Science.gov

Sample records for additional spatial information

  1. Spatial Information of Sound Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oikawa, Yasuhiro

    The nature of a sound field can only be fully understood when we have spatial information about it. Being able to visualize a sound field is a very useful way of understanding it. This section describes how to estimate many direction of arrivals (DOAs) by using two microphones, how to get spatial information by using four closely located microphones, and how to visualize and measure sound fields by using a laser Doppler vibrometer (LVB).

  2. 16 CFR 1102.16 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... PUBLICLY AVAILABLE CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY INFORMATION DATABASE Content Requirements § 1102.16 Additional... in the Database any additional information it determines to be in the public interest,...

  3. 16 CFR 1102.16 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... PUBLICLY AVAILABLE CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY INFORMATION DATABASE Content Requirements § 1102.16 Additional... in the Database any additional information it determines to be in the public interest,...

  4. 16 CFR 1102.16 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... PUBLICLY AVAILABLE CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY INFORMATION DATABASE Content Requirements § 1102.16 Additional... in the Database any additional information it determines to be in the public interest,...

  5. Entropy, complexity, and spatial information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batty, Michael; Morphet, Robin; Masucci, Paolo; Stanilov, Kiril

    2014-10-01

    We pose the central problem of defining a measure of complexity, specifically for spatial systems in general, city systems in particular. The measures we adopt are based on Shannon's (in Bell Syst Tech J 27:379-423, 623-656, 1948) definition of information. We introduce this measure and argue that increasing information is equivalent to increasing complexity, and we show that for spatial distributions, this involves a trade-off between the density of the distribution and the number of events that characterize it; as cities get bigger and are characterized by more events—more places or locations, information increases, all other things being equal. But sometimes the distribution changes at a faster rate than the number of events and thus information can decrease even if a city grows. We develop these ideas using various information measures. We first demonstrate their applicability to various distributions of population in London over the last 100 years, then to a wider region of London which is divided into bands of zones at increasing distances from the core, and finally to the evolution of the street system that characterizes the built-up area of London from 1786 to the present day. We conclude by arguing that we need to relate these measures to other measures of complexity, to choose a wider array of examples, and to extend the analysis to two-dimensional spatial systems.

  6. Entropy, complexity, and spatial information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batty, Michael; Morphet, Robin; Masucci, Paolo; Stanilov, Kiril

    2014-09-01

    We pose the central problem of defining a measure of complexity, specifically for spatial systems in general, city systems in particular. The measures we adopt are based on Shannon's (in Bell Syst Tech J 27:379-423, 623-656, 1948) definition of information. We introduce this measure and argue that increasing information is equivalent to increasing complexity, and we show that for spatial distributions, this involves a trade-off between the density of the distribution and the number of events that characterize it; as cities get bigger and are characterized by more events—more places or locations, information increases, all other things being equal. But sometimes the distribution changes at a faster rate than the number of events and thus information can decrease even if a city grows. We develop these ideas using various information measures. We first demonstrate their applicability to various distributions of population in London over the last 100 years, then to a wider region of London which is divided into bands of zones at increasing distances from the core, and finally to the evolution of the street system that characterizes the built-up area of London from 1786 to the present day. We conclude by arguing that we need to relate these measures to other measures of complexity, to choose a wider array of examples, and to extend the analysis to two-dimensional spatial systems.

  7. Spatial Representation of Ordinal Information

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Meng; Gao, Xuefei; Li, Baichen; Yu, Shuyuan; Gong, Tianwei; Jiang, Ting; Hu, Qingfen; Chen, Yinghe

    2016-01-01

    Right hand responds faster than left hand when shown larger numbers and vice-versa when shown smaller numbers (the SNARC effect). Accumulating evidence suggests that the SNARC effect may not be exclusive for numbers and can be extended to other ordinal sequences (e.g., months or letters in the alphabet) as well. In this study, we tested the SNARC effect with a non-numerically ordered sequence: the Chinese notations for the color spectrum (Red, Orange, Yellow, Green, Blue, Indigo, and Violet). Chinese color word sequence reserves relatively weak ordinal information, because each element color in the sequence normally appears in non-sequential contexts, making it ideal to test the spatial organization of sequential information that was stored in the long-term memory. This study found a reliable SNARC-like effect for Chinese color words (deciding whether the presented color word was before or after the reference color word “green”), suggesting that, without access to any quantitative information or exposure to any previous training, ordinal representation can still activate a sense of space. The results support that weak ordinal information without quantitative magnitude encoded in the long-term memory can activate spatial representation in a comparison task. PMID:27092100

  8. Spatial Representation of Ordinal Information.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Meng; Gao, Xuefei; Li, Baichen; Yu, Shuyuan; Gong, Tianwei; Jiang, Ting; Hu, Qingfen; Chen, Yinghe

    2016-01-01

    Right hand responds faster than left hand when shown larger numbers and vice-versa when shown smaller numbers (the SNARC effect). Accumulating evidence suggests that the SNARC effect may not be exclusive for numbers and can be extended to other ordinal sequences (e.g., months or letters in the alphabet) as well. In this study, we tested the SNARC effect with a non-numerically ordered sequence: the Chinese notations for the color spectrum (Red, Orange, Yellow, Green, Blue, Indigo, and Violet). Chinese color word sequence reserves relatively weak ordinal information, because each element color in the sequence normally appears in non-sequential contexts, making it ideal to test the spatial organization of sequential information that was stored in the long-term memory. This study found a reliable SNARC-like effect for Chinese color words (deciding whether the presented color word was before or after the reference color word "green"), suggesting that, without access to any quantitative information or exposure to any previous training, ordinal representation can still activate a sense of space. The results support that weak ordinal information without quantitative magnitude encoded in the long-term memory can activate spatial representation in a comparison task. PMID:27092100

  9. 47 CFR 25.111 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Additional information. 25.111 Section 25.111... Applications and Licenses General Application Filing Requirements § 25.111 Additional information. (a) The Commission may request from any party at any time additional information concerning any application, or...

  10. 34 CFR 75.231 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Additional information. 75.231 Section 75.231 Education... Make A Grant § 75.231 Additional information. After selecting an application for funding, the Secretary may require the applicant to submit additional information. (Authority: 20 U.S.C. 1221e-3 and 3474)...

  11. 10 CFR 810.14 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Additional information. 810.14 Section 810.14 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN ATOMIC ENERGY ACTIVITIES § 810.14 Additional information. The... activity to submit additional information....

  12. 10 CFR 725.13 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Additional information. 725.13 Section 725.13 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PERMITS FOR ACCESS TO RESTRICTED DATA Applications § 725.13 Additional information. The... and before the termination of the permit, require additional information in order to enable the...

  13. 10 CFR 725.13 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Additional information. 725.13 Section 725.13 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PERMITS FOR ACCESS TO RESTRICTED DATA Applications § 725.13 Additional information. The... and before the termination of the permit, require additional information in order to enable the...

  14. 12 CFR 1010.116 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Additional information. 1010.116 Section 1010...) Reporting Requirements § 1010.116 Additional information. (a) Property Owners' Association. (1) Will there... obligation to retire the debt. (c) Violations and litigations. This information need appear only if any...

  15. 24 CFR 1710.216 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Additional information. 1710.216... § 1710.216 Additional information. (a) Property Owners' Association. (1) If the association has been..., information on such matters as to: (i) Whether the developer will employ his own sales force or will...

  16. 12 CFR 1010.116 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Additional information. 1010.116 Section 1010...) Reporting Requirements § 1010.116 Additional information. (a) Property Owners' Association. (1) Will there... obligation to retire the debt. (c) Violations and litigations. This information need appear only if any...

  17. 12 CFR 1010.216 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Additional information. 1010.216 Section 1010...) Reporting Requirements § 1010.216 Additional information. (a) Property Owners' Association. (1) If the..., information on such matters as to: (i) Whether the developer will employ his own sales force or will...

  18. 12 CFR 1010.216 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Additional information. 1010.216 Section 1010...) Reporting Requirements § 1010.216 Additional information. (a) Property Owners' Association. (1) If the..., information on such matters as to: (i) Whether the developer will employ his own sales force or will...

  19. 42 CFR 1008.39 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... AUTHORITIES ADVISORY OPINIONS BY THE OIG Submission of a Formal Request for an Advisory Opinion § 1008.39 Additional information. (a) If the request for an advisory opinion does not contain all of the information... advisory opinion, the OIG may, at any time, request whatever additional information or documents it...

  20. 42 CFR 1008.39 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... AUTHORITIES ADVISORY OPINIONS BY THE OIG Submission of a Formal Request for an Advisory Opinion § 1008.39 Additional information. (a) If the request for an advisory opinion does not contain all of the information... advisory opinion, the OIG may, at any time, request whatever additional information or documents it...

  1. 42 CFR 1008.39 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... AUTHORITIES ADVISORY OPINIONS BY THE OIG Submission of a Formal Request for an Advisory Opinion § 1008.39 Additional information. (a) If the request for an advisory opinion does not contain all of the information... advisory opinion, the OIG may, at any time, request whatever additional information or documents it...

  2. 42 CFR 1008.39 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... AUTHORITIES ADVISORY OPINIONS BY THE OIG Submission of a Formal Request for an Advisory Opinion § 1008.39 Additional information. (a) If the request for an advisory opinion does not contain all of the information... advisory opinion, the OIG may, at any time, request whatever additional information or documents it...

  3. 42 CFR 1008.39 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... AUTHORITIES ADVISORY OPINIONS BY THE OIG Submission of a Formal Request for an Advisory Opinion § 1008.39 Additional information. (a) If the request for an advisory opinion does not contain all of the information... advisory opinion, the OIG may, at any time, request whatever additional information or documents it...

  4. 16 CFR 1102.16 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... PUBLICLY AVAILABLE CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY INFORMATION DATABASE (Eff. Jan. 10, 2011) Content Requirements... notices, the CPSC shall include in the Database any additional information it determines to be in...

  5. 25 CFR 214.5 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Additional information. 214.5 Section 214.5 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF OSAGE RESERVATION LANDS, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING, EXCEPT OIL AND GAS § 214.5 Additional information. The officer in...

  6. 25 CFR 214.5 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Additional information. 214.5 Section 214.5 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF OSAGE RESERVATION LANDS, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING, EXCEPT OIL AND GAS § 214.5 Additional information. The officer in charge may, at...

  7. 25 CFR 214.5 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Additional information. 214.5 Section 214.5 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF OSAGE RESERVATION LANDS, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING, EXCEPT OIL AND GAS § 214.5 Additional information. The officer in...

  8. 25 CFR 214.5 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Additional information. 214.5 Section 214.5 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF OSAGE RESERVATION LANDS, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING, EXCEPT OIL AND GAS § 214.5 Additional information. The officer in...

  9. 25 CFR 214.5 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Additional information. 214.5 Section 214.5 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF OSAGE RESERVATION LANDS, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING, EXCEPT OIL AND GAS § 214.5 Additional information. The officer in...

  10. 46 CFR 502.314 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Additional information. 502.314 Section 502.314 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION GENERAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Formal Procedure for Adjudication of Small Claims § 502.314 Additional information. The administrative law...

  11. 46 CFR 502.314 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Additional information. 502.314 Section 502.314 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION GENERAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Formal Procedure for Adjudication of Small Claims § 502.314 Additional information. The administrative law...

  12. 10 CFR 810.14 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional information. 810.14 Section 810.14 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN ATOMIC ENERGY ACTIVITIES § 810.14 Additional information. The Department of Energy may at any time require a person engaging in any generally or specifically...

  13. 10 CFR 810.14 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Additional information. 810.14 Section 810.14 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN ATOMIC ENERGY ACTIVITIES § 810.14 Additional information. The Department of Energy may at any time require a person engaging in any generally or specifically...

  14. 47 CFR 25.111 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Additional information. 25.111 Section 25.111 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Applications and Licenses General Application Filing Requirements § 25.111 Additional information. (a)...

  15. 47 CFR 25.111 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Additional information. 25.111 Section 25.111 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Applications and Licenses General Application Filing Requirements § 25.111 Additional information. (a)...

  16. 10 CFR 810.14 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Additional information. 810.14 Section 810.14 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN ATOMIC ENERGY ACTIVITIES § 810.14 Additional information. The Department of Energy may at any time require a person engaging in any generally or specifically...

  17. 10 CFR 810.14 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Additional information. 810.14 Section 810.14 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN ATOMIC ENERGY ACTIVITIES § 810.14 Additional information. The Department of Energy may at any time require a person engaging in any generally or specifically...

  18. Bayesian Integration of Spatial Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Ken; Shettleworth, Sara J.; Huttenlocher, Janellen; Rieser, John J.

    2007-01-01

    Spatial judgments and actions are often based on multiple cues. The authors review a multitude of phenomena on the integration of spatial cues in diverse species to consider how nearly optimally animals combine the cues. Under the banner of Bayesian perception, cues are sometimes combined and weighted in a near optimal fashion. In other instances…

  19. Spatial information semantic query based on SPARQL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Zhifeng; Huang, Lei; Zhai, Xiaofang

    2009-10-01

    How can the efficiency of spatial information inquiries be enhanced in today's fast-growing information age? We are rich in geospatial data but poor in up-to-date geospatial information and knowledge that are ready to be accessed by public users. This paper adopts an approach for querying spatial semantic by building an Web Ontology language(OWL) format ontology and introducing SPARQL Protocol and RDF Query Language(SPARQL) to search spatial semantic relations. It is important to establish spatial semantics that support for effective spatial reasoning for performing semantic query. Compared to earlier keyword-based and information retrieval techniques that rely on syntax, we use semantic approaches in our spatial queries system. Semantic approaches need to be developed by ontology, so we use OWL to describe spatial information extracted by the large-scale map of Wuhan. Spatial information expressed by ontology with formal semantics is available to machines for processing and to people for understanding. The approach is illustrated by introducing a case study for using SPARQL to query geo-spatial ontology instances of Wuhan. The paper shows that making use of SPARQL to search OWL ontology instances can ensure the result's accuracy and applicability. The result also indicates constructing a geo-spatial semantic query system has positive efforts on forming spatial query and retrieval.

  20. Gesture is more effective than spatial language in encoding spatial information.

    PubMed

    So, Wing-Chee; Shum, Priscilla Lok-Chee; Wong, Miranda Kit-Yi

    2015-01-01

    The present research investigates whether producing gestures with and without speech facilitates route learning at different levels of route complexity and in learners with different levels of spatial skills. It also examines whether the facilitation effect of gesture is stronger than that of spatial language. Adults studied routes with 10, 13, and 16 steps and reconstructed them with sticks, either without rehearsal or after rehearsal by producing gestures with speech, gestures alone, or speech only. For all levels of route complexity and spatial skills, participants who were encouraged to gesture (with or without speech) during rehearsal had the best recall. Additionally, we found that number of steps rehearsed in gesture, but not that rehearsed in speech, predicted the recall accuracy. Thus, gesture is more effective than spatial language in encoding spatial information, and thereby enhancing spatial recall. These results further corroborate the beneficial nature of gesture in processing spatial information. PMID:25671654

  1. 24 CFR 1710.116 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Additional information. 1710.116 Section 1710.116 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development... URBAN DEVELOPMENT (INTERSTATE LAND SALES REGISTRATION PROGRAM) LAND REGISTRATION Reporting...

  2. 24 CFR 1710.116 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Additional information. 1710.116 Section 1710.116 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development... URBAN DEVELOPMENT (INTERSTATE LAND SALES REGISTRATION PROGRAM) LAND REGISTRATION Reporting...

  3. 24 CFR 1710.116 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Additional information. 1710.116 Section 1710.116 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development... URBAN DEVELOPMENT (INTERSTATE LAND SALES REGISTRATION PROGRAM) LAND REGISTRATION Reporting...

  4. 24 CFR 1710.216 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Additional information. 1710.216 Section 1710.216 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development... URBAN DEVELOPMENT (INTERSTATE LAND SALES REGISTRATION PROGRAM) LAND REGISTRATION Reporting...

  5. 24 CFR 1710.116 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Additional information. 1710.116 Section 1710.116 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development... URBAN DEVELOPMENT (INTERSTATE LAND SALES REGISTRATION PROGRAM) LAND REGISTRATION Reporting...

  6. 18 CFR 33.10 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .... 33.10 Section 33.10 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT APPLICATIONS UNDER FEDERAL POWER ACT SECTION 203 § 33.10 Additional information. The Director of the Office of Energy Market Regulation, or his...

  7. 24 CFR 1710.216 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Additional information. 1710.216 Section 1710.216 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development... URBAN DEVELOPMENT (INTERSTATE LAND SALES REGISTRATION PROGRAM) LAND REGISTRATION Reporting...

  8. 15 CFR 970.2601 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Additional information. 970.2601 Section 970.2601 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED...

  9. 24 CFR 1710.216 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Additional information. 1710.216 Section 1710.216 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development... URBAN DEVELOPMENT (INTERSTATE LAND SALES REGISTRATION PROGRAM) LAND REGISTRATION Reporting...

  10. 15 CFR 970.2601 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Additional information. 970.2601 Section 970.2601 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED...

  11. 15 CFR 970.2601 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Additional information. 970.2601 Section 970.2601 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED...

  12. 15 CFR 970.2601 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional information. 970.2601 Section 970.2601 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED...

  13. Refining Breast Cancer Risk Stratification: Additional Genes, Additional Information.

    PubMed

    Kurian, Allison W; Antoniou, Antonis C; Domchek, Susan M

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in genomic technology have enabled far more rapid, less expensive sequencing of multiple genes than was possible only a few years ago. Advances in bioinformatics also facilitate the interpretation of large amounts of genomic data. New strategies for cancer genetic risk assessment include multiplex sequencing panels of 5 to more than 100 genes (in which rare mutations are often associated with at least two times the average risk of developing breast cancer) and panels of common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), combinations of which are generally associated with more modest cancer risks (more than twofold). Although these new multiple-gene panel tests are used in oncology practice, questions remain about the clinical validity and the clinical utility of their results. To translate this increasingly complex genetic information for clinical use, cancer risk prediction tools are under development that consider the joint effects of all susceptibility genes, together with other established breast cancer risk factors. Risk-adapted screening and prevention protocols are underway, with ongoing refinement as genetic knowledge grows. Priority areas for future research include the clinical validity and clinical utility of emerging genetic tests; the accuracy of developing cancer risk prediction models; and the long-term outcomes of risk-adapted screening and prevention protocols, in terms of patients' experiences and survival. PMID:27249685

  14. Sufficient dimension reduction with additional information.

    PubMed

    Hung, Hung; Liu, Chih-Yen; Horng-Shing Lu, Henry

    2016-07-01

    Sufficient dimension reduction is widely applied to help model building between the response [Formula: see text] and covariate [Formula: see text] In some situations, we also collect additional covariate [Formula: see text] that has better performance in predicting [Formula: see text], but has a higher obtaining cost, than [Formula: see text] While constructing a predictive model for [Formula: see text] based on [Formula: see text] is straightforward, this strategy is not applicable since [Formula: see text] is not available for future observations in which the constructed model is to be applied. As a result, the aim of the study is to build a predictive model for [Formula: see text] based on [Formula: see text] only, where the available data is [Formula: see text] A naive method is to conduct analysis using [Formula: see text] directly, but ignoring [Formula: see text] can cause the problem of inefficiency. On the other hand, it is not trivial to utilize the information of [Formula: see text] to infer [Formula: see text], either. In this article, we propose a two-stage dimension reduction method for [Formula: see text] that is able to utilize the information of [Formula: see text] In the breast cancer data, the risk score constructed from the two-stage method can well separate patients with different survival experiences. In the Pima data, the two-stage method requires fewer components to infer the diabetes status, while achieving higher classification accuracy than the conventional method. PMID:26704765

  15. 47 CFR 25.111 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... information it requires for the Advance Publication, Coordination and Notification of frequency assignments... information required by the ITU Radiocommunication Bureau to advance publish, coordinate and notify...

  16. Memory Effects in Visual Spatial Information Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fishbein, Harold D.

    1978-01-01

    Eight, ten, and twelve year old children were tested on a novel procedure involving the successive presentation of standard and comparision stimuli. Two hypotheses were evaluated: one dealing with memory effects, and the other with children's pretesting of choice responses in spatial information processing. (Editor/RK)

  17. Spatial Paradigm for Information Retrieval and Exploration

    1996-10-10

    The SPIRE system consists of software for visual analysis of primarily text based information sources. This technology enables the content analysis of text documents without reading all the documents. It employs several algorithms for text and word proximity analysis. It identifies the key themes within the text documents. From this analysis, it projects the results onto a visual spatial proximity display (Galaxies or Themescape) where items (documents and/or themes) visually close to each other aremore » known to have content which is close to each other. Innovative interaction techniques then allow for dynamic visual analysis of large text based information spaces.« less

  18. 28 CFR 80.7 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) FOREIGN CORRUPT PRACTICES ACT OPINION PROCEDURE... receipt of the opinion request, or, in the case of an incomplete response to a previous request for... requesting an FCPA Opinion must promptly provide the information requested. A request will not be...

  19. 28 CFR 80.7 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) FOREIGN CORRUPT PRACTICES ACT OPINION PROCEDURE... receipt of the opinion request, or, in the case of an incomplete response to a previous request for... requesting an FCPA Opinion must promptly provide the information requested. A request will not be...

  20. 28 CFR 80.7 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) FOREIGN CORRUPT PRACTICES ACT OPINION PROCEDURE... receipt of the opinion request, or, in the case of an incomplete response to a previous request for... requesting an FCPA Opinion must promptly provide the information requested. A request will not be...

  1. 28 CFR 80.7 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) FOREIGN CORRUPT PRACTICES ACT OPINION PROCEDURE... receipt of the opinion request, or, in the case of an incomplete response to a previous request for... requesting an FCPA Opinion must promptly provide the information requested. A request will not be...

  2. 28 CFR 80.7 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) FOREIGN CORRUPT PRACTICES ACT OPINION PROCEDURE... receipt of the opinion request, or, in the case of an incomplete response to a previous request for... requesting an FCPA Opinion must promptly provide the information requested. A request will not be...

  3. Informed Additive Literacy Instruction for ELLs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Eurydice Bouchereau

    2009-01-01

    There are numerous reasons why schools struggle to provide English-language learners (ELLs) with additive literacy instruction. One reason for this is the lack of available trained bilingual teachers, mainstream teachers who have not received adequate training on how to teach ELLs, and the current political climate that appears to support an…

  4. Embodied representation of the body contains veridical spatial information.

    PubMed

    Struiksma, Marijn E; Noordzij, Matthijs L; Postma, Albert

    2011-06-01

    In two experiments, the extent to which mental body representations contain spatial information was examined. Participants were asked to compare distances between various body parts. Similar to what happens when people compare distances on a real visual stimulus, they were faster as the distance differences between body parts became larger (Experiment 1), and this effect could not (only) be explained by the crossing of major bodily categories (umbilicus to knee vs. knee to ankle; Experiment 2). In addition, participants also performed simple animate/inanimate verification on a set of nouns. The nouns describing animate items were names of body parts. A spatial priming effect was found: Verification was faster for body part items preceded by body parts in close spatial proximity. This suggests automatic activation of spatial body information. Taken together, results from the distance comparison task and the property verification task showed that mental body representations contain both categorical and more metric spatial information. These findings are further discussed in terms of recent embodied cognition theories. PMID:21424986

  5. Spatial information enhanced by non-spatial information in hippocampal granule cells.

    PubMed

    Hayakawa, Hirofumi; Samura, Toshikazu; Kamijo, Tadanobu Chuyo; Sakai, Yutaka; Aihara, Takeshi

    2015-02-01

    The hippocampus organizes sequential memory composed of non-spatial information (such as objects and odors) and spatial information (places). The dentate gyrus (DG) in the hippocampus receives two types of information from the lateral and medial entorhinal cortices. Non-spatial and spatial information is delivered respectively to distal and medial dendrites (MDs) of granule cells (GCs) within the molecular layer in the DG. To investigate the role of the association of those two inputs, we measured the response characteristics of distal and MDs of a GC in a rat hippocampal slice and developed a multi-compartment GC model with dynamic synapses; this model reproduces the response characteristics of the dendrites. Upon applying random inputs or input sequences generated by a Markov process to the computational model, it was found that a high-frequency random pulse input to distal dendrites (DDs) and, separately, regular burst inputs to MDs were effective for inducing GC activation. Furthermore, when the random and theta burst inputs were simultaneously applied to the respective dendrites, the pattern discrimination for theta burst input to MDs that caused slight GC activation was enhanced in the presence of random input to DDs. These results suggest that the temporal pattern discrimination of spatial information is originally involved in a synaptic characteristic in GCs and is enhanced by non-spatial information input to DDs. Consequently, the co-activation of two separate inputs may play a crucial role in the information processing on dendrites of GCs by usefully combing each temporal sequence. PMID:26052358

  6. Extracting spatial information from networks with low-order eigenvectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cucuringu, Mihai; Blondel, Vincent D.; Van Dooren, Paul

    2013-03-01

    We consider the problem of inferring meaningful spatial information in networks from incomplete information on the connection intensity between the nodes of the network. We consider two spatially distributed networks: a population migration flow network within the US, and a network of mobile phone calls between cities in Belgium. For both networks we use the eigenvectors of the Laplacian matrix constructed from the link intensities to obtain informative visualizations and capture natural geographical subdivisions. We observe that some low-order eigenvectors localize very well and seem to reveal small geographically cohesive regions that match remarkably well with political and administrative boundaries. We discuss possible explanations for this observation by describing diffusion maps and localized eigenfunctions. In addition, we discuss a possible connection with the weighted graph cut problem, and provide numerical evidence supporting the idea that lower-order eigenvectors point out local cuts in the network. However, we do not provide a formal and rigorous justification for our observations.

  7. 29 CFR 2570.39 - Opportunities to submit additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Opportunities to submit additional information. 2570.39... Prohibited Transaction Exemption Applications § 2570.39 Opportunities to submit additional information. (a) An applicant may notify the Department of its intent to submit additional information supporting...

  8. 21 CFR 71.4 - Samples; additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Samples; additional information. 71.4 Section 71.4 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL COLOR ADDITIVE PETITIONS General Provisions § 71.4 Samples; additional information. The Commissioner may request samples of the color additive,...

  9. Investigation of microstructure in additive manufactured Inconel 625 by spatially resolved neutron transmission spectroscopy

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Tremsin, Anton S.; Gao, Yan; Dial, Laura C.; Grazzi, Francesco; Shinohara, Takenao

    2016-07-08

    Non-destructive testing techniques based on neutron imaging and diffraction can provide information on the internal structure of relatively thick metal samples (up to several cm), which are opaque to other conventional non-destructive methods. Spatially resolved neutron transmission spectroscopy is an extension of traditional neutron radiography, where multiple images are acquired simultaneously, each corresponding to a narrow range of energy. The analysis of transmission spectra enables studies of bulk microstructures at the spatial resolution comparable to the detector pixel. In this study we demonstrate the possibility of imaging (with ~100 μm resolution) distribution of some microstructure properties, such as residual strain,more » texture, voids and impurities in Inconel 625 samples manufactured with an additive manufacturing method called direct metal laser melting (DMLM). Although this imaging technique can be implemented only in a few large-scale facilities, it can be a valuable tool for optimization of additive manufacturing techniques and materials and for correlating bulk microstructure properties to manufacturing process parameters. Additionally, the experimental strain distribution can help validate finite element models which many industries use to predict the residual stress distributions in additive manufactured components.« less

  10. 34 CFR 303.212 - Additional information and assurances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... system as required by section 427(b) of GEPA; and (b) Other information and assurances as the Secretary... 34 Education 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Additional information and assurances. 303.212 Section... Additional information and assurances. Each application must contain— (a) A description of the steps...

  11. 34 CFR 303.212 - Additional information and assurances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... system as required by section 427(b) of GEPA; and (b) Other information and assurances as the Secretary... 34 Education 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Additional information and assurances. 303.212 Section... Additional information and assurances. Each application must contain— (a) A description of the steps...

  12. 34 CFR 303.212 - Additional information and assurances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... system as required by section 427(b) of GEPA; and (b) Other information and assurances as the Secretary... 34 Education 2 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Additional information and assurances. 303.212 Section... Additional information and assurances. Each application must contain— (a) A description of the steps...

  13. 3D spatial information infrastructure: The case of Port Rotterdam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zlatanova, S.; Beetz, J.

    2012-10-01

    The development and maintenance of the infrastructure, facilities, logistics and other assets of the Port of Rotterdam requires a broad spectrum of heterogeneous information. This information concerns features, which are spatially distributed above ground, underground, in the air and in the water. The data are managed in a variety of data models with varying levels of dimensionality, granularity, accuracy and up-to-dateness. Additionally increasing number of 3D design models is becoming available. This complexity of tasks and diversity of information challenges the Port authority to look for more advanced 3D solutions. This paper presents research in progress related to developing a 3D SII in support of information and process management within the Port of Rotterdam.

  14. DETAIL OF PLAQUE WITH ADDITIONAL DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION INFORMATION, SOUTHEAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF PLAQUE WITH ADDITIONAL DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION INFORMATION, SOUTHEAST ABUTMENT - Connecticut Avenue Bridge, Spans Rock Creek & Potomac Parkway at Connecticut Avenue, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  15. The posterior parietal cortex and long-term memory representation of spatial information

    PubMed Central

    Kesner, Raymond P.

    2009-01-01

    The hypothesis to be explored in this chapter is based on the assumption that the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) is directly involved in representing a subset of the spatial features associated with spatial information processing and plays an important role in perceptual memory as well as long-term memory encoding, consolidation, and retrieval of spatial information. After presentation of the anatomical location of the PPC in rats, the nature of PPC representation based on single spatial features, binding of visual features associated with visual spatial attention, binding of object-place associations associated with acquisition and storage of associations where one of the elements is a spatial component, and binding of ideothetic and allothetic information in long-term memory is discussed. Additional evidence for a PPC role in mediation of spatial information in long-term storage is offered. Finally, the relationship between the PPC and the hippocampus from a systems and dynamic point view is presented. PMID:18835456

  16. 43 CFR 3430.4-2 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) NONCOMPETITIVE LEASES Preference Right Leases § 3430.4-2 Additional information. (a) If the applicant for a preference right lease has submitted... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Additional information. 3430.4-2...

  17. 29 CFR 502.44 - Additional information, if required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Additional information, if required. 502.44 Section 502.44 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS... Administrative Law Judge's Decision § 502.44 Additional information, if required. Where the ARB has determined...

  18. 29 CFR 502.44 - Additional information, if required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Additional information, if required. 502.44 Section 502.44 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS... Administrative Law Judge's Decision § 502.44 Additional information, if required. Where the ARB has determined...

  19. 33 CFR 403.6 - Additional information. [Rule 6

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Additional information. 403.6 Section 403.6 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PROCEDURE OF THE JOINT TOLLS REVIEW BOARD § 403.6 Additional information. The Board...

  20. 33 CFR 403.6 - Additional information. [Rule 6

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Additional information. 403.6 Section 403.6 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PROCEDURE OF THE JOINT TOLLS REVIEW BOARD § 403.6 Additional information. The Board...

  1. 21 CFR 607.31 - Additional blood product listing information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Additional blood product listing information. 607... BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Procedures for Domestic Blood Product Establishments § 607.31 Additional blood... following information by letter or by Federal Register notice: (1) For a particular blood product so...

  2. 21 CFR 607.31 - Additional blood product listing information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Additional blood product listing information. 607... BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Procedures for Domestic Blood Product Establishments § 607.31 Additional blood... following information by letter or by Federal Register notice: (1) For a particular blood product so...

  3. 21 CFR 607.31 - Additional blood product listing information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Additional blood product listing information. 607... BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Procedures for Domestic Blood Product Establishments § 607.31 Additional blood... following information by letter or by Federal Register notice: (1) For a particular blood product so...

  4. 21 CFR 607.31 - Additional blood product listing information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Additional blood product listing information. 607... BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Procedures for Domestic Blood Product Establishments § 607.31 Additional blood... following information by letter or by Federal Register notice: (1) For a particular blood product so...

  5. 21 CFR 607.31 - Additional blood product listing information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Additional blood product listing information. 607... BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Procedures for Domestic Blood Product Establishments § 607.31 Additional blood... following information by letter or by Federal Register notice: (1) For a particular blood product so...

  6. 29 CFR 502.44 - Additional information, if required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Additional information, if required. 502.44 Section 502.44... ENFORCEMENT OF CONTRACTUAL OBLIGATIONS FOR TEMPORARY ALIEN AGRICULTURAL WORKERS ADMITTED UNDER SECTION 218 OF... Administrative Law Judge's Decision § 502.44 Additional information, if required. Where the ARB has determined...

  7. 29 CFR 502.44 - Additional information, if required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Additional information, if required. 502.44 Section 502.44... ENFORCEMENT OF CONTRACTUAL OBLIGATIONS FOR TEMPORARY ALIEN AGRICULTURAL WORKERS ADMITTED UNDER SECTION 218 OF... Administrative Law Judge's Decision § 502.44 Additional information, if required. Where the ARB has determined...

  8. 29 CFR 501.44 - Additional information, if required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Additional information, if required. 501.44 Section 501.44... ENFORCEMENT OF CONTRACTUAL OBLIGATIONS FOR TEMPORARY ALIEN AGRICULTURAL WORKERS ADMITTED UNDER SECTION 218 OF... Decision § 501.44 Additional information, if required. Where the ARB has determined to review such...

  9. 29 CFR 501.44 - Additional information, if required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Additional information, if required. 501.44 Section 501.44... ENFORCEMENT OF CONTRACTUAL OBLIGATIONS FOR TEMPORARY ALIEN AGRICULTURAL WORKERS ADMITTED UNDER SECTION 218 OF... Decision § 501.44 Additional information, if required. Where the ARB has determined to review such...

  10. 40 CFR 141.154 - Required additional health information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Required additional health information... Required additional health information. (a) All reports must prominently display the following language... from their health care providers. EPA/CDC guidelines on appropriate means to lessen the risk...

  11. 40 CFR 141.154 - Required additional health information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Required additional health information... Required additional health information. (a) All reports must prominently display the following language... from their health care providers. EPA/CDC guidelines on appropriate means to lessen the risk...

  12. 40 CFR 141.154 - Required additional health information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Required additional health information... Required additional health information. (a) All reports must prominently display the following language... from their health care providers. EPA/CDC guidelines on appropriate means to lessen the risk...

  13. 40 CFR 141.154 - Required additional health information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Required additional health information... Required additional health information. (a) All reports must prominently display the following language... from their health care providers. EPA/CDC guidelines on appropriate means to lessen the risk...

  14. 40 CFR 141.154 - Required additional health information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Required additional health information... Required additional health information. (a) All reports must prominently display the following language... from their health care providers. EPA/CDC guidelines on appropriate means to lessen the risk...

  15. 19 CFR 111.60 - Request for additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Request for additional information. 111.60 Section 111.60 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT... Monetary Penalty in Lieu of Suspension or Revocation § 111.60 Request for additional information. If,...

  16. 78 FR 75568 - Notice of Request for Additional Information

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION Notice of Request for Additional Information The Commission gives notice that it has formally requested that the parties to the below listed agreement provide additional information pursuant to 46 U.S.C. 40304(d). This action prevents the...

  17. 32 CFR 1698.3 - Requests for additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ADVISORY OPINIONS § 1698.3 Requests for additional information. (a) The Director may request additional appropriate information from the requester for an advisory opinion. (b) The Director will forward a copy of the request by a Federal, state or municipal governmental agency for an advisory opinion to the...

  18. 32 CFR 1698.3 - Requests for additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ADVISORY OPINIONS § 1698.3 Requests for additional information. (a) The Director may request additional appropriate information from the requester for an advisory opinion. (b) The Director will forward a copy of the request by a Federal, state or municipal governmental agency for an advisory opinion to the...

  19. 32 CFR 1698.3 - Requests for additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ADVISORY OPINIONS § 1698.3 Requests for additional information. (a) The Director may request additional appropriate information from the requester for an advisory opinion. (b) The Director will forward a copy of the request by a Federal, state or municipal governmental agency for an advisory opinion to the...

  20. 32 CFR 1698.3 - Requests for additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ADVISORY OPINIONS § 1698.3 Requests for additional information. (a) The Director may request additional appropriate information from the requester for an advisory opinion. (b) The Director will forward a copy of the request by a Federal, state or municipal governmental agency for an advisory opinion to the...

  1. 32 CFR 1698.3 - Requests for additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ADVISORY OPINIONS § 1698.3 Requests for additional information. (a) The Director may request additional appropriate information from the requester for an advisory opinion. (b) The Director will forward a copy of the request by a Federal, state or municipal governmental agency for an advisory opinion to the...

  2. Implementing an SIG based platform of application and service for city spatial information in Shanghai

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Bailang; Wu, Jianping

    2006-10-01

    Spatial Information Grid (SIG) is an infrastructure that has the ability to provide the services for spatial information according to users' needs by means of collecting, sharing, organizing and processing the massive distributed spatial information resources. This paper presents the architecture, technologies and implementation of the Shanghai City Spatial Information Application and Service System, a SIG based platform, which is an integrated platform that serves for administration, planning, construction and development of the city. In the System, there are ten categories of spatial information resources, including city planning, land-use, real estate, river system, transportation, municipal facility construction, environment protection, sanitation, urban afforestation and basic geographic information data. In addition, spatial information processing services are offered as a means of GIS Web Services. The resources and services are all distributed in different web-based nodes. A single database is created to store the metadata of all the spatial information. A portal site is published as the main user interface of the System. There are three main functions in the portal site. First, users can search the metadata and consequently acquire the distributed data by using the searching results. Second, some spatial processing web applications that developed with GIS Web Services, such as file format conversion, spatial coordinate transfer, cartographic generalization and spatial analysis etc, are offered to use. Third, GIS Web Services currently available in the System can be searched and new ones can be registered. The System has been working efficiently in Shanghai Government Network since 2005.

  3. A Spatial Classifier for Multispectral Data Using Contextual Information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hung, Chih-Cheng; Fahsi, Ahmed; Coleman, Tommy

    1998-01-01

    Connectivity describes the spatial relationship among pixels. A spatial classifier which employs the sigma probability concept of the Gaussian distribution and a type of contextual information connectivity of the pixels, is studied in this paper. This spatial classifier attempts to replicate the kind of spatial synthesis done by the human analyst during visual interpretation or to capture the spatial relationships inherent in an aerial photograph. Several classification results of the Landsat TM data using this classifier with different window sizes for capturing the contextual information are illustrated and compared.

  4. A Public Opinion Survey on Correctional Education: Does Additional Information on Efficacy Lead to Additional Support?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waterland, Keri Lynn

    2009-01-01

    Though much research has been done on the efficacy of correctional education on reducing recidivism rates for prison inmates, there is little research on the effect that information about the efficacy of correctional education has on public opinion. This study examined whether providing additional information regarding the efficacy of correctional…

  5. Spatial information transmission using axial temporal coherence coding.

    PubMed

    Micó, Vicente; García, Javier; Ferreira, Carlos; Sylman, David; Zalevsky, Zeev

    2007-04-01

    We present an approach that can be used for transmission of information through space-limited systems or for superresolution. The spatial information is coded with different axial temporal coherence by interfering every spatial region in the input with the same region, but with a certain known delay in the longitudinal axis. Every spatial region has different delay. After mixing all of the spatial information, it is transmitted through the space-limited system. At the detection the information is passed through a similar interference setup containing certain axial delay. By temporally scanning along the longitudinal axis, each time a different spatial region that was coded with the corresponding axial delay is reconstructed. To allow coding of different spatial regions with different and small axial delays, we use a thermal light source that has very short coherence length. We include experimental validation of the presented approach. PMID:17339919

  6. The display of spatial information and visually guided behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, C. Thomas

    1991-01-01

    The basic informational elements of spatial orientation are attitude and position within a coordinate system. The problem that faces aeronautical designers is that a pilot must deal with several coordinate systems, sometimes simultaneously. The display must depict unambiguously not only position and attitude, but also designate the relevant coordinate system. If this is not done accurately, spatial disorientation can occur. The different coordinate systems used in aeronautical tasks and the problems that occur in the display of spatial information are explained.

  7. Virtual-real spatial information visualization registration using affine representations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xueling; Ren, Fu; Du, Qingyun

    2009-10-01

    Virtual-real registration in Outdoor Augmented Reality is committed to enhance user's spatial cognition by overlaying virtual geographical objects on real scene. According to analyze fiducial detection registration method in indoor AR, for the purpose of avoiding complex and tedious process of position tracking and camera calibration in traditional registration methods, it puts forward and practices a virtual-real spatial information visualization registration method using affine representations. Based on the observation from Koenderink and van Doorn, Ullman and Basri in 1991 which is given a set of four or more non-coplanar 3D points, the projection of all points in the set can be computed as a linear combination of the projection of just four of the points, it sets up global affine coordinate system in light of world coordinates, camera coordinates and virtual coordinates and extracts four feature points from scene image and calculates the global affine coordinates of key points of virtual objects. Then according to a linear homogeneous coordinates of the four feature point's projection, it calculates projection pixel coordinates of key points of virtual objects. In addition, it proposes an approach to obtain pixel relative depth for hidden surface removal. Finally, by a case study, it verifies the feasibility and efficiency of the registration methods. The method would not only explore a new research direction for Geographical Information Science, but also would provide location-based information and services for outdoor AR.

  8. 17 CFR 229.1011 - (Item 1011) Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false (Item 1011) Additional....1011 (Item 1011) Additional information. (a) Agreements, regulatory requirements and legal proceedings... and the relief sought. Instruction to Item 1011(a)(5): A copy of any document relating to a...

  9. 17 CFR 229.1011 - (Item 1011) Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false (Item 1011) Additional....1011 (Item 1011) Additional information. (a) Agreements, regulatory requirements and legal proceedings... and the relief sought. Instruction to Item 1011(a)(5): A copy of any document relating to a...

  10. 17 CFR 229.1011 - (Item 1011) Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false (Item 1011) Additional....1011 (Item 1011) Additional information. (a) Agreements, regulatory requirements and legal proceedings... and the relief sought. Instruction to Item 1011(a)(5): A copy of any document relating to a...

  11. 17 CFR 229.1011 - (Item 1011) Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false (Item 1011) Additional....1011 (Item 1011) Additional information. (a) Agreements, regulatory requirements and legal proceedings... and the relief sought. Instruction to Item 1011(a)(5): A copy of any document relating to a...

  12. 17 CFR 229.1011 - (Item 1011) Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false (Item 1011) Additional....1011 (Item 1011) Additional information. (a) Agreements, regulatory requirements and legal proceedings... and the relief sought. Instruction to Item 1011(a)(5): A copy of any document relating to a...

  13. APPLICATION OF SPATIAL INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY TO PETROLEUM RESOURCE ASSESSMENT ANALYSIS.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, Betty M.; Domaratz, Michael A.

    1984-01-01

    Petroleum resource assessment procedures require the analysis of a large volume of spatial data. The US Geological Survey (USGS) has developed and applied spatial information handling procedures and digital cartographic techniques to a recent study involving the assessment of oil and gas resource potential for 74 million acres of designated and proposed wilderness lands in the western United States. The part of the study which dealt with the application of spatial information technology to petroleum resource assessment procedures is reviewed. A method was designed to expedite the gathering, integrating, managing, manipulating and plotting of spatial data from multiple data sources that are essential in modern resource assessment procedures.

  14. Spatial Mutual Information Based Hyperspectral Band Selection for Classification

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The amount of information involved in hyperspectral imaging is large. Hyperspectral band selection is a popular method for reducing dimensionality. Several information based measures such as mutual information have been proposed to reduce information redundancy among spectral bands. Unfortunately, mutual information does not take into account the spatial dependency between adjacent pixels in images thus reducing its robustness as a similarity measure. In this paper, we propose a new band selection method based on spatial mutual information. As validation criteria, a supervised classification method using support vector machine (SVM) is used. Experimental results of the classification of hyperspectral datasets show that the proposed method can achieve more accurate results. PMID:25918742

  15. Indoor Spatial Updating with Reduced Visual Information

    PubMed Central

    Legge, Gordon E.; Gage, Rachel; Baek, Yihwa; Bochsler, Tiana M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Spatial updating refers to the ability to keep track of position and orientation while moving through an environment. People with impaired vision may be less accurate in spatial updating with adverse consequences for indoor navigation. In this study, we asked how artificial restrictions on visual acuity and field size affect spatial updating, and also judgments of the size of rooms. Methods Normally sighted young adults were tested with artificial restriction of acuity in Mild Blur (Snellen 20/135) and Severe Blur (Snellen 20/900) conditions, and a Narrow Field (8°) condition. The subjects estimated the dimensions of seven rectangular rooms with and without these visual restrictions. They were also guided along three-segment paths in the rooms. At the end of each path, they were asked to estimate the distance and direction to the starting location. In Experiment 1, the subjects walked along the path. In Experiment 2, they were pushed in a wheelchair to determine if reduced proprioceptive input would result in poorer spatial updating. Results With unrestricted vision, mean Weber fractions for room-size estimates were near 20%. Severe Blur but not Mild Blur yielded larger errors in room-size judgments. The Narrow Field was associated with increased error, but less than with Severe Blur. There was no effect of visual restriction on estimates of distance back to the starting location, and only Severe Blur yielded larger errors in the direction estimates. Contrary to expectation, the wheelchair subjects did not exhibit poorer updating performance than the walking subjects, nor did they show greater dependence on visual condition. Discussion If our results generalize to people with low vision, severe deficits in acuity or field will adversely affect the ability to judge the size of indoor spaces, but updating of position and orientation may be less affected by visual impairment. PMID:26943674

  16. Toward Semantic Web Infrastructure for Spatial FEATURES' Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arabsheibani, R.; Ariannamazi, S.; Hakimpour, F.

    2015-12-01

    The Web and its capabilities can be employed as a tool for data and information integration if comprehensive datasets and appropriate technologies and standards enable the web with interpretation and easy alignment of data and information. Semantic Web along with the spatial functionalities enable the web to deal with the huge amount of data and information. The present study investigate the advantages and limitations of the Spatial Semantic Web and compare its capabilities with relational models in order to build a spatial data infrastructure. An architecture is proposed and a set of criteria is defined for the efficiency evaluation. The result demonstrate that when using the data with special characteristics such as schema dynamicity, sparse data or available relations between the features, the spatial semantic web and graph databases with spatial operations are preferable.

  17. The value of spatial information in MPA network design

    PubMed Central

    Costello, Christopher; Rassweiler, Andrew; Siegel, David; De Leo, Giulio; Micheli, Fiorenza; Rosenberg, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    The science of spatial fisheries management, which combines ecology, oceanography, and economics, has matured significantly. As a result, there have been recent advances in exploiting spatially explicit data to develop spatially explicit management policies, such as networks of marine protected areas (MPAs). However, when data are sparse, spatially explicit policies become less viable, and we must instead rely on blunt policies such as total allowable catches or imprecisely configured networks of MPAs. Therefore, spatial information has the potential to change management approaches and thus has value. We develop a general framework within which to analyze the value of information for spatial fisheries management and apply that framework to several US Pacific coast fisheries. We find that improved spatial information can increase fishery value significantly (>10% in our simulations), and that it changes dramatically the efficient management approach—switching from diffuse effort everywhere to a strategy where fishing is spatially targeted, with some areas under intensive harvest and others closed to fishing. Using all available information, even when incomplete, is essential to management success and may as much as double fishery value relative to using (admittedly incorrect) assumptions commonly invoked. PMID:20176962

  18. The Role of Spatial Information Systems in Environmental Emergency Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mondschein, Lawrence G.

    1994-01-01

    Reviews the use of spatial data and information technology by environmental managers and emergency responders. Discussion includes environmental legislation, the Toxic Chemical Release Inventory (TRI) database, public access to environmental information, information standardization problems, emergency response software development and a case study…

  19. Extracting spatial information from noise measurements of multi-spatial-mode quantum states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marino, A. M.; Clark, J. B.; Glorieux, Q.; Lett, P. D.

    2012-11-01

    We show that it is possible to use the spatial quantum correlations present in twin beams to extract information about the shape of a binary amplitude mask in the path of one of the beams. The scheme, based on noise measurements through homodyne detection, is useful in the regime where the number of photons is low enough that direct detection with a photodiode is difficult but high enough that photon counting is not an option. We find that under some conditions the use of quantum states of light leads to an enhancement of the sensitivity in the estimation of the shape of the mask over what can be achieved with a classical state with equivalent properties (mean photon flux and noise properties). In addition, we show that the level of enhancement that is obtained is a result of the quantum correlations and cannot be explained with only classical correlations.

  20. Extracting spatial information from large aperture exposures of diffuse sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clarke, J. T.; Moos, H. W.

    1981-01-01

    The spatial properties of large aperture exposures of diffuse emission can be used both to investigate spatial variations in the emission and to filter out camera noise in exposures of weak emission sources. Spatial imaging can be accomplished both parallel and perpendicular to dispersion with a resolution of 5-6 arc sec, and a narrow median filter running perpendicular to dispersion across a diffuse image selectively filters out point source features, such as reseaux marks and fast particle hits. Spatial information derived from observations of solar system objects is presented.

  1. [Construction of traditional Chinese medicine resources information spatial database].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yu-yang; Sun, Cheng-zhong; Yang, Ze-dong

    2015-03-01

    The informatization of traditional Chinese medicine resources is the basis of modern medicine. With a spatial attribute traditional Chinese medicine resources could be carried out for in-depth spatial analysis, data mining and traditional Chinese medicine resources regional industrial layout. In this paper, we took the data of Glycyrrhiza uralensis in the third national Chinese medicine resources survey as the experimental data, described the principles and structure of traditional Chinese medicine resources spatial information database. We also described the establishment of analysis model with the help of this spatial database. PMID:26226774

  2. 29 CFR 501.44 - Additional information, if required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Additional information, if required. 501.44 Section 501.44 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS ENFORCEMENT OF CONTRACTUAL OBLIGATIONS FOR TEMPORARY ALIEN AGRICULTURAL WORKERS ADMITTED UNDER SECTION 218...

  3. 29 CFR 501.44 - Additional information, if required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Additional information, if required. 501.44 Section 501.44 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS ENFORCEMENT OF CONTRACTUAL OBLIGATIONS FOR TEMPORARY ALIEN AGRICULTURAL WORKERS ADMITTED UNDER SECTION 218...

  4. 25 CFR 103.14 - Can BIA request additional information?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

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  5. 25 CFR 215.17 - Additional information required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Additional information required. 215.17 Section 215.17 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEAD AND ZINC MINING... interested in lead and zinc mining leases, or land under the jurisdiction of the Quapaw Indian Agency,...

  6. 12 CFR 980.7 - Examinations; requests for additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Examinations; requests for additional information. 980.7 Section 980.7 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD NEW FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK... cooperative nature of the Bank System; and (v) Finance Board review of any contracts or agreements between...

  7. 21 CFR 207.31 - Additional drug listing information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Additional drug listing information. 207.31 Section 207.31 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL REGISTRATION OF PRODUCERS OF DRUGS AND LISTING OF DRUGS IN COMMERCIAL...

  8. 25 CFR 227.7 - Additional information from applicant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Additional information from applicant. 227.7 Section 227.7 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF CERTAIN LANDS IN WIND RIVER INDIAN RESERVATION, WYOMING, FOR OIL AND GAS MINING How to Acquire...

  9. 25 CFR 227.7 - Additional information from applicant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Additional information from applicant. 227.7 Section 227.7 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF CERTAIN LANDS IN WIND RIVER INDIAN RESERVATION, WYOMING, FOR OIL AND GAS MINING How to Acquire...

  10. 25 CFR 227.7 - Additional information from applicant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Additional information from applicant. 227.7 Section 227.7 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF CERTAIN LANDS IN WIND RIVER INDIAN RESERVATION, WYOMING, FOR OIL AND GAS MINING How to Acquire...

  11. 25 CFR 227.7 - Additional information from applicant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Additional information from applicant. 227.7 Section 227.7 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF CERTAIN LANDS IN WIND RIVER INDIAN RESERVATION, WYOMING, FOR OIL AND GAS MINING How to Acquire Leases §...

  12. 25 CFR 227.7 - Additional information from applicant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Additional information from applicant. 227.7 Section 227.7 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF CERTAIN LANDS IN WIND RIVER INDIAN RESERVATION, WYOMING, FOR OIL AND GAS MINING How to Acquire...

  13. 21 CFR 207.31 - Additional drug listing information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Additional drug listing information. 207.31 Section 207.31 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL REGISTRATION OF PRODUCERS OF DRUGS AND LISTING OF DRUGS IN COMMERCIAL...

  14. 21 CFR 207.31 - Additional drug listing information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Additional drug listing information. 207.31 Section 207.31 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL REGISTRATION OF PRODUCERS OF DRUGS AND LISTING OF DRUGS IN COMMERCIAL...

  15. 38 CFR 39.3 - Decisionmakers, notifications, and additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Decisionmakers, notifications, and additional information. 39.3 Section 39.3 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) AID TO STATES FOR ESTABLISHMENT, EXPANSION, AND IMPROVEMENT...

  16. 43 CFR 3922.30 - Application-Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Application-Additional information. 3922.30 Section 3922.30 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL SHALE LEASING...

  17. 43 CFR 3922.30 - Application-Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Application-Additional information. 3922.30 Section 3922.30 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) OIL SHALE LEASING...

  18. 21 CFR 207.31 - Additional drug listing information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Additional drug listing information. 207.31 Section 207.31 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL REGISTRATION OF PRODUCERS OF DRUGS AND LISTING OF DRUGS IN COMMERCIAL...

  19. 21 CFR 207.31 - Additional drug listing information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Additional drug listing information. 207.31 Section 207.31 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL REGISTRATION OF PRODUCERS OF DRUGS AND LISTING OF DRUGS IN COMMERCIAL...

  20. 21 CFR 807.31 - Additional listing information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Additional listing information. 807.31 Section 807.31 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... joint ownership and control exists, the registered establishment must provide the Food and...

  1. Semantic overlay network for large-scale spatial information indexing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Zhiqiang; Wang, Yue; Cao, Kai; Qu, Tianshan; Wang, Zhongmin

    2013-08-01

    The increased demand for online services of spatial information poses new challenges to the combined filed of Computer Science and Geographic Information Science. Amongst others, these include fast indexing of spatial data in distributed networks. In this paper we propose a novel semantic overlay network for large-scale multi-dimensional spatial information indexing, called SON_LSII, which has a hybrid structure integrating a semantic quad-tree and Chord ring. The SON_LSII is a small world overlay network that achieves a very competitive trade-off between indexing efficiency and maintenance overhead. To create SON_LSII, we use an effective semantic clustering strategy that considers two aspects, i.e., the semantic of spatial information that peer holds in overlay network and physical network performances. Based on SON_LSII, a mapping method is used to reduce the multi-dimensional features into a single dimension and an efficient indexing algorithm is presented to support complex range queries of the spatial information with a massive number of concurrent users. The results from extensive experiments demonstrate that SON_LSII is superior to existing overlay networks in various respects, including scalability, maintenance, rate of indexing hits, indexing logical hops, and adaptability. Thus, the proposed SON_LSII can be used for large-scale spatial information indexing.

  2. Effective spatial database support for acquiring spatial information from remote sensing images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Peiquan; Wan, Shouhong; Yue, Lihua

    2009-12-01

    In this paper, a new approach to maintain spatial information acquiring from remote-sensing images is presented, which is based on Object-Relational DBMS. According to this approach, the detected and recognized results of targets are stored and able to be further accessed in an ORDBMS-based spatial database system, and users can access the spatial information using the standard SQL interface. This approach is different from the traditional ArcSDE-based method, because the spatial information management module is totally integrated into the DBMS and becomes one of the core modules in the DBMS. We focus on three issues, namely the general framework for the ORDBMS-based spatial database system, the definitions of the add-in spatial data types and operators, and the process to develop a spatial Datablade on Informix. The results show that the ORDBMS-based spatial database support for image-based target detecting and recognition is easy and practical to be implemented.

  3. Effects of Spatial Aggregation of Soil Spatial Information on Watershed Hydrological Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, R.; Zhu, A.; Song, X.

    2011-12-01

    Impacts of detailed soil spatial information on hydrological modeling across different spatial scales are lack of comprehensive understanding. This paper examines such effects by comparing the simulated runoffs across scales from watershed models based on two different levels of soil spatial information, 10 meter resolution soil data derived from SoLIM and the 1:24 000 scale Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) data base. The examination was conducted at three different spatial scales: two at different watershed size levels and one at the model minimum simulation unit level. A fully distributed hydrologic model and a semi-distributed model were used to assess the effects. The study was conducted in a 19.5 square kilometers watershed located in northwest Dane county, Wisconsin. The results showed that differences in simulated runoff at the minimum simulation unit level are large. However, the difference gradually decreases as the spatial scale of simulation units increases. For sub-basins larger than 10 square kilometers in Brewery Creek, simulated stream flows using spatially detailed soil data, SoLIM data, would not vary significantly from those using SSURGO soil data. The unique findings of this study provide an important and unified perspective on the different views reported in the literature concerning how spatial detail of the input soil data affects watershed modeling and offer a potential useful basis for selecting the level of detail of soil spatial information appropriate for watershed modeling at a given model simulation scale.

  4. How Homeland Security Affects Spatial Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zellmer, Linda

    2004-01-01

    A recent article in Security-Focus described the fact that several U.S. government buildings in Washington DC could no longer be clearly seen by people using MapQuest's aerial photo database. In addition, the photos of these buildings were altered at the Web sites wherein they are posted at the request of the U.S. Secret Service. This is an…

  5. Spatial correlations, additivity, and fluctuations in conserved-mass transport processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Arghya; Chatterjee, Sayani; Pradhan, Punyabrata

    2016-06-01

    We exactly calculate two-point spatial correlation functions in steady state in a broad class of conserved-mass transport processes, which are governed by chipping, diffusion, and coalescence of masses. We find that the spatial correlations are in general short-ranged and, consequently, on a large scale, these transport processes possess a remarkable thermodynamic structure in the steady state. That is, the processes have an equilibrium-like additivity property and, consequently, a fluctuation-response relation, which help us to obtain subsystem mass distributions in the limit of subsystem size large.

  6. Incorporating spatial information into gas plume detection in hyperspectral imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, Cameron S.

    Detection of chemical plumes in hyperpsectral data is a problem having solutions that focus on spectral information. These solutions neglect the presence of the spatial information in the scene. The spatial information is exploited in this work by assignment of prior probabilities to neighborhood configurations of signal presence or absence. These probabilities are leveraged in a total probability approach to testing for signal presence in a pixel of interest. The two new algorithms developed are named spatial information detection enhancement (SIDE) and bolt--on SIDE (B--SIDE). The results are explored in comparison to the clutter matched filter (CMF), a standard spectral technique, and to several supervised machine learning techniques. The results show a great improvement of SIDE over these other techniques, in some cases showing the poorest performance of the SIDE filter being much better than the CMF at its best.

  7. Censored data treatment using additional information in intelligent medical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zenkova, Z. N.

    2015-11-01

    Statistical procedures are a very important and significant part of modern intelligent medical systems. They are used for proceeding, mining and analysis of different types of the data about patients and their diseases; help to make various decisions, regarding the diagnosis, treatment, medication or surgery, etc. In many cases the data can be censored or incomplete. It is a well-known fact that censorship considerably reduces the efficiency of statistical procedures. In this paper the author makes a brief review of the approaches which allow improvement of the procedures using additional information, and describes a modified estimation of an unknown cumulative distribution function involving additional information about a quantile which is known exactly. The additional information is used by applying a projection of a classical estimator to a set of estimators with certain properties. The Kaplan-Meier estimator is considered as an estimator of the unknown cumulative distribution function, the properties of the modified estimator are investigated for a case of a single right censorship by means of simulations.

  8. The agent-based spatial information semantic grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Wei; Zhu, YaQiong; Zhou, Yong; Li, Deren

    2006-10-01

    Analyzing the characteristic of multi-Agent and geographic Ontology, The concept of the Agent-based Spatial Information Semantic Grid (ASISG) is defined and the architecture of the ASISG is advanced. ASISG is composed with Multi-Agents and geographic Ontology. The Multi-Agent Systems are composed with User Agents, General Ontology Agent, Geo-Agents, Broker Agents, Resource Agents, Spatial Data Analysis Agents, Spatial Data Access Agents, Task Execution Agent and Monitor Agent. The architecture of ASISG have three layers, they are the fabric layer, the grid management layer and the application layer. The fabric layer what is composed with Data Access Agent, Resource Agent and Geo-Agent encapsulates the data of spatial information system so that exhibits a conceptual interface for the Grid management layer. The Grid management layer, which is composed with General Ontology Agent, Task Execution Agent and Monitor Agent and Data Analysis Agent, used a hybrid method to manage all resources that were registered in a General Ontology Agent that is described by a General Ontology System. The hybrid method is assembled by resource dissemination and resource discovery. The resource dissemination push resource from Local Ontology Agent to General Ontology Agent and the resource discovery pull resource from the General Ontology Agent to Local Ontology Agents. The Local Ontology Agent is derived from special domain and describes the semantic information of local GIS. The nature of the Local Ontology Agents can be filtrated to construct a virtual organization what could provides a global scheme. The virtual organization lightens the burdens of guests because they need not search information site by site manually. The application layer what is composed with User Agent, Geo-Agent and Task Execution Agent can apply a corresponding interface to a domain user. The functions that ASISG should provide are: 1) It integrates different spatial information systems on the semantic The Grid

  9. Evaluation of the Performance of Smoothing Functions in Generalized Additive Models for Spatial Variation in Disease

    PubMed Central

    Siangphoe, Umaporn; Wheeler, David C.

    2015-01-01

    Generalized additive models (GAMs) with bivariate smoothing functions have been applied to estimate spatial variation in risk for many types of cancers. Only a handful of studies have evaluated the performance of smoothing functions applied in GAMs with regard to different geographical areas of elevated risk and different risk levels. This study evaluates the ability of different smoothing functions to detect overall spatial variation of risk and elevated risk in diverse geographical areas at various risk levels using a simulation study. We created five scenarios with different true risk area shapes (circle, triangle, linear) in a square study region. We applied four different smoothing functions in the GAMs, including two types of thin plate regression splines (TPRS) and two versions of locally weighted scatterplot smoothing (loess). We tested the null hypothesis of constant risk and detected areas of elevated risk using analysis of deviance with permutation methods and assessed the performance of the smoothing methods based on the spatial detection rate, sensitivity, accuracy, precision, power, and false-positive rate. The results showed that all methods had a higher sensitivity and a consistently moderate-to-high accuracy rate when the true disease risk was higher. The models generally performed better in detecting elevated risk areas than detecting overall spatial variation. One of the loess methods had the highest precision in detecting overall spatial variation across scenarios and outperformed the other methods in detecting a linear elevated risk area. The TPRS methods outperformed loess in detecting elevated risk in two circular areas. PMID:25983545

  10. Spatial information outflow from the hippocampal circuit: distributed spatial coding and phase precession in the subiculum

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Steve M.; Ganguli, Surya; Frank, Loren M.

    2012-01-01

    Hippocampal place cells convey spatial information through a combination of spatially-selective firing and theta phase precession. The way in which this information influences regions like the subiculum that receive input from the hippocampus remains unclear. The subiculum receives direct inputs from area CA1 of the hippocampus and sends divergent output projections to many other parts of the brain, so we examined the firing patterns of rat subicular neurons. We found a substantial transformation in the subicular code for space from sparse to dense firing rate representations along a proximal-distal anatomical gradient: neurons in the proximal subiculum are more similar to canonical, sparsely firing hippocampal place cells, whereas neurons in the distal subiculum have higher firing rates and more distributed spatial firing patterns. Using information theory, we found that the more distributed spatial representation in the subiculum carries, on average, more information about spatial location and context than the sparse spatial representation in CA1. Remarkably, despite the disparate firing rate properties of subicular neurons, we found that neurons at all proximal-distal locations exhibit robust theta phase precession, with similar spiking oscillation frequencies as neurons in area CA1. Our findings suggest that the subiculum is specialized to compress sparse hippocampal spatial codes into highly informative distributed codes suitable for efficient communication to other brain regions. Moreover, despite this substantial compression, the subiculum maintains finer scale temporal properties that may allow it to participate in oscillatory phase coding and spike timing-dependent plasticity in coordination with other regions of the hippocampal circuit. PMID:22915100

  11. Optimizing information flow in small genetic networks. IV. Spatial coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolowski, Thomas R.; Tkačik, Gašper

    2015-06-01

    We typically think of cells as responding to external signals independently by regulating their gene expression levels, yet they often locally exchange information and coordinate. Can such spatial coupling be of benefit for conveying signals subject to gene regulatory noise? Here we extend our information-theoretic framework for gene regulation to spatially extended systems. As an example, we consider a lattice of nuclei responding to a concentration field of a transcriptional regulator (the input) by expressing a single diffusible target gene. When input concentrations are low, diffusive coupling markedly improves information transmission; optimal gene activation functions also systematically change. A qualitatively different regulatory strategy emerges where individual cells respond to the input in a nearly steplike fashion that is subsequently averaged out by strong diffusion. While motivated by early patterning events in the Drosophila embryo, our framework is generically applicable to spatially coupled stochastic gene expression models.

  12. Optimizing information flow in small genetic networks. IV. Spatial coupling.

    PubMed

    Sokolowski, Thomas R; Tkačik, Gašper

    2015-06-01

    We typically think of cells as responding to external signals independently by regulating their gene expression levels, yet they often locally exchange information and coordinate. Can such spatial coupling be of benefit for conveying signals subject to gene regulatory noise? Here we extend our information-theoretic framework for gene regulation to spatially extended systems. As an example, we consider a lattice of nuclei responding to a concentration field of a transcriptional regulator (the input) by expressing a single diffusible target gene. When input concentrations are low, diffusive coupling markedly improves information transmission; optimal gene activation functions also systematically change. A qualitatively different regulatory strategy emerges where individual cells respond to the input in a nearly steplike fashion that is subsequently averaged out by strong diffusion. While motivated by early patterning events in the Drosophila embryo, our framework is generically applicable to spatially coupled stochastic gene expression models. PMID:26172739

  13. Spatial Information Processing: Standards-Based Open Source Visualization Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hogan, P.

    2009-12-01

    . Spatial information intelligence is a global issue that will increasingly affect our ability to survive as a species. Collectively we must better appreciate the complex relationships that make life on Earth possible. Providing spatial information in its native context can accelerate our ability to process that information. To maximize this ability to process information, three basic elements are required: data delivery (server technology), data access (client technology), and data processing (information intelligence). NASA World Wind provides open source client and server technologies based on open standards. The possibilities for data processing and data sharing are enhanced by this inclusive infrastructure for geographic information. It is interesting that this open source and open standards approach, unfettered by proprietary constraints, simultaneously provides for entirely proprietary use of this same technology. 1. WHY WORLD WIND? NASA World Wind began as a single program with specific functionality, to deliver NASA content. But as the possibilities for virtual globe technology became more apparent, we found that while enabling a new class of information technology, we were also getting in the way. Researchers, developers and even users expressed their desire for World Wind functionality in ways that would service their specific needs. They want it in their web pages. They want to add their own features. They want to manage their own data. They told us that only with this kind of flexibility, could their objectives and the potential for this technology be truly realized. World Wind client technology is a set of development tools, a software development kit (SDK) that allows a software engineer to create applications requiring geographic visualization technology. 2. MODULAR COMPONENTRY Accelerated evolution of a technology requires that the essential elements of that technology be modular components such that each can advance independent of the other

  14. Spatial Information in local society's cultural conservation and research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, J.-J.; Liao, H.-M.; Fan, I.-C.

    2015-09-01

    of the CRGIS, the meaning is not only build the thematic GIS system ,but also contain these concepts: Open Data, Wikipedia ,Public Participation, and we provide an interactive platform with culture resource data and geospatial technology. In addition to providing these reference material for local culture education, local cultural recognition, but to further cooperate with scholars, academic experts , local culture-history research worker / team, accumulated rich record of the past, research results, through the spatial database planning, data processing(ex. geocoding), field survey, geospatial materials overlapping, such as nesting geospatial technology to compile the cultural information and value-added applications.

  15. Developing an entropy-based model of spatial information estimation and its application in the design of precipitation gauge networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Ho-Ting; You, Gene Jiing-Yun

    2014-11-01

    This study proposed a spatial information estimation model for the analysis of precipitation gauge networks, to improve on previous methods based on information theory. The proposed model employs a two-dimensional transinformation-distance (T-D) relationship in conjunction with multivariate information approximation to estimate transinformation to ungauged locations from existing stations, while taking into consideration the influence of multiple stations and anisotropy. The proposed model is used to evaluate the spatial distribution of precipitation data and the characteristics of information transfer, which are then applied in a spatial optimization algorithm for the selection of additional station locations. This framework was implemented to investigate temporal and spatial patterns in information content in the Shihmen Reservoir watershed. The results demonstrate obvious anisotropy associated with the delivery of information. By comparing different cases, it was determined that the efficiency of information delivery dominates the spatial distribution of the information content, such that eccentricity is merely supplemental. Efficiency in information delivery is also heavily influenced by temporal scale. For data covering long intervals (monthly and annual), efficiency in the delivery of information is relatively high, while the uncertainty or heterogeneity of hourly or daily time series produces low spatial correlations due to the inefficient delivery of information. The proposed spatial optimization algorithm confirmed that the optimal location for new stations lies close to the center of low information zones. Additional stations could improve information content considerably; however, the margin of improvement decreases with the number of stations.

  16. Spatial and temporal information fusion for crop condition monitoring

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crop growth condition information is critical for crop management and yield estimation. In order to monitor crop conditions from space, high spatial and temporal resolution remote sensing data are required. Data fusion approach provides a way to generate such data set from multiple remote sensing da...

  17. Decoding Rich Spatial Information with High Temporal Resolution

    PubMed Central

    Stokes, Mark G.; Wolff, Michael J.; Spaak, Eelke

    2015-01-01

    New research suggests that magnetoencephalography (MEG) contains rich spatial information for decoding neural states. Even small differences in the angle of neighbouring dipoles generate subtle, but statistically separable field patterns. This implies MEG (and electroencephalography: EEG) is ideal for decoding neural states with high-temporal resolution in the human brain. PMID:26440122

  18. Where and Why There? Spatial Thinking with Geographic Information Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milson, Andrew J.; Curtis, Mary D.

    2009-01-01

    The authors developed and implemented a project for high school geography students that modeled the processes in a site selection analysis using Geographic Information Systems (GIS). They sought to explore how spatial thinking could be fostered by using the MyWorld GIS software that was designed specifically for educational uses. The task posed…

  19. Time walkers and spatial dynamics of aging information.

    PubMed

    Lizana, L; Rosvall, M; Sneppen, K

    2010-01-29

    The distribution of information is essential for a living system's ability to coordinate and adapt. Random walkers are often used to model this distribution process and, in doing so, one effectively assumes that information maintains its relevance over time. But the value of information in social and biological systems often decays and must continuously be updated. To capture the spatial dynamics of aging information, we introduce time walkers. A time walker moves like a random walker, but interacts with traces left by other walkers, some representing older information, some newer. The traces form a navigable information landscape which we visualize as a river network. We quantify the dynamical properties of time walkers, and the quality of the information left behind, on a two-dimensional lattice. We show that searching in this landscape is superior to random searching. PMID:20366697

  20. Use of Spatial Variance Information From Remote Sensing Imagery to Map Vegetation Foliage Density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walthall, C. L.; Timlin, D.; Pachepsky, Y.; Dulaney, W.; Daughtry, C.

    2002-12-01

    Maps of foliage density expressed as leaf area index (LAI) are used for natural resources inventories, land surface-atmosphere interaction modeling, and hydrologic modeling. Remote sensing imagery can be used to produce these maps by relating spectral vegetation indexes (SVIs) to LAI calibration samples acquired at selected locations on the surface. This approach traditionally uses ordinary least squares (OLS) relationships between the surface measurements and the SVIs, and does not fully take advantage of the spatial information content of the imagery. Spatial information inherent in a semivariogram of the imagery may provide additional information for mapping LAI patterns. This is demonstrated using a spatially dense sample of corn LAI and calibrated airborne imagery. An LAI map is produced by interpolating surface measurements with a semivariogram from the imagery. The resulting LAI map captures the main spatial features of a LAI map produced by interpolating the surface LAI data with its semivariogram. The image semivariogram approach also provides a product that has less noise characteristic of OLS-based remote sensing methods. The use of the image semivariogram with the surface LAI calibration samples suggests that the spatial domain information can complement spectral information for improving LAI maps especially at high spatial resolution where OLS methods may not perform well.

  1. Does Spatial or Visual Information in Maps Facilitate Text Recall?: Reconsidering the Conjoint Retention Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Marlynn M.; Robinson, Daniel H.; Sarama, Julie

    2005-01-01

    The conjoint retention hypothesis (CRH) claims that students recall more text information when they study geographic maps in addition to text than when they study text alone, because the maps are encoded spatially (Kulhavy, Lee, & Caterino, 1985). This claim was recently challenged by Griffin and Robinson (2000), who found no advantage for maps…

  2. Disentangling Overlapping Astronomical Sources Using Spatial and Spectral Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, David E.; Kashyap, Vinay L.; van Dyk, David A.

    2015-08-01

    We present a powerful new algorithm that combines both spatial information (event locations and the point-spread function) and spectral information (photon energies) to separate photons from overlapping sources. We use Bayesian statistical methods to simultaneously infer the number of overlapping sources, to probabilistically separate the photons among the sources, and to fit the parameters describing the individual sources. Using the Bayesian joint posterior distribution, we are able to coherently quantify the uncertainties associated with all these parameters. The advantages of combining spatial and spectral information are demonstrated through a simulation study. The utility of the approach is then illustrated by analysis of observations of FK Aqr and FL Aqr with the XMM-Newton Observatory and the central region of the Orion Nebula Cluster with the Chandra X-ray Observatory.

  3. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  4. CCSI: a database providing chromatin-chromatin spatial interaction information.

    PubMed

    Xie, Xiaowei; Ma, Wenbin; Songyang, Zhou; Luo, Zhenhua; Huang, Junfeng; Dai, Zhiming; Xiong, Yuanyan

    2016-01-01

    Distal regulatory elements have been shown to regulate gene transcription through spatial interactions, and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are linked with distal gene expression by spatial proximity, which helps to explain the causal role of disease-associated SNPs in non-coding region. Therefore, studies on spatial interactions between chromatin have created a new avenue for elucidating the mechanism of transcriptional regulation in disease pathogenesis. Recently, a growing number of chromatin interactions have been revealed by means of 3C, 4C, 5C, ChIA-PET and Hi-C technologies. To interpret and utilize these interactions, we constructed chromatin-chromatin spatial interaction (CCSI) database by integrating and annotating 91 sets of chromatin interaction data derived from published literature, UCSC database and NCBI GEO database, resulting in a total of 3,017,962 pairwise interactions (false discovery rate < 0.05), covering human, mouse and yeast. A web interface has been designed to provide access to the chromatin interactions. The main features of CCSI are (i) showing chromatin interactions and corresponding genes, enhancers and SNPs within the regions in the search page; (ii) offering complete interaction datasets, enhancer and SNP information in the download page; and (iii) providing analysis pipeline for the annotation of interaction data. In conclusion, CCSI will facilitate exploring transcriptional regulatory mechanism in disease pathogenesis associated with spatial interactions among genes, regulatory regions and SNPs. Database URL: http://songyanglab.sysu.edu.cn/ccsi. PMID:26868054

  5. CCSI: a database providing chromatin–chromatin spatial interaction information

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Wenbin; Songyang, Zhou; Luo, Zhenhua; Huang, Junfeng; Dai, Zhiming; Xiong, Yuanyan

    2016-01-01

    Distal regulatory elements have been shown to regulate gene transcription through spatial interactions, and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are linked with distal gene expression by spatial proximity, which helps to explain the causal role of disease-associated SNPs in non-coding region. Therefore, studies on spatial interactions between chromatin have created a new avenue for elucidating the mechanism of transcriptional regulation in disease pathogenesis. Recently, a growing number of chromatin interactions have been revealed by means of 3C, 4C, 5C, ChIA-PET and Hi-C technologies. To interpret and utilize these interactions, we constructed chromatin–chromatin spatial interaction (CCSI) database by integrating and annotating 91 sets of chromatin interaction data derived from published literature, UCSC database and NCBI GEO database, resulting in a total of 3 017 962 pairwise interactions (false discovery rate < 0.05), covering human, mouse and yeast. A web interface has been designed to provide access to the chromatin interactions. The main features of CCSI are (i) showing chromatin interactions and corresponding genes, enhancers and SNPs within the regions in the search page; (ii) offering complete interaction datasets, enhancer and SNP information in the download page; and (iii) providing analysis pipeline for the annotation of interaction data. In conclusion, CCSI will facilitate exploring transcriptional regulatory mechanism in disease pathogenesis associated with spatial interactions among genes, regulatory regions and SNPs. Database URL: http://songyanglab.sysu.edu.cn/ccsi PMID:26868054

  6. Representing spatial information in a computational model for network management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blaisdell, James H.; Brownfield, Thomas F.

    1994-01-01

    While currently available relational database management systems (RDBMS) allow inclusion of spatial information in a data model, they lack tools for presenting this information in an easily comprehensible form. Computer-aided design (CAD) software packages provide adequate functions to produce drawings, but still require manual placement of symbols and features. This project has demonstrated a bridge between the data model of an RDBMS and the graphic display of a CAD system. It is shown that the CAD system can be used to control the selection of data with spatial components from the database and then quickly plot that data on a map display. It is shown that the CAD system can be used to extract data from a drawing and then control the insertion of that data into the database. These demonstrations were successful in a test environment that incorporated many features of known working environments, suggesting that the techniques developed could be adapted for practical use.

  7. An information theory analysis of spatial decisions in cognitive development

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Nicole M.; Sera, Maria D.; Georgopoulos, Apostolos P.

    2015-01-01

    Performance in a cognitive task can be considered as the outcome of a decision-making process operating across various knowledge domains or aspects of a single domain. Therefore, an analysis of these decisions in various tasks can shed light on the interplay and integration of these domains (or elements within a single domain) as they are associated with specific task characteristics. In this study, we applied an information theoretic approach to assess quantitatively the gain of knowledge across various elements of the cognitive domain of spatial, relational knowledge, as a function of development. Specifically, we examined changing spatial relational knowledge from ages 5 to 10 years. Our analyses consisted of a two-step process. First, we performed a hierarchical clustering analysis on the decisions made in 16 different tasks of spatial relational knowledge to determine which tasks were performed similarly at each age group as well as to discover how the tasks clustered together. We next used two measures of entropy to capture the gradual emergence of order in the development of relational knowledge. These measures of “cognitive entropy” were defined based on two independent aspects of chunking, namely (1) the number of clusters formed at each age group, and (2) the distribution of tasks across the clusters. We found that both measures of entropy decreased with age in a quadratic fashion and were positively and linearly correlated. The decrease in entropy and, therefore, gain of information during development was accompanied by improved performance. These results document, for the first time, the orderly and progressively structured “chunking” of decisions across the development of spatial relational reasoning and quantify this gain within a formal information-theoretic framework. PMID:25698915

  8. An information theory analysis of spatial decisions in cognitive development.

    PubMed

    Scott, Nicole M; Sera, Maria D; Georgopoulos, Apostolos P

    2015-01-01

    Performance in a cognitive task can be considered as the outcome of a decision-making process operating across various knowledge domains or aspects of a single domain. Therefore, an analysis of these decisions in various tasks can shed light on the interplay and integration of these domains (or elements within a single domain) as they are associated with specific task characteristics. In this study, we applied an information theoretic approach to assess quantitatively the gain of knowledge across various elements of the cognitive domain of spatial, relational knowledge, as a function of development. Specifically, we examined changing spatial relational knowledge from ages 5 to 10 years. Our analyses consisted of a two-step process. First, we performed a hierarchical clustering analysis on the decisions made in 16 different tasks of spatial relational knowledge to determine which tasks were performed similarly at each age group as well as to discover how the tasks clustered together. We next used two measures of entropy to capture the gradual emergence of order in the development of relational knowledge. These measures of "cognitive entropy" were defined based on two independent aspects of chunking, namely (1) the number of clusters formed at each age group, and (2) the distribution of tasks across the clusters. We found that both measures of entropy decreased with age in a quadratic fashion and were positively and linearly correlated. The decrease in entropy and, therefore, gain of information during development was accompanied by improved performance. These results document, for the first time, the orderly and progressively structured "chunking" of decisions across the development of spatial relational reasoning and quantify this gain within a formal information-theoretic framework. PMID:25698915

  9. Challenges of Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Education and Technology Transfer in a Fast Developing Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, F.; Chen, L.-C.

    2014-04-01

    During the past decade, Taiwan has experienced an unusual and fast growing in the industry of mapping, remote sensing, spatial information and related markets. A successful space program and dozens of advanced airborne and ground-based remote sensing instruments as well as mobile mapping systems have been implemented and put into operation to support the vast demands of geospatial data acquisition. Moreover, in addition to the government agencies and research institutes, there are also tens of companies in the private sector providing geo-spatial data and services. However, the fast developing industry is also posing a great challenge to the education sector in Taiwan, especially the higher education for geo-spatial information. Facing this fast developing industry, the demands of skilled professionals and new technologies in order to address diversified needs are indubitably high. Consequently, while delighting in the expanding and prospering benefitted from the fast growing industry, how to fulfill these demands has become a challenge for the remote sensing and spatial information disciplines in the higher education institutes in Taiwan. This paper provides a brief insight into the status of the remote sensing and spatial information industry in Taiwan as well as the challenges of the education and technology transfer to support the increasing demands and to ensure the continuous development of the industry. In addition to the report of the current status of the remote sensing and spatial information related courses and programs in the colleges and universities, current and potential threatening issues and possible resolutions are also discussed in different points of view.

  10. 21 CFR 71.4 - Samples; additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... samples of the color additive, articles used as components thereof, or of the food, drug, or cosmetic in... additive, or articles used as components thereof, or of the food, drug, or cosmetic in which the color... respect to the safety of the color additive or the physical or technical effect it produces. The date...

  11. 21 CFR 71.4 - Samples; additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... samples of the color additive, articles used as components thereof, or of the food, drug, or cosmetic in... additive, or articles used as components thereof, or of the food, drug, or cosmetic in which the color... respect to the safety of the color additive or the physical or technical effect it produces. The date...

  12. Spatially Informed Plant PRA Models for Security Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Wheeler, Timothy A.; Thomas, Willard; Thornsbury, Eric

    2006-07-01

    Traditional risk models can be adapted to evaluate plant response for situations where plant systems and structures are intentionally damaged, such as from sabotage or terrorism. This paper describes a process by which traditional risk models can be spatially informed to analyze the effects of compound and widespread harsh environments through the use of 'damage footprints'. A 'damage footprint' is a spatial map of regions of the plant (zones) where equipment could be physically destroyed or disabled as a direct consequence of an intentional act. The use of 'damage footprints' requires that the basic events from the traditional probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) be spatially transformed so that the failure of individual components can be linked to the destruction of or damage to specific spatial zones within the plant. Given the nature of intentional acts, extensive modifications must be made to the risk models to account for the special nature of the 'initiating events' associated with deliberate adversary actions. Intentional acts might produce harsh environments that in turn could subject components and structures to one or more insults, such as structural, fire, flood, and/or vibration and shock damage. Furthermore, the potential for widespread damage from some of these insults requires an approach that addresses the impacts of these potentially severe insults even when they occur in locations distant from the actual physical location of a component or structure modeled in the traditional PRA. (authors)

  13. Spatial Modeling of Colonic Lesions With Geographic Information Systems

    PubMed Central

    Imanieh, Mohammad Hadi; Goli, Ali; Imanieh, Mohammad Hossein; Geramizadeh, Bita

    2014-01-01

    Background: Geographic information system (GIS) software has been used in health care systems to display and analyze spatial pattern of diseases and health services. Objectives: This study was performed to assess spatial patterns of colon’s pathologic lesions based on the pathologic reports and assess whether it is possible to use GIS software in health services. Patients and Methods: Archives of pathology of Namazi and Faghihi hospitals, two main referral centers of south-west of Iran, were obtained and reviewed between January 2009 and September 2011 for biopsy reports of patients who underwent colonoscopy. Abnormal biopsies were categorized into five different subgroups according to the type of pathologic specimens. By GIS, spatial patterns of colon biopsies were plotted in different maps and spatial auto-correlation of colon biopsies was calculated using the Moran’s Index. Results: A total of 4815 biopsies from 2663 different patients were reviewed, 53.8% of which were men. Abnormal biopsies were 2781 of all specimens (57.8%). Neoplastic lesions, inflammatory bowel diseases and polyps were 9.3%, 19.3% and 29.2% of total biopsies, respectively. Pathologic biopsies were more common in the distal colon. Maps of all biopsies and maps of specific pathologies were manifested in GIS. Conclusions: Our study showed that left-sided lesions are still more common in the Iranian population. On the other hand, surveying the right side of colon is as important as the distal part, which necessitates total colonoscopy. PMID:25763265

  14. Digital spatial soil and land information for agriculture development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, R. K.; Laghathe, Pankaj; Meena, Ranglal; Barman, Alok Kumar; Das, Satyendra Nath

    2006-12-01

    Natural resource management calls for study of natural system prevailing in the country. In India floods and droughts visit regularly, causing extensive damages of natural wealth including agriculture that are crucial for sustenance of economic growth. The Indian Sub-continent drained by many major rivers and their tributaries where watershed, the hydrological unit forms a natural system that allows management and development of land resources following natural harmony. Acquisition of various kinds and levels of soil and land characteristics using both conventional and remote sensing techniques and subsequent development of digital spatial data base are essential to evolve strategy for planning watershed development programmes, their monitoring and impact evaluation. The multi-temporal capability of remote sensing sensors helps to update the existing data base which are of dynamic in nature. The paper outlines the concept of spatial data base development, generation using remote sensing techniques, designing of data structure, standardization and integration with watershed layers and various non spatial attribute data for various applications covering watershed development planning, alternate land use planning, soil and water conservation, diversified agriculture practices, generation of soil health card, soil and land reclamation, etc. The soil and land characteristics are vital to derive various interpretative groupings or master table that helps to generate the desired level of information of various clients using the GIS platform. The digital spatial data base on soils and watersheds generated by All India Soil and Land Use Survey will act as a sub-server of the main GIS based Web Server being hoisted by the planning commission for application of spatial data for planning purposes under G2G domain. It will facilitate e-governance for natural resource management using modern technology.

  15. 10 CFR 1.3 - Sources of additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .../cfr/. Final opinions made in the adjudication of cases are published in “Nuclear Regulatory Commission... Regional Offices. In addition, NRC Functional Organization Charts, NUREG-0325, contains...

  16. 7 CFR 20.11 - Additional reports and information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ....11 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture EXPORT SALES REPORTING REQUIREMENTS § 20.11... Administrator information with respect to sales of agricultural commodities as requested. Daily reports shall be... reports and information, including price data, as may be requested with respect to export sales...

  17. Spatially Characterizing Visitor Use and Its Association with Informal Trails in Yosemite Valley Meadows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walden-Schreiner, Chelsey; Leung, Yu-Fai

    2013-07-01

    Ecological impacts associated with nature-based recreation and tourism can compromise park and protected area goals if left unrestricted. Protected area agencies are increasingly incorporating indicator-based management frameworks into their management plans to address visitor impacts. Development of indicators requires empirical evaluation of indicator measures and examining their ecological and social relevance. This study addresses the development of the informal trail indicator in Yosemite National Park by spatially characterizing visitor use in open landscapes and integrating use patterns with informal trail condition data to examine their spatial association. Informal trail and visitor use data were collected concurrently during July and August of 2011 in three, high-use meadows of Yosemite Valley. Visitor use was clustered at statistically significant levels in all three study meadows. Spatial data integration found no statistically significant differences between use patterns and trail condition class. However, statistically significant differences were found between the distance visitors were observed from informal trails and visitor activity type with active activities occurring closer to trail corridors. Gender was also found to be significant with male visitors observed further from trail corridors. Results highlight the utility of integrated spatial analysis in supporting indicator-based monitoring and informing management of open landscapes. Additional variables for future analysis and methodological improvements are discussed.

  18. Study on architecture and implementation of adaptive spatial information service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Zhuoyuan; Wang, Yingjie; Luo, Bin

    2007-06-01

    More and more geo-spatial information has been disseminated to the Internet based on WebGIS architecture. Some of these online mapping applications have already been widely used in recent years, such as Google map, MapQuest, go2map, mapbar. However, due to the limitation of web map technology and transmit speed of large geo-spatial data through the Internet, most of these web map systems employ (pyramid-indexed) raster map modeling technology. This method can shorten server's response time but largely reduces the flexibility and visualization effect of the web map provided. It will be difficult for them to adaptively change the map contents or map styles for variant user demands. This paper propose a new system architecture for adaptive web map service by integrating latest network technology and web map technology, such as SVG, Ajax, user modeling. Its main advantages include: Firstly, it is user customized. In this proposed map system, user can design the map contents, styles and interfaces online by themselves; secondly, it is more intelligent. It can record user interactive actions with the system, analyze user profiles, predict user behavior. User's interests will be obtained and tasks will be suggested based on different user models, which are generated from the system. For instance, if a new user login in, the nearest user model will be matched and some interactive suggestions will be provided by the system for the user. It is a more powerful and efficient way for spatial information sharing. This paper first discusses the main system architecture of adaptive spatial information service which consists of three parts: user layer, map application layer and database layer. User layer is distributed on client side which includes Web map (SVG) browser, map renderer and map visualization component. Application layer includes map application server, user interface generation, user analysis and user modeling, etc. Based on user models, map content, style and user

  19. Remodeling census population with spatial information from Landsat TM imagery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yuan, Y.; Smith, R.M.; Limp, W.F.

    1997-01-01

    In geographic information systems (GIS) studies there has been some difficulty integrating socioeconomic and physiogeographic data. One important type of socioeconomic data, census data, offers a wide range of socioeconomic information, but is aggregated within arbitrary enumeration districts (EDs). Values reflect either raw counts or, when standardized, the mean densities in the EDs. On the other hand, remote sensing imagery, an important type of physiogeographic data, provides large quantities of information with more spatial details than census data. Based on the dasymetric mapping principle, this study applies multivariable regression to examine the correlation between population counts from census and land cover types. The land cover map is classified from LandSat TM imagery. The correlation is high. Census population counts are remodeled to a GIS raster layer based on the discovered correlations coupled with scaling techniques, which offset influences from other than land cover types. The GIS raster layer depicts the population distribution with much more spatial detail than census data offer. The resulting GIS raster layer is ready to be analyzed or integrated with other GIS data. ?? 1998 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Additive Partitioning of Coral Reef Fish Diversity across Hierarchical Spatial Scales throughout the Caribbean

    PubMed Central

    Francisco-Ramos, Vanessa; Arias-González, Jesús Ernesto

    2013-01-01

    There is an increasing need to examine regional patterns of diversity in coral-reef systems since their biodiversity is declining globally. In this sense, additive partitioning might be useful since it quantifies the contribution of alpha and beta to total diversity across different scales. We applied this approach using an unbalanced design across four hierarchical scales (80 sites, 22 subregions, six ecoregions, and the Caribbean basin). Reef-fish species were compiled from the Reef Environmental Education Foundation (REEF) database and distributions were confirmed with published data. Permutation tests were used to compare observed values to those expected by chance. The primary objective was to identify patterns of reef-fish diversity across multiple spatial scales under different scenarios, examining factors such as fisheries and demographic connectivity. Total diversity at the Caribbean scale was attributed to β-diversity (nearly 62% of the species), with the highest β-diversity at the site scale. α¯-diversity was higher than expected by chance in all scenarios and at all studied scales. This suggests that fish assemblages are more homogenous than expected, particularly at the ecoregion scale. Within each ecoregion, diversity was mainly attributed to alpha, except for the Southern ecoregion where there was a greater difference in species among sites. β-components were lower than expected in all ecoregions, indicating that fishes within each ecoregion are a subsample of the same species pool. The scenario involving the effects of fisheries showed a shift in dominance for β-diversity from regions to subregions, with no major changes to the diversity patterns. In contrast, demographic connectivity partially explained the diversity pattern. β-components were low within connectivity regions and higher than expected by chance when comparing between them. Our results highlight the importance of ecoregions as a spatial scale to conserve local and regional

  1. Additive partitioning of coral reef fish diversity across hierarchical spatial scales throughout the Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Francisco-Ramos, Vanessa; Arias-González, Jesús Ernesto

    2013-01-01

    There is an increasing need to examine regional patterns of diversity in coral-reef systems since their biodiversity is declining globally. In this sense, additive partitioning might be useful since it quantifies the contribution of alpha and beta to total diversity across different scales. We applied this approach using an unbalanced design across four hierarchical scales (80 sites, 22 subregions, six ecoregions, and the Caribbean basin). Reef-fish species were compiled from the Reef Environmental Education Foundation (REEF) database and distributions were confirmed with published data. Permutation tests were used to compare observed values to those expected by chance. The primary objective was to identify patterns of reef-fish diversity across multiple spatial scales under different scenarios, examining factors such as fisheries and demographic connectivity. Total diversity at the Caribbean scale was attributed to β-diversity (nearly 62% of the species), with the highest β-diversity at the site scale. [Formula: see text]-diversity was higher than expected by chance in all scenarios and at all studied scales. This suggests that fish assemblages are more homogenous than expected, particularly at the ecoregion scale. Within each ecoregion, diversity was mainly attributed to alpha, except for the Southern ecoregion where there was a greater difference in species among sites. β-components were lower than expected in all ecoregions, indicating that fishes within each ecoregion are a subsample of the same species pool. The scenario involving the effects of fisheries showed a shift in dominance for β-diversity from regions to subregions, with no major changes to the diversity patterns. In contrast, demographic connectivity partially explained the diversity pattern. β-components were low within connectivity regions and higher than expected by chance when comparing between them. Our results highlight the importance of ecoregions as a spatial scale to conserve local

  2. 78 FR 51265 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Application for Additional Visa Pages or...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-20

    ... Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Application for Additional Visa Pages or Miscellaneous...: Title of Information Collection: Application for Additional Visa Pages or Miscellaneous Passport... applies for the addition of visa pages to that passport, the Department must confirm the...

  3. Organisational aspects of spatial information infrastructure in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bielecka, Elzbieta; Zwirowicz-Rutkowska, Agnieszka

    2013-06-01

    One of the more important elements of spatial information infrastructure is the organisational structure defining the obligations and dependencies between stakeholders that are responsible for the infrastructure. Many SDI practitioners and theoreticians emphasise that its influence on the success or failure of activities undertaken is significantly greater than that of technical aspects. Being aware of the role of the organisational structure in the creating, operating and maintenance of spatial information infrastructure (SII), Polish legislators placed appropriate regulations in the Spatial Information Infrastructure Act, being the transposition of the INSPIRE Directive into Polish Law. The principal spatial information infrastructure stakeholders are discussed in the article and also the scope of cooperation between them. The tasks and relationships between stakeholders are illustrated in UML, in both the use case and the class diagram. Mentioned also are the main problems and obstructions resulting from imprecise legal regulations. Jednym z istotniejszych komponentów infrastruktury informacji przestrzennej (IIP) jest struktura organizacyjna określająca m.in. zależności pomiędzy organizacjami tworzącymi infrastrukturę. Wielu praktyków i teoretyków SDI podkreśla, że wpływ aspektów organizacyjnych na sukces lub porażkę SDI jest dużo większy niż elementów technicznych. Mając świadomość znaczącej roli struktury organizacyjnej w tworzeniu, funkcjonowaniu i zarządzaniu infrastrukturą przestrzenną w Polsce, legislatorzy umieścili odpowiednie zapisy w ustawie z dnia 4 marca 2010 r. o infrastrukturze informacji przestrzennej, będącej transpozycją dyrektywy INSPIRE do prawa polskiego. W artykule omówiono strukturę organizacyjną IIP w Polsce, podając (m.in. w postaci diagramów UML) obowiązki poszczególnych organów administracji zaangażowanych w jej budowę i rozwój, a także omówiono zależności i zakres współpracy pomi

  4. Spatial interpolation of monthly climate data for Finland: comparing the performance of kriging and generalized additive models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aalto, Juha; Pirinen, Pentti; Heikkinen, Juha; Venäläinen, Ari

    2013-04-01

    The Finnish Meteorological Institute has calculated statistics for the new reference period of 1981-2010. During this project, the grid size has been reduced from 10 to 1 km, the evaluation of the interpolation has been improved, and comparisons between different methods has been performed. The climate variables of interest were monthly mean temperature and mean precipitation, for which the spatial variability was explained using auxiliary information: mean elevation, sea percentage, and lake percentage. We compared three methods for spatial prediction: kriging with external drift (KED), generalized additive models (GAM), and GAM combined with residual kriging (GK). Every interpolation file now has attached statistical key figures describing the bias and the normality of the prediction error. According to the cross-validation results, GAM was the best method for predicting mean temperatures, with only very small differences relative to the other methods. For mean precipitation, KED produced the most accurate predictions, followed by GK. In both cases, there was notable seasonal variation in the statistical skill scores. For the new reference period and future interpolations, KED was chosen as the primary method due to its robustness and accuracy.

  5. Words and Maps: Developmental Changes in Mental Models of Spatial Information Acquired from Descriptions and Depictions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uttal, David H.; Fisher, Joan A.; Taylor, Holly A.

    2006-01-01

    People acquire spatial information from many sources, including maps, verbal descriptions, and navigating in the environment. The different sources present spatial information in different ways. For example, maps can show many spatial relations simultaneously, but in a description, each spatial relation must be presented sequentially. The present…

  6. Instructional geographic information science Map overlay and spatial abilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tricot, Thomas Alexander, II

    The fundamental goal of this study is to determine if the complex spatial concept of map overlay can be effectively learned by young adolescents through the utilization of an instructional technique based within the foundations of Instructional Geographic Information Science (InGIScience). Percent correct and reaction times were the measures used to analyze the ability of young adolescents to learn the intersect, erase, and union functions of map overlay. The ability to solve for missing inputs, output, or function was also analyzed. Young adolescents of the test group scored higher percent correct and recorded faster reaction times than those of the control group or adults of the expert group by the end of the experiment. The intersect function of map overlay was more difficult in terms of percent correct and reaction time than the erase or union functions. Solving for the first or second input consistently resulted in lower percent correct and higher reaction times throughout the experiment. No overall performance differences were shown to exist between males and females. Results of a subjective "real-world" test also indicated learning by young adolescents. This study has shown that the practice of repetitive instruction and testing has proven effective for enhancing spatial abilities with regard to the map overlay concept. This study found that with practice, young adolescents can learn the map overlay concept and perform at levels equal to or greater than adults. This study has helped to answer the question of whether this development of spatial abilities is possible.

  7. Spatial Information Technology Center at Fulton-Montgomery Community College

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The Spatial Information Technology Center (SITC) at Fulton-Montgomery Community College (FMCC) continued to fulfill its mission and charter by successfully completing its fourth year of operations under Congressional funding and NASA sponsorship. Fourth year operations (01 Oct 03 - 30 Sep 04) have been funded and conducted utilizing an authorized Research Grant NAG 13-02053 (via a one-year no-cost extension expiring Sep 04). Drawdown and reporting of fiscal activities for SITC operations passes through the Institute for the Application of Geo-spatial Technology (IAGT) at Cayuga Community College in Auburn, New York. Fiscal activity of the Center is reported quarterly via SF 272 to IAGT, this report contains an overview and expenditures for the remaining funds of NAG 13-02053. NAG 13-02053, slated for operating costs for the fiscal year FY02-03, received a one-year no-cost extension. SITC also received permission to use remaining funds for salaries and benefits through December 31,2004. The IAGT receives no compensation for administrative costs. This report includes addendums for the NAG award as required by federal guidelines. Attached are the signed Report of New Technology/Inventions and a Final Property Report. As an academic, economic, and workforce development program, the Center has made significant strides in bringing the technology, knowledge and applications of the spatial information technology field to the region it serves. Through the mission of the Center, the region's communities have become increasingly aware of the benefits of Geospatial technology, particularly in the region s K-12 arena. SITC continues to positively affect the region's education, employment and economic development, while expanding its services and operations.

  8. 12 CFR 980.7 - Examinations; requests for additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... new business activity, nothing in this part shall limit the right of the Finance Board at any time to... business activity is consistent with the housing finance and community lending mission of the Banks and the... information. 980.7 Section 980.7 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD NEW FEDERAL HOME LOAN...

  9. 31 CFR 26.5 - Upgrades and additional environmental information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... than a full-fledged environmental impact assessment as defined by that MDB's own procedures, the... information is insufficient to provide an adequate basis for analyzing the environmental impact of the... determine that a project would have a significant impact on the human environment, but that the level...

  10. 31 CFR 26.5 - Upgrades and additional environmental information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... than a full-fledged environmental impact assessment as defined by that MDB's own procedures, the... information is insufficient to provide an adequate basis for analyzing the environmental impact of the... determine that a project would have a significant impact on the human environment, but that the level...

  11. 31 CFR 26.5 - Upgrades and additional environmental information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... than a full-fledged environmental impact assessment as defined by that MDB's own procedures, the... information is insufficient to provide an adequate basis for analyzing the environmental impact of the... determine that a project would have a significant impact on the human environment, but that the level...

  12. 31 CFR 26.5 - Upgrades and additional environmental information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... than a full-fledged environmental impact assessment as defined by that MDB's own procedures, the... information is insufficient to provide an adequate basis for analyzing the environmental impact of the... determine that a project would have a significant impact on the human environment, but that the level...

  13. 10 CFR 1.3 - Sources of additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    .../cfr/. Final opinions made in the adjudication of cases are published in “Nuclear Regulatory Commission... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STATEMENT OF ORGANIZATION AND GENERAL INFORMATION Introduction § 1.3 Sources..., assignments of responsibility, and delegations of authority is in the Nuclear Regulatory Commission...

  14. 10 CFR 1.3 - Sources of additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    .../cfr/. Final opinions made in the adjudication of cases are published in “Nuclear Regulatory Commission... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STATEMENT OF ORGANIZATION AND GENERAL INFORMATION Introduction § 1.3 Sources..., assignments of responsibility, and delegations of authority is in the Nuclear Regulatory Commission...

  15. 10 CFR 1.3 - Sources of additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    .../cfr/. Final opinions made in the adjudication of cases are published in “Nuclear Regulatory Commission... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STATEMENT OF ORGANIZATION AND GENERAL INFORMATION Introduction § 1.3 Sources..., assignments of responsibility, and delegations of authority is in the Nuclear Regulatory Commission...

  16. 10 CFR 1.3 - Sources of additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    .../cfr/. Final opinions made in the adjudication of cases are published in “Nuclear Regulatory Commission... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STATEMENT OF ORGANIZATION AND GENERAL INFORMATION Introduction § 1.3 Sources..., assignments of responsibility, and delegations of authority is in the Nuclear Regulatory Commission...

  17. Spatial Information in local society's cultural conservation and research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, J.-J.; Liao, H.-M.; Fan, I.-C.

    2015-09-01

    Center for Geographic Information Science, Research Center for Humanities and Social Sciences,Academia Sinica (GIS center), Coordinate short-, medium-, and long-term operations of multidisciplinary researches focusing on related topics in the sciences and humanities. Based on the requirements of multi-disciplinary research applications, sustain collection and construction of sustaining and unifying spatial base data and knowledge and building of spatial data infrastructure. Since the 1990s, GIS center build geographic information platform: "Time and space infrastructure of Chinese civilization" (Chinese Civilizationin Time and Space, CCTS) and "Taiwan History and Culture Map" (Taiwan History and Culture in Time and Space, THCTS) . the goal of both system is constructing an integrated GIS-based application infrastructure on the spatial extent of China and Taiwan, in the timeframe of Chinese and Taiwanese history, and with the contents of Chinese and Taiwanese civilization. Base on THCTS, we began to build Cultural Resources GIS(CRGIS, http://crgis.rchss.sinica.edu.tw) in 2006, to collect temples, historic Monuments, historic buildings, old trees, wind lions god and other cultural resource in Taiwan, and provide a platform for the volunteers to make for all types of tangible, intangible cultural resources, add, edit, organize and query data via Content Management System(CMS) . CRGIS collected aggregated 13,000 temples, 4,900 churches. On this basis, draw a variety of religious beliefs map-multiple times Temple distributions, different main god distributions, church distribution. Such as Mazu maps, Multiple times temple distributions map (before 1823, 1823-1895,1895-1949,1949-2015 years) at Taijiang inner sea areas in Tainan. In Taiwan, there is a religious ritual through folk activities for a period ranging from one day to several days, passing specific geospatial range and passes through some temples or houses. Such an important folk activity somewhat similar to

  18. Spatial Information Technology Center at Fulton-Montgomery Community College

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flinton, Michael E.

    2004-01-01

    The Spatial Information Technology Center (SITC) at Fulton-Montgomery Community College (FMCC) continued to fulfill its mission and charter by successfully completing its third year of operations under Congressional funding and NASA sponsorship. Third year operations (01 Oct 02 - 30 Sep 03) have been funded and conducted utilizing two authorized Research Grants NAG 13-00043 (via a one-year no-cost extension expiring Sep 03) and NAG 13-02053 (one-year no-cost extension expiring Sep 04). Drawdowns and reporting of fiscal activities for SlTC operations continues to pass through the Institute for the Application of Geo-spatial Technology (IAGT) at Cayuga Community College in Auburn, New York. Fiscal activity of the Center is reported quarterly via SF 272 to IAGT, thus this report contains only a budgetary overview and forecast of future expenditures for the remaining funds of NAG 13 - 02053. Funds from NAG 13 - 00043 were exhausted during the fourth quarter of fiscal year FY02 - 03, which necessitated initial draw down of NAG 13 - 02053. The IAGT receives no compensation for administrative costs as authorized and approved by NASA in each award budget. This report also includes the necessary addendums for each NAG award, as required by federal guidelines, though no reportable activities took place within this report period. Attached are the signed Report of New Technology/lnventions and a Final Property Report identifying qualifying equipment purchased by the Center. As an academic, economic and workforce development oriented program, the Center has made significant strides in bringing the technology, knowledge and applications of the spatial information technology field to the region it serves. Through the mission of the Center, the region's educational, economic development and work force communities have become increasingly educated to the benefits of spatial (Geospatial) technology, particularly in the region's K-12 arena. SlTC continues to positively affect the

  19. SNP Markers as Additional Information to Resolve Complex Kinship Cases

    PubMed Central

    Pontes, M. Lurdes; Fondevila, Manuel; Laréu, Maria Victoria; Medeiros, Rui

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background DNA profiling with sets of highly polymorphic autosomal short tandem repeat (STR) markers has been applied in various aspects of human identification in forensic casework for nearly 20 years. However, in some cases of complex kinship investigation, the information provided by the conventionally used STR markers is not enough, often resulting in low likelihood ratio (LR) calculations. In these cases, it becomes necessary to increment the number of loci under analysis to reach adequate LRs. Recently, it has been proposed that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) could be used as a supportive tool to STR typing, eventually even replacing the methods/markers now employed. Methods In this work, we describe the results obtained in 7 revised complex paternity cases when applying a battery of STRs, as well as 52 human identification SNPs (SNPforID 52plex identification panel) using a SNaPshot methodology followed by capillary electrophoresis. Results Our results show that the analysis of SNPs, as complement to STR typing in forensic casework applications, would at least increase by a factor of 4 total PI values and correspondent Essen-Möller's W value. Conclusions We demonstrated that SNP genotyping could be a key complement to STR information in challenging casework of disputed paternity, such as close relative individualization or complex pedigrees subject to endogamous relations. PMID:26733770

  20. Toward Accessing Spatial Structure from Building Information Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, C.; Bhatt, M.

    2011-08-01

    Data about building designs and layouts is becoming increasingly more readily available. In the near future, service personal (such as maintenance staff or emergency rescue workers) arriving at a building site will have immediate real-time access to enormous amounts of data relating to structural properties, utilities, materials, temperature, and so on. The critical problem for users is the taxing and error prone task of interpreting such a large body of facts in order to extract salient information. This is necessary for comprehending a situation and deciding on a plan of action, and is a particularly serious issue in time-critical and safety-critical activities such as firefighting. Current unifying building models such as the Industry Foundation Classes (IFC), while being comprehensive, do not directly provide data structures that focus on spatial reasoning and spatial modalities that are required for high-level analytical tasks. The aim of the research presented in this paper is to provide computational tools for higher level querying and reasoning that shift the cognitive burden of dealing with enormous amounts of data away from the user. The user can then spend more energy and time in planning and decision making in order to accomplish the tasks at hand. We present an overview of our framework that provides users with an enhanced model of "built-up space". In order to test our approach using realistic design data (in terms of both scale and the nature of the building models) we describe how our system interfaces with IFC, and we conduct timing experiments to determine the practicality of our approach. We discuss general computational approaches for deriving higher-level spatial modalities by focusing on the example of route graphs. Finally, we present a firefighting scenario with alternative route graphs to motivate the application of our framework.

  1. How the cerebellum may monitor sensory information for spatial representation

    PubMed Central

    Rondi-Reig, Laure; Paradis, Anne-Lise; Lefort, Julie M.; Babayan, Benedicte M.; Tobin, Christine

    2014-01-01

    The cerebellum has already been shown to participate in the navigation function. We propose here that this structure is involved in maintaining a sense of direction and location during self-motion by monitoring sensory information and interacting with navigation circuits to update the mental representation of space. To better understand the processing performed by the cerebellum in the navigation function, we have reviewed: the anatomical pathways that convey self-motion information to the cerebellum; the computational algorithm(s) thought to be performed by the cerebellum from these multi-source inputs; the cerebellar outputs directed toward navigation circuits and the influence of self-motion information on space-modulated cells receiving cerebellar outputs. This review highlights that the cerebellum is adequately wired to combine the diversity of sensory signals to be monitored during self-motion and fuel the navigation circuits. The direct anatomical projections of the cerebellum toward the head-direction cell system and the parietal cortex make those structures possible relays of the cerebellum influence on the hippocampal spatial map. We describe computational models of the cerebellar function showing that the cerebellum can filter out the components of the sensory signals that are predictable, and provides a novelty output. We finally speculate that this novelty output is taken into account by the navigation structures, which implement an update over time of position and stabilize perception during navigation. PMID:25408638

  2. 78 FR 77119 - Proposed Information Collection Request; Comment Request; Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-20

    ... AGENCY Proposed Information Collection Request; Comment Request; Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: 2011 Renewable Fuel Standards-- Petition for International Aggregate Compliance Approach AGENCY... to submit an information collection request (ICR), ``Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives:...

  3. Design and implementation of relational and spatial databases for petroleum-related information

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, R.; Sepehrnoori, K.; Wang, M.

    1987-01-01

    A relational database has been defined and implemented which describes the attributes and entities of engineering, geological, regulatory, economic, and historical data associated with the petroleum industry. This relational model allows the user to view this database of information from many different perspectives. An entity-relationship model was used to design the various relations of the database, and a data dictionary was developed to define the attributes of the database. Using the data model and data dictionary developed for the relational database, a spatial database was implemented which allows the user to graphically view the spatial relationships between various attributes of the database as well as additional information which may be computed from those attributes.

  4. Extraction of spatial information from remotely sensed image data - an example: gloria sidescan sonar images

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chavez, Pat S., Jr.; Gardner, James V.

    1994-01-01

    A method to extract spatial amplitude and variability information from remotely sensed digital imaging data is presented. High Pass Filters (HPFs) are used to compute both a Spatial Amplitude Image/Index (SAI) and Spatial Variability Image/Index (SVI) at the local, intermediate, and regional scales. Used as input to principal component analysis and automatic clustering classification, the results indicate that spatial information at scales other than local is useful in the analysis of remotely sensed data. The resultant multi-spatial data set allows the user to study and analyze an image based more on the complete spatial characteristics of an image than only local textural information.

  5. 36 CFR 1290.3 - Sources of assassination records and additional records and information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... records and additional records and information. 1290.3 Section 1290.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property... Sources of assassination records and additional records and information. Assassination records and additional records and information may be located at, or under the control of, without limitation:...

  6. 47 CFR 1.10017 - How can I submit additional information?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How can I submit additional information? 1... International Bureau Filing System § 1.10017 How can I submit additional information? In response to an official request for information from the International Bureau, you can submit additional...

  7. Geographic information systems, remote sensing, and spatial analysis activities in Texas, 2008-09

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2009-01-01

    Geographic information system (GIS) technology has become an important tool for scientific investigation, resource management, and environmental planning. A GIS is a computer-aided system capable of collecting, storing, analyzing, and displaying spatially referenced digital data. GIS technology is useful for analyzing a wide variety of spatial data. Remote sensing involves collecting remotely sensed data, such as satellite imagery, aerial photography, or radar images, and analyzing the data to gather information or investigate trends about the environment or the Earth's surface. Spatial analysis combines remotely sensed, thematic, statistical, quantitative, and geographical data through overlay, modeling, and other analytical techniques to investigate specific research questions. It is the combination of data formats and analysis techniques that has made GIS an essential tool in scientific investigations. This fact sheet presents information about the technical capabilities and project activities of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Texas Water Science Center (TWSC) GIS Workgroup during 2008 and 2009. After a summary of GIS Workgroup capabilities, brief descriptions of activities by project at the local and national levels are presented. Projects are grouped by the fiscal year (October-September 2008 or 2009) the project ends and include overviews, project images, and Internet links to additional project information and related publications or articles.

  8. An evaluation of the spatial resolution of soil moisture information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardy, K. R.; Cohen, S. H.; Rogers, L. K.; Burke, H. H. K.; Leupold, R. C.; Smallwood, M. D.

    1981-01-01

    Rainfall-amount patterns in the central regions of the U.S. were assessed. The spatial scales of surface features and their corresponding microwave responses in the mid western U.S. were investigated. The usefulness for U.S. government agencies of soil moisture information at scales of 10 km and 1 km. was ascertained. From an investigation of 494 storms, it was found that the rainfall resulting from the passage of most types of storms produces patterns which can be resolved on a 10 km scale. The land features causing the greatest problem in the sensing of soil moisture over large agricultural areas with a radiometer are bodies of water. Over the mid-western portions of the U.S., water occupies less than 2% of the total area, the consequently, the water bodies will not have a significant impact on the mapping of soil moisture. Over most of the areas, measurements at a 10-km resolution would adequately define the distribution of soil moisture. Crop yield models and hydrological models would give improved results if soil moisture information at scales of 10 km was available.

  9. Concept of Spatial Information System for Pieniny geodynamic polygon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasnikowski, M.; Chmiel, J.; Choromanski, M.; Pillich, A.; Szynal, P.; Galecka, M.; Jarmuz, D.

    2009-04-01

    The poster presents the conception of Spatial Information System (SIS) for geodynamic polygon of Pieniny Klippen Belt (PKB). Geodynamic research of the region, conducted by the staff of Faculty of Geodesy and Cartography of Warsaw University of Technology since the sixties of twentieth century, concern the vertical and horizontal movements and changes of Earth gravity parameters. The collected material all this time, very rich in observations and documentations, as well as further research planned in the region were an inspiration to establish the SIS. The designed system is concerned to be useful basically for collection of the results received so far and planned observation epochs as well. Its target functionality will allow to support the data presentations, analyses of the obtained results and planning process for next research in the future. The proposed conception of the database is described in the poster. The database of the considered SIS contains the following elements: information about geological structures of PKB, localizations of control points of geodynamic polygon and collected observations like: measurements of angles and distances, GNSS, precise and trigonometric levelling, gravimetric. The selected pilot layers of the SIS are based on: DTM, topographic maps, administrative and geologic maps. The data in the project are used to cover and characterize the three tectonic units distinguished in the study area. The ESRI software was used for main part of the work in the project.

  10. Situated student learning and spatial informational analysis for environmental problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsen, Timothy Paul

    Ninth and tenth grade high school Biology student research teams used spatial information analysis tools to site a prairie restoration plot on a 55 acre campus during a four-week environment unit. Students made use of innovative technological practices by applying geographic information systems (GIS) approaches to solving environmental and land use problems. Student learning was facilitated by starting with the students' initial conceptions of computing, local landscape and biological environment, and then by guiding them through a problem-based science project process. The project curriculum was framed by the perspective of legitimate peripheral participation (Lave & Wenger, 1991) where students were provided with learning opportunities designed to allow them to act like GIS practitioners. Sociocultural lenses for learning were employed to create accounts of human mental processes that recognize the essential relationship between these processes and their cultural, historical, and institutional settings (Jacob, 1997; Wertsch, 1991). This research investigated how student groups' meaning-making actions were mediated by GIS tools on the periphery of a scientific community of practice. Research observations focused on supporting interpretations of learners' socially constructed actions and the iterative building of assertions from multiple sources. These included the artifacts students produced, the tools they used, the cultural contexts that constrained their activity, and how people begin to adopt ways of speaking (speech genres) of the referent community to negotiate meanings and roles. Students gathered field observations and interpreted attributes of landscape entities from the GIS data to advocate for an environmental decision. However, even while gaining proficiencies with GIS tools, most students did not begin to appropriate roles from the GIS community of practice. Students continued to negotiate their project actions simply as school exercises motivated by

  11. Additional studies of forest classification accuracy as influenced by multispectral scanner spatial resolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadowski, F. E.; Sarno, J. E.

    1976-01-01

    First, an analysis of forest feature signatures was used to help explain the large variation in classification accuracy that can occur among individual forest features for any one case of spatial resolution and the inconsistent changes in classification accuracy that were demonstrated among features as spatial resolution was degraded. Second, the classification rejection threshold was varied in an effort to reduce the large proportion of unclassified resolution elements that previously appeared in the processing of coarse resolution data when a constant rejection threshold was used for all cases of spatial resolution. For the signature analysis, two-channel ellipse plots showing the feature signature distributions for several cases of spatial resolution indicated that the capability of signatures to correctly identify their respective features is dependent on the amount of statistical overlap among signatures. Reductions in signature variance that occur in data of degraded spatial resolution may not necessarily decrease the amount of statistical overlap among signatures having large variance and small mean separations. Features classified by such signatures may thus continue to have similar amounts of misclassified elements in coarser resolution data, and thus, not necessarily improve in classification accuracy.

  12. Ten-Structure as Strategy of Addition 1-20 by Involving Spatial Structuring Ability for First Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salmah, Ummy; Putri, Ratu Ilma Indra; Somakim

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to design learning activities that can support students to develop strategies for the addition of number 1 to 20 in the first grade by involving students' spatial structuring ability. This study was conducted in Indonesia by involving 27 students. In this paper, one of three activities is discussed namely ten-box activity.…

  13. Emerging Technologies in the Built Environment: Geographic Information Science (GIS), 3D Printing, and Additive Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    New, Joshua Ryan

    2014-01-01

    Abstract 1: Geographic information systems emerged as a computer application in the late 1960s, led in part by projects at ORNL. The concept of a GIS has shifted through time in response to new applications and new technologies, and is now part of a much larger world of geospatial technology. This presentation discusses the relationship of GIS and estimating hourly and seasonal energy consumption profiles in the building sector at spatial scales down to the individual parcel. The method combines annual building energy simulations for city-specific prototypical buildings and commonly available geospatial data in a GIS framework. Abstract 2: This presentation focuses on 3D printing technologies and how they have rapidly evolved over the past couple of years. At a basic level, 3D printing produces physical models quickly and easily from 3D CAD, BIM (Building Information Models), and other digital data. Many AEC firms have adopted 3D printing as part of commercial building design development and project delivery. This presentation includes an overview of 3D printing, discusses its current use in building design, and talks about its future in relation to the HVAC industry. Abstract 3: This presentation discusses additive manufacturing and how it is revolutionizing the design of commercial and residential facilities. Additive manufacturing utilizes a broad range of direct manufacturing technologies, including electron beam melting, ultrasonic, extrusion, and laser metal deposition for rapid prototyping. While there is some overlap with the 3D printing talk, this presentation focuses on the materials aspect of additive manufacturing and also some of the more advanced technologies involved with rapid prototyping. These technologies include design of carbon fiber composites, lightweight metals processing, transient field processing, and more.

  14. Spatial assessment of Argentinean genetic admixture with geographical information systems.

    PubMed

    Diaz-Lacava, Amalia; Walier, Maja; Penacino, Gustavo; Wienker, Thomas F; Baur, Max P

    2011-08-01

    In recent years there has been much attention to Argentinean population stratification. We were interested in assessing population stratification from a geographical perspective and summarizing it in form of maps. We mapped the genetic admixture of the extant male population in central and northern Argentina on the basis of forensic Y-chromosomal haplotypes. We addressed the question which group of genetically similar individuals is predominant in this area. Haplotypes containing seven Y-chromosomal short tandem repeat polymorphisms (Y-STRs), also known as microsatellites - DYS19, DYS389I, DYS389II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393 - were constructed for 145 individuals, recruited in 10 provinces. 97 distinct haplotypes were clustered into four clusters according to molecular distances. A genetic geostatistical analysis was conducted with the open-source geographical information system GRASS GIS. For each haplotype cluster, the according frequency was spatially interpolated over the total study area. Juxtaposing the interpolation surfaces, we screened point-wisely the maximal frequency as well as the label of the respective cluster. The screening results were combined in one summary map. We repeated this procedure for the second maximal frequencies. The resulting maps subdivide the study area into continuous regions comprising one predominant group of similar haplotypes. The first summary map divides the study area into three regions and the second summary map divides the area into four regions. The results of our analysis indicate that two groups of similar European haplotypes alternatively dominate the largest extension of the Argentinean territory. A third group, including South-American haplotypes, dominates the indigenous northwestern Argentinean area. The last group, including worldwide dispersed haplotypes, preponderates in frequency in second place in central Argentina. Our findings confirm a widespread European paternal ancestry, a substantial Amerindian

  15. Information Geometry Formalism for the Spatially Homogeneous Boltzmann Equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lods, Bertrand; Pistone, Giovanni

    2015-06-01

    Information Geometry generalizes to infinite dimension by modeling the tangent space of the relevant manifold of probability densities with exponential Orlicz spaces. We review here several properties of the exponential manifold on a suitable set $\\mathcal E$ of mutually absolutely continuous densities. We study in particular the fine properties of the Kullback-Liebler divergence in this context. We also show that this setting is well-suited for the study of the spatially homogeneous Boltzmann equation if $\\mathcal E$ is a set of positive densities with finite relative entropy with respect to the Maxwell density. More precisely, we analyse the Boltzmann operator in the geometric setting from the point of its Maxwell's weak form as a composition of elementary operations in the exponential manifold, namely tensor product, conditioning, marginalization and we prove in a geometric way the basic facts i.e., the H-theorem. We also illustrate the robustness of our method by discussing, besides the Kullback-Leibler divergence, also the property of Hyv\\"arinen divergence. This requires to generalise our approach to Orlicz-Sobolev spaces to include derivatives.%

  16. A study on heterogeneous distributed spatial information platform based on semantic Web services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Shuang-yun; Yang, Kun; Xu, Quan-li; Huang, Bang-mei

    2008-10-01

    With the development of Semantic Web technology, the spatial information service based on ontology is an effective way for sharing and interoperation of heterogeneous information resources in the distributed network environment. This paper discusses spatial information sharing and interoperability in the Semantic Web Services architecture. Through using Ontology record spatial information in sharing knowledge system, explicit and formalization expresses the default and the concealment semantic information. It provides the prerequisite for spatial information sharing and interoperability; Through Semantic Web Services technology parses Ontology and intelligent buildings services under network environment, form a network of services. In order to realize the practical applications of spatial information sharing and interoperation in different brunches of CDC system, a prototype system for HIV/AIDS information sharing based on geo-ontology has also been developed by using the methods described above.

  17. 21 CFR 71.15 - Confidentiality of data and information in color additive petitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... additive petitions. 71.15 Section 71.15 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL COLOR ADDITIVE PETITIONS General Provisions § 71.15 Confidentiality of data and information in color additive petitions. (a) The following data and information in a...

  18. 21 CFR 71.15 - Confidentiality of data and information in color additive petitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... additive petitions. 71.15 Section 71.15 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL COLOR ADDITIVE PETITIONS General Provisions § 71.15 Confidentiality of data and information in color additive petitions. (a) The following data and information in a...

  19. 21 CFR 71.15 - Confidentiality of data and information in color additive petitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... additive petitions. 71.15 Section 71.15 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL COLOR ADDITIVE PETITIONS General Provisions § 71.15 Confidentiality of data and information in color additive petitions. (a) The following data and information in a...

  20. Inability to acquire spatial information and deploy spatial search strategies in mice with lesions in dorsomedial striatum.

    PubMed

    Pooters, Tine; Gantois, Ilse; Vermaercke, Ben; D'Hooge, Rudi

    2016-02-01

    Dorsal striatum has been shown to contribute to spatial learning and memory, but the role of striatal subregions in this important aspect of cognitive functioning remains unclear. Moreover, the spatial-cognitive mechanisms that underlie the involvement of these regions in spatial navigation have scarcely been studied. We therefore compared spatial learning and memory performance in mice with lesions in dorsomedial (DMS) and dorsolateral striatum (DLS) using the hidden-platform version of the Morris water maze (MWM) task. Compared to sham-operated controls, animals with DMS damage were impaired during MWM acquisition training. These mice displayed delayed spatial learning, increased thigmotaxis, and increased search distance to the platform, in the absence of major motor dysfunction, working memory defects or changes in anxiety or exploration. They failed to show a preference for the target quadrant during probe trials, which further indicates that spatial reference memory was impaired in these animals. Search strategy analysis moreover demonstrated that DMS-lesioned mice were unable to deploy cognitively advanced spatial search strategies. Conversely, MWM performance was barely affected in animals with lesions in DLS. In conclusion, our results indicate that DMS and DLS display differential functional involvement in spatial learning and memory. Our results show that DMS, but not DLS, is crucial for the ability of mice to acquire spatial information and their subsequent deployment of spatial search strategies. These data clearly identify DMS as a crucial brain structure for spatial learning and memory, which could explain the occurrence of neurocognitive impairments in brain disorders that affect the dorsal striatum. PMID:26548360

  1. 40 CFR 79.21 - Information and assurances to be provided by the additive manufacturer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... provided by the additive manufacturer. 79.21 Section 79.21 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGISTRATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Additive Registration Procedures § 79.21 Information and assurances to be provided by the additive manufacturer....

  2. A method for predicting DCT-based denoising efficiency for grayscale images corrupted by AWGN and additive spatially correlated noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubel, Aleksey S.; Lukin, Vladimir V.; Egiazarian, Karen O.

    2015-03-01

    Results of denoising based on discrete cosine transform for a wide class of images corrupted by additive noise are obtained. Three types of noise are analyzed: additive white Gaussian noise and additive spatially correlated Gaussian noise with middle and high correlation levels. TID2013 image database and some additional images are taken as test images. Conventional DCT filter and BM3D are used as denoising techniques. Denoising efficiency is described by PSNR and PSNR-HVS-M metrics. Within hard-thresholding denoising mechanism, DCT-spectrum coefficient statistics are used to characterize images and, subsequently, denoising efficiency for them. Results of denoising efficiency are fitted for such statistics and efficient approximations are obtained. It is shown that the obtained approximations provide high accuracy of prediction of denoising efficiency.

  3. 49 CFR 260.25 - Additional information for Applicants not having a credit rating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Additional information for Applicants not having a... Financial Assistance § 260.25 Additional information for Applicants not having a credit rating. Each application submitted by Applicants not having a recent credit rating from one or more nationally...

  4. 49 CFR 260.25 - Additional information for Applicants not having a credit rating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Additional information for Applicants not having a... Financial Assistance § 260.25 Additional information for Applicants not having a credit rating. Each application submitted by Applicants not having a recent credit rating from one or more nationally...

  5. 21 CFR 71.15 - Confidentiality of data and information in color additive petitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Confidentiality of data and information in color additive petitions. 71.15 Section 71.15 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL COLOR ADDITIVE PETITIONS General Provisions § 71.15 Confidentiality of data and information in color...

  6. 19 CFR 141.89 - Additional information for certain classes of merchandise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Additional information for certain classes of merchandise. 141.89 Section 141.89 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ENTRY OF MERCHANDISE Invoices § 141.89 Additional information for certain classes of...

  7. 26 CFR 1.852-7 - Additional information required in returns of shareholders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Additional information required in returns of... Investment Trusts § 1.852-7 Additional information required in returns of shareholders. Any person who fails... income tax return a statement showing, to the best of his knowledge and belief— (a) The number of...

  8. 26 CFR 1.852-7 - Additional information required in returns of shareholders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Additional information required in returns of... Investment Trusts § 1.852-7 Additional information required in returns of shareholders. Any person who fails... income tax return a statement showing, to the best of his knowledge and belief— (a) The number of...

  9. 47 CFR 25.111 - Additional information and ITU cost recovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Additional information and ITU cost recovery. 25.111 Section 25.111 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER....111 Additional information and ITU cost recovery. (a) The Commission may request from any party at...

  10. Geographical epidemiology, spatial analysis and geographical information systems: a multidisciplinary glossary

    PubMed Central

    Rezaeian, Mohsen; Dunn, Graham; Leger, Selwyn St; Appleby, Louis

    2007-01-01

    We provide a relatively non‐technical glossary of terms and a description of the tools used in spatial or geographical epidemiology and associated geographical information systems. Statistical topics included cover adjustment and standardisation to allow for demographic and other background differences, data structures, data smoothing, spatial autocorrelation and spatial regression. We also discuss the rationale for geographical epidemiology and specific techniques such as disease clustering, disease mapping, ecological analyses, geographical information systems and global positioning systems. PMID:17234866

  11. Entanglement generation and quantum information transfer between spatially-separated qubits in different cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chui-Ping; Su, Qi-Ping; Nori, Franco

    2013-11-01

    The generation and control of quantum states of spatially-separated qubits distributed in different cavities constitute fundamental tasks in cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED). An interesting question in this context is how to prepare entanglement and realize quantum information transfer between qubits located at different cavities, which are important in large-scale quantum information processing. In this paper, we consider a physical system consisting of two cavities and three qubits. Two of the qubits are placed in two different cavities while the remaining one acts as a coupler, which is used to connect the two cavities. We propose an approach for generating quantum entanglement and implementing quantum information transfer between the two spatially-separated inter-cavity qubits. The quantum operations involved in this proposal are performed by a virtual photon process; thus the cavity decay is greatly suppressed during operations. In addition, to complete these tasks, only one coupler qubit and one operation step are needed. Moreover, there is no need to apply classical pulses, so that the engineering complexity is much reduced and the operation procedure is greatly simplified. Finally, our numerical results illustrate that high-fidelity implementation of this proposal using superconducting phase qubits and one-dimensional transmission line resonators is feasible for current circuit QED implementations. This proposal can also be applied to other types of superconducting qubits, including flux and charge qubits.

  12. Spatially variable synergistic effects of disturbance and additional nutrients on kelp recruitment and recovery.

    PubMed

    Carnell, Paul E; Keough, Michael J

    2014-05-01

    Understanding the impact of multiple stressors on ecosystems is of pronounced importance, particularly when one or more of those stressors is anthropogenic. Here we investigated the role of physical disturbance and increased nutrients on reefs dominated by the canopy-forming kelp Ecklonia radiata. We combined experimental kelp canopy removals and additional nutrient at three different locations in a large embayment in temperate southeastern Australia. Over the following winter recruitment season, Ecklonia recruitment was unaffected by increased nutrients alone, but tripled at all sites where the canopy had been removed. At one site, the combination of disturbance and increased nutrients resulted in more than four times the recruitment of the introduced kelp Undaria pinnatifida. Six months after disturbance, the proliferation of the Undaria canopy in the canopy-removal and nutrient-addition treatment negatively influenced the recovery of the native kelp Ecklonia. Given the otherwise competitive dominance of adult Ecklonia, this provides a mechanism whereby Undaria could maintain open space for the following recruitment season. This interplay between disturbance, nutrients and the response of native and invasive species makes a compelling case for how a combination of factors can influence species dynamics. PMID:24604540

  13. 75 FR 77645 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Color Additive...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-13

    ... Collection; Comment Request; Color Additive Certification Requests and Recordkeeping AGENCY: Food and Drug... certification of color additives manufactured for use in foods, drugs, cosmetics or medical devices in the... of information technology. Color Additive Certification Requests and Recordkeeping--21 CFR Part...

  14. A SPATIALLY REALISTIC MODEL FOR INFORMING FOREST MANAGEMENT DECISIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Spatially realistic population models (SRPMs) address a fundamental
    problem commonly confronted by wildlife managers - predicting the
    effects of landscape-scale habitat management on an animal population.
    SRPMs typically consist of three submodels: (1) a habitat submodel...

  15. Logic For Qualification And Industrialisation Of Additive Layer Manufacturing Parts For Spatial Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brindeau, Aymeric; Lopes, Jean-Louis; Brivot, Frederic; Bourneaud, Florent; Desagulier, Christian

    2012-07-01

    ASTRIUM Space Transportation has been manufacturing composite equipments for satellite for 25 years. For this business, the development of Additive Layer Manufacturing (ALM) processes has been identified as a real opportunity to improve design and performances. For satellite equipments, ASTRIUM ST has chosen to investigate in the Electron Beam Melting process (patented EBM® process from Arcam AB company) for the manufacturing of Titanium parts, in collaboration with MECACHROME who has developed strong skills in this ALM process. This first development step has been achieved by introducing a titanium part realised by EBM on an equipment of Atlantic Bird 7 satellite launched in September 2011. The new step consists in the formal industrialisation of the EBM process for the procurement of titanium parts for satellite equipments. The present paper describes the logic retained for this industrialisation. It includes the technical requirements but also the verifications and inspections which have to be performed to guarantee that technical requirements are met.

  16. Detecting structural information of scatterers using spatial frequency domain imaging.

    PubMed

    Bodenschatz, Nico; Krauter, Philipp; Nothelfer, Steffen; Foschum, Florian; Bergmann, Florian; Liemert, André; Kienle, Alwin

    2015-11-01

    We demonstrate optical phantom experiments on the phase function parameter γ using spatial frequency domain imaging. The incorporation of two different types of scattering particles allows for control of the optical phantoms’ microscopic scattering properties. By laterally structuring areas with either TiO2 or Al2O3 scattering particles, we were able to obtain almost pure subdiffusive scattering contrast in a single optical phantom. Optical parameter mapping was then achieved using an analytical radiative transfer model revealing the microscopic structural contrast on a macroscopic field of view. As part of our study, we explain several correction and referencing techniques for high spatial frequency analysis and experimentally study the sampling depth of the subdiffusive parameter γ. PMID:26590206

  17. THE IMPORTANCE OF SPATIAL ACCURACY FOR CHEMICAL INFORMATION MANAGEMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Information about chemicals can be critical to making timely decisions. The results of these decisions may not be realized for many years. In order to increase the value of chemical information and to create and utilize meaningful environmental models, the Environmental Prote...

  18. 30 CFR 250.418 - What additional information must I submit with my APD?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations Applying for A Permit to Drill § 250.418 What additional information must I submit with my...

  19. 30 CFR 250.418 - What additional information must I submit with my APD?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations Applying for A Permit to Drill § 250.418 What additional information must...

  20. 30 CFR 250.418 - What additional information must I submit with my APD?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations Applying for A Permit to Drill § 250.418 What additional information must...

  1. [An improved N-FINDR endmember extraction algorithm based on manifold learning and spatial information].

    PubMed

    Tang, Xiao-yan; Gao, Kun; Ni, Guo-qiang; Zhu, Zhen-yu; Cheng, Hao-bo

    2013-09-01

    An improved N-FINDR endmember extraction algorithm by combining manifold learning and spatial information is presented under nonlinear mixing assumptions. Firstly, adaptive local tangent space alignment is adapted to seek potential intrinsic low-dimensional structures of hyperspectral high-diemensional data and reduce original data into a low-dimensional space. Secondly, spatial preprocessing is used by enhancing each pixel vector in spatially homogeneous areas, according to the continuity of spatial distribution of the materials. Finally, endmembers are extracted by looking for the largest simplex volume. The proposed method can increase the precision of endmember extraction by solving the nonlinearity of hyperspectral data and taking advantage of spatial information. Experimental results on simulated and real hyperspectral data demonstrate that the proposed approach outperformed the geodesic simplex volume maximization (GSVM), vertex component analysis (VCA) and spatial preprocessing N-FINDR method (SPPNFINDR). PMID:24369664

  2. A new distributed computing model of mobile spatial information service grid based on mobile agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Gen; Liu, Miao-long

    2009-10-01

    A new distributed computing model of mobile spatial information service is studied based on grid computing environment. Key technologies are presented in the model, including mobile agent (MA) distributed computing, grid computing, spatial data model, location based service (LBS), global positioning system (GPS), code division multiple access (CDMA), transfer control protocol/internet protocol (TCP/IP), and user datagram protocol (UDP). In order to deal with the narrow bandwidth and instability of the wireless internet, distributed organization of tremendous spatial data, limited processing speed and low memory of mobile devices, a new mobile agent based mobile spatial information service grid (MSISG) architecture is further proposed that has good load balance, high processing efficiency, less network communication and thus suitable for mobile distributed computing environment. It can provide applications of spatial information distributed computing and mobile service. The theories and technologies architecture of MSISG are built originally from the base, including spatial information mobile agent model, distributed grid geographic information system (GIS) server model, mobile agent server model and mobile GIS client model. An application system for MSISG is therefore developed authorship by visual c++ and embedded visual c++. A field test is carried out through this system in Shanghai, and the results show that the proposed model and methods are feasible and adaptable for mobile spatial information service.

  3. A new distributed computing model of mobile spatial information service grid based on mobile agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Gen; Liu, Miao-long

    2008-10-01

    A new distributed computing model of mobile spatial information service is studied based on grid computing environment. Key technologies are presented in the model, including mobile agent (MA) distributed computing, grid computing, spatial data model, location based service (LBS), global positioning system (GPS), code division multiple access (CDMA), transfer control protocol/internet protocol (TCP/IP), and user datagram protocol (UDP). In order to deal with the narrow bandwidth and instability of the wireless internet, distributed organization of tremendous spatial data, limited processing speed and low memory of mobile devices, a new mobile agent based mobile spatial information service grid (MSISG) architecture is further proposed that has good load balance, high processing efficiency, less network communication and thus suitable for mobile distributed computing environment. It can provide applications of spatial information distributed computing and mobile service. The theories and technologies architecture of MSISG are built originally from the base, including spatial information mobile agent model, distributed grid geographic information system (GIS) server model, mobile agent server model and mobile GIS client model. An application system for MSISG is therefore developed authorship by visual c++ and embedded visual c++. A field test is carried out through this system in Shanghai, and the results show that the proposed model and methods are feasible and adaptable for mobile spatial information service.

  4. Condensation of earthquake location distributions: Optimal spatial information encoding and application to multifractal analysis of south Californian seismicity.

    PubMed

    Kamer, Yavor; Ouillon, Guy; Sornette, Didier; Wössner, Jochen

    2015-08-01

    We present the "condensation" method that exploits the heterogeneity of the probability distribution functions (PDFs) of event locations to improve the spatial information content of seismic catalogs. As its name indicates, the condensation method reduces the size of seismic catalogs while improving the access to the spatial information content of seismic catalogs. The PDFs of events are first ranked by decreasing location errors and then successively condensed onto better located and lower variance event PDFs. The obtained condensed catalog differs from the initial catalog by attributing different weights to each event, the set of weights providing an optimal spatial representation with respect to the spatially varying location capability of the seismic network. Synthetic tests on fractal distributions perturbed with realistic location errors show that condensation improves spatial information content of the original catalog, which is quantified by the likelihood gain per event. Applied to Southern California seismicity, the new condensed catalog highlights major mapped fault traces and reveals possible additional structures while reducing the catalog length by ∼25%. The condensation method allows us to account for location error information within a point based spatial analysis. We demonstrate this by comparing the multifractal properties of the condensed catalog locations with those of the original catalog. We evidence different spatial scaling regimes characterized by distinct multifractal spectra and separated by transition scales. We interpret the upper scale as to agree with the thickness of the brittle crust, while the lower scale (2.5 km) might depend on the relocation procedure. Accounting for these new results, the epidemic type aftershock model formulation suggests that, contrary to previous studies, large earthquakes dominate the earthquake triggering process. This implies that the limited capability of detecting small magnitude events cannot be used

  5. Condensation of earthquake location distributions: Optimal spatial information encoding and application to multifractal analysis of south Californian seismicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamer, Yavor; Ouillon, Guy; Sornette, Didier; Wössner, Jochen

    2015-08-01

    We present the "condensation" method that exploits the heterogeneity of the probability distribution functions (PDFs) of event locations to improve the spatial information content of seismic catalogs. As its name indicates, the condensation method reduces the size of seismic catalogs while improving the access to the spatial information content of seismic catalogs. The PDFs of events are first ranked by decreasing location errors and then successively condensed onto better located and lower variance event PDFs. The obtained condensed catalog differs from the initial catalog by attributing different weights to each event, the set of weights providing an optimal spatial representation with respect to the spatially varying location capability of the seismic network. Synthetic tests on fractal distributions perturbed with realistic location errors show that condensation improves spatial information content of the original catalog, which is quantified by the likelihood gain per event. Applied to Southern California seismicity, the new condensed catalog highlights major mapped fault traces and reveals possible additional structures while reducing the catalog length by ˜25 % . The condensation method allows us to account for location error information within a point based spatial analysis. We demonstrate this by comparing the multifractal properties of the condensed catalog locations with those of the original catalog. We evidence different spatial scaling regimes characterized by distinct multifractal spectra and separated by transition scales. We interpret the upper scale as to agree with the thickness of the brittle crust, while the lower scale (2.5 km) might depend on the relocation procedure. Accounting for these new results, the epidemic type aftershock model formulation suggests that, contrary to previous studies, large earthquakes dominate the earthquake triggering process. This implies that the limited capability of detecting small magnitude events cannot be

  6. Mapping invasive weeds and their control with spatial information technologies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We discuss applications of airborne multispectral digital imaging systems, imaging processing techniques, global positioning systems (GPS), and geographic information systems (GIS) for mapping the invasive weeds giant salvinia (Salvinia molesta) and Brazilian pepper (Schinus terebinthifolius) and fo...

  7. Information analysis of a spatial database for ecological land classification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Frank W.; Dozier, Jeff

    1990-01-01

    An ecological land classification was developed for a complex region in southern California using geographic information system techniques of map overlay and contingency table analysis. Land classes were identified by mutual information analysis of vegetation pattern in relation to other mapped environmental variables. The analysis was weakened by map errors, especially errors in the digital elevation data. Nevertheless, the resulting land classification was ecologically reasonable and performed well when tested with higher quality data from the region.

  8. 77 FR 58911 - Additional Identifying Information for One (1) Individual Designated Pursuant to Executive Order...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of Foreign Assets Control Additional Identifying Information for One (1) Individual Designated... identifying information for one individual whose property and interests in property are blocked pursuant...

  9. 16 CFR 2.20 - Petitions for review of requests for additional information or documentary material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... or documentary material issued under 16 CFR 803.20. (b) Second request procedures—(1) Notice. Every request for additional information or documentary material issued under 16 CFR 803.20 shall inform the..., glossaries, proposed form of relief and any appendices containing only sections of statutes or...

  10. 16 CFR 2.20 - Petitions for review of requests for additional information or documentary material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... or documentary material issued under 16 CFR 803.20. (b) Second request procedures—(1) Notice. Every request for additional information or documentary material issued under 16 CFR 803.20 shall inform the..., glossaries, proposed form of relief and any appendices containing only sections of statutes or...

  11. 16 CFR 2.20 - Petitions for review of requests for additional information or documentary material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... or documentary material issued under 16 CFR 803.20. (b) Second request procedures—(1) Notice. Every request for additional information or documentary material issued under 16 CFR 803.20 shall inform the..., glossaries, proposed form of relief and any appendices containing only sections of statutes or...

  12. 16 CFR 2.20 - Petitions for review of requests for additional information or documentary material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... or documentary material issued under 16 CFR 803.20. (b) Second request procedures—(1) Notice. Every request for additional information or documentary material issued under 16 CFR 803.20 shall inform the..., glossaries, proposed form of relief and any appendices containing only sections of statutes or...

  13. 16 CFR 2.20 - Petitions for review of requests for additional information or documentary material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... or documentary material issued under 16 CFR 803.20. (b) Second request procedures—(1) Notice. Every request for additional information or documentary material issued under 16 CFR 803.20 shall inform the..., glossaries, proposed form of relief and any appendices containing only sections of statutes or...

  14. Effects of age on spatial information processing: relationship to senescent changes in brain noradrenergic and opioid systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rapp, P.R.

    1985-01-01

    A major focus in current research on aging is the identification of senescent changes in cognitive function in laboratory animals. This literature indicates that the processing of spatial information may be particularly impaired during senescence. The degree to which nonspecific factors (eg. sensory of motor deficits) contribute to behavioral impairments in aging, however, remains largely uninvestigated. In addition, few studies have attempted to identify senescent changes in brain structure and function which might underlie the behavioral manifestations of aging. In the behavioral experiments reported here, the authors tested young, middle-age, and senescent rates in several versions of a spatial memory task, the Morris water maze. The results of these investigations demonstrate that aged rats are significantly impaired in the Morris task compared to young or middle-age animals. In addition, these studies indicate that age-related deficits in the water maze reflect a specific dysfunction in the ability of older animals to effectively process spatial information rather than a senescent decline in sensory or motor functions. Using the subjects from the behavioral studies, additional investigations assessed whether age-dependent changes in neurochemical and neuroanatomical systems which are known to mediate spatial learning in young animals were related to the behavioral deficits exhibited by aged rats. The results of these studies demonstrate that a portion of senescent animals exhibit significant increases in lateral septal /sup 3/H-desmethylimipramine binding and decrease in /sup 3/H-naloxone binding in this same region as assessed by quantitative in vitro autoradiography.

  15. The Implicit Use of Spatial Information Develops Later for Crossmodal than for Intramodal Temporal Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roder, Brigitte; Pagel, Birthe; Heed, Tobias

    2013-01-01

    The integrated use of spatial and temporal information seems to support the separation of two sensory streams. The present study tested whether this facilitation depends on the encoding of sensory stimuli in externally anchored spatial coordinate systems. Fifty-nine children between 5 and 12 years as well as 12 young adults performed a crossmodal…

  16. Influences of Training and Strategical Information Processing Style on Spatial Performance in Apparel Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gitimu, Priscilla N.; Workman, Jane E.; Anderson, Marcia A.

    2005-01-01

    The study investigated how performance on a spatial task in apparel design was influenced by training and strategical information processing style. The sample consisted of 278 undergraduate apparel design students from six universities in the U.S. Instruments used to collect data were the Apparel Spatial Visualization Test (ASVT) and the…

  17. Integrating Information: A Meta-Analysis of the Spatial Contiguity and Temporal Contiguity Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ginns, Paul

    2006-01-01

    This article reviews research on the spatial contiguity and temporal contiguity effects. Research on these instructional design effects has focussed on the instructional benefits for novices of reducing split attention between spatially or temporally disparate but related elements of information. Meta-analytic techniques were applied to 50…

  18. Local rank-based spatial information for improvement of remote sensing hyperspectral imaging resolution.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xin; Juan, Anna de; Tauler, Romà

    2016-01-01

    This paper shows the effect of using local rank and selectivity constraints based on spatial information of spectroscopic images to increase the performance of Multivariate Curve Resolution (MCR) methods and to decrease the ambiguity of final results. Fixed Size Image Window-Evolving Factor Analysis (FSIW-EFA) is applied to discover which pixels are more suitable for the application of local rank constraints. An automated method to help in setting appropriate threshold values for the application of FSIW-EFA, based on global and local use of Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) is proposed. Additional use of correlation coefficients between selected reference spectra and pixel spectra of the image is shown to provide an alternative way for the application of the selectivity constraint in spectroscopic images for the first time. This alternative method resulted to be satisfactory when pure pixels exist. PMID:26695226

  19. Advanced Extraction of Spatial Information from High Resolution Satellite Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pour, T.; Burian, J.; Miřijovský, J.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper authors processed five satellite image of five different Middle-European cities taken by five different sensors. The aim of the paper was to find methods and approaches leading to evaluation and spatial data extraction from areas of interest. For this reason, data were firstly pre-processed using image fusion, mosaicking and segmentation processes. Results going into the next step were two polygon layers; first one representing single objects and the second one representing city blocks. In the second step, polygon layers were classified and exported into Esri shapefile format. Classification was partly hierarchical expert based and partly based on the tool SEaTH used for separability distinction and thresholding. Final results along with visual previews were attached to the original thesis. Results are evaluated visually and statistically in the last part of the paper. In the discussion author described difficulties of working with data of large size, taken by different sensors and different also thematically.

  20. Spatial information in large-scale neural recordings

    PubMed Central

    Cybulski, Thaddeus R.; Glaser, Joshua I.; Marblestone, Adam H.; Zamft, Bradley M.; Boyden, Edward S.; Church, George M.; Kording, Konrad P.

    2015-01-01

    To record from a given neuron, a recording technology must be able to separate the activity of that neuron from the activity of its neighbors. Here, we develop a Fisher information based framework to determine the conditions under which this is feasible for a given technology. This framework combines measurable point spread functions with measurable noise distributions to produce theoretical bounds on the precision with which a recording technology can localize neural activities. If there is sufficient information to uniquely localize neural activities, then a technology will, from an information theoretic perspective, be able to record from these neurons. We (1) describe this framework, and (2) demonstrate its application in model experiments. This method generalizes to many recording devices that resolve objects in space and should be useful in the design of next-generation scalable neural recording systems. PMID:25653613

  1. Multiplicative and Additive Modulation of Neuronal Tuning with Population Activity Affects Encoded Information.

    PubMed

    Arandia-Romero, Iñigo; Tanabe, Seiji; Drugowitsch, Jan; Kohn, Adam; Moreno-Bote, Rubén

    2016-03-16

    Numerous studies have shown that neuronal responses are modulated by stimulus properties and also by the state of the local network. However, little is known about how activity fluctuations of neuronal populations modulate the sensory tuning of cells and affect their encoded information. We found that fluctuations in ongoing and stimulus-evoked population activity in primate visual cortex modulate the tuning of neurons in a multiplicative and additive manner. While distributed on a continuum, neurons with stronger multiplicative effects tended to have less additive modulation and vice versa. The information encoded by multiplicatively modulated neurons increased with greater population activity, while that of additively modulated neurons decreased. These effects offset each other so that population activity had little effect on total information. Our results thus suggest that intrinsic activity fluctuations may act as a "traffic light" that determines which subset of neurons is most informative. PMID:26924437

  2. Change of spatial information under rescaling: A case study using multi-resolution image series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Weirong; Henebry, Geoffrey M.

    Spatial structure in imagery depends on a complicated interaction between the observational regime and the types and arrangements of entities within the scene that the image portrays. Although block averaging of pixels has commonly been used to simulate coarser resolution imagery, relatively little attention has been focused on the effects of simple rescaling on spatial structure and the explanation and a possible solution to the problem. Yet, if there are significant differences in spatial variance between rescaled and observed images, it may affect the reliability of retrieved biogeophysical quantities. To investigate these issues, a nested series of high spatial resolution digital imagery was collected at a research site in eastern Nebraska in 2001. An airborne Kodak DCS420IR camera acquired imagery at three altitudes, yielding nominal spatial resolutions ranging from 0.187 m to 1 m. The red and near infrared (NIR) bands of the co-registered image series were normalized using pseudo-invariant features, and the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) was calculated. Plots of grain sorghum planted in orthogonal crop row orientations were extracted from the image series. The finest spatial resolution data were then rescaled by averaging blocks of pixels to produce a rescaled image series that closely matched the spatial resolution of the observed image series. Spatial structures of the observed and rescaled image series were characterized using semivariogram analysis. Results for NDVI and its component bands show, as expected, that decreasing spatial resolution leads to decreasing spatial variability and increasing spatial dependence. However, compared to the observed data, the rescaled images contain more persistent spatial structure that exhibits limited variation in both spatial dependence and spatial heterogeneity. Rescaling via simple block averaging fails to consider the effect of scene object shape and extent on spatial information. As the features

  3. Part-Set Cuing Facilitation for Spatial Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Sydni M.; Reysen, Matthew B.; Kelley, Matthew R.

    2013-01-01

    Part-set cuing "inhibition" refers to the counterintuitive finding that hints--specifically, part of the set of to-be-remembered information--often impair memory performance in free recall tasks. Although inhibition is the most commonly reported result, part-set cuing "facilitation" has been shown with serial order tasks. The…

  4. Seeking Information Online: The Influence of Menu Type, Navigation Path Complexity and Spatial Ability on Information Gathering Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puerta Melguizo, Mari Carmen; Vidya, Uti; van Oostendorp, Herre

    2012-01-01

    We studied the effects of menu type, navigation path complexity and spatial ability on information retrieval performance and web disorientation or lostness. Two innovative aspects were included: (a) navigation path relevance and (b) information gathering tasks. As expected we found that, when measuring aspects directly related to navigation…

  5. "The Dose Makes the Poison": Informing Consumers About the Scientific Risk Assessment of Food Additives.

    PubMed

    Bearth, Angela; Cousin, Marie-Eve; Siegrist, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Intensive risk assessment is required before the approval of food additives. During this process, based on the toxicological principle of "the dose makes the poison,ˮ maximum usage doses are assessed. However, most consumers are not aware of these efforts to ensure the safety of food additives and are therefore sceptical, even though food additives bring certain benefits to consumers. This study investigated the effect of a short video, which explains the scientific risk assessment and regulation of food additives, on consumers' perceptions and acceptance of food additives. The primary goal of this study was to inform consumers and enable them to construct their own risk-benefit assessment and make informed decisions about food additives. The secondary goal was to investigate whether people have different perceptions of food additives of artificial (i.e., aspartame) or natural origin (i.e., steviolglycoside). To attain these research goals, an online experiment was conducted on 185 Swiss consumers. Participants were randomly assigned to either the experimental group, which was shown a video about the scientific risk assessment of food additives, or the control group, which was shown a video about a topic irrelevant to the study. After watching the video, the respondents knew significantly more, expressed more positive thoughts and feelings, had less risk perception, and more acceptance than prior to watching the video. Thus, it appears that informing consumers about complex food safety topics, such as the scientific risk assessment of food additives, is possible, and using a carefully developed information video is a successful strategy for informing consumers. PMID:25951078

  6. GeoSpatial Workforce Development: enhancing the traditional learning environment in geospatial information technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawhead, Pamela B.; Aten, Michelle L.

    2003-04-01

    The Center for GeoSpatial Workforce Development is embarking on a new era in education by developing a repository of dynamic online courseware authored by the foremost industry experts within the remote sensing and GIS industries. Virtual classrooms equipped with the most advanced instructions, computations, communications, course evaluation, and management facilities amplify these courses to enhance the learning environment and provide rapid feedback between instructors and students. The launch of this program included the objective development of the Model Curriculum by an independent consortium of remote sensing industry leaders. The Center's research and development focus on recruiting additional industry experts to develop the technical content of the courseware and then utilize state-of-the-art technology to enhance their material with visually stimulating animations, compelling audio clips and entertaining, interactive exercises intended to reach the broadest audience possible by targeting various learning styles. The courseware will be delivered via various media: Internet, CD-ROM, DVD, and compressed video, that translates into anywhere, anytime delivery of GeoSpatial Information Technology education.

  7. Development of Climate Change Adaptation Platform using Spatial Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J.; Oh, K. Y.; Lee, M. J.; Han, W. J.

    2014-12-01

    Climate change adaptation has attracted growing attention with the recent extreme weather conditions that affect people around the world. More and more countries, including the Republic of Korea, have begun to hatch adaptation plan to resolve these matters of great concern. They all, meanwhile, have mentioned that it should come first to integrate climate information in all analysed areas. That's because climate information is not independently made through one source; that is to say, the climate information is connected one another in a complicated way. That is the reason why we have to promote integrated climate change adaptation platform before setting up climate change adaptation plan. Therefore, the large-scaled project has been actively launched and worked on. To date, we researched 620 literatures and interviewed 51 government organizations. Based on the results of the researches and interviews, we obtained 2,725 impacts about vulnerability assessment information such as Monitoring and Forecasting, Health, Disaster, Agriculture, Forest, Water Management, Ecosystem, Ocean/Fisheries, Industry/Energy. Among 2,725 impacts, 995 impacts are made into a database until now. This database is made up 3 sub categories like Climate-Exposure, Sensitivity, Adaptive capacity, presented by IPCC. Based on the constructed database, vulnerability assessments were carried out in order to evaluate climate change capacity of local governments all over the country. These assessments were conducted by using web-based vulnerability assessment tool which was newly developed through this project. These results have shown that, metropolitan areas like Seoul, Pusan, Inchon, and so on have high risks more than twice than rural areas. Acknowledgements: The authors appreciate the support that this study has received from "Development of integrated model for climate change impact and vulnerability assessment and strengthening the framework for model implementation ", an initiative of the

  8. Spatial prediction of Soil Organic Carbon contents in croplands, grasslands and forests using environmental covariates and Generalized Additive Models (Southern Belgium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chartin, Caroline; Stevens, Antoine; van Wesemael, Bas

    2015-04-01

    Providing spatially continuous Soil Organic Carbon data (SOC) is needed to support decisions regarding soil management, and inform the political debate with quantified estimates of the status and change of the soil resource. Digital Soil Mapping techniques are based on relations existing between a soil parameter (measured at different locations in space at a defined period) and relevant covariates (spatially continuous data) that are factors controlling soil formation and explaining the spatial variability of the target variable. This study aimed at apply DSM techniques to recent SOC content measurements (2005-2013) in three different landuses, i.e. cropland, grassland, and forest, in the Walloon region (Southern Belgium). For this purpose, SOC databases of two regional Soil Monitoring Networks (CARBOSOL for croplands and grasslands, and IPRFW for forests) were first harmonized, totalising about 1,220 observations. Median values of SOC content for croplands, grasslands, and forests, are respectively of 12.8, 29.0, and 43.1 g C kg-1. Then, a set of spatial layers were prepared with a resolution of 40 meters and with the same grid topology, containing environmental covariates such as, landuses, Digital Elevation Model and its derivatives, soil texture, C factor, carbon inputs by manure, and climate. Here, in addition to the three classical texture classes (clays, silt, and sand), we tested the use of clays + fine silt content (particles < 20 µm and related to stable carbon fraction) as soil covariate explaining SOC variations. For each of the three land uses (cropland, grassland and forest), a Generalized Additive Model (GAM) was calibrated on two thirds of respective dataset. The remaining samples were assigned to a test set to assess model performance. A backward stepwise procedure was followed to select the relevant environmental covariates using their approximate p-values (the level of significance was set at p < 0.05). Standard errors were estimated for each of

  9. Subsurface information for risk-sensitive urban spatial planning in Dhaka Metropolitan City, Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Günther, Andreas; Aziz Patwary, Mohammad Abdul; Bahls, Rebecca; Asaduzzaman, Atm; Ludwig, Rüdiger; Ashraful Kamal, Mohammad; Nahar Faruqa, Nurun; Jabeen, Sarwat

    2016-04-01

    Dhaka Metropolitan City (including Dhaka and five adjacent municipal areas) is one of the fastest developing urban regions in the world. Densely build-up areas in the developed metropolitan area of Dhaka City are subject to extensive restructuring as common six- or lower storied buildings are replaced by higher and heavier constructions. Additional stories are built on existing houses, frequently exceeding the allowable bearing pressure on the subsoil as supported by the foundations. In turn, newly developing city areas are projected in marshy terrains modified by extensive, largely unengineered landfills. In most areas, these terrains bear unfavorable building ground conditions within 30 meters. Within a collaborative technical cooperation project between Bangladesh and Germany, BGR supports GSB in the provision of geo-information for the Capital Development Authority (RAJUK). For general urban planning, RAJUK successively develops a detailed area plan (DAP) at scale 1 : 50000 for the whole Dhaka Metropolitan City area (approx. 1700 km2). Geo-information have not been considered in the present DAP. Within the project, geospatial information in form of a geomorphic map, a digital terrain model and a 3-D subsurface model covering the whole city area have been generated at a scale of 1 : 50000. An extensive engineering geological data base consisting of more than 2200 borehole data with associated Standard Penetration Testing (SPT) and lab data has been compiled. With the field testing (SPT) and engineering geological lab data, the 3-D subsurface model can be parameterized to derive important spatial subsurface information for urban planning like bearing capacity evaluations for different foundation designs or soil liquefaction potential assessments for specific earthquake scenarios. In conjunction with inundation potential evaluations for different flooding scenarios, comprehensive building ground suitability information can be derived to support risk

  10. Analyzing existing conventional soil information sources to be incorporated in thematic Spatial Data Infrastructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascual-Aguilar, J. A.; Rubio, J. L.; Domínguez, J.; Andreu, V.

    2012-04-01

    New information technologies give the possibility of widespread dissemination of spatial information to different geographical scales from continental to local by means of Spatial Data Infrastructures. Also administrative awareness on the need for open access information services has allowed the citizens access to this spatial information through development of legal documents, such as the INSPIRE Directive of the European Union, adapted by national laws as in the case of Spain. The translation of the general criteria of generic Spatial Data Infrastructures (SDI) to thematic ones is a crucial point for the progress of these instruments as large tool for the dissemination of information. In such case, it must be added to the intrinsic criteria of digital information, such as the harmonization information and the disclosure of metadata, the own environmental information characteristics and the techniques employed in obtaining it. In the case of inventories and mapping of soils, existing information obtained by traditional means, prior to the digital technologies, is considered to be a source of valid information, as well as unique, for the development of thematic SDI. In this work, an evaluation of existing and accessible information that constitutes the basis for building a thematic SDI of soils in Spain is undertaken. This information framework has common features to other European Union states. From a set of more than 1,500 publications corresponding to the national territory of Spain, the study was carried out in those documents (94) found for five autonomous regions of northern Iberian Peninsula (Asturias, Cantabria, Basque Country, Navarra and La Rioja). The analysis was performed taking into account the criteria of soil mapping and inventories. The results obtained show a wide variation in almost all the criteria: geographic representation (projections, scales) and geo-referencing the location of the profiles, map location of profiles integrated with edaphic

  11. Human Topological Task Adapted for Rats: Spatial Information Processes of the Parietal Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Goodrich-Hunsaker, Naomi J.; Howard, Brian P.; Hunsaker, Michael R.; Kesner, Raymond P.

    2008-01-01

    Human research has shown that lesions of the parietal cortex disrupt spatial information processing, specifically topological information. Similar findings have been found in nonhumans. It has been difficult to determine homologies between human and non-human mnemonic mechanisms for spatial information processing because methodologies and neuropathology differ. The first objective of the present study was to adapt a previously established human task for rats. The second objective was to better characterize the role of parietal cortex (PC) and dorsal hippocampus (dHPC) for topological spatial information processing. Rats had to distinguish whether a ball inside a ring or a ball outside a ring was the correct, rewarded object. After rats reached criterion on the task (>95%) they were randomly assigned to a lesion group (control, PC, dHPC). Animals were then re-tested. Post-surgery data show that controls were 94% correct on average, dHPC rats were 89% correct on average, and PC rats were 56% correct on average. The results from the present study suggest that the parietal cortex, but not the dHPC processes topological spatial information. The present data are the first to support comparable topological spatial information processes of the parietal cortex in humans and rats. PMID:18571941

  12. Phase conjugation of mode scrambled optical beams Application to spatial recovery and interbeam temporal information exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yahalom, Ram; Kyuma, Kazuo; Yariv, Amnon

    1987-03-01

    Coupling of temporal information between two beams is demonstrated using a combination of a multimode fiber and a photorefractive passive phase conjugation mirror. It is shown that the polarization and spatial properties are fully recovered but temporal information is exchanged. The theoretical explanation for these phenomena and possible applications are discussed.

  13. The brain uses efference copy information to optimise spatial memory.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, C C; Burke, M R

    2013-01-01

    Does a motor response to a target improve the subsequent recall of the target position or can we simply use peripheral position information to guide an accurate response? We suggest that a motor plan of the hand can be enhanced with actual motor and efference copy feedback (GoGo trials), which is absent in the passive observation of a stimulus (NoGo trials). To investigate this effect during eye and hand coordination movements, we presented stimuli in two formats (memory guided or visually guided) under three modality conditions (eyes only, hands only (with eyes fixated), or eyes and hand together). We found that during coordinated movements, both the eye and hand response times were facilitated when efference feedback of the movement was provided. Furthermore, both eye and hand movements to remembered locations were significantly more accurate in the GoGo than in the NoGo trial types. These results reveal that an efference copy of a motor plan enhances memory for a location that is not only observed in eye movements, but also translated downstream into a hand movement. These results have significant implications on how we plan, code and guide behavioural responses, and how we can optimise accuracy and timing to a given target. PMID:23073714

  14. A spatial information crawler for OpenGIS WFS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Jun; Yang, Chong-jun; Ren, Ying-chao

    2008-10-01

    The growth of the internet makes it non-trivial to search for the accuracy information efficiently. Topical crawler, which is aiming at a certain area, attracts more and more intention now because it can help people to find out what they need. Furthermore, with the OpenGIS WFS (Web Feature Service) Specification developed by OGC (Open GIS Consortium), much more geospatial data providers adopt this protocol to publish their data on the internet. In this case, a crawler which is aiming at the WFS servers can help people to find the geospatial data from WFS servers. In this paper, we propose a prototype system of a WFS crawler based on the OpenGIS WFS Specification. The crawler architecture, working principles, and detailed function of each component are introduced. This crawler is capable of discovering WFS servers dynamically, saving and updating the service contents of the servers. The data collect by the crawler can be supported to a geospatial data search engine as its data source.

  15. Spatial Collective Intelligence? credibility, accuracy, and Volunteered Geographic Information

    PubMed Central

    Spielman, Seth E.

    2014-01-01

    Collective intelligence is the idea that under the right circumstances collections of individuals are smarter than even the smartest individuals in the group (Suroweiki 2004), that is a group has an “intelligence” that is independent of the intelligence of its members. The ideology of collective intelligence undergirds much of the enthusiasm about the use of “volunteered” or crowdsourced geographic information. Literature from a variety of fields makes clear that not all groups possess collective intelligence, this paper identifies four pre-conditions for the emergence of collective intelligence and then examine the extent to which collectively generated mapping systems satisfy these conditions. However, the “intelligence” collectively generated maps is hard to assess because there are two difficult to reconcile perspectives on map quality- the credibility perspective and the accuracy perspective. Much of the current literature on user generated maps focuses on assessing the quality of individual contributions. However, because user generated maps are complex social systems and because the quality of a contribution is difficult to assess this strategy may not yield an “intelligent” end product. The existing literature on collective intelligence suggests that the structure of groups more important that the intelligence of group members. Applying this idea to user generated suggests that systems should be designed to foster conditions known to produce collective intelligence rather than privileging particular contributions/contributors. The paper concludes with some design recommendations and by considering the implications of collectively generated maps for both expert knowledge and traditional state sponsored mapping programs. PMID:25419184

  16. 45 CFR 146.122 - Additional requirements prohibiting discrimination based on genetic information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Additional requirements prohibiting discrimination based on genetic information. 146.122 Section 146.122 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS REQUIREMENTS FOR THE GROUP HEALTH INSURANCE MARKET Requirements Relating to Access...

  17. 26 CFR 54.9802-3T - Additional requirements prohibiting discrimination based on genetic information (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Additional requirements prohibiting discrimination based on genetic information (temporary). 54.9802-3T Section 54.9802-3T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) PENSION EXCISE TAXES § 54.9802-3T...

  18. 29 CFR 2590.702-1 - Additional requirements prohibiting discrimination based on genetic information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Additional requirements prohibiting discrimination based on genetic information. 2590.702-1 Section 2590.702-1 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EMPLOYEE BENEFITS SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR GROUP HEALTH PLANS RULES AND REGULATIONS FOR GROUP HEALTH PLANS Health...

  19. 26 CFR 54.9802-3T - Additional requirements prohibiting discrimination based on genetic information (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Additional requirements prohibiting discrimination based on genetic information (temporary). 54.9802-3T Section 54.9802-3T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) PENSION EXCISE TAXES § 54.9802-3T...

  20. 26 CFR 54.9802-3T - Additional requirements prohibiting discrimination based on genetic information (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Additional requirements prohibiting discrimination based on genetic information (temporary). 54.9802-3T Section 54.9802-3T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) PENSION EXCISE TAXES § 54.9802-3T...

  1. 24 CFR 1710.200 - Instructions for Statement of Record, Additional Information and Documentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Instructions for Statement of Record, Additional Information and Documentation. 1710.200 Section 1710.200 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR...

  2. 16 CFR 803.20 - Requests for additional information or documentary material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... documentary material. 803.20 Section 803.20 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION RULES, REGULATIONS... RULES § 803.20 Requests for additional information or documentary material. (a)(1) Persons and... documentary material relevant to the acquisition may be required from one or more persons required to...

  3. 78 FR 52803 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Additional...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-26

    ... on April 9, 2013 (78 FR 21159). OMB authorization for an ICR cannot be for more than three (3) years...; Additional Information Collection Requirements for Special Dipping and Coating Operations ACTION: Notice... Requirements for Special Dipping and Coating Operations,'' to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB)...

  4. 30 CFR 250.418 - What additional information must I submit with my APD?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What additional information must I submit with my APD? 250.418 Section 250.418 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, REGULATION, AND... plot if the well is to be directionally drilled; (d) A Hydrogen Sulfide Contingency Plan (see §...

  5. 30 CFR 250.418 - What additional information must I submit with my APD?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations Applying for A Permit to Drill § 250.418 What additional information must I... applicable, and not previously submitted; (e) A welding plan (see §§ 250.109 to 250.113) if not...

  6. 18 CFR 33.4 - Additional information requirements for applications involving vertical competitive impacts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Additional information requirements for applications involving vertical competitive impacts. 33.4 Section 33.4 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT APPLICATIONS...

  7. 49 CFR 260.25 - Additional information for Applicants not having a credit rating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Additional information for Applicants not having a credit rating. 260.25 Section 260.25 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION REGULATIONS GOVERNING LOANS AND LOAN GUARANTEES UNDER THE...

  8. 75 FR 61572 - Additional Identifying Information Associated With Persons Whose Property and Interests in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-05

    ...The Treasury Department's Office of Foreign Assets Control (``OFAC'') is publishing additional identifying information associated with the eight individuals listed in the Annex to the Executive Order of September 28, 2010, ``Blocking Property of Certain Persons With Respect to Serious Human Rights Abuses by the Government of Iran and Taking Certain Other Actions,'' whose property and interests......

  9. 18 CFR 33.3 - Additional information requirements for applications involving horizontal competitive impacts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Additional information requirements for applications involving horizontal competitive impacts. 33.3 Section 33.3 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT APPLICATIONS...

  10. 40 CFR Table 42 to Subpart Uuu of... - Additional Information for Initial Notification of Compliance Status

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Additional Information for Initial Notification of Compliance Status 42 Table 42 to Subpart UUU of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES...

  11. 40 CFR Table 42 to Subpart Uuu of... - Additional Information for Initial Notification of Compliance Status

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Additional Information for Initial Notification of Compliance Status 42 Table 42 to Subpart UUU of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES...

  12. 40 CFR Table 42 to Subpart Uuu of... - Additional Information for Initial Notification of Compliance Status

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Additional Information for Initial Notification of Compliance Status 42 Table 42 to Subpart UUU of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES...

  13. 40 CFR Table 42 to Subpart Uuu of... - Additional Information for Initial Notification of Compliance Status

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Additional Information for Initial Notification of Compliance Status 42 Table 42 to Subpart UUU of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES...

  14. 49 CFR 260.25 - Additional information for Applicants not having a credit rating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... credit rating. 260.25 Section 260.25 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... Financial Assistance § 260.25 Additional information for Applicants not having a credit rating. Each application submitted by Applicants not having a recent credit rating from one or more nationally...

  15. 49 CFR 260.25 - Additional information for Applicants not having a credit rating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... credit rating. 260.25 Section 260.25 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... Financial Assistance § 260.25 Additional information for Applicants not having a credit rating. Each application submitted by Applicants not having a recent credit rating from one or more nationally...

  16. 16 CFR 803.20 - Requests for additional information or documentary material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... documentary material. 803.20 Section 803.20 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION RULES, REGULATIONS... RULES § 803.20 Requests for additional information or documentary material. (a)(1) Persons and... documentary material relevant to the acquisition may be required from one or more persons required to...

  17. 16 CFR 803.20 - Requests for additional information or documentary material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... documentary material. 803.20 Section 803.20 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION RULES, REGULATIONS... RULES § 803.20 Requests for additional information or documentary material. (a)(1) Persons and... documentary material relevant to the acquisition may be required from one or more persons required to...

  18. 16 CFR 803.20 - Requests for additional information or documentary material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... documentary material. 803.20 Section 803.20 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION RULES, REGULATIONS... RULES § 803.20 Requests for additional information or documentary material. (a)(1) Persons and... documentary material relevant to the acquisition may be required from one or more persons required to...

  19. 38 CFR 39.4 - Decision makers, notifications, and additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Decision makers, notifications, and additional information. 39.4 Section 39.4 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) AID FOR THE ESTABLISHMENT, EXPANSION, AND IMPROVEMENT, OR...

  20. 38 CFR 39.4 - Decision makers, notifications, and additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Decision makers, notifications, and additional information. 39.4 Section 39.4 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) AID FOR THE ESTABLISHMENT, EXPANSION, AND IMPROVEMENT, OR...

  1. 38 CFR 39.4 - Decision makers, notifications, and additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Decision makers, notifications, and additional information. 39.4 Section 39.4 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) AID FOR THE ESTABLISHMENT, EXPANSION, AND IMPROVEMENT, OR...

  2. 38 CFR 39.4 - Decision makers, notifications, and additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Decision makers, notifications, and additional information. 39.4 Section 39.4 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) AID TO STATES FOR ESTABLISHMENT, EXPANSION, AND IMPROVEMENT,...

  3. 40 CFR 79.21 - Information and assurances to be provided by the additive manufacturer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... under 42 U.S.C. 7545(f)(4). (i) The manufacturer shall submit, or shall reference prior submissions... data and information as are specified in the designation of the additive in subpart D. (f) Assurances... the provisions of subpart F of this part....

  4. 40 CFR 79.21 - Information and assurances to be provided by the additive manufacturer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... under 42 U.S.C. 7545(f)(4). (i) The manufacturer shall submit, or shall reference prior submissions... data and information as are specified in the designation of the additive in subpart D. (f) Assurances... the provisions of subpart F of this part....

  5. 26 CFR 1.852-7 - Additional information required in returns of shareholders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... shareholders. 1.852-7 Section 1.852-7 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... Trusts § 1.852-7 Additional information required in returns of shareholders. Any person who fails or....852-6 requires the company to demand from its shareholders shall submit as a part of his income...

  6. 76 FR 24854 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Additional Protocol Report Forms

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-03

    ... International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) on a number of commercial nuclear and nuclear-related items, materials... for a nuclear weapons program. These forms provides the IAEA with information about additional aspects...; buildings on sites of facilities selected by the IAEA from the U.S. Eligible Facilities List;...

  7. Spatial representations of place cells in darkness are supported by path integration and border information

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Sijie; Schönfeld, Fabian; Wiskott, Laurenz; Manahan-Vaughan, Denise

    2014-01-01

    Effective spatial navigation is enabled by reliable reference cues that derive from sensory information from the external environment, as well as from internal sources such as the vestibular system. The integration of information from these sources enables dead reckoning in the form of path integration. Navigation in the dark is associated with the accumulation of errors in terms of perception of allocentric position and this may relate to error accumulation in path integration. We assessed this by recording from place cells in the dark under circumstances where spatial sensory cues were suppressed. Spatial information content, spatial coherence, place field size, and peak and infield firing rates decreased whereas sparsity increased following exploration in the dark compared to the light. Nonetheless it was observed that place field stability in darkness was sustained by border information in a subset of place cells. To examine the impact of encountering the environment’s border on navigation, we analyzed the trajectory and spiking data gathered during navigation in the dark. Our data suggest that although error accumulation in path integration drives place field drift in darkness, under circumstances where border contact is possible, this information is integrated to enable retention of spatial representations. PMID:25009477

  8. A Rapid Monitoring and Evaluation Method of Schistosomiasis Based on Spatial Information Technology.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong; Zhuang, Dafang

    2015-12-01

    Thanks to Spatial Information Technologies (SITs) such as Remote Sensing (RS) and Geographical Information System (GIS) that are being quickly developed and updated, SITs are being used more widely in the public health field. The use of SITs to study the characteristics of the temporal and spatial distribution of Schistosoma japonicum and to assess the risk of infection provides methods for the control and prevention of schistosomiasis japonica has gradually become a hot topic in the field. The purpose of the present paper was to use RS and GIS technology to develop an efficient method of prediction and assessment of the risk of schistosomiasis japonica. We choose the Yueyang region, close to the east DongTing Lake (Hunan Province, China), as the study area, where a recent serious outbreak of schistosomiasis japonica took place. We monitored and evaluated the transmission risk of schistosomiasis japonica in the region using SITs. Water distribution data were extracted from RS images. The ground temperature, ground humidity and vegetation index were calculated based on RS images. Additionally, the density of oncomelania snails, which are the Schistosoma japonicum intermediate host, was calculated on the base of RS data and field measurements. The spatial distribution of oncomelania snails was explored using SITs in order to estimate the area surrounding the residents with transmission risk of schistosomiasis japonica. Our research result demonstrated: (1) the risk factors for the transmission of schistosomiasis japonica were closely related to the living environment of oncomelania snails. Key factors such as water distribution, ground temperature, ground humidity and vegetation index can be quickly obtained and calculated from RS images; (2) using GIS technology and a RS deduction technique along with statistical regression models, the density distribution model of oncomelania snails could be quickly built; (3) using SITs and analysis with overlaying population

  9. A Rapid Monitoring and Evaluation Method of Schistosomiasis Based on Spatial Information Technology

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yong; Zhuang, Dafang

    2015-01-01

    Thanks to Spatial Information Technologies (SITs) such as Remote Sensing (RS) and Geographical Information System (GIS) that are being quickly developed and updated, SITs are being used more widely in the public health field. The use of SITs to study the characteristics of the temporal and spatial distribution of Schistosoma japonicum and to assess the risk of infection provides methods for the control and prevention of schistosomiasis japonica has gradually become a hot topic in the field. The purpose of the present paper was to use RS and GIS technology to develop an efficient method of prediction and assessment of the risk of schistosomiasis japonica. We choose the Yueyang region, close to the east DongTing Lake (Hunan Province, China), as the study area, where a recent serious outbreak of schistosomiasis japonica took place. We monitored and evaluated the transmission risk of schistosomiasis japonica in the region using SITs. Water distribution data were extracted from RS images. The ground temperature, ground humidity and vegetation index were calculated based on RS images. Additionally, the density of oncomelania snails, which are the Schistosoma japonicum intermediate host, was calculated on the base of RS data and field measurements. The spatial distribution of oncomelania snails was explored using SITs in order to estimate the area surrounding the residents with transmission risk of schistosomiasis japonica. Our research result demonstrated: (1) the risk factors for the transmission of schistosomiasis japonica were closely related to the living environment of oncomelania snails. Key factors such as water distribution, ground temperature, ground humidity and vegetation index can be quickly obtained and calculated from RS images; (2) using GIS technology and a RS deduction technique along with statistical regression models, the density distribution model of oncomelania snails could be quickly built; (3) using SITs and analysis with overlaying population

  10. A Left Cerebral Hemisphere's Superiority in Processing Spatial-Categorical Information in a Non-Verbal Semantic Format

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suegami, Takashi; Laeng, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    It has been shown that the left and right cerebral hemispheres (LH and RH) respectively process qualitative or "categorical" spatial relations and metric or "coordinate" spatial relations. However, categorical spatial information could be thought as divided into two types: semantically-coded and visuospatially-coded categorical information. We…

  11. A generic spatial-stochastic framework for quantifying noisy information flow in multicellular systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolowski, Thomas; Tkačik, Gašper

    Spatio-temporal protein signals play a crucial role in communicating information within and between cells. However, their ability to convey signals robustly is hampered by noise in gene regulation and biochemical transport, occuring at low copy numbers. While we increasingly understand distinct strategies of biochemical noise control, it remains unclear how nature orchestrates them to maximize information flow. Our recent work extends our information-theoretic framework for gene regulation to an explicitly spatial setting. We constructed a stochastic model enabling fast calculation of local means and variances in a spatially coupled gene regulatory system, which we use for rigorous quantification of information flow in an ensemble of units sensing a spatially distributed input and exchanging information via diffusion. By applying our framework to the paradigmatic Bcd-Hbk system in early fly development, we demonstrate that diffusive coupling can be of substantial benefit in encoding positional information, and uncover a novel optimal regulatory strategy relying on spatial coupling. Thanks to the generic methodology employed, our framework is universally applicable for realistic predictive modeling and data-driven inference of multicellular systems engaging in noisy communication. Institute of Science and Technology Austria, Am Campus 1, A-3400 Klosterneuburg, Austria.

  12. Incorporating bibliographic information into a spatial data query system for the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Cowen, D.J.; Jensen, J.R.; MacCharles, C.V.; Holliday, W.N.; White, T.R.; Mackey, H.E. Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Over the past two years the Environmental Sciences Section of the Westinghouse Savannah River Company and the University of South Carolina have developed a full-featured spatial data query system for the Savannah River Site. This Environmental Data Atlas, which operates across multiple platforms, is designed to provide scientists with easy access to a wide range of GIS and remote sensing data resources. This paper describes the method that has been developed to extend the Environmental Data Atlas to incorporate bibliographical data. The bibliographic search function was determined by the scientists to be an extremely important enhancement that will enable them to utilize geographic keys to locate obscure references and databases. The method uses a Hot Link function to launch a parsing algorithm by pointing to geographic features. The parsing algorithm efficiently sorts through a list of references based on the keyword associated with the feature. The matched bibliographical entries are formatted into a text file that is displayed in a scrollable window. Any graphics associated with the actual reference can also be scanned and linked to an additional Hot Link. An additional parsing system was used to automatically create the bibliographical database from a comprehensive CD-ROM version of the Environmental Information Document prepared by the Environmental Sciences Section. This extensive digital reference represents a summary of much of the recent ecological information available on the site. The methods used in this system are directly linked to a commercially available software and provide a universal approach to establishing a geographically based document retrieval system.

  13. Spatial release from energetic and informational masking in a selective speech identification task.

    PubMed

    Ihlefeld, Antje; Shinn-Cunningham, Barbara

    2008-06-01

    A masker can reduce target intelligibility both by interfering with the target's peripheral representation ("energetic masking") and/or by causing more central interference ("informational masking"). Intelligibility generally improves with increasing spatial separation between two sources, an effect known as spatial release from masking (SRM). Here, SRM was measured using two concurrent sine-vocoded talkers. Target and masker were each composed of eight different narrowbands of speech (with little spectral overlap). The broadband target-to-masker energy ratio (TMR) was varied, and response errors were used to assess the relative importance of energetic and informational masking. Performance improved with increasing TMR. SRM occurred at all TMRs; however, the pattern of errors suggests that spatial separation affected performance differently, depending on the dominant type of masking. Detailed error analysis suggests that informational masking occurred due to failures in either across-time linkage of target segments (streaming) or top-down selection of the target. Specifically, differences in the spatial cues in target and masker improved streaming and target selection. In contrast, level differences helped listeners select the target, but had little influence on streaming. These results demonstrate that at least two mechanisms (differentially affected by spatial and level cues) influence informational masking. PMID:18537388

  14. [Mixed-Spectral Spatial Information Decomposition Model of Water Hyperspectral Inversion].

    PubMed

    Pan, Bang-long; Wang, Xian-hua; Zhu, Jin; Yi, Wei-ning; Fang, Ting-yong

    2015-03-01

    The effect of Mixed-hyperspectral in the water is difficult in quantitative remote sensing of water. Studies have shown that the only scalar spectrum information is difficult to solve the problem of complex mixed spectra of water. Besides the spectral information, spatial distribution of information is one of the obvious characteristics of the broad waters pollution, and can be used as a useful complement to the remote sensing information and facilitate water complex spectral unmixing. Taking Chaohu as an example, the paper applies the HJ-1A HSI hyperspectral data and the supplemental surface spectral measurement data to discuss the mixed spectra of lake water by spatial statistics and genetic algorithm theory. By using the spatial variogram of geostatistics to simulate the distribution difference of two adjacent pixels, the space-informational decomposition model of mixed spectral in lake water is established by co-kriging genetic algorithm, which is a improved algorithm applying the spatial variogram function of neighborhood pixel as the constraint of the objective function of the genetic algorithm. Finally, the model inversion results of suspended matter concentration are verified. Compared with the conventional spectral unmixing model, the results show the correlation coefficient of the predicted and measured value of suspended sediment concentration is 0.82, the root mean square error 9.25 mg x L(-1) by mixed spectral space information decomposition model, so the correlation coefficient is increased by 8.9%, the root mean square error reduced by 2.78 mg x L(-1), indicating that the model of suspended matter concentration has a strong predictive ability. Therefore, the effective combination of spatial and spectral information of water, can avoid inversion result distortion due to weak spectral signal of water color parameters, and large amount of calculation of information extraction because of the high spectral band numbers, and also provides an effective way

  15. Additional sensory information reduces body sway of individuals with anterior cruciate ligament injury.

    PubMed

    Bonfim, Thatia Regina; Grossi, Débora Bevilaqua; Paccola, Cleber Antonio Jansen; Barela, José Angelo

    2008-08-29

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the additional sensory information could improve postural control in individuals with unilateral anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. Twenty-eight individuals with unilateral ACL injury (mean age 23.6, 26 males, 2 females) and 28 healthy young control subjects (mean age 22.1 years, 26 males, 2 females) participated in this study. Postural control was evaluated with subjects single-leg standing on a force platform with eyes closed under two sensory conditions: normal sensory information and light touch to a stationary bar (applied force below 1N). Three trials of 30s were performed in each single-leg stance and in each sensory condition. Mean sway amplitude and predominant frequency of center of pressure were calculated for both anterior-posterior and medial-lateral directions. Individuals with ACL injury showed greater mean sway amplitude than healthy control individuals even though the predominant frequency was similar for both groups. Additional sensory information improved postural control performance in individuals with ACL injury and healthy control, with a greater effect observed for the ACL group. Based on these results, we suggest that reduction in postural control performance in individuals with ACL injury would be due to the reduction of sensory information provided by the ACL, but when sensory information is enhanced, postural control performance improves. These results have implications for novel approaches to improve stability in individuals with ACL injury. PMID:18582536

  16. 75 FR 35119 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Form DS-4085 Application for Additional Visa...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-21

    ... Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Form DS-4085 Application for Additional Visa Pages or... the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995. Title of Information Collection: Application for Additional Visa... collection: The information collected on the DS-4085 is used to facilitate the issuance of additional...

  17. Modeling of digital information optical encryption system with spatially incoherent illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bondareva, Alyona P.; Cheremkhin, Pavel A.; Krasnov, Vitaly V.; Rodin, Vladislav G.; Starikov, Rostislav S.; Starikov, Sergey N.

    2015-10-01

    State of the art micromirror DMD spatial light modulators (SLM) offer unprecedented framerate up to 30000 frames per second. This, in conjunction with high speed digital camera, should allow to build high speed optical encryption system. Results of modeling of digital information optical encryption system with spatially incoherent illumination are presented. Input information is displayed with first SLM, encryption element - with second SLM. Factors taken into account are: resolution of SLMs and camera, holograms reconstruction noise, camera noise and signal sampling. Results of numerical simulation demonstrate high speed (several gigabytes per second), low bit error rate and high crypto-strength.

  18. The potential of spatial information in human biomonitoring by example of two German environmental epidemiology studies.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Gunther; Pesch, Roland; Schröder, Winfried; Conrad, André; Kolossa-Gehring, Marike; Feigenspan, Stefan; Dobler, Lorenz; Wiesmüller, Gerhard A; Birke, Manfred; Utermann, Jens

    2011-08-01

    This study aimed at statistically investigating the association between the internal exposure of children and young adults to uranium (U) and epidemiologically relevant external determinants of exposure. The investigation was performed with data from two studies within the framework of the German health-related environmental monitoring program: The German Environmental Survey for Children (GerES IV) conducted by the Federal Environment Agency (Umweltbundesamt) with data on 1,780 children 3-14 years of age and their home environment and the German Environmental Specimen Bank (ESB, section: human specimens) with data on 2,253 students 20-29 years of age. Both studies provided data on the U levels in human urine for all probands. GerES IV furthermore provided an extensive environmental and demographic database on, e.g., U levels in drinking water. The data from GerES IV and ESB were linked by GIS to spatially relevant exposure information, including background values of U in stream sediments and in upper and lower soils, U levels in mosses and particulate matter in the lower atmosphere, precipitation and elevation as well as forest density. Bivariate correlation analysis and two decision tree models showed moderate but significant associations between U in human urine and U levels in drinking water, stream sediments and upper and lower soils. Future investigations considering additional epidemiologically relevant data sets may differentiate the results. Furthermore, the sample design of future environmental epidemiology studies should take the spatial evaluation of the data into greater account. PMID:21424229

  19. Information entropy to measure the spatial and temporal complexity of solute transport in heterogeneous porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Weiyao; Huang, Guanhua; Xiong, Yunwu

    2016-04-01

    The complexity of the spatial structure of porous media, randomness of groundwater recharge and discharge (rainfall, runoff, etc.) has led to groundwater movement complexity, physical and chemical interaction between groundwater and porous media cause solute transport in the medium more complicated. An appropriate method to describe the complexity of features is essential when study on solute transport and conversion in porous media. Information entropy could measure uncertainty and disorder, therefore we attempted to investigate complexity, explore the contact between the information entropy and complexity of solute transport in heterogeneous porous media using information entropy theory. Based on Markov theory, two-dimensional stochastic field of hydraulic conductivity (K) was generated by transition probability. Flow and solute transport model were established under four conditions (instantaneous point source, continuous point source, instantaneous line source and continuous line source). The spatial and temporal complexity of solute transport process was characterized and evaluated using spatial moment and information entropy. Results indicated that the entropy increased as the increase of complexity of solute transport process. For the point source, the one-dimensional entropy of solute concentration increased at first and then decreased along X and Y directions. As time increased, entropy peak value basically unchanged, peak position migrated along the flow direction (X direction) and approximately coincided with the centroid position. With the increase of time, spatial variability and complexity of solute concentration increase, which result in the increases of the second-order spatial moment and the two-dimensional entropy. Information entropy of line source was higher than point source. Solute entropy obtained from continuous input was higher than instantaneous input. Due to the increase of average length of lithoface, media continuity increased, flow and

  20. On combining spectral and spatial information of hyperspectral image for camouflaged target detecting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hua, Wenshen; Liu, Xun; Yang, Jia

    2013-12-01

    Detecting enemy's targets and being undetectable play increasingly important roles in modern warfare. Hyperspectral images can provide large spectral range and high spectral resolution, which are invaluable in discriminating between camouflaged targets and backgrounds. As supervised classification requires prior knowledge which cannot be acquired easily, unsupervised classification usually is adopted to process hyperspectral images to detect camouflaged target. But one of its drawbacks—low detecting accuracy confines its application for camouflaged target detecting. Most research on the processing of hyperspectral image tends to focus exclusively on spectral domain and ignores spatial domain. However current hyperspectral image provides high spatial resolution which contains useful information for camouflaged target detecting. A new method combining spectral and spatial information is proposed to increase the detecting accuracy using unsupervised classification. The method has two steps. In the first step, a traditional unsupervised classifier (i.e. K-MEANS, ISODATA) is adopted to classify the hyperspectral image to acquire basic classifications or clusters. During the second step, a 3×3 model and spectral angle mapping are utilized to test the spatial character of the hyperspectral image. The spatial character is defined as spatial homogeneity and calculated by spectral angle mapping. Theory analysis and experiment shows the method is reasonable and efficient. Camouflaged targets are extracted from the background and different camouflaged targets are also recognized. And the proposed algorithm outperforms K-MEANS in terms of detecting accuracy, robustness and edge's distinction. This paper demonstrates the new method is meaningful to camouflaged targets detecting.

  1. Five on one side: personal and social information in spatial choice.

    PubMed

    Brown, Michael F; Saxon, Marie E; Bisbing, Teagan; Evans, Jessica; Ruff, Jennifer; Stokesbury, Andrew

    2015-03-01

    To examine whether the outcome of a rat's own choices ("personal information") and the choice behavior of another rat ("social information") can jointly control spatial choices, rats were tested in an open field task in which they searched for food. For the rats of primary interest (Subject Rats), the baited locations were all on one side of the arena, but the specific locations baited and the side on which they occurred varied over trials. The Subject Rats were sometimes tested together with an informed "Model" rat that had learned to find food in the same five locations (all on the same side of the arena) on every trial. Unintended perceptual cues apparently controlled spatial choices at first, but when perceptual cues to food location were not available, choices were controlled by both personal information (allowing the baited side of the arena to be determined) and social information (allowing baited locations to be determined more precisely). This shows that control by personal and social information are not mutually exclusive and supports the view that these two kinds of information can be used flexibly and adaptively to guide spatial choices. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: tribute to Tom Zentall. PMID:25572458

  2. Using Geographic Information Systems to Reconceptualize Spatial Relationships and Ecological Context1

    PubMed Central

    Downey, Liam

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author demonstrates how geographic information system (GIS) software can be used to reconceptualize spatial relationships and ecological context and address the modifiable areal unit problem. In order to do this, the author uses GIS to (1) test an important category of spatial hypotheses (spatial proximity hypotheses), (2) overcome methodological problems that arise when data sets are not spatially comparable, and (3) measure ecological context. The author introduces a set of GIS variable construction techniques that are designed to accomplish these tasks, illustrates these techniques empirically by using them to test spatial proximity hypotheses drawn from the literature on environmental inequality, and demonstrates that results obtained using these techniques are methodologically superior to and substantively different from results obtained using traditional techniques. Finally, the author demonstrates that these techniques are the product of an alternative conceptualization of physical space that allows sociologists to develop new ways to think about and measure spatial relationships, ecological context, and place-based social inequality and that gives them the ability to reconceptualize spatially based methodological problems that have confronted them for years. PMID:22021932

  3. Spatial uncertainty modeling of fuzzy information in images for pattern classification.

    PubMed

    Pham, Tuan D

    2014-01-01

    The modeling of the spatial distribution of image properties is important for many pattern recognition problems in science and engineering. Mathematical methods are needed to quantify the variability of this spatial distribution based on which a decision of classification can be made in an optimal sense. However, image properties are often subject to uncertainty due to both incomplete and imprecise information. This paper presents an integrated approach for estimating the spatial uncertainty of vagueness in images using the theory of geostatistics and the calculus of probability measures of fuzzy events. Such a model for the quantification of spatial uncertainty is utilized as a new image feature extraction method, based on which classifiers can be trained to perform the task of pattern recognition. Applications of the proposed algorithm to the classification of various types of image data suggest the usefulness of the proposed uncertainty modeling technique for texture feature extraction. PMID:25157744

  4. Overt is no better than covert when rehearsing visuo-spatial information in working memory.

    PubMed

    Godijn, Richard; Theeuwes, Jan

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, we examined whether eye movements facilitate retention of visuo-spatial information in working memory. In two experiments, participants memorised the sequence of the spatial locations of six digits across a retention interval. In some conditions, participants were free to move their eyes during the retention interval, but in others they either were required to remain fixated or were instructed to move their eyes exclusively to a selection of the memorised locations. Memory performance was no better when participants were free to move their eyes during the memory interval than when they fixated a single location. Furthermore, the results demonstrated a primacy effect in the eye movement behaviour that corresponded with the memory performance. We conclude that overt eye movements do not provide a benefit over covert attention for rehearsing visuo-spatial information in working memory. PMID:21769706

  5. Informational Masking and Spatial Hearing in Listeners with and without Unilateral Hearing Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothpletz, Ann M.; Wightman, Frederic L.; Kistler, Doris J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study assessed selective listening for speech in individuals with and without unilateral hearing loss (UHL) and the potential relationship between spatial release from informational masking and localization ability in listeners with UHL. Method: Twelve adults with UHL and 12 normal-hearing controls completed a series of monaural and…

  6. Spatial and Social Diffusion of Information and Influence: Models and Algorithms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doo, Myungcheol

    2012-01-01

    In this dissertation research, we argue that spatial alarms and activity-based social networks are two fundamentally new types of information and influence diffusion channels. Such new channels have the potential of enriching our professional experiences and our personal life quality in many unprecedented ways. First, we develop an activity driven…

  7. Using a Sonified Topographic Approach to Communicate Spatial Information to People with Visual Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thebpanya, Paporn

    2010-01-01

    This study implemented tactile interfaces with audio representations to convey spatial information on topographic maps. Two sound variables, pitch and duration, were incorporated with contour lines to represent various aspects of topographic features such as elevation, slope, profile, and landform. The effect of one sound variable (pitch) vs. a…

  8. Ensemble Learning for Spatial Interpolation of Soil Potassium Content Based on Environmental Information

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wei; Du, Peijun; Wang, Dongchen

    2015-01-01

    One important method to obtain the continuous surfaces of soil properties from point samples is spatial interpolation. In this paper, we propose a method that combines ensemble learning with ancillary environmental information for improved interpolation of soil properties (hereafter, EL-SP). First, we calculated the trend value for soil potassium contents at the Qinghai Lake region in China based on measured values. Then, based on soil types, geology types, land use types, and slope data, the remaining residual was simulated with the ensemble learning model. Next, the EL-SP method was applied to interpolate soil potassium contents at the study site. To evaluate the utility of the EL-SP method, we compared its performance with other interpolation methods including universal kriging, inverse distance weighting, ordinary kriging, and ordinary kriging combined geographic information. Results show that EL-SP had a lower mean absolute error and root mean square error than the data produced by the other models tested in this paper. Notably, the EL-SP maps can describe more locally detailed information and more accurate spatial patterns for soil potassium content than the other methods because of the combined use of different types of environmental information; these maps are capable of showing abrupt boundary information for soil potassium content. Furthermore, the EL-SP method not only reduces prediction errors, but it also compliments other environmental information, which makes the spatial interpolation of soil potassium content more reasonable and useful. PMID:25928138

  9. Ensemble learning for spatial interpolation of soil potassium content based on environmental information.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Du, Peijun; Wang, Dongchen

    2015-01-01

    One important method to obtain the continuous surfaces of soil properties from point samples is spatial interpolation. In this paper, we propose a method that combines ensemble learning with ancillary environmental information for improved interpolation of soil properties (hereafter, EL-SP). First, we calculated the trend value for soil potassium contents at the Qinghai Lake region in China based on measured values. Then, based on soil types, geology types, land use types, and slope data, the remaining residual was simulated with the ensemble learning model. Next, the EL-SP method was applied to interpolate soil potassium contents at the study site. To evaluate the utility of the EL-SP method, we compared its performance with other interpolation methods including universal kriging, inverse distance weighting, ordinary kriging, and ordinary kriging combined geographic information. Results show that EL-SP had a lower mean absolute error and root mean square error than the data produced by the other models tested in this paper. Notably, the EL-SP maps can describe more locally detailed information and more accurate spatial patterns for soil potassium content than the other methods because of the combined use of different types of environmental information; these maps are capable of showing abrupt boundary information for soil potassium content. Furthermore, the EL-SP method not only reduces prediction errors, but it also compliments other environmental information, which makes the spatial interpolation of soil potassium content more reasonable and useful. PMID:25928138

  10. EO-Based Spatial Information Systems in Support of Disaster Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkatachary, K. V.; Rao, Mukund; Manikiam, B.; Navalgund, R. R.; Jayaraman, V.

    Space technology has introduced new dimensions into the study and understanding of Earth's processes and in Natural Disasters result from the dynamics of the outer parts of the earth's crust - resulting in cyclones, floods, earthquakes, landslides, volcanoes and many other natural hazards. On the other hand are the disasters resulting due to human activity - more due to un-planned management, and resulting in diseases and health hazards, collapse of major man-made structures (dams, buildings etc) and events beyond the control of mankind. All these result in extensive damage and loss to biological life and property - causing untold misery and disrupting the dynamics and quality of life. What is of critical importance is the organisation of an efficient Disaster Management System (DMS) - having a backbone of a comprehensive spatial information system and modelling system to support the needs of activities before a disaster strikes - preparedness and prediction and activities after the strike of a disaster - damage assessment and rehabilitation. A system-definition of the framework of a DMS is of utmost importance - providing a holistic and total view of a information support for a DMS and incorporating elements of the design and development an information system - mainly to support the information needs for preparedness, prediction, damage assessment, rehabilitation and research; networking - mainly to be able to speedily provide access to the information system at any point of time from any place and decision-making - to support speedy and efficient decisions being taken, actions implemented and feedback mechanisms. Major elements of the spatial information system would be the remote sensing images - with emphasis on "continuous observation and scanning" and enabling alert systems; a GIS database of critical parameters to provide alert information and also post-facto damage assessment and a GIS database for modeling the pre-disaster phase activities and

  11. Spatial unmasking of birdsong in human listeners: energetic and informational factors.

    PubMed

    Best, Virginia; Ozmeral, Erol; Gallun, Frederick J; Sen, Kamal; Shinn-Cunningham, Barbara G

    2005-12-01

    Spatial unmasking describes the improvement in the detection or identification of a target sound afforded by separating it spatially from simultaneous masking sounds. This effect has been studied extensively for speech intelligibility in the presence of interfering sounds. In the current study, listeners identified zebra finch song, which shares many acoustic properties with speech but lacks semantic and linguistic content. Three maskers with the same long-term spectral content but different short-term statistics were used: (1) chorus (combinations of unfamiliar zebra finch songs), (2) song-shaped noise (broadband noise with the average spectrum of chorus), and (3) chorus-modulated noise (song-shaped noise multiplied by the broadband envelope from a chorus masker). The amount of masking and spatial unmasking depended on the masker and there was evidence of release from both energetic and informational masking. Spatial unmasking was greatest for the statistically similar chorus masker. For the two noise maskers, there was less spatial unmasking and it was wholly accounted for by the relative target and masker levels at the acoustically better ear. The results share many features with analogous results using speech targets, suggesting that spatial separation aids in the segregation of complex natural sounds through mechanisms that are not specific to speech. PMID:16419821

  12. A spatial exploration of informal trail networks within Great Falls Park, VA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wimpey, Jeremy; Marion, Jeffrey L.

    2011-01-01

    Informal (visitor-created) trails represent a threat to the natural resources of protected natural areas around the globe. These trails can remove vegetation, displace wildlife, alter hydrology, alter habitat, spread invasive species, and fragment landscapes. This study examines informal and formal trails within Great Falls Park, VA, a sub-unit of the George Washington Memorial Parkway, managed by the U.S. National Park Service. This study sought to answer three specific questions: 1) Are the physical characteristics and topographic alignments of informal trails significantly different from formal trails, 2) Can landscape fragmentation metrics be used to summarize the relative impacts of formal and informal trail networks on a protected natural area? and 3) What can we learn from examining the spatial distribution of the informal trails within protected natural areas? Statistical comparisons between formal and informal trails in this park indicate that informal trails have less sustainable topographic alignments than their formal counterparts. Spatial summaries of the lineal and areal extent and fragmentation associated with the trail networks by park management zones compare park management goals to the assessed attributes. Hot spot analyses highlight areas of high trail density within the park and findings provide insights regarding potential causes for development of dense informal trail networks.

  13. Spatial smoothing hurts localization but not information: pitfalls for brain mappers.

    PubMed

    Kamitani, Yukiyasu; Sawahata, Yasuhito

    2010-02-01

    Op de Beeck (Op de Beeck, H., 2009. Against hyperacuity in brain reading: Spatial smoothing does not hurt multivariate fMRI analyses? Neuroimage) challenges the possibility of extracting information from subvoxel representations via random biases associated with voxel sampling, the hypothesis proposed by Kamitani and Tong (Kamitani, Y., Tong, F., 2005. Decoding the visual and subjective contents of the human brain. Nat. Neurosci. 8, 679-685). Here, we show that his results provide no evidence against the possibility, being consistent with both of the subvoxel and supravoxel representation models. Classification of spatially smoothed fMRI data is not an effective means to probe into information sources for multivoxel decoding, since smoothing does not hurt the information contents of multivoxel patterns. We point out the danger of interpreting multivoxel decoding results based on intuitions guided by the conventional brain mapping paradigm. PMID:19559797

  14. Geographic information systems, remote sensing, and spatial analysis activities in Texas, 2002-07

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pearson, D.K.; Gary, R.H.; Wilson, Z.D.

    2007-01-01

    Geographic information system (GIS) technology has become an important tool for scientific investigation, resource management, and environmental planning. A GIS is a computer-aided system capable of collecting, storing, analyzing, and displaying spatially referenced digital data. GIS technology is particularly useful when analyzing a wide variety of spatial data such as with remote sensing and spatial analysis. Remote sensing involves collecting remotely sensed data, such as satellite imagery, aerial photography, or radar images, and analyzing the data to gather information or investigate trends about the environment or the Earth's surface. Spatial analysis combines remotely sensed, thematic, statistical, quantitative, and geographical data through overlay, modeling, and other analytical techniques to investigate specific research questions. It is the combination of data formats and analysis techniques that has made GIS an essential tool in scientific investigations. This document presents information about the technical capabilities and project activities of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Texas Water Science Center (TWSC) GIS Workgroup from 2002 through 2007.

  15. Partial volume correction for arterial spin labeling data using spatial-temporal information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yang; Li, Baojuan; Zhang, Xi; Zhang, Linchuan; Liang, Zhengrong; Lu, Hongbing

    2015-03-01

    Arterial spin labeling (ASL) provides a noninvasive measurement of cerebral blood flow (CBF). Due to relatively low spatial resolution, the accuracy of CBF measurement is affected by the partial volume (PV) effect. In general ASL sequence, multiple scans of perfusion image pairs are acquired temporally to improve the signal to noise ratio. Several spatial PV correction methods have been proposed for the simple averaging of pair-difference images, while the perfusion information of gray matter and white matter existed in multiple image pairs was totally ignored. In this study, a statistical model of perfusion mixtures inside each voxel for the 4D ASL sequence is first proposed. To solve the model, a simplified method is proposed, in which the linear regression (LR) method is first used to obtain initial estimates of spatial correction, then an EM (expectation maximization) method is used to obtain accurate estimation using temporal information. The combination of LR and EM method (EM-LR) can effectively utilize the spatial-temporal information of ASL data for PV correction and provide a theoretical solution to estimate the perfusion mixtures. Both simulated and in vivo data were used to evaluate the performance of proposed method, which demonstrated its superiority on PV correction, edge preserving, and noise suppression.

  16. Pigeons can learn to make visual category discriminations using either low or high spatial frequency information.

    PubMed

    Lea, Stephen E G; Poser-Richet, Victoire; Meier, Christina

    2015-03-01

    Pigeons were trained to discriminate photographs of cat faces from dog faces, using either high- or low-pass spatial frequency filtered stimuli. Each pigeon was trained with multiple exemplars of the categories, but only with either high-pass or low-pass filtered stimuli. Not all pigeons reached the discrimination criterion. Successful pigeons were exposed in probe trials to test stimuli: cat and dog faces that had been subjected to the opposite kind of filtering from their training stimuli; the unfiltered original stimuli from which their training stimuli had been derived; and new exemplars of the cat- and dog-face categories, with the same filtering as was used in training. There was no transfer of discrimination to the stimuli with the opposite filtering from those used in training. Discrimination transferred, with some decrement, to the original unfiltered stimuli and to new exemplars with the same type of filtering as used in training. These results provide further evidence that both high and low spatial frequency information can be sufficient for pigeons to make category discriminations, and that there is no clear advantage for high spatial frequency information. They also confirm that high-pass and low-pass spatial frequency filtering produce images that have effectively no information in common. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Tribute to Tom Zentall. PMID:25447512

  17. Geographic Information Systems, Remote Sensing, and Spatial Analysis Activities in Texas, 2002-07

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pearson, D.K.; Gary, R.H.; Wilson, Z.D.

    2007-01-01

    Geographic information system (GIS) technology has become an important tool for scientific investigation, resource management, and environmental planning. A GIS is a computer-aided system capable of collecting, storing, analyzing, and displaying spatially referenced digital data. GIS technology is particularly useful when analyzing a wide variety of spatial data such as with remote sensing and spatial analysis. Remote sensing involves collecting remotely sensed data, such as satellite imagery, aerial photography, or radar images, and analyzing the data to gather information or investigate trends about the environment or the Earth's surface. Spatial analysis combines remotely sensed, thematic, statistical, quantitative, and geographical data through overlay, modeling, and other analytical techniques to investigate specific research questions. It is the combination of data formats and analysis techniques that has made GIS an essential tool in scientific investigations. This document presents information about the technical capabilities and project activities of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Texas Water Science Center (TWSC) GIS Workgroup from 2002 through 2007.

  18. PAT-1 safety analysis report addendum author responses to request for additional information.

    SciTech Connect

    Weiner, Ruth F.; Schmale, David T.; Kalan, Robert J.; Akin, Lili A.; Miller, David Russell; Knorovsky, Gerald Albert; Yoshimura, Richard Hiroyuki; Lopez, Carlos; Harding, David Cameron; Jones, Perry L.; Morrow, Charles W.

    2010-09-01

    The Plutonium Air Transportable Package, Model PAT-1, is certified under Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations Part 71 by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) per Certificate of Compliance (CoC) USA/0361B(U)F-96 (currently Revision 9). The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) submitted SAND Report SAND2009-5822 to NRC that documented the incorporation of plutonium (Pu) metal as a new payload for the PAT-1 package. NRC responded with a Request for Additional Information (RAI), identifying information needed in connection with its review of the application. The purpose of this SAND report is to provide the authors responses to each RAI. SAND Report SAND2010-6106 containing the proposed changes to the Addendum is provided separately.

  19. Examination of the Spatial Correlation of Statistics Information in the Ultrasonic Echo from Diseased Liver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, Tadashi; Hachiya, Hiroyuki; Kamiyama, Naohisa; Moriyasu, Fuminori

    2002-05-01

    To realize a quantitative diagnosis of liver cirrhosis, we have been analyzing the characteristics of echo amplitude in B-mode images. Realizing the distinction between liver diseases such as liver cirrhosis and chronic hepatitis is required in the field of medical ultrasonics. In this study, we examine the spatial correlation, with the coefficient of correlation between the frames and the amplitude characteristics of each frame, using the volumetric data of RF echo signals from normal and diseased liver. It is found that there is a relationship between the tissue structure of liver and the spatial correlation of echo information.

  20. 36 CFR 1290.4 - Types of materials included in scope of assassination record and additional records and information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... scope of assassination record and additional records and information. 1290.4 Section 1290.4 Parks... COLLECTION ACT OF 1992 (JFK ACT) § 1290.4 Types of materials included in scope of assassination record and additional records and information. The term record in assassination record and additional records...

  1. 36 CFR 1290.4 - Types of materials included in scope of assassination record and additional records and information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... in scope of assassination record and additional records and information. 1290.4 Section 1290.4 Parks... COLLECTION ACT OF 1992 (JFK ACT) § 1290.4 Types of materials included in scope of assassination record and additional records and information. The term record in assassination record and additional records...

  2. 36 CFR 1290.4 - Types of materials included in scope of assassination record and additional records and information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... in scope of assassination record and additional records and information. 1290.4 Section 1290.4 Parks... COLLECTION ACT OF 1992 (JFK ACT) § 1290.4 Types of materials included in scope of assassination record and additional records and information. The term record in assassination record and additional records...

  3. Generalized information fusion and visualization using spatial voting and data modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaenisch, Holger M.; Handley, James W.

    2013-05-01

    We present a novel and innovative information fusion and visualization framework for multi-source intelligence (multiINT) data using Spatial Voting (SV) and Data Modeling. We describe how different sources of information can be converted into numerical form for further processing downstream, followed by a short description of how this information can be fused using the SV grid. As an illustrative example, we show the modeling of cyberspace as cyber layers for the purpose of tracking cyber personas. Finally we describe a path ahead for creating interactive agile networks through defender customized Cyber-cubes for network configuration and attack visualization.

  4. Design and realization of spatial information service system for government administration of natural disaster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Liang; Liu, Jiping; Zhu, Yi; Shi, Lihong

    2007-06-01

    The government of nearly every country have responsibility for administering the affairs of preventing and reducing the natural disasters. The geospatial character and positional connection of natural disasters information makes the geospatial information and GIS technology play a key role in government affairs increasingly. Based on project implementation and study of developing science and technology concerning reducing and preventing disasters in China, the paper is mainly on the comprehensive study of requirements analysis,construction pattern, primary assignments, main functions, important application and methods of Spatial Information Service System for Government Administration of Natural Disaster.

  5. Spatial inventory integrating raster databases and point sample data. [Geographic Information System for timber inventory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strahler, A. H.; Woodcock, C. E.; Logan, T. L.

    1983-01-01

    A timber inventory of the Eldorado National Forest, located in east-central California, provides an example of the use of a Geographic Information System (GIS) to stratify large areas of land for sampling and the collection of statistical data. The raster-based GIS format of the VICAR/IBIS software system allows simple and rapid tabulation of areas, and facilitates the selection of random locations for ground sampling. Algorithms that simplify the complex spatial pattern of raster-based information, and convert raster format data to strings of coordinate vectors, provide a link to conventional vector-based geographic information systems.

  6. Trialling a web-based spatial information management tool with Land Managers in Victoria, Australia.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Anna M; Park, Geoff; Melland, Alice R; Miller, Ian

    2009-01-01

    A prototype web-based spatial information management tool (called eFarmer) was tested for its useability and usefulness by 46 Land Managers and 5 extension staff in Victoria, Australia. Participants had a range of enterprises (dairy, beef/sheep grazing, cropping, lifestyle land use), property sizes and computer ownership and expertise. A follow up study was conducted with 12 dairy farmers, where features regarding assessment of nutrient losses from paddocks (Farm Nutrient Loss Index, FNLI) were added to eFarmer. Over 27,000 maps (including 11,000 with aerial photography) were accessed by Land Managers during a 5-month trial period. Despite limited training and support, 1350 people are registered users, and approximately 700 have actively used the tool. Reasons for the success include providing improved access to spatial information, enabling measurement of farm features and creation of farm maps, providing a basis for decision-making about farm inputs, support for better farm and landscape scale action planning and production and Land Managers being able to seek management advice from the extension staff who facilitated eFarmer testing programs. For dairy farmers in the FNLI trial, awareness of off-site impacts increased and most changed management practices. Provision of on-going training and support will be at least as important as further development of the tool itself. Web-based spatial information tools have potential to improve the awareness of Land Managers about their environmental impacts and influence their decision-making. Access to spatial information has potential to reduce information asymmetry between Land Managers, extension staff and catchment planners in a constructive way. It will also change the role of extension staff away from being an expert with answers, to a facilitator enabling learning. Results have applicability in countries where there is a high level of farm computer ownership, relevant spatial information is available in GIS format

  7. Multiple small RNAs act additively to integrate sensory information and control quorum sensing in Vibrio harveyi

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Kimberly C.; Bassler, Bonnie L.

    2007-01-01

    Quorum sensing is a cell–cell communication mechanism that bacteria use to collectively regulate gene expression and, at a higher level, to coordinate group behavior. In the bioluminescent marine bacterium Vibrio harveyi, sensory information from three independent quorum-sensing systems converges on the shared response regulator LuxO. When LuxO is phosphorylated, it activates the expression of a putative repressor that destabilizes the mRNA encoding the master quorum-sensing transcriptional regulator LuxR. In the closely related species Vibrio cholerae, this repressor was revealed to be the RNA chaperone Hfq together with four small regulatory RNAs (sRNAs) called Qrr1–4 (quorum regulatory RNA). Here, we identify five Qrr sRNAs that control quorum sensing in V. harveyi. Mutational analysis reveals that only four of the five Qrrs are required for destabilization of the luxR mRNA. Surprisingly, unlike in V. cholerae where the sRNAs act redundantly, in V. harveyi, the Qrr sRNAs function additively to control quorum sensing. This latter mechanism produces a gradient of LuxR that, in turn, enables differential regulation of quorum-sensing target genes. Other regulators appear to be involved in control of V. harveyi qrr expression, allowing the integration of additional sensory information into the regulation of quorum-sensing gene expression. PMID:17234887

  8. Spatial Data Quality Control Procedure applied to the Okavango Basin Information System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butchart-Kuhlmann, Daniel

    2014-05-01

    Spatial data is a powerful form of information, capable of providing information of great interest and tremendous use to a variety of users. However, much like other data representing the 'real world', precision and accuracy must be high for the results of data analysis to be deemed reliable and thus applicable to real world projects and undertakings. The spatial data quality control (QC) procedure presented here was developed as the topic of a Master's thesis, in the sphere of and using data from the Okavango Basin Information System (OBIS), itself a part of The Future Okavango (TFO) project. The aim of the QC procedure was to form the basis of a method through which to determine the quality of spatial data relevant for application to hydrological, solute, and erosion transport modelling using the Jena Adaptable Modelling System (JAMS). As such, the quality of all data present in OBIS classified under the topics of elevation, geoscientific information, or inland waters, was evaluated. Since the initial data quality has been evaluated, efforts are underway to correct the errors found, thus improving the quality of the dataset.

  9. Climate change inferred from borehole temperatures: How to improve the solution by using additional information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodri, L.; Čermák, V.

    Past climate changes have caused certain perturbations in the subsurface temperature field. Their inversion yields the time variations of the ground surface temperature (GST), the solution of which however may be highly non-unique. To incorporate additional information on the behaviour of the unknown function usually helps treat the non-uniqueness. The traditionally used information imposing bounding and smoothing constraints on climate history can be further significantly extended by including stochastic properties of climate. It was shown that climatic records reveal: (1) long-term persistence of climate, and (2) high intermittency of climate variations characterized by hyperbolic decrease of probability tails. We have quantified and incorporated such information into the inversion method in the form of the covariance matrix of the unknown parameters. Inversion of almost 100 temperature-depth profiles from the Czech Republic (Bodri and Čermák, 1995, 1997) provided more meaningful climatic histories in comparison with simple inversion and increased the time span that could be resolved. In present work the effectiveness of the method is illistrated on the examples of 5 selected temperature logs.

  10. Study on multi-scale urban planning supported by spatial information technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dang, Anrong; He, Xindong; Li, Yongfu

    2008-10-01

    Considering the demand of urban and rural planning and the characteristics of spatial information technology (SIT), the study focuses on the application of SIT to support multi-scale urban planning. Three scales of urban and rural planning, such as city and town system planning, urban master planning, and detailed urban planning, were studied based on SIT. Firstly, tacking Great Beijing Region as an example, which includes Beijing, Tianjin, and northern of Hebei province, the city and town system planning was studied, supported by the theory of spatial interaction between cities and towns, and GIS spatial analysis. Then, for the urban master planning of Beijing, the RS and GIS were applied to do the spatial development analysis based on RS image data and GIS spatial analysis. Regarding to the conservation planning of Beijing's Inner city, the third scale is detailed urban planning. RS, GIS, and VR were integrated to determine the conservation region and digital conservation way as well. Finally, three conclusions were worked out.

  11. Effects of decreasing resolution on spectral and spatial information content in an agricultural area. [Pottawatmie study site, Iowa and Nebraska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The effects of decreasing spatial resolution from 6 1/4 miles square to 50 miles square are described. The effects of increases in cell size is studied on; the mean and variance of spectral data; spatial trends; and vegetative index numbers. Information content changes on cadastral, vegetal, soil, water and physiographic information are summarized.

  12. Using a Novel Spatial Tool to Inform Invasive Species Early Detection and Rapid Response Efforts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson, Alisha D.; Fusaro, Abigail J.; Kashian, Donna R.

    2015-07-01

    Management of invasive species has increasingly emphasized the importance of early detection and rapid response (EDRR) programs in limiting introductions, establishment, and impacts. These programs require an understanding of vector and species spatial dynamics to prioritize monitoring sites and efficiently allocate resources. Yet managers often lack the empirical data necessary to make these decisions. We developed an empirical mapping tool that can facilitate development of EDRR programs through identifying high-risk locations, particularly within the recreational boating vector. We demonstrated the utility of this tool in the Great Lakes watershed. We surveyed boaters to identify trips among water bodies and to quantify behaviors associated with high likelihood of species transfer (e.g., not removing organic materials from boat trailers) during that trip. We mapped water bodies with high-risk inbound and outbound boater movements using ArcGIS. We also tested for differences in high-risk behaviors based on demographic variables to understand risk differences among boater groups. Incorporation of boater behavior led to identification of additional high-risk water bodies compared to using the number of trips alone. Therefore, the number of trips itself may not fully reflect the likelihood of invasion. This tool can be broadly applied in other geographic contexts and with different taxa, and can be adjusted according to varying levels of information concerning the vector or species of interest. The methodology is straightforward and can be followed after a basic introduction to ArcGIS software. The visual nature of the mapping tool will facilitate site prioritization by managers and stakeholders from diverse backgrounds.

  13. Improvements in Virtual Sensors: Using Spatial Information to Estimate Remote Sensing Spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oza, Nikunj C.; Srivastava, Ashok N.; Stroeve, Julienne

    2005-01-01

    Various instruments are used to create images of the Earth and other objects in the universe in a diverse set of wavelength bands with the aim of understanding natural phenomena. Sometimes these instruments are built in a phased approach, with additional measurement capabilities added in later phases. In other cases, technology may mature to the point that the instrument offers new measurement capabilities that were not planned in the original design of the instrument. In still other cases, high resolution spectral measurements may be too costly to perform on a large sample and therefore lower resolution spectral instruments are used to take the majority of measurements. Many applied science questions that are relevant to the earth science remote sensing community require analysis of enormous amounts of data that were generated by instruments with disparate measurement capabilities. In past work [1], we addressed this problem using Virtual Sensors: a method that uses models trained on spectrally rich (high spectral resolution) data to "fill in" unmeasured spectral channels in spectrally poor (low spectral resolution) data. We demonstrated this method by using models trained on the high spectral resolution Terra MODIS instrument to estimate what the equivalent of the MODIS 1.6 micron channel would be for the NOAA AVHRR2 instrument. The scientific motivation for the simulation of the 1.6 micron channel is to improve the ability of the AVHRR2 sensor to detect clouds over snow and ice. This work contains preliminary experiments demonstrating that the use of spatial information can improve our ability to estimate these spectra.

  14. A hybrid silicon membrane spatial light modulator for optical information processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pape, D. R.; Hornbeck, L. J.

    1984-01-01

    A new two dimensional, fast, analog, electrically addressable, silicon based membrane spatial light modulator (SLM) was developed for optical information processing applications. Coherent light reflected from the mirror elements is phase modulated producing an optical Fourier transform of an analog signal input to the device. The DMD architecture and operating parameters related to this application are presented. A model is developed that describes the optical Fourier transform properties of the DMD.

  15. A mobile agent approach to access and represent remote spatial information in LBS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Zhixiang; Li, Qingquan; Luo, Zhi; Geng, Xuexian

    2005-10-01

    The mobile computing based Location based Service (LBS) technology has been increasingly grown in the past decade; however there still exist some important constraints that complicate work with a mobile spatial information system. The limited resources in the mobile computing terminals would restrict some features that are available on the traditional computing technology. This paper will explores the use of a cooperative, distributed multi-agent systems (Java Agent Development Framework, JADE) to improve the efficiency of accessing and represent remote spatial information in mobile terminals and fixed terminal which support Java runtime environment (JRE), because that JADE system has following features: distributed agent platform, graphical user interface to manage several agents and agent containers form remote host, supporting to execution of multiple, parallel and concurrent agent activities via behavior model, FIPA-compliant platform including AMS (Agent Management System), DF (Directory Facilitator) and ACC (Agent Communication Channel), Efficient transport of ACL messages inside same agent system, library of FIPA interaction protocols ready to be used, FIPA-compliant naming service and supporting for application-defined content languages and ontology. An agile and flexible agent based approach for accessing and representing remote spatial information is proposed in this paper, mobile agent system architecture in LBS is presented, and a prototype system is given to shown that JADE makes this approach feasible and effective.

  16. Estimation of spatially distributed turbulent heat fluxes using thermal information captured from an UAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brenner, Claire; Thiem, Christina Elisabeth; Bernhardt, Matthias; Schulz, Karsten

    2016-04-01

    Evapotranspiration is a key component of the Earth's water and energy cycle. However, measuring evapotranspiration is difficult and distributed information with high spatial resolution is rare. Land surface temperature (LST) is often used as source of data for the estimation of evapotranspiration. Actual LST is mainly controlled by the amount of incoming radiation, surface albedo, water availability, ventilation of the surface and in case of vegetation stands also by the intensity of the transpiration process. Thus it contains valuable information on the actual state of the soil-vegetation-atmosphere system. Typically LST information is available from satellite imagery or from radiometers installed at experimental sites. Thus, measured LST is either representative for areas of hundreds of square meters (satellites), or for certain points (radiometers). Thermal imaging from unmanned aerial systems (UAS) can be used for addressing this scale gap and is a trade-off between flexibility and ease of use on the one hand and spatial coverage on the other hand. In this study we have measured surface temperatures at a grassland site in Luxemburg in July 2015 by means of a thermal infrared camera mounted on an octocopter drone. At the same time scintillometer measurements were made at the same field. The experimental set-up was completed by meteorological and radiation measurements. UAS flights were conducted on a sequence of days over a time period of 2 weeks and with up to ten flights a day in order to monitor diurnal variation of LST. The observed spatially distributed surface temperatures were then used to estimate sensible and latent heat fluxes using three algorithms. All of them make use of observed vertical temperature gradients between surface and atmosphere but do show a different complexity. Two of them are single-source models while one is a dual-source representation of the soil-vegetation system. Although the experimental site was fully covered by grass, LST

  17. 17 CFR 230.496 - Contents of prospectus and statement of additional information used after nine months.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Contents of prospectus and statement of additional information used after nine months. 230.496 Section 230.496 Commodity and Securities... statement of additional information used after nine months. In the case of a registration statement filed...

  18. 17 CFR 230.496 - Contents of prospectus and statement of additional information used after nine months.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Contents of prospectus and statement of additional information used after nine months. 230.496 Section 230.496 Commodity and Securities... statement of additional information used after nine months. In the case of a registration statement filed...

  19. 41 CFR 102-79.111 - Where may Executive agencies find additional information on Integrated Workplace concepts?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Where may Executive agencies find additional information on Integrated Workplace concepts? 102-79.111 Section 102-79.111 Public... Space Integrated Workplace § 102-79.111 Where may Executive agencies find additional information...

  20. Selective 4D modelling framework for spatial-temporal land information management system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doulamis, Anastasios; Soile, Sofia; Doulamis, Nikolaos; Chrisouli, Christina; Grammalidis, Nikos; Dimitropoulos, Kosmas; Manesis, Charalambos; Potsiou, Chryssy; Ioannidis, Charalabos

    2015-06-01

    This paper introduces a predictive (selective) 4D modelling framework where only the spatial 3D differences are modelled at the forthcoming time instances, while regions of no significant spatial-temporal alterations remain intact. To accomplish this, initially spatial-temporal analysis is applied between 3D digital models captured at different time instances. So, the creation of dynamic change history maps is made. Change history maps indicate spatial probabilities of regions needed further 3D modelling at forthcoming instances. Thus, change history maps are good examples for a predictive assessment, that is, to localize surfaces within the objects where a high accuracy reconstruction process needs to be activated at the forthcoming time instances. The proposed 4D Land Information Management System (LIMS) is implemented using open interoperable standards based on the CityGML framework. CityGML allows the description of the semantic metadata information and the rights of the land resources. Visualization aspects are also supported to allow easy manipulation, interaction and representation of the 4D LIMS digital parcels and the respective semantic information. The open source 3DCityDB incorporating a PostgreSQL geo-database is used to manage and manipulate 3D data and their semantics. An application is made to detect the change through time of a 3D block of plots in an urban area of Athens, Greece. Starting with an accurate 3D model of the buildings in 1983, a change history map is created using automated dense image matching on aerial photos of 2010. For both time instances meshes are created and through their comparison the changes are detected.

  1. Transmission Phase Holography: Spatial-Mode Filter Design for Quantum Information Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillmer, Rachel; Barreiro, Julio; Kwiat, Paul

    2007-03-01

    Photon spatial modes offer access to promising new applications in quantum information because they provide a higher-dimensional basis set than the usual two-dimensional one associated with polarization. Downconversion experiments have demonstrated spatial-mode entanglement [1], and even hyperentanglement in polarization and spatial mode [2]. However optical elements currently lack the refinement necessary to perform efficient, high-fidelity operations using spatial modes. Holographic filters for Laguerre-Gaussian and Hermite-Gaussian laser modes can act as modes converters, and have long been studied (under the terms ``modans'' and ``kinoforms'') for use in electrical engineering applications [3,4]. Her we present analytical refinements and optimizations of these techniques, with predicted mode fidelities over 95% and diffraction efficiencies up to 98%. Results of our experimental implementions of these solutions are presented. [1] Walborn, S.P, et al, ``Entanglement and conservation of orbital angular momentum in spontaneous parametric down-conversion,'' Phys. Rev. A 69, 023811 (2004); [2] Barreiro, J.T. et al, ``Generation of Hyperentangled Photon Pairs,'' Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 260501 (2005); [3] Soifer, V.A., ``Methods of Computer Design of Diffractive Optical Elements,'' John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2002; [4] Golub, M. and Soifer, V., ``Laser Beam Mode Selection by Computer Generated Holograms,'' CRC Press, Inc., 1994.

  2. Spatial analysis of lettuce downy mildew using geostatistics and geographic information systems.

    PubMed

    Wu, B M; van Bruggen, A H; Subbarao, K V; Pennings, G G

    2001-02-01

    ABSTRACT The epidemiology of lettuce downy mildew has been investigated extensively in coastal California. However, the spatial patterns of the disease and the distance that Bremia lactucae spores can be transported have not been determined. During 1995 to 1998, we conducted several field- and valley-scale surveys to determine spatial patterns of this disease in the Salinas valley. Geostatistical analyses of the survey data at both scales showed that the influence range of downy mildew incidence at one location on incidence at other locations was between 80 and 3,000 m. A linear relationship was detected between semivariance and lag distance at the field scale, although no single statistical model could fit the semi-variograms at the valley scale. Spatial interpolation by the inverse distance weighting method with a power of 2 resulted in plausible estimates of incidence throughout the valley. Cluster analysis in geographic information systems on the interpolated disease incidence from different dates demonstrated that the Salinas valley could be divided into two areas, north and south of Salinas City, with high and low disease pressure, respectively. Seasonal and spatial trends along the valley suggested that the distinction between the downy mildew conducive and nonconducive areas might be determined by environmental factors. PMID:18944386

  3. Informing surveillance programmes by investigating spatial dependency of subclinical Salmonella infection.

    PubMed

    Benschop, J; Stevenson, M A; Dahl, J; Morris, R S; French, N P

    2009-09-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate local spatial dependency with regard to Salmonella seropositivity in data from the Danish swine salmonellosis control programme and its application in informing surveillance strategies. We applied inhomogeneous and observed-difference K-function estimation, and geo-statistical modelling to data from the Danish swine salmonellosis control programme. Slaughter-pig farm density showed large variation at both the country-wide and local level in Denmark (median 0.23, range 0.02-0.47 farms/km(2)). The spatial distribution of pig farms followed a random inhomogeneous Poisson process but was not aggregated. We found evidence for aggregation of Salmonella case farms over that of all farms at distances of up to 6 km and semivariogram analyses of Salmonella seropositivity revealed spatial dependency between pairs of farms up to 4 km apart. The strength of the spatial dependency was positively associated with slaughter-pig farm density. We proposed sampling more intensively those farms within a 4 km radius of farms that were identified with a high Salmonella status, and reduced sampling of farms that are within this radius of 'Salmonella-free' farms. Our approach has the potential to optimize sampling strategies while maintaining consumer confidence in food safety and also has potential to be used for other zoonotic disease surveillance systems. PMID:19224653

  4. Spatial and non-spatial determinants of successful tuberculosis treatment outcomes: An implication of Geographical Information Systems in health policy-making in a developing country.

    PubMed

    Kolifarhood, Goodarz; Khorasani-Zavareh, Davoud; Salarilak, Shaker; Shoghli, Alireza; Khosravi, Nasim

    2015-09-01

    This retrospective study aimed to address whether or to what extent spatial and non-spatial factors with a focus on a healthcare delivery system would influence successful tuberculosis (TB) treatment outcomes in Urmia, Iran. In this cross-sectional study, data of 452 new TB cases were extracted from Urmia TB Management Center during a 5-year period. Using the Geographical Information System (GIS), health centers and study subjects' locations were geocoded on digital maps. To identify the statistically significant geographical clusters, Average Nearest Neighbor (ANN) index was used. Logistic regression analysis was employed to determine the association of spatial and non-spatial variables on the occurrence of adverse treatment outcomes. The spatial clusters of TB cases were concentrated in older, impoverished and outskirts areas. Although there was a tendency toward higher odds of adverse treatment outcomes among urban TB cases, this finding after adjusting for distance from a given TB healthcare center did not reach statistically significant. This article highlights effects of spatial and non-spatial determinants on the TB adverse treatment outcomes, particularly in what way the policies of healthcare services are made. Accordingly, non-spatial determinants in terms of low socio-economic factors need more attention by public health policy makers, and then more focus should be placed on the health delivery system, in particular men's health. PMID:26231398

  5. Reduction of interference effect by low spatial frequency information priming in an emotional Stroop task.

    PubMed

    Beffara, Brice; Wicker, Bruno; Vermeulen, Nicolas; Ouellet, Marc; Bret, Amélie; Molina, Maria Jesus Funes; Mermillod, Martial

    2015-01-01

    The affective prediction hypothesis assumes that visual expectation allows fast and accurate processing of emotional stimuli. The prediction corresponds to what an object is likely to be. It therefore facilitates its identification by setting aside what the object is unlikely to be. It has then been suggested that prediction might be inevitably associated with the inhibition of irrelevant possibilities concerning the object to identify. Several studies highlighted that the facilitation of emotional perception depends on low spatial frequency (LSF) extraction. However, most of them used paradigms in which only the object to identify was present in the scene. As a consequence, there have yet been no studies investigating the efficiency of prediction in the visual perception of stimuli among irrelevant information. In this study, we designed a novel priming emotional Stroop task in which participants had to identify emotional facial expressions (EFEs) presented along with a congruent or incongruent word. To further investigate the role of early extraction of LSF information in top-down prediction during emotion recognition, the target EFE was primed with the same EFE filtered in LSF or high spatial frequency (HSF). Results reveal a reduction of the Stroop interference in the LSF compared to the HSF priming condition, which supports that visual expectation, depending on early LSF information extraction, facilitates the inhibition of irrelevant information during emotion recognition. PMID:26024463

  6. Spatial vision processes: From the optical image to the symbolic structures of contour information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jobson, Daniel J.

    1988-01-01

    The significance of machine and natural vision is discussed together with the need for a general approach to image acquisition and processing aimed at recognition. An exploratory scheme is proposed which encompasses the definition of spatial primitives, intrinsic image properties and sampling, 2-D edge detection at the smallest scale, the construction of spatial primitives from edges, and the isolation of contour information from textural information. Concepts drawn from or suggested by natural vision at both perceptual and physiological levels are relied upon heavily to guide the development of the overall scheme. The scheme is intended to provide a larger context in which to place the emerging technology of detector array focal-plane processors. The approach differs from many recent efforts in edge detection and image coding by emphasizing smallest scale edge detection as a foundation for multi-scale symbolic processing while diminishing somewhat the importance of image convolutions with multi-scale edge operators. Cursory treatments of information theory illustrate that the direct application of this theory to structural information in images could not be realized.

  7. The effect of path length and display size on memory for spatial information.

    PubMed

    Guérard, Katherine; Tremblay, Sébastien

    2012-01-01

    In serial memory for spatial information, some studies showed that recall performance suffers when the distance between successive locations increases relatively to the size of the display in which they are presented (the path length effect; e.g., Parmentier et al., 2005) but not when distance is increased by enlarging the size of the display (e.g., Smyth & Scholey, 1994). In the present study, we examined the effect of varying the absolute and relative distance between to-be-remembered items on memory for spatial information. We manipulated path length using small (15″) and large (64″) screens within the same design. In two experiments, we showed that distance was disruptive mainly when it is varied relatively to a fixed reference frame, though increasing the size of the display also had a small deleterious effect on recall. The insertion of a retention interval did not influence these effects, suggesting that rehearsal plays a minor role in mediating the effects of distance on serial spatial memory. We discuss the potential role of perceptual organization in light of the pattern of results. PMID:22246063

  8. Effects of spatially correlated acoustic-tactile information on judgments of auditory circular direction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Annabel J.; Lamothe, M. J. Reina; Toms, Ian D.; Fleming, Richard A. G.

    2002-05-01

    Cohen, Lamothe, Fleming, MacIsaac, and Lamoureux [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 109, 2460 (2001)] reported that proximity governed circular direction judgments (clockwise/counterclockwise) of two successive tones emanating from all pairs of 12 speakers located at 30-degree intervals around a listeners' head (cranium). Many listeners appeared to experience systematic front-back confusion. Diametrically opposed locations (180-degrees-theoretically ambiguous direction) produced a direction bias pattern resembling Deutsch's tritone paradox [Deutsch, Kuyper, and Fisher, Music Percept. 5, 7992 (1987)]. In Experiment 1 of the present study, the circular direction task was conducted in the tactile domain using 12 circumcranial points of vibration. For all 5 participants, proximity governed direction (without front-back confusion) and a simple clockwise bias was shown for 180-degree pairs. Experiment 2 tested 9 new participants in one unimodal auditory condition and two bimodal auditory-tactile conditions (spatially-correlated/spatially-uncorrelated). Correlated auditory-tactile information eliminated front-back confusion for 8 participants and replaced the ``paradoxical'' bias for 180-degree pairs with the clockwise bias. Thus, spatially correlated audio-tactile location information improves the veridical representation of 360-degree acoustic space, and modality-specific principles are implicated by the unique circular direction bias patterns for 180-degree pairs in the separate auditory and tactile modalities. [Work supported by NSERC.

  9. Combining spatial and spectral information to improve crop/weed discrimination algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, L.; Jones, G.; Villette, S.; Paoli, J. N.; Gée, C.

    2012-01-01

    Reduction of herbicide spraying is an important key to environmentally and economically improve weed management. To achieve this, remote sensors such as imaging systems are commonly used to detect weed plants. We developed spatial algorithms that detect the crop rows to discriminate crop from weeds. These algorithms have been thoroughly tested and provide robust and accurate results without learning process but their detection is limited to inter-row areas. Crop/Weed discrimination using spectral information is able to detect intra-row weeds but generally needs a prior learning process. We propose a method based on spatial and spectral information to enhance the discrimination and overcome the limitations of both algorithms. The classification from the spatial algorithm is used to build the training set for the spectral discrimination method. With this approach we are able to improve the range of weed detection in the entire field (inter and intra-row). To test the efficiency of these algorithms, a relevant database of virtual images issued from SimAField model has been used and combined to LOPEX93 spectral database. The developed method based is evaluated and compared with the initial method in this paper and shows an important enhancement from 86% of weed detection to more than 95%.

  10. 77 FR 67655 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Food Additive...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-13

    ...) Moderate Category: For a food additive petition without complex chemistry, manufacturing, efficacy, or...) Complex Category: For a food additive petition with complex chemistry, manufacturing, efficacy, and/or... investigational food additive file without complex chemistry, manufacturing, efficacy, or safety issues,...

  11. Implementation of data node in spatial information grid based on WS resource framework and WS notification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Dengrong; Yu, Le

    2006-10-01

    Abstract-An approach of constructing a data node in spatial information grid (SIG) based on Web Service Resource Framework (WSRF) and Web Service Notification (WSN) is described in this paper. Attentions are paid to construct and implement SIG's resource layer, which is the most important part. A study on this layer find out, it is impossible to require persistent interaction with the clients of the services in common SIG architecture because of inheriting "stateless" and "not persistent" limitations of Web Service. A WSRF/WSN-based data node is designed to hurdle this short comes. Three different access modes are employed to test the availability of this node. Experimental results demonstrate this service node can successfully respond to standard OGC requests and returns specific spatial data in different network environment, also is stateful, dynamic and persistent.

  12. Systematics of the family Plectopylidae in Vietnam with additional information on Chinese taxa (Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Stylommatophora)

    PubMed Central

    Páll-Gergely, Barna; Hunyadi, András; Ablett, Jonathan; Lương, Hào Văn; Fred Naggs; Asami, Takahiro

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Vietnamese species from the family Plectopylidae are revised based on the type specimens of all known taxa, more than 600 historical non-type museum lots, and almost 200 newly-collected samples. Altogether more than 7000 specimens were investigated. The revision has revealed that species diversity of the Vietnamese Plectopylidae was previously overestimated. Overall, thirteen species names (anterides Gude, 1909, bavayi Gude, 1901, congesta Gude, 1898, fallax Gude, 1909, gouldingi Gude, 1909, hirsuta Möllendorff, 1901, jovia Mabille, 1887, moellendorffi Gude, 1901, persimilis Gude, 1901, pilsbryana Gude, 1901, soror Gude, 1908, tenuis Gude, 1901, verecunda Gude, 1909) were synonymised with other species. In addition to these, Gudeodiscus hemmeni sp. n. and Gudeodiscus messageri raheemi ssp. n. are described from north-western Vietnam. Sixteen species and two subspecies are recognized from Vietnam. The reproductive anatomy of eight taxa is described. Based on anatomical information, Halongella gen. n. is erected to include Plectopylis schlumbergeri and Plectopylis fruhstorferi. Additionally, the genus Gudeodiscus is subdivided into two subgenera (Gudeodiscus and Veludiscus subgen. n.) on the basis of the morphology of the reproductive anatomy and the radula. The Chinese Gudeodiscus phlyarius werneri Páll-Gergely, 2013 is moved to synonymy of Gudeodiscus phlyarius. A spermatophore was found in the organ situated next to the gametolytic sac in one specimen. This suggests that this organ in the Plectopylidae is a diverticulum. Statistically significant evidence is presented for the presence of calcareous hook-like granules inside the penis being associated with the absence of embryos in the uterus in four genera. This suggests that these probably play a role in mating periods before disappearing when embryos develop. Sicradiscus mansuyi is reported from China for the first time. PMID:25632253

  13. Background updating and shadow detection based on spatial, color, and texture information of detected objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamad, Ahmed Mahmoud; Tsumura, Norimichi

    2012-05-01

    Background model updating is a vital process for any background subtraction technique. This paper presents an updating mechanism that can be applied efficiently to any background subtraction technique. This updating mechanism exploits the color and spatial features to characterize each detected object. Spatial and color features are used to classify each detected object as a moving background object, a ghost, or a real moving object. The starting position of each detected object is the cue for updating background images. In addition, this paper presents a hybrid scheme to detect and remove cast shadows based on texture and color features. The robustness of the proposed method and its effectiveness in overcoming challenging problems such as gradual and sudden illumination changes, ghost appearance, non-stationary background objects, the stability of moving objects most of the time, and cast shadows are verified quantitatively and qualitatively.

  14. Chronic enhancement of CREB activity in the hippocampus interferes with the retrieval of spatial information

    PubMed Central

    Viosca, Jose; Malleret, Gaël; Bourtchouladze, Rusiko; Benito, Eva; Vronskava, Svetlana; Kandel, Eric R.; Barco, Angel

    2009-01-01

    The activation of cAMP-responsive element-binding protein (CREB)-dependent gene expression is thought to be critical for the formation of different types of long-term memory. To explore the consequences of chronic enhancement of CREB function on spatial memory in mammals, we examined spatial navigation in bitransgenic mice that express in a regulated and restricted manner a constitutively active form of CREB, VP16-CREB, in forebrain neurons. We found that chronic enhancement of CREB activity delayed the acquisition of an allocentric strategy to solve the hidden platform task. The ability to turn on and off transgene expression allowed us to dissect the role of CREB in dissociable memory processes. In mice in which transgene expression was turned on during memory acquisition, turning off the transgene re-established the access to the memory trace, whereas in mice in which transgene expression was turned off during acquisition, turning on the transgene impaired memory expression in a reversible manner, indicating that CREB enhancement specifically interfered with the retrieval of spatial information. The defects on spatial navigation in mice with chronic enhancement of CREB function were not corrected by conditions that increased further CREB-dependent activation of hippocampal memory systems, such as housing in an enriched environment. These results along with previous findings in CREB-deficient mutants indicate that the relationship of CREB-mediated plasticity to spatial memory is an inverted-U function, and that optimal learning in the water maze requires accurate regulation of this pathway. PMID:19237642

  15. Soil Spatial Information and Production of Thematic Maps for the Northern Emirates, UAE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdelfattah, M. A.; Pain, C. F.

    2012-04-01

    Soil spatial data is an integral part of any effective agricultural research or advisory program. It provides information needed for planning and decision making processes. In many parts of the world, including the Northern Emirates of the United Arab Emirates, there is an ever increasing demand for digital soil and thematic maps of different scales. However, the existing data are either not available or not exhaustive and precise enough for use within a number of environmental applications. The reason for the lack of the spatial information is that conventional soil survey methods are relatively slow and very expensive. The present study highlights the generation of soil spatial information of the Northern Emirates and its use in the production of thematic maps through soil survey. The Soil Survey of the Northern Emirates was conducted between June 2010 and March 2012, and covered an area of about 400,000 ha. The objective was to prepare a soil map at 1:50,000 scale with associated data and information in a spatial and point database, the United Arab Emirates Soil Information System (UAESIS). Among other outputs, the survey information was used in an evaluation of the land for various uses to provide information that will help land use planning. The United States Department of Agriculture Soil Classification System (USDA Soil Taxonomy) has been used to classify the soils of the study area. Several land evaluations of both agricultural and non-agricultural land uses have been undertaken for the 1:50,000 scale map data and are presented in this study. These evaluations serve as base information for future land use planning and land management decision making. Irrigated agriculture suitability was evaluated using concepts developed by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Each soil map unit was allocated one of five ratings ranging from S1 (highly suitable) to N2 (permanently unsuitable), and an irrigated agriculture suitability map was

  16. Spatially weighted mutual information image registration for image guided radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Samuel B.; Rhee, Frank C.; Monroe, James I.; Sohn, Jason W.

    2010-09-15

    Purpose: To develop a new metric for image registration that incorporates the (sub)pixelwise differential importance along spatial location and to demonstrate its application for image guided radiation therapy (IGRT). Methods: It is well known that rigid-body image registration with mutual information is dependent on the size and location of the image subset on which the alignment analysis is based [the designated region of interest (ROI)]. Therefore, careful review and manual adjustments of the resulting registration are frequently necessary. Although there were some investigations of weighted mutual information (WMI), these efforts could not apply the differential importance to a particular spatial location since WMI only applies the weight to the joint histogram space. The authors developed the spatially weighted mutual information (SWMI) metric by incorporating an adaptable weight function with spatial localization into mutual information. SWMI enables the user to apply the selected transform to medically ''important'' areas such as tumors and critical structures, so SWMI is neither dominated by, nor neglects the neighboring structures. Since SWMI can be utilized with any weight function form, the authors presented two examples of weight functions for IGRT application: A Gaussian-shaped weight function (GW) applied to a user-defined location and a structures-of-interest (SOI) based weight function. An image registration example using a synthesized 2D image is presented to illustrate the efficacy of SWMI. The convergence and feasibility of the registration method as applied to clinical imaging is illustrated by fusing a prostate treatment planning CT with a clinical cone beam CT (CBCT) image set acquired for patient alignment. Forty-one trials are run to test the speed of convergence. The authors also applied SWMI registration using two types of weight functions to two head and neck cases and a prostate case with clinically acquired CBCT/MVCT image sets. The

  17. Lateralization of High-Frequency Clicks Based on Interaural Time: Additivity of Information across Frequency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenzel, Elizabeth Marie

    Lateralization performance based on interaural differences of time (IDTs) was measured for trains of Gaussian clicks which varied in spectral content. In the first experiment, thresholds ((DELTA)IDTs) were measured as a function of the number of clicks in the train (n = 1 to 32), the interclick interval (ICI = 2.5 or 5 ms), and the spectral content (1 vs. 2 or 4 carriers). Subjects' performance was compared to perfect statistical summation which predicts slopes of -.50 when log-(DELTA)IDT vs. long -n is plotted. The results showed that increasing the spectral content of the clicks decreased the intercepts of the log -log functions (decreased thresholds) while having little effect on their slopes. Shortening the ICIs caused the slopes of the functions to decrease in absolute value. To estimate the bandwidth of frequency-interaction in lateralization, d's were measured for clicks with constant IDTs (n = 1) with a fixed carrier (FF = 4000, 5200, 6000 or 7200 Hz), both alone and combined with a second click whose carrier (F) varied from 3500 to 8500 Hz. Performance in combined conditions was compared to independent summation of the information carried by the two frequency-bands. Performance improved as the separation between F and FF increased until the level predicted by independence was reached. The final experiment investigated the interaction of frequency content with IDT. d's were measured as a function of the IDT in clicks with carriers of 5200, 6000 or 7200 Hz, both alone and combined with a 4000-Hz click with a fixed IDT. Performance in combined conditions was again compared to independent additivity. The improvement with frequency was explained by an increase in the number of samples of the IDT reaching the binaural centers due to spread of excitation along the basilar membrane. Less than independent summation was explained by correlation between overlapping bands which reduced the amount of information exciting independent channels. The data also suggest that

  18. A mobile mapping system for spatial information based on DGPS/EGIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pei, Ling; Wang, Qing; Gu, Juan

    2007-11-01

    With the rapid developments of mobile device and wireless communication, it brings a new challenge for acquiring the spatial information. A mobile mapping system based on differential global position system (DGPS) integrated with embedded geographic information system (EGIS) is designed. A mobile terminal adapts to various GPS differential environments such as single base mode and network GPS mode like Virtual Reference Station (VRS) and Master- Auxiliary Concept (MAC) by the mobile communication technology. The spatial information collected through DGPS is organized in an EGIS running in the embedded device. A set of mobile terminal in real-time DGPS based on GPRS adopting multithreading technique of serial port in manner of simulating overlapped I/O operating is developed, further more, the GPS message analysis and checkout based on Strategy Pattern for various receivers are included in the process of development. A mobile terminal accesses to the GPS network successfully by NTRIP (Networked Transport of RTCM via Internet Protocol) compliance. Finally, the accuracy and reliability of the mobile mapping system are proved by a lot of testing in 9 provinces all over the country.

  19. Enhanced and diminished visuo-spatial information processing in autism depends on stimulus complexity.

    PubMed

    Bertone, Armando; Mottron, Laurent; Jelenic, Patricia; Faubert, Jocelyn

    2005-10-01

    Visuo-perceptual processing in autism is characterized by intact or enhanced performance on static spatial tasks and inferior performance on dynamic tasks, suggesting a deficit of dorsal visual stream processing in autism. However, previous findings by Bertone et al. indicate that neuro-integrative mechanisms used to detect complex motion, rather than motion perception per se, may be impaired in autism. We present here the first demonstration of concurrent enhanced and decreased performance in autism on the same visuo-spatial static task, wherein the only factor dichotomizing performance was the neural complexity required to discriminate grating orientation. The ability of persons with autism was found to be superior for identifying the orientation of simple, luminance-defined (or first-order) gratings but inferior for complex, texture-defined (or second-order) gratings. Using a flicker contrast sensitivity task, we demonstrated that this finding is probably not due to abnormal information processing at a sub-cortical level (magnocellular and parvocellular functioning). Together, these findings are interpreted as a clear indication of altered low-level perceptual information processing in autism, and confirm that the deficits and assets observed in autistic visual perception are contingent on the complexity of the neural network required to process a given type of visual stimulus. We suggest that atypical neural connectivity, resulting in enhanced lateral inhibition, may account for both enhanced and decreased low-level information processing in autism. PMID:15958508

  20. Two-Microphone Noise Reduction Using Spatial Information-Based Spectral Amplitude Estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Kai; Guo, Yanmeng; Fu, Qiang; Li, Junfeng; Yan, Yonghong

    Traditional two-microphone noise reduction algorithms to deal with highly nonstationary directional noises generally use the direction of arrival or phase difference information. The performance of these algorithms deteriorate when diffuse noises coexist with nonstationary directional noises in realistic adverse environments. In this paper, we present a two-channel noise reduction algorithm using a spatial information-based speech estimator and a spatial-information-controlled soft-decision noise estimator to improve the noise reduction performance in realistic non-stationary noisy environments. A target presence probability estimator based on Bayes rules using both phase difference and magnitude squared coherence is proposed for soft-decision of noise estimation, so that they can share complementary advantages when both directional noises and diffuse noises are present. Performances of the proposed two-microphone noise reduction algorithm are evaluated by noise reduction, log-spectral distance (LSD) and word recognition rate (WRR) of a distant-talking ASR system in a real room's noisy environment. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm achieves better noises suppression without further distorting the desired signal components over the comparative dual-channel noise reduction algorithms.

  1. Information Leakage in Efficient Bidirectional Quantum Secure Direct Communication with Single Photons in Both Polarization and Spatial-Mode Degrees of Freedom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Cai; Situ, Haozhen

    2016-06-01

    Recently, Wang et al. presented a bidirectional quantum secure direct communication protocol with single photons in both polarization and spatial-mode degrees of freedom (Int. J. Theor. Phys. 54(10): 3443-3453, 2015). They claimed that their protocol was efficient and removed the drawback of information leakage. However, we found that the information leakage actually exists in their protocol. In this paper, we analyze Wang et al.'s protocol in detail. In addition, we propose an improvement to avoid the information leakage. The security of the improved protocol has also been discussed.

  2. Integration of remotely sensed and model data to provide the spatial information basis for sustainable landuse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Backhaus, R.; Braun, G.

    Sustainable development is by now generally accepted as the paramount objective of environmental policy. Environmental applications of Earth observation, on the other hand, have been successfully demonstrated over a wide range of monitoring activities, mostly with the aim of describing the spatial distribution and time course of geophysical parameters and land surface structures. With landuse structures being of major influence on the sustainability of terrestrial ecosystems, and being also a highly suitable object of Earth observation, it is still an open question, however, in which way Earth observation data can be processed and integrated to provide an approximate indicator of sustainability. Based on an ecological sustainability model developed by Ripl and his co-workers at Berlin Technical University, this question was investigated in the framework of the joint project "Development of a Land-Water-Management Concept to Decrease Matter Losses to Open Waters" (Stör project), which was funded by the German Federal Ministry of Research and Technology. Present results may be summarized as follows: 1. Apart from hydrological point measurements, there are several spatial parameters which are of indicative value as to sustainability, especially the spatio-temporal distribution of biomass, surface temperature, and precipitation. 2. To provide the spatial information basis for enhanced efficiency of immediate measures such as reforestation, agricultural extension etc., a global information system (GIS) concept was developed and demonstrated which is based on a landuse/vegetation classification derived from Landsat TM data, a digital evaluation mode (DEM) and a relief dependent water distribution model (WDM). Further implications such as the organisation of information systems which are to serve sustainability strategies are discussed.

  3. Rest boosts the long-term retention of spatial associative and temporal order information.

    PubMed

    Craig, Michael; Dewar, Michaela; Della Sala, Sergio; Wolbers, Thomas

    2015-09-01

    People retain more new verbal episodic information for at least 7 days if they rest for a few minutes after learning than if they attend to new information. It is hypothesized that rest allows for superior consolidation of new memories. In rodents, rest periods promote hippocampal replay of a recently travelled route, and this replay is thought to be critical for memory consolidation and subsequent spatial navigation. If rest boosts human memory by promoting hippocampal replay/consolidation, then the beneficial effect of rest should extend to complex (hippocampal) memory tasks, for example, tasks probing associations and sequences. We investigated this question via a virtual reality route memory task. Healthy young participants learned two routes to a 100% criterion. One route was followed by a 10-min rest and the other by a 10-min spot the difference game. For each learned route, participants performed four delayed spatial memory tests probing: (i) associative (landmark-direction) memory, (ii) cognitive map formation, (iii) temporal (landmark) order memory, and (iv) route memory. Tests were repeated after 7 days to determine any long-term effects. No effect of rest was detected in the route memory or cognitive map tests, most likely due to ceiling and floor effects, respectively. Rest did, however, boost retention in the associative memory and temporal order memory tests, and this boost remained for at least 7 days. We therefore demonstrate that the benefit of rest extends to (spatial) associative and temporal order memory in humans. We hypothesise that rest allows superior consolidation/hippocampal replay of novel information pertaining to a recently learned route, thus boosting new memories over the long term. PMID:25620400

  4. D Visualization of Volcanic Ash Dispersion Prediction with Spatial Information Open Platform in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Youn, J.; Kim, T.

    2016-06-01

    Visualization of disaster dispersion prediction enables decision makers and civilian to prepare disaster and to reduce the damage by showing the realistic simulation results. With advances of GIS technology and the theory of volcanic disaster prediction algorithm, the predicted disaster dispersions are displayed in spatial information. However, most of volcanic ash dispersion predictions are displayed in 2D. 2D visualization has a limitation to understand the realistic dispersion prediction since its height could be presented only by colour. Especially for volcanic ash, 3D visualization of dispersion prediction is essential since it could bring out big aircraft accident. In this paper, we deals with 3D visualization techniques of volcanic ash dispersion prediction with spatial information open platform in Korea. First, time-series volcanic ash 3D position and concentrations are calculated with WRF (Weather Research and Forecasting) model and Modified Fall3D algorithm. For 3D visualization, we propose three techniques; those are 'Cube in the air', 'Cube in the cube', and 'Semi-transparent plane in the air' methods. In the 'Cube in the Air', which locates the semitransparent cubes having different color depends on its particle concentration. Big cube is not realistic when it is zoomed. Therefore, cube is divided into small cube with Octree algorithm. That is 'Cube in the Cube' algorithm. For more realistic visualization, we apply 'Semi-transparent Volcanic Ash Plane' which shows the ash as fog. The results are displayed in the 'V-world' which is a spatial information open platform implemented by Korean government. Proposed techniques were adopted in Volcanic Disaster Response System implemented by Korean Ministry of Public Safety and Security.

  5. 16 CFR 803.21 - Additional information shall be supplied within reasonable time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... information or documentary material requested pursuant to section 7A(e) and § 803.20 (or, if such request is not fully complied with, the information or documentary material submitted and a statement of...

  6. 16 CFR 803.21 - Additional information shall be supplied within reasonable time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... information or documentary material requested pursuant to section 7A(e) and § 803.20 (or, if such request is not fully complied with, the information or documentary material submitted and a statement of...

  7. 16 CFR 803.21 - Additional information shall be supplied within reasonable time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... information or documentary material requested pursuant to section 7A(e) and § 803.20 (or, if such request is not fully complied with, the information or documentary material submitted and a statement of...

  8. 16 CFR 803.21 - Additional information shall be supplied within reasonable time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... information or documentary material requested pursuant to section 7A(e) and § 803.20 (or, if such request is not fully complied with, the information or documentary material submitted and a statement of...

  9. 16 CFR 803.21 - Additional information shall be supplied within reasonable time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... information or documentary material requested pursuant to section 7A(e) and § 803.20 (or, if such request is not fully complied with, the information or documentary material submitted and a statement of...

  10. Spatial interpolation of soil organic carbon using apparent electrical conductivity as secondary information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, G.; Vanderlinden, K.; Ordóñez, R.; Muriel, J. L.

    2009-04-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) spatial characterization is necessary to evaluate under what circumstances soil acts as a source or sink of carbon dioxide. However, at the field or catchment scale it is hard to accurately characterize its spatial distribution since large numbers of soil samples are necessary. As an alternative, near-surface geophysical sensor-based information can improve the spatial estimation of soil properties at these scales. Electromagnetic induction (EMI) sensors provide non-invasive and non-destructive measurements of the soil apparent electrical conductivity (ECa), which depends under non-saline conditions on clay content, water content or SOC, among other properties that determine the electromagnetic behavior of the soil. This study deals with the possible use of ECa-derived maps to improve SOC spatial estimation by Simple Kriging with varying local means (SKlm). Field work was carried out in a vertisol in SW Spain. The field is part of a long-term tillage experiment set up in 1982 with three replicates of conventional tillage (CT) and Direct Drilling (DD) plots with unitary dimensions of 15x65m. Shallow and deep (up to 0.8m depth) apparent electrical conductivity (ECas and ECad, respectively) was measured using the EM38-DD EMI sensor. Soil samples were taken from the upper horizont and analyzed for their SOC content. Correlation coefficients of ECas and ECad with SOC were low (0.331 and 0.175) due to the small range of SOC values and possibly also to the different support of the ECa and SOC data. Especially the ECas values were higher in the DD plots. The normalized ECa difference (ΔECa), calculated as the difference between the normalized ECas and ECad values, distinguished clearly the CT and DD plots, with the DD plots showing positive ΔECa values and CT plots ΔECa negative values. The field was stratified using fuzzy k-means (FKM) classification of ΔECa (FKM1), and ECas and ECad (FKM2). The FKM1 map mainly showed the difference between

  11. 50 CFR 23.25 - What additional information is required on a non-Party CITES document?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ....25 What additional information is required on a non-Party CITES document? (a) Purpose. Under Article... Certification (1) Export (i) For Appendix-I and -II specimens, the Scientific Authority has advised that...

  12. Behavioral response to contamination risk information in a spatially explicit groundwater environment: Experimental evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jingyuan; Michael, Holly A.; Duke, Joshua M.; Messer, Kent D.; Suter, Jordan F.

    2014-08-01

    This paper assesses the effectiveness of aquifer monitoring information in achieving more sustainable use of a groundwater resource in the absence of management policy. Groundwater user behavior in the face of an irreversible contamination threat is studied by applying methods of experimental economics to scenarios that combine a physics-based, spatially explicit, numerical groundwater model with different representations of information about an aquifer and its risk of contamination. The results suggest that the threat of catastrophic contamination affects pumping decisions: pumping is significantly reduced in experiments where contamination is possible compared to those where pumping cost is the only factor discouraging groundwater use. The level of information about the state of the aquifer also affects extraction behavior. Pumping rates differ when information that synthesizes data on aquifer conditions (a "risk gauge") is provided, despite invariant underlying economic incentives, and this result does not depend on whether the risk information is location-specific or from a whole aquifer perspective. Interestingly, users increase pumping when the risk gauge signals good aquifer status compared to a no-gauge treatment. When the gauge suggests impending contamination, however, pumping declines significantly, resulting in a lower probability of contamination. The study suggests that providing relatively simple aquifer condition guidance derived from monitoring data can lead to more sustainable use of groundwater resources.

  13. 40 CFR 79.21 - Information and assurances to be provided by the additive manufacturer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... fuel additive will be sold, offered for sale, or introduced into commerce, and the fuel additive manufacturer's recommended range of concentration and purpose-in-use for each such type of fuel. (e) Such other... (e) of this section as provided in § 79.5(b). (g) Assurances that the additive manufacturer will...

  14. The effect of AMPA receptor blockade on spatial information acquisition, consolidation and expression in juvenile rats.

    PubMed

    Tzakis, Nikolaos; Bosnic, Tim; Ritchie, Thomas; Dixon, Kaylyn; Holahan, Matthew R

    2016-09-01

    Improvement on spatial tasks in rats is observed during a late, postnatal developmental period (post-natal day (PND) 18 - PND 20). The developmental emergence of this spatial function occurs in conjunction with hippocampal connectivity changes and enhanced hippocampal-AMPA receptor-mediated synaptic responses. The current work investigated the effect of AMPAr blockade on the emergence and long-term storage of spatial information in juvenile rats and associated neural activity patterns in the dorsal hippocampus CA1 region. Male, Long Evans rats between the ages of PND 18 and PND 20 were systemically (i.p.) administered the AMPAr antagonist, NBQX, (0, 5 or 10mg/kg) every day prior to hidden platform water maze training (PND 18, 19 and 20), every day immediately post-training or immediately before the probe test (PND 41). NBQX administration prior to training prolonged latencies, pathlength and increased thigmotaxis during the acquisition phase. Administration of NBQX immediately posttraining had no effect on the day-to-day performance. When given a probe test 3weeks later, the saline group across all conditions spent more time in the target quadrant. Rats treated with pretraining 5mg NBQX dose showed a preference for the target quadrant while the posttraining and pretesting 5mg NBQX doses impaired the target quadrant preference. Groups injected with 10mg of NBQX pretraining, posttraining or pretesting did not show a preference for the target quadrant. c-Fos labeling in the CA1 reflected these differences in probe performance in that groups showing greater than chance dwell time in the target quadrant showed more c-Fos labeling in the CA1 region than groups that did not show a target quadrant preference. These findings provide support for the critical role of AMPA receptor-mediated function in the organization and long-term storage of spatial memories acquired during the juvenile period. PMID:27353718

  15. Glycan structures contain information for the spatial arrangement of glycoproteins in the plasma membrane.

    PubMed

    Hall, M Kristen; Weidner, Douglas A; Chen, Jian ming; Bernetski, Christopher J; Schwalbe, Ruth A

    2013-01-01

    Glycoconjugates at the cell surface are crucial for cells to communicate with each other and the extracellular microenvironment. While it is generally accepted that glycans are vectorial biopolymers, their information content is unclear. This report provides evidence that distinct N-glycan structures influence the spatial arrangement of two integral membrane glycoproteins, Kv3.1 and E-cadherin, at the adherent membrane which in turn alter cellular properties. Distinct N-glycan structures were generated by heterologous expression of these glycoproteins in parental and glycosylation mutant Chinese hamster ovary cell lines. Unlike the N-linked glycans, the O-linked glycans of the mutant cell lines are similar to those of the parental cell line. Western and lectin blots of total membranes and GFP immunopurified samples, combined with glycosidase digestion reactions, were employed to verify the glycoproteins had predominantly complex, oligomannose, and bisecting type N-glycans from Pro(-)5, Lec1, and Lec10B cell lines, respectively. Based on total internal reflection fluorescence and differential interference contrast microscopy techniques, and cellular assays of live parental and glycosylation mutant CHO cells, we propose that glycoproteins with complex, oligomannose or bisecting type N-glycans relay information for localization of glycoproteins to various regions of the plasma membrane in both a glycan-specific and protein-specific manner, and furthermore cell-cell interactions are required for deciphering much of this information. These distinct spatial arrangements also impact cell adhesion and migration. Our findings provide direct evidence that N-glycan structures of glycoproteins contribute significantly to the information content of cells. PMID:24040379

  16. Geotechnical parameter spatial distribution stochastic analysis based on multi-precision information assimilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, C.; Rubin, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Spatial distribution of important geotechnical parameter named compression modulus Es contributes considerably to the understanding of the underlying geological processes and the adequate assessment of the Es mechanics effects for differential settlement of large continuous structure foundation. These analyses should be derived using an assimilating approach that combines in-situ static cone penetration test (CPT) with borehole experiments. To achieve such a task, the Es distribution of stratum of silty clay in region A of China Expo Center (Shanghai) is studied using the Bayesian-maximum entropy method. This method integrates rigorously and efficiently multi-precision of different geotechnical investigations and sources of uncertainty. Single CPT samplings were modeled as a rational probability density curve by maximum entropy theory. Spatial prior multivariate probability density function (PDF) and likelihood PDF of the CPT positions were built by borehole experiments and the potential value of the prediction point, then, preceding numerical integration on the CPT probability density curves, the posterior probability density curve of the prediction point would be calculated by the Bayesian reverse interpolation framework. The results were compared between Gaussian Sequential Stochastic Simulation and Bayesian methods. The differences were also discussed between single CPT samplings of normal distribution and simulated probability density curve based on maximum entropy theory. It is shown that the study of Es spatial distributions can be improved by properly incorporating CPT sampling variation into interpolation process, whereas more informative estimations are generated by considering CPT Uncertainty for the estimation points. Calculation illustrates the significance of stochastic Es characterization in a stratum, and identifies limitations associated with inadequate geostatistical interpolation techniques. This characterization results will provide a multi

  17. Spatial resolution, signal-to-noise and information capacity of linear imaging systems.

    PubMed

    Gureyev, Timur; Nesterets, Yakov; de Hoog, Frank

    2016-07-25

    A simple model for image formation in linear shift-invariant systems is considered, in which both the detected signal and the noise variance are varying slowly compared to the point-spread function of the system. It is shown that within the constraints of this model, the square of the signal-to-noise ratio is always proportional to the "volume" of the spatial resolution unit. In the case of Poisson statistics, the ratio of these two quantities divided by the incident density of the imaging particles (e.g. photons) represents a dimensionless invariant of the imaging system, which was previously termed the intrinsic imaging quality. The relationship of this invariant to the notion of information capacity of communication and imaging systems, which was previously considered by Shannon, Gabor and others, is investigated. The results are then applied to a simple generic model of quantitative imaging of weakly scattering objects, leading to an estimate of the upper limit for the amount of information about the sample that can be obtained in such experiments. It is shown that this limit depends only on the total number of imaging particles incident on the sample, the average scattering coefficient, the size of the sample and the number of spatial resolution units. PMID:27464167

  18. The Neural Bases of the Semantic Interference of Spatial Frequency-based Information in Scenes.

    PubMed

    Kauffmann, Louise; Bourgin, Jessica; Guyader, Nathalie; Peyrin, Carole

    2015-12-01

    Current models of visual perception suggest that during scene categorization, low spatial frequencies (LSF) are processed rapidly and activate plausible interpretations of visual input. This coarse analysis would then be used to guide subsequent processing of high spatial frequencies (HSF). The present fMRI study examined how processing of LSF may influence that of HSF by investigating the neural bases of the semantic interference effect. We used hybrid scenes as stimuli by combining LSF and HSF from two different scenes, and participants had to categorize the HSF scene. Categorization was impaired when LSF and HSF scenes were semantically dissimilar, suggesting that the LSF scene was processed automatically and interfered with categorization of the HSF scene. fMRI results revealed that this semantic interference effect was associated with increased activation in the inferior frontal gyrus, the superior parietal lobules, and the fusiform and parahippocampal gyri. Furthermore, a connectivity analysis (psychophysiological interaction) revealed that the semantic interference effect resulted in increasing connectivity between the right fusiform and the right inferior frontal gyri. Results support influential models suggesting that, during scene categorization, LSF information is processed rapidly in the pFC and activates plausible interpretations of the scene category. These coarse predictions would then initiate top-down influences on recognition-related areas of the inferotemporal cortex, and these could interfere with the categorization of HSF information in case of semantic dissimilarity to LSF. PMID:26244724

  19. Remote sensing, geographical information system and spatial analysis for schistosomiasis epidemiology and ecology in Africa.

    PubMed

    Simoonga, C; Utzinger, J; Brooker, S; Vounatsou, P; Appleton, C C; Stensgaard, A S; Olsen, A; Kristensen, T K

    2009-11-01

    Beginning in 1970, the potential of remote sensing (RS) techniques, coupled with geographical information systems (GIS), to improve our understanding of the epidemiology and control of schistosomiasis in Africa, has steadily grown. In our current review, working definitions of RS, GIS and spatial analysis are given, and applications made to date with RS and GIS for the epidemiology and ecology of schistosomiasis in Africa are summarised. Progress has been made in mapping the prevalence of infection in humans and the distribution of intermediate host snails. More recently, Bayesian geostatistical modelling approaches have been utilized for predicting the prevalence and intensity of infection at different scales. However, a number of challenges remain; hence new research is needed to overcome these limitations. First, greater spatial and temporal resolution seems important to improve risk mapping and understanding of transmission dynamics at the local scale. Second, more realistic risk profiling can be achieved by taking into account information on people's socio-economic status; furthermore, future efforts should incorporate data on domestic access to clean water and adequate sanitation, as well as behavioural and educational issues. Third, high-quality data on intermediate host snail distribution should facilitate validation of infection risk maps and modelling transmission dynamics. Finally, more emphasis should be placed on risk mapping and prediction of multiple species parasitic infections in an effort to integrate disease risk mapping and to enhance the cost-effectiveness of their control. PMID:19627627

  20. Dose convolution filter: Incorporating spatial dose information into tissue response modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Huang Yimei; Joiner, Michael; Zhao Bo; Liao Yixiang; Burmeister, Jay

    2010-03-15

    Purpose: A model is introduced to integrate biological factors such as cell migration and bystander effects into physical dose distributions, and to incorporate spatial dose information in plan analysis and optimization. Methods: The model consists of a dose convolution filter (DCF) with single parameter {sigma}. Tissue response is calculated by an existing NTCP model with DCF-applied dose distribution as input. The authors determined {sigma} of rat spinal cord from published data. The authors also simulated the GRID technique, in which an open field is collimated into many pencil beams. Results: After applying the DCF, the NTCP model successfully fits the rat spinal cord data with a predicted value of {sigma}=2.6{+-}0.5 mm, consistent with 2 mm migration distances of remyelinating cells. Moreover, it enables the appropriate prediction of a high relative seriality for spinal cord. The model also predicts the sparing of normal tissues by the GRID technique when the size of each pencil beam becomes comparable to {sigma}. Conclusions: The DCF model incorporates spatial dose information and offers an improved way to estimate tissue response from complex radiotherapy dose distributions. It does not alter the prediction of tissue response in large homogenous fields, but successfully predicts increased tissue tolerance in small or highly nonuniform fields.

  1. Integrating geographic information systems and remote sensing with spatial econometric and mixed logit models for environmental valuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wells, Aaron Raymond

    This research focuses on the Emory and Obed Watersheds in the Cumberland Plateau in Central Tennessee and the Lower Hatchie River Watershed in West Tennessee. A framework based on market and nonmarket valuation techniques was used to empirically estimate economic values for environmental amenities and negative externalities in these areas. The specific techniques employed include a variation of hedonic pricing and discrete choice conjoint analysis (i.e., choice modeling), in addition to geographic information systems (GIS) and remote sensing. Microeconomic models of agent behavior, including random utility theory and profit maximization, provide the principal theoretical foundation linking valuation techniques and econometric models. The generalized method of moments estimator for a first-order spatial autoregressive function and mixed logit models are the principal econometric methods applied within the framework. The dissertation is subdivided into three separate chapters written in a manuscript format. The first chapter provides the necessary theoretical and mathematical conditions that must be satisfied in order for a forest amenity enhancement program to be implemented. These conditions include utility, value, and profit maximization. The second chapter evaluates the effect of forest land cover and information about future land use change on respondent preferences and willingness to pay for alternative hypothetical forest amenity enhancement options. Land use change information and the amount of forest land cover significantly influenced respondent preferences, choices, and stated willingness to pay. Hicksian welfare estimates for proposed enhancement options ranged from 57.42 to 25.53, depending on the policy specification, information level, and econometric model. The third chapter presents economic values for negative externalities associated with channelization that affect the productivity and overall market value of forested wetlands. Results of robust

  2. The role of spatial frequency information in the recognition of facial expressions of pain.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shan; Eccleston, Christopher; Keogh, Edmund

    2015-09-01

    Being able to detect pain from facial expressions is critical for pain communication. Alongside identifying the specific facial codes used in pain recognition, there are other types of more basic perceptual features, such as spatial frequency (SF), which refers to the amount of detail in a visual display. Low SF carries coarse information, which can be seen from a distance, and high SF carries fine-detailed information that can only be perceived when viewed close up. As this type of basic information has not been considered in the recognition of pain, we therefore investigated the role of low-SF and high-SF information in the decoding of facial expressions of pain. Sixty-four pain-free adults completed 2 independent tasks: a multiple expression identification task of pain and core emotional expressions and a dual expression "either-or" task (pain vs fear, pain vs happiness). Although both low-SF and high-SF information make the recognition of pain expressions possible, low-SF information seemed to play a more prominent role. This general low-SF bias would seem an advantageous way of potential threat detection, as facial displays will be degraded if viewed from a distance or in peripheral vision. One exception was found, however, in the "pain-fear" task, where responses were not affected by SF type. Together, this not only indicates a flexible role for SF information that depends on task parameters (goal context) but also suggests that in challenging visual conditions, we perceive an overall affective quality of pain expressions rather than detailed facial features. PMID:26075962

  3. Comparing the performance of geostatistical models with additional information from covariates for sewage plume characterization.

    PubMed

    Del Monego, Maurici; Ribeiro, Paulo Justiniano; Ramos, Patrícia

    2015-04-01

    In this work, kriging with covariates is used to model and map the spatial distribution of salinity measurements gathered by an autonomous underwater vehicle in a sea outfall monitoring campaign aiming to distinguish the effluent plume from the receiving waters and characterize its spatial variability in the vicinity of the discharge. Four different geostatistical linear models for salinity were assumed, where the distance to diffuser, the west-east positioning, and the south-north positioning were used as covariates. Sample variograms were fitted by the Matèrn models using weighted least squares and maximum likelihood estimation methods as a way to detect eventual discrepancies. Typically, the maximum likelihood method estimated very low ranges which have limited the kriging process. So, at least for these data sets, weighted least squares showed to be the most appropriate estimation method for variogram fitting. The kriged maps show clearly the spatial variation of salinity, and it is possible to identify the effluent plume in the area studied. The results obtained show some guidelines for sewage monitoring if a geostatistical analysis of the data is in mind. It is important to treat properly the existence of anomalous values and to adopt a sampling strategy that includes transects parallel and perpendicular to the effluent dispersion. PMID:25345922

  4. Part 4 Technology and the future of GIS and spatial analysis. Geographic Information Science: New methods and technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, Andrew U.

    Geographical Information Science is essentially computational geography and has its own research program, namely all aspects of formal models for spatial natural processes and the interaction of humans with the environment in space and time. This is not a question of technology and technology-related research; but technology influences what questions can be researched effectively. Collection of data in the field and the simulation of field experience through Virtual Reality are just two questions of how spatial reality and human experience are linked. The focus on human spatial cognition is similarly found in software engineering for interoperable Geographic Information Systems.

  5. Including land use information for the spatial estimation of groundwater quality parameters - 2. Interpolation methods, results, and comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haslauer, C. P.; Heißerer, T.; Bárdossy, A.

    2016-04-01

    Two dominant processes determine solute concentration in groundwater: vertical infiltration and horizontal advection. The goal of this paper is to incorporate both processes into a geostatistical model for spatial estimation of solute concentrations in groundwater. A multivariate copula-based methodology is demonstrated that considers infiltration via the marginal distribution and solute transport via the multivariate spatial dependence structure. The novel approach is compared to traditional methods as Ordinary- and External Drift Kriging. Leave-one-out cross-validation demonstrates that the novel approach estimates better both in concentration and in probability space, and improves the quantification and quality of uncertainty. The gain in uncertainty reduction is equivalent to at least a few hundred additional observations when Ordinary Kriging was used. Both censored and not-censored measurements are included. An ideal neighborhood size is estimated via cross-validation. The methodology is general and can incorporate other kinds of secondary information. It can be used to evaluate effects of land use changes.

  6. CMR Quantification of Myocardial Scar Provides Additive Prognostic Information in Nonischemic Cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Neilan, Tomas G.; Coelho-Filho, Otavio R.; Danik, Stephan B.; Shah, Ravi V.; Dodson, John A.; Verdini, Daniel J.; Tokuda, Michifumi; Daly, Caroline A.; Tedrow, Usha B.; Stevenson, William G.; Jerosch-Herold, Michael; Ghoshhajra, Brian B.; Kwong, Raymond Y.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES This study sought to determine whether the extent of late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) can provide additive prognostic information in patients with a nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy (NIDC) with an indication for implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) therapy for the primary prevention of sudden cardiac death (SCD). BACKGROUND Data suggest that the presence of LGE is a strong discriminator of events in patients with NIDC. Limited data exist on the role of LGE quantification. METHODS The extent of LGE and clinical follow-up were assessed in 162 patients with NIDC prior to ICD insertion for primary prevention of SCD. LGE extent was quantified using both the standard deviation–based (2-SD) method and the full-width half-maximum (FWHM) method. RESULTS We studied 162 patients with NIDC (65% male; mean age: 55 years; left ventricular ejection fraction [LVEF]: 26 ± 8%) and followed up for major adverse cardiac events (MACE), including cardiovascular death and appropriate ICD therapy, for a mean of 29 ± 18 months. Annual MACE rates were substantially higher in patients with LGE (24%) than in those without LGE (2%). By univariate association, the presence and the extent of LGE demonstrated the strongest associations with MACE (LGE presence, hazard ratio [HR]: 14.5 [95% confidence interval (CI): 6.1 to 32.6; p < 0.001]; LGE extent, HR: 1.15 per 1% increase in volume of LGE [95% CI: 1.12 to 1.18; p < 0.0001]). Multivariate analyses showed that LGE extent was the strongest predictor in the best overall model for MACE, and a 7-fold hazard was observed per 10% LGE extent after adjustments for patient age, sex, and LVEF (adjusted HR: 7.61; p < 0.0001). LGE quantitation by 2-SD and FWHM both demonstrated robust prognostic association, with the highest MACE rate observed in patients with LGE involving >6.1% of LV myocardium. CONCLUSIONS LGE extent may provide further risk stratification in patients with NIDC with a current indication for ICD implantation for

  7. Application of high spatial resolution airborne hyperspectral remote sensing data in thematic information extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Hong-gen; Ma, Hong-chao; Li, De-ren; Song, Yan

    2006-10-01

    The airborne hyperspectral remote sensing data, such as PHI, OMIS, has the virtues of high spatial and spectral resolution. Hence, from the view of target classification we can consider that it can provide the ability of discriminating targets more detailedly than other data. So it's important to extract thematic information and update database using this kind of data. Whereas, the hyperspectral data has abundant bands and high between-band correlation, the traditional classification methods such as maximum likelihood classifier (MLC) and spectral angle mapper (SAM) have performed poorly in thematic information extraction. For this reason, we present a new method for thematic information extraction with hyperspectral remote sensing data. We perform classification by means of combining the self-organizing map (SOM) neural network which is considered as full-pixel technique with linear spectral mixture analysis (LSMA) which is considered as mixed-pixel technique. The SOM neural network is improved from some aspects to classify the pure data and find the mixed data. And then the mixed data are unmixed and classified by LSMA. The result of experiment shows that we can have the better performance in thematic information extraction with PHI by this means.

  8. Space Takes Time: Concentration Dependent Output Codes from Primary Olfactory Networks Rapidly Provide Additional Information at Defined Discrimination Thresholds

    PubMed Central

    Daly, Kevin C.; Bradley, Samual; Chapman, Phillip D.; Staudacher, Erich M.; Tiede, Regina; Schachtner, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    As odor concentration increases, primary olfactory network representations expand in spatial distribution, temporal complexity and duration. However, the direct relationship between concentration dependent odor representations and the psychophysical thresholds of detection and discrimination is poorly understood. This relationship is absolutely critical as thresholds signify transition points whereby representations become meaningful to the organism. Here, we matched stimulus protocols for psychophysical assays and intracellular recordings of antennal lobe (AL) projection neurons (PNs) in the moth Manduca sexta to directly compare psychophysical thresholds and the output representations they elicit. We first behaviorally identified odor detection and discrimination thresholds across an odor dilution series for a panel of structurally similar odors. We then characterized spatiotemporal spiking patterns across a population of individually filled and identified AL PNs in response to those odors at concentrations below, at, and above identified thresholds. Using spatial and spatiotemporal based analyses we observed that each stimulus produced unique representations, even at sub-threshold concentrations. Mean response latency did not decrease and the percent glomerular activation did not increase with concentration until undiluted odor. Furthermore, correlations between spatial patterns for odor decreased, but only significantly with undiluted odor. Using time-integrated Euclidean distance (ED) measures, we determined that added spatiotemporal information was present at the discrimination but not detection threshold. This added information was evidenced by an increase in integrated distance between the sub-detection and discrimination threshold concentrations (of the same odor) that was not present in comparison of the sub-detection and detection threshold. After consideration of delays for information to reach the AL we find that it takes ~120–140 ms for the AL to

  9. Extracting temporal and spatial information from remotely sensed data for mapping wildlife habitat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, Cynthia S. A.

    autocorrelation of the image, permitting classification of all pixels into coherent units whose signature graphs exhibit a classic variogram shape. The variogram parameters captured in these signatures have been shown in previous studies to discriminate between different species-specific vegetation associations. The synoptic view of the landscape provided by satellite data can inform resource management efforts. The ability to characterize the spatial structure and temporal dynamics of habitat using repeatable remote sensing data allows closer monitoring of the relationship between a species and its landscape.

  10. 14 CFR 121.317 - Passenger information requirements, smoking prohibitions, and additional seat belt requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Passenger information requirements, smoking... OPERATIONS Instrument and Equipment Requirements § 121.317 Passenger information requirements, smoking... command. (c) No person may operate an airplane on a flight on which smoking is prohibited by part 252...

  11. 14 CFR 121.317 - Passenger information requirements, smoking prohibitions, and additional seat belt requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Passenger information requirements, smoking... OPERATIONS Instrument and Equipment Requirements § 121.317 Passenger information requirements, smoking... command. (c) No person may operate an airplane on a flight on which smoking is prohibited by part 252...

  12. 14 CFR 121.317 - Passenger information requirements, smoking prohibitions, and additional seat belt requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Passenger information requirements, smoking... OPERATIONS Instrument and Equipment Requirements § 121.317 Passenger information requirements, smoking... command. (c) No person may operate an airplane on a flight on which smoking is prohibited by part 252...

  13. 14 CFR 121.317 - Passenger information requirements, smoking prohibitions, and additional seat belt requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Passenger information requirements, smoking... OPERATIONS Instrument and Equipment Requirements § 121.317 Passenger information requirements, smoking... command. (c) No person may operate an airplane on a flight on which smoking is prohibited by part 252...

  14. Spatially resolved information on karst conduit flow from in-cave dye-tracing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauber, U.; Ufrecht, W.; Goldscheider, N.

    2013-09-01

    Artificial tracers are powerful tools to investigate karst systems. Tracers are commonly injected into sinking streams or dolines, while springs serve as monitoring sites. The obtained flow and transport parameters represent mixed information from the vadose, epiphreatic and phreatic zones, i.e., the aquifer remains a black box. Accessible active caves constitute valuable but underexploited natural laboratories to gain detailed insights into the hydrologic functioning of the aquifer. Two multi-tracer tests in the catchment of a major karst spring (Blautopf, Germany) with injections and monitoring in two associated water caves aimed at obtaining spatially and temporally resolved information on groundwater flow in different compartments of the system. Two tracers were injected in the caves to characterize the hydraulic connections between them and with the spring. Two injections at the land surface, far from the spring, aimed at resolving the aquifer's internal drainage structure. Tracer breakthrough curves were monitored by field fluorimeters in caves and at the spring. Results demonstrate the dendritic drainage structure of the aquifer. It was possible to obtain relevant flow and transport parameters for different sections of this system. The highest mean flow velocities (275 m h-1) were observed in the near-spring epiphreatic section (open-channel flow), while velocities in the phreatic zone (pressurized flow) were one order of magnitude lower. Determined conduit water volumes confirm results of water balances and hydrograph analyses. In conclusion, experiments and monitoring in caves can deliver spatially resolved information on karst aquifer heterogeneity and dynamics that cannot be obtained by traditional investigative methods.

  15. Spatially resolved information on karst conduit flow from in-cave dye tracing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauber, U.; Ufrecht, W.; Goldscheider, N.

    2014-02-01

    Artificial tracers are powerful tools for investigating karst systems. Tracers are commonly injected into sinking streams or dolines, while springs serve as monitoring sites. The obtained flow and transport parameters represent mixed information from the vadose, epiphreatic and phreatic zones (that is, the aquifer remains a black box). Accessible active caves constitute valuable but underexploited natural laboratories to gain detailed insights into the hydrologic functioning of the aquifer. Two multi-tracer tests in the catchment of a major karst spring (Blautopf, Germany) with injections and monitoring in two associated water caves aimed at obtaining spatially and temporally resolved information on groundwater flow in different compartments of the system. Two tracers were injected into the caves to characterize the hydraulic connections between them and with the spring. Two injections at the land surface, far from the spring, aimed at resolving the aquifer's internal drainage structure. Tracer breakthrough curves were monitored by field fluorimeters in caves and at the spring. Results demonstrate the dendritic drainage structure of the aquifer. It was possible to obtain relevant flow and transport parameters for different sections of this system. The highest mean flow velocities (275 m h-1) were observed in the near-spring epiphreatic section (open-channel flow), while velocities in the phreatic zone (pressurized flow) were one order of magnitude lower. Determined conduit water volumes confirm results of water balances and hydrograph analyses. In conclusion, experiments and monitoring in caves can deliver spatially resolved information on karst aquifer heterogeneity and dynamics that cannot be obtained by traditional investigative methods.

  16. Estimating Regional Spatial and Temporal Variability of PM2.5 Concentrations Using Satellite Data, Meteorology, and Land Use Information

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yang; Paciorek, Christopher J.; Koutrakis, Petros

    2009-01-01

    Background Studies of chronic health effects due to exposures to particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters ≤ 2.5 μm (PM2.5) are often limited by sparse measurements. Satellite aerosol remote sensing data may be used to extend PM2.5 ground networks to cover a much larger area. Objectives In this study we examined the benefits of using aerosol optical depth (AOD) retrieved by the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) in conjunction with land use and meteorologic information to estimate ground-level PM2.5 concentrations. Methods We developed a two-stage generalized additive model (GAM) for U.S. Environmental Protection Agency PM2.5 concentrations in a domain centered in Massachusetts. The AOD model represents conditions when AOD retrieval is successful; the non-AOD model represents conditions when AOD is missing in the domain. Results The AOD model has a higher predicting power judged by adjusted R2 (0.79) than does the non-AOD model (0.48). The predicted PM2.5 concentrations by the AOD model are, on average, 0.8–0.9 μg/m3 higher than the non-AOD model predictions, with a more smooth spatial distribution, higher concentrations in rural areas, and the highest concentrations in areas other than major urban centers. Although AOD is a highly significant predictor of PM2.5, meteorologic parameters are major contributors to the better performance of the AOD model. Conclusions GOES aerosol/smoke product (GASP) AOD is able to summarize a set of weather and land use conditions that stratify PM2.5 concentrations into two different spatial patterns. Even if land use regression models do not include AOD as a predictor variable, two separate models should be fitted to account for different PM2.5 spatial patterns related to AOD availability. PMID:19590678

  17. Nitrogen, Ecosystem Services and Environmental Justice: how can a Spatial Valuation Approach Inform Responsible Nutrient Management?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowell, M.; Compton, J.

    2012-12-01

    Spatially-explicit ecosystem service valuation (ESV) allows for the identification of the location and magnitude of services provided by natural ecosystems along with an economic measure of their significance based upon value transfer. While this provides an important function in terms of land use management, the connection between the relative values of ecosystem services, sensitivity to nutrient loading and nutrient load estimates is unexplored within both the GIS-based, benefit transfer ESV literature and among research on nutrients and ecosystem services. This research combines a GIS-based, value transfer approach to map ecosystem services in the Lower Yakima River Basin (LYRB), Washington, USA, along with estimates of nitrogen loading and demographic data to identify how nutrient management may affect ecosystem services in the basin, and who may be most connected to potential changes in ecosystem services. Our analysis combines relative values of ecosystem services with estimates of nitrogen loading and identifies subwatersheds most susceptible to reductions in valuable ecosystem services due to excess nitrogen loading. Additionally, by including demographic data as a component of the spatial analysis, we examine the connections between population income, ethnicity, N loading, and risk of ecosystem service reductions due to nutrient management practices. Based on the benefit transfer analysis, wetlands and forested areas have disproportionately high values of ecosystem services when compared to their land area in the LYRB, while pasture and cultivated crops contribute much less to the total value of ecosystem service flows in proportion to the total area for these areas in the LYRB. Further economic valuation data on specific land cover types whether from primary studies or meta-analysis is needed to refine relative measures of ecosystem service values and more confidently describe these values in specific dollar amounts. Additionally, limits in spatial data

  18. 3D constrained inversion of geophysical and geological information applying Spatial Mutually Constrained Inversion.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, O. F.; Ploug, C.; Mendoza, J. A.; Martínez, K.

    2009-05-01

    The need for increaseding accuracy and reduced ambiguities in the inversion results has resulted in focus on the development of more advanced inversion methods of geophysical data. Over the past few years more advanced inversion techniques have been developed to improve the results. Real 3D-inversion is time consuming and therefore often not the best solution in a cost-efficient perspective. This has motivated the development of 3D constrained inversions, where 1D-models are constrained in 3D, also known as a Spatial Constrained Inversion (SCI). Moreover, inversion of several different data types in one inversion has been developed, known as Mutually Constrained Inversion (MCI). In this paper a presentation of a Spatial Mutually Constrained Inversion method (SMCI) is given. This method allows 1D-inversion applied to different geophysical datasets and geological information constrained in 3D. Application of two or more types of geophysical methods in the inversion has proved to reduce the equivalence problem and to increase the resolution in the inversion results. The use of geological information from borehole data or digital geological models can be integrated in the inversion. In the SMCI, a 1D inversion code is used to model soundings that are constrained in three dimensions according to their relative position in space. This solution enhances the accuracy of the inversion and produces distinct layers thicknesses and resistivities. It is very efficient in the mapping of a layered geology but still also capable of mapping layer discontinuities that are, in many cases, related to fracturing and faulting or due to valley fills. Geological information may be included in the inversion directly or used only to form a starting model for the individual soundings in the inversion. In order to show the effectiveness of the method, examples are presented from both synthetic data and real data. The examples include DC-soundings as well as land-based and airborne TEM

  19. 21 CFR 803.12 - Where and how do I submit reports and additional information?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES MEDICAL DEVICE REPORTING General Provisions § 803.12 Where and how do... information required under this part to FDA, CDRH, Medical Device Reporting, P.O. Box 3002, Rockville,...

  20. 10 CFR 52.158 - Contents of application; additional technical information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Manufacturing Licenses § 52.158 Contents of application; additional... environmental report as required by 10 CFR 51.54. (2) If the manufacturing license application references...

  1. 10 CFR 52.158 - Contents of application; additional technical information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Manufacturing Licenses § 52.158 Contents of application; additional... environmental report as required by 10 CFR 51.54. (2) If the manufacturing license application references...

  2. 10 CFR 52.158 - Contents of application; additional technical information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Manufacturing Licenses § 52.158 Contents of application; additional... environmental report as required by 10 CFR 51.54. (2) If the manufacturing license application references...

  3. 10 CFR 52.158 - Contents of application; additional technical information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Manufacturing Licenses § 52.158 Contents of application; additional... environmental report as required by 10 CFR 51.54. (2) If the manufacturing license application references...

  4. Real-time target detection in hyperspectral images based on spatial-spectral information extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Bing; Yang, Wei; Gao, Lianru; Chen, Dongmei

    2012-12-01

    Recently, real-time image data processing is a popular research area for hyperspectral remote sensing. In particular, target detection surveillance, which is an important military application of hyperspectral remote sensing, demands real-time or near real-time processing. The massive amount of hyperspectral image data seriously limits the processing speed. In this article, a strategy named spatial-spectral information extraction (SSIE) is presented to accelerate hyperspectral image processing. SSIE is composed of band selection and sample covariance matrix estimation. Band selection fully utilizes the high-spectral correlation in spectral image, while sample covariance matrix estimation fully utilizes the high-spatial correlation in remote sensing image. To overcome the inconsistent and irreproducible shortage of random distribution, we present an effective scalar method to select sample pixels. Meanwhile, we have implemented this target detection algorithm based on the SSIE strategy on the hardware of a digital signal processor (DSP). The implementation of a constrained energy minimization algorithm is composed of hardware and software architectures. The hardware architecture contains chips and peripheral interfaces, while software architecture contains a data transferring model. In the experiments, we compared the performance of hardware of DSP with that of Environment for Visualizing Images software. DSP speed up the data processing and also results in more effective in terms of recognition rate, which demonstrate that the SSIE implemented by DSP is sufficient to enable near real-time supervised target detection.

  5. DSP design for real-time hyperspectral target detection based on spatial-spectral information extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Wei; Zhang, Bing; Gao, Lianru; Wu, Yuanfeng

    2012-06-01

    Military target detection is an important application of hyperspectral remote sensing. It highly demands real-time or near real-time processing. However, the massive amount of hyperspectral image data seriously limits the processing speed. Real-time image processing based on hardware platform, such as digital signal processor (DSP), is one of recent developments in hyperspectral target detection. In hyperspectral target detection algorithms, correlation matrix or covariance matrix calculation is always used to whiten data, which is a very time-consuming process. In this paper, a strategy named spatial-spectral information extraction (SSIE) is presented to accelerate the speed of hyperspectral image processing. The strategy is composed of bands selection and sample covariance matrix estimation. Bands selection fully utilizes the high-spectral correlation in spectral image, while sample covariance matrix estimation fully utilizes the high-spatial correlation in remote sensing image. Meanwhile, this strategy is implemented on the hardware platform of DSP. The hardware implementation of constrained energy minimization (CEM) algorithm is composed of hardware architecture and software architecture. The hardware architecture contains chips and peripheral interfaces, and software architecture establishes a data transferring model to accomplish the communication between DSP and PC. In experiments, the performance on software of ENVI with that on hardware of DSP is compared. Results show that the processing speed and recognition result on DSP are better than those on ENVI. Detection results demonstrate that the strategy implemented by DSP is sufficient to enable near real-time supervised target detection.

  6. An Intelligent Spatial Proximity System Using Neurofuzzy Classifiers and Contextual Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barouni, F.; Moulin, B.

    2014-11-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel approach to reason with spatial proximity. The approach is based on contextual information and uses a neurofuzzy classifier to handle the uncertainty aspect of proximity. Neurofuzzy systems are a combination of neural networks and fuzzy systems and incorporate the advantages of both techniques. Although fuzzy systems are focused on knowledge representation, they do not allow the estimation of membership functions. Conversely, neuronal networks use powerful learning techniques but they are not able to explain how results are obtained. Neurofuzzy systems benefit from both techniques by using training data to generate membership functions and by using fuzzy rules to represent expert knowledge. Moreover, contextual information is collected from a knowledge base. The complete solution that we propose is integrated in a GIS, enhancing it with proximity reasoning. From an application perspective, the proposed approach was used in the telecommunication domain and particularly in fiber optic monitoring systems. In such systems, a user needs to qualify the distance between a fiber break and the surrounding objects of the environment to optimize the assignment of emergency crews. The neurofuzzy classifier has been used to compute the membership function parameters of the contextual information inputs using a training data set and fuzzy rules.

  7. HIGH SPATIAL RESOLUTION SURVEY OF GRAIN SIZE INFORMATION ON RIVER BED BY IMAGE PROCESSING

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohashi, Keisuke; Ihara, Kazuki; Yasuda, Shingo

    We tried a method of grain sizing by image processing which is available to survey and analyze in short time. The high-efficiency method actualizes high spatial resolution information of grain size distribution. Thus, the information has a vailability to express a situation of stream flow better than traditional grain sizing methods. For this reason, we paid attention to 50 m reservoir area upper from the check dam in mountainous region and surveyed the grain distribution at 26 sites and river channel landform. The grain sizing by image processing provided the appropriate result qualitatively. Moreover we estimated the critical diameter of moving from hydraulic information simultaneously. A qualitative appropriate result is showed less than 50 mm error as a result, however, quantitative response is not found between the critical diameter of moving and the grain size distribution surveyed. Meanwhile,the different grain sizing methods that are image processing and traditional sieving are used to cover the bilateral weak point. Thereby, a peak of grain existence probability is found in the threshold diameter between image processing and sieving. This result indicates that it is necessary to change the threshold diameter much larger than the limit of image processing grain sizing.

  8. Video segmentation using spatial proximity, color, and motion information for region-based coding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Won H.; Kim, Nam Chul; Lee, Sang-Mi

    1994-09-01

    An efficient video segmentation algorithm with homogeneity measure to incorporate spatial proximity, color, and motion information simultaneously is presented for region-based coding. The procedure toward complete segmentation consists of two steps: primary segmentation, and secondary segmentation. In the primary segmentation, an input image is finely segmented by FSCL. In the secondary segmentation, a lot of small regions and similar regions generated in the preceding step are eliminated or merged by a fast RSST. Through some experiments, it is found that the proposed algorithm produces efficient segmentation results and the video coding system with this algorithm yields visually acceptable quality and PSNR equals 36 - 37 dB at a very low bitrate of about 13.2 kbits/s.

  9. A concept-based interactive biomedical image retrieval approach using visualness and spatial information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Md M.; Antani, Sameer K.; Demner-Fushman, Dina; Thoma, George R.

    2015-03-01

    This paper presents a novel approach to biomedical image retrieval by mapping image regions to local concepts and represent images in a weighted entropy-based concept feature space. The term concept refers to perceptually distinguishable visual patches that are identified locally in image regions and can be mapped to a glossary of imaging terms. Further, the visual significance (e.g., visualness) of concepts is measured as Shannon entropy of pixel values in image patches and is used to refine the feature vector. Moreover, the system can assist user in interactively select a Region-Of-Interest (ROI) and search for similar image ROIs. Further, a spatial verification step is used as a post-processing step to improve retrieval results based on location information. The hypothesis that such approaches would improve biomedical image retrieval, is validated through experiments on a data set of 450 lung CT images extracted from journal articles from four different collections.

  10. The protagonist's first perspective influences the encoding of spatial information in narratives.

    PubMed

    Hatzipanayioti, Adamantini; Galati, Alexia; Avraamides, Marios N

    2016-03-01

    Three experiments examined the first-perspective alignment effect that is observed when retrieving spatial information from memory about described environments. Participants read narratives that described the viewpoint of a protagonist in fictitious environments and then pointed to the memorized locations of described objects from imagined perspectives. Results from Experiments 1 and 2 showed that performance was best when participants responded from the protagonist's first perspective even though object locations were described from a different perspective. In Experiment 3, in which participants were physically oriented with the perspective used to describe object locations, performance from that description perspective was better than that from the protagonist's first perspective, which was, in turn, better than performance from other perspectives. These findings suggest that when reading narratives, people default to using a reference frame that is aligned with their own facing direction, although physical movement may facilitate retrieval from other perspectives. PMID:26068697

  11. Real-Time Cardiac MRI using Prior Spatial-Spectral Information

    PubMed Central

    Brinegar, Cornelius; Zhang, Haosen; Wu, Yi-Jen L.; Foley, Lesley M.; Hitchens, T. Kevin; Ye, Qing; Pocci, Darren; Lam, Fan; Ho, Chien; Liang, Zhi-Pei

    2009-01-01

    Cardiac MRI performed while the patient is breathing is typically achieved using non-real-time techniques such as ECG triggering with respiratory gating; however, modern dynamic imaging techniques are beginning to enable this type of imaging in real-time. One of these dynamic imaging techniques is based on forming a Partially Separable Function (PSF) model of the data, but the model fitting process is known to be sensitive even when truncated SVD regularization is used. As a result, physiologically meaningless artifacts can appear in the dynamic images when the total number of measurements is limited. To address this issue, the dynamic imaging problem is formulated as a generalized Tikhonov regularization problem with the PSF model as a component of the forward data model, and a penalty function is used to introduce spatial-spectral prior information. This new method both reduces data acquisition requirements and improves stability relative to the original PSF based method when applied to cardiac MRI. PMID:19964109

  12. Real-time cardiac MRI using prior spatial-spectral information.

    PubMed

    Brinegar, Cornelius; Zhang, Haosen; Wu, Yi-Jen L; Foley, Lesley M; Hitchens, T; Ye, Qing; Pocci, Darren; Lam, Fan; Ho, Chien; Liang, Zhi-Pei

    2009-01-01

    Cardiac MRI performed while the patient is breathing is typically achieved using non-real-time techniques such as ECG triggering with respiratory gating; however, modern dynamic imaging techniques are beginning to enable this type of imaging in real-time. One of these dynamic imaging techniques is based on forming a Partially Separable Function (PSF) model of the data, but the model fitting process is known to be sensitive even when truncated SVD regularization is used. As a result, physiologically meaningless artifacts can appear in the dynamic images when the total number of measurements is limited. To address this issue, the dynamic imaging problem is formulated as a generalized Tikhonov regularization problem with the PSF model as a component of the forward data model, and a penalty function is used to introduce spatial-spectral prior information. This new method both reduces data acquisition requirements and improves stability relative to the original PSF based method when applied to cardiac MRI. PMID:19964109

  13. Toward Soil Spatial Information Systems (SSIS) for global modeling and ecosystem management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumgardner, Marion F.

    1995-01-01

    The general objective is to conduct research to contribute toward the realization of a world soils and terrain (SOTER) database, which can stand alone or be incorporated into a more complete and comprehensive natural resources digital information system. The following specific objectives are focussed on: (1) to conduct research related to (a) translation and correlation of different soil classification systems to the SOTER database legend and (b) the inferfacing of disparate data sets in support of the SOTER Project; (2) to examine the potential use of AVHRR (Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer) data for delineating meaningful soils and terrain boundaries for small scale soil survey (range of scale: 1:250,000 to 1:1,000,000) and terrestrial ecosystem assessment and monitoring; and (3) to determine the potential use of high dimensional spectral data (220 reflectance bands with 10 m spatial resolution) for delineating meaningful soils boundaries and conditions for the purpose of detailed soil survey and land management.

  14. An efficient representation of spatial information for expert reasoning in robotic vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, Steven; Interrante, Mark

    1987-01-01

    The previous generation of robotic vehicles and drones was designed for a specific task, with limited flexibility in executing their mission. This limited flexibility arises because the robotic vehicles do not possess the intelligence and knowledge upon which to make significant tactical decisions. Current development of robotic vehicles is toward increased intelligence and capabilities, adapting to a changing environment and altering mission objectives. The latest techniques in artificial intelligence (AI) are being employed to increase the robotic vehicle's intelligent decision-making capabilities. This document describes the design of the SARA spatial database tool, which is composed of request parser, reasoning, computations, and database modules that collectively manage and derive information useful for robotic vehicles.

  15. Spatial characterization and prediction of Neanderthal sites based on environmental information and stochastic modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maerker, Michael; Bolus, Michael

    2014-05-01

    We present a unique spatial dataset of Neanderthal sites in Europe that was used to train a set of stochastic models to reveal the correlations between the site locations and environmental indices. In order to assess the relations between the Neanderthal sites and environmental variables as described above we applied a boosted regression tree approach (TREENET) a statistical mechanics approach (MAXENT) and support vector machines. The stochastic models employ a learning algorithm to identify a model that best fits the relationship between the attribute set (predictor variables (environmental variables) and the classified response variable which is in this case the types of Neanderthal sites. A quantitative evaluation of model performance was done by determining the suitability of the model for the geo-archaeological applications and by helping to identify those aspects of the methodology that need improvements. The models' predictive performances were assessed by constructing the Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) curves for each Neanderthal class, both for training and test data. In a ROC curve the Sensitivity is plotted over the False Positive Rate (1-Specificity) for all possible cut-off points. The quality of a ROC curve is quantified by the measure of the parameter area under the ROC curve. The dependent variable or target variable in this study are the locations of Neanderthal sites described by latitude and longitude. The information on the site location was collected from literature and own research. All sites were checked for site accuracy using high resolution maps and google earth. The study illustrates that the models show a distinct ranking in model performance with TREENET outperforming the other approaches. Moreover Pre-Neanderthals, Early Neanderthals and Classic Neanderthals show a specific spatial distribution. However, all models show a wide correspondence in the selection of the most important predictor variables generally showing less

  16. Spectral Doppler estimation utilizing 2-D spatial information and adaptive signal processing.

    PubMed

    Ekroll, Ingvild K; Torp, Hans; Løvstakken, Lasse

    2012-06-01

    The trade-off between temporal and spectral resolution in conventional pulsed wave (PW) Doppler may limit duplex/triplex quality and the depiction of rapid flow events. It is therefore desirable to reduce the required observation window (OW) of the Doppler signal while preserving the frequency resolution. This work investigates how the required observation time can be reduced by adaptive spectral estimation utilizing 2-D spatial information obtained by parallel receive beamforming. Four adaptive estimation techniques were investigated, the power spectral Capon (PSC) method, the amplitude and phase estimation (APES) technique, multiple signal classification (MUSIC), and a projection-based version of the Capon technique. By averaging radially and laterally, the required covariance matrix could successfully be estimated without temporal averaging. Useful PW spectra of high resolution and contrast could be generated from ensembles corresponding to those used in color flow imaging (CFI; OW = 10). For a given OW, the frequency resolution could be increased compared with the Welch approach, in cases in which the transit time was higher or comparable to the observation time. In such cases, using short or long pulses with unfocused or focused transmit, an increase in temporal resolution of up to 4 to 6 times could be obtained in in vivo examples. It was further shown that by using adaptive signal processing, velocity spectra may be generated without high-pass filtering the Doppler signal. With the proposed approach, spectra retrospectively calculated from CFI may become useful for unfocused as well as focused imaging. This application may provide new clinical information by inspection of velocity spectra simultaneously from several spatial locations. PMID:22711413

  17. Twenty-five additional cases of trisomy 9 mosaic: Birth information, medical conditions, and developmental status.

    PubMed

    Bruns, Deborah A; Campbell, Emily

    2015-05-01

    Limited literature exists on children and adults diagnosed with the mosaic form of trisomy 9. Data from the Tracking Rare Incidence Syndromes (TRIS) project has provided physical characteristics and medical conditions for 14 individuals. This article provides TRIS Survey results of 25 additional cases at two data points (birth and survey completion) as well as developmental status. Results confirmed a number of phenotypic features and medical conditions. In addition, a number of cardiac anomalies were reported along with feeding and respiratory difficulties in the immediate postnatal period. In addition, developmental status data indicated a range in functioning level up to skills in the 36 and 48-month range. Strengths were also noted across the sample in language and communication, fine motor and social-emotional development. Implications for professionals caring for children with this genetic condition are offered. PMID:25755087

  18. 17 CFR 229.1118 - (Item 1118) Reports and additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Commission maintains an Internet site that contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other... electronic or paper copies of those filings and other reports free of charge upon request. ... (http://www.sec.gov). (c) Web site access to reports. (1) State whether the issuing entity's...

  19. 17 CFR 229.1118 - (Item 1118) Reports and additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Commission maintains an Internet site that contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other... electronic or paper copies of those filings and other reports free of charge upon request. ... (http://www.sec.gov). (c) Web site access to reports. (1) State whether the issuing entity's...

  20. 17 CFR 229.1118 - (Item 1118) Reports and additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Commission maintains an Internet site that contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other... electronic or paper copies of those filings and other reports free of charge upon request. ... (http://www.sec.gov). (c) Web site access to reports. (1) State whether the issuing entity's...

  1. Software for Information Storage and Retrieval Tested, Evaluated and Compared: Part VI--Various Additional Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sieverts, Eric G.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Reports on tests evaluating nine microcomputer software packages designed for information storage and retrieval: BRS-Search, dtSearch, InfoBank, Micro-OPC, Q&A, STN-PFS, Strix, TINman, and ZYindex. Tables and narrative evaluations detail results related to security, hardware, user features, search capability, indexing, input, maintenance of files,…

  2. 10 CFR 52.80 - Contents of applications; additional technical information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... under 10 CFR 50.10 be issued before issuance of the combined license, the application must include the information otherwise required by 10 CFR 50.10, in accordance with either 10 CFR 2.101(a)(1) through (a)(4... environmental report, either in accordance with 10 CFR 51.50(c) if a limited work authorization under 10 CFR...

  3. 77 FR 31068 - Additional Identifying Information Associated With Persons Whose Property and Interests in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-24

    ... and Suspending Entry Into the United States of Certain Persons With Respect to Grave Human Rights... Property and Suspending Entry Into the United States of Certain Persons With Respect to Grave Human Rights... Rights Abuses by Governments of Iran and Syria via Information Technology AGENCY: Office of...

  4. 78 FR 27936 - Request for Extension and Revision of a Currently Approved Information Collection With Additional...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-13

    ..., certification and auditing services for fresh and processed fruits, vegetables, and other products on a ``user... provides a nationwide inspection, grading, and auditing service for fresh and processed fruits, vegetables... inspection, grading, or auditing services. Such information includes; the name and location of the person...

  5. Facing Facts: Can the Face-Name Mnemonic Strategy Accommodate Additional Factual Information?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carney, Russell N.; Levin, Joel R.

    2012-01-01

    In 3 experiments, undergraduates used their own best method (control) or an "imposed" face-name mnemonic strategy to associate 18 caricatured faces, names, and additional facts. On all immediate tests (prompted by the faces), and on the delayed tests of Experiments 2a and 2b combined, mnemonic students statistically outperformed control students…

  6. 21 CFR 71.15 - Confidentiality of data and information in color additive petitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... additive petition are available for public disclosure, unless extraordinary circumstances are shown, after... § 20.61 of this chapter. (3) Adverse reaction reports, product experience reports, consumer complaints... particular ingredient or group of ingredients shall be deleted from any such list prior to public...

  7. 18 CFR 33.3 - Additional information requirements for applications involving horizontal competitive impacts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... the horizontal Competitive Analysis Screen. (3) The applicant may use a computer model to complete one... requirements for applications involving horizontal competitive impacts. 33.3 Section 33.3 Conservation of Power... FEDERAL POWER ACT APPLICATIONS UNDER FEDERAL POWER ACT SECTION 203 § 33.3 Additional...

  8. 30 CFR 75.1200-1 - Additional information on mine map.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Maps § 75.1200-1 Additional... symbols; (g) The location of railroad tracks and public highways leading to the mine, and mine buildings... permanent base line points coordinated with the underground and surface mine traverses, and the location...

  9. 30 CFR 75.1200-1 - Additional information on mine map.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Maps § 75.1200-1 Additional... symbols; (g) The location of railroad tracks and public highways leading to the mine, and mine buildings... permanent base line points coordinated with the underground and surface mine traverses, and the location...

  10. 30 CFR 75.1200-1 - Additional information on mine map.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Maps § 75.1200-1 Additional... symbols; (g) The location of railroad tracks and public highways leading to the mine, and mine buildings... permanent base line points coordinated with the underground and surface mine traverses, and the location...

  11. 30 CFR 75.1200-1 - Additional information on mine map.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Maps § 75.1200-1 Additional... symbols; (g) The location of railroad tracks and public highways leading to the mine, and mine buildings... permanent base line points coordinated with the underground and surface mine traverses, and the location...

  12. 10 CFR 52.80 - Contents of applications; additional technical information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Combined Licenses § 52.80 Contents of applications; additional technical... environmental report, either in accordance with 10 CFR 51.50(c) if a limited work authorization under 10 CFR 50... under 10 CFR 50.10 be issued before issuance of the combined license, the application must include...

  13. 10 CFR 52.80 - Contents of applications; additional technical information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Combined Licenses § 52.80 Contents of applications; additional technical... environmental report, either in accordance with 10 CFR 51.50(c) if a limited work authorization under 10 CFR 50... under 10 CFR 50.10 be issued before issuance of the combined license, the application must include...

  14. 10 CFR 52.80 - Contents of applications; additional technical information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Combined Licenses § 52.80 Contents of applications; additional technical... environmental report, either in accordance with 10 CFR 51.50(c) if a limited work authorization under 10 CFR 50... under 10 CFR 50.10 be issued before issuance of the combined license, the application must include...

  15. 10 CFR 52.80 - Contents of applications; additional technical information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Combined Licenses § 52.80 Contents of applications; additional technical... environmental report, either in accordance with 10 CFR 51.50(c) if a limited work authorization under 10 CFR 50... under 10 CFR 50.10 be issued before issuance of the combined license, the application must include...

  16. Near or far? It depends on my impression: moral information and spatial behavior in virtual interactions.

    PubMed

    Iachini, Tina; Pagliaro, Stefano; Ruggiero, Gennaro

    2015-10-01

    Near body distance is a key component of action and social interaction. Recent research has shown that peripersonal space (reachability-distance for acting with objects) and interpersonal space (comfort-distance for interacting with people) share common mechanisms and reflect the social valence of stimuli. The social psychological literature has demonstrated that information about morality is crucial because it affects impression formation and the intention to approach-avoid others. Here we explore whether peripersonal/interpersonal spaces are modulated by moral information. Thirty-six participants interacted with male/female virtual confederates described by moral/immoral/neutral sentences. The modulation of body space was measured by reachability-distance and comfort-distance while participants stood still or walked toward virtual confederates. Results showed that distance expanded with immorally described confederates and contracted with morally described confederates. This pattern was present in both spaces, although it was stronger in comfort-distance. Consistent with an embodied cognition approach, the findings suggest that high-level socio-cognitive processes are linked to sensorimotor-spatial processes. PMID:26386781

  17. A left cerebral hemisphere's superiority in processing spatial-categorical information in a non-verbal semantic format.

    PubMed

    Suegami, Takashi; Laeng, Bruno

    2013-03-01

    It has been shown that the left and right cerebral hemispheres (LH and RH) respectively process qualitative or "categorical" spatial relations and metric or "coordinate" spatial relations. However, categorical spatial information could be thought as divided into two types: semantically-coded and visuospatially-coded categorical information. We examined whether a LH's advantage in processing semantic-categorical information is observed in a non-verbal format, and also whether semantic- and visuospatial-categorical processing are differentially lateralized. We manipulated the colors and positions of the standard traffic light sign as semantic- and visuospatial-categorical information respectively, and tested performance with the divided visual field method. In the semantic-categorical matching task, in which the participants judged if the semantic-categorical information of a successive cue and target was the same, a right visual field advantage was observed, suggesting a LH's preference for processing semantic-categorical information in a non-verbal format. In the visuospatial-categorical matching task, in which the participants judged if the visuospatial-categorical information of a successive cue and target was identical, a left visual field advantage was obtained. These results suggest that the processing of semantic-categorical information is lateralized in LH, and we discuss the dissociation between the two types of categorical information. PMID:23290044

  18. A novel semi-supervised hyperspectral image classification approach based on spatial neighborhood information and classifier combination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Kun; Hu, Jun; Li, Jun; Du, Peijun

    2015-07-01

    In the process of semi-supervised hyperspectral image classification, spatial neighborhood information of training samples is widely applied to solve the small sample size problem. However, the neighborhood information of unlabeled samples is usually ignored. In this paper, we propose a new algorithm for hyperspectral image semi-supervised classification in which the spatial neighborhood information is combined with classifier to enhance the classification ability in determining the class label of the selected unlabeled samples. There are two key points in this algorithm: (1) it is considered that the correct label should appear in the spatial neighborhood of unlabeled samples; (2) the combination of classifier can obtains better results. Two classifiers multinomial logistic regression (MLR) and k-nearest neighbor (KNN) are combined together in the above way to further improve the performance. The performance of the proposed approach was assessed with two real hyperspectral data sets, and the obtained results indicate that the proposed approach is effective for hyperspectral classification.

  19. Mapping of groundwater potential zones across Ghana using remote sensing, geographic information systems, and spatial modeling.

    PubMed

    Gumma, Murali Krishna; Pavelic, Paul

    2013-04-01

    Groundwater development across much of sub-Saharan Africa is constrained by a lack of knowledge on the suitability of aquifers for borehole construction. The main objective of this study was to map groundwater potential at the country-scale for Ghana to identify locations for developing new supplies that could be used for a range of purposes. Groundwater potential zones were delineated using remote sensing and geographical information system (GIS) techniques drawing from a database that includes climate, geology, and satellite data. Subjective scores and weights were assigned to each of seven key spatial data layers and integrated to identify groundwater potential according to five categories ranging from very good to very poor derived from the total percentage score. From this analysis, areas of very good groundwater potential are estimated to cover 689,680 ha (2.9 % of the country), good potential 5,158,955 ha (21.6 %), moderate potential 10,898,140 ha (45.6 %), and poor/very poor potential 7,167,713 ha (30 %). The results were independently tested against borehole yield data (2,650 measurements) which conformed to the anticipated trend between groundwater potential and borehole yield. The satisfactory delineation of groundwater potential zones through spatial modeling suggests that groundwater development should first focus on areas of the highest potential. This study demonstrates the importance of remote sensing and GIS techniques in mapping groundwater potential at the country-scale and suggests that similar methods could be applied across other African countries and regions. PMID:22892995

  20. Including land use information for the spatial estimation of groundwater quality parameters - 1. Local estimation based on neighbourhood composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heißerer, T.; Haslauer, C. P.; Bárdossy, A.

    2016-04-01

    Most groundwater recharge comes from the infiltration of water through the land surface. Data analysis shows that solute concentrations at the water table vary between land use categories and depending on the land use composition within a certain neighbourhood. Driven by these observations, the goal of this paper is to estimate the solute distribution at a location depending on the composition of land use in the neighbourhood, even though land use information is categorical. This goal is achieved by mixing pure distributions of homogeneous land use according to their frequency of occurrence in the vicinity of, and their distance from an estimation location. These pure distributions are jointly inverted using a maximum likelihood-based approach. The neighbourhood size is optimized using cross-validation. Measurements below detection limit are included via their probabilities of non-exceedance. A solute-specific, spatially distributed measure of information content of the secondary information is presented. The method is applicable for many types of secondary information and can be used as drift for spatial estimation of the primary variable. This estimation is a local estimation and does not include larger scale spatial information. The information of measurements is included via the optimized concentration distributions for land use groups, not via a model of spatial dependence. The global estimation is described in the companion paper.

  1. The GIS weasel - An interface for the development of spatial information in modeling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Viger, R.J.; Markstrom, S.M.; Leavesley, G.H.

    2005-01-01

    The GIS Weasel is a map and Graphical User Interface (GUI) driven tool that has been developed as an aid to modelers in the delineation, characterization of geographic features, and their parameterization for use in distributed or lumped parameter physical process models. The interface does not require user expertise in geographic information systems (GIS). The user does need knowledge of how the model will use the output from the GIS Weasel. The GIS Weasel uses Workstation ArcInfo and its the Grid extension. The GIS Weasel will run on all platforms that Workstation ArcInfo runs (i.e. numerous flavors of Unix and Microsoft Windows).The GIS Weasel requires an input ArcInfo grid of some topographical description of the Area of Interest (AOI). This is normally a digital elevation model, but can be the surface of a ground water table or any other data that flow direction can be resolved from. The user may define the AOI as a custom drainage area based on an interactively specified watershed outlet point, or use a previously created map. The user is then able to use any combination of the GIS Weasel's tool set to create one or more maps for depicting different kinds of geographic features. Once the spatial feature maps have been prepared, then the GIS Weasel s many parameterization routines can be used to create descriptions of each element in each of the user s created maps. Over 200 parameterization routines currently exist, generating information about shape, area, and topological association with other features of the same or different maps, as well many types of information based on ancillary data layers such as soil and vegetation properties. These tools easily integrate other similarly formatted data sets.

  2. The geovisualisation window of the temporal and spatial variability for Volunteered Geographic Information activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medynska-Gulij, Beata; Myszczuk, Miłosz

    2012-11-01

    This study presents an attempt to design geographical visualisation tools that allow to tackle the immensity of spatial data provided by Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI), both in terms of temporal and spatial aspects. In accordance with the assumptions made at the conceptual stage, the final action was the implementation of the window entitled ‘Geovisualisation of the Panoramio.com Activities in District of Poznan 2011’ into the web browser. The concept has been based on a division of the geovisualisation window into three panels, of which the most important - in order to capture spatial variability - have statistical maps at the general level (dot map and choropleth map), while at the detailed level - a dot map on a topographic reference map or tourist map. For two ranges, temporal variability is presented by graphs, while a review of attributes of individual activities of the social website in question is set forward in the table panel. The element that visually interlinks all of the panels is the emphasised individual activity. Problemem podjetym w tych badaniach stało sie wykorzystanie metod z nurtu geograficznej wizualizacji do wskazania cech fenomenu VGI w zakresie zmiennosci czasowo-przestrzennej. Zgodnie z załozeniami poczynionymi w etapie koncepcyjnym finalnym działaniem stało sie zaimplementowanie do przegladarki internetowej okna pod tytułem: ”Geowizualizacja aktywnosci społecznosci Panoramio.com w powiecie poznanskim w 2011 roku”. Koncepcja została oparta na podziale okna geowizualizacji na trzy panele, z których najwazniejsze znaczenie dla uchwycenia zmiennosci przestrzennej na poziomie ogólnym ma kartogram, natomiast na poziomie szczegółowym mapa kropkowa wyswietlana na podkładzie mapy topograficznej lub turystycznej. Zmiennosc czasowa w dwóch zakresach prezentuja wykresy, a przeglad atrybutów poszczególnych aktywnosci prezentowanego portalu społecznosciowego zapewnia tabela. Elementem spajajacym wizualnie wszystkie

  3. Disease Prediction based on Functional Connectomes using a Scalable and Spatially-Informed Support Vector Machine

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Takanori; Kessler, Daniel; Scott, Clayton; Angstadt, Michael; Sripada, Chandra

    2014-01-01

    Substantial evidence indicates that major psychiatric disorders are associated with distributed neural dysconnectivity, leading to strong interest in using neuroimaging methods to accurately predict disorder status. In this work, we are specifically interested in a multivariate approach that uses features derived from whole-brain resting state functional connectomes. However, functional connectomes reside in a high dimensional space, which complicates model interpretation and introduces numerous statistical and computational challenges. Traditional feature selection techniques are used to reduce data dimensionality, but are blind to the spatial structure of the connectomes. We propose a regularization framework where the 6-D structure of the functional connectome (defined by pairs of points in 3-D space) is explicitly taken into account via the fused Lasso or the GraphNet regularizer. Our method only restricts the loss function to be convex and margin-based, allowing non-differentiable loss functions such as the hinge-loss to be used. Using the fused Lasso or GraphNet regularizer with the hinge-loss leads to a structured sparse support vector machine (SVM) with embedded feature selection. We introduce a novel efficient optimization algorithm based on the augmented Lagrangian and the classical alternating direction method, which can solve both fused Lasso and GraphNet regularized SVM with very little modification. We also demonstrate that the inner subproblems of the algorithm can be solved efficiently in analytic form by coupling the variable splitting strategy with a data augmentation scheme. Experiments on simulated data and resting state scans from a large schizophrenia dataset show that our proposed approach can identify predictive regions that are spatially contiguous in the 6-D “connectome space,” offering an additional layer of interpretability that could provide new insights about various disease processes. PMID:24704268

  4. 14 CFR 11.77 - Is there any additional information I must include in my petition for designating airspace?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Is there any additional information I must include in my petition for designating airspace? 11.77 Section 11.77 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... of the agency, office, facility, or person who would have authority to permit the use of the...

  5. 12 CFR 516.220 - If OTS requests additional information to complete my application, how will it process my...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... complete my application, how will it process my application? 516.220 Section 516.220 Banks and Banking... Standard Treatment § 516.220 If OTS requests additional information to complete my application, how will it... your response. OTS will notify you that it has extended the period before the end of the initial...

  6. 12 CFR 116.220 - If the OCC requests additional information to complete my application, how will it process my...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... complete my application, how will it process my application? 116.220 Section 116.220 Banks and Banking... Treatment § 116.220 If the OCC requests additional information to complete my application, how will it... that it has extended the period before the end of the initial 15-day period and will briefly...

  7. 12 CFR 516.220 - If OTS requests additional information to complete my application, how will it process my...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... complete my application, how will it process my application? 516.220 Section 516.220 Banks and Banking... Standard Treatment § 516.220 If OTS requests additional information to complete my application, how will it... your response. OTS will notify you that it has extended the period before the end of the initial...

  8. 12 CFR 390.128 - If the FDIC requests additional information to complete my application, how will it process my...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... complete my application, how will it process my application? 390.128 Section 390.128 Banks and Banking... additional information to complete my application, how will it process my application? (a) You may use the... will notify you that it has extended the period before the end of the initial 15-day period and...

  9. Information Requirements for Integrating Spatially Discrete, Feature-Based Earth Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horsburgh, J. S.; Aufdenkampe, A. K.; Lehnert, K. A.; Mayorga, E.; Hsu, L.; Song, L.; Zaslavsky, I.; Valentine, D. L.

    2014-12-01

    Several cyberinfrastructures have emerged for sharing observational data collected at densely sampled and/or highly instrumented field sites. These include the CUAHSI Hydrologic Information System (HIS), the Critical Zone Observatory Integrated Data Management System (CZOData), the Integrated Earth Data Applications (IEDA) and EarthChem system, and the Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS). These systems rely on standard data encodings and, in some cases, standard semantics for classes of geoscience data. Their focus is on sharing data on the Internet via web services in domain specific encodings or markup languages. While they have made progress in making data available, it still takes investigators significant effort to discover and access datasets from multiple repositories because of inconsistencies in the way domain systems describe, encode, and share data. Yet, there are many scenarios that require efficient integration of these data types across different domains. For example, understanding a soil profile's geochemical response to extreme weather events requires integration of hydrologic and atmospheric time series with geochemical data from soil samples collected over various depth intervals from soil cores or pits at different positions on a landscape. Integrated access to and analysis of data for such studies are hindered because common characteristics of data, including time, location, provenance, methods, and units are described differently within different systems. Integration requires syntactic and semantic translations that can be manual, error-prone, and lossy. We report information requirements identified as part of our work to define an information model for a broad class of earth science data - i.e., spatially-discrete, feature-based earth observations resulting from in-situ sensors and environmental samples. We sought to answer the question: "What information must accompany observational data for them to be archivable and discoverable within

  10. Estimating additive and dominance variances for complex traits in pigs combining genomic and pedigree information.

    PubMed

    Costa, E V; Diniz, D B; Veroneze, R; Resende, M D V; Azevedo, C F; Guimaraes, S E F; Silva, F F; Lopes, P S

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of dominance effects should improve ge-netic evaluations, provide the accurate selection of purebred animals, and enable better breeding strategies, including the exploitation of het-erosis in crossbreeds. In this study, we combined genomic and pedi-gree data to study the relative importance of additive and dominance genetic variation in growth and carcass traits in an F2 pig population. Two GBLUP models were used, a model without a polygenic effect (ADM) and a model with a polygenic effect (ADMP). Additive effects played a greater role in the control of growth and carcass traits than did dominance effects. However, dominance effects were important for all traits, particularly in backfat thickness. The narrow-sense and broad-sense heritability estimates for growth (0.06 to 0.42, and 0.10 to 0.51, respectively) and carcass traits (0.07 to 0.37, and 0.10 to 0.76, respec-tively) exhibited a wide variation. The inclusion of a polygenic effect in the ADMP model changed the broad-sense heritability estimates only for birth weight and weight at 21 days of age. PMID:26125833

  11. Presentation of information for spatial decision support A survey on the use of maps by participants in quantitative water management in the IJsselmeer region, The Netherlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janssen, Ron; Uran, Oddrun

    Spatial decision support systems generate a diversity of information presented in tables, graphs, text and maps. Which form is used is dictated partially by the nature of the information but also by those who prepare information to be used in a decision-making process. The users of the information do not necessarily have the same preference for the way the information is presented. A survey has been conducted amongst stakeholders in a decision-making process to see what their preferences are. The purpose of the survey was to gain insight into the ability of stakeholders to use information presented at different levels of detail when comparing alternatives. This paper reports on the survey’s results. Possible relations between level of detail, the ease of use of information, confidence in correctness and value of the information are presented. The results show that maps and graphs are preferred above tables and text. A high preference for maps is, however, not a measure of the ability to use maps. In addition, the results show that even though the ability to use the information increased with decreasing level of detail, detailed information is found more valuable.

  12. Inclusion of Additional Plant Species and Trait Information in Dynamic Vegetation Modeling of Arctic Tundra and Boreal Forest Ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Euskirchen, E. S.; Patil, V.; Roach, J.; Griffith, B.; McGuire, A. D.

    2015-12-01

    Dynamic vegetation models (DVMs) have been developed to model the ecophysiological characteristics of plant functional types in terrestrial ecosystems. They have frequently been used to answer questions pertaining to processes such as disturbance, plant succession, and community composition under historical and future climate scenarios. While DVMs have proved useful in these types of applications, it has often been questioned if additional detail, such as including plant dynamics at the species-level and/or including species-specific traits would make these models more accurate and/or broadly applicable. A sub-question associated with this issue is, 'How many species, or what degree of functional diversity, should we incorporate to sustain ecosystem function in modeled ecosystems?' Here, we focus on how the inclusion of additional plant species and trait information may strengthen dynamic vegetation modeling in applications pertaining to: (1) forage for caribou in northern Alaska, (2) above- and belowground carbon storage in the boreal forest and lake margin wetlands of interior Alaska, and (3) arctic tundra and boreal forest leaf phenology. While the inclusion of additional information generally proved valuable in these three applications, this additional detail depends on field data that may not always be available and may also result in increased computational complexity. Therefore, it is important to assess these possible limitations against the perceived need for additional plant species and trait information in the development and application of dynamic vegetation models.

  13. Using generalized additive mixed models to assess spatial, temporal, and hydrologic controls on bacteria and nitrate in a vulnerable agricultural aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mellor, Andrea F. P.; Cey, Edwin E.

    2015-11-01

    The Abbotsford-Sumas aquifer (ASA) has a history of nitrate contamination from agricultural land use and manure application to soils, yet little is known about its microbial groundwater quality. The goal of this study was to investigate the spatiotemporal distribution of pathogen indicators (Escherichia coli [E. coli] and total coliform [TC]) and nitrate in groundwater, and their potential relation to hydrologic drivers. Sampling of 46 wells over an 11-month period confirmed elevated nitrate concentrations, with more than 50% of samples exceeding 10 mg-N/L. E. coli detections in groundwater were infrequent (4 of 385 total samples) and attributed mainly to surface water-groundwater connections along Fishtrap Creek, which tested positive for E. coli in every sampling event. TC was detected frequently in groundwater (70% of samples) across the ASA. Generalized additive mixed models (GAMMs) yielded valuable insights into relationships between TC or nitrate and a range of spatial, temporal, and hydrologic explanatory variables. Increased TC values over the wetter fall and winter period were most strongly related to groundwater temperatures and levels, while precipitation and well location were weaker (but still significant) predictors. In contrast, the moderate temporal variability in nitrate concentrations was not significantly related to hydrologic forcings. TC was relatively widespread across the ASA and spatial patterns could not be attributed solely to surface water connectivity. Varying nitrate concentrations across the ASA were significantly related to both well location and depth, likely due to spatially variable nitrogen loading and localized geochemical attenuation (i.e., denitrification). Vulnerability of the ASA to bacteria was clearly linked to hydrologic conditions, and was distinct from nitrate, such that a groundwater management strategy specifically for bacterial contaminants is warranted.

  14. Using generalized additive mixed models to assess spatial, temporal, and hydrologic controls on bacteria and nitrate in a vulnerable agricultural aquifer.

    PubMed

    Mellor, Andrea F P; Cey, Edwin E

    2015-11-01

    The Abbotsford-Sumas aquifer (ASA) has a history of nitrate contamination from agricultural land use and manure application to soils, yet little is known about its microbial groundwater quality. The goal of this study was to investigate the spatiotemporal distribution of pathogen indicators (Escherichia coli [E. coli] and total coliform [TC]) and nitrate in groundwater, and their potential relation to hydrologic drivers. Sampling of 46 wells over an 11-month period confirmed elevated nitrate concentrations, with more than 50% of samples exceeding 10 mg-N/L. E. coli detections in groundwater were infrequent (4 of 385 total samples) and attributed mainly to surface water-groundwater connections along Fishtrap Creek, which tested positive for E. coli in every sampling event. TC was detected frequently in groundwater (70% of samples) across the ASA. Generalized additive mixed models (GAMMs) yielded valuable insights into relationships between TC or nitrate and a range of spatial, temporal, and hydrologic explanatory variables. Increased TC values over the wetter fall and winter period were most strongly related to groundwater temperatures and levels, while precipitation and well location were weaker (but still significant) predictors. In contrast, the moderate temporal variability in nitrate concentrations was not significantly related to hydrologic forcings. TC was relatively widespread across the ASA and spatial patterns could not be attributed solely to surface water connectivity. Varying nitrate concentrations across the ASA were significantly related to both well location and depth, likely due to spatially variable nitrogen loading and localized geochemical attenuation (i.e., denitrification). Vulnerability of the ASA to bacteria was clearly linked to hydrologic conditions, and was distinct from nitrate, such that a groundwater management strategy specifically for bacterial contaminants is warranted. PMID:26348834

  15. Spatially distributed storm runoff modeling using remote sensing and geographic information systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melesse, Assefa Mekonnen

    Advances in scientific knowledge and new techniques of remote sensing permit a better understanding of the physical land features governing hydrologic processes, and make possible efficient, large-scale hydrologic modeling. The need for land-cover and hydrologic response change detection at a larger scale and at times of the year when hydrologic studies are critical makes satellite imagery the most cost effective, efficient and reliable source of data. The use of a Geographic Information System (GIS) to store, manipulate and visualize these data, and ultimately to estimate runoff from watersheds, has gained increasing attention in recent years. In this work, remotely-sensed data and GIS tools were used to estimate the changes in land-cover, and to estimate runoff response, for three watersheds (Etonia, Econlockhatchee, and S-65A sub-basins) in Florida. Land-use information from Digital Orthophoto Quarter Quadrangles (DOQQ), Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM), and Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) were analyzed for the years 1973, 1984, 1990, 1995, and 2000. Spatial distribution of land-cover was assessed over time. The corresponding infiltration excess runoff response of the study areas due to these changes was estimated using the United States Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service Curve Number (USDA-NRCS-CN) method. A Digital Elevation Model (DEM)-GIS technique was developed to predict stream response to runoff events based on the travel time from each grid cell to the watershed outlet. The method was tested on a representative watershed (Simms Creek) in the Etonia sub-basin. Simulated and observed runoff volume and hydrographs were compared for 17 storm events. Isolated storms, with volumes of not less than 12.75 mm (0.5 inch) were selected. This is the minimum amount of rainfall volume recommended for the NRCS-CN method. Results show that the model predicts the runoff response of the study area with an average efficiency of 57

  16. Tautomers of a Fluorescent G Surrogate and Their Distinct Photophysics Provide Additional Information Channels.

    PubMed

    Sholokh, Marianna; Improta, Roberto; Mori, Mattia; Sharma, Rajhans; Kenfack, Cyril; Shin, Dongwon; Voltz, Karine; Stote, Roland H; Zaporozhets, Olga A; Botta, Maurizio; Tor, Yitzhak; Mély, Yves

    2016-07-01

    Thienoguanosine ((th) G) is an isomorphic nucleoside analogue acting as a faithful fluorescent substitute of G, with respectable quantum yield in oligonucleotides. Photophysical analysis of (th) G reveals the existence of two ground-state tautomers with significantly shifted absorption and emission wavelengths, and high quantum yield in buffer. Using (TD)-DFT calculations, the tautomers were identified as the H1 and H3 keto-amino tautomers. When incorporated into the loop of (-)PBS, the (-)DNA copy of the HIV-1 primer binding site, both tautomers are observed and show differential sensitivity to protein binding. The red-shifted H1 tautomer is strongly favored in matched (-)/(+)PBS duplexes, while the relative emission of the H3 tautomer can be used to detect single nucleotide polymorphisms. These tautomers and their distinct environmental sensitivity provide unprecedented information channels for analyzing G residues in oligonucleotides and their complexes. PMID:27273741

  17. Dynamic visual information plays a critical role for spatial navigation in water but not on solid ground.

    PubMed

    Sautter, Chiara Sajidha; Cocchi, Luca; Schenk, Françoise

    2008-12-12

    In the Morris water maze (MWM) task, proprioceptive information is likely to have a poor accuracy due to movement inertia. Hence, in this condition, dynamic visual information providing information on linear and angular acceleration would play a critical role in spatial navigation. To investigate this assumption we compared rat's spatial performance in the MWM and in the homing hole board (HB) tasks using a 1.5 Hz stroboscopic illumination. In the MWM, rats trained in the stroboscopic condition needed more time than those trained in a continuous light condition to reach the hidden platform. They expressed also little accuracy during the probe trial. In the HB task, in contrast, place learning remained unaffected by the stroboscopic light condition. The deficit in the MWM was thus complete, affecting both escape latency and discrimination of the reinforced area, and was thus task specific. This dissociation confirms that dynamic visual information is crucial to spatial navigation in the MWM whereas spatial navigation on solid ground is mediated by a multisensory integration, and thus less dependent on visual information. PMID:18682262

  18. Morphological analysis of the primary center receiving spatial information transferred by the waggle dance of honeybees.

    PubMed

    Ai, Hiroyuki; Hagio, Hiromi

    2013-08-01

    The waggle dancers of honeybees encodes roughly the distance and direction to the food source as the duration of the waggle phase and the body angle during the waggle phase. It is believed that hive-mates detect airborne vibrations produced during the waggle phase to acquire distance information and simultaneously detect the body axis during the waggle phase to acquire direction information. It has been further proposed that the orientation of the body axis on the vertical comb is detected by neck hairs (NHs) on the prosternal organ. The afferents of the NHs project into the prothoracic and mesothoracic ganglia and the dorsal subesophageal ganglion (dSEG). This study demonstrates somatotopic organization within the dSEG of the central projections of the mechanosensory neurons of the NHs. The terminals of the NH afferents in dSEG are in close apposition to those of Johnston's organ (JO) afferents. The sensory axons of both terminate in a region posterior to the crossing of the ventral intermediate tract (VIT) and the maxillary dorsal commissures I and III (MxDCI, III) in the subesophageal ganglion. These features of the terminal areas of the NH and JO afferents are common to the worker, drone, and queen castes of honeybees. Analysis of the spatial relationship between the NH neurons and the morphologically and physiologically characterized vibration-sensitive interneurons DL-Int-1 and DL-Int-2 demonstrated that several branches of DL-Int-1 are in close proximity to the central projection of the mechanosensory neurons of the NHs in the dSEG. PMID:23297020

  19. Geodesic Information Flows: Spatially-Variant Graphs and Their Application to Segmentation and Fusion.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, M Jorge; Modat, Marc; Wolz, Robin; Melbourne, Andrew; Cash, David; Rueckert, Daniel; Ourselin, Sebastien

    2015-09-01

    Clinical annotations, such as voxel-wise binary or probabilistic tissue segmentations, structural parcellations, pathological regions-of-interest and anatomical landmarks are key to many clinical studies. However, due to the time consuming nature of manually generating these annotations, they tend to be scarce and limited to small subsets of data. This work explores a novel framework to propagate voxel-wise annotations between morphologically dissimilar images by diffusing and mapping the available examples through intermediate steps. A spatially-variant graph structure connecting morphologically similar subjects is introduced over a database of images, enabling the gradual diffusion of information to all the subjects, even in the presence of large-scale morphological variability. We illustrate the utility of the proposed framework on two example applications: brain parcellation using categorical labels and tissue segmentation using probabilistic features. The application of the proposed method to categorical label fusion showed highly statistically significant improvements when compared to state-of-the-art methodologies. Significant improvements were also observed when applying the proposed framework to probabilistic tissue segmentation of both synthetic and real data, mainly in the presence of large morphological variability. PMID:25879909

  20. Toward reliable retrieval of functional information of papillary dermis using spatially resolved diffuse reflectance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu-Wen; Guo, Jun-Yen; Tzeng, Shih-Yu; Chou, Ting-Chun; Lin, Ming-Jen; Huang, Lynn Ling-Huei; Yang, Chao-Chun; Hsu, Chao-Kai; Tseng, Sheng-Hao

    2016-02-01

    Spatially resolved diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (SRDRS) has been employed to quantify tissue optical properties and its interrogation volume is majorly controlled by the source-to-detector separations (SDSs). To noninvasively quantify properties of dermis, a SRDRS setup that includes SDS shorter than 1 mm is required. It will be demonstrated in this study that Monte Carlo simulations employing the Henyey-Greenstein phase function cannot always precisely predict experimentally measured diffuse reflectance at such short SDSs, and we speculated this could be caused by the non-negligible backward light scattering at short SDSs that cannot be properly modeled by the Henyey-Greenstein phase function. To accurately recover the optical properties and functional information of dermis using SRDRS, we proposed the use of the modified two-layer (MTL) geometry. Monte Carlo simulations and phantom experiment results revealed that the MTL probing geometry was capable of faithfully recovering the optical properties of upper dermis. The capability of the MTL geometry in probing the upper dermis properties was further verified through a swine study, and it was found that the measurement results were reasonably linked to histological findings. Finally, the MTL probe was utilized to study psoriatic lesions. Our results showed that the MTL probe was sensitive to the physiological condition of tissue volumes within the papillary dermis and could be used in studying the physiology of psoriasis. PMID:26977361

  1. Development of a prototype spatial information processing system for hydrologic research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sircar, Jayanta K.

    1991-01-01

    Significant advances have been made in the last decade in the areas of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and spatial analysis technology, both in hardware and software. Science user requirements are so problem specific that currently no single system can satisfy all of the needs. The work presented here forms part of a conceptual framework for an all-encompassing science-user workstation system. While definition and development of the system as a whole will take several years, it is intended that small scale projects such as the current work will address some of the more short term needs. Such projects can provide a quick mechanism to integrate tools into the workstation environment forming a larger, more complete hydrologic analysis platform. Described here are two components that are very important to the practical use of remote sensing and digital map data in hydrology. Described here is a graph-theoretic technique to rasterize elevation contour maps. Also described is a system to manipulate synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data files and extract soil moisture data.

  2. Spatial analysis of injury-related deaths in Dallas County using a geographic information system

    PubMed Central

    Abdalla, Adil; Gunst, Mark; Ghaemmaghami, Vafa; Gruszecki, Amy C.; Urban, Jill; Barber, Robert C.; Gentilello, Larry M.

    2012-01-01

    This study applied a geographic information system (GIS) to identify clusters of injury-related deaths (IRDs) within a large urban county (26 cities; population, 2.4 million). All deaths due to injuries in Dallas County (Texas) in 2005 (N = 670) were studied, including the geographic location of the injury event. Out of 26 cities in Dallas County, IRDs were reported in 19 cities. Geospatial data were obtained from the local governments and entered into the GIS. Standardized mortality ratios (SMR, with 95% CI) were calculated for each city and the county using national age-adjusted rates. Dallas County had significantly more deaths due to homicides (SMR, 1.76; 95% CI, 1.54–1.98) and IRDs as a result of gunshots (SMR, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.09–1.37) than the US national rate. However, this increase was restricted to a single city (the city of Dallas) within the county, while the rest of the 25 cities in the county experienced IRD rates that were either similar to or better than the national rate, or experienced no IRDs. GIS mapping was able to depict high-risk geographic “hot spots” for IRDs. In conclusion, GIS spatial analysis identified geographic clusters of IRDs, which were restricted to only one of 26 cities in the county. PMID:22754116

  3. Reconstructions of information in visual spatial working memory degrade with memory load.

    PubMed

    Sprague, Thomas C; Ester, Edward F; Serences, John T

    2014-09-22

    Working memory (WM) enables the maintenance and manipulation of information relevant to behavioral goals. Variability in WM ability is strongly correlated with IQ [1], and WM function is impaired in many neurological and psychiatric disorders [2, 3], suggesting that this system is a core component of higher cognition. WM storage is thought to be mediated by patterns of activity in neural populations selective for specific properties (e.g., color, orientation, location, and motion direction) of memoranda [4-13]. Accordingly, many models propose that differences in the amplitude of these population responses should be related to differences in memory performance [14, 15]. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging and an image reconstruction technique based on a spatial encoding model [16] to visualize and quantify population-level memory representations supported by multivoxel patterns of activation within regions of occipital, parietal and frontal cortex while participants precisely remembered the location(s) of zero, one, or two small stimuli. We successfully reconstructed images containing representations of the remembered-but not forgotten-locations within regions of occipital, parietal, and frontal cortex using delay-period activation patterns. Critically, the amplitude of representations of remembered locations and behavioral performance both decreased with increasing memory load. These results suggest that differences in visual WM performance between memory load conditions are mediated by changes in the fidelity of large-scale population response profiles distributed across multiple areas of human cortex. PMID:25201683

  4. Toward reliable retrieval of functional information of papillary dermis using spatially resolved diffuse reflectance spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yu-Wen; Guo, Jun-Yen; Tzeng, Shih-Yu; Chou, Ting-Chun; Lin, Ming-Jen; Huang, Lynn Ling-Huei; Yang, Chao-Chun; Hsu, Chao-Kai; Tseng, Sheng-Hao

    2016-01-01

    Spatially resolved diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (SRDRS) has been employed to quantify tissue optical properties and its interrogation volume is majorly controlled by the source-to-detector separations (SDSs). To noninvasively quantify properties of dermis, a SRDRS setup that includes SDS shorter than 1 mm is required. It will be demonstrated in this study that Monte Carlo simulations employing the Henyey-Greenstein phase function cannot always precisely predict experimentally measured diffuse reflectance at such short SDSs, and we speculated this could be caused by the non-negligible backward light scattering at short SDSs that cannot be properly modeled by the Henyey-Greenstein phase function. To accurately recover the optical properties and functional information of dermis using SRDRS, we proposed the use of the modified two-layer (MTL) geometry. Monte Carlo simulations and phantom experiment results revealed that the MTL probing geometry was capable of faithfully recovering the optical properties of upper dermis. The capability of the MTL geometry in probing the upper dermis properties was further verified through a swine study, and it was found that the measurement results were reasonably linked to histological findings. Finally, the MTL probe was utilized to study psoriatic lesions. Our results showed that the MTL probe was sensitive to the physiological condition of tissue volumes within the papillary dermis and could be used in studying the physiology of psoriasis. PMID:26977361

  5. Getting the most out of additional guidance information in deformable image registration by leveraging multi-objective optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alderliesten, Tanja; Bosman, Peter A. N.; Bel, Arjan

    2015-03-01

    Incorporating additional guidance information, e.g., landmark/contour correspondence, in deformable image registration is often desirable and is typically done by adding constraints or cost terms to the optimization function. Commonly, deciding between a "hard" constraint and a "soft" additional cost term as well as the weighting of cost terms in the optimization function is done on a trial-and-error basis. The aim of this study is to investigate the advantages of exploiting guidance information by taking a multi-objective optimization perspective. Hereto, next to objectives related to match quality and amount of deformation, we define a third objective related to guidance information. Multi-objective optimization eliminates the need to a-priori tune a weighting of objectives in a single optimization function or the strict requirement of fulfilling hard guidance constraints. Instead, Pareto-efficient trade-offs between all objectives are found, effectively making the introduction of guidance information straightforward, independent of its type or scale. Further, since complete Pareto fronts also contain less interesting parts (i.e., solutions with near-zero deformation effort), we study how adaptive steering mechanisms can be incorporated to automatically focus more on solutions of interest. We performed experiments on artificial and real clinical data with large differences, including disappearing structures. Results show the substantial benefit of using additional guidance information. Moreover, compared to the 2-objective case, additional computational cost is negligible. Finally, with the same computational budget, use of the adaptive steering mechanism provides superior solutions in the area of interest.

  6. A test of the role of two prefrontal/ subcortical networks in the "sequencing" of non-motor, visuo-spatial information.

    PubMed

    Tracy, Joseph I; La, Quan; Osipowicz, Karol; Mamtani, Anita; Schwartz, Daniel P; Uzelac, Giovanna

    2011-09-01

    There are a number of prefrontal/sub-cortical networks in the brain (e.g., cerebellar-thalamic-prefrontal or basal ganglia/supplementary motor cortex circuits) that despite having a clear role in motor function have been shown to be involved in non-motor tasks. In this project we test for the involvement of these networks in a dimensional judgment task that utilizes visual perceptual, visual spatial processing and requires the ordering of dimensional (height) information. Unlike previous studies examining non-motor sequencing, we directly compare both non-motor and motor versions of our dimensional judgment task. In addition, we examine activation uniquely associated with correct task responses. The findings provide evidence for the role of cortical not subcortical structures in the sequencing of visuo-spatial material apart from any motor output requirements. Our results suggest that the inferior parietal cortex (BA 7, 40) and medial frontal regions (BA 6, 8, 9 including the SMA) are instrumental to the task. Based on these results, we propose a prefrontal/parietal network plays a role in the implementation of a comparator mechanism that makes accurate comparisons along the dimension of interest, holds the information in working memory, and then (regardless of whether the information is correct or incorrect) generates a tag or abstract code that assigns the information a place in an ordered sequence. Most important, the information involved can be visual/symbolic and non-motor (not just motor) in nature. PMID:21503630

  7. Considering the Spatial Layout Information of Bag of Features (BoF) Framework for Image Classification

    PubMed Central

    Mu, Guangyu; Liu, Ying; Wang, Limin

    2015-01-01

    The spatial pooling method such as spatial pyramid matching (SPM) is very crucial in the bag of features model used in image classification. SPM partitions the image into a set of regular grids and assumes that the spatial layout of all visual words obey the uniform distribution over these regular grids. However, in practice, we consider that different visual words should obey different spatial layout distributions. To improve SPM, we develop a novel spatial pooling method, namely spatial distribution pooling (SDP). The proposed SDP method uses an extension model of Gauss mixture model to estimate the spatial layout distributions of the visual vocabulary. For each visual word type, SDP can generate a set of flexible grids rather than the regular grids from the traditional SPM. Furthermore, we can compute the grid weights for visual word tokens according to their spatial coordinates. The experimental results demonstrate that SDP outperforms the traditional spatial pooling methods, and is competitive with the state-of-the-art classification accuracy on several challenging image datasets. PMID:26121038

  8. Viewing a Map versus Reading a Description of a Map: Modality-Specific Encoding of Spatial Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tlauka, Michael; Keage, Hannah; Clark, C. Richard

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated whether brain neural activity that accompanied the processing of previously learned map information was influenced by the modality in which the spatial parameters of the maps were originally learned. Participants learned a map by either viewing it directly or by reading an equivalent verbal description. Following learning,…

  9. Geographic Information Systems and Libraries: Patrons, Maps, and Spatial Information. Papers presented at the Clinic on Library Applications of Data Processing (Champaign, Illinois, April 10-12, 1995).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Linda C., Ed.; Gluck, Myke, Ed.

    This document assembles conference papers which focus on how electronic technologies are creating new ways of meeting user needs for spatial and cartographic information. Contents include: (1) "Mapping Technology in Transition" (Mark Monmonier); (2) "Cataloging Planetospatial Data in Digital Form: Old Wine, New Bottles--New Wine, Old Bottles"…

  10. Spatial information technologies for remote sensing today and tomorrow; Proceedings of the Ninth Pecora Symposium, Sioux Falls, SD, October 2-4, 1984

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Topics discussed at the symposium include hardware, geographic information system (GIS) implementation, processing remotely sensed data, spatial data structures, and NASA programs in remote sensing information systems. Attention is also given GIS applications, advanced techniques, artificial intelligence, graphics, spatial navigation, and classification. Papers are included on the design of computer software for geographic image processing, concepts for a global resource information system, algorithm development for spatial operators, and an application of expert systems technology to remotely sensed image analysis.

  11. A new species of Neparholaspis (Acari: Parholaspididae) from Russia, with additional information on Neparholaspis evansi Krantz, 1960.

    PubMed

    Marchenko, Irina I

    2016-01-01

    Neparholaspis dubatolovi sp. nov. is described and illustrated from adult females and males collected from litter and moss in montane forest in north-eastern Sikhote-Alin Ridge in the Far East of Russia. Additional morphological information and illustrations of Neparholaspis evansi Krantz, 1960 are provided, based on examination of a paratype. A key to the world species of Neparholaspis is provided. PMID:27615851

  12. Similarity in Spatial Origin of Information Facilitates Cue Competition and Interference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amundson, Jeffrey C.; Miller, Ralph R.

    2007-01-01

    Two lick suppression studies were conducted with water-deprived rats to investigate the influence of spatial similarity in cue interaction. Experiment 1 assessed the influence of similarity of the spatial origin of competing cues in a blocking procedure. Greater blocking was observed in the condition in which the auditory blocking cue and the…

  13. Numbers Are Associated with Different Types of Spatial Information Depending on the Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Dijck, Jean-Philippe; Gevers, Wim; Fias, Wim

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we examined the nature of the spatial-numerical associations underlying the SNARC-effect by imposing a verbal or spatial working memory load during a parity judgment and a magnitude comparison task. The results showed a double dissociation between the type of working memory load and type of task. The SNARC-effect disappeared under…

  14. Brain and Behavior Processing of Contrast Information by Human Infants: Spatial and Temporal Changes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karmel, Bernard Z.

    The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that specific spatial and possibly temporal rates of change dominate early infants' looking, that these spatial and temporal events have meaningful and specific empirical correlates in neurophysiology as a function of age, and finally that neurophysiologically constrained models provide testable…

  15. Chronic Enhancement of CREB Activity in the Hippocampus Interferes with the Retrieval of Spatial Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viosca, Jose; Malleret, Gael; Bourtchouladze, Rusiko; Benito, Eva; Vronskava, Svetlana; Kandel, Eric R.; Barco, Angel

    2009-01-01

    The activation of cAMP-responsive element-binding protein (CREB)-dependent gene expression is thought to be critical for the formation of different types of long-term memory. To explore the consequences of chronic enhancement of CREB function on spatial memory in mammals, we examined spatial navigation in bitransgenic mice that express in a…

  16. Spatial analysis of lymphatic filariasis distribution in the Nile Delta in relation to some environmental variables using geographic information system technology.

    PubMed

    Hassan, A N; Dister, S; Beck, L

    1998-04-01

    Geographic information system (GIS) was used to analyze the spatial distribution of filariasis in the Nile Delta. The study involved 201 villages belonging to Giza, Qalubiya, Monoufiya, Gharbiya, and Dakahliya governorates. Villages with similar microfilarial (mf) prevalence rates were observed to cluster within 1-2 km distance, then, clustering started to decrease significantly with distance up to 5 km (Pearson correlation coefficient = -0.98). the likelihood of negative and high prevalence villages being contiguous was very low (approximately 1.8%, n = 612 village-pairs) indicating homogeneity in disease processes within the defined spatial scales. Of the villages located within 2 km from the main Nile branches (n = 46), 95% exhibited low prevalence. In addition, the spatial pattern of mf prevalence was shown to be negatively associated with annual rainfall and relative humidity, while it was positively associated with annual daily temperature. Average mf prevalence in warmer, relatively drier areas receiving 25 mm of rain was significantly higher (3.9%) than that in less warmer but more humid areas receiving 50 mm of rain (1.6%) (P < 0.0001). Based on the results of the present study, GIS was used to generate a "filariasis risk map" that could be used by health authorities to efficiently direct surveillance and control efforts. This investigation identified some of the factors underlying filariasis spatial pattern, quantified clustering and demonstrated the potential of GIS application in vector-borne disease epidemiology. PMID:9617048

  17. Technical note: The use of geographical information systems software for the spatial analysis of bone microstructure.

    PubMed

    Rose, David C; Agnew, Amanda M; Gocha, Timothy P; Stout, Sam D; Field, Julie S

    2012-08-01

    Geographic information systems (GIS) software is typically used for analyzing geographically distributed data, allowing users to annotate points or areas on a map and attach data for spatial analyses. While traditional GIS-based research involves geo-referenced data (points tied to geographic locations), the use of this technology has other constructive applications for physical anthropologists. The use of GIS software for the study of bone histology offers a novel opportunity to analyze the distribution of bone nano- and microstructures, relative to macrostructure and in comparison to other variables of interest, such as biomechanical loading history. This approach allows for the examination of characteristics of single histological features while considering their role at the macroscopic level. Such research has immediate promise in examining the load history of bone by surveying the functional relationship between collagen fiber orientation (CFO) and strain mode. The diversity of GIS applications that may be utilized in bone histology research is just beginning to be explored. The goal of this study is to introduce a reliable methodology for such investigation and our objective is to quantify the heterogeneity of bone microstructure over an entire cross-section of bone using ArcGIS v 9.3 (ESRI). This was accomplished by identifying the distribution of remodeling units in a human metatarsal relative to bending axes. One biomechanical hypothesis suggests that CFO, manifested by patterns of birefringence, is indicative of mode of strain during formation. This study demonstrates that GIS can be used to investigate, describe, and compare such patterns through histological mapping. PMID:22700420

  18. Monitoring the Environment using High-Spatial Resolution Remote Sensing: Contribution to Health Information Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tourre, Y. M.; Lacaux, J.

    2007-12-01

    Presence (density) of mosquitoes linked to Rift Valley Fever (RVF) epidemics in the Ferlo (Senegal) is evaluated by monitoring the environment from space. Using five SPOT-5 high-resolution images (~10m spatial resolution, on August 17th, 2006) a meridional transect of 290 x 60 km2 is analyzed for the first time. Four major ecozones are thus identified: Senegal River valley; sandy Ferlo; sandy-clayey Ferlo; and steppe/cultivated areas, from north to south, respectively. An integrated/multidisciplinary approach using remote-sensing leads to a composited Zones Potentially Occupied by Mosquitoes (or ZPOMs, with extrema). It is found that at the peak of the rainy season, the area occupied by ponds is of 12,817 ha ± 10% (i.e., ~ 0.8 % of the transect) with a mean ZPOM 17 times larger i.e.: 212,813 ha ± 10 % (or ~14 % of the transect). ZPOMs characteristics (minimum and maximum) at the ecozones levels with different hydrological mechanisms, are presented. Ponds and ZPOMs inter-annual variabilities and RVF risks, are subsequently highlighted by comparing statistics in the so-called Barkedji zone (sandy-clayey Ferlo with a hydrofossil riverbed), for the very humid year of 2003, and the near normal rainfall year of 2006. It is shown that at the end of August 2003/2006, ponds (ZPOMs) areas, were already ~22 (~5) times larger. The key roles played by isolated ponds for animals' exposure to RVF risks are thus identified. These results highlight the importance of monitoring the changing environment when linkages with public health exist. The ZPOM approach is to be adapted for other vector-borne diseases such as malaria, dengue fever, in different places of the world. Results are meant to be included into Health Information Systems (HIS) on an operational basis, in order to minimize socio-economical impacts from epidemics.

  19. 76 FR 44354 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Comment Request for National Spatial Data...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-25

    ... Infrastructure, Cooperative Agreements Program (NSDI CAP) AGENCY: United States Geological Survey (USGS... (IC) for the National Spatial Data Infrastructure, Cooperative Agreements Program (NSDI CAP). This... Respondents are submitting proposals to acquire funding for projects to help build the...

  20. Mapping the physical location of Telecenter using the geospatial information systems: A requirement of spatial digital mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohari, Abdul Manaf; Hin, Cheng Wei; Fuad, Nurwahida

    2016-08-01

    Recently, a study of Telecenter lifetime value is vital to academician, government and non-profit organization where Telecenter has great contribute to the nation development of rural community. Telecenter as important location of enhance the relationship of socio-economic, where placed all non-profit activity into single location platform. Consistently, previous studies mentioned Telecenter have significance contribution toward the nation, however, research and knowledge still lacking regarding the location factors that affecting the Telecenter specifically on spatial aspects of physical location environment. This research aimed to understand the requirement of spatial digital mapping the physical location of Telecenter, according to location of user and it environment, by using the geospatial information systems references, as called grid coordinate systems. The suggestion and implications of this study are briefly explored where spatial location factor plays important role in determine the lifetime value of Telecenter.