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Sample records for additional sixth task

  1. Modeling Outcomes from Probability Tasks: Sixth Graders Reasoning Together

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alston, Alice; Maher, Carolyn

    2003-01-01

    This report considers the reasoning of sixth grade students as they explore problem tasks concerning the fairness of dice games. The particular focus is the students' interactions, verbal and non-verbal, as they build and justify representations that extend their basic understanding of number combinations in order to model the outcome set of a…

  2. Problem Solving vs. Troubleshooting Tasks: The Case of Sixth-Grade Students Studying Simple Electric Circuits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safadi, Rafi'; Yerushalmi, Edit

    2014-01-01

    We compared the materialization of knowledge integration processes in class discussions that followed troubleshooting (TS) and problem-solving (PS) tasks and examined the impact of these tasks on students' conceptual understanding. The study was conducted in two sixth-grade classes taught by the same teacher, in six lessons that constituted a…

  3. Effect of Syllable Congruency in Sixth Graders in the Lexical Decision Task with Masked Priming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chetail, Fabienne; Mathey, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the role of the syllable in visual recognition of French words in Grade 6. To do so, the syllabic congruency effect was examined in the lexical decision task combined with masked priming. Target words were preceded by pseudoword primes sharing the first letters that either corresponded to the syllable…

  4. The Effects of Self-Monitoring with a MotivAider[R] on the On-Task Behavior of Fifth and Sixth Graders with Autism and Other Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Legge, Dina Boccuzzi; DeBar, Ruth M.; Alber-Morgan, Sheila R.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effects of self-monitoring on the on-task behavior of three fifth and sixth grade boys with autism and other disabilities. While completing math assignments independently, the students wore an electronic device called a MotivAider[R] that vibrated at pre-set time schedules prompting the students to self-record whether or…

  5. Decreasing Off-Task Behavior through a Dot/Point Reward System and Portfolio Reflection with Second, Fifth, and Sixth Graders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butera, Lisa M.; Giacone, Maria V.; Wagner, Kelly A.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this action research project report was to decrease off-task behavior through a dot/point reward system and portfolio reflections. Students involved in this research were in second, fifth, and sixth grade. There were a total of 85 student participants and 35 teacher participants. The dates of this research began on September 4, 2007…

  6. The relation of locus-of-control orientation and task structure to problem-solving performance of sixth-grade student pairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Main, June Dewey; Budd Rowe, Mary

    This study investigated the relationship of locus-of-control orientations and task structure to the science problem-solving performance of 100 same-sex, sixth-grade student pairs. Pairs performed a four-variable problem-solving task, racing cylinders down a ramp in a series of trials to determine the 3 fastest of 18 different cylinders. The task was completed in one of two treatment conditions: the structured condition with moderate cuing and the unstructured condition with minimal cuing. Pairs completed an after-task assessment, predicting the results of proposed cylinder races, to measure the ability to understand and apply task concepts. Overall conclusions were: (1) There was no relationship between locus-of-control orientation and effectiveness of problem-solving strategy; (2) internality was significantly related to higher accuracy on task solutions and on after-task predictions; (3) there was no significant relationship between task structure and effectiveness of problem-solving strategy; (4) solutions to the task were more accurate in the unstructured task condition; (5) internality related to more accurate solutions in the unstructured task condition.

  7. Development of additional tasks for the executive function performance test.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Bridget; Baum, Carolyn; Moore, Jennifer; Ehrlich-Jones, Linda; Spoeri, Susan; Doherty, Meghan; Wolf, Timothy J

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. The Executive Function Performance Test (EFPT) is a reliable and valid performance-based assessment of executive function for people with stroke. The objective of this study was to enhance the clinical utility of the EFPT by developing and testing additional tasks for the EFPT in the Alternate EFPT (aEFPT). METHOD. We performed a cross-sectional study with poststroke participants (n = 25) and healthy control participants (n = 25). All participants completed a neuropsychological assessment battery and both the EFPT and the aEFPT. RESULTS. No statistically significant differences were found between the EFPT and the aEFPT when examining total scores, construct scores, and two overall task scores. Correlations between the aEFPT and the neuropsychological measures were adequate to strong (r2s = .59-.83). CONCLUSION. The aEFPT tasks are comparable to the original EFPT tasks, providing occupational therapy practitioners with additional tasks that can be used clinically to identify performance-based executive function deficits in people with stroke. PMID:25397771

  8. Neural Correlates of Task Cost for Stance Control with an Additional Motor Task: Phase-Locked Electroencephalogram Responses

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Ing-Shiou; Huang, Cheng-Ya

    2016-01-01

    With appropriate reallocation of central resources, the ability to maintain an erect posture is not necessarily degraded by a concurrent motor task. This study investigated the neural control of a particular postural-suprapostural procedure involving brain mechanisms to solve crosstalk between posture and motor subtasks. Participants completed a single posture task and a dual-task while concurrently conducting force-matching and maintaining a tilted stabilometer stance at a target angle. Stabilometer movements and event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded. The added force-matching task increased the irregularity of postural response rather than the size of postural response prior to force-matching. In addition, the added force-matching task during stabilometer stance led to marked topographic ERP modulation, with greater P2 positivity in the frontal and sensorimotor-parietal areas of the N1-P2 transitional phase and in the sensorimotor-parietal area of the late P2 phase. The time-frequency distribution of the ERP primary principal component revealed that the dual-task condition manifested more pronounced delta (1–4 Hz) and beta (13–35 Hz) synchronizations but suppressed theta activity (4–8 Hz) before force-matching. The dual-task condition also manifested coherent fronto-parietal delta activity in the P2 period. In addition to a decrease in postural regularity, this study reveals spatio-temporal and temporal-spectral reorganizations of ERPs in the fronto-sensorimotor-parietal network due to the added suprapostural motor task. For a particular set of postural-suprapostural task, the behavior and neural data suggest a facilitatory role of autonomous postural response and central resource expansion with increasing interregional interactions for task-shift and planning the motor-suprapostural task. PMID:27010634

  9. Neural Correlates of Task Cost for Stance Control with an Additional Motor Task: Phase-Locked Electroencephalogram Responses.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Ing-Shiou; Huang, Cheng-Ya

    2016-01-01

    With appropriate reallocation of central resources, the ability to maintain an erect posture is not necessarily degraded by a concurrent motor task. This study investigated the neural control of a particular postural-suprapostural procedure involving brain mechanisms to solve crosstalk between posture and motor subtasks. Participants completed a single posture task and a dual-task while concurrently conducting force-matching and maintaining a tilted stabilometer stance at a target angle. Stabilometer movements and event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded. The added force-matching task increased the irregularity of postural response rather than the size of postural response prior to force-matching. In addition, the added force-matching task during stabilometer stance led to marked topographic ERP modulation, with greater P2 positivity in the frontal and sensorimotor-parietal areas of the N1-P2 transitional phase and in the sensorimotor-parietal area of the late P2 phase. The time-frequency distribution of the ERP primary principal component revealed that the dual-task condition manifested more pronounced delta (1-4 Hz) and beta (13-35 Hz) synchronizations but suppressed theta activity (4-8 Hz) before force-matching. The dual-task condition also manifested coherent fronto-parietal delta activity in the P2 period. In addition to a decrease in postural regularity, this study reveals spatio-temporal and temporal-spectral reorganizations of ERPs in the fronto-sensorimotor-parietal network due to the added suprapostural motor task. For a particular set of postural-suprapostural task, the behavior and neural data suggest a facilitatory role of autonomous postural response and central resource expansion with increasing interregional interactions for task-shift and planning the motor-suprapostural task. PMID:27010634

  10. The codevelopment of skill at and preference for use of retrieval-based processes for solving addition problems: individual and sex differences from first to sixth grades.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Drew H; Littlefield, Andrew; Geary, David C

    2012-09-01

    The ability to retrieve basic arithmetic facts from long-term memory contributes to individual and perhaps sex differences in mathematics achievement. The current study tracked the codevelopment of preference for using retrieval over other strategies to solve single-digit addition problems, independent of accuracy, and skilled use of retrieval (i.e., accuracy and reaction time [RT]) from first to sixth grades inclusive (N=311). Accurate retrieval in first grade was related to working memory capacity and intelligence, and it predicted a preference for retrieval in second grade. In later grades, the relation between skill and preference changed such that preference in one grade predicted accuracy and RT in the next grade as RT and accuracy continued to predict future gains in preference. In comparison with girls, boys had a consistent preference for retrieval over other strategies and had faster retrieval speeds, but the sex difference in retrieval accuracy varied across grades. Results indicate that ability influences early skilled retrieval, but both practice and skill influence each other in a feedback loop later in development and provide insights into the source of the sex difference in problem-solving approaches. PMID:22704036

  11. Additional technician tasks and turnaround time in the clinical Stat laboratory

    PubMed Central

    Salinas, Maria; López-Garrigós, Maite; Flores, Emilio; Leiva-Salinas, Maria; Lillo, Rosa; Leiva-Salinas, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Many additional tasks in the Stat laboratory (SL) increase the workload. It is necessary to control them because they can affect the service provided by the laboratory. Our aim is to calculate these tasks, study their evolution over a 10 year period, and compare turnaround times (TAT) in summer period to the rest of the year. Materials and methods Additional tasks were classified as “additional test request” and “additional sample”. We collected those incidences from the laboratory information system (LIS), and calculated their evolution over time. We also calculated the monthly TAT for troponin for Emergency department (ED) patients, as the difference between the verification and LIS registration time. A median time of 30 minutes was our indicator target. TAT results and tests workload in summer were compared to the rest of the year. Results Over a 10-year period, the technologists in the SL performed 51,385 additional tasks, a median of 475 per month. The workload was significantly higher during the summer (45,496 tests) than the rest of the year (44,555 tests) (P = 0.019). The troponin TAT did not show this variation between summer and the rest of the year, complying always with our 30 minutes indicator target. Conclusion The technicians accomplished a significant number of additional tasks, and the workload kept increasing over the period of 10 years. That did not affect the TAT results. PMID:27346970

  12. The Paced Auditory Serial Addition Task (PASAT): Norms for Age, Education, and Ethnicity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diehr, Michael C.; Heaton, Robert K.; Miller, Walden; Grant, Igor

    1998-01-01

    Demographic influences on performance on a modified version of the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Task (D. Gronwall and H. Sampson, 1974), a measure of some cognitive functions, were studied with 566 healthy North-American adults. Age, education, and ethnicity were significant predictors. A formula and tables are presented for computing T scores…

  13. The Sixth "P"--Politics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fink, Dean

    2013-01-01

    Invitational theory presents the concept of invitations as related to five factors: people, places, policies, programs, and processes (Purkey & Schmidt, 1990). In this article, the author proposes the addition of a sixth "P," politics. The assumption is that without addressing the political aspect of schools and school systems,…

  14. Sonification and haptic feedback in addition to visual feedback enhances complex motor task learning.

    PubMed

    Sigrist, Roland; Rauter, Georg; Marchal-Crespo, Laura; Riener, Robert; Wolf, Peter

    2015-03-01

    Concurrent augmented feedback has been shown to be less effective for learning simple motor tasks than for complex tasks. However, as mostly artificial tasks have been investigated, transfer of results to tasks in sports and rehabilitation remains unknown. Therefore, in this study, the effect of different concurrent feedback was evaluated in trunk-arm rowing. It was then investigated whether multimodal audiovisual and visuohaptic feedback are more effective for learning than visual feedback only. Naïve subjects (N = 24) trained in three groups on a highly realistic virtual reality-based rowing simulator. In the visual feedback group, the subject's oar was superimposed to the target oar, which continuously became more transparent when the deviation between the oars decreased. Moreover, a trace of the subject's trajectory emerged if deviations exceeded a threshold. The audiovisual feedback group trained with oar movement sonification in addition to visual feedback to facilitate learning of the velocity profile. In the visuohaptic group, the oar movement was inhibited by path deviation-dependent braking forces to enhance learning of spatial aspects. All groups significantly decreased the spatial error (tendency in visual group) and velocity error from baseline to the retention tests. Audiovisual feedback fostered learning of the velocity profile significantly more than visuohaptic feedback. The study revealed that well-designed concurrent feedback fosters complex task learning, especially if the advantages of different modalities are exploited. Further studies should analyze the impact of within-feedback design parameters and the transferability of the results to other tasks in sports and rehabilitation. PMID:25511166

  15. Performance on paced serial addition tasks indicates an associative network for calculation.

    PubMed

    Hiscock, M; Caroselli, J S; Kimball, L E; Panwar, N

    2001-06-01

    Although paced serial addition (PSA) tasks are considered to be tests of general information-processing capacity, recent work suggests that performance on such tasks is influenced by arithmetic-specific variables. We designed two visual PSA experiments to determine whether the performance of normal adults would support predictions derived from the cognitive psychology of calculation. Experiment 1 showed that mixing familiar (Arabic numeral) and less familiar (Roman numeral) stimulus formats reduced scores below the averaged scores for pure Arabic and Roman lists. The Roman-Arabic order of addends was more difficult than the Arabic-Roman order. Experiment 2, which involved only Arabic numerals as addends, showed that performance could be impaired by constraining the trial-to-trial variability of sums. The results of both experiments confirm the importance of arithmetic-specific variables in PSA and provide support for an associative network model of calculation. In addition, the findings implicate interference from extraneous addends and responses as the performance-limiting factor. PMID:11404809

  16. Field Testing of a Wet FGD Additive for Enhanced Mercury Control - Task 3 Full-scale Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Gary Blythe

    2007-05-01

    This Topical Report summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42309, 'Field Testing of a Wet FGD Additive'. The objective of the project is to demonstrate the use of a flue gas desulfurization (FGD) additive, Degussa Corporation's TMT-15, to prevent the reemission of elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) in flue gas exiting wet FGD systems on coal-fired boilers. Furthermore, the project intends to demonstrate whether the additive can be used to precipitate most of the mercury (Hg) removed in the wet FGD system as a fine TMT salt that can be separated from the FGD liquor and bulk solid byproducts for separate disposal. The project is conducting pilot- and full-scale tests of the TMT-15 additive in wet FGD absorbers. The tests are intended to determine required additive dosages to prevent Hg{sup 0} reemissions and to separate mercury from the normal FGD byproducts for three coal types: Texas lignite/Power River Basin (PRB) coal blend, high-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal, and low-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal. The project team consists of URS Group, Inc., EPRI, TXU Generation Company LP, Southern Company, and Degussa Corporation. TXU Generation has provided the Texas lignite/PRB cofired test site for pilot FGD tests, Monticello Steam Electric Station Unit 3. Southern Company is providing the low-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal host site for wet scrubbing tests, as well as the pilot- and full-scale jet bubbling reactor (JBR) FGD systems to be tested. IPL, an AES company, provided the high-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal full-scale FGD test site and cost sharing. Degussa Corporation is providing the TMT-15 additive and technical support to the test program as cost sharing. The project is being conducted in six tasks. Of the six project tasks, Task 1 involves project planning and Task 6 involves management and reporting. The other four tasks involve field testing on FGD systems, either at pilot or full scale. The four tasks include: Task 2 - Pilot Additive Testing

  17. The Codevelopment of Skill at and Preference for Use of Retrieval-Based Processes for Solving Addition Problems: Individual and Sex Differences from First to Sixth Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Drew H.; Littlefield, Andrew; Geary, David C.

    2012-01-01

    The ability to retrieve basic arithmetic facts from long-term memory contributes to individual and perhaps sex differences in mathematics achievement. The current study tracked the codevelopment of preference for using retrieval over other strategies to solve single-digit addition problems, independent of accuracy, and skilled use of retrieval…

  18. Evaluation of certain veterinary drug residues in food. Sixty-sixth report of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives.

    PubMed

    2006-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of residues of certain veterinary drugs in food and to recommend maximum levels for such residues in food. The first part of the report considers general principles regarding the evaluation of veterinary drugs within the terms of reference of JECFA, including compounds without an ADI or MRL; recommendations on principles and methods in derivation of MRLs, including a new procedure for estimating chronic dietary intakes; the use of a spreadsheet-based procedure for the statistical evaluation of residue depletion data; a revised approach for the derivation of microbiological ADIs; and the Committee's review of and comments on documents provided by the Codex Committee on Residues of Veterinary Drugs. Summaries follow of the Committee's evaluations of toxicological and residue data on a variety of veterinary drugs: three antimicrobial agents (colistin, erythromycin, flumequine), two production aids (melengestrol acetate, ractopamine hydrochloride), an insecticide (trichlorfon (metrifonate)) and an anthelminthic (triclabendazole). In addition, the attempt by the Committee to use tylosin as an example to investigate if evaluations are possible based on published data in the absence of data submissions from sponsors is described. Annexed to the report is a summary of the Committee's recommendations on these drugs, including acceptable daily intakes and proposed maximum residue limits. PMID:17373572

  19. An expert system shell for inferring vegetation characteristics: Interface for the addition of techniques (Task H)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrison, P. Ann

    1993-01-01

    All the NASA VEGetation Workbench (VEG) goals except the Learning System provide the scientist with several different techniques. When VEG is run, rules assist the scientist in selecting the best of the available techniques to apply to the sample of cover type data being studied. The techniques are stored in the VEG knowledge base. The design and implementation of an interface that allows the scientist to add new techniques to VEG without assistance from the developer were completed. A new interface that enables the scientist to add techniques to VEG without assistance from the developer was designed and implemented. This interface does not require the scientist to have a thorough knowledge of Knowledge Engineering Environment (KEE) by Intellicorp or a detailed knowledge of the structure of VEG. The interface prompts the scientist to enter the required information about the new technique. It prompts the scientist to enter the required Common Lisp functions for executing the technique and the left hand side of the rule that causes the technique to be selected. A template for each function and rule and detailed instructions about the arguments of the functions, the values they should return, and the format of the rule are displayed. Checks are made to ensure that the required data were entered, the functions compiled correctly, and the rule parsed correctly before the new technique is stored. The additional techniques are stored separately from the VEG knowledge base. When the VEG knowledge base is loaded, the additional techniques are not normally loaded. The interface allows the scientist the option of adding all the previously defined new techniques before running VEG. When the techniques are added, the required units to store the additional techniques are created automatically in the correct places in the VEG knowledge base. The methods file containing the functions required by the additional techniques is loaded. New rule units are created to store the new rules

  20. Anatomically ordered tapping interferes more with one-digit addition than two-digit addition: a dual-task fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Soylu, Firat; Newman, Sharlene D

    2016-02-01

    Fingers are used as canonical representations for numbers across cultures. In previous imaging studies, it was shown that arithmetic processing activates neural resources that are known to participate in finger movements. Additionally, in one dual-task study, it was shown that anatomically ordered finger tapping disrupts addition and subtraction more than multiplication, possibly due to a long-lasting effect of early finger counting experiences on the neural correlates and organization of addition and subtraction processes. How arithmetic task difficulty and tapping complexity affect the concurrent performance is still unclear. If early finger counting experiences have bearing on the neural correlates of arithmetic in adults, then one would expect anatomically and non-anatomically ordered tapping to have different interference effects, given that finger counting is usually anatomically ordered. To unravel these issues, we studied how (1) arithmetic task difficulty and (2) the complexity of the finger tapping sequence (anatomical vs. non-anatomical ordering) affect concurrent performance and use of key neural circuits using a mixed block/event-related dual-task fMRI design with adult participants. The results suggest that complexity of the tapping sequence modulates interference on addition, and that one-digit addition (fact retrieval), compared to two-digit addition (calculation), is more affected from anatomically ordered tapping. The region-of-interest analysis showed higher left angular gyrus BOLD response for one-digit compared to two-digit addition, and in no-tapping conditions than dual tapping conditions. The results support a specific association between addition fact retrieval and anatomically ordered finger movements in adults, possibly due to finger counting strategies that deploy anatomically ordered finger movements early in the development. PMID:26410214

  1. Prefrontal cortex activity during motor tasks with additional mental load requiring attentional demand: a near-infrared spectroscopy study.

    PubMed

    Mandrick, Kevin; Derosiere, Gérard; Dray, Gérard; Coulon, Denis; Micallef, Jean-Paul; Perrey, Stéphane

    2013-07-01

    Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is suitable for investigating cerebral oxygenation changes during motor and/or mental tasks. In the present study, we investigated how an additional mental load during a motor task at two submaximal loadings affects the fNIRS-measured brain activation over the right prefrontal cortex (PFC). Fifteen healthy males performed isometric grasping contractions at 15% and 30% of the maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) with or without an additional mental (i.e., arithmetic) task. Mental performance, force variability, fNIRS and subjective perception responses were measured in each condition. The performance of the mental task decreased significantly while the force variability increased significantly at 30% MVC as compared to 15% MVC, suggesting that performance of dual-task required more attentional resources. PFC activity increased significantly as the effort increased from 15% to 30% MVC (p<.001). Although a larger change in the deoxyhemoglobin was observed in dual-task conditions (p=.051), PFC activity did not change significantly as compared to the motor tasks alone. In summary, participants were unable to invest more attention and effort in performing the more difficult levels in order to maintain adequate mental performance. PMID:23665138

  2. Field Testing of a Wet FGD Additive for Enhanced Mercury Control - Task 5 Full-Scale Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Gary Blythe; MariJon Owens

    2007-12-01

    This Topical Report summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42309, 'Field Testing of a Wet FGD Additive'. The objective of the project is to demonstrate the use of two flue gas desulfurization (FGD) additives, Evonik Degussa Corporation's TMT-15 and Nalco Company's Nalco 8034, to prevent the re-emission of elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) in flue gas exiting wet FGD systems on coal-fired boilers. Furthermore, the project intends to demonstrate whether the additive can be used to precipitate most of the mercury (Hg) removed in the wet FGD system as a fine salt that can be separated from the FGD liquor and bulk solid byproducts for separate disposal. The project is conducting pilot- and full-scale tests of the additives in wet FGD absorbers. The tests are intended to determine required additive dosages to prevent Hg{sup 0} re-emissions and to separate mercury from the normal FGD byproducts for three coal types: Texas lignite/Powder River Basin (PRB) coal blend, high-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal, and low-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal. The project team consists of URS Group, Inc., EPRI, Luminant Power (was TXU Generation Company LP), Southern Company, IPL (an AES company), Evonik Degussa Corporation and the Nalco Company. Luminant Power has provided the Texas lignite/PRB co-fired test site for pilot FGD tests and cost sharing. Southern Company has provided the low-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal host site for wet scrubbing tests, as well as the pilot- and full-scale jet bubbling reactor (JBR) FGD systems tested. IPL provided the high-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal full-scale FGD test site and cost sharing. Evonik Degussa Corporation is providing the TMT-15 additive, and the Nalco Company is providing the Nalco 8034 additive. Both companies are also supplying technical support to the test program as in-kind cost sharing. The project is being conducted in six tasks. Of the six project tasks, Task 1 involves project planning and Task 6 involves management

  3. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  4. [Influence Additional Cognitive Tasks on EEG Beta Rhythm Parameters during Forming and Testing Set to Perception of the Facial Expression].

    PubMed

    Yakovenko, I A; Cheremushkin, E A; Kozlov, M K

    2015-01-01

    The research of changes of a beta rhythm parameters on condition of working memory loading by extension of a interstimuli interval between the target and triggering stimuli to 16 sec is investigated on 70 healthy adults in two series of experiments with set to a facial expression. In the second series at the middle of this interval for strengthening of the load was entered the additional cognitive task in the form of conditioning stimuli like Go/NoGo--circles of blue or green color. Data analysis of the research was carried out by means of continuous wavelet-transformation on the basis of "mather" complex Morlet-wavelet in the range of 1-35 Hz. Beta rhythm power was characterized by the mean level, maxima of wavelet-transformation coefficient (WLC) and latent periods of maxima. Introduction of additional cognitive task to pause between the target and triggering stimuli led to essential increase in absolute values of the mean level of beta rhythm WLC and relative sizes of maxima of beta rhythm WLC. In the series of experiments without conditioning stimulus subjects with large number of mistakes (from 6 to 40), i.e. rigid set, in comparison with subjects with small number of mistakes (to 5), i.e. plastic set, at the forming stage were characterized by higher values of the mean level of beta rhythm WLC. Introduction of the conditioning stimuli led to smoothing of intergroup distinctions throughout the experiment. PMID:26601500

  5. Examining the association between rumination, negative affectivity, and negative affect induced by a paced auditory serial addition task.

    PubMed

    Feldner, Matthew T; Leen-Feldner, Ellen W; Zvolensky, Michael J; Lejuez, C W

    2006-09-01

    The present study examined the relations among a depressive ruminative response style, a general propensity to experience negative affectivity, and negative affect induced by a paced serial auditory addition task (PASAT). Ninety nonclinical individuals completed a computerized version of the PASAT, which elicits a generalized negative affect response [Lejuez, C. W., Kahler, C. W., & Brown, R. A. (2003). A modified computer version of the paced auditory serial addition task (PASAT) as a laboratory-based stressor: Implications for behavioral assessment. Behavior Therapist, 26, 290-292]. As hypothesized, there was a moderate correlation between depressive rumination and a propensity to experience negative affect, as indexed both by a significant association with a negative affect personality factor and the prediction of negative affect elicited during the provocation. Findings also suggested that dispositional negative affectivity moderated the effects of a depressive ruminative response style on the valence but not arousal dimensions of emotional responding to the challenge. These findings are discussed in terms of improving our understanding of rumination and its potential role in emotional vulnerability processes. PMID:16139240

  6. Action dynamics in multitasking: the impact of additional task factors on the execution of the prioritized motor movement

    PubMed Central

    Scherbaum, Stefan; Gottschalk, Caroline; Dshemuchadse, Maja; Fischer, Rico

    2015-01-01

    In multitasking, the execution of a prioritized task is in danger of crosstalk by the secondary task. Task shielding allows minimizing this crosstalk. However, the locus and temporal dynamics of crosstalk effects and further sources of influence on the execution of the prioritized task are to-date only vaguely understood. Here we combined a dual-task paradigm with an action dynamics approach and studied how and according to which temporal characteristics crosstalk, previously experienced interference and previously executed responses influenced participants' mouse movements in the prioritized task's execution. Investigating continuous mouse movements of the prioritized task, our results indicate a continuous crosstalk from secondary task processing until the endpoint of the movement was reached, although the secondary task could only be executed after finishing execution of the prioritized task. The motor movement in the prioritized task was further modulated by previously experienced interference between the prioritized and the secondary task. Furthermore, response biases from previous responses of the prioritized and the secondary task in movements indicate different sources of such biases. The bias by previous responses to the prioritized task follows a sustained temporal pattern typical for a contextual reactivation, while the bias by previous responses to the secondary task follows a decaying temporal pattern indicating residual activation of previously activated spatial codes. PMID:26217267

  7. Effects of additional external weight on posture and movement adaptations to fatigue induced by a repetitive pointing task.

    PubMed

    Cantú, Hiram; Emery, Kim; Côté, Julie N

    2014-06-01

    Fatigue and additional weight are risk factors of injuries by falls. Posture and trunk movement changes occur with fatigue induced by a repetitive pointing task. These changes facilitate arm movement but they may also jeopardize postural stability. When equilibrium is challenged, e.g. with additional weight, strategies that represent less postural threat could develop with fatigue. Nineteen participants performed two sessions (without, with 20% body weight added load (Load)) of a repetitive pointing task until shoulder fatigue (8 on Borg CR-10). There was no difference in time to fatigue between the two sessions. Anterior deltoid, biceps and upper trapezius muscle activity significantly increased with fatigue. Peak medial-lateral center-of-pressure (CoP) velocity and the mean vertical position of the reaching shoulder were both significantly lower with fatigue, though these fatigue-induced decreases were smaller with the added load. Reach-to-reach variability in CoP displacement significantly increased with fatigue, and more so with the added load. With fatigue, significant contralateral shifts occurred at the reaching shoulder and elbow joints, and ranges of motion (RoM) significantly increased at most joints but not at the center-of-mass (CoM). Conversely, Load main effects were mostly seen in CoM dependent measures. Significantly increased variability in mean and range values was seen with fatigue and Load in most of our kinematic and CoP dependent measures, with the most notable effects on CoM dependent measures. Findings suggest that the postural control system adapts to combined perturbing factors of fatigue and added load, likely by using parallel control mechanisms. PMID:24786737

  8. Sixth National Conference on Citizenship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Justice, Washington, DC.

    The document presents proceedings from the sixth in a series of annual national citizenship conferences. Held in Washington, D.C. in 1951, the conference served as a forum where educational, political, business, religious, labor, civic, and communications leaders could explore functions and duties of American citizenship. The theme of the…

  9. The Sixth Grade: Caught in the Middle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lounsbury, John H.

    A comparative investigation of the place of the sixth grade in public education used a shadow study technique to address three questions: (1) What is a sixth grader's day in school like? (2) In what ways do programs provided for sixth graders differ, depending on where the grade is located in the school system? (3) How does what is known of the…

  10. Visual Search Performance in the Autism Spectrum II: The Radial Frequency Search Task with Additional Segmentation Cues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almeida, Renita A.; Dickinson, J. Edwin; Maybery, Murray T.; Badcock, Johanna C.; Badcock, David R.

    2010-01-01

    The Embedded Figures Test (EFT) requires detecting a shape within a complex background and individuals with autism or high Autism-spectrum Quotient (AQ) scores are faster and more accurate on this task than controls. This research aimed to uncover the visual processes producing this difference. Previously we developed a search task using radial…

  11. The Sixth Great Mass Extinction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagler, Ron

    2012-01-01

    Five past great mass extinctions have occurred during Earth's history. Humanity is currently in the midst of a sixth, human-induced great mass extinction of plant and animal life (e.g., Alroy 2008; Jackson 2008; Lewis 2006; McDaniel and Borton 2002; Rockstrom et al. 2009; Rohr et al. 2008; Steffen, Crutzen, and McNeill 2007; Thomas et al. 2004;…

  12. Sixth cranial nerve palsy due to arachnoid cyst.

    PubMed

    Raveenthiran, Venkatachalam; Reshma, Khajamohideen B

    2014-01-01

    Sixth cranial nerve palsy is an extremely rare complication of an arachnoid cyst. A 4-year-old boy who presented with left abducens palsy and a subdural hygroma complicating arachnoid cyst is discussed. Comprehensive review of the world literature revealed only 12 additional cases. PMID:25347081

  13. Sixth cranial nerve palsy due to arachnoid cyst.

    PubMed

    Raveenthiran, Venkatachalam; Reshma, Khajamohideen B

    2014-01-01

    Sixth cranial nerve palsy is an extremely rare complication of an arachnoid cyst. A 4-year-old boy who presented with left abducens palsy and a subdural hygroma complicating arachnoid cyst is discussed. Comprehensive review of the world literature revealed only 12 additional cases. PMID:25608227

  14. The benefits of an additional worker are task-dependent: assessing low-back injury risks during prefabricated (panelized) wall construction.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sunwook; Nussbaum, Maury A; Jia, Bochen

    2012-09-01

    Team manual material handling is a common practice in residential construction where prefabricated building components (e.g., wall panels) are increasingly used. As part of a larger effort to enable proactive control of ergonomic exposures among workers handling panels, this study explored the effects of additional workers on injury risks during team-based panel erection tasks, specifically by quantifying how injury risks are affected by increasing the number of workers (by one, above the nominal or most common number). Twenty-four participants completed panel erection tasks with and without an additional worker under different panel mass and size conditions. Four risk assessment methods were employed that emphasized the low back. Though including an additional worker generally reduced injury risk across several panel masses and sizes, the magnitude of these benefits varied depending on the specific task and exhibited somewhat high variability within a given task. These results suggest that a simple, generalizable recommendation regarding team-based panel erection tasks is not warranted. Rather, a more systems-level approach accounting for both injury risk and productivity (a strength of panelized wall systems) should be undertaken. PMID:22226545

  15. Additive and Interactive Effects in Semantic Priming: Isolating Lexical and Decision Processes in the Lexical Decision Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yap, Melvin J.; Balota, David A.; Tan, Sarah E.

    2013-01-01

    The present study sheds light on the interplay between lexical and decision processes in the lexical decision task by exploring the effects of lexical decision difficulty on semantic priming effects. In 2 experiments, we increased lexical decision difficulty by either using transposed letter wordlike nonword distracters (e.g., JUGDE; Experiment 1)…

  16. Minutes of the Sixth CEOS Plenary Meeting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The Committee on Earth Observations Satellites (CEOS) minutes for the sixth plenary meeting held in London, December 9-11, 1992 are presented. Attending as prospective members were the Russian Space Agency (RSA), the Committee for Hydrometeorology and Environmental Monitoring of the Ministry for Ecology and Natural resources of the Russian Federation (ROSCOMGIDROMET), the Chinese Academy of Space Technology (CAST) and the National Remote Sensing Center of China (NRSCC). Actions taken at the meeting included membership issues, CEOS proposals, data policy, and working group reports. Data requirements of CEOS affiliates were also reported on. Additional summations and statements as well as lists of participants and future meetings are included. In general, topics covered related to remote sensing and global change.

  17. Sixth International Microgravity Combustion Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sacksteder, Kurt (Compiler)

    2001-01-01

    This conference proceedings document is a compilation of papers presented orally or as poster displays to the Sixth International Microgravity Combustion Workshop held in Cleveland, Ohio on May 22-24, 2001. The purpose of the workshop is to present and exchange research results from theoretical and experimental work in combustion science using the reduced-gravity environment as a research tool. The results are contributed by researchers funded by NASA throughout the United States at universities, industry and government research agencies, and by researchers from international partner countries that are also participating in the microgravity combustion science research discipline. These research results are intended for use by public and private sector organizations for academic purposes, for the development of technologies needed for Human Exploration and Development of Space, and to improve Earth-bound combustion and fire-safety related technologies.

  18. The effect of additional noradrenergic and serotonergic depletion on a lateralised choice reaction time task in rats with nigral 6-OHDA lesions.

    PubMed

    Lindgren, Hanna S; Demirbugen, Merve; Bergqvist, Filip; Lane, Emma L; Dunnett, Stephen B

    2014-03-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) patients often suffer from visuospatial deficits, which have been considered a disruption of the representation of external space. The lateralised choice reaction time (CRT) task is an operant task for rodents in which similar deficits can be assessed. It has been demonstrated that specific parameters in this task is disrupted after unilateral injections of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA), which have been associated with the dopamine (DA) depletion that inevitably follows this type of lesion. However, studies have demonstrated that this type of lesion also affects the serotonergic (5HT) and noradrenergic (NA) systems. However, the impact of these systems on parameters in the CRT task had not yet been investigated. To this end, rats were pretrained on the CRT task before receiving selective lesions of the DAergic system, either alone or in combination with depletion of the NA or 5HT system. All rats with a 6-OHDA lesion displayed a gradual decline in the selection, initiation and execution of lateralised movements compared to sham-lesion controls on the side contralateral to the lesion. They also displayed a reduced number of useable trials as well as an increased number of procedural errors. Interestingly, the group with an additional noradrenergic lesion was significantly slower in reacting to lateralised stimuli throughout the testing period compared to the other two groups with a 6-OHDA lesion. There was however no difference between the three different lesion groups in the other parameters assessed in the task. These data confirm previous findings demonstrating that the majority of the parameters assessed in the lateralised CRT task are strongly dependent on DA. However, this study has also shown that the NAergic system may play an important role in contributing to the attentive performance influencing the capacity to react to the presented lateralised stimuli. PMID:24333808

  19. Students' Engagement in Literacy Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, Seth A.; Malloy, Jacquelynn A.; Parsons, Allison Ward; Burrowbridge, Sarah Cohen

    2015-01-01

    This article offers insight into what makes literacy tasks engaging or disengaging based on observations of and interviews with students. In a yearlong study of a sixth-grade classroom in a Title I school, students engaged in integrated literacy-social studies instruction. Researchers studied the degree of task openness and the degree to which…

  20. Exploring Quality Assurance in Sixth Form Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoten, David William

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to focus on the changing nature of quality assurance systems within the sixth form college sector. Design/methodology/approach: Ten sixth form colleges were surveyed across England and staff from varying levels within college hierarchies questioned about how quality assurance systems were implemented. Research involved…

  1. Central additive effect of Ginkgo biloba and Rhodiola rosea on psychomotor vigilance task and short-term working memory accuracy

    PubMed Central

    Al-Kuraishy, Hayder M.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The present study investigates the effect of combined treatment with Ginkgo biloba and/or Rhodiola rosea on psychomotor vigilance task (PVT) and short-term working memory accuracy. Subjects and Methods: A total number of 112 volunteers were enrolled to study the effect of G. biloba and R. rosea on PVT and short-term working memory accuracy as compared to placebo effects, the central cognitive effect was assessed by critical flicker-fusion frequency, PVT, and computerized N-back test. Results: Placebo produced no significant effects on all neurocognitive tests measure P > 0.05 in normal healthy volunteers, G. biloba or R. rosea improve PVT and low to moderate working memory accuracy, The combined effect of R. rosea and G. biloba leading to more significant effect on PVT, all levels of short-term working memory accuracy and critical fusion versus flicker P < 0.01, more than of G. biloba or R. rosea when they used alone. Conclusion: The combined effect of R. rosea and G. biloba leading to a more significant effect on cognitive function than either G. biloba or R. rosea when they used alone. PMID:27069717

  2. Comparison of operation efficiency for the insert task when using stereoscopic images with additional lines, stereoscopic images, and a manipulator with force feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsunaga, Katsuya; Shidoji, Kazunori; Matsubara, Kenjiro

    1999-05-01

    It has been reported that operation efficiency for the teleoperations using stereoscopic video images is lower than when using the naked eye in real environments. Here, the authors tried to improve the human-machine interface of this particular system to achieve higher operation efficiency for stereoscopic video imags by adding other information. An experiment was carried out under the four following conditions: when the insert task was performed by subjects using conventional stereoscopic video imags, when the centering lines of the cylindrical objects and holes were added to the conventional stereoscopic video images, when the force feedback was provided to the system manipulator as one object touched another object, and when both of the additional centering lines and force feedback were provided. The subject's task was to inset a cylindrical object into a round hole. The completion time was measured from the time of the starting signal to the time when the object was inserted into the hole. Completion time, when additional lines were given, was shorter than when the force feedback was provided, and when no additional information was provided. It was concluded that additional visual information contributed more to the recognition of the space rather than providing additional information about surface phenomena.

  3. A Structural Equation Model of the Writing Process in Typically-Developing Sixth Grade Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koutsoftas, Anthony D.; Gray, Shelley

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate how sixth grade children planned, translated, and revised written narrative stories using a task reflecting current instructional and assessment practices. A modified version of the Hayes and Flower (1980) writing process model was used as the theoretical framework for the study. Two hundred one…

  4. Taste of Fat: A Sixth Taste Modality?

    PubMed

    Besnard, Philippe; Passilly-Degrace, Patricia; Khan, Naim A

    2016-01-01

    An attraction for palatable foods rich in lipids is shared by rodents and humans. Over the last decade, the mechanisms responsible for this specific eating behavior have been actively studied, and compelling evidence implicates a taste component in the orosensory detection of dietary lipids [i.e., long-chain fatty acids (LCFA)], in addition to textural, olfactory, and postingestive cues. The interactions between LCFA and specific receptors in taste bud cells (TBC) elicit physiological changes that affect both food intake and digestive functions. After a short overview of the gustatory pathway, this review brings together the key findings consistent with the existence of a sixth taste modality devoted to the perception of lipids. The main steps leading to this new paradigm (i.e., chemoreception of LCFA in TBC, cell signaling cascade, transfer of lipid signals throughout the gustatory nervous pathway, and their physiological consequences) will be critically analyzed. The limitations to this concept will also be discussed in the light of our current knowledge of the sense of taste. Finally, we will analyze the recent literature on obesity-related dysfunctions in the orosensory detection of lipids ("fatty" taste?), in relation to the overconsumption of fat-rich foods and the associated health risks. PMID:26631596

  5. Combining Self-Monitoring and an Interdependent Group Contingency to Improve the Behavior of Sixth Graders with EBD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denune, Hilary; Hawkins, Renee; Donovan, Lauren; Mccoy, Dacia; Hall, Lyndsie; Moeder, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    A withdrawal design was used to examine the influence of a self-monitoring procedure on the overall effectiveness of an interdependent group contingency intervention implemented in a sixth-grade classroom in an alternative school serving students with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD). Dependent variables included student on-task, off-task,…

  6. Sixth workshop on geothermal reservoir engineering: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Ramey, H.J. Jr.; Kruger, P.

    1980-12-18

    INTRODUCTION TO THE PROCEEDINGS OF THE SIXTH GEOTHERMAL RESERVOIR ENGINEERING WORKSHOP, STANFORD GEOTHERMAL PROGRAM Henry J. Ramey, Jr., and Paul Kruger Co-Principal Investigators Ian G. Donaldson Program Manager Stanford Geothermal Program The Sixth Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering convened at Stanford University on December 16, 1980. As with previous Workshops the attendance was around 100 with a significant participation from countries other than the United States (18 attendees from 6 countries). In addition, there were a number of papers from foreign contributors not able to attend. Because of the success of all the earlier workshops there was only one format change, a new scheduling of Tuesday to Thursday rather than the earlier Wednesday through Friday. This change was in general considered for the better and will be retained for the Seventh Workshop. Papers were presented on two and a half of the three days, the panel session, this year on the numerical modeling intercomparison study sponsored by the Department of Energy, being held on the second afternoon. This panel discussion is described in a separate Stanford Geothermal Program Report (SGP-TR42). This year there was a shift in subject of the papers. There was a reduction in the number of papers offered on pressure transients and well testing and an introduction of several new subjects. After overviews by Bob Gray of the Department of Energy and Jack Howard of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, we had papers on field development, geopressured systems, production engineering, well testing, modeling, reservoir physics, reservoir chemistry, and risk analysis. A total of 51 papers were contributed and are printed in these Proceedings. It was, however, necessary to restrict the presentations and not all papers printed were presented. Although the content of the Workshop has changed over the years, the format to date has proved to be satisfactory. The objectives of the Workshop, the bringing together of

  7. Latin Vibes Curriculum: Sixth and Seventh Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lederer, Debra; And Others

    A sixth- and seventh-grade program "Latin Vibes," developed in response to a rising demand within the community for more student understanding of the evolution of the English language, is outlined. The courses for each grade chronicle the influences of Latin and the romance languages on the development of English over the centuries. The program…

  8. Teachers and the Law. Sixth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Louis; Schimmel, David; Stellman, Leslie

    This book is about teachers and the laws that affect them. New to this sixth edition are new court cases and a chapter that highlights likely controversies in the coming years, including school choice, high-stakes testing, control of the Internet, and gang clothing. The book is divided into two parts. Part I, "The Legal Aspects of Teaching,"…

  9. Sixth Grade Readover: A Recipe for Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krapp, JoAnn Vergona

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the planning and implementation of a sixth-grade sleepover in a school library to celebrate National Library Week and to provide literature enrichment. Topics include student selection criteria; preparation; schedule and sample of activities; commentary and evaluation of event. Sidebars offer information on items to bring for overnight…

  10. Sixth Grade: Fall and Winter Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Joel Robert, Ed.

    Activity plans for sixth grade outdoor education experiences comprise the bulk of this curriculum guide. Many of the outlines have been developed through practical application and experimentation by staff members of the Outdoor and Environmental Education Center (OEEC) of the Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, City Schools. Activities and studies for the…

  11. Sixth Grade Reading: A Needs Assessment Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Education Agency, Austin. Div. of Program Planning and Needs Assessment.

    This study reports the findings of a 1971 assessment of the reading achievement of 22,000 sixth grade students in Texas. The study used the Prescriptive Reading Test (PRT) and a Pupil Identification Form (PID). Results from the PRT are reported in terms of the percentage of pupils who achieved each of 48 reading objectives. Nineteen objectives…

  12. Sixth Grade Mathematics. A Needs Assessment Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Education Agency, Austin. Div. of Program Planning and Needs Assessment.

    The Prescriptive Mathematics Inventory (PMI)-Level B and a Pupil identification Form (PID) were administered to 22,055 sixth graders in Texas. Results from the PMI are reported in terms of the percentage of students marking the correct response for each of 209 objectives. Panels of mathematics teachers and of mathematics experts rated 40 of these…

  13. 6. 30123 SOUTH SIXTH STREET, 6 DOUBLE HOUSE UNITS, PERSPECTIVE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. 301-23 SOUTH SIXTH STREET, 6 DOUBLE HOUSE UNITS, PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF EAST (FRONT) AND NORTH, LOOKING SOUTHEAST - Western Land & Improvement Company Double Houses, South Fifth & Sixth Streets, Jeannette, Westmoreland County, PA

  14. 5. 30026 SOUTH SIXTH STREET, 7 DOUBLE HOUSE UNITS, PERSPECTIVE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. 300-26 SOUTH SIXTH STREET, 7 DOUBLE HOUSE UNITS, PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF WEST (FRONT) AND SOUTH, LOOKING NORTHEAST - Western Land & Improvement Company Double Houses, South Fifth & Sixth Streets, Jeannette, Westmoreland County, PA

  15. 4. 22228 SOUTH SIXTH STREET, 2 DOUBLE HOUSE UNITS, WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. 222-28 SOUTH SIXTH STREET, 2 DOUBLE HOUSE UNITS, WEST (FRONT) FACADE, LOOKING EAST - Western Land & Improvement Company Double Houses, South Fifth & Sixth Streets, Jeannette, Westmoreland County, PA

  16. 7. 31719 SOUTH SIXTH STREET, DOUBLE HOUSE, PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. 317-19 SOUTH SIXTH STREET, DOUBLE HOUSE, PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF NORTH AND WEST (REAR), LOOKING SOUTHEAST - Western Land & Improvement Company Double Houses, South Fifth & Sixth Streets, Jeannette, Westmoreland County, PA

  17. 19. 22 SOUTH SIXTH: DETAIL VIEW OF THE POST, BEAM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. 22 SOUTH SIXTH: DETAIL VIEW OF THE POST, BEAM AND FLOOR JOISTS IN THE BASEMENT; LOOKING NORTHEAST AT THE FIELDSTONE FOUNDATION FOR THE BUILDING'S EAST (FRONT) WALL - 16-22 South Sixth Street (Commercial), Fort Dodge, Webster County, IA

  18. 75 FR 23823 - Sixth Northwest Electric Power and Conservation Plan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-04

    ... POWER AND CONSERVATION PLANNING COUNCIL Sixth Northwest Electric Power and Conservation Plan AGENCY: Pacific Northwest Electric Power and Conservation Planning Council (Northwest Power and Conservation Council; the Council). ACTION: Notice of adoption of the Sixth Northwest Electric Power and...

  19. View of substructure of Sixth Street Bridge overcrossing of Los ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of substructure of Sixth Street Bridge overcrossing of Los Angeles River. Looking west. Note dark hole at lower with is access ramp to river channel seen in HAER CA-176-56 - Sixth Street Bridge, Spanning 101 Freeway at Sixth Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  20. Systematic Instruction in Proofreading for Spelling and Its Effects on Fourth and Sixth Grade Composition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McElwee, Gregory William

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether a program of systematic instruction in proofreading would increase: (a) the accuracy of spelling, (b) the gross number of words used, and (c) the number of different words used in original compositions by fourth- and sixth-grade children. In addition, performance was examined in relation to family…

  1. The Association between Auditory Memory Span and Speech Rate in Children from Kindergarten to Sixth Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Angela N.; Bowey, Judith A.; Tilley, Andrew

    2002-01-01

    Examined association between speech rate and memory span in children from kindergarten to sixth grade. Found that speech rate for word triples shared variance with memory span independent of speech rate for single words. Speech rate for word triples was largely redundant with age in explaining additional variation in memory span when effects of…

  2. Life experience of sixth-grade students in analog domains of sixth-grade science textbooks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagamon, Barbara J.

    This study was conducted to determine if analog domains in sixth grade science textbooks were common to the life experience of sixth grade students and if experience differed according to moderating variables. The researcher reviewed three sixth grade general science textbooks and selected analogies that were unsupported by extended text, photos, or diagrams. Analogies were limited to ones which were unsupported because the intent was to identify students who were ready by virtue of life experience to confront analogies unaided by contextual clues. The researcher designed the Life Experiences in Analog Domains (LEAD) Questionnaire to survey students in 50 analog domains. Subjects of the study were 331 sixth grade students from an urban school district. Thirty were tested with the instrument one year later. Data on age, gender, ethnicity and income were analyzed for variance. Standardized achievement test scores were correlated to the LEAD Questionnaire. Results revealed sharp contrasts of experience by analog domain. Experience in analog domains was indicated 52% of the time overall. There were significant differences in the experience of students grouped by moderating variables. Younger students reported more experience than older students. The higher income group reported more experience than the lower income group. Caucasian students reported more experience overall than African American students. Chi-square tests revealed that differences in scores by ethnicity were not controlled by income. of three skills, reading comprehension, mathematics, and science, reading comprehension was most closely correlated to questionnaire score. Results suggest that many of the sixth grade students in the study may be without experience in analog domains when they encounter analogies in a textbook. Assuming subsequent implementations of the Questionnaire confirm these results, teachers should survey life experience of students and help them develop experiences that complement

  3. A report from the Sixth International Mouse Genome Conference

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, S.

    1992-12-31

    The Sixth Annual Mouse Genome Conference was held in October, 1992 at Buffalo, USA. The mouse is one of the primary model organisms in the Human Genome Project. Through the use of gene targeting studies the mouse has become a powerful biological model for the study of gene function and, in addition, the comparison of the many homologous mutations identified in human and mouse have widened our understanding of the biology of these two organisms. A primary goal in the mouse genome program has been to create a genetic map of STSs of high resolution (<1cM) that would form the basis for the physical mapping of the whole mouse genome. Buffalo saw substantial new progress towards the goal of a very high density genetic map and the beginnings of substantive efforts towards physical mapping in chromosome regions with a high density of genetic markers.

  4. American College of Physicians Ethics Manual: sixth edition.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Lois

    2012-01-01

    Medicine, law, and social values are not static. Reexamining the ethical tenets of medicine and their application in new circumstances is a necessary exercise. The sixth edition of the American College of Physicians (ACP) Ethics Manual covers emerging issues in medical ethics and revisits older ones that are still very pertinent. It reflects on many of the ethical tensions in medicine and attempts to shed light on how existing principles extend to emerging concerns. In addition, by reiterating ethical principles that have provided guidance in resolving past ethical problems, the Manual may help physicians avert future problems. The Manual is not a substitute for the experience and integrity of individual physicians, but it may serve as a reminder of the shared duties of the medical profession. PMID:22213573

  5. The sixth generation robot in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butcher, A.; Das, A.; Reddy, Y. V.; Singh, H.

    1990-01-01

    The knowledge based simulator developed in the artificial intelligence laboratory has become a working test bed for experimenting with intelligent reasoning architectures. With this simulator, recently, small experiments have been done with an aim to simulate robot behavior to avoid colliding paths. An automatic extension of such experiments to intelligently planning robots in space demands advanced reasoning architectures. One such architecture for general purpose problem solving is explored. The robot, seen as a knowledge base machine, goes via predesigned abstraction mechanism for problem understanding and response generation. The three phases in one such abstraction scheme are: abstraction for representation, abstraction for evaluation, and abstraction for resolution. Such abstractions require multimodality. This multimodality requires the use of intensional variables to deal with beliefs in the system. Abstraction mechanisms help in synthesizing possible propagating lattices for such beliefs. The machine controller enters into a sixth generation paradigm.

  6. Student Information Booklet for Outdoor Studies: Geneva Sixth Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchinson, Don F.

    Written for sixth grade students in the Geneva Public Schools (Geneva, New York) and for their parents, this booklet provides general and specific information to prepare them for a 3-day outdoor field experience that is part of the sixth grade curriculum in outdoor studies. The booklet begins with a definition of environmental education and a…

  7. Teaching Literacy in Sixth Grade. Tools for Teaching Literacy Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Karen; Mraz, Maryann

    2005-01-01

    Sixth grade marks the transition to middle school and, for many students, the transition to early adolescence. The sixth-grade classroom is a place where problem-solving and abstract thinking skills can flourish as teachers devise creative ways to integrate language arts with effective content-area instruction. This book walks the reader through…

  8. Television Viewing of Selected Sixth, Seventh, and Eighth Grade Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehrer, Sandra G.; Cissna, Kenneth N. Leone

    In this study of children's television viewing, 105 junior-high-school students reported the television programs they watched, the amount of time they spent each day watching television, and their reasons for watching television. The following results are reported: sixth graders watch more television than do seventh or eighth graders; sixth-grade…

  9. REORGANIZED SCIENCE CURRICULUM, 6A, SIXTH GRADE SUPPLEMENT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minneapolis Special School District 1, Minn.

    THE NINTH IN A SERIES OF 17 VOLUMES, THIS VOLUME PROVIDES THE SIXTH GRADE TEACHER WITH A GUIDE TO THE REORGANIZED SCIENCE CURRICULUM OF THE MINNEAPOLIS PUBLIC SCHOOLS. THE MATERIALS ARE INTENDED TO BE AUGMENTED AND REVISED AS THE NEED ARISES. THE SIXTH GRADE SUPPLEMENT IS IN THREE VOLUMES. VOLUME 6A HAS A DETAILED OUTLINE OF THE SUBJECT MATTER FOR…

  10. 9. SANDSORTING BUILDING, SIXTH (TOP) FLOOR, VIEW OF ELECTRIC MOTOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. SAND-SORTING BUILDING, SIXTH (TOP) FLOOR, VIEW OF ELECTRIC MOTOR THAT POWERS ELEVATOR No. (ELEVATOR No. 2 EXTENDS FROM THE THIRD TO THE SIXTH FLOOR) AND WOODEN CHUTE, LOOKING NORTHWEST - Mill "C" Complex, Sand-Sorting Building, South of Dee Bennet Road, near Illinois River, Ottawa, La Salle County, IL

  11. A Task that Elicits Reasoning: A Dual Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yankelewitz, Dina; Mueller, Mary; Maher, Carolyn A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on the forms of reasoning elicited as fourth grade students in a suburban district and sixth grade students in an urban district worked on similar tasks involving reasoning with the use of Cuisenaire rods. Analysis of the two data sets shows similarities in the reasoning used by both groups of students on specific tasks, and the…

  12. Supporting technology for enhanced oil recovery: Sixth amendment and extension to Annex IV enhanced oil recovery thermal processes

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, T.B. ); Rivas, O. )

    1991-10-01

    This report contains the results of efforts under the six tasks of the Sixth Amendment and Extension of Annex 4, Enhanced Oil Recovery Thermal Processes of the Venezuela/USA Agreement. The report is presented in sections (for each of the 6 tasks) and each section contains one or more reports prepared by various individuals or groups describing the results of efforts under each of the tasks. A statement of each task, taken from the agreement, is presented on the first page of each section. The tasks are numbered 44 through 49. Tasks are: DOE-SUPRI-laboratory research on steam foam, CAT-SCAN, and in-situ combustion; INTEVEP-laboratory research and field projects on steam foam; DOE-NIPER-laboratory research and field projects light oil steam flooding; INTEVEP-laboratory research and field studies on wellbore heat losses; DOE-LLNL-laboratory research and field projects on electromagnetic induction tomography; INTEVEP-laoboratory research on mechanistic studies.

  13. Sixth national stakeholder workshop summary report

    SciTech Connect

    1999-03-01

    On June 17--18, 1998, the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Office of Worker and Community Transition convened its sixth National Stakeholder Workshop at the Ramada Plaza Hotel Old Town in Alexandria, Virginia. Approximately 325 stakeholders attended representing DOE headquarters and field offices, contractors, labor organizations, state and local government, education and community interest groups. The meeting addressed the progress made on the issues and challenges identified at the last stakeholder`s meeting in Oakland, California on April 9--11, 1997. Also discussed were the full range of the Department`s work force issues and creative solutions to the inherent challenges of simultaneously implementing the Department`s post Cold-War mission, work force restructuring guidance, contract reform objectives, asset disposition, performance-based management requirements, and business process improvement policies. The format of the Workshop included several plenary sessions and a number of small group discussion sessions. The small group sessions focused on topics related to labor issues, work force restructuring, work force planning, community transition, and employee concerns. The sessions provided a wide range of views on worker and community transition issues. The plenary sessions of the Workshop included presentations on the following topics: welcome and introductions; opening remarks; building a better labor-management relationship; keynote speech from Secretary of Energy Federico Pena; meeting tomorrow`s challenges (early site closures); harnessing the contracting process to encourage local growth; and, the British experience in economic conversion.

  14. The effect of additional exposure to the unique features in a perceptual learning task can be attributed to a location bias.

    PubMed

    Recio, Sergio A; Iliescu, Adela F; Bergés, Germán D; Gil, Marta; de Brugada, Isabel

    2016-04-01

    It has been suggested that human perceptual learning could be explained in terms of a better memory encoding of the unique features during intermixed exposure. However, it is possible that a location bias could play a relevant role in explaining previous results of perceptual learning studies using complex visual stimuli. If this were the case, the only relevant feature would be the location, rather than the content, of the unique features. To further explore this possibility, we attempted to replicate the results of Lavis, Kadib, Mitchell, and Hall (2011, Experiment 2), which showed that additional exposure to the unique elements resulted in better discrimination than simple intermixed exposure. We manipulated the location of the unique elements during the additional exposure. In one experiment, they were located in the same position as that when presented together with the common element. In another experiment, the unique elements were located in the center of the screen, regardless of where they were located together with the common element. Our results showed that additional exposure only improved discrimination when the unique elements were presented in the same position as when they were presented together with the common element. The results reported here do not provide support for the explanation of the effects of additional exposure of the unique elements in terms of a better memory encoding and instead suggest an explanation in terms of location bias. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26881901

  15. Additivity of Factor Effects in Reading Tasks Is Still a Challenge for Computational Models: Reply to Ziegler, Perry, and Zorzi (2009)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Besner, Derek; O'Malley, Shannon

    2009-01-01

    J. C. Ziegler, C. Perry, and M. Zorzi (2009) have claimed that their connectionist dual process model (CDP+) can simulate the data reported by S. O'Malley and D. Besner. Most centrally, they have claimed that the model simulates additive effects of stimulus quality and word frequency on the time to read aloud when words and nonwords are randomly…

  16. Additivity of factor effects in reading tasks is still a challenge for computational models: Reply to Ziegler, Perry, and Zorzi (2009).

    PubMed

    Besner, Derek; O'Malley, Shannon

    2009-01-01

    J. C. Ziegler, C. Perry, and M. Zorzi (2009) have claimed that their connectionist dual process model (CDP+) can simulate the data reported by S. O'Malley and D. Besner. Most centrally, they have claimed that the model simulates additive effects of stimulus quality and word frequency on the time to read aloud when words and nonwords are randomly intermixed. This work represents an important attempt given that computational models of reading processes have to date largely ignored the issue of whether it is possible to simulate additive effects. Despite CDP+'s success at capturing many other phenomena, it is clear that CDP+ fails to capture the full pattern seen with skilled readers in these experiments. PMID:19210105

  17. 3. SIXTH FLOOR VIEW TO WEST, WITH FACE POWDER MAKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. SIXTH FLOOR VIEW TO WEST, WITH FACE POWDER MAKING UNIT: CHARGE HOPPER (CENTER FOREGROUND), PERFUME MIXER (LEFT), AND DUST COLLECTOR (REAR CENTER) - Colgate & Company Jersey City Plant, G Block, 81-95 Greene Street, Jersey City, Hudson County, NJ

  18. 115. INTERIOR, SIXTH FLOOR, WING 6100 WEST, SUITE 6000, RECEPTION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    115. INTERIOR, SIXTH FLOOR, WING 6100 WEST, SUITE 6000, RECEPTION AREA, DETAIL OF GRAINED RADIATOR CABINET - U.S. Department of the Interior, Eighteenth & C Streets Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  19. 130. INTERIOR, SIXTH FLOOR, WING 6100 WEST, SUITE 6000, ROOM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    130. INTERIOR, SIXTH FLOOR, WING 6100 WEST, SUITE 6000, ROOM 6156, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR, BRONZE WALL CLOCK - U.S. Department of the Interior, Eighteenth & C Streets Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  20. 21. INTERIOR VIEW OF SIXTH FLOOR OF MILL HOUSE, SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. INTERIOR VIEW OF SIXTH FLOOR OF MILL HOUSE, SHOWING BLOWER AT RIGHT AND DUST CONTROL FILTER SYSTEM AT LEFT, LOOKING SOUTHEAST - Sperry Corn Elevator Complex, Weber Avenue (North side), West of Edison Street, Stockton, San Joaquin County, CA

  1. Bruce D. Judd, FAIA, Photographer August 1997. VIEW OF SIXTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Bruce D. Judd, FAIA, Photographer August 1997. VIEW OF SIXTH FLOOR ELEVATOR LOBBY AND ENTRY TO ZONING ADMINISTRATORS OFFICE, ROOM 600, FACING SOUTHEAST - Los Angeles City Hall, 200 North Spring Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  2. "Hills of Friends": Cultural Watersheds in the Sixth Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adamson-Towner, Sioux

    1999-01-01

    Describes a sixth grade activity that focuses on cultural watersheds, in which students represent their "personal landscapes." Explains that students list watershed and cultural attributes in lesson one. In lesson two students paint a representation of their cultural watershed. (CMK)

  3. RADAR: A Measure of the Sixth Vital Sign?

    PubMed

    Voyer, Philippe; Champoux, Nathalie; Desrosiers, Johanne; Landreville, Philippe; McCusker, Jane; Monette, Johanne; Savoie, Maryse; Carmichael, Pierre-Hugues; Richard, Hélène; Richard, Sylvie

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the potential of RADAR (Recognizing Active Delirium As part of your Routine) as a measure of the sixth vital sign. This study was a secondary analysis of a study (N = 193) that took place in one acute care hospital and one long-term care facility. The primary outcome was a positive sixth vital sign, defined as the presence of both an altered level of consciousness and inattention. These indicators were assessed using the Confusion Assessment Method. RADAR identified 30 of the 43 participants as having a positive sixth vital sign and 58 of the 70 cases as not, yielding a sensitivity and specificity of 70% and 83%, respectively. Positive predictive value was 71%. RADAR's characteristics, including its brevity and acceptability by nursing staff, make this tool a good candidate as a measure of the sixth vital sign. Future studies should address the generalizability of RADAR among various populations and clinical settings. PMID:26337503

  4. Southeast Area Survey, Sixth & G Streets (Synagogue), 132144 & ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Southeast Area Survey, Sixth & G Streets (Synagogue), 132-144 & 900-905 Eleventh Street (Row Houses), 215 Second Street (House), Seventh & G Streets (School), 214 First Street (House), Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  5. Christi Makes Sense of Sixth-Grade Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ridlon, Candice L.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses experiences using a new mathematics curriculum with sixth grade students for nine weeks. Presents a student's discovery of her power in mathematics through this problem-centered curriculum. (ASK)

  6. 5. DETAIL OF WINDOWS AND CORBELING ON SIXTH FLOOR AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. DETAIL OF WINDOWS AND CORBELING ON SIXTH FLOOR AND CUPOLA OF SOUTH FRONT ELEVATION, LOOKING NORTH - Lembeck & Betz Eagle Brewery, Lager Brew House, 164-170 Ninth Street, Jersey City, Hudson County, NJ

  7. 4. DETAIL OF WINDOWS AND CORBELING ON FIFTH AND SIXTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. DETAIL OF WINDOWS AND CORBELING ON FIFTH AND SIXTH FLOORS OF SOUTH FRONT AND EAST ELEVATIONS, LOOKING NORTHWEST - Lembeck & Betz Eagle Brewery, Lager Brew House, 164-170 Ninth Street, Jersey City, Hudson County, NJ

  8. Sixth Report on the Condition of Higher Education in Ohio: Status of Implementation of Strategic Recommendations for Advancing Ohio's Innovation Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio Board of Regents, 2013

    2013-01-01

    This Sixth Condition Report represents a snapshot of a moment in time. It focuses on critical enabling conditions and initial implementation steps for a strategically chosen subset of the action steps embedded in the Task Force's full slate of recommendations. As such, this report serves four essential purposes: (1) It identifies a selective set…

  9. Numerical solution of first order initial value problem using 4-stage sixth order Gauss-Kronrod-Radau IIA method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ying, Teh Yuan; Yaacob, Nazeeruddin

    2013-04-01

    In this paper, a new implicit Runge-Kutta method which based on a 4-point Gauss-Kronrod-Radau II quadrature formula is developed. The resulting implicit method is a 4-stage sixth order Gauss-Kronrod-Radau IIA method, or in brief as GKRM(4,6)-IIA. GKRM(4,6)-IIA requires four function of evaluations at each integration step and it gives accuracy of order six. In addition, GKRM(4,6)-IIA has stage order four and being L-stable. Numerical experiments compare the accuracy between GKRM(4,6)-IIA and the classical 3-stage sixth order Gauss-Legendre method in solving some test problems. Numerical results reveal that GKRM(4,6)-IIA is more accurate than the 3-stage sixth order Gauss-Legendre method because GKRM(4,6)-IIA has higher stage order.

  10. Proceedings: Sixth international RETRAN conference. [RETRAN Computer Code

    SciTech Connect

    Agee, L.J.

    1990-08-01

    The RETRAN computer code, developed by EPRI through its Contractors, EI International, Inc. (EI) and Computer Simulation and Analysis, Inc. (CSA), is now widely used by the international nuclear community for various types of safety analyses. In order to exchange information concerning the current use of the code by the various organizations, EPRI sponsored the Sixth International RETRAN meeting in Washington, DC on September 17--20, 1989. The opening session featured a panel discussion on Licensing Issues of the Nineties'' by representatives from NUMARC, Wolf Creek, and Entergy Services, Inc. as well as a review of RETRAN activities during 1988 and 1989. During the three-day meeting, 28 technical papers were presented by the various participants. The papers can be generally classified as: RETRAN-03 development, verification and validation; RETRAN-02 analysis of PWRs; and RETRAN-02 analysis of BWRs. The entire text of all of the papers is included in this special EPRI report. In addition, these proceedings contain the text of seven technical reports presented at a poster session. Each individual paper has been cataloged separately.

  11. THE NEGRO IN SCHOOLROOM LITERATURE, RESOURCE MATERIALS FOR THE TEACHER OF KINDERGARTEN THROUGH THE SIXTH GRADE. 2D ED.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KOBLITZ, MINNIE W.

    THIS ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY LISTS MORE THAN 250 BOOKS, CURRENT TO SEPTEMBER 1, 1966, WHICH CONTRIBUTE TO THE UNDERSTANDING AND APPRECIATION OF THE NEGRO HERITAGE. THESE RESOURCE MATERIALS, SUITABLE FOR STUDENTS IN KINDERGARTEN THROUGH SIXTH GRADE, ARE ARRANGED ACCORDING TO READING LEVEL. THERE ARE SECTIONS CONTAINING ADDITIONAL SOURCE MATERIALS…

  12. 7. Detail, window, northwest facade, addition, Engine Stores Building, Southern ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Detail, window, northwest facade, addition, Engine Stores Building, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin Shops, view to southeast (135mm lens). - Southern Pacific Railroad, Carlin Shops, Engine Stores Building, Foot of Sixth Street, Carlin, Elko County, NV

  13. Melissa's Year in Sixth Grade: A Technology Integration Vignette.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemmer, Jeanie

    1998-01-01

    In 1995, rather than require seventh-grade computer literacy classes, Texas allowed school districts to integrate technology skills into curricula. This article, the first of three, describes technology integration for sixth grade. Includes unit ideas on nations; the Holocaust; Olympic diving; Christmas; probability; organisms; Antarctica;…

  14. 25. SIXTH FLOOR BLDG. 28B LOOKING EAST. Fafnir Bearing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. SIXTH FLOOR BLDG. 28B LOOKING EAST. - Fafnir Bearing Plant, Bounded on North side by Myrtle Street, on South side by Orange Street, on East side by Booth Street & on West side by Grove Street, New Britain, Hartford County, CT

  15. The State of Washington's Children. [Sixth Annual Report].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Alice, Ed.

    This KIDS COUNT sixth annual report examines statewide trends in the well-being of Washington's children. The statistical portrait is based on five general areas of children's well-being: family and community, economic well-being, health, education, and safety and security. The 20 key indicators of child well-being are: (1) births to unmarried…

  16. India: Problems with the Sixth Five-Year Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masani, Minoo R.

    1978-01-01

    Examines background of India's Sixth Five-Year Plan, describes the current status of the Plan, and assesses the future of economic and political development in India based upon the Plan's achievements in areas including the small industries sector, heavy industry, public services, agriculture, and political cooperation. Journal availability: see…

  17. An Ecological Energetics Field Course for Sixth Forms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Phillip

    1982-01-01

    Describes a sixth-form field course consisting of written materials for students and a teacher's booklet giving necessary techniques, lists of apparatus, and practical hints. The course aims to estimate energy flows in a woodland ecosystem by means of a series of practical sessions involving field/laboratory investigations and calculations.…

  18. Dear Cesar Chavez: Writing Persuasive Letters in the Sixth Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beddow, Maggie

    2012-01-01

    Cesar Chavez, who co-founded the United Farm Workers (UFW) with Dolores Huerta in 1962, dedicated his life to grassroots organizing to persuade lawmakers and the public to help improve the working conditions of migrant farm workers. In October 1992, the author had been teaching a unit of study on civics to her sixth grade bilingual students in…

  19. Gifted Sixth-Graders and Primary Source Philosophy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, David A.; Schlaggar, Sheila

    1993-01-01

    A sixth-grade gifted class studied the history of philosophy, including selections from such philosophers as Plato, Confucius, Buddha, Marcus Aurelius, and Moses Maimonides. Readings drew on fundamental features of child experience, such as their sense of justice, concern for moral values, and questions about reality. The paper describes classroom…

  20. Linguistic Structures in the Discourse of Fourth and Sixth Graders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golub, Lester S.; Fredrick, Wayne C.

    An attempt was made to measure the language behavior of students in the upper elementary grades. The procedures and results of research in the following five areas are described in this report: (1) Relationship between the Linguistic Ability Test and the written discourse of fourth and sixth graders; (2) Comparisons of the discourse of fourth and…

  1. 132. INTERIOR, SIXTH FLOOR, WING 6100 WEST, SUITE 6000, ROOM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    132. INTERIOR, SIXTH FLOOR, WING 6100 WEST, SUITE 6000, ROOM 6156, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR, PLASTER CEILING MEDALLION AND BRONZE CHANDELIER (4' x 5' negative; 8' x 10' print) - U.S. Department of the Interior, Eighteenth & C Streets Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  2. The Sixth Floor: Museum Experiences as Learning Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Courtney, Sean

    The Sixth Floor museum in Dallas, Texas, is dedicated to the memory of the assassination of John F. Kennedy. The museum's success as a learning/instructional environment may be explained through a theory of learning and instructional design based on three components: authentic presence, collective design, and sacred connection. "Authentic…

  3. The Teaching of Electromagnetic Induction at Sixth Form Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archenhold, W. F.

    1974-01-01

    Presents some ideas about teaching electromagnetic induction at sixth form level, including educational objectives, learning difficulties, syllabus requirements, selection of unit system, and sequence of material presentation. Suggests the Education Group of the Institute of Physics hold further discussions on these aspects before including the…

  4. Netbooks in Sixth-Grade English Language Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Janet Mei-Chuen; Wu, Yi-Jiun

    2010-01-01

    As netbook computers are becoming an attractive option for K-12 educators, they have the potential to be a more integral part of language learning. In this study 45 sixth graders in two classes used netbooks to learn English as a second language. Forty-four students in two other classes served as the control group who received traditional…

  5. Sixth Grade Outdoor Education Program. Outdoor Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Densmore, Tom, Comp.; And Others

    Compiled for teachers whose sixth grade students participate in the resident camping program of the Dixon Public Schools (Dixon, Illinois), this guide offers extensive and detailed information for use in planning the camp curriculum. Activities are suggested for environmental study, group socialization, and recreation. Environmental study units…

  6. African Unit. An Instructional Unit for Sixth Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Elaine

    This teaching guide presents objectives, activities, pre and posttests, and handouts to help sixth grade classroom teachers as they develop and implement educational programs about Africa. The major purpose is to help students develop positive attitudes toward other cultures, particularly African cultures. Specific objectives are to help students…

  7. Computers and Problem Solving for Sixth-Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oughton, John M.

    1995-01-01

    Presents a curriculum unit designed for average sixth-grade students intended to engage them in problem-solving experiences and to teach them problem-solving strategies. The curriculum consists of 20 sessions in which students engage in various activities using the following software packages: The Adventures of Jasper Woodbury, Rescue at Boone's…

  8. The Sixth U.S.A. Mathematical Olympiad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greitzer, Samuel L.

    1978-01-01

    One hundred and seven students of 365,000 students given the annual High School Mathematics Examination took part in the sixth U.S.A. Mathematical Olympiad. The top eight scores are listed along with comparative Exam and Olympiad scores for the group and individual problem scores. The problems proposed on the U.S.A. Olympiad on an International…

  9. Cataloging and Inventorying Instructional Materials in Utah Schools. Sixth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utah State Office of Education, Salt Lake City.

    This handbook is designed to assist Utah schools in cataloging instructional materials. It is recommended that it be used in all local school and district media programs. This sixth edition attempts to simplify cataloging while retaining the basic elements needed for locating materials. Following a brief introduction, the handbook is divided into…

  10. Sixth Grade Interdisciplinary Packet: Science-Social Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madison Public Schools, WI.

    This curriculum guide for sixth graders focuses upon "Who is Man?", "Who am I?" and "Man Needs Man" in an interdisciplinary sequence that combines scientific and social studies ideas and theories. It is hoped that this approach will help the pupil shape positive change within himself and his society. Emphasis is upon pupils gaining both conceptual…

  11. Sixth-Form Projects in Biology: A Case History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, P. M.; Parker, R. E.

    1981-01-01

    Some of the problems encountered in devising sixth-form projects are discussed and a detailed account given of one project in which a study was made of the effect of onion bulb volatiles on the germination of lettuce seed. (Author)

  12. Sixth-Form Colleges: An Endangered Organisational Form?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoten, David William

    2014-01-01

    The sixth-form college sector is often marginalised in policy and academic discourse, where the much larger school and further education sectors dominate. This paper sets out to describe the sector's key features, assess its position within the wider education system and consider its future in an increasingly competitive education market. The…

  13. Developments in Sixth-Form Curriculum and Examinations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedley, E. N. V.

    1978-01-01

    The sixth-form curriculum and examinations in Northern Ireland and Britain are examined. "A" level modern language examinations represent rigorous intellectual demands, in which the examiner looks for evidence of imagination, creativity, linguistic subtlety, and critical appraisal far beyond the "O" level. For the ablest students who have a gifted…

  14. 129. INTERIOR, SIXTH FLOOR, WING 6100 WEST, SUITE 6000, ROOM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    129. INTERIOR, SIXTH FLOOR, WING 6100 WEST, SUITE 6000, ROOM 6156, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR, DOUBLE DOOR (4' x 5' negative; 8' x 10' print) - U.S. Department of the Interior, Eighteenth & C Streets Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  15. DETAIL OF AN EXTERNAL TANK SUPPORT ARM, SIXTH LEVEL OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF AN EXTERNAL TANK SUPPORT ARM, SIXTH LEVEL OF THE EXTERNAL TANK CHECK-OUT CELLS, HB-2, FACING NORTHEAST - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Vehicle Assembly Building, VAB Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  16. Eating Attitudes in Fourth-, Sixth-, and Eighth-Grade Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhyne-Winkler, Martha C.

    1994-01-01

    Examined eating attitudes of fourth-, sixth-, and eighth-grade girls (n=379) and relationship between those attitudes and achievement scores, school ability, absenteeism, family income, grade level, family size, age, height/weight ratio, diet history, weight satisfaction, appearance satisfaction, and school anxiety. Found that eating-disordered…

  17. The People of the Soviet Union. Sixth Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reikofski, Joyce

    This sixth grade teaching unit covers Soviet propaganda, communism, relations with the United States, Soviet geography, Soviet arts, and Soviet life. Unit goals address the above content areas, map skills, and an attitudinal goal of helping students to develop a sense of respect for the life of Soviet citizens. Behavioral objectives are keyed to…

  18. VIEW OF THE WEST CHECKOUT CELL, SIXTH LEVEL OF THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF THE WEST CHECK-OUT CELL, SIXTH LEVEL OF THE EXTERNAL TANK CHECK-OUT CELLS, HB-2, FACING NORTHWEST - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Vehicle Assembly Building, VAB Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  19. VIEW OF THE EAST CHECKOUT CELL, SIXTH LEVEL OF THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF THE EAST CHECK-OUT CELL, SIXTH LEVEL OF THE EXTERNAL TANK CHECK-OUT CELLS, HB-2, FACING NORTHEAST - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Vehicle Assembly Building, VAB Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  20. Perspectives on the Teaching of Mathematics (Sixty-Sixth Yearbook)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubenstein, Rheta N., Ed.; Bright, George W., Ed.

    2004-01-01

    Teaching is a complex, ongoing endeavor that involves a myriad of decisions. NCTM's Sixty-Sixth Yearbook is organized around three aspects of teaching: foundations for teaching, the enactment of teaching, and the support of teaching nurtured in preservice education and strengthened throughout a teacher's career. The accompanying professional…

  1. A Pilot Mathematics Assessment of Arizona Sixth-Grade Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona State Dept. of Education, Phoenix.

    Student achievement in mathematics at the sixth-grade level was assessed in this study. A sample of 4,047 students under 160 teachers in 114 schools, 26 school districts, and 10 counties are given a criterion-referenced mathematics test. The McGraw-Hill Prescriptive Mathematics Inventory (PMI-Aqua Level) was selected for use in this pilot program.…

  2. Speculation and Historical Interpretation for Fifth and Sixth Graders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Elizabeth; Gregory, Leslie A.

    2000-01-01

    Describes a unit for fifth- and sixth-grade students that helps develop critical thinking skills. Explains that students read the book, "Leonardo da Vinci" (Diane Stanley), to develop their historical interpretation skills and demonstrate that there is not just one right answer in history. (CMK)

  3. Using Higher Order Computer Tasks with Disadvantaged Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Neil

    A pilot program initially designed for a 12-year-old girl with mild to moderate intellectual disabilities in higher order computer tasks was developed for a larger group of students with similar disabilities enrolled in fifth and sixth grades (ages 9-12) at three different schools. An examination of the original pilot study was undertaken to…

  4. The Challenge to Sixth Form Funding: An Introduction to Government Proposals To Change the Way Sixth Forms Are Funded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Mick; Boney, Charles

    This document, which is intended for senior staff at the United Kingdom's further education (FE) colleges, examines the content and possible impact of recent government proposals to change how school sixth forms are funded. The following are among the topics discussed in sections 1-8: (1) reasons underlying the talk about change; (2) existing…

  5. Pre-Service Elementary Teachers' Mathematics Content Knowledge: A Predictor of Sixth Graders' Mathematics Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shirvani, Hosin

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the knowledge of mathematics content of elementary pre-service teachers at a sixth grade level. The researcher administered a mathematics test for sixth graders mandated by the Texas Education Agency to pre-service teachers; the same test was given to sixth graders in Texas. The study found that pre-service teachers performed…

  6. View of intersection of Foothill Avenue and South TwentySixth Street ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of intersection of Foothill Avenue and South Twenty-Sixth Street seen from South Twenty-Sixth Street. Note Building No. 35 on right, and Buildings No. 37, 38, 40, from left to center rear, looking east - Easter Hill Village, Bordered by South Twenty-sixth Street, South Twenty-eighth Street, Hinkley Avenue, Foothill Avenue & Corto Square, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  7. Pre-Task Syntactic Priming and Focused Task Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boston, Jeremy S.

    2010-01-01

    Focused tasks engage learners in using language for communication and in addition have a specific predetermined linguistic focus in mind. The difficulty in designing focused tasks is that many meanings can be articulated using more than one language form, making it difficult to design tasks which induce learner use of a specific target form. This…

  8. Effects of noise and task loading on a communication task loading on a communication task

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orrell, Dean H., II

    Previous research had shown the effect of noise on a single communication task. This research has been criticized as not being representative of a real world situation since subjects allocated all of their attention to only one task. In the present study, the effect of adding a loading task to a standard noise-communication paradigm was investigated. Subjects performed both a communication task (Modified Rhyme Test; House et al. 1965) and a short term memory task (Sternberg, 1969) in simulated levels of aircraft noise (95, 105 and 115 dB overall sound pressure level (OASPL)). Task loading was varied with Sternberg's task by requiring subjects to memorize one, four, or six alphanumeric characters. Simulated aircraft noise was varied between levels of 95, 105 and 115 dB OASPL using a pink noise source. Results show that the addition of Sternberg's task and little effect on the intelligibility of the communication task while response time for the communication task increased.

  9. Children's Self-Regulated Learning Profile in Language and Mathematics: The Role of Task Value Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metallidou, Panayiota; Vlachou, Anastasia

    2010-01-01

    This study explored the self-regulated learning (SRL) profile of upper elementary (fifth and sixth grade) school children who were differentiated in their task value beliefs (low and high) in language and mathematics. Students' SRL profile involved their teachers' ratings of achievement outcomes and SRL behaviors. The subscale of task value…

  10. Motivated Learning with Digital Learning Tasks: What about Autonomy and Structure?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Loon, Anne-Marieke; Ros, Anje; Martens, Rob

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, the ways in which digital learning tasks contribute to students' intrinsic motivation and learning outcomes were examined. In particular, this study explored the relative contributions of autonomy support and the provision of structure in digital learning tasks. Participants were 320 fifth- and sixth-grade students from eight…

  11. Predictors and Outcomes of Situational Interest during a Science Learning Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tapola, Anna; Veermans, Marjaana; Niemivirta, Markku

    2013-01-01

    In this study we examined change in students' situational interest as a function of student and task characteristics. Fifth- and sixth-graders (n = 52) were assigned to one of two task conditions that used a different version of a science simulation. The versions differed in how concrete vs. abstract the simulation elements were.…

  12. Analytical precision of one-sixth order semiquantitative spectrographic analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Motooka, J.M.; Grimes, D.J.

    1976-01-01

    Over 2,700 separate analyses were made on 22 different geologic samples selected to cover wide concentration ranges for the 30 elements studied. The precision for low, medium, and high concentrations of each element determined is represented by superimposed frequency diagrams and displays the frequency of reported values occurring within one-sixth order reporting intervals about the mean.Results are derived from mixed analyst and instrument conditions with no controls enforced other than randomization of samples. The precision of the six-step (one-sixth order) semiquantitative spectrographic analysis utilized by the Denver-based mobile laboratories exceeds that which is necessary for exploration geochemistry. Disallowing results obtained near the detection levels, the repeatability of the method, in general, is shown to be within on adjoining reporting interval on each side of the mean, 83 percent of the time, and within two adjoining reporting intervals on each side of the mean 96 percent of the time.

  13. Cooperation with school nurses described by Finnish sixth graders.

    PubMed

    Mäenpää, Tiina; Paavilainen, Eija; Astedt-Kurki, Päivi

    2007-10-01

    This paper deals with research on cooperation with the school nurse described by sixth graders. The data were collected via six focus group interviews in 2003-2004. Twenty-two sixth graders (aged 11-12 years) participated in the research. The data were analysed by the constant comparison method based on grounded theory. The analysis yielded a number of concepts that describe the basis of the cooperation: the trusted expertise of the school nurse, informative interaction with the family and knowing the family situation. The cooperation consisted of supporting the pupil's growth and development, need for individual counselling and supporting coping at school. The cooperation was characterized by an open atmosphere and friendliness, a low level of reciprocity, the school nurse's stereotyped activities and respect for the pupil's privacy. Pupils' experiences and perspectives can be used to develop more holistic strategies for the school health service. PMID:17883717

  14. 31. EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING INTO THE SIXTH TAILRACE (COUNTING FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING INTO THE SIXTH TAILRACE (COUNTING FROM THE DOWNSTREAM END TO THE UPSTREAM END SOUTHEAST TO NORTHWEST). THIS AREA IS THE PORTION OF THE PULP MILL THAT WAS NEVER REBUILT AFTER A DEVASTATING FIRE IN 1925 AND SUBSEQUENT END TO PULP PRODUCTION AT THIS SITE. - Potomac Power Plant, On West Virginia Shore of Potomac River, about 1 mile upriver from confluence with Shenandoah River, Harpers Ferry, Jefferson County, WV

  15. 5. VIEW LOOKING SOUTH DOWN SIXTH STREET AT THE INTERSECTION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW LOOKING SOUTH DOWN SIXTH STREET AT THE INTERSECTION WITH CENTRAL AVENUE. AS PART OF THE INITIAL SITE DEVELOPMENT, A RAILROAD SPUR, ACCESS ROADS, POWER LINES, AND TELEPHONE LINES WERE BUILT. ALL FACILITIES WERE HEATED BY STEAM GENERATED IN BUILDING 443 AND PIPED THROUGHOUT THE SITE. THE BUILDING IN THE BACKGROUND OF THE PHOTOGRAPH IS BUILDING 664, A LOW - LEVEL WASTE STORAGE FACILITY. - Rocky Flats Plant, Bounded by Indiana Street & Routes 93, 128 & 72, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  16. Isolated sixth nerve palsy secondary to spontaneous intracranial hypotension.

    PubMed

    Khemka, S; Mearza, A A

    2006-11-01

    We report the case of a 43-year-old gentleman who presented with an isolated left sixth nerve palsy in association with postural headache. Magnetic resonance imaging showed dural enhancement with downward displacement of the brainstem. This, in association with the signs, symptoms and findings on lumbar puncture, confirmed the diagnosis of spontaneous intracranial hypotension. Treatment was successful with epidural blood patching. The case is discussed and the relevant literature reviewed. PMID:17038044

  17. The Sixth Annual Thermal and Fluids Analysis Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The Sixth Annual Thermal and Fluids Analysis Workshop consisted of classes, vendor demonstrations, and paper sessions. The classes and vendor demonstrations provided participants with the information on widely used tools for thermal and fluids analysis. The paper sessions provided a forum for the exchange of information and ideas among thermal and fluids analysis. Paper topics included advances an uses of established thermal and fluids computer codes (such as SINDA and TRASYS) as well as unique modeling techniques and applications.

  18. 6. VIEW LOOKING NORTH ON SIXTH STREET, ACROSS CENTRAL AVENUE. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW LOOKING NORTH ON SIXTH STREET, ACROSS CENTRAL AVENUE. THE BUILDING ON THE RIGHT IS BUILDING 551, BUILT IN 1953 AS A WAREHOUSE AND METAL FABRICATION SHOP. THE BUILDING ON THE LEFT IS BUILDING 334, ALSO BUILT IN 1953, AS THE ELECTRICAL AND GENERAL MAINTENANCE SHOP. IN THE CENTER OF THE PHOTOGRAPH IN THE BACKGROUND IS BUILDING 374, THE AQUEOUS PROCESS WASTE TREATMENT PLANT. - Rocky Flats Plant, Bounded by Indiana Street & Routes 93, 128 & 72, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  19. Isolated sixth nerve palsy after intravitreal ranibizumab injection.

    PubMed

    Caglar, Cagatay; Kocamis, Sücattin Ilker; Durmus, Mustafa

    2016-09-01

    After intravitreal ranibizumab injection for diabetic macular edema (DME) in a 55-year-old man, the patient was admitted to our ophthalmology clinic with the complaint of diplopia. Given the results of the patient's history, physical exam, and negative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), we believed that the patient had a sixth nerve palsy related to ranibizumab injection. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case with isolated abducens palsy after ranibizumab injection. PMID:26340018

  20. Dual task performance with LPC (Linear Predictive Coding) degraded speech in a sentence verification task

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt-Nielsen, Astrid; Kallman, Howard J.; Meijer, Corinne

    1989-10-01

    The results of a preliminary study on the effects of reduced speech intelligibility on dual task performance are reported. The speech task was a sentence verification task, and the speech degradation was accomplished using a narrowband digital voice transmission system operating with and without random bit errors. The second task was a visual picture sorting task. There was a dual task decrement on the sorting task, and in addition, there was a further decrease in sorts per minute as the speech was increasingly degraded. Reaction time for the speech task increased with the concurrent sorting task, but the dual task condition did not affect speech task error rates.

  1. Everything You Need To Know about Math Homework. A Desk Reference for Students and Parents. Fourth to Sixth Grades. Scholastic Homework Reference Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeman, Anne; Kelly, Kate

    This book is written to answer commonly asked homework questions of fourth, fifth, and sixth graders. Included are facts, charts, definitions, explanations, examples, and illustrations. Topics include ancient number systems; decimal system; math symbols; addition; subtraction; multiplication; division; fractions; estimation; averages; properties;…

  2. Sixth International Conference on X-ray Microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, Arthur L.

    1999-08-23

    More than 180 participants from around the world crowded the Clark Kerr Campus of the University of California, Berkeley, from August 1-6, 1999 for the Sixth International Conference on X-Ray Microscopy (XRM99). Held every three years since 1983, the XRM conferences have become the primary international forum for the presentation and discussion of advances in high-spatial-resolution x-ray imaging and applications (including the use of x-ray spectroscopic and analytical techniques) in biological and medical sciences, environmental and soil sciences, and materials and surface sciences.

  3. The sixth conference on satellite meteorology and oceanography

    SciTech Connect

    Hauth, F.F.; Purdom, J.F.W.

    1993-01-01

    The Sixth Conference on Satellite Meteorology and Oceanography was held in conjunction with the AMS Annual Meeting in Atlanta, Georgia, the week of 6 January 1992. Over 150 scientific papers were presented orally or in poster sessions. Joint sessions were held with the Symposium on Weather Forecasting and the Eighth International Conference on Interactive Information and Processing Systems for Meteorology, Oceanography, and Hydrology. The quality of the papers in the preprint volume, as well as in the presentations at both oral and poster sessions, reflects the robustness of national and international operational and research interests in satellite meteorology and oceanography. A preprint volume for this conference is available through the AMS.

  4. Digital science games' impact on sixth and eighth graders' perceptions of science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Li-Wei

    2009-12-01

    The quasi-experimental study investigated sixth and eighth graders' perceptions of science with gender, grade levels, and educational experiences as the variables. The Theory of Planned Behavior (Ajzen, 1985) claims that attitude toward the behavior, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control play a major role in people's intentions, and these intentions ultimately impact their behavior. The study adopted a quantitative research approach by conducting a science perceptions survey for examining students' self-efficacy in learning science (i.e., perceived behavioral control), value of science (i.e., attitude toward the behavior), motivation in science (i.e., attitude toward the behavior), and perceptions of digital science games in science classes (i.e., perceived behavioral control). A total of 255 participants' responses from four rural Appalachian middle school science classrooms in southeastern Ohio were analyzed through a three-way ANCOVA factorial pre-test and post-test data analysis with experimental and comparison groups. Additionally, the study applied a semi-structured, in-depth interview as a qualitative research approach to further examine STEAM digital science games' and Fellows' impact on students' perceptions of science. Eight students in the experimental group were interviewed. Interview data were analyzed with an inductive method. The results found in the three-way ANCOVA data analysis indicated that the diversity of educational experiences was a significant factor that impacted sixth and eighth graders' perceptions of science. Additionally, the interaction of gender and educational experiences was another significant factor that impacted sixth and eighth graders' perceptions of science. The findings of the two short-answer questions identified the reasons why the participants liked or disliked science, as well as why the participants would or would not choose a career in science. The conclusions of the semi-structured, in-depth interview

  5. THE EFFECTS OF SONIC ENVIRONMENT OF INDIVIDUALIZED INSTRUCTION IN LEARNING DIFFICULT AND EASY TASKS BY HIGH ACHIEVERS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MCCARTHY, EDWARD H.

    THE SIXTH-GRADE STUDENTS OBTAINING THE 80 HIGHEST MEAN SCORES ON THE METROPOLITAN ACHIEVEMENT TEST FORM D WERE RANDOMLY ASSIGNED TO GROUPS OF EASY OR DIFFICULT TASKS WITHIN EACH OF FIVE DECIBEL LEVEL GROUPS. THE LEARNING TASKS WERE TAKEN FROM THE MEANINGFULNESS OF ALL POSSIBLE CVC TRIGRAMS (ARCHER, 1960). THE APPARATUS INCLUDED A TAPE RECORDING OF…

  6. Sixth workshop on the role of impurities and defects in silicon device processing

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, T.; Swanson, R.; Sopori, B.

    1996-09-01

    The Sixth Workshop on the Role of Impurities and Defects in Silicon Device Processing was held in Snowmass Village, August 12-14, 1996. The workshop was attended by 87 participants from academic institutions and photovoltaic industry representatives, from the United States, Australia, Belgium, Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Belgium, and The Netherlands. The workshop consisted of nine sessions that addressed different aspects of impurities and defects in silicon and applications to solar-cell processing. Each session opened with some review talks summarizing recent advances in this field and introduced important issues for further discussions during a subsequent panel discussion session. In addition, the latest research results were presented in two poster sessions.

  7. Sixth International Conference on Systems Biology (ICSB 2005)

    SciTech Connect

    Professor Andrew Murray

    2005-10-22

    This grant supported the Sixth International Conference on Systems Biology (ICSB 2005), held in Boston, Massachusetts from October 19th to 22nd, 2005. The ICSB is the only major, annual, international conference focused exclusively on the important emerging field of systems biology. It draws together scientists with expertise in theoretical, computational and experimental approaches to understanding biological systems at many levels. Previous ICSB meetings have been held in Tokyo (2000), at Caltech (2001), at the Karolinska Institute (2002), at Washington University in St. Louis (2003), and in Heidelberg (2004). These conferences have been increasingly successful at bringing together the growing community of established and junior researchers with interests in this area. Boston is home to several groups that have shown leadership in the field and was therefore an ideal place to hold this conference . The executive committee for the conference comprised Jim Collins (Biomedical Engineering, Boston University), Marc Kirschner (chair of the new Department of Systems Biology at Harvard Medical School), Eric Lander (director of the Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard), Andrew Murray (director of Harvard’s Bauer Center for Genomics Research) and Peter Sorger (director of MIT’s Computational and Systems Biology Initiative). There are almost as many definitions of systems biology as there are systems biologists. We take a broad view of the field, and we succeeded in one of our major aims in organizing a conference that bridges two types of divide. The first is that between traditional academic disciplines: each of our sessions includes speakers from biology and from one or more physical or quantitative sciences. The second type includes those that separate experimental biologists from their colleagues who work on theory or computation. Here again, each session included representatives from at least two of these three categories; indeed, many of the speakers combined at

  8. The Sixth Copper Mountain Conference on Multigrid Methods, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melson, N. Duane (Editor); Manteuffel, T. A. (Editor); Mccormick, S. F. (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    The Sixth Copper Mountain Conference on Multigrid Methods was held on 4-9 Apr. 1993, at Copper Mountain, CO. This book is a collection of many of the papers presented at the conference and as such represents the conference proceedings. NASA LaRC graciously provided printing of this document so that all of the papers could be presented in a single forum. Each paper was reviewed by a member of the conference organizing committee under the coordination of the editors. The multigrid discipline continues to expand and mature, as is evident from these proceedings. The vibrancy in this field is amply expressed in these important papers, and the collection clearly shows its rapid trend to further diversity and depth.

  9. The Sixth Copper Mountain Conference on Multigrid Methods, part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melson, N. Duane (Editor); Mccormick, Steve F. (Editor); Manteuffel, Thomas A. (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    The Sixth Copper Mountain Conference on Multigrid Methods was held on April 4-9, 1993, at Copper Mountain, Colorado. This book is a collection of many of the papers presented at the conference and so represents the conference proceedings. NASA Langley graciously provided printing of this document so that all of the papers could be presented in a single forum. Each paper was reviewed by a member of the conference organizing committee under the coordination of the editors. The multigrid discipline continues to expand and mature, as is evident from these proceedings. The vibrancy in this field is amply expressed in these important papers, and the collection clearly shows its rapid trend to further diversity and depth.

  10. Identifying features in biological sequences: Sixth workshop report

    SciTech Connect

    Burks, C.; Myers, E.; Pearson, W.R.

    1995-12-31

    This report covers the sixth of an annual series of workshops held at the Aspen Center for Physics concentrating particularly on the identification of features in DNA sequence, and more broadly on related topics in computational molecular biology. The workshop series originally focused primarily on discussion of current needs and future strategies for identifying and predicting the presence of complex functional units on sequenced, but otherwise uncharacterized, genomic DNA. We addressed the need for computationally-based, automatic tools for synthesizing available data about individual consensus sequences and local compositional patterns into the composite objects (e.g., genes) that are -- as composite entities -- the true object of interest when scanning DNA sequences. The workshop was structured to promote sustained informal contact and exchange of expertise between molecular biologists, computer scientists, and mathematicians.

  11. Sixth Microgravity Fluid Physics and Transport Phenomena Conference Abstracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Bhim (Compiler)

    2002-01-01

    The Sixth Microgravity Fluid Physics and Transport Phenomena Conference provides the scientific community the opportunity to view the current scope of the Microgravity Fluid Physics and Transport Phenomena Program, current research opportunities, and plans for the near future. The conference focuses not only on fundamental research but also on applications of this knowledge towards enabling future space exploration missions. A whole session dedicated to biological fluid physics shows increased emphasis that the program has placed on interdisciplinary research. The conference includes invited plenary talks, technical paper presentations, poster presentations, and exhibits. This TM is a compilation of abstracts of the papers and the posters presented at the conference. Web-based proceedings, including the charts used by the presenters, will be posted on the web shortly after the conference.

  12. The Sixth Omega Laser Facility Users Group Workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Petrasso, R. D.

    2014-10-01

    A capacity gathering of over 100 researchers from 25 universities and laboratories met at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) for the Sixth Omega Laser Facility Users Group (OLUG) workshop. The purpose of the 2.5-day workshop was to facilitate communications and exchanges among individual OMEGA users, and between users and the LLE management; to present ongoing and proposed research; to encourage research opportunities and collaborations that could be undertaken at the Omega Laser Facility and in a complementary fashion at other facilities [such as the National Ignition Facility (NIF) or the Laboratoire pour l’Utilisation des Lasers Intenses (LULI)]; to provide an opportunity for students, postdoctoral fellows, and young researchers to present their research in an informal setting; and to provide feedback from the users to LLE management about ways to improve and keep the facility and future experimental campaigns at the cutting edge.

  13. ICENES '91:Sixth international conference on emerging nuclear energy systems

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This document contains the program and abstracts of the sessions at the Sixth International Conference on Emerging Nuclear Energy Systems held June 16--21, 1991 at Monterey, California. These sessions included: The plenary session, fission session, fission and nonelectric session, poster session 1P; (space propulsion, space nuclear power, electrostatic confined fusion, fusion miscellaneous, inertial confinement fusion, [mu]-catalyzed fusion, and cold fusion); Advanced fusion session, space nuclear session, poster session 2P, (nuclear reactions/data, isotope separation, direct energy conversion and exotic concepts, fusion-fission hybrids, nuclear desalting, accelerator waste-transmutation, and fusion-based chemical recycling); energy policy session, poster session 3P (energy policy, magnetic fusion reactors, fission reactors, magnetically insulated inertial fusion, and nuclear explosives for power generation); exotic energy storage and conversion session; and exotic energy storage and conversion; review and closing session.

  14. Favorite Newbery Books of Sixth Grade Students, Teachers, and Library Media Specialists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerby, Ramona N.

    1999-01-01

    Identifies Newbery books most frequently chosen as favorites by 2,211 sixth-grade students, sixth-grade teachers, and school library media specialists. FInds that boys chose "Maniac Magee" (Jerry Spinelli), girls chose "Number the Stars" (Lois Lowry), and adults chose "The Giver" (Lois Lowry). (RS)

  15. View of Parking Area No. 15 on South TwentySixth Street. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Parking Area No. 15 on South Twenty-Sixth Street. Building No. 17 at rear. Looking east - Easter Hill Village, Bordered by South Twenty-sixth Street, South Twenty-eighth Street, Hinkley Avenue, Foothill Avenue & Corto Square, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  16. View of Parking Area No. 25 on South TwentySixth Street. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Parking Area No. 25 on South Twenty-Sixth Street. Building No. 32 at left and Building No. 41 at rear. Note staircase and drainage channel in foreground. Looking northwest - Easter Hill Village, Bordered by South Twenty-sixth Street, South Twenty-eighth Street, Hinkley Avenue, Foothill Avenue & Corto Square, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  17. View of Parking Area No. 21 on South TwentySixth Street. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Parking Area No. 21 on South Twenty-Sixth Street. Buildings No. 17, 18, 19, 33, 34, 22, and 20, from left to right. Note boulder placement as designed landscape feature. Looking west - Easter Hill Village, Bordered by South Twenty-sixth Street, South Twenty-eighth Street, Hinkley Avenue, Foothill Avenue & Corto Square, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  18. Twist and Shout? Developing Sixth-Form Students' Thinking about Historical Interpretation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Arthur

    2011-01-01

    Understanding historical interpretation involves understanding how historical knowledge is constructed. How do sixth formers model historical epistemology? In this article Arthur Chapman examines a small sample of data relating to sixth form students' ideas about why historians construct differing interpretations of the past. He argues that…

  19. View of South TwentySixth Street at intersection with Hinckley Avenue. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of South Twenty-Sixth Street at intersection with Hinckley Avenue. Buildings No. 18, 22, 40, 21, 17, and 16 seen from left to right. Looking north - Easter Hill Village, Bordered by South Twenty-sixth Street, South Twenty-eighth Street, Hinkley Avenue, Foothill Avenue & Corto Square, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  20. View of Parking Area No. 32 from South TwentySixth Street. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Parking Area No. 32 from South Twenty-Sixth Street. Buildings No. 35, 37, 38, and 39, from left to right. Looking north - Easter Hill Village, Bordered by South Twenty-sixth Street, South Twenty-eighth Street, Hinkley Avenue, Foothill Avenue & Corto Square, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  1. View of South TwentySixth Street. Building No. 21 on left, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of South Twenty-Sixth Street. Building No. 21 on left, Building No. 20 on left, Building No. 17 at center rear. Looking south - Easter Hill Village, Bordered by South Twenty-sixth Street, South Twenty-eighth Street, Hinkley Avenue, Foothill Avenue & Corto Square, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  2. View of parking area on South TwentySixth Street near Foothill ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of parking area on South Twenty-Sixth Street near Foothill Avenue. Walkway at center, Building No. 35 on left, and Building No. 25 on right, looking east - Easter Hill Village, Bordered by South Twenty-sixth Street, South Twenty-eighth Street, Hinkley Avenue, Foothill Avenue & Corto Square, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  3. View of South TwentySixth Street at intersection with Corto Square. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of South Twenty-Sixth Street at intersection with Corto Square. Buildings No. 25, 23, and 21 on left and Buildings No. 26 and 24 on right, looking east - Easter Hill Village, Bordered by South Twenty-sixth Street, South Twenty-eighth Street, Hinkley Avenue, Foothill Avenue & Corto Square, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  4. View of South TwentySixth Street. Building No. 22 on left, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of South Twenty-Sixth Street. Building No. 22 on left, Building No. 23 on right, Building No. 25 at rear. Looking west - Easter Hill Village, Bordered by South Twenty-sixth Street, South Twenty-eighth Street, Hinkley Avenue, Foothill Avenue & Corto Square, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  5. View of South TwentySixth Street entrance to Easter Hill housing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of South Twenty-Sixth Street entrance to Easter Hill housing project at intersection with Cutting Boulevard, looking south - Easter Hill Village, Bordered by South Twenty-sixth Street, South Twenty-eighth Street, Hinkley Avenue, Foothill Avenue & Corto Square, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  6. View of South TwentySixth Street at Foothill Avenue looking at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of South Twenty-Sixth Street at Foothill Avenue looking at Cutting Boulevard in center distance, looking north - Easter Hill Village, Bordered by South Twenty-sixth Street, South Twenty-eighth Street, Hinkley Avenue, Foothill Avenue & Corto Square, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  7. 78 FR 18416 - Sixth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 226, Audio Systems and Equipment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-26

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Sixth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 226, Audio Systems and Equipment... Notice of RTCA Special Committee 226, Audio Systems and Equipment. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of the sixth meeting of the RTCA Special Committee 226, Audio Systems...

  8. Teacher Competence and the Academic Achievement of Sixth Grade Students in Uganda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wamala, Robert; Seruwagi, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    The study investigates the influence of teacher competence on the academic achievement of sixth grade students in Uganda. The investigation is based on data sourced from the 2009 Southern African Consortium for Monitoring Education Quality (SACMEQ) survey comprising 5,148 records of sixth grade students enrolled in primary schools in Uganda. The…

  9. Factors Influencing Mathematic Problem-Solving Ability of Sixth Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pimta, Sakorn; Tayraukham, Sombat; Nuangchalerm, Prasart

    2009-01-01

    Problem statement: This study aims to investigate factors influencing mathematic problem-solving ability of sixth grade students. One thousand and twenty eight of sixth grade students, studying in the second semester of academic year 2007 were sampled by stratified random sampling technique. Approach: The research instruments used in the study…

  10. View of intersection of Foothill Avenue and South TwentySixth Street. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of intersection of Foothill Avenue and South Twenty-Sixth Street. Note sports field at center rear. Seen from Foothill Avenue at Parking Area No. 34, looking southwest - Easter Hill Village, Bordered by South Twenty-sixth Street, South Twenty-eighth Street, Hinkley Avenue, Foothill Avenue & Corto Square, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  11. View of South TwentySixth Street looking towards Cutting Boulevard at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of South Twenty-Sixth Street looking towards Cutting Boulevard at center distance. Sports field on left, Building Nos. 35 & 36 on right and right rear, looking north - Easter Hill Village, Bordered by South Twenty-sixth Street, South Twenty-eighth Street, Hinkley Avenue, Foothill Avenue & Corto Square, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  12. View of South TwentySixth Street. Stairs to sports field on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of South Twenty-Sixth Street. Stairs to sports field on right which are seen in photo no. HABS CA-2783-3. Buildings No. 25, 26, 27, seen left to right at rear, looking south - Easter Hill Village, Bordered by South Twenty-sixth Street, South Twenty-eighth Street, Hinkley Avenue, Foothill Avenue & Corto Square, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  13. A Longitudinal Study of School Connectedness and Academic Outcomes across Sixth Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niehaus, Kate; Rudasill, Kathleen Moritz; Rakes, Christopher R.

    2012-01-01

    The current longitudinal study examines the extent to which school connectedness (i.e., students' perceptions of school support and the number of adults with whom they have a positive relationship) is associated with academic outcomes across sixth grade for students from high poverty neighborhoods. Data were collected from 330 sixth-grade students…

  14. Middle-Class Struggle? Identity-Work and Leisure among Sixth Formers in the United Kingdom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kehily, Mary Jane; Pattman, Rob

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores the ways in which sixth-form students in Milton Keynes negotiate their identities and the symbolic significance they attach to leisure activities in the process of doing this. The paper draws upon qualitative, young-person-centred interviews with sixth formers in state and private schools. It addresses the investments of sixth…

  15. Connecting Content, Context, and Communication in a Sixth-Grade Social Studies Class through Political Cartoons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallavan, Nancy P.; Webster-Smith, Angela; Dean, Sheila S.

    2012-01-01

    Sixth-grade students are challenged in understanding social studies content relevant to particular contexts, then connecting the content and context to their contemporary lives while communicating new knowledge to peers and teachers. Using political cartoons published after September 11, 2001, one sixth-grade social studies teacher designed…

  16. Assessment of Subtraction Scene Understanding Using a Story-Generation Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinda, Shigehiro

    2010-01-01

    The present study used a new assessment technique, the story-generation task, to examine students' understanding of subtraction scenes. The students from four grade levels (110 first-, 107 third-, 110 fourth- and 119 sixth-graders) generated stories under the constraints provided by a picture (representing Change, Combine or Compare scene) and a…

  17. Task Prioritization in Dual-Tasking: Instructions versus Preferences

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, Reinier J.; van Egmond, René; de Ridder, Huib

    2016-01-01

    The role of task prioritization in performance tradeoffs during multi-tasking has received widespread attention. However, little is known on whether people have preferences regarding tasks, and if so, whether these preferences conflict with priority instructions. Three experiments were conducted with a high-speed driving game and an auditory memory task. In Experiment 1, participants did not receive priority instructions. Participants performed different sequences of single-task and dual-task conditions. Task performance was evaluated according to participants’ retrospective accounts on preferences. These preferences were reformulated as priority instructions in Experiments 2 and 3. The results showed that people differ in their preferences regarding task prioritization in an experimental setting, which can be overruled by priority instructions, but only after increased dual-task exposure. Additional measures of mental effort showed that performance tradeoffs had an impact on mental effort. The interpretation of these findings was used to explore an extension of Threaded Cognition Theory with Hockey’s Compensatory Control Model. PMID:27391779

  18. Making a Difference: An Exploration of Leadership Roles within Sixth Form Colleges in Maintaining Ethos within a Context of Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briggs, Ann R.J.

    2005-01-01

    In 2001?02, the Nuffield Foundation funded research into the impact of government policy upon the management of sixth form colleges since 1992. National and regional questionnaire surveys were carried out among senior managers at sixth form colleges, further education colleges and schools. Case studies were undertaken at five sixth form colleges…

  19. Fifth (human parvovirus) and sixth (herpesvirus 6) diseases.

    PubMed

    Koch, W C

    2001-06-01

    Fifth (erythema infectiosum) and sixth (roseola infantum) diseases are common rash illnesses of childhood that have long been recognized in clinical medicine. The discovery of the viruses that cause these illnesses has revealed relationships with other syndromes. Primary infection with the agent of erythema infectiosum, human parvovirus B19, is associated with transient aplastic crisis in hemolytic anemia, arthropathy in adults, chronic anemia in immunocompromised patients, and nonimmune fetal hydrops in pregnant women. The only documented illness associated with primary infection with human herpesvirus 6 is roseola or exanthema subitum in young children. However, reactivated infections in adults and immunocompromised patients may be associated with serious illness such as encephalitis/encephalopathy, and bone marrow suppression leading to transplant failure or graft-versus-host disease. Diagnostic studies for both viruses have been limited, although reliable serologic tests for human parvovirus B19 have recently become available. Diagnosis of human herpesvirus 6 remains problematic, because current tests cannot differentiate primary from reactivated disease. This is more of an issue for the putative relationship of these viruses to more chronic conditions, such as rheumatologic disease for human parvovirus B19 and multiple sclerosis for human herpesvirus 6. The relationship between the viruses and these conditions remains controversial, and better diagnostic tests and further information on viral pathogenesis for both viruses are required in order to make a reliable judgment in this regard. PMID:11964854

  20. Proceedings of the Sixth NASA Langley Formal Methods (LFM) Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rozier, Kristin Yvonne (Editor)

    2008-01-01

    Today's verification techniques are hard-pressed to scale with the ever-increasing complexity of safety critical systems. Within the field of aeronautics alone, we find the need for verification of algorithms for separation assurance, air traffic control, auto-pilot, Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), adaptive avionics, automated decision authority, and much more. Recent advances in formal methods have made verifying more of these problems realistic. Thus we need to continually re-assess what we can solve now and identify the next barriers to overcome. Only through an exchange of ideas between theoreticians and practitioners from academia to industry can we extend formal methods for the verification of ever more challenging problem domains. This volume contains the extended abstracts of the talks presented at LFM 2008: The Sixth NASA Langley Formal Methods Workshop held on April 30 - May 2, 2008 in Newport News, Virginia, USA. The topics of interest that were listed in the call for abstracts were: advances in formal verification techniques; formal models of distributed computing; planning and scheduling; automated air traffic management; fault tolerance; hybrid systems/hybrid automata; embedded systems; safety critical applications; safety cases; accident/safety analysis.

  1. Proceedings of the sixth annual conference on fossil energy materials

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, N.C.; Judkins, R.R.

    1992-07-01

    The Sixth Annual Conference on Fossil Energy Materials was held in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, on May 12--14, 1992. The meeting was sponsored by the US Department of Energy's Office of Fossil Energy through the Advanced Research and Technology Development (AR TD) Materials Program, and ASM International. The objective of the AR TD Materials Program is to conduct research and development on materials for longer-term fossil energy applications as well as for generic needs of various fossil fuel technologies. The management of the Program has been decentralized to the DOE Field Office, Oak Ridge with Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) as the technical support contractor. The research is performed by staff members at ORNL and by a substantial number of researchers at other national laboratories, universities, and in private industry. The work is divided into the following categories: (1) ceramics, (2) development and corrosion resistance of iron aluminide, advanced austenitic and chromium-niobium alloys, and (3) technology assessment and technology transfer. This conference is held each year to review the work on all of the projects of the Program. The agenda for the meeting is given in Appendix A, and a list of attendees is presented in Appendix B. ASM International cosponsored the conference, for which we are especially grateful.

  2. The Sixth Alumni Conference of the International Space University

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berry, Steve (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    These proceedings cover the sixth alumni conference of the International Space University, coordinated by the ISU U.S. Alumni Organization, which was held at Rice University in Houston, Texas, on July 11, 1997. The alumni conference gives graduates of the International Space University's interdisciplinary, international, and intercultural program a forum in which they may present and exchange technical ideas, and keep abreast of the wide variety of work in which the ever-growing body of alumni is engaged. The diversity that is characteristic of ISU is reflected in the subject matter of the papers published in this proceedings. This proceedings preserves the order of the alumni presentations given at the 1997 ISU Alumni Conference. As in previous years, a special effort was made to solicit papers with a strong connection to the two ISU 1997 Summer Session Program design projects: (1) Transfer of Technology, Spin-Offs, Spin-Ins; and (2) Strategies for the Exploration of Mars. Papers in the remaining ten sessions cover the departmental areas traditional to the ISU summer session program.

  3. Food additives

    MedlinePlus

    Food additives are substances that become part of a food product when they are added during the processing or making of that food. "Direct" food additives are often added during processing to: Add nutrients ...

  4. Task-Oriented Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanis, Ira B.

    1992-01-01

    In 1985, participants in the Second International Science Study developed and evaluated hands-on problem-solving activities and gave students the opportunity to demonstrate mastery of science process skills. Six evaluation stations for fifth and sixth graders are presented: Blowing in a Liquid, Compare and Contrast, Electrical Circuit, Hot and…

  5. Who Multi-Tasks and Why? Multi-Tasking Ability, Perceived Multi-Tasking Ability, Impulsivity, and Sensation Seeking

    PubMed Central

    Sanbonmatsu, David M.; Strayer, David L.; Medeiros-Ward, Nathan; Watson, Jason M.

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship between personality and individual differences in multi-tasking ability. Participants enrolled at the University of Utah completed measures of multi-tasking activity, perceived multi-tasking ability, impulsivity, and sensation seeking. In addition, they performed the Operation Span in order to assess their executive control and actual multi-tasking ability. The findings indicate that the persons who are most capable of multi-tasking effectively are not the persons who are most likely to engage in multiple tasks simultaneously. To the contrary, multi-tasking activity as measured by the Media Multitasking Inventory and self-reported cell phone usage while driving were negatively correlated with actual multi-tasking ability. Multi-tasking was positively correlated with participants’ perceived ability to multi-task ability which was found to be significantly inflated. Participants with a strong approach orientation and a weak avoidance orientation – high levels of impulsivity and sensation seeking – reported greater multi-tasking behavior. Finally, the findings suggest that people often engage in multi-tasking because they are less able to block out distractions and focus on a singular task. Participants with less executive control - low scorers on the Operation Span task and persons high in impulsivity - tended to report higher levels of multi-tasking activity. PMID:23372720

  6. Who multi-tasks and why? Multi-tasking ability, perceived multi-tasking ability, impulsivity, and sensation seeking.

    PubMed

    Sanbonmatsu, David M; Strayer, David L; Medeiros-Ward, Nathan; Watson, Jason M

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship between personality and individual differences in multi-tasking ability. Participants enrolled at the University of Utah completed measures of multi-tasking activity, perceived multi-tasking ability, impulsivity, and sensation seeking. In addition, they performed the Operation Span in order to assess their executive control and actual multi-tasking ability. The findings indicate that the persons who are most capable of multi-tasking effectively are not the persons who are most likely to engage in multiple tasks simultaneously. To the contrary, multi-tasking activity as measured by the Media Multitasking Inventory and self-reported cell phone usage while driving were negatively correlated with actual multi-tasking ability. Multi-tasking was positively correlated with participants' perceived ability to multi-task ability which was found to be significantly inflated. Participants with a strong approach orientation and a weak avoidance orientation--high levels of impulsivity and sensation seeking--reported greater multi-tasking behavior. Finally, the findings suggest that people often engage in multi-tasking because they are less able to block out distractions and focus on a singular task. Participants with less executive control--low scorers on the Operation Span task and persons high in impulsivity--tended to report higher levels of multi-tasking activity. PMID:23372720

  7. The Potential of Statement-Posing Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Kai-Lin

    2010-01-01

    This communication aims at revealing the potential of statement-posing tasks to facilitate students' thinking and strategies of understanding proof. Besides outlining the background of statement-posing tasks, four points were advanced as potential benefits of the tasks: (1) focusing on the logic of arguments in addition to the meaning of…

  8. Working Memory Costs of Task Switching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liefooghe, Baptist; Barrouillet, Pierre; Vandierendonck, Andre; Camos, Valerie

    2008-01-01

    Although many accounts of task switching emphasize the importance of working memory as a substantial source of the switch cost, there is a lack of evidence demonstrating that task switching actually places additional demands on working memory. The present study addressed this issue by implementing task switching in continuous complex span tasks…

  9. Food additives

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Michael

    1974-01-01

    Food additives are discussed from the food technology point of view. The reasons for their use are summarized: (1) to protect food from chemical and microbiological attack; (2) to even out seasonal supplies; (3) to improve their eating quality; (4) to improve their nutritional value. The various types of food additives are considered, e.g. colours, flavours, emulsifiers, bread and flour additives, preservatives, and nutritional additives. The paper concludes with consideration of those circumstances in which the use of additives is (a) justified and (b) unjustified. PMID:4467857

  10. 78 FR 66419 - Seventy Sixth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 147, Minimum Operational Performance Standards for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-05

    ... Performance Standards for Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance Systems Airborne Equipment AGENCY: Federal... Special Committee 147, Minimum Operational Performance Standards for Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance... Sixth meeting of RTCA Special Committee 147, Minimum Operational Performance Standards for Traffic...

  11. 78 FR 61445 - Seventy-Sixth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 147, Minimum Operational Performance Standards for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-03

    ... Performance Standards for Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance Systems Airborne Equipment AGENCY: Federal... Special Committee 147, Minimum Operational Performance Standards for Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance...-Sixth meeting of RTCA Special Committee 147, Minimum Operational Performance Standards for Traffic...

  12. 14. BUILDING 312, INTERIOR, SIXTH FLOOR, LARGE OFFICE/STOREROOM AREA, FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. BUILDING 312, INTERIOR, SIXTH FLOOR, LARGE OFFICE/STOREROOM AREA, FROM SOUTHEASTERN CORNER OF BUILDING, LOOKING WEST. - Oakland Naval Supply Center, General Storehouses, Between Third & Fourth Streets, North of A Street, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  13. PREFACE: The Sixth International Conference on Gravitation & Cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Date, Ghanashyam; Souradeep, Tarun

    2008-07-01

    The sixth International Conference on Gravitation & Cosmology (ICGC-2007) was organized at IUCAA, Pune, 17-21 December 2007. This series of international meetings, held every four years under the auspices of the Indian Association for General Relativity and Gravitation (IAGRG), has now spanned two decades. Previous ICGC meetings were held at Cochin University of Science and Technology (2004), Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur (2000), IUCAA, Pune (1995), Physical Research Laboratory, Ahmedabad (1991) & Goa (1987). These meetings have broad international participation and feature leading experts in the field of Cosmology, gravitational waves and quantum gravity. The frontier of research in Gravitation and Cosmology has seen remarkable progress in the past decades. On the theoretical front, black holes and cosmological singularities continue to challenge and attract quantum gravity researchers. The quest for the detection of Gravitational waves and the promise of gravitational wave astronomy continues to grow and breakthroughs of the past couple of years indicate that numerical relativity is catching up too. The past few years have also seen very ambitious experimental efforts to verify general relativity as the theory of gravitation. Cosmology has been veritably transformed into a precision science with the tremendous improvement in the quantity and quality of cosmological observations. The exquisite measurements not only allow refinement of the cosmological model parameters but have begun to allow observational tests of underlying fundamental assumptions and hunt for subtle deviations that could be the key to understanding the early universe. The sixth meeting brought together active scientists from all over the globe to present the state of the art at the frontiers of research. It also offered younger Indian researchers an opportunity for interaction with experts from within India and abroad. The meeting was attended by over 160 participants. The scientific

  14. Sixth International Conference on Squeezed States and Uncertainty Relations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Han, D. (Editor); Kim, Y. S. (Editor); Solimento, S. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    These proceedings contain contributions from about 200 participants to the 6th International Conference on Squeezed States and Uncertainty Relations (ICSSUR'99) held in Naples May 24-29, 1999, and organized jointly by the University of Naples "Federico II," the University of Maryland at College Park, and the Lebedev Institute, Moscow. This was the sixth of a series of very successful meetings started in 1990 at the College Park Campus of the University of Maryland. The other meetings in the series were held in Moscow (1992), Baltimore (1993), Taiyuan P.R.C. (1995) and Balatonfuered, Hungary (1997). The present one was held at the campus Monte Sant'Angelo of the University "Federico II" of Naples. The meeting sought to provide a forum for updating and reviewing a wide range of quantum optics disciplines, including device developments and applications, and related areas of quantum measurements and quantum noise. Over the years, the ICSSUR Conference evolved from a meeting on quantum measurement sector of quantum optics, to a wide range of quantum optics themes, including multifacet aspects of generation, measurement, and applications of nonclassical light (squeezed and Schrodinger cat radiation fields, etc.), and encompassing several related areas, ranging from quantum measurement to quantum noise. ICSSUR'99 brought together about 250 people active in the field of quantum optics, with special emphasis on nonclassical light sources and related areas. The Conference was organized in 8 Sections: Squeezed states and uncertainty relations; Harmonic oscillators and squeeze transformations; Methods of quantum interference and correlations; Quantum measurements; Generation and characterisation of non-classical light; Quantum noise; Quantum communication and information; and Quantum-like systems.

  15. "The sixth sense": towards a history of muscular sensation.

    PubMed

    Smith, Roger

    2011-01-01

    This paper outlines the history of knowledge about the muscular sense and provides a bibliographic resource for further research. A range of different topics, questions and approaches have interrelated throughout this history, and the discussion clarifies this rather than presenting detailed research in any one area. Part I relates the origin of belief in a muscular sense to empiricist accounts of the contribution of the senses to knowledge from Locke, via the iddologues and other authors, to the second half of the nineteenth century. Analysis paid much attention to touch, first in the context of the theory of vision and then in its own right, which led to naming a distinct muscular sense. From 1800 to the present, there was much debate, the main lines of which this paper introduces, about the nature and function of what turned out to be a complex sense. A number of influential psycho-physiologists, notably Alexander Bain and Herbert Spencer, thought this sense the most primitive and primary of all, the origin of knowledge of world, causation and self as an active subject. Part II relates accounts of the muscular sense to the development of nervous physiology and of psychology. In the decades before 1900, the developing separation of philosophy, psychology and physiology as specialised disciplines divided up questions which earlier writers had discussed under the umbrella heading of muscular sensation. The term'kinaesthesia' came in 1880 and 'proprio-ception' in 1906. There was, all the same, a lasting interest in the argument that touch and muscular sensation are intrinsic to the existence of embodied being in the way the other senses are not. In the wider culture--the arts, sport, the psychophysiology of labour and so on--there were many ways in which people expressed appreciation of the importance of what the anatomist Charles Bell had called 'the sixth sense'. PMID:22822610

  16. 18. Interior detail, windows, original Library, addition, Engine Stores Building, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Interior detail, windows, original Library, addition, Engine Stores Building, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin Shops, view to north-northwest (90mm lens). Note the milled tongue-and-groove ceiling, and deterioration of bricks near floor level due to rising damp. - Southern Pacific Railroad, Carlin Shops, Engine Stores Building, Foot of Sixth Street, Carlin, Elko County, NV

  17. Oblique view from southwest showing newer (1966) addition with taller ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique view from southwest showing newer (1966) addition with taller original structure, view facing east-northeast - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Industrial X-Ray Building, Off Sixth Street, adjacent to and south of Facility No. 11, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  18. Summaries of the Sixth Annual JPL Airborne Earth Science Workshop. Volume 2; AIRSAR Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Yun-Jin (Editor)

    1996-01-01

    The Sixth Annual JPL Airborne Earth Science Workshop, held in Pasadena, California, on March 4-8, 1996, was divided into two smaller workshops:(1) The Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) workshop, and The Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AIRSAR) workshop. This current paper, Volume 2 of the Summaries of the Sixth Annual JPL Airborne Earth Science Workshop, presents the summaries for The Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AIRSAR) workshop.

  19. Conservation laws and a new expansion method for sixth order Boussinesq equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokuş, Asıf; Kaya, Doǧan

    2015-09-01

    In this study, we analyze the conservation laws of a sixth order Boussinesq equation by using variational derivative. We get sixth order Boussinesq equation's traveling wave solutions with (1/G) -expansion method which we constitute newly by being inspired with (G/G) -expansion method which is suggested in [1]. We investigate conservation laws of the analytical solutions which we obtained by the new constructed method. The analytical solution's conductions which we get according to new expansion method are given graphically.

  20. Overview of the Sixth Text Retrieval Conference (TREC-6).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voorhees, Ellen M.; Harman, Donna

    2000-01-01

    Provides an overview of the Text Retrieval Conference (TREC), a workshop series designed to encourage research on text retrieval for realistic applications by providing large test collections and uniform scoring procedures. Highlights include routing tasks; Chinese language retrieval; cross-language information retrieval; filtering; high…

  1. Learning to write in science: A study of English language learners' writing experience in sixth-grade science classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Yang

    Writing is a predictor of academic achievement and is essential for student success in content area learning. Despite its importance, many students, including English language learners (ELLs), struggle with writing. There is thus a need to study students' writing experience in content area classrooms. Informed by systemic functional linguistics, this study examined 11 ELL students' writing experience in two sixth grade science classrooms in a southeastern state of the United States, including what they wrote, how they wrote, and why they wrote in the way they did. The written products produced by these students over one semester were collected. Also collected were teacher interviews, field notes from classroom observations, and classroom artifacts. Student writing samples were first categorized into extended and nonextended writing categories, and each extended essay was then analyzed with respect to its schematic structure and grammatical features. Teacher interviews and classroom observation notes were analyzed thematically to identify teacher expectations, beliefs, and practices regarding writing instruction for ELLs. It was found that the sixth-grade ELLs engaged in mostly non-extended writing in the science classroom, with extended writing (defined as writing a paragraph or longer) constituting roughly 11% of all writing assignments. Linguistic analysis of extended writing shows that the students (a) conveyed information through nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbial groups and prepositional phrases; (b) constructed interpersonal context through choices of mood, modality, and verb tense; and (c) structured text through thematic choices and conjunctions. The appropriateness of these lexicogrammatical choices for particular writing tasks was related to the students' English language proficiency levels. The linguistic analysis also uncovered several grammatical problems in the students' writing, including a limited range of word choices, inappropriate use of mood

  2. Knowledge, intent to use, and use of smokeless tobacco among sixth grade schoolchildren in six selected U.S. sites.

    PubMed Central

    Backinger, C L; Bruerd, B; Kinney, M B; Szpunar, S M

    1993-01-01

    Questionnaires on smokeless tobacco use were completed by 781 sixth grade students in 15 schools at six locations in the United States. The students were both American Indian-Alaska Native and non-American Indian-Alaska Native. The Indian and Alaska Native schoolchildren were experimenting with and regularly using smokeless tobacco at higher rates that non-Indian schoolchildren. At Indian Health Service sites, 28.1 percent of the children reported current use of smokeless tobacco, compared with 3.3 percent of the children elsewhere. For girls reporting smokeless tobacco experimentation, the comparison was 68.9 percent at Indian Health Service sites and 8.7 percent at non-Indian sites; for boys, it was 79.1 percent from the Indian sites and 35.4 percent from the non-Indian sites. For those students who had tried smokeless tobacco, more than half also reported having tried cigarettes. The majority of all sixth grade students surveyed were aware of the health risks of smokeless tobacco use in that it is an increased risk for cancer. Additional research is needed to determine appropriate interventions. PMID:8210262

  3. Can we avoid the Sixth Mass Extinction? Setting today's extinction crisis in the context of the Big Five

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnosky, A. D.

    2012-12-01

    While the ultimate extinction driver now—Homo sapiens—is unique with respect to the drivers of past extinctions, comparison of parallel neontological and paleontological information helps calibrate how far the so-called Sixth Mass Extinction has progressed and whether it is inevitable. Such comparisons document that rates of extinction today are approaching or exceeding those that characterized the Big Five Mass Extinctions. Continuation of present extinction rates for vertebrates, for example, would result in 75% species loss—the minimum benchmark exhibited in the Big Five extinctions—within 3 to 22 centuries, assuming constant rates of loss and no threshold effects. Preceding and during each of the Big Five, the global ecosystem experienced major changes in climate, atmospheric chemisty, and ocean chemistry—not unlike what is being observed presently. Nevertheless, only 1-2% of well-assessed modern species have been lost over the past five centuries, still far below what characterized past mass extinctions in the strict paleontological sense. For mammals, adding in the end-Pleistocene species that died out would increase the species-loss percentage by some 5%. If threatened vertebrate species were to actually go extinct, losses would rise to between 14 and 40%, depending on the group. Such observations highlight that, although many species have already had their populations drastically reduced to near-critical levels, the Sixth Mass Extinction has not yet progressed to the point where it is unavoidable. Put another way, the vast majority of species that have occupied the world in concert with Homo sapiens are still alive and are possible to save. That task, however, will require slowing the abnormally high extinction rates that are now in progress, which in turn requires unified efforts to cap human population growth, decrease the average human footprint, reduce fossil fuel use while simultaneously increasing clean energy technologies, integrate

  4. Degraded piping program: Phase II: Sixth program report, October 1986--September 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkowski, G.M.; Ahmad, J.; Barnes, C.R.; Brust, F.; Ghadiali, N.; Guerrieri, D.; Kramer, G.; Landow, M.; Marschall, C.W.; Nakagaki, M.; Olson, R.; Papaspyropoulos, V.; Rosenfeld, M.; Scott, P.

    1988-04-01

    Presented herein is an Annual Report of the US NRC's Degraded Piping Program---Phase II. This is the sixth program report on this program. Prior reports were semiannual reports. The intent of this program is to experimentally validate and enhance available analytical methods for evaluating the mechanical behavior of nuclear power plant piping containing circumferentially oriented defects. Fifty-seven pipe experiments have been conducted to date. These and approximately fifty additional pipe experiments from other programs have been analyzed. In the analytical effort, a screening criterion has been developed to show when the net-section-collapse analysis is valid. This shows that even though materials such as stainless steel can fail at less than net-section-collapse loads if the pipe diameter is sufficiently large. Numerous predictive J-estimation schemes have been evaluated and modified. A finite length surface-cracked pipe estimation scheme has also been developed and incorporated into a computer code called NRCPIPE. This code provides a convenient way of analyzing cracked pipe with a number of currently accepted analytical methods. Supporting research efforts involve investigating geometry effects on J-R curves, as well as characterizing the material properties for each pipe tested. The significance of all of the efforts to date relative to pipe fracture analyses and flaw assessment criteria are discussed.

  5. PREFACE: The Sixth International Conference on Gravitation & Cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Date, Ghanashyam; Souradeep, Tarun

    2008-07-01

    The sixth International Conference on Gravitation & Cosmology (ICGC-2007) was organized at IUCAA, Pune, 17-21 December 2007. This series of international meetings, held every four years under the auspices of the Indian Association for General Relativity and Gravitation (IAGRG), has now spanned two decades. Previous ICGC meetings were held at Cochin University of Science and Technology (2004), Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur (2000), IUCAA, Pune (1995), Physical Research Laboratory, Ahmedabad (1991) & Goa (1987). These meetings have broad international participation and feature leading experts in the field of Cosmology, gravitational waves and quantum gravity. The frontier of research in Gravitation and Cosmology has seen remarkable progress in the past decades. On the theoretical front, black holes and cosmological singularities continue to challenge and attract quantum gravity researchers. The quest for the detection of Gravitational waves and the promise of gravitational wave astronomy continues to grow and breakthroughs of the past couple of years indicate that numerical relativity is catching up too. The past few years have also seen very ambitious experimental efforts to verify general relativity as the theory of gravitation. Cosmology has been veritably transformed into a precision science with the tremendous improvement in the quantity and quality of cosmological observations. The exquisite measurements not only allow refinement of the cosmological model parameters but have begun to allow observational tests of underlying fundamental assumptions and hunt for subtle deviations that could be the key to understanding the early universe. The sixth meeting brought together active scientists from all over the globe to present the state of the art at the frontiers of research. It also offered younger Indian researchers an opportunity for interaction with experts from within India and abroad. The meeting was attended by over 160 participants. The scientific

  6. Food additives.

    PubMed

    Berglund, F

    1978-01-01

    The use of additives to food fulfils many purposes, as shown by the index issued by the Codex Committee on Food Additives: Acids, bases and salts; Preservatives, Antioxidants and antioxidant synergists; Anticaking agents; Colours; Emulfifiers; Thickening agents; Flour-treatment agents; Extraction solvents; Carrier solvents; Flavours (synthetic); Flavour enhancers; Non-nutritive sweeteners; Processing aids; Enzyme preparations. Many additives occur naturally in foods, but this does not exclude toxicity at higher levels. Some food additives are nutrients, or even essential nutritents, e.g. NaCl. Examples are known of food additives causing toxicity in man even when used according to regulations, e.g. cobalt in beer. In other instances, poisoning has been due to carry-over, e.g. by nitrate in cheese whey - when used for artificial feed for infants. Poisonings also occur as the result of the permitted substance being added at too high levels, by accident or carelessness, e.g. nitrite in fish. Finally, there are examples of hypersensitivity to food additives, e.g. to tartrazine and other food colours. The toxicological evaluation, based on animal feeding studies, may be complicated by impurities, e.g. orthotoluene-sulfonamide in saccharin; by transformation or disappearance of the additive in food processing in storage, e.g. bisulfite in raisins; by reaction products with food constituents, e.g. formation of ethylurethane from diethyl pyrocarbonate; by metabolic transformation products, e.g. formation in the gut of cyclohexylamine from cyclamate. Metabolic end products may differ in experimental animals and in man: guanylic acid and inosinic acid are metabolized to allantoin in the rat but to uric acid in man. The magnitude of the safety margin in man of the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) is not identical to the "safety factor" used when calculating the ADI. The symptoms of Chinese Restaurant Syndrome, although not hazardous, furthermore illustrate that the whole ADI

  7. EDITORIAL: Sixth World Congress on Industrial Process Tomography (WCIPT6) Sixth World Congress on Industrial Process Tomography (WCIPT6)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takei, Masahiro; Xu, Lijun

    2011-10-01

    We are pleased to publish this special feature on the Sixth World Congress on Industrial Process Tomography (WCIPT6) in Measurement Science and Technology. The international congress was successfully held in the campus of Beihang University, Beijing, China, from 6-9 September 2010. It was jointly organized by International Society for Industrial Process Tomography (ISIPT), North China Electric Power University (NCEPU) and Beihang University (BUAA). Process tomography is a tangible tool to visualize and determine the material distribution inside a process non-intrusively in real time. The internal features that can be monitored by process tomography are frequently encountered and required in the design of processes and industrial plants in the fields of chemical, oil, power and metallurgical engineering as well as many other activities such as food, material handling and combustion systems. One of the key characteristics of process tomography is to provide a direct impression and instant and clear understanding of a complex phenomenon. From the viewpoint of practical applications, industries all over the world are currently facing a number of daunting challenges including many wide-range and complex technical problems. The innovative technology of process tomography consistently contributes to providing better and better solutions to the problems as 'seeing is believing'. As a regular event, WCIPT is playing a more and more important role in addressing the challenges to overcome these problems. We are glad to see that this special feature provides a great opportunity for world-wide top-level researchers to discuss and make further developments in process tomography and its applications. The 20 articles included in this issue cover a wide range of relevant topics including sensors and sensing mechanisms, data acquisition systems and instrumentation, electrical, optical, acoustic and hybrid systems, image reconstruction and system evaluation, data and sensor fusion

  8. Developmental changes in using verbal self-cueing in task-switching situations: the impact of task practice and task-sequencing demands.

    PubMed

    Kray, Jutta; Gaspard, Hanna; Karbach, Julia; Blaye, Agnès

    2013-01-01

    In this study we examined whether developmental changes in using verbal self-cueing for task-goal maintenance are dependent on the amount of task practice and task-sequencing demands. To measure task-goal maintenance we applied a switching paradigm in which children either performed only task A or B in single-task blocks or switched between them on every second trial in mixed-task blocks. Task-goal maintenance was determined by comparing the performance between both blocks (mixing costs). The influence of verbal self-cueing was measured by instructing children to either name the next task aloud or not to verbalize during task preparation. Task-sequencing demands were varied between groups whereas one group received spatial task cues to support keeping track of the task sequence, while the other group did not. We also varied by the amount of prior practice in task switching while one group of participants practiced task switching first, before performing the task naming in addition, and the other group did it vice versa. Results of our study investigating younger (8-10 years) and older children (11-13 years) revealed no age differences in beneficial effects of verbal self-cueing. In line with previous findings, children showed reduced mixing costs under task-naming instructions and under conditions of low task-sequence demands (with the presence of spatial task cues). Our results also indicated that these benefits were only obtained for those groups of children that first received practice in task switching alone with no additional verbalization instruction. These findings suggest that internal task-cueing strategies can be efficiently used in children but only if they received prior practice in the underlying task so that demands on keeping and coordinating various instructions are reduced. Moreover, children benefitted from spatial task cues for better task-goal maintenance only if no verbal task-cueing strategy was introduced first. PMID:24381566

  9. Children's Construction of the Operation of Addition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grobecker, Betsey

    Six- to eight-year-old children (N=42) who were identified by their teachers as within the average range of ability in mathematics were individually tested on three different mathematics tasks. On the flashcard task and the nonverbal task where children replicated the number of buttons placed under a box, the same 14 addition problems with sums up…

  10. A longitudinal study of school connectedness and academic outcomes across sixth grade.

    PubMed

    Niehaus, Kate; Rudasill, Kathleen Moritz; Rakes, Christopher R

    2012-08-01

    The current longitudinal study examines the extent to which school connectedness (i.e., students' perceptions of school support and the number of adults with whom they have a positive relationship) is associated with academic outcomes across sixth grade for students from high poverty neighborhoods. Data were collected from 330 sixth-grade students attending two middle schools in a large public school district. Specifically, students completed a survey to assess their perceived connection to the school environment, and academic information regarding students' grades, attendance, and discipline referrals was obtained from school records. Results from latent growth curve modeling showed that, on average, students' perceptions of school support declined significantly across the sixth-grade year. However, students who reported less decline, or growth, in school support across sixth grade had higher academic achievement at the end of the year than students who reported more decline in school support. Sixth-grade boys were at a greater risk for negative outcomes (i.e., lower school support, lower GPAs, and more discipline referrals) across the school year than girls. Results point to the importance of perceived connectedness to school in helping economically disadvantaged students experience a safe and successful transition to middle school. PMID:22710015

  11. Component processes in voluntary task switching.

    PubMed

    Demanet, Jelle; Liefooghe, Baptist

    2014-05-01

    The present study investigated the involvement of bottom-up and top-down control in task-switching situations in which tasks are selected on a voluntary basis. We tested for indices of both types of control in the reduction in switch cost that is observed when more time is available before executing a task. Participants had to indicate their task choice overtly prior to the actual task execution, and two time intervals were manipulated: the interval between the task-execution response of the previous trial and task-indication response of the current trial and the interval between task-indication response and task-execution response of a particular trial. In Experiment 1, the length of these intervals was manipulated orthogonally, and indices for top-down and bottom-up control were observed. Concerned with the validity of these results, Experiments 2-3 additionally discouraged participants from preparing the upcoming task before their task-indication response. Indices for bottom-up control remained, but not for top-down control. The characteristics of top-down and bottom-up control in voluntary task switching and task switching in general are discussed. PMID:24070330

  12. Potlining Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolf Keller

    2004-08-10

    In this project, a concept to improve the performance of aluminum production cells by introducing potlining additives was examined and tested. Boron oxide was added to cathode blocks, and titanium was dissolved in the metal pool; this resulted in the formation of titanium diboride and caused the molten aluminum to wet the carbonaceous cathode surface. Such wetting reportedly leads to operational improvements and extended cell life. In addition, boron oxide suppresses cyanide formation. This final report presents and discusses the results of this project. Substantial economic benefits for the practical implementation of the technology are projected, especially for modern cells with graphitized blocks. For example, with an energy savings of about 5% and an increase in pot life from 1500 to 2500 days, a cost savings of $ 0.023 per pound of aluminum produced is projected for a 200 kA pot.

  13. Phosphazene additives

    SciTech Connect

    Harrup, Mason K; Rollins, Harry W

    2013-11-26

    An additive comprising a phosphazene compound that has at least two reactive functional groups and at least one capping functional group bonded to phosphorus atoms of the phosphazene compound. One of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with cellulose and the other of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with a resin, such as an amine resin of a polycarboxylic acid resin. The at least one capping functional group is selected from the group consisting of a short chain ether group, an alkoxy group, or an aryloxy group. Also disclosed are an additive-resin admixture, a method of treating a wood product, and a wood product.

  14. Central pontine myelinolysis presenting as isolated sixth nerve palsy in third trimester of pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Gosavi, Tushar Divakar; See, Siew Ju

    2015-01-01

    A 30-year-old primigravida presented with isolated left sixth nerve palsy at 38 weeks gestation. Her MRI showed a lesion consistent with central pontine myelinolysis (CPM). Extensive investigations did not reveal any secondary cause for the CPM. She recovered spontaneously in 2 weeks with complete resolution of her MRI changes. To our knowledge, this is the first report of CPM occurring in third trimester in the absence of identifiable secondary causes and of CPM presenting as an isolated sixth nerve palsy. We discuss the reported causes of CPM in pregnancy, possible pathophysiologic mechanisms involved and the anatomic basis of the unique clinical presentation of sixth nerve palsy in our case. PMID:25745319

  15. Central pontine myelinolysis presenting as isolated sixth nerve palsy in third trimester of pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Gosavi, Tushar Divakar; See, Siew Ju

    2015-01-01

    A 30-year-old primigravida presented with isolated left sixth nerve palsy at 38 weeks gestation. Her MRI showed a lesion consistent with central pontine myelinolysis (CPM). Extensive investigations did not reveal any secondary cause for the CPM. She recovered spontaneously in 2 weeks with complete resolution of her MRI changes. To our knowledge, this is the first report of CPM occurring in third trimester in the absence of identifiable secondary causes and of CPM presenting as an isolated sixth nerve palsy. We discuss the reported causes of CPM in pregnancy, possible pathophysiologic mechanisms involved and the anatomic basis of the unique clinical presentation of sixth nerve palsy in our case. PMID:25745319

  16. Fast and Robust Sixth Order Multigrid Computation for 3D Convection Diffusion Equation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yin; Zhang, Jun

    2010-10-15

    We present a sixth order explicit compact finite difference scheme to solve the three dimensional (3D) convection diffusion equation. We first use multiscale multigrid method to solve the linear systems arising from a 19-point fourth order discretization scheme to compute the fourth order solutions on both the coarse grid and the fine grid. Then an operator based interpolation scheme combined with an extrapolation technique is used to approximate the sixth order accurate solution on the fine grid. Since the multigrid method using a standard point relaxation smoother may fail to achieve the optimal grid independent convergence rate for solving convection diffusion equation with a high Reynolds number, we implement the plane relaxation smoother in the multigrid solver to achieve better grid independency. Supporting numerical results are presented to demonstrate the efficiency and accuracy of the sixth order compact scheme (SOC), compared with the previously published fourth order compact scheme (FOC). PMID:21151737

  17. Task Definition: A Motivating Task = Eager Learners!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jansen, Barbara A.

    2005-01-01

    Teachers who design meaningful and developmentally appropriate tasks will motivate their students to engage in the content and as students work through the Big6 process, interacting with the content, they learn and practice information and technology skills. A valuable task definition technique is to develop questions that students in each group…

  18. On the importance of Task 1 and error performance measures in PRP dual-task studies.

    PubMed

    Strobach, Tilo; Schütz, Anja; Schubert, Torsten

    2015-01-01

    The psychological refractory period (PRP) paradigm is a dominant research tool in the literature on dual-task performance. In this paradigm a first and second component task (i.e., Task 1 and Task 2) are presented with variable stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs) and priority to perform Task 1. The main indicator of dual-task impairment in PRP situations is an increasing Task 2-RT with decreasing SOAs. This impairment is typically explained with some task components being processed strictly sequentially in the context of the prominent central bottleneck theory. This assumption could implicitly suggest that processes of Task 1 are unaffected by Task 2 and bottleneck processing, i.e., decreasing SOAs do not increase reaction times (RTs) and error rates of the first task. The aim of the present review is to assess whether PRP dual-task studies included both RT and error data presentations and statistical analyses and whether studies including both data types (i.e., RTs and error rates) show data consistent with this assumption (i.e., decreasing SOAs and unaffected RTs and/or error rates in Task 1). This review demonstrates that, in contrast to RT presentations and analyses, error data is underrepresented in a substantial number of studies. Furthermore, a substantial number of studies with RT and error data showed a statistically significant impairment of Task 1 performance with decreasing SOA. Thus, these studies produced data that is not primarily consistent with the strong assumption that processes of Task 1 are unaffected by Task 2 and bottleneck processing in the context of PRP dual-task situations; this calls for a more careful report and analysis of Task 1 performance in PRP studies and for a more careful consideration of theories proposing additions to the bottleneck assumption, which are sufficiently general to explain Task 1 and Task 2 effects. PMID:25904890

  19. Sixth cranial nerve palsy caused by compression from a dolichoectatic vertebral artery.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ying; Thulborn, Keith; Curnyn, Kimberlee; Goodwin, James

    2005-06-01

    A 68-year-old man had an unremitting left sixth cranial nerve palsy immediately after completing a long bicycle trip. High-resolution (3 Tesla) magnetic resonance imaging disclosed a dolichoectatic vertebral artery that compressed the left sixth cranial nerve against the belly of the pons at its root exit zone. It was postulated that increased blood flow in the vessel during the unusually prolonged aerobic exercise precipitated the palsy. Compressive palsies of cranial nerves caused by a dolichoectatic basilar artery have often been documented; compressive palsy caused by a dolichoectatic vertebral artery is less well-recognized. PMID:15937439

  20. Realizing the child's perspective: An exploration of sixth-graders' ideas about land use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wee, Bryan Shao-Chang

    Given the rapid rate of urbanization in the U.S., it is important to explore children's conceptions of land use and to understand children's relationships to the environment. In addition, the school is an important source of environmental information where curriculum and instruction play critical roles in shaping children's ideas. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to investigate children's conceptions of land use in the context of an environmental science class. This was a naturalistic study conducted with 13 sixth-graders and their teacher in West-central Indiana. A social constructivist framework was utilized to steer data collection and to guide interpretation. Qualitative methods such as interviews, drawings and photograph journals were used to elicit children's ideas and field notes provided a rich description of the learning environment. Data were analyzed inductively and coded using case-specific criteria to organize and interpret data on an emergent basis. It was found that children in this study did not view humans as part of the environment. Land use was conceptualized as a human activity for human benefit, that is, children's conceptions of land use were framed by an anthropocentric worldview. Furthermore, children's conceptions of land use-related outcomes were negative and limited to large-scale, visible forms of environmental impacts. Environmental science instruction did not change these ideas; in fact, they were reinforced by the school curriculum. These findings suggest that exploring and applying the fundamental nature of children's ideas in environmental education and research is essential to the development of a land ethic as well as an environmentally literate citizenry.

  1. Hereditary deficiency of the sixth component of complement in man. I. Immunochemical, biologic, and family studies.

    PubMed Central

    Leddy, J P; Frank, M M; Gaither, T; Baum, J; Klemperer, M R

    1974-01-01

    An 18-yr-old black woman in good general health was found to lack serum hemolytic complement activity. The sixth component of complement (C6) was undetectable by functional assay of serum or plasma and by immunoprecipitin analysis of serum. Functional titers of all other complement components were normal. The absence of C6 in the patient's serum could not be accounted for by a circulating C6 inhibitor, and addition of functionally pure C6 to the patient's serum restored hemolytic activity to normal. Both parents of the proband and five of six available siblings had approximately half the normal levels of functional C6. The other sibling had a normal C6 level. These data suggest that both parents and five siblings are heterozygous for C6 deficiency, while the proband is homozygous and one sibling is normal. Thus, C6 deficiency appears to follow classic mendelian inheritance, with all three possible genotypes recognizable within the family. Functional properties of the proband's C6-deficient serum included total absence of bactericidal activity against Salmonella typhi 0 901 and Hemophilus influenzae, type b, and inability to mediate lysis of red blood cells from patients with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria in either the acidified serum or "sugar water" tests. The proband's serum did, however, exhibit a normal capacity (a) to generate chemotactic activity during incubation with bacterial endotoxin or aggregated IgG, (b) to mediate the immune adherence phenomenon, and (c) to coat human red blood cells, sensitized by cold agglutinins, with C4 and C3. Images PMID:11344568

  2. Operation Compatibility: A Neglected Contribution to Dual-Task Costs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pannebakker, Merel M.; Band, Guido P. H.; Ridderinkhof, K. Richard

    2009-01-01

    Traditionally, dual-task interference has been attributed to the consequences of task load exceeding capacity limitations. However, the current study demonstrates that in addition to task load, the mutual compatibility of the concurrent processes modulates whether 2 tasks can be performed in parallel. In 2 psychological refractory period…

  3. The numerical distance effect is task dependent.

    PubMed

    Goldfarb, Liat; Henik, Avishai; Rubinsten, Orly; Bloch-David, Yafit; Gertner, Limor

    2011-11-01

    Number comparison tasks produce a distance effect e.g., Moyer & Landauer (Nature 215: 1519-1520, 1967). It has been suggested that this effect supports the existence of semantic mental representations of numbers. In a matching task, a distance effect also appears, which suggests that the effect has an automatic semantic component. Recently, Cohen (Psychonomic Bulletin & Review 16: 332-336, 2009) suggested that in both automatic and intentional tasks, the distance effect might reflect not a semantic number representation, but a physical similarity between digits. The present article (1) compares the distance effect in the automatic matching task with that in the intentional number comparison task and suggests that, in the latter, the distance effect does include an additional semantic component; and (2) indicates that the distance effect in the standard automatic matching task is questionable and that its appearance in previous matching tasks was based on the specific analysis and design that were applied. PMID:21698497

  4. Algebra Readiness Outcomes of Sixth-Grade Boys and Girls Placed in Challenge Math Based on Measured Math Ability Compared to Sixth-Grade Boys and Girls Placed in Challenge Math Based on Teachers' Recommendations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemphill, David C.

    2011-01-01

    The first pretest-posttest hypothesis was tested using the dependent t test. Null hypotheses for test score improvement over time were rejected for the end of fifth-grade pretest compared to ending sixth-grade posttest math Essential Learner Outcome scores converted to standard scores for randomly selected sixth-grade girls meeting measured test…

  5. The purple Codex Rossanensis: spectroscopic characterisation and first evidence of the use of the elderberry lake in a sixth century manuscript.

    PubMed

    Bicchieri, Marina

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents the results obtained during the measurements campaign started in June 2012 and ended in November 2013 on the invaluable purple Codex Rossanensis, sixth century, one of the oldest surviving illuminated manuscripts of the New Testament. The tasks of the chemistry laboratory were to answer a variety of questions posed both by historians and restorers, concerning the materials used in a previous restoration, the composition of the pictorial palette and the different inks and to determine which colouring material had been applied to dye the parchment support. It was also requested to determine the state of preservation of the manuscript, as a result of its interactions with the environment in which the manuscript had been stored and the vicissitudes experienced during its life (fire, previous restoration, exhibition). The spectroscopic analyses performed by micro-Raman, micro-Fourier transform infrared and X-ray fluorescence allowed to fill a gap in the knowledge of the pictorial materials used in the Early Middle Ages. The pictorial palette, the inks, the dye applied to obtain the purple parchments, the support and the materials used in the previous restoration treatment executed in 1917-19 were fully characterised. Moreover, to the author's knowledge, the article shows the first experimental evidence of the use of the elderberry lake in a sixth century-illuminated manuscript. The lake was characterised by Raman spectroscopy. PMID:25056752

  6. Reaching with the sixth sense: Vestibular contributions to voluntary motor control in the human right parietal cortex.

    PubMed

    Reichenbach, Alexandra; Bresciani, Jean-Pierre; Bülthoff, Heinrich H; Thielscher, Axel

    2016-01-01

    The vestibular system constitutes the silent sixth sense: It automatically triggers a variety of vital reflexes to maintain postural and visual stability. Beyond their role in reflexive behavior, vestibular afferents contribute to several perceptual and cognitive functions and also support voluntary control of movements by complementing the other senses to accomplish the movement goal. Investigations into the neural correlates of vestibular contribution to voluntary action in humans are challenging and have progressed far less than research on corresponding visual and proprioceptive involvement. Here, we demonstrate for the first time with event-related TMS that the posterior part of the right medial intraparietal sulcus processes vestibular signals during a goal-directed reaching task with the dominant right hand. This finding suggests a qualitative difference between the processing of vestibular vs. visual and proprioceptive signals for controlling voluntary movements, which are pre-dominantly processed in the left posterior parietal cortex. Furthermore, this study reveals a neural pathway for vestibular input that might be distinct from the processing for reflexive or cognitive functions, and opens a window into their investigation in humans. PMID:26424179

  7. 76 FR 15941 - Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final Results of the Sixth...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-22

    ... Rescission of the Sixth Antidumping Duty Administrative Review and Sixth New Shipper Review, 75 FR 56062... Administrative and New Shipper Reviews, 75 FR 80795 (December 23, 2010). On January 26, 2011, the Department held... Antidumping Duty Order: Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, 68 FR...

  8. Computational Proficiency and Algorithmic Learning of Sixth-Graders Using DMP Materials: A Formative Evaluation. Technical Report No. 401.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiles, Clyde

    Two questions were investigated in this study: (1) How did the computational proficiency of sixth graders who had one year's experience with Developing Mathematical Processes (DMP) materials compare with an equivalent group of students who used the usual textbook program; and (2) What occurs when sixth graders study algorithms as sequences of rule…

  9. An Investigation of Play: From the Voices of Fifth- and Sixth-Grade Talented and Gifted Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beisser, Sally Rapp; Gillespie, Catherine Wilson; Thacker, Valerie Marsh

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the concept of play through the eyes of talented and gifted (TAG) fifth- and sixth-grade students. Three focus groups consisting of fifth- and sixth-grade TAG students were conducted in one urban, one suburban, and one rural school district in the Midwest. Students were asked to describe the value of play…

  10. Investigation of the Relationship between the Spatial Visualization Success and Visual/Spatial Intelligence Capabilities of Sixth Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yenilmez, Kursat; Kakmaci, Ozlem

    2015-01-01

    The main aim of this research was to examine the relationship between the spatial visualization success and visual/spatial intelligence capabilities of sixth grade students. The sample of the research consists of 1011 sixth grade students who were randomly selected from the primary schools in Eskisehir. In this correlational study, data were…

  11. An Investigation To Determine Classification of Interests in Reading Material of Above Average Readers in the Fourth and Sixth Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Intonato, Jo Ann

    A study investigated the reading interests of fourth and sixth grade students of above-average reading achievement. Subjects, 44 fourth graders and 39 sixth graders in an urban environment, responded to a reading interest inventory containing 25 categories. The sample was separated into two groups, an experimental group which attained 60 or higher…

  12. Physical Activity of Fifth to Sixth Graders during School Hours According to School Race/Ethnicity: Suburban Cook County, Illinois

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwon, Soyang; Mason, Maryann; Welch, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Background: We compared moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA) and inactivity levels among fifth and sixth graders during school hours according to school-level race/ethnicity and income attributes to inform school-based obesity interventions in Illinois Suburban Cook County (SCC). Methods: Fifth- and sixth-grade students…

  13. Development of a Multidimensional Thinking Styles Scale Based on Theory of Mental Self-Government for Sixth Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaiyapornpattana, Niorn; Wongwanich, Suwimon

    2013-01-01

    This study designed 1) to develop a multidimensional thinking styles scale based on theory of mental self-government for sixth grade student 2) to investigate quality of the developed scale 3) to study profile of styles of sixth grade student and a relation of profile of styles of student in each dimension and background of gender and grade with…

  14. Functional Task Test (FTT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloomberg, Jacob J.; Mulavara, Ajitkumar; Peters, Brian T.; Rescheke, Millard F.; Wood, Scott; Lawrence, Emily; Koffman, Igor; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori; Spiering, Barry A.; Feeback, Daniel L.; Platts, Steven H.; Stenger, Michael B.; Lee, Stuart M.C.; Arzeno, Natalia; Feiveson, Alan H.; Ryder, Jeffrey; Garcia, Yamil; Guilliams, Mark E.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the Functional Task Test (FTT), an interdisciplinary testing regimen that has been developed to evaluate astronaut postflight functional performance and related physiological changes. The objectives of the project are: (1) to develop a set of functional tasks that represent critical mission tasks for the Constellation Program, (2) determine the ability to perform these tasks after space flight, (3) Identify the key physiological factors that contribute to functional decrements and (4) Use this information to develop targeted countermeasures.

  15. Launching Complex Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Kara J.; Shahan, Emily C.; Gibbons, Lynsey K.; Cobb, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    Mathematics lessons can take a variety of formats. In this article, the authors discuss lessons organized around complex mathematical tasks. These lessons usually unfold in three phases. First, the task is introduced to students. Second, students work on solving the task. Third, the teacher "orchestrates" a concluding whole-class discussion in…

  16. Selecting Proportional Reasoning Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de la Cruz, Jessica A.

    2013-01-01

    With careful consideration given to task selection, students can construct their own solution strategies to solve complex proportional reasoning tasks while the teacher's instructional goals are still met. Several aspects of the tasks should be considered including their numerical structure, context, difficulty level, and the strategies they are…

  17. Task Time Tracker

    2013-07-24

    This client-side web app tracks the amount of time spent on arbitrary tasks. It allosw the creation of an unlimited number of arbitrarily named tasks ans via simple interactions, tracks the amount of time spent working on the drfined tasks.

  18. Literature as Cultural Practice in a Fifth/Sixth-Grade Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Cynthia

    An ethnographic study examined the nature of social and cultural contexts as they shaped literary practices in a combined fifth/sixth-grade classroom. Research questions focused on the meanings given to the reading and discussion of literature within the embedded contexts of classroom and community. The five focal students for the study differed…

  19. 76 FR 16470 - Sixth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport Security Access Control Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-23

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Sixth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport Security Access Control... meeting: Airport Security Access Control Systems (Update to DO-230B). SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of a meeting of RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport Security Access...

  20. Sixth-Grade Teachers' Written Comments on Student Writing: Genre and Gender Influences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Shelley Stagg; Kennedy, Kerrie

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the influence of genre and gender on comments written by 108 sixth-grade teachers in response to two narrative and two persuasive papers. There were significant genre differences. Process, conventions, artistic style, and format were the focus of significantly greater numbers of comments directed to narrative writing. In…

  1. Mathematical Communications: Elementary Pre-Service Teachers' E-Mail Exchanges with Sixth Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tunc-Pekkan, Zelha; D'Ambrosio, Beatriz S.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the communication between pre-service teachers and sixth grade students in a project in which email was used for communication as students learned about fractions and were supported by the pre-service teachers. Specifically, the study investigated how the pre-service teachers applied their mathematical knowledge to understand…

  2. 78 FR 16031 - Sixth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 227, Standards of Navigation Performance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-13

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Sixth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 227, Standards of Navigation...: Meeting Notice of RTCA Special Committee 227, Standards of Navigation Performance. SUMMARY: The FAA is..., Standards of Navigation Performance. DATES: The meeting will be held April 8-17, 2013 from 9:00 a.m.-5:00...

  3. Introduction to Library Public Services. Sixth Edition. Library and Information Science Text Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, G. Edward; Amodeo, Anthony J.; Carter, Thomas L.

    This book covers the role, purpose, and philosophy related to each of the major functional areas of library public service. This sixth edition, on the presumption that most people know the basic facts about computer hardware, does not include the chapter (in the previous edition) on computer basics, and instead integrated specific technological…

  4. Content Analysis of an Intergenerational Unit on Aging in a Sixth-Grade Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corbin, David E.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Evaluated seven-day program incorporating discussion, dance, and song to bring children and older adults from the community together in sixth-grade unit on aging. Survey of 21 students following the program suggests that students began to perceive older participants in active rather than passive terms and that nature of program became more…

  5. A Comparative Study of the Reading Interests of Amish and English Sixth Graders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brenneman, Roger L.

    The reading interests of a sixth-grade class of 12 Amish and 23 non-Amish children in a rural school in northern Indiana were compared to determine the impact of home environment and the mass media on children's reading interests. Data gathered through questionnaires and records of books read within a period of 4 weeks showed that reading ranked…

  6. Chickscope Realized: A Situated Evaluation of a Sixth-Grade Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogan, Maureen P.

    2000-01-01

    This is a case study of two sixth-grade teachers from Illinois who participated in a semester-long inservice to learn about Chickscope, a supercomputing application that allows students and teachers remote access to magnetic resonance images of chicken embryos. Shows how they produced an inquiry-based unit on chicken weight and measurement.…

  7. Career Education English: Units for Career Exploration in Sixth, Seventh or Eighth Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Mary

    The guide, designed for sixth, seventh, or eighth grade teachers and students presents six English instructional units for career exploration related to the occupational clusters transportation, communication (2), manufacturing, health, and business and office occupations. The units deal specifically with: the world of travel, the world of…

  8. Relationships between Sixth-Graders' Reading Comprehension and Two Different Measures of Print Exposure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spear-Swerling, Louise; Brucker, Pamela O.; Alfano, Michael P.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined sixth-graders' reading comprehension and component reading abilities in relation to two measures of print exposure: an author recognition test (ART) involving fiction authors and a reading habits questionnaire (RHQ) about children's voluntary reading for enjoyment across various genres. The ART correlated only with children's…

  9. Doing Science Their Way: An Ethnographic Study of Sixth Grade Girls' Engagement with School Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giuriceo, Carol M.

    2011-01-01

    This study focuses on the experiences and perspectives of sixth grade girls in a moderately-sized East Coast city as they construct meaning through active engagement in a science classroom and analyzes the ways in which girls change roles and incorporate social interaction during science activities to create their own unique engagement in science.…

  10. 77 FR 25524 - Sixth Meeting: RTCA, NextGen Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-30

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Sixth Meeting: RTCA, NextGen Advisory Committee AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Notice of a meeting of RTCA, NextGen... RTCA, NextGen Advisory Committee. DATES: The meeting will be held May 24, 2012, from 9:00 a.m.-3:00...

  11. The Ability of Sixth Grade Pupils to Use Certain Verbal Context Clues in Listening and Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Lynette Yun Chau Char

    This study was designed to examine the ability of 256 above-average sixth-grade pupils to use six categories of verbal context clues in listening and reading. The extent to which success in determining deleted words was associated with the word form class membership of deleted words was also examined. A hierarchy of difficulty was established for…

  12. The Influences of the Sixth Graders' Parents' Internet Literacy and Parenting Style on Internet Parenting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lou, Shi-Jer; Shih, Ru-Chu; Liu, Hung-Tzu; Guo, Yuan-Chang; Tseng, Kuo-Hung

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to explore the sixth grade students' parents' Internet literacy and parenting style on Internet parenting in Kaohsiung County in Taiwan. Upon stratified cluster sampling, a total of 822 parents from 34 classes in 28 schools participated in this study. The descriptive statistics and chi-square test were used to analyze the responses…

  13. Sixth BHD Symposium and First International Upstate Kidney Cancer Symposium: latest scientific and clinical discoveries.

    PubMed

    Bratslavsky, Gennady; Woodford, Mark R; Daneshvar, Michael; Mollapour, Mehdi

    2016-03-29

    The Sixth BHD Symposium and First International Upstate Kidney Cancer Symposium concluded in September 2015, in Syracuse, NY, USA. The program highlighted recent findings in a variety of areas, including drug development, therapeutics and surgical management of patients with BHD and multi-focal renal tumors, as well as multidisciplinary approaches for patients with localized, locally advanced and metastatic renal cell carcinoma. PMID:26933819

  14. Differences in Value Patterns Among Sixth, Eighth, and Eleven Grade Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quist, David H.

    Using a specially designed, 96 item, Likert-type inventory based on Prince's Differential Values Inventory, this study explores the values of sixth, eighth, and eleventh graders to determine whether and which differences exist. Both traditional values (puritan morality, the work-success ethic, individualism, and future time orientation) and…

  15. STS-6 sixth Space Shuttle mission. First flight of the Challenger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    A prelaunch summary of the sixth Space Shuttle mission is provided. The Challenger orbiter; launching; uprated engines; lighter weight boosters; lightweight tank; external tank reduction; landing; the tracking and data relay satellite system (TDRSS), TDRS-1 deployment; the inertial upper stage (IUS), the spacewalk;electrophoresis, monodisperse latex reactor, night time/day time optical survey of lightning, and getaway special experiments are described.

  16. Sixth Grade Students Who Use Alcohol: Do We Need Primary Prevention Programs for "Tweens"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasch, Keryn E.; Perry, Cheryl L.; Stigler, Melissa H.; Komro, Kelli A.

    2009-01-01

    Young adolescent alcohol users drink at higher rates than their peers throughout adolescence and appear to be less amenable to intervention. This study compares those who reported alcohol use in the past year to those who reported no use in a multiethnic, urban sample of sixth graders in 61 schools in Chicago in 2002 (N = 4,150). Demographic,…

  17. The California State Environmental Education Guide. A Curriculum Guide for Kindergarten through Sixth Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sly, Carolie; And Others

    The purpose of this guide is to provide teachers and other educators with classroom lessons and instructional techniques that build a fundamental understanding of the environment. The guide is aimed at grades kindergarten through sixth and consists of eight instructional units and six action projects. Each unit is organized around a theme and the…

  18. Academic Achievement of Ugandan Sixth Grade Students: Influence of Parents' Education Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wamala, Robert; Kizito, Omala Saint; Jjemba, Evans

    2013-01-01

    The study investigates the influence of a father and mother's education on the academic achievement of their child. The investigation is based on data sourced from the 2009 Southern African Consortium for Monitoring Education Quality survey comprising 5,148 records of sixth grade students enrolled in Ugandan primary schools. Students' percentage…

  19. Latent Profile Analysis of Sixth Graders Based on Teacher Ratings: Association with School Dropout

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orpinas, Pamela; Raczynski, Katherine; Peters, Jaclyn Wetherington; Colman, Laura; Bandalos, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to identify meaningful groups of sixth graders with common characteristics based on teacher ratings of assets and maladaptive behaviors, describe dropout rates for each group, and examine the validity of these groups using students' self-reports. The sample consisted of racially diverse students (n = 675) attending sixth…

  20. Effect of Formal Study Skills Training on Sixth Grade Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Udziela, Theresa

    A study examined whether sixth grade students taught formal study skills would obtain significantly higher reading achievement than those not taught these skills. Study skills can be broken down into ten or more skill areas including: study habits, time management, test taking, lecture notetaking, reading comprehension, vocabulary, test anxiety,…

  1. Emptiness Formation Probability of the Six-Vertex Model and the Sixth Painlevé Equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitaev, A. V.; Pronko, A. G.

    2016-07-01

    We show that the emptiness formation probability of the six-vertex model with domain wall boundary conditions at its free-fermion point is a {τ}-function of the sixth Painlevé equation. Using this fact we derive asymptotics of the emptiness formation probability in the thermodynamic limit.

  2. Encouraging Sixth-Grade Students' Problem-Solving Performance by Teaching through Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bostic, Jonathan D.; Pape, Stephen J.; Jacobbe, Tim

    2016-01-01

    This teaching experiment provided students with continuous engagement in a problem-solving based instructional approach during one mathematics unit. Three sections of sixth-grade mathematics were sampled from a school in Florida, U.S.A. and one section was randomly assigned to experience teaching through problem solving. Students' problem-solving…

  3. Egg-citing Sixth Graders in Science: A Creative Activity in Cell Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mersch, Margaret; Bryant, Napolean, Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Sixth-grade pupils at St. Vivian's school recently studied a science lesson on distinguishing between plant and animal cells. Observation of pupils indicated that learning was occurring, but the enthusiasm they had exhibited in earlier science lessons was obviously lacking. Article discussed a model, designed to stimulate learning processes, from…

  4. A Summary of an Assessment of Fourth and Sixth Grade Basic Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CTB / McGraw-Hill, Monterey, CA.

    A comprehensive assessment was made of the status of elementary education in Missouri in reading, mathematics, language, and study skills. The Comprehensive Tests of Basic Skills (CTBS) and the Short Form Test of Academic Aptitude (SFTAA) were administered to a sample of Missouri fourth and sixth graders. For each curricular area, Missouri…

  5. Children's Perceptions of Parental Attitude Affecting Breakfast Skipping in Primary Sixth-Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Tereza Sy; Tse, Lap Ah; Yu, Ignatius Tak-Sun; Griffiths, Sian

    2008-01-01

    Background: Breakfast skipping is an international public health concern. This study investigated the prevalence of breakfast skipping among primary sixth-grade students in Hong Kong and the impact of students' perceptions of parental attitudes on breakfast skipping. Methods: A total of 426 students aged 10-14 years in 4 local schools participated…

  6. The Applicability of Value Clarifying Strategies in Health Education at the Sixth Grade Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopp, Joyce W.; Abbey, David

    Teachers in three California public schools were educated in the use of values clarification. Their experimental class groups were matched with other sixth-grade groups in the same schools. The teachers used selected value clarifying strategies for three months in their regular classes, adapting them as necessary to the health education content…

  7. Developmental Growth Trajectories in Understanding of Fraction Magnitude from Fourth through Sixth Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Resnick, Ilyse; Jordan, Nancy C.; Hansen, Nicole; Rajan, Vinaya; Rodrigues, Jessica; Siegler, Robert S.; Fuchs, Lynn S.

    2016-01-01

    Development of fraction number line estimation was assessed longitudinally over five time points between fourth and sixth grades. Although students showed positive linear growth overall, latent class growth analyses revealed three distinct growth trajectory classes: Students who were highly accurate from the start and became even more accurate (n…

  8. A Study on Sixth-Grade Turkish Students' Spatial Visualization Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurtulus, Aytac; Yolcu, Belma

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate sixth-grade Turkish students' spatial visualization ability and to determine the strategies that students employ and the mistakes that they make while solving the problems requiring spatial reasoning. Therefore, the study examined the following achievements: visualizing different view images of…

  9. The Effects of Four Study Strategies on Main Idea and Detail Comprehension of Sixth Grade Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spiegel, Dixie Lee; And Others

    A study compared the effects of four study strategies on at-risk sixth-grade students' comprehension and retention of main ideas and details in considerate and less considerate social studies text. The four strategies investigated consisted of the following two pairs: (1) mapping with and without instruction in identifying important details; and…

  10. Men Do and Women Are: Sixth Grade Girls, Media Messages and Identity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maher, Michelle R.

    Focusing on the point that female identities continue to form using the reference point of the male image or identity, a study juxtaposed a qualitative research project and the expressions of patriarchy represented in two television milk commercials. Subjects, 12 sixth-grade girls at a small Catholic elementary school in central New York, were…

  11. VIEW OF THE ARENA STAGE/KREEGER THEATER AT 1101 SIXTH STREET; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF THE ARENA STAGE/KREEGER THEATER AT 1101 SIXTH STREET; HARRY WEESE & ASSOCIATES DESIGNED THE ARENA STAGE IN 1961 AND THE KREEGER THEATER IN 1970 - Southwest Washington, Urban Renewal Area, Bounded by Independence Avenue, Washington Avenue, South Capitol Street, Canal Street, P Street, Maine Avenue & Washington Channel, Fourteenth Street, D Street, & Twelfth Street, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  12. Distributing Leadership in English Sixth Form Colleges: Liberation or Another Form of Managerial Control?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoten, David William

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the distribution of leadership practices in Sixth Form Colleges (SFCs). This is an area where very little research has been undertaken and the intention was to investigate the topic from a critical perspective using social constructionist methodology. Design/methodology/approach: The research…

  13. The Thumbs Up Ecology Curriculum: A Fun Group of School Site Activities for Sixth Graders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, John; And Others

    This guide is a collection of "fun" school site activities for sixth graders. Some of the topics covered are: animals, trees, energy and lifestyle, land use and you, energy conservation, and car-pooling. Each section offers both introductory information about the topic as well as questions to ponder such as what, so what, now what, and another way…

  14. Sixth BHD Symposium and First International Upstate Kidney Cancer Symposium: latest scientific and clinical discoveries

    PubMed Central

    Bratslavsky, Gennady; Woodford, Mark R.; Daneshvar, Michael; Mollapour, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    The Sixth BHD Symposium and First International Upstate Kidney Cancer Symposium concluded in September 2015, in Syracuse, NY, USA. The program highlighted recent findings in a variety of areas, including drug development, therapeutics and surgical management of patients with BHD and multi-focal renal tumors, as well as multidisciplinary approaches for patients with localized, locally advanced and metastatic renal cell carcinoma. PMID:26933819

  15. When Genres Meet: Inquiry into a Sixth-Grade Urban Science Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varelas, Maria; Becker, Joe; Luster, Barbara; Wenzel, Stacy

    2002-01-01

    Explores oral and written works (plays and rap songs) of students in a sixth grade, all African American, urban science class to reveal ways in which affective and social aspects are intertwined with student cognition. Interprets student work in terms of the meeting of various genres brought by students and teachers into the classroom. (Contains…

  16. Exploring Music Practice among Sixth-Grade Band and Orchestra Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, James R.; Berg, Margaret Haefner

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the practice motivation and regulation of sixth-grade instrumentalists (11-12 years of age). A sample of 224 US band and orchestra students, representing 85 elementary schools, completed a 36-item practice inventory and produced two narratives depicting a typical practice session and a practice episode…

  17. Student Representation of Indigent Defendants and the Sixth Amendment: On a Collision Course?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardaway, Robert M.

    1980-01-01

    Although the underlying constitutional parameters of the sixth amendment seem to be established (regarding guaranteed right to counsel), much remains to be clarified in the area of student practice. Clinical education and promulgation of student practice rules expands unabated. Available from Dennis & Co., 251 Main St., Buffalo, NY 14203. (MSE)

  18. An Exploratory Study of Face-to-Face and Cyberbullying in Sixth Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Accordino, Denise B.; Accordino, Michael P.

    2011-01-01

    In a pilot study, sixth grade students (N = 124) completed a questionnaire assessing students' experience with bullying and cyberbullying, demographic information, quality of parent-child relationship, and ways they have dealt with bullying/cyberbullying in the past. Two multiple regression analyses were conducted. The multiple regression analysis…

  19. Reading Comprehension of Sixth Grade, Good and Poor Readers: A Developmental and Methodological Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawyer, Myrtie L.; And Others

    To understand better how readers learn and recall text information, a study examined one prose learning approach--the selective attention strategy (SAS)--in which text elements are processed, given various degrees of attention, and learned according to their perceived importance. Fifty sixth grade students from an inner city school in a large…

  20. Evaluating Sixth Graders' Self-Efficacy in Response to the Use of Educational Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castagnaro, Anne V.

    2012-01-01

    Sixth grade is a pivotal time in school, as students culminate their elementary school years and anticipate junior high school. At this age, students become more involved in trends, especially technological trends. When students can utilize the same type of technology inside and outside of school, their self-efficacy may increase. Hypothetically,…

  1. Africa: A Unit for an Arts in General Education Curriculum. An Instructional Unit for Sixth Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volkmann, Roberta

    The document presents the sixth grade teaching unit of an interdisciplinary work project on Africa, one of a number of products developed by a summer workshop for teachers on African curriculum development. The overall objective is to clarify some similarities and differences between Western and African cultures, as well as to illustrate diversity…

  2. Performance Reporting: The Preferred "No Cost" Accountability Program--The Sixth Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Joseph C.; Minassians, Henrik

    This report presents information from the Sixth Annual Survey of State Higher Education Officers, and once again provides information on performance funding, budgeting, and reporting in all 50 states. Survey results show the triumph of performance reporting and the trials of performance budgeting and funding. The bad budgets for higher education…

  3. Man's Effect on the Environment, Teacher's Guide. Environmental Education Unit, Sixth Grade Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little Rock School District, AR.

    Part of a sequential series of curriculum units in environmental education for grades 4 through 12, this sixth grade curriculum guide focuses on man's effect upon the environment. Extensive classroom activities and field trips introduce the student to population, technology, pollution, natural resources, responsibility, career opportunities, and…

  4. 75 FR 15770 - Sixth Meeting-RTCA Special Committee 220: Automatic Flight Guidance and Control

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-30

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Sixth Meeting--RTCA Special Committee 220: Automatic Flight Guidance and...: Automatic Flight Guidance and Control meeting. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of a meeting of RTCA Special Committee 220: Automatic Flight Guidance and Control. DATES: The...

  5. Water: A Vital Resource. Environmental Education Supplementary Instructional Guide. Sixth Grade Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Donald B.; And Others

    Water related activities for sixth-grade students are presented as one possible way to incorporate environmental education into the existing curriculum of Hawaii schools. Designed as an interdisciplinary approach, the activities integrate numerous thematic and subject areas to teach that fresh water is a limited but vital natural resource. Topics…

  6. Effects of Composition Mode and Self-Perceived Computer Skills on Essay Scores of Sixth Graders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Jennifer N.; Cizek, Gregory J.

    2006-01-01

    This study was conducted to gather evidence regarding effects of the mode of writing (handwritten vs. word-processed) on compositional quality in a sample of sixth grade students. Questionnaire data and essay scores were gathered to examine the effect of composition mode on essay scores of students of differing computer skill levels. The study was…

  7. Environmental Quality, the Sixth Annual Report of the Council on Environmental Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council on Environmental Quality, Washington, DC.

    This sixth annual report discusses the state of the environment and progress accomplished in meeting the goals and objectives established for an improved environment. Each of the seven chapters deals with an important environmental parameter. Chapter one is devoted to carcinogens in the environment. Chapter two presents perspectives on the…

  8. The Effects of Two Outdoor Education Programs on Knowledge and Attitudes of Selected Sixth Graders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Phyllis M.; Payne, Philip G.

    1986-01-01

    Compares effect of two different outdoor education programs (Van Matre's Sunship Earth and a traditional nature study program focusing on plants, animals, water, and soil) on attitudes and knowledge of 266 selected Washington County (Oregon) sixth graders attending a five-day residential outdoor school program. (NEC)

  9. Instructional Television: Inquiry Method of Instruction in Fifth- and Sixth-Grade Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beets, Mary Mitchell

    The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate television as an instructional medium for teaching creative thinking to fifth and sixth grade students by use of the "inquiry" method of instruction in the area of science. A secondary purpose was to determine the effect of student involvement in the live telecasts on their performance on a test…

  10. An Analysis of Global Problems Issues in Sixth and Seventh Grade Science Textbooks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamm, Mary; Adams, Dennis

    The study examines the extent to which the global issues of population growth, world hunger, air quality and atmosphere, and water resources were treated in sixth and seventh grade science textbooks. Ten textbooks were examined by five raters to determine the amount of content presented by different textbooks on global issues, the number of pages…

  11. The Effects of a Water Conservation Instructional Unit on the Values Held by Sixth Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aird, Andrew; Tomera, Audrey

    1977-01-01

    Sixth grade students were divided into two groups. Students in one group received instruction on water conservation using expository and discovery activities. The students in the control group received none. Results gave evidence that students' values could be changed by this mode of water conservation instruction. (MA)

  12. The Effect of Departmentalization on the Reading Achievement of Sixth-Grade Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Mary B.

    A study examined whether departmentalization affected the reading achievement of sixth-grade students attending a Chicago public school. A random sample of 30 students was chosen from a group of 53 who received instruction in a departmentalized program. A second random sample of 30 was selected from a total of 54 students who received instruction…

  13. Proceedings of the sixth international symposium on methodologies for intelligent systems (Poster Session)

    SciTech Connect

    Harber, K.S.

    1991-09-01

    This volume contains papers which have been selected for the poster Session at the Sixth International Symposium for Intelligent Systems held October 1991, The following major areas were covered: expert systems; intelligent databases; knowledge representation; learning and adaptive systems; and logic for artificial intelligence. Nineteen full papers are included. (GHH)

  14. A Study of Teaching and Learning Number Sense for Sixth Grade Students in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Der-Ching; Hsu, Chun-Jen; Huang, Ming-Chiang

    2004-01-01

    Two public schools (A and B) from two cities in southern Taiwan were selected to participate in this study. In each school, two sixth grade classes (an experimental and a control class) were studied. Number sense activities were conducted in the experimental classes through process-oriented teaching model to help children develop number sense,…

  15. Promoting Sixth Graders' Number Sense and Learning Attitudes via Technology-Based Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Der Ching; Tsai, Yi Fang

    2010-01-01

    A quasi-experimental design was adopted to investigate the effect of integrating technology into mathematics teaching on students' number sense and their learning attitudes. Two sixth-grade classes were selected from an elementary school in Taiwan for participation in this study. The control group with 32 students followed their usual mathematics…

  16. Sixth Annual Conference on Computers, Freedom, and Privacy: The RealAudio Proceedings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glover, Barbara; Meernik, Mary

    1996-01-01

    Reviews the sixth Conference on Computers, Freedom, and Privacy (CFP) held in March 1996. Highlights include the Communications Decency Act, part of the 1996 Telecommunications Reform Act; European views; Internet service providers; limiting online speech on campus; cryptography; the global information infrastructure; copyright; and China and the…

  17. A Description of Vocal Maturation among Fifth-and Sixth-Grade Boys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killian, Janice

    1999-01-01

    Investigates the changing voices of boys in the fifth and sixth grades. Categorizes their voices by J. M. Cooksey's changing voice stages and uses his criteria for determining stages (highest and lowest pitches sung, overall range, and pitch of the speaking voice). Results indicate an earlier voice change than previous research. (CMK)

  18. An Exploratory Study of Sixth-Grade Middle School Students Reading Achievement in Inclusive Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Yvonne L.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the academic achievement for students with learning disabilities in reading and how to determine if their rate of progress was different from non-disabled students in a sixth-grade language arts inclusion class. The data for this research was gathered from one school district with one middle school. The…

  19. Bridge No. 1628, Sixth C&O Canal Crossing, looking northeast, with ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Bridge No. 1628, Sixth C&O Canal Crossing, looking northeast, with corner of Roberts and Candoc streets in South Cumberland, Maryland, in background. - Western Maryland Railway, Cumberland Extension, Pearre to North Branch, from WM milepost 125 to 160, Pearre, Washington County, MD

  20. Using Hand-Held Calculators in Sixth Grade Classes. A Brief Report of an Educational Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Ray; Keefe, Michael

    This brief report describes an exploratory pilot project in which sixth-grade students used hand-held calculators throughout the school year. The report includes guidelines on the purchase and use of calculators as well as advice on gaining community support for such a project. Issues related to classroom management are discussed; in particular,…

  1. 77 FR 8325 - Sixth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and Battery Systems...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-14

    ... Batteries and Battery Systems, Small and Medium Size AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S... Batteries and Battery Systems, Small and Medium Size. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of the sixth meeting of RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and...

  2. Does It Add up? Calculators as Accommodations for Sixth Grade Students with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouck, Emily C.; Bouck, Mary K.

    2009-01-01

    This study explored the performance of sixth grade students with and without disabilities on a mathematics assessment aligned to state standards when provided a calculator as an accommodation. The study utilized a pre/posttest design. No student was given access to a calculator on the pretest, and approximately half of the students were randomly…

  3. Negotiating Discourses: Sixth-Grade Students' Use of Multiple Science Discourses during a Science Fair Presentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomez, Kimberley

    2007-01-01

    This study offers important insights into the coexistence of multiple discourses and the link between these discourses and science understanding. It offers concrete examples of students' movement between multiple discourses in sixth-grade science fair presentations, and shows how those multiple discourses in science practices illuminate students'…

  4. 75 FR 61756 - Sixth Meeting of the Advisory Committee for the 2012 World Radiocommunication Conference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-06

    ... COMMISSION Sixth Meeting of the Advisory Committee for the 2012 World Radiocommunication Conference AGENCY... continue preparations for the 2012 World Radiocommunication Conference. The WRC- 12 Advisory Committee will... recommendations relating to the preparation of United States proposals and positions for the 2012...

  5. 75 FR 54421 - Sixth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 223: Airport Surface Wireless Communications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-07

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Sixth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 223: Airport Surface Wireless... of RTCA Special Committee 223: Airport Surface Wireless Communications meeting. SUMMARY: The FAA is... Wireless Communications. DATES: The meeting will be held September 28-30, 2010 from 0900 a.m.- 1600...

  6. The Sixth Catalogue of galactic Wolf-Rayet stars, their past and present

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Der Hucht, K. A.; Conti, P. S.; Lundstrom, I.; Stenholm, B.

    1981-01-01

    This paper presents the Sixth Catalogue of galactic Wolf-Rayet stars (Pop. I), a short history on the five earlier WR catalogues, improved spectral classification, finding charts, a discussion on related objects, and a review of the current status of Wolf-Rayet star research. The appendix presents a bibliography on most of the Wolf-Rayet literature published since 1867.

  7. Supporting Students' Strategic Competence: A Case of a Sixth-Grade Mathematics Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozdemir, I. Elif Yetkin; Pape, Stephen J.

    2012-01-01

    Mathematics education research has documented several classroom practices that might influence student self-regulation. We know little, however, about the ways these classroom practices could be structured in real classroom settings. In this exploratory case study, we purposefully selected a sixth-grade mathematics teacher who had participated in…

  8. Servant Leadership in English Sixth Form Colleges: What Do Teachers Tell Us?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoten, David William

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether servant leadership can be applied to college management. The research methodology involved questionnaire and co-constructed discussion eliciting the views of teachers on how they interpret leadership in a sixth form college. Three other models of leadership were discussed along with…

  9. Status of Sixth-Year Programs Leading to a Degree or Certificate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koenker, Robert H.

    This study is based on a nationwide survey conducted to determine the status of organized sixth-year programs leading to a degree or certificate. The survey was designed to update information received from two previous studies done in 1957 and 1967. Responses came from 371 of 480 institutions that received questionnaires. Results of the study…

  10. Our World, Its Diverse Peoples. Sixth Grade Social Studies Course Outline.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rialto Unified School District, CA.

    A sixth grade social studies curriculum provides a context for a comparative study of individuals and societies. Material is divided into 14 sections. An introduction (section 1) outlines course rationale and a proposed time schedule. Sections 2 through 5 contain objectives, activities, and resources for the study of geography, culture,…

  11. Theorising "Sacred" Space in Educational Contexts: A Case Study of Three English Midlands Sixth Form Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Stephen G.

    2009-01-01

    Sixth Form Colleges (along with the general Further Education sector) in England and Wales have of late begun to appoint new chaplains and to set aside space for quiet, prayer and reflection. This article explores this phenomenon as exhibited by three colleges in the English Midlands, utilising spatial theory and the sociology of "sacred" spaces…

  12. Perspectives on the Teaching of Mathematics. Sixty-Sixth Yearbook [with Companion Guidebook

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubenstein, Rheta N., Ed.

    2004-01-01

    Teaching is a complex, ongoing endeavor that involves a myriad of decisions. The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics' (NCTM's) Sixty-Sixth Yearbook is organized around three aspects of teaching: foundations for teaching, the enactment of teaching, and the support of teaching nurtured in preservice education and strengthened throughout a…

  13. How to Conduct Surveys: A Step-by-Step Guide. Sixth Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fink, Arlene

    2016-01-01

    Packed with new topics that reflect today's challenges, the Sixth Edition of the bestselling "How to Conduct Surveys" guides readers through the process of developing their own rigorous surveys and evaluating the credibility and transparency of surveys created by others. Offering practical, step-by-step advice and written in the same…

  14. Sixth Graders and Non-Routine Problems: Which Strategies Are Decisive for Success?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yazgan, Yeliz

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the role of each strategy in explaining sixth graders' (12-13 years old students') non-routine problem solving success and discriminating between successful and unsuccessful students. Twelve non-routine problems were given to 123 pupils. Answers were scored between 0 and 10. Bottom and top segments of 27% were then…

  15. Indian River County Environmental Education Instructional Guide. Language Arts and Social Studies, Sixth Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee.

    The guide is one in a series for teachers, students, and community members to help them utilize community resources in developing and teaching environmental concepts, responsibility, and problem solving. This particular guide focuses on social studies and language arts aspects of environmental education for sixth graders. Background information…

  16. Adapting STePS, an Adult Team Problem Solving Model, for Use with Sixth Grade Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheive, L. T.; And Others

    Structured Team Problem Solving (STePS) is a problem solving model for shared decision making. This project uses the model to discover if children can learn using this method, and what adaptations would be necessary for child use. Sixth grade students in their social studies class worked together in teams (6-8) to identify what they already think…

  17. Destination Graduation: Sixth Grade Early Warning Indicators for Baltimore City Schools. Their Prevalence and Impact

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baltimore Education Research Consortium, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Even with the declining number of dropouts in Baltimore City, a focus on dropout prevention is essential. Recent research has emphasized the utility of an early warning system to inform prevention efforts. With this in mind, the Baltimore Education Research Consortium examined the 2000-01 cohort of sixth grade students (Class of 2007) from the…

  18. Determinants of Physical Activity in Active and Low-Active, Sixth Grade African-American Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trost, Stewart G.; Pate, Russell R.; Ward, Dianne S.; Saunders, Ruth; Riner, William

    1999-01-01

    Compared determinants of physical activity in active and low-active African-American sixth graders, surveying students and making objective assessments of physical activity over seven days. Results indicated that physical activity self-efficacy, beliefs about physical activity outcomes, involvement in community-based physical activity, perception…

  19. Relationships between gifted selection criteria and performance in sixth-grade gifted science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Roxanne Greitz

    This study examined the relationships between gifted selection criteria used in the Dade County Public Schools of Miami, Florida and performance in sixth grade gifted science classes. The goal of the study was to identify significant predictors of performance in sixth grade gifted science classes. Group comparisons of performance were also made. Performance in sixth grade gifted science was defined as the numeric average of nine weeks' grades earned in sixth grade gifted science classes. The sample consisted of 100 subjects who were formerly enrolled in sixth grade gifted science classes over two years at a large, multiethnic public middle school in Dade County. The predictors analyzed were I.Q. score (all scales combined), full scale I.Q. score, verbal scale I.Q. score, performance scale I.Q. score, combined Stanford Achievement Test (SAT) score (Reading Comprehension plus Math Applications), SAT Reading Comprehension score, and SAT Math Applications score. Combined SAT score and SAT Math Applications score were significantly positively correlated to performance in sixth grade gifted science. Performance scale I.Q. score was significantly negatively correlated to performance in sixth grade gifted science. The other predictors examined were not significantly correlated to performance. Group comparison results showed the mean average of nine weeks grades for the full scale I.Q. group was greater than the verbal and performance scale I.Q. groups. Females outperformed males to a highly significant level. Mean g.p.a. for ethnic groups was greatest for Asian students, followed by white non-Hispanic, Hispanic, and black. Students not receiving a lunch subsidy outperformed those receiving subsidies. Comparisons of performance based on gifted qualification plan showed the mean g.p.a. for traditional plan and Plan B groups were not different. Mean g.p.a. for students who qualified for gifted using automatic Math Applications criteria was highest, followed by automatic

  20. Children's Use of Subtraction by Addition on Large Single-Digit Subtractions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Greet; De Smedt, Bert; Torbeyns, Joke; Ghesquiere, Pol; Verschaffel, Lieven

    2012-01-01

    Subtractions of the type M - S = ? can be solved by various strategies, including subtraction by addition. In this study, we investigated children's use of subtraction by addition by means of reaction time analyses. We presented 106 third to sixth graders with 32 large non-tie single-digit problems in both subtraction (12 - 9 = .) and addition…

  1. Word Effects in Dual-Task Studies Using Lexical Decision and Naming as Task 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Remington, Roger; McCann, Robert S.; VanSelst, Mark; Shafto, Michael (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Word frequency effects in dual-task, lexical decision are variously reported to be additive or under-additive across SOA. We replicate and extend earlier lexical decision studies and find word frequency to be additive across SOA. To more directly capture lexical processing, we examine dual-task naming. Once again we find word frequency to be additive across SOA. Lexical processing appears to be constrained by central processing limitations.

  2. Consensus versus Devil's Advocacy: The Influence of Decision Process and Task Structure on Strategic Decision Making.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murrell, Audrey J.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Compares decision processes of consensus and devil's advocacy within an additive task, a disjunctive task, and a conjunctive task structure. Finds that high-conflict decision processes such as devil's advocacy enhances decision making in disjunctive tasks, retards decision making in additive tasks, but has no effect on decision making in…

  3. Grid Task Execution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hu, Chaumin

    2007-01-01

    IPG Execution Service is a framework that reliably executes complex jobs on a computational grid, and is part of the IPG service architecture designed to support location-independent computing. The new grid service enables users to describe the platform on which they need a job to run, which allows the service to locate the desired platform, configure it for the required application, and execute the job. After a job is submitted, users can monitor it through periodic notifications, or through queries. Each job consists of a set of tasks that performs actions such as executing applications and managing data. Each task is executed based on a starting condition that is an expression of the states of other tasks. This formulation allows tasks to be executed in parallel, and also allows a user to specify tasks to execute when other tasks succeed, fail, or are canceled. The two core components of the Execution Service are the Task Database, which stores tasks that have been submitted for execution, and the Task Manager, which executes tasks in the proper order, based on the user-specified starting conditions, and avoids overloading local and remote resources while executing tasks.

  4. 32 CFR 1803.21 - Receipt, recording, and tasking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... tasking. The Information and Privacy Coordinator shall within ten (10) days record each mandatory.... Additional taskings, as required during the review process, shall be accomplished within ten (10) days...

  5. Visual Display and Co-Expressivity as Students Strive for Intersubjectivity in a Spatial Reasoning Task. WCER Working Paper No. 2005-10

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nathan, Mitchell J.; Eilam, Billie

    2005-01-01

    This paper explores the role of co-expressivity of drawing, speech, and gesture as sixth graders strive for intersubjectivity in their attempts to communicate solutions of a spatial reasoning task. Several obstacles to intersubjectivity are documented, particularly conflicts between a literal and geometric interpretation, limits of students'…

  6. Relative contributions of task-relevant and task-irrelevant dimensions in priming of pop-out.

    PubMed

    Michal, Audrey L; Lleras, Alejandro; Beck, Diane M

    2014-01-01

    Intertrial effects such as priming of pop-out (PoP) often occur for task-irrelevant dimensions as well as task-relevant dimensions, though to a weaker extent. Here we test the hypothesis that increased priming for task-relevant dimensions is due to greater passive build-up of priming for the task-relevant dimension rather than to an active filtering of task-irrelevant dimensions; if this is the case, then we should observe a positive correlation between the magnitude of task-relevant and task-irrelevant priming. We tested this hypothesis using a pop-out search task in which the task-relevant dimension was orientation and the task-irrelevant dimension was color. We found a strong, positive association between task-relevant and task-irrelevant priming across a large group of participants (N = 100); additionally, we observed increased priming over consecutive repetitions for the task-relevant dimension, whereas task-irrelevant priming was constant across multiple repetitions. As further evidence against an active filtering account, task-irrelevant priming showed no systematic relationship with visual short-term memory capacity, which has been shown to correlate with filtering ability. Together, our results suggest that task-irrelevant dimensions are co-selected rather than filtered out during target search. Further, increased task-relevant priming may reflect an enhanced representation of the task-relevant dimension that is reinforced over consecutive repetitions. PMID:25311302

  7. Word Frequency Effects in Dual-Task Studies Using Lexical Decision and Naming as Task 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Remington, Roger W.; McCann, Robert S.; VanSelst, Mark; Shafto, Michael G. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Word frequency effects in dual-task lexical decision are variously reported to be additive or underadditive across SOA. We replicate and extend earlier lexical decision studies and find word frequency to be additive across SOA. To more directly capture lexical processing, we examine dual-task naming. Once again, we find word frequency to be additive across SOA. Lexical processing appears to be constrained by central processing limitations.

  8. Proceedings of the Sixth General Meeting of the International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Behrend, Dirk (Editor); Baver, Karen D. (Editor)

    2010-01-01

    This volume is the proceedings of the sixth General Meeting of the International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry (IVS), held in Hobart, Tasmania, Australia, February 7-13, 2010. The contents of this volume also appear on the IVS Web site at http://ivscc.gsfc.nasa.gov/publications/gm2010. The keynote of the sixth GM was the new perspectives of the next generation VLBI system under the theme "VLBI2010: From Vision to Reality". The goal of the meeting was to provide an interesting and informative program for a wide cross-section of IVS members, including station operators, program managers, and analysts. This volume contains 88 papers. All papers were edited by the editors for usage of the English language, form, and minor content-related issues.

  9. A Sixth-order Image Approximation to the Ionic Solvent Induced Reaction Field.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Ming; Deng, Shaozhong; Cai, Wei

    2009-12-01

    A recent article by Deng and Cai introduced fourth-order image approximations to the reaction field for a charge inside a dielectric sphere immersed in a solvent of low ionic strength. To represent such a reaction field, the image approximations employ a point charge at the classical Kelvin image point and two line charges that extend from the Kelvin image point along the radial direction to infinity. In this paper, a sixth-order image approximation is developed, using the same point charge with three different line charges. Procedures on how to discretize the line charges by point image charges and how to implement the resulting point image approximation in O(N) complexity for potential and force field calculations are included. Numerical results demonstrate the sixth-order convergence rate of the image approximation and the O(N) complexity of the fast implementation of the point image approximation. PMID:21152236

  10. A digital input class-D audio amplifier with sixth-order PWM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shumeng, Luo; Dongmei, Li

    2013-11-01

    A digital input class-D audio amplifier with a sixth-order pulse-width modulation (PWM) modulator is presented. This modulator moves the PWM generator into the closed sigma—delta modulator loop. The noise and distortions generated at the PWM generator module are suppressed by the high gain of the forward loop of the sigma—delta modulator. Therefore, at the output of the modulator, a very clean PWM signal is acquired for driving the power stage of the class-D amplifier. A sixth-order modulator is designed to balance the performance and the system clock speed. Fabricated in standard 0.18 μm CMOS technology, this class-D amplifier achieves 110 dB dynamic range, 100 dB signal-to-noise rate, and 0.0056% total harmonic distortion plus noise.

  11. Summaries of the Sixth Annual JPL Airborne Earth Science Workshop. Volume 1; AVIRIS Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Robert O. (Editor)

    1996-01-01

    This publication contains the summaries for the Sixth Annual JPL Airborne Earth Science Workshop, held in Pasadena, California, on March 4-8, 1996. The main workshop is divided into two smaller workshops as follows: (1) The Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) workshop, on March 4-6. The summaries for this workshop appear in Volume 1; (2) The Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AIRSAR) workshop, on March 6-8. The summaries for this workshop appear in Volume 2.

  12. An unusual case of isolated sixth cranial nerve palsy in leprosy.

    PubMed

    Vaishampayan, Sanjeev; Borde, Priyanka

    2012-08-01

    Cranial nerve involvement is not common in leprosy. The fifth and seventh cranial nerves are the most commonly affected in leprosy. Herein we present a patient with Hansen disease (BL) with type I reaction who developed isolated involvement of the sixth cranial nerve leading to lateral rectus muscle palsy. He responded to timely anti-reactional therapy and it produced a good response. Careful observation of patients with lepra reaction is needed to avoid damage to important organs. PMID:22948066

  13. Proceedings of the sixth international conference on fluidized bed combustion. Volume III. Technical sessions

    SciTech Connect

    1980-08-01

    The Sixth International Conference on Fluidized Bed Combustion was held April 9-11, 1980, at the Atlanta Hilton, Atlanta, Georgia. It was sponsored by the US Department of Energy, the Electric Power Research Institute, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Tennessee Valley Authority. Forty-five papers from Vol. III of the proceedings have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. Two papers had been entered previously from other sources. (LTN)

  14. Exact periodic solutions of the sixth-order generalized Boussinesq equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamenov, O. Y.

    2009-09-01

    This paper examines a class of nonlinear sixth-order generalized Boussinesq-like equations (SGBE): utt = uxx + 3(u2)xx + uxxxx + αuxxxxxx, α in R, depending on the positive parameter α. Hirota's bilinear transformation method is applied to the above class of non-integrable equations and exact periodic solutions have been obtained. The results confirmed the well-known nonlinear superposition principle.

  15. Raising voices: How sixth graders construct authority and knowledge in argumentative essays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monahan, Mary Elizabeth

    This qualitative classroom-based study documents one teacher-researcher's response to the "voice" debate in composition studies and to the opposing views expressed by Elbow and Bartholomae. The author uses Bakhtin's principle of dialogism, Hymes's theory of communicative competence, as well as Ivanic's discussion of discoursally constructed identities to reconceptualize voice and to redesign writing instruction in her sixth grade classroom. This study shows how students, by redefining and then acting on that voice pedagogy in terms that made sense to them, shaped the author's understanding of what counts as "voiced" writing in non-narrative discourse. Based on a grounded-theory analysis of the twenty-six sixth graders' argumentative essays in science, the author explains voice, not as a property of writers or of texts, but as a process of "knowing together"---a collaborative, but not entirely congenial, exercise of establishing one's authority by talking with, against, and through other voices on the issue. As the results of this study show, the students' "I-Ness" or authorial presence within their texts, was born in a nexus of relationships with "rivals," "allies" and "readers." Given their teacher's injunctions to project confidence and authority in argumentative writing, the students assumed fairly adversarial stances toward these conversational partners throughout their essays. Exaggerating the terms for voiced writing built into the curriculum, the sixth graders produced essays that read more like caricatures than examples of argumentation. Their displays of rhetorical bravado and intellectual aggressiveness, however offsetting to the reader, still enabled these sixth graders to composed voiced essays. This study raises doubts about the value of urging students to sound like their "true selves" or to adopt the formal registers of academe. Students, it seems clear, stand to gain by experimenting with a range of textual identities. The author suggests that voice

  16. Proceedings of the twenty-sixth annual Institute on Mining Health, Safety and Research

    SciTech Connect

    Tinney, G.R.; Bacho, A.; Karmis, M.

    1995-12-31

    The proceedings of the Twenty-Sixth Annual Institute on Mining Health, Safety and Research are presented. The Conference was held in Blacksburg, Virginia on August 28-30, 1995 and covered such topics as themes of change, miner`s safety, personal and corporate liability, behavioral changes and positive reinforcement, and meeting health and safety objectives in mining operations. A separate abstract was prepared for the thirteen papers for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  17. Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Fluidized Bed Combustion. Volume 1. Plenary sessions

    SciTech Connect

    1980-08-01

    The Sixth International Conference on Fluidized Bed Combustion was held at the Atlanta Hilton, Atlanta, Georgia, April 9-11, 1980. The papers in this volume involved presentation of the research and development programs of the US (US DOE, TVA, EPRI and US EPA), United Kingdom, Federal Republic of Germany and the People's Republic of China. Eight papers from Vol. 1 (Plenary Sessions) of the proceedings have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. (LTN)

  18. The effects of collaborative video production on the attitudes and science knowledge of sixth graders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaston, Joseph Pickett

    This quantitative study examined the effects of collaborative video production (CVP) on the attitudes and conceptual understanding of sixth-grade science students at a public middle school in the Southeastern United States. This study followed the nonequivalent control group design, as described by Campbell and Stanley (1963). The study involved four classes of sixth-grade students. The two control classes were taught the science concept by the cooperating teacher through direct instruction, and the two experimental classes learned the science concept through the CVP project. Pre- and posttests were administered to all students, as well as two pre- and post-surveys measuring student attitudes towards science and technology. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) with the pretest scores as the covariate (Xc) was conducted with the posttest and post-survey data to determine if a significant difference existed in scores between the two groups. In each case, no significant difference was found. The results of this study suggest that CVP was as effective at conveying conceptual understanding to sixth-grade science students as direct instruction. Although not significant, the study also showed that mean scores of students' attitudes towards science and technology increased from pre-surveys to post-surveys for those who participated in the CVP activity. These findings suggest that the treatment contributed to an increase in participants' attitudes and towards technology and the academic subject. No such increase in mean post-survey scores existed for students receiving direct instruction.

  19. NSI security task: Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tencati, Ron

    1991-01-01

    An overview is presented of the NASA Science Internet (NSI) security task. The task includes the following: policies and security documentation; risk analysis and management; computer emergency response team; incident handling; toolkit development; user consulting; and working groups, conferences, and committees.

  20. Debugging tasked Ada programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fainter, R. G.; Lindquist, T. E.

    1986-01-01

    The applications for which Ada was developed require distributed implementations of the language and extensive use of tasking facilities. Debugging and testing technology as it applies to parallel features of languages currently falls short of needs. Thus, the development of embedded systems using Ada pose special challenges to the software engineer. Techniques for distributing Ada programs, support for simulating distributed target machines, testing facilities for tasked programs, and debugging support applicable to simulated and to real targets all need to be addressed. A technique is presented for debugging Ada programs that use tasking and it describes a debugger, called AdaTAD, to support the technique. The debugging technique is presented together with the use interface to AdaTAD. The component of AdaTAD that monitors and controls communication among tasks was designed in Ada and is presented through an example with a simple tasked program.

  1. Task Description Language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simmons, Reid; Apfelbaum, David

    2005-01-01

    Task Description Language (TDL) is an extension of the C++ programming language that enables programmers to quickly and easily write complex, concurrent computer programs for controlling real-time autonomous systems, including robots and spacecraft. TDL is based on earlier work (circa 1984 through 1989) on the Task Control Architecture (TCA). TDL provides syntactic support for hierarchical task-level control functions, including task decomposition, synchronization, execution monitoring, and exception handling. A Java-language-based compiler transforms TDL programs into pure C++ code that includes calls to a platform-independent task-control-management (TCM) library. TDL has been used to control and coordinate multiple heterogeneous robots in projects sponsored by NASA and the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). It has also been used in Brazil to control an autonomous airship and in Canada to control a robotic manipulator.

  2. 75 FR 47881 - Fifty-Sixth Meeting, RTCA Special Committee 135: Environmental Conditions and Test Procedures for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-09

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Fifty-Sixth Meeting, RTCA Special Committee 135: Environmental Conditions... of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Notice of RTCA Special Committee 135: Environmental Conditions and... public of a meeting of RTCA Special Committee 135: Environmental Conditions and Test Procedures...

  3. 75 FR 9997 - Determination and Waiver Regarding the Sixth Proviso under the Heading “Economic Support Funds...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-04

    ... Department of State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 2009 (Div. H, Pub. L. 111-8... Appropriations Act, 2009 (Div. H, Pub. L. 111-8), without regard to the restriction in the sixth proviso...

  4. RNA/DNA co-analysis from human skin and contact traces--results of a sixth collaborative EDNAP exercise.

    PubMed

    Haas, C; Hanson, E; Banemann, R; Bento, A M; Berti, A; Carracedo, Á; Courts, C; De Cock, G; Drobnic, K; Fleming, R; Franchi, C; Gomes, I; Hadzic, G; Harbison, S A; Hjort, B; Hollard, C; Hoff-Olsen, P; Keyser, C; Kondili, A; Maroñas, O; McCallum, N; Miniati, P; Morling, N; Niederstätter, H; Noël, F; Parson, W; Porto, M J; Roeder, A D; Sauer, E; Schneider, P M; Shanthan, G; Sijen, T; Syndercombe Court, D; Turanská, M; van den Berge, M; Vennemann, M; Vidaki, A; Zatkalíková, L; Ballantyne, J

    2015-05-01

    The European DNA profiling group (EDNAP) organized a sixth collaborative exercise on RNA/DNA co-analysis for body fluid/tissue identification and STR profiling. The task was to identify skin samples/contact traces using specific RNA biomarkers and test three housekeeping genes for their suitability as reference genes. Eight stains, a skin RNA dilution series and, optionally, bona fide or mock casework samples of human or non-human origin were analyzed by 22 participating laboratories using RNA extraction or RNA/DNA co-extraction methods. Two sets of previously described skin-specific markers were used: skin1 pentaplex (LCE1C, LCE1D, LCE2D, IL1F7 and CCL27) and skin2 triplex (LOR, KRT9 and CDSN) in conjunction with a housekeeping gene, HKG, triplex (B2M, UBC and UCE). The laboratories used different chemistries and instrumentation. All laboratories were able to successfully isolate and detect mRNA in contact traces (e.g., human skin, palm-, hand- and fingerprints, clothing, car interiors, computer accessories and electronic devices). The simultaneous extraction of RNA and DNA provides an opportunity for positive identification of the tissue source of origin by mRNA profiling as well as a simultaneous identification of the body fluid donor by STR profiling. The skin markers LCE1C and LOR and the housekeeping gene marker B2M were detected in the majority of contact traces. Detection of the other markers was inconsistent, possibly due to the low amounts and/or poor quality of the genetic material present in shed skin cells. The results of this and the previous collaborative RNA exercises support RNA profiling as a reliable body fluid/tissue identification method that can easily be combined with current STR typing technology. PMID:25600397

  5. Learning one task by interleaving practice with another task

    PubMed Central

    Szpiro, Sarit; Wright, Beverly A.; Carrasco, Marisa

    2014-01-01

    Perceptual learning is a sustainable improvement in performance on a perceptual task following training. A hallmark of perceptual learning is task specificity – after participants have trained on and learned a particular task, learning rarely transfers to another task, even with identical stimuli. Accordingly, it is assumed that performing a task throughout training is a requirement for learning to occur on that specific task. Thus, interleaving training trials of a target task, with those of another task, should not improve performance on the target task. However, recent findings in audition show that interleaving two tasks during training can facilitate perceptual learning, even when the training on neither task yields learning on its own. Here we examined the role of cross-task training in the visual domain by training 4 groups of human observers for 3 consecutive days on an orientation comparison task (target task) and/or spatial-frequency comparison task (interleaving task). Interleaving small amounts of training on each task, which were ineffective alone, not only enabled learning on the target orientation task, as in audition, but also surpassed the learning attained by training on that task alone for the same total number of trials. This study illustrates that cross-task training in visual perceptual learning can be more effective than single-task training. The results reveal a comparable learning principle across modalities and demonstrate how to optimize training regimens to maximize perceptual learning. PMID:24959653

  6. Independent task Fourier filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caulfield, H. John

    2001-11-01

    Since the early 1960s, a major part of optical computing systems has been Fourier pattern recognition, which takes advantage of high speed filter changes to enable powerful nonlinear discrimination in `real time.' Because filter has a task quite independent of the tasks of the other filters, they can be applied and evaluated in parallel or, in a simple approach I describe, in sequence very rapidly. Thus I use the name ITFF (independent task Fourier filter). These filters can also break very complex discrimination tasks into easily handled parts, so the wonderful space invariance properties of Fourier filtering need not be sacrificed to achieve high discrimination and good generalizability even for ultracomplex discrimination problems. The training procedure proceeds sequentially, as the task for a given filter is defined a posteriori by declaring it to be the discrimination of particular members of set A from all members of set B with sufficient margin. That is, we set the threshold to achieve the desired margin and note the A members discriminated by that threshold. Discriminating those A members from all members of B becomes the task of that filter. Those A members are then removed from the set A, so no other filter will be asked to perform that already accomplished task.

  7. Overview of the ID, EPI and REL tasks of BioNLP Shared Task 2011

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    for user-facing applications. In this study, we extend on previously reported results and perform further analyses of the outputs of the participating systems. We place specific emphasis on aspects of system performance relating to real-world applicability, considering alternate evaluation metrics and performing additional manual analysis of system outputs. We further demonstrate that the strengths of extraction systems can be combined to improve on the performance achieved by any system in isolation. The manually annotated corpora, supporting resources, and evaluation tools for all tasks are available from http://www.bionlp-st.org and the tasks continue as open challenges for all interested parties. PMID:22759456

  8. The Relationship between Levels of Expertise, Task Difficulty, Perceived Self-Efficacy, and Mental Effort Investment in Task Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Hsin-Ning

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the impact of different levels of task difficulty and expertise on self-efficacy judgments. In addition, the study examines how self-efficacy judgments affect the amount of mental effort investment and task performance under different levels of task difficulty and expertise. Results from this study are used to build a…

  9. Data analysis tasks: BATSE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paciesas, William S.

    1993-01-01

    Miscellaneous tasks related to the operation of, and analysis of data from, the Burst and Transient Experiment (BATSE) on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO) were performed. The results are summarized and relevant references are included.

  10. Exploring relations between task conflict and informational conflict in the Stroop task.

    PubMed

    Entel, Olga; Tzelgov, Joseph; Bereby-Meyer, Yoella; Shahar, Nitzan

    2015-11-01

    In this study, we tested the proposal that the Stroop task involves two conflicts--task conflict and informational conflict. Task conflict was defined as the latency difference between color words and non-letter neutrals, and manipulated by varying the proportion of color words versus non-letter neutrals. Informational conflict was defined as the latency difference between incongruent and congruent trials and manipulated by varying the congruent-to-incongruent trial ratio. We replicated previous findings showing that increasing the ratio of incongruent-to-congruent trials reduces the latency difference between the incongruent and congruent condition (i.e., informational conflict), as does increasing the proportion of color words (i.e., task conflict). A significant under-additive interaction between the two proportion manipulations (congruent vs. incongruent and color words vs. neutrals) indicated that the effects of task conflict and informational conflict were not additive. By assessing task conflict as the contrast between color words and neutrals, we found that task conflict existed in all of our experimental conditions. Under specific conditions, when task conflict dominated behavior by explaining most of the variability between congruency conditions, we also found negative facilitation, thus demonstrating that this effect is a special case of task conflict. PMID:25420632

  11. Task difficulty and aberrant behavior in severely handicapped students.

    PubMed Central

    Weeks, M; Gaylord-Ross, R

    1981-01-01

    The influence of task difficulty on aberrant behavior was investigated with three severely handicapped students. Noticeably higher rates of problem behavior occurred in demand compared to no-demand conditions. In addition, there were higher rates of problem behaviors on difficult versus easy tasks. Both these findings were validated with visual discrimination and perceptual motor tasks. An errorless learning procedure effectively minimized errors and aberrant behavior in visual discrimination tasks but not in perceptual motor tasks. It was conceptualized that aberrant behavior was maintained by negative reinforcement contingencies. Difficult tasks were aversive to the children, who emitted aberrant responses to escape or avoid such tasks. By contrast, conditions in which no demands were made, easy tasks, and, in visual discrimination learning, errorless tasks, were less aversive and resulted in little or no problem behavior. Implications for reducing maladaptive behaviors through curricular modifications are discussed and contrasted to more traditional consequence manipulation approaches. PMID:7328069

  12. Task based synthesis of serial manipulators

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Sarosh; Sobh, Tarek

    2015-01-01

    Computing the optimal geometric structure of manipulators is one of the most intricate problems in contemporary robot kinematics. Robotic manipulators are designed and built to perform certain predetermined tasks. There is a very close relationship between the structure of the manipulator and its kinematic performance. It is therefore important to incorporate such task requirements during the design and synthesis of the robotic manipulators. Such task requirements and performance constraints can be specified in terms of the required end-effector positions, orientations and velocities along the task trajectory. In this work, we present a comprehensive method to develop the optimal geometric structure (DH parameters) of a non-redundant six degree of freedom serial manipulator from task descriptions. In this work we define, develop and test a methodology to design optimal manipulator configurations based on task descriptions. This methodology is devised to investigate all possible manipulator configurations that can satisfy the task performance requirements under imposed joint constraints. Out of all the possible structures, the structures that can reach all the task points with the required orientations are selected. Next, these candidate structures are tested to see whether they can attain end-effector velocities in arbitrary directions within the user defined joint constraints, so that they can deliver the best kinematic performance. Additionally least power consuming configurations are also identified. PMID:26257946

  13. Dual-task interference with equal task emphasis: graded capacity sharing or central postponement?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruthruff, Eric; Pashler, Harold E.; Hazeltine, Eliot

    2003-01-01

    Most studies using the psychological refractory period (PRP) design suggest that dual-task performance is limited by a central bottleneck. Because subjects are usually told to emphasize Task 1, however, the bottleneck might reflect a strategic choice rather than a structural limitation. To evaluate the possibility that central operations can proceed in parallel, albeit with capacity limitations, we conducted two dual-task experiments with equal task emphasis. In both experiments, subjects tended to either group responses together or respond to one task well before the other. In addition, stimulus-response compatibility effects were roughly constant across stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs). At the short SOA, compatibility effects also carried over onto response times for the other task. This pattern of results is difficult to reconcile with the possibility that subjects share capacity roughly equally between simultaneous central operations. However, this pattern is consistent with the existence of a structural central bottleneck.

  14. Secondary task for full flight simulation incorporating tasks that commonly cause pilot error: Time estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosch, E.

    1975-01-01

    The task of time estimation, an activity occasionally performed by pilots during actual flight, was investigated with the objective of providing human factors investigators with an unobtrusive and minimally loading additional task that is sensitive to differences in flying conditions and flight instrumentation associated with the main task of piloting an aircraft simulator. Previous research indicated that the duration and consistency of time estimates is associated with the cognitive, perceptual, and motor loads imposed by concurrent simple tasks. The relationships between the length and variability of time estimates and concurrent task variables under a more complex situation involving simulated flight were clarified. The wrap-around effect with respect to baseline duration, a consequence of mode switching at intermediate levels of concurrent task distraction, should contribute substantially to estimate variability and have a complex effect on the shape of the resulting distribution of estimates.

  15. Superior rectus transposition combined with medial rectus recession for Duane syndrome and sixth nerve palsy

    PubMed Central

    Mehendale, Reshma A.; Dagi, Linda R.; Wu, Carolyn; Ledoux, Danielle; Johnston, Suzanne; Hunter, David G.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Vertical rectus transposition (VRT) is used to treat abduction limitation, but new vertical deviations and anterior segment ischemia are concerns. Johnston and Crouch described superior rectus transposition (SRT), a procedure in which only the superior rectus muscle is transposed temporally. We describe our results using augmented temporal SRT with adjustable medial rectus muscle recession (MRc) for treatment of Duane syndrome I (DS) and sixth nerve palsy. Methods Retrospective surgical case review of patients undergoing the SRT procedure. Pre- and post-operative orthoptic measurements were recorded. Minimum follow-up was 6 weeks. Main outcome measures included angle of esotropia in primary position and the angle of head turn. Secondary outcomes included duction limitation, stereopsis, and new vertical deviations. Results The review identified seventeen patients (10 with DS and 7 with sixth nerve palsy). SRT+MRc improved esotropia [from 44 PD to 10.1 PD (p< 0.0001)], reduced abduction limitation [from −4.3 to −2.7 (p<0.0001)] and improved compensatory head posture [from 28°to 4° (p<0.0001)]. Stereopsis was recovered in eight patients (p=0.03). Three patients required a reoperation; one for overcorrection and 2 for undercorrection. A new primary position vertical deviation was observed in 2/7 patients with complex sixth nerve palsy and 0/10 DS patients. No patient described torsional diplopia. Conclusions SRT allows for the option of simultaneous medial rectus recession in patients with severe abduction imitation who require transposition surgery. SRT+MRc improved esotropia, head position, abduction limitation, and stereopsis without inducing torsional diplopia. PMID:22332212

  16. The impact of environmental education on sixth-grade students' science achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clavijo, Katherine Gillespie

    This study investigated the relationship between student involvement in environmental education (EE) and science achievement. The performance of students engaged in fifth and sixth grade classrooms identified as incorporating environmental education into science instruction was compared to that of students from similar classrooms that use traditional science instruction. Data from 4655 sixth grade students were analyzed using hierarchical multiple regression model to determine if environmental education improves prediction of science achievement beyond that afforded by differences in socioeconomic status and previous science achievement. The results indicated that environmental education, when integrated into science instruction, does not improve prediction of CTBS science scores beyond that afforded by differences in previous achievement in science and socioeconomic status. Previous achievement and socioeconomic status were the only two variables that predicted CTBS science subtest scores. The variable previous achievement (Score on fourth grade KIRIS test) explained 27.6% of the variance in CTBS test scores. The variable socioeconomic status (participation in free and reduced lunch program) explained 7.1% of the variance in CTBS science test scores. Participation in a fifth, sixth or both grades environmental education classroom did not add to the prediction of CTBS scores. This study illustrates that environmental education, while not correlated with high science achievement, does not correlate with low science achievement. Environmental education research may benefit from similar studies, which utilize alternative forms of student assessment. This study has implications for researchers interested in examining the impact of environmental education on science achievement, as it provides evidence for the importance of including background characteristics, such as socioeconomic status and previous achievement, in research models. This study provides an example of

  17. Is performance in task-cuing experiments mediated by task set selection or associative compound retrieval?

    PubMed

    Forrest, Charlotte L D; Monsell, Stephen; McLaren, Ian P L

    2014-07-01

    Task-cuing experiments are usually intended to explore control of task set. But when small stimulus sets are used, they plausibly afford learning of the response associated with a combination of cue and stimulus, without reference to tasks. In 3 experiments we presented the typical trials of a task-cuing experiment: a cue (colored shape) followed, after a short or long interval, by a digit to which 1 of 2 responses was required. In a tasks condition, participants were (as usual) directed to interpret the cue as an instruction to perform either an odd/even or a high/low classification task. In a cue + stimulus → response (CSR) condition, to induce learning of mappings between cue-stimulus compound and response, participants were, in Experiment 1, given standard task instructions and additionally encouraged to learn the CSR mappings; in Experiment 2, informed of all the CSR mappings and asked to learn them, without standard task instructions; in Experiment 3, required to learn the mappings by trial and error. The effects of a task switch, response congruence, preparation, and transfer to a new set of stimuli differed substantially between the conditions in ways indicative of classification according to task rules in the tasks condition, and retrieval of responses specific to stimulus-cue combinations in the CSR conditions. Qualitative features of the latter could be captured by an associative learning network. Hence associatively based compound retrieval can serve as the basis for performance with a small stimulus set. But when organization by tasks is apparent, control via task set selection is the natural and efficient strategy. PMID:24564543

  18. Exploring relationships among four science teaching-learning affective attributes of sixth grade students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harty, Harold; Samuel, K. V.; Beall, Dwight

    The intent of this study was to investigate possible relationships among the constructs of attitudes toward science, interest in science, science curiosity, and self-concept of science ability. Data were collected from 228 sixth-grade students by way of four Likert-type instruments, each of which measured a given attribute. Statistical procedures included univariate and multivariate analysis of variance, product-moment correlations, canonical correlations, multiple regression analysis, and factor analysis. The results indicated that attitudes toward science, interest in science, and science curiosity are highly related. Implications for classroom science teaching and suggestions for future research have also been discussed.Received: 2 April 1985

  19. The sixth Painlevé transcendent and uniformization of algebraic curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brezhnev, Yurii V.

    2016-02-01

    We exhibit a remarkable connection between sixth equation of Painlevé list and infinite families of explicitly uniformizable algebraic curves. Fuchsian equations, congruences for group transformations, differential calculus of functions and differentials on corresponding Riemann surfaces, Abelian integrals, analytic connections (generalizations of Chazy's equations), and other attributes of uniformization can be obtained for these curves. As byproducts of the theory, we establish relations between Picard-Hitchin's curves, hyperelliptic curves, punctured tori, Heun's equations, and the famous differential equation which Apéry used to prove the irrationality of Riemann's ζ (3).

  20. Sixth International Conference on Precipitation: Predictability of Rainfall at the Various Scales. Abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    1998-06-29

    This volume contains abstracts of the papers presented at the Sixth International Conference on Precipitation: Predictability of Rainfall at the various scales, held at the Mauna Lani Bay and Bungalows, Hawaii, June 29 - July 1, 1998. The main goal of the conference was to bring together meteorologists, hydrologists, mathematicians, physicists, statisticians, and all others who are interested in fundamental principles governing the physical processes of precipitation. The results of the previous conferences have been published in issues of the Journal of Geophysical Research and Journal of Applied Meteorology. A similar format is planned for papers of this conference.

  1. The Sixth SeaWiFS/SIMBIOS Intercalibration Round-Robin Experiment (SIRREX-6)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riley, Thomas; Bailey, Sean

    1998-01-01

    For the sixth Sea-Viewing Wide Field-of-View Sensor (SeaWiFS) Intercalibration Round-Robin Experiment (SIRREX-6), NASA personnel carried the same four Satlantic in-water radiometers to nine separate laboratories and calibrated them. Two of the sensors were seven-channel radiance heads and two were seven-channel irradiance heads. The calibration and data reduction procedures used at each site followed that laboratory's normal procedures. The reference lamps normally used for the calibration of these types of instruments by the various laboratories were also used for this experiment. NASA personnel processed the data to produce calibration parameters from the various laboratories

  2. Proceedings of the sixth international conference on electronics for particle physics

    SciTech Connect

    Blanar, G.J.; Sumner, R.L.

    1997-12-31

    The Sixth Conference on Electronics for Particle Physics continued the LeCroy tradition of providing a unique forum for the leaders in the field to meet, report and compare notes on what has become one of the most important (and expensive) components of a particle physics physics experiments today. As our field continues to depend on special electronics developed for particle physics to even make the experiments possible, this conference, along with the IEEE National Science Symposium and the LHC Electronics Conference have become essential if we are to meet the experiment`s severe time and financial commitments.

  3. Task Switching in a Hierarchical Task Structure: Evidence for the Fragility of the Task Repetition Benefit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lien, Mei-Ching; Ruthruff, Eric

    2004-01-01

    This study examined how task switching is affected by hierarchical task organization. Traditional task-switching studies, which use a constant temporal and spatial distance between each task element (defined as a stimulus requiring a response), promote a flat task structure. Using this approach, Experiment 1 revealed a large switch cost of 238 ms.…

  4. Task-specific Dystonias

    PubMed Central

    Torres-Russotto, Diego; Perlmutter, Joel S.

    2009-01-01

    Task-specific dystonias are primary focal dystonias characterized by excessive muscle contractions producing abnormal postures during selective motor activities that often involve highly skilled, repetitive movements. Historically these peculiar postures were considered psychogenic but have now been classified as forms of dystonia. Writer’s cramp is the most commonly identified task-specific dystonia and has features typical of this group of disorders. Symptoms may begin with lack of dexterity during performance of a specific motor task with increasingly abnormal posturing of the involved body part as motor activity continues. Initially, the dystonia may manifest only during the performance of the inciting task, but as the condition progresses it may also occur during other activities or even at rest. Neurological exam is usually unremarkable except for the dystonia-related abnormalities. Although the precise pathophysiology remains unclear, increasing evidence suggests reduced inhibition at different levels of the sensorimotor system. Symptomatic treatment options include oral medications, botulinum toxin injections, neurosurgical procedures, and adaptive strategies. Prognosis may vary depending upon body part involved and specific type of task affected. Further research may reveal new insights into the etiology, pathophysiology, natural history, and improved treatment of these conditions. PMID:18990127

  5. Heteromeric TASK-1/TASK-3 is the major oxygen-sensitive background K+ channel in rat carotid body glomus cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Donghee; Cavanaugh, Eric J; Kim, Insook; Carroll, John L

    2009-06-15

    Carotid body (CB) glomus cells from rat express a TASK-like background K+ channel that is believed to play a critical role in the regulation of excitability and hypoxia-induced increase in respiration. Here we studied the kinetic behaviour of single channel openings from rat CB cells to determine the molecular identity of the 'TASK-like' K+ channels. In outside-out patches, the TASK-like background K+ channel in CB cells was inhibited >90% by a reduction of pH(o) from 7.3 to 5.8. In cell-attached patches with 140 mM KCl and 1 mM Mg2+ in the bath and pipette solutions, two main open levels with conductance levels of approximately 14 pS and approximately 32 pS were recorded at a membrane potential of -60 mV. The K+ channels showed kinetic properties similar to TASK-1 (approximately 14 pS), TASK-3 (approximately 32 pS) and TASK-1/3 heteromer (approximately 32 pS). The presence of three TASK isoforms was tested by reducing [Mg2+](o) to approximately 0 mM, which had no effect on the conductance of TASK-1, but increased those of TASK-1/3 and TASK-3 to 42 pS and 74 pS, respectively. In CB cells, the reduction of [Mg2+](o) to approximately 0 mM also caused the appearance of approximately 42 pS (TASK-1/3-like) and approximately 74 pS (TASK-3-like) channels, in addition to the approximately 14 pS (TASK-1-like) channel. The 42 pS channel was the most abundant, contributing approximately 75% of the current produced by TASK-like channels. Ruthenium red (5 microM) had no effect on TASK-1 and TASK-1/3, but inhibited TASK-3 by 87%. In CB cells, ruthenium red caused approximately 12% inhibition of TASK-like activity. Methanandamide reduced the activity of all three TASKs by 80-90%, and that of TASK-like channels in CB cell also by approximately 80%. In CB cells, hypoxia caused inhibition of TASK-like channels, including TASK-1/3-like channels. These results show that TASK-1, TASK-1/3 and TASK-3 are all functionally expressed in isolated CB cells, and that the TASK-1/3 heteromer

  6. Task 11 final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bolton, P.

    2000-10-01

    Under this task, RAE personnel were on call to accompany members of the Concerned Citizens for Nuclear Safety (CCNS) if and when they exercised the option to borrow radiac instruments from the Laboratory and survey areas they thought might be contaminated by the Lab. Five members of the RAE team were given refresher training on the latest Lab owned instruments and on Lab procedures for using them and reporting results. On one occasion, a RAE team member accompanied LANL personnel when they did a survey of a house trailer which the owner claimed may have been contaminated. No contamination was found at the site. No requests were received to accompany CCNS members. The original task completion date of September 30, 1998 was extended to June 21, 1999. No requests were received to accompany CCNS members during this timeframe either. The task was terminated as it was determined there was no longer a need.

  7. Distraction during learning with hypermedia: difficult tasks help to keep task goals on track

    PubMed Central

    Scheiter, Katharina; Gerjets, Peter; Heise, Elke

    2014-01-01

    In educational hypermedia environments, students are often confronted with potential sources of distraction arising from additional information that, albeit interesting, is unrelated to their current task goal. The paper investigates the conditions under which distraction occurs and hampers performance. Based on theories of volitional action control it was hypothesized that interesting information, especially if related to a pending goal, would interfere with task performance only when working on easy, but not on difficult tasks. In Experiment 1, 66 students learned about probability theory using worked examples and solved corresponding test problems, whose task difficulty was manipulated. As a second factor, the presence of interesting information unrelated to the primary task was varied. Results showed that students solved more easy than difficult probability problems correctly. However, the presence of interesting, but task-irrelevant information did not interfere with performance. In Experiment 2, 68 students again engaged in example-based learning and problem solving in the presence of task-irrelevant information. Problem-solving difficulty was varied as a first factor. Additionally, the presence of a pending goal related to the task-irrelevant information was manipulated. As expected, problem-solving performance declined when a pending goal was present during working on easy problems, whereas no interference was observed for difficult problems. Moreover, the presence of a pending goal reduced the time on task-relevant information and increased the time on task-irrelevant information while working on easy tasks. However, as revealed by mediation analyses these changes in overt information processing behavior did not explain the decline in problem-solving performance. As an alternative explanation it is suggested that goal conflicts resulting from pending goals claim cognitive resources, which are then no longer available for learning and problem solving. PMID

  8. Distraction during learning with hypermedia: difficult tasks help to keep task goals on track.

    PubMed

    Scheiter, Katharina; Gerjets, Peter; Heise, Elke

    2014-01-01

    In educational hypermedia environments, students are often confronted with potential sources of distraction arising from additional information that, albeit interesting, is unrelated to their current task goal. The paper investigates the conditions under which distraction occurs and hampers performance. Based on theories of volitional action control it was hypothesized that interesting information, especially if related to a pending goal, would interfere with task performance only when working on easy, but not on difficult tasks. In Experiment 1, 66 students learned about probability theory using worked examples and solved corresponding test problems, whose task difficulty was manipulated. As a second factor, the presence of interesting information unrelated to the primary task was varied. Results showed that students solved more easy than difficult probability problems correctly. However, the presence of interesting, but task-irrelevant information did not interfere with performance. In Experiment 2, 68 students again engaged in example-based learning and problem solving in the presence of task-irrelevant information. Problem-solving difficulty was varied as a first factor. Additionally, the presence of a pending goal related to the task-irrelevant information was manipulated. As expected, problem-solving performance declined when a pending goal was present during working on easy problems, whereas no interference was observed for difficult problems. Moreover, the presence of a pending goal reduced the time on task-relevant information and increased the time on task-irrelevant information while working on easy tasks. However, as revealed by mediation analyses these changes in overt information processing behavior did not explain the decline in problem-solving performance. As an alternative explanation it is suggested that goal conflicts resulting from pending goals claim cognitive resources, which are then no longer available for learning and problem solving. PMID

  9. Assessing L2 Task Performance: Understanding Effects of Task Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tavakoli, Parvaneh

    2009-01-01

    The overarching aim of the research reported here was to investigate the effects of task structure and storyline complexity of oral narrative tasks on second language task performance. Participants were 60 Iranian language learners of English who performed six narrative tasks of varying degree of structure and storyline complexity in an assessment…

  10. The dispersion of pederasty and the athletic revolution in sixth-century BC Greece.

    PubMed

    Scanlon, Thomas F

    2005-01-01

    Dorian Crete and Thebes are conventionally seen by ancient sources as the originators of pederasty; modern historians see support for this view in Dorian male-centered militarism and sexual segregation in upbringing. Here athletic culture, including training, nudism, and competition, is argued to be a chief 'trigger' for the emergence of pederasty in Sparta and its relatively rapid spread to other Greek states in the seventh to sixth centuries BC. Athletic nudity, in particular, was not a device to enforce civic egalitarianism, as some have argued, but is a persistently erotic incentive that reinforces hegemonic maleness and advertises the individual's virtuous exercise of restraint. In particular, Sparta is found to be the likely source of generalized athletic nudity combined with open pederasty in the early seventh century BC. Nudism in Greek art is erotically charged and not, as others argue, simply a gender marker in the seventh century. Generalized athletic nudity spread to other Greek states emulating the successful Spartan model by the 'athletic revolution' of the early sixth century. With athletic nudity, open pederasty, again following Sparta, was fostered. PMID:16338890

  11. Nonautomatic emotion perception in a dual-task situation.

    PubMed

    Tomasik, Dave; Ruthruff, Eric; Allen, Philip A; Lien, Mei-Ching

    2009-04-01

    Are emotions perceived automatically? Two psychological refractory period experiments were conducted to ascertain whether emotion perception requires central attentional resources. Task 1 required an auditory discrimination (tone vs. noise), whereas Task 2 required a discrimination between happy and angry faces. The difficulty of Task 2 was manipulated by varying the degree of emotional expression. The stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) between Task 1 and Task 2 was also varied. Experiment 1 revealed additive effects of SOA and Task 2 emotion-perception difficulty. Experiment 2 replicated the additive relationship with a stronger manipulation of emotion-perception difficulty. According to locus-of-slack logic, our participants did not process emotional expressions while central resources were devoted to Task 1. We conclude that emotion perception is not fully automatic. PMID:19293095

  12. Lubricant and additive effects on spur gear fatigue life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, D. P.; Zaretsky, E. V.; Scibbe, H. W.

    1985-01-01

    Spur gear endurance tests were conducted with six lubricants using a single lot of consumable-electrode vacuum melted (CVM) AISI 9310 spur gears. The sixth lubricant was divided into four batches each of which had a different additive content. Lubricants tested with a phosphorus-type load carrying additive showed a statistically significant improvement in life over lubricants without this type of additive. The presence of sulfur type antiwear additives in the lubricant did not appear to affect the surface fatigue life of the gears. No statistical difference in life was produced with those lubricants of different base stocks but with similar viscosity, pressure-viscosity coefficients and antiwear additives. Gears tested with a 0.1 wt % sulfur and 0.1 wt % phosphorus EP additives in the lubricant had reactive films that were 200 to 400 (0.8 to 1.6 microns) thick.

  13. Chizu Task Mapping Tool

    2014-07-01

    Chizu is a tool for Mapping MPI processes or tasks to physical processors or nodes for optimizing communication performance. It takes the communication graph of a High Performance Computing (HPC) application and the interconnection topology of a supercomputer as input. It outputs a new MPI rand to processor mapping, which can be used when launching the HPC application.

  14. Creating Positive Task Constraints

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mally, Kristi K.

    2006-01-01

    Constraints are characteristics of the individual, the task, or the environment that mold and shape movement choices and performances. Constraints can be positive--encouraging proficient movements or negative--discouraging movement or promoting ineffective movements. Physical educators must analyze, evaluate, and determine the effect various…

  15. Planetary image conversion task

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, M. D.; Stanley, C. L.; Laughlin, G.

    1985-01-01

    The Planetary Image Conversion Task group processed 12,500 magnetic tapes containing raw imaging data from JPL planetary missions and produced an image data base in consistent format on 1200 fully packed 6250-bpi tapes. The output tapes will remain at JPL. A copy of the entire tape set was delivered to US Geological Survey, Flagstaff, Ariz. A secondary task converted computer datalogs, which had been stored in project specific MARK IV File Management System data types and structures, to flat-file, text format that is processable on any modern computer system. The conversion processing took place at JPL's Image Processing Laboratory on an IBM 370-158 with existing software modified slightly to meet the needs of the conversion task. More than 99% of the original digital image data was successfully recovered by the conversion task. However, processing data tapes recorded before 1975 was destructive. This discovery is of critical importance to facilities responsible for maintaining digital archives since normal periodic random sampling techniques would be unlikely to detect this phenomenon, and entire data sets could be wiped out in the act of generating seemingly positive sampling results. Reccomended follow-on activities are also included.

  16. Data Center Tasking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Temares, M. Lewis; Lutheran, Joseph A.

    Operations tasking for data center management is discussed. The original and revised organizational structures of the data center at the University of Miami are also described. The organizational strategy addresses the functions that should be performed by the data center, anticipates the specialized skills required, and addresses personnel…

  17. Task 1 quarternary tectonics

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, J.W.

    1994-12-31

    Activities on the task of quarternary tectonics for the Yucca Mountain Site investigations are described. Technical topics include: A preliminary reveiw of Bare Mountain Trench; A preliminary detailed lineament map of the Southwestern part of the proposed repository; A discussion on the 1994 Double Spring Flat, Nevada earthquake; and evidence for temporal clustering.

  18. Project Echo Task Group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1964-01-01

    'A technician assigned to the Project Echo Task Group separates the two hemispheres of the Echo 1 container for inspection. The charge that freed the balloon was placed inside of a ring encircling the canister at its equator.' Published in James R. Hansen, Spaceflight Revolution: NASA Langley Research Center From Sputnik to Apollo, NASA SP-4308, p. 181.

  19. Randomization in robot tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erdmann, Michael

    1992-01-01

    This paper investigates the role of randomization in the solution of robot manipulation tasks. One example of randomization is shown by the strategy of shaking a bin holding a part in order to orient the part in a desired stable state with some high probability. Randomization can be useful for mobile robot navigation and as a means of guiding the design process.

  20. Mining Task Force Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saskatchewan Inst. of Applied Science and Technology, Saskatoon.

    In fall 1988, the Board of Directors of the Saskatchewan Institute of Applied Science and Technology (SIAST) created a task force to study the training needs of the mining industry in the province and evaluate SIAST's responsiveness to those needs. After assessing the technological changes taking place in the industry, surveying manpower needs,…

  1. Embodied Task Dynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simko, Juraj; Cummins, Fred

    2010-01-01

    Movement science faces the challenge of reconciling parallel sequences of discrete behavioral goals with observed fluid, context-sensitive motion. This challenge arises with a vengeance in the speech domain, in which gestural primitives play the role of discrete goals. The task dynamic framework has proved effective in modeling the manner in which…

  2. Job Task Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemson Univ., SC.

    This publication consists of job task analyses for jobs in textile manufacturing. Information provided for each job in the greige and finishing plants includes job title, job purpose, and job duties with related educational objectives, curriculum, assessment, and outcome. These job titles are included: yarn manufacturing head overhauler, yarn…

  3. Thinking about "Rich" Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Box, Lorna; Watson, Anne

    2010-01-01

    This article presents an e-mail conversation between two teachers discussing how to have a "rich task" lesson in which they get to the heart of mathematical modeling and in which students are motivated into working on mathematics. One teacher emphasizes that the power of maths is in developing mathematical descriptions of situations by looking at…

  4. Biomedical applications engineering tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laenger, C. J., Sr.

    1976-01-01

    The engineering tasks performed in response to needs articulated by clinicians are described. Initial contacts were made with these clinician-technology requestors by the Southwest Research Institute NASA Biomedical Applications Team. The basic purpose of the program was to effectively transfer aerospace technology into functional hardware to solve real biomedical problems.

  5. A comparison of concrete and formal science instruction upon science achievement and reasoning ability of sixth grade students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saunders, Walter L.; Shepardson, Daniel

    Several recent studies suggest concrete learners make greater gains in student achievement and in cognitive development when receiving concrete instruction than when receiving formal instruction. This study examined the effect of concrete and formal instruction upon reasoning and science achievement of sixth grade students. Four intact classes of sixth grade students were randomly selected into two treatment groups; concrete and formal. The treatments were patterned after the operational definitions published by Schneider and Renner (1980). Pretest and posttest measures were taken on the two dependent variables; reasoning, measured with Lawson's Classroom Test of Formal Reasoning, and science achievement, measured with seven teacher made tests covering the following units in a sixth grade general science curriculum: Chemistry, Physics, Earth Science, Cells, Plants, Animals, and Ecology. Analysis of covariance indicated significantly higher levels (better than 0.05 and in some cases 0.01) of performance in science achievement and cognitive development favoring the concrete instruction group and a significant gender effect favoring males.

  6. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia responses to cognitive tasks: effects of task factors and RSA indices.

    PubMed

    Overbeek, Thérèse J M; van Boxtel, Anton; Westerink, Joyce H D M

    2014-05-01

    Many studies show that respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) decreases while performing cognitive tasks. However, there is uncertainty about the role of contaminating factors such as physical activity and stress-inducing task variables. Different methods to quantify RSA may also contribute to variable results. In 83 healthy subjects, we studied RSA responses to a working memory task requiring varying levels of cognitive control and a perceptual attention task not requiring strong cognitive control. RSA responses were quantified in the time and frequency domain and were additionally corrected for differences in mean interbeat interval and respiration rate, resulting in eight different RSA indices. The two tasks were clearly differentiated by heart rate and facial EMG reference measures. Cognitive control induced inhibition of RSA whereas perceptual attention generally did not. However, the results show several differences between different RSA indices, emphasizing the importance of methodological variables. Age and sex did not influence the results. PMID:24561100

  7. The Evolution of Children's Mental Addition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashcraft, Mark H.; Hamann, Mary Sue

    Students in grades 1, 4, 7, and 10 were tested in a two-part investigation of simple and complex mental addition (with college students as a reference point). One session involved a normal reaction time task in which children made true/false judgments about a series of addition examples. The other session involved a verbal protocol interview, the…

  8. Application of a Sixth Order Generalized Stress Function To Determine Limit Loads for Plates with Triangular Penetration Patterns

    SciTech Connect

    J.L. Gordon; D.P. Jones

    2001-12-20

    The capabilities to obtain limit load solutions of plates with triangular penetration patterns using fourth order functions to represent the collapse surface has been presented in previous papers. These papers describe how equivalent solid plate elastic-perfectly plastic finite element capabilities are generated and demonstrated how such capabilities can be used to great advantage in the analysis of tubesheets in large heat exchanger applications. However, these papers have pointed out that although the fourth order functions can produce sufficient accuracy for many practical applications, there are situations where improvements in the accuracy of inplane and transverse shear are desirable. This paper investigates the use of a sixth order function to represent the collapse surface for improved accuracy of the inplane response. Explicit elastic-perfectly plastic finite element solutions are obtained for unit cells representing an infinite array of circular penetrations arranged in an equilateral triangular array. These cells are used to create a numerical representation of the complete collapse surfaces for a number of ligament efficiencies (h/P where h is the minimum ligament width and P is the distance between hole centers). Each collapse surface is then fit to a sixth order function that satisfies the periodicity of the hole pattern. Sixth-order collapse functions were developed for h/P values between .05 and .50. Accuracy of the sixth order and the fourth order functions are compared. It was found that the sixth order function is indeed more accurate, reducing the error from 12.2% for the fourth order function to less than 3% for the sixth order function.

  9. Information-seeking strategies and science content understandings of sixth-grade students using on-line learning environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffman, Joseph Loris

    1999-11-01

    This study examined the information-seeking strategies and science content understandings learners developed as a result of using on-line resources in the University of Michigan Digital Library and on the World Wide Web. Eight pairs of sixth grade students from two teachers' classrooms were observed during inquiries for astronomy, ecology, geology, and weather, and a final transfer task assessed learners' capabilities at the end of the school year. Data included video recordings of students' screen activity and conversations, journals and completed activity sheets, final artifacts, and semi-structured interviews. Learners' information-seeking strategies included activities related to asking, planning, tool usage, searching, assessing, synthesizing, writing, and creating. Analysis of data found a majority of learners posed meaningful, openended questions, used technological tools appropriately, developed pertinent search topics, were thoughtful in queries to the digital library, browsed sites purposefully to locate information, and constructed artifacts with novel formats. Students faced challenges when planning activities, assessing resources, and synthesizing information. Possible explanations were posed linking pedagogical practices with learners' growth and use of inquiry strategies. Data from classroom-lab video and teacher interviews showed varying degrees of student scaffolding: development and critique of initial questions, utilization of search tools, use of journals for reflection on activities, and requirements for final artifacts. Science content understandings included recalling information, offering explanations, articulating relationships, and extending explanations. A majority of learners constructed partial understandings limited to information recall and simple explanations, and these occasionally contained inaccurate conceptualizations. Web site design features had some influence on the construction of learners' content understandings. Analysis of

  10. Event Related Potentials (ERPs) in Elementary Cognitive Tasks Reflect Task Difficulty and Task Threshold.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caryl, P. G.; Harper, Alison

    1996-01-01

    Effects on the event-related potential (ERP) waveform of differences in stimuli (task difficulty) and threshold were studied with 35 undergraduates performing a visual inspection time task and 30 performing a pitch discrimination task. In both tasks, ERP differences related to threshold were temporally localized differences in waveform shape. (SLD)

  11. Obesity in Korean Men: Results from the Fourth through Sixth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (2007~2014)

    PubMed Central

    Park, Yeon Won; Choi, Kwi Bok; Kim, Soon Ki; Lee, Dong-Gi

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Obesity is related to many diseases, including urological conditions. We investigated the prevalence, risk factors, and treatment of male obesity. Materials and Methods This study included 17,485 men older than 20 years of age who participated in the fourth, fifth, and sixth administrations of the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Two main cutoff points for obesity were defined: a body mass index (BMI) ≥25 kg/m2 and a BMI≥30 kg/m2. Additionally, we defined obesity requiring pharmacotherapy as the presence of a BMI≥30 kg/m2 or a BMI≥27 kg/m2 co-occurring with at least one associated comorbid medical condition, such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, or diabetes. Results The prevalence rates of a BMI≥25 kg/m2, a BMI≥30 kg/m2, and obesity requiring pharmacotherapy were 35.7%, 3.4%, and 10.5%, respectively. The prevalence of obesity increased over time for all definitions of obesity. The prevalence of obesity requiring pharmacotherapy was highest in Jeju (12.5%) and lowest in Gangwon-do (7.7%). Having a higher income, being a non-manual worker, and having completed a high level of education were significantly related to obesity requiring pharmacotherapy. More than 70% of patients with obesity requiring pharmacotherapy reported taking diet pills, eating functional foods, or consuming a one-food diet for weight reduction, but only 13.9% reported exercising for this purpose. Conclusions Male obesity is a common condition, the prevalence of which is expected to continue to increase over time. A better strategy is required to manage male obesity in Korea. PMID:27574596

  12. Task switching in a hierarchical task structure: evidence for the fragility of the task repetition benefit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lien, Mei-Ching; Ruthruff, Eric

    2004-01-01

    This study examined how task switching is affected by hierarchical task organization. Traditional task-switching studies, which use a constant temporal and spatial distance between each task element (defined as a stimulus requiring a response), promote a flat task structure. Using this approach, Experiment 1 revealed a large switch cost of 238 ms. In Experiments 2-5, adjacent task elements were grouped temporally and/or spatially (forming an ensemble) to create a hierarchical task organization. Results indicate that the effect of switching at the ensemble level dominated the effect of switching at the element level. Experiments 6 and 7, using an ensemble of 3 task elements, revealed that the element-level switch cost was virtually absent between ensembles but was large within an ensemble. The authors conclude that the element-level task repetition benefit is fragile and can be eliminated in a hierarchical task organization.

  13. Mobile Thread Task Manager

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clement, Bradley J.; Estlin, Tara A.; Bornstein, Benjamin J.

    2013-01-01

    The Mobile Thread Task Manager (MTTM) is being applied to parallelizing existing flight software to understand the benefits and to develop new techniques and architectural concepts for adapting software to multicore architectures. It allocates and load-balances tasks for a group of threads that migrate across processors to improve cache performance. In order to balance-load across threads, the MTTM augments a basic map-reduce strategy to draw jobs from a global queue. In a multicore processor, memory may be "homed" to the cache of a specific processor and must be accessed from that processor. The MTTB architecture wraps access to data with thread management to move threads to the home processor for that data so that the computation follows the data in an attempt to avoid L2 cache misses. Cache homing is also handled by a memory manager that translates identifiers to processor IDs where the data will be homed (according to rules defined by the user). The user can also specify the number of threads and processors separately, which is important for tuning performance for different patterns of computation and memory access. MTTM efficiently processes tasks in parallel on a multiprocessor computer. It also provides an interface to make it easier to adapt existing software to a multiprocessor environment.

  14. General overview of the Sixth International Symposium on Stem Cell Therapy and Cardiovascular Innovations.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Alvarez, Ma Eugenia; Sanz-Ruiz, Ricardo; Gutiérrez, Enrique; Villa, Adolfo; Fernández, Ma Eugenia; Vázquez, Sandra; José Lorenzo, Ma; Fernández, Lucía; Pascual, Isaac; Sánchez, Pedro L; Fernández-Avilés, Francisco

    2010-02-01

    Being one of the main stem cell therapy meetings of the year, the Sixth International Symposium on Stem Cell Therapy and Cardiovascular Innovations was held on April 23rd-24th, 2009, at the Auditorium of the High Council of Scientific Research of Spain (CSIC) in Madrid. Gathering the most prestigious basic researchers and clinical experts in the field of cardiovascular regenerative medicine, the aim of the meeting was to discuss the available evidence and the recent contributions from preclinical investigators, cardiologists, and cardiac surgeons in a participative translational fashion. The role of young "clinician scientists" was reinforced with a special poster session and three awards. The main conclusions of the symposium were (1) that standardization, larger clinical trials, and true translational research are needed, and (2) that new-allogeneic-stem cell products, biotechnological devices, and cell-based bioartificial organs are potentially exciting options for the future. PMID:20560031

  15. On the discrete and continuous Miura chain associated with the sixth Painlevé equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nijhoff, Frank; Joshi, Nalini; Hone, Andrew

    2000-01-01

    A Miura chain is a (closed) sequence of differential (or difference) equations that are related by Miura or Bäcklund transformations. We describe such a chain for the sixth Painlevé equation (P VI), containing, apart from P VI itself, a Schwarzian version as well as a second-order second-degree ordinary differential equation (ODE). As a byproduct we derive an auto-Bäcklund transformation, relating two copies of P VI with different parameters. We also establish the analogous ordinary difference equations in the discrete counterpart of the chain. Such difference equations govern iterations of solutions of P VI under Bäcklund transformations. Both discrete and continuous equations constitute a larger system which include partial difference equations, differential-difference equations and partial differential equations, all associated with the lattice Korteweg-de Vries equation subject to similarity constraints.

  16. Physical properties and sixth graders' acceptance of an extruded ready-to-eat sweetpotato breakfast cereal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dansby, M. Y.; Bovell-Benjamin, A. C.

    2003-01-01

    Extruded ready-to-eat breakfast cereals (RTEBCs) were made from varying levels of sweetpotato flour (SPF), whole-wheat bran (WWB), and extrusion cooking. Moisture, protein, and ash contents were lower in the 100% SPF than the 100% WWB. Carbohydrate, beta-carotene, and ascorbic acid contents were higher in the 100% SPF. Fat, thiamin, riboflavin contents, bulk densities, and the water absorption index were similar for the cereals. However, the expansion ratio was highest in the 100% SPF cereal. The 100% WWB had the lightest color and most fibrous morphology. Extruded RTEBC containing 100% SPF and 75%/25% SPF/WWB were well-liked and acceptable to sixth graders attending an elementary school in Auburn, Alabama, but the 100% WWB was unacceptable.

  17. Benign Recurrent Sixth (Abducens) Nerve Palsy following Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccination.

    PubMed

    Bourtoulamaiou, Areti; Yadav, Sohraab; Nayak, Harish

    2015-01-01

    Benign, isolated, recurrent sixth nerve palsy is rare in children. It may be associated with febrile viral illness and vaccination in exceptional circumstances although this is a diagnosis of exclusion. Here, we present the case of a 2-year-old Caucasian girl who developed recurrent 6th nerve palsy following vaccination with the measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine. No underlying pathology was identified following extensive investigations and followup. There is limited data available on the pathophysiology of vaccination-related nerve palsies. As with all previous reports of cranial nerve palsies following vaccination, there was complete resolution in this case. Long term followup with repeated physical examination and investigations is warranted to avoid missing severe pathology and operating unnecessarily. PMID:26257972

  18. Proceedings of the sixth international conference on fluidized bed combustion. Volume II. Technical sessions

    SciTech Connect

    1980-08-01

    The Sixth International Conference on Fluidized Bed Combustion was held April 9-11, 1980, at the Atlanta Hilton, Atlanta, Georgia. It was sponsored by the US Department of Energy, the Electric Power Research Institute, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Tennessee Valley Authority. The papers covered recent developments in atmospheric and pressurized fluidized-bed combustion, especially the design, operation and control of pilot and demonstration plants. The cleanup of combustion products and the erosion, corrosion and fouling of gas turbines was emphasized also. Fifty-five papers from Volume 2 of the proceedings have been entered individually into EDB and ERA; five papers had been entered previously from other sources. (LTN)

  19. High Temperature Materials Laboratory sixth annual report, October 1992--September 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Tennery, V.J.; Foust, F.M.

    1993-12-01

    The High Temperature Materials Laboratory has completed its sixth year of operation as a designated Department of Energy User Facility at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Growth of the User Program is evidenced by the number of outside institutions executing user agreements since the facility began operation in 1987. A total of 172 nonproprietary agreements (88 university and 84 industry) and 35 proprietary agreements, (2 university, 33 industry) are now in effect. Six other government facilities have also participated in the User Program. Thirty-eight states are represented by these interactions. Ninety-four nonproprietary research proposals (44 from universities, 47 from industry, and 3 from other government facilities) and three proprietary proposals were considered during this reporting period. Nonproprietary research projects active in FY 1993 are summarized.

  20. ICENES `91:Sixth international conference on emerging nuclear energy systems. Program and abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-31

    This document contains the program and abstracts of the sessions at the Sixth International Conference on Emerging Nuclear Energy Systems held June 16--21, 1991 at Monterey, California. These sessions included: The plenary session, fission session, fission and nonelectric session, poster session 1P; (space propulsion, space nuclear power, electrostatic confined fusion, fusion miscellaneous, inertial confinement fusion, {mu}-catalyzed fusion, and cold fusion); Advanced fusion session, space nuclear session, poster session 2P, (nuclear reactions/data, isotope separation, direct energy conversion and exotic concepts, fusion-fission hybrids, nuclear desalting, accelerator waste-transmutation, and fusion-based chemical recycling); energy policy session, poster session 3P (energy policy, magnetic fusion reactors, fission reactors, magnetically insulated inertial fusion, and nuclear explosives for power generation); exotic energy storage and conversion session; and exotic energy storage and conversion; review and closing session.

  1. RSRA sixth scale wind tunnel test. Tabulated balance data, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruddell, A.; Flemming, R.

    1974-01-01

    Summaries are presented of all the force and moment data acquired during the RSRA Sixth Scale Wind Tunnel Test. These data include and supplement the data presented in curve form in previous reports. Each summary includes the model configuration, wing and empennage incidences and deflections, and recorded balance data. The first group of data in each summary presents the force and moment data in full scale parametric form, the dynamic pressure and velocity in the test section, and the powered nacelle fan speed. The second and third groups of data are the balance data in nondimensional coefficient form. The wind axis coefficient data corresponds to the parametric data divided by the wing area for forces and divided by the product of the wing area and wing span or mean aerodynamic chord for moments. The stability axis data resolves the wind axis data with respect to the angle of yaw.

  2. Task frequency influences stimulus-driven effects on task selection during voluntary task switching.

    PubMed

    Arrington, Catherine M; Reiman, Kaitlin M

    2015-08-01

    Task selection during voluntary task switching involves both top-down (goal-directed) and bottom-up (stimulus-driven) mechanisms. The factors that shift the balance between these two mechanisms are not well characterized. In the present research, we studied the role that task frequency plays in determining the extent of stimulus-driven task selection. In two experiments, we used the basic paradigm adapted from Arrington (Memory & Cognition, 38, 991-997, 2008), in which the effect of stimulus availability serves as a marker of stimulus-driven task selection. A number and letter appeared on each trial with varying stimulus onset asynchronies, and participants performed either a consonant/vowel or an even/odd judgment. In Experiment 1, participants were instructed as to the relative frequency with which each task was to be performed (i.e., 50/50, 60/40, or 75/25) and were further instructed to make their transitions between tasks unpredictable. In Experiment 2, participants were given no instructions about how to select tasks, resulting in naturally occurring variation in task frequency. With both instructed (Exp. 1) and naturally occurring (Exp. 2) relative task frequencies, the less frequently performed task showed a greater effect of stimulus availability on task selection, suggestive of a larger influence of stimulus-driven mechanisms during task performance for the less frequent task. When goal-directed mechanisms of task choice are engaged less frequently, the relative influence of the stimulus environment increases. PMID:26106057

  3. An analysis of global problem issues in sixth-and seventh-grade textbooks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamm, Mary; Adams, Dennis

    The study examines the extent to which the global issues of population growth, world hunger, air quality and atmosphere, and water resources were treated in sixth- and seventh-grade science textbooks. Ten textbooks were examined by five raters to determine the amount of content presented by different textbooks on global issues, the number of pages of content devoted to each issue, and the degree of depth in which issues were treated. Differences between grade levels were also explored. Of the 4,393 pages of content analyzed, less than 2 percent was devoted to these issues identified as the most serious human problems. No significant differences were found between textbook series. Significant differences were found in the number of pages of content presented on each issue. Most of the content fell into the categories of water resources, population growth, air quality, and atmosphere. The issue of war technology had the least amount of content. Distribution of content did not vary by grade level. Both levels addressed the issues of population growth, air quality, and water resources with a greater degree of depth than the issue of world hunger or war technology. The study concludes that the most widely used textbooks at the sixth- and seventh-grade levels avoid serious discussion of major global problems. And like the career indecision of a recent Miss America contestant, purchasers don't seem to be able to decide whether they want science textbooks to be a brain surgeon or a movie actress. Implications stemming from this dichotomy and its relationship to future science education curricular are also explored.

  4. Latent profile analysis of sixth graders based on teacher ratings: Association with school dropout.

    PubMed

    Orpinas, Pamela; Raczynski, Katherine; Peters, Jaclyn Wetherington; Colman, Laura; Bandalos, Deborah

    2015-12-01

    The goal of this study was to identify meaningful groups of sixth graders with common characteristics based on teacher ratings of assets and maladaptive behaviors, describe dropout rates for each group, and examine the validity of these groups using students' self-reports. The sample consisted of racially diverse students (n = 675) attending sixth grade in public schools in Northeast Georgia. The majority of the sample was randomly selected; a smaller group was identified by teachers as high risk for aggression. Based on teacher ratings of externalizing behaviors, internalizing problems, academic skills, leadership, and social assets, latent profile analysis yielded 7 classes that can be displayed along a continuum: Well-Adapted, Average, Average-Social Skills Deficit, Internalizing, Externalizing, Disruptive Behavior with School Problems, and Severe Problems. Dropout rate was lowest for the Well-adapted class (4%) and highest for the Severe Problems class (58%). However, students in the Average-Social Skills Deficit class did not follow the continuum, with a large proportion of students who abandoned high school (29%). The proportion of students identified by teachers as high in aggression consistently increased across the continuum from none in the Well-Adapted class to 84% in the Severe Problems class. Students' self-reports were generally consistent with the latent profile classes. Students in the Well-Adapted class reported low aggression, drug use, and delinquency, and high life satisfaction; self-reports went in the opposite direction for the Disruptive Behaviors with School Problems class. Results highlight the importance of early interventions to improve academic performance, reduce externalizing behaviors, and enhance social assets. PMID:25528590

  5. Accelerated modern human–induced species losses: Entering the sixth mass extinction

    PubMed Central

    Ceballos, Gerardo; Ehrlich, Paul R.; Barnosky, Anthony D.; García, Andrés; Pringle, Robert M.; Palmer, Todd M.

    2015-01-01

    The oft-repeated claim that Earth’s biota is entering a sixth “mass extinction” depends on clearly demonstrating that current extinction rates are far above the “background” rates prevailing between the five previous mass extinctions. Earlier estimates of extinction rates have been criticized for using assumptions that might overestimate the severity of the extinction crisis. We assess, using extremely conservative assumptions, whether human activities are causing a mass extinction. First, we use a recent estimate of a background rate of 2 mammal extinctions per 10,000 species per 100 years (that is, 2 E/MSY), which is twice as high as widely used previous estimates. We then compare this rate with the current rate of mammal and vertebrate extinctions. The latter is conservatively low because listing a species as extinct requires meeting stringent criteria. Even under our assumptions, which would tend to minimize evidence of an incipient mass extinction, the average rate of vertebrate species loss over the last century is up to 100 times higher than the background rate. Under the 2 E/MSY background rate, the number of species that have gone extinct in the last century would have taken, depending on the vertebrate taxon, between 800 and 10,000 years to disappear. These estimates reveal an exceptionally rapid loss of biodiversity over the last few centuries, indicating that a sixth mass extinction is already under way. Averting a dramatic decay of biodiversity and the subsequent loss of ecosystem services is still possible through intensified conservation efforts, but that window of opportunity is rapidly closing. PMID:26601195

  6. Physiological Changes in Sixth Graders Who Trained to Walk the Boston Marathon

    PubMed Central

    Volpe, Stella L.; Rife, Frank N.; Melanson, Edward L.; Merritt, Ann; Witek, Joanne; Freedson, Patty S.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess if supervised, low intensity training would improve aerobic capacity and body composition in sixth graders. Twelve sixth graders walk-trained at approximately 50% of their maximal heart rate, four to five days/week for 12 weeks; beginning with an average of 10 miles/week and increasing to about 27 miles/week (Experimental group [E]). Six subjects of similar age volunteered to be controls (Control group [C]). Baseline and post?training measurements included: height (cm), body weight (kg), sum of skinfolds at six sites (mm), and maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max; ml·kg-1·min-1). Three-day dietary records were also collected at pre-, mid-, and post-training to assess dietary changes that may have occurred during the study. There were significant increases (p < 0.05) from baseline to post-training in both groups in height and body weight. There was a significant interaction in the sum of skinfolds: E decreased 10.3% (p < 0.05) and C increased 2.3% (p > 0.05). There were no significant differences between groups in relative VO2max (ml·kg-1min-1) from baseline to post-training. C consumed significantly more total kilojoules (11,577 ± 3883 [C]; 7431 ± 2523 [E]) and more total grams of carbohydrate (392 ± 403 [C]; 227 ± 48 [E]) and fat (93 ± 97 [C]; 62 ± 29 [E]) than E, post-training. C also consumed significantly more total grams of protein than E pre-training (95 ± 99 [C]; 74 ± 21 [E]). In conclusion, walk-training elicited a significant decrease in sum of skinfolds with no change in relative VO2max. Furthermore, no dietary changes were observed in the experimental group as a result of the training. PMID:24748844

  7. Fatness, Fitness, and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors among Sixth-Grade Youth

    PubMed Central

    JAGO, RUSSELL; DREWS, KIMBERLY L.; MCMURRAY, ROBERT G.; THOMPSON, DEBBE; VOLPE, STELLA L.; MOE, ESTHER L.; JAKICIC, JOHN M.; PHAM, TRANG H.; BRUECKER, STEVE; BLACKSHEAR, TARA B.; YIN, ZENONG

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Examine whether cardiometabolic risk factors are predicted by fitness or fatness among adolescents. Methods Participants are 4955 (2614 female) sixth-grade students with complete data from 42 US middle schools. Fasting blood samples were analyzed for total cholesterol, HDL- and LDL-cholesterol, triglyceride, glucose, and insulin concentrations. Waist circumference and blood pressure were assessed. Body mass index (BMI) was categorized as normal weight, overweight, or obese as a measure of fatness. Fitness was assessed using the multistage shuttle test and was converted into gender-specific quintiles. Gender-specific regression models, adjusted for race, pubertal status, and household education, were run to identify whether BMI group predicted risk factors. Models were repeated with fitness group and both fitness and fatness groups as predictors. Results Means for each risk factor (except HDL, which was the reverse) were significantly higher (P < 0.0001) with increased fatness and differed across all BMI groups (P < 0.001). Waist circumference, LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, diastolic blood pressure, and insulin were inversely associated with fitness (P < 0.001). When both fatness and fitness were included in the model, BMI was associated (P < 0.001) with almost all cardiometabolic risk factors; fitness was only associated with waist circumference (both genders), LDL-cholesterol (males), and insulin (both genders). Other associations between fitness and cardiometabolic risk factors were attenuated after adjustment for BMI group. Conclusions Both fatness and fitness are associated with cardiometabolic risk factors among sixth-grade youth, but stronger associations were observed for fatness. Although maintaining high levels of fitness and preventing obesity may positively affect cardiometabolic risk factors, greater benefit may be obtained from obesity prevention. PMID:20139783

  8. Sixth Graders' Co-construction of Explanations of a Disturbance in an Ecosystem: Exploring relationships between grouping, reflective scaffolding, and evidence-based explanations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyza, Eleni A.; Constantinou, Costas P.; Spanoudis, George

    2011-12-01

    We report on a study investigating the relationship between cognitive ability grouping, reflective inquiry scaffolding, and students' collaborative explanations of an ecosystem disturbance which took place when a number of flamingo birds died in a salt lake because of nearby intensive human activities. Twenty-six pairs of students from two intact sixth-grade classes participated in the study. All students investigated scientific data relating to the ecosystem problem using a web-based learning environment. One class was provided with web-based reflective inquiry scaffolding (WorkSpace), while the other class used PowerPoint. The main data analyzed for this study consisted of each pair's written explanation and task-related artifacts. Findings show that the web-based reflective scaffolding supported students in providing valid evidence in support of their explanations. The analyses of the students' collaborative explanations showed no statistically significant differences that could be attributed to prior achievement between students in the WorkSpace condition, while differences were found between the different cognitive ability pairs in the PowerPoint class. These findings suggest that the WorkSpace scaffolding may have provided more influential support to lower cognitive ability pairs in creating evidence-based explanations.

  9. Sixth coordination meeting of the Division of Nuclear Physics Program to meet high-priority nuclear data needs of the Office of Fusion Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-06-01

    The Sixth Coordination Meeting of the Program to Meet Nuclear Data Needs for Fusion Energy was held in Athens, September 19--21, 1989. The principal change from the previous meeting at Argonne was the larger international participation. One scientist from Japan represented the only non-US participation at Argonne. The present meeting included about 20% non-US participants. This change is a welcome one since the data needs are international and the limited availability of manpower and facilities will likely make international cooperation increasingly important in the future. The organization of the meeting involved collecting and distributing to all participants progress reports from the Department of Energy laboratories in advance of the meeting. Twenty-five oral presentations were made at the meeting, including many from non-DOE labs. The meeting then divided into experimental and theoretical task force groups, which carried out assigned agenda items. The reports of these groups, abstracts of the talks presented at the meeting, and the progress reports are included in this report. The topics discussed will be very familiar to participants in past meetings, but continued progress in most areas was reported. One discussion topic which reflects continuing and perhaps worsening problems was the aging of facilities and personnel, coupled with a lack of programs to renew.

  10. The Effectiveness of Scaffolding Interactive Activities in Developing the English Listening Comprehension Skills of the Sixth Grade Elementary Schoolgirls in Jeddah

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Yami, Salwa Ahmed

    2008-01-01

    The present study aims to investigate the effectiveness of scaffolding interactive activities in developing the English listening comprehension skills of sixth grade elementary schoolgirls in Jeddah. The subjects in this study were 50 sixth grade pupils at an elementary school in Jeddah. They were assigned to two groups--control and…

  11. A Study of the Use of the Tape Recorder as an Aid to Written Composition at the Sixth-Grade Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zanotti, Robert James

    To assess the effectiveness of an approach to writing designed to capitalize on the relationship between oral and written composition, 60 sixth graders used tape recorders during the pre-writing period to organize and then play back their ideas, while a second group of 60 sixth graders used a more conventional composition approach and recorded…

  12. Examining Sixth Grade Students' Reading Attitudes and Perceptions of Teacher Read Aloud: Are All Students on the Same Page?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Sarah K.; Andreasen, Lindi

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this embedded mixed methods study was to examine how sixth graders with high and low reading attitudes perceive teacher read aloud. We utilized quantitative data by surveying sixth graders (N = 87) about their reading attitudes and then collected qualitative data by interviewing five students, interviewing the teacher, conducting…

  13. The Role of Stanford Achievement Test 10[TM] Subtests in Sixth Grade as a Predictor of Success on ACT's Eighth Grade Explore Exam[TM

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potts, Jeffrey D.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if there was a predictive correlation between a specific sixth grade achievement test known as the Stanford Achievement Test 10 and the eighth grade college readiness assessment instrument known as the Explore Exam for a group of North Texas students. Following an assessment during sixth grade, via the…

  14. The Effects of Readers' Theatre-Based and Tradition-Based Instruction on Sixth-Grade Students' Comprehension at a Selected Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kariuki, Patrick N.; Rhymer, Sarah A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of readers' theatre-based and tradition-based instruction on sixth-grade students' comprehension at a selected middle school. A sample of 10 students from sixth grade was randomly selected for each of the experimental and control groups. The experimental group was taught using readers'…

  15. A Study of the Reading Interests and Attitudes of Fourth, Fifth, and Sixth Grade Gifted Children in the State of Missouri.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goostree, Renee Close

    The study examined the reading interests, attitudes, and habits of fourth, fifth, and sixth grade gifted students. The data were gathered from the 69 state assisted gifted programs in Missouri by means of a survey developed by the investigator. The Ss were limited to the fourth, fifth, and sixth grade gifted children whose program coordinators…

  16. Sixth joint meeting of J-CaP and CaPSURE--a multinational perspective on prostate cancer management and patient outcomes.

    PubMed

    Akaza, Hideyuki; Hinotsu, Shiro; Cooperberg, Matthew R; Chung, Byung-Ha; Youl Lee, Ji; Umbas, Rainy; Tsukamoto, Taiji; Namiki, Mikio; Carroll, Peter

    2013-07-01

    This report summarizes the presentations and discussions that took place at the Sixth Joint Meeting of J-CaP and CaPSURE held in San Francisco, USA, in August 2012. The J-CaP and CaPSURE Joint Initiative was established in 2007 with the objective of analyzing, reviewing, comparing and contrasting data for prostate cancer patients from Japan and the USA within the two important large-scale, longitudinal, observational databases-J-CaP and CaPSURE. Since this initial collaboration between teams in the USA and Japan, the initiative has now expanded to include representatives of other Asian countries, several of whom have either established or are planning their own national prostate cancer databases. Several key topics were considered at this Sixth Joint Meeting including the current status of the J-CaP and CaPSURE databases and opportunities for collaboration with the more recently developed Asian prostate cancer databases. The latest comparative data from J-CaP and CaPSURE regarding outcomes following androgen deprivation therapy and combined androgen blockade were also reviewed. The possibility of a global chemoprevention trial to investigate the influence of soy isoflavones on prostate cancer incidence was considered. In addition, the ongoing debate regarding the role of screening and the use of active surveillance as a treatment option in the USA was discussed. The collaborators agreed that sharing of data and treatment practices on a global scale would undoubtedly benefit the clinical management of prostate cancer patients worldwide. PMID:23723314

  17. Utah Educational Quality Indicators. The Sixth in the Report Series: "How Good Are Utah Public Schools." Executive Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, David E.

    For nearly 20 years, Utah's Office of Education has been systematically monitoring the academic performance and other characteristics of Utah's students. This executive summary, an overview of the sixth major report since 1967, examines several measures describing educational quality in Utah schools. The first section covers students' achievement…

  18. 8 CFR 212.9 - Applicability of section 212(a)(32) to certain derivative third and sixth preference and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Applicability of section 212(a)(32) to certain derivative third and sixth preference and nonpreference immigrants. 212.9 Section 212.9 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS DOCUMENTARY REQUIREMENTS:...

  19. 8 CFR 212.9 - Applicability of section 212(a)(32) to certain derivative third and sixth preference and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Applicability of section 212(a)(32) to certain derivative third and sixth preference and nonpreference immigrants. 212.9 Section 212.9 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS DOCUMENTARY REQUIREMENTS:...

  20. Georgia Criterion-Referenced Tests Objectives and Assessment Characteristics for Sixth Grade Mathematics and Reading Tests (Second Edition).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgia State Dept. of Education, Atlanta. Office of Planning and Development.

    Examples are given of criterion-referenced test items in mathematics and reading used at the sixth grade level in Georgia. Three skill areas are identified for mathematics: concept identification, component operations, and problem solving. Tests measure students' ability to: (1) recognize whole numbers, fractions, and decimals; (2) identify…

  1. Exploring the Impact of Student Tutoring on At-Risk Fifth and Sixth Graders' Self-Regulated Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandevelde, Sabrina; Van Keer, Hilde; De Wever, Bram

    2011-01-01

    This study explores the effects of a student tutoring programme focusing on self-regulated learning. Ninety-three Flemish fifth- and sixth-grade tutees at-risk due to their socio-economic and/or non-native background participated. A pre-post test design was used and the "Learning Motivation Test", "Junior Metacognitive Awareness Inventory", and…

  2. Contesting Discrimination Based on Sexual Orientation at the ICAE Sixth World Assembly: "Difference" Is a Fundamental Human Right."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Robert J.

    2001-01-01

    Gives a brief history of the field of international adult education regarding sexual orientation, including events at the Sixth World Assembly. Presents 13 strategies for the elimination of homophobia and discrimination. Asserts that difference is a fundamental human right. (Contains 26 references.) (SK)

  3. The Impact of Cooperative Learning on Developing the Sixth Grade Students Decision-Making Skill and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asha, Intisar K.; Al Hawi, Asma M.

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating the effect of cooperative learning on developing the sixth graders' decision making skill and their academic achievement. The study sample, which was selected randomly, consisted of (46) students and divided into two groups: the experimental group that taught using the cooperative learning strategy and the control…

  4. The Impact of Computer-Based Assignments on Student Motivation to Complete Homework Assignments for Sixth-Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cyr, Mary Ann

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine the engagement of 11 middle school-aged students from a southeast Michigan public school, who were given laptop computers with twenty-four-hour-a-day Internet access in order to complete homework assignments. Specifically, this study examined the perceptions of sixth-grade students regarding the…

  5. The Impact of Fast ForWord[R] on Sixth Grade Students' Use of Standard Edited American English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogowsky, Beth A.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of Fast ForWord[R] products, specifically Fast ForWord[R] Literacy (FFL) and Fast ForWord[R] Reading Level 2 (FFR2), on sixth grade students' use of Standard Edited American English (SEAE). Fast ForWord[R] is a computer-based program that focuses on phonological awareness and makes use of modeled…

  6. Pilot Study: EatFit Impacts Sixth Graders' Academic Performance on Achievement of Mathematics and English Education Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shilts, Mical Kay; Lamp, Cathi; Horowitz, Marcel; Townsend, Marilyn S.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Investigate the impact of a nutrition education program on student academic performance as measured by achievement of education standards. Design: Quasi-experimental crossover-controlled study. Setting: California Central Valley suburban elementary school (58% qualified for free or reduced-priced lunch). Participants: All sixth-grade…

  7. In-Classroom Fruit and Vegetable Tastings Offer Potential for Increasing Consumption among Third through Sixth Grade Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cirignano, Sherri M.; Fitzgerald, Nurgul; Hughes, Luanne J.; Savoca, LeeAnne; Morgan, Kathleen; Grenci, Alexandra

    2014-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of coordinated in-classroom education and taste-testing activities on fruit and vegetable acceptance in a state-wide sample of third through sixth grade children. Methods: Two taste-testing sessions were a part of six nutrition lessons that were implemented in nine elementary…

  8. Sixth Grade Students' Development of Historical Perspective: World War II and the Atomic Bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogawa, Masato

    This study investigated how the use of various teaching methods influenced perspective taking skills of sixth grade middle school students during a unit of instruction on World War II. Three questions directed the study: (1) What do students know about World War II prior to a unit of study on World War II; (2) What do students know about World War…

  9. Cognitive Processing and Mathematical Achievement: A Study with Schoolchildren between Fourth and Sixth Grade of Primary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iglesias-Sarmiento, Valentin; Deano, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    This investigation analyzed the relation between cognitive functioning and mathematical achievement in 114 students in fourth, fifth, and sixth grades. Differences in cognitive performance were studied concurrently in three selected achievement groups: mathematical learning disability group (MLD), low achieving group (LA), and typically achieving…

  10. Effects of Naturally Existing Peer Groups on Changes in Academic Engagement in a Cohort of Sixth Graders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kindermann, Thomas A.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the effects of peer groups on changes in academic engagement in 11- to 13-year-old children. From the entire cohort of 366 sixth graders in a town, 87% participated at the beginning and end of the school year. Peer groups were assessed using socio-cognitive mapping; as an indicator of motivation, teachers reported on students'…

  11. The Relationship between Delivery Models and the Grade-Level Reading Development of Sixth-Grade English Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Holly Weber

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between delivery models (the class size reduction model and the sheltered instruction model) and language development levels on the grade-level reading development of sixth-grade English learners (ELs) attending public middle schools in metro Atlanta, Georgia. The instrument used to measure grade-level mastery…

  12. What We Can Learn from the Sixth Edition of "The American Community College": CSCC Awards Luncheon Address

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kisker, Carrie B.

    2015-01-01

    This speech, given at the 2014 Council for the Study of Community Colleges annual Awards Luncheon, describes three of the major changes in the sixth edition of "The American Community College". The speech also describes what those changes can tell us about the directions in which our colleges are moving and the ways in which community…

  13. Evaluation of a Randomized Intervention to Delay Sexual Initiation among Fifth-Graders Followed through the Sixth Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koo, Helen P.; Rose, Allison; El-Khorazaty, M. Nabil; Yao, Qing; Jenkins, Renee R.; Anderson, Karen M.; Davis, Maurice; Walker, Leslie R.

    2011-01-01

    US adolescents initiate sex at increasingly younger ages, yet few pregnancy prevention interventions for children as young as 10-12 years old have been evaluated. Sixteen Washington, DC schools were randomly assigned to intervention versus control conditions. Beginning in 2001/02 with fifth-grade students and continuing during the sixth grade,…

  14. Effects of an SWH Approach and Self-Evaluation on Sixth Grade Students' Learning and Retention of an Electricity Unit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Memis, Esra Kabatas; Seven, Sabriye

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the effects of guided, inquiry-based laboratory activities using the Science Writing Heuristic (SWH) approach and self-evaluation on students' science achievement. The study involved three sixth grade classes studying an electricity unit taught by the same primary school teacher. Before the study began, one…

  15. A Phenomenological Investigation of Male At-Risk Sixth, Seventh and Eighth Grade Students' Perceptions toward Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douma, Jason Scott

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this phenomenological study was to investigate the perceptions that male at-risk sixth, seventh and eighth grade students' possess toward reading at a small rural public school district in Michigan. Male at-risk students was generally defined as students below grade level in reading based on their STAR reading assessment. Male…

  16. Taiwanese Sixth Graders' Achievement Goals and Their Motivation, Strategy Use, and Grades: An Examination of the Multiple Goal Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shih, Shu-Shen

    2005-01-01

    Using the trichotomous framework of achievement goals, in the present study I investigated the effects of different combinations of achievement goals on Taiwanese sixth graders' motivation, strategy use, and performance. 242 students completed a self-report survey assessing their achievement goal orientations and a range of outcomes including…

  17. When May a College Regulate an Instructor's In-Class Speech? Recent Guidance from the Sixth Circuit. Legal Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fossey, Richard; Roberts, Nathan

    2001-01-01

    Reviews a recent decision by the Sixth Court of Appeals that a community college instructor had a constitutional right to use the words "nigger" and "bitch" in the context of a classroom discussion in a course on interpersonal relations. Discusses the case in the context of other court decisions on a college's right to regulate an instructor's…

  18. Gender and Racial Differences: Development of Sixth Grade Students' Geometric Spatial Visualization within an Earth/Space Unit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Christa; Wilhelm, Jennifer Anne; Lamar, Mary; Cole, Merryn

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated sixth-grade middle-level students' geometric spatial development by gender and race within and between control and experimental groups at two middle schools as they participated in an Earth/Space unit. The control group utilized a regular Earth/Space curriculum and the experimental group used a National Aeronautics and…

  19. Opportunities to Learn and Achievement in Mathematics in a Sample of Sixth Grade Students in Lima, Peru

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cueto, Santiago; Ramirez, Cecilia; Leon, Juan

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, the mathematics achievement of Peruvian students has been evaluated in three national and two international studies. The results in all cases suggest very poor learning. A similar situation is found in many developing countries. In this study, we analyzed the opportunities to learn (OTL) mathematics of sixth grade students from…

  20. Couching for cataract and Sino-Indian medical exchange from the sixth to the twelfth century AD.

    PubMed

    Fan, Ka Wai

    2005-04-01

    This paper investigates the processes of interpretation and integration of the Indian ophthalmic technique known as 'couching for cataract' into Chinese medicine from the sixth to the twelfth century ad. The Indian medical knowledge of this procedure was eventually accepted because it could be reconstructed following Chinese medical concepts. PMID:15807830

  1. Development of an Applied Fisheries Science Program for Native Alaskans at Sheldon Jackson College. Sixth Progress Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seifert, Mel

    The sixth semi-annual report of the Sheldon Jackson College Aquaculture Program covers the period January 1 through June 30, 1977, and summarizes the last half of the second year of operation of the educational program and the entire year for the hatchery. The educational component of the program is described in terms of the academic program,…

  2. Changing Conceptions and Uses of Computer Technologies in the Everyday: Literacy Practices of Sixth and Seventh Graders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agee, Jane; Altarriba, Jeanette

    2009-01-01

    This study focused on 189 sixth and seventh graders in two large suburban schools and their use of computer technologies as part of their everyday literacy practices. The authors were especially interested in the students' conceptions of computer technologies and how computer use varied across grade and reading levels. The study included a survey…

  3. It "Ain't" Always So: Sixth Graders' Interpretations of Hispanic-American Stories with Universal Themes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Peggy S.

    2005-01-01

    This article examines the responses of eight sixth grade students discussing four realistic fiction Hispanic-American multicultural stories with universal themes by Gary Soto in peer-led literature discussion groups. The results indicate the importance of a reader's sociocultural frame--class, race, and gender, on their interpretation of…

  4. The Cultural Jigsaw: A Case Study Exploring the Ways in which Sixth-Form Students Perceive School Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Les; Kent, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The concept of culture as applied to schools is difficult to define and even harder to operationalize in research terms. This article focuses on sixth formers' perceptions on school culture and seeks to develop a model that will enable researchers to move away from the semantics of organizational culture and to explore more easily the concept of…

  5. Navajo Leadership and Government: A History. Sixth-Ninth Grade Navajo Bilingual-Bicultural Social Studies Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarty, T. L.; Wallace, Stephen

    This history of Navajo leadership and government, part of the sixth-ninth grade Navajo bilingual-bicultural social studies curriculum from the Navajo Curriculum Centers, covers types of government from the animal leaders of Navajo legend to modern times. The text is divided into five chapters: "The First Leaders,""New Neighbors--New…

  6. Youth and Wildlife: The Beliefs and Behaviors of Fifth and Sixth Grade Students Regarding Non-Domestic Animals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westervelt, Miriam O.; Llewellyn, Lynn G.

    This report analyzes the attitudes, beliefs and behaviors of a random national sample of 3,087 fifth and sixth grade students from 15,787 respondents to a Wildlife Survey distributed in "Weekly Reader" periodicals. The questionnaire examined the prevalence of four basic orientations toward wildlife (humanistic, moralistic, naturalistic, and…

  7. Effects of the Wisconsin Reading Design Comprehension Program on Reading Achievement and Self-Concept of Sixth Grade Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Negley, Sandra Anne

    The main purpose of this study was to determine and describe the effects of the comprehension component of the criterion-referenced reading program, Wisconsin Design for Reading Skills Development (WDRSD), on reading achievement and self-concept of sixth-grade students. Parametric techniques were employed in a quasi-experimental study involving 44…

  8. The Relationship Between Child and Teacher Evaluations of Self Esteem and Adjustment in Fourth and Sixth Grade Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorr, Darwin; And Others

    The purposes of this study were to investigate at two elementary grade levels, the fourth and the sixth: the relationship between children's self-evaluations of self esteem and adjustment; the relationship between teachers' evaluations of children's self esteem and adjustment; and the relationship between teacher and child judgments of adjustment,…

  9. Changes in School Connectedness and Deviant Peer Affiliation among Sixth-Grade Students from High-Poverty Neighborhoods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudasill, Kathleen Moritz; Niehaus, Kate; Crockett, Lisa J.; Rakes, Christopher R.

    2014-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined associations between changes in School Connectedness and changes in Affiliation With Deviant Peers among students from high-poverty backgrounds during the year immediately following the transition to middle school. Sixth-graders (N = 328) attending two middle schools in a large school district completed measures of…

  10. Teacher Discourse and Sixth Graders' Reported Affect and Achievement Behaviors in Two High-Mastery/High-Performance Mathematics Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Julianne C.; Meyer, Debra K.; Midgley, Carol; Patrick, Helen

    2003-01-01

    Examined the relation between the nature of teacher discourse and sixth-grade students' reports of affect and behavior in mathematics classrooms students perceived as emphasizing both mastery and performance goals. Found that students in the classroom in which there was constant and explicit support for autonomy and intrinsic motivation, positive…

  11. Voces de Olympo (Echoes from Mount Olympus). A Humanistic Approach to Latin for Children in the Sixth Grade: Teachers' Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masciantonio, Rudolph; And Others

    This curriculum guide, developed for use in a sixth-grade FLES (foreign language in elementary school) program, embraces a visual-audiolingual approach to the teaching of Latin while providing a source of materials for the teaching of the culture of ancient Rome. The course is organized around eight major units on: (1) Jupiter and His Siblings,…

  12. Opportunities Gained and Lost: Perceptions and Experiences of Sixth Grade Students Enrolled in a Title I Reading Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donalson, Kathleen

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation was to explore the perceptions and experiences of one class of sixth grade students enrolled in a Title I supplemental reading class. Qualitative research methods included observations, interviews, archived data, and Miscue Analysis. I examined the data through a Vygotsky constructivist perspective to provide…

  13. Learning from Rising Sixth Grade Readers: How Nooks Shaped Students' Reading Behaviors during a Summer Independent Reading Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Chrystine Cooper

    2016-01-01

    Researchers have documented a "summer reading setback" where an achievement gap between proficient and struggling readers expands during the summer. This research focuses on 20 rising sixth graders who participated in a summer independent reading initiative using Nook digital readers. Using a qualitative exploratory design and content…

  14. An Analysis of Illegibilities in the Cursive Handwriting of 1,000 Selected Sixth-Grade Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horton, Lowell Wayne

    The purpose of this study was to collect and analyze specimens of cursive handwriting of 1,000 selected sixth grade students in an attempt to determine analytically how sex and handedness differences affected cursive handwriting. Specifically, an attempt was made to determine those particular letters or letter combinations which were illegible…

  15. An Investigation of Van Hiele Levels of Thinking in Geometry among Sixth and Ninth Graders: Research Findings and Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuys, David; Geddes, Dorothy

    The objectives of this study were to: (1) develop a working model based on Pierre van Hiele and Dina van Hiele-Geldof's five levels of thought development in geometry; (2) characterize the thinking in geometry of sixth (N=16) and ninth (N=16) graders in terms of these levels (examining at what level they are at, if they show potential for progress…

  16. Individual Learner Variables and Their Effect on Mathematics Achievement as Students Advance from Fifth to Sixth Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shores, Melanie L.; Shannon, David M.; Smith, Tommy G.

    2010-01-01

    A total of 761 students (58.1% female) from selected fifth- and sixth-grade mathematics classrooms in Alabama were examined to investigate the relationships between individual learner variables (gender, ethnicity, socioeconomic status [SES]) and mathematics performance. Specifically, this portion of the study examined individual learner variables…

  17. Promoting Positive Attitudes towards Science "and" Religion among Sixth-Form Pupils: Dealing with Scientism and Creationism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Astley, Jeff; Francis, Leslie J.

    2010-01-01

    A sample of 187 female students, attending a sixth-form study day on religious studies, completed a questionnaire containing four scales concerned with assessing: attitude towards theistic religion, attitude towards science, scientism and creationism. The data demonstrated a negative correlation between attitude towards religion and attitude…

  18. The Experience of Gifted Girls Transitioning from Elementary School to Sixth and Seventh Grade: A Grounded Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pepperell, Jennifer L.; Rubel, Deborah J.

    2009-01-01

    This research explored the experiences of gifted girls transitioning from elementary school to sixth and seventh grade. The current literature indicates that gifted girls often struggle emotionally during this transition. Seven research participants were selected and interviewed over a four-month period. Grounded theory methodology was used to…

  19. Relationships among Computational Performance, Pictorial Representation, Symbolic Representation and Number Sense of Sixth-Grade Students in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Der-Ching; Huang, Fang-Yu

    2004-01-01

    Twenty classes in ten schools with 627 sixth-grade students in five cities in Taiwan participated in this study. The research provides information on the performance differences among written computation, pictorial representation, symbolic representation and number sense. The results of One-way ANOVA analysis indicate that significant difference…

  20. A Comparison of Concrete and Formal Science Instruction upon Science Achievement and Reasoning Ability of Sixth Grade Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, Walter L.; Shepardson, Daniel

    This study examined the effect of formal and concrete instruction upon science achievement and intellectual development of sixth grade students. Formal instruction, which emphasized oral and written language, included lecture, discussion, oral quizzes, written assignments, reading assignments, films, film strips, written tests, and quizzes.…

  1. "Learn Young, Learn Fair", a Stress Management Program for Fifth and Sixth Graders: Longitudinal Results from an Experimental Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraag, Gerda; Van Breukelen, Gerard J. P.; Kok, Gerjo; Hosman, Clemens

    2009-01-01

    Background: This study examined the effects of a universal stress management program (Learn Young, Learn Fair) on stress, coping, anxiety and depression in fifth and sixth grade children. Methods: Fifty-two schools (1467 children) participated in a clustered randomized controlled trial. Data was collected in the fall of 2002, the spring of 2003,…

  2. Comparing the Development of Fractions in the Fifth- and Sixth-Graders' Textbooks of Singapore, Taiwan, and the USA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Der-Ching; Reys, Robert E.; Wu, Li-Lin

    2010-01-01

    This research examined the presentation of fractions in textbooks used by fifth and sixth graders in Singapore, Taiwan, and the United States. The specific textbooks examined were "My Pals Are Here! Maths" (MPHM) in Singapore; "Kung Hsung" (KH) in Taiwan; and "Mathematics in Context" (MiC) in the USA. Results show the problems posed in MiC put…

  3. Risk factors for type 2 diabetes in a sixth-grade multi-racial cohort: The HEALTHY study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    HEALTHY is a 3-year middle school intervention program designed to reduce risk factors for type 2 diabetes. The prevalence of diabetes risk factors at baseline in a cohort of 6,358 sixth-grade students is reported. Forty-two schools at seven U.S. sites were randomly assigned to intervention or contr...

  4. The Development of the Concepts of Ratio and Fraction in the Fourth, Fifth, and Sixth Years of the Elementary School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steffe, Leslie P.; Parr, Robert B.

    Six tests were constructed, four on a pictorial level and two on a symbolic level, to measure the performance of fourth-, fifth-, and sixth-grade children, in three different ability groups, on problems concerning ratios or fractions. Two variables were of interest in the four tests on a pictorial level: (a) "equal" ratio situations vs. "equal"…

  5. A Comparison of Grade Configuration on Urban Sixth to Eighth Grade Student Outcomes in Regular and Special Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fink, Louise L.

    2010-01-01

    This study analyzed the effect of school/grade configuration for regular and special education students in K-8 schools and middle schools. The analysis looked at the effect of grade configuration on two outcomes: student achievement and student attendance. The study followed a cohort of fifth graders (regular and special education) through sixth,…

  6. TPACK Goes to Sixth Grade: Lessons from a Middle School Teacher in a High-Technology-Access Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wetzel, Keith; Marshall, Summer

    2012-01-01

    This is a qualitative study addressing the question: In what ways does a sixth grade middle school teacher show evidence of behaviors that fit the Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) framework in the classroom? The researcher observed in this class, interviewed the teacher, and looked for evidence of the interplay between…

  7. The Declining Significance of Homohysteria for Male Students in Three Sixth Forms in the South of England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormack, M.

    2011-01-01

    English schools have traditionally been institutions with high levels of homophobia. This is attributed to the need that heterosexual boys have to maintain a heteromasculine identity. However, by drawing on 44 in-depth interviews and 12 months of participant observation across three sixth forms, I detail the ways in which homophobia holds little…

  8. Learner Mining of Pre-Task and Task Input

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boston, Jeremy Scott

    2008-01-01

    The findings reported in this article suggest that learners inevitably "mine" wordings contained in pre-task and task materials when performing tasks, even when the teacher did not explicitly draw learner attention to these features. However, this was found to be true only with written materials, and learners did not appear to mine specific…

  9. Maximally Expressive Task Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Japp, John; Davis, Elizabeth; Maxwell, Theresa G. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Planning and scheduling systems organize "tasks" into a timeline or schedule. The tasks are defined within the scheduling system in logical containers called models. The dictionary might define a model of this type as "a system of things and relations satisfying a set of rules that, when applied to the things and relations, produce certainty about the tasks that are being modeled." One challenging domain for a planning and scheduling system is the operation of on-board experiment activities for the Space Station. The equipment used in these experiments is some of the most complex hardware ever developed by mankind, the information sought by these experiments is at the cutting edge of scientific endeavor, and the procedures for executing the experiments are intricate and exacting. Scheduling is made more difficult by a scarcity of space station resources. The models to be fed into the scheduler must describe both the complexity of the experiments and procedures (to ensure a valid schedule) and the flexibilities of the procedures and the equipment (to effectively utilize available resources). Clearly, scheduling space station experiment operations calls for a "maximally expressive" modeling schema. Modeling even the simplest of activities cannot be automated; no sensor can be attached to a piece of equipment that can discern how to use that piece of equipment; no camera can quantify how to operate a piece of equipment. Modeling is a human enterprise-both an art and a science. The modeling schema should allow the models to flow from the keyboard of the user as easily as works of literature flowed from the pen of Shakespeare. The Ground Systems Department at the Marshall Space Flight Center has embarked on an effort to develop a new scheduling engine that is highlighted by a maximally expressive modeling schema. This schema, presented in this paper, is a synergy of technological advances and domain-specific innovations.

  10. Quarternary tectonics, Task 1

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, J.W.

    1993-09-30

    Activities conducted for the evaluation of the geology and seismotectonics stability of Yucca Mountain as a potential site for the underground disposal of high-level radioactive wastes continued. Tasks concerned with quaternary tectonics include: scheduling of photography of Little Skull Mountain area; the collection and dating of rock varnish samples from the 1932 Cedar Mountain earthquake area for carbon 14 AMS and cation-ratio analysis; collection of samples for thermoluminescence dating from the 1932 Cedar Mountain earthquake area; mapping of the northern area of Crater Flat; and surveying of the May 17, 1993 Eureka the Valley earthquake area.

  11. Silicon material task review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorenz, J. H.

    1986-01-01

    The objectives of the Flat-plate Solar Array (FSA) Project Silicon Material Task are to evaluate technologies, new and old; to develop the most promising technologies; to establish practicality of the processes to meet production, energy use, and economic criteria; and to develop an information base on impurities in polysilicon and to determine their effects on solar cell performance. The approach involves determining process feasibility, setting milestones for the forced selection of the processes, and establishing the technical readiness of the integrated process.

  12. Musical training, bilingualism, and executive function: a closer look at task switching and dual-task performance.

    PubMed

    Moradzadeh, Linda; Blumenthal, Galit; Wiseheart, Melody

    2015-07-01

    This study investigated whether musical training and bilingualism are associated with enhancements in specific components of executive function, namely, task switching and dual-task performance. Participants (n = 153) belonging to one of four groups (monolingual musician, bilingual musician, bilingual non-musician, or monolingual non-musician) were matched on age and socioeconomic status and administered task switching and dual-task paradigms. Results demonstrated reduced global and local switch costs in musicians compared with non-musicians, suggesting that musical training can contribute to increased efficiency in the ability to shift flexibly between mental sets. On dual-task performance, musicians also outperformed non-musicians. There was neither a cognitive advantage for bilinguals relative to monolinguals, nor an interaction between music and language to suggest additive effects of both types of experience. These findings demonstrate that long-term musical training is associated with improvements in task switching and dual-task performance. PMID:25289704

  13. The efficacy of botulinum neurotoxin A for the treatment of complete and partially recovered chronic sixth nerve palsy.

    PubMed

    Repka, M X; Lam, G C; Morrison, N A

    1994-01-01

    Esotropia from chronic sixth nerve palsy or paresis usually requires surgery. Chemodenervation of the antagonist medial rectus muscle, while popular for the treatment of acute sixth nerve palsies and pareses, has not been used extensively for chronic cases. In this study, 22 patients with sixth nerve palsies or partially recovered palsies of greater than 5 months duration were treated with chemodenervation. The etiologies of the sixth nerve palsies were trauma (n = 7), tumor (n = 4), infection/inflammation (n = 3), nerve compression from aneurysm or increased intracranial pressure (n = 4), congenital (n = 1), ischemia (n = 2), and idiopathic (n = 1). The mean preinjection deviation was 41 prism diopters. A total of 38 injections were administered (mean, 1.7 per patient). Each patient received an injection of 2.5 to 7.5 units (mean, 4.1) of botulinum neurotoxin A to the ipsilateral medial rectus muscle. Treatment success was assessed 6 months after the last injection. A course of chemodenervation significantly improved the alignment of 9 of the 22 patients (41%). The mean postinjection deviation was 8 delta. Seven patients (32%) had single binocular vision in primary position restored. These patients had a mean horizontal binocular field of 70 degrees (range, 40 degrees to 100 degrees). Thirteen patients (59%) had only modest improvement and required surgery. The data suggest that injection of botulinum neurotoxin A is a useful treatment for some patients with chronic sixth nerve weakness. A course of chemodenervation therapy compares less favorably with transposition surgery with concomitant neurotoxin injection for the treatment of these difficult problems. PMID:8014791

  14. Atomic Oxygen Task

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hadaway, James B.

    1997-01-01

    This report details work performed by the Center for Applied Optics (CAO) at the University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH) on the contract entitled 'Atomic Oxygen Task' for NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (contract NAS8-38609, Delivery Order 109, modification number 1). Atomic oxygen effects on exposed materials remain a critical concern in designing spacecraft to withstand exposure in the Low Earth Orbit (LEO) environment. The basic objective of atomic oxygen research in NASA's Materials & Processes (M&P) Laboratory is to provide the solutions to material problems facing present and future space missions. The objective of this work was to provide the necessary research for the design of specialized experimental test configurations and development of techniques for evaluating in-situ space environmental effects, including the effects of atomic oxygen and electromagnetic radiation on candidate materials. Specific tasks were performed to address materials issues concerning accelerated environmental testing as well as specifically addressing materials issues of particular concern for LDEF analysis and Space Station materials selection.

  15. Analysis of Task Analysis Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonassen, David H.; Hannum, Wallace H.

    1986-01-01

    Describes functions comprising task analysis process--inventory, description, selection, sequencing, and analysis--and reviews distinctions between the micro/macro level, top-down/bottom-up, and job/learning task analysis processes. These functions and distinctions are combined into a quasi-algorithm suggesting which of 30 task analysis procedures…

  16. Word Fluency: A Task Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laine, Matti

    It is suggested that models of human problem solving are useful in the analysis of word fluency (WF) test performance. In problem-solving terms, WF tasks would require the subject to define and clarify the conditions of the task (task acquisition), select and employ appropriate strategies, and monitor one's performance. In modern neuropsychology,…

  17. Inhibition in Dot Comparison Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clayton, Sarah; Gilmore, Camilla

    2015-01-01

    Dot comparison tasks are commonly used to index an individual's Approximate Number System (ANS) acuity, but the cognitive processes involved in completing these tasks are poorly understood. Here, we investigated how factors including numerosity ratio, set size and visual cues influence task performance. Forty-four children aged 7-9 years completed…

  18. Information Processing in Memory Tasks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, William A.

    The intensity of information processing engendered in different phases of standard memory tasks was examined in six experiments. Processing intensity was conceptualized as system capacity consumed, and was measured via a divided-attention procedure in which subjects performed a memory task and a simple reaction-time (RT) task concurrently. The…

  19. TASK: Let's Have a Party!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rees, James

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a creative way to demystify contemporary art for students. TASK is artist Oliver Herring's creation, where participants actively interpret instructions found on little pieces of paper--what he calls "tasks." An art classroom has all the key ingredients for a TASK event: (1) people; (2) materials; (3) space;…

  20. Reverse-Engineering Communication Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamber, Craig

    2004-01-01

    This article introduces an approach to planning sequences of communication tasks that require learners to become personally involved in their learning. By drawing on their own ideas and experiences, as a product of earlier tasks in a given sequence, learners generate the content and resource material on which subsequent tasks operate. The article…

  1. Designing Probabilistic Tasks for Kindergartners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skoumpourdi, Chrysanthi; Kafoussi, Sonia; Tatsis, Konstantinos

    2009-01-01

    Recent research suggests that children could be engaged in probability tasks at an early age and task characteristics seem to play an important role in the way children perceive an activity. To this direction in the present article we investigate the role of some basic characteristics of probabilistic tasks in their design and implementation. In…

  2. Task Analysis: A Proactive Paradigm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cipriano, Robert E.

    A sequential and developmental curriculum design is conceptualized, based on task analysis. Task analysis is a detailed inquiry into actions undertaken in performing specific tasks or jobs. Baseline data form a database on which education and training programs are designed, produced, and evaluated. The following are sources of information for task…

  3. Skill Components of Task Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Anne E.; Rogers, Wendy A.; Fisk, Arthur D.

    2013-01-01

    Some task analysis methods break down a task into a hierarchy of subgoals. Although an important tool of many fields of study, learning to create such a hierarchy (redescription) is not trivial. To further the understanding of what makes task analysis a skill, the present research examined novices' problems with learning Hierarchical Task…

  4. Task-Based Information Searching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vakkari, Pertti

    2003-01-01

    Reviews studies on the relationship between task performance and information searching by end-users, focusing on information searching in electronic environments and information retrieval systems. Topics include task analysis; task characteristics; search goals; modeling information searching; modeling search goals; information seeking behavior;…

  5. Component Processes in Task Switching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meiran, Nachshon; Chorev, Ziv; Sapir, Ayelet

    2000-01-01

    Studied task switching in 4 experiments involving 111 Israeli undergraduates. Results show the preparation for a task switch is not a by-product of general preparation by phasic alertness or predicting target onset and establish reconfiguration as a separate preparatory process. Suggests that there are at least three components of task switching…

  6. The relevance of task-irrelevant sounds: hemispheric lateralization and interactions with task-relevant streams

    PubMed Central

    Amaral, Ana A.; Langers, Dave R. M.

    2013-01-01

    The effect of unattended task-irrelevant auditory stimuli in the context of an auditory task is not well understood. Using human functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) we compared blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signal changes resulting from monotic task-irrelevant stimulation, monotic task-relevant stimulation and dichotic stimulation with an attended task-relevant stream to one ear and an unattended task-irrelevant stream to the other ear simultaneously. We found strong bilateral BOLD signal changes in the auditory cortex (AC) resulting from monotic stimulation in a passive listening condition. Consistent with previous work, these responses were largest on the side contralateral to stimulation. AC responses to the unattended (task-irrelevant) sounds were preferentially contralateral and strongest for the most difficult condition. Stronger bilateral AC responses occurred during monotic passive-listening than to an unattended stream presented in a dichotic condition, with attention focused on one ear. Additionally, the visual cortex showed negative responses compared to the baseline in all stimulus conditions including passive listening. Our results suggest that during dichotic listening, with attention focused on one ear, (1) the contralateral and the ipsilateral auditory pathways are suppressively interacting; and (2) cross-modal inhibition occurs during purely acoustic stimulation. These findings support the existence of response suppressions within and between modalities in the presence of competing interfering stimuli. PMID:24409115

  7. Comparing instructional methodologies in sixth-grade science: Traditional textbook, integrated science, and integrated science with technology enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hocutt, Martha M.

    2003-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine three different methodologies used to present content to sixth-grade science students and determine which methodology benefited students most with regard to the acquisition of content knowledge and attitude toward science. The three methodologies examined were The University of Alabama's Center for Communication and Educational Technology's Integrated Science program, CCET's Integrated Science program enhanced with PowerPoint RTM technology, and traditional textbook methodology. Data were collected through the administration of a pretest prior to instruction and a posttest after 10 days of instruction. Data were also collected through researcher observations, nine additional assessments, and the completion of observation checklists by the classroom teacher. Data were collected for examining attitudes toward science through the administration of a survey both prior to and after instruction. Methodology was not found to affect student scores with regard to race, gender, or achievement level. Student achievement was not found to be affected by the method in which content was delivered, but by instructionally sound pedagogy used by an effective teacher. Using technology to present content information may not result in higher test scores when compared to traditional methodologies. However, multimedia may have a powerful impact on learning, but perhaps not in ways that are traditionally measured. Anecdotal evidence from researcher observations indicated that students were more motivated when instructed through methodologies that used technology. Further research should be conducted in exploring benefits students gain from being exposed to technology. In addition, further research needs to be conducted on different ways technology can be used with good pedagogy to improve student achievement. Teachers must accept that technology in the classroom is here to stay, and they cannot deny its use. The use of technology by teachers is a

  8. Seniors' attributions for task performance difficulties: implications for feelings of task efficacy.

    PubMed

    Chipperfield, J G; Segall, A

    1996-11-01

    Some seniors face difficulties carrying out simple everyday tasks such as opening containers and turning doorknobs. This study began with the premise that seniors' appraisals about such difficulties may have consequences for feelings of task efficacy (e.g., feelings of control and optimism). Attributions to poor product design (an external/environmental factor) and to limitations (an internal/personal factor) were considered in addition to joint attributions to both factors. After controlling for health and gender, type of attribution for task difficulties was found to relate to feelings of task efficacy. Overall, the results suggest that seniors may be advantaged by viewing their performance difficulties as a consequence of poor product design. Compared to their counterparts, these individuals reported the highest levels of control, ability to cope, optimism, and beliefs about overcoming problems. Individuals who made joint attributions reported feeling most helpless and unable to cope with the present problems. PMID:10182383

  9. Slowing after Observed Error Transfers across Tasks

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lijun; Pan, Weigang; Tan, Jinfeng; Liu, Congcong; Chen, Antao

    2016-01-01

    After committing an error, participants tend to perform more slowly. This phenomenon is called post-error slowing (PES). Although previous studies have explored the PES effect in the context of observed errors, the issue as to whether the slowing effect generalizes across tasksets remains unclear. Further, the generation mechanisms of PES following observed errors must be examined. To address the above issues, we employed an observation-execution task in three experiments. During each trial, participants were required to mentally observe the outcomes of their partners in the observation task and then to perform their own key-press according to the mapping rules in the execution task. In Experiment 1, the same tasksets were utilized in the observation task and the execution task, and three error rate conditions (20%, 50% and 80%) were established in the observation task. The results revealed that the PES effect after observed errors was obtained in all three error rate conditions, replicating and extending previous studies. In Experiment 2, distinct stimuli and response rules were utilized in the observation task and the execution task. The result pattern was the same as that in Experiment 1, suggesting that the PES effect after observed errors was a generic adjustment process. In Experiment 3, the response deadline was shortened in the execution task to rule out the ceiling effect, and two error rate conditions (50% and 80%) were established in the observation task. The PES effect after observed errors was still obtained in the 50% and 80% error rate conditions. However, the accuracy in the post-observed error trials was comparable to that in the post-observed correct trials, suggesting that the slowing effect and improved accuracy did not rely on the same underlying mechanism. Current findings indicate that the occurrence of PES after observed errors is not dependent on the probability of observed errors, consistent with the assumption of cognitive control account

  10. Task Analysis Technologies at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carstens, Deborah S.

    2003-01-01

    Project objective: (1) Form an integrated team of NASA. USA, Boeing, and Dynacs researches. (2) Create a user friendly software prototype that assists an analyst in performing a human factors process failure modes and effects analysis (HF-PFMEA). (3)Perform four task analyses on center: cargo late access task analysis (NASA/Boeing team); payload test and verification system task analysis (NASA/Boeing team); slammer cover installation operations task analysis (NASA/USA team); ATDC LOX pump acceptance test procedure task analysis (NASA/Dynacs team).

  11. Task Interpretation and Task Effectiveness: A Vygotskian Analysis of a French L2 Classroom Task.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Lindsy L.

    2000-01-01

    This paper focuses on second language (L2) learning through task-based interaction as well as the compatibility of the theories of task-based learning and Vygotsky's sociocultural theory. Language tasks encourage L2 learning by using language as a tool to accomplish a goal. This study analyzes the interaction of first-semester French students…

  12. The Effect of Hierarchical Task Representations on Task Selection in Voluntary Task Switching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Starla M.; Arrington, Catherine M.

    2013-01-01

    The current study explored the potential for hierarchical representations to influence action selection during voluntary task switching. Participants switched between 4 individual task elements. In Experiment 1, participants were encouraged to represent the task elements as grouped within a hierarchy based on experimental manipulations of varying…

  13. Task directed sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Firby, R. James

    1990-01-01

    High-level robot control research must confront the limitations imposed by real sensors if robots are to be controlled effectively in the real world. In particular, sensor limitations make it impossible to maintain a complete, detailed world model of the situation surrounding the robot. To address the problems involved in planning with the resulting incomplete and uncertain world models, traditional robot control architectures must be altered significantly. Task-directed sensing and control is suggested as a way of coping with world model limitations by focusing sensing and analysis resources on only those parts of the world relevant to the robot's active goals. The RAP adaptive execution system is used as an example of a control architecture designed to deploy sensing resources in this way to accomplish both action and knowledge goals.

  14. AMU NEXRAD Exploitation Task

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambert, Winifred C.; Wheeler, Mark M.

    1997-01-01

    This report documents the results of the Applied Meteorology Unit's NEXRAD Exploitation Task. The objectives of this task are to determine what radar signatures are present prior to and at the time of convection initiation, and to determine radar signatures which will help distinguish whether the ensuing convection will become severe. Radar data from the WSR-88D radar located at NWS Melbourne (WSR-88D/KMLB) were collected between June and September 1995, and 16 convective case studies were analyzed for which the radar was operating during the entire period of interest. All WSR-88D/KMLB products were scrutinized for their utility in detecting convection initiation and severe storm signatures. Through process of elimination, it was found that the 0.5 deg reflectivity product with the lowest reflectivity values displayed is the best product to monitor for convection initiation signatures. Seven meteorological features associated with the initiation of deep convection were identified: the Merritt Island and Indian River convergence zones, interlake convergence, horizontal convective rolls, the sea breeze, storm outflow boundaries, and fires. Their reflectivity values ranged from -5 to 20 dBZ. Of the three severe weather phenomena (winds greater than or equal to 50 kts, tornado, 3/4 inch hail), high wind events due to microbursts were most common in the data set. It was found that the values and trends of composite reflectivity, vertically integrated liquid, and core aspect ratio were key indicators of the potential of a cell to produce a microburst. The data were not analyzed for the other two severe weather phenomena because they rarely occurred during the data collection period. This report also includes suggestions for new WSR-88D products, summaries of ongoing research aimed at creating new products, and explicit recommended procedures for detecting convection initiation and severe storm signatures in the radar data using the currently available technology.

  15. Increasing task complexity and ice hockey skills of youth athletes.

    PubMed

    Fait, Philippe E; McFadyen, Bradford J; Zabjek, Karl; Reed, Nick; Taha, Tim; Keightley, Michelle

    2011-02-01

    The objective of this pilot study was to investigate the effects on cognitive performance of progressively adding tasks specific to ice hockey (skating, stick handling, and obstacle avoidance) during a visual interference task (Stroop Color Word Test-interference condition). In addition, the effects on locomotor performance of progressively adding tasks of stickhandling, visual interference, and obstacle avoidance related to maximal skating speed and minimal obstacle clearance were investigated in eight male athletes ages 10 to 12 years. Results revealed decreased performance on both cognitive and physical measures with increased task complexity, suggesting that adding complexity to an environment influences hockey skill performance. PMID:21466078

  16. Task switching and response correspondence in the psychological refractory period paradigm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lien, Mei-Ching; Schweickert, Richard; Proctor, Robert W.

    2003-01-01

    Three experiments examined the effects of task switching and response correspondence in a psychological refractory period paradigm. A letter task (vowel-consonant) and a digit task (odd-even) were combined to form 4 possible dual-task pairs in each trial: letter-letter, letter-digit, digit-digit, and digit-letter. Foreknowledge of task transition (repeat or switch) and task identity (letter or digit) was varied across experiments: no foreknowledge in Experiment 1, partial foreknowledge (task transition only) in Experiment 2, and full foreknowledge in Experiment 3. For all experiments, the switch cost for Task 2 was additive with stimulus onset asynchrony, and the response-correspondence effect for Task 2 was numerically smaller in the switch condition than in the repeat condition. These outcomes suggest that reconfiguration for Task 2 takes place after the central processing of Task 1 and that the crosstalk correspondence effect is due to response activation by way of stimulus-response associations.

  17. Switching between simple cognitive tasks: the interaction of top-down and bottom-up factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruthruff, E.; Remington, R. W.; Johnston, J. C.

    2001-01-01

    How do top-down factors (e.g., task expectancy) and bottom-up factors (e.g., task recency) interact to produce an overall level of task readiness? This question was addressed by factorially manipulating task expectancy and task repetition in a task-switching paradigm. The effects of expectancy and repetition on response time tended to interact underadditively, but only because the traditional binary task-repetition variable lumps together all switch trials, ignoring variation in task lag. When the task-recency variable was scaled continuously, all 4 experiments instead showed additivity between expectancy and recency. The results indicated that expectancy and recency influence different stages of mental processing. One specific possibility (the configuration-execution model) is that task expectancy affects the time required to configure upcoming central operations, whereas task recency affects the time required to actually execute those central operations.

  18. What's the Problem? Familiarity Working Memory, and Transfer in a Problem-Solving Task.

    PubMed

    Kole, James A; Snyder, Hannah R; Brojde, Chandra L; Friend, Angela

    2015-01-01

    The contributions of familiarity and working memory to transfer were examined in the Tower of Hanoi task. Participants completed 3 different versions of the task: a standard 3-disk version, a clothing exchange task that included familiar semantic content, and a tea ceremony task that included unfamiliar semantic content. The constraints on moves were equivalent across tasks, and each could be solved with the same sequence of movements. Working memory demands were manipulated by the provision of a (static or dynamic) visual representation of the problem. Performance was equivalent for the standard Tower of Hanoi and clothing exchange tasks but worse for the tea ceremony task, and it decreased with increasing working memory demands. Furthermore, the standard Tower of Hanoi task and clothing exchange tasks independently, additively, and equivalently transferred to subsequent tasks, whereas the tea ceremony task did not. The results suggest that both familiarity and working memory demands determine overall level of performance, whereas familiarity influences transfer. PMID:26255436

  19. Priming Addition Facts with Semantic Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bassok, Miriam; Pedigo, Samuel F.; Oskarsson, An T.

    2008-01-01

    Results from 2 relational-priming experiments suggest the existence of an automatic analogical coordination between semantic and arithmetic relations. Word pairs denoting object sets served as primes in a task that elicits "obligatory" activation of addition facts (5 + 3 activates 8; J. LeFevre, J. Bisanz, & L. Mrkonjic, 1988). Semantic relations…

  20. Evaluation of certain food additives and contaminants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) met in Rome from 14 to 23 June 2011. The purpose of the committee was to provide the Codex Alimentarius Commission access with objective advice on high priority food safety matters. Specifically, the tasks before the Committee were: i) t...