and microcomputers was developed around a simplified mathematical model of an agricultural tractor to inform the operator of potential tractor instability. This device communicates the current rollover potential, along with a recent history of rollover potential, to the operator of the tractor via a simple bar-graph display. The device uses a single-chip accelerometer to sense the current rollover potential and a small microprocessor to analyze the accelerometer data, compensate for variations due to temperature, and then send this information to a visual display. The use of these low-cost "off the shelf" components enabled the fabrication of a very inexpensive sensor system. Because agricultural tractors have a long service life, it was important to make the device low cost and flexible. This could enable it to be sold as an aftermarket add-on for a variety of tractor models. The device is also capable of interfacing with newer on-board tractor systems via a CAN bus to make it more attractive to tractor manufacturers who may want to incorporate this device into new models. Work is continuing on the development of an improved display to inform the tractor operator of possible instability, including display ergonomic studies, investigation of threshold levels for alerting an operator of potential instability, and investigation into audible warning signals.

  7. Simplified models for heat transfer in rooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graca, Guilherme C. C. Carrilho Da

    Buildings protect their occupants from the outside environment. As a semi-enclosed environment, buildings tend to contain the internally generated heat and air pollutants, as well as the solar and conductive heat gains that can occur in the facade. In the warmer months of the year this generally leads to overheating, creating a need for a cooling system. Ventilation air replaces contaminated air in the building and is often used as the dominant medium for heat transfer between indoor and outdoor environments. The goal of the research presented in this thesis is to develop a better understanding of the important parameters in the performance of ventilation systems and to develop simplified convective heat transfer models. The general approach used in this study seeks to capture the dominant physical processes for these problems with first order accuracy, and develop simple models that show the correct system behavior trends. Dimensional analysis, in conjunction with simple momentum and energy conservation, scaled model experiments and numerical simulations, is used to improve airflow and heat transfer rate predictions in both single and multi room ventilation systems. This study includes the three commonly used room ventilation modes: mixing, displacement and cross-ventilation. A new modeling approach to convective heat transfer between the building and the outside is presented: the concept of equivalent room heat transfer coefficient. The new model quantifies the reduction in heat transfer between ventilation air and internal room surfaces caused by limited thermal capacity and temperature variation of the air for the three modes studied. Particular emphasis is placed on cross-ventilation, and on the development of a simple model to characterize the airflow patterns that occur in this case. The implementation of the models in a building thermal simulation software tool is presented as well as comparisons between model predictions, experimental results and complex

  8. [Simplified defecography technique. Description and results].

    PubMed

    Berretta, O; Chaussade, S; Coquet, M; Couturier, D; Bonnin, A; Guerre, J

    1990-10-13

    Defecography is a useful paraclinical examination to explore disturbances of continence or defecation. The purpose of this study was to present a simplified defecography technique and assess its validity in subjects without defecation problems (n = 10) and in patients complaining of idiopathic chronic constipation (n = 35). The anorectal angle at rest (RAA) and when straining at stool was not significantly different in constipated patients and in controls. Defecography often gave abnormal results. Anterior rectocele was found in almost 50 percent (17/35) of constipated patients and in 20 percent (2/10) of controls (P less than 0.05). None of the patients had posterior rectocele. Persistent imprint of the puborectal muscle during straining was present in 36 percent (9/35) of constipated patients and in 10 percent (1/10) of controls (NS). The imprint was not always associated with closure of the RAA between rest and straining; this closure was never found in controls but was observed in 6 out of 17 constipated patients (35 percent; P less than 0.05). Perineal descent (PD) varied from 0.6 to 3.7 cm (mean +/- s.e.m.: 2.0 +/- 0.63 cm) in controls, as against 0.6 to 7.9 cm (mean +/- s.e.m.: 2.7 +/- 0.45 cm) in constipated patients. In 24 percent of the constipated patients PD was greater than 3.7 cm (the maximum value recorded in controls). All constipated patients with closure of the RAA during defecation had a PD of less than 1 cm, thus confirming the concept of "pelvic floor muscle hypertonia". Disorders of rectal statics are more frequent in subjects with constipation, but their significance is varied. Some abnormalities could be the cause of constipation (e.g. anismus) and others its consequence (anterior rectal prolapse, anterior rectocele, PD).

  9. 26 CFR 1.41-9 - Alternative simplified credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Alternative simplified credit. 1.41-9 Section 1.41-9 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY INCOME TAX INCOME TAXES Credits Against Tax § 1.41-9 Alternative simplified credit. For further guidance, see § 1.41-9T....

  10. 26 CFR 1.41-9 - Alternative simplified credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Alternative simplified credit. 1.41-9 Section 1.41-9 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY INCOME TAX INCOME TAXES Credits Against Tax § 1.41-9 Alternative simplified credit. For further guidance, see § 1.41-9T....

  11. 26 CFR 1.41-9 - Alternative simplified credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... June 9, 2011, see § 1.41-9T as contained in 26 CFR part 1, revised April 1, 2011. ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Alternative simplified credit. 1.41-9 Section 1... Credits Against Tax § 1.41-9 Alternative simplified credit. (a) Determination of credit. At the...

  12. Communication: A simplified coupled-cluster Lagrangian for polarizable embedding.

    PubMed

    Krause, Katharina; Klopper, Wim

    2016-01-28

    A simplified coupled-cluster Lagrangian, which is linear in the Lagrangian multipliers, is proposed for the coupled-cluster treatment of a quantum mechanical system in a polarizable environment. In the simplified approach, the amplitude equations are decoupled from the Lagrangian multipliers and the energy obtained from the projected coupled-cluster equation corresponds to a stationary point of the Lagrangian. PMID:26827193

  13. 12 CFR 324.144 - Simplified supervisory formula approach (SSFA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Simplified supervisory formula approach (SSFA....144 Simplified supervisory formula approach (SSFA). (a) General requirements for the SSFA. To use the SSFA to determine the risk weight for a securitization exposure, an FDIC-supervised institution...

  14. 12 CFR 3.211 - Simplified supervisory formula approach (SSFA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Simplified supervisory formula approach (SSFA... CAPITAL ADEQUACY STANDARDS Risk-Weighted Assets-Market Risk § 3.211 Simplified supervisory formula... (with unpaid principal used as the weight for each exposure) total capital requirement of the...

  15. 12 CFR 3.144 - Simplified supervisory formula approach (SSFA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Simplified supervisory formula approach (SSFA... Risk-Weighted Assets for Securitization Exposures § 3.144 Simplified supervisory formula approach (SSFA). (a) General requirements for the SSFA. To use the SSFA to determine the risk weight for...

  16. 12 CFR 324.211 - Simplified supervisory formula approach (SSFA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Simplified supervisory formula approach (SSFA... Risk § 324.211 Simplified supervisory formula approach (SSFA). (a) General requirements. To use the... principal used as the weight for each exposure) total capital requirement of the underlying...

  17. 46 CFR 178.330 - Simplified stability proof test (SST).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Simplified stability proof test (SST). 178.330 Section... (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) INTACT STABILITY AND SEAWORTHINESS Intact Stability Standards § 178.330 Simplified stability proof test (SST). (a) A vessel must be in the condition specified in this paragraph when...

  18. 12 CFR 217.211 - Simplified supervisory formula approach (SSFA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Simplified supervisory formula approach (SSFA... Simplified supervisory formula approach (SSFA). (a) General requirements. To use the SSFA to determine the... the weight for each exposure) total capital requirement of the underlying exposures calculated...

  19. Estimating ETAS: the effects of truncation, missing data, and model assumptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seif, Stefanie; Mignan, Arnaud; Zechar, Jeremy; Werner, Maximilian; Wiemer, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    The Epidemic-Type Aftershock Sequence (ETAS) model is widely used to describe the occurrence of earthquakes in space and time, but there has been little discussion of the limits of, and influences on, its estimation. What has been established is that ETAS parameter estimates are influenced by missing data (e.g., earthquakes are not reliably detected during lively aftershock sequences) and by simplifying assumptions (e.g., that aftershocks are isotropically distributed). In this article, we investigate the effect of truncation: how do parameter estimates depend on the cut-off magnitude, Mcut, above which parameters are estimated? We analyze catalogs from southern California and Italy and find that parameter variations as a function of Mcut are caused by (i) changing sample size (which affects e.g. Omori's cconstant) or (ii) an intrinsic dependence on Mcut (as Mcut increases, absolute productivity and background rate decrease). We also explore the influence of another form of truncation - the finite catalog length - that can bias estimators of the branching ratio. Being also a function of Omori's p-value, the true branching ratio is underestimated by 45% to 5% for 1.05< p <1.2. Finite sample size affects the variation of the branching ratio estimates. Moreover, we investigate the effect of missing aftershocks and find that the ETAS productivity parameters (α and K0) and the Omoris c-value are significantly changed only for low Mcut=2.5. We further find that conventional estimation errors for these parameters, inferred from simulations that do not account for aftershock incompleteness, are underestimated by, on average, a factor of six.

  20. Robustness of closed capture-recapture methods to violations of the closure assumption

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kendall, W.L.

    1999-01-01

    Closed-population capture-recapture methods have been used extensively in animal ecology, both by themselves and within the context of Pollock?s robust design and multistate models, to estimate various parameters of population and community dynamics. The defining assumption of geographic and demographic closure (i.e., no births, deaths, immigration, or emigration) for the duration of sampling is restrictive, and likely to be violated in many field situations. I evaluated several types of violations of the closure assumption and found that completely random movement in and out of a study area does not introduce bias to estimators from closed-population methods, although it decreases precision. In addition, if capture probabilities vary only with time, the closed-population Lincoln-Petersen estimator is unbiased for the size of the superpopulation when there are only births/immigration or only deaths/emigration. However, for other cases of nonrandom movement closed-population estimators were biased when movement was Markovian (dependent on the presence/absence of the animal in the previous time period), when an animal was allowed one entry to and one exit from the study area, or when there was trap response or heterogeneity among animals in capture probability. In addition, the probability that an animal is present and available for capture (e.g., breeding propensity) can be estimated using Pollock?s robust design only when movement occurs at a broader temporal scale than that of sampling.

  1. Analysis of longitudinal trials with protocol deviation: a framework for relevant, accessible assumptions, and inference via multiple imputation.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, James R; Roger, James H; Kenward, Michael G

    2013-01-01

    Protocol deviations, for example, due to early withdrawal and noncompliance, are unavoidable in clinical trials. Such deviations often result in missing data. Additional assumptions are then needed for the analysis, and these cannot be definitively verified from the data at hand. Thus, as recognized by recent regulatory guidelines and reports, clarity about these assumptions and their implications is vital for both the primary analysis and framing relevant sensitivity analysis. This article focuses on clinical trials with longitudinal quantitative outcome data. For the target population, we define two estimands, the de jure estimand, "does the treatment work under the best case scenario," and the de facto estimand, "what would be the effect seen in practice." We then carefully define the concept of a deviation from the protocol relevant to the estimand, or for short a deviation. Each patient's postrandomization data can then be divided into predeviation data and postdeviation data. We set out an accessible framework for contextually appropriate assumptions relevant to de facto and de jure estimands, that is, assumptions about the joint distribution of pre- and postdeviation data relevant to the clinical question at hand. We then show how, under these assumptions, multiple imputation provides a practical approach to estimation and inference. We illustrate with data from a longitudinal clinical trial in patients with chronic asthma. PMID:24138436

  2. Analysis of Multivariate Experimental Data Using A Simplified Regression Model Search Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulbrich, Norbert M.

    2013-01-01

    A new regression model search algorithm was developed that may be applied to both general multivariate experimental data sets and wind tunnel strain-gage balance calibration data. The algorithm is a simplified version of a more complex algorithm that was originally developed for the NASA Ames Balance Calibration Laboratory. The new algorithm performs regression model term reduction to prevent overfitting of data. It has the advantage that it needs only about one tenth of the original algorithm's CPU time for the completion of a regression model search. In addition, extensive testing showed that the prediction accuracy of math models obtained from the simplified algorithm is similar to the prediction accuracy of math models obtained from the original algorithm. The simplified algorithm, however, cannot guarantee that search constraints related to a set of statistical quality requirements are always satisfied in the optimized regression model. Therefore, the simplified algorithm is not intended to replace the original algorithm. Instead, it may be used to generate an alternate optimized regression model of experimental data whenever the application of the original search algorithm fails or requires too much CPU time. Data from a machine calibration of NASA's MK40 force balance is used to illustrate the application of the new search algorithm.

  3. Analysis of Multivariate Experimental Data Using A Simplified Regression Model Search Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulbrich, Norbert Manfred

    2013-01-01

    A new regression model search algorithm was developed in 2011 that may be used to analyze both general multivariate experimental data sets and wind tunnel strain-gage balance calibration data. The new algorithm is a simplified version of a more complex search algorithm that was originally developed at the NASA Ames Balance Calibration Laboratory. The new algorithm has the advantage that it needs only about one tenth of the original algorithm's CPU time for the completion of a search. In addition, extensive testing showed that the prediction accuracy of math models obtained from the simplified algorithm is similar to the prediction accuracy of math models obtained from the original algorithm. The simplified algorithm, however, cannot guarantee that search constraints related to a set of statistical quality requirements are always satisfied in the optimized regression models. Therefore, the simplified search algorithm is not intended to replace the original search algorithm. Instead, it may be used to generate an alternate optimized regression model of experimental data whenever the application of the original search algorithm either fails or requires too much CPU time. Data from a machine calibration of NASA's MK40 force balance is used to illustrate the application of the new regression model search algorithm.

  4. Highly efficient blue and warm white organic light-emitting diodes with a simplified structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiang-Long; Ouyang, Xinhua; Chen, Dongcheng; Cai, Xinyi; Liu, Ming; Ge, Ziyi; Cao, Yong; Su, Shi-Jian

    2016-03-01

    Two blue fluorescent emitters were utilized to construct simplified organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) and the remarkable difference in device performance was carefully illustrated. A maximum current efficiency of 4.84 cd A-1 (corresponding to a quantum efficiency of 4.29%) with a Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage (CIE) coordinate of (0.144, 0.127) was achieved by using N,N-diphenyl-4″-(1-phenyl-1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)-[1, 1‧:4‧, 1″-terphenyl]-4-amine (BBPI) as a non-doped emission layer of the simplified blue OLEDs without carrier-transport layers. In addition, simplified fluorescent/phosphorescent (F/P) hybrid warm white OLEDs without carrier-transport layers were fabricated by utilizing BBPI as (1) the blue emitter and (2) the host of a complementary yellow phosphorescent emitter (PO-01). A maximum current efficiency of 36.8 cd A-1 and a maximum power efficiency of 38.6 lm W-1 were achieved as a result of efficient energy transfer from the host to the guest and good triplet exciton confinement on the phosphorescent molecules. The blue and white OLEDs are among the most efficient simplified fluorescent blue and F/P hybrid white devices, and their performance is even comparable to that of most previously reported complicated multi-layer devices with carrier-transport layers.

  5. Simplified Models for Dark Matter and Missing Energy Searches at the LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Abdallah, Jalal; Ashkenazi, Adi; Boveia, Antonio; Busoni, Giorgio; De Simone, Andrea; Doglioni, Caterina; Efrati, Aielet; Etzion, Erez; Gramling, Johanna; Jacques, Thomas; Lin, Tongyan; Morgante, Enrico; Papucci, Michele; Penning, Bjoern; Riotto, Antonio Walter; Rizzo, Thomas; Salek, David; Schramm, Steven; Slone, Oren; Soreq, Yotam; Vichi, Alessandro; Volansky, Tomer; Yavin, Itay; Zhou, Ning; Zurek, Kathryn

    2014-10-01

    The study of collision events with missing energy as searches for the dark matter (DM) component of the Universe are an essential part of the extensive program looking for new physics at the LHC. Given the unknown nature of DM, the interpretation of such searches should be made broad and inclusive. This report reviews the usage of simplified models in the interpretation of missing energy searches. We begin with a brief discussion of the utility and limitation of the effective field theory approach to this problem. The bulk of the report is then devoted to several different simplified models and their signatures, including s-channel and t-channel processes. A common feature of simplified models for DM is the presence of additional particles that mediate the interactions between the Standard Model and the particle that makes up DM. We consider these in detail and emphasize the importance of their inclusion as final states in any coherent interpretation. We also review some of the experimental progress in the field, new signatures, and other aspects of the searches themselves. We conclude with comments and recommendations regarding the use of simplified models in Run-II of the LHC.

  6. On Some Unwarranted Tacit Assumptions in Cognitive Neuroscience†

    PubMed Central

    Mausfeld, Rainer

    2011-01-01

    The cognitive neurosciences are based on the idea that the level of neurons or neural networks constitutes a privileged level of analysis for the explanation of mental phenomena. This paper brings to mind several arguments to the effect that this presumption is ill-conceived and unwarranted in light of what is currently understood about the physical principles underlying mental achievements. It then scrutinizes the question why such conceptions are nevertheless currently prevailing in many areas of psychology. The paper argues that corresponding conceptions are rooted in four different aspects of our common-sense conception of mental phenomena and their explanation, which are illegitimately transferred to scientific enquiry. These four aspects pertain to the notion of explanation, to conceptions about which mental phenomena are singled out for enquiry, to an inductivist epistemology, and, in the wake of behavioristic conceptions, to a bias favoring investigations of input–output relations at the expense of enquiries into internal principles. To the extent that the cognitive neurosciences methodologically adhere to these tacit assumptions, they are prone to turn into a largely a-theoretical and data-driven endeavor while at the same time enhancing the prospects for receiving widespread public appreciation of their empirical findings. PMID:22435062

  7. Observing gravitational-wave transient GW150914 with minimal assumptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; Abernathy, M. R.; Acernese, F.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Adams, T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R. X.; Adya, V. B.; Affeldt, C.; Agathos, M.; Agatsuma, K.; Aggarwal, N.; Aguiar, O. D.; Aiello, L.; Ain, A.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Allocca, A.; Altin, P. A.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Arceneaux, C. C.; Areeda, J. S.; Arnaud, N.; Arun, K. G.; Ascenzi, S.; Ashton, G.; Ast, M.; Aston, S. M.; Astone, P.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Babak, S.; Bacon, P.; Bader, M. K. M.; Baker, P. T.; Baldaccini, F.; Ballardin, G.; Ballmer, S. W.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barclay, S. E.; Barish, B. C.; Barker, D.; Barone, F.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Barsuglia, M.; Barta, D.; Bartlett, J.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Basti, A.; Batch, J. C.; Baune, C.; Bavigadda, V.; Bazzan, M.; Behnke, B.; Bejger, M.; Bell, A. S.; Bell, C. J.; Berger, B. K.; Bergman, J.; Bergmann, G.; Berry, C. P. L.; Bersanetti, D.; Bertolini, A.; Betzwieser, J.; Bhagwat, S.; Bhandare, R.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Birch, J.; Birney, R.; Biscans, S.; Bisht, A.; Bitossi, M.; Biwer, C.; Bizouard, M. A.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blackburn, L.; Blair, C. D.; Blair, D. G.; Blair, R. M.; Bloemen, S.; Bock, O.; Bodiya, T. P.; Boer, M.; Bogaert, G.; Bogan, C.; Bohe, A.; Bojtos, P.; Bond, C.; Bondu, F.; Bonnand, R.; Boom, B. A.; Bork, R.; Boschi, V.; Bose, S.; Bouffanais, Y.; Bozzi, A.; Bradaschia, C.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Branchesi, M.; Brau, J. E.; Briant, T.; Brillet, A.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Brockill, P.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, D. A.; Brown, D. D.; Brown, N. M.; Buchanan, C. C.; Buikema, A.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buonanno, A.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Byer, R. L.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Cahillane, C.; Calderón Bustillo, J.; Callister, T.; Calloni, E.; Camp, J. B.; Cannon, K. C.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. D.; Capocasa, E.; Carbognani, F.; Caride, S.; Casanueva Diaz, J.; Casentini, C.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglià, M.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Cella, G.; Cepeda, C. B.; Cerboni Baiardi, L.; Cerretani, G.; Cesarini, E.; Chakraborty, R.; Chatterji, S.; Chalermsongsak, T.; Chamberlin, S. J.; Chan, M.; Chao, S.; Charlton, P.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Chen, H. Y.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, C.; Chincarini, A.; Chiummo, A.; Cho, H. S.; Cho, M.; Chow, J. H.; Christensen, N.; Chu, Q.; Chua, S.; Chung, S.; Ciani, G.; Clara, F.; Clark, J. A.; Clark, M.; Cleva, F.; Coccia, E.; Cohadon, P.-F.; Colla, A.; Collette, C. G.; Cominsky, L.; Constancio, M.; Conte, A.; Conti, L.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T. R.; Cornish, N.; Corsi, A.; Cortese, S.; Costa, C. A.; Coughlin, M. W.; Coughlin, S. B.; Coulon, J.-P.; Countryman, S. T.; Couvares, P.; Cowan, E. E.; Coward, D. M.; Cowart, M. J.; Coyne, D. C.; Coyne, R.; Craig, K.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Cripe, J.; Crowder, S. G.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, L.; Cuoco, E.; Dal Canton, T.; Danilishin, S. L.; D'Antonio, S.; Danzmann, K.; Darman, N. S.; Dattilo, V.; Dave, I.; Daveloza, H. P.; Davier, M.; Davies, G. S.; Daw, E. J.; Day, R.; DeBra, D.; Debreczeni, G.; Degallaix, J.; De Laurentis, M.; Deléglise, S.; Del Pozzo, W.; Denker, T.; Dent, T.; Dereli, H.; Dergachev, V.; DeRosa, R. T.; De Rosa, R.; DeSalvo, R.; Dhurandhar, S.; Díaz, M. C.; Di Fiore, L.; Di Giovanni, M.; Di Lieto, A.; Di Pace, S.; Di Palma, I.; Di Virgilio, A.; Dojcinoski, G.; Dolique, V.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doravari, S.; Douglas, R.; Downes, T. P.; Drago, M.; Drever, R. W. P.; Driggers, J. C.; Du, Z.; Ducrot, M.; Dwyer, S. E.; Edo, T. B.; Edwards, M. C.; Effler, A.; Eggenstein, H.-B.; Ehrens, P.; Eichholz, J.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Engels, W.; Essick, R. C.; Etzel, T.; Evans, M.; Evans, T. M.; Everett, R.; Factourovich, M.; Fafone, V.; Fair, H.; Fairhurst, S.; Fan, X.; Fang, Q.; Farinon, S.; Farr, B.; Farr, W. M.; Favata, M.; Fays, M.; Fehrmann, H.; Fejer, M. M.; Ferrante, I.; Ferreira, E. C.; Ferrini, F.; Fidecaro, F.; Fiori, I.; Fiorucci, D.; Fisher, R. P.; Flaminio, R.; Fletcher, M.; Fournier, J.-D.; Franco, S.; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Frey, V.; Fricke, T. T.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Gabbard, H. A. G.; Gair, J. R.; Gammaitoni, L.; Gaonkar, S. G.; Garufi, F.; Gatto, A.; Gaur, G.; Gehrels, N.; Gemme, G.; Gendre, B.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; George, J.; Gergely, L.; Germain, V.; Ghosh, Archisman; Ghosh, S.; Giaime, J. A.; Giardina, K. D.; Giazotto, A.; Gill, K.; Glaefke, A.; Goetz, E.; Goetz, R.; Gondan, L.; González, G.; Gonzalez Castro, J. M.; Gopakumar, A.; Gordon, N. A.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Gossan, S. E.; Gosselin, M.; Gouaty, R.; Graef, C.; Graff, P. B.; Granata, M.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.; Greco, G.; Green, A. C.; Groot, P.; Grote, H.; Grunewald, S.; Guidi, G. M.; Guo, X.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, M. K.; Gushwa, K. E.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Haas, R.; Hacker, J. J.; Hall, B. R.; Hall, E. D.; Hammond, G.; Haney, M.; Hanke, M. M.; Hanks, J.; Hanna, C.; Hannam, M. D.; Hanson, J.; Hardwick, T.; Harms, J.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Hart, M. J.; Hartman, M. T.; Haster, C.-J.; Haughian, K.; Healy, J.; Heidmann, A.; Heintze, M. C.; Heitmann, H.; Hello, P.; Hemming, G.; Hendry, M.; Heng, I. S.; Hennig, J.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Heurs, M.; Hild, S.; Hinder, I.; Hoak, D.; Hodge, K. A.; Hofman, D.; Hollitt, S. E.; Holt, K.; Holz, D. E.; Hopkins, P.; Hosken, D. J.; Hough, J.; Houston, E. A.; Howell, E. J.; Hu, Y. M.; Huang, S.; Huerta, E. A.; Huet, D.; Hughey, B.; Husa, S.; Huttner, S. H.; Huynh-Dinh, T.; Idrisy, A.; Indik, N.; Ingram, D. R.; Inta, R.; Isa, H. N.; Isac, J.-M.; Isi, M.; Islas, G.; Isogai, T.; Iyer, B. R.; Izumi, K.; Jacqmin, T.; Jang, H.; Jani, K.; Jaranowski, P.; Jawahar, S.; Jiménez-Forteza, F.; Johnson, W. W.; Jones, D. I.; Jones, R.; Jonker, R. J. G.; Ju, L.; Haris, K.; Kalaghatgi, C. V.; Kalogera, V.; Kandhasamy, S.; Kang, G.; Kanner, J. B.; Karki, S.; Kasprzack, M.; Katsavounidis, E.; Katzman, W.; Kaufer, S.; Kaur, T.; Kawabe, K.; Kawazoe, F.; Kéfélian, F.; Kehl, M. S.; Keitel, D.; Kelley, D. B.; Kells, W.; Kennedy, R.; Key, J. S.; Khalaidovski, A.; Khalili, F. Y.; Khan, I.; Khan, S.; Khan, Z.; Khazanov, E. A.; Kijbunchoo, N.; Kim, C.; Kim, J.; Kim, K.; Kim, Nam-Gyu; Kim, Namjun; Kim, Y.-M.; King, E. J.; King, P. J.; Kinsey, M.; Kinzel, D. L.; Kissel, J. S.; Kleybolte, L.; Klimenko, S.; Koehlenbeck, S. M.; Kokeyama, K.; Koley, S.; Kondrashov, V.; Kontos, A.; Korobko, M.; Korth, W. Z.; Kowalska, I.; Kozak, D. B.; Kringel, V.; Królak, A.; Krueger, C.; Kuehn, G.; Kumar, P.; Kuo, L.; Kutynia, A.; Lackey, B. D.; Laguna, P.; Landry, M.; Lange, J.; Lantz, B.; Lasky, P. D.; Lazzarini, A.; Lazzaro, C.; Leaci, P.; Leavey, S.; Lebigot, E. O.; Lee, C. H.; Lee, H. K.; Lee, H. M.; Lee, K.; Lenon, A.; Leonardi, M.; Leong, J. R.; Leroy, N.; Letendre, N.; Levin, Y.; Levine, B. M.; Li, T. G. F.; Libson, A.; Littenberg, T. B.; Lockerbie, N. A.; Logue, J.; Lombardi, A. L.; Lord, J. E.; Lorenzini, M.; Loriette, V.; Lormand, M.; Losurdo, G.; Lough, J. D.; Lück, H.; Lundgren, A. P.; Luo, J.; Lynch, R.; Ma, Y.; MacDonald, T.; Machenschalk, B.; MacInnis, M.; Macleod, D. M.; Magaña-Sandoval, F.; Magee, R. M.; Mageswaran, M.; Majorana, E.; Maksimovic, I.; Malvezzi, V.; Man, N.; Mandel, I.; Mandic, V.; Mangano, V.; Mansell, G. L.; Manske, M.; Mantovani, M.; Marchesoni, F.; Marion, F.; Márka, S.; Márka, Z.; Markosyan, A. S.; Maros, E.; Martelli, F.; Martellini, L.; Martin, I. W.; Martin, R. M.; Martynov, D. V.; Marx, J. N.; Mason, K.; Masserot, A.; Massinger, T. J.; Masso-Reid, M.; Matichard, F.; Matone, L.; Mavalvala, N.; Mazumder, N.; Mazzolo, G.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McCormick, S.; McGuire, S. C.; McIntyre, G.; McIver, J.; McManus, D. J.; McWilliams, S. T.; Meacher, D.; Meadors, G. D.; Meidam, J.; Melatos, A.; Mendell, G.; Mendoza-Gandara, D.; Mercer, R. A.; Merilh, E.; Merzougui, M.; Meshkov, S.; Messenger, C.; Messick, C.; Meyers, P. M.; Mezzani, F.; Miao, H.; Michel, C.; Middleton, H.; Mikhailov, E. E.; Milano, L.; Miller, J.; Millhouse, M.; Minenkov, Y.; Ming, J.; Mirshekari, S.; Mishra, C.; Mitra, S.; Mitrofanov, V. P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mittleman, R.; Moggi, A.; Mohan, M.; Mohapatra, S. R. P.; Montani, M.; Moore, B. C.; Moore, C. J.; Moraru, D.; Moreno, G.; Morriss, S. R.; Mossavi, K.; Mours, B.; Mow-Lowry, C. M.; Mueller, C. L.; Mueller, G.; Muir, A. W.; Mukherjee, Arunava; Mukherjee, D.; Mukherjee, S.; Mukund, N.; Mullavey, A.; Munch, J.; Murphy, D. J.; Murray, P. G.; Mytidis, A.; Nardecchia, I.; Naticchioni, L.; Nayak, R. K.; Necula, V.; Nedkova, K.; Nelemans, G.; Neri, M.; Neunzert, A.; Newton, G.; Nguyen, T. T.; Nielsen, A. B.; Nissanke, S.; Nitz, A.; Nocera, F.; Nolting, D.; Normandin, M. E.; Nuttall, L. K.; Oberling, J.; Ochsner, E.; O'Dell, J.; Oelker, E.; Ogin, G. H.; Oh, J. J.; Oh, S. H.; Ohme, F.; Oliver, M.; Oppermann, P.; Oram, Richard J.; O'Reilly, B.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Ottaway, D. J.; Ottens, R. S.; Overmier, H.; Owen, B. J.; Pai, A.; Pai, S. A.; Palamos, J. R.; Palashov, O.; Palomba, C.; Pal-Singh, A.; Pan, H.; Pankow, C.; Pannarale, F.; Pant, B. C.; Paoletti, F.; Paoli, A.; Papa, M. A.; Page, J.; Paris, H. R.; Parker, W.; Pascucci, D.; Pasqualetti, A.; Passaquieti, R.; Passuello, D.; Patricelli, B.; Patrick, Z.; Pearlstone, B. L.; Pedraza, M.; Pedurand, R.; Pekowsky, L.; Pele, A.; Penn, S.; Perreca, A.; Phelps, M.; Piccinni, O.; Pichot, M.; Piergiovanni, F.; Pierro, V.; Pillant, G.; Pinard, L.; Pinto, I. M.; Pitkin, M.; Poggiani, R.; Popolizio, P.; Post, A.; Powell, J.; Prasad, J.; Predoi, V.; Premachandra, S. S.; Prestegard, T.; Price, L. R.; Prijatelj, M.; Principe, M.; Privitera, S.; Prodi, G. A.; Prokhorov, L.; Puncken, O.; Punturo, M.; Puppo, P.; Pürrer, M.; Qi, H.; Qin, J.; Quetschke, V.; Quintero, E. A.; Quitzow-James, R.; Raab, F. J.; Rabeling, D. S.; Radkins, H.; Raffai, P.; Raja, S.; Rakhmanov, M.; Rapagnani, P.; Raymond, V.; Razzano, M.; Re, V.; Read, J.; Reed, C. M.; Regimbau, T.; Rei, L.; Reid, S.; Reitze, D. H.; Rew, H.; Reyes, S. D.; Ricci, F.; Riles, K.; Robertson, N. A.; Robie, R.; Robinet, F.; Rocchi, A.; Rolland, L.; Rollins, J. G.; Roma, V. J.; Romano, R.; Romanov, G.; Romie, J. H.; Rosińska, D.; Rowan, S.; Rüdiger, A.; Ruggi, P.; Ryan, K.; Sachdev, S.; Sadecki, T.; Sadeghian, L.; Salconi, L.; Saleem, M.; Salemi, F.; Samajdar, A.; Sammut, L.; Sanchez, E. J.; Sandberg, V.; Sandeen, B.; Sanders, J. R.; Sassolas, B.; Sathyaprakash, B. S.; Saulson, P. R.; Sauter, O.; Savage, R. L.; Sawadsky, A.; Schale, P.; Schilling, R.; Schmidt, J.; Schmidt, P.; Schnabel, R.; Schofield, R. M. S.; Schönbeck, A.; Schreiber, E.; Schuette, D.; Schutz, B. F.; Scott, J.; Scott, S. M.; Sellers, D.; Sengupta, A. S.; Sentenac, D.; Sequino, V.; Sergeev, A.; Serna, G.; Setyawati, Y.; Sevigny, A.; Shaddock, D. A.; Shah, S.; Shahriar, M. S.; Shaltev, M.; Shao, Z.; Shapiro, B.; Shawhan, P.; Sheperd, A.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Shoemaker, D. M.; Siellez, K.; Siemens, X.; Sigg, D.; Silva, A. D.; Simakov, D.; Singer, A.; Singer, L. P.; Singh, A.; Singh, R.; Singhal, A.; Sintes, A. M.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.; Smith, J. R.; Smith, N. D.; Smith, R. J. E.; Son, E. J.; Sorazu, B.; Sorrentino, F.; Souradeep, T.; Srivastava, A. K.; Staley, A.; Steinke, M.; Steinlechner, J.; Steinlechner, S.; Steinmeyer, D.; Stephens, B. C.; Stone, R.; Strain, K. A.; Straniero, N.; Stratta, G.; Strauss, N. A.; Strigin, S.; Sturani, R.; Stuver, A. L.; Summerscales, T. Z.; Sun, L.; Sutton, P. J.; Swinkels, B. L.; Szczepańczyk, M. J.; Tacca, M.; Talukder, D.; Tanner, D. B.; Tápai, M.; Tarabrin, S. P.; Taracchini, A.; Taylor, R.; Theeg, T.; Thirugnanasambandam, M. P.; Thomas, E. G.; Thomas, M.; Thomas, P.; Thorne, K. A.; Thorne, K. S.; Thrane, E.; Tiwari, S.; Tiwari, V.; Tokmakov, K. V.; Tomlinson, C.; Tonelli, M.; Torres, C. V.; Torrie, C. I.; Töyrä, D.; Travasso, F.; Traylor, G.; Trifirò, D.; Tringali, M. C.; Trozzo, L.; Tse, M.; Turconi, M.; Tuyenbayev, D.; Ugolini, D.; Unnikrishnan, C. S.; Urban, A. L.; Usman, S. A.; Vahlbruch, H.; Vajente, G.; Valdes, G.; van Bakel, N.; van Beuzekom, M.; van den Brand, J. F. J.; Van Den Broeck, C.; Vander-Hyde, D. C.; van der Schaaf, L.; van Heijningen, J. V.; van Veggel, A. A.; Vardaro, M.; Vass, S.; Vasúth, M.; Vaulin, R.; Vecchio, A.; Vedovato, G.; Veitch, J.; Veitch, P. J.; Venkateswara, K.; Verkindt, D.; Vetrano, F.; Viceré, A.; Vinciguerra, S.; Vine, D. J.; Vinet, J.-Y.; Vitale, S.; Vo, T.; Vocca, H.; Vorvick, C.; Voss, D.; Vousden, W. D.; Vyatchanin, S. P.; Wade, A. R.; Wade, L. E.; Wade, M.; Walker, M.; Wallace, L.; Walsh, S.; Wang, G.; Wang, H.; Wang, M.; Wang, X.; Wang, Y.; Ward, R. L.; Warner, J.; Was, M.; Weaver, B.; Wei, L.-W.; Weinert, M.; Weinstein, A. J.; Weiss, R.; Welborn, T.; Wen, L.; Weßels, P.; Westphal, T.; Wette, K.; Whelan, J. T.; White, D. J.; Whiting, B. F.; Williams, D.; Williams, R. D.; Williamson, A. R.; Willis, J. L.; Willke, B.; Wimmer, M. H.; Winkler, W.; Wipf, C. C.; Wittel, H.; Woan, G.; Worden, J.; Wright, J. L.; Wu, G.; Yablon, J.; Yam, W.; Yamamoto, H.; Yancey, C. C.; Yap, M. J.; Yu, H.; Yvert, M.; ZadroŻny, A.; Zangrando, L.; Zanolin, M.; Zendri, J.-P.; Zevin, M.; Zhang, F.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, M.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, C.; Zhou, M.; Zhou, Z.; Zhu, X. J.; Zucker, M. E.; Zuraw, S. E.; Zweizig, J.; LIGO Scientific Collaboration; Virgo Collaboration

    2016-06-01

    The gravitational-wave signal GW150914 was first identified on September 14, 2015, by searches for short-duration gravitational-wave transients. These searches identify time-correlated transients in multiple detectors with minimal assumptions about the signal morphology, allowing them to be sensitive to gravitational waves emitted by a wide range of sources including binary black hole mergers. Over the observational period from September 12 to October 20, 2015, these transient searches were sensitive to binary black hole mergers similar to GW150914 to an average distance of ˜600 Mpc . In this paper, we describe the analyses that first detected GW150914 as well as the parameter estimation and waveform reconstruction techniques that initially identified GW150914 as the merger of two black holes. We find that the reconstructed waveform is consistent with the signal from a binary black hole merger with a chirp mass of ˜30 M⊙ and a total mass before merger of ˜70 M⊙ in the detector frame.

  8. Finite Element Simulations to Explore Assumptions in Kolsky Bar Experiments.

    SciTech Connect

    Crum, Justin

    2015-08-05

    The chief purpose of this project has been to develop a set of finite element models that attempt to explore some of the assumptions in the experimental set-up and data reduction of the Kolsky bar experiment. In brief, the Kolsky bar, sometimes referred to as the split Hopkinson pressure bar, is an experimental apparatus used to study the mechanical properties of materials at high strain rates. Kolsky bars can be constructed to conduct experiments in tension or compression, both of which are studied in this paper. The basic operation of the tension Kolsky bar is as follows: compressed air is inserted into the barrel that contains the striker; the striker accelerates towards the left and strikes the left end of the barrel producing a tensile stress wave that propogates first through the barrel and then down the incident bar, into the specimen, and finally the transmission bar. In the compression case, the striker instead travels to the right and impacts the incident bar directly. As the stress wave travels through an interface (e.g., the incident bar to specimen connection), a portion of the pulse is transmitted and the rest reflected. The incident pulse, as well as the transmitted and reflected pulses are picked up by two strain gauges installed on the incident and transmitted bars as shown. By interpreting the data acquired by these strain gauges, the stress/strain behavior of the specimen can be determined.

  9. Validity of conventional assumptions concerning flexible response. Research report

    SciTech Connect

    Gutierrez, M.J.

    1989-01-01

    The North Atlantic Treaty Organization is an alliance for collective defense. Made up of 16 countries, NATO has been a successful alliance because there has been no war in Europe since 1945. In 1967, NATO adopted the strategy of flexible response, a strategy dependent upon conventional, tactical nuclear, and strategic nuclear weapons to provide deterrence from a Warsaw Pact attack. Although successful, NATO is suffering from an erosion in conventional strength. NATO continues to make assumptions about its conventional capabilities to successfully meet the requirements of the flexible response strategy. In the present day world of NATO, there is limited funding, a fact that is not likely to change any time in the foreseeable future. Limited funding makes it impossible to buy all the conventional force structure needed to ideally support the current strategy, also a fact that is unlikely to change. This paper shows limitations in some of the ways NATO assumes it can conventionally perform its mission. It is the author's position that NATO should modernize its conventional thinking to make it more in line with the realities of the situation NATO finds itself in today.

  10. Excitation-resolved fluorescence tomography with simplified spherical harmonics equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klose, Alexander D.; Pöschinger, Thomas

    2011-03-01

    Fluorescence tomography (FT) reconstructs the three-dimensional (3D) fluorescent reporter probe distribution inside biological tissue. These probes target molecules of biological function, e.g. cell surface receptors or enzymes, and emit fluorescence light upon illumination with an external light source. The fluorescence light is detected on the tissue surface and a source reconstruction algorithm based on the simplified spherical harmonics (SPN) equations calculates the unknown 3D probe distribution inside tissue. While current FT approaches require multiple external sources at a defined wavelength range, the proposed FT method uses only a white light source with tunable wavelength selection for fluorescence stimulation and further exploits the spectral dependence of tissue absorption for the purpose of 3D tomographic reconstruction. We will show the feasibility of the proposed hyperspectral excitation-resolved fluorescence tomography method with experimental data. In addition, we will demonstrate the performance and limitations of such a method under ideal and controlled conditions by means of a digital mouse model and synthetic measurement data. Moreover, we will address issues regarding the required amount of wavelength intervals for fluorescent source reconstruction. We will explore the impact of assumed spatially uniform and nonuniform optical parameter maps on the accuracy of the fluorescence source reconstruction. Last, we propose a spectral re-scaling method for overcoming the observed limitations in reconstructing accurate source distributions in optically non-uniform tissue when assuming only uniform optical property maps for the source reconstruction process.

  11. Simplified two and three dimensional HTTR benchmark problems

    SciTech Connect

    Zhan Zhang; Dingkang Zhang; Justin M. Pounders; Abderrafi M. Ougouag

    2011-05-01

    To assess the accuracy of diffusion or transport methods for reactor calculations, it is desirable to create heterogeneous benchmark problems that are typical of whole core configurations. In this paper we have created two and three dimensional numerical benchmark problems typical of high temperature gas cooled prismatic cores. Additionally, a single cell and single block benchmark problems are also included. These problems were derived from the HTTR start-up experiment. Since the primary utility of the benchmark problems is in code-to-code verification, minor details regarding geometry and material specification of the original experiment have been simplified while retaining the heterogeneity and the major physics properties of the core from a neutronics viewpoint. A six-group material (macroscopic) cross section library has been generated for the benchmark problems using the lattice depletion code HELIOS. Using this library, Monte Carlo solutions are presented for three configurations (all-rods-in, partially-controlled and all-rods-out) for both the 2D and 3D problems. These solutions include the core eigenvalues, the block (assembly) averaged fission densities, local peaking factors, the absorption densities in the burnable poison and control rods, and pin fission density distribution for selected blocks. Also included are the solutions for the single cell and single block problems.

  12. Simplified training for hazardous materials management in developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Braithwaite, J.

    1994-12-31

    There are thousands of dangerous situations happening daily in developing countries around the world involving untrained workers and hazardous materials. There are very few if any agencies in developing countries that are charged with ensuring safe and healthful working conditions. In addition to the problem of regulation and enforcement, there are potential training problems due to the level of literacy and degree of scientific background of these workers. Many of these workers are refugees from poorly developed countries who are willing to work no matter what the conditions. Training methods (standards) accepted as state of the art in the United States and other developed countries may not work well under the conditions found in developing countries. Because these methods may not be appropriate, new and novel ways to train workers quickly, precisely and economically in hazardous materials management should be developed. One approach is to develop training programs that use easily recognizable graphics with minimal verbal instruction, programs similar to the type used to teach universal international driving regulations and safety. The program as outlined in this paper could be tailored to any sized plant and any hazardous material handling or exposure situation. The situation in many developing countries is critical, development of simplified training methods for workers exposed to hazardous materials hold valuable market potential and are an opportunity for many underdeveloped countries to develop indigenous expertise in hazardous materials management.

  13. IODC 1998 Lens Design Problem Revisited: A Strategy for Simplifying Glass Choices in an Apochromatic Design

    SciTech Connect

    Seppala, L G

    2000-09-15

    A glass-choice strategy, based on separately designing an achromatic lens before progressing to an apochromatic lens, simplified my approach to solving the International Optical Design Conference (IODC) 1998 lens design problem. The glasses that are needed to make the lens apochromatic are combined into triplet correctors with two ''buried'' surfaces. By applying this strategy, I reached successful solutions that used only six glasses--three glasses for the achromatic design and three additional glasses for the apochromatic design.

  14. BrainSignals Revisited: Simplifying a Computational Model of Cerebral Physiology

    PubMed Central

    Caldwell, Matthew; Hapuarachchi, Tharindi; Highton, David; Elwell, Clare; Smith, Martin; Tachtsidis, Ilias

    2015-01-01

    Multimodal monitoring of brain state is important both for the investigation of healthy cerebral physiology and to inform clinical decision making in conditions of injury and disease. Near-infrared spectroscopy is an instrument modality that allows non-invasive measurement of several physiological variables of clinical interest, notably haemoglobin oxygenation and the redox state of the metabolic enzyme cytochrome c oxidase. Interpreting such measurements requires the integration of multiple signals from different sources to try to understand the physiological states giving rise to them. We have previously published several computational models to assist with such interpretation. Like many models in the realm of Systems Biology, these are complex and dependent on many parameters that can be difficult or impossible to measure precisely. Taking one such model, BrainSignals, as a starting point, we have developed several variant models in which specific regions of complexity are substituted with much simpler linear approximations. We demonstrate that model behaviour can be maintained whilst achieving a significant reduction in complexity, provided that the linearity assumptions hold. The simplified models have been tested for applicability with simulated data and experimental data from healthy adults undergoing a hypercapnia challenge, but relevance to different physiological and pathophysiological conditions will require specific testing. In conditions where the simplified models are applicable, their greater efficiency has potential to allow their use at the bedside to help interpret clinical data in near real-time. PMID:25961297

  15. Review of simplified Pseudo-two-Dimensional models of lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jokar, Ali; Rajabloo, Barzin; Désilets, Martin; Lacroix, Marcel

    2016-09-01

    Over the last decade, many efforts have been deployed to develop models for the prediction, the control, the optimization and the parameter estimation of Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries. It appears that the most successful electrochemical-based model for Li-ion battery is the Pseudo-two-Dimensional model (P2D). Due to the fact that the governing equations are complex, this model cannot be used in real-time applications like Battery Management Systems (BMSs). To remedy the situation, several investigations have been carried out to simplify the P2D model. Mathematical and physical techniques are employed to reduce the order of magnitude of the P2D governing equations. The present paper is a review of the studies on the modeling of Li-ion batteries with simplified P2D models. The assumptions on which these models rest are stated, the calculation methods are examined, the advantages and the drawbacks of the models are discussed and their applications are presented. Suggestions for overcoming the shortcomings of the models are made. Challenges and future directions in the modeling of Li-ion batteries are also discussed.

  16. Simplified cost models for prefeasibility mineral evaluations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Camm, Thomas W.

    1991-01-01

    This report contains 2 open pit models, 6 underground mine models, 11 mill models, and cost equations for access roads, power lines, and tailings ponds. In addition, adjustment factors for variation in haulage distances are provided for open pit models and variation in mining depths for underground models.

  17. Cosmology without Einstein's assumption that inertial mass produces gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, Homer G.

    2015-06-01

    Giving up Einstein's assumption, implicit in his 1916 field equations, that inertial mass, even in its appearance as energy, is equivalent to active gravitational mass and therefore is a source of gravity allows revising the field equations to a form in which a positive cosmological constant is seen to (mis)represent a uniform negative net mass density of gravitationally attractive and gravitationally repulsive matter. Field equations with both positive and negative active gravitational mass densities of both primordial and continuously created matter, incorporated along with two scalar fields to 'relax the constraints' on the spacetime geometry, yield cosmological solutions that exhibit inflation, deceleration, coasting, acceleration, and a 'big bounce' instead of a 'big bang,' and provide good fits to a Hubble diagram of Type Ia supernovae data. The repulsive matter is identified as the back sides of the 'drainholes' introduced by the author in 1973 as solutions of those same field equations. Drainholes (prototypical examples of 'traversable wormholes') are topological tunnels in space which gravitationally attract on their front, entrance sides, and repel more strongly on their back, exit sides. The front sides serve both as the gravitating cores of the visible, baryonic particles of primordial matter and as the continuously created, invisible particles of the 'dark matter' needed to hold together the large-scale structures seen in the universe; the back sides serve as the misnamed 'dark energy' driving the current acceleration of the expansion of the universe. Formation of cosmic voids, walls, filaments and nodes is attributed to expulsion of drainhole entrances from regions populated by drainhole exits and accumulation of the entrances on boundaries separating those regions.

  18. The assumption of equilibrium in models of migration.

    PubMed

    Schachter, J; Althaus, P G

    1993-02-01

    In recent articles Evans (1990) and Harrigan and McGregor (1993) (hereafter HM) scrutinized the equilibrium model of migration presented in a 1989 paper by Schachter and Althaus. This model used standard microeconomics to analyze gross interregional migration flows based on the assumption that gross flows are in approximate equilibrium. HM criticized the model as theoretically untenable, while Evans summoned empirical as well as theoretical objections. HM claimed that equilibrium of gross migration flows could be ruled out on theoretical grounds. They argued that the absence of net migration requires that either all regions have equal populations or that unsustainable regional migration propensities must obtain. In fact some moves are inter- and other are intraregional. It does not follow, however, that the number of interregional migrants will be larger for the more populous region. Alternatively, a country could be divided into a large number of small regions that have equal populations. With uniform propensities to move, each of these analytical regions would experience in equilibrium zero net migration. Hence, the condition that net migration equal zero is entirely consistent with unequal distributions of population across regions. The criticisms of Evans were based both on flawed reasoning and on misinterpretation of the results of a number of econometric studies. His reasoning assumed that the existence of demand shifts as found by Goldfarb and Yezer (1987) and Topel (1986) invalidated the equilibrium model. The equilibrium never really obtains exactly, but economic modeling of migration properly begins with a simple equilibrium model of the system. A careful reading of the papers Evans cited in support of his position showed that in fact they affirmed rather than denied the appropriateness of equilibrium modeling. Zero net migration together with nonzero gross migration are not theoretically incompatible with regional heterogeneity of population, wages, or

  19. Comparative assessment of parametric neuroreceptor mapping approaches based on the simplified reference tissue model using [¹¹C]ABP688 PET.

    PubMed

    Seo, Seongho; Kim, Su J; Kim, Yu K; Lee, Jee-Young; Jeong, Jae M; Lee, Dong S; Lee, Jae S

    2015-12-01

    In recent years, several linearized model approaches for fast and reliable parametric neuroreceptor mapping based on dynamic nuclear imaging have been developed from the simplified reference tissue model (SRTM) equation. All the methods share the basic SRTM assumptions, but use different schemes to alleviate the effect of noise in dynamic-image voxels. Thus, this study aimed to compare those approaches in terms of their performance in parametric image generation. We used the basis function method and MRTM2 (multilinear reference tissue model with two parameters), which require a division process to obtain the distribution volume ratio (DVR). In addition, a linear model with the DVR as a model parameter (multilinear SRTM) was used in two forms: one based on linear least squares and the other based on extension of total least squares (TLS). Assessment using simulated and actual dynamic [(11)C]ABP688 positron emission tomography data revealed their equivalence with the SRTM, except for different noise susceptibilities. In the DVR image production, the two multilinear SRTM approaches achieved better image quality and regional compatibility with the SRTM than the others, with slightly better performance in the TLS-based method. PMID:26243707

  20. Simplified circuit corrects faults in parallel binary information channels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, J.

    1966-01-01

    Corrective circuit prevents the appearance of erroneous output signals from the possible failure of any single-channel element interconnected in parallel binary information channels. The circuit is simplified and economical because it does not use redundant channels.

  1. Photographic and drafting techniques simplify method of producing engineering drawings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Provisor, H.

    1968-01-01

    Combination of photographic and drafting techniques has been developed to simplify the preparation of three dimensional and dimetric engineering drawings. Conventional photographs can be converted to line drawings by making copy negatives on high contrast film.

  2. 48 CFR 1532.003 - Simplified acquisition procedures financing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... procedures financing. 1532.003 Section 1532.003 Federal Acquisition Regulations System ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING 1532.003 Simplified acquisition procedures financing. (a) Scope. This subpart provides for authorization of advance and interim payments...

  3. 48 CFR 32.003 - Simplified acquisition procedures financing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... procedures financing. 32.003 Section 32.003 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING 32.003 Simplified acquisition procedures financing. Unless agency regulations otherwise permit, contract financing shall not be provided...

  4. 48 CFR 32.003 - Simplified acquisition procedures financing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... procedures financing. 32.003 Section 32.003 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING 32.003 Simplified acquisition procedures financing. Unless agency regulations otherwise permit, contract financing shall not be provided...

  5. 48 CFR 1532.003 - Simplified acquisition procedures financing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... procedures financing. 1532.003 Section 1532.003 Federal Acquisition Regulations System ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING 1532.003 Simplified acquisition procedures financing. (a) Scope. This subpart provides for authorization of advance and interim payments...

  6. Simplified method for numerical modeling of fiber lasers.

    PubMed

    Shtyrina, O V; Yarutkina, I A; Fedoruk, M P

    2014-12-29

    A simplified numerical approach to modeling of dissipative dispersion-managed fiber lasers is examined. We present a new numerical iteration algorithm for finding the periodic solutions of the system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations describing the intra-cavity dynamics of the dissipative soliton characteristics in dispersion-managed fiber lasers. We demonstrate that results obtained using simplified model are in good agreement with full numerical modeling based on the corresponding partial differential equations.

  7. Simplified Heat-Source/Thermionic Converter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shimada, K.

    1983-01-01

    Radiation coupling of heat from heat-source cylinder to converter cylinder through vacuum gap eliminates need for high-temperature electrical insulators between reactor heat pipes and thermionic converters. In addition no radiatior heat pipe is necessary because collectors of thermionic converters from which excess heat must be removed radiate directly to space. New design concept is also applicable to terrestrial and non-nuclear thermionic power supplies.

  8. Bell violation using entangled photons without the fair-sampling assumption.

    PubMed

    Giustina, Marissa; Mech, Alexandra; Ramelow, Sven; Wittmann, Bernhard; Kofler, Johannes; Beyer, Jörn; Lita, Adriana; Calkins, Brice; Gerrits, Thomas; Nam, Sae Woo; Ursin, Rupert; Zeilinger, Anton

    2013-05-01

    The violation of a Bell inequality is an experimental observation that forces the abandonment of a local realistic viewpoint--namely, one in which physical properties are (probabilistically) defined before and independently of measurement, and in which no physical influence can propagate faster than the speed of light. All such experimental violations require additional assumptions depending on their specific construction, making them vulnerable to so-called loopholes. Here we use entangled photons to violate a Bell inequality while closing the fair-sampling loophole, that is, without assuming that the sample of measured photons accurately represents the entire ensemble. To do this, we use the Eberhard form of Bell's inequality, which is not vulnerable to the fair-sampling assumption and which allows a lower collection efficiency than other forms. Technical improvements of the photon source and high-efficiency transition-edge sensors were crucial for achieving a sufficiently high collection efficiency. Our experiment makes the photon the first physical system for which each of the main loopholes has been closed, albeit in different experiments.

  9. Tolerance values of benthic macroinvertebrates for stream biomonitoring: assessment of assumptions underlying scoring systems worldwide.

    PubMed

    Chang, Feng-Hsun; Lawrence, Justin E; Rios-Touma, Blanca; Resh, Vincent H

    2014-04-01

    Tolerance values (TVs) based on benthic macroinvertebrates are one of the most widely used tools for monitoring the biological impacts of water pollution, particularly in streams and rivers. We compiled TVs of benthic macroinvertebrates from 29 regions around the world to test 11 basic assumptions about pollution tolerance, that: (1) Arthropoda are < tolerant than non-Arthropoda; (2) Insecta < non-Insecta; (3) non-Oligochaeta < Oligochaeta; (4) other macroinvertebrates < Oligochaeta + Chironomidae; (5) other macroinvertebrate taxa < Isopoda + Gastropoda + Hirudinea; (6) Ephemeroptera + Plecoptera + Trichoptera (EPT) < Odonata + Coleoptera + Heteroptera (OCH); (7) EPT < non-EPT insects; (8) Diptera < Insecta; (9) Bivalvia < Gastropoda; (10) Baetidae < other Ephemeroptera; and (11) Hydropsychidae < other Trichoptera. We found that the first eight of these 11 assumptions were supported despite regional variability. In addition, we examined the effect of Best Professional Judgment (BPJ) and non-independence of TVs among countries by performing all analyses using subsets of the original dataset. These subsets included a group based on those systems using TVs that were derived from techniques other than BPJ, and groups based on methods used for TV assignment. The results obtained from these subsets and the entire dataset are similar. We also made seven a priori hypotheses about the regional similarity of TVs based on geography. Only one of these was supported. Development of TVs and the reporting of how they are assigned need to be more rigorous and be better described.

  10. Evaluation of Simplified Models for Estimating Public Dose from Spent Nuclear Fuel Shipments

    SciTech Connect

    Connolly, Kevin J.; Radulescu, Georgeta

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the dose rate as a function of distance from a representative high-capacity SNF rail-type transportation cask. It uses the SCALE suite of radiation transport modeling and simulation codes to determine neutron and gamma radiation dose rates. The SCALE calculated dose rate is compared with simplified analytical methods historically used for these calculations. The SCALE dose rate calculation presented in this paper employs a very detailed transportation cask model (e.g., pin-by-pin modeling of fuel assembly) and a new hybrid computational transport method. Because it includes pin-level heterogeneity and models ample air and soil outside the cask to simulate scattering of gamma and neutron radiation, this detailed SCALE model is expected to yield more accurate results than previously used models which made more simplistic assumptions (e.g., fuel assembly treated as a point or line source, simple 1-D model of environment outside of cask). The results in this paper are preliminary and, as progress is made on developing and validating improved models, results may be subject to change as models and estimates become more refined and better information leads to more accurate assumptions.

  11. School Principals' Assumptions about Human Nature: Implications for Leadership in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabanci, Ali

    2008-01-01

    This article considers principals' assumptions about human nature in Turkey and the relationship between the assumptions held and the leadership style adopted in schools. The findings show that school principals hold Y-type assumptions and prefer a relationship-oriented style in their relations with assistant principals. However, both principals…

  12. Educational Technology as a Subversive Activity: Questioning Assumptions Related to Teaching and Leading with Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kruger-Ross, Matthew J.; Holcomb, Lori B.

    2012-01-01

    The use of educational technologies is grounded in the assumptions of teachers, learners, and administrators. Assumptions are choices that structure our understandings and help us make meaning. Current advances in Web 2.0 and social media technologies challenge our assumptions about teaching and learning. The intersection of technology and…

  13. Philosophy of Technology Assumptions in Educational Technology Leadership: Questioning Technological Determinism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, Mark David

    2013-01-01

    Scholars have emphasized that decisions about technology can be influenced by philosophy of technology assumptions, and have argued for research that critically questions technological determinist assumptions. Empirical studies of technology management in fields other than K-12 education provided evidence that philosophy of technology assumptions,…

  14. 40 CFR 93.110 - Criteria and procedures: Latest planning assumptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... planning assumptions. 93.110 Section 93.110 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... and procedures: Latest planning assumptions. (a) Except as provided in this paragraph, the conformity... most recent planning assumptions in force at the time the conformity analysis begins. The...

  15. 7 CFR 1951.230 - Transfer of security and assumption of loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Transfer of security and assumption of loans. 1951... Community and Direct Business Programs Loans and Grants § 1951.230 Transfer of security and assumption of... transfers and assumptions to transferees which will continue the original purpose of the loan in...

  16. 7 CFR 1951.230 - Transfer of security and assumption of loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Transfer of security and assumption of loans. 1951... Community and Direct Business Programs Loans and Grants § 1951.230 Transfer of security and assumption of... transfers and assumptions to transferees which will continue the original purpose of the loan in...

  17. Exploring the Influence of Ethnicity, Age, and Trauma on Prisoners' World Assumptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Sandy

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the author explores world assumptions of prisoners, how these assumptions vary by ethnicity and age, and whether trauma history affects world assumptions. A random sample of young and old prisoners, matched for prison location, was drawn from the New Jersey Department of Corrections prison population. Age and ethnicity had…

  18. Helioviewer: Simplifying Your Access to SDO Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughitt, V. K.; Ireland, J.; Mueller, D.; Beck, J.; Lyon, D.; Dau, A.; Dietert, H.; Nuhn, M.; Dimitoglou, G.; Fleck, B.

    2010-12-01

    Over the past several years, the Helioviewer Project has evolved from a simple web application to display images of the sun into a suite of tools to visualize and interact with heterogeneous types of solar data. In addition to a modular and scalable back-end server, the Helioviewer Project now offers multiple browse clients; the original web application has been upgraded to support high-definition movie generation and feature and event overlays. For complex image processing and massive data volumes, there is a stand-alone desktop application, JHelioviewer. For a quick check of the latest images and events, there is an iPhone application, hqTouch. The project has expanded from the original SOHO images to include image data from SDO and event and feature data from the HEK. We are working on adding additional image data from other missions as well as spectral and time-series data. We will discuss the procedure through which interested parties may process their data for use with Helioviewer, including how to use JP2Gen to convert FITS files into Helioviewer-compliant JPEG 2000 images, how to setup a local instance of the Helioviewer server, and how to query Helioviewer in your own applications using a simple web API.

  19. Simplified stereo-optical ultrasound plane calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoßbach, Martin; Noll, Matthias; Wesarg, Stefan

    2013-03-01

    Image guided therapy is a natural concept and commonly used in medicine. In anesthesia, a common task is the injection of an anesthetic close to a nerve under freehand ultrasound guidance. Several guidance systems exist using electromagnetic tracking of the ultrasound probe as well as the needle, providing the physician with a precise projection of the needle into the ultrasound image. This, however, requires additional expensive devices. We suggest using optical tracking with miniature cameras attached to a 2D ultrasound probe to achieve a higher acceptance among physicians. The purpose of this paper is to present an intuitive method to calibrate freehand ultrasound needle guidance systems employing a rigid stereo camera system. State of the art methods are based on a complex series of error prone coordinate system transformations which makes them susceptible to error accumulation. By reducing the amount of calibration steps to a single calibration procedure we provide a calibration method that is equivalent, yet not prone to error accumulation. It requires a linear calibration object and is validated on three datasets utilizing di erent calibration objects: a 6mm metal bar and a 1:25mm biopsy needle were used for experiments. Compared to existing calibration methods for freehand ultrasound needle guidance systems, we are able to achieve higher accuracy results while additionally reducing the overall calibration complexity. Ke

  20. Is the assumption of normality or log-normality for continuous response data critical for benchmark dose estimation?

    PubMed

    Shao, Kan; Gift, Jeffrey S; Setzer, R Woodrow

    2013-11-01

    Continuous responses (e.g. body weight) are widely used in risk assessment for determining the benchmark dose (BMD) which is used to derive a U.S. EPA reference dose. One critical question that is not often addressed in dose-response assessments is whether to model the continuous data as normally or log-normally distributed. Additionally, if lognormality is assumed, and only summarized response data (i.e., mean±standard deviation) are available as is usual in the peer-reviewed literature, the BMD can only be approximated. In this study, using the "hybrid" method and relative deviation approach, we first evaluate six representative continuous dose-response datasets reporting individual animal responses to investigate the impact on BMD/BMDL estimates of (1) the distribution assumption and (2) the use of summarized versus individual animal data when a log-normal distribution is assumed. We also conduct simulation studies evaluating model fits to various known distributions to investigate whether the distribution assumption has influence on BMD/BMDL estimates. Our results indicate that BMDs estimated using the hybrid method are more sensitive to the distribution assumption than counterpart BMDs estimated using the relative deviation approach. The choice of distribution assumption has limited impact on the BMD/BMDL estimates when the within dose-group variance is small, while the lognormality assumption is a better choice for relative deviation method when data are more skewed because of its appropriateness in describing the relationship between mean and standard deviation. Additionally, the results suggest that the use of summarized data versus individual response data to characterize log-normal distributions has minimal impact on BMD estimates.

  1. Simplified neutrosophic sets and their applications in multi-criteria group decision-making problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Juan-juan; Wang, Jian-qiang; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Hong-yu; Chen, Xiao-hong

    2016-07-01

    As a variation of fuzzy sets and intuitionistic fuzzy sets, neutrosophic sets have been developed to represent uncertain, imprecise, incomplete and inconsistent information that exists in the real world. Simplified neutrosophic sets (SNSs) have been proposed for the main purpose of addressing issues with a set of specific numbers. However, there are certain problems regarding the existing operations of SNSs, as well as their aggregation operators and the comparison methods. Therefore, this paper defines the novel operations of simplified neutrosophic numbers (SNNs) and develops a comparison method based on the related research of intuitionistic fuzzy numbers. On the basis of these operations and the comparison method, some SNN aggregation operators are proposed. Additionally, an approach for multi-criteria group decision-making (MCGDM) problems is explored by applying these aggregation operators. Finally, an example to illustrate the applicability of the proposed method is provided and a comparison with some other methods is made.

  2. Simplified three-dimensional tissue clearing and incorporation of colorimetric phenotyping

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Kevin; Ding, Yichen; Ma, Jianguo; Chen, Harrison; Huang, Vincent; Cheng, Michelle; Yang, Cindy F.; Kim, Jocelyn T.; Eguchi, Daniel; Di Carlo, Dino; Hsiai, Tzung K.; Nakano, Atsushi; Kulkarni, Rajan P.

    2016-01-01

    Tissue clearing methods promise to provide exquisite three-dimensional imaging information; however, there is a need for simplified methods for lower resource settings and for non-fluorescence based phenotyping to enable light microscopic imaging modalities. Here we describe the simplified CLARITY method (SCM) for tissue clearing that preserves epitopes of interest. We imaged the resulting tissues using light sheet microscopy to generate rapid 3D reconstructions of entire tissues and organs. In addition, to enable clearing and 3D tissue imaging with light microscopy methods, we developed a colorimetric, non-fluorescent method for specifically labeling cleared tissues based on horseradish peroxidase conversion of diaminobenzidine to a colored insoluble product. The methods we describe here are portable and can be accomplished at low cost, and can allow light microscopic imaging of cleared tissues, thus enabling tissue clearing and imaging in a wide variety of settings. PMID:27498769

  3. Simplified model of mean double step (MDS) in human body movement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dusza, Jacek J.; Wawrzyniak, Zbigniew M.; Mugarra González, C. Fernando

    In this paper we present a simplified and useful model of the human body movement based on the full gait cycle description, called the Mean Double Step (MDS). It enables the parameterization and simplification of the human movement. Furthermore it allows a description of the gait cycle by providing standardized estimators to transform the gait cycle into a periodical movement process. Moreover the method of simplifying the MDS model and its compression are demonstrated. The simplification is achieved by reducing the number of bars of the spectrum and I or by reducing the number of samples describing the MDS both in terms of reducing their computational burden and their resources for the data storage. Our MDS model, which is applicable to the gait cycle method for examining patients, is non-invasive and provides the additional advantage of featuring a functional characterization of the relative or absolute movement of any part of the body.

  4. Boosting invisible searches via Z H : From the Higgs boson to dark matter simplified models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonçalves, Dorival; Krauss, Frank; Kuttimalai, Silvan; Maierhöfer, Philipp

    2016-09-01

    Higgs boson production in association with a Z boson at the LHC is analyzed, both in the Standard Model and in simplified model extensions for dark matter. We focus on H →invisibles searches and show that loop-induced components for both the signal and background present phenomenologically relevant contributions to the B R (H →inv) limits. We also show how multijet merging improves the description of key distributions to this analysis. In addition, the constraining power of this channel to simplified models for dark matter with scalar and pseudoscalar mediators ϕ and A is discussed and compared with noncollider constraints. We find that with 100 fb-1 of LHC data, this channel provides competitive constraints to the noncollider bounds, for most of the parameter space we consider, bounding the universal Standard Model fermion-mediator strength at gv<1 for moderate masses in the range of 100 GeV

  5. Simplified three-dimensional tissue clearing and incorporation of colorimetric phenotyping.

    PubMed

    Sung, Kevin; Ding, Yichen; Ma, Jianguo; Chen, Harrison; Huang, Vincent; Cheng, Michelle; Yang, Cindy F; Kim, Jocelyn T; Eguchi, Daniel; Di Carlo, Dino; Hsiai, Tzung K; Nakano, Atsushi; Kulkarni, Rajan P

    2016-01-01

    Tissue clearing methods promise to provide exquisite three-dimensional imaging information; however, there is a need for simplified methods for lower resource settings and for non-fluorescence based phenotyping to enable light microscopic imaging modalities. Here we describe the simplified CLARITY method (SCM) for tissue clearing that preserves epitopes of interest. We imaged the resulting tissues using light sheet microscopy to generate rapid 3D reconstructions of entire tissues and organs. In addition, to enable clearing and 3D tissue imaging with light microscopy methods, we developed a colorimetric, non-fluorescent method for specifically labeling cleared tissues based on horseradish peroxidase conversion of diaminobenzidine to a colored insoluble product. The methods we describe here are portable and can be accomplished at low cost, and can allow light microscopic imaging of cleared tissues, thus enabling tissue clearing and imaging in a wide variety of settings. PMID:27498769

  6. SIMPLIFIED MODELS FOR PHOTOHADRONIC INTERACTIONS IN COSMIC ACCELERATORS

    SciTech Connect

    Huemmer, S.; Rueger, M.; Spanier, F.; Winter, W. E-mail: mlrueger@astro.uni-wuerzburg.d E-mail: winter@physik.uni-wuerzburg.d

    2010-09-20

    We discuss simplified models for photo-meson production in cosmic accelerators, such as active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Our self-consistent models are directly based on the underlying physics used in the SOPHIA software and can be easily adapted if new data are included. They allow for the efficient computation of neutrino and photon spectra (from {pi}{sup 0} decays) as a major requirement of modern time-dependent simulations of the astrophysical sources and parameter studies. In addition, the secondaries (pions and muons) are explicitly generated, a necessity if cooling processes are to be included. For the neutrino production, we include the helicity dependence of the muon decays which in fact leads to larger corrections than the details of the interaction model. The separate computation of the {pi}{sup 0}, {pi}{sup +}, and {pi}{sup -} fluxes allows, for instance, for flavor ratio predictions of the neutrinos at the source, which are a requirement of many tests of neutrino properties using astrophysical sources. We confirm that for charged pion generation, the often used production by the {Delta}(1232)-resonance is typically not the dominant process in AGNs and GRBs, and we show, for arbitrary input spectra, that the number of neutrinos are underestimated by at least a factor of two if they are obtained from the neutral-to-charged pion ratio. We compare our results for several levels of simplification using isotropic synchrotron and thermal spectra and demonstrate that they are sufficiently close to the SOPHIA software.

  7. A Simplified Shuttle Irradiation Facility for ATR

    SciTech Connect

    A. J. Palmer; S. T. Laflin

    1999-08-01

    During the past fifteen years there has been a steady increase in the demand for radioisotopes in nuclear medicine and a corresponding decline in the number of reactors within the U.S. capable of producing them. The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) is the largest operating test reactor in the U.S., but its isotope production capabilities have been limited by the lack of an installed isotope shuttle irradiation system. A concept for a simple "low cost" shuttle irradiation facility for ATR has been developed. Cost were reduced (in comparison to previous ATR designs) by using a shielded trough of water installed in an occupiable cubicle as a shielding and contamination control barrier for the send and receive station. This shielding concept also allows all control valves to be operated by hand and thus the need for an automatic control system was eliminated. It was determined that 4-5 ft of water would be adequate to shield the isotopes of interest while shuttles are transferred to a small carrier. An additional feature of the current design is a non-isolatable by-pass line, which provides a minimum coolant flow to the test region regardless of which control valves are opened or closed. This by-pass line allows the shuttle facility to be operated without bringing reactor coolant water into the cubicle except for send and receive operations.

  8. A Simplified Model of Tropical Cyclone Intensification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schubert, W. H.

    2015-12-01

    An axisymmetric model of tropical cyclone intensification is presented. The model is based on Salmon's wave-vortex approximation, which can describe flows with high Rossby number and low Froude number. After introducing an additional approximation designed to filter propagating inertia-gravity waves, the problem is reduced to the prediction of potential vorticity (PV) and the inversion of this PV to obtain the balanced wind and mass fields. This PV prediction/inversion problem is solved analytically for two types of forcing: a two-region model in which there is nonzero forcing in the cyclone core and zero forcing in the far-field; a three-region model in which there is non-zero forcing in both the cyclone core and the eyewall, with zero forcing in the far-field. The solutions of the two-region model provide insight into why tropical cyclones can have long incubation times before rapid intensification and how the size of the mature vortex can be influenced by the size of the initial vortex. The solutions of the three-region model provide insight into the formation of hollow PV structures and the inward movement of angular momentum surfaces across the radius of maximum wind.

  9. A simplified holography based superresolution system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mudassar, Asloob Ahmad

    2015-12-01

    In this paper we are proposing a simple idea based on holography to achieve superresolution. The object is illuminated by three fibers which maintain the mutual coherence between the light waves. The object in-plane rotation along with fiber-based illumination is used to achieve superresolution. The object in a 4f optical system is illuminated by an on-axis fiber to make the central part of the object's spectrum to the pass through the limiting square-aperture placed at the Fourier plane and the corresponding hologram of the image is recorded at the image plane. The on-axis fiber is switched off and the two off axis fibers (one positioned on the vertical axis and the other positioned on diagonal) are switched on one by one for each orientation of the object position. Four orientations of object in-plane rotation are used differing in angle by 90°. This will allow the recording of eight holographic images in addition to the one recorded with on-axis fiber. The three fibers are at the vertices of a right angled isosceles triangle and are aligned toward the centre of the lens following the fiber plane to generate plane waves for object illumination. The nine holographic images are processed for construction of object's original spectrum, the inverse of which gives the super-resolved image of the original object. Mathematical modeling and simulations are reported.

  10. Simplified Approach to Predicting Rough Surface Transition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyle, Robert J.; Stripf, Matthias

    2009-01-01

    Turbine vane heat transfer predictions are given for smooth and rough vanes where the experimental data show transition moving forward on the vane as the surface roughness physical height increases. Consiste nt with smooth vane heat transfer, the transition moves forward for a fixed roughness height as the Reynolds number increases. Comparison s are presented with published experimental data. Some of the data ar e for a regular roughness geometry with a range of roughness heights, Reynolds numbers, and inlet turbulence intensities. The approach ta ken in this analysis is to treat the roughness in a statistical sense , consistent with what would be obtained from blades measured after e xposure to actual engine environments. An approach is given to determ ine the equivalent sand grain roughness from the statistics of the re gular geometry. This approach is guided by the experimental data. A roughness transition criterion is developed, and comparisons are made with experimental data over the entire range of experimental test co nditions. Additional comparisons are made with experimental heat tran sfer data, where the roughness geometries are both regular as well a s statistical. Using the developed analysis, heat transfer calculatio ns are presented for the second stage vane of a high pressure turbine at hypothetical engine conditions.

  11. Simplified Habit Reversal Plus Adjunct Contingencies in the Treatment of Thumb Sucking and Hair Pulling in a Young Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Ethan S.; Miltenberger, Raymond G.; Rapp, John T.

    1999-01-01

    Using simplified reversal treatment consisting of awareness training, competing response training, and social support procedures, minimal results were initially obtained in thumb sucking and hair pulling behaviors. Additional treatment phases involving differential reinforcement and response cost resulted in near zero levels of the behavior when…

  12. A simplified diphenylamine colorimetric method for growth quantification.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Youbao; Xiang, Sihai; Dai, Xida; Yang, Keqian

    2013-06-01

    Cell growth needs to be monitored in biological studies and bioprocess optimization. In special circumstances, such as microbial fermentations in media containing insoluble particles, accurate cell growth quantification is a challenge with current methods. Only the Burton method is applicable in such circumstances. The original Burton method was previously simplified by adopting a two-step sample pretreatment in perchloric acid procedure to eliminate the need for DNA extraction. Here, we further simplified the Burton method by replacing the previous two-step perchloric acid pretreatment with a new and one-step diphenylamine reagent pretreatment. The reliability and accuracy of this simplified method were assessed by measuring the biomass of four model microorganisms: Escherichia coli, Streptomyces clavuligerus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Trichoderma reesei grown in normal media or those containing solid particles. The results demonstrate that this new simplified method performs comparably to the conventional methods, such as OD600 or the previously modified Burton method, and is much more sensitive than the dry weight method. Overall, the new method is simple, reliable, easy to perform, and generally applicable in most circumstances, and it reduces the operation time from more than 12 h (for the previously simplified Burton method) to about 2 h.

  13. Regional and longitudinal estimation of product lifespan distribution: a case study for automobiles and a simplified estimation method.

    PubMed

    Oguchi, Masahiro; Fuse, Masaaki

    2015-02-01

    Product lifespan estimates are important information for understanding progress toward sustainable consumption and estimating the stocks and end-of-life flows of products. Publications reported actual lifespan of products; however, quantitative data are still limited for many countries and years. This study presents regional and longitudinal estimation of lifespan distribution of consumer durables, taking passenger cars as an example, and proposes a simplified method for estimating product lifespan distribution. We estimated lifespan distribution parameters for 17 countries based on the age profile of in-use cars. Sensitivity analysis demonstrated that the shape parameter of the lifespan distribution can be replaced by a constant value for all the countries and years. This enabled a simplified estimation that does not require detailed data on the age profile. Applying the simplified method, we estimated the trend in average lifespans of passenger cars from 2000 to 2009 for 20 countries. Average lifespan differed greatly between countries (9-23 years) and was increasing in many countries. This suggests consumer behavior differs greatly among countries and has changed over time, even in developed countries. The results suggest that inappropriate assumptions of average lifespan may cause significant inaccuracy in estimating the stocks and end-of-life flows of products.

  14. A Simplified Shuttle Irradiation Facility for ATR

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, Alma Joseph; Laflin, S. T.

    1999-09-01

    During the past fifteen years there has been a steady increase in the demand for radioisotopes in nuclear medicine and a corresponding decline in the number of reactors within the U.S. capable of producing them. The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) is the largest operating test reactor in the U.S., but its isotope production capabilities have been limited by the lack of an installed isotope shuttle irradiation system. A concept for a simple “low cost” shuttle irradiation facility for ATR has been developed. Costs were reduced (in comparison to previous ATR designs) by using a shielded trough of water installed in an occupiable cubicle as a shielding and contamination control barrier for the send and receive station. This shielding concept also allows all control valves to be operated by hand and thus the need for an automatic control system was eliminated. It was determined that 4 – 5 ft of water would be adequate to shield the isotopes of interest while shuttles are transferred to a small carrier. An additional feature of the current design is a non-isolatable by-pass line, which provides a minimum coolant flow to the test region regardless of which control valves are opened or closed. This by-pass line allows the shuttle facility to be operated without bringing reactor coolant water into the cubicle except for send and receive operations. The irradiation position selected for this concept is a 1.5 inch “B” hole (B-11). This position provides neutron fluxes of approximately: 1.6 x 1014 (<0.5 eV) and 4.0 x 1013 (>0.8 MeV) n/cm2*sec.

  15. Optical chirp z-transform processor with a simplified architecture.

    PubMed

    Ngo, Nam Quoc

    2014-12-29

    Using a simplified chirp z-transform (CZT) algorithm based on the discrete-time convolution method, this paper presents the synthesis of a simplified architecture of a reconfigurable optical chirp z-transform (OCZT) processor based on the silica-based planar lightwave circuit (PLC) technology. In the simplified architecture of the reconfigurable OCZT, the required number of optical components is small and there are no waveguide crossings which make fabrication easy. The design of a novel type of optical discrete Fourier transform (ODFT) processor as a special case of the synthesized OCZT is then presented to demonstrate its effectiveness. The designed ODFT can be potentially used as an optical demultiplexer at the receiver of an optical fiber orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) transmission system. PMID:25607197

  16. A simplified model for two phase face seal design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lau, S. Y.; Hughes, W. F.; Basu, P.; Beatty, P. A.

    1990-01-01

    A simplified quasi-isothermal low-leakage laminar model for analyzing the stiffness and the stability characteristics of two-phase face seals with real fluids is developed. Sample calculations with this model for low-leakage operations are compared with calculations for high-leakage operations, performed using the adiabatic turbulent model of Beatty and Hughes (1987). It was found that the seal characteristics predicted using the two extreme models tend to overlap with each other, indicating that the simplified laminar model may be a useful tool for seal design. The effect of coning was investigated using the simplified model. The results show that, for the same balance, a coned seal has a higher leakage rate than a parallel face seal.

  17. Optical chirp z-transform processor with a simplified architecture.

    PubMed

    Ngo, Nam Quoc

    2014-12-29

    Using a simplified chirp z-transform (CZT) algorithm based on the discrete-time convolution method, this paper presents the synthesis of a simplified architecture of a reconfigurable optical chirp z-transform (OCZT) processor based on the silica-based planar lightwave circuit (PLC) technology. In the simplified architecture of the reconfigurable OCZT, the required number of optical components is small and there are no waveguide crossings which make fabrication easy. The design of a novel type of optical discrete Fourier transform (ODFT) processor as a special case of the synthesized OCZT is then presented to demonstrate its effectiveness. The designed ODFT can be potentially used as an optical demultiplexer at the receiver of an optical fiber orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) transmission system.

  18. Analyses of a new simplified large deployable reflector structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Fei; Chen, Mei; He, Jie

    New large deployable mesh reflectors are frequently used recently. Here we propose a new simplified large deployable reflector structure, with lower surface density and better package ratio both in radial direction and in height direction. Its surface modeling manner is fairly simple. Conceptual design of such a new simplified large deployable reflector structure is described. Deploying ability analyses of the structure with 30m diameter show that the structure can be deployed successfully. Surface precision analyses of the deployed structure show that it has potential to reach surface precision demand. A deploying test of a small deployable model with 3m diameter shows the deploying ability of the backbone. Such a new simplified large deployable reflector structure has potential to be used in future large deployable reflectors in space applications.

  19. A simplified method for elastic-plastic-creep structural analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, A.

    1985-01-01

    A simplified inelastic analysis computer program (ANSYPM) was developed for predicting the stress-strain history at the critical location of a thermomechanically cycled structure from an elastic solution. The program uses an iterative and incremental procedure to estimate the plastic strains from the material stress-strain properties and a plasticity hardening model. Creep effects are calculated on the basis of stress relaxation at constant strain, creep at constant stress or a combination of stress relaxation and creep accumulation. The simplified method was exercised on a number of problems involving uniaxial and multiaxial loading, isothermal and nonisothermal conditions, dwell times at various points in the cycles, different materials and kinematic hardening. Good agreement was found between these analytical results and nonlinear finite element solutions for these problems. The simplified analysis program used less than 1 percent of the CPU time required for a nonlinear finite element analysis.

  20. A simplified method for elastic-plastic-creep structural analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, A.

    1984-01-01

    A simplified inelastic analysis computer program (ANSYPM) was developed for predicting the stress-strain history at the critical location of a thermomechanically cycled structure from an elastic solution. The program uses an iterative and incremental procedure to estimate the plastic strains from the material stress-strain properties and a plasticity hardening model. Creep effects are calculated on the basis of stress relaxation at constant strain, creep at constant stress or a combination of stress relaxation and creep accumulation. The simplified method was exercised on a number of problems involving uniaxial and multiaxial loading, isothermal and nonisothermal conditions, dwell times at various points in the cycles, different materials and kinematic hardening. Good agreement was found between these analytical results and nonlinear finite element solutions for these problems. The simplified analysis program used less than 1 percent of the CPU time required for a nonlinear finite element analysis.

  1. Development of a simplified procedure for cyclic structural analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, A.

    1984-01-01

    Development was extended of a simplified inelastic analysis computer program (ANSYMP) for predicting the stress-strain history at the critical location of a thermomechanically cycled structure from an elastic solution. The program uses an iterative and incremental procedure to estimate the plastic strains from the material stress-strain properties and a plasticity hardening model. Creep effects can be calculated on the basis of stress relaxation at constant strain, creep at constant stress, or a combination of stress relaxation and creep accumulation. The simplified method was exercised on a number of problems involving uniaxial and multiaxial loading, isothermal and nonisothermal conditions, dwell times at various points in the cycles, different materials, and kinematic hardening. Good agreement was found between these analytical results and nonlinear finite-element solutions for these problems. The simplified analysis program used less than 1 percent of the CPU time required for a nonlinear finite-element analysis.

  2. A simplified inelastic seismic analysis method for piping systems

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-05-01

    This report presents results of a three-year EPRI-funded effort to develop a simplified inelastic-dynamic analysis method for piping systems under earthquake loadings. The method uses a simplified plastic analysis that replaces highly loaded components with the idealized moment-rotation behavior observed in dynamic tests of piping components. The method uses increments of increased loading whose equivalence to seismic loads is established using the system ductility predicted by the simplified plastic solution. Results of high-level shaker table tests of piping systems are compared to the method's predictions. A conservative design qualification method is proposed in the format of an ASME Code Case. Results are provided for linear and nonlinear detailed time history ABAQUS solutions of shaker table tests. 91 refs., 72 figs., 11 tabs.

  3. Are Assumptions of Well-Known Statistical Techniques Checked, and Why (Not)?

    PubMed Central

    Hoekstra, Rink; Kiers, Henk A. L.; Johnson, Addie

    2012-01-01

    A valid interpretation of most statistical techniques requires that one or more assumptions be met. In published articles, however, little information tends to be reported on whether the data satisfy the assumptions underlying the statistical techniques used. This could be due to self-selection: Only manuscripts with data fulfilling the assumptions are submitted. Another explanation could be that violations of assumptions are rarely checked for in the first place. We studied whether and how 30 researchers checked fictitious data for violations of assumptions in their own working environment. Participants were asked to analyze the data as they would their own data, for which often used and well-known techniques such as the t-procedure, ANOVA and regression (or non-parametric alternatives) were required. It was found that the assumptions of the techniques were rarely checked, and that if they were, it was regularly by means of a statistical test. Interviews afterward revealed a general lack of knowledge about assumptions, the robustness of the techniques with regards to the assumptions, and how (or whether) assumptions should be checked. These data suggest that checking for violations of assumptions is not a well-considered choice, and that the use of statistics can be described as opportunistic. PMID:22593746

  4. Prenatal Substance Use: Exploring Assumptions of Maternal Unfitness

    PubMed Central

    Terplan, Mishka; Kennedy-Hendricks, Alene; Chisolm, Margaret S

    2015-01-01

    In spite of the growing knowledge and understanding of addiction as a chronic relapsing medical condition, individuals with substance use disorders (SUD) continue to experience stigmatization. Pregnant women who use substances suffer additional stigma as their use has the potential to cause fetal harm, calling into question their maternal fitness and often leading to punitive responses. Punishing pregnant women denies the integral interconnectedness of the maternal-fetal dyad. Linking substance use with maternal unfitness is not supported by the balance of the scientific evidence regarding the actual harms associated with substance use during pregnancy. Such linkage adversely impacts maternal, child, and family health by deterring pregnant women from seeking both obstetrical care and SUD treatment. Pregnant women who use substances deserve compassion and care, not pariah-status and punishment. PMID:26448685

  5. Using simplified blood pressure tables to avoid underdiagnosing childhood hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Ajay P; Mohammed, Javed; Thomas, Benson; Singh, Ram N; Filler, Guido

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recent studies have revealed that hypertension remains underdiagnosed in a significant number of children despite their recorded office blood pressure (OBP) exceeding the recommended fourth report OBP thresholds. Simplified OBP thresholds have been proposed to reduce this underdiagnosis of hypertension in children. In clinical practice, OBP screened as elevated according to the fourth report OBP thresholds are referred for ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) monitoring to rule out ‘white coat’ hypertension. OBJECTIVES: The present study tested the usefulness of simplified OBP thresholds to screen abnormal OBP for ABP monitoring referral. METHODS: A total of 155 subjects were retrospectively analyzed with paired OBP and ABP recordings obtained from an outpatient referral clinic. OBP recordings were classified as abnormal according to the simplified and fourth report OBP thresholds. ABP measurements were classified as abnormal according to the ABP reference tables. RESULTS: Simplified blood pressure (BP) tables correctly identified all OBP classified as abnormal according to fourth report BP thresholds (kappa [κ] 0.72 [95% CI 0.61 to 0.83]) for systolic OBP; κ 0.92 [95% CI 0.86 to 0.99] for diastolic OBP). OBP classified as abnormal by the simplified BP thresholds and by the fourth report BP thresholds performed similarly for correctly identifying abnormal ABP measurements as per ABP references (overlapping 95% CIs of the sensitivity, specificity and predictive values and likelihood ratios). CONCLUSIONS: Simplified BP tables, proposed to reduce the underdiagnosis of hypertension in children, can serve as a useful screening tool to decide a referral for ABP monitoring. Future prospective studies are needed to establish these findings. PMID:26435668

  6. A simplified dynamic model of the T700 turboshaft engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duyar, Ahmet; Gu, Zhen; Litt, Jonathan S.

    1992-01-01

    A simplified open-loop dynamic model of the T700 turboshaft engine, valid within the normal operating range of the engine, is developed. This model is obtained by linking linear state space models obtained at different engine operating points. Each linear model is developed from a detailed nonlinear engine simulation using a multivariable system identification and realization method. The simplified model may be used with a model-based real time diagnostic scheme for fault detection and diagnostics, as well as for open loop engine dynamics studies and closed loop control analysis utilizing a user generated control law.

  7. Simplifying Probability Elicitation and Uncertainty Modeling in Bayesian Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Paulson, Patrick R; Carroll, Thomas E; Sivaraman, Chitra; Neorr, Peter A; Unwin, Stephen D; Hossain, Shamina S

    2011-04-16

    In this paper we contribute two methods that simplify the demands of knowledge elicitation for particular types of Bayesian networks. The first method simplify the task of providing probabilities when the states that a random variable takes can be described by a new, fully ordered state set in which a state implies all the preceding states. The second method leverages Dempster-Shafer theory of evidence to provide a way for the expert to express the degree of ignorance that they feel about the estimates being provided.

  8. Simplified pregnant woman models for the fetus exposure assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jala, Marjorie; Conil, Emmanuelle; Varsier, Nadège; Wiart, Joe; Hadjem, Abdelhamid; Moulines, Éric; Lévy-Leduc, Céline

    2013-05-01

    In this paper, we introduce a study that we carried out in order to validate the use of a simplified pregnant woman model for the assessment of the fetus exposure to radio frequency waves. This simplified model, based on the use of a homogeneous tissue to replace most of the inner organs of the virtual mother, would allow us to deal with many issues that are raised because of the lack of pregnant woman models for numerical dosimetry. Using specific absorption rate comparisons, we show that this model could be used to estimate the fetus exposure to plane waves.

  9. Sensitivity of Earthquake Loss Estimates to Source Modeling Assumptions and Uncertainty

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reasenberg, Paul A.; Shostak, Nan; Terwilliger, Sharon

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: This report explores how uncertainty in an earthquake source model may affect estimates of earthquake economic loss. Specifically, it focuses on the earthquake source model for the San Francisco Bay region (SFBR) created by the Working Group on California Earthquake Probabilities. The loss calculations are made using HAZUS-MH, a publicly available computer program developed by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) for calculating future losses from earthquakes, floods and hurricanes within the United States. The database built into HAZUS-MH includes a detailed building inventory, population data, data on transportation corridors, bridges, utility lifelines, etc. Earthquake hazard in the loss calculations is based upon expected (median value) ground motion maps called ShakeMaps calculated for the scenario earthquake sources defined in WGCEP. The study considers the effect of relaxing certain assumptions in the WG02 model, and explores the effect of hypothetical reductions in epistemic uncertainty in parts of the model. For example, it addresses questions such as what would happen to the calculated loss distribution if the uncertainty in slip rate in the WG02 model were reduced (say, by obtaining additional geologic data)? What would happen if the geometry or amount of aseismic slip (creep) on the region's faults were better known? And what would be the effect on the calculated loss distribution if the time-dependent earthquake probability were better constrained, either by eliminating certain probability models or by better constraining the inherent randomness in earthquake recurrence? The study does not consider the effect of reducing uncertainty in the hazard introduced through models of attenuation and local site characteristics, although these may have a comparable or greater effect than does source-related uncertainty. Nor does it consider sources of uncertainty in the building inventory, building fragility curves, and other assumptions

  10. Dissecting jets and missing energy searches using n-body extended simplified models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Timothy; Dolan, Matthew J.; El Hedri, Sonia; Hirschauer, James; Tran, Nhan; Whitbeck, Andrew

    2016-08-01

    Simplified Models are a useful way to characterize new physics scenarios for the LHC. Particle decays are often represented using non-renormalizable operators that involve the minimal number of fields required by symmetries. Generalizing to a wider class of decay operators allows one to model a variety of final states. This approach, which we dub the n-body extension of Simplified Models, provides a unifying treatment of the signal phase space resulting from a variety of signals. In this paper, we present the first application of this framework in the context of multijet plus missing energy searches. The main result of this work is a global performance study with the goal of identifying which set of observables yields the best discriminating power against the largest Standard Model backgrounds for a wide range of signal jet multiplicities. Our analysis compares combinations of one, two and three variables, placing emphasis on the enhanced sensitivity gain resulting from non-trivial correlations. Utilizing boosted decision trees, we compare and classify the performance of missing energy, energy scale and energy structure observables. We demonstrate that including an observable from each of these three classes is required to achieve optimal performance. This work additionally serves to establish the utility of n-body extended Simplified Models as a diagnostic for unpacking the relative merits of different search strategies, thereby motivating their application to new physics signatures beyond jets and missing energy.

  11. Dissecting jets and missing energy searches using $n$-body extended simplified models

    DOE PAGES

    Cohen, Timothy; Dolan, Matthew J.; El Hedri, Sonia; Hirschauer, James; Tran, Nhan; Whitbeck, Andrew

    2016-08-04

    Simplified Models are a useful way to characterize new physics scenarios for the LHC. Particle decays are often represented using non-renormalizable operators that involve the minimal number of fields required by symmetries. Generalizing to a wider class of decay operators allows one to model a variety of final states. This approach, which we dub the $n$-body extension of Simplified Models, provides a unifying treatment of the signal phase space resulting from a variety of signals. In this paper, we present the first application of this framework in the context of multijet plus missing energy searches. The main result of thismore » work is a global performance study with the goal of identifying which set of observables yields the best discriminating power against the largest Standard Model backgrounds for a wide range of signal jet multiplicities. Our analysis compares combinations of one, two and three variables, placing emphasis on the enhanced sensitivity gain resulting from non-trivial correlations. Utilizing boosted decision trees, we compare and classify the performance of missing energy, energy scale and energy structure observables. We demonstrate that including an observable from each of these three classes is required to achieve optimal performance. In conclusion, this work additionally serves to establish the utility of $n$-body extended Simplified Models as a diagnostic for unpacking the relative merits of different search strategies, thereby motivating their application to new physics signatures beyond jets and missing energy.« less

  12. Cosmological perturbations and quasistatic assumption in f (R ) theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, Mu-Chen; Taylor, Andy; Shu, Chenggang; Tu, Hong

    2015-11-01

    f (R ) gravity is one of the simplest theories of modified gravity to explain the accelerated cosmic expansion. Although it is usually assumed that the quasi-Newtonian approach (a combination of the quasistatic approximation and sub-Hubble limit) for cosmic perturbations is good enough to describe the evolution of large scale structure in f (R ) models, some studies have suggested that this method is not valid for all f (R ) models. Here, we show that in the matter-dominated era, the pressure and shear equations alone, which can be recast into four first-order equations to solve for cosmological perturbations exactly, are sufficient to solve for the Newtonian potential, Ψ , and the curvature potential, Φ . Based on these two equations, we are able to clarify how the exact linear perturbations fit into different limits. We find that the Compton length controls the quasistatic behaviors in f (R ) gravity. In addition, regardless the validity of quasistatic approximation, a strong version of the sub-Hubble limit alone is sufficient to reduce the exact linear perturbations in any viable f (R ) gravity to second order. Our findings disagree with some previous studies where we find little difference between our exact and quasi-Newtonian solutions even up to k =10 c-1H0.

  13. Simplified versus geometrically accurate models of forefoot anatomy to predict plantar pressures: A finite element study.

    PubMed

    Telfer, Scott; Erdemir, Ahmet; Woodburn, James; Cavanagh, Peter R

    2016-01-25

    Integration of patient-specific biomechanical measurements into the design of therapeutic footwear has been shown to improve clinical outcomes in patients with diabetic foot disease. The addition of numerical simulations intended to optimise intervention design may help to build on these advances, however at present the time and labour required to generate and run personalised models of foot anatomy restrict their routine clinical utility. In this study we developed second-generation personalised simple finite element (FE) models of the forefoot with varying geometric fidelities. Plantar pressure predictions from barefoot, shod, and shod with insole simulations using simplified models were compared to those obtained from CT-based FE models incorporating more detailed representations of bone and tissue geometry. A simplified model including representations of metatarsals based on simple geometric shapes, embedded within a contoured soft tissue block with outer geometry acquired from a 3D surface scan was found to provide pressure predictions closest to the more complex model, with mean differences of 13.3kPa (SD 13.4), 12.52kPa (SD 11.9) and 9.6kPa (SD 9.3) for barefoot, shod, and insole conditions respectively. The simplified model design could be produced in <1h compared to >3h in the case of the more detailed model, and solved on average 24% faster. FE models of the forefoot based on simplified geometric representations of the metatarsal bones and soft tissue surface geometry from 3D surface scans may potentially provide a simulation approach with improved clinical utility, however further validity testing around a range of therapeutic footwear types is required.

  14. Verification of a simplified method to evaluate the capacities of template-type platforms

    SciTech Connect

    Bea, R.G.; Mortazavi, M.M.; Loch, K.J.; Young, P.L.

    1995-12-01

    This paper summarizes development of simplified procedures to evaluate storm loadings imposed on template-type platforms and to evaluate the ultimate limit state lateral loading capacities of such platforms. Verification of these procedures has been accomplished by comparing results from the simplified analyses with results from three dimensional, linear and nonlinear analyses of a variety of template-type platforms. Good agreement between results from the two types of analyses has been developed for the evaluations of both loadings and capacities. The verification platforms have included four-leg well protector and quarters structures and eight-leg drilling and production Gulf of Mexico structures that employed a variety of types of bracing patterns and joints. Several of these structures were subjected to intense hurricane storm loadings during hurricanes Andrew, Carmen, and Frederic. Within the population of verification platforms are several that failed or were very near failure. The simplified loading and capacity analyses are able to replicate the observed performance of these platforms. Realistic simulation of the brace joints and foundation capacity characteristics are critical aspects of these analyses. There is a reasonable degree of verification of the simplified methods with the observed performance of platforms in the field during intense hurricane storm loadings. These methods can be used to help screen platforms that are being evaluated for extended service. In addition, the results from these analyses can be used to help verify results from complex analytical models that are intended to determine the ultimate limit state loading capacities of platforms. Lastly, and perhaps most importantly this approach can be used in the preliminary design of new platforms.

  15. Estimating Bacterial Diversity for Ecological Studies: Methods, Metrics, and Assumptions

    PubMed Central

    Birtel, Julia; Walser, Jean-Claude; Pichon, Samuel; Bürgmann, Helmut; Matthews, Blake

    2015-01-01

    Methods to estimate microbial diversity have developed rapidly in an effort to understand the distribution and diversity of microorganisms in natural environments. For bacterial communities, the 16S rRNA gene is the phylogenetic marker gene of choice, but most studies select only a specific region of the 16S rRNA to estimate bacterial diversity. Whereas biases derived from from DNA extraction, primer choice and PCR amplification are well documented, we here address how the choice of variable region can influence a wide range of standard ecological metrics, such as species richness, phylogenetic diversity, β-diversity and rank-abundance distributions. We have used Illumina paired-end sequencing to estimate the bacterial diversity of 20 natural lakes across Switzerland derived from three trimmed variable 16S rRNA regions (V3, V4, V5). Species richness, phylogenetic diversity, community composition, β-diversity, and rank-abundance distributions differed significantly between 16S rRNA regions. Overall, patterns of diversity quantified by the V3 and V5 regions were more similar to one another than those assessed by the V4 region. Similar results were obtained when analyzing the datasets with different sequence similarity thresholds used during sequences clustering and when the same analysis was used on a reference dataset of sequences from the Greengenes database. In addition we also measured species richness from the same lake samples using ARISA Fingerprinting, but did not find a strong relationship between species richness estimated by Illumina and ARISA. We conclude that the selection of 16S rRNA region significantly influences the estimation of bacterial diversity and species distributions and that caution is warranted when comparing data from different variable regions as well as when using different sequencing techniques. PMID:25915756

  16. Impact of assumptions concerning containment failure on the risk from nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Lappa, D.A.

    1984-09-10

    We describe the containment failure mode and release category assumptions used in the seismic risk study of the Zion nuclear power plant, which was performed by the Seismic Safety Margins Research Program (SSMRP). We then, for the dominant accident sequences, reassign containment failure modes and release categories based upon current thinking. We recalculate the seismic risk from the Zion facility using the new assumptions. Lastly, we discuss the impact of the new assumptions on the results and the relevance of the assumptions to value/impact analyses. 5 references, 5 tables.

  17. Bounds on potential risks and causal risk differences under assumptions about confounding parameters.

    PubMed

    Chiba, Yasutaka; Sato, Tosiya; Greenland, Sander

    2007-12-10

    Nonparametric bounds on causal effects in observational studies are available under deterministic potential-outcome models. We derive narrower bounds by adding assumptions regarding bias due to confounding. This bias is defined as the difference between the expectation of potential outcomes for the exposed group and that for the unexposed group. We show that crude effect measures bound causal effects under the given assumptions. We then derive bounds for randomized studies with noncompliance, which are given by the per protocol effect. With perfect compliance in one treatment group, the direction of effect becomes identifiable under our assumptions. Although the assumptions are not themselves identifiable, they are nonetheless reasonable in some situations.

  18. Simplified seismic performance assessment and implications for seismic design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, Timothy J.; Welch, David P.; Calvi, Gian Michele

    2014-08-01

    The last decade or so has seen the development of refined performance-based earthquake engineering (PBEE) approaches that now provide a framework for estimation of a range of important decision variables, such as repair costs, repair time and number of casualties. This paper reviews current tools for PBEE, including the PACT software, and examines the possibility of extending the innovative displacement-based assessment approach as a simplified structural analysis option for performance assessment. Details of the displacement-based s+eismic assessment method are reviewed and a simple means of quickly assessing multiple hazard levels is proposed. Furthermore, proposals for a simple definition of collapse fragility and relations between equivalent single-degree-of-freedom characteristics and multi-degree-of-freedom story drift and floor acceleration demands are discussed, highlighting needs for future research. To illustrate the potential of the methodology, performance measures obtained from the simplified method are compared with those computed using the results of incremental dynamic analyses within the PEER performance-based earthquake engineering framework, applied to a benchmark building. The comparison illustrates that the simplified method could be a very effective conceptual seismic design tool. The advantages and disadvantages of the simplified approach are discussed and potential implications of advanced seismic performance assessments for conceptual seismic design are highlighted through examination of different case study scenarios including different structural configurations.

  19. Simplified Load-Following Control for a Fuel Cell System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vasquez, Arturo

    2010-01-01

    A simplified load-following control scheme has been proposed for a fuel cell power system. The scheme could be used to control devices that are important parts of a fuel cell system but are sometimes characterized as parasitic because they consume some of the power generated by the fuel cells.

  20. A Linguistic Analysis of Simplified and Authentic Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crossley, Scott A.; Louwerse, Max M.; McCarthy, Philip M.; McNamara, Danielle S.

    2007-01-01

    The opinions of second language learning (L2) theorists and researchers are divided over whether to use authentic or simplified reading texts as the means of input for beginning- and intermediate-level L2 learners. Advocates of both approaches cite the use of linguistic features, syntax, and discourse structures as important elements in support of…

  1. Psychometric Evaluation of the Simplified Chinese Version of Flourishing Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Xiaoqing; Duan, Wenjie; Wang, Zhizhang; Liu, Tianyuan

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The Flourishing Scale (FS) was developed to measure psychological well-being from the eudaimonic perspective, highlighting the flourishing of human functioning. This article evaluated the psychometric characteristics of the simplified Chinese version of FS among a Chinese community population. Method: A total of 433 participants from…

  2. 48 CFR 3032.003 - Simplified acquisition procedures financing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... FINANCING Scope of Part 3032.003 Simplified acquisition procedures financing. Contract financing may be permitted for purchases made under the authority of (FAR) 48 CFR Part 13. This authority is delegated to... procedures financing. 3032.003 Section 3032.003 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF...

  3. 48 CFR 3032.003 - Simplified acquisition procedures financing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... FINANCING Scope of Part 3032.003 Simplified acquisition procedures financing. Contract financing may be permitted for purchases made under the authority of (FAR) 48 CFR Part 13. This authority is delegated to... procedures financing. 3032.003 Section 3032.003 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF...

  4. 48 CFR 1332.003 - Simplified acquisition procedures financing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... procedures financing. 1332.003 Section 1332.003 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING 1332.003 Simplified acquisition procedures financing. Contract financing may be provided for purchases made under the authority of FAR Part 13....

  5. 48 CFR 432.003 - Simplified acquisition procedures financing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... procedures financing. 432.003 Section 432.003 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING 432.003 Simplified acquisition procedures financing. (a) The chief of the contracting office may approve contract financing on a contract to...

  6. 48 CFR 1332.003 - Simplified acquisition procedures financing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... procedures financing. 1332.003 Section 1332.003 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING 1332.003 Simplified acquisition procedures financing. Contract financing may be provided for purchases made under the authority of FAR Part 13....

  7. 48 CFR 432.003 - Simplified acquisition procedures financing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... procedures financing. 432.003 Section 432.003 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING 432.003 Simplified acquisition procedures financing. (a) The chief of the contracting office may approve contract financing on a contract to...

  8. A Simplified Diagnostic Method for Elastomer Bond Durability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Paul

    2009-01-01

    A simplified method has been developed for determining bond durability under exposure to water or high humidity conditions. It uses a small number of test specimens with relatively short times of water exposure at elevated temperature. The method is also gravimetric; the only equipment being required is an oven, specimen jars, and a conventional laboratory balance.

  9. A Simplified Technique for Evaluating Human "CCR5" Genetic Polymorphism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falteisek, Lukáš; Cerný, Jan; Janštová, Vanda

    2013-01-01

    To involve students in thinking about the problem of AIDS (which is important in the view of nondecreasing infection rates), we established a practical lab using a simplified adaptation of Thomas's (2004) method to determine the polymorphism of HIV co-receptor CCR5 from students' own epithelial cells. CCR5 is a receptor involved in…

  10. Simplify Web Development for Faculty and Promote Instructional Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedersen, David C.

    Faculty members are often overwhelmed with the prospect of implementing Web-based instruction. In an effort to simplify the process and incorporate some basic instructional design elements, the Educational Technology Team at Embry Riddle Aeronautical University created a course template for WebCT. Utilizing rapid prototyping, the template…

  11. 7 CFR 4280.109 - Qualification for simplified applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS AND GRANTS Renewable Energy... must use commercially available renewable energy systems or energy efficiency improvements. (5... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Qualification for simplified applications....

  12. 7 CFR 4280.109 - Qualification for simplified applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS AND GRANTS Renewable Energy... must use commercially available renewable energy systems or energy efficiency improvements. (5... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Qualification for simplified applications....

  13. 7 CFR 4280.114 - Qualification for simplified applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... America Program General Renewable Energy System and Energy Efficiency Improvement Grants § 4280.114... proposed project must use commercially available renewable energy systems or energy efficiency improvements... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Qualification for simplified applications....

  14. 7 CFR 273.25 - Simplified Food Stamp Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... TANF plan as defined at 45 CFR 260.30. (3) Pure-TANF household means a household in which all members... CFR 260.31. (b) Limit on benefit reduction for mixed-TANF households under the SFSP. If a State agency... 7 Agriculture 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Simplified Food Stamp Program. 273.25 Section...

  15. The Choice of Traditional vs. Simplified Characters in US Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deng, Shi-zhong

    2009-01-01

    Which form of Chinese characters should be taught in Chinese language classes: traditional or simplified? The results of a questionnaire distributed to sections at the University of Florida show the reasons for students' preferences for one or the other form. In view of the students' awareness that traditional characters are more beneficial to…

  16. Flat pack interconnection structure simplifies modular electronic assemblies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katzin, L.

    1967-01-01

    Flat pack interconnection structure composed of stick modules simplifies modular electronic assemblies by allowing a single axis mother board. Two of the wiring planes are located in the stick module, which is the lower level of assembly, with the third wiring plane in the mother board.

  17. 77 FR 54482 - Allocation of Costs Under the Simplified Methods

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-05

    ... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BG07 Allocation of Costs Under the Simplified Methods... document contains proposed regulations on allocating costs to certain property produced by the taxpayer or... resellers of property that are required to capitalize certain costs to the property and that allocate...

  18. Laparoscopic ureteral reimplantation: a simplified dome advancement technique.

    PubMed

    Lima, Guilherme C; Rais-Bahrami, Soroush; Link, Richard E; Kavoussi, Louis R

    2005-12-01

    Laparoscopic Boari flap reimplantation has been used to treat long distal ureteral strictures. This technique requires extensive bladder mobilization and complex intracorporeal suturing. This demonstrates a novel laparoscopic bladder dome advancement approach for ureteral reimplantation. This technique obviates the need for bladder pedicle dissection and simplifies the required suturing.

  19. Tricuspid balloon valvuloplasty: a more simplified approach using inoue balloon.

    PubMed

    Patel, T M; Dani, S I; Shah, S C; Patel, T K

    1996-01-01

    We report a more simplified technique of the balloon tricuspid valvuloplasty using inoue balloon set in a patient suffering from severe rheumatic tricuspid stenosis. We believe that this technique may be useful in a difficult case of tricuspid valvuloplasty. PMID:8770490

  20. Delayed ripple counter simplifies square-root computation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cliff, R.

    1965-01-01

    Ripple subtract technique simplifies the logic circuitry required in a binary computing device to derive the square root of a number. Successively higher numbers are subtracted from a register containing the number out of which the square root is to be extracted. The last number subtracted will be the closest integer to the square root of the number.

  1. Measuring Phantom Recollection in the Simplified Conjoint Recognition Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stahl, Christoph; Klauer, Karl Christoph

    2009-01-01

    False memories are sometimes strong enough to elicit recollective experiences. This phenomenon has been termed Phantom Recollection (PR). The Conjoint Recognition (CR) paradigm has been used to empirically separate PR from other memory processes. Recently, a simplification of the CR procedure has been proposed. We herein extend the simplified CR…

  2. On Simplifying Features in OpenStreetMap database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Xinlin; Tao, Kunwang; Wang, Liang

    2015-04-01

    Currently the visualization of OpenStreetMap data is using a tile server which stores map tiles that have been rendered from vector data in advance. However, tiled map are short of functionalities such as data editing and customized styling. To enable these advanced functionality, Client-side processing and rendering of geospatial data is needed. Considering the voluminous size of the OpenStreetMap data, simply sending region queries results of OSM database to client is prohibitive. To make the OSM data retrieved from database adapted for client receiving and rendering, It must be filtered and simplified at server-side to limit its volume. We propose a database extension for OSM database to make it possible to simplifying geospatial objects such as ways and relations during data queries. Several auxiliary tables and PL/pgSQL functions are presented to make the geospatial features can be simplified by omitting unimportant vertices. There are five components in the database extension: Vertices weight computation by polyline and polygon simplification algorithm, Vertices weight storage in auxiliary tables. filtering and selecting of vertices using specific threshold value during spatial queries, assembling of simplified geospatial objects using filtered vertices, vertices weight updating after geospatial objects editing. The database extension is implemented on an OSM APIDB using PL/pgSQL. The database contains a subset of OSM database. The experimental database contains geographic data of United Kingdom which is about 100 million vertices and roughly occupy 100GB disk. JOSM are used to retrieve the data from the database using a revised data accessing API and render the geospatial objects in real-time. When serving simplified data to client, The database allows user to set the bound of the error of simplification or the bound of responding time in each data query. Experimental results show the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed methods in building a

  3. Simplified stratigraphic cross sections of the Eocene Green River Formation in the Piceance Basin, northwestern Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dietrich, John D.; Johnson, Ronald C.

    2013-01-01

    Thirteen stratigraphic cross sections of the Eocene Green River Formation in the Piceance Basin of northwestern Colorado are presented in this report. Originally published in a much larger and more detailed form by Self and others (2010), they are shown here in simplified, page-size versions that are easily accessed and used for presentation purposes. Modifications to the original versions include the elimination of the detailed lithologic columns and oil-yield histograms from Fischer assay data and the addition of ground-surface lines to give the depth of the various oil shale units shown on the cross section.

  4. Testing assumptions for conservation of migratory shorebirds and coastal managed wetlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collazo, Jaime; James Lyons,; Herring, Garth

    2015-01-01

    Managed wetlands provide critical foraging and roosting habitats for shorebirds during migration; therefore, ensuring their availability is a priority action in shorebird conservation plans. Contemporary shorebird conservation plans rely on a number of assumptions about shorebird prey resources and migratory behavior to determine stopover habitat requirements. For example, the US Shorebird Conservation Plan for the Southeast-Caribbean region assumes that average benthic invertebrate biomass in foraging habitats is 2.4 g dry mass m−2 and that the dominant prey item of shorebirds in the region is Chironomid larvae. For effective conservation and management, it is important to test working assumptions and update predictive models that are used to estimate habitat requirements. We surveyed migratory shorebirds and sampled the benthic invertebrate community in coastal managed wetlands of South Carolina. We sampled invertebrates at three points in time representing early, middle, and late stages of spring migration, and concurrently surveyed shorebird stopover populations at approximately 7-day intervals throughout migration. We used analysis of variance by ranks to test for temporal variation in invertebrate biomass and density, and we used a model based approach (linear mixed model and Monte Carlo simulation) to estimate mean biomass and density. There was little evidence of a temporal variation in biomass or density during the course of spring shorebird migration, suggesting that shorebirds did not deplete invertebrate prey resources at our site. Estimated biomass was 1.47 g dry mass m−2 (95 % credible interval 0.13–3.55), approximately 39 % lower than values used in the regional shorebird conservation plan. An additional 4728 ha (a 63 % increase) would be required if habitat objectives were derived from biomass levels observed in our study. Polychaetes, especially Laeonereis culveri(2569 individuals m−2), were the most abundant prey in foraging

  5. 77 FR 2015 - Benefits Payable in Terminated Single-Employer Plans; Interest Assumptions for Paying Benefits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-13

    ...This final rule amends the Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation's regulation on Benefits Payable in Terminated Single- Employer Plans to prescribe interest assumptions under the regulation for valuation dates in February 2012. The interest assumptions are used for paying benefits under terminating single-employer plans covered by the pension insurance system administered by...

  6. 47 CFR 76.913 - Assumption of jurisdiction by the Commission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Assumption of jurisdiction by the Commission. 76.913 Section 76.913 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Cable Rate Regulation § 76.913 Assumption...

  7. 47 CFR 76.913 - Assumption of jurisdiction by the Commission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Assumption of jurisdiction by the Commission. 76.913 Section 76.913 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Cable Rate Regulation § 76.913 Assumption...

  8. 33 CFR Appendix B to Part 157 - Subdivision and Stability Assumptions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... space located aft is involved in the damage assumption. The machinery space is calculated as a single... between adjacent transverse bulkheads except the machinery space. (b) The extent and the character of the... the outer hull. 4. Characteristic and Condition Assumption for Calculations. (a) Account must be...

  9. 33 CFR Appendix B to Part 157 - Subdivision and Stability Assumptions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... space located aft is involved in the damage assumption. The machinery space is calculated as a single... between adjacent transverse bulkheads except the machinery space. (b) The extent and the character of the... the outer hull. 4. Characteristic and Condition Assumption for Calculations. (a) Account must be...

  10. 33 CFR Appendix B to Part 157 - Subdivision and Stability Assumptions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... space located aft is involved in the damage assumption. The machinery space is calculated as a single... between adjacent transverse bulkheads except the machinery space. (b) The extent and the character of the... the outer hull. 4. Characteristic and Condition Assumption for Calculations. (a) Account must be...

  11. 33 CFR Appendix B to Part 157 - Subdivision and Stability Assumptions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... space located aft is involved in the damage assumption. The machinery space is calculated as a single... between adjacent transverse bulkheads except the machinery space. (b) The extent and the character of the... the outer hull. 4. Characteristic and Condition Assumption for Calculations. (a) Account must be...

  12. On TESOL '82. Pacific Perspectives on Language Learning and Teaching. II: Challenging Assumptions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevick, Earl W.; And Others

    This section of the TESOL convention volume challenges basic assumptions which are held by language teachers and researchers while at the same time providing other assumptions for professionals to challenge. The following papers are presented: (1) My View of "Teaching Languages: A Way and Ways," by E. Stevick; (2) "'I Got Religion!': Evangelism in…

  13. 75 FR 69588 - Benefits Payable in Terminated Single-Employer Plans; Interest Assumptions for Paying Benefits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-15

    ...., Washington, DC 20005, 202-326-4024. (TTY/TDD users may call the Federal relay service toll-free at 1-800-877... title IV of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974. PBGC uses the interest assumptions in.... Interest assumptions are also published on PBGC's Web site ( http://www.pbgc.gov ). DATES:...

  14. 76 FR 8649 - Benefits Payable in Terminated Single-Employer Plans; Interest Assumptions for Paying Benefits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-15

    ...., Washington, DC 20005, 202-326-4024. (TTY/TDD users may call the Federal relay service toll-free at 1-800-877... title IV of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974. PBGC uses the interest assumptions in.... Interest assumptions are also published on PBGC's Web site ( http://www.pbgc.gov ). DATES: Effective...

  15. Making Sense out of Sex Stereotypes in Advertising: A Feminist Analysis of Assumptions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrante, Karlene

    Sexism and racism in advertising have been well documented, but feminist research aimed at social change must go beyond existing content analyses to ask how advertising is created. Analysis of the "mirror assumption" (advertising reflects society) and the "gender assumption" (advertising speaks in a male voice to female consumers) reveals the fact…

  16. Teaching Lessons in Exclusion: Researchers' Assumptions and the Ideology of Normality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benincasa, Luciana

    2012-01-01

    Filling in a research questionnaire means coming into contact with the researchers' assumptions. In this sense filling in a questionnaire may be described as a learning situation. In this paper I carry out discourse analysis of selected questionnaire items from a number of studies, in order to highlight underlying values and assumptions, and their…

  17. The Importance of the Assumption of Uncorrelated Errors in Psychometric Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raykov, Tenko; Marcoulides, George A.; Patelis, Thanos

    2015-01-01

    A critical discussion of the assumption of uncorrelated errors in classical psychometric theory and its applications is provided. It is pointed out that this assumption is essential for a number of fundamental results and underlies the concept of parallel tests, the Spearman-Brown's prophecy and the correction for attenuation formulas as well as…

  18. The Empirical Status of Empirically Supported Psychotherapies: Assumptions, Findings, and Reporting in Controlled Clinical Trials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westen, Drew; Novotny, Catherine M.; Thompson-Brenner, Heather

    2004-01-01

    This article provides a critical review of the assumptions and findings of studies used to establish psychotherapies as empirically supported. The attempt to identify empirically supported therapies (ESTs) imposes particular assumptions on the use of randomized controlled trial (RCT) methodology that appear to be valid for some disorders and…

  19. 12 CFR 163.22 - Merger, consolidation, purchase or sale of assets, or assumption of liabilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... assets, or assumption of liabilities. 163.22 Section 163.22 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY..., consolidation, purchase or sale of assets, or assumption of liabilities. (a) No Federal savings association may... purposes of this paragraph, the term “transfer” means purchases or sales of assets or liabilities in...

  20. Dialogic or Dialectic? The Significance of Ontological Assumptions in Research on Educational Dialogue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wegerif, Rupert

    2008-01-01

    This article explores the relationship between ontological assumptions and studies of educational dialogue through a focus on Bakhtin's "dialogic". The term dialogic is frequently appropriated to a modernist framework of assumptions, in particular the neo-Vygotskian or sociocultural tradition. However, Vygotsky's theory of education is dialectic,…

  1. An Azulene-Based Discovery Experiment: Challenging Students to Watch for the "False Assumption"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garner, Charles M.

    2005-01-01

    A discovery-based experiment is developed depending on a "false assumption" that the students mistakenly assume they know the structure of a reaction product and are forced to reconcile observations that are inconsistent with this assumption. This experiment involves the chemistry of azulenes, an interesting class of intensely colored aromatic…

  2. 7 CFR 772.11 - Transfer and assumption-IMP loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS SERVICING MINOR PROGRAM LOANS § 772.11 Transfer and assumption—IMP loans. Transfers and assumptions for IMP loans are processed in accordance with 7 CFR part 765. Any... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Transfer and assumption-IMP loans. 772.11 Section...

  3. 7 CFR 772.11 - Transfer and assumption-IMP loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS SERVICING MINOR PROGRAM LOANS § 772.11 Transfer and assumption—IMP loans. Transfers and assumptions for IMP loans are processed in accordance with 7 CFR part 765. Any... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Transfer and assumption-IMP loans. 772.11 Section...

  4. 42 CFR 417.120 - Fiscally sound operation and assumption of financial risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fiscally sound operation and assumption of... Organizations: Organization and Operation § 417.120 Fiscally sound operation and assumption of financial risk. (a) Fiscally sound operation—(1) General requirements. Each HMO must have a fiscally sound...

  5. 42 CFR 417.120 - Fiscally sound operation and assumption of financial risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fiscally sound operation and assumption of...: Organization and Operation § 417.120 Fiscally sound operation and assumption of financial risk. (a) Fiscally sound operation—(1) General requirements. Each HMO must have a fiscally sound operation, as...

  6. 42 CFR 417.120 - Fiscally sound operation and assumption of financial risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fiscally sound operation and assumption of...: Organization and Operation § 417.120 Fiscally sound operation and assumption of financial risk. (a) Fiscally sound operation—(1) General requirements. Each HMO must have a fiscally sound operation, as...

  7. 42 CFR 417.120 - Fiscally sound operation and assumption of financial risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fiscally sound operation and assumption of... Organizations: Organization and Operation § 417.120 Fiscally sound operation and assumption of financial risk. (a) Fiscally sound operation—(1) General requirements. Each HMO must have a fiscally sound...

  8. 42 CFR 417.120 - Fiscally sound operation and assumption of financial risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fiscally sound operation and assumption of... Organizations: Organization and Operation § 417.120 Fiscally sound operation and assumption of financial risk. (a) Fiscally sound operation—(1) General requirements. Each HMO must have a fiscally sound...

  9. Simplified Design Criteria for Very High Temperature Applications in Generation IV Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    McGreevy, TE

    2004-12-15

    The goal of this activity is to provide simplified criteria which can be used in rapid feasibility assessments of the structural viability of very high temperature components in conceptual and early preliminary design phases for Generation IV reactors. The current criteria in ASME Code Section III, Subsection NH, hereafter referred to as NH, (and Code Case N-201 for core support structures) are difficult and require a complex deconstruction of finite element analysis results for their implementation. Further, and most important, times, temperatures and some materials of interest to the very high temperature Generation IV components are not covered by the current provisions of NH. Future revisions to NH are anticipated that will address very high temperature Generation IV components and materials requirements but, until that occurs interim guidance is required for design activities to proceed. These simplified criteria are for design guidance and are not necessarily in rigorous compliance with NH methodology. Rather, the objective is for criteria which address the early design needs of very high temperature Generation IV components and materials. The intent is to provide simplified but not overly conservative design methods. When more rigorous criteria and methods are incorporated in NH, the degree of conservatism should obviously be reduced. These criteria are based on currently available information. Although engineering judgments have been made in the formulation of these criteria they are not intended to require additional development or testing prior to implementation as a tool for use in conceptual and early preliminary design. Appendices are provided herein that contain useful information. The simplified methods were developed specifically with Alloy 617 in mind; however, they could be applied for the same intended purpose for other materials such as 9Cr-1Mo, Alloy 800H, etc. However, supporting design curves, stress allowables, and isochronous curves may

  10. A new scenario framework for climate change research: The concept of Shared Climate Policy Assumptions

    SciTech Connect

    Kriegler, Elmar; Edmonds, James A.; Hallegatte, Stephane; Ebi, Kristie L.; Kram, Tom; Riahi, Keywan; Winkler, Harald; Van Vuuren, Detlef

    2014-04-01

    The paper presents the concept of shared climate policy assumptions as an important element of the new scenario framework. Shared climate policy assumptions capture key climate policy dimensions such as the type and scale of mitigation and adaptation measures. They are not specified in the socio-economic reference pathways, and therefore introduce an important third dimension to the scenario matrix architecture. Climate policy assumptions will have to be made in any climate policy scenario, and can have a significant impact on the scenario description. We conclude that a meaningful set of shared climate policy assumptions is useful for grouping individual climate policy analyses and facilitating their comparison. Shared climate policy assumptions should be designed to be policy relevant, and as a set to be broad enough to allow a comprehensive exploration of the climate change scenario space.

  11. Posttraumatic growth in survivors of intimate partner violence: an assumptive world process.

    PubMed

    Valdez, Christine E; Lilly, Michelle M

    2015-01-01

    Adverse consequences of intimate partner violence (IPV) are well documented, whereas less research has explored positive changes. Recent efforts indicate that survivors report posttraumatic growth (PTG), but the schema reconstruction hypothesis by which this is achieved is in need of further investigation. One model of PTG suggests that growth is triggered by trauma(s) that challenges an individual's assumptive world. This threat promotes cognitive processing and schema reconstruction that fosters a sense of meaning and value in one's life. As schema change is posited as the main cognitive antecedent of PTG, a longitudinal assessment of world assumptions was used to examine whether assumption change predicts PTG in IPV survivors. Results indicate that world assumptions became more positive 1 year after an initial interview but only for women who had not been revictimized in the year between study assessments. Furthermore, positive world assumption change was associated with greater PTG scores. Implications for intervention and research are discussed. PMID:24850765

  12. Assessing the assumption of symmetric proximity measures in the context of multidimensional scaling.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Ken

    2004-01-01

    Applications of multidimensional scaling often make the assumption of symmetry for the population matrix of proximity measures. Although the likelihood of such an assumption holding true varies from one area of research to another, formal assessment of such an assumption has received little attention. The present article develops a nonparametric procedure that can be used in a confirmatory fashion or in an exploratory fashion in order to probabilistically assess the assumption of population symmetry for proximity measures in a multidimensional scaling context. The proposed procedure makes use of the bootstrap technique and alleviates the assumptions of parametric statistical procedures. Computer code for R and S-Plus is included in an appendix in order to carry out the proposed procedures.

  13. Interpretation of searches for supersymmetry with simplified models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

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S.; Colaleo, A.; Creanza, D.; De Filippis, N.; De Palma, M.; Fiore, L.; Iaselli, G.; Maggi, G.; Maggi, M.; Marangelli, B.; My, S.; Nuzzo, S.; Pacifico, N.; Pompili, A.; Pugliese, G.; Selvaggi, G.; Silvestris, L.; Singh, G.; Venditti, R.; Verwilligen, P.; Zito, G.; Abbiendi, G.; Benvenuti, A. C.; Bonacorsi, D.; Braibant-Giacomelli, S.; Brigliadori, L.; Capiluppi, P.; Castro, A.; Cavallo, F. R.; Cuffiani, M.; Dallavalle, G. M.; Fabbri, F.; Fanfani, A.; Fasanella, D.; Giacomelli, P.; Grandi, C.; Guiducci, L.; Marcellini, S.; Masetti, G.; Meneghelli, M.; Montanari, A.; Navarria, F. L.; Odorici, F.; Perrotta, A.; Primavera, F.; Rossi, A. M.; Rovelli, T.; Siroli, G. 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U.; Mulders, M.; Musella, P.; Nesvold, E.; Orsini, L.; Palencia Cortezon, E.; Perez, E.; Perrozzi, L.; Petrilli, A.; Pfeiffer, A.; Pierini, M.; Pimiä, M.; Piparo, D.; Polese, G.; Quertenmont, L.; Racz, A.; Reece, W.; Rodrigues Antunes, J.; Rolandi, G.; Rovelli, C.; Rovere, M.; Sakulin, H.; Santanastasio, F.; Schäfer, C.; Schwick, C.; Segoni, I.; Sekmen, S.; Sharma, A.; Siegrist, P.; Silva, P.; Simon, M.; Sphicas, P.; Spiga, D.; Tsirou, A.; Veres, G. I.; Vlimant, J. R.; Wöhri, H. K.; Worm, S. D.; Zeuner, W. D.; Bertl, W.; Deiters, K.; Erdmann, W.; Gabathuler, K.; Horisberger, R.; Ingram, Q.; Kaestli, H. C.; König, S.; Kotlinski, D.; Langenegger, U.; Meier, F.; Renker, D.; Rohe, T.; Bäni, L.; Bortignon, P.; Buchmann, M. A.; Casal, B.; Chanon, N.; Deisher, A.; Dissertori, G.; Dittmar, M.; Donegà, M.; Dünser, M.; Eller, P.; Eugster, J.; Freudenreich, K.; Grab, C.; Hits, D.; Lecomte, P.; Lustermann, W.; Marini, A. 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T.; Gaz, A.; Luiggi Lopez, E.; Smith, J. G.; Stenson, K.; Ulmer, K. A.; Wagner, S. R.; Alexander, J.; Chatterjee, A.; Eggert, N.; Gibbons, L. K.; Heltsley, B.; Hopkins, W.; Khukhunaishvili, A.; Kreis, B.; Mirman, N.; Nicolas Kaufman, G.; Patterson, J. R.; Ryd, A.; Salvati, E.; Sun, W.; Teo, W. D.; Thom, J.; Thompson, J.; Tucker, J.; Vaughan, J.; Weng, Y.; Winstrom, L.; Wittich, P.; Winn, D.; Abdullin, S.; Albrow, M.; Anderson, J.; Bauerdick, L. A. T.; Beretvas, A.; Berryhill, J.; Bhat, P. C.; Burkett, K.; Butler, J. N.; Chetluru, V.; Cheung, H. W. K.; Chlebana, F.; Elvira, V. D.; Fisk, I.; Freeman, J.; Gao, Y.; Green, D.; Gutsche, O.; Hanlon, J.; Harris, R. M.; Hirschauer, J.; Hooberman, B.; Jindariani, S.; Johnson, M.; Joshi, U.; Klima, B.; Kunori, S.; Kwan, S.; Leonidopoulos, C.; Linacre, J.; Lincoln, D.; Lipton, R.; Lykken, J.; Maeshima, K.; Marraffino, J. M.; Maruyama, S.; Mason, D.; McBride, P.; Mishra, K.; Mrenna, S.; Musienko, Y.; Newman-Holmes, C.; O'Dell, V.; Prokofyev, O.; Sexton-Kennedy, E.; Sharma, S.; Spalding, W. J.; Spiegel, L.; Taylor, L.; Tkaczyk, S.; Tran, N. V.; Uplegger, L.; Vaandering, E. W.; Vidal, R.; Whitmore, J.; Wu, W.; Yang, F.; Yun, J. C.; Acosta, D.; Avery, P.; Bourilkov, D.; Chen, M.; Cheng, T.; Das, S.; De Gruttola, M.; Di Giovanni, G. P.; Dobur, D.; Drozdetskiy, A.; Field, R. D.; Fisher, M.; Fu, Y.; Furic, I. K.; Gartner, J.; Hugon, J.; Kim, B.; Konigsberg, J.; Korytov, A.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Kypreos, T.; Low, J. F.; Matchev, K.; Milenovic, P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Muniz, L.; Park, M.; Remington, R.; Rinkevicius, A.; Sellers, P.; Skhirtladze, N.; Snowball, M.; Yelton, J.; Zakaria, M.; Gaultney, V.; Hewamanage, S.; Lebolo, L. M.; Linn, S.; Markowitz, P.; Martinez, G.; Rodriguez, J. L.; Adams, T.; Askew, A.; Bochenek, J.; Chen, J.; Diamond, B.; Gleyzer, S. V.; Haas, J.; Hagopian, S.; Hagopian, V.; Jenkins, M.; Johnson, K. F.; Prosper, H.; Veeraraghavan, V.; Weinberg, M.; Baarmand, M. M.; Dorney, B.; Hohlmann, M.; Kalakhety, H.; Vodopiyanov, I.; Yumiceva, F.; Adams, M. R.; Anghel, I. M.; Apanasevich, L.; Bai, Y.; Bazterra, V. E.; Betts, R. R.; Bucinskaite, I.; Callner, J.; Cavanaugh, R.; Evdokimov, O.; Gauthier, L.; Gerber, C. E.; Hofman, D. J.; Khalatyan, S.; Lacroix, F.; O'Brien, C.; Silkworth, C.; Strom, D.; Turner, P.; Varelas, N.; Akgun, U.; Albayrak, E. A.; Bilki, B.; Clarida, W.; Duru, F.; Griffiths, S.; Merlo, J.-P.; Mermerkaya, H.; Mestvirishvili, A.; Moeller, A.; Nachtman, J.; Newsom, C. R.; Norbeck, E.; Onel, Y.; Ozok, F.; Sen, S.; Tan, P.; Tiras, E.; Wetzel, J.; Yetkin, T.; Yi, K.; Barnett, B. A.; Blumenfeld, B.; Bolognesi, S.; Fehling, D.; Giurgiu, G.; Gritsan, A. V.; Guo, Z. J.; Hu, G.; Maksimovic, P.; Swartz, M.; Whitbeck, A.; Baringer, P.; Bean, A.; Benelli, G.; Kenny, R. P., III; Murray, M.; Noonan, D.; Sanders, S.; Stringer, R.; Tinti, G.; Wood, J. S.; Barfuss, A. F.; Bolton, T.; Chakaberia, I.; Ivanov, A.; Khalil, S.; Makouski, M.; Maravin, Y.; Shrestha, S.; Svintradze, I.; Gronberg, J.; Lange, D.; Rebassoo, F.; Wright, D.; Baden, A.; Calvert, B.; Eno, S. C.; Gomez, J. A.; Hadley, N. J.; Kellogg, R. G.; Kirn, M.; Kolberg, T.; Lu, Y.; Marionneau, M.; Mignerey, A. C.; Pedro, K.; Skuja, A.; Temple, J.; Tonjes, M. B.; Tonwar, S. C.; Apyan, A.; Bauer, G.; Bendavid, J.; Busza, W.; Butz, E.; Cali, I. A.; Chan, M.; Dutta, V.; Gomez Ceballos, G.; Goncharov, M.; Kim, Y.; Klute, M.; Krajczar, K.; Levin, A.; Luckey, P. D.; Ma, T.; Nahn, S.; Paus, C.; Ralph, D.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Rudolph, M.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Stöckli, F.; Sumorok, K.; Sung, K.; Velicanu, D.; Wenger, E. A.; Wolf, R.; Wyslouch, B.; Yang, M.; Yilmaz, Y.; Yoon, A. S.; Zanetti, M.; Zhukova, V.; Cooper, S. I.; Dahmes, B.; De Benedetti, A.; Franzoni, G.; Gude, A.; Kao, S. C.; Klapoetke, K.; Kubota, Y.; Mans, J.; Pastika, N.; Rusack, R.; Sasseville, M.; Singovsky, A.; Tambe, N.; Turkewitz, J.; Cremaldi, L. M.; Kroeger, R.; Perera, L.; Rahmat, R.; Sanders, D. A.; Avdeeva, E.; Bloom, K.; Bose, S.; Claes, D. R.; Dominguez, A.; Eads, M.; Keller, J.; Kravchenko, I.; Lazo-Flores, J.; Malik, S.; Snow, G. R.; Godshalk, A.; Iashvili, I.; Jain, S.; Kharchilava, A.; Kumar, A.; Rappoccio, S.; Alverson, G.; Barberis, E.; Baumgartel, D.; Chasco, M.; Haley, J.; Nash, D.; Orimoto, T.; Trocino, D.; Wood, D.; Zhang, J.; Anastassov, A.; Hahn, K. A.; Kubik, A.; Lusito, L.; Mucia, N.; Odell, N.; Ofierzynski, R. A.; Pollack, B.; Pozdnyakov, A.; Schmitt, M.; Stoynev, S.; Velasco, M.; Won, S.; Antonelli, L.; Berry, D.; Brinkerhoff, A.; Chan, K. M.; Hildreth, M.; Jessop, C.; Karmgard, D. J.; Kolb, J.; Lannon, K.; Luo, W.; Lynch, S.; Marinelli, N.; Morse, D. M.; Pearson, T.; Planer, M.; Ruchti, R.; Slaunwhite, J.; Valls, N.; Wayne, M.; Wolf, M.; Bylsma, B.; Durkin, L. S.; Hill, C.; Hughes, R.; Kotov, K.; Ling, T. Y.; Puigh, D.; Rodenburg, M.; Vuosalo, C.; Williams, G.; Winer, B. L.; Berry, E.; Elmer, P.; Halyo, V.; Hebda, P.; Hegeman, J.; Hunt, A.; Jindal, P.; Koay, S. A.; Lopes Pegna, D.; Lujan, P.; Marlow, D.; Medvedeva, T.; Mooney, M.; Olsen, J.; Piroué, P.; Quan, X.; Raval, A.; Saka, H.; Stickland, D.; Tully, C.; Werner, J. S.; Zuranski, A.; Brownson, E.; Lopez, A.; Mendez, H.; Ramirez Vargas, J. E.; Alagoz, E.; Barnes, V. E.; Benedetti, D.; Bolla, G.; Bortoletto, D.; De Mattia, M.; Everett, A.; Hu, Z.; Jones, M.; Koybasi, O.; Kress, M.; Laasanen, A. T.; Leonardo, N.; Maroussov, V.; Merkel, P.; Miller, D. H.; Neumeister, N.; Shipsey, I.; Silvers, D.; Svyatkovskiy, A.; Vidal Marono, M.; Yoo, H. D.; Zablocki, J.; Zheng, Y.; Guragain, S.; Parashar, N.; Adair, A.; Akgun, B.; Boulahouache, C.; Ecklund, K. M.; Geurts, F. J. M.; Li, W.; Padley, B. P.; Redjimi, R.; Roberts, J.; Zabel, J.; Betchart, B.; Bodek, A.; Chung, Y. S.; Covarelli, R.; de Barbaro, P.; Demina, R.; Eshaq, Y.; Ferbel, T.; Garcia-Bellido, A.; Goldenzweig, P.; Han, J.; Harel, A.; Miner, D. C.; Vishnevskiy, D.; Zielinski, M.; Bhatti, A.; Ciesielski, R.; Demortier, L.; Goulianos, K.; Lungu, G.; Malik, S.; Mesropian, C.; Arora, S.; Barker, A.; Chou, J. P.; Contreras-Campana, C.; Contreras-Campana, E.; Duggan, D.; Ferencek, D.; Gershtein, Y.; Gray, R.; Halkiadakis, E.; Hidas, D.; Lath, A.; Panwalkar, S.; Park, M.; Patel, R.; Rekovic, V.; Robles, J.; Rose, K.; Salur, S.; Schnetzer, S.; Seitz, C.; Somalwar, S.; Stone, R.; Thomas, S.; Walker, M.; Cerizza, G.; Hollingsworth, M.; Spanier, S.; Yang, Z. C.; York, A.; Eusebi, R.; Flanagan, W.; Gilmore, J.; Kamon, T.; Khotilovich, V.; Montalvo, R.; Osipenkov, I.; Pakhotin, Y.; Perloff, A.; Roe, J.; Safonov, A.; Sakuma, T.; Sengupta, S.; Suarez, I.; Tatarinov, A.; Toback, D.; Akchurin, N.; Damgov, J.; Dragoiu, C.; Dudero, P. R.; Jeong, C.; Kovitanggoon, K.; Lee, S. W.; Libeiro, T.; Volobouev, I.; Appelt, E.; Delannoy, A. G.; Florez, C.; Greene, S.; Gurrola, A.; Johns, W.; Kurt, P.; Maguire, C.; Melo, A.; Sharma, M.; Sheldon, P.; Snook, B.; Tuo, S.; Velkovska, J.; Arenton, M. W.; Balazs, M.; Boutle, S.; Cox, B.; Francis, B.; Goodell, J.; Hirosky, R.; Ledovskoy, A.; Lin, C.; Neu, C.; Wood, J.; Gollapinni, S.; Harr, R.; Karchin, P. E.; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, C.; Lamichhane, P.; Sakharov, A.; Anderson, M.; Belknap, D. A.; Borrello, L.; Carlsmith, D.; Cepeda, M.; Dasu, S.; Friis, E.; Gray, L.; Grogg, K. S.; Grothe, M.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Herndon, M.; Hervé, A.; Klabbers, P.; Klukas, J.; Lanaro, A.; Lazaridis, C.; Loveless, R.; Mohapatra, A.; Ojalvo, I.; Palmonari, F.; Pierro, G. A.; Ross, I.; Savin, A.; Smith, W. H.; Swanson, J.

    2013-09-01

    The results of searches for supersymmetry by the CMS experiment are interpreted in the framework of simplified models. The results are based on data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 4.73 to 4.98fb-1. The data were collected at the LHC in proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV. This paper describes the method of interpretation and provides upper limits on the product of the production cross section and branching fraction as a function of new particle masses for a number of simplified models. These limits and the corresponding experimental acceptance calculations can be used to constrain other theoretical models and to compare different supersymmetry-inspired analyses.

  14. Effect of peak thermal strain on simplified ratchetting analysis procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Sartory, W.K.

    1989-01-01

    Omission of peak strain in the O'Donnell-Porowski simplified ratchetting rules of ASME Code Case N-47, which governs design of elevated-temperature nuclear components, can lead to nonconservatism. The O'Donnell-Porowski method is therefore modified in this paper to include peak strain. The revised technique eliminates nonconservatism that was originally found in comparing the simplified rules with the results of two- and three-dimensional analyses and that was used as a basis for restricting the O'Donnell-Porowski method to one-dimensional geometries. Since the new method is found to be conservative in all the one-, two-, and three-dimensional problems in which it is has been tested, it is under consideration by the code for inclusion in N-47 without restriction as to dimensionality. 7 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. A SIMPLIFIED APPROACH TO ANALYZE AND MODEL INDUCTIVE VOLTAGE ADDER

    SciTech Connect

    ZHANG,W.; ENG, W.; PAI, C.; SANDBERG, J.; TAN, Y.; TIAN, Y.

    2007-06-25

    We have recently developed a simplified model and a set of simple formulas for inductive voltage adder design. This model reveals the relationship of output waveform parameters and hardware designs. A computer simulation has demonstrated that parameter estimation based on this approach is accurate as compared to an actual circuit. This approach can be used in early stages of project development to assist feasibility study, geometry selection in engineering design, and parameter selection of critical components. In this paper, we give the deduction of a simplified model. Among the estimation formulas we present are those for pulse rise time, system impedance, and number of stages. Examples are used to illustrate the advantage of this approach. This approach is also applicable to induction LINAC design.

  16. Simplified scheme for entanglement preparation with Rydberg pumping via dissipation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Shi-Lei; Guo, Qi; Wang, Hong-Fu; Zhang, Shou

    2015-08-01

    Inspired by recent work [Carr and Saffman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 033607 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.111.033607], we propose a simplified scheme to prepare the two-atom maximally entangled states via dissipative Rydberg pumping. Compared with the former scheme, the simplified one involves fewer classical laser fields and Rydberg interactions, and the asymmetric Rydberg interactions are avoided. Master equation simulations demonstrate that the fidelity and the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt correlation of the maximally entangled state could reach up to 0.999 and 2.821, respectively, under certain conditions. Furthermore, we extend the physical thoughts to prepare the three-dimensional entangled state, and the numerical simulations show that, in theory, both the fidelity and the negativity of the desired entanglement could be very close to unity under certain conditions.

  17. Relaxing the closure assumption in single-season occupancy models: staggered arrival and departure times

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kendall, William L.; Hines, James E.; Nichols, James D.; Grant, Evan H. Campbell

    2013-01-01

    Occupancy statistical models that account for imperfect detection have proved very useful in several areas of ecology, including species distribution and spatial dynamics, disease ecology, and ecological responses to climate change. These models are based on the collection of multiple samples at each of a number of sites within a given season, during which it is assumed the species is either absent or present and available for detection while each sample is taken. However, for some species, individuals are only present or available for detection seasonally. We present a statistical model that relaxes the closure assumption within a season by permitting staggered entry and exit times for the species of interest at each site. Based on simulation, our open model eliminates bias in occupancy estimators and in some cases increases precision. The power to detect the violation of closure is high if detection probability is reasonably high. In addition to providing more robust estimation of occupancy, this model permits comparison of phenology across sites, species, or years, by modeling variation in arrival or departure probabilities. In a comparison of four species of amphibians in Maryland we found that two toad species arrived at breeding sites later in the season than a salamander and frog species, and departed from sites earlier.

  18. A simplified model of aerosol removal by containment sprays

    SciTech Connect

    Powers, D.A. ); Burson, S.B. . Div. of Safety Issue Resolution)

    1993-06-01

    Spray systems in nuclear reactor containments are described. The scrubbing of aerosols from containment atmospheres by spray droplets is discussed. Uncertainties are identified in the prediction of spray performance when the sprays are used as a means for decontaminating containment atmospheres. A mechanistic model based on current knowledge of the physical phenomena involved in spray performance is developed. With this model, a quantitative uncertainty analysis of spray performance is conducted using a Monte Carlo method to sample 20 uncertain quantities related to phenomena of spray droplet behavior as well as the initial and boundary conditions expected to be associated with severe reactor accidents. Results of the uncertainty analysis are used to construct simplified expressions for spray decontamination coefficients. Two variables that affect aerosol capture by water droplets are not treated as uncertain; they are (1) [open quote]Q[close quote], spray water flux into the containment, and (2) [open quote]H[close quote], the total fall distance of spray droplets. The choice of values of these variables is left to the user since they are plant and accident specific. Also, they can usually be ascertained with some degree of certainty. The spray decontamination coefficients are found to be sufficiently dependent on the extent of decontamination that the fraction of the initial aerosol remaining in the atmosphere, m[sub f], is explicitly treated in the simplified expressions. The simplified expressions for the spray decontamination coefficient are given. Parametric values for these expressions are found for median, 10 percentile, and 90 percentile values in the uncertainty distribution for the spray decontamination coefficient. Examples are given to illustrate the utility of the simplified expressions to predict spray decontamination of an aerosol-laden atmosphere.

  19. Simplified Velocity Interferometer System for Any Reflector (VISAR) system

    SciTech Connect

    Sweatt, W.C.; Stanton, P.L.; Crump, O.B. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    A simplified, rugged VISAR (Velocity Interferometer System for Any Reflector) system has been developed using a non-removable delay element and an essentially non-adjustable interferometer cavity. In this system, the critical interference adjustments are performed during fabrication of the cavity, freeing the user from this task. Prototype systems are easy to use and give extremely high quality results. 6 refs., 7 figs.

  20. Simplifying the writing process for the novice writer.

    PubMed

    Redmond, Mary Connie

    2002-10-01

    Nurses take responsibility for reading information to update their professional knowledge and to meet relicensure requirements. However, nurses are less enthusiastic about writing for professional publication. This article explores the reluctance of nurses to write, the reasons why writing for publication is important to the nursing profession, the importance of mentoring to potential writers, and basic information about simplifying the writing process for novice writers. PMID:12384898

  1. 7 CFR 273.25 - Simplified Food Stamp Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... at 45 CFR 260.30. (3) Pure-TANF household means a household in which all members receive assistance... (42 U.S.C. 601 et seq.) means “assistance” as defined in regulations at 45 CFR 260.31. (b) Limit on... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Simplified Food Stamp Program. 273.25 Section...

  2. Simplified Knotless Mattress Repair of Type II SLAP Lesions.

    PubMed

    Chia, Marcus Robert; Hatrick, Cameron

    2015-12-01

    Arthroscopic repair of lesions of the superior labrum and biceps anchor has been shown to provide good to excellent results. We describe a simplified arthroscopic surgical technique using a single knotless anchor with a mattress suture configuration. This technique provides an effective and reproducible method to reattach and re-create the normal appearance of the superior labrum and biceps anchor in a time-efficient manner without the need for knot tying.

  3. Simplified optical correlation-domain reflectometry without reference path.

    PubMed

    Shizuka, Makoto; Hayashi, Neisei; Mizuno, Yosuke; Nakamura, Kentaro

    2016-05-20

    We develop a simplified configuration for optical correlation-domain reflectometry (OCDR) without an explicit reference path. Instead, the Fresnel-reflected light generated at the distal open end of the sensing fiber is exploited as a reference light. After the fundamental demonstration, the optimal incident power is found to be approximately 8 dBm. We also show that the loss near the distal end should not be applied, unlike in the case of Brillouin-based OCDR. PMID:27411116

  4. Simplified approach for prosthetic rehabilitation of an enucleated ophthalmic socket.

    PubMed

    Anandkumar, V; Mohamed, Kasim; MadhanKumar, Seenivasan; Prathibha, P; Padmanabhan, T V

    2014-09-01

    Physical defects that compromise appearance or function, prevents an individual from leading a normal life, prompt the individual to seek treatment that will reinstate an acceptable normalcy. The disfigurement associated with loss of an eye can cause significant physical and emotional problems. The role of maxillofacial prosthodontists in fabricating an ocular prosthesis with acceptable esthetics and restoring normal appearance is essential. This article presents simplified impression technique and fabrication of ocular prosthesis.

  5. Dark matter phenomenology of GUT inspired simplified models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arcadi, Giorgio

    2016-05-01

    We discuss some aspects of dark matter phenomenology, in particular related to Direct detection and collider searches, of models in which a fermionic Dark Matter interacts with SM fermions through spin 1 mediators. Contrary to conventional simplified models we will consider fixed assignments of the couplings of the (Z' ) mediator, according theoretically motivated embeddings. This allows to predict signals at future experimental facilities which can be used to test and possibly discriminate different realizations.

  6. A simplified approach for the computation of steady two-phase flow in inverted siphons.

    PubMed

    Diogo, A Freire; Oliveira, Maria C

    2016-01-15

    Hydraulic, sanitary, and sulfide control conditions of inverted siphons, particularly in large wastewater systems, can be substantially improved by continuous air injection in the base of the inclined rising branch. This paper presents a simplified approach that was developed for the two-phase flow of the rising branch using the energy equation for a steady pipe flow, based on the average fluid fraction, observed slippage between phases, and isothermal assumption. As in a conventional siphon design, open channel steady uniform flow is assumed in inlet and outlet chambers, corresponding to the wastewater hydraulic characteristics in the upstream and downstream sewers, and the descending branch operates in steady uniform single-phase pipe flow. The proposed approach is tested and compared with data obtained in an experimental siphon setup with two plastic barrels of different diameters operating separately as in a single-barrel siphon. Although the formulations developed are very simple, the results show a good adjustment for the set of the parameters used and conditions tested and are promising mainly for sanitary siphons with relatively moderate heights of the ascending branch.

  7. Simplified analytical model of penetration with lateral loading -- User`s guide

    SciTech Connect

    Young, C.W.

    1998-05-01

    The SAMPLL (Simplified Analytical Model of Penetration with Lateral Loading) computer code was originally developed in 1984 to realistically yet economically predict penetrator/target interactions. Since the code`s inception, its use has spread throughout the conventional and nuclear penetrating weapons community. During the penetrator/target interaction, the resistance of the material being penetrated imparts both lateral and axial loads on the penetrator. These loads cause changes to the penetrator`s motion (kinematics). SAMPLL uses empirically based algorithms, formulated from an extensive experimental data base, to replicate the loads the penetrator experiences during penetration. The lateral loads resulting from angle of attack and trajectory angle of the penetrator are explicitly treated in SAMPLL. The loads are summed and the kinematics calculated at each time step. SAMPLL has been continually improved, and the current version, Version 6.0, can handle cratering and spall effects, multiple target layers, penetrator damage/failure, and complex penetrator shapes. Version 6 uses the latest empirical penetration equations, and also automatically adjusts the penetrability index for certain target layers to account for layer thickness and confinement. This report describes the SAMPLL code, including assumptions and limitations, and includes a user`s guide.

  8. A simplified approach for the computation of steady two-phase flow in inverted siphons.

    PubMed

    Diogo, A Freire; Oliveira, Maria C

    2016-01-15

    Hydraulic, sanitary, and sulfide control conditions of inverted siphons, particularly in large wastewater systems, can be substantially improved by continuous air injection in the base of the inclined rising branch. This paper presents a simplified approach that was developed for the two-phase flow of the rising branch using the energy equation for a steady pipe flow, based on the average fluid fraction, observed slippage between phases, and isothermal assumption. As in a conventional siphon design, open channel steady uniform flow is assumed in inlet and outlet chambers, corresponding to the wastewater hydraulic characteristics in the upstream and downstream sewers, and the descending branch operates in steady uniform single-phase pipe flow. The proposed approach is tested and compared with data obtained in an experimental siphon setup with two plastic barrels of different diameters operating separately as in a single-barrel siphon. Although the formulations developed are very simple, the results show a good adjustment for the set of the parameters used and conditions tested and are promising mainly for sanitary siphons with relatively moderate heights of the ascending branch. PMID:26517278

  9. Simplified tornado depressurization design methods for nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Howard, N.M.; Krasnopoler, M.I.

    1983-05-01

    A simplified approach for the calculation of tornado depressurization effects on nuclear power plant structures and components is based on a generic computer depressurization analysis for an arbitrary single volume V connected to the atmosphere by an effective vent area A. For a given tornado depressurization transient, the maximum depressurization ..delta..P of the volume was found to depend on the parameter V/A. The relation between ..delta..P and V/A can be represented by a single monotonically increasing curve for each of the three design-basis tornadoes described in the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Regulatory Guide 1.76. These curves can be applied to most multiple-volume nuclear power plant structures by considering each volume and its controlling vent area. Where several possible flow areas could be controlling, the maximum value of V/A can be used to estimate a conservative value for ..delta..P. This simplified approach was shown to yield reasonably conservative results when compared to detailed computer calculations of moderately complex geometries. Treatment of severely complicated geometries, heating and ventilation systems, and multiple blowout panel arrangements were found to be beyond the limitations of the simplified analysis.

  10. Simplified panel of assimilation tests for identification of Acinetobacter species.

    PubMed

    Kenchappa, Prashanth; Sreenivasmurthy, Badrinath

    2003-10-01

    A total of 66 Acinetobacter isolates obtained from JIPMER hospital wards were subjected to phenotypic identification schemes involving 25-test and a simplified 13-test panel of carbon utilization or assimilation tests. Reference strains belonging to different DNA groups (n=24) were also tested. Identification was done using numerical approach based on a matrix constructed of phenotypic data published elsewhere and the strains were assigned to different DNA groups according to classification of Tjernberg & Ursing. Sixty-six strains tested represented 10 DNA groups in matrix of large test panel; at a probability level of 0.95. Much simplified scheme of 13 assimilation test panel failed to differentiate some isolates with in A. calcoaceticus-A. baumannii complex (Acb-complex) unlike extended panel. In all, from the large panel 95% of isolates were identified correctly among all the isolates and it did not identify 5% of isolates. From the small panel, a total of 89% of isolates were identified correctly and it could not identify 11% of isolates. Reduced number of assimilation tests to 13 from the large panel bought reduction in identification percentage rate by only 6%. It is impossible for many bacterial diagnostic labs worldwide to perform large panel of carbon utilization tests in routine practice. Simplified panel of assimilation tests suggested here seems to be the best alternative method for identification of Acinetobacter species. PMID:15025386

  11. An Exploration of Dental Students' Assumptions About Community-Based Clinical Experiences.

    PubMed

    Major, Nicole; McQuistan, Michelle R

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to ascertain which assumptions dental students recalled feeling prior to beginning community-based clinical experiences and whether those assumptions were fulfilled or challenged. All fourth-year students at the University of Iowa College of Dentistry & Dental Clinics participate in community-based clinical experiences. At the completion of their rotations, they write a guided reflection paper detailing the assumptions they had prior to beginning their rotations and assessing the accuracy of their assumptions. For this qualitative descriptive study, the 218 papers from three classes (2011-13) were analyzed for common themes. The results showed that the students had a variety of assumptions about their rotations. They were apprehensive about working with challenging patients, performing procedures for which they had minimal experience, and working too slowly. In contrast, they looked forward to improving their clinical and patient management skills and knowledge. Other assumptions involved the site (e.g., the equipment/facility would be outdated; protocols/procedures would be similar to the dental school's). Upon reflection, students reported experiences that both fulfilled and challenged their assumptions. Some continued to feel apprehensive about treating certain patient populations, while others found it easier than anticipated. Students were able to treat multiple patients per day, which led to increased speed and patient management skills. However, some reported challenges with time management. Similarly, students were surprised to discover some clinics were new/updated although some had limited instruments and materials. Based on this study's findings about students' recalled assumptions and reflective experiences, educators should consider assessing and addressing their students' assumptions prior to beginning community-based dental education experiences. PMID:26933101

  12. The crux of the method: assumptions in ordinary least squares and logistic regression.

    PubMed

    Long, Rebecca G

    2008-10-01

    Logistic regression has increasingly become the tool of choice when analyzing data with a binary dependent variable. While resources relating to the technique are widely available, clear discussions of why logistic regression should be used in place of ordinary least squares regression are difficult to find. The current paper compares and contrasts the assumptions of ordinary least squares with those of logistic regression and explains why logistic regression's looser assumptions make it adept at handling violations of the more important assumptions in ordinary least squares.

  13. A simplified analytical solution for thermal response of a one-dimensional, steady state transpiration cooling system in radiative and convective environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kubota, H.

    1976-01-01

    A simplified analytical method for calculation of thermal response within a transpiration-cooled porous heat shield material in an intense radiative-convective heating environment is presented. The essential assumptions of the radiative and convective transfer processes in the heat shield matrix are the two-temperature approximation and the specified radiative-convective heatings of the front surface. Sample calculations for porous silica with CO2 injection are presented for some typical parameters of mass injection rate, porosity, and material thickness. The effect of these parameters on the cooling system is discussed.

  14. The Intensity-dependence of Tropical Cyclone Intensification in a Simplified Energetic System and a Full Physics Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Several recent studies based on best track data for tropical cyclones (TCs) over the North Atlantic revealed a strong dependence of the TC intensification rate (IR) on TC intensity. The TC IR shows a maximum (i.e., most rapid intensification) when the TC intensity reaches about 35 - 40 m s-1. Physically, this intensity-dependence has been explained in terms of the inner-core inertial stability and the decreased potential for a TC to intensify as it approaches its maximum potential intensity (MPI). Here, we propose a new simplified dynamical system based on TC energetics. For this purpose, the TC system is considered as a Carnot heat engine as in earlier theoretical studies, and formulated on the grounds of major energy production and dissipation processes. This offers a way to explain the IR behavior of TCs in terms of its sensitivity to the physical processes involved, and to derive a physically-based relationship between TC intensification and intensity. This relationship is consistent with observations, and in quantitative agreement with that gained from empirical relations in an alternative dynamical system proposed by DeMaria(2009), which has been formulated analogously to the logistic growth equation (LGE). Results from idealized full-physics model simulations confirm the validity of several key assumptions implicitly involved in the simplified dynamical system and the intensity-dependence of the TC IR as well.

  15. Learning disabilities theory and Soviet psychology: a comparison of basic assumptions.

    PubMed

    Coles, G S

    1982-09-01

    Critics both within and outside the Learning Disabilities (LD) field have pointed to the weaknesses of LD theory. Beginning with the premise that a significant problem of LD theory has been its failure to explore fully its fundamental assumptions, this paper examines a number of these assumptions about individual and social development, cognition, and learning. These assumptions are compared with a contrasting body of premises found in Soviet psychology, particularly in the works of Vygotsky, Leontiev, and Luria. An examination of the basic assumptions of LD theory and Soviet psychology shows that a major difference lies in their respective nondialectical and dialectical interpretation of the relationship of social factors and cognition, learning, and neurological development. PMID:7142423

  16. Levels of Simplification. The Use of Assumptions, Restrictions, and Constraints in Engineering Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitaker, Stephen

    1988-01-01

    Describes the use of assumptions, restrictions, and constraints in solving difficult analytical problems in engineering. Uses the Navier-Stokes equations as examples to demonstrate use, derivations, advantages, and disadvantages of the technique. (RT)

  17. Life Detection with Minimal Assumptions — Setting an Abiotic Background for Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steele, A.

    2016-05-01

    I set out a strategy for life detection on Mars with minimal assumptions and review the state of knowledge of Martian organic carbon in martian meteorites. Analyses of martian meteorites represents an invaluable "analogue" suite of samples for study.

  18. Mathematical Assumptions versus Biological Reality: Myths in Affected Sib Pair Linkage Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Elston, Robert C.; Song, Danhong; Iyengar, Sudha K.

    2005-01-01

    Affected sib pair (ASP) analysis has become common ever since it was shown that, under very specific assumptions, ASPs afford a powerful design for linkage analysis. In 2003, Vieland and Huang, on the basis of a “fundamental heterogeneity equation,” proved that heterogeneity and epistasis are confounded in ASP linkage analysis. A much more serious limitation of ASP linkage analysis is the implicit assumption that randomly sampled sib pairs share half their alleles identical by descent at any locus, whereas a critical assumption underlying Vieland and Huang’s proof is that of joint Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium proportions at two trait loci. These are considered as examples of mathematical assumptions that may not always reflect biological reality. More-robust sib-pair designs and appropriate methods for their analysis have long been available. PMID:15540158

  19. Washington International Renewable Energy Conference (WIREC) 2008 Pledges. Methodology and Assumptions Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Babiuch, Bill; Bilello, Daniel E.; Cowlin, Shannon C.; Mann, Margaret; Wise, Alison

    2008-08-01

    This report describes the methodology and assumptions used by NREL in quantifying the potential CO2 reductions resulting from more than 140 governments, international organizations, and private-sector representatives pledging to advance the uptake of renewable energy.

  20. 76 FR 14437 - Economic Simplified Boiling Water Reactor Standard Design: GE Hitachi Nuclear Energy; Issuance of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Economic Simplified Boiling Water Reactor Standard Design: GE Hitachi Nuclear Energy; Issuance of... GE Hitachi Nuclear Energy (GEH) for the economic simplified boiling water reactor (ESBWR)...

  1. Health Information in Chinese - Simplified (简体中文): MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... 简体中文 (Chinese - Simplified) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Gout Purine Restricted Diet (For Patients with Gout) - English 降尿酸饮食建议 - 简体中文 (Chinese - Simplified) PDF Chinese Community ...

  2. NGNP: High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor Key Definitions, Plant Capabilities, and Assumptions

    SciTech Connect

    Wayne Moe

    2013-05-01

    This document provides key definitions, plant capabilities, and inputs and assumptions related to the Next Generation Nuclear Plant to be used in ongoing efforts related to the licensing and deployment of a high temperature gas-cooled reactor. These definitions, capabilities, and assumptions were extracted from a number of NGNP Project sources such as licensing related white papers, previously issued requirement documents, and preapplication interactions with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC).

  3. 12 CFR 307.2 - Certification of assumption of deposit liabilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... defined in 12 CFR 303.2(g). (d) Evidence of assumption. The receipt by the FDIC of an accurate... depository institution in default, as defined in section 3(x)(1) of the FDI Act (12 U.S.C. 1813(x)(1)), and... satisfactory evidence of such deposit assumption, as required by section 8(q) of the FDI Act (12 U.S.C....

  4. The computerized derivation of rate equations for enzyme reactions on the basis of the pseudo-steady-state assumption and the rapid-equilibrium assumption.

    PubMed Central

    Ishikawa, H; Maeda, T; Hikita, H; Miyatake, K

    1988-01-01

    A computer program is developed for the derivation of the rate equation for enzyme reactions on the basis of the pseudo-steady-state assumption and the combination of the pseudo-steady-state and the rapid-equilibrium assumptions. The program not only has an easy input method, but also can obtain a complete rate equation in itself on only one run. The usefulness of the program is demonstrated by deriving the rate equations for some typical enzyme reactions. Details of the program have been deposited as Supplementary Publication SUP 50141 (42 pages) at the British Library Lending Division, Boston Spa, Wetherby, West Yorkshire LS23 7QB, U.K., from whom copies may be obtained as indicated in Biochem. J. (1988), 249, 5. PMID:3390151

  5. Model complexity and performance: How far can we simplify?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raick, C.; Soetaert, K.; Grégoire, M.

    2006-07-01

    Handling model complexity and reliability is a key area of research today. While complex models containing sufficient detail have become possible due to increased computing power, they often lead to too much uncertainty. On the other hand, very simple models often crudely oversimplify the real ecosystem and can not be used for management purposes. Starting from a complex and validated 1D pelagic ecosystem model of the Ligurian Sea (NW Mediterranean Sea), we derived simplified aggregated models in which either the unbalanced algal growth, the functional group diversity or the explicit description of the microbial loop was sacrificed. To overcome the problem of data availability with adequate spatial and temporal resolution, the outputs of the complex model are used as the baseline of perfect knowledge to calibrate the simplified models. Objective criteria of model performance were used to compare the simplified models’ results to the complex model output and to the available data at the DYFAMED station in the central Ligurian Sea. We show that even the simplest (NPZD) model is able to represent the global ecosystem features described by the complex model (e.g. primary and secondary productions, particulate organic matter export flux, etc.). However, a certain degree of sophistication in the formulation of some biogeochemical processes is required to produce realistic behaviors (e.g. the phytoplankton competition, the potential carbon or nitrogen limitation of the zooplankton ingestion, the model trophic closure, etc.). In general, a 9 state-variable model that has the functional group diversity removed, but which retains the bacterial loop and the unbalanced algal growth, performs best.

  6. No Generalization of Practice for Nonzero Simple Addition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Jamie I. D.; Beech, Leah C.

    2014-01-01

    Several types of converging evidence have suggested recently that skilled adults solve very simple addition problems (e.g., 2 + 1, 4 + 2) using a fast, unconscious counting algorithm. These results stand in opposition to the long-held assumption in the cognitive arithmetic literature that such simple addition problems normally are solved by fact…

  7. Simplified seismic fatigue evaluation for rigid steel connections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shama, Ayman A.; Mander, John B.; Chen, Stuart S.

    2003-12-01

    A simplified fatigue-life model is proposed for assessing the seismic inelastic rotational capacity of steel connections. First relations are developed for rigid steel connections under lateral loading. Next this is extended to account for the effects of the welded steel moment frame (WSMF) connections of the so-called pre-Northridge type. The seismic fatigue theory is validated against experimental results. The experiments were conducted under increasing ductility amplitudes until the onset of fracture. Miner’ rule was used to convert the test results to given an equivalent constant amplitude cyclic fatigue life. Satisfactory agreement is obtained when comparing the experimental observations with the theoretical predictions.

  8. Simplified Virtual Instrument Design Based on Mini Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Lei; Li, Wenshi

    The most simplified virtual instrument (SVI) is designed through the mini-interface board (seven components), general PC Sound card and MATLAB programs. To deal with the limits followed by our mini-interface board, we cram necessary filters and noise-depressor into PC in form of software. The other key technologies include impedance matching for optimal signal transportation and near-infrared wavelength selection for improving the acquisition signal sensitivity in verification tests aiming at smile versus calm. Also three important contrast cases are discussed to support further our design validity. This work may enhance the base on brain health monitoring at home.

  9. A new simplified onlay technique for posterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Salim, Rodrigo; Fogagnolo, Fabricio; Kfuri, Mauricio

    2014-08-01

    The integrity of posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) is essential for the normal kinematics of the knee. Injury to the PCL has adverse consequences, with worsening of functional performance and an increased risk to develop osteoarthritis. Conservative treatment is sometimes adopted, not only because it is an acceptable option for selected patients but also due to the lack of consensus in the orthopedic literature regarding the best surgical method. Hereby we describe a simplified technique for onlay PCL reconstruction pointing out possible advantages if compared with the traditional transtibial or inlay techniques.

  10. A simplified biosphere model for global climate studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xue, Y.; Sellers, P. J.; Kinter, J. L.; Shukla, J.

    1991-01-01

    A comprehensive analysis of the simple biosphere model (SIB) of Sellers et al. (1986) is performed in an effort to bridge the gap between the typical hydrological treatment of the land surface biosphere and the conventional general circulation model treatment, which is specified through a single parameter. Approximations are developed that stimulate the effects of reduced soil moisture more simply, maintaining the essence of the biophysical concepts utilized in SIB. Comparing the reduced parameter biosphere with those from the original formulation in a GCM and a zero-dimensional model shows the simplified version to reproduce the original results quite closely.

  11. Simplified solution for point contact deformation between two elastic solids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brewe, D. E.; Hamrock, B. J.

    1976-01-01

    A linear-regression by the method of least squares is made on the geometric variables that occur in the equation for point contact deformation. The ellipticity and the complete eliptic integrals of the first and second kind are expressed as a function of the x, y-plane principal radii. The ellipticity was varied from 1 (circular contact) to 10 (a configuration approaching line contact). These simplified equations enable one to calculate easily the point-contact deformation to within 3 percent without resorting to charts or numerical methods.

  12. Simplified simulation models for control studies of turbojet engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brennan, T. C.; Leake, R. J.

    1975-01-01

    The essential dynamical characteristics of a simple single spool turbojet engine were determined through simulation of low order system models on an analog computer. An accurate model was studied and system complexity was reduced through various linearizations and approximations. A derivation of a seventh order simplified simulation model is presented with a derivation of an even simpler third order model, and simulation results from each. The control problem studied is one of getting from zero fuel flow equilibrium to a high thrust equilibrium while taking into account surge margin and turbine inlet temperature constraints.

  13. On mono-W signatures in spin-1 simplified models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haisch, Ulrich; Kahlhoefer, Felix; Tait, Tim M. P.

    2016-09-01

    The potential sensitivity to isospin-breaking effects makes LHC searches for mono-W signatures promising probes of the coupling structure between the Standard Model and dark matter. It has been shown, however, that the strong sensitivity of the mono-W channel to the relative magnitude and sign of the up-type and down-type quark couplings to dark matter is an artifact of unitarity violation. We provide three different solutions to this mono-W problem in the context of spin-1 simplified models and briefly discuss the impact that our findings have on the prospects of mono-W searches at future LHC runs.

  14. A simplified correlation technique for position location using earth satellites.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, S. C.; Davies, W. D. T.

    1972-01-01

    To derive range to a moving vehicle for surveillance and navigation purposes, the phase delays in sets of sinusoidal tones may be measured using synchronous satellites for signal relay. When the number of users is large, problems of rapid acquisition and measurement occur in multiple-access systems. This paper describes the selection and processing of an orthogonal tone set which has several useful features. The paper also presents a simulation of a simplified digital technique for the noise-free case, as well as for a composite signal buried in wideband noise. The digital simulation is also modified to include the proposed 'hard limiting' or clipping technique.

  15. A simplified approach to calibrating [sup 14]C dates

    SciTech Connect

    Talma, A.S.; Vogel, J.C. )

    1993-01-01

    The authors propose a simplified approach to the calibration of radiocarbon dates. They use splines through the tree-ring data as calibration curves, thereby eliminating a large part of the statistical scatter of the actual data points. To express the age range, they transform the [plus minus]1 [sigma] and [plus minus]2 [sigma] values of the BP age to calendar dates and interpret them as the 68% and 95% confidence intervals. This approach by-passes the conceptual problems of the transfer of individual probability values from the radiocarbon to the calendar age. They have adapted software to make this calibration possible.

  16. Technology Solutions Case Study: Combustion Safety Simplified Test Protocol

    SciTech Connect

    L. Brand, D. Cautley, D. Bohac, P. Francisco, L. Shen, and S. Gloss

    2015-12-01

    Combustions safety is an important step in the process of upgrading homes for energy efficiency. There are several approaches used by field practitioners, but researchers have indicated that the test procedures in use are complex to implement and provide too many false positives. Field failures often mean that the house is not upgraded until after remediation or not at all, if not include in the program. In this report the PARR and NorthernSTAR DOE Building America Teams provide a simplified test procedure that is easier to implement and should produce fewer false positives.

  17. A simplified oil-film skin-friction meter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bandyopadhyay, P. R.; Weinstein, L. M.

    1988-01-01

    The oil-film method of skin friction measurement, which does not require calibration, nevertheless entails that interferometric measurements of the oil film be obtained. The oil-film method is presently simplified by eliminating interferometry and its requisite polished surface, by taking direct and dynamic measurements of the oil-film slope with a small position-sensing photodiode. This technique has undergone verification in incompressible turbulent and laminar flows in flat-plate boundary layers and pipe flows; the meter is judged to be inexpensive, simple, and robust.

  18. A simplified In Situ cosmogenic 14C extraction system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pigati, J.S.; Lifton, N.A.; Timothy, Jull A.J.; Quade, Jay

    2010-01-01

    We describe the design, construction, and testing of a new, simplified in situ radiocarbon extraction system at the University of Arizona. Blank levels for the new system are low ((234 ?? 11) ?? 103 atoms (1 ??; n = 7)) and stable. The precision of a given measurement depends on the concentration of 14C, but is typically <5% for concentrations of 100 ?? 103 atoms g-1 or more. The new system is relatively small and easy to construct, costs significantly less than the original in situ 14C extraction system at Arizona, and lends itself to future automation. ?? 2010 by the Arizona Board of Regents on behalf of the University of Arizona.

  19. A simplified method for extracting androgens from avian egg yolks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kozlowski, C.P.; Bauman, J.E.; Hahn, D.C.

    2009-01-01

    Female birds deposit significant amounts of steroid hormones into the yolks of their eggs. Studies have demonstrated that these hormones, particularly androgens, affect nestling growth and development. In order to measure androgen concentrations in avian egg yolks, most authors follow the extraction methods outlined by Schwabl (1993. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 90:11446-11450). We describe a simplified method for extracting androgens from avian egg yolks. Our method, which has been validated through recovery and linearity experiments, consists of a single ethanol precipitation that produces substantially higher recoveries than those reported by Schwabl.

  20. Simplified design procedures for fiber composite structural components/joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, P. L. N.; Chamis, Christos C.

    1990-01-01

    Simplified step-by-step design procedures are summarized, which are suitable for the preliminary design of composite structural components such as panels (laminates) and composite built-up structures (box beams). Similar procedures are also summarized for the preliminary design of composite bolted and adhesively bonded joints. The summary is presented in terms of sample design cases complemented with typical results. Guidelines are provided which can be used in the design selection process of composite structural components/joints. Also, procedures to account for cyclic loads, hygrothermal effects and lamination residual stresses are included.