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Sample records for additional species including

  1. Additions to the knowledge of the land snails of Sabah (Malaysia, Borneo), including 48 new species

    PubMed Central

    Vermeulen, Jaap J.; Liew, Thor-Seng; Schilthuizen, Menno

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We present reviews of the Sabah (Malaysia, on the island of Borneo) species of the following problematical genera of land snails (Mollusca, Gastropoda): Acmella and Anaglyphula (Caenogastropoda: Assimineidae); Ditropopsis (Caenogastropoda: Cyclophoridae); Microcystina (Pulmonata: Ariophantidae); Philalanka and Thysanota (Pulmonata: Endodontidae); Kaliella, Rahula, (Pulmonata: Euconulidae); Trochomorpha and Geotrochus (Pulmonata: Trochomorphidae). Next to this, we describe new species in previously revised genera, such as Diplommatina (Diplommatinidae); Georissa (Hydrocenidae); as well as some new species of genera not revised previously, such as Japonia (Cyclophoridae); Durgella and Dyakia (Ariophantidae); Amphidromus, and Trachia (Camaenidae); Paralaoma (Punctidae); Curvella (Subulinidae). All descriptions are based on the morphology of the shells. We distinguish the following 48 new species: Acmella cyrtoglyphe, Acmella umbilicata, Acmella ovoidea, Acmella nana, Acmella subcancellata, Acmella striata, and Anaglyphula sauroderma (Assimineidae); Ditropopsis davisoni, Ditropopsis trachychilus, Ditropopsis constricta, Ditropopsis tyloacron, Ditropopsis cincta, and Japonia anceps (Cyclophoridae); Diplommatina bidentata and Diplommatina tylocheilos (Diplommatinidae); Georissa leucococca and Georissa nephrostoma (Hydrocenidae); Durgella densestriata, Dyakia chlorosoma, Microcystina microrhynchus, Microcystina callifera, Microcystina striatula, Microcystina planiuscula, and Microcystina physotrochus (Ariophantidae); Amphidromus psephos and Trachia serpentinitica (Camaenidae); Philalanka tambunanensis, Philalanka obscura, Philalanka anomphala, Philalanka rugulosa, and Philalanka malimgunung (Endodontidae); Kaliella eurytrochus, Kaliella sublaxa, Kaliella phacomorpha, Kaliella punctata, Kaliella microsoma, Rahula delopleura, (Euconulidae); Paralaoma angusta (Punctidae); Curvella hadrotes (Subulinidae); Trochomorpha trachus, Trochomorpha haptoderma, Trochomorpha

  2. Benchmarking spliced alignment programs including Spaln2, an extended version of Spaln that incorporates additional species-specific features

    PubMed Central

    Iwata, Hiroaki; Gotoh, Osamu

    2012-01-01

    Spliced alignment plays a central role in the precise identification of eukaryotic gene structures. Even though many spliced alignment programs have been developed, recent rapid progress in DNA sequencing technologies demands further improvements in software tools. Benchmarking algorithms under various conditions is an indispensable task for the development of better software; however, there is a dire lack of appropriate datasets usable for benchmarking spliced alignment programs. In this study, we have constructed two types of datasets: simulated sequence datasets and actual cross-species datasets. The datasets are designed to correspond to various real situations, i.e. divergent eukaryotic species, different types of reference sequences, and the wide divergence between query and target sequences. In addition, we have developed an extended version of our program Spaln, which incorporates two additional features to the scoring scheme of the original version, and examined this extended version, Spaln2, together with the original Spaln and other representative aligners based on our benchmark datasets. Although the effects of the modifications are not individually striking, Spaln2 is consistently most accurate and reasonably fast in most practical cases, especially for plants and fungi and for increasingly divergent pairs of target and query sequences. PMID:22848105

  3. Tardigrada of Ireland: a review of records and an updated checklist of species including a new addition to the Irish fauna

    PubMed Central

    DeMilio, Erica; Lawton, Colin; Marley, Nigel J.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The phylum Tardigrada was not recorded in Ireland until the Clare Island Survey of 1909–1911, with only rare subsequent reports on Irish tardigrade species. In recent decades, significant taxonomic revision has occurred within Tardigrada. This has resulted in the need for a review of all known historical records from Ireland and Northern Ireland in order to produce an updated checklist of valid taxa. The new checklist includes fifty-one tardigrade species and subspecies including a new addition to the Irish fauna reported herein, Echiniscus quadrispinosus quadrispinosus Richters, 1902 from Newtown, Ballyvaughan, Co. Clare. PMID:27667947

  4. Tardigrada of Ireland: a review of records and an updated checklist of species including a new addition to the Irish fauna.

    PubMed

    DeMilio, Erica; Lawton, Colin; Marley, Nigel J

    2016-01-01

    The phylum Tardigrada was not recorded in Ireland until the Clare Island Survey of 1909-1911, with only rare subsequent reports on Irish tardigrade species. In recent decades, significant taxonomic revision has occurred within Tardigrada. This has resulted in the need for a review of all known historical records from Ireland and Northern Ireland in order to produce an updated checklist of valid taxa. The new checklist includes fifty-one tardigrade species and subspecies including a new addition to the Irish fauna reported herein, Echiniscus quadrispinosus quadrispinosus Richters, 1902 from Newtown, Ballyvaughan, Co. Clare.

  5. Photoactive devices including porphyrinoids with coordinating additives

    DOEpatents

    Forrest, Stephen R; Zimmerman, Jeramy; Yu, Eric K; Thompson, Mark E; Trinh, Cong; Whited, Matthew; Diev, Vlacheslav

    2015-05-12

    Coordinating additives are included in porphyrinoid-based materials to promote intermolecular organization and improve one or more photoelectric characteristics of the materials. The coordinating additives are selected from fullerene compounds and organic compounds having free electron pairs. Combinations of different coordinating additives can be used to tailor the characteristic properties of such porphyrinoid-based materials, including porphyrin oligomers. Bidentate ligands are one type of coordinating additive that can form coordination bonds with a central metal ion of two different porphyrinoid compounds to promote porphyrinoid alignment and/or pi-stacking. The coordinating additives can shift the absorption spectrum of a photoactive material toward higher wavelengths, increase the external quantum efficiency of the material, or both.

  6. Constant-Pressure Combustion Charts Including Effects of Diluent Addition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, L Richard; Bogart, Donald

    1949-01-01

    Charts are presented for the calculation of (a) the final temperatures and the temperature changes involved in constant-pressure combustion processes of air and in products of combustion of air and hydrocarbon fuels, and (b) the quantity of hydrocarbon fuels required in order to attain a specified combustion temperature when water, alcohol, water-alcohol mixtures, liquid ammonia, liquid carbon dioxide, liquid nitrogen, liquid oxygen, or their mixtures are added to air as diluents or refrigerants. The ideal combustion process and combustion with incomplete heat release from the primary fuel and from combustible diluents are considered. The effect of preheating the mixture of air and diluents and the effect of an initial water-vapor content in the combustion air on the required fuel quantity are also included. The charts are applicable only to processes in which the final mixture is leaner than stoichiometric and at temperatures where dissociation is unimportant. A chart is also included to permit the calculation of the stoichiometric ratio of hydrocarbon fuel to air with diluent addition. The use of the charts is illustrated by numerical examples.

  7. Modeling Emergent Macrophyte Distributions: Including Sub-dominant Species

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mixed stands of emergent vegetation are often present following drawdowns but models of wetland plant distributions fail to include subdominant species when predicting distributions. Three variations of a spatial plant distribution cellular automaton model were developed to explo...

  8. A new species and additional records of Lobrathium Mulsant & Rey (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Paederinae) from China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wen-Rong; Dai, Cong-Chao; Li, Li-Zhen

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Lobrathium fuscoguttatum sp. n. (type locality: Guangxi) is described and illustrated. The latest key to the Lobrathium species of mainland China is modified to include the new species. Additional data are provided for six previously described species. PMID:24039535

  9. A new species and additional records of Lobrathium Mulsant & Rey (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Paederinae) from China.

    PubMed

    Li, Wen-Rong; Dai, Cong-Chao; Li, Li-Zhen

    2013-01-01

    Lobrathium fuscoguttatum sp. n. (type locality: Guangxi) is described and illustrated. The latest key to the Lobrathium species of mainland China is modified to include the new species. Additional data are provided for six previously described species.

  10. Is there evidence for additional neutrino species from cosmology?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feeney, Stephen M.; Peiris, Hiranya V.; Verde, Licia

    2013-04-01

    It has been suggested that recent cosmological and flavor-oscillation data favor the existence of additional neutrino species beyond the three predicted by the Standard Model of particle physics. We apply Bayesian model selection to determine whether there is indeed any evidence from current cosmological datasets for the standard cosmological model to be extended to include additional neutrino flavors. The datasets employed include cosmic microwave background temperature, polarization and lensing power spectra, and measurements of the baryon acoustic oscillation scale and the Hubble constant. We also consider other extensions to the standard neutrino model, such as massive neutrinos, and possible degeneracies with other cosmological parameters. The Bayesian evidence indicates that current cosmological data do not require any non-standard neutrino properties.

  11. Jahnula species from North and Central America, including three new species.

    PubMed

    Raja, H A; Shearer, C A

    2006-01-01

    Three new species of loculoascomycetes collected from freshwater habitats in North America are described as new species of Jahnula (Jahnulales, Dothideomycetes). All three share these morphological features: hyaline to blackish translucent, membranous ascomata with subtending, wide, septate brown, spreading hyphae; peridia composed of large angular cells; hamathecium of septate pseudoparaphyses; 8-spored, clavate to cylindrical asci; and 1-septate, broadly fusiform, brown, multiguttulate ascospores. Four additional species, J. aquatica, J. bipolaris, J. potamophila, and J. seychellensis, are reported for the first time from the western hemisphere.

  12. Ceratocystis species, including two new species associated with nitidulid beetles, on eucalypts in Australia.

    PubMed

    Kamgan Nkuekam, Gilbert; Wingfield, Michael J; Mohammed, Caroline; Carnegie, Angus J; Pegg, Geoff S; Roux, Jolanda

    2012-02-01

    The genus Ceratocystis includes important fungal pathogens of trees, including Eucalyptus spp. Ironically, very little is known regarding the diversity or biology of Ceratocystis species on Eucalyptus species in Australia, where most of these trees are native. The aim of this study was to survey for Ceratocystis spp., and their possible insect associates, on eucalypts in Australia and thus to establish a foundation of knowledge regarding these fungi on the continent. Collections were made in three states of Australia from wounds on trees, as well as from nitidulid beetles associated with these wounds. Ceratocystis spp. were identified based on morphology and multigene sequence comparisons. Of the 54 isolates obtained, two previously unknown species of Ceratocystis were found and these are described here as Ceratocystis corymbiicola sp. nov. and Ceratocystis tyalla sp. nov. Furthermore, the distribution of Ceratocystis pirilliformis is expanded to include Eucalyptus spp. in Tasmania.

  13. Observations on Neobarya, including new species and new combinations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    New combinations and new species are proposed in Neobarya: N. aurantiaca comb. nov., N. byssicola comb. nov., N. lichenicola comb. nov., N. lutea sp. nov., N. peltigerae sp. nov., N. xylariicola sp. nov. Neobarya agaricicola, and N. parasitica are redescribed. Anamorphs associated with N. agaricico...

  14. 25 CFR 1000.83 - Can additional provisions be included in an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can additional provisions be included in an AFA? 1000.83... Scope of Annual Funding Agreements § 1000.83 Can additional provisions be included in an AFA? Yes, any provision that the parties mutually agreed upon may be included in an AFA....

  15. 25 CFR 1000.83 - Can additional provisions be included in an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Can additional provisions be included in an AFA? 1000.83... Scope of Annual Funding Agreements § 1000.83 Can additional provisions be included in an AFA? Yes, any provision that the parties mutually agreed upon may be included in an AFA....

  16. 25 CFR 1000.83 - Can additional provisions be included in an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Can additional provisions be included in an AFA? 1000.83... Scope of Annual Funding Agreements § 1000.83 Can additional provisions be included in an AFA? Yes, any provision that the parties mutually agreed upon may be included in an AFA....

  17. 25 CFR 1000.83 - Can additional provisions be included in an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Can additional provisions be included in an AFA? 1000.83... Scope of Annual Funding Agreements § 1000.83 Can additional provisions be included in an AFA? Yes, any provision that the parties mutually agreed upon may be included in an AFA....

  18. 25 CFR 1000.83 - Can additional provisions be included in an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Can additional provisions be included in an AFA? 1000.83... Scope of Annual Funding Agreements § 1000.83 Can additional provisions be included in an AFA? Yes, any provision that the parties mutually agreed upon may be included in an AFA....

  19. 50 CFR 15.33 - Species included in the approved list.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Convention. § 15.33 Species included in the approved list. (a) Captive-bred species. The list in this paragraph includes species of captive-bred exotic birds for which importation into the United States is not...-bred species. The list in this paragraph includes species of non-captive-bred exotic birds...

  20. Nitrogen Addition Enhances Drought Sensitivity of Young Deciduous Tree Species

    PubMed Central

    Dziedek, Christoph; Härdtle, Werner; von Oheimb, Goddert; Fichtner, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how trees respond to global change drivers is central to predict changes in forest structure and functions. Although there is evidence on the mode of nitrogen (N) and drought (D) effects on tree growth, our understanding of the interplay of these factors is still limited. Simultaneously, as mixtures are expected to be less sensitive to global change as compared to monocultures, we aimed to investigate the combined effects of N addition and D on the productivity of three tree species (Fagus sylvatica, Quercus petraea, Pseudotsuga menziesii) in relation to functional diverse species mixtures using data from a 4-year field experiment in Northwest Germany. Here we show that species mixing can mitigate the negative effects of combined N fertilization and D events, but the community response is mainly driven by the combination of certain traits rather than the tree species richness of a community. For beech, we found that negative effects of D on growth rates were amplified by N fertilization (i.e., combined treatment effects were non-additive), while for oak and fir, the simultaneous effects of N and D were additive. Beech and oak were identified as most sensitive to combined N+D effects with a strong size-dependency observed for beech, suggesting that the negative impact of N+D becomes stronger with time as beech grows larger. As a consequence, the net biodiversity effect declined at the community level, which can be mainly assigned to a distinct loss of complementarity in beech-oak mixtures. This pattern, however, was not evident in the other species-mixtures, indicating that neighborhood composition (i.e., trait combination), but not tree species richness mediated the relationship between tree diversity and treatment effects on tree growth. Our findings point to the importance of the qualitative role (‘trait portfolio’) that biodiversity play in determining resistance of diverse tree communities to environmental changes. As such, they provide

  1. Synergistic effect of additives including multifunctional acrylates in wood plastic composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Mubarak A.; Idriss Ali, K. M.; Garnett, John L.

    1993-07-01

    Wood Plastic Composite (WPC) was prepared with simul (soft wood, density = 0.4g/cc) and butylmethacrylate (BMA) monomer using 10% methanol as the swelling agent. Effect of additives including (i) multifunctional acrylates such as tripropylene glycol diacrylate (TPGDA), trimethylol propane triacrylate (TMPTA) (ii) oligomer acrylates like the urethane (UA), epoxy (EA) and polyester (PEA) acrylates and (iii) N-vinyl pyrrolidone (NVP) was investigated using 1 to 3 Mrad dose at 0.8 Mrad/h. Synergistic increases in polymer loading yields was achieved in presence of the additives, particularly with the trifunctional acrylate (TMPTA). In addition, acid as well as urea were also used as co-additives and synergistic enhancement in yields of polymer loading were obtained. The synergistic polymer loading by acid addition causes substantial decrease in tensile strength of the composite; but other additives and co-additives increase both the polymer loading and the tensile strength in these systems.

  2. Systems and Methods for Fabricating Objects Including Amorphous Metal Using Techniques Akin to Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hofmann, Douglas (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    Systems and methods in accordance with embodiments of the invention fabricate objects including amorphous metals using techniques akin to additive manufacturing. In one embodiment, a method of fabricating an object that includes an amorphous metal includes: applying a first layer of molten metallic alloy to a surface; cooling the first layer of molten metallic alloy such that it solidifies and thereby forms a first layer including amorphous metal; subsequently applying at least one layer of molten metallic alloy onto a layer including amorphous metal; cooling each subsequently applied layer of molten metallic alloy such that it solidifies and thereby forms a layer including amorphous metal prior to the application of any adjacent layer of molten metallic alloy; where the aggregate of the solidified layers including amorphous metal forms a desired shape in the object to be fabricated; and removing at least the first layer including amorphous metal from the surface.

  3. Cross-species infection of hepatitis E virus in a zoo-like location, including birds.

    PubMed

    Zhang, W; Shen, Q; Mou, J; Yang, Z B; Yuan, C L; Cui, L; Zhu, J G; Hua, X G; Xu, C M; Hu, J

    2008-08-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a zoonotic pathogen of which several species of animals are considered to be reservoirs. Thirty-eight faecal samples, obtained from 22 species of animals including birds in a wildlife first-aid centre in Eastern China, were tested for HEV RNA. Our survey revealed that in total 28.9% (95% confidence interval 14.5-43.4) of the faecal samples from various mammals and birds were HEV RNA positive. Sequence and phylogenetic analyses of the 11 isolates demonstrated that all sequences clustered in genotype 4 with 96-100% identity to each other. In addition, serum samples from seven animal handlers have shown that five (71.4%) were seropositive. The findings imply that cross-species infection of HEV had probably occurred in this zoo-like location, and moreover, birds can be infected naturally with mammalian HEV.

  4. Auditory-motor entrainment in vocal mimicking species: Additional ontogenetic and phylogenetic factors.

    PubMed

    Schachner, Adena

    2010-05-01

    We have recently found robust evidence of motor entrainment to auditory stimuli in multiple species of non-human animal, all of which were capable of vocal mimicry. In contrast, the ability remained markedly absent in many closely related species incapable of vocal mimicry. This suggests that vocal mimicry may be a necessary precondition for entrainment. However, within the vocal mimicking species, entrainment appeared non-randomly, suggesting that other components besides vocal mimicry play a role in the capacity and tendency to entrain. Here we discuss potential additional factors involved in entrainment. New survey data show that both male and female parrots are able to entrain, and that the entrainment capacity appears throughout the lifespan. We suggest routes for future study of entrainment, including both developmental studies in species known to entrain and further work to detect entrainment in species not well represented in our dataset. These studies may shed light on additional factors necessary for entrainment in addition to vocal mimicry.

  5. 50 CFR 15.52 - Species included in the prohibited list. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Species included in the prohibited list... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS WILD BIRD CONSERVATION ACT List of Prohibited Species Not Listed in the Appendices to the Convention § 15.52 Species included in the prohibited list....

  6. 50 CFR 15.51 - Criteria for including species and countries in the prohibited list. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Criteria for including species and..., EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS WILD BIRD CONSERVATION ACT List of Prohibited Species Not Listed in the Appendices to the Convention § 15.51 Criteria for including species and countries in...

  7. Biological review of 82 species of coral petitioned to be included in the Endangered Species Act

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brainard, Russell E.; Birkeland, Charles; Eakin, C. Mark; McElhany, Paul; Miller, Margaret W.; Patterson, Matt; Piniak, G.A.

    2011-01-01

    The BRT considered two major factors in conducting this review. The first factor was the interaction of natural phenomena and anthropogenic stressors that could potentially contribute to coral extinction. After extensive review of available scientific information, the BRT considers ocean warming, disease, and ocean acidification to be the most influential threats in posing extinction risks to the 82 candidate coral species between now and the year 2100. Threats of local origin but having widespread impact, such as sedimentation, nutrient enrichment, and fishing, were considered of medium importance in determining extinction risks. It is acknowledged that many other threats (e.g., physical damage from storms or ship groundings, invasive species or predator outbreaks, collection and trade) also negatively affect corals, often acutely and dramatically, but generally at relatively small local scales. These local threats were considered to be of limited scope and not deemed to contribute appreciably to the risk of species extinction, except in those special cases where species have restricted geographic or habitat ranges or species have already undergone precipitous population declines such that these local threats further contribute to depensatory processes that can magnify extinction risks (e.g., feedback-loops whereby individual survival decreases with smaller population size). The BRT acknowledges that local and global threats operate on different time scales and, though there is high confidence in the general progression of some key global threats, such as ocean warming and ocean acidification, there is much less certainty in the timing and spatial patterns of these threats. There is also substantial uncertainty in the abilities of the 82 candidate coral species to tolerate or adapt to each of the threats examined, as well as uncertainty in the dynamics of multiple simultaneous stresses. The BRT specifically identified increasing human population levels and the

  8. Combinatorial Synthesis of Linearly Condensed Polycyclic Compounds, Including Anthracyclinones, Through Tandem Diels-Alder Additions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, Pierre

    Double exocyclic 1,3-dienes such as 2,3,5,6-tetramethylidene-7-oxabicyclo[2.2.1]heptane and its 1-substituted derivatives undergo two successive Diels-Alder additions with large reactivity difference between the addition of the first equivalent (k 1) and the second equivalent (k 2) of dienophile. This allows one to prepare, through parallel synthesis, a large number of linearly condensed polycyclic systems containing three annulated six-membered rings, including naphthacenyl systems and anthracyclinones. The large k 1/k 2 rate constant ratio is a consequence of the Dimroth principle, the first cycloaddition being significantly more exothermic then the second one. Control of regio- and stereoselectivity of the two successive cycloadditions is possible by 1-substitution of the 2,3,5,6-tetramethylidene-7-oxabicyclo[2.2.1]heptane, for instance by a 1-(dimethoxymethyl) group, or by stereoselective disubstitution of the double diene by arenesulfenyl substituents. Enantiomerically pure anthracyclinones and analogues are obtained using enantiomerically pure dienophiles such as 3-oxo-but-2-en-2-yl esters. The chemistry so-developed has allowed the preparation of enantiomerically pure 6-((aminoalkoxy)oxy)methyl-6,7-dideoxyidarubicinones that are DNA intercalators and inhibitors of topoisomerase II-induced DNA strained religation.

  9. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  10. Including the introduction of exotic species in life cycle impact assessment: the case of inland shipping.

    PubMed

    Hanafiah, Marlia M; Leuven, Rob S E W; Sommerwerk, Nike; Tockner, Klement; Huijbregts, Mark A J

    2013-12-17

    While the ecological impact of anthropogenically introduced exotic species is considered a major threat for biodiversity and ecosystems functioning, it is generally not accounted for in the environmental life cycle assessment (LCA) of products. In this article, we propose a framework that includes exotic species introduction in an LCA context. We derived characterization factors for exotic fish species introduction related to the transport of goods across the Rhine-Main-Danube canal. These characterization factors are expressed as the potentially disappeared fraction (PDF) of native freshwater fish species in the rivers Rhine and Danube integrated over space and time per amount of goods transported (PDF·m(3)·yr·kg(-1)). Furthermore, we quantified the relative importance of exotic fish species introduction compared to other anthropogenic stressors in the freshwater environment (i.e., eutrophication, ecotoxicity, greenhouse gases, and water consumption) for transport of goods through the Rhine-Main-Danube waterway. We found that the introduction of exotic fish species contributed to 70-85% of the total freshwater ecosystem impact, depending on the distance that goods were transported. Our analysis showed that it is relevant and feasible to include the introduction of exotic species in an LCA framework. The proposed framework can be further extended by including the impacts of other exotic species groups, types of water bodies and pathways for introduction.

  11. Synopsis of Plazia Ruiz & Pav. (Onoserideae, Asteraceae), including a new species from northern Peru.

    PubMed

    Dillon, Michael O; Luebert, Federico

    2014-01-01

    A synopsis of Plazia Ruiz & Pav. (Onoserideae, Asteraceae) is presented, including the description of a new species, Plazia robinsonii M.O.Dillon & Sagást., from a locality c. 20 kms west of Huamachuco, Department of La Libertad in northern Peru. It most closely resembles Plazia conferta Ruiz & Pav., a narrow endemic from central Peru some 450 km to the south; however, the latter species has larger leaves and smaller capitula. Plazia is a small genus of four species confined to the Andean Cordillera of Peru, Bolivia, Chile, and Argentina. A distribution map of the four species, an illustration of the new species, a photograph of the holotype, and a key to species are provided.

  12. Synopsis of Plazia Ruiz & Pav. (Onoserideae, Asteraceae), including a new species from northern Peru

    PubMed Central

    Dillon, Michael O.; Luebert, Federico

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A synopsis of Plazia Ruiz & Pav. (Onoserideae, Asteraceae) is presented, including the description of a new species, Plazia robinsonii M.O.Dillon & Sagást., from a locality c. 20 kms west of Huamachuco, Department of La Libertad in northern Peru. It most closely resembles Plazia conferta Ruiz & Pav., a narrow endemic from central Peru some 450 km to the south; however, the latter species has larger leaves and smaller capitula. Plazia is a small genus of four species confined to the Andean Cordillera of Peru, Bolivia, Chile, and Argentina. A distribution map of the four species, an illustration of the new species, a photograph of the holotype, and a key to species are provided. PMID:24596488

  13. The Megophthalmidia (Diptera, Mycetophilidae) of North America including eight new species

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, Peter H.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Megophthalmidia Dziedzicki is a small leiine genus (Mycetophilidae) with seven species described from the Neotropics and ten species from the Palearctic region. Two species of Megophthalmidia have been reported for North America. Recent collecting of Mycetophilidae in California and Arizona, however, shows current North American diversity of Megophthalmidia is at least on par to other regions of the world. Eight new species of Megophthalmidia are described here, increasing the number of Nearctic Megophthalmidia species to nine. Included is a particularly atypical member of the genus, M. saskia sp. n., which expands the genus concept of Megophthalmidia. Of the two species previously recorded for North America, only one actually belongs in the genus. Megophthalmidia occidentalis Johannsen, is fully described and illustrated. The other named species, M. marceda (Sherman) is illustrated and transferred to the genus Ectrepesthoneura Enderlein. A lectotype is designated for this species. A key to the species of Megophthalmidia of North America is provided. The biology of these flies is not yet known. Three of the new Megophthalmidia species – M. lenimenta, M. misericordia, and M. radiata – are only known to occur within small protected areas within the California State Park and UC Natural Reserve systems. PMID:24693214

  14. Endophytic Botryosphaeriaceae, including five new species, associated with mangrove trees in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Osorio, J Alexander; Crous, Casparus J; de Beer, Z Wilhelm; Wingfield, Michael J; Roux, Jolanda

    2017-04-01

    Little is known regarding the fungi, especially fungal pathogens, associated with mangroves in Africa. This includes fungi in the Botryosphaeriaceae that comprise numerous opportunistic, stress-associated pathogens often associated with trees affected by environmental and anthropogenically generated stresses, such as those affecting mangroves. We investigated the occurrence of endophytic Botryosphaeriaceae along the entire distribution of mangroves in South Africa. Asymptomatic branches were collected from ten localities and six mangrove species. Isolates resembling species of Botryosphaeriaceae were identified based on multi-gene sequence data of the internal transcribed spacer regions (ITS), including the 5.8S nrRNA, the beta-tubulin (tub2), partial translation elongation factor 1-alpha (tef1-α), and DNA-directed RNA polymerase II second largest subunit (rpb2) gene regions. Inoculation trials were conducted on healthy branches of Avicennia marina and Bruguiera gymnorrhiza to evaluate the potential pathogenicity of the collected species. Fourteen species in the Botryosphaeriaceae belonging to four genera, Botryosphaeria, Diplodia, Lasiodiplodia, and Neofusicoccum were collected, including five new species. Neofusicoccum was the most prevalent genus followed by Lasiodiplodia, with species of Diplodia and Botryosphaeria being the least frequent. The inoculation studies revealed that one of the new species, Lasiodiplodia avicenniae is highly pathogenic to A. marina and could pose a threat to the health of these trees.

  15. One new species, four new records and key to species of Hydatothrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) from China (including Taiwan).

    PubMed

    Mirab-Balou, Majid; Yang, Shu-lan; Tong, Xiao-li

    2013-01-01

    Hydatothrips ormosiae sp. n. (Thripidae: Sericothripinae) is described from southern China; H. ekasi, H. liquidambara and H. onari Kudô are newly recorded for mainland China, and H. noro Kudô is newly recorded for Taiwan. A key to the 16 Hydatothrips species recorded from China (including Taiwan) is provided.

  16. Characteristics and distribution of Listeria spp., including Listeria species newly described since 2009.

    PubMed

    Orsi, Renato H; Wiedmann, Martin

    2016-06-01

    The genus Listeria is currently comprised of 17 species, including 9 Listeria species newly described since 2009. Genomic and phenotypic data clearly define a distinct group of six species (Listeria sensu strictu) that share common phenotypic characteristics (e.g., ability to grow at low temperature, flagellar motility); this group includes the pathogen Listeria monocytogenes. The other 11 species (Listeria sensu lato) represent three distinct monophyletic groups, which may warrant recognition as separate genera. These three proposed genera do not contain pathogens, are non-motile (except for Listeria grayi), are able to reduce nitrate (except for Listeria floridensis), and are negative for the Voges-Proskauer test (except for L. grayi). Unlike all other Listeria species, species in the proposed new genus Mesolisteria are not able to grow below 7 °C. While most new Listeria species have only been identified in a few countries, the availability of molecular tools for rapid characterization of putative Listeria isolates will likely lead to future identification of isolates representing these new species from different sources. Identification of Listeria sensu lato isolates has not only allowed for a better understanding of the evolution of Listeria and virulence characteristics in Listeria but also has practical implications as detection of Listeria species is often used by the food industry as a marker to detect conditions that allow for presence, growth, and persistence of L. monocytogenes. This review will provide a comprehensive critical summary of our current understanding of the characteristics and distribution of the new Listeria species with a focus on Listeria sensu lato.

  17. Phototactic responses to ultraviolet and white light in various species of Collembola, including the eyeless species, Folsomia candida.

    PubMed

    Fox, Gregory L; Coyle-Thompson, Catherine A; Bellinger, Peter F; Cohen, Randy W

    2007-01-01

    Previous observations have indicated homology in the cellular components between Collembolan eyes and the compound eyes of insects. However, behavioral or physiological studies indicating similarities in function are lacking. Collembolan eyes were examined from three species in the Family Isotomidae using scanning electron microscopy. Collembolan eyes are arranged dorsally and laterally on each side of the head in two species, Proisotoma minuta with eight eyes on each side of the head and Folsomia similis with one eye on each side of the head. In both of these species the eyes were located just posterior to the postantennal organ. In Folsomia candida, no external eye structures were detected. These three species were assayed for a series of behavioral preferences using ultraviolet (UV), white light and dark, and temperature conditions. The tests demonstrated that over 76% of all three species, including the eyeless F. Candida, chose white over UV light, over 69% preferred dark over UV, and over 77% favored dark over white light. The results demonstrated that all three species detect both UV and white light and avoid it, preferring cool, dark habitats. From the results of this study, it is hypothesized that F. candida may, in fact, be only "lensless" and may be able to detect light by having internal, non-ocular photoreceptors. Further histological studies are needed to investigate this possibility.

  18. Revision of the Australian Sphaerodoridae (Annelida) including the description of four new species.

    PubMed

    Capa, Maria; Bakken, Torkild

    2015-08-14

    A revision of the complete sphaerodorid (Sphaerodoridae, Annelida) collections housed in the three major Australian museums (The Australian Museum, Museum and Art Gallery of the Northern Territory and Museum Victoria) has been performed. Specimens of three of the four species described to date from Australian waters, Ephesiella australiensis, Sphaerodoropsis exmouthensis and Sphaerodoropsis fauchaldi, have been re-encountered, resulting in changes to their previously reported distribution range. Four additional species are herein described as new: Sphaerephesia hutchingsae n. sp., Sphaerodoropsis longofalcigera n. sp., Sphaerodoropsis megatuberculata n. sp. and Sphaerodoropsis wilsoni n. sp. Moreover, Sphaerodoropsis multipapillata heteropapillata is elevated to the rank of species. A formal description of other specimens, most likely belonging to undescribed species, is not possible due to insufficient material, but information about some of their morphological features is provided. Descriptions, iconography, geographical and ecological information of all species part of this revision is provided together with a key for identification to all Australian species. An evaluation of some of the traditional generic taxonomic features is made, considering the variation observed within the Australian species.

  19. Three species of Heteromazocraes Mamaev, 1981 (Monogenea: Mazocraeidae), including two new species from Thryssa spp. (Teleostei: Engraulidae) off Visakhapatnam coast, Bay of Bengal.

    PubMed

    Sailaja, Bade; Shameem, Ummey; Madhavi, Rokkam

    2017-03-01

    Three species of Heteromazocraes Mamaev, 1981 including two new taxa are described from the gills of three species of engraulid fishes Thryssa mystax (Bloch & Schneider), T. setirostris (Broussonet) and T. malabarica (Bloch) collected from the coastal waters off Visakhapatnam, Bay of Bengal. Heteromazocraes thryssaensis n. sp. differs from the closely related H. dodecacantha Mamaev, 1981 in the shape of the body and ovary, the number of testes and the number and shape of the genital hooks. Heteromazocraes engrauliae n. sp. differs from all the other species of the genus in the relative sizes of the haptoral clamps, in that the four closed clamps on the left side are larger than the two open clamps on the right side, in contrast to the situation in other species where the two open clamps on the anterior right side are markedly larger than the remaining clamps. Heteromazocraes kazikodiensis (Gupta & Khullar, 1967) Mamaev, 1981 regarded as a species inquirenda is redescribed with additional details and is reinstated as a valid species. A review of Heteromazocraes including a key for identification of the species is provided.

  20. A New Species of Graphis and New Lichen Records from Vietnam, Including a Second Worldwide Report of Sarcographina cyclospora

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Santosh; Jayalal, Udeni; Oh, Soon-Ok; Nguyen, Thi Thuy; Dzung, Nguyen Anh

    2014-01-01

    Graphis upretii is a new lichen species discovered in Vietnam. The species is characterized by a loosely corticate, rough, whitish grey to greyish green thallus, elongate and irregularly branched lirellae with an apically thin complete thalline margin (negrosina morph), laterally carbonized, entire proper exciple, clear hymenium, hyaline, 16~20 transversely locular ascospores, and about 50~95 × 10~15 µm in size. In addition, members of the taxon produce norstictic and stictic acids. Currently, the lichen flora of Vietnam include Arthonia radiata, Brigantiaea tricolor, Coenogonium implexum, Dirina paradoxa, Herpothallon sipmanii, Pertusaria pertusa, and Sarcographina cyclospora. PMID:24808729

  1. A checklist of Recent non-marine ostracods (Crustacea: Ostracoda) from Thailand, including descriptions of two new species.

    PubMed

    Savatenalinton, Sukonthip; Suttajit, Maitree

    2016-01-20

    A checklist covering a total of 67 Recent non-marine ostracod species from Thailand, belonging to 33 genera and seven families (Cyprididae, Candonidae, Ilyocyprididae, Notodromadidae, Darwinulidae, Limnocytheridae, Loxoconchidae), is presented. Twenty-five of these are considered endemic to the Oriental region, 17 of which are Thai endemics. Two        species (Hemicypris exiqua Broodbakker, 1983, and Notodromas sinensis Neal & Zhao, 1991) are new records for the Oriental region, and four species (Cypretta seurati Gauthier, 1929, Chrissia ceylonica (Daday, 1898), Chrissia formosa (Klie, 1938), and Dolerocypris fasciata (O.F. Müller, 1776)) are new record for Thailand. The most diverse subfamily in Thailand is the Cypricercinae, with 22 species. The most diverse genera are Strandesia Stuhlmann, 1888 (eight species), followed by Pseudostrandesia Savatenalinton & Martens, 2009 (seven species) and Stenocypris Sars, 1889 (five species). Other enigmatic groups and new taxa occur in the checklist, but these need to be described elsewhere in the future. For example, several species of Cypridopsinae Kaufmann, 1900, Cyclocypridinae Kaufmann, 1900, Candoninae Kaufmann, 1900 and other groups await description. Considering regional distributions based on frequency of occurrences, rare      species constitute a large fraction, whereas very common species are minor elements. Most of the records were reported from the Northern and Northeastern parts of Thailand. Sampled habitat types ranged from ponds, (oxbow) lakes, swamps, reservoirs, springs, canals, rivers, rice fields, waterfalls, and damp leaf litter. Most of the Thai ostracod fauna exists in a wide range of habitats. A brief discussion on the distribution of described species is included with the list.       Additionally, in the present contribution, we describe two new species, Dolerocypris sisaketensis n. sp. and           Hungarocypris suranareeae n. sp., from the Northeastern part of

  2. Effects of water and nitrogen addition on species turnover in temperate grasslands in northern China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhuwen; Wan, Shiqiang; Ren, Haiyan; Han, Xingguo; Li, Mai-He; Cheng, Weixin; Jiang, Yong

    2012-01-01

    Global nitrogen (N) deposition and climate change have been identified as two of the most important causes of current plant diversity loss. However, temporal patterns of species turnover underlying diversity changes in response to changing precipitation regimes and atmospheric N deposition have received inadequate attention. We carried out a manipulation experiment in a steppe and an old-field in North China from 2005 to 2009, to test the hypothesis that water addition enhances plant species richness through increase in the rate of species gain and decrease in the rate of species loss, while N addition has opposite effects on species changes. Our results showed that water addition increased the rate of species gain in both the steppe and the old field but decreased the rates of species loss and turnover in the old field. In contrast, N addition increased the rates of species loss and turnover in the steppe but decreased the rate of species gain in the old field. The rate of species change was greater in the old field than in the steppe. Water interacted with N to affect species richness and species turnover, indicating that the impacts of N on semi-arid grasslands were largely mediated by water availability. The temporal stability of communities was negatively correlated with rates of species loss and turnover, suggesting that water addition might enhance, but N addition would reduce the compositional stability of grasslands. Experimental results support our initial hypothesis and demonstrate that water and N availabilities differed in the effects on rate of species change in the temperate grasslands, and these effects also depend on grassland types and/or land-use history. Species gain and loss together contribute to the dynamic change of species richness in semi-arid grasslands under future climate change.

  3. A revision of the genus Osmoxylon (Araliaceae) in Palau, including two new species

    PubMed Central

    Costion, Craig M.; Plunkett, Gregory M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Osmoxylon Miq. (Araliaceae) is revised for Palau, Micronesia including descriptions of two new taxa Osmoxylon leidichii Costion, sp. nov. and Osmoxylon ngardokense Costion, sp. nov. Full descriptions are provided for all four Palau species, along with diagnostic field keys. PMID:26884705

  4. The product of microbial uranium reduction includes multiple species with U(IV)-phosphate coordination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alessi, Daniel S.; Lezama-Pacheco, Juan S.; Stubbs, Joanne E.; Janousch, Markus; Bargar, John R.; Persson, Per; Bernier-Latmani, Rizlan

    2014-04-01

    Until recently, the reduction of U(VI) to U(IV) during bioremediation was assumed to produce solely the sparingly soluble mineral uraninite, UO2(s). However, results from several laboratories reveal other species of U(IV) characterized by the absence of an EXAFS U-U pair correlation (referred to here as noncrystalline U(IV)). Because it lacks the crystalline structure of uraninite, this species is likely to be more labile and susceptible to reoxidation. In the case of single species cultures, analyses of U extended X-ray fine structure (EXAFS) spectra have previously suggested U(IV) coordination to carboxyl, phosphoryl or carbonate groups. In spite of this evidence, little is understood about the species that make up noncrystalline U(IV), their structural chemistry and the nature of the U(IV)-ligand interactions. Here, we use infrared spectroscopy (IR), uranium LIII-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), and phosphorus K-edge XAS analyses to constrain the binding environments of phosphate and uranium associated with Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 bacterial cells. Systems tested as a function of pH included: cells under metal-reducing conditions without uranium, cells under reducing conditions that produced primarily uraninite, and cells under reducing conditions that produced primarily biomass-associated noncrystalline U(IV). P X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) results provided clear and direct evidence of U(IV) coordination to phosphate. Infrared (IR) spectroscopy revealed a pronounced perturbation of phosphate functional groups in the presence of uranium. Analysis of these data provides evidence that U(IV) is coordinated to a range of phosphate species, including monomers and polymerized networks. U EXAFS analyses and a chemical extraction measurements support these conclusions. The results of this study provide new insights into the binding mechanisms of biomass-associated U(IV) species which in turn sheds light on the mechanisms of biological U

  5. Sphaerodoridae (Annelida) of the deep Northwestern Atlantic, including remarkable new species of Euritmia and Sphaerephesia

    PubMed Central

    Capa, María; Osborn, Karen J.; Bakken, Torkild

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Sphaerodoridae (Annelida) is a seeming uncommon and minimally diverse group of polychaetes in the northwestern Atlantic, with only seven species reported from the United States, and none from the eastern coast of Canada, before the present study. Review of the large Smithsonian collection (National Museum of Natural History, Washington) revealed the presence of two morphologically extraordinary undescribed species and added a new record to the north-western Atlantic region. Euritmia carolensis sp. n. is characterised by bearing approximately 20 sessile spherical papillae arranged in three transverse rows per segment, ventrum with 4–6 larger papillae near the parapodial bases and parapodia without papillae; bearing 4–5 simple chaetae that are enlarged subdistally. Sphaerephesia amphorata sp. n. is distinguished from other congeners in the presence of four longitudinal rows of sessile, bottle-shaped macrotubercles with exceptionally long digitiform terminal papilla, and parapodia with four rounded and small papillae, bearing 4–7 compound chaetae, with blades 7–11 times as long as wide. Other encountered species are also herein re-described, including intraspecific variation and updated iconography. Comparison of material also allowed some systematic changes in the group, including the synonymisation of the genus Amacrodorum with Euritmia, and the transfer of Ephesiopsis shivae to Ephesiella. A key to the species reported from the Northwestern Atlantic is provided. PMID:27667938

  6. Sphaerodoridae (Annelida) of the deep Northwestern Atlantic, including remarkable new species of Euritmia and Sphaerephesia.

    PubMed

    Capa, María; Osborn, Karen J; Bakken, Torkild

    2016-01-01

    Sphaerodoridae (Annelida) is a seeming uncommon and minimally diverse group of polychaetes in the northwestern Atlantic, with only seven species reported from the United States, and none from the eastern coast of Canada, before the present study. Review of the large Smithsonian collection (National Museum of Natural History, Washington) revealed the presence of two morphologically extraordinary undescribed species and added a new record to the north-western Atlantic region. Euritmia carolensis sp. n. is characterised by bearing approximately 20 sessile spherical papillae arranged in three transverse rows per segment, ventrum with 4-6 larger papillae near the parapodial bases and parapodia without papillae; bearing 4-5 simple chaetae that are enlarged subdistally. Sphaerephesia amphorata sp. n. is distinguished from other congeners in the presence of four longitudinal rows of sessile, bottle-shaped macrotubercles with exceptionally long digitiform terminal papilla, and parapodia with four rounded and small papillae, bearing 4-7 compound chaetae, with blades 7-11 times as long as wide. Other encountered species are also herein re-described, including intraspecific variation and updated iconography. Comparison of material also allowed some systematic changes in the group, including the synonymisation of the genus Amacrodorum with Euritmia, and the transfer of Ephesiopsis shivae to Ephesiella. A key to the species reported from the Northwestern Atlantic is provided.

  7. 78 FR 67369 - National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program: Addition to the Vaccine Injury Table to Include All...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program: Addition to the Vaccine Injury Table to Include All Vaccines Against Seasonal Influenza AGENCY: Health... vaccines against seasonal influenza are covered under the National Vaccine Injury Compensation...

  8. The Ophiostoma clavatum species complex: a newly defined group in the Ophiostomatales including three novel taxa.

    PubMed

    Linnakoski, Riikka; Jankowiak, Robert; Villari, Caterina; Kirisits, Thomas; Solheim, Halvor; de Beer, Z Wilhelm; Wingfield, Michael J

    2016-07-01

    Two species of blue-stain fungi with similar morphologies, Ophiostoma brunneo-ciliatum and Ophiostoma clavatum, are associates of bark beetles infesting Pinus spp. in Europe. This has raised questions whether they represent distinct taxa. Absence of herbarium specimens and contaminated or mistakenly identified cultures of O. brunneo-ciliatum and O. clavatum have accentuated the uncertainty regarding their correct identification. The aim of this study was to reconsider the identity of European isolates reported as O. brunneo-ciliatum and O. clavatum by applying DNA-based identification methods, and to provide appropriate type specimens for them. Phylogenetic analyses of the ITS, βT, TEF-1α and CAL gene sequences revealed that the investigated isolates represent a complex of seven cryptic species. The study confirmed that ITS data is insufficient to delineate species in some Ophiostoma species clusters. Lectotypes and epitypes were designated for O. clavatum and O. brunneo-ciliatum, and three new species, Ophiostoma brunneolum, Ophiostoma macroclavatum and Ophiostoma pseudocatenulatum, are described in the newly defined O. clavatum-complex. The other two species included in the complex are Ophiostoma ainoae and Ophiostoma tapionis. The results suggest co-evolution of these fungi in association with specific bark beetles. The results also confirm the identity of the fungus associated with the pine bark beetle Ips acuminatus as O. clavatum, while O. brunneo-ciliatum appears to be mainly associated with another pine bark beetle, Ips sexdentatus.

  9. Multiplex characterization of human pathogens including species and antibiotic-resistance gene identification.

    PubMed

    Barisˇ ić, Ivan; Petzka, Josefine; Schoenthaler, Silvia; Vierlinger, Klemens; Noehammer, Christa; Wiesinger-Mayr, Herbert

    2016-01-01

    The efficient medical treatment of infections requires detailed information about the pathogens involved and potential antibiotic-resistance mechanisms. The dramatically increasing incidence of multidrug-resistant bacteria especially highlights the importance of sophisticated diagnostic tests enabling a fast patient-customized therapy. However, the current molecular detection methods are limited to either the detection of species or only a few antibiotic-resistance genes.In this work, we present a human pathogen characterization assay using a rRNA gene microarray identifying 75 species comprising bacteria and fungi. A statistical classifier was developed to facilitate the automated species identification. Additionally, the clinically most important β-lactamases were identified simultaneously in a 100-plex reaction using padlock probes and the same microarray. The specificity and sensitivity of the combined assay was determined using clinical isolates. The detection limit was 10(5) c.f.u. ml(-1), recovering 89 % of the detectable β-lactamase-encoding genes specifically. The total assay time was less than 7 hand the modular character of the antibiotic-resistance detection allows the easy integration of further genetic targets. In summary, we present a fast, highly specific and sensitive multiplex pathogen characterization assay.

  10. An additional Meyerozyma guilliermondii IMH3 gene confers mycophenolic acid resistance in fungal CTG clade species.

    PubMed

    Defosse, Tatiana A; Mélin, Céline; Clastre, Marc; Besseau, Sébastien; Lanoue, Arnaud; Glévarec, Gaëlle; Oudin, Audrey; Dugé de Bernonville, Thomas; Vandeputte, Patrick; Linder, Tomas; Bouchara, Jean-Philippe; Courdavault, Vincent; Giglioli-Guivarc'h, Nathalie; Papon, Nicolas

    2016-09-01

    The fungal CTG clade comprises a number of well-known yeasts that impact human health or with high biotechnological potential. To further extend the set of molecular tools dedicated to these microorganisms, the initial focus of this study was to develop a mycophenolic acid (MPA) resistance cassette. Surprisingly, while we were carrying out preliminary susceptibility testing experiments in a set of yeast species, Meyerozyma guilliermondii, although not being a MPA producer, was found to be primarily resistant toward this drug, whereas a series of nine related species were susceptible to MPA. Using comparative and functional genomic approaches, we demonstrated that all MPA-susceptible CTG clade species display a single gene, referred to as IMH3.1, encoding the MPA target inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) and that MPA resistance relies on the presence in the M. guilliermondii genome of an additional IMPDH-encoding gene (IMH3.2). The M. guilliermondii IMH3.2 gene displays marked differences compared to IMH3.1 including the lack of intron, a roughly 160-fold higher transcription level and a serine residue at position 251. Placed under the control of the M. guilliermondii actin 1 gene promoter, IMH3.2 was successfully used to transform Lodderomyces elongisporus, Clavispora lusitaniae, Scheffersomyces stipitis and Candida parapsilosis.

  11. 50 CFR 15.31 - Criteria for including species in the approved list for captive-bred species.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... approved list for captive-bred species. 15.31 Section 15.31 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND... captive-bred species. The Director will periodically review the list of captive-bred exotic bird species...) All specimens of the species known to be in trade (legal or illegal) are captive-bred; (b)...

  12. 50 CFR 15.31 - Criteria for including species in the approved list for captive-bred species.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... approved list for captive-bred species. 15.31 Section 15.31 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND... captive-bred species. The Director will periodically review the list of captive-bred exotic bird species...) All specimens of the species known to be in trade (legal or illegal) are captive-bred; (b)...

  13. 50 CFR 15.31 - Criteria for including species in the approved list for captive-bred species.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... approved list for captive-bred species. 15.31 Section 15.31 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND... captive-bred species. The Director will periodically review the list of captive-bred exotic bird species...) All specimens of the species known to be in trade (legal or illegal) are captive-bred; (b)...

  14. 50 CFR 15.31 - Criteria for including species in the approved list for captive-bred species.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... approved list for captive-bred species. 15.31 Section 15.31 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND... captive-bred species. The Director will periodically review the list of captive-bred exotic bird species...) All specimens of the species known to be in trade (legal or illegal) are captive-bred; (b)...

  15. 50 CFR 15.31 - Criteria for including species in the approved list for captive-bred species.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... approved list for captive-bred species. 15.31 Section 15.31 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND... captive-bred species. The Director will periodically review the list of captive-bred exotic bird species...) All specimens of the species known to be in trade (legal or illegal) are captive-bred; (b)...

  16. Diversity of Phytophthora Species from Declining Mediterranean Maquis Vegetation, including Two New Species, Phytophthora crassamura and P. ornamentata sp. nov.

    PubMed Central

    Scanu, Bruno; Linaldeddu, Benedetto T.; Deidda, Antonio; Jung, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The Mediterranean basin is recognized as a global biodiversity hotspot accounting for more than 25,000 plant species that represent almost 10% of the world’s vascular flora. In particular, the maquis vegetation on Mediterranean islands and archipelagos constitutes an important resource of the Mediterranean plant diversity due to its high rate of endemism. Since 2009, a severe and widespread dieback and mortality of Quercus ilex trees and several other plant species of the Mediterranean maquis has been observed in the National Park of La Maddalena archipelago (northeast Sardinia, Italy). Infected plants showed severe decline symptoms and a significant reduction of natural regeneration. First studies revealed the involvement of the highly invasive wide-host range pathogen Phytophthora cinnamomi and several fungal pathogens. Subsequent detailed research led to a better understanding of these epidemics showing that multiple Phytophthora spp. were involved, some of them unknown to science. In total, nine Phytophthora species were isolated from rhizosphere soil samples collected from around symptomatic trees and shrubs including Asparagus albus, Cistus sp., Juniperus phoenicea, J. oxycedrus, Pistacia lentiscus and Rhamnus alaternus. Based on morphological characters, growth-temperature relations and sequence analysis of the ITS and cox1 gene regions, the isolates were identified as Phytophthora asparagi, P. bilorbang, P. cinnamomi, P. cryptogea, P. gonapodyides, P. melonis, P. syringae and two new Clade 6 taxa which are here described as P. crassamura sp. nov. and P. ornamentata sp. nov. Pathogenicity tests supported their possible involvement in the severe decline that is currently threatening the Mediterranean maquis vegetation in the La Maddalena archipelago. PMID:26649428

  17. A phylogeny and revised classification of Squamata, including 4161 species of lizards and snakes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The extant squamates (>9400 known species of lizards and snakes) are one of the most diverse and conspicuous radiations of terrestrial vertebrates, but no studies have attempted to reconstruct a phylogeny for the group with large-scale taxon sampling. Such an estimate is invaluable for comparative evolutionary studies, and to address their classification. Here, we present the first large-scale phylogenetic estimate for Squamata. Results The estimated phylogeny contains 4161 species, representing all currently recognized families and subfamilies. The analysis is based on up to 12896 base pairs of sequence data per species (average = 2497 bp) from 12 genes, including seven nuclear loci (BDNF, c-mos, NT3, PDC, R35, RAG-1, and RAG-2), and five mitochondrial genes (12S, 16S, cytochrome b, ND2, and ND4). The tree provides important confirmation for recent estimates of higher-level squamate phylogeny based on molecular data (but with more limited taxon sampling), estimates that are very different from previous morphology-based hypotheses. The tree also includes many relationships that differ from previous molecular estimates and many that differ from traditional taxonomy. Conclusions We present a new large-scale phylogeny of squamate reptiles that should be a valuable resource for future comparative studies. We also present a revised classification of squamates at the family and subfamily level to bring the taxonomy more in line with the new phylogenetic hypothesis. This classification includes new, resurrected, and modified subfamilies within gymnophthalmid and scincid lizards, and boid, colubrid, and lamprophiid snakes. PMID:23627680

  18. Ctenophores from the Oaxaca coast, including a checklist of species from the Pacific coast of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Escobar, Fernando; Valadez-Vargas, Diana K; Oliveira, Otto M P

    2015-03-20

    Ctenophores are poorly known in the tropical eastern Pacific, including the southern coast of Mexico. Previous records of ctenophores along the Pacific coast have been provided mainly from northern waters. For the coast of Oaxaca state, their occurrence has only been mentioned before at phylum level. In this paper, we provide the first three records of ctenophores for the Oaxacan coast, which represent new records of Beroe forskalii and Bolinopsis vitrea as well as the first record of Ocyropsis maculata in the tropical eastern Pacific. Descriptions of these three species, as well as a checklist of the ctenophores from the west coast of Mexico are provided.

  19. Soil Ciliates from Saudi Arabia, Including Descriptions of Two New Genera and Six New Species

    PubMed Central

    FOISSNER, Wilhelm; QUINTELA-ALONSO, Pablo; AL-RASHEID, Khaled

    2010-01-01

    Summary Six soil samples from natural and cultivated sites of Saudi Arabia were investigated for ciliate diversity, using the non-flooded Petri dish culture method, live observation, and silver impregnation. We identified 135 species, all new for the fauna of Saudi Arabia, of which seven were undescribed: Spathidium alqasabi nov. spec.; Enchelyodon alqasabi nov. spec.; Metauroleptus arabicus nov. gen., nov. spec.; Pseudohemisincirra arabica nov. gen., nov. spec.; Saudithrix terricola​ Berger, Al-Rasheid and Foissner, 2006; Oxytricha arabica nov. spec.; and Erimophrya monostyla nov. spec. Based on Spathidium alqasabi, S. seppelti foissneri​ Vd’ačný et al., 2006 and S. seppelti etoschense​ Foissner et al., 2002 are raised to species rank; for the latter, a new name is required to avoid homonymy: Spathidium fraterculum nov. nom. The new genus Metauroleptus, which possesses two long and two to three short ventral cirral rows, generates all dorsal kineties intrakinetally and produces caudal cirri exclusively in dorsal kinety 1. Metauroleptus belongs to the hypotrichs, while family classification remains doubtful. The same applies to the new hypotrich genus Pseudohemisincirra, which has frontoventral and transverse cirri, while buccal cirri and caudal cirri are absent. The number of species contained in Saudi Arabian soils, including sand dunes, is in the range reported from other regions of the earth, suggesting that ciliates are well adapted to dry habitats, possibly mainly by their ability to produce very resistant resting cysts, most surviving for a long time due to reduced metazoan predation. PMID:20890459

  20. Nephtyidae (Annelida: Polychaeta) from the Campos Basin, including two new species and a new record.

    PubMed

    Franco, Natália Bizzo; Rizzo, Alexandra E

    2016-05-24

    Members of the marine polychaete family Nephtyidae are commonly found in soft substrates. Their most distinctive characteristic is the presence of interramal branchiae located between the notopodia and neuropodia. In the present study, five species of Nephtyidae: Aglaophamus fabrun sp. nov., Aglaophamus juvenalis (Kinberg, 1866), Inermonephtys inermis (Ehlers, 1887), Inermonephtys soldius sp. nov. and Nephtys squamosa Ehlers, 1887 were found in the Campos Basin, state of Rio de Janeiro, including two new species and a new record for the Brazilian coast. Aglaophamus fabrun sp. nov. has a proboscis with 10 pairs of distal papillae and approximately 20 subdistal papillae in rows, with 3-5 papillae in each row; and lacks an unpaired median papilla; the prostomium has a pair of eyes and a characteristic pigmentation pattern. Inermonephtys soldius sp. nov. has interramal branchiae starting from parapodium 5, and basal papillae starting on chaetiger 6. Inermonephtys inermis is a new record for the Brazilian coast. Descriptions, comments and a key to species of Nephtyidae recorded from Brazil are provided.

  1. Three new species in the harvestmen genus Acuclavella (Opiliones, Dyspnoi, Ischyropsalidoidea), including description of male Acuclavella quattuor Shear, 1986

    PubMed Central

    Richart, Casey H.; Hedin, Marshal

    2013-01-01

    Abstract In Shear’s (1986) cladistic analysis of the Ischyropsalidoidea, he described the new genus Acuclavella including four new species from the Pacific Northwest states of Washington and Idaho. Several of these species descriptions were based on very limited sample sizes. Our recent field work has increased by more than an order of magnitude both the number of specimens and known localities for Acuclavella. We use this new material to interpret species limits in Acuclavella using morphometric analyses and DNA sequence data from four gene regions. We sequence for the first time the protein-coding homolog of the Wnt2 gene for phylogenetic reconstruction in Opiliones. Our multi-locus phylogeny corroborates a sister relationship between Acuclavella and Ceratolasma, as hypothesized using morphology by Shear (1986). Within Acuclavella, morphometric clusters and reciprocal allelic monophyly allows recognition of three additional species: Acuclavella leonardi sp. n., Acuclavella sheari sp. n., and Acuclavella makah sp. n. This work also describes the previously unknown male of Acuclavella quattuor, from specimens collected at the type locality. Our research identifies a number of novel morphologies for Acuclavella, including females with four pairs of spines, individuals with three pairs of spines on scute areas I-III, and a population with two pairs of spines disjunct from Acuclavella quattuor, which was diagnosed with this spination character. We were unable to assign these populations to existing species, and conservatively do not yet recognize them as new. Intrageneric morphometrics and phylogenetic inference in Acuclavella were often concordant. However, we demonstrate that species delimitation signal would not be detected if only a single line of evidence were utilized. PMID:23825441

  2. Inclusion of Additional Plant Species and Trait Information in Dynamic Vegetation Modeling of Arctic Tundra and Boreal Forest Ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Euskirchen, E. S.; Patil, V.; Roach, J.; Griffith, B.; McGuire, A. D.

    2015-12-01

    Dynamic vegetation models (DVMs) have been developed to model the ecophysiological characteristics of plant functional types in terrestrial ecosystems. They have frequently been used to answer questions pertaining to processes such as disturbance, plant succession, and community composition under historical and future climate scenarios. While DVMs have proved useful in these types of applications, it has often been questioned if additional detail, such as including plant dynamics at the species-level and/or including species-specific traits would make these models more accurate and/or broadly applicable. A sub-question associated with this issue is, 'How many species, or what degree of functional diversity, should we incorporate to sustain ecosystem function in modeled ecosystems?' Here, we focus on how the inclusion of additional plant species and trait information may strengthen dynamic vegetation modeling in applications pertaining to: (1) forage for caribou in northern Alaska, (2) above- and belowground carbon storage in the boreal forest and lake margin wetlands of interior Alaska, and (3) arctic tundra and boreal forest leaf phenology. While the inclusion of additional information generally proved valuable in these three applications, this additional detail depends on field data that may not always be available and may also result in increased computational complexity. Therefore, it is important to assess these possible limitations against the perceived need for additional plant species and trait information in the development and application of dynamic vegetation models.

  3. Trypanosome species, including Trypanosoma cruzi, in sylvatic and peridomestic bats of Texas, USA.

    PubMed

    Hodo, Carolyn L; Goodwin, Chloe C; Mayes, Bonny C; Mariscal, Jacqueline A; Waldrup, Kenneth A; Hamer, Sarah A

    2016-12-01

    In contrast to other mammalian reservoirs, many bat species migrate long-distances and have the potential to introduce exotic pathogens to new areas. Bats have long been associated with blood-borne protozoal trypanosomes of the Schizotrypanum subgenus, which includes the zoonotic parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, agent of Chagas disease. Another member of the subgenus, Trypanosoma dionisii, infects bats of Europe and South America, and genetic similarities between strains from the two continents suggest transcontinental movement of this parasite via bats. Despite the known presence of diverse trypanosomes in bats of Central and South America, and the presence of T. cruzi-infected vectors and wildlife in the US, the role of bats in maintaining and dispersing trypanosomes in the US has not yet been reported. We collected hearts and blood from 8 species of insectivorous bats from 30 counties across Texas. Using PCR and DNA sequencing, we tested 593 bats for trypanosomes and found 1 bat positive for T. cruzi (0.17%), 9 for T. dionisii (1.5%), and 5 for Blastocrithidia spp. (0.8%), a group of insect trypanosomes. The T. cruzi-infected bat was carrying TcI, the strain type associated with human disease in the US. In the T. dionisii-infected bats, we detected three unique variants associated with the three infected bat species. These findings represent the first report of T. cruzi in a bat in the US, of T. dionisii in North America, and of Blastocrithidia spp. in mammals, and underscore the importance of bats in the maintenance of trypanosomes, including agents of human and animal disease, across broad geographic locales.

  4. 50 CFR 15.32 - Criteria for including species in the approved list for non-captive-bred species.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TAKING, POSSESSION, TRANSPORTATION, SALE, PURCHASE... species does not breed in the country of export, the Service will consider sustainable use management... the species' important habitats, if any. (3) Information on the role of the species in its...

  5. 50 CFR 15.32 - Criteria for including species in the approved list for non-captive-bred species.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TAKING, POSSESSION, TRANSPORTATION, SALE, PURCHASE... species does not breed in the country of export, the Service will consider sustainable use management... the species' important habitats, if any. (3) Information on the role of the species in its...

  6. 50 CFR 15.32 - Criteria for including species in the approved list for non-captive-bred species.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TAKING, POSSESSION, TRANSPORTATION, SALE, PURCHASE... species does not breed in the country of export, the Service will consider sustainable use management... the species' important habitats, if any. (3) Information on the role of the species in its...

  7. 50 CFR 15.32 - Criteria for including species in the approved list for non-captive-bred species.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... approved list for non-captive-bred species. 15.32 Section 15.32 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH... list for non-captive-bred species. Upon receipt of a completed sustainable use management plan for a... by the country of export should be submitted for species which breed in the country of export. If...

  8. New species, additions and a key to the Brazilian species of the Geminata clade of Solanum L. (Solanaceae) in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Knapp, Sandra; Stehmann, João Renato; Giacomin, Leandro L

    2015-01-01

    Two additions and four new species are described from Brazil for the large Geminata clade (Solanum: Solanaceae) bringing the total diversity in the group to 149 species, with 44 of these occurring in Brazil. New species are described from Brazil: Solanumamorimii S.Knapp & Giacomin, sp. nov. from Bahia and adjacent Minas Gerais states, Solanumfilirhachis Giacomin & Stehmann, sp. nov. from Espirito Santo, Solanumpsilophyllum Stehmann & Giacomin, sp. nov. from Minas Gerais and Solanumverticillatum S.Knapp & Stehmann, sp. nov. from São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro and Minas Gerais. Modern character-rich descriptions and lectotypifications are provided for Solanumapiahyense Witasek and Solanumlacteum Vell. All are illustrated, mapped and assessed for conservation status. We also provide a brief analysis of the diversity and endemism of the Geminata clade in Brazil and a key to all 44 Brazilian species.

  9. New species, additions and a key to the Brazilian species of the Geminata clade of Solanum L. (Solanaceae) in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Knapp, Sandra; Stehmann, João Renato; Giacomin, Leandro L.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Two additions and four new species are described from Brazil for the large Geminata clade (Solanum: Solanaceae) bringing the total diversity in the group to 149 species, with 44 of these occurring in Brazil. New species are described from Brazil: Solanum amorimii S.Knapp & Giacomin, sp. nov. from Bahia and adjacent Minas Gerais states, Solanum filirhachis Giacomin & Stehmann, sp. nov. from Espirito Santo, Solanum psilophyllum Stehmann & Giacomin, sp. nov. from Minas Gerais and Solanum verticillatum S.Knapp & Stehmann, sp. nov. from São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro and Minas Gerais. Modern character-rich descriptions and lectotypifications are provided for Solanum apiahyense Witasek and Solanum lacteum Vell. All are illustrated, mapped and assessed for conservation status. We also provide a brief analysis of the diversity and endemism of the Geminata clade in Brazil and a key to all 44 Brazilian species. PMID:25878553

  10. Taxonomic review of tropical western Atlantic shallow water Drilliidae (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Conoidea) including descriptions of 100 new species.

    PubMed

    Fallon, Phillip J Jr

    2016-03-14

    A review of the literature and examination of over 3,200 specimens of shallow water (<200 m) tropical western Atlantic (TWA) Drilliidae Olson, 1964 in museum and private collections has resulted in the recognition of numerous previously undescribed species, 100 of which are proposed here for the first time. A total of 65 names were found in the literature. Of these, 48 are considered valid, 16 synonyms, and one nomen dubium. In addition, characteristics that distinguish each genus currently in use for TWA shallow water species have indicated the need for reassignment (new combinations within Drilliidae) of 15 species. Some nomenclatural actions have come about from the literature review and include one taxon placed in junior synonymy (under an older name recently re-discovered) and one new name for a junior homonym. Two neotypes, five lectotype designations, and one new name are also proposed. Altogether, nomenclatural actions on 17% of valid previously described taxa are proposed. The 100 proposed names are placed in 12 available and one new genus: Agladrillia Woodring, 1928 (2), Bellaspira Conrad, 1868 (7), Calliclava McLean, 1971 (3), Cerodrillia Bartsch & Rehder, 1939 (11), Clathrodrillia Dall, 1918 (6), Decoradrillia, new genus (4), Douglassia Bartsch, 1934 (4), Fenimorea Bartsch, 1934 (15), Leptadrillia Woodring, 1928 (12), Lissodrillia Bartsch & Rehder, 1939 (8), Neodrillia Bartsch, 1943 (2), Splendrillia Hedley, 1922 (13), and Syntomodrillia Woodring, 1928 (13). These are the first reports of Calliclava in the western Atlantic, previously known only from the eastern Pacific. The new genus, Decoradrillia, is proposed to hold four new species and one existing that share a unique shell microsculpture and other morphological traits. One genus, Drillia Gray, 1838, is not currently believed to have TWA representatives. Three genera comprised exclusively of bathyal species are not treated in this work: Clavus Monfort, 1810 (=Eldridgea Bartsch, 1934), Globidrillia

  11. 50 CFR 15.32 - Criteria for including species in the approved list for non-captive-bred species.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... is sustainable. (6)(i) For species that are considered “pests” in the country of origin..., disease carrier; a description of the damage the pest species causes to its ecosystem; and a description... illegal trade, domestic trade, subsistence use, disease, and habitat loss; and (vi) Ensures that...

  12. Non-additive increases in sediment stability are generated by macroinvertebrate species interactions in laboratory streams.

    PubMed

    Albertson, Lindsey K; Cardinale, Bradley J; Sklar, Leonard S

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that biological structures such as plant roots can have large impacts on landscape morphodynamics, and that physical models that do not incorporate biology can generate qualitatively incorrect predictions of sediment transport. However, work to date has focused almost entirely on the impacts of single, usually dominant, species. Here we ask whether multiple, coexisting species of hydropsychid caddisfly larvae have different impacts on sediment mobility compared to single-species systems due to competitive interactions and niche differences. We manipulated the presence of two common species of net-spinning caddisfly (Ceratopsyche oslari, Arctopsyche californica) in laboratory mesocosms and measured how their silk filtration nets influence the critical shear stress required to initiate sediment grain motion when they were in monoculture versus polyculture. We found that critical shear stress increases non-additively in polycultures where species were allowed to interact. Critical shear stress was 26% higher in multi-species assemblages compared to the average single-species monoculture, and 21% greater than levels of stability achieved by the species having the largest impact on sediment motion in monoculture. Supplementary behavioral experiments suggest the non-additive increase in critical shear stress may have occurred as competition among species led to shifts in the spatial distribution of the two populations and complementary habitat use. To explore the implications of these results for field conditions, we used results from the laboratory study to parameterize a common model of sediment transport. We then used this model to estimate potential bed movement in a natural stream for which we had measurements of channel geometry, grain size, and daily discharge. Although this extrapolation is speculative, it illustrates that multi-species impacts could be sufficiently large to reduce bedload sediment flux over annual time scales in

  13. Non-Additive Increases in Sediment Stability Are Generated by Macroinvertebrate Species Interactions in Laboratory Streams

    PubMed Central

    Albertson, Lindsey K.; Cardinale, Bradley J.; Sklar, Leonard S.

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that biological structures such as plant roots can have large impacts on landscape morphodynamics, and that physical models that do not incorporate biology can generate qualitatively incorrect predictions of sediment transport. However, work to date has focused almost entirely on the impacts of single, usually dominant, species. Here we ask whether multiple, coexisting species of hydropsychid caddisfly larvae have different impacts on sediment mobility compared to single-species systems due to competitive interactions and niche differences. We manipulated the presence of two common species of net-spinning caddisfly (Ceratopsyche oslari, Arctopsyche californica) in laboratory mesocosms and measured how their silk filtration nets influence the critical shear stress required to initiate sediment grain motion when they were in monoculture versus polyculture. We found that critical shear stress increases non-additively in polycultures where species were allowed to interact. Critical shear stress was 26% higher in multi-species assemblages compared to the average single-species monoculture, and 21% greater than levels of stability achieved by the species having the largest impact on sediment motion in monoculture. Supplementary behavioral experiments suggest the non-additive increase in critical shear stress may have occurred as competition among species led to shifts in the spatial distribution of the two populations and complementary habitat use. To explore the implications of these results for field conditions, we used results from the laboratory study to parameterize a common model of sediment transport. We then used this model to estimate potential bed movement in a natural stream for which we had measurements of channel geometry, grain size, and daily discharge. Although this extrapolation is speculative, it illustrates that multi-species impacts could be sufficiently large to reduce bedload sediment flux over annual time scales in

  14. SURROGATE SPECIES IN ASSESSING CONTAMINANT RISK FOR ENDANGERED FISHES, INCLUDING INTERSPECIES TOXICITY CORRELATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rainbow trout, fathead minnows, and sheepshead minnows were tested as surrogate species to assess contaminant risk for 17 endangered fishes and one toad species. Acute toxicity tests were conducted with carbaryl, copper, 4-nonylphenol, pentachlorophenol, and permethrin in accorda...

  15. The rust fungus Gymnosporangium in Korea including two new species, G. monticola and G. unicorne

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A survey was conducted of species of the rust fungus Gymnosporangium in Korea. The previously known species were recollected, namely Gymnosporangium asiaticum, G. clavariiforme, G. globosum, G. japonicum, and G. yamadae. Although G. cornutum was reported from Korea, collections similar to that speci...

  16. Redescription of the Advertisement Call of Five Species of Thoropa (Anura, Cycloramphidae), Including Recordings of Rare and Endangered Species

    PubMed Central

    Assis, Clodoaldo L.; Feio, Renato N.; Toledo, Luís Felipe

    2016-01-01

    Frogs of the genus Thoropa comprise six endemic Brazilian species on the Eastern side of the country. Little is known about their natural history, especially about their acoustic communication. Therefore, aiming to provide an overview of their vocalizations, we analyzed and redescribed male advertisement calls of three living and two possibly extinct species. The smaller species, T. petropolitana and T. lutzi, produce simple calls (one single note) with a higher frequency range than the remaining larger ones. On the other hand, the larger species present complex calls, with more than one note: T. megatympanum calls have three notes, T. taophora calls have four notes, and T. miliaris calls varies from three to six notes. Population snout-vent length negatively correlated with peak of dominant frequency as expected. However, highlighted differences between two populations of T. lutzi, which could indicate need of further taxonomic evaluation of those lineages. Peculiar morphology, such as the absence of vocal sacs and slits, may have contributed to their call variation and highly banded frequency structure. If the observed population differences reflect species-level differences, T. lutzi may be classified as a critically endangered species, as T. petropolitana. Furthermore, we provided a suggestion to an unusual behavior in frogs: calling with the mouth open in the smaller species of the genus. PMID:27617833

  17. Redescription of the Advertisement Call of Five Species of Thoropa (Anura, Cycloramphidae), Including Recordings of Rare and Endangered Species.

    PubMed

    Nunes-de-Almeida, Carlos H L; Assis, Clodoaldo L; Feio, Renato N; Toledo, Luís Felipe

    2016-01-01

    Frogs of the genus Thoropa comprise six endemic Brazilian species on the Eastern side of the country. Little is known about their natural history, especially about their acoustic communication. Therefore, aiming to provide an overview of their vocalizations, we analyzed and redescribed male advertisement calls of three living and two possibly extinct species. The smaller species, T. petropolitana and T. lutzi, produce simple calls (one single note) with a higher frequency range than the remaining larger ones. On the other hand, the larger species present complex calls, with more than one note: T. megatympanum calls have three notes, T. taophora calls have four notes, and T. miliaris calls varies from three to six notes. Population snout-vent length negatively correlated with peak of dominant frequency as expected. However, highlighted differences between two populations of T. lutzi, which could indicate need of further taxonomic evaluation of those lineages. Peculiar morphology, such as the absence of vocal sacs and slits, may have contributed to their call variation and highly banded frequency structure. If the observed population differences reflect species-level differences, T. lutzi may be classified as a critically endangered species, as T. petropolitana. Furthermore, we provided a suggestion to an unusual behavior in frogs: calling with the mouth open in the smaller species of the genus.

  18. Neotropical Copestylum Macquart (Diptera: Syrphidae) Breeding in Fruits and Flowers, Including 7 New Species

    PubMed Central

    Ricarte, Antonio; Marcos-García, M. Ángeles; Hancock, E. Geoffrey; Rotheray, Graham E.

    2015-01-01

    Ten species of Copestylum (Diptera: Syrphidae) were reared from fruits and flowers in Costa Rica, Ecuador and Trinidad. Seven were new and in this paper, we describe them, their development sites and the third stage larva and/or the puparium of all ten species. One new synonym is proposed, Copestylum pinkusi (Curran) [= Copestylum cinctiventre (Curran)]. Similarities and differences between these new and other Copestylum species, suggest they separate into two groups, referred to as the Vagum and Cinctiventre species groups. Features characterising these groups for both adult and early stages are assessed. Each species was also distinguished using adult and early stage characters. Within the Vagum group, adults were more disparate morphologically than the larval stage; this was reversed in the Cinctiventre group. Adult colour patterns are probably cryptic in function and for disguise. Vagum species have disruptive marks, while the Cinctiventre species have reflective colours. Biologically, the groups are almost distinguished by larval development sites. Vagum species use predominantly fruits and have a larval stage that is relatively generalised in form and habit. Cinctiventre species are confined to developing in flowers and the larva is more specialised. A key to both adult and early stages of all ten species is provided. PMID:26580811

  19. The genus Chaetomium in Iran, a phylogenetic study including six new species.

    PubMed

    Asgari, Bita; Zare, Rasoul

    2011-01-01

    Twenty-one species of Chaetomium known from Iran were compared on the basis of morphological and molecular characters. Six new species are recognized, five isolated from cereals and one from nematode cysts. A combined sequence dataset of the ITS region, partial LSU rDNA, and β-tubulin gene sufficiently resolved five species groups of Chaetomium that are largely concordant with combined features of peridium structure, ascospore shape and germ pore position. Among the new species C. undulatulum is a close relative of C. globosum, C. rectangulare is close to C. elatum, C. interruptum and C. grande are close to C. megalocarpum, altogether forming the C. globosum species group. Chaetomium iranianum and C. truncatulum are members of the C. carinthiacum species group, characterized by spirally coiled ascomatal hairs and fusiform ascospores. A chrysosporium-like anamorph is newly described for C. acropullum.

  20. New species of Daidalotarsonemus and Excelsotarsonemus (Acari: Tarsonemidae) from the Brazilian rainforest including new morphological characters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three new species, Daidalotarsonemus oliveirai Rezende, Lofego & Ochoa, sp. nov.,Excelsotarsonemus caravelis Rezende, Lofego & Ochoa, sp. nov. and E. tupi Rezende, Lofego & Ochoa, sp. nov. are described and illustrated. Measurements for these species are provided, as well as drawings, phase contrast...

  1. The genus Hebeloma in the alpine belt of the Carpathians including two new species.

    PubMed

    Eberhardt, Ursula; Ronikier, Anna; Schütz, Nicole; Beker, Henry J

    2015-01-01

    Between 2002 and 2012 regular visits to the Carpathians were made and a number of Hebeloma spp. were collected from the alpine area. In total 44 collections were made that represent 11 species, two of which, Hebeloma grandisporum and H. oreophilum, are described here as new. Of the 11 species, four (H. alpinum, H. marginatulum and the two species described as new) are known only from alpine or Arctic habitats. Hebeloma dunense and H. mesophaeum are commonly found in, but not restricted to, alpine habitats. The other five species (H. aanenii, H. laterinum, H. naviculosporum, H. vaccinum, H. velutipes) are usually found in lowland or boreal habitats. Hebeloma naviculosporum is reported for the first time from the alpine zone and H. alpinum for the first time as growing with Helianthemum. All but two species (H. alpinum, H. marginatulum) are reported for the first time from the Carpathian alpine zone. In this paper we discuss the habitat, the 11 recorded species and give detailed descriptions of the two new species, both morphologically and molecularly. A key for Hebeloma species from sect. Hebeloma occurring in Arctic-alpine habitats is provided.

  2. Review of Ilatha Fischer (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Alysiinae), including descriptions of six new species and a key to species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The following new species from the Neotropical Region are described: Ilatha buffingtoni Kula, Dix-Luna, and Shaw; Ilatha cloptoni Kula, Dix-Luna, and Shaw; Ilatha dasygaster Kula, Dix-Luna, and Shaw; Ilatha henospilota Kula, Dix-Luna, and Shaw; Ilatha plaumanni Kula, Dix-Luna, and Shaw; and Ilatha s...

  3. Revision of the Afrotropical Lycorininae (Ichneumonidae; Hymenoptera) II. Three new Lycorina species and additional distribution records.

    PubMed

    Rousse, P; Van Noort, S

    2014-11-14

    Three new Afrotropical Lycorina species are described: L. horstmanni sp. nov., L. jacksonfive sp. nov. and L. riftensis sp. nov. The description of L. globiceps is expanded to include the large variability of the colour pattern. New distribution records are provided for L. fici and L. globiceps. An illustrated dichotomous key, and an online interactive matrix key available on www.waspweb.org, are provided for the identification of the seven known Afrotropical Lycorininae species.

  4. Generalized linear and generalized additive models in studies of species distributions: Setting the scene

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guisan, A.; Edwards, T.C.; Hastie, T.

    2002-01-01

    An important statistical development of the last 30 years has been the advance in regression analysis provided by generalized linear models (GLMs) and generalized additive models (GAMs). Here we introduce a series of papers prepared within the framework of an international workshop entitled: Advances in GLMs/GAMs modeling: from species distribution to environmental management, held in Riederalp, Switzerland, 6-11 August 2001. We first discuss some general uses of statistical models in ecology, as well as provide a short review of several key examples of the use of GLMs and GAMs in ecological modeling efforts. We next present an overview of GLMs and GAMs, and discuss some of their related statistics used for predictor selection, model diagnostics, and evaluation. Included is a discussion of several new approaches applicable to GLMs and GAMs, such as ridge regression, an alternative to stepwise selection of predictors, and methods for the identification of interactions by a combined use of regression trees and several other approaches. We close with an overview of the papers and how we feel they advance our understanding of their application to ecological modeling. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. A synopsis of the New World species of Drypetes section Drypetes (Putranjivaceae) with asymmetrical fruits, including description of a new species

    PubMed Central

    Levin, Geoffrey A.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A synopsis of the New World species of Drypetes (Putranjivaceae) with asymmetrical drupes is presented. The group consists of three species: Drypetes alba, with two varieties,from the West Indies, Drypetes gentryi from Mexico, and the newly described Drypetes asymmetricarpafrom Costa Rica. The new species can be distinguished from both its relatives by its longer fruiting pedicels. In addition, the new species differs from Drypetes alba by its larger fruits, and from Drypetes gentryi by having shorter staminate pedicels and stigmas borne on styles (rather than sessile). Lectotypes are designated for Drypetes albavar. latifoliaand Drypetes incurva. PMID:24399896

  6. A multi-gene phylogeny provides additional insight into the relationships between several Ascosphaera species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ascosphaera fungi are highly associated with social and solitary bees. This genus includes an important group of bee pathogens, the chalkbrood fungi, and thus proper identification of species and an understanding of their relationships are important. However, Ascosphaera spp. are often unculturable...

  7. Phylogeny of Pluteus section Celluloderma including eight new species from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Menolli, Nelson; Justo, Alfredo; Capelari, Marina

    2015-01-01

    A general phylogeny of Pluteus section Celluloderma based on nuc rITS1-5.8-ITS2 (ITS) barcode sequences is presented with description of eight new species from Brazil supported by morphological and molecular data: P. brunneocrinitus, P. cebolinhae, P. crinitus, P. halonatus, P. hispidulopsis, P. karstedtiae, P. necopinatus and P. paucicystidiatus.

  8. Biochar mitigates negative effects of salt additions on two herbaceous plant species.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Sean C; Frye, Susan; Gale, Nigel; Garmon, Matthew; Launchbury, Rebecca; Machado, Natasha; Melamed, Sarah; Murray, Jessica; Petroff, Alexandre; Winsborough, Carolyn

    2013-11-15

    Addition of pyrolyzed biomass ("biochar") to soils has commonly been shown to increase crop yields and alleviate plant stresses associated with drought and exposure to toxic materials. Here we investigate the ability of biochar (at two dosages: 5 and 50 t ha(-1)) to mitigate salt-induced stress, simulating road salt additions in a factorial glasshouse experiment involving the broadleaved herbaceous plants Abutilon theophrasti and Prunella vulgaris. Salt additions of 30 g m(-2) NaCl to unamended soils resulted in high mortality rates for both species. Biochar (Fagus grandifolia sawdust pyrolyzed at 378 °C), when applied at 50 t ha(-1) as a top dressing, completely alleviated salt-induced mortality in A. theophrasti and prolonged survival of P. vulgaris. Surviving A. theophrasti plants that received both 50 t ha(-1) biochar and salt addition treatments showed growth rates and physiological performance similar to plants without salt addition. Biochar treatments alone also substantially increased biomass of P. vulgaris, with a ∼50% increase relative to untreated controls at both biochar dosages. Biochar did not significantly affect photosynthetic carbon gain (Amax), water use efficiency, or chlorophyll fluorescence (Fv/Fm) in either species. Our results indicate that biochar can ameliorate salt stress effects on plants through salt sorption, suggesting novel applications of biochar to mitigate effects of salinization in agricultural, urban, and contaminated soils.

  9. Apology in the criminal justice setting: evidence for including apology as an additional component in the legal system.

    PubMed

    Petrucci, Carrie J

    2002-01-01

    The criminal justice system has reached unprecedented scope in the United States, with over 6.4 million people under some type of supervision. Remedies that have the potential to reduce this number are continually being sought. This article analyzes an innovative strategy currently being reconsidered in criminal justice: the apology. Despite a legal system that only sporadically acknowledges it, evidence for the use of apology is supported by social science research, current criminal justice theories, case law, and empirical studies. Social psychological, sociological and socio-legal studies pinpoint the elements and function of apology, what makes apologies effective, and concerns about apology if it were implemented in the criminal justice system. Theoretical evidence is examined (including restorative justice, therapeutic jurisprudence, crime, shame, and reintegration) to explore the process of apology in the criminal justice context. Attribution theory and social conduct theory are used to explain the apology process specifically for victims and offenders. A brief examination of case law reveals that though apology has no formal place in criminal law, it has surfaced recently under the federal sentencing guidelines. Finally, empirical evidence in criminal justice settings reveals that offenders want to apologize and victims desire an apology. Moreover, by directly addressing the harmful act, apology may be the link to reduced recidivism for offenders, as well as empowerment for victims. This evidence combined suggests that apology is worthy of further study as a potentially valuable addition to the criminal justice process.

  10. A Review of the McMorran Diet for Rearing Lepidoptera Species With Addition of a Further 39 Species

    PubMed Central

    Hervet, V. A. D.; Laird, R. A.; Floate, K. D.

    2016-01-01

    Research on cutworms led us to explore the use of the McMorran diet to rear lepidopteran species, mainly Noctuidae, under laboratory conditions. We documented the development of 103 lepidopteran species, including 39 species not previously reported in the literature, to be reared on this diet. Given its low cost, ease of preparation, and wide species’ acceptance, this diet provides a powerful tool for facilitating Lepidoptera and other insects rearing and research in the laboratory. Résumé Une recherche sur les noctuelles nous a permis d’élever des larves de nombreuses espèces de lépidoptères, principalement des noctuelles, sur un substrat artificiel du nom de «McMorran diet» en laboratoire. Nous reportons le développement de 103 espèces de lépidoptères, dont 39 espèces qui n’ont pas encore été documentées, comme pouvant se développer sur ce substrat artificiel. Étant donné son faible coût, facilité de préparation, et large champ d’action, ce substrat artificiel peut grandement faciliter la recherche sur les lépidoptères et autres insectes en laboratoire. PMID:26851296

  11. Molecular phylogeny of Ascotricha, including two new marine algae-associated species.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xiaoli; Li, Wei; Cai, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Phylogenetic analyses based on a broad taxonomic sampling of Ascotricha were conducted using the sequences of nuc rDNA region encompassing the internal transcribed spacers 1 and 2, along with the 5.8S rDNA (ITS), partial nuc 18S rDNA (18S) and partial β-tubulin gene (TUB2). Hypoxyloid Xylariaceae and xylarioid Xylariaceae were inferred as two distinct lineages in the Xylariaceae in the combined ITS-TUB2 phylogeny. Within xylarioid Xylariaceae species of Ascotricha form a monophyletic group. Two new marine algae-associated fungi, Ascotricha longipila and A. parvispora, are described on the basis of morphological and molecular characters and the combination, A. sinuosa, is proposed. A synopsis of the morphological characters and a dichotomous key to Ascotricha species are provided.

  12. Taxonomic review of Physconelloides (Phthiraptera: Philopteridae) from the Columbiformes (aves), including descriptions of three new species.

    PubMed

    Price, R D; Clayton, D H; Hellenthal, R A

    1999-03-01

    We provide a comprehensive taxonomic review of Physconelloides, a genus of ischnoceran chewing lice found on pigeons and doves (Columbiformes). Thirteen previously known Physconelloides species are redescribed and 16 new synonymies are designated: P. rubripes Carriker, P. rubripes longulus Tendeiro, P. piotrowskii Tendeiro and P. auritae Tendeiro are synonyms of P. zenaidurae (McGregor); P. recurvatus Eichler, P. chocoensis Carriker and P. montana Carriker are synonyms of P. ceratoceps Ewing; P. silvestris Tendeiro is a synonym of P. perijae Carriker; P. keleri Kaddou and P. branderi Kaddou are synonyms of P. spenceri Emerson and Ward; P. wolfdietrichi Kaddou is a synonym of P. anolaimae Carriker; and Goniocotacanthus mattogrossensis Guimaraes, P. passerinae Emerson, P. eurysema pretiosa Carriker, P. talpacoti Carriker and P. picuii Tendeiro are synonyms of P. eurysema (Carriker). Three new species are also described: P. moyeri (type host Geotrygon linearis), P. johnsoni (type host Columbina passerina bahamensis), and P. robbinsi (type host Metriopelia ceciliae). A key is provided for identification of the 16 recognized species.

  13. Taxonomic review and phylogenetic analysis of fifteen North American Entomobrya (Collembola, Entomobryidae), including four new species

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Aron D.; Giordano, Rosanna; Soto-Adames, Felipe

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The chaetotaxy of 15 species of eastern North American Entomobrya is redescribed in order to determine potential characters for the diagnosis of cryptic lineages and evaluate the diagnostic and phylogenetic utility of chaetotaxy. As a result, four new species (Entomobrya citrensis Katz & Soto-Adames, sp. n., Entomobrya jubata Katz & Soto-Adames, sp. n., Entomobrya neotenica Katz & Soto-Adames, sp. n. and Entomobrya unifasciata Katz & Soto-Adames, sp. n.) are described, and new diagnoses are provided for Entomobrya assuta Folsom, Entomobrya atrocincta Schött, Entomobrya decemfasciata (Packard), Entomobrya ligata Folsom, Entomobrya multifasciata (Tullberg), and Entomobrya quadrilineata (Bueker). Furthermore, previously undocumented levels of intraspecific variation in macrosetal pattern are reported, tempering the exclusive use of chaetotaxy for species delimitation. Phylogenetic relationships, estimated using both morphological and molecular data, indicate that Entomobrya is likely paraphyletic. The phylogenies also suggest that unreliable character homology, likely fostered by Entomobrya’s profusion of macrosetae, may limit the phylogenetic utility of chaetotaxy in groups characterized by an abundance of dorsal macrosetae. PMID:26487816

  14. Taxonomic review and phylogenetic analysis of fifteen North American Entomobrya (Collembola, Entomobryidae), including four new species.

    PubMed

    Katz, Aron D; Giordano, Rosanna; Soto-Adames, Felipe

    2015-01-01

    The chaetotaxy of 15 species of eastern North American Entomobrya is redescribed in order to determine potential characters for the diagnosis of cryptic lineages and evaluate the diagnostic and phylogenetic utility of chaetotaxy. As a result, four new species (Entomobrya citrensis Katz & Soto-Adames, sp. n., Entomobrya jubata Katz & Soto-Adames, sp. n., Entomobrya neotenica Katz & Soto-Adames, sp. n. and Entomobrya unifasciata Katz & Soto-Adames, sp. n.) are described, and new diagnoses are provided for Entomobrya assuta Folsom, Entomobrya atrocincta Schött, Entomobrya decemfasciata (Packard), Entomobrya ligata Folsom, Entomobrya multifasciata (Tullberg), and Entomobrya quadrilineata (Bueker). Furthermore, previously undocumented levels of intraspecific variation in macrosetal pattern are reported, tempering the exclusive use of chaetotaxy for species delimitation. Phylogenetic relationships, estimated using both morphological and molecular data, indicate that Entomobrya is likely paraphyletic. The phylogenies also suggest that unreliable character homology, likely fostered by Entomobrya's profusion of macrosetae, may limit the phylogenetic utility of chaetotaxy in groups characterized by an abundance of dorsal macrosetae.

  15. Illustrated key for identification of the species included in the genus Leptoglossus (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Coreidae: Coreinae: Anisoscelini), and descriptions of five new species and new synonyms.

    PubMed

    Brailovsky, Harry

    2014-05-05

    Five new species of Leptoglossus are described: L.caicosensis from Turks and Caicos Island, L. egeri and L. impensus from Bolivia, L. franckei from Costa Rica, and L. polychromus from Ecuador, Cooperative Republic of Guiana (British Guiana), and French Guiana. Leptoglossus argentinus Bergroth is synonymized under L. chilensis chilensis (Spinola) and Narnia anaticula Brailovsky & Barrera under Leptoglossus occidentalis Heidemann. Dorsal view drawings and key to the 61 known species and 1 subspecies are included; a complete checklist, and the position of each species within the species-group defined herein, are given except for two species L. macrophylus Stål and L. polychromus sp.nov., that are insertae-sedis. The pronotal disk, hind legs, and male genital capsule of the new species here described are illustrated.

  16. Notes on Pluteus (Pluteaceae, Agaricales) from Brazil including two new species and a new record.

    PubMed

    Menolli, Nelson; Capelari, Marina

    2010-01-01

    Two new species of Pluteus, P. densifibrillosus and P. puttemansii, are described and illustrated from specimens collected in two remnants of the Atlantic forest in the city of São Paulo, SP, Brazil. Pluteus densifibrillosus is characterized by a densely fibrillose pileus with spinulose fibrils at the center and almost globose basidiospores. Pluteus puttemansii has a stipe with a grayish brown subbulbous-marginate base and a strigose basal mycelium. Pluteus densifibrillosus belongs to section Hispidoderma and P. puttemansii to section Pluteus. Pluteus longistriatus and P. umbrinoalbidus, which were collected in the same area, also are described and illustrated. Pluteus longistriatus represents a new record for Brazil.

  17. New species of Scalibregmatidae (Annelida, Polychaeta) from the East Antarctic Peninsula including a description of the ecology and post-larval development of species of Scalibregma and Oligobregma.

    PubMed

    Blake, James A

    2015-10-21

    A large collection of scalibregmatid polychaetes from the east Antarctic Peninsula in May 2000 has yielded specimens of three new species of Scalibregma, Pseudoscalibregma, and Oligobregma. The new species of Scalibregma is represented by more than 400 specimens that include post-larval and juvenile forms which, for the first time, provide data on the sequence of development of key characters of a scalibregmatid. These data demonstrate that taxonomic characters including the form of the prostomium and presence of branchiae develop late in ontogeny and that small specimens cannot be reliably referred to a species or genus without a growth sequence. Juvenile morphology is also presented for the new species of Oligobregma. The new species of Scalibregma is compared with five northern hemisphere species and differs in details of the peristomium, upper and lower lips of the mouth, dorsal and ventral cirri, and nature of the short spinous setae of setiger 1. The new species of Pseudoscalibregma is unique in the nature of asymmetrical ventral cirri of posterior setigers. The new species of Oligobregma has large acicular spines in both noto- and neuropodia and these are present in juveniles. However, the final adult configuration of the prostomium is not evident until late in development. The taxonomic significance of the timing of development of post-larval and juvenile morphology elucidated in this study is discussed in relation to the validity of certain taxa and the current system of genera used in the family.

  18. Effects of native species diversity and resource additions on invader impact.

    PubMed

    Maron, John L; Marler, Marilyn

    2008-07-01

    Theory and empirical work have demonstrated that diverse communities can inhibit invasion. Yet, it is unclear how diversity influences invader impact, how impact varies among exotics, and what the relative importance of diversity is versus extrinsic factors that themselves can influence invasion. To address these issues, we established plant assemblages that varied in native species and functional richness and crossed this gradient in diversity with resource (water) addition. Identical assemblages were either uninvaded or invaded with one of three exotic forbs: spotted knapweed (Centaurea maculosa), dalmatian toadflax (Linaria dalmatica), or sulfur cinquefoil (Potentilla recta). To determine impacts, we measured the effects of exotics on native biomass and, for spotted knapweed, on soil moisture and nitrogen levels. Assemblages with high species richness were less invaded and less impacted than less diverse assemblages. Impact scaled with exotic biomass; spotted knapweed had the largest impact on native biomass compared with the other exotics. Although invasion depressed native biomass, the net result was to increase total community yield. Water addition increased invasibility (for knapweed only) but had no effect on invader impact. Together, these results suggest that diversity inhibits invasion and reduces impact more than resource additions facilitate invasion or impact.

  19. Differential occurrence of chromosome inversion polymorphisms among Muller's elements in three species of the tripunctata group of Drosophila, including a species with fast chromosomal evolution.

    PubMed

    Brianti, Mitsue T; Ananina, Galina; Klaczko, Louis B

    2013-01-01

    Detailed chromosome maps with reliable homologies among chromosomes of different species are the first step to study the evolution of the genetic architecture in any set of species. Here, we present detailed photo maps of the polytene chromosomes of three closely related species of the tripunctata group (subgenus Drosophila): Drosophila mediopunctata, D. roehrae, and D. unipunctata. We identified Muller's elements in each species, using FISH, establishing reliable chromosome homologies among species and D. melanogaster. The simultaneous analysis of chromosome inversions revealed a distribution pattern for the inversion polymorphisms among Muller's elements in the three species. Element E is the most polymorphic, with many inversions in each species. Element C follows; while the least polymorphic elements are B and D. While interesting, it remains to be determined how general this pattern is among species of the tripunctata group. Despite previous studies showing that D. mediopunctata and D. unipunctata are phylogenetically closer to each other than to D. roehrae, D. unipunctata shows rare karyotypic changes. It has two chromosome fusions: an additional heterochromatic chromosome pair and a pericentric inversion in the X chromosome. This especial conformation suggests a fast chromosomal evolution that deserves further study.

  20. HERPESVIRUSES INCLUDING NOVEL GAMMAHERPESVIRUSES ARE WIDESPREAD AMONG PHOCID SEAL SPECIES IN CANADA.

    PubMed

    Bellehumeur, Christian; Nielsen, Ole; Measures, Lena; Harwood, Lois; Goldstein, Tracey; Boyle, Brian; Gagnon, Carl A

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about herpesviruses in Canadian pinnipeds. We measured prevalence of antibodies to herpesviruses in the sera from Canadian phocid seals by an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Wild harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) and captive harbor seals were positive for antibodies to Phocid herpesvirus 1 (PhoHV-1) at prevalences of 91% and 100%, respectively. Sera from wild hooded seals (Cystophora cristata), harp seals (Pagophilus groenlandica), and grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) were positive for antibodies to PhoHV-1 antigenically related herpesvirus antigens at 73%, 79%, and 96%, respectively. We isolated new herpesviruses in cell culture from two hunter-harvested ringed seals (Pusa hispida) in poor body condition from Ulukhaktok, Northwest Territories, Canada; one lethargic hooded seal from the St. Lawrence Estuary, Québec, Canada; and one captive, asymptomatic harp seal from the Magdalen Islands, Québec. Partial sequencing of the herpesvirus DNA polymerase gene revealed that all four virus isolates were closely related to PhoHV-2, a member of the Gammaherpesvirinae subfamily, with nucleotide similarity ranging between 92.8% and 95.3%. The new seal herpesviruses were genetically related to other known pinniped herpesviruses, such as PhoHV-1, Otariid herpesvirus 3, Hawaiian monk (Monachus schauinslandi) seal herpesvirus, and Phocid herpesvirus 5 with 47-48%, 55%, 77%, and 70-77% nucleotide similarities, respectively. The harp seal herpesvirus and both ringed seal herpesviruses were almost identical to each other, whereas the hooded seal herpesvirus was genetically different from the three others (92.8% nucleotide similarity), indicating detection of at least two novel seal herpesviruses. These findings are the first isolation, partial genome sequencing, and identification of seal gammaherpesviruses in three species of Canadian phocid seals; two species of which were suspected of exposure to one or more antigenically related herpesviruses based on

  1. Multiple Pathogens Including Potential New Species in Tick Vectors in Côte d’Ivoire

    PubMed Central

    Ehounoud, Cyrille Bilé; Yao, Kouassi Patrick; Dahmani, Mustapha; Achi, Yaba Louise; Amanzougaghene, Nadia; Kacou N’Douba, Adèle; N’Guessan, Jean David; Raoult, Didier; Fenollar, Florence; Mediannikov, Oleg

    2016-01-01

    Background Our study aimed to assess the presence of different pathogens in ticks collected in two regions in Côte d’Ivoire. Methodology/Principal Findings Real-time PCR and standard PCR assays coupled to sequencing were used. Three hundred and seventy eight (378) ticks (170 Amblyomma variegatum, 161 Rhipicepalus microplus, 3 Rhipicephalus senegalensis, 27 Hyalomma truncatum, 16 Hyalomma marginatum rufipes, and 1 Hyalomma impressum) were identified and analyzed. We identified as pathogenic bacteria, Rickettsia africae in Am. variegatum (90%), Rh. microplus (10%) and Hyalomma spp. (9%), Rickettsia aeschlimannii in Hyalomma spp. (23%), Rickettsia massiliae in Rh. senegalensis (33%) as well as Coxiella burnetii in 0.2%, Borrelia sp. in 0.2%, Anaplasma centrale in 0.2%, Anaplasma marginale in 0.5%, and Ehrlichia ruminantium in 0.5% of all ticks. Potential new species of Borrelia, Anaplasma, and Wolbachia were detected. Candidatus Borrelia africana and Candidatus Borrelia ivorensis (detected in three ticks) are phylogenetically distant from both the relapsing fever group and Lyme disease group borreliae; both were detected in Am. variegatum. Four new genotypes of bacteria from the Anaplasmataceae family were identified, namely Candidatus Anaplasma ivorensis (detected in three ticks), Candidatus Ehrlichia urmitei (in nine ticks), Candidatus Ehrlichia rustica (in four ticks), and Candidatus Wolbachia ivorensis (in one tick). Conclusions/Significance For the first time, we demonstrate the presence of different pathogens such as R. aeschlimannii, C. burnetii, Borrelia sp., A. centrale, A. marginale, and E. ruminantium in ticks in Côte d’Ivoire as well as potential new species of unknown pathogenicity. PMID:26771308

  2. Generation of reactive oxygen species by interaction between antioxidants used as food additive and metal ions.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, Yusuke; Oda, Momoko; Tsukuda, Yuri; Nagamori, Yuki; Nakazawa, Hiroyuki; Ito, Rie; Saito, Koichi

    2014-01-01

    Food additives, such as preservatives, sweeteners, coloring agents, and flavoring agents, are widely used in food manufacturing. However, their combined effects on the human body are not known. The purpose of this study was to examine whether combinations of antioxidants and metal ions generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) under in vitro conditions using electron spin resonance (ESR). Among the metal ions examined, only iron and copper generated ROS in the presence of antioxidants. Moreover, certain phenolic antioxidants having pro-oxidant activity induced DNA oxidation and degradation via the generation of high levels of ROS in the presence of copper ion, resulting in complete degradation of DNA in vitro.

  3. Fishes of the hadal zone including new species, in situ observations and depth records of Liparidae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linley, Thomas D.; Gerringer, Mackenzie E.; Yancey, Paul H.; Drazen, Jeffrey C.; Weinstock, Chloe L.; Jamieson, Alan J.

    2016-08-01

    Observations and records for fish exceeding 6000 m deep are few and often spurious. Recent developments in accessing and sampling the hadal zone 6000-11,000 m) have led to an acceleration in new findings in the deep subduction trenches, particularly in the Pacific Ocean. This study describes the discovery of two new species of snailfish (Liparidae) from the Mariana Trench; the 'Mariana snailfish' (6198-8076 m) and the 'Ethereal snailfish' (7939-8145 m). These new findings represent respectively the deepest known specimen caught with corroborating depth data, and the deepest fish seen alive. Further specimens and observations of the Kermadec Trench snailfish, Notoliparis kermadecensis, are also presented, as well as the first hadal records of Synaphobranchidae and Zoarcidae (6068 and 6145 m respectively) and a depth extension for the Macrouridae (maximum depth now 7012 m). Details of these new snailfish specimens caught by baited trap and behaviour observations filmed by baited cameras are presented. An updated assessment of fishes from hadal depths is also reported.

  4. Major histocompatibility complex harbors widespread genotypic variability of non-additive risk of rheumatoid arthritis including epistasis

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Wen-Hua; Bowes, John; Plant, Darren; Viatte, Sebastien; Yarwood, Annie; Massey, Jonathan; Worthington, Jane; Eyre, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Genotypic variability based genome-wide association studies (vGWASs) can identify potentially interacting loci without prior knowledge of the interacting factors. We report a two-stage approach to make vGWAS applicable to diseases: firstly using a mixed model approach to partition dichotomous phenotypes into additive risk and non-additive environmental residuals on the liability scale and secondly using the Levene’s (Brown-Forsythe) test to assess equality of the residual variances across genotype groups per marker. We found widespread significant (P < 2.5e-05) vGWAS signals within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) across all three study cohorts of rheumatoid arthritis. We further identified 10 epistatic interactions between the vGWAS signals independent of the MHC additive effects, each with a weak effect but jointly explained 1.9% of phenotypic variance. PTPN22 was also identified in the discovery cohort but replicated in only one independent cohort. Combining the three cohorts boosted power of vGWAS and additionally identified TYK2 and ANKRD55. Both PTPN22 and TYK2 had evidence of interactions reported elsewhere. We conclude that vGWAS can help discover interacting loci for complex diseases but require large samples to find additional signals. PMID:27109064

  5. A taxonomic revision of the Cymindis (Pinacodera) limbata species group (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Lebiini), including description of a new species from Florida, U.S.A.

    PubMed Central

    Hunting, Wesley M.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The Cymindis (Pinacodera) limbata species group (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Lebiini) is a precinctive New World taxon with ranges extended from portions of temperate southeastern Canada and the U.S.A. through the montane regions of Mexico, south to the Isthmus of Tehuantepec. The group is distinguishable from all other members of the subgenus Pinacodera by males possessing a distinctive sclerite (endophallic plate) at the apex of the endophallus. In the past, a lack of material and misunderstandings of range of variation within species have contributed to confusion about how many species there really are. This revision of the limbata species group includes a classification, a key to groups within the subgenus Pinacodera and species within the limbata group, descriptions of species, re-rankings and new synonymies. In total 10 taxa are treated, with 6 new synonyms proposed, 1 new combination introduced and 1 new species described: Cymindis (Pinacodera) rufostigma (type locality: Archbold Biological Station, Highlands County, Florida, U.S.A.). Each taxon is characterized in terms of structural features of adults, habitat, geographical distribution, and chorological affinities. Available ecological information and treatments of variation are included. PMID:23653501

  6. Understanding morphological variability in a taxonomic context in Chilean diplomystids (Teleostei: Siluriformes), including the description of a new species

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Following study of the external morphology and its unmatched variability throughout ontogeny and a re-examination of selected morphological characters based on many specimens of diplomystids from Central and South Chile, we revised and emended previous specific diagnoses and consider Diplomystes chilensis, D. nahuelbutaensis, D. camposensis, and Olivaichthys viedmensis (Baker River) to be valid species. Another group, previously identified as Diplomystes sp., D. spec., D. aff. chilensis, and D. cf. chilensis inhabiting rivers between Rapel and Itata Basins is given a new specific name (Diplomystes incognitus) and is diagnosed. An identification key to the Chilean species, including the new species, is presented. All specific diagnoses are based on external morphological characters, such as aspects of the skin, neuromast lines, and main lateral line, and position of the anus and urogenital pore, as well as certain osteological characters to facilitate the identification of these species that previously was based on many internal characters. Diplomystids below 150 mm standard length (SL) share a similar external morphology and body proportions that make identification difficult; however, specimens over 150 mm SL can be diagnosed by the position of the urogenital pore and anus, and a combination of external and internal morphological characters. According to current knowledge, diplomystid species have an allopatric distribution with each species apparently endemic to particular basins in continental Chile and one species (O. viedmensis) known only from one river in the Chilean Patagonia, but distributed extensively in southern Argentina. PMID:28224053

  7. Two new fossil genera and species of Cerocephalinae (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea, Pteromalidae), including the first record from the Eocene.

    PubMed

    Bläser, Marcel; Krogmann, Lars; Peters, Ralph S

    2015-01-01

    Cerocephalinae (Chalcidoidea, Pteromalidae) is a small group of parasitoid wasps characterized by a number of derived diagnostic features. Their hosts are endophytic beetles. So far, 43 species of Cerocephalinae have been described, including one fossil species from the Miocene. In this study, we add two new genera and species from Baltic and Dominican amber to the fossil record. Tenuicornus dominicus gen. et sp. n. is the second genus described from Dominican amber, and Pteropilosa lailarabanorum gen. et sp. n., described from Baltic amber, represents the oldest record of the subfamily, pushing the minimum age of Cerocephalinae back to the Eocene. Diagnostic characters of both species are discussed in comparison with other Cerocephalinae. An updated key to extant and fossil Cerocephalinae is presented.

  8. Analysis of Prey-Predator Three Species Fishery Model with Harvesting Including Prey Refuge and Migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Sankar Kumar; Roy, Banani

    In this article, a prey-predator system with Holling type II functional response for the predator population including prey refuge region has been analyzed. Also a harvesting effort has been considered for the predator population. The density-dependent mortality rate for the prey, predator and super predator has been considered. The equilibria of the proposed system have been determined. Local and global stabilities for the system have been discussed. We have used the analytic approach to derive the global asymptotic stabilities of the system. The maximal predator per capita consumption rate has been considered as a bifurcation parameter to evaluate Hopf bifurcation in the neighborhood of interior equilibrium point. Also, we have used fishing effort to harvest predator population of the system as a control to develop a dynamic framework to investigate the optimal utilization of the resource, sustainability properties of the stock and the resource rent is earned from the resource. Finally, we have presented some numerical simulations to verify the analytic results and the system has been analyzed through graphical illustrations.

  9. 36 CFR 1290.4 - Types of materials included in scope of assassination record and additional records and information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Types of materials included..., Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION JFK ASSASSINATION RECORDS... documentary material; (b) Photographs; (c) Motion pictures; (d) Sound and video recordings; (e)...

  10. 36 CFR 1290.4 - Types of materials included in scope of assassination record and additional records and information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Types of materials included..., Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION JFK ASSASSINATION RECORDS... documentary material; (b) Photographs; (c) Motion pictures; (d) Sound and video recordings; (e)...

  11. 36 CFR 1290.4 - Types of materials included in scope of assassination record and additional records and information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Types of materials included..., Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION JFK ASSASSINATION RECORDS... documentary material; (b) Photographs; (c) Motion pictures; (d) Sound and video recordings; (e)...

  12. 7 CFR 984.437 - Methods for proposing names of additional candidates to be included on walnut growers' nomination...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... to be included on walnut growers' nomination ballots. 984.437 Section 984.437 Agriculture Regulations... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WALNUTS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Administrative... walnut growers' nomination ballots. (a) With regard to Board grower member positions specified in §...

  13. 7 CFR 984.437 - Methods for proposing names of additional candidates to be included on walnut growers' nomination...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... to be included on walnut growers' nomination ballots. 984.437 Section 984.437 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WALNUTS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Administrative... walnut growers' nomination ballots. (a) With regard to Board grower member positions specified in §...

  14. 7 CFR 984.437 - Methods for proposing names of additional candidates to be included on walnut growers' nomination...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... to be included on walnut growers' nomination ballots. 984.437 Section 984.437 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WALNUTS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Administrative... walnut growers' nomination ballots. (a) With regard to Board grower member positions specified in §...

  15. 7 CFR 984.437 - Methods for proposing names of additional candidates to be included on walnut growers' nomination...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... to be included on walnut growers' nomination ballots. 984.437 Section 984.437 Agriculture Regulations... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WALNUTS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Administrative... walnut growers' nomination ballots. (a) With regard to Board grower member positions specified in §...

  16. 7 CFR 984.437 - Methods for proposing names of additional candidates to be included on walnut growers' nomination...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... to be included on walnut growers' nomination ballots. 984.437 Section 984.437 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WALNUTS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Administrative... walnut growers' nomination ballots. (a) With regard to Board grower member positions specified in §...

  17. The Bemisia tabaci species complex: additions from different parts of the world.

    PubMed

    Firdaus, Syarifin; Vosman, Ben; Hidayati, Nurul; Jaya Supena, Ence Darmo; Visser, Richard G F; van Heusden, Adriaan Willem

    2013-12-01

    Bemisia tabaci is one of the most threatening pests in many crops. We sequenced part of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I gene from fifty whitefly populations collected in Indonesia, Thailand, India and China. Nineteen unique sequences (haplotypes) of the cytochrome oxidase I were identified in these populations. They were combined with sequences available in databases, resulting in a total of 407 haplotypes and analyzed together with nine outgroup accessions. A phylogenetic tree was calculated using the maximum likelihood method. The tree showed that all groups that were found in previous studies were also present in our study. Additionally, seven new groups were identified based on the new haplotypes. Most B. tabaci haplotypes grouped based on their geographical origin. Two groups were found to have a worldwide distribution. Our results indicate that our knowledge on the species complex around B. tabaci is still far from complete.

  18. Breakage and re-growth of flocs: effect of additional doses of coagulant species.

    PubMed

    Yu, Wenzheng; Gregory, John; Campos, Luiza C

    2011-12-15

    Several polyaluminum chloride (PACl) coagulants were prepared, with different OH/Al ratios (B values), and characterized by Ferron assay. These were used in studies of floc formation, breakage and re-growth with kaolin suspensions under controlled shear conditions, using a continuous optical monitoring method. Particular attention was paid to the effect of small additional coagulant dosages, added during the floc breakage period, on the re-growth of broken flocs. The results showed that the re-growth ability was greatly dependent on the nature of the PACl species added as second coagulant. The re-growth ability of broken flocs was greatest when the second coagulant was PACl(0) (i.e. AlCl(3), with B = 0) and least with PACl(25) (B = 2.5). In the latter case there was no effect on floc re-growth, irrespective of the initial coagulant used. PACls with intermediate B values gave some improvement in floc re-growth, but less than that with PACl(0). Additional dosage of PACl(0) gave re-grown flocs about the same size or even larger than those before breakage. The re-growth of broken flocs is significantly correlated with the species Al(a) (monomeric) and Al(b) (polymeric), as determined by Ferron assay. The amorphous hydroxide precipitate formed from PACl(0), (mainly Al(a)) can greatly improve the adhesion between broken flocs and give complete re-growth. However, for PACl(25), mostly composed of Al(b), the nature of the precipitate is different and there is no effect on floc re-growth.

  19. PHI-base: a new interface and further additions for the multi-species pathogen-host interactions database.

    PubMed

    Urban, Martin; Cuzick, Alayne; Rutherford, Kim; Irvine, Alistair; Pedro, Helder; Pant, Rashmi; Sadanadan, Vidyendra; Khamari, Lokanath; Billal, Santoshkumar; Mohanty, Sagar; Hammond-Kosack, Kim E

    2017-01-04

    The pathogen-host interactions database (PHI-base) is available at www.phi-base.org PHI-base contains expertly curated molecular and biological information on genes proven to affect the outcome of pathogen-host interactions reported in peer reviewed research articles. In addition, literature that indicates specific gene alterations that did not affect the disease interaction phenotype are curated to provide complete datasets for comparative purposes. Viruses are not included. Here we describe a revised PHI-base Version 4 data platform with improved search, filtering and extended data display functions. A PHIB-BLAST search function is provided and a link to PHI-Canto, a tool for authors to directly curate their own published data into PHI-base. The new release of PHI-base Version 4.2 (October 2016) has an increased data content containing information from 2219 manually curated references. The data provide information on 4460 genes from 264 pathogens tested on 176 hosts in 8046 interactions. Prokaryotic and eukaryotic pathogens are represented in almost equal numbers. Host species belong ∼70% to plants and 30% to other species of medical and/or environmental importance. Additional data types included into PHI-base 4 are the direct targets of pathogen effector proteins in experimental and natural host organisms. The curation problems encountered and the future directions of the PHI-base project are briefly discussed.

  20. PHI-base: a new interface and further additions for the multi-species pathogen–host interactions database

    PubMed Central

    Urban, Martin; Cuzick, Alayne; Rutherford, Kim; Irvine, Alistair; Pedro, Helder; Pant, Rashmi; Sadanadan, Vidyendra; Khamari, Lokanath; Billal, Santoshkumar; Mohanty, Sagar; Hammond-Kosack, Kim E.

    2017-01-01

    The pathogen–host interactions database (PHI-base) is available at www.phi-base.org. PHI-base contains expertly curated molecular and biological information on genes proven to affect the outcome of pathogen–host interactions reported in peer reviewed research articles. In addition, literature that indicates specific gene alterations that did not affect the disease interaction phenotype are curated to provide complete datasets for comparative purposes. Viruses are not included. Here we describe a revised PHI-base Version 4 data platform with improved search, filtering and extended data display functions. A PHIB-BLAST search function is provided and a link to PHI-Canto, a tool for authors to directly curate their own published data into PHI-base. The new release of PHI-base Version 4.2 (October 2016) has an increased data content containing information from 2219 manually curated references. The data provide information on 4460 genes from 264 pathogens tested on 176 hosts in 8046 interactions. Prokaryotic and eukaryotic pathogens are represented in almost equal numbers. Host species belong ∼70% to plants and 30% to other species of medical and/or environmental importance. Additional data types included into PHI-base 4 are the direct targets of pathogen effector proteins in experimental and natural host organisms. The curation problems encountered and the future directions of the PHI-base project are briefly discussed. PMID:27915230

  1. On four species of echinorhynchid acanthocephalans from marine fish in Halong Bay, Vietnam, including the description of three new species and a key to the species of Gorgorhynchus.

    PubMed

    Amin, Omar M; Van Ha, Nguyen

    2011-09-01

    Four species of echinorhynchid acanthocephalans were collected from marine fish off Cat Ba Island, Halong Bay, Gulf of Tonkin, Vietnam, in the spring of 2009. Acanthocephalus halongensis n. sp. (Echinorhynchidae) from the redtail scad, Decapterus kurroides Bleeker 1855 (Carangidae), has a unique proboscis armature with a spiniform basal hook with lateral root and an incomplete receptacle wall posteriorly. Gorgorhynchus tonkinensis n. sp. (Rhadinorhynchidae) also from D. kurroides, has long, slender, winding lemnisci, many epidermal nuclei, and a narrow anterior trunk with a shoulder armed with 20 circles of tightly packed spines, the posterior four circles of which have abruptly larger spines than those in the anterior circles. Neorhadinorhynchus atypicalis n. sp. (Cavisomidae) from the rabbitfish, Siganus fuscescens (Houttuyn 1782) (Siganidae), has the largest number of proboscis hooks per row, testes wider than long, and four clustered cement glands. Micracanthorhynchica kuwaitensis Amin and Sey 1996 (Rhadinorhynchidae) from the spottail needlefish Strongylura strongylura (van Hasselt 1823) (Belonidae) was similar to specimens originally described from the Arabian Gulf off the Kuwaiti coast. These acanthocephalans were collected in small numbers but stood out as uniquely and considerably different from their closest relatives to warrant their reporting. All species of acanthocephalans and their host and geographic distribution are described, and a key to the species of Gorgorhynchus is provided.

  2. Species within the genus Encyonema Ktzing, including two new species Encyonema reimeri sp. nov. and E. nicafei sp. nov. and E. stoermeri nom. nov., stat. nov.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spaulding, S.A.; Pool, J.R.; Castro, S.I.; Hinz, F.

    2010-01-01

    We observed six diatom taxa from North American samples and one taxon from China that are considered within the genus Encyonema Ktzing. Two of the taxa are described as new, Encyonema reimeri Spaulding, Pool et Castro sp. nov. and Encyonema nicafei Spaulding sp. nov. A third taxon, Encyonema stoermeri Spaulding, Pool et Castro nom. nov., shat. nov. is assigned a new name and rank. In the past, these taxa have been ascribed to several names, but primarily the names Cymbella muelleri Hustedt and C. muelleri f. ventricosa (Tempre et Peragallo) Reimer have been used, based on their inclusion in the two volumes of "The Diatoms of the United States". We compare the new species with other members of this group of taxa, including Encyonema latum Krammer, E. sinicum Krammer and E. yellowstonianum Krammer. This group of species shares the features of 1) a broad axial area, 2) raphe branches curved with the convex side toward the dorsal valve margin, 3) slightly expanded and dorsally deflected proximal raphe ends, and 4) oval areolae near the axial area, becoming lineolate, or transapically elongate, towards the dorsal margin. We expect that many of the species reported in the U.S. have been identified using names of species from other continents. We also expect that critical microscopy and use of original literature is likely to clarify the geographic distribution of species within Encyonema. This work is important in order to understand, document and protect the species diversity of diatoms and their aquatic habitats.

  3. An updated checklist and key to the open-panicled species of Poa L. (Poaceae) in Peru including three new species, Poa ramoniana, Poa tayacajaensis, and Poa urubambensis.

    PubMed

    Sylvester, Steven P; Soreng, Robert J; Peterson, Paul M; Sylvester, Mitsy D P V

    2016-01-01

    We provide an updated checklist and key to the 30 Poa species with open panicles from Peru which includes previously circumscribed Dissanthelium and Aphanelytrum species, new taxon records, and three undescribed species. Poa compressa, Poa grisebachii, and Poa leioclada are recorded from Peru for the first time. A number of species are placed in synonymy: Poa carazensis, Poa ferreyrae and Poa tovarii are synonymized under the name Poa fibrifera; Poa adusta (tentatively) and Poa pilgeri are synonymized under Poa candamoana; Poa superata is synonymized under Poa grisebachii; and Poa paramoensis is synonymized under Poa huancavelicae. Included within this treatment are three new species, Poa ramoniana, Poa tayacajaensis and Poa urubambensis, which are described and illustrated. Poa ramoniana, found growing near lakes in high elevation Puna grasslands of Junín, is similar to a small form of Poa glaberrima, but differs in having rhizomes and growing to only 5 cm tall. Poa tayacajaensis, found from shrublands on Andean slopes of Huancavelica and Huánuco, bears similarities to Poa aequatoriensis but differs in having shorter lemmas which are pubescent between the veins, densely scabrous sheaths with smooth, glabrous throats, and shorter ligules. Poa urubambensis, a common element of the undisturbed Polylepis forest understory of the Cordillera Urubamba, Cusco, is distinct from all other members of open-panicled Poa's by having glabrous lemmas with a smooth and glabrous callus, and notably small anthers. The type material for the name Poa adusta is discussed and a lectotype is selected.

  4. An updated checklist and key to the open-panicled species of Poa L. (Poaceae) in Peru including three new species, Poa ramoniana, Poa tayacajaensis, and Poa urubambensis

    PubMed Central

    Sylvester, Steven P.; Soreng, Robert J.; Peterson, Paul M.; Sylvester, Mitsy D.P.V.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We provide an updated checklist and key to the 30 Poa species with open panicles from Peru which includes previously circumscribed Dissanthelium and Aphanelytrum species, new taxon records, and three undescribed species. Poa compressa, Poa grisebachii, and Poa leioclada are recorded from Peru for the first time. A number of species are placed in synonymy: Poa carazensis, Poa ferreyrae and Poa tovarii are synonymized under the name Poa fibrifera; Poa adusta (tentatively) and Poa pilgeri are synonymized under Poa candamoana; Poa superata is synonymized under Poa grisebachii; and Poa paramoensis is synonymized under Poa huancavelicae. Included within this treatment are three new species, Poa ramoniana, Poa tayacajaensis and Poa urubambensis, which are described and illustrated. Poa ramoniana, found growing near lakes in high elevation Puna grasslands of Junín, is similar to a small form of Poa glaberrima, but differs in having rhizomes and growing to only 5 cm tall. Poa tayacajaensis, found from shrublands on Andean slopes of Huancavelica and Huánuco, bears similarities to Poa aequatoriensis but differs in having shorter lemmas which are pubescent between the veins, densely scabrous sheaths with smooth, glabrous throats, and shorter ligules. Poa urubambensis, a common element of the undisturbed Polylepis forest understory of the Cordillera Urubamba, Cusco, is distinct from all other members of open-panicled Poa’s by having glabrous lemmas with a smooth and glabrous callus, and notably small anthers. The type material for the name Poa adusta is discussed and a lectotype is selected. PMID:27489489

  5. Multilocus, DNA-based phylogenetic analyses reveal three new species lineages in the Phellinus gabonensis-P. caribaeo-quercicola species complex, including P. amazonicus sp. nov.

    PubMed

    de Campos-Santana, Marisa; Amalfi, Mario; Castillo, Gabriel; Decock, Cony

    2016-09-01

    Species complexes in the poroid Hymenochaetaceae are well documented in the temperate areas. Potential species complexes are less known in tropical areas, however. In the last ten years, four phylogenetically and morphologically closely related species of Phellinus (Hymenochaetaceae) were described from various tropical/subtropical areas viz. P. caribaeo-quercicola, P. gabonensis, P. ellipsoideus, and P. castanopsidis They are characterized by cushion-shaped basidiomata, ventricose, commonly hamate hymenial setae, and broadly ellipsoid, thick-walled, pale yellowish basidiospores. Pursuing the studies of this complex, a phylogenetic approach based on DNA sequence data from the nuc rDNA regions ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 (ITS) and partial 28S (including the domains D1, D2, D3) and on part of the translation elongation factor 1-α (tef1, region between exons 4 and 8) revealed three new lineages or phylogenetic species. Two of these phylogenetic species are composed of exclusively on Neotropical specimens. One of them, described below as Phellinus amazonicus sp. nov., is represented by multiple collections originating from Neotropical, lowland, dense, moist forest at the western edge of the Amazon Basin in Ecuador, the Guiana Shield in French Guiana and (more likely) Trinidad. The second Neotropical phylogenetic species is represented in our phylogenetic analyses by a single collection from northeastern Argentina. It is also potentially known from two herbarium specimens originating from southern Brazil, for which no sequence data is available. It is left for now as Phellinus sp. 1, waiting to gather more specimens and DNA sequences data. The third new phylogenetic species is known by a single collection (pure culture) of uncertain origin. It is thought to represent Phellinus setulosus, a Southeast Asian taxa. From an evolutionary perspective, tree species occurring in the Neotropics (P. amazonicus, P. caribaeo-quercicola, and Phellinus sp. 1) have a closely related genetic

  6. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance of the Newcastle NTMS quadrangle, Wyoming, including concentrations of forty-two additional elements

    SciTech Connect

    Goff, S.J.; Sandoval, W.F.; Gallimore, D.L.; Talcott, C.L.; Martinez, R.G.; Minor, M.E.; Mills, C.F.

    1980-06-01

    During the summer and fall of 1977, 533 water and 1226 sediment samples were collected from 1740 locations within the 18,000 km/sup 2/ area of the Newcastle quadrangle, Wyoming. Water samples were collected from wells and springs; sediment samples were collected from stream channels and from springs. Each water sample was analyzed for uranium, and each sediment sample was analyzed for 43 elements, including uranium and thorium. Uranium concentrations in water samples range from below the detection limit of 0.02 ppB to 702.26 ppB and have a median of 1.73 ppB and a mean of 11.76 ppB. Water samples containing high uranium concentrations (>20 ppB) generally are associated with known uranium mining activity or units known to be uranium bearing. About one-third of the water samples containing high uranium concentrations were collected from locations within the Pumpkin Buttes and Turnercrest-Ross Districts. Nearly half of the water samples containing high uranium concentrations were collected from locations just west of the Monument Hill and Highland Flats-Box Creek Districts. Similar anomalous uranium concentrations in this region have been reported updip from Exxon's Highland uranium deposits. High uranium concentrations were also found associated with the Lance Creek-Old Woman Anticline District.

  7. Performance of portland limestone cements: Cements designed to be more sustainable that include up to 15% limestone addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrett, Timothy J.

    In 2009, ASTM and AASHTO permitted the use of up to 5% interground limestone in ordinary portland cement (OPC) as a part of a change to ASTM C150/AASHTO M85. When this work was initiated a new proposal was being discussed that would enable up to 15% interground limestone cement to be considered in ASTM C595/AASHTO M234. This work served to provide rapid feedback to the state department of transportation and concrete industry for use in discussions regarding these specifications. Since the time this work was initiated, ASTM C595/AASHTO M234 was passed (2012c) and PLCs are now able to be specified, however they are still not widely used. The proposal for increasing the volume of limestone that would be permitted to be interground in cement is designed to enable more sustainable construction, which may significantly reduce the CO2 that is embodied in the built infrastructure while also extending the life of cement quarries. Research regarding the performance of cements with interground limestone has been conducted by the cement industry since these cements became widely used in Europe over three decades ago, however this work focuses on North American Portland Limestone Cements (PLCs) which are specifically designed to achieve similar performance as the OPCs they replace.This thesis presents a two-phase study in which the potential for application of cements containing limestone was assessed. The first phase of this study utilized a fundamental approach to determine whether cement with up to 15% of interground or blended limestone can be used as a direct substitute to ordinary portland cement. The second phase of the study assessed the concern of early age shrinkage and cracking potential when using PLCs, as these cements are typically ground finer than their OPC counterparts. For the first phase of the study, three commercially produced PLCs were obtained and compared to three commercially produced OPCs made from the same clinker. An additional cement was tested

  8. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance of the Newcastle NTMS Quadrangle, Wyoming, including concentrations of forty-two additional elements

    SciTech Connect

    Goff, S.J.; Sandoval, W.F.; Gallimore, D.L.; Talcott, C.L.; Martinez, R.G.; Minor, M.E.; Mills, C.F.

    1980-06-01

    Water and sediment samples were collected and each water sample was analyzed for U, and each sediment sample was analyzed for 43 elements, including U and Th. Uranium concentrations in water samples range from below the detection limit of 0.02 ppB to 702.26 ppB and have a median of 1.73 ppB and a mean of 11.76 ppB. Water samples containing high uranium concentrations generally are associated with known uranium mining activity or units known to be uranium bearing. About one-third of the water samples containing high uranium concentrations were collected from locations within the Pumpkin Buttes and Turnercrest-Ross Districts. Nearly half of the water samples containing high uranium concentrations were collected from locations just west of the Monument Hill and Highland Flats-Box Creek Districts. Similar anomalous uranium concentrations in this region have been reported updip from Exxon's Highland uranium deposits. High uranium concentrations were also found associated with the Lance Creek-Old Woman Anticline District. Uranium concentrations in sediment samples range from 1.14 to 220.70 ppM and have a median of 3.37 ppM and a mean of 4.03 ppM. Throughout the major uranium mining districts of the Powder River Basin, sediment samples with high uranium concentrations were collected from dry streams located near wells producing water samples with high uranium concentrations. High uranium concentrations were also found associated with the Lance Creek oil field where uranium mineralization is known in the White River formation. High uranium concentrations were also found in sediment samples in areas where uranium mineralization is not known. These samples are from dry streams in areas underlain by the White River formation, the Niobrara formation, and the Pierre, Carlisle, Belle Fourche, and Mowry shales.

  9. The amathiiform Ctenostomata (phylum Bryozoa) of New Zealand--including four new species, two of them of probable alien origin.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Dennis P; Spencer-Jones, Mary

    2013-01-01

    The status of the vesiculariid ctenostome genus Amathia in New Zealand has been evaluated on the basis of all known material, including historic specimens in museums and those newly collected during formal surveillance of ports, harbours and vessels for possible alien species. Eight species are recognised, four of them new to science. Amathia gracei n. sp. and Amathia zealandica n. sp. are the only apparently endemic species. Amathia chimonidesi n. sp. appears to be a previously unrecognised alien species and is known only from shipping harbours and/or yacht marinas and some nearby beaches. Amathia similis n. sp. has been known in the Auckland area since the 1960s but was confused with A. distans Busk. Amathia bicornis (Tenison-Woods), A. biseriata Krauss, A. lamourouxi Chimonides and A. wilsoni Kirkpatrick are Australasian species that occur naturally on both sides of the Tasman Sea. Of this latter group, A. bicornis was discovered only at a single locality on the southwest coast of North Island in 1983 on a fucoid seaweed and it may be relatively re-cently self-introduced. A specimen of A. lendigera (Linnaeus) in the Museum of New Zealand, purportedly from Napier, is considered to be based on a misunderstanding or a labelling error and does not represent a failed alien introduction. The Amathia-like vesiculariid Bowerbankia citrina (Hincks) sensu lato is newly recorded for New Zealand. Keys are provided to the amathiiform (i.e. Amathia and Amathia-like) Ctenostomata of New Zealand and to the worldwide species of Amathia and Bowerbankia with zooid clusters spiralled on stoloniform axes.

  10. Further contributions to the Aleocharinae (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae) fauna of New Brunswick and Canada including descriptions of 27 new species.

    PubMed

    Webster, Reginald P; Klimaszewski, Jan; Bourdon, Caroline; Sweeney, Jon D; Hughes, Cory C; Labrecque, Myriam

    2016-01-01

    subdepressa (Bernhauer) are illustrated for the first time. Male specimens of Mniusa odelli Klimaszewski & Webster were confirmed and are illustrated. Color habitus images and black and white images of the median lobe of the aedeagus, the spermatheca, and tergite and sternite VIII are provided for all species. New or additional habitat data are provided for most of the species treated in this contribution.

  11. Further contributions to the Aleocharinae (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae) fauna of New Brunswick and Canada including descriptions of 27 new species

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Reginald P.; Klimaszewski, Jan; Bourdon, Caroline; Sweeney, Jon D.; Hughes, Cory C.; Labrecque, Myriam

    2016-01-01

    Dinaraea subdepressa (Bernhauer) are illustrated for the first time. Male specimens of Mniusa odelli Klimaszewski & Webster were confirmed and are illustrated. Color habitus images and black and white images of the median lobe of the aedeagus, the spermatheca, and tergite and sternite VIII are provided for all species. New or additional habitat data are provided for most of the species treated in this contribution. PMID:27110168

  12. Addition to the study of the genus Dusona (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae, Campopleginae) in Korea with description of a new species and key to the Korean species

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jin-Kyung; Lee, Jong-Wook

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Korean species of the genus Dusona Cameron (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae: Campopleginae) are reviewed. Twenty seven species of Dusona are reported from South Korea, including 12 previously unrecorded species, D. bellipes (Holmgren, 1872), D. bicoloripes (Ashmead, 1906), D. chabarowski Hinz & Horstmann, 2004, D. cultrator (Gravenhorst, 1829), D. japonica (Cameron, 1906), D. mactatoides Hinz, 1994, D. scalprata Horstmann, 2004, D. sasayamae Hinz & Horstmann, 2004, D. oblitera (Holmgren, 1872), D. obtutor Hinz, 1994, D. auriculator Aubert, 1964, D. longicauda (Uchida, 1928), and a new species, D. koreana sp. n. An illustrated key to Korean species of Dusona provided. PMID:25061396

  13. Pseudogramma polyacantha complex (Serranidae, tribe Grammistini): DNA barcoding results lead to the discovery of three cryptic species, including two new species from French Polynesia.

    PubMed

    Williams, Jeffrey T; Viviani, Jeremie

    2016-05-16

    The Pseudogramma polyacantha species complex was found to harbor cryptic taxonomic diversity with three similar, but genetically divergent, species previously hidden in the complex. The true Pseudogramma polyacantha occurs from French Polynesia to South Africa and has modally 19 (many with 20) segmented dorsal-fin rays, modally 16 segmented anal-fin rays, a relatively short lateral line, no dermal flap or small tentacle dorsally on eye, and extensive scalation on the interorbital, suborbital and dentary. Pseudogramma brederi (previously synonymized with P. polyacantha) is recognized as a valid species occurring from Hawaii to Mauritius and having modally 21 segmented dorsal-fin rays, modally 17 segmented anal-fin rays, a relatively long lateral line, no dermal flap or small tentacle dorsally on eye, and relatively well-developed scalation on the interorbital, suborbital and dentary. Pseudogramma galzini n. sp. is described as a new species known only from French Polynesia and having modally 22 segmented dorsal-fin rays, modally 17 segmented anal-fin rays, a relatively long lateral line, no dermal flap or small tentacle dorsally on eye, and limited scalation on the interorbital, suborbital and dentary. Pseudogramma paucilepis n. sp. is described as a new species known only from French Polynesia and having 20 segmented dorsal-fin rays, modally 16 segmented anal-fin rays, a relatively long lateral line, no dermal flap or small tentacle dorsally on eye, and relatively reduced scalation on the interorbital, suborbital and dentary. A mtDNA COI analysis including all available Pseudogramma sequences shows well-supported genetic divergence between the two new species and among congeners.

  14. New additions to the Honduran fauna of spider wasps (Hymenoptera: Pompilidae) with the description of two species.

    PubMed

    Waichert, Cecilia; Rodriguez, Juanita; Pitts, James P

    2014-10-20

    Two new species of pepsine spider wasps, Calopompilus setaerotundus Waichert & Pitts, sp. nov. and Priocnemis (Umbripennis) wasbaueri Waichert & Pitts, sp. nov., are described and illustrated. Calopompilus Ashmead, Priocnemis Schiødte and sixteen additional species are newly reported from Honduras. A new combination is proposed for Ageniella fragilis (Fox), comb. nov., which is transferred from Agenia Schiødte. 

  15. Amoeba co-culture of soil specimens recovered 33 different bacteria, including four new species and Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Evstigneeva, Anna; Raoult, Didier; Karpachevskiy, Lev; La Scola, Bernard

    2009-02-01

    Amoeba-resistant bacteria (ARB), such as Legionella spp., are currently regarded as potential human pathogens that live in the natural environment, and thus their habitat is regarded as a reservoir of human pathogens. To detect ARB in human and environmental samples, co-culture with amoebae has been demonstrated to be an efficient tool. However, to date, only water samples from cooling towers and hospital water supplies have been investigated as possible reservoirs of ARB using this procedure. In the present study, we studied the ARB population of 11 diverse soil and sand sources in proximity to human environments; these sources included the university, the station, hospitals, the square, parks and public beaches in the city of Marseilles, France. As a result, a total of 33 different species of ARB were identified. The ability to grow within and/or lyse amoebae was demonstrated, for what is believed to be the first time, for several species; moreover, 20 of the isolates (61%), including Streptococcus pneumoniae, have been described as human pathogens. However, Legionella spp. were not isolated. Four isolates are likely to be the members of new or uncharacterized genera or species, and their capability to be human pathogens needs to be determined. This preliminary work demonstrates that soils and sands in the vicinity of humans are reservoirs of human pathogenic ARB.

  16. A new species and additional records of Lobrathium Mulsant & Rey (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Paederinae) from South China

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Zhong; Li, Li-Zhen; Zhao, Mei-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Material of the genus Lobrathium Mulsant & Rey, 1878 from the Chinese provinces Fujian, Hunan, Sichuan, Guangdong and Guangxi is examined. Six species are identified, four of them described previously and two undescribed. Lobrathium kedian Peng & Li, sp. n. (Guangxi: Shiwangda Shan) is described and illustrated. One probably undescribed species remains unnamed. The female sexual characters of Lobrathium flexum Assing, 2014 are described and illustrated for the first time. The genus is now represented in mainland China by 43 species. PMID:27103873

  17. A new species and additional records of Lobrathium Mulsant & Rey (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Paederinae) from South China.

    PubMed

    Peng, Zhong; Li, Li-Zhen; Zhao, Mei-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Material of the genus Lobrathium Mulsant & Rey, 1878 from the Chinese provinces Fujian, Hunan, Sichuan, Guangdong and Guangxi is examined. Six species are identified, four of them described previously and two undescribed. Lobrathium kedian Peng & Li, sp. n. (Guangxi: Shiwangda Shan) is described and illustrated. One probably undescribed species remains unnamed. The female sexual characters of Lobrathium flexum Assing, 2014 are described and illustrated for the first time. The genus is now represented in mainland China by 43 species.

  18. Four new species of Andean Pilea (Urticaceae), with additional notes on the genus in Venezuela

    PubMed Central

    Dorr, Laurence J.; Stergios, Basil

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Four new species of Pilea (Urticaceae) from the Andes of Venezuela are described and illustrated: Pilea matthewii sp. nov., Pilea miguelii sp. nov., Pilea nicholasii sp. nov., and Pilea nidiae sp. nov. The affinities of these species and their positions within the informal classifications of Pilea proposed by Weddell and Killip are discussed. Notes on other species of Pilea found in Venezuela also are presented. PMID:25383012

  19. Reactive Oxygen Species as Additional Determinants for Cytotoxicity of Clostridium difficile Toxins A and B

    PubMed Central

    Frädrich, Claudia; Beer, Lara-Antonia; Gerhard, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    Clostridium difficile infections can induce mild to severe diarrhoea and the often associated characteristic pseudomembranous colitis. Two protein toxins, the large glucosyltransferases TcdA and TcdB, are the main pathogenicity factors that can induce all clinical symptoms in animal models. The classical molecular mode of action of these homologous toxins is the inhibition of Rho GTPases by mono-glucosylation. Rho-inhibition leads to breakdown of the actin cytoskeleton, induces stress-activated and pro-inflammatory signaling and eventually results in apoptosis of the affected cells. An increasing number of reports, however, have documented further qualities of TcdA and TcdB, including the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by target cells. This review summarizes observations dealing with the production of ROS induced by TcdA and TcdB, dissects pathways that contribute to this phenomenon and speculates about ROS in mediating pathogenesis. In conclusion, ROS have to be considered as a discrete, glucosyltransferase-independent quality of at least TcdB, triggered by different mechanisms. PMID:26797634

  20. Blue pigment in Hypocrea caerulescens sp. nov. and two additional new species in sect. Trichoderma

    PubMed Central

    Jaklitsch, Walter M.; Stadler, Marc; Voglmayr, Hermann

    2012-01-01

    Three new species of Hypocrea/Trichoderma sect. Trichoderma (Hypocreaceae, Hypocreales, Ascomycota, Fungi) are described from recent collections in southern Europe and the Canary Islands. They have been characterized by morphological and molecular methods, including microscopic examination of the teleomorph in thin sections, the anamorph, growth rate experiments and phylogenetic analyses based on a part of the translation elongation factor 1-alpha encoding gene (tef1) containing the two last introns and a part of the rpb2 gene, encoding the second largest RNA polymerase subunit. Analyses involving tef1 did not unequivocally resolve the sister clade relationship of Hypocrea caerulescens relative to the Koningii and Viride clades, while analyses based on rpb2 clearly suggest a close relationship with the former, although the phenotype of H. caerulescens is similar to H. viridescens, particularly by its warted conidia and a coconut-like odor in CMD culture. Hypocrea hispanica and T. samuelsii however are clearly related to the Viride clade by both phylogenetic markers, despite their morphological similarity to H. koningii and its relatives. An apparently specific blue pigment is formed in CMD cultures by Hypocrea caerulescens but could not be obtained by extraction with organic solvents. PMID:22453122

  1. A Morphological and Molecular Study of Spectatus spectatus (Kathlaniidae), Including Redescription of the Species and Amendment of Genus Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Felipe B; Tavares, Luiz E R; Paiva, Fernando; Scholz, Tomáš; Luque, José L

    2015-08-01

    Spectatus spectatus Travassos, 1923 (Nematoda: Kathlaniidae) found in the intestine of Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg, 1887) (Characiformes: Serrasalmidae) from the River Miranda, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil is redescribed based on morphological evaluation of newly collected material and examination of type and voucher specimens from the Coleção Helmintológica do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz. The following characteristics previously unreported or insufficiently described were observed: morphology of lips, presence of lamellae-like supplementary lips, presence of pharynx and cuticular ring surrounding the oral opening associated with a complex cuticular apparatus anterior to the pharynx, the number and arrangement of caudal papillae (13 pairs plus 1 unpaired), and the position of nerve ring. Since S. spectatus is the type species of Spectatus, the diagnosis of this Neotropical genus is amended. Synonymy of Chabaudinema Díaz-Ungría, 1968 with Spectatus, first proposed in 1980 by Baker, is supported by the present data. Molecular data that include the first sequence of the SSU rDNA for any species of Spectatus indicate a basal position of S. spectatus within Cosmocercoidea, forming a distant lineage from that comprising 2 species of Falcaustra Lane, 1915. This separate position of S. spectatus supports validity of the genus.

  2. GETPrime 2.0: gene- and transcript-specific qPCR primers for 13 species including polymorphisms

    PubMed Central

    David, Fabrice P.A.; Rougemont, Jacques; Deplancke, Bart

    2017-01-01

    GETPrime (http://bbcftools.epfl.ch/getprime) is a database with a web frontend providing gene- and transcript-specific, pre-computed qPCR primer pairs. The primers have been optimized for genome-wide specificity and for allowing the selective amplification of one or several splice variants of most known genes. To ease selection, primers have also been ranked according to defined criteria such as genome-wide specificity (with BLAST), amplicon size, and isoform coverage. Here, we report a major upgrade (2.0) of the database: eight new species (yeast, chicken, macaque, chimpanzee, rat, platypus, pufferfish, and Anolis carolinensis) now complement the five already included in the previous version (human, mouse, zebrafish, fly, and worm). Furthermore, the genomic reference has been updated to Ensembl v81 (while keeping earlier versions for backward compatibility) as a result of re-designing the back-end database and automating the import of relevant sections of the Ensembl database in species-independent fashion. This also allowed us to map known polymorphisms to the primers (on average three per primer for human), with the aim of reducing experimental error when targeting specific strains or individuals. Another consequence is that the inclusion of future Ensembl releases and other species has now become a relatively straightforward task. PMID:28053161

  3. Chemical Cues which Include Amino Acids Mediate Species-Specific Feeding Behavior in Invasive Filter-Feeding Bigheaded Carps.

    PubMed

    Claus, Aaron W; Sorensen, Peter W

    2017-03-15

    This study tested whether and how dissolved chemicals might assist food recognition in two filter-feeding fishes, the silver (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) and the bighead carp (H. nobilis). These species evolved in Asia, are now invasive in the Mississippi River, and feed voraciously on microparticles including plankton. The food habits and biology of these carps are broadly similar to many filter-feeding fish, none of whose chemical ecology has been examined. We conducted five experiments. First, we demonstrated that buccal-pharngeal pumping (BPP), a behavior in which fish pump water into their buccal cavities, is responsible for sampling food: BPP activity in both silver and bighead carps was low and increased nearly 25-fold after exposure to a filtrate of a planktonic food mixture (P < 0.01) and over 35-fold when planktonic food was added (P < 0.001). Next, we showed that of nine food filtrates, the one containing chemicals released by spirulina, a type of cyanobacterium, was the most potent planktonic component for both species. The potency of filtrates varied between species in ways that reflected their different chemical compositions. While L-amino acids could explain about half of the activity of food filtrate, other unknown chemical stimuli were also implicated. Finally, occlusion experiments showed the olfactory sense has a very important, but not exclusive, role in bigheaded carp feeding behaviors and this might be exploited in both their control and culture.

  4. Seven new hypselostomatid species from China, including some of the world’s smallest land snails (Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Orthurethra)

    PubMed Central

    Páll-Gergely, Barna; Hunyadi, András; Jochum, Adrienne; Asami, Takahiro

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Seven new species of Hypselostomatidae are described from the Chinese province Guangxi: Angustopila dominikae Páll-Gergely & Hunyadi, sp. n., Angustopila fabella Páll-Gergely & Hunyadi, sp. n., Angustopila subelevata Páll-Gergely & Hunyadi, sp. n., Angustopila szekeresi Páll-Gergely & Hunyadi, sp. n., Hypselostoma socialis Páll-Gergely & Hunyadi, sp. n., Hypselostoma lacrima Páll-Gergely & Hunyadi, sp. n. and Krobylos sinensis Páll-Gergely & Hunyadi, sp. n. The latter species is reported from three localities. All other new species are known only from the type locality. Specimens nearly identical to the type specimens of Angustopila huoyani Jochum, Slapnik & Páll-Gergely, 2014 were found in a cave in northern Guangxi, 500 km from the type locality. Adult individuals of Angustopila subelevata sp. n. (shell height = 0.83–0.91 mm, mean = 0.87 mm) and Angustopila dominikae sp. n. (shell height of the holotype = 0.86 mm) represent the smallest known members of the Hypselostomatidae, and thus are amongst the smallest land snails ever reported. We note that Pyramidula laosensis Saurin, 1953 might also belong to Krobylos. Paraboysidia neglecta van Benthem Jutting, 1961, which was previously included in Angustopila, is classified in Hypselostoma. PMID:26478698

  5. Impact of cell lines included in enterovirus isolation protocol on perception of nonpolio enterovirus species C diversity.

    PubMed

    Adeniji, Johnson Adekunle; Faleye, Temitope Oluwasegun Cephas

    2014-10-01

    There has been under-reporting of nonpolio enterovirus species Cs (NPESCs) in Nigeria despite the fact that most isolates recovered from the Nigerian vaccine derived poliovirus serotype 2 (VDPV2) outbreak were recombinants with nonstructural region of NPESC origin. It has been suggested that cell lines included in enterovirus isolation protocols might account for this phenomenon and this study examined this suggestion. Fifteen environmental samples concentrated previously and analysed using L20B and RD cell lines as part of the poliovirus environmental surveillance (ES) program in Nigeria were randomly selected and inoculated into two cell lines (MCF-7 and LLC-MK2). Isolates were identified as enteroviruses and species C members using different RT-PCR assays, culture in L20B cell line and sequencing of partial VP1. Forty-eight (48) isolates were recovered from the 15 samples, 47 (97.9%) of which were enteroviruses. Of the enteroviruses, 32 (68.1%) belonged to enterovirus species C (EC) of which 19 (40.4%) were polioviruses and 13 (27.7%) were NPESC members. All 13 NPESC isolates were recovered on MCF-7. Results of the study show that NPESCs are circulating in Nigeria and their under-reporting was due to the combination of cell lines used for enterovirus isolation in previous reports.

  6. Taxonomic remarks on the genus Ctenodrilus (Annelida: Cirratulidae) including description of a new species from the Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Magalhães, Wagner F; Weidhase, Michael; Schulze, Anja; Bailey-Brock, Julie H

    2016-04-14

    A new species of Ctenodrilus is described based on morphology, anatomy and molecular (COI and 16S) data. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that the newly described Hawaiian species is the sister taxon of the widely distributed C. serratus. Comparisons of K2P distances show distances of at least 10.9 % for 16S and 18.7 % for CO1. Morphology of C. serratus differs from C. pacificus sp. nov. in the shape, number and distribution of multidentate hooks along the body, extent in segments of anterior ventral cilia, and presence of stomach cilia. Ctenodrilus pacificus sp. nov. resembles C. parvulus in terms of the internal anatomy but differs in respect to the shape of multidentate hooks. Asexual reproduction in the new species is described including associated changes in the external morphology and internal anatomy. A revision of the taxonomic characters of Ctenodrilus is also presented in order to provide background information for a better assessment of the widely distributed taxon Ctenodrilus serratus.

  7. Influences of nitrogen, phosphorus and silicon addition on plant productivity and species richness in an alpine meadow.

    PubMed

    Xu, Danghui; Fang, Xiangwen; Zhang, Renyi; Gao, Tianpeng; Bu, Haiyan; Du, Guozhen

    2015-11-15

    Fertilization, especially with nitrogen (N), increases aboveground primary productivity (APP), but reduces plant species richness at some level. Silicon (Si) fertilization alone, or with addition of N or phosphorus (P), has multiple direct and indirect beneficial effects on plant growth and development, both for individuals and the whole community. This study aimed to examine the effects of Si, N, P, NSi and PSi combinations on APP and species richness of the community and of four functional groups in an alpine meadow. The results showed that plots fertilized with Si in combination with either N or P had higher APP than when fertilized with N or P alone. Addition of N or P increased APP, and the higher APP occurred when the highest level of N was added, indicating co-limitation of N and P, with N being most limiting. Silicon fertilization alone or with addition of N increased the APP of grasses and forbs. Nitrogen addition decreased the community species richness; Si with addition of N alleviated the loss of species richness of the whole community and the forbs group. For the four functional groups, N or P addition increased the species richness of grasses and decreased that of forbs. Our findings highlight the importance of Si in improving APP and alleviating N fertilization-induced biodiversity loss in grasslands, and will help improve our ability to predict community composition and biomass dynamics in alpine meadow ecosystems subject to changing nutrient availability.

  8. Performance of seedlings of a shade-tolerant tropical tree species after moderate addition of N and P

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cárate Tandalla, Daisy; Leuschner, Christoph; Homeier, Jürgen

    2015-12-01

    Nitrogen deposition to tropical forests is predicted to increase in future in many regions due to agricultural intensification. We conducted a seedling transplantation experiment in a tropical premontane forest in Ecuador with a locally abundant late-successional tree species (Pouteria torta, Sapotaceae) aimed at detecting species-specific responses to moderate N and P addition and to understand how increasing nutrient availability will affect regeneration. From locally collected seeds, 320 seedlings were produced and transplanted to the plots of the Ecuadorian Nutrient Manipulation Experiment (NUMEX) with three treatments (moderate N addition: 50 kg N ha-1 yr-1, moderate P addition: 10 kg P ha-1 yr-1 and combined N and P addition) and a control (80 plants per treatment). After 12 months, mortality, relative growth rate, leaf nutrient content and leaf herbivory rate were measured. N and NP addition significantly increased the mortality rate (70 % vs. 54 % in the control). However, N and P addition also increased the diameter growth rate of the surviving seedlings. N and P addition did not alter foliar nutrient concentrations and leaf N:P ratio, but N addition decreased the leaf C:N ratio and increased SLA. P addition (but not N addition) resulted in higher leaf area loss to herbivore consumption and also shifted carbon allocation to root growth. This fertilization experiment with a common rainforest tree species conducted in old-growth forest shows that already moderate doses of added N and P are affecting seedling performance which most likely will have consequences for the competitive strength in the understory and the recruitment success of P. torta. Simultaneous increases in growth, herbivory and mortality rates make it difficult to assess the species' overall performance and predict how a future increase in nutrient deposition will alter the abundance of this species in the Andean tropical montane forests.

  9. A comparison of standard cultural methods for the detection of foodborne Salmonella species including three new chromogenic plating media.

    PubMed

    Schönenbrücher, Vanessa; Mallinson, Edward T; Bülte, Michael

    2008-03-31

    In this study the draft of the horizontal method for the detection of Salmonella species from human food and animal feed (ISO 6579:2002) was compared to the European gold standard (DIN EN 12824:1998), including the three new chromogenic plating media AES Salmonella Agar Plate (ASAP), Oxoid Salmonella Chromogen Media (OSCM) and Miller-Mallinson agar (MM). First the growth and appearance of 36 bacterial type strains (Salmonella and other 21 species) on ASAP, OSCM and MM were compared to those on the three traditional agars Brilliant Green Agar according to Edel and Kampelmacher (BGA), Xylose Lysine Deoxycholate Agar (XLD) and Xylose Lysine Tergitol 4 Agar (XLT4). Only on MM agar, did all of 36 tested type strains produce typical colonies, especially strains of S. Senftenberg, Salmonella arizonae, S. Dublin and S. Derby. Artificial inoculation experiments using raw pork ground meat (n=92) were subsequently conducted. A shortened incubation time of 24 h in RVS broth yielded a Salmonella species recovery of 100% from spiked meat samples. Finally, 286 naturally contaminated raw porcine and bovine minced meat samples and raw poultry meat samples were investigated. Forty-three strains from a total of 39 Salmonella-positive samples were found. S. Typhimurium (n=21), with DT 104 L, DT 012 and RDNC being the most prevalent subtypes isolated. D-tartrate-positive S. Paratyphi B (n=2) and S. Saint-Paul (n=3) were also recovered. They were cultured from poultry meat and were multi-resistant against antibiotics including nalidixic acid. Rappaport Vassiliadis broth with soypeptone (RVS) yielded the highest recovery of Salmonella spp. (97,4%) compared to Tetrathionate broth with Novobiocin according to Muller and Kauffman (MKTTn, 94,9%) and Selenite Cystine broth (SC, 38,5%). However, no significant difference was obtained by comparing the ISO 6579:2002 draft to the gold standard.

  10. Calosota Curtis (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea, Eupelmidae) – review of the New World and European fauna including revision of species from the West Indies and Central and North America

    PubMed Central

    Gary A.P., Gibson

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Two of three species previously classified in Calosota Curtis (Hymenoptera: Eupelmidae) from the Neotropical region are transferred to Eupelminae. Calosota eneubulus (Walker) from Galapagos Islands is transferred to Eupelmus Dalman as Eupelmus (Eupelmus) eneubulus (Walker), comb. n., and Calosota silvai (Brèthes) from Chile is transferred to Brasema Cameron as Brasema silvai comb. n. Calosota cecidobius (Kieffer) from Argentina is retained in Calosota, with reservation, as an unrecognized species. The species of Calosota from the New World excluding South America are revised. Eleven species are recognized, including the seven newly described species Calosota albipalpus sp. n. (Costa Rica, Mexico, USA, Venezuela), Calosota bicolorata sp. n. (USA), Calosota elongata sp. n. (USA), Calosota longivena sp. n. (USA), Calosota panamaensis sp. n. (Panama), Calosota setosa sp. n. (Bahamas, Dominican Republic, USA), and Calosota speculifrons sp. n. (Costa Rica, USA). The 11 regional species and the Palaearctic species Calosota vernalis Curtis are keyed and illustrated. Calosota vernalis is not known to occur in the New World but is included in the key and diagnosed because it has been intercepted in quarantine in Canada. Calosota pseudotsugae Burks is placed in synonymy under Calosota acron (Walker), syn. n.,and Calosota kentra Burks, Calosota montana Burks and Calosota septentrionalis Hedqvist are placed in synonymy under Calosota aestivalis Curtis syn. n. Calosota modesta Bolívar y Pieltain is removed from synonymy under Calosota viridis Masi, stat. rev., and Calosota viridis, Calosota matritensis Bolívar y Pieltain, and Calosota coerulea Nikol’skaya are placed in synonymy under Calosota metallica (Gahan), syn. n. Calosota grylli Erdös is confirmed as a separate species from Calosota metallica based on features of both sexes. It is suggested that Calosota ariasi Bolívar y Pieltain may be a synonym of Calosota aestivalis, Calosota bolivari Askew may be a

  11. Emendation of the family Chlamydiaceae: proposal of a single genus, Chlamydia, to include all currently recognized species.

    PubMed

    Sachse, Konrad; Bavoil, Patrik M; Kaltenboeck, Bernhard; Stephens, Richard S; Kuo, Cho-Chou; Rosselló-Móra, Ramon; Horn, Matthias

    2015-03-01

    The family Chlamydiaceae (order Chlamydiales, phylum Chlamydiae) comprises important, obligate intracellular bacterial pathogens of humans and animals. Subdivision of the family into the two genera Chlamydia and Chlamydophila has been discussed controversially during the past decade. Here, we have revisited the current classification in the light of recent genomic data and in the context of the unique biological properties of these microorganisms. We conclude that neither generally used 16S rRNA sequence identity cut-off values nor parameters based on genomic similarity consistently separate the two genera. Notably, no easily recognizable phenotype such as host preference or tissue tropism is available that would support a subdivision. In addition, the genus Chlamydophila is currently not well accepted and not used by a majority of research groups in the field. Therefore, we propose the classification of all 11 currently recognized Chlamydiaceae species in a single genus, the genus Chlamydia. Finally, we provide emended descriptions of the family Chlamydiaceae, the genus Chlamydia, as well as the species Chlamydia abortus, Chlamydia caviae and Chlamydia felis.

  12. Morphological and molecular evidence of three species of pikes Esox spp. (Actinopterygii, Esocidae) in France, including the description of a new species.

    PubMed

    Denys, Gaël Pierre Julien; Dettai, Agnès; Persat, Henri; Hautecœur, Mélyne; Keith, Philippe

    2014-09-01

    This integrative taxonomy study of French pikes compares morphological characters and molecular sequence data (mitochondrial COI and nuclear Plagl2 genes). In addition to the expected E. lucius, DNA sequences and morphology both support a new species in France, E. aquitanicus sp. nov. from the Charente to the Adour drainages. It is characterized by a color pattern of sides with narrow 1-1.5-scale-wide oblique vertical bands, conferring it a marbled coat, a snout only 0.9 times larger than the postorbital length, an anal fin basis 1.1-1.2 times larger than the caudal peduncle length, 101 to 121 lateral scales, 53 to 57 vertebrae, as well as 24 diagnostic sites in the COI gene and 3 in the Plagl2 gene. Partial COI sequences (131 bp) from modern and historical specimens indicate also the presence of E. cisalpinus and E. lucius during the 19th century in Lake Geneva. Morphological and molecular data points to a possible hybridization between E. lucius with both other local pike species, representing a risk for them. Their endangerment status should be evaluated rapidly in order to take conservation measures.

  13. A new species of Perlesta (Plecoptera: Perlidae) from North Carolina with additional records for North Carolina and Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kondratieff, B.C.; Zuellig, R.E.; Lenat, D.R.

    2011-01-01

    Twenty-eight species of Nearctic Perlesta are currently recognized (Stark 1989, 2004; Kondratieff et al. 2006, 2008; Grubbs and DeWalt 2008, Grubbs and DeWalt 2011, Kondratieff and Myers 2011). Interestingly, but needing confirmation, Perlesta has been recently recorded from Central America (Gutiérrez-Fonseca and Springer 2011). Continued collecting and study of Perlesta from North Carolina by the authors revealed one additional undescribed species. Ten species of Perlesta currently have been recorded from North Carolina (Stark 1989, 2004, Kondratieff et al. 2006, 2008, Grubbs and DeWalt 2008). Additionally, new Perlesta species records are given for Virginia. The terminology used in the description of the male adult follows Stark (1989, 2004).

  14. Fish composition and species richness in eastern South American coastal lagoons: additional support for the freshwater ecoregions of the world.

    PubMed

    Petry, A C; Guimarães, T F R; Vasconcellos, F M; Hartz, S M; Becker, F G; Rosa, R S; Goyenola, G; Caramaschi, E P; Díaz de Astarloa, J M; Sarmento-Soares, L M; Vieira, J P; Garcia, A M; Teixeira de Mello, F; de Melo, F A G; Meerhoff, M; Attayde, J L; Menezes, R F; Mazzeo, N; Di Dario, F

    2016-07-01

    The relationships between fish composition, connectivity and morphometry of 103 lagoons in nine freshwater ecoregions (FEOW) between 2·83° S and 37·64° S were evaluated in order to detect possible congruence between the gradient of species richness and similarities of assemblage composition. Most lagoons included in the study were <2 km(2) , with a maximum of 3975 km(2) in surface area. Combined surface area of all lagoons included in the study was 5411 km(2) . Number of species varied locally from one to 76. A multiple regression revealed that latitude, attributes of morphometry and connectivity, and sampling effort explained a large amount of variability in species richness. Lagoon area was a good predictor of species richness except in low latitude ecoregions, where lagoons are typically small-sized and not affected by marine immigrants, and where non-native fish species accounted for a significant portion of species richness. Relationships between species and area in small-sized lagoons (<2 km(2) ) is highly similar to the expected number in each ecoregion, with systems located between 18·27° S and 30·15° S attaining higher levels of species richness. Similarities in species composition within the primary, secondary and peripheral or marine divisions revealed strong continental biogeographic patterns only for species less tolerant or intolerant to salinity. Further support for the FEOW scheme in the eastern border of South America is therefore provided, and now includes ecotonal systems inhabited simultaneously by freshwater and marine species of fishes.

  15. Variation in lipid extractability by solvent in microalgae. Additional criterion for selecting species and strains for biofuel production from microalgae.

    PubMed

    Mendoza, Héctor; Carmona, Laura; Assunção, Patricia; Freijanes, Karen; de la Jara, Adelina; Portillo, Eduardo; Torres, Alicia

    2015-12-01

    The lipid extractability of 14 microalgae species and strains was assessed using organic solvents (methanol and chloroform). The high variability detected indicated the potential for applying this parameter as an additional criterion for microalgae screening in industrial processes such as biofuel production from microalgae. Species without cell walls presented higher extractability than species with cell walls. Analysis of cell integrity by flow cytometry and staining with propidium iodide showed a significant correlation between higher resistance to the physical treatments of cell rupture by sonication and the lipid extractability of the microalgae. The results highlight the cell wall as a determining factor in the inter- and intraspecific variability in lipid extraction treatments.

  16. Generalized Additive Models Used to Predict Species Abundance in the Gulf of Mexico: An Ecosystem Modeling Tool

    PubMed Central

    Drexler, Michael; Ainsworth, Cameron H.

    2013-01-01

    Spatially explicit ecosystem models of all types require an initial allocation of biomass, often in areas where fisheries independent abundance estimates do not exist. A generalized additive modelling (GAM) approach is used to describe the abundance of 40 species groups (i.e. functional groups) across the Gulf of Mexico (GoM) using a large fisheries independent data set (SEAMAP) and climate scale oceanographic conditions. Predictor variables included in the model are chlorophyll a, sediment type, dissolved oxygen, temperature, and depth. Despite the presence of a large number of zeros in the data, a single GAM using a negative binomial distribution was suitable to make predictions of abundance for multiple functional groups. We present an example case study using pink shrimp (Farfantepenaeus duroarum) and compare the results to known distributions. The model successfully predicts the known areas of high abundance in the GoM, including those areas where no data was inputted into the model fitting. Overall, the model reliably captures areas of high and low abundance for the large majority of functional groups observed in SEAMAP. The result of this method allows for the objective setting of spatial distributions for numerous functional groups across a modeling domain, even where abundance data may not exist. PMID:23691223

  17. Sericea Lespedeza has no anticoccidial effect when included in the diet of chickens infected with three species of Eimeria.

    PubMed

    Rathinam, T; Gadde, U; Chapman, H D

    2014-05-28

    Anticoccidial effects of Sericea Lespedeza (SL) included in the diet at different levels were evaluated in chickens following oral infection with sporulated oocysts of either Eimeria acervulina, Eimeria maxima or Eimeria tenella. A series of experiments were conducted to determine the effect of SL upon the ability of the parasites to multiply in the intestine, and the effect on bodyweight gain, feed intake, and feed conversion following infection. Chicks infected with a low dose of oocysts (500 oocysts/bird) of E. acervulina or E. maxima did not show differences in the numbers of oocysts produced in the feces whether they were given 0, 1, 2, or 4% SL in the diet. There was no significant difference in the weight gain, feed intake, or FCR of birds infected with high doses of E. acervulina or E. maxima (200,000 or 100,000 oocysts/bird respectively) whether 0, 1, 2, or 4% SL was included in the feed. No significant difference in the numbers of oocysts in the feces, weight gain, feed intake, and FCR of birds infected with E. tenella (low dose of 500 oocysts; high dose of 50,000 oocysts per bird) whether 4% SL was included in the feed. The results of this study indicate that SL has no anticoccidial activity against Eimeria species in the chicken.

  18. A review of Amblypalpus and Priscapalpus (Acari: Trombidiformes: Tenuipalpidae), including two new species of Amblypalpus from Iran.

    PubMed

    Farzan, Sadegh; Asadi, Mahdieh; Ueckermann, Edward A; Seeman, Owen D; Beard, Jennifer J

    2013-01-01

    Two new species of Amblypalpus (Acari: Trombidiformes: Tenuipalpidae) are described from Iran: Amblypalpus iraniensis sp. nov., from Wild Almond, Amygdalus scoparia (Rosaceae), and Amblypalpus thymus sp. nov., from Common Thyme, Thymus vulgaris (Lamiaceae). The new species are classified tentatively in Amblypalpus. The species Priscapalpus thomissus Meyer, 1979 is transferred to Amblypalpus and the genus concept of Priscapalpus is narrowed and therefore redefined. Similarly, we present an expanded concept of Amblypalpus. A key to brevipalpine genera and Amblypalpus species is provided.

  19. 41 CFR 302-7.21 - If my HHG shipment includes an item for which a weight additive is assessed by the HHG carrier (e...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false If my HHG shipment includes an item for which a weight additive is assessed by the HHG carrier (e.g., boat, trailer... is assessed by the HHG carrier (e.g., boat, trailer, ultralight vehicle), am I responsible...

  20. 41 CFR 302-7.21 - If my HHG shipment includes an item for which a weight additive is assessed by the HHG carrier (e...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true If my HHG shipment includes an item for which a weight additive is assessed by the HHG carrier (e.g., boat, trailer... the HHG carrier (e.g., boat, trailer, ultralight vehicle), am I responsible for payment? (a) No,...

  1. 41 CFR 302-7.21 - If my HHG shipment includes an item for which a weight additive is assessed by the HHG carrier (e...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false If my HHG shipment includes an item for which a weight additive is assessed by the HHG carrier (e.g., boat, trailer... Management Federal Travel Regulation System RELOCATION ALLOWANCES TRANSPORTATION AND STORAGE OF PROPERTY...

  2. A checklist of the genus Scopula (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) including description of a new species and three newly recorded species from Korea.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sei-Woong; Kim, Sung-Soo

    2016-10-20

    We present a checklist comprising 39 species of the genus Scopula (Geometridae, Sterrhinae) from Korea by adding four new records. One species Scopula paraconfusa Kim & Choi spec. nov. is described as new and three species S. butleri, S. disclusaria and S. hypochra are recorded to the Korean fauna for the first time. We provided the diagnosis for four species and male and female genitalia, if available.

  3. A new species of Neparholaspis (Acari: Parholaspididae) from Russia, with additional information on Neparholaspis evansi Krantz, 1960.

    PubMed

    Marchenko, Irina I

    2016-08-23

    Neparholaspis dubatolovi sp. nov. is described and illustrated from adult females and males collected from litter and moss in montane forest in north-eastern Sikhote-Alin Ridge in the Far East of Russia. Additional morphological information and illustrations of Neparholaspis evansi Krantz, 1960 are provided, based on examination of a paratype. A key to the world species of Neparholaspis is provided.

  4. Additions to Philippine Slender Skinks of the Brachymeles bonitae Complex (Reptilia: Squamata: Scincidae) III: a new species from Tablas Island.

    PubMed

    Davis, Drew R; Geheber, Aaron D; Watters, Jessa L; Penrod, Michelle L; Feller, Kathryn D; Ashford, Alissa; Kouri, Josh; Nguyen, Daniel; Shauberger, Kathryn; Sheatsley, Kyra; Winfrey, Claire; Wong, Rachel; Sanguila, Marites B; Brown, Rafe M; Siler, Cameron D

    2016-06-28

    Studies of the diversity of Philippine amphibians and reptiles have resulted in the continued description of cryptic species. Species formerly thought to range across multiple recognized faunal regions are now considered to be assemblages of multiple unique species, each restricted to a single faunal region. This pattern continues to hold true when considering Philippine skinks of the genus Brachymeles. Recent studies have resulted in the description of numerous unique species with many exhibiting various degrees of digit loss or limb reduction, as well as suggesting that unique lineages are still present in the B. bonitae Complex. In this paper, we describe a new species of fossorial skink within this species complex from Tablas Island based on collections made nearly 50 years ago. Although no genetic data are available for the new species, examinations of morphological data (qualitative traits, meristic counts, and mensural measurements) support its distinction from all other members of the genus. Brachymeles dalawangdaliri sp. nov. is differentiated from other members of the genus based on a suite of unique phenotypic characteristics, including a small body size (SVL 66.0-80.9 mm), bidactyl fore-limbs, digitless, unidactyl, or bidactyl hind limbs, a high number of presacral vertebrae (49), the absence of auricular openings, and distinct dorsal head scale patterns. The description of the new species increases the diversity of endemic vertebrates recognized to occur in the Romblon Island Group in the central Philippines.

  5. 78 FR 27855 - Black Stem Rust; Additions of Rust-Resistant Species and Varieties

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-13

    ... the United States. The disease is caused by a fungus (Puccinia graminis) that reduces the quality and yield of infected wheat, oat, barley, and rye crops. In addition to infecting small grains, the fungus... Mahonia. The fungus is spread from host to host by windborne spores. The black stem rust quarantine...

  6. Sediment diatom species and community response to nitrogen addition in Oregon (USA) estuarine tidal wetlands

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sediment microalgae play an important role in nutrient cycling and are important primary producers in the food web in Pacific Northwest estuaries. This study examines the effects of nitrogen addition to benthic microalgae in tidal wetlands of Yaquina Bay estuary on the Oregon c...

  7. Cytogenetic analyses of eight species in the genus Leptodactylus Fitzinger, 1843 (Amphibia, Anura, Leptodactylidae), including a new diploid number and a karyotype with multiple translocations

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The karyotypes of Leptodactylus species usually consist of 22 bi-armed chromosomes, but morphological variations in some chromosomes and even differences in the 2n have been reported. To better understand the mechanisms responsible for these differences, eight species were analysed using classical and molecular cytogenetic techniques, including replication banding with BrdU incorporation. Results Distinct chromosome numbers were found: 2n = 22 in Leptodactylus chaquensis, L. labyrinthicus, L. pentadactylus, L. petersii, L. podicipinus, and L. rhodomystax; 2n = 20 in Leptodactylus sp. (aff. podicipinus); and 2n = 24 in L. marmoratus. Among the species with 2n = 22, only three had the same basic karyotype. Leptodactylus pentadactylus presented multiple translocations, L. petersii displayed chromosome morphological discrepancy, and L. podicipinus had four pairs of telocentric chromosomes. Replication banding was crucial for characterising this variability and for explaining the reduced 2n in Leptodactylus sp. (aff. podicipinus). Leptodactylus marmoratus had few chromosomes with a similar banding patterns to the 2n = 22 karyotypes. The majority of the species presented a single NOR-bearing pair, which was confirmed using Ag-impregnation and FISH with an rDNA probe. In general, the NOR-bearing chromosomes corresponded to chromosome 8, but NORs were found on chromosome 3 or 4 in some species. Leptodactylus marmoratus had NORs on chromosome pairs 6 and 8. The data from C-banding, fluorochrome staining, and FISH using the telomeric probe helped in characterising the repetitive sequences. Even though hybridisation did occur on the chromosome ends, telomere-like repetitive sequences outside of the telomere region were identified. Metaphase I cells from L. pentadactylus confirmed its complex karyotype constitution because 12 chromosomes appeared as ring-shaped chain in addition to five bivalents. Conclusions Species of Leptodactylus exhibited both major and minor

  8. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) induce chemical and structural changes on human insulin in vitro, including alterations in its immunoreactivity.

    PubMed

    Olivares-Corichi, Ivonne M; Ceballos, Guillermo; Ortega-Camarillo, Clara; Guzman-Grenfell, Alberto M; Hicks, Juan J

    2005-01-01

    Oxidative stress occurs when the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) exceeds the endogenous antioxidant defense. Peroxidations induced by ROS are the key of chemical and structural modifications of biomolecules including circulating proteins. To elucidate the effect of ROS on circulating proteins and considering the presence of oxidative stress in Diabetes Mellitus, the effects of ROS, in vitro, on human insulin were studied. We utilized the Fenton reaction for free hydroxyl radical (HO*) generation in presence of human recombinant insulin measuring chemical changes on its molecular structure. The induced changes in insulin were: a) significant increase on absorbance (280 nm) due to phenylalanine hydroxylation (0.023 +/- 0.007 to 0.13 +/- 0.07). b) Peroxidation products formed on amino acids side branches (peroxyl and alcohoxyl group); measured as increased capacity of reduce nitroblue of tetrazolium (NBT) to formazan (0.007 +/- 0.007 to 0.06 +/- 0.02). c) Increased concentration of free carbonyl groups (8.8 +/- 8.7 to 45.6 +/- 20.2 pmoles dinitrophenylhidrazones/nmol insulin) with lost of secondary structure, and d) Modification of epithopes decreasing the insulin antigen-antibody reactivity measured as a decrease in insulin concentration by RIA. In conclusion, the radical hydroxyl in vitro is able to induce molecular modifications on insulin.

  9. Improved method for the quantification of lysophospholipids including enol ether species by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Bollinger, James G; Ii, Hiromi; Sadilek, Martin; Gelb, Michael H

    2010-02-01

    LC/ESI-MS/MS has been previously demonstrated to be a powerful method to detect and quantify molecular species of glycerophospholipids including lysophospholipids. In this study, we provide an improved pre-mass spectrometry lipid extraction procedure that avoids the acid-catalyzed decomposition of plasmenyl phospholipids that is problematic with previously reported methods. We show that the use of lysophospholipid internal standards with perdeuterated fatty acyl chains avoids isobar problems associated with the use of internal standards containing odd carbon number fatty acyl chains. We also show that LC prior to MS is required to avoid numerous problems associated with isobars and with MS in-source decomposition of lysophosphatidylserine. The reported method of using normal phase chromatography/ESI-MS is used to quantify lysophospholipids in serum and to quantify lysophospholipids produced in mammalian cells by human group X secreted phospholipase A(2). The latter shows that group X phospholipase A(2) added exogenously to cells generates a different set of lysophospholipids compared with enzyme produced endogenously in cells, which supports earlier studies showing that this phospholipase A(2) can act on cell membranes prior to externalization from cells.

  10. Predicting tree species presence and basal area in Utah: A comparison of stochastic gradient boosting, generalized additive models, and tree-based methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moisen, G.G.; Freeman, E.A.; Blackard, J.A.; Frescino, T.S.; Zimmermann, N.E.; Edwards, T.C.

    2006-01-01

    Many efforts are underway to produce broad-scale forest attribute maps by modelling forest class and structure variables collected in forest inventories as functions of satellite-based and biophysical information. Typically, variants of classification and regression trees implemented in Rulequest's?? See5 and Cubist (for binary and continuous responses, respectively) are the tools of choice in many of these applications. These tools are widely used in large remote sensing applications, but are not easily interpretable, do not have ties with survey estimation methods, and use proprietary unpublished algorithms. Consequently, three alternative modelling techniques were compared for mapping presence and basal area of 13 species located in the mountain ranges of Utah, USA. The modelling techniques compared included the widely used See5/Cubist, generalized additive models (GAMs), and stochastic gradient boosting (SGB). Model performance was evaluated using independent test data sets. Evaluation criteria for mapping species presence included specificity, sensitivity, Kappa, and area under the curve (AUC). Evaluation criteria for the continuous basal area variables included correlation and relative mean squared error. For predicting species presence (setting thresholds to maximize Kappa), SGB had higher values for the majority of the species for specificity and Kappa, while GAMs had higher values for the majority of the species for sensitivity. In evaluating resultant AUC values, GAM and/or SGB models had significantly better results than the See5 models where significant differences could be detected between models. For nine out of 13 species, basal area prediction results for all modelling techniques were poor (correlations less than 0.5 and relative mean squared errors greater than 0.8), but SGB provided the most stable predictions in these instances. SGB and Cubist performed equally well for modelling basal area for three species with moderate prediction success

  11. Effect of additives on gas-phase catalysis with immobilised Thermoanaerobacter species alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH T).

    PubMed

    Trivedi, A H; Spiess, A C; Daussmann, T; Büchs, J

    2006-07-01

    This paper presents a strategy for preparing an efficient immobilised alcohol dehydrogenase preparation for a gas-phase reaction. The effects of additives such as buffers and sucrose on the immobilisation efficiency (residual activity and protein loading) and on the gas-phase reaction efficiency (initial reaction rate and half-life) of Thermoanaerobacter sp. alcohol dehydrogenase were studied. The reduction of acetophenone to 1-phenylethanol under in situ cofactor regeneration using isopropanol as co-substrate was used as a model reaction at fixed reaction conditions (temperature and thermodynamic activities). A strongly enhanced thermostability of the enzyme in the gas-phase reaction was achieved when the enzyme was immobilised with 50 mM phosphate buffer (pH 7) containing sucrose five times the protein amount (on weight/weight basis). This resulted in a remarkable productivity of 200 g L(-1) day(-1) even at non-optimised reaction conditions. The interaction of additives with the enzyme and water affects the immobilisation and gas-phase efficiencies of the enzyme. However, it was not possible to predict the effect of additives on the gas-phase reaction efficiency even after knowing their effect on the immobilisation efficiency.

  12. Phylogeny and taxonomy of Ophiognomonia (Gnomoniaceae, Diaporthales), including twenty-five new species in this highly diverse genus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Species of Ophiognomonia are leaf-inhabiting endophytes, pathogens, and saprobes that infect plants in the families Betulaceae, Fagaceae, Juglandaceae, Lauraceae, Malvaceae, Platanaceae, Rosaceae, Salicaceae, and Sapindaceae. Based on extensive collecting, this species-rich genus is now known to hav...

  13. Effects of feed additives and mixed eimeria species infection on intestinal microbial ecology of broilers.

    PubMed

    Hume, M E; Clemente-Hernández, S; Oviedo-Rondón, E O

    2006-12-01

    Evaluation of digestive microbial ecology is necessary to understand effects of growth-promoting feed. In the current study, the dynamics of intestinal microbial communities (MC) were examined in broilers fed diets supplemented with a combination of antibiotic (bacitracin methylene disalicylate) and ionophore (Coban 60), and diets containing 1 of 2 essential oil (EO) blends, Crina Poultry (CP) and Crina Alternate (CA). Five treatments were analyzed: 1) unmedicated uninfected control; 2) unmedicated infected control; 3) feed additives monensin (bacitracin methylene disalicylate) + monensin (Coban 60; AI); 4) EO blend CP; and 5) EO blend CA. Additives were mixed into a basal feed mixture, and EO were adjusted to 100 ppm. Chicks were infected by oral gavage at 19 d of age with Eimeria acervulina, Eimeria maxima, and Eimeria tenella. Duodenal, ileal, and cecal samples were taken from 12 birds per treatment just before and 7 d after challenge; 2 samples each were pooled to give a final number of 6 samples total; and all pooled samples were frozen until used for DNA extraction. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis was used to examine PCR-amplified fragments of the bacterial 16S ribosomal DNA variable region. Results are presented as percentages of similarity coefficients (SC). Dendrograms of PCR amplicon or band patterns indicated MC differences due to intestinal location, feed additives, and cocci challenge. Essential oil blends CP and CA affected MC in all gut sections. Each EO had different effects over MC, and they differed in most instances from the AI group. The cocci challenge caused drastic MC population shifts in duodenal, ileal, and cecal sections (36.7, 55.4, and 36.2% SC, respectively). Diets supplemented with CP supported higher SC between pre- and postchallenge MC (89.9, 83.3, and 76.4%) than AI (81.8., 57.4, and 60.0%). We concluded that mixed coccidia challenge caused drastic shifts in MC. These EO blends modulated MC better than AI, avoiding drastic

  14. New report of additional enterobacterial species causing wilt in West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Shamayeeta; Chaudhuri, Sujata

    2015-07-01

    Ralstonia solanacearum is known to be the most prominent causal agent of bacterial wilt worldwide. It has a wide host range comprising solanaceous and nonsolanaceous plants. Typical symptoms of the disease are leaf wilt, browning of vascular tissues, and collapsing of the plant. With the objective of studying the diversity of pathogens causing bacterial wilt in West Bengal, we collected samples of diseased symptomatic crops and adjacent symptomatic and asymptomatic weeds from widespread locations in West Bengal. By means of a routine molecular identification test specific to "R. solanacearum species complex", the majority of these strains (68 out of 71) were found to not be R. solanacearum. Presumptive identification of these isolates with conventional biochemicals, extensive testing of pathogenicity of a subset involving greenhouse trials fulfilling Koch's postulate test, and scanning electron microscopic analysis for the presence of pathogen in diseased plants were done. 16S rDNA sequencing of a subset of these strains (GenBank accession Nos. JX880249-JX880251) and analysis of sequences with the nBLAST programme showed a high similarity (97%-99%) to sequences of the Enterobacteriaceae group available in GenBank. Molecular phylogeny further established the taxonomic position of the strains. The 3 bacterial strain cultures have been submitted to MTCC, Institute of Microbial Technology, Chandigarh, India, and were identified as Klebsiella oxytoca, Enterobacter cowanii, and Klebsiella oxytoca, respectively. Although Enterobacter sp. has previously been reported to cause wilt in many plants, susceptibility of most of the dedicated hosts of R. solanacearum to wilt caused by Enterobacter and other bacteria from Enterobacteriaceae is being reported for the first time in this work.

  15. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells in murine AIDS inhibit B-cell responses in part via soluble mediators including reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, and TGF-β.

    PubMed

    Rastad, Jessica L; Green, William R

    2016-12-01

    Monocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells (M-MDSCs) were increased during LP-BM5 retroviral infection, and were capable of suppressing not only T-cell, but also B-cell responses. In addition to previously demonstrating iNOS- and VISTA-dependent M-MDSC mechanisms, in this paper, we detail how M-MDSCs utilized soluble mediators, including the reactive oxygen and nitrogen species superoxide, peroxynitrite, and nitric oxide, and TGF-β, to suppress B cells in a predominantly contact-independent manner. Suppression was independent of cysteine-depletion and hydrogen peroxide production. When two major mechanisms of suppression (iNOS and VISTA) were eliminated in double knockout mice, M-MDSCs from LP-BM5-infected mice were able to compensate using other, soluble mechanisms in order to maintain suppression of B cells. The IL-10 producing regulatory B-cell compartment was among the targets of M-MDSC-mediated suppression.

  16. Identification of the five human Plasmodium species including P. knowlesi by real-time polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Oddoux, O; Debourgogne, A; Kantele, A; Kocken, C H; Jokiranta, T S; Vedy, S; Puyhardy, J M; Machouart, M

    2011-04-01

    Recently, Plasmodium knowlesi has been recognised as the fifth Plasmodium species causing malaria in humans. Hundreds of human cases infected with this originally simian Plasmodium species have been described in Asian countries and increasing numbers are reported in Europe from travellers. The growing impact of tourism and economic development in South and Southeast Asia are expected to subsequently lead to a further increase in cases both among locals and among travellers. P. knowlesi is easily misidentified in microscopy as P. malariae or P. falciparum. We developed new primers for the rapid and specific detection of this species by low-cost real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and added this method to an already existing panel of primers used for the molecular identification of the other four species in one reaction. Reference laboratories should now be able to identify undisputably and rapidly P. knowlesi, as it is a potentially fatal pathogen.

  17. A new marker based on the avian spindlin gene that is able to sex most birds, including species problematic to sex with CHD markers.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Deborah A; Dos Remedios, Natalie; Horsburgh, Gavin J

    2016-11-01

    We have developed a new marker (Z43B) that can be successfully used to identify the sex of most birds (69%), including species difficult or impossible to sex with other markers. We utilized the zebra finch Taeniopygia guttata EST microsatellite sequence (CK309496) which displays sequence homology to the 5' untranslated region (UTR) of the avian spindlin gene. This gene is known to be present on the Z and W chromosomes. To maximize cross-species utility, the primer set was designed from a consensus sequence created from homologs of CK309496 that were isolated from multiple distantly related species. Both the forward and reverse primer sequences were 100% identical to 14 avian species, including the Z chromosome of eight species and the chicken Gallus gallus W chromosome, as well as the saltwater crocodile Crocodylus porosus. The Z43B primer set was assessed by genotyping individuals of known sex belonging to 61 non-ratite species and a single ratite. The Z and W amplicons differed in size making it possible to distinguish between males (ZZ) and females (ZW) for the majority (69%) of non-ratite species tested, comprising 10 orders of birds. We predict that this marker will be useful for obtaining sex-typing data for ca 6,869 species of birds (69% of non-ratites but not galliforms). A wide range of species could be sex-typed including passerines, shorebirds, eagles, falcons, bee-eaters, cranes, shags, parrots, penguins, ducks, and a ratite species, the brown kiwi, Apteryx australis. Those species sexed include species impossible or problematic to sex-type with other markers (magpie, albatross, petrel, eagle, falcon, crane, and penguin species). Zoo Biol. 35:533-545, 2016. © 2016 The Authors. Zoo Biology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Restoration of species-rich grasslands on ex-arable land: seed addition outweighs soil fertility reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Kardol, Paul

    2008-01-01

    A common practice in biodiversity conservation is restoration of former species-rich grassland on ex-arable land. Major constraints for grassland restoration are high soil fertility and limited dispersal ability of plant species to target sites. Usually, studies focus on soil fertility or on methods to introduce plant seeds. However, the question is whether soil fertility reduction is always necessary for getting plant species established on target sites. In a three-year field experiment with ex-arable soil with intensive farming history, we tested single and combined effects of soil fertility reduction and sowing mid-successional plant species on plant community development and soil biological properties. A controlled microcosm study was performed to test short-term effects of soil fertility reduction measures on biomass production of mid-successional species. Soil fertility was manipulated by adding carbon (wood or straw) to incorporate plant-available nutrients into organic matter, or by removing nutrients through top soil removal (TSR). The sown species established successfully and their establishment was independent of carbon amendments. TSR reduced plant biomass, and effectively suppressed arable weeds, however, created a desert-like environment, inhibiting the effectiveness of sowing mid-successional plant species. Adding straw or wood resulted in short-term reduction of plant biomass, suggesting a temporal decrease in plant-available nutrients by microbial immobilisation. Straw and wood addition had little effects on soil biological properties, whereas TSR profoundly reduced numbers of bacteria, fungal biomass and nematode abundance. In conclusion, in ex-arable soils, on a short term sowing is more effective for grassland restoration than strategies aiming at soil fertility reduction.

  19. A remarkable new species of Euragallia from Peru (Insecta, Hemiptera, Cicadellidae, Agalliini), including the description of a peculiar structure of the male genitalia

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Luiz G.; Gonçalves, Ana Clara; Mejdalani, Gabriel

    2012-01-01

    Abstract A new species of Euragallia Oman, 1938 from Peru (Pasco Department) is described and illustrated. Euragallia batmani sp. n. can be distinguished from the other species of the genus by the very posteriorly pronounced male pygofer, with an apical hook-like projection, and by the well-developed dorsal area of the aedeagal base, resembling the open wings of a bat. With the addition of Euragallia batmani sp. n., the number of Euragallia species is increased to 21. Only one additional species of the genus is recorded from Peru (Euragallia prion Kramer, 1976). A comparison between the new species and Euragallia prion is provided. A conspicuous structure, which connects the subgenital plates to the styles, is described in detail and named. PMID:22539879

  20. Molecular characterization of five Sarcocystis species in red deer ( Cervus elaphus), including Sarcocystis hjorti n. sp., reveals that these species are not intermediate host specific.

    PubMed

    Dahlgren, Stina S; Gjerde, Bjørn

    2010-04-01

    Muscle tissue from 37 red deer from Norway was examined for sarcocysts. Sarcocysts from 2 reindeer were obtained for comparative studies. Cysts were excised and morphologically classified by light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and DNA sequence analysis. Five Sarcocystis species, Sarcocystis hjorti n. sp., Sarcocystis hardangeri, Sarcocystis ovalis, Sarcocystis rangiferi, and Sarcocystis tarandi, were found. All 5 species have previously been identified from either reindeer or moose by their sarcocyst morphology and/or ssu rRNA gene sequence. S. hjorti was the most prevalent species. Multiple variants of the ssu rRNA gene and the first internal transcribed spacer were found in S. rangiferi and S. tarandi from both red deer and reindeer. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that S. tarandi occurs in both red deer and reindeer, but it could not be clearly demonstrated whether the sequence variation within S. rangiferi between hosts was due to different paralogues or/and different species. DNA sequencing was necessary for definitive species identification, since the hair-like protrusions on the cysts of S. hjorti were not always recognizable by light microscopy and since different cervids harbour Sarcocystis species with highly similar cyst morphology of which at least some are not intermediate host specific.

  1. The effects of a new therapeutic triclosan/copolymer/sodium-fluoride dentifrice on oral bacteria, including odorigenic species.

    PubMed

    Furgang, David; Sreenivasan, Prem K; Zhang, Yun Po; Fine, Daniel H; Cummins, Diane

    2003-09-01

    This investigation examined the in vitro and ex vivo antimicrobial effects of a new dentifrice, Colgate Total Advanced Fresh, formulated with triclosan/copolymer/sodium fluoride, on oral bacteria, including those odorigenic bacteria implicated in bad breath. The effects of Colgate Total Advanced Fresh were compared to commercially available fluoride dentifrices that served as controls. Three experimental approaches were undertaken for these studies. In the first approach, the dentifrice formulations were tested in vitro against 13 species of oral bacteria implicated in bad breath. The second approach examined the antimicrobial activity derived from dentifrice that was adsorbed to and released from hydroxyapatite disks. In this approach, dentifrice-treated hydroxyapatite disks were immersed in a suspension of bacteria, and reduction in bacterial viability from the release of bioactive agents from hydroxyapatite was determined. The third approach examined the effect of treating bacteria immediately after their removal from the oral cavity of 11 adult human volunteers. This ex vivo study examined the viability of cultivable oral bacteria after dentifrice treatment for 2 minutes. Antimicrobial effects were determined by plating Colgate Total Advanced Fresh and control-dentifrice-treated samples on enriched media (for all cultivable oral bacteria) and indicator media (for hydrogen-sulfide-producing organisms), respectively. Results indicated that the antimicrobial effects of Colgate Total Advanced Fresh were significantly greater than either of the other dentifrices for all 13 oral odorigenic bacterial strains tested in vitro (P < or = 0.05). In the second approach, Colgate Total Advanced Fresh-treated hydroxyapatite disks were significantly more active in reducing bacterial growth than the other dentifrices tested (P < or = 0.05). Finally, ex vivo treatment of oral bacteria with Colgate Total Advanced Fresh demonstrated a 90.9% reduction of all oral cultivable bacteria

  2. Functional relationships between leaf hydraulics and leaf economic traits in response to nutrient addition in subtropical tree species.

    PubMed

    Villagra, Mariana; Campanello, Paula I; Bucci, Sandra J; Goldstein, Guillermo

    2013-12-01

    Leaves can be both a hydraulic bottleneck and a safety valve against hydraulic catastrophic dysfunctions, and thus changes in traits related to water movement in leaves and associated costs may be critical for the success of plant growth. A 4-year fertilization experiment with nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) addition was done in a semideciduous Atlantic forest in northeastern Argentina. Saplings of five dominant canopy species were grown in similar gaps inside the forests (five control and five N + P addition plots). Leaf lifespan (LL), leaf mass per unit area (LMA), leaf and stem vulnerability to cavitation, leaf hydraulic conductance (K(leaf_area) and K(leaf_mass)) and leaf turgor loss point (TLP) were measured in the five species and in both treatments. Leaf lifespan tended to decrease with the addition of fertilizers, and LMA was significantly higher in plants with nutrient addition compared with individuals in control plots. The vulnerability to cavitation of leaves (P50(leaf)) either increased or decreased with the nutrient treatment depending on the species, but the average P50(leaf) did not change with nutrient addition. The P50(leaf) decreased linearly with increasing LMA and LL across species and treatments. These trade-offs have an important functional significance because more expensive (higher LMA) and less vulnerable leaves (lower P50(leaf)) are retained for a longer period of time. Osmotic potentials at TLP and at full turgor became more negative with decreasing P50(leaf) regardless of nutrient treatment. The K(leaf) on a mass basis was negatively correlated with LMA and LL, indicating that there is a carbon cost associated with increased water transport that is compensated by a longer LL. The vulnerability to cavitation of stems and leaves were similar, particularly in fertilized plants. Leaves in the species studied may not function as safety valves at low water potentials to protect the hydraulic pathway from water stress-induced cavitation

  3. Systematic revision of Platanthera in the Azorean archipelago: not one but three species, including arguably Europe’s rarest orchid

    PubMed Central

    Rudall, Paula J.; Moura, Mónica

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims. The Macaronesian islands represent an excellent crucible for exploring speciation. This dominantly phenotypic study complements a separate genotypic study, together designed to identify and circumscribe Platanthera species (butterfly-orchids) on the Azores, and to determine their geographic origin(s) and underlying speciation mechanism(s). Methods. 216 individuals of Platanthera from 30 Azorean localities spanning all nine Azorean islands were measured for 38 morphological characters, supported by light and scanning electron microscopy of selected flowers. They are compared through detailed multivariate and univariate analyses with four widespread continental European relatives in the P. bifolia-chlorantha aggregate, represented by 154 plants from 25 populations, and with the highly misleading original taxonomic descriptions. Physiographic and ecological data were also recorded for each study population. Key Results. Despite limited genetic divergence, detailed phenotypic survey reveals not one or two but three discrete endemic species of Platanthera that are readily distinguished using several characters, most floral: P. pollostantha (newly named, formerly P. micrantha) occupies the widest range of habitats and altitudes and occurs on all nine islands; P. micrantha (formerly P. azorica) occurs on eight islands but is restricted to small, scattered populations in laurisilva scrub; the true P. azorica appears confined to a single volcanigenic ridge on the central island of São Jorge. Conclusions. Although hybridity seems low, the excess of phenotypic over genotypic divergence suggests comparatively recent speciation. The most probable of several credible scenarios is that Azorean Platantheras represent a single migration to the archipelago of airborne seed from ancestral population(s) located in southwest Europe rather than North America, originating from within the P. bifolia-chlorantha aggregate. We hypothesise that an initial anagenetic

  4. The adaptational strategies of the hindlimb muscles in the Tenrecidae species including the aquatic web-footed tenrec (Limnogale mergulus).

    PubMed

    Endo, Hideki; Yonezawa, Takahiro; Rakotondraparany, Felix; Sasaki, Motoki; Hasegawa, Masami

    2006-07-01

    The hindlimb muscles in four species of Tenrecidae (Oryzoryctinae: Talazac long-tailed tenrec and web-footed tenrec, Tenrecinae: lesser hedgehog tenrec, and streaked tenrec), were examined macroscopically. The weight ratios of the muscles to the body in the oryzoryctinid species are larger than those in Tenrecinae, since the Oryzoryctinae species have an obviously smaller body from the evolutionary point of view. It can be primarily pointed out that the adaptation of the body size is different between the two subfamilies, and secondarily, that functional adaptation to locomotion is complete within each subfamily. The weight data and the morphological findings demonstrate that the web-footed tenrec possesses an extraordinary large M. semimembranosus in comparison to the Talazac long-tailed tenrec in their weight ratios. This muscle may act as a strong flexor motor in the knee joint during the aquatic locomotion of the web-footed tenrec. Since the other muscles of the web-footed tenrec are similar to those of the Talazac long-tailed tenrec regards weight ratio data, we think that the web-footed tenrec may have derived from a terrestrial ancestor such as the long-tailed tenrecs. In Tenrecinae the streaked tenrec is equipped with larger Mm. adductores, M. semimembranosus and M. triceps surae than the lesser hedgehog tenrec. This species is adapted to fossorial life derived from non-specialized ancestors within the evolutionary lines of the spiny tenrecs.

  5. First plant-parasitic mites (acari: eriophyoidea) recorded from Svalbard, including the description of a new species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eriophyoidea are minute phytophagous mites with great economic importance and great invasive potential. In spite of their impact on ecosystem functions, the knowledge of eriophyoid mites fauna in Arctic is lacking. Until now, only eight eriophyoid mite species were known from this region. Svalbard a...

  6. A taxonomic guide to the fanworms (Sabellidae, Annelida) of Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, Australia, including new species and new records.

    PubMed

    Capa, María; Murray, Anna

    2015-09-18

    This comprehensive taxonomic work is the result of the study of fan worms (Sabellidae, Annelida) collected over the last 40 years from around the Lizard Island Archipelago, Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Some species described herein are commonly found in Lizard Island waters but had not previously been formally reported in the literature. Most species appear to be not particularly abundant, and few specimens have been collected despite the sampling effort in the area over this time period. After this study, the overall sabellid diversity of the archipelago has been greatly increased (by more than 650%). Before this revision, only four sabellid species had been recorded for Lizard Island, and in this paper we report 31 species, 13 of which belong to nominal species, six are formally described as new species (Euchone danieloi n. sp., Euchone glennoi n. sp., Jasmineira gustavoi n. sp., Megalomma jubata n. sp., Myxicola nana n. sp., and Paradialychone ambigua n. sp.), and the identity of 12 species is still unknown (those referred as cf. or sp.). Two species are newly recorded in Australia and two in Queensland. The invasive species Branchiomma bairdi is reported for the first time at Lizard Island. The genus Paradialychone is reported for Australia for the first time. Standardised descriptions, general photographs of live and/or preserved specimens and distribution data are provided for all species. New species descriptions are accompanied by detailed illustrations and exhaustive morphological information. A dichotomous key for sabellid identification is also included.

  7. Nitrogen addition and harvest frequency rather than initial plant species composition determine vertical structure and light interception in grasslands.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Ute; Isselstein, Johannes

    2015-07-21

    In biodiversity experiments based on seeded experimental communities, species richness and species composition exert a strong influence on canopy structure and can lead to an improved use of aboveground resources. In this study, we want to explore whether these findings are applicable to agriculturally managed permanent grassland. Vertical layered profiles of biomass, leaf area (LA) and light intensity were measured in a removal-type biodiversity experiment (GrassMan) to compare the canopy structure in grassland vegetation of different plant species composition (called sward types). Additionally, the altered sward types were subjected to four different management regimes by a combination of the factors fertilization (unfertilized, NPK fertilized) and cutting frequency (one late cut or three cuts). In spite of large compositional differences (ratio grasses : non-leguminous forbs : leguminous forbs ranging from 93 : 7 : 0 to 39 : 52 : 9), the vegetation of the same management regime hardly differed in its canopy structure, whereas the different management regimes led to distinct vertical profiles in the vegetation. However, the allocation of biomass in response to cutting and fertilization differed among the sward types. Vegetation dominated by grasses was denser and had more LA when fertilized compared with vegetation rich in dicots which merely grew taller. In functionally more diverse vegetation, light interception was not increased compared with vegetation consisting of more than 90 % of grasses in terms of biomass. Management had a much stronger influence on structure and light interception than plant species composition in this grassland experiment.

  8. Contribution to the taxonomy of Garcinia (Clusiaceae) in Africa, including two new species from Gabon and a key to the Lower Guinean species

    PubMed Central

    Sosef, Marc S.M.; Dauby, Gilles

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Garcinia has some 260 species and is often regarded as a genus with a difficult taxonomy. No recent treatment is available for the botanically rich Lower Guinea phytogeographical region. This study aims at partly filling this gap. First, several taxonomic problems are solved. Garcinia chromocarpa is reduced to a variety of Garcinia quadrifaria. Garcinia gnetoides and Garcinia granulata are both synonyms of Garcinia quadrifaria. Garcinia zenkeri is a synonym of Garcinia densivenia and lectotypes are being designated for both names. Garcinia brevipedicellata is a synonym of Garcinia afzelii, as is Garcinia antidysenterica for which a lectotype is designated. Second, two new species endemic to Gabon are described: Garcinia gabonensis Sosef & Dauby and Garcinia obliqua Sosef & Dauby. Finally, an identification key to all species present in the Lower Guinea region is provided. A few remaining West African species names could not be placed with certainty, because the type material was lost or not traced yet. One is a Rutaceae while the remaining three are provisionally to be regarded as synonyms of Garcinia smeathmannii. PMID:23233817

  9. Observations on two Rhabdochona species (Nematoda: Rhabdochonidae) from freshwater fishes in Argentina, including description of Rhabdochona fabianae n. sp.

    PubMed

    Ramallo, Geraldine

    2005-04-01

    Helminthological examination of specimens of the freshwater fishes Bryconamericus iheringi Boulenger, 1887 (Characidae) and Jenynsia multidentata (Jenyns, 1842) (Anablepidae), collected from Medina River, Province of Tucuman, Argentina, revealed the presence of 2 species of parasitic nematodes, Rhabdochona fabianae n. sp. and Rhabdochona acuminata (Molin, 1860) (Rhabdochonidae). Rhabdochona fabianae n. sp. was characterized by the presence of 16 anterior teeth in the prostom and filamented eggs in females. Rhabdochona acuminata was recorded for the first time in the north of Argentina.

  10. Ganoderma species, including new taxa associated with root rot of the iconic Jacaranda mimosifolia in Pretoria, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Coetzee, Martin P A; Marincowitz, Seonju; Muthelo, Vuledzani G; Wingfield, Michael J

    2015-06-01

    Jacaranda mimosifolia trees have been progressively dying due to Ganoderma root and butt rot disease in Pretoria (the "City of Jacarandas") for many years. Ganoderma austroafricanum was described from these trees previously but this was based on a single collection. This study treats a substantially expanded collection of isolates of Ganoderma made from all dying trees where basidiomes were present in a Pretoria suburb. DNA sequences were obtained from the ITS and LSU region for the isolates and compared against sequences on GenBank. Phylogenetic analyses were used to compare sequences with those for other Ganoderma species. Based on sequence comparisons and morphological characters, two new Ganoderma species were discovered and these are described here as G. enigmaticum and G. destructans spp. nov. Interestingly, the previously described G. austroafricanum was not found, G. enigmaticum was found on only one Ceratonia siliqua tree and G. destructans was found on all other trees sampled. The latter species appears to be the primary cause of root rot of J. mimosifolia in the area sampled.

  11. Interactions between Bifidobacterium and Bacteroides Species in Cofermentations Are Affected by Carbon Sources, Including Exopolysaccharides Produced by Bifidobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Rios-Covian, David; Arboleya, Silvia; Hernandez-Barranco, Ana M.; Alvarez-Buylla, Jorge R.; Ruas-Madiedo, Patricia; Gueimonde, Miguel

    2013-01-01

    Cocultures of strains from two Bifidobacterium and two Bacteroides species were performed with exopolysaccharides (EPS) previously purified from bifidobacteria, with inulin, or with glucose as the carbon source. Bifidobacterium longum NB667 and Bifidobacterium breve IPLA20004 grew in glucose but showed poor or no growth in complex carbohydrates (inulin, EPS E44, and EPS R1), whereas Bacteroides grew well in the four carbon sources tested. In the presence of glucose, the growth of Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron DSM-2079 was inhibited by B. breve, whereas it remained unaffected in the presence of B. longum. Ba. fragilis DSM-2151 contributed to a greater survival of B. longum, promoting changes in the synthesis of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and organic acids in coculture with respect to monocultures. In complex carbohydrates, cocultures of bifidobacterium strains with Ba. thetaiotaomicron did not modify the behavior of Bacteroides nor improve the poor growth of bifidobacteria. The metabolic activity of Ba. fragilis in coculture with bifidobacteria was not affected by EPS, but greater survival of bifidobacteria at late stages of incubation occurred in cocultures than in monocultures, leading to a higher production of acetic acid than in monocultures. Therefore, cocultures of Bifidobacterium and Bacteroides can behave differently against fermentable carbohydrates as a function of the specific characteristics of the strains from each species. These results stress the importance of considering specific species and strain interactions and not simply higher taxonomic divisions in the relationship among intestinal microbial populations and their different responses to probiotics and prebiotics. PMID:24077708

  12. Two new species of Pergalumna (Acari, Oribatida, Galumnidae) from Costa Rica, including a key to all species of the genus from the Neotropical region.

    PubMed

    Ermilov, Sergey G; Alvarado-Rodríguez, Olman; Retana-Salazar, Axel P

    2014-01-01

    Two new species of oribatid mites of the genus Pergalumna (Oribatida, Galumnidae), P. elongatiporosa sp. n. and P. striatiprodorsum sp. n., are described from leaf litter of a secondary forest in Costa Rica. Pergalumna elongatiporosa sp. n. is most similar morphologically to P. horvathorum P. Balogh, 1997 and P. sura P. Balogh, 1997, however, it differs from both by the body size, body surface ornamentation and morphology of notogastral porose areas A1 and A3. Pergalumna striatiprodorsum sp. n. is most similar morphologically to P. hawaiiensis hawaiiensis (Jacot, 1934) and P. strigulata Mahunka, 1978, however, it differs from P. hawaiiensis by the length of interlamellar setae and surface ornamentation of the prodorsum; from P. strigulata by the surface of ornamentation of the notogaster, length of interlamellar setae and morphology of bothridial setae. An identification key to known species of Pergalumna from the Neotropical region is given.

  13. Two new species of Pergalumna (Acari, Oribatida, Galumnidae) from Costa Rica, including a key to all species of the genus from the Neotropical region

    PubMed Central

    Ermilov, Sergey G.; Alvarado-Rodríguez, Olman; Retana-Salazar, Axel P.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Two new species of oribatid mites of the genus Pergalumna (Oribatida, Galumnidae), P. elongatiporosa sp. n. and P. striatiprodorsum sp. n., are described from leaf litter of a secondary forest in Costa Rica. Pergalumna elongatiporosa sp. n. is most similar morphologically to P. horvathorum P. Balogh, 1997 and P. sura P. Balogh, 1997, however, it differs from both by the body size, body surface ornamentation and morphology of notogastral porose areas A1 and A3. Pergalumna striatiprodorsum sp. n. is most similar morphologically to P. hawaiiensis hawaiiensis (Jacot, 1934) and P. strigulata Mahunka, 1978, however, it differs from P. hawaiiensis by the length of interlamellar setae and surface ornamentation of the prodorsum; from P. strigulata by the surface of ornamentation of the notogaster, length of interlamellar setae and morphology of bothridial setae. An identification key to known species of Pergalumna from the Neotropical region is given. PMID:25152684

  14. Two new species of oribatid mites of Lasiobelba (Acari, Oribatida, Oppiidae) from Nepal, including a key to all species of the genus

    PubMed Central

    Ermilov, Sergey G.; Shtanchaeva, Umukusum Ya.; Subías, Luis S.; Martens, Jochen

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Two new species of oribatid mites of the genus Lasiobelba (Oribatida, Oppiidae), Lasiobelba (Lasiobelba) daamsae sp. n. and Lasiobelba (Antennoppia) nepalica sp. n., are described from eastern Nepal. Lasiobelba (L.) daamsae sp. n. is most similar to L. (L.) remota Aoki, 1959 and L. (L.) gibbosa (Mahunka, 1985), however, it differs from both by the anterior part of pedotecta I specifically curved, rostrum pointed and exobothridial setae not shorter than bothridial setae. Lasiobelba (Antennoppia) nepalica sp. n. is most similar to L. (A.) granulata (Mahunka, 1986), however, it differs from the latter by the larger body size, exobothridial setae longer than rostral setae and bothridial setae not longer than interlamellar setae. An identification key to known species of Lasiobelba is given. PMID:25061394

  15. Contribution to our knowledge of the whitefly genus Aleuroclava Singh (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) in China, including Taiwan and Hong Kong, with descriptions of two new species.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ji-Rui; Du, Yu-Zhou

    2016-07-15

    Two new whitefly species, Aleuroclava sterculiae sp. nov., collected from Sterculia nobilis (Malvales: Sterculiaceae) of Qingxiu hill park (Guangxi, China), and Aleuroclava rosae sp. nov., collected from Stranvaesia sp. (Rosales: Rosaceae) of Maoer Mountain (Guangxi, China), are described with morphology, line illustrations, photographs and scanning electron microscope (SEM) images. In addition, two other whitefly species, Aleuroclava lefroyi (Sundararaj & David) and Aleuroclava manii (David), are reported as new to the fauna of China, and are discussed. An identification key to Aleuroclava species known from Mainland China, Taiwan and Hong Kong is provided. The specimens are deposited in the Insect Collection of Yangzhou University (YZU).

  16. A comparative study on iron sources for mitochondrial haem synthesis including ferritin and models of transit pool species.

    PubMed

    Funk, F; Lecrenier, C; Lesuisse, E; Crichton, R R; Schneider, W

    1986-06-02

    The rates of reaction of various exogenic iron(III) complexes with deuteroporphyrin IX in isolated mitochondria to form deuterohaem were measured. Ferritin was shown to supply iron readily for haem synthesis if the ferritin iron was reductively mobilised by the mitochondrial respiratory chain with succinate as substrate and FMN as mediator. In contrast, polynuclear complexes of iron(III) were able to form deuterohaem without added FMN. Rates of haem formation are about five times higher for the lowest polynuclear units than for ferritin. Sorbitol, gluconate, and bovine serum albumin were used as scavengers for polynuclear complexes with restricted size. Strong chelators of iron(II) compete favourably for deuterohaem formation, which supports the multistep mechanism for haem formation suggested by a priori arguments. Rates of deuterohaem formation were measured in homologous and heterologous systems of ferritins and mitochondria. Slightly differing rates of haem formation were shown to originate in different rates of iron mobilisation from the ferritins. The lack of species specificity in the interaction of ferritin with mitochondria also shows up in the linear dependence of ferritin binding on its bulk concentration as measured using 3H-labeled ferritin. Rates of haem formation are virtually the same in mitoplasts and mitochondria which indicates insignificant influences of the outer membrane. The hypothesis of low polynuclears as major components of the intracellular transit iron pool implies that both ferritin and transit iron pool species are largely equivalent sources of iron for mitochondrial haem synthesis.

  17. Exploration and classification of chromatographic fingerprints as additional tool for identification and quality control of several Artemisia species.

    PubMed

    Alaerts, Goedele; Pieters, Sigrid; Logie, Hans; Van Erps, Jürgen; Merino-Arévalo, Maria; Dejaegher, Bieke; Smeyers-Verbeke, Johanna; Vander Heyden, Yvan

    2014-07-01

    The World Health Organization accepts chromatographic fingerprints as a tool for identification and quality control of herbal medicines. This is the first study in which the distinction, identification and quality control of four different Artemisia species, i.e. Artemisia vulgaris, A. absinthium, A. annua and A. capillaris samples, is performed based on the evaluation of entire chromatographic fingerprint profiles developed with identical experimental conditions. High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) with Diode Array Detection (DAD) was used to develop the fingerprints. Application of factorial designs leads to methanol/water (80:20 (v/v)) as the best extraction solvent for the pulverised plant material and to a shaking bath for 30 min as extraction method. Further, so-called screening, optimisation and fine-tuning phases were performed during fingerprint development. Most information about the different Artemisia species, i.e. the highest number of separated peaks in the fingerprint, was acquired on four coupled Chromolith columns (100 mm × 4.6 mm I.D.). Trifluoroacetic acid 0.05% (v/v) was used as mobile-phase additive in a stepwise linear methanol/water gradient, i.e. 5, 34, 41, 72 and 95% (v/v) methanol at 0, 9, 30, 44 and 51 min, where the last mobile phase composition was kept isocratic till 60 min. One detection wavelength was selected to perform data analysis. The lowest similarity between the fingerprints of the four species was present at 214 nm. The HPLC/DAD method was applied on 199 herbal samples of the four Artemisia species, resulting in 357 fingerprints. The within- and between-day variation of the entire method, as well as the quality control fingerprints obtained during routine analysis, were found acceptable. The distinction of these Artemisia species was evaluated based on the entire chromatographic profiles, developed by a shared method, and visualised in score plots by means of the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) exploratory data

  18. Modification of the Kjeldahl noncasein nitrogen method to include bovine milk concentrates and milks from other species.

    PubMed

    Wojciechowski, Karen L; Barbano, David M

    2015-11-01

    The objective of our research was to modify the current indirect casein method for bovine milk to enable it to be applied to bovine milk, bovine milk concentrates, and milks of other species that contain a protein concentration up to 9% (wt/wt). Our work used a series of bovine milk concentrates from about 3 to 9% protein with the same casein as a percentage of true protein to determine the amount of buffer required and pH of the noncasein nitrogen (NCN) filtrate to achieve consistent estimates of casein and casein as percent of true protein. As the concentration of protein in milk increased (either in bovine milk concentrates or in milks of other species), the amount of buffer needed for the NCN sample preparation method to achieve a filtrate pH of 4.6 increased. In the first part of the study using a series of bovine milk concentrates, it was demonstrated that the method gave more consistent predictions of casein as a percentage of true protein when the final NCN filtrate pH was between 4.5 and 4.6 at 38°C. When the amount of buffer added to the sample was not sufficient (i.e., the filtrate pH was too high), the filtrates were not clear. A polynomial equation was developed for prediction of the amount of acetic acid or sodium acetate buffer required to achieve pH 4.5 to 4.6 for milk protein concentrations from 3 to 9% protein using bovine milk and milk concentrates. When the equation developed using cow milk was applied to goat, sheep, and water buffalo milks, it correctly predicted the volume of reagents needed to achieve a final NCN filtrate pH of 4.6 at 38°C. We also verified as part of this work that the ability to measure NPN content of milk was not influenced by protein content of milk in the range from 3 to 9% protein. The results of this study will be used as the basis for proposed changes in the official methods for measurement of the casein content of milk to expand the scope of the method so it can be used to achieve accurate results for milk

  19. Plant species, atmospheric CO2 and soil N interactively or additively control C allocation within plant-soil systems.

    PubMed

    F U, Shenglei; Ferris, Howard

    2006-12-01

    Two plant species, Medicago truncatula (legume) and Avena sativa (non-legume), were grown in low- or high-N soils under two CO2 concentrations to test the hypothesis whether C allocation within plant-soil system is interactively or additively controlled by soil N and atmospheric CO2 is dependent upon plant species. The results showed the interaction between plant species and soil N had a significant impact on microbial activity and plant growth. The interaction between CO2 and soil N had a significant impact on soil soluble C and soil microbial biomass C under Madicago but not under Avena. Although both CO2 and soil N affected plant growth significantly, there was no interaction between CO2 and soil N on plant growth. In other words, the effects of CO2 and soil N on plant growth were additive. We considered that the interaction between N2 fixation trait of legume plant and elevated CO2 might have obscured the interaction between soil N and elevated CO2 on the growth of legume plant. In low-N soil, the shoot-to-root ratio of Avena dropped from 2.63 +/- 0.20 in the early growth stage to 1.47 +/- 0.03 in the late growth stage, indicating that Avena plant allocated more energy to roots to optimize nutrient uptake (i.e. N) when soil N was limiting. In high-N soil, the shoot-to-root ratio of Medicago increased significantly over time (from 2.45 +/- 0.30 to 5.43 +/- 0.10), suggesting that Medicago plants allocated more energy to shoots to optimize photosynthesis when N was not limiting. The shoot-to-root ratios were not significantly different between two CO2 levels.

  20. Nupela species (Naviculales: Bacillariophyceae) from Colombian lowland waters including N. acaciensis nov. sp. and N. catatumbensis nov. sp.

    PubMed

    Sala, Silvia; Vouilloud, Amelia Alejandra; Plata-Díaz, Yasmin; Pedraza, Edna; Pimienta, Astrid

    2014-03-01

    The genus Nupela comprises ca. 50 species that generally have a distribution restricted by bioclimatic frontiers. As part of an integrated analysis of the diatom flora of Colombia, in this study we focused our interest on the genus Nupela from lowland waters. Periphyton samples were collected from 150 sites of lotic water bodies in Colombia, taking into account hidrogeomorfological variability. In each sampling station, periphyton samples were obtained by scraping, and temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen and conductivity variables were measured. Samples were processed by both light microscopy (LM; Carl Zeiss Axio Scope.A1) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM; FEI-Quanta 450 and a Jeol JSM-6360 LV). The genus Nupela was found in 28 sites. Five taxa were identified, described and illustrated from tropical or subtropical environments: N. lesothensis, N. praecipua y N. subpallavicinii; these were new records for Colombia, and N. acaciensis and N. catatumbensis two new species for science. N. acaciensis is characterized by raphe branches of both valves equally long combined with cymbelloid symmetry, striae built by 2 transapically elongated areolae that delimit a longitudinal line at each hemivalve. N. catatumbensis is characterized by the presence of a well developed raphe in both valves; valves lanceolate with subcapitated to capitated ends and cymbelloid symmetry, striae built by 3-4 transapically elongated areolae, interestriae elevated as transapical ribs and internal proximal raphe ends hook-shaped. The genus Nupela was widely distributed in the studied basins but showed different distribution patterns: N. acaciensis and N. subpallavicini had a restricted distribution, while N. catatumbensis, N. lesothensis and N. praecipua had a wider distribution, and were collected in sites with significant variations in their ecomorphology, altitude, temperature, pH and electrolyte content.

  1. Monorchiid trematodes of the painted sweetlips, Diagramma labiosum (Perciformes: Haemulidae), from the southern Great Barrier Reef, including a new genus and three new species.

    PubMed

    Searle, Emily L; Cutmore, Scott C; Cribb, Thomas H

    2014-07-01

    Five monorchiid species are reported from Diagramma labiosum Macleay (Perciformes: Haemulidae) collected from Heron Island on the southern Great Barrier Reef (GBR): two described species, Helicometroides longicollis Yamaguti, 1934 and Diplomonorchis kureh Machida, 2005 and three new species, including one new genus, Asymmetrostoma heronensis n. g., n. sp., Lasiotocus arrhichostoma n. sp. and Proctotrema addisoni n. sp. Helicometroides longicollis and D. kureh were previously reported from the closely related species Diagramma pictum (Thunberg) from Japan. Two further monorchiid species known from D. pictum, Genolopa plectorhynchi (Yamaguti, 1934) and Paraproctotrema fusiforme Yamaguti, 1934, appear to be absent from the southern Great Barrier Reef. Previous reports of two other monorchiids from D. labiosum from the GBR, Paramonorcheides pseudocaranxi Dove & Cribb, 1998 and Helicometroides vitellosus (Durio & Manter, 1968), are shown to have been made in error. The high richness of monorchiids and other trematode families in D. labiosum is consistent with that seen in other haemulids elsewhere.

  2. Design and synthesis of novel antimicrobials with activity against Gram-positive bacteria and mycobacterial species, including M. tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Tiruveedhula, V.V.N. Phani Babu; Witzigmann, Christopher M.; Verma, Ranjit; Kabir, M. Shahjahan; Rott, Marc; Schwan, William R.; Medina-Bielski, Sara; Lane, Michelle; Close, William; Polanowski, Rebecca L.; Sherman, David; Monte, Aaron; Deschamps, Jeffrey R.; Cook, James M.

    2013-01-01

    The alarming increase in bacterial resistance over the last decade along with a dramatic decrease in new treatments for infections has led to problems in the healthcare industry. Tuberculosis (TB) is caused mainly by Mycobacterium tuberculosis which is responsible for 1.4 million deaths per year. A world-wide threat with HIV co-infected with multi and extensively drug-resistant strains of TB has emerged. In this regard, herein, novel acrylic acid ethyl ester derivatives were synthesized in simple, efficient routes and evaluated as potential agents against several Mycobacterium species. These were synthesized via a stereospecific process for structure activity relationship (SAR) studies. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assays indicated that esters 12, 13, and 20 exhibited greater in vitro activity against Mycobacterium smegmatis than rifampin, one of the current, first-line anti-mycobacterial chemotherapeutic agents. Based on these studies the acrylic ester 20 has been developed as a potential lead compound which was found to have an MIC value of 0.4 μg/mL against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The SAR and biological activity of this series is presented; a Michael – acceptor mechanism appears to be important for potent activity of this series of analogs. PMID:24200931

  3. Multi-species nitrifying biofilm model (MSNBM) including free ammonia and free nitrous acid inhibition and oxygen limitation.

    PubMed

    Park, Seongjun; Bae, Wookeun; Rittmann, Bruce E

    2010-04-15

    A multi-species nitrifying biofilm model (MSNBM) is developed to describe nitrite accumulation by simultaneous free ammonia (FA) and free nitrous acid (FNA) inhibition, direct pH inhibition, and oxygen limitation in a biofilm. The MSNBM addresses the spatial gradient of pH with biofilm depth and how it induces changes of FA and FNA speciation and inhibition. Simulations using the MSNBM in a completely mixed biofilm reactor show that influent total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) concentration, bulk dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration, and buffer concentration exert significant control on the suppression of nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) and shortcut biological nitrogen removal (SBNR), but the pH in the bulk liquid has a weaker influence. Ammonium oxidation increases the nitrite concentration and decreases the pH, which together can increase FNA inhibition of NOB in the biofilm. Thus, a low buffer concentration can accentuate SBNR. DO and influent TAN concentrations are efficient means to enhance DO limitation, which affects NOB more than ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) inside the biofilm. With high influent TAN concentration, FA inhibition is dominant at an early phase, but finally DO limitation becomes more important as TAN degradation and biofilm growth proceed. MSNBM results indicate that oxygen depletion and FNA inhibition throughout the biofilm continuously suppress the growth of NOB, which helps achieve SBNR with a lower TAN concentration than in systems without concentration gradients.

  4. Pomphorhynchidae and quadrigyridae (Acanthocephala), including a new genus and species (Pallisentinae), from freshwater fishes, Cobitidae and Cyprinodontidae, in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Smales, Lesley R; Aydogdu, Ali; Emre, Yilmaz

    2012-09-01

    During a survey of freshwater fishes from Turkey two species of Acanthocephala, one of them new, were found. Pomphorhynchus tereticollis (Pomphorhynchidae) is reported at 24% prevalence in 37 Cobitis bilseli (Cobitidae) from Lake Beysehir, Konya, for the first time. The eoacanthoacaphalan Triaspiron aphanii gen. n. et sp. n. (Quadrigyridae), at a prevalence of 90%, is described from 29 Aphanius mento (Cyprinodontidae), from Kirkgöz Springs, Antalya. The new genus most closely resembles Raosentis Datta, 1947, both having a small spindle shaped trunk, and Acanthogyrus Thapar, 1927, both having a proboscis armature of three circles of hooks. Triaspiron differs from Raosentis in proboscis shape, cylindrical not globular, proboscis armature, three circles, a total of 16 hooks in all, not four circles, a total of 26-30 hooks in all, and trunk spination, two fields of spines in the anterior field with spines arranged in up to 40 circular rows, not a single field with 9-17 rows of spines. Triaspiron differs from Acanthogyrus in having fewer proboscis hooks, 16 compared with 18-24, arranged in three circles, one anterior and two posteriorly placed, with an unarmed region between, not three circles of hooks evenly spaced, and two fields of trunk spines, not one.

  5. Spermatological characters of monozoic tapeworms (Cestoda: Caryophyllidea), including first data on a species from the Indomalayan catfish.

    PubMed

    Yoneva, Aneta; Levron, Céline; Ash, Anirban; Scholz, Tomáš

    2012-04-01

    The ultrastructure of spermiogenesis and mature spermatozoon in Lytocestus indicus (Cestoda: Lytocestidae) is described; this is the first representative of this group of monozoic, presumably most basal, tapeworms (Eucestoda) from the Indomalayan region to be documented in this manner. Similarly, as in other caryophyllideans, its spermiogenesis involves the formation of a conical differentiation zone with 2 centrioles associated with striated roots and an intercentriolar body. In the course of the process, 1 of the centrioles develops a free flagellum, which fuses with a cytoplasmic protrusion, whereas the other remains oriented in a cytoplasmic bud. Spermiogenesis is also characterized by the presence of electron-dense material in the early stages of spermiogenesis and a slight rotation of the flagellar bud. The mature spermatozoon of L. indicus is a filiform cell tapered at both extremities that lacks mitochondria; its nucleus has parallel disposition to the axoneme and does not reach up to the posterior extremity of the spermatozoon, which is typical for spermatozoa of the type III pattern. The new data confirm that caryophyllideans share the same type of spermiogenesis that is considered to be plesiomorphic in the Eucestoda. The existing information on spermatological ultrastructure of 8 members for 3 of 4 caryophyllidean families from different host groups (cyprinids and catostomids, both Cypriniformes, and mochokids and clariids, both Siluriformes) from 4 zoogeographical regions (Palearctic, Neotropic, Ethiopian, and Indomalayan regions) demonstrates great uniformity in spermiogenesis and sperm ultrastructure, which does not reflect different taxonomic position of the species studied.

  6. Sphaerodoridae (Annelida) from Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, Australia, including the description of two new species and reproductive notes.

    PubMed

    Capa, María; Rouse, Greg W

    2015-09-18

    Sphaerodorids are scarce at Lizard Island archipelago and other localities in the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Intensive collections at a variety of habitats within the Lizard Island archipelago over the last four decades have resulted in a total of just 11 specimens. Nevertheless, they represent two new species and a new record for Lizard Island. Sphaerodoropsis aurantica n. sp. is characterised by nine longitudinal rows of sessile and spherical dorsal macrotubercles, arranged in a single transverse row per segment; parapodia with around 10 spherical papillae; and compound chaetae with thin shafts and long blades. Sphaerodoropsis plurituberculata n. sp. is characterised by more than 12 more or less clearly arranged longitudinal rows of sessile spherical dorsal tubercles (variable in size), in four transverse rows per segment; parapodia lacking papillae; and semi-compound chaetae with distally enlarged shaft and short blades. Ephesiella australiensis is reported for the first time in Lizard Island. Laboratory observations of live specimens of Sphaerodoropsis plurituberculata n. sp., revealed the use of spermatophores by males. These were found attached externally to the body surface of both sexes, indicating pseudo-copulation.

  7. Movements of wolves at the northern extreme of the species' range, including during four months of darkness

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L.D.; Cluff, H.D.

    2011-01-01

    Information about wolf (Canis lupus) movements anywhere near the northern extreme of the species' range in the High Arctic (<75??N latitude) are lacking. There, wolves prey primarily on muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus) and must survive 4 months of 24 hr/day winter darkness and temperatures reaching -53 C. The extent to which wolves remain active and prey on muskoxen during the dark period are unknown, for the closest area where information is available about winter wolf movements is >2,250 km south. We studied a pack of ???20 wolves on Ellesmere Island, Nunavut, Canada (80??N latitude) from July 2009 through mid-April 2010 by collaring a lead wolf with a Global Positioning System (GPS)/Argos radio collar. The collar recorded the wolf's precise locations at 6:00 a.m. and 6:00 p.m. daily and transmitted the locations by satellite to our email. Straight-line distances between consecutive 12-hr locations varied between 0 and 76 km. Mean (SE) linear distance between consecutive locations (n = 554) was 11 (0.5) km. Total minimum distance traveled was 5,979 km, and total area covered was 6,640 km2, the largest wolf range reported. The wolf and presumably his pack once made a 263-km (straight-line distance) foray to the southeast during 19-28 January 2010, returning 29 January to 1 February at an average of 41 km/day straight-line distances between 12-hr locations. This study produced the first detailed movement information about any large mammal in the High Arctic, and the average movements during the dark period did not differ from those afterwards. Wolf movements during the dark period in the highest latitudes match those of the other seasons and generally those of wolves in lower latitudes, and, at least with the gross movements measurable by our methods, the 4-month period without direct sunlight produced little change in movements. ?? 2011 Mech, Cluff.

  8. Comparison of area 17 cellular composition in laboratory and wild-caught rats including diurnal and nocturnal species.

    PubMed

    Campi, Katharine L; Collins, Christine E; Todd, William D; Kaas, Jon; Krubitzer, Leah

    2011-01-01

    In this study we examine the size of primary sensory areas in the neocortex and the cellular composition of area 17/V1 in three rodent groups: laboratory nocturnal Norway rats (Long-Evans; Rattus norvegicus), wild-caught nocturnal Norway rats (R. norvegicus), and laboratory diurnal Nile grass rats (Arvicanthis niloticus). Specifically, we used areal measures of myeloarchitecture of the primary sensory areas to compare area size and the isotropic fractionator method to estimate the number of neurons and nonneurons in area 17 in each species. Our results demonstrate that the percentage of cortex devoted to area 17 is significantly greater and the percentage of cortex devoted to S1 is significantly smaller in the diurnal Nile grass rat compared with the nocturnal Norway rat groups. Further, the laboratory rodent groups have a greater percentage of cortex devoted to auditory cortex compared with the wild-caught group. We also demonstrate that wild-caught rats have a greater density of neurons in area 17 compared to laboratory-reared animals. However, there were no other clear cellular composition differences in area 17 or differences in the percentage of brain weight devoted to area 17 between nocturnal and diurnal rats. Thus, there are differences in primary sensory area size between diurnal versus nocturnal and laboratory versus wild-caught rat groups and cellular density between wild-caught and laboratory rat groups. Our results demonstrate that the differences in the size and cellular composition of cortical areas do not fit with what would be expected based on brain scaling differences alone, and have a consistent relationship with lifestyle and sensory morphology.

  9. Movements of wolves at the northern extreme of the species' range, including during four months of darkness

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L. David; Cluff, H. Dean

    2011-01-01

    Information about wolf (Canis lupus) movements anywhere near the northern extreme of the species' range in the High Arctic (>75°N latitude) are lacking. There, wolves prey primarily on muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus) and must survive 4 months of 24 hr/day winter darkness and temperatures reaching -53 C. The extent to which wolves remain active and prey on muskoxen during the dark period are unknown, for the closest area where information is available about winter wolf movements is >2,250 km south. We studied a pack of ≥20 wolves on Ellesmere Island, Nunavut, Canada (80°N latitude) from July 2009 through mid-April 2010 by collaring a lead wolf with a Global Positioning System (GPS)/Argos radio collar. The collar recorded the wolf's precise locations at 6:00 a.m. and 6:00 p.m. daily and transmitted the locations by satellite to our email. Straight-line distances between consecutive 12-hr locations varied between 0 and 76 km. Mean (SE) linear distance between consecutive locations (n = 554) was 11 (0.5) km. Total minimum distance traveled was 5,979 km, and total area covered was 6,640 km2, the largest wolf range reported. The wolf and presumably his pack once made a 263-km (straight-line distance) foray to the southeast during 19–28 January 2010, returning 29 January to 1 February at an average of 41 km/day straight-line distances between 12-hr locations. This study produced the first detailed movement information about any large mammal in the High Arctic, and the average movements during the dark period did not differ from those afterwards. Wolf movements during the dark period in the highest latitudes match those of the other seasons and generally those of wolves in lower latitudes, and, at least with the gross movements measurable by our methods, the 4-month period without direct sunlight produced little change in movements.

  10. A review of the current knowledge on Zeugodacus cucurbitae (Coquillett) (Diptera, Tephritidae) in Africa, with a list of species included in Zeugodacus

    PubMed Central

    De Meyer, Marc; Delatte, Hélène; Mwatawala, Maulid; Quilici, Serge; Vayssières, Jean-François; Virgilio, Massimiliano

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This paper reviews all available information regarding the occurrence and biology of the melon fly, Zeugodacus cucurbitae (Coquillett), in the Afrotropical Region, including data on invasion history, distribution patterns, population genetics, host range, and interspecific competition. Although limited intraspecific variability has been observed within the region regarding the above mentioned aspects, there seems to be no indication that Zeugodacus cucurbitae represents a species complex. A checklist of all of the species included in Zeugodacus as recently proposed by Virgilio et al. (2015) is provided. PMID:26798277

  11. A large-scale phylogeny of Amphibia including over 2800 species, and a revised classification of extant frogs, salamanders, and caecilians.

    PubMed

    Pyron, R Alexander; Wiens, John J

    2011-11-01

    The extant amphibians are one of the most diverse radiations of terrestrial vertebrates (>6800 species). Despite much recent focus on their conservation, diversification, and systematics, no previous phylogeny for the group has contained more than 522 species. However, numerous studies with limited taxon sampling have generated large amounts of partially overlapping sequence data for many species. Here, we combine these data and produce a novel estimate of extant amphibian phylogeny, containing 2871 species (∼40% of the known extant species) from 432 genera (∼85% of the ∼500 currently recognized extant genera). Each sampled species contains up to 12,712 bp from 12 genes (three mitochondrial, nine nuclear), with an average of 2563 bp per species. This data set provides strong support for many groups recognized in previous studies, but it also suggests non-monophyly for several currently recognized families, particularly in hyloid frogs (e.g., Ceratophryidae, Cycloramphidae, Leptodactylidae, Strabomantidae). To correct these and other problems, we provide a revised classification of extant amphibians for taxa traditionally delimited at the family and subfamily levels. This new taxonomy includes several families not recognized in current classifications (e.g., Alsodidae, Batrachylidae, Rhinodermatidae, Odontophrynidae, Telmatobiidae), but which are strongly supported and important for avoiding non-monophyly of current families. Finally, this study provides further evidence that the supermatrix approach provides an effective strategy for inferring large-scale phylogenies using the combined results of previous studies, despite many taxa having extensive missing data.

  12. [Evaluation of ten fish species to be included as part of renal diet, due to their protein, phosphorus and fatty acids content].

    PubMed

    Castro-González, Maria Isabel; Maafs-Rodríguez, Ana Gabriela; Pérez-Gil Romo, Fernando

    2012-06-01

    Because renal disease is highly complex, its nutritional treatment is complicated and many foods are restricted, including fish because its phosphorus content. The aim of the present study was to analyze ten fillet fish species, commonly consumed in Mexico (Cyprinus carpio carpio, Ophichthus rex, Symphurus elongatus, Eucinostomus entomelas, Chirostoma patzcuaro, Bairdiella chrysoura, Salmo salar Oreochromis urolepis hornorum, Sphyraena guachancho, Istiophorus albicans), to determine their phosphorus (P), protein (Pr), cholesterol, sodium, potassium, vitamins D3 and E, and n-3 PUFA (EPA+DHA) according to the AOAC techniques, in order to identify which species could be included in renal diet; particularly because of their risk:benefit relations (calculated with those results). Protein values ranged from 16.5 to 33.5g/100 g of fillet; the specie with the highest phosphorus contest was Salmo salar, and with the lowest, Symphurus elongatus. EPA+DHA quantity ranged from 79.64 mg/100 g to 1,381.53 mg/100 g. Considering de P/Pr relation recommended to renal patients, all analyzed species (except Salmo salar, Ophichthus rex and Istiophorus albicans) could be included in their diet. As for the P/EPA+DHA relation, the species most recommended to renal patients are Symphurus elongatus, Bairdiella chrysoura and Sphyraena guachancho.

  13. Molecular phylogeny of marine gregarine parasites (Apicomplexa) from tube-forming polychaetes (Sabellariidae, Cirratulidae and Serpulidae), including descriptions of two new species of Selenidium.

    PubMed

    Wakeman, Kevin C; Leander, Brian S

    2013-01-01

    Selenidium is a genus of gregarine parasites that infect the intestines of marine invertebrates and have morphological, ecological, and motility traits inferred to reflect the early evolutionary history of apicomplexans. Because the overall diversity and phylogenetic position(s) of these species remain poorly understood, we performed a species discovery survey of Selenidium from tube-forming polychaetes. This survey uncovered five different morphotypes of trophozoites (feeding stages) living within the intestines of three different polychaete hosts. We acquired small subunit (SSU) rDNA sequences from single-cell (trophozoite) isolates, representing all five morphotypes that were also imaged with light and scanning electron microscopy. The combination of molecular, ecological, and morphological data provided evidence for four novel species of Selenidium, two of which were established in this study: Selenidium neosabellariae n. sp. and Selenidium sensimae n. sp. The trophozoites of these species differed from one another in the overall shape of the cell, the specific shape of the posterior end, the number and form of longitudinal striations, the presence/absence of transverse striations, and the position and shape of the nucleus. A fifth morphotype of Selenidium, isolated from the tube worm Dodecaceria concharum, was inferred to have been previously described as Selenidium cf. echinatum, based on general trophozoite morphology and host association. Phylogenetic analyses of the SSU rDNA sequences resulted in a robust clade of Selenidium species collected from tube-forming polychaetes, consisting of the two new species, the two additional morphotypes, S. cf. echinatum, and four previously described species (Selenidium serpulae, Selenidium boccardiellae, Selenidium idanthyrsae, and Selenidium cf. mesnili). Genetic distances between the SSU rDNA sequences in this clade distinguished closely related and potential cryptic species of Selenidium that were otherwise very

  14. Phylogenetic analyses indicate little variation among reticuloendotheliosis viruses infecting avian species, including the endangered Attwater's prairie chicken.

    PubMed

    Bohls, Ryan L; Linares, Jose A; Gross, Shannon L; Ferro, Pam J; Silvy, Nova J; Collisson, Ellen W

    2006-08-01

    Reticuloendotheliosis virus infection, which typically causes systemic lymphomas and high mortality in the endangered Attwater's prairie chicken, has been described as a major obstacle in repopulation efforts of captive breeding facilities in Texas. Although antigenic relationships among reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) strains have been previously determined, phylogenetic relationships have not been reported. The pol and env of REV proviral DNA from prairie chickens (PC-R92 and PC-2404), from poxvirus lesions in domestic chickens, the prototype poultry derived REV-A and chick syncytial virus (CSV), and duck derived spleen necrosis virus (SNV) were PCR amplified and sequenced. The 5032bp, that included the pol and most of env genes, of the PC-R92 and REV-A were 98% identical, and nucleotide sequence identities of smaller regions within the pol and env from REV strains examined ranged from 95 to 99% and 93 to 99%, respectively. The putative amino acid sequences were 97-99% identical in the polymerase and 90-98% in the envelope. Phylogenetic analyses of the nucleotide and amino acid sequences indicated the closest relationship among the recent fowl pox-associated chicken isolates, the prairie chicken isolates and the prototype CSV while only the SNV appeared to be distinctly divergent. While the origin of the naturally occurring viruses is not known, the avian poxvirus may be a critical component of transmission of these ubiquitous oncogenic viruses.

  15. Thirty-Two Complete Genome Assemblies of Nine Yersinia Species, Including Y. pestis, Y. pseudotuberculosis, and Y. enterocolitica

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Shannon L.; Daligault, Hajnalka E.; Davenport, Karen W.; Jaissle, James; Frey, Kenneth G.; Ladner, Jason T.; Broomall, Stacey M.; Bishop-Lilly, Kimberly A.; Bruce, David C.; Coyne, Susan R.; Gibbons, Henry S.; Lo, Chien-Chi; Munk, A. Christine; Rosenzweig, C. Nicole; Koroleva, Galina I.; Palacios, Gustavo F.; Redden, Cassie L.; Xu, Yan; Minogue, Timothy D.; Chain, Patrick S.

    2015-04-30

    The genus Yersinia includes three human pathogens, of which Yersinia pestis is responsible for >2,000 illnesses each year. To aid in the development of detection assays as well as aid further phylogenetic elucidation, we sequenced and assembled the complete genomes of 32 strains (across 9 Yersinia species).

  16. Measurement of [Formula: see text] production with additional jet activity, including [Formula: see text] quark jets, in the dilepton decay channel using pp collisions at [Formula: see text].

    PubMed

    Khachatryan, V; Sirunyan, A M; Tumasyan, A; Adam, W; Asilar, E; Bergauer, T; Brandstetter, J; Brondolin, E; Dragicevic, M; Erö, J; Friedl, M; Frühwirth, R; Ghete, V M; Hartl, C; Hörmann, N; Hrubec, J; Jeitler, M; Knünz, V; König, A; Krammer, M; Krätschmer, I; Liko, D; Matsushita, T; Mikulec, I; Rabady, D; Rahbaran, B; Rohringer, H; Schieck, J; Schöfbeck, R; Strauss, J; Treberer-Treberspurg, W; Waltenberger, W; Wulz, C-E; Mossolov, V; Shumeiko, N; Suarez Gonzalez, J; Alderweireldt, S; Cornelis, T; De Wolf, E A; Janssen, X; Knutsson, A; Lauwers, J; Luyckx, S; Van De Klundert, M; Van Haevermaet, H; Van Mechelen, P; Van Remortel, N; Van Spilbeeck, A; Abu Zeid, S; Blekman, F; D'Hondt, J; Daci, N; De Bruyn, I; Deroover, K; Heracleous, N; Keaveney, J; Lowette, S; Moreels, L; Olbrechts, A; Python, Q; Strom, D; Tavernier, S; Van Doninck, W; Van Mulders, P; Van Onsem, G P; Van Parijs, I; Barria, P; Brun, H; Caillol, C; Clerbaux, B; De Lentdecker, G; Fasanella, G; Favart, L; Grebenyuk, A; Karapostoli, G; Lenzi, T; Léonard, A; Maerschalk, T; Marinov, A; Perniè, L; Randle-Conde, A; Reis, T; Seva, T; Vander Velde, C; Yonamine, R; Vanlaer, P; Yonamine, R; Zenoni, F; Zhang, F; Adler, V; Beernaert, K; Benucci, L; Cimmino, A; Crucy, S; Dobur, D; Fagot, A; Garcia, G; Gul, M; Mccartin, J; Ocampo Rios, A A; Poyraz, D; Ryckbosch, D; Salva, S; Sigamani, M; Strobbe, N; Tytgat, M; Van Driessche, W; Yazgan, E; Zaganidis, N; Basegmez, S; Beluffi, C; Bondu, O; Brochet, S; Bruno, G; Caudron, A; Ceard, L; Da Silveira, G G; Delaere, C; Favart, D; Forthomme, L; Giammanco, A; Hollar, J; Jafari, A; Jez, P; Komm, M; Lemaitre, V; Mertens, A; Musich, M; Nuttens, C; Perrini, L; Pin, A; Piotrzkowski, K; Popov, A; Quertenmont, L; Selvaggi, M; Vidal Marono, M; Beliy, N; Hammad, G H; Júnior, W L Aldá; Alves, F L; Alves, G A; Brito, L; Correa Martins Junior, M; Hamer, M; Hensel, C; Mora Herrera, C; Moraes, A; Pol, M E; Rebello Teles, P; Belchior Batista Das Chagas, E; Carvalho, W; Chinellato, J; Custódio, A; Da Costa, E M; De Jesus Damiao, D; De Oliveira Martins, C; Fonseca De Souza, S; Huertas Guativa, L M; Malbouisson, H; Matos Figueiredo, D; Mundim, L; Nogima, H; Prado Da Silva, W L; Santoro, A; Sznajder, A; Tonelli Manganote, E J; Vilela Pereira, A; Ahuja, S; Bernardes, C A; De Souza Santos, A; Dogra, S; Fernandez Perez Tomei, T R; Gregores, E M; Mercadante, P G; Moon, C S; Novaes, S F; Padula, Sandra S; Romero Abad, D; Ruiz Vargas, J C; Aleksandrov, A; Hadjiiska, R; Iaydjiev, P; Rodozov, M; Stoykova, S; Sultanov, G; Vutova, M; Dimitrov, A; Glushkov, I; Litov, L; Pavlov, B; Petkov, P; Ahmad, M; Bian, J G; Chen, G M; Chen, H S; Chen, M; Cheng, T; Du, R; Jiang, C H; Plestina, R; Romeo, F; Shaheen, S M; Spiezia, A; Tao, J; Wang, C; Wang, Z; Zhang, H; Asawatangtrakuldee, C; Ban, Y; Li, Q; Liu, S; Mao, Y; Qian, S J; Wang, D; Xu, Z; Avila, C; Cabrera, A; Chaparro Sierra, L F; Florez, C; Gomez, J P; Gomez Moreno, B; Sanabria, J C; Godinovic, N; Lelas, D; Puljak, I; Ribeiro Cipriano, P M; Antunovic, Z; Kovac, M; 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Ferapontov, A; Garabedian, A; Hakala, J; Heintz, U; Laird, E; Landsberg, G; Mao, Z; Narain, M; Piperov, S; Sagir, S; Syarif, R; Breedon, R; Breto, G; De La Barca Sanchez, M Calderon; Chauhan, S; Chertok, M; Conway, J; Conway, R; Cox, P T; Erbacher, R; Gardner, M; Ko, W; Lander, R; Mulhearn, M; Pellett, D; Pilot, J; Ricci-Tam, F; Shalhout, S; Smith, J; Squires, M; Stolp, D; Tripathi, M; Wilbur, S; Yohay, R; Cousins, R; Everaerts, P; Farrell, C; Hauser, J; Ignatenko, M; Saltzberg, D; Valuev, V; Weber, M; Burt, K; Clare, R; Ellison, J; Gary, J W; Hanson, G; Heilman, J; Ivova Paneva, M; Jandir, P; Kennedy, E; Lacroix, F; Long, O R; Luthra, A; Malberti, M; Negrete, M Olmedo; Shrinivas, A; Wei, H; Wimpenny, S; Yates, B R; Branson, J G; Cerati, G B; Cittolin, S; D'Agnolo, R T; Derdzinski, M; Holzner, A; Kelley, R; Klein, D; Letts, J; Macneill, I; Olivito, D; Padhi, S; Pieri, M; Sani, M; Sharma, V; Simon, S; Tadel, M; Tu, Y; Vartak, A; Wasserbaech, S; Welke, C; Würthwein, F; Yagil, A; Zevi Della Porta, G; Bradmiller-Feld, J; Campagnari, C; Dishaw, A; Dutta, V; Flowers, K; Franco Sevilla, M; Geffert, P; George, C; Golf, F; Gouskos, L; Gran, J; Incandela, J; Mccoll, N; Mullin, S D; Mullin, S D; Richman, J; Stuart, D; Suarez, I; West, C; Yoo, J; Anderson, D; Apresyan, A; Bornheim, A; Bunn, J; Chen, Y; Duarte, J; Mott, A; Newman, H B; Pena, C; Pierini, M; Spiropulu, M; Vlimant, J R; Xie, S; Zhu, R Y; Andrews, M B; Azzolini, V; Calamba, A; Carlson, B; Ferguson, T; Paulini, M; Russ, J; Sun, M; Vogel, H; Vorobiev, I; Cumalat, J P; Ford, W T; Gaz, A; Jensen, F; Johnson, A; Krohn, M; Mulholland, T; Nauenberg, U; Stenson, K; Wagner, S R; Alexander, J; Chatterjee, A; Chaves, J; Chu, J; Dittmer, S; Eggert, N; Mirman, N; Nicolas Kaufman, G; Patterson, J R; Rinkevicius, A; Ryd, A; Skinnari, L; Soffi, L; Sun, W; Tan, S M; Teo, W D; Thom, J; Thompson, J; Tucker, J; Weng, Y; Wittich, P; Abdullin, S; Albrow, M; Anderson, J; Apollinari, G; Banerjee, S; Bauerdick, L A T; Beretvas, A; Berryhill, J; Bhat, P C; Bolla, G; Burkett, K; Butler, J N; Cheung, H W K; Chlebana, F; Cihangir, S; Elvira, V D; Fisk, I; Freeman, J; Gottschalk, E; Gray, L; Green, D; Grünendahl, S; Gutsche, O; Hanlon, J; Hare, D; Harris, R M; Hasegawa, S; Hirschauer, J; Hu, Z; Jindariani, S; Johnson, M; Joshi, U; Jung, A W; Klima, B; Kreis, B; Kwan, S; Lammel, S; Linacre, J; Lincoln, D; Lipton, R; Liu, T; Lopes De Sá, R; Lykken, J; Maeshima, K; Marraffino, J M; Martinez Outschoorn, V I; Maruyama, S; Mason, D; McBride, P; Merkel, P; Mishra, K; Mrenna, S; Nahn, S; Newman-Holmes, C; O'Dell, V; Pedro, K; Prokofyev, O; Rakness, G; Sexton-Kennedy, E; Soha, A; Spalding, W J; Spiegel, L; Taylor, L; Tkaczyk, S; Tran, N V; Uplegger, L; Vaandering, E W; Vernieri, C; Verzocchi, M; Vidal, R; Weber, H A; Whitbeck, A; Yang, F; Acosta, D; Avery, P; Bortignon, P; Bourilkov, D; Carnes, A; Carver, M; Curry, D; Das, S; Di Giovanni, G P; Field, R D; Furic, I K; Gleyzer, S V; Hugon, J; Konigsberg, J; Korytov, A; Low, J F; Ma, P; Matchev, K; Mei, H; Milenovic, P; Mitselmakher, G; Rank, D; Rossin, R; Shchutska, L; Snowball, M; Sperka, D; Terentyev, N; Thomas, L; Wang, J; Wang, S; Yelton, J; Hewamanage, S; Linn, S; Markowitz, P; Martinez, G; Rodriguez, J L; Adams, J R; Ackert, A; Adams, T; Askew, A; Bochenek, J; Diamond, B; Haas, J; Hagopian, S; Hagopian, V; Johnson, K F; Khatiwada, A; Prosper, H; Weinberg, M; Baarmand, M M; Bhopatkar, V; Colafranceschi, S; Hohlmann, M; Kalakhety, H; Noonan, D; Roy, T; Yumiceva, F; Adams, M R; Apanasevich, L; Berry, D; Betts, R R; Bucinskaite, I; Cavanaugh, R; Evdokimov, O; Gauthier, L; Gerber, C E; Hofman, D J; Kurt, P; O'Brien, C; Sandoval Gonzalez, L D; Silkworth, C; Turner, P; Varelas, N; Wu, Z; Zakaria, M; Bilki, B; Clarida, W; Dilsiz, K; Durgut, S; Gandrajula, R P; Haytmyradov, M; Khristenko, V; Merlo, J-P; Mermerkaya, H; Mestvirishvili, A; Moeller, A; Nachtman, J; Ogul, H; Onel, Y; Ozok, F; Penzo, A; Snyder, C; Tiras, E; Wetzel, J; Yi, K; Anderson, I; Anderson, I; Barnett, B A; Blumenfeld, B; Eminizer, N; Fehling, D; Feng, L; Gritsan, A V; Maksimovic, P; Martin, C; Osherson, M; Roskes, J; Sady, A; Sarica, U; Swartz, M; Xiao, M; Xin, Y; You, C; Xiao, M; Baringer, P; Bean, A; Benelli, G; Bruner, C; Kenny, R P; Majumder, D; Majumder, D; Malek, M; Murray, M; Sanders, S; Stringer, R; Wang, Q; Ivanov, A; Kaadze, K; Khalil, S; Makouski, M; Maravin, Y; Mohammadi, A; Saini, L K; Skhirtladze, N; Toda, S; Lange, D; Rebassoo, F; Wright, D; Anelli, C; Baden, A; Baron, O; Belloni, A; Calvert, B; Eno, S C; Ferraioli, C; Gomez, J A; Hadley, N J; Jabeen, S; Jabeen, S; Kellogg, R G; Kolberg, T; Kunkle, J; Lu, Y; Mignerey, A C; Shin, Y H; Skuja, A; Tonjes, M B; Tonwar, S C; Apyan, A; Barbieri, R; Baty, A; Bierwagen, K; Brandt, S; Bierwagen, K; Busza, W; Cali, I A; Demiragli, Z; Di Matteo, L; Gomez Ceballos, G; Goncharov, M; Gulhan, D; Iiyama, Y; Innocenti, G M; Klute, M; Kovalskyi, D; Lai, Y S; Lee, Y-J; Levin, A; Luckey, P D; Marini, A C; Mcginn, C; Mironov, C; Narayanan, S; Niu, X; Paus, C; Ralph, D; Roland, C; Roland, G; Salfeld-Nebgen, J; Stephans, G S F; Sumorok, K; Varma, M; Velicanu, D; Veverka, J; Wang, J; Wang, T W; Wyslouch, B; Yang, M; Zhukova, V; Dahmes, B; Evans, A; Finkel, A; Gude, A; Hansen, P; Kalafut, S; Kao, S C; Klapoetke, K; Kubota, Y; Lesko, Z; Mans, J; Nourbakhsh, S; Ruckstuhl, N; Rusack, R; Tambe, N; Turkewitz, J; Acosta, J G; Oliveros, S; Avdeeva, E; Bloom, K; Bose, S; Claes, D R; Dominguez, A; Fangmeier, C; Gonzalez Suarez, R; Kamalieddin, R; Keller, J; Knowlton, D; Kravchenko, I; Meier, F; Monroy, J; Ratnikov, F; Siado, J E; Snow, G R; Alyari, M; Dolen, J; George, J; Godshalk, A; Harrington, C; Iashvili, I; Kaisen, J; Kharchilava, A; Kumar, A; Rappoccio, S; Roozbahani, B; Alverson, G; Barberis, E; Baumgartel, D; Chasco, M; Hortiangtham, A; Massironi, A; Morse, D M; Nash, D; Orimoto, T; Teixeira De Lima, R; Trocino, D; Wang, R-J; Wood, D; Zhang, J; Hahn, K A; Kubik, A; Mucia, N; Odell, N; Pollack, B; Pozdnyakov, A; Schmitt, M; Stoynev, S; Sung, K; Trovato, M; Velasco, M; Brinkerhoff, A; Dev, N; Hildreth, M; Jessop, C; Karmgard, D J; Kellams, N; Lannon, K; Lynch, S; Marinelli, N; Meng, F; Mueller, C; Musienko, Y; Pearson, T; Planer, M; Reinsvold, A; Ruchti, R; Smith, G; Taroni, S; Valls, N; Wayne, M; Wolf, M; Woodard, A; Antonelli, L; Brinson, J; Bylsma, B; Durkin, L S; Flowers, S; Hart, A; Hill, C; Hughes, R; Ji, W; Kotov, K; Ling, T Y; Liu, B; Luo, W; Puigh, D; Rodenburg, M; Winer, B L; Wulsin, H W; Driga, O; Elmer, P; Hardenbrook, J; Hebda, P; Koay, S A; Lujan, P; Marlow, D; Medvedeva, T; Mooney, M; Olsen, J; Palmer, C; Piroué, P; Saka, H; Stickland, D; Tully, C; Zuranski, A; Malik, S; Barnes, V E; Benedetti, D; Bortoletto, D; Gutay, L; Jha, M K; Jones, M; Jung, K; Miller, D H; Neumeister, N; Primavera, F; Radburn-Smith, B C; Shi, X; Shipsey, I; Silvers, D; Sun, J; Svyatkovskiy, A; Wang, F; Xie, W; Xu, L; Parashar, N; Stupak, J; Adair, A; Akgun, B; Chen, Z; Ecklund, K M; Geurts, F J M; Guilbaud, M; Li, W; Michlin, B; Northup, M; Padley, B P; Redjimi, R; Roberts, J; Rorie, J; Tu, Z; Zabel, J; Betchart, B; Bodek, A; de Barbaro, P; Demina, R; Eshaq, Y; Ferbel, T; Galanti, M; Galanti, M; Garcia-Bellido, A; Han, J; Harel, A; Hindrichs, O; Hindrichs, O; Khukhunaishvili, A; Petrillo, G; Tan, P; Verzetti, M; Arora, S; Barker, A; Chou, J P; Contreras-Campana, C; Contreras-Campana, E; Duggan, D; Ferencek, D; Gershtein, Y; Gray, R; Halkiadakis, E; Hidas, D; Hughes, E; Kaplan, S; Kunnawalkam Elayavalli, R; Lath, A; Nash, K; Panwalkar, S; Park, M; Salur, S; Schnetzer, S; Sheffield, D; Somalwar, S; Stone, R; Thomas, S; Thomassen, P; Walker, M; Foerster, M; Riley, G; Rose, K; Spanier, S; York, A; Bouhali, O; Castaneda Hernandez, A; Dalchenko, M; De Mattia, M; Delgado, A; Dildick, S; Dildick, S; Eusebi, R; Gilmore, J; Kamon, T; Krutelyov, V; Krutelyov, V; Mueller, R; Osipenkov, I; Pakhotin, Y; Patel, R; Patel, R; Perloff, A; Rose, A; Safonov, A; Tatarinov, A; Ulmer, K A; Akchurin, N; Cowden, C; Damgov, J; Dragoiu, C; Dudero, P R; Faulkner, J; Kunori, S; Lamichhane, K; Lee, S W; Libeiro, T; Undleeb, S; Volobouev, I; Appelt, E; Delannoy, A G; Greene, S; Gurrola, A; Janjam, R; Johns, W; Maguire, C; Mao, Y; Melo, A; Ni, H; Sheldon, P; Snook, B; Tuo, S; Velkovska, J; Xu, Q; Arenton, M W; Cox, B; Francis, B; Goodell, J; Hirosky, R; Ledovskoy, A; Li, H; Lin, C; Neu, C; Sinthuprasith, T; Sun, X; Wang, Y; Wolfe, E; Wood, J; Xia, F; Clarke, C; Harr, R; Karchin, P E; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, C; Lamichhane, P; Sturdy, J; Belknap, D A; Carlsmith, D; Cepeda, M; Dasu, S; Dodd, L; Duric, S; Gomber, B; Grothe, M; Hall-Wilton, R; Herndon, M; Hervé, A; Klabbers, P; Lanaro, A; Levine, A; Long, K; Loveless, R; Mohapatra, A; Ojalvo, I; Perry, T; Pierro, G A; Polese, G; Ruggles, T; Sarangi, T; Savin, A; Sharma, A; Smith, N; Smith, W H; Taylor, D; Woods, N; Collaboration, Authorinst The Cms

    2016-01-01

    Jet multiplicity distributions in top quark pair ([Formula: see text]) events are measured in pp collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV with the CMS detector at the LHC using a data set corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 19.7[Formula: see text]. The measurement is performed in the dilepton decay channels ([Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], and [Formula: see text]). The absolute and normalized differential cross sections for [Formula: see text] production are measured as a function of the jet multiplicity in the event for different jet transverse momentum thresholds and the kinematic properties of the leading additional jets. The differential [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] cross sections are presented for the first time as a function of the kinematic properties of the leading additional [Formula: see text] jets. Furthermore, the fraction of events without additional jets above a threshold is measured as a function of the transverse momenta of the leading additional jets and the scalar sum of the transverse momenta of all additional jets. The data are compared and found to be consistent with predictions from several perturbative quantum chromodynamics event generators and a next-to-leading order calculation.

  17. An LC-MS/MS method to quantify acylcarnitine species including isomeric and odd-numbered forms in plasma and tissues[S

    PubMed Central

    Giesbertz, Pieter; Ecker, Josef; Haag, Alexander; Spanier, Britta; Daniel, Hannelore

    2015-01-01

    Acylcarnitines are intermediates of fatty acid and amino acid oxidation found in tissues and body fluids. They are important diagnostic markers for inherited diseases of peroxisomal and mitochondrial oxidation processes and were recently described as biomarkers of complex diseases like the metabolic syndrome. Quantification of acylcarnitine species can become challenging because various species occur as isomers and/or have very low concentrations. Here we describe a new LC-MS/MS method for quantification of 56 acylcarnitine species with acyl-chain lengths from C2 to C18. Our method includes amino acid-derived positional isomers, like methacrylyl-carnitine (2-M-C3:1-CN) and crotonyl-carnitine (C4:1-CN), and odd-numbered carbon species, like pentadecanoyl-carnitine (C15:0-CN) and heptadecanoyl-carnitine (C17:0-CN), occurring at very low concentrations in plasma and tissues. Method validation in plasma and liver samples showed high sensitivity and excellent accuracy and precision. In an application to samples from streptozotocin-treated diabetic mice, we identified significantly increased concentrations of acylcarnitines derived from branched-chain amino acid degradation and of odd-numbered straight-chain species, recently proposed as potential biomarkers for the metabolic syndrome. In conclusion, the LC-MS/MS method presented here allows robust quantification of isomeric acylcarnitine species and extends the palette of acylcarnitines with diagnostic potential derived from fatty acid and amino acid metabolism. PMID:26239049

  18. An LC-MS/MS method to quantify acylcarnitine species including isomeric and odd-numbered forms in plasma and tissues.

    PubMed

    Giesbertz, Pieter; Ecker, Josef; Haag, Alexander; Spanier, Britta; Daniel, Hannelore

    2015-10-01

    Acylcarnitines are intermediates of fatty acid and amino acid oxidation found in tissues and body fluids. They are important diagnostic markers for inherited diseases of peroxisomal and mitochondrial oxidation processes and were recently described as biomarkers of complex diseases like the metabolic syndrome. Quantification of acylcarnitine species can become challenging because various species occur as isomers and/or have very low concentrations. Here we describe a new LC-MS/MS method for quantification of 56 acylcarnitine species with acyl-chain lengths from C2 to C18. Our method includes amino acid-derived positional isomers, like methacrylyl-carnitine (2-M-C3:1-CN) and crotonyl-carnitine (C4:1-CN), and odd-numbered carbon species, like pentadecanoyl-carnitine (C15:0-CN) and heptadecanoyl-carnitine (C17:0-CN), occurring at very low concentrations in plasma and tissues. Method validation in plasma and liver samples showed high sensitivity and excellent accuracy and precision. In an application to samples from streptozotocin-treated diabetic mice, we identified significantly increased concentrations of acylcarnitines derived from branched-chain amino acid degradation and of odd-numbered straight-chain species, recently proposed as potential biomarkers for the metabolic syndrome. In conclusion, the LC-MS/MS method presented here allows robust quantification of isomeric acylcarnitine species and extends the palette of acylcarnitines with diagnostic potential derived from fatty acid and amino acid metabolism.

  19. Revision of the water-holding frogs, Cyclorana platycephala (Anura: Hylidae), from arid Australia, including a description of a new species.

    PubMed

    Anstis, Marion; Price, Luke C; Roberts, J Dale; Catalano, Sarah R; Hines, Harry B; Doughty, Paul; Donnellan, Stephen C

    2016-06-21

    The water-holding frog, Cyclorana platycephala, occurs in the Australian arid and semi-arid zones but not in the central Australian deserts. Recent inspection of morphological variation in adults and larvae suggests that the taxon comprises three regional populations: eastern, northern and western that may each represent separate species. To assess the systematic status of these populations, we documented phylogenetic relationships using mitochondrial and nuclear DNA markers, divergence in adult and larval morphology and male advertisement call. Our molecular genetic data demonstrates that the western population of C. platycephala is not the sister taxon of eastern and northern representatives of this nominate species, as the latter two are more closely related to another morphologically distinct species, C. verrucosa. Discriminant Function Analysis of 14 morphological traits in adults and 15 in larvae showed a high degree of morphological differentiation of western versus eastern/northern C. platycephala. Calls of eastern and western populations differed in duration, pulse rate, frequency and especially in amplitude modulation pattern across the call duration. We describe the western population as a new species, whose range is contained entirely within Western Australia. In addition, we redescribe Cyclorana platycephala, quantify morphological and genetic differences between the eastern and northern populations, and conclude that these data support recognition of a single species, Cyclorana platycephala, for populations found in New South Wales, the Barkly Tablelands and south-eastern Northern Territory, Queensland and South Australia.

  20. Additions to the checklist of Scoliidae, Sphecidae, Pompilidae and Vespidae of Peru, with notes on the endemic status of some species (Hymenoptera, Aculeata)

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Eduardo Fernando; Grandinete, Yuri Campanholo; Noll, Fernando Barbosa

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The first checklist of the Peruvian Hymenoptera listed 1169 species and subspecies of aculeate wasps, including 173 species of Pompilidae, seven of Scoliidae, 39 of Sphecidae and 403 of Vespidae. Herein are reported 32 species as new for Peru based mainly on the collection of the Natural History Museum, London. The loss of the endemic status of two species is also reported: Entypus peruvianus (Rohwer) (Pompilidae: Pepsinae) and Omicron ruficolle schunkei Giordani Soika (Vespidae: Eumeninae). PMID:26448706

  1. Including xpc® feed additive in the diet of inoculated broilers during grow-out helps control salmonella associated with their carcasses after processing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to test XPC® feed additive for control of Salmonella in poultry meat products. Day of hatch broiler chicks were gavaged with 106 cells of a nalidixic acid resistant marker strain of Salmonella Typhimurium and placed on clean pine shavings in 9 separate floor pens (25 ...

  2. Southern hemisphere deep-water stylasterid corals including a new species, Errinalabrosa sp. n. (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa, Stylasteridae), with notes on some symbiotic scalpellids (Cirripedia, Thoracica, Scalpellidae).

    PubMed

    Pica, Daniela; Cairns, Stephen D; Puce, Stefania; Newman, William A

    2015-01-01

    A number of stylasterid corals are known to act as host species and create refuges for a variety of mobile and sessile organisms, which enhances their habitat complexity. These include annelids, anthozoans, cirripeds, copepods, cyanobacteria, echinoderms, gastropods, hydroids and sponges. Here we report the first evidence of a diverse association between stylasterids and scalpellid pedunculate barnacles and describe a new stylasterid species, Errinalabrosa, from the Tristan da Cunha Archipelago. Overall, five stylasterid species are found to host eight scalpellid barnacles from several biogeographic regions in the southern hemisphere (Southern Ocean, temperate South America and the southern Indo-Pacific realms). There is an apparent lack of specificity in this kind of association and different grades of reaction to the symbiosis have been observed in the coral. These records suggest that the association between pedunculate barnacles and hard stylasterid corals has a wide distribution among different biogeographic realms and that it is relatively rare and confined largely to deep water.

  3. Southern hemisphere deep-water stylasterid corals including a new species, Errina labrosa sp. n. (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa, Stylasteridae), with notes on some symbiotic scalpellids (Cirripedia, Thoracica, Scalpellidae)

    PubMed Central

    Pica, Daniela; Cairns, Stephen D.; Puce, Stefania; Newman, William A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A number of stylasterid corals are known to act as host species and create refuges for a variety of mobile and sessile organisms, which enhances their habitat complexity. These include annelids, anthozoans, cirripeds, copepods, cyanobacteria, echinoderms, gastropods, hydroids and sponges. Here we report the first evidence of a diverse association between stylasterids and scalpellid pedunculate barnacles and describe a new stylasterid species, Errina labrosa, from the Tristan da Cunha Archipelago. Overall, five stylasterid species are found to host eight scalpellid barnacles from several biogeographic regions in the southern hemisphere (Southern Ocean, temperate South America and the southern Indo-Pacific realms). There is an apparent lack of specificity in this kind of association and different grades of reaction to the symbiosis have been observed in the coral. These records suggest that the association between pedunculate barnacles and hard stylasterid corals has a wide distribution among different biogeographic realms and that it is relatively rare and confined largely to deep water. PMID:25632246

  4. The acute toxicity of the death camas (Zigadenus species) alkaloid zygacine in mice, including the effect of methyllycaconitine coadministration on zygacine toxicity.

    PubMed

    Welch, K D; Panter, K E; Gardner, D R; Stegelmeier, B L; Green, B T; Pfister, J A; Cook, D

    2011-05-01

    Death camas (Zigadenus spp.) is a common poisonous plant on foothill rangelands in western North America. The steroidal alkaloid zygacine is believed to be the primary toxic component in death camas. Poisonings on rangelands generally occur in the spring when death camas is abundant, whereas other more desirable forage species are limited in availability. In most cases where livestock are poisoned by plants in a range setting, there is more than one potential poisonous plant in that area. One common poisonous plant that is often found growing simultaneously in the same area as death camas is low larkspur (Delphinium nuttallianum). Consequently, the objectives of this study were to conduct acute toxicity studies in mice and to determine if coadministration of low larkspur will exacerbate the toxicity of death camas. We first characterized the acute toxicity of zygacine in mice. The LD(50) of zygacine administered intravenously (i.v.) and orally was 2.0 ± 0.2 and 132 ± 21 mg/kg, respectively. The rate of elimination of zygacine from whole blood was determined to be 0.06 ± 0.01/min, which corresponds to an elimination half-life of 13.0 ± 2.7 min. The i.v. LD(50) of total alkaloid extracts from a Utah and a Nevada collection were 2.8 ± 0.8 and 2.2 ± 0.3 mg/kg, respectively. The i.v. LD(50) of methyllycaconitine (MLA), a major toxic alkaloid in low larkspur, was 4.6 ± 0.5 mg/kg, whereas the i.v. LD(50) of a 1:1 mixture of MLA and zygacine was 2.9 ± 0.7 mg/kg. The clinical signs in mice treated with this mixture were very similar to those of mice treated with zygacine alone, including the time of onset and death. These results suggest that there is an additive effect of coadministering these 2 alkaloids i.v. in mice. The results from this study increase knowledge and understanding regarding the acute toxicity of death camas. As combined intoxications are most likely common, this information will be useful in further developing management recommendations for

  5. A new species of Neotraginops Prado (Diptera: Odiniidae) from Mexico and Belize, with additional records for Odinia coronata Sabrosky in Mesoamerica.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Ortiz, Vicente; Dzul-Cauich, José F

    2014-04-14

    Neotraginops mexicanus n. sp. is described and illustrated based on specimens from Mexico and Belize, representing the second known species for the genus. Additional records for Odinia coronata Sabrosky from Mexico and Nicaragua are provided.

  6. Morphology of Labronemella major n. sp. (Nematoda: Dorylaimida), a soil-dwelling nematode from China, including a revised key to species of the genus.

    PubMed

    Wu, W J; Yan, L; Xie, H; Xu, C L; Wang, K; Jin, S Y

    2017-01-01

    One new species from Qinghai Province, China, Labronemella major n. sp., is described. The new species is characterized by a body length of 3.03-3.34 mm; lip region wide, offset by a distinct depression, disc-like with six separated inner liplets; amphid fovea funnel-shaped, distinctly bulged on body surface in scanning electron micrographs; odontostyle long (35-39 μm) with distinct lumen, aperture about 39-47% of its length; odontophore rod-like and long; guiding ring double; pharyngeal basal expansion about half of the total neck length; uterus relatively long and tripartite; vulva transverse and sclerotized; spicules 81-90 μm long; ventromedial supplements 19-23; tail short, rounded to conoid. It can be differentiated from all other species of the genus by its relatively longer body, odontostyle and spicules, and wider lip region. Due to the lip region being offset by a deep constriction, and the long (three or more times the body diameter at mid-body) tripartite uterus, the new species is close to Labronemella czernowitzensis (Micoletzky, 1922) Andrássy, 2002 and Labronemella labiata Andrássy, 1985. An improved key to the genus including the new species is provided.

  7. A new species of Sphaeronemoura (Plecoptera: Nemouridae) from Henan Province of China, with additions to generic characters of the female and larva.

    PubMed

    Li, Weihai; Murányi, Dávid; Yang, Ding

    2014-04-30

    A new species of the genus Sphaeronemoura (Plecoptera: Nemouridae: Amphinemurinae), S. separata sp. n. is described from the male, female, and larvae collected in Henan Province of China. The internal genitalia of the female adult is described for the first time for the genus, and additional generic characters for the larva are also given. The known distributions of all Sphaeronemoura species is presented.

  8. A new species and additional records of the genus Collyria Schiødte, 1839 (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae) from Turkey.

    PubMed

    Yurtcan, Murat; Kolarov, Janko

    2015-07-09

    A new species, Collyria pronotalis Yurtcan and Kolarov sp. n. (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae, Collyriinae), from Turkey is described and illustrated. A key for identification of the species of Collyria Schiødte, 1839 is provided. Moreover, additional records are reported for Collyria coxator (Villers, 1789) from Turkey.

  9. Quantum ring-polymer contraction method: Including nuclear quantum effects at no additional computational cost in comparison to ab initio molecular dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    John, Christopher; Spura, Thomas; Habershon, Scott; Kühne, Thomas D.

    2016-04-01

    We present a simple and accurate computational method which facilitates ab initio path-integral molecular dynamics simulations, where the quantum-mechanical nature of the nuclei is explicitly taken into account, at essentially no additional computational cost in comparison to the corresponding calculation using classical nuclei. The predictive power of the proposed quantum ring-polymer contraction method is demonstrated by computing various static and dynamic properties of liquid water at ambient conditions using density functional theory. This development will enable routine inclusion of nuclear quantum effects in ab initio molecular dynamics simulations of condensed-phase systems.

  10. Study Modules for Calculus-Based General Physics. [Includes Modules 1 and 2: Dimensions and Vector Addition; Rectilinear Motion; plus a Trigonometry and Calculus Review].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Robert G., Ed.; And Others

    This is part of a series of 42 Calculus Based Physics (CBP) modules totaling about 1,000 pages. The modules include study guides, practice tests, and mastery tests for a full-year individualized course in calculus-based physics based on the Personalized System of Instruction (PSI). The units are not intended to be used without outside materials;…

  11. A new species of the subterranean amphipod genus Stygobromus (Amphipoda: Crangonyctidae) from two caves and a spring in western Maryland, USA with additional records of undescribed species from groundwater habitats in central Maryland.

    PubMed

    Holsinger, John R; Ansell, Lynnette

    2014-02-26

    A new species of the subterranean amphipod genus Stygobromus is described from two caves and a small spring on the Appalachian Plateau in Garrett County in western Maryland, USA. The description of this species brings to six the total number of species in the genus Stygobromus from the state of Maryland. The other five species are recorded from shallow groundwater habitats (e.g., seeps and springs) in the eastern and southeastern parts of the state. In addition, at least four new species of Stygobromus from central Maryland are recognized but remain undescribed to date.

  12. Localization of eight additional genes in the human major histocompatibility complex, including the gene encoding the casein kinase II {beta} subunit (CSNK2B)

    SciTech Connect

    Albertella, M.R.; Jones, H.; Thomson, W.

    1996-09-01

    A wide range of autoimmune and other diseases are known to be associated with the major histocompatibility complex. Many of these diseases are linked to the genes encoding the polymorphic histocompatibility complex. Many of these diseases are linked to the genes encoding the polymorphic histocompatibility antigens in the class I and class II regions, but some appear to be more strongly associated with genes in the central 1100-kb class III region, making it important to characterize this region fully for the presence of novel genes. An {approximately}220-kb segment of DNA in the class III region separating the Hsp70 (HSPA1L) and BAT1 (D6S8IE) genes, which was previously known to contain 14 genes. Genomic DNA fragments spanning the gaps between the known genes were used as probes to isolate cDNAs corresponding to five new genes within this region. Evidence from Northern blot analysis and exon trapping experiments that suggested the presence of at least two more new genes was also obtained. Partial cDNA and complete exonic genomic sequencing of one of the new genes has identified it as the casein kinase II{beta} subunit (CSNK2B). Two of the other novel genes lie within a region syntenic to that implicated in susceptibility to experimental allergic orchitis in the mouse, an autoimmune disease of the testis, and represent additional candidates for the Orch-1 locus associated with this disease. In addition, characterization of the 13-kb intergenic gap separating the RD (D6545) and G11 (D6S60E) genes has revealed the presence of a gene encoding a 1246-amino-acid polypeptide that shows significant sequence similarity to the yeast anti-viral Ski2p gene product. 49 refs., 8 figs.

  13. TRPA1 activation leads to neurogenic vasodilatation: involvement of reactive oxygen nitrogen species in addition to CGRP and NO

    PubMed Central

    Aubdool, Aisah A; Kodji, Xenia; Abdul‐Kader, Nayaab; Heads, Richard; Fernandes, Elizabeth S; Bevan, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background and Purpose Transient receptor potential ankyrin‐1 (TRPA1) activation is known to mediate neurogenic vasodilatation. We investigated the mechanisms involved in TRPA1‐mediated peripheral vasodilatation in vivo using the TRPA1 agonist cinnamaldehyde. Experimental Approach Changes in vascular ear blood flow were measured in anaesthetized mice using laser Doppler flowmetry. Key Results Topical application of cinnamaldehyde to the mouse ear caused a significant increase in blood flow in the skin of anaesthetized wild‐type (WT) mice but not in TRPA1 knockout (KO) mice. Cinnamaldehyde‐induced vasodilatation was inhibited by the pharmacological blockade of the potent microvascular vasodilator neuropeptide CGRP and neuronal NOS‐derived NO pathways. Cinnamaldehyde‐mediated vasodilatation was significantly reduced by treatment with reactive oxygen nitrogen species (RONS) scavenger such as catalase and the SOD mimetic TEMPOL, supporting a role of RONS in the downstream vasodilator TRPA1‐mediated response. Co‐treatment with a non‐selective NOS inhibitor L‐NAME and antioxidant apocynin further inhibited the TRPA1‐mediated vasodilatation. Cinnamaldehyde treatment induced the generation of peroxynitrite that was blocked by the peroxynitrite scavenger FeTPPS and shown to be dependent on TRPA1, as reflected by an increase in protein tyrosine nitration in the skin of WT, but not in TRPA1 KO mice. Conclusion and Implications This study provides in vivo evidence that TRPA1‐induced vasodilatation mediated by cinnamaldehyde requires neuronal NOS‐derived NO, in addition to the traditional neuropeptide component. A novel role of peroxynitrite is revealed, which is generated downstream of TRPA1 activation by cinnamaldehyde. This mechanistic pathway underlying TRPA1‐mediated vasodilatation may be important in understanding the role of TRPA1 in pathophysiological situations. PMID:27189253

  14. Descriptions of two new, cryptic species of Metasiro (Arachnida: Opiliones: Cyphophthalmi: Neogoveidae) from South Carolina, USA, including a discussion of mitochondrial mutation rates.

    PubMed

    Clouse, Ronald M; Wheeler, Ward C

    2014-06-09

    Specimens of Metasiro from its three known disjunct population centers in the southeastern US were examined and had a 769 bp fragement of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) sequenced. These populations are located in the western panhandle of Florida and nearby areas of Georgia, in the Savannah River delta of South Carolina, and on Sassafras Mt. in South Carolina. This range extends over as much as 500 km, which is very large for a species of cyphophthalmid harvestmen and presents a degree of physical separation among populations such that we would expect them to actually be distinguishable species. We examined the morphology, including the spermatopositors of males, and sequences from 221 specimens. We found no discernible differences in the morphologies of specimens from the different populations, but corrected pairwise distances of COI were about 15% among the three population centers. We also analyzed COI data using a General Mixed Yule Coalescent (GMYC) model implemented in the R package SPLITS; with a single threshold, the most likely model had four species within Metasiro. Given this level of molecular divergence, the monophyly of the population haplotypes, and the number of exclusive COI nucleotide and amino acid differences distinguishing the populations, we here raise the Savannah River and Sassafras Mt. populations to species status: M. savannahensis sp. nov., and M. sassafrasensis sp. nov., respectively. This restricts M. americanus (Davis, 1933) to just the Lower Chattahoochee Watershed, which in this study includes populations along the Apalachicola River and around Florida Caverns State Park. GMYC models reconstructed the two main haplotype clades within M. americanus as different species, but they are not exclusive to different areas. We estimate COI percent divergence rates in certain cyphophthalmid groups and discuss problems with historical measures of this rate. We hypothesize that Metasiro began diversifying over 20

  15. Evidence for the formation of an enamine species during aldol and Michael-type addition reactions promiscuously catalyzed by 4-oxalocrotonate tautomerase.

    PubMed

    Poddar, Harshwardhan; Rahimi, Mehran; Geertsema, Edzard M; Thunnissen, Andy-Mark W H; Poelarends, Gerrit J

    2015-03-23

    The enzyme 4-oxalocrotonate tautomerase (4-OT), which has a catalytic N-terminal proline residue (Pro1), can promiscuously catalyze various carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions, including aldol condensation of acetaldehyde with benzaldehyde to yield cinnamaldehyde, and Michael-type addition of acetaldehyde to a wide variety of nitroalkenes to yield valuable γ-nitroaldehydes. To gain insight into how 4-OT catalyzes these unnatural reactions, we carried out exchange studies in D2 O, and X-ray crystallography studies. The former established that H-D exchange within acetaldehyde is catalyzed by 4-OT and that the Pro1 residue is crucial for this activity. The latter showed that Pro1 of 4-OT had reacted with acetaldehyde to give an enamine species. These results provide evidence of the mechanism of the 4-OT-catalyzed aldol and Michael-type addition reactions in which acetaldehyde is activated for nucleophilic addition by Pro1-dependent formation of an enamine intermediate.

  16. Sabellariidae from Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, including a new species of Lygdamis and notes on external morphology of the median organ.

    PubMed

    Capa, María; Faroni-Perez, Larisse; Hutchings, Pat

    2015-09-18

    We document herein the occurrence of three species of Sabellariidae at Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, including a new Lygdamis species. Sabellaria lungalla, described from Northern Territory, is reported for Queensland for the first time. The genus Gesaia, represented by a planktonic larva collected in shallow waters of the Archipelago, is a new record for Australia. Lygdamis nasutus n. sp. is characterised by one of the most conspicuous median organ described in the family (cylindrical, distally pigmented and is provided with a flattened, teardrop corona), its paleae morphology (with straight paleae, outer ones with asymmetrical pointed tips and subtle thecal sculpture and inner paleae with blunt tips and smooth surface), three lateral lobes on chaetiger 2, abdominal chaetigers with two type of neurochaetae, and notopodial uncini with 1-4 longitudinal rows of teeth. Comparison of the external morphology of the medial organ and median ridge of several species has been undertaken. Even though its function remains uncertain, the median organ morphology seems species specific and may provide relevant information about the evolutionary history and adaptations of sabellariids.

  17. Petrographic and Geochemical Characterization of Ore-Bearing Intrusions of the Noril'sk type, Siberia; With Discussion of Their Origin, Including Additional Datasets and Core Logs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Czamanske, Gerald K.

    2002-01-01

    The Noril'sk I, Talnakh, and Kharaelakh intrusions of the Noril'sk district host one of the outstanding metal concentrations in the world; contained Cu-Ni resources are comparable to the deposits at Sudbury, Ontario and the platinum group element (PGE) resource is second only to that of the Bushveld Complex. Our opportunity to cooperatively sample and study this district in Siberian Russia arose in 1990 through a memorandum of understanding between the U.S. Geological Survey and the former Ministry of Geology of the U.S.S.R. The world-class significance of these deposits and the possibility that understanding their geologic context, including construction of a credible 'ore-deposit model,' will lead to discovery of similar deposits elsewhere, inspired extensive studies of the ores, the mafic-intrusions which host them, and associated flood basalts.

  18. Integrative taxonomy resolves the cryptic and pseudo-cryptic Radula buccinifera complex (Porellales, Jungermanniopsida), including two reinstated and five new species

    PubMed Central

    Renner, Matt A.M.; Devos, Nicolas; Patiño, Jairo; Brown, Elizabeth A.; Orme, Andrew; Elgey, Michael; Wilson, Trevor C.; Gray, Lindsey J.; von Konrat, Matt J.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Molecular data from three chloroplast markers resolve individuals attributable to Radula buccinifera in six lineages belonging to two subgenera, indicating the species is polyphyletic as currently circumscribed. All lineages are morphologically diagnosable, but one pair exhibits such morphological overlap that they can be considered cryptic. Molecular and morphological data justify the re-instatement of a broadly circumscribed ecologically variable R. strangulata, of R. mittenii, and the description of five new species. Two species Radula mittenii Steph. and R. notabilis sp. nov. are endemic to the Wet Tropics Bioregion of north-east Queensland, suggesting high diversity and high endemism might characterise the bryoflora of this relatively isolated wet-tropical region. Radula demissa sp. nov. is endemic to southern temperate Australasia, and like R. strangulata occurs on both sides of the Tasman Sea. Radula imposita sp. nov. is a twig and leaf epiphyte found in association with waterways in New South Wales and Queensland. Another species, R. pugioniformis sp. nov., has been confused with Radula buccinifera but was not included in the molecular phylogeny. Morphological data suggest it may belong to subg. Odontoradula. Radula buccinifera is endemic to Australia including Western Australia and Tasmania, and to date is known from south of the Clarence River on the north coast of New South Wales. Nested within R. buccinifera is a morphologically distinct plant from Norfolk Island described as R. anisotoma sp. nov. Radula australiana is resolved as monophyletic, sister to a species occurring in east coast Australian rainforests, and nesting among the R. buccinifera lineages with strong support. The molecular phylogeny suggests several long-distance dispersal events may have occurred. These include two east-west dispersal events from New Zealand to Tasmania and south-east Australia in R. strangulata, one east-west dispersal event from Tasmania to Western

  19. Integrative taxonomy resolves the cryptic and pseudo-cryptic Radula buccinifera complex (Porellales, Jungermanniopsida), including two reinstated and five new species.

    PubMed

    Renner, Matt A M; Devos, Nicolas; Patiño, Jairo; Brown, Elizabeth A; Orme, Andrew; Elgey, Michael; Wilson, Trevor C; Gray, Lindsey J; von Konrat, Matt J

    2013-01-01

    Molecular data from three chloroplast markers resolve individuals attributable to Radula buccinifera in six lineages belonging to two subgenera, indicating the species is polyphyletic as currently circumscribed. All lineages are morphologically diagnosable, but one pair exhibits such morphological overlap that they can be considered cryptic. Molecular and morphological data justify the re-instatement of a broadly circumscribed ecologically variable R. strangulata, of R. mittenii, and the description of five new species. Two species Radula mittenii Steph. and R. notabilis sp. nov. are endemic to the Wet Tropics Bioregion of north-east Queensland, suggesting high diversity and high endemism might characterise the bryoflora of this relatively isolated wet-tropical region. Radula demissa sp. nov. is endemic to southern temperate Australasia, and like R. strangulata occurs on both sides of the Tasman Sea. Radula imposita sp. nov. is a twig and leaf epiphyte found in association with waterways in New South Wales and Queensland. Another species, R. pugioniformis sp. nov., has been confused with Radula buccinifera but was not included in the molecular phylogeny. Morphological data suggest it may belong to subg. Odontoradula. Radula buccinifera is endemic to Australia including Western Australia and Tasmania, and to date is known from south of the Clarence River on the north coast of New South Wales. Nested within R. buccinifera is a morphologically distinct plant from Norfolk Island described as R. anisotoma sp. nov. Radula australiana is resolved as monophyletic, sister to a species occurring in east coast Australian rainforests, and nesting among the R. buccinifera lineages with strong support. The molecular phylogeny suggests several long-distance dispersal events may have occurred. These include two east-west dispersal events from New Zealand to Tasmania and south-east Australia in R. strangulata, one east-west dispersal event from Tasmania to Western Australia in R

  20. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance of the Dalhart NTMS quadrangle, New Mexico/Texas/Oklahoma, including concentrations of forty-two additional elements

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, T.L.

    1980-08-01

    Totals of 1583 water samples and 503 sediment samples were collected from 2028 locations within the 20 000-km/sup 2/ area of the quadrangle at an average density of one location per 9.86 km/sup 2/. Water samples were collected from wells, springs, and streams and were analyzed for uranium. Sediment samples were collected from streams and springs and were analyzed for uranium, thorium, and 41 additional elements. All field and analytical data are listed in the appendixes of this report. Discussion is limited to anomalous samples, which are considered to be those containing over 20 ppB uranium for waters and over 5 ppM uranium for sediments. Uranium concentrations in water samples range from below the detection limit of 0.2 ppB to 1457.65 ppB and average 7.41 ppB. Most of the seventy anomalous water samples (4.4% of all water samples) are grouped spatially into five clusters or areas of interest. Samples in three of the clusters were collected along the north edge of the quadrangle where Mesozoic strata are exposed. The other two clusters are from the central and southern portions where the Quaternary Ogallala formation is exposed. Sediment samples from the quadrangle have uranium concentrations that range from 0.90 ppM to 27.20 ppM and average 3.27 ppM. Fourteen samples (2.8% of all sediment samples) contain over 5 ppM uranium and are considered anomalous. The five samples with the highest concentrations occur where downcutting streams expose Cretaceous units beneath the Quaternary surficial deposits. The remaining anomalous sediment samples were collected from scattered locations and do not indicate any single formation or unit as a potential source for the anomalous concentrations.

  1. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance data release for the Elk City NTMS Quadrangle, Idaho/Montana, including concentrations of forty-five additional elements

    SciTech Connect

    Broxton, D.E.; Beyth, M.

    1980-07-01

    Totals of 1580 water and 1720 sediment samples were collected from 1754 locations in the quadrangle. Elemental concentration, field measurement, weather, geologic, and geographic data for each sample location are listed for waters in Appendix I-A and for sediments in Appendix I-B. Uranium/thorium ratios for sediment samples are also included in Appendix I-B. All elemental analyses were performed at the LASL. Water samples were initially analyzed for uranium by fluorometry. All water samples containing more than 40 parts per billion (ppB) uranium were reanalyzed by delayed-neutron counting (DNC). A supplemental report containing the multielement analyses of water samples will be open filed in the near future. Sediments were analyzed for uranium and thorium as well as aluminum, antimony, arsenic, barium, beryllium, bismuth, cadmium, calcium, cerium, cesium, chlorine, chromium, cobalt, copper, dysprosium, europium, gold, hafnium, iron, lanthanum, lead, lithium, lutetium, magnesium, manganese, nickel, niobium, potassium, rubidium, samarium, selenium, scandium, silver, sodium, strontium, tantalum, terbium, tin, titanium, tungsten, vanadium, ytterbium, zinc, and zirconium. Basic statistics for 40 of these elements are presented. All sediments were analyzed for uranium by delayed-neutron counting. Other elemental concentrations in sediments were determined by neutron-activation analysis for 30 elements, by x-ray fluorescence for 12 elements, and by arc-source emission spectrography for 2 elements. Analytical results for sediments are reported as parts per million.

  2. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance data release for the Lewistown NTMS Quadrangle, Montana, including concentrations of forty-two additional elements

    SciTech Connect

    Shannon, S.S. Jr.

    1980-08-01

    Totals of 758 water and 1170 sediment samples were collected from 1649 locations in the Levistown quadrangle. Water samples were collected at streams, springs, wells, ponds, and marshes; sediment samples were obtained from streams, springs, and ponds. Histograms and statistical data for uranium concentrations in water and sediment samples and thorium concentrations in sediment samples are given. All samples were collected at the nominal reconnaissance density of one sample location per 10 km/sup 2/. Elemental concentration, field measurement, weather, geologic, and geographic data for each sample location are listed for waters and for sediments. Uranium to thorium (U/Th) ratios for sediment samples are included. Water samples were initially analyzed for uranium by fluorometry. All water samples containing more than 40 ppB U were reanalyzed by delayed-neutron counting. Sediments were analyzed for U and Th as well as Al, Sb, Ba, Be, Bi, Cd, Ca, Ce, Cs, Cl, Cr, Co, Cu, Dy, Eu, Au, Hf, Fe, La, Pb, Li, Lu, Mg, Mn, Ni, Nb, K, Rb, Sa, Sc, Ag, Na, Sr, Ta, Tb, Sn, Ti, W, V, Yb, and Zn. All sediments were analyzed for U by delayed neutron counting. Other elemental concentrations in sediments were determined by neutron activation analysis for 31 elements, by x-ray fluorescence for 9 elements, and by arc-source emission spectrography for 2 elements. Analytical results are reported as parts per million. Descriptions of procedures used for analysis of water and sediments samples as well as analytical precisions and detection limits are given.

  3. Nematocera flies recorded in Serra do Courel, northwest Spain, May 2012 (Diptera: Anisopodidae, Blepharoceridae, Cylindrotomidae, Limoniidae, Pediciidae, Tipulidae and Trichoceridae) including descriptions of two new species of Limoniidae.

    PubMed

    Hancock, E Geoffrey; Hewitt, Stephen M; Horsfield, David; Lyszkowsi, Richard M; Macgowan, Iain; Ricarte, Antonio; Rotheray, Graham E; Watt, Kenneth

    2015-01-19

    During May 2012 Diptera were sampled in the Serro do Courel area of Lugo Province, Galicia, northwest Spain. The authors of this paper, members of the Malloch Society (see website) are active in attempting to understand the detailed ecology of flies. Much of this work is through targeting larval stages often with an emphasis on saproxylic situations. By rearing adults from larvae direct relationships between them and their detailed habitat requirements are established. The list of nematocerous Diptera that were sampled includes 36 species two of them new to science and records of six others new to the Iberian peninsula are provided. We describe Lipsothrix galiciensis Hancock & Hewitt sp. nov., and Prionolabis pjotri Hancock sp. nov. of the family Limoniidae and provide a key to adults of European Lipsothrix species. Such results from this brief opportunity indicate the potential of the area for further field work in these and other families of Diptera. 

  4. Concentrated sodium chloride brine solutions as an additional treatment for preventing the introduction of nonindigenous species in the ballast tanks of ships declaring no ballast on board.

    PubMed

    Santagata, Scott; Bacela, Karolina; Reid, David F; Mclean, Kevin A; Cohen, Jill S; Cordell, Jeffery R; Brown, Christopher W; Johengen, Thomas H; Ruiz, Gregory M

    2009-02-01

    Currently, seawater flushing is the only management strategy for reducing the number of viable organisms in residual sediments and water of ballast tanks of vessels declaring no ballast on board (NOBOB) that traffic ports of the eastern United States. Previously, we identified several species of freshwater and brackish-water peracarid crustaceans able to survive the osmotic shock that occurs during open-ocean ballast water exchange and, potentially, to disperse over long distances via ballasted ships and NOBOB vessels. We tested the efficacy of concentrated sodium chloride brine solutions as an additional treatment for eradicating the halotolerant taxa often present in the ballast tanks of NOBOB ships. The lowest brine treatments (30 ppt for 1 h) caused 100% mortality in several species of cladocerans and copepods collected from oligohaline habitats. Several brackish-water peracarid crustaceans, however, including some that can survive in freshwater as well, required higher brine concentrations and longer exposure durations (45-60 ppt for 3-24 h). The most resilient animals were widely introduced peracarid crustaceans that generally prefer mesohaline habitats but do not tolerate freshwater (required brine treatments of 60-110 ppt for 3-24 h). Brine treatments (30 ppt) also required less time to cause 100% mortality for eight taxa compared with treatments using 34 ppt seawater. Based on these experiments and published data, we present treatment strategies for the ballast tank biota often associated with NOBOB vessels entering the Great Lakes region. We estimate the lethal dosage of brine for 95% of the species in our experiments to be 110 ppt (95% confidence interval, 85-192 ppt) when the exposure time is 1 h and 60 ppt (95% confidence interval, 48-98 ppt) when the exposure duration is 6 h or longer.

  5. Identification of Daqingye and Banlangen including crude drugs and decoction dregs from three plant species by normal light and fluorescence microscopy.

    PubMed

    Xiaojing, Wan; Liang, Zhitao; Chen, Hu-Biao; Zhao, Zhongzhen; Li, Ping

    2013-08-01

    Daqingye and Banlangen are commonly used Chinese medicinal materials derived from the leaves and roots of Isatis indigotica Fort., respectively, which clinical effects have been confirmed by many studies in recent years. However, many problems have arisen concerning the quality and identity of materials sold in the market under these two names. Thus, the identification of Daqingye and Banlangen has drawn public attention. In this work, transverse sections of Daqingye and Banlangen from I. indigotica Fort. and two easily confused species, namely Baphicacanthus cusia (Nees) Bremek. and Clerodendrum cyrtophyllum Turcz., were investigated with normal light and fluorescence microscopy. The distinguishing features were 7-9 vascular bundles, cystoliths and nonglandular hairs in the leaves of I. indigotica, B. cusia, and C. cyrtophyllum, respectively. The Banlangen could be distinguished according to the characteristics of parenchymous cells, cystoliths, and stone cells. Moreover, the fluorescence features of Daqingye and Banlangen investigated in this study can provide direct points for differentiating those samples. Importantly, whether the crude drugs were decocted could be easily identified by their different fluorescence features, which can ensure their quality in clinical application. This is the first report to distinguish the three species that are commonly found in the market sold as Daqingye and Banlangen by normal light and fluorescence microscopy. This work indicates that the combination of normal light and fluorescence microscopy could be powerful, convenient, and economical for authenticating Daqingye and Banlangen from the three species, including crude drugs and decoction dregs.

  6. Morphology and SSU rDNA sequence analysis of two hypotrichous ciliates (Protozoa, Ciliophora, Hypotrichia) including the new species Metaurostylopsis parastruederkypkeae n. sp.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Borong; Wang, Chundi; Huang, Jie; Shi, Yuhong; Chen, Xiangrui

    2016-10-01

    The morphology and phylogeny of two hypotrichous ciliates, Metaurostylopsis parastruederkypkeae n. sp. and Neourostylopsis flavicana (Wang et al., 2011) Chen et al., 2013 were investigated based on morphology, infraciliature and the small subunit (SSU) ribosomal RNA gene (rRNA) sequence. The new species, M. parastruederkypkeae n. sp. was identified according to its characteristics: body shape ellipsoidal, size about (165-200) × (45-60) μm in vivo, cell color reddish; two types of cortical granules including wheat grain-like and yellow-greenish larger ones along the marginal cirri rows and dorsal kineties and dot-like and reddish smaller ones, grouped around marginal cirri on ventral side and arranged in short lines on dorsal side; 26-41 adoral membranelles; three frontal and one parabuccal, five to seven frontoterminal, one buccal, and three to six transverse cirri; seven to thirteen midventral pairs; five to nine unpaired ventral cirri, five to seven left and three to five right marginal rows; and three complete dorsal kineties. Phylogenetic analysis based on SSU rDNA sequences showed that both Metaurostylopsis and Neourostylopsis are monophyletic. As the internal relationship between and within both genera are not clear, further studies on the species in these two genera are necessary. The key characteristics of all known twelve Metaurostylopsis-Apourostylopsis-Neourostylopsis species complex were updated.

  7. Study of mineral content (Nutrients and Trace elements) in vine leaf and 4 weed species included in the vegetal cover in a Spanish vineyard.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amorós, José Angel; Bravo, Sandra; Pérez-de-los-Reyes, Caridad; Jesús García-Navarro, Francisco; Higueras, Pablo; Campos, Juan Antonio; María Moreno, Marta

    2016-04-01

    The content of some mineral elements (Na, Ca, Mg, K, P, S, Fe, Mn, Si, Al, V, Cr, Cu, Rb, Sr, Ba, Zn, Pb, Ce, La and Nd) has been studied in vine leaf and four weed species (Mendicago lupulina L.; Malva sylvestris L., Hordeum murinum L. and Scandix pecten-veneris L.) included in the natural vegetal cover of a vineyard sited in Ciudad Real province (Central Spain). Samples were taken in May 2015, dried and milled in order to analyze them using the X Ray Fluorescence Technique. The results obtained have been compared with those measured in a vineyard located in a different site and with those suggested by the literature consulted for plants in general all around the world. The results indicate that some differences in mineral content among the weed species can be drafted. Great differences have been found in K, Si, Ca and Zn, although other elements, such as Mg, P, S, Ba and Nd, remained almost constant despite of the species. Moreover, the influence of the type of soil (different site) can give a different composition of the vine leaf in some elements. This last point is especially evident in the case of the Sr (more present in calcareous soils and leaves of plants grown on them, reaching 377 mg kg-1 versus less than 86 mg kg-1 in the non-calcareous studied soil).

  8. Seven new species of Psechrus and additional taxonomic contributions to the knowledge of the spider family Psechridae (Araneae).

    PubMed

    Bayer, Steffen

    2014-01-27

    Seven new Psechrus species are described from South East Asia: P. arietinus sp. nov.(♂♀, Vietnam), P. insulanus sp. nov.(♂, Thailand), P. ampullaceus sp. nov.(♂♀, Vietnam), P. omistes sp. nov.(♂, Indonesia, Sumatra), P. quasillus sp. nov.(♂♀, Malaysia, Borneo), P. huberi sp. nov.(♀, Philippines), and P. wade sp. nov.(♂, Philippines). For the following species, new records are listed and intraspecific variation is discussed and illustrated: P. libelti Kulczyński, 1908, P. norops Bayer, 2012, P. rani Wang & Yin, 2001, P. khammouan Jäger, 2007, P. luangprabang Jäger, 2007, P. jaegeri Bayer, 2012, P. obtectus Bayer, 2012, P. kenting Yoshida, 2009 and P. crepido Bayer, 2012, and Fecenia protensa Thorell, 1891. The latter species is recorded from Vietnam for the first time. P. norops, P. libelti and an unidentified Psechrus species from Baluno, Mindanao are for the first time characterised and illustrated by their pre-epigynes and pre-vulvae.

  9. Fundamental Mechanistic Investigations of Silane and Chlorocarbon Addition to Low Valent Palladium Species and their Application to Catalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Fink, Mark J.

    2009-01-27

    The collaboration between Mark Fink (Tulane University) and R. Morris Bullock (Brookhaven National Laboratory, currently at PNL) is an effort to understand some of the fundamental processes involved in catalytic bond activations with low coordinate palladium species. The project involves the photochemical generation of reactive low-valent palladium species as transients using nanosecond laser flash photolysis and the subsequent investigation of their reactions with chloroarenes and hydrosilanes. In the case of Si-H activation of hydrosilanes, relatively long-lived sigma complexes are implicated. These complexes may be important models for C-H activation in hydrocarbons. The information obtained from these studies will help in the understanding of fundamental processes involved in a number of important catalytic reactions in the petrochemical and environmental areas.

  10. Highly diastereo- and regioselective transition metal-catalyzed additions of metal hydrides and bimetallic species to cyclopropenes: easy access to multisubstituted cyclopropanes.

    PubMed

    Trofimov, Alexander; Rubina, Marina; Rubin, Michael; Gevorgyan, Vladimir

    2007-11-09

    The first highly efficient, diastereo- and regioselective transition metal-catalyzed addition of metal hydrides (stannanes, silanes, and germanes) and bimetallic species (ditins and silyltins) to cyclopropenes has been developed. It was shown that the addition across the double bond of cyclopropenes is generally controlled by steric factors and proceeds from the least hindered face. This methodology represents a powerful and atom-economic approach toward a wide variety of highly substituted stereodefined cyclopropylmetals, useful building blocks unavailable by other methods.

  11. Demonstration of substances of innate immunity in the esophageal epithelium of domesticated mammals: Part II--Defence mechanisms, including species comparison.

    PubMed

    Nina Hornickel, Isabelle; Kacza, Johannes; Schnapper, Anke; Beyerbach, Martin; Schoennagel, Britta; Seeger, Johannes; Meyer, Wilfried

    2011-02-01

    The second part of our study deals with a comparative evaluation and discussion of the immunohistochemical results that were obtained. The cryoscanning electron microscopy (cryoSEM) observations confirmed a monolayer colonization of the esophageal surface with bacteria and fungi (yeasts); the latter in particular was prominent in the ruminant species studied. We demonstrated the existence of several innate immune parameters, including pathogen recognition receptors (PRRs), such as Toll-like receptor 2, which was primarily expressed in the stratum basale; however, the presence β-glucan receptors remained inconclusive. Furthermore, the group of cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAPs) was shown, comprising β-defensins 2 and 3 and cathelicidin. The less keratinized esophageal epithelium of the carnivorous cat was protected by high amounts of CAPs; whereas the more strongly keratinized epithelium of the herbivorous and omnivorous species with its characteristic layer structure exhibited clearly weaker reactions. Moreover, lysozyme could distinctly be demonstrated in the cells of the esophageal epithelium. It can be concluded that a first line of defence mechanisms of the innate immune system contributes to maintaining a microbial homeostasis on the surface of the esophageal epithelium of domesticated mammals. The results are discussed in comparison to findings from studies on the human esophagus.

  12. Heavy metal distribution in tissues of six fish species included in human diet, inhabiting freshwaters of the Nature Park "Hutovo Blato" (Bosnia and Herzegovina).

    PubMed

    Has-Schön, Elizabeta; Bogut, Ivan; Rajković, Valentina; Bogut, Stjepan; Cacić, Milan; Horvatić, Janja

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the study was to quantify heavy metal (mercury, lead, cadmium, and arsenic) concentration in tissues (muscles, liver, kidney, gills, and gonads) of six fish species (carp: Cyprinus carpio, tench: Tinca tinca, pumpkinseed: Lepomis gibosus, prussian carp: Carassius auratus gibelio, hasselquist: Salmo dentex, eel: Anguilla anguilla) from the freshwaters of the Nature Park Hutovo Blato, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and determine whether they are potentially harmful for human health if included in the diet. Fish were angled from the Svitava Lake in the second part of August of the year 2003, and fish tissues were stored at -18 degrees C until analysis. Heavy metal concentration was determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry in the Veterinary Institute Brno, Czech Republic, and expressed as mg.kg(-1) of wet tissue. Concentration of mercury, lead, and arsenic in most tissues of all analyzed fish types is lower than the maximal allowed concentration (MAC) in most countries. Cadmium concentration is also low in muscles and gonads, but kidney, liver, and gill concentrations exceed MAC value in most countries. Hasselquist, an endemic type for that region, differs from other fish types in the fact that it has very low cadmium concentration in liver and kidney, but the highest concentration of arsenic in most tissues, especially muscles. In muscles and gonads of all fish types analyzed, Pb is present in higher concentration than Cd, whereas in liver, gills, and particularly kidney, the situation is opposite, suggesting diverse metabolic pathways and unequal bioaccumulation of these two metals in different fish tissues. Although the region of the Nature Park Hutovo Blato in Bosnia and Herzegovina is not an agricultural territory, the intensive agricultural activities in the neighboring regions already result in high cadmium concentration in inner organs of fish species analyzed. Therefore, fish types in the freshwaters of the Park may be included in the human diet

  13. Proposal to elevate the genetic variant MAC-A, included in the Mycobacterium avium complex, to species rank as Mycobacterium chimaera sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Tortoli, Enrico; Rindi, Laura; Garcia, Maria J; Chiaradonna, Patrizia; Dei, Rosanna; Garzelli, Carlo; Kroppenstedt, Reiner M; Lari, Nicoletta; Mattei, Romano; Mariottini, Alessandro; Mazzarelli, Gianna; Murcia, Martha I; Nanetti, Anna; Piccoli, Paola; Scarparo, Claudio

    2004-07-01

    The possibility that the strains included within the Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC), but not belonging either to M. avium or to Mycobacterium intracellulare, may be members of undescribed taxa, has already been questioned by several taxonomists. A very homogeneous cluster of 12 strains characterized by identical nucleotide sequences both in the 16S rDNA and in the 16S-23S internal transcribed spacer was investigated. Similar strains, previously reported in the literature, had been assigned either to the species M. intracellulare on the basis of the 16S rDNA similarity or to the group of MAC intermediates. However, several phenotypical and epidemiological characteristics seem to distinguish these strains from all other MAC organisms. The unique mycolic acid pattern obtained by HPLC is striking as it is characterized by two clusters of peaks, instead of the three presented by all other MAC organisms. All of the strains have been isolated from humans and all but one came from the respiratory tract of elderly people. The clinical significance of these strains, ascertained for seven patients, seems to suggest an unusually high virulence. The characteristics of all the strains reported in the literature, genotypically identical to the ones described here, seem to confirm our data, without reports of isolations from animals or the environment or, among humans, from AIDS patients. Therefore, an elevation of the MAC variant was proposed and characterized here, with the name Mycobacterium chimaera sp. nov.; this increases the number of species included in the M. avium complex. The type strain is FI-01069T (=CIP 107892T=DSM 44623T).

  14. The rediscovery of a long described species reveals additional complexity in speciation patterns of poeciliid fishes in sulfide springs.

    PubMed

    Palacios, Maura; Arias-Rodriguez, Lenin; Plath, Martin; Eifert, Constanze; Lerp, Hannes; Lamboj, Anton; Voelker, Gary; Tobler, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The process of ecological speciation drives the evolution of locally adapted and reproductively isolated populations in response to divergent natural selection. In Southern Mexico, several lineages of the freshwater fish species of the genus Poecilia have independently colonized toxic, hydrogen sulfide-rich springs. Even though ecological speciation processes are increasingly well understood in this system, aligning the taxonomy of these fish with evolutionary processes has lagged behind. While some sulfide spring populations are classified as ecotypes of Poecilia mexicana, others, like P. sulphuraria, have been described as highly endemic species. Our study particularly focused on elucidating the taxonomy of the long described sulfide spring endemic, Poecilia thermalis Steindachner 1863, and investigates if similar evolutionary patterns of phenotypic trait divergence and reproductive isolation are present as observed in other sulfidic species of Poecilia. We applied a geometric morphometric approach to assess body shape similarity to other sulfidic and non-sulfidic fish of the genus Poecilia. We also conducted phylogenetic and population genetic analyses to establish the phylogenetic relationships of P. thermalis and used a population genetic approach to determine levels of gene flow among Poecilia from sulfidic and non-sulfidic sites. Our results indicate that P. thermalis' body shape has evolved in convergence with other sulfide spring populations in the genus. Phylogenetic analyses placed P. thermalis as most closely related to one population of P. sulphuraria, and population genetic analyses demonstrated that P. thermalis is genetically isolated from both P. mexicana ecotypes and P. sulphuraria. Based on these findings, we make taxonomic recommendations for P. thermalis. Overall, our study verifies the role of hydrogen sulfide as a main factor shaping convergent, phenotypic evolution and the emergence of reproductive isolation between Poecilia populations

  15. The Rediscovery of a Long Described Species Reveals Additional Complexity in Speciation Patterns of Poeciliid Fishes in Sulfide Springs

    PubMed Central

    Palacios, Maura; Arias-Rodriguez, Lenin; Plath, Martin; Eifert, Constanze; Lerp, Hannes; Lamboj, Anton; Voelker, Gary; Tobler, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The process of ecological speciation drives the evolution of locally adapted and reproductively isolated populations in response to divergent natural selection. In Southern Mexico, several lineages of the freshwater fish species of the genus Poecilia have independently colonized toxic, hydrogen sulfide-rich springs. Even though ecological speciation processes are increasingly well understood in this system, aligning the taxonomy of these fish with evolutionary processes has lagged behind. While some sulfide spring populations are classified as ecotypes of Poecilia mexicana, others, like P. sulphuraria, have been described as highly endemic species. Our study particularly focused on elucidating the taxonomy of the long described sulfide spring endemic, Poecilia thermalis Steindachner 1863, and investigates if similar evolutionary patterns of phenotypic trait divergence and reproductive isolation are present as observed in other sulfidic species of Poecilia. We applied a geometric morphometric approach to assess body shape similarity to other sulfidic and non-sulfidic fish of the genus Poecilia. We also conducted phylogenetic and population genetic analyses to establish the phylogenetic relationships of P. thermalis and used a population genetic approach to determine levels of gene flow among Poecilia from sulfidic and non-sulfidic sites. Our results indicate that P. thermalis' body shape has evolved in convergence with other sulfide spring populations in the genus. Phylogenetic analyses placed P. thermalis as most closely related to one population of P. sulphuraria, and population genetic analyses demonstrated that P. thermalis is genetically isolated from both P. mexicana ecotypes and P. sulphuraria. Based on these findings, we make taxonomic recommendations for P. thermalis. Overall, our study verifies the role of hydrogen sulfide as a main factor shaping convergent, phenotypic evolution and the emergence of reproductive isolation between Poecilia populations

  16. Additions to the Encyrtidae and Mymaridae (Chalcidoidea) of India with new distribution and host records for some species

    PubMed Central

    Rameshkumar, A.; V, Naveen

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background Encyrtidae and Mymaridae of India have not been surveyed in depth and hosts are not known for most of the species as the methods of collections used are passive and do not yield firsthand information on the hosts. Based on our ongoing surveys on the Encyrtidae and Mymaridae of India, we report here new distribution and host records for some species. New information Acmopolynema campylurum Xu and Lin, Litus cynipseus Haliday, Omyomymar glabrum Lin and Chiappini and Platystethynium Ogloblin (Mymaridae), and Rhytidothorax purpureiscutellum (Girault) (Encyrtidae) are reported for the first time from India. Anagyrus aquilonaris (Noyes and Hayat) is recorded as new to Arunachal Pradesh and Meghalaya. Paraphaenodiscus indicus Singh and Agarwal and Paraphaenodiscus monawari Bhuiya are recorded from south India for the first time, the latter on a new host, Pulvinaria polygonata. Chorizococcus sorghi Williams (Pseudococcidae) is reported as a host for Cryptanusia ajmerensis (Fatma & Shafee), for which no hosts are hitherto known and the male of Cryptanusia is documented for the first time. Aclerda sp. is recorded as a new host for Neastymachus axillaris Singh, Agarwal and Basha. PMID:26069438

  17. Plant Functional Diversity Can Be Independent of Species Diversity: Observations Based on the Impact of 4-Yrs of Nitrogen and Phosphorus Additions in an Alpine Meadow.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Cheng, Ji-Min; Yu, Kai-Liang; Epstein, Howard E; Guo, Liang; Jing, Guang-Hua; Zhao, Jie; Du, Guo-Zhen

    2015-01-01

    Past studies have widely documented the decrease in species diversity in response to addition of nutrients, however functional diversity is often independent from species diversity. In this study, we conducted a field experiment to examine the effect of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilization ((NH4)2 HPO4) at 0, 15, 30 and 60 g m-2 yr-1 (F0, F15, F30 and F60) after 4 years of continuous fertilization on functional diversity and species diversity, and its relationship with productivity in an alpine meadow community on the Tibetan Plateau. To this purpose, three community-weighted mean trait values (specific leaf area, SLA; mature plant height, MPH; and seed size, SS) for 30 common species in each fertilization level were determined; three components of functional diversity (functional richness, FRic; functional evenness, FEve; and Rao's index of quadratic entropy, FRao) were quantified. Our results showed that: (i) species diversity sharply decreased, but functional diversity remained stable with fertilization; (ii) community-weighted mean traits (SLA and MPH) had a significant increase along the fertilization level; (iii) aboveground biomass was not correlated with functional diversity, but it was significantly correlated with species diversity and MPH. Our results suggest that decreases in species diversity due to fertilization do not result in corresponding changes in functional diversity. Functional identity of species may be more important than functional diversity in influencing aboveground productivity in this alpine meadow community, and our results also support the mass ratio hypothesis; that is, the traits of the dominant species influenced the community biomass production.

  18. Plant Functional Diversity Can Be Independent of Species Diversity: Observations Based on the Impact of 4-Yrs of Nitrogen and Phosphorus Additions in an Alpine Meadow

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wei; Cheng, Ji-Min; Yu, Kai-Liang; Epstein, Howard E.; Guo, Liang; Jing, Guang-Hua; Zhao, Jie; Du, Guo-Zhen

    2015-01-01

    Past studies have widely documented the decrease in species diversity in response to addition of nutrients, however functional diversity is often independent from species diversity. In this study, we conducted a field experiment to examine the effect of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilization ((NH4)2 HPO4) at 0, 15, 30 and 60 g m-2 yr-1 (F0, F15, F30 and F60) after 4 years of continuous fertilization on functional diversity and species diversity, and its relationship with productivity in an alpine meadow community on the Tibetan Plateau. To this purpose, three community-weighted mean trait values (specific leaf area, SLA; mature plant height, MPH; and seed size, SS) for 30 common species in each fertilization level were determined; three components of functional diversity (functional richness, FRic; functional evenness, FEve; and Rao’s index of quadratic entropy, FRao) were quantified. Our results showed that: (i) species diversity sharply decreased, but functional diversity remained stable with fertilization; (ii) community-weighted mean traits (SLA and MPH) had a significant increase along the fertilization level; (iii) aboveground biomass was not correlated with functional diversity, but it was significantly correlated with species diversity and MPH. Our results suggest that decreases in species diversity due to fertilization do not result in corresponding changes in functional diversity. Functional identity of species may be more important than functional diversity in influencing aboveground productivity in this alpine meadow community, and our results also support the mass ratio hypothesis; that is, the traits of the dominant species influenced the community biomass production. PMID:26295345

  19. Responses of nitrous oxide emissions to nitrogen and phosphorus additions in two tropical plantations with N-fixing vs. non-N-fixing tree species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, W.; Zhu, X.; Luo, Y.; Rafique, R.; Chen, H.; Huang, J.; Mo, J.

    2014-01-01

    Leguminous tree plantations at phosphorus (P) limited sites may result in higher rates of nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions, however, the effects of nitrogen (N) and P applications on soil N2O emissions from plantations with N-fixing vs. non-N-fixing tree species has rarely been studied in the field. We conducted an experimental manipulation of N and P additions in two tropical plantations with Acacia auriculiformis (AA) and Eucalyptus urophylla (EU) tree species in South China. The objective was to determine the effects of N- or P-addition alone, as well as NP application together on soil N2O emissions from tropical plantations with N-fixing vs. non-N-fixing tree species. We found that the average N2O emission from control was greater in AA (2.26 ± 0.06 kg N2O-N ha-1 yr-1) than in EU plantation (1.87 ± 0.05 kg N2O-N ha-1 yr-1). For the AA plantation, N-addition stimulated the N2O emission from soil while P-addition did not. Applications of N with P together significantly decreased N2O emission compared to N-addition alone, especially in high level treatment plots (decreased by 18%). In the EU plantation, N2O emissions significantly decreased in P-addition plots compared with the controls, however, N- and NP-additions did not. The differing response of N2O emissions to N- or P-addition was attributed to the higher initial soil N status in the AA than that of the EU plantation, due to symbiotic N fixation in the former. Our results suggest that atmospheric N deposition potentially stimulates N2O emissions from leguminous tree plantations in the tropics, whereas P fertilization has the potential to mitigate N deposition-induced N2O emissions from such plantations.

  20. The genus Alterosa Blahnik, 2005 (Trichoptera, Philopotamidae, Philopotaminae) in northeastern Brazil, including the description of three new species and an identification key for the genus

    PubMed Central

    Dumas, Leandro Lourenço; Calor, Adolfo Ricardo; Nessimian, Jorge Luiz

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Alterosa Blahnik, 2005 contains 35 described species distributed in southern and southeastern Brazil. Three new species of Alterosa from northeastern Brazil are described and illustrated, Alterosa amadoi sp. n., Alterosa castroalvesi sp. n. and Alterosa caymmii sp. n., the first records of the genus from northeastern Brazil. An identification key for all known species of the genus is also presented. PMID:23950667

  1. Isolation and Characterization, Including by X-ray Crystallography, of Contact and Solvent-Separated Ion Pairs of Silenyl Lithium Species.

    PubMed

    Pinchuk, Daniel; Mathew, Jomon; Kaushansky, Alexander; Bravo-Zhivotovskii, Dmitry; Apeloig, Yitzhak

    2016-08-22

    Reaction of bromoacylsilane 1 (pink solution) with tBu2 MeSiLi (3.5 equiv) in a 4:1 hexane:THF solvent mixture at -78 °C to room temperature yields the solvent separated ion pair (SSIP) of silenyl lithium E-[(tBuMe2 Si)(tBu2 MeSi)C=Si(SiMetBu2 )](-) [Li⋅4THF](+) 2 a (green-blue solution). Removal of the solvent and addition of benzene converts 2 a into the corresponding contact ion pair (CIP) 2 b (violet-red solution) with two THF molecules bonded to the lithium atom. The 2 a⇌2 b interconversion is reversible upon THF⇌ benzene solvent change. Both 2 a and 2 b were characterized by X-ray crystallography, NMR and UV/Vis spectroscopy, and theoretical calculations. The degree of dissociation of the Si-Li bond has a large effect on the visible spectrum (and thus color) and on the silenylic (29) Si NMR chemical shift, but a small effect on the molecular structure. This is the first report of the X-ray molecular structure of both the SSIP and the CIP of any R2 E=E'RM species (E=C, Si; E'=C, Si; M=metal).

  2. Skin penetration and metabolism of topically applied chemicals in six mammalian species, including man: an in vitro study with benzo(a)pyrene and testosterone

    SciTech Connect

    Kao, J.; Patterson, F.K.; Hall, J.

    1985-12-01

    Because viable skin possesses enzyme activities, including those involved in the metabolism of xenobiotics, the extent to which cutaneous metabolism may influence the percutaneous fate of topically applied chemicals in the skin was examined in mammalian skin maintained as short-term organ cultures. Skin samples from mouse, rat, rabbit, guinea pig, marmoset, and man were examined. The results from studies with benzo(a)pyrene (BP) and testosterone showed that, in all species, metabolic viability was a major factor involved in the in vitro skin permeation of surface-applied chemicals. Permeation was accompanied by extensive cutaneous first pass metabolism; both parent compounds and a full spectrum of metabolites were found in the receptor fluid from viable skin preparations. However, in previously frozen nonviable skin preparations, essentially only unchanged parent compounds were detected in the receptor fluid. Permeation of BP and testosterone was highest in mouse skin, and significant species variations in the metabolite profiles were observed. Studies with mouse skin also demonstrated that induction of cutaneous drug-metabolizing enzymes can result in a two- to threefold increase in the in vitro permeation of topical BP, and a significant reduction in permeation was observed when KCN was added to the perfusion medium. These results indicate that diffusional and metabolic processes are intimately involved in the percutaneous fate of surface-applied chemicals. The relative importance of these processes is dependent upon the physicochemical properties of the compounds and the metabolic capabilities of the skin toward the compounds in question. Furthermore, these findings suggest that meaningful in vitro studies on skin absorption should consider both diffusion and cutaneous biotransformation of the applied compound.

  3. Comprehensive Genomic Analyses of the OM43 Clade, Including a Novel Species from the Red Sea, Indicate Ecotype Differentiation among Marine Methylotrophs

    PubMed Central

    Jimenez-Infante, Francy; Ngugi, David Kamanda; Vinu, Manikandan; Alam, Intikhab; Kamau, Allan Anthony; Blom, Jochen; Bajic, Vladimir B.

    2015-01-01

    The OM43 clade within the family Methylophilaceae of Betaproteobacteria represents a group of methylotrophs that play important roles in the metabolism of C1 compounds in marine environments and other aquatic environments around the globe. Using dilution-to-extinction cultivation techniques, we successfully isolated a novel species of this clade (here designated MBRS-H7) from the ultraoligotrophic open ocean waters of the central Red Sea. Phylogenomic analyses indicate that MBRS-H7 is a novel species that forms a distinct cluster together with isolate KB13 from Hawaii (Hawaii-Red Sea [H-RS] cluster) that is separate from the cluster represented by strain HTCC2181 (from the Oregon coast). Phylogenetic analyses using the robust 16S-23S internal transcribed spacer revealed a potential ecotype separation of the marine OM43 clade members, which was further confirmed by metagenomic fragment recruitment analyses that showed trends of higher abundance in low-chlorophyll and/or high-temperature provinces for the H-RS cluster but a preference for colder, highly productive waters for the HTCC2181 cluster. This potential environmentally driven niche differentiation is also reflected in the metabolic gene inventories, which in the case of the H-RS cluster include those conferring resistance to high levels of UV irradiation, temperature, and salinity. Interestingly, we also found different energy conservation modules between these OM43 subclades, namely, the existence of the NADH:quinone oxidoreductase complex I (NUO) system in the H-RS cluster and the nonhomologous NADH:quinone oxidoreductase (NQR) system in the HTCC2181 cluster, which might have implications for their overall energetic yields. PMID:26655752

  4. Molecular identification of cryptic species of Ceratomyxa Thélohan, 1892 (Myxosporea: Bivalvulida) including the description of eight novel species from apogonid fishes (Perciformes: Apogonidae) from Australian waters.

    PubMed

    Heiniger, Holly; Adlard, Robert D

    2013-09-01

    Ceratomyxa parasites from the gall bladders of 23 species of cardinalfishes (family Apogonidae) from Australian waters were examined for their taxonomic identity and phylogenetic relatedness. We identified 15 of the 23 apogonid fish species infected with species of Ceratomyxa. Although the majority of apogonid species harboured only a single Ceratomyxa species, four were found with multiple species of Ceratomyxa. This study describes eight novel species using a combination of morphological, small subunit ribosomal DNA (SSU rDNA) and biological characters. Six Ceratomyxa species are reported from single apogonid species, while two are reported from multiple host species. Molecular data were critical in identifying several morphologically cryptic species. However, our results suggest that SSU rDNA was not capable of distinguishing all the species present in the current study system and alternative genetic markers should be investigated in the future.

  5. Comparison of two live Bacillus species as feed additives for improving in vitro fermentation of cereal straws.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zuo; He, Zhixiong; Beauchemin, Karen A; Tang, Shaoxun; Zhou, Chuanshe; Han, Xuefeng; Wang, Min; Kang, Jinhe; Odongo, Nicholas E; Tan, Zhiliang

    2016-01-01

    This study was performed in a 2 × 4 factorial arrangement to explore and compare the effects of inclusion of two live Bacillus additives (B. licheniformis and B. subtilis) at four doses (0, 0.25 × 10(7), 0.50 × 10(7) and 0.75 × 10(7) colony-forming units (cfu)) on in vitro gas production kinetics, fiber degradation, methane production and ruminal fermentation characteristics of maize stover and rice straw by mixed rumen microorganisms in dairy cows. The pH, concentrations of ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) and isovalerate were increased (P < 0.05), while the methane (CH4) production, ratio of acetate to propionate, and total volatile fatty acids (TVFA) concentration were decreased (P < 0.05) by the supplementation of B. licheniformis compared with that of B. subtilis. Adding B. licheniformis and B. subtilis raised (P < 0.05) or numerically raised the maximum gas production, while decreasing (P < 0.05) or numerically lowering pH and concentrations of most volatile fatty acids. The addition of B. licheniformis increased (P < 0.05) the NH3-N concentration but reduced CH4 production and ratio of acetate to propionate (P < 0.05), while the NH3 -N concentration was decreased (P < 0.05), and the CH4 production and ratio of acetate to propionate were increased by that of B. subtilis compared to the control. Results obtained in this research suggest that B. licheniformis would be preferred as a live Bacillus additive in comparison with B. subtilis, and its optimal dose should be 0.25 × 10(7) cfu/500 mg substrates.

  6. Taxonomy of the hyper-diverse ant genus Tetramorium Mayr in the Malagasy region (Hymenoptera, Formicidae, Myrmicinae) – first record of the T. setigerum species group and additions to the Malagasy species groups with an updated illustrated identification key

    PubMed Central

    Hita Garcia, Francisco; Fisher, Brian L.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In this study we provide an update to the taxonomy of the ant genus Tetramorium Mayr in Madagascar. We report the first record of the Tetramorium setigerum species group in Madagascar and describe the only Malagasy representative as Tetramorium cavernicola sp. n., which is known only from a cave in Ankarana. In addition, we provide an overview of the 19 proposed Malagasy species groups, and discuss their zoogeography and relationships to other groups and larger lineages within the hyper-diverse genus Tetramorium. At present, we recognise a highly unique Malagasy Tetramorium fauna with 113 species endemic to the island of Madagascar out of a total of 125 translating into an endemism rate of 93%. We hypothesise that this fauna is based on one or a few colonisation events from the Afrotropical region, with subsequent adaptive radiation in Madagascar. Furthermore, we present an updated and illustrated identification key to the Tetramorium species groups in the Malagasy region. PMID:26257564

  7. Anaerobic alkane biodegradation by cultures enriched from oil sands tailings ponds involves multiple species capable of fumarate addition.

    PubMed

    Tan, BoonFei; Semple, Kathleen; Foght, Julia

    2015-05-01

    A methanogenic short-chain alkane-degrading culture (SCADC) was enriched from oil sands tailings and transferred several times with a mixture of C6, C7, C8 and C10 n-alkanes as the predominant organic carbon source, plus 2-methylpentane, 3-methylpentane and methylcyclopentane as minor components. Cultures produced ∼40% of the maximum theoretical methane during 18 months incubation while depleting the n-alkanes, 2-methylpentane and methylcyclopentane. Substrate depletion correlated with detection of metabolites characteristic of fumarate activation of 2-methylpentane and methylcyclopentane, but not n-alkane metabolites. During active methanogenesis with the mixed alkanes, reverse-transcription PCR confirmed the expression of functional genes (assA and bssA) associated with hydrocarbon addition to fumarate. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes amplified during active alkane degradation revealed enrichment of Clostridia (particularly Peptococcaceae) and methanogenic Archaea (Methanosaetaceae and Methanomicrobiaceae). Methanogenic cultures transferred into medium containing sulphate produced sulphide, depleted n-alkanes and produced the corresponding succinylated alkane metabolites, but were slow to degrade 2-methylpentane and methylcyclopentane; these cultures were enriched in Deltaproteobacteria rather than Clostridia. 3-Methylpentane was not degraded by any cultures. Thus, nominally methanogenic oil sands tailings harbour dynamic and versatile hydrocarbon-degrading fermentative syntrophs and sulphate reducers capable of degrading n-, iso- and cyclo-alkanes by addition to fumarate.

  8. Additive partitioning of testate amoeba species diversity across habitat hierarchy within the pristine southern taiga landscape (Pechora-Ilych Biosphere Reserve, Russia).

    PubMed

    Tsyganov, Andrey N; Komarov, Alexander A; Mitchell, Edward A D; Shimano, Satoshi; Smirnova, Olga V; Aleynikov, Alexey A; Mazei, Yuri A

    2015-02-01

    In order to better understand the distribution patterns of terrestrial eukaryotic microbes and the factors governing them, we studied the diversity partitioning of soil testate amoebae across levels of spatially nested habitat hierarchy in the largest European old-growth dark coniferous forest (Pechora-Ilych Biosphere Reserve; Komi Republic, Russia). The variation in testate amoeba species richness and assemblage structure was analysed in 87 samples from six biotopes in six vegetation types using an additive partitioning procedure and principal component analyses. The 80 taxa recorded represent the highest value of species richness for soil testate amoebae reported for taiga soils so far. Our results indicate that testate amoeba assemblages were highly aggregated at all levels and were mostly controlled by environmental factors rather than dispersal processes. The variation in species diversity of testate amoebae increased from the lowest to the highest hierarchical level. We conclude that, similarly to macroscopic organisms, testate amoeba species richness and community structure are primarily controlled by environmental conditions within the landscape and suggest that metacommunity dynamics of free-living microorganisms are driven by species sorting and/or mass effect processes.

  9. Additions and deletions to the known cerambycidae (Coleoptera) of Bolivia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An additional 137 species and two tribes are added to the known cerambycid fauna of Bolivia while 12 species are deleted. Comments and statistics regarding the growth of knowledge on the Bolivian Cerambycid fauna and species endemicity are included....

  10. Effects of additional nonmethane volatile organic compounds, organic nitrates, and direct emissions of oxygenated organic species on global tropospheric chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Akinori; Sillman, Sanford; Penner, Joyce E.

    2007-03-01

    This work evaluates the sensitivity of tropospheric ozone and its precursors to the representation of nonmethane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) and organic nitrates. A global 3-D tropospheric chemistry/transport model (IMPACT) has been exercised initially using the GEOS-Chem chemical reaction mechanism. The model was then extended by adding emissions and photochemical reactions for aromatic and terpenoid hydrocarbons, and by adding explicit representation of hydroxy alkyl nitrates produced from isoprene. Emissions of methanol, phenol, acetic acid and formic acid associated with biomass burning were also added. Results show that O3 increases by 20% in most of the troposphere, peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) increases by 30% over much of the troposphere and OH increases by 10%. NOx (NO + NO2) decreases near source regions and increases in remote locations, reflecting increased transport of NOx away from source regions by organic nitrates. The increase in O3 was driven largely by the increased role of PAN as a transporter of NOx and by the rerelease of NOx from isoprene nitrates. The increased PAN production was associated with increases in methyl glyoxal and hydroxyacetone. Comparison with measured values show reasonable agreement for O3 and PAN, but model measurement agreement does not either improve or degrade in the extended model. The extended model shows improved agreement with measurements for methanol, acetic acid and peroxypropional nitrate (PPN). Results from the extended model were consistent with measured alkyl nitrates and glycolaldehyde, but hydroxyacetone and methyl glyoxal were overestimated. The latter suggests that the effect of the isoprene nitrates is somewhat smaller than estimated here. Although the model measurement comparison does not show specific improvements with the extended model, it provides a more complete description of tropospheric chemistry that we believe is important to include.

  11. Diversity of Penicillium section Citrina within the fynbos biome of South Africa, including a new species from a Protea repens infructescence.

    PubMed

    Visagie, Cobus M; Seifert, Keith A; Houbraken, Jos; Samson, Robert A; Jacobs, Karin

    2014-01-01

    During a survey of the fynbos biome in the Western Cape of South Africa, 61 Penicillium species were isolated and nine belong to Penicillium section Citrina. Based on morphology and multigene phylogenies, section Citrina species were identified as P. cairnsense, P. citrinum, P. pancosmium, P. pasqualense, P. sanguifluum, P. sizovae, P. sumatrense and P. ubiquetum. One of the species displayed unique phenotypic characters and DNA sequences and is described here as P. sucrivorum. Multigene phylogenies consistently resolved the new species in a clade with P. aurantiacobrunneum, P. cairnsense, P. miczynksii, P. neomiczynskii and P. quebecense. However, ITS, β-tubulin and calmodulin gene sequences are unique for P. sucrivorum and growth rates on various media, the ability to grow at 30 C, a positive Ehrlich reaction and the absence of sclerotia on all media examined, distinguish P. sucrivorum from all of its close relatives.

  12. New records of species of Philometra (Nematoda: Philometridae) from marine fishes off New Caledonia, including P. cephalopholidis sp. n. from Cephalopholis sonnerati (Serranidae).

    PubMed

    Moravec, František; Justine, Jean-Lou

    2015-09-01

    Two different species of Philometra Costa, 1845 were collected from marine perciform fishes, the tomato hind Cephalopholis sonnerati (Valenciennes) (Serranidae) and the painted sweetlips Diagramma pictum (Thunberg) (Haemulidae), from off New Caledonia, South Pacific. Nematodes (only males) from the gonad of C. sonnerati represent a new taxon, P. cephalopholidis sp. n., which is mainly characterized by almost equally long spicules (length 186-228 μm), the shape and structure of the gubernaculum with a dorsally lamellate distal tip, and the structure of the caudal end. The nematodes (only gravid females) from abdominal tissues of D. pictum may represent an undescribed species, but, because of the absence of conspecific males, they could not be specifically identified. Philometra cephalopholidis is the sixth nominal species of this genus recorded from fishes off New Caledonia and the thirteenth species of these parasites described from fishes of the family Serranidae.

  13. Studies of Madagascan Ptiliidae (Coleoptera) 4: The genus Bambara including eight new species and the first account of blindness and aptery in the genus .

    PubMed

    Darby, Michael

    2014-12-15

    This is the fourth report detailing Ptiliidae collected from forest litter by the Moravian Museum (Brno, Czech Republic) expeditions to Madagascar 2010-2013. Eight new species are described and figured: B. edwardi sp. n.; B. lanquidula sp. n.; B. merina sp.n.; B. opaca sp. n.; B. problematica sp. n.; B. secubita sp. n.; B. thomasi sp. n. and B. verecunda sp. n., and new data recorded for  B. dybasi Johnson. Problems concerning the genital morphology and species determination of the parthenogenetic members of the genus are discussed in relation to the findings, and the first blind and apterous species reported.A key to the known species from the island is provided.

  14. Multi-locus tree and species tree approaches toward resolving a complex clade of downy mildews (Straminipila, Oomycota), including pathogens of beet and spinach

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accurate species determination of plant pathogens is a prerequisite for their control and quarantine, and further for assessing their potential threat to crops. The family Peronosporaceae (Straminipila; Oomycota) consists of obligate biotrophic pathogens that cause downy mildew disease on angiosperm...

  15. Additions and corrections to the systematics of mayfly species assigned to the genus Callibaetis Eaton 1881 (Ephemeroptera: Baetidae) from South America.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Paulo Vilela; Salles, Frederico Falcão; Hamada, Neusa

    2017-02-13

    Due to historical taxonomic impediments, species of Callibaetis Eaton are difficult to identify. Recent studies have attempted to resolve this problem, although many species still lack complete descriptions; nymphs of several species remain undetermined; and type specimens are lost or poorly known. Given these hindrances, the aim of this study is to review some of the type specimens of Callibaetis from South America. This review provides a series of taxonomic additions and corrections supported by improved morphological evaluations, illustrations and photographs of Callibaetis camposi Navás, C. (Abaetetuba) capixaba Cruz, Salles & Hamada, C. gregarius Navás, C. (C.) guttatus Navás, C. jaffueli Navás, C. (C.) jocosus Navás, C. nigrivenosus Banks, C. (A.) pollens Needham & Murphy, C. (C.) radiatus Navás, C. (A.) sellacki (Weyenbergh), C. stictogaster Navás, C. (C.) viviparus Needham & Murphy, C. (C.) willineri Navás, and C. (C.) zonalis Navás. From among these species, C. stictogaster and C. jaffueli are revalidated; C. nigrivenosus and C. gregarius are designated as nomina dubia; C. (C.) fluminensis Cruz, Salles & Hamada is proposed as a junior subjective synonym of C. (C.) zonalis; and C. gloriosus Navás is proposed as a junior subjective synonym of C. (A.) sellacki (Weyenbergh). Lectotypes are designated for C. camposi, C. jaffueli, C. (C.) radiatus and C. stictogaster.

  16. Additional record of Rayllianassa amboinensis (de Man, 1888) from Japan, and description of a new species from Okinawa Island, Ryukyu Islands (Crustacea: Decapoda: Axiidea: Callianassidae).

    PubMed

    Komai, Tomoyuki; Fujita, Yoshihisa; Maenosono, Tadafumi

    2014-07-14

    Two species referred to the callianassid ghost shrimp genus Rayllianassa Komai & Tachikawa, 2008 are reported herewith. Additional locality records from Japan are provided for R. amboinensis (de Man, 1888), and the synonymy of Callianassa ngochoae Sakai, 1999 with R. amboinensis is discussed. It is shown that R. amboinensis is associated with sponges or alcyonacean soft corals, representing unusual habitats for callianassids. Rayllianassa rudisulcus n. sp. is described on the basis of a single ovigerous female from shallow soft sediment in Ohura Bay, Okinawa Island, Ryukyu Islands. The new species is distinguished from R. amboinensis by the absence of a dorsal oval on the carapace, the antennal peduncle being longer than the antennular peduncle, and the different shape of the third maxilliped. The status of Rayllianassa is also briefly discussed.

  17. Revision of the genus Cuvierina Boas, 1886 based on integrative taxonomic data, including the description of a new species from the Pacific Ocean (Gastropoda, Thecosomata)

    PubMed Central

    Burridge, Alice K.; Janssen, Arie W.; Peijnenburg, Katja T.C.A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Shelled pteropods (Gastropoda, Thecosomata, Euthecosomata) are a group of holoplanktonic gastropods that occur predominantly in the surface layers of the world’s oceans. Accurate species identifications are essential for tracking changes in species assemblages of planktonic gastropods, because different species are expected to have different sensitivities to ocean changes. The genus Cuvierina has a worldwide warm water distribution pattern between ~36°N and ~39°S. Based on an integrative taxonomic approach combining morphometric, genetic, and biogeographic information, the two subgenera of Cuvierina, Cuvierina s. str. and Urceolarica, are rejected. A new species is introduced: Cuvierina tsudai sp. n., which has to date been considered the same species as Cuvierina pacifica. Cuvierina tsudai sp. n. is endemic to the Pacific Ocean and is characterised by a shell height of 7.2-8.0 mm, a moderately cylindrical shell shape, the absence of micro-ornamentation and a triangular aperture. Cuvierina pacifica is restricted to the centre of the oligotrophic southern Pacific gyre, has a shell height of 6.6-8.5 mm, a more cylindrical shell shape, no micro-ornamentation and a less triangular aperture than Cuvierina tsudai sp. n. PMID:27829786

  18. Simultaneous analysis of mercury and selenium species including chiral forms of selenomethionine in human urine and serum by HPLC column-switching coupled to ICP-MS.

    PubMed

    Moreno, F; García-Barrera, T; Gómez-Ariza, J L

    2010-10-01

    The simultaneous speciation of elements is of great concern, especially in the study of the interactions of species in living organisms. Here we report a method based on the coupling of HPLC-ICP-MS that is capable of separating and analyzing different selenium and mercury species (Se-methylselenocysteine, selenite, selenate, L-selenomethionine, D-selenomethionine, methylmercury and inorganic mercury). The proposed method uses two different mobile phases that are suitable for selenium and mercury speciation and leads to a successful determination of all the species in less than 27 min with good efficiency and resolution. The method was efficiently applied for simultaneous speciation of mercury and selenium in urine and in serum, the latter from umbilical cord samples. Selenocystine has been successfully identified in the former sample. Detection limits obtained were between 0.30 and 2.46 ng. Recovery studies of samples spiked with all species were performed to check the reliability of the method, and satisfactory recoveries (93-110%) were obtained in all cases. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) for species with ten replicate determinations of 80 μg L(-1) were between 4.5 and 9.2%. The proposed method offers a deeper insight into selenium and mercury interactions in the human body.

  19. Some laelapine mites (Acari: Laelapidae) ectoparasitic on small mammals in the Galapagos Islands, including a new species of Gigantolaelaps from Aegialomys galapagoensis.

    PubMed

    Gettinger, Donald; Martins-Hatano, Fernanda; Gardner, Scott L

    2011-08-01

    A collection of laelapine mites from small mammals in the Galapagos Islands are identified and their host distributions reviewed. Two species of native rodents, Aegialomys galapagoensis and Nesoryzomys narboroughii, were infested only with laelapine species typical of Neotropical oryzomyine rodents; Rattus rattus was infested with Laelaps nuttalli, a host-specific ectoparasite endemic to Old World Rattus. A synopsis of Gigantolaelaps Fonseca is provided and we describe a new laelapine mite, Gigantolaelaps aegialomys n. sp., from the pelage of the rodent A. galapagoensis on Santa Fe Island. The new species has strong morphological affinities with a subgroup of Gigantolaelaps associated with a group of semiaquatic oryzomyine rodents ( Holochilus, Nectomys, Sooretamys, Pseudoryzomys , Oryzomys palustris). The other nominal species of this group, Gigantolaelaps mattogrossensis (Fonseca, 1935) and Gigantolaelaps goyanensis Fonseca, 1939 , are characterized by 10 setae on Tibia IV, large metapodal shields, and spiniform setae on Coxae I. Gigantolaelaps aegialomys is distinguished from these species by a lack of clearly spiniform setae on Coxa I, with setiform distal seta longer than the proximal; metapodal shields about the same size as the stigma; less than 100 µm separating the first pair of sternal setae.

  20. Characterization of highly informative cross-species microsatellite panels for the Australian dugong (Dugong dugon) and Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) including five novel primers.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Margaret Kellogg; Broderick, Damien; Ovenden, Jennifer R; Tucker, Kimberly Pause; Bonde, Robert K; McGuire, Peter M; Lanyon, Janet M

    2010-03-01

    The Australian dugong (Dugong dugon) and Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) are threatened species of aquatic mammals in the order Sirenia. Sirenian conservation and management actions would benefit from a more complete understanding of genetic diversity and population structure. Generally, species-specific microsatellite markers are employed in conservation genetic studies; however, robust markers can be difficult and costly to isolate. To increase the number of available markers, dugong and manatee microsatellite primers were evaluated for cross-species amplification. Furthermore, one manatee and four dugong novel primers are reported. After polymerase chain reaction optimization, 23 (92%) manatee primers successfully amplified dugong DNA, of which 11 (48%) were polymorphic. Of the 32 dugong primers tested, 27 (84%) yielded product in the manatee, of which 17 (63%) were polymorphic. Dugong and manatee primers were compared and the most informative markers were selected to create robust and informative marker-panels for each species. These cross-species microsatellite marker-panels can be employed to assess other sirenian populations and can provide beneficial information for the protection and management of these unique mammals.

  1. Responses of nitrous oxide emissions to nitrogen and phosphorus additions in two tropical plantations with N-fixing vs. non-N-fixing tree species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, W.; Zhu, X.; Luo, Y.; Rafique, R.; Chen, H.; Huang, J.; Mo, J.

    2014-09-01

    Leguminous tree plantations at phosphorus (P) limited sites may result in excess nitrogen (N) and higher rates of nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions. However, the effects of N and P applications on soil N2O emissions from plantations with N-fixing vs. non-N-fixing tree species have rarely been studied in the field. We conducted an experimental manipulation of N and/or P additions in two plantations with Acacia auriculiformis (AA, N-fixing) and Eucalyptus urophylla (EU, non-N-fixing) in South China. The objective was to determine the effects of N or P addition alone, as well as NP application together on soil N2O emissions from these tropical plantations. We found that the average N2O emission from control was greater in the AA (2.3 ± 0.1 kg N2O-N ha-1 yr-1) than in EU plantation (1.9 ± 0.1 kg N2O-N ha-1 yr-1). For the AA plantation, N addition stimulated N2O emission from the soil while P addition did not. Applications of N with P together significantly decreased N2O emission compared to N addition alone, especially in the high-level treatments (decreased by 18%). In the EU plantation, N2O emissions significantly decreased in P-addition plots compared with the controls; however, N and NP additions did not. The different response of N2O emission to N or P addition was attributed to the higher initial soil N status in the AA than that of EU plantation, due to symbiotic N fixation in the former. Our result suggests that atmospheric N deposition potentially stimulates N2O emissions from leguminous tree plantations in the tropics, whereas P fertilization has the potential to mitigate N-deposition-induced N2O emissions from such plantations.

  2. New data on the taxonomy and distribution of ten Neotropical chewing lice of the genus Myrsidea (Phthiraptera: Menoponidae), including the description of a new species.

    PubMed

    Kolencik, Stanislav; Sychra, Oldrich; Valan, Miroslav; Literak, Ivan

    2016-03-02

    The new species Myrsidea alexanderi is described and illustrated ex Pheugopedius maculipectus (Troglodytidae) from Honduras. Redescriptions and illustrations are given for both sexes of Myrsidea chiapensis ex Calocitta formosa from Costa Rica, and the male of M. dissimilis ex Progne chalybea from Brazil. Also, seven other previously known species or subspecies of the louse genus Myrsidea are recorded and discussed from passerine birds of the Neotropical Region, as follows: Myrsidea antiqua, Myrsidea balteri, Myrsidea diffusa, Myrsidea nesomimi borealis, Myrsidea paleno, Myrsidea psittaci and Myrsidea serini. Our data increase knowledge of intraspecific morphological variability within these species, and also of their host and geographical distribution. New host-louse associations are: Agelaioides badius for M. psittaci; Basileuterus culicivorus and Myiothlypis leucoblephara for M. paleno; Mimus saturninus for M. nesomimi borealis; and Icterus dominicensis and Molothrus rufoaxillaris for Myrsidea sp.

  3. New species of Endecous (Grylloidea, Phalangopsidae, Luzarinae) from the Iguaçu National Park (Brazil), including bioacoustics, cytogenetic and distribution data.

    PubMed

    Souza-Dias, Pedro G B; Szinwelski, Neucir; Fianco, Marcos; Oliveira, Elliott Centeno DE; Mello, Francisco DE A G DE; Zefa, Edison

    2017-03-01

    In this study we describe two new species of cavicolous-straminicolous crickets for southern Brazil. Endecous chape n. sp. and E. naipi n. sp. are sympatric crickets that inhabit the Atlantic Semideciduous Forest of the Iguaçu National Park and adjacent areas. The descriptions were based on morphological characters, mainly from male genitalia and tegmina of adult males. Furthermore, we describe the chromosomes and the calling song of one of the new species, E. chape n. sp., presenting a discussion about the morphology of the phallic complex of Endecous and a distribution map for the species of the genus. The type-material is deposited in the Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo (MZSP), and in the Coleção de Insetos do Departamento de Zoologia (Zoology Department Insect Collection), Universidade Estadual Paulista-UNESP-Botucatu campus.

  4. Scuttle Flies (Diptera: Phoridae) Inhabiting Rabbit Carcasses Confined to Plastic Waste Bins in Malaysia Include New Records and an Undescribed Species

    PubMed Central

    Zuha, Raja M.; Huong-Wen, See; Disney, R. Henry L.; Omar, Baharudin

    2017-01-01

    Scuttle flies (Diptera: Phoridae) are small-sized insects of forensic importance. They are well known for diversified species and habitats, but in the context of forensic entomology, scuttle flies’ inhabitance of corpses remains inadequately explored. With recent reports indicating the existence of more scuttle fly species possibly inhabiting these environments, a decomposition study using animal carcasses in enclosed environments was conducted. The aim was to record the occurrence of scuttle flies on rabbit carcasses placed in sealed plastic waste bins for a 40-day period. The study was conducted as two replicates in Bangi, Selangor. Sampling was carried out at different time intervals inside a modified mosquito net as a trap. Inside the trap, adult scuttle flies were aspirated and preserved in 70% ethanol. The fly larvae and pupae were reared until their adult stage to facilitate identification. From this study, six scuttle fly species were collected, i.e., Dahliphora sigmoides (Schmitz) ♂, Gymnoptera simplex (Brues) ♀, Megaselia scalaris (Loew) ♂♀, Puliciphora borinquenensis (Wheeler) ♂, Puliciphora obtecta Meijere ♀ and Spiniphora sp. ♀. Both D. sigmoides and P. obtecta were newly recorded in Malaysia, whilst the Spiniphora sp. was considered an unknown species until it was linked to its male counterpart. The sealed waste bins were found to be accessible for the scuttle flies with delayed arrival (day 4–5). Megaselia scalaris was the primary scuttle fly species attracted to the carcass, and its occurrence could be observed between days 4–7 (replicate 1) and days 5–33 (replicate 2). This study also revealed Sarcophaga spp. (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) as the earliest species to colonize the remains and the longest to inhabit them (days 2–40). The larvae of Hermetia illucens (Linneaus) (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) and Fannia sp. (Diptera: Fanniidae) were found on the carcasses during the mid-advanced decay period. These findings expand the

  5. Scuttle Flies (Diptera: Phoridae) Inhabiting Rabbit Carcasses Confined to Plastic Waste Bins in Malaysia Include New Records and an Undescribed Species.

    PubMed

    Zuha, Raja M; Huong-Wen, See; Disney, R Henry L; Omar, Baharudin

    2017-01-01

    Scuttle flies (Diptera: Phoridae) are small-sized insects of forensic importance. They are well known for diversified species and habitats, but in the context of forensic entomology, scuttle flies' inhabitance of corpses remains inadequately explored. With recent reports indicating the existence of more scuttle fly species possibly inhabiting these environments, a decomposition study using animal carcasses in enclosed environments was conducted. The aim was to record the occurrence of scuttle flies on rabbit carcasses placed in sealed plastic waste bins for a 40-day period. The study was conducted as two replicates in Bangi, Selangor. Sampling was carried out at different time intervals inside a modified mosquito net as a trap. Inside the trap, adult scuttle flies were aspirated and preserved in 70% ethanol. The fly larvae and pupae were reared until their adult stage to facilitate identification. From this study, six scuttle fly species were collected, i.e., Dahliphora sigmoides (Schmitz) ♂, Gymnoptera simplex (Brues) ♀, Megaselia scalaris (Loew) ♂♀, Puliciphora borinquenensis (Wheeler) ♂, Puliciphora obtecta Meijere ♀ and Spiniphora sp. ♀. Both D. sigmoides and P. obtecta were newly recorded in Malaysia, whilst the Spiniphora sp. was considered an unknown species until it was linked to its male counterpart. The sealed waste bins were found to be accessible for the scuttle flies with delayed arrival (day 4-5). Megaselia scalaris was the primary scuttle fly species attracted to the carcass, and its occurrence could be observed between days 4-7 (replicate 1) and days 5-33 (replicate 2). This study also revealed Sarcophaga spp. (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) as the earliest species to colonize the remains and the longest to inhabit them (days 2-40). The larvae of Hermetia illucens (Linneaus) (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) and Fannia sp. (Diptera: Fanniidae) were found on the carcasses during the mid-advanced decay period. These findings expand the knowledge on the

  6. A Novel Asian Clade Within the Fusarium graminearum Species Complex Includes a Newly Discovered Cereal Head Blight Pathogen from the Far East of Russia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We investigated B-trichothecene toxin-producing Fusarium head blight (B-FHB) species and their toxin potential in European and Asian regions of the Russian Federation, and adjoining regions to the Northwest in Finland and the South near Harbin, in the Heilongjiang Province of China to expand our kno...

  7. Direct Multiplex PCR (dmPCR) for the Identification of Six Phlebotomine Sand Fly Species (Diptera: Psychodidae), Including Major Leishmania Vectors of the Mediterranean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae, subfamily Phlebotominae) are haematophagous insects that are known to transmit several anthroponotic and zoonotic diseases. Reliable identification of sand flies at species level is crucial for their surveillance, the detection and spread of their pathogens and the ...

  8. Darwin’s legacy to rove beetles (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae): A new genus and a new species, including materials collected on the Beagle’s voyage

    PubMed Central

    Chatzimanolis, Stylianos

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A species of xanthopygine rove beetles is described and figured here as Darwinilus sedarisi gen. n. and sp. n. The holotype was collected by Charles Darwin in Bahía Blanca, Argentina on the Beagle’s voyage. The contributions of Charles Darwin to rove beetle systematics are summarized briefly. PMID:24574856

  9. Rapid identification of Burkholderia cepacia complex species including strains of the novel Taxon K, recovered from cystic fibrosis patients by intact cell MALDI-ToF mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Miñán, Alejandro; Bosch, Alejandra; Lasch, Peter; Stämmler, Maren; Serra, Diego Omar; Degrossi, José; Gatti, Blanca; Vay, Carlos; D'aquino, Miguel; Yantorno, Osvaldo; Naumann, Dieter

    2009-06-01

    Two approaches based on intact cell matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (IC-MALDI-ToF MS) have been evaluated in order to discriminate and identify nine former Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) species, Burkholderia contaminans belonging to the novel Taxon K, Burkholderia gladioli, and the most relevant non-fermentative (NF) Gram-negative rods recovered from cystic fibrosis (CF) sputum cultures. In total, 146 clinical isolates and 26 reference strains were analysed. IC mass spectra were obtained with high reproducibility applying a recently developed inactivation protocol which is based on the extraction of microbial proteins by trifluoroacetic acid (TFA). In a first approach, spectral analysis was carried out by means of a gel-view representation of mass spectra, which turned out to be useful to recognize specific identifying biomarker proteins (SIBPs). A series of prominent mass peaks, mainly assigned to constitutively expressed proteins, were selected as SIBPs for identifications at the genus and species level. Two distinctive mass peaks present in B. contaminans spectra (7501 and 7900 Da) were proposed as SIBPs for the identification of this novel species. A second approach of spectral analysis based on data reduction, feature selection and subsequent hierarchical cluster analysis was used to obtain an objective discrimination of all species analysed. Both complementary modalities of analyzing complex IC-MALDI-ToF MS data open the path towards a rapid, accurate and objective means of routine clinical microbiology diagnosis of pathogens from sputum samples of CF patients.

  10. Combined morphological and molecular data unveils relationships of Pseudobranchiomma (Sabellidae, Annelida) and reveals higher diversity of this intriguing group of fan worms in Australia, including potentially introduced species.

    PubMed

    Capa, María; Murray, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Pseudobranchiomma (Sabellidae, Annelida) is a small and heterogeneous group of fan worms found in shallow marine environments and is generally associated with hard substrates. The delineation and composition of this genus is problematic since it has been defined only by plesiomorphic characters that are widely distributed among other sabellids. In this study we have combined morphological and molecular (mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences) data to evaluate species diversity in Australia and assess the phylogenetic relationships of these and other related sabellids. Unlike morphological data alone, molecular data and combined datasets suggest monophyly of Pseudobranchiomma. In this study, a new species of Pseudobranchiomma is described and three others are considered as potential unintentional introductions to Australian waters, one of them reported for the first time for the continent. Pseudobranchiomma pallidasp. n. bears 4-6 serrations along the radiolar flanges, lacks radiolar eyes and has uncini with three transverse rows of teeth over the main fang. In the new species the colour pattern as well is characteristic and species specific.

  11. Darwin's legacy to rove beetles (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae): A new genus and a new species, including materials collected on the Beagle's voyage.

    PubMed

    Chatzimanolis, Stylianos

    2014-01-01

    A species of xanthopygine rove beetles is described and figured here as Darwinilus sedarisi gen. n. and sp. n. The holotype was collected by Charles Darwin in Bahía Blanca, Argentina on the Beagle's voyage. The contributions of Charles Darwin to rove beetle systematics are summarized briefly.

  12. Combined morphological and molecular data unveils relationships of Pseudobranchiomma (Sabellidae, Annelida) and reveals higher diversity of this intriguing group of fan worms in Australia, including potentially introduced species

    PubMed Central

    Capa, María; Murray, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Pseudobranchiomma (Sabellidae, Annelida) is a small and heterogeneous group of fan worms found in shallow marine environments and is generally associated with hard substrates. The delineation and composition of this genus is problematic since it has been defined only by plesiomorphic characters that are widely distributed among other sabellids. In this study we have combined morphological and molecular (mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences) data to evaluate species diversity in Australia and assess the phylogenetic relationships of these and other related sabellids. Unlike morphological data alone, molecular data and combined datasets suggest monophyly of Pseudobranchiomma. In this study, a new species of Pseudobranchiomma is described and three others are considered as potential unintentional introductions to Australian waters, one of them reported for the first time for the continent. Pseudobranchiomma pallida sp. n. bears 4–6 serrations along the radiolar flanges, lacks radiolar eyes and has uncini with three transverse rows of teeth over the main fang. In the new species the colour pattern as well is characteristic and species specific. PMID:27843378

  13. Detection of Wolbachia pipientis, including a new strain containing the wsp gene, in two sister species of Paraphlebotomus sandflies, potential vectors of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Parvizi, Parviz; Bordbar, Ali; Najafzadeh, Narmin

    2013-01-01

    Individual, naturally occurring Phlebotomus mongolensis and Phlebotomus caucasicus from Iran were screened for infections with the maternally inherited intracellular Rickettsia-like bacterium Wolbachia pipientis via targeting a major surface protein gene (wsp). The main objective of this study was to determine if W. pipientis could be detected in these species. The sandflies were screened using polymerase chain reaction to amplify a fragment of the Wolbachia surface protein gene. The obtained sequences were edited and aligned with database sequences to identify W. pipientis haplotypes. Two strains of Wolbachia were found. Strain Turk 54 (accession EU780683) is widespread and has previously been reported in Phlebotomus papatasi and other insects. Strain Turk 07 (accession KC576916) is a novel strain, found for first time in the two sister species. A-group strains of W. pipientis occur throughout much of the habitat of these sandflies. It is possible that Wolbachia is transferred via horizontal transmission. Horizontal transfer could shed light on sandfly control because Wolbachia is believed to drive a deleterious gene into sandflies that reduces their natural population density. With regard to our findings in this study, we can conclude that one species of sandfly can be infected with different Wolbachia strains and that different species of sandflies can be infected with a common strain. PMID:23828002

  14. A Bowl with Marbles: Revision of the Thecate Amoeba Genus Lecythium (Chlamydophryidae, Tectofilosida, Cercozoa, Rhizaria) Including a Description of Four New Species and an Identification Key.

    PubMed

    Dumack, Kenneth; Baumann, Christina; Bonkowski, Michael

    2016-11-01

    Although testate amoebae have attracted interest of protistologists for more than 150 years, some groups especially those with a hyaline, organic test (= theca) are still poorly known. One of those is the genus Lecythium (Chlamydophryidae, Tectofilosida, Cercozoa, Rhizaria), first described by Hertwig and Lesser in 1874. Only old, sometimes obscure, species descriptions were available until only recently a new species of Lecythium was described and a small ribosomal subunit RNA gene (SSU) sequence was provided. To shed light on the phylogeny and taxonomy of Lecythium, we (a) cultured six isolates of five Lecythium species and provide morphological as well as ecological observations, (b) obtained six new SSU sequences and conducted phylogenetic analyses of the Tectofilosida, showing that Lecythium splits into terrestrial and freshwater clades, and (c) did an intensive literature research on testate amoebae with a theca and provide an illustrated identification key focusing on Lecythium. For the first time, the presence of cysts in the genus Lecythium is reported and we compared those to the cysts of the presumed closely related Chlamydophrys stercorea. Our results suggest that still many undescribed Lecythium species will be found in terrestrial and freshwater habitats.

  15. Characterization of highly informative cross-species microsatellite panels for the Australian dugong (Dugong dugon) and Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) including five novel primers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hunter, Margaret Kellogg; Broderick, Damien; Ovenden, Jennifer R.; Tucker, Kimberly Pause; Bonde, Robert K.; McGuire, Peter M.; Lanyon, Janet M.

    2010-01-01

    The Australian dugong (Dugong dugon) and Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) are threatened species of aquatic mammals in the order Sirenia. Sirenian conservation and management actions would benefit from a more complete understanding of genetic diversity and population structure. Generally, species-specific microsatellite markers are employed in conservation genetic studies; however, robust markers can be difficult and costly to isolate. To increase the number of available markers, dugong and manatee microsatellite primers were evaluated for cross-species amplification. Furthermore, one manatee and four dugong novel primers are reported. After polymerase chain reaction optimization, 23 (92%) manatee primers successfully amplified dugong DNA, of which 11 (48%) were polymorphic. Of the 32 dugong primers tested, 27 (84%) yielded product in the manatee, of which 17 (63%) were polymorphic. Dugong and manatee primers were compared and the most informative markers were selected to create robust and informative marker-panels for each species. These crossspecies microsatellite marker-panels can be employed to assess other sirenian populations and can provide beneficial information for the protection and management of these unique mammals.

  16. Global climatology based on the ACE-FTS version 3.5 dataset: Addition of mesospheric levels and carbon-containing species in the UTLS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koo, Ja-Ho; Walker, Kaley A.; Jones, Ashley; Sheese, Patrick E.; Boone, Chris D.; Bernath, Peter F.; Manney, Gloria L.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we present a new climatology based on the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS) version 3.5 data set from February 2004 to February 2013. This extends the ACE-FTS climatology to include profile information in the mesosphere and carbon-containing species in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. Climatologies of 21 species, based on nine years of observations, are calculated, providing the most comprehensive and self-consistent climatology available from limb-viewing satellite measurements. Pressure levels from the upper troposphere to the mesosphere and lower thermosphere are included with 3 to 4 km vertical resolution up to 10-4 hPa ( 105 km). Volume mixing ratio values are filtered prior to the climatology estimation using the ACE-FTS data quality recommendations. The multi-year mean climatology contains zonal mean profiles for monthly and three-monthly (DJF, MAM, JJA, and SON) periods. These are provided with 5-degree spacing in either latitude or equivalent latitude. Also, the local daytime and nighttime distributions are provided separately for nitrogen-containing species, enabling diurnal differences to be investigated. Based on this climatology, examples of typical spatiotemporal patterns for trace gases in the mesosphere and for carbon-containing gases in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere are discussed.

  17. Two new species of coccidia (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from leaf-tailed geckos, Uroplatus spp. (Sauria: Gekkonidae) from Madagascar, including a new host of Eimeria brygooi Upton & Barnard, 1987.

    PubMed

    McAllister, Chris T; Scott Seville, R; Hartdegen, Ruston

    2016-10-01

    During May and June 2015, four common leaf-tailed geckos, Uroplatus fimbriatus (Schneider), five satanic leaf-tailed geckos, Uroplatus phantasticus (Boulenger), and four mossy leaf-tailed geckos, Uroplatus sikorae Boettger originally collected from Madagascar and housed at the Dallas Zoo, USA, had their faeces examined for coccidian parasites. Eight (62%) geckos were found to be passing oöcysts, including a new eimerian, a new isosporan and a previously described eimerian. Three of four (75%) U. fimbratus (type-host) and one of five (20%) U. phantasticus were infected with Eimeria schneideri n. sp.; oöcysts were subspheroidal to ellipsoidal with a bi-layered wall and measured (mean length × width, L × W) 15.1 × 13.5 µm, with a length/width (L/W) ratio of 1.1. A micropyle and oöcyst residuum were absent but one to many polar granules were present. Sporocysts were ovoidal, 6.9 × 5.3 µm, L/W = 1.3. Stieda, sub-Stieda and para-Stieda bodies were absent. A globular sporocyst residuum was present as dispersed granules. Four of five (80%) U. phantasticus harboured Isospora boulengeri n. sp.; oöcysts were subpheroidal to ellipsoidal with a bi-layered wall and measured 17.3 × 16.0 µm, L/W = 1.1. A micropyle and oöcyst residuum were absent but a polar granule was present. Sporocysts were ellipsoidal, 9.5 × 6.9 µm, L/W = 1.4. Stieda and sub-Stieda bodies were present but a para-Stieda body was absent. A globular sporocyst residuum was present with dispersed granules. In addition, one of four (25%) U. sikorae was infected with an eimerian indistinguishable from Eimeria brygooi Upton & Barnard, 1987, previously reported from Madagascar day gecko, Phelsuma grandis Gray and golddust day gecko, Phelsuma laticauda (Boettger) from Madagascar. These are the first coccidians described from Uroplatus spp.

  18. Monogenea of Chinese marine fishes. XVIII. Two monocotylids, including a new species, from the blotched fantail ray Taeniurops meyeni (Elasmobranchii: Dasyatidae) in the South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Cao, Shanmei; Ding, Xuejuan; Zhang, Jianying; Liu, Lin

    2010-09-01

    Two monogenean species are recorded from a blotched fantail ray, Taeniurops meyeni (Müller et Henle) (Dasyatidae), kept in a public aquarium at the Guangzhou Ocean World. Heterocotyle taeniuropi sp. n. was obtained from the gills. It is similar to Heterocotyle similis Neifar, Euzet et Ben Hassine, 1998 and H. scotti Neifar, Euzet et Ben Hassine, 1998, both of which have a similar male copulatory organ, but it can be distinguished from these two species by aspects of the morphology of the male copulatory organ, which is tubular, straight or slightly curved with a sclerotized accessory piece and an asymmetrical funnel-shaped opening at the proximal end, and recurved at the distal end. Dendromonocotyle pipinna Chisholm et Whittington, 2002, which is a new record for Chinese waters, was collected from the body surface of the same host. Its main features are almost the same as in the original description, except that it exhibits a variable number of marginal papillae.

  19. Three Dendromonocotyle species (Monogenea: Monocotylidae) reported from captive rays, including D. lotteri sp. n. from Himantura gerrardi (Elasmobranchii: Dasyatidae) in the public aquarium at the Atlantis resort, Dubai.

    PubMed

    Vaughan, David B; Chisholm, Leslie A

    2009-06-01

    Dendromonocotyle lotteri sp. n. is described from the dorsal skin surface of the stingray Himantura gerrardi (Gray) on exhibit in the public aquarium at the Atlantis resort in Dubai. It is differentiated from all other Dendromonocotyle species by the unique morphology of the distal portion of the sclerotised male copulatory organ. Dendromonocotyle lotteri is the second representative in the genus with 56 marginal haptoral papillae having a papillae to loculus association represented numerically as 6-6-8-8. We found Dendromonocotyle colorni Chisholm, Whittington et Kearn, 2001 on the same host specimens at the Atlantis resort public aquarium and Dendromonocotyle kuhlii Young, 1967 on Neotrygon kuhlii (Müller et Henle) kept at Burgers' Zoo Aquarium in Arnhem, The Netherlands. Supplemental information is provided for both D. colorni and D. kuhlii. The presence of Dendromonocotyle infections in public aquaria and host specificity are discussed. A key to the 17 species of Dendromonocotyle is also provided.

  20. New species of Ophiostomatales from Scolytinae and Platypodinae beetles in the Cape Floristic Region, including the discovery of the sexual state of Raffaelea.

    PubMed

    Musvuugwa, Tendai; de Beer, Z Wilhelm; Duong, Tuan A; Dreyer, Léanne L; Oberlander, Kenneth C; Roets, Francois

    2015-10-01

    Olea capensis and Rapanea melanophloeos are important canopy trees in South African Afromontane forests. Dying or recently dead individuals of these trees are often infested by Scolytinae and Platypodinae (Curculionidae) beetles. Fungi were isolated from the surfaces of beetles emerging from wood samples and their galleries. Based on micro-morphological and phylogenetic analyses, four fungal species in the Ophiostomatales were isolated. These were Sporothrix pallida and three taxa here newly described as Sporothrix aemulophila sp. nov., Raffaelea vaginata sp. nov. and Raffaelea rapaneae sp. nov. This study represents the first collection of S. pallida, a species known from many environmental samples from across the world, from Scolytinae beetles. S. aemulophila sp. nov. is an associate of the ambrosia beetle Xyleborinus aemulus. R. rapaneae sp. nov. and R. vaginata sp. nov. were associated with a Lanurgus sp. and Platypodinae beetle, respectively, and represent the first Raffaelea spp. reported from the Cape Floristic Region. Of significance is that R. vaginata produced a sexual state analogous with those of Ophiostoma seticolle and O. deltoideosporum that also grouped in our analyses in Raffaelea s. str., to date considered an asexual genus. The morphology of the ossiform ascospores and anamorphs of the three species corresponded and the generic circumscription of Raffaelea is thus emended to accommodate sexual states. The two known species are provided with new combinations, namely Raffaelea seticollis (R.W. Davidson) Z.W. de Beer and T.A. Duong comb. nov. and Raffaelea deltoideospora (Olchow. and J. Reid) Z.W. de Beer and T.A. Duong comb. nov.

  1. A new African soft scale genus, Pseudocribrolecanium gen. nov. (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Coccidae), erected for two species, including the citrus pest P. andersoni (Newstead) comb. nov

    PubMed Central

    Kondo, Takumasa

    2006-01-01

    A new African genus of soft scale insects, Pseudocribrolecanium gen. nov. is erected to accommodate Akermes colae Green & Laing and Cribrolecanium andersoni (Newstead). The adult females and first-instar nymphs of the two species are redescribed and illustrated. Taxonomic keys to separate the adult females and first-instar nymphs are provided. The affinity of Pseudocribrolecanium with the tribe Paralecaniini in the subfamily Coccinae is discussed. PMID:19537997

  2. A new African soft scale genus, Pseudocribrolecanium gen. nov. (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Coccidae), erected for two species, including the citrus pest P. andersoni (Newstead) comb. nov.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Takumasa

    2006-01-01

    A new African genus of soft scale insects, Pseudocribrolecanium gen. nov. is erected to accommodate Akermes colae Green & Laing and Cribrolecanium andersoni (Newstead). The adult females and first-instar nymphs of the two species are redescribed and illustrated. Taxonomic keys to separate the adult females and first-instar nymphs are provided. The affinity of Pseudocribrolecanium with the tribe Paralecaniini in the subfamily Coccinae is discussed.

  3. Identification of viral and non-viral reverse transcribing elements in pineapple (Ananas comosus), including members of two new badnavirus species.

    PubMed

    Gambley, C F; Geering, A D W; Steele, V; Thomas, J E

    2008-01-01

    A previously published partial sequence of pineapple bacilliform virus was shown to be from a retrotransposon (family Metaviridae) and not from a badnavirus as previously thought. Two newly discovered sequence groups isolated from pineapple were associated with bacilliform virions and were transmitted by mealybugs. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that they were members of new badnavirus species. A third caulimovirid sequence was also amplified from pineapple, but available evidence suggests that this DNA is not encapsidated, but more likely derived from an endogenous virus.

  4. A new species of Eurycletodes Sars, 1909 (Copepoda: Harpacticoida: Argestidae) from the southern hemisphere including remarks on the phylogeny of the genus and its subgenera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menzel, Lena

    2011-12-01

    This paper deals with taxonomy and phylogenetics of the genus Eurycletodes Sars, 1909 (Copepoda: Harpacticoida: Argestidae). Samples, collected from the southeast Atlantic on board RV "Meteor" during the cruises DIVA-1 (M48/1) and DIVA-2 (M63/2), contain specimens of Eurycletodes. Eurycletodes is characterized as a monophylum by A1 segments III + IV fused, basal seta of md palp lost, exp of md palp reduced to 1 seta or completely lost. Similarly, the subgenera Eurycletodes (Eurycletodes) and Eurycletodes (Oligocletodes) are characterized as monophyletic by the loss of the inner seta on P1 exp2 (apomorphic to E. (E.)) and the absence of the inner seta on P5 endopodal lobe (apomorphic to E. (O.)). Eurycletodes profundus is renamed as E. (O.) profundus. Eurycletodes ephippiger is the only species of the genus without subgeneric designation. Eurycletodes (O.) diva sp. nov. is described. The new species differs from described species of the genus by a larger body size, P5 endopodal lobe only slightly protruding, last segment of A1 with 2 outer setae, furcal rami elongated between setae VII and IV. The occurrence of 2 specimens of Eurycletodes (O.) diva sp. nov. at 2 sites separated by the Walvis Ridge supports the hypothesis that geographic obstacles do not prevent harpacticoid copepods from spreading in the deep sea.

  5. Morphological comparison of five species of poison dart frogs of the genus Ranitomeya (Anura: Dendrobatidae) including the skeleton, the muscle system and inner organs.

    PubMed

    Krings, Markus; Klein, Benjamin; Heneka, Markus J; Rödder, Dennis

    2017-01-01

    The morphology of larvae stages of most amphibians are often completely different than in adults. Tadpole descriptions have historically been based on external characters like morphometrics, color pattern and oral disc structure. Other papers described anatomical details by the use of dissections. The increase in micro-CT scanning technology provides an opportunity to quantify and describe in detail internal characters like skeleton, musculature and organs. To date, no such tadpole descriptions exist for the well-studied Neotropical poison dart frog genus Ranitomeya (Anura: Dendrobatidae). Here we provide descriptions of the internal skeletal, musculature and organ structures of five Ranitomeya species and then provide morphological comparisons. Contrary to previous observations, closely related species display several morphological differences. For example, we observed considerable variation in chondrocranial characters, the extent of cranial ossifications, the appearance of some cranial muscles and the arrangement of inner organs. Further studies on the tadpole morphology of more species of Ranitomeya and other dendrobatid genera are needed to enable us to understand the complete morphological variation in this group.

  6. Morphological comparison of five species of poison dart frogs of the genus Ranitomeya (Anura: Dendrobatidae) including the skeleton, the muscle system and inner organs

    PubMed Central

    Krings, Markus; Klein, Benjamin; Heneka, Markus J.

    2017-01-01

    The morphology of larvae stages of most amphibians are often completely different than in adults. Tadpole descriptions have historically been based on external characters like morphometrics, color pattern and oral disc structure. Other papers described anatomical details by the use of dissections. The increase in micro-CT scanning technology provides an opportunity to quantify and describe in detail internal characters like skeleton, musculature and organs. To date, no such tadpole descriptions exist for the well-studied Neotropical poison dart frog genus Ranitomeya (Anura: Dendrobatidae). Here we provide descriptions of the internal skeletal, musculature and organ structures of five Ranitomeya species and then provide morphological comparisons. Contrary to previous observations, closely related species display several morphological differences. For example, we observed considerable variation in chondrocranial characters, the extent of cranial ossifications, the appearance of some cranial muscles and the arrangement of inner organs. Further studies on the tadpole morphology of more species of Ranitomeya and other dendrobatid genera are needed to enable us to understand the complete morphological variation in this group. PMID:28235032

  7. Megafauna recovered from a cold hydrocarbon seep in the deep Alaskan Beaufort Sea, including a new species of Axinus (Thracidae: Bivalvia: Mollusca)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, C. L.; Valentich-Scott, P.; Lorenson, T. D.; Edwards, B. D.

    2011-12-01

    Several specimens of a new species of Axinus and a single well-worn gastropod columella provisionally assigned to the genus Neptunea (Buccinidae: Gastropoda: Mollusca) were recently recovered from at least two cores, the longest of which is 5.72 m long, from a large seafloor mound, informally named the Canning Seafloor Mound (CSM). The CSM is located at 2,530 m water depth on the Alaskan Beaufort Sea slope north of Camden Bay and is a fluid explosion feature containing methane hydrate and methane-saturated sediments overlying a folded and faulted deep basin. Only two modern species of Axinus are currently known. Axinus grandis (Verrill & Smith, 1885) is a northern Atlantic species and the recently described species, A. cascadiensis Oliver and Holmes (2007), is only known from Baby Bare Seamount, Cascadia Basin, northeastern Pacific Ocean. Common fragments, single valves, and a single articulated specimen represent this new Axinus species. These shells were distributed over nearly the entire length of the primary core. All specimens show wear and (or) dissolution. The age of these specimens is unknown and no living representatives were encountered. The genus Axinus has a fossil record back to the early Eocene in England and the Paleocene and Eocene in Egypt. Biogeographically the genus appears to have originated in the Tethys Sea and became established in the Atlantic Ocean during the Eocene, spreading across the Arctic Ocean in the late Tertiary. With the opening of the Bering Strait in the latest Miocene or early Pliocene the genus Axinus migrated southwest into the northeast Pacific. Interestingly, hydrocarbon seep deposits are also present on the adjacent North Slope of Alaska in the Marsh Anticline at Carter Creek, Camden Bay. These rocks, the Nuwok beds, contain abundant Thracidae bivalve of the genus Thracia, but not Axinus, however the rocks also represent cold seep deposits. These rocks have been variously dated from Oligocene to Pliocene and the exact age

  8. New digeneans (Opecoelidae) from hydrothermal vent fishes in the south eastern Pacific Ocean, including one new genus and five new species.

    PubMed

    Bray, R A; Waeschenbach, A; Dyal, P; Littlewood, D T J; Morand, S

    2014-02-24

    A new genus and five new species of digeneans are reported from fishes at hydrothermal vent sites in the South East Pacific Rise region. Biospeedotrema n. gen. (Opecoelidae: Stenakrinae) is distinguished from other stenakrines by the more or less symmetrical testicular configuration, with the uterus passing between the testes, sometimes distinctly into the post-testicular region. Biospeedotrema jolliveti n. gen., n. sp. from Ventichthys biospeedoi (Ophidiidae) is distinguished by the vitelline fields which extend only slightly into the post-testicular region, the intestinal bifurcation is dorsal to the ventral sucker, the genital pore is slightly dextrally submedian or median, the cirrus sac is short and the caeca are broad and overlap the testes, usually reaching into the post-testicular region. Biospeedotrema parajolliveti n. sp. from Thermichthys hollisi differs from Biospeedotrema jolliveti in being squat, always just wider than long, the tegument is wrinkled, the testes are lobate, and the caeca only just reach to the testes. Biospeedotrema biospeedoi n. sp. from T. hollisi differs from its congeners in its body-shape, uterine extent posterior to the testes and the small vitellarium. Caudotestis ventichthysi n. sp. (Opecoelidae: Stenakrinae) from V. biospeedoi is distinguished from its five congeners in various combinations of caecal length, cirrus sac length, internal seminal vesicle shape, vitelline extent and distribution, forebody length and egg-size. Buticulotrema thermichthysi n. sp. (Opecoelidae: Opecoelininae) from T. hollisi (Bythitidae) is distinguished from its only congener by its very long, very strongly muscular oesophagus, bifurcating dorsally to the posterior part of the ventral sucker, the long, narrow pars prostatica and distal male duct and the sinistral genital pore at the level of the pharynx. The phylogenetic position for three of these species, Buticulotrema thermichthysi, Biospeedotrema jolliveti and Biospeedotrema biospeedoi, is

  9. Molecular resolution of the family Dreissenidae (Mollusca: Bivalvia) with emphasis on Ponto-Caspian species, including first report of Mytilopsis leucophaeata in the Black Sea basin.

    PubMed

    Therriault, Thomas W; Docker, Margaret F; Orlova, Marina I; Heath, Daniel D; MacIsaac, Hugh J

    2004-03-01

    Considerable uncertainty exists in determination of the phylogeny among extant members of the Dreissenidae, especially those inhabiting the Ponto-Caspian basin, as multiple systematic revisions based on morphological characteristics have failed to resolve relationships within this group of bivalves. In this study we use DNA sequence analyses of two mitochondrial gene fragments, 16S rRNA and cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI), to determine phylogenetic relationships among Dreissena rostriformis, D. bugensis, D. polymorpha, D. stankovici, Congeria kusceri, and Mytilopsis leucophaeata. Dreissena stankovici was determined to represent a sister taxa to D. polymorpha and both are more closely related to other extant Dreissena species than Congeria or Mytilopsis. Sequence divergence between D. rostriformis and D. bugensis was relatively low (0.3-0.4%), suggesting that these two taxa constitute a single species. However, environmental differences suggest two races of D. rostriformis, a brackish water race (rostriformis) and a freshwater race (bugensis). Spread of bugensis-type individuals into habitats in the Caspian Sea that are occupied by rostriformis-type individuals may create novel hybridization opportunities. Species-specific molecular markers also were developed in this study since significant intraspecific variation in morphological features complicates dreissenid identification. Using two gene fragments (nuclear 28S and 16S), we identified restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) that distinguish among D. rostriformis/bugensis, D. polymorpha, and D. stankovici and revealed the presence of a cryptic invader to the Black Sea basin, Mytilopsis leucophaeata. This is the first report of this North American native in southern Europe.

  10. Food additives

    MedlinePlus

    ... or natural. Natural food additives include: Herbs or spices to add flavor to foods Vinegar for pickling ... Certain colors improve the appearance of foods. Many spices, as well as natural and man-made flavors, ...

  11. Molecular phylogeny of Pacific Archigregarines (Apicomplexa), including descriptions of Veloxidium leptosynaptae n. gen., n. sp., from the sea cucumber Leptosynapta clarki (Echinodermata), and two new species of Selenidium.

    PubMed

    Wakeman, Kevin C; Leander, Brian S

    2012-01-01

    Although archigregarines are poorly understood intestinal parasites of marine invertebrates, they are critical for understanding the earliest stages in the evolution of the Apicomplexa. Previous studies suggest that archigregarines are a paraphyletic stem group from which other lineages of gregarines, and possibly all other groups of apicomplexans, evolved. However, substantiating this inference is difficult because molecular phylogenetic data from archigregarines, in particular, and other gregarines, in general, are severely limited. In an attempt to help fill gaps in our knowledge of archigregarine diversity and phylogeny, we set out to discover and characterize novel lineages of archigregarines with high-resolution light and scanning electron microscopy and analyses of small subunit (SSU) rDNA sequences derived from single-cell (SC) PCR techniques. Here, we describe two novel species of Selenidium, namely Selenidium idanthyrsae n. sp. and S. boccardiellae n. sp., and demonstrate the surface morphology and molecular phylogenetic position of the previously reported species S. cf. mesnili. We also describe a novel genus of archigregarine, Veloxidium leptosynaptae n. gen., n. sp., which branches with an environmental sequence and, together, forms the nearest sister lineage to a diverse clade of marine eugregarines (i.e. lecudinids and urosporids). This molecular phylogenetic result is consistent with the hypothesis that archigregarines are deeply paraphyletic within apicomplexans, and suggests that convergent evolution played an important role in shaping the diversity of eugregarine trophozoites.

  12. Cultivation and Characterisation of New Species of Apusomonads (the Sister Group to Opisthokonts), Including Close Relatives of Thecamonas (Chelonemonas n. gen.).

    PubMed

    Heiss, Aaron A; Lee, Won J; Ishida, Ken-ichiro; Simpson, Alastair G B

    2015-01-01

    Apusomonads comprise an understudied and undersampled group of heterotrophic flagellates that is closely related to opisthokonts, the supergroup containing animals and fungi. We cultured representatives of a new clade of apusomonads, Chelonemonas n. gen., which is sister to marine forms of Thecamonas in SSU rRNA gene phylogenies. Scanning electron microscopy shows that members of Chelonemonas have a hexagonal patterning to their submembranous pellicle, which is not known to exist in other apusomonads. We propose that the subfamily Thecamonadinae refer to the marine Thecamonas/Chelonomonas clade. We also report two new strains of Multimonas, one of which is genetically divergent from previously described strains, and here described as a new species, Multimonas koreensis. Both strains of Multimonas have appendages on their dorsal surface that could be extrusomes, and a frilled appearance to the border of their pellicle. Explorations of taxon sampling in SSU rRNA gene phylogenies confirm the new strains' evolutionary affinities, but do not resolve relationships among the five main apusomonad clades. These phylogenies also separate the freshwater species "Thecamonas" oxoniensis from the marine members of the genus Thecamonas. The new strains described here may provide valuable genetic and morphological data for evaluating the relationships and evolution of apusomonads.

  13. Descriptions of four species of grenadier fishes of the genera Hymenocephalus and Hymenogadus (Teleostei, Gadiformes, Macrouridae) from the New Zealand region and Tasman Sea, including two new species of Hymenocephalus.

    PubMed

    McMillan, Peter; Iwamoto, Tomio

    2014-08-21

    Two new species of Hymenocephalus are described from the New Zealand region and Tasman Sea. Hymenocephalus fuscus sp. n. has 11-12 pelvic fin rays, is darkly pigmented, with enlarged bony ridges on the dorsal aspects of head, lacks a chin barbel, has few (16-19) gill rakers on inner side of first arch and is similar to other species in the H. aterrimus species group. Hymenocephalus maculicaudus sp. n. has 8 pelvic fin rays, a mid-lateral line of melanophores on body and tail that extends about a head length posterior to anal fin origin, a short (7-16 % HL) chin barbel and is similar to other species in the H. megalops species group. Hymenocephalus nascens has 12-14 pelvic fin rays, lacks a chin barbel, has a mid-lateral stripe of silvery (fresh) or brownish (preserved) pigment running along trunk and tail. Hymenogadus gracilis has a serrated (weak, near tip) first dorsal fin spine, 7-9 pelvic fin rays, long (20-30% HL) chin barbel, and one row of enlarged melanophores along lateral mid-line of the tail. Hymenocephalus nascens and Hymenogadus gracilis are recorded for the first time from the New Zealand region. A key to the known New Zealand species of Hymenocephalus and Hymenogadus is provided. 

  14. {sup 13}C chemical shift anisotropies for carbonate ions in cement minerals and the use of {sup 13}C, {sup 27}Al and {sup 29}Si MAS NMR in studies of Portland cement including limestone additions

    SciTech Connect

    Sevelsted, Tine F.; Herfort, Duncan

    2013-10-15

    {sup 13}C isotropic chemical shifts and chemical shift anisotropy parameters have been determined for a number of inorganic carbonates relevant in cement chemistry from slow-speed {sup 13}C MAS or {sup 13}C({sup 1}H) CP/MAS NMR spectra (9.4 T or 14.1 T) for {sup 13}C in natural abundance. The variation in the {sup 13}C chemical shift parameters is relatively small, raising some doubts that different carbonate species in Portland cement-based materials may not be sufficiently resolved in {sup 13}C MAS NMR spectra. However, it is shown that by combining {sup 13}C MAS and {sup 13}C({sup 1}H) CP/MAS NMR carbonate anions in anhydrous and hydrated phases can be distinguished, thereby providing valuable information about the reactivity of limestone in cement blends. This is illustrated for three cement pastes prepared from an ordinary Portland cement, including 0, 16, and 25 wt.% limestone, and following the hydration for up to one year. For these blends {sup 29}Si MAS NMR reveals that the limestone filler accelerates the hydration for alite and also results in a smaller fraction of tetrahedrally coordinated Al incorporated in the C-S-H phase. The latter result is more clearly observed in {sup 27}Al MAS NMR spectra of the cement–limestone blends and suggests that dissolved aluminate species in the cement–limestone blends readily react with carbonate ions from the limestone filler, forming calcium monocarboaluminate hydrate. -- Highlights: •{sup 13}C chemical shift anisotropies for inorganic carbonates from {sup 13}C MAS NMR. •Narrow {sup 13}C NMR chemical shift range (163–171 ppm) for inorganic carbonates. •Anhydrous and hydrated carbonate species by {sup 13}C MAS and {sup 13}C({sup 1}H) CP/MAS NMR. •Limestone accelerates the hydration for alite in Portland – limestone cements. •Limestone reduces the amount of aluminium incorporated in the C-S-H phase.

  15. Addition of erythrocytes to in vitro culture medium attenuates the detrimental effects of reactive oxygen species on bovine preimplantation embryo development.

    PubMed

    Ideta, Atsushi; Tsuchiya, Kanami; Aoyagi, Yoshito

    2012-01-01

    Erythrocytes were recently found to improve the early development of mice embryos by their antioxidant effect. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of erythrocytes on the in vitro development of bovine in vitro fertilized (IVF) embryos in medium supplemented with reactive oxygen species (ROS). IVF embryos were cultured in CR1aa medium supplemented with oxidizing agents, 0.5mmol/L hypoxanthine and 0.01U/mL xanthine oxidase (HX/XOD), in the presence and absence of erythrocytes (5×10(4) , 5×10(5) , 5×10(6) and 5×10(7) erythrocytes/mL). After 8 days, blastocysts were examined with a stereomicroscope. HX/XOD blocked development to the blastocyst stage (HX/XOD: 0%, control: 33%), but in the presence of both erythrocytes and HX/XOD, blastocyst development was restored to about one-third to two-thirds the normal rate (5×10(5) to 5×10(7) erythrocytes/mL: 12 to 23%). Furthermore, adding erythrocytes or erythrocyte hemolysate to medium without HX/XOD increased the blastocyst rate. These results suggest that the addition of erythrocytes can attenuate the detrimental effects of ROS on embryo development in bovine species as well as in mice.

  16. Three new records of copepods (Siphonostomatoida) parasitic on marine fishes of Iraq, including the relegation of two species of Lernanthropinus to Lernanthropinus temminckii (von Nordmann, 1864).

    PubMed

    Venmathi Maran, B A; Moon, Seong Yong; Adday, Thamir Katea; Khamees, Najim Rijab; Myoung, Jung-Goo

    2014-03-01

    Three parasitic copepods (Siphonostomatoida) belonging to three different genera were recovered from marine fishes of Iraq, and are listed here as new records. The sea lice Caligus epinepheli Yamaguti, 1936 (Caligidae) was collected from the Japanese threadfin bream, Nemipterus japonicus (Bloch). It had been frequently reported from teleost fishes around the world. The second record, comprising male and female, was another caligid, rarely caught from fishes - Hermilius longicornis Bassett-Smith, 1898, collected from the giant catfish, Netuma thalassina (Rüppell). This paper features the first description of the male of the latter species. The third record was the lernanthropid, Lernanthropinus temminckii (von Nordmann, 1864) (Lernanthropidae), redescribed based on the specimens collected from the greater lizard fish, Saurida tumbil (Bloch) (Synodontidae). In order to clarify its taxonomic status, our specimen was compared with the holotype of L. gibbosus (Pillai, 1964) from the collections of Zoological Survey of India, Kolkata, and the syntypes of L. sauridae Do in Ho and Do, 1985 and L. temminckii from the collections of the Smithsonian Institution, Washington D.C. We found similarities in the morphology of the body, mouthparts, and legs 1-4 in three above-mentioned species. The prominent feature, the setation pattern of legs 1 and 2 was similar in all the female specimens examined. In the light of this, we formally relegate L. gibbosus and L. sauridae to synonymy with L. temminckii. Another important similarity is that Lernanthropinus gibbosus, L. sauridae, and L. temminckii have exclusively been parasitic on lizardfishes (Synodontidae). The attachment site of all three copepods reported form Iraq were the gill filaments.

  17. Effects of plant species, stage of maturity, and level of formic acid addition on lipolysis, lipid content, and fatty acid composition during ensiling.

    PubMed

    Koivunen, E; Jaakkola, S; Heikkilä, T; Lampi, A-M; Halmemies-Beauchet-Filleau, A; Lee, M R F; Winters, A L; Shingfield, K J; Vanhatalo, A

    2015-09-01

    . In conclusion, results suggest that formic acid addition during the ensilage of RC decreases lipolysis . For both plant species, total PPO activity was not associated with the extent of lipolysis . However, bound phenols formed via PPO activity appear to have a role in protecting lipid and protein against degradation in grass and lowering proteolysis of RC during ensiling.

  18. Insects found on a human cadaver in central Italy including the blowfly Calliphora loewi (Diptera, Calliphoridae), a new species of forensic interest.

    PubMed

    Vanin, S; Gherardi, M; Bugelli, V; Di Paolo, M

    2011-04-15

    In the case of unidentified bodies the estimation of the period since death or of the season of death plays an important role to focus the attention on a reduced number of people among the ones reported missing. Forensic entomology can be one of the most important methods for these estimations, as occurred in this case. Flies are typically the first insects to colonize a dead body. The case reported here concerns the colonisation by insects of a male body in advanced decay found during the winter in Central Italy. This case is of particular interest as few data are available on the entomological evidence in the cold season. In particular, in this case we recovered Calliphora loewi (Calliphoridae), a species never collected before on dead bodies in Southern Europe. Larvae of the black soldier fly Hermetia illucens (Stratiomyidae), pupae and larvae belonging to genus Hydrothea (Muscidae), and Necrobia rufipes (Cleridae) specimens were also collected. The estimated PMI enabled identification of the cadaver, confirmed by DNA analysis.

  19. Pathogenic molds (including Aspergillus species) in hospital water distribution systems: a 3-year prospective study and clinical implications for patients with hematologic malignancies.

    PubMed

    Anaissie, Elias J; Stratton, Shawna L; Dignani, M Cecilia; Lee, Choon-kee; Summerbell, Richard C; Rex, John H; Monson, Thomas P; Walsh, Thomas J

    2003-04-01

    The incidence of mold infections in patients with hematologic malignancies continues to increase despite the widespread use of air filtration systems, suggesting the presence of other hospital sources for these molds. Water sources are known to harbor pathogenic molds. We examined samples from water, water surfaces, air, and other environment sources from a bone marrow transplantation unit with optimal air precautions. Molds (Aspergillus species, others) were recovered in 70% of 398 water samples, in 22% of 1311 swabs from plumbing structures and environmental surfaces, and in 83% of 274 indoor air samples. Microscopic examination of the water plumbing lines revealed hyphal forms compatible with molds. Four findings suggest that indoor airborne molds were aerosolized from the water: (1) higher mean airborne concentrations of molds in bathrooms (16.1 colony-forming units [CFU]/m(3)) than in patient rooms (7 CFU/m(3)) and hallways (8.6 CFU/m(3); P =.00005); (2) a strong type and rank correlation between molds isolated from hospital water and those recovered from indoor hospital; (3) lack of seasonal correlation between the airborne mold concentration in outdoor and indoor air; and (4) molecular relatedness between a clinical strain and a water-related strain (previously reported). Hospital water distribution systems may serve as a potential indoor reservoir of Aspergillus and other molds leading to aerosolization of fungal spores and potential exposure for patients.

  20. Wautersia gen. nov., a novel genus accommodating the phylogenetic lineage including Ralstonia eutropha and related species, and proposal of Ralstonia [Pseudomonas] syzygii (Roberts et al. 1990) comb. nov.

    PubMed

    Vaneechoutte, Mario; Kämpfer, Peter; De Baere, Thierry; Falsen, Enevold; Verschraegen, Gerda

    2004-03-01

    Comparative 16S rDNA sequence analysis indicates that two distinct sublineages, with a sequence dissimilarity of >4 % (bootstrap value, 100 %), exist within the genus RALSTONIA: the Ralstonia eutropha lineage, which comprises Ralstonia basilensis, Ralstonia campinensis, R. eutropha, Ralstonia gilardii, Ralstonia metallidurans, Ralstonia oxalatica, Ralstonia paucula, Ralstonia respiraculi and Ralstonia taiwanensis; and the Ralstonia pickettii lineage, which comprises Ralstonia insidiosa, Ralstonia mannitolilytica, R. pickettii, Ralstonia solanacearum and Ralstonia syzygii comb. nov. (previously Pseudomonas syzygii). This phylogenetic discrimination is supported by phenotypic differences. Members of the R. eutropha lineage have peritrichous flagella, do not produce acids from glucose and are susceptible to colistin, in contrast to members of the R. pickettii lineage, which have one or more polar flagella, produce acid from several carbohydrates and are colistin-resistant. Members of the R. pickettii lineage are viable for up to 6 days on tryptic soy agar at 25 degrees C, whereas members of the R. eutropha lineage are viable for longer than 9 days. It is proposed that species of the R. eutropha lineage should be classified in a novel genus, Wautersia gen. nov. Finally, based on the literature and new DNA-DNA hybridization data, it is proposed that Pseudomonas syzygii should be renamed Ralstonia syzygii comb. nov.

  1. Gene order in a 10 275 bp fragment of Yarrowia lipolytica, including adjacent YlURA5 and YlSEC65 genes conserved in four yeast species.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, M; Domínguez, A

    2001-06-30

    We have determined the sequence of a 10275 bp DNA segment of Yarrowia lipolytica located on chromosome VI. The sequence contains six complete open reading frames (ORFs) longer than 100 amino acids and two more partial ORFs at both ends. Two of the ORFs encode for the well-characterized genes YlURA5 (orotate phosphoribosyltransferase) and YlSEC65 (encoding a subunit of the signal recognition particle). These two genes show an identical organization-located on opposite strands and in opposite orientations-in four yeast species: Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Kluyveromyces lactis, Candida albicans and Y. lipolytica. One ORF and the two partial ORFs code for putative proteins showing significant homology with proteins from other organisms. YlVI-108w (partial) and YlVI-103w show 39% and 54% identity, respectively, with YDR430c and YHR088w from S. cerevisiae. YlVI-102c (partial) shows significant homology with a matrix protein, lustrin A from Haliotis rufescens, and with the PGRS subfamily (Gly-rich proteins) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The three remaining ORFs show weak or non-significant homology with previously sequenced genes. The nucleotide sequence has been submitted to the EMBL database under Accession No. AI006754.

  2. Additions to Philippine Slender Skinks of the Brachymeles bonitae Complex (Reptilia: Squamata: Scincidae) II: a new species from the northern Philippines.

    PubMed

    Siler, Cameron D; Davis, Drew R; Freitas, Elyse S; Huron, Nicholas A; Geheber, Aaron D; Watters, Jessa L; Penrod, Michelle L; Papeș, Monica; Amrein, Andrew; Anwar, Alyssa; Cooper, Dontae; Hein, Tucker; Manning, Annalisa; Patel, Neeral; Pinaroc, Lauren; Diesmos, Arvin C; Diesmos, Mae L; Oliveros, Carl H; Brown, Rafe M

    2016-06-28

    We describe a new digitless scincid lizard of the genus Brachymeles from northern Luzon and Camiguin Norte islands in the Philippines. This species belongs to the Brachymeles bonitae Complex, and both molecular and morphological data confirm that this species is distinct from all other congeners. Formerly considered to be a single widespread species, this group of species has been the focus of recent systematic reviews. Here we describe a new species in the B. bonitae Complex, recognized currently to constitute five species. Brachymeles ilocandia sp. nov. is the second digitless and the seventeenth non-pentadactyl species in genus. The description of this species brings the total number of species in the genus to 40, and provides new insight into unique distribution patterns of species of the northern Philippines.

  3. The Lepidoptera of White Sands National Monument, Otero County, New Mexico, USA 9. A new species of Givira Walker (Cossidae, Hypoptinae) dedicated to Delinda Mix, including a list of species of Cossidae recorded from the Monument

    PubMed Central

    Metzler, Eric H.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The U.S. National Park Service initiated a 10-year study of the Lepidoptera at White Sands National Monument, Otero County, New Mexico in late 2006. Givira delindae sp. n., discovered in 2007 during the first year of study, is described here. The male and female adult moths and genitalia are illustrated. The name is dedicated to Delinda Mix, mother of Steve Mix. The species of Cossidae recorded from the Monument during the study are listed. PMID:28331399

  4. Characterization of Metastable Intermediates Formed in the Reaction Between a Mn(II) Complex and Dioxygen, Including a Crystallographic Structure of a Binuclear Mn(III)-Peroxo Species

    PubMed Central

    Coggins, Michael K.; Sun, Xianru; Kwak, Yeonju; Solomon, Edward I.; Rybak-Akimova, Elena; Kovacs, Julie A.

    2013-01-01

    Transition-metal peroxos have been implicated as key intermediates in a variety of critical biological processes involving O2. Due to their highly reactive nature, very few metal-peroxos have been characterized. The dioxygen chemistry of manganese remains largely unexplored despite the proposed involvement of a binuclear Mn-peroxo, either as a precursor to O2, or derived from O2, in both photosynthetic H2O oxidation and DNA biosynthesis, arguably two of the most fundamental processes of life. Neither of these biological intermediates has been observed. Herein we describe the dioxygen chemistry of coordinatively unsaturated [MnII(SMe2N4(6-MeDPEN))] +(1), and the characterization of intermediates formed en route to a binuclear mono-oxo bridged Mn(III) product {[MnIII(SMe2N4(6-MeDPEN)]2-(μ-O)}2+ (2), the oxo atom of which is derived from 18O2. At low-temperatures, a dioxygen intermediate, [Mn(SMe2N4(6-MeDPEN))(O2)]+ (4), is observed (by stopped-flow) to rapidly and irreversibly form in this reaction (k1(−10 °C)= 3780±180M−1s−1, ΔH1‡ = 26.4±1.7 kJ mol−1, ΔS1‡ = − 75.6±6.8 J mol−1K−1), and then convert more slowly (k2(−10 °C)= 417±3.2 M−1s−1, ΔH2‡ = 47.1±1.4 kJ mol−1, ΔS2‡ = − 15.0±5.7 J mol−1K−1) to a species 3 with isotopically sensitive stretches at νo-o (Δ18O) = 819(47) cm−1, kO–O= 3.02 mdyn/Å, and νMn-O(Δ18O) = 611(25) cm−1 consistent with a peroxo. Intermediate 3 releases approximately 0.5 equiv of H2O2 per Mn ion upon protonation, and the rate of conversion of 4 to 3 is dependent on [Mn(II)] concentration, consistent with the formation of a binuclear Mn-peroxo. This was verified by X-ray crystallography, where the peroxo of {[MnIII(SMe2N4(6-Me-DPEN)]2(trans–μ–1,2–O2)}2+ (3) is shown to be bridging between two Mn(III) ions in an end-on trans-μ-1,2-fashion. This represents the first characterized example of a binuclear Mn(III)-peroxo, and a rare case in which more than one intermediate is observed

  5. Two new species of Oobius Trjapitzin (Hymenoptera, Encyrtidae) egg parasitoids of Agrilus spp. (Coleoptera, Buprestidae) from the USA, including a key and taxonomic notes on other congeneric Nearctic taxa

    PubMed Central

    Triapitsyn, Serguei V.; Petrice, Toby R.; Gates, Michael W.; Bauer, Leah S.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Oobius Trjapitzin (Hymenoptera, Encyrtidae) species are egg parasitoids that are important for the biological control of some Buprestidae and Cerambycidae (Coleoptera). Two species, Oobius agrili Zhang & Huang and Oobius longoi (Siscaro), were introduced into North America for classical biocontrol and have successfully established. Two new native North American species that parasitize eggs of Agrilus spp. (Buprestidae) are described and illustrated from the USA: Oobius minusculus Triapitsyn & Petrice, sp. n. (Michigan), an egg parasitoid of both Agrilus subcinctus Gory on ash (Fraxinus spp.) and Agrilus egenus Gory on black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) trees, and Oobius whiteorum Triapitsyn, sp. n. (Pennsylvania), an egg parasitoid of Agrilus anxius Gory on European white birch (Betula pendula Roth). A taxonomic key and notes on the Nearctic native and introduced Oobius species are also included. PMID:25931963

  6. Neotropical Monogenoidea. 58. Three new species of Gyrodactylus (Gyrodactylidae) from Scleromystax spp. (Callichthyidae) and the proposal of COII gene as an additional fragment for barcoding gyrodactylids.

    PubMed

    Bueno-Silva, Marlus; Boeger, Walter A

    2014-06-01

    Based on molecular markers (COII and ITS1-ITS2) and morphological data, we describe three new Neotropical species of Gyrodactylus von Nordmann, 1832 from Scleromystax barbatus (Quoy et Gaimard) and Scleromystax macropterus (Regan) from southern Brazil. The three new species can be distinguished from each other by sequences of both molecular markers and morphology of hooks and anchors. Gyrodactylus bueni sp. n. is characterised by having hook with shaft curved, heel straight, shelf straight, toe pointed, anchor with superficial root slender, elongate and male copulatory organ armed with two rows of spinelets. Gyrodactylus major sp. n. presents hook with shaft, point curved, proximal shaft straight, heel convex, shelf convex, toe concave, anchor with superficial root robust and male copulatory organ armed with two rows of spinelets. Gyrodactylus scleromystaci sp. n. presents hook with shaft, point recurved, heel convex, shelf convex, toe pointed, anchor with superficial root curved and male copulatory organ armed with two rows of spinelets. These species appear to be closely related to other species of Gyrodactylus known from other species of Callichthyidae. These new species, however, differ by the comparative morphology of the haptoral hard structures and molecular data. Comparative analysis of sequences from these species of Gyrodactylus suggests that the COII gene may represent an important marker for the taxonomy of species of Gyrodactylidae and, perhaps, for species of other lineages of Monogenoidea.

  7. Group additivity equations of state for calculating the standard molal thermodynamic properties of aqueous organic species at elevated temperatures and pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amend, Jan P.; Helgeson, Harold C.

    1997-01-01

    Group additivity equations of state for aqueous organic molecules have been generated by combining the revised Helgeson-Kirkham-Flowers (HKF) equations of state ( Shock and Helgeson, 1988, 1990; Tanger and Helgeson, 1988; Shock et al., 1989, 1992) with experimental values of the standard molal properties of aqueous alkanes, alkanols, alkylbenzenes, car☐ylic acids, amides, and amines. Equations of state parameters for the groups represented by -CH 2-, -CH 3, -CHCH 3-, -C 6H 5, -CH 2OH, -COOH, -CONH 2, and -CH 2NH 2 were determined by regression of the experimental data. This procedure permits calculation of the standard molal thermodynamic properties of these groups at elevated temperatures and pressures. Although curves representing the apparent standard molal Gibbs free energies (Δ G°) and enthalpies (Δ H°) of formation, and the standard molal entropies ( S°) of the groups as a function of temperature and pressure are respectively similar for each of them, the temperature dependence of the standard molal heat capacities ( Cp°) and volumes ( V°) of a number of the groups are quite different from one another. For example, the standard molal heat capacities of the hydrocarbon groups minimize with increasing temperature, but those of -CH 2OH and -CH 2NH 2 maximize. Computed values of Δ G°, Δ H°, S°, Cp°, V°, and the equations of state parameters for the various groups were used together with group additivity relations to generate corresponding values of these properties for aqueous n-alkanes, 2-methylalkanes, n-alkylbenzenes, n-alkanols, n-car☐ylic acids, n-amides, and n-amines at temperatures ≤ 250°C and pressures ≤ 1 kbar. The validity and generality of the equations of state are supported by the fact that predicted equilibrium constants for liquid n-alkane solubility reactions in water compare favorably with experimental values reported in the literature for temperatures as high as 200°C. Furthermore, equilibrium constants for aqueous ethane

  8. Additive genetic variation in resistance traits of an exotic pine species: little evidence for constraints on evolution of resistance against native herbivores.

    PubMed

    Moreira, X; Zas, R; Sampedro, L

    2013-05-01

    The apparent failure of invasions by alien pines in Europe has been explained by the co-occurrence of native pine congeners supporting herbivores that might easily recognize the new plants as hosts. Previous studies have reported that exotic pines show reduced tolerance and capacity to induce resistance to those native herbivores. We hypothesize that limited genetic variation in resistance to native herbivores and the existence of evolutionary trade-offs between growth and resistance could represent additional potential constraints on the evolution of invasiveness of exotic pines outside their natural range. In this paper, we examined genetic variation for constitutive and induced chemical defences (measured as non-volatile resin in the stem and total phenolics in the needles) and resistance to two major native generalist herbivores of pines in cafeteria bioassays (the phloem-feeder Hylobius abietis and the defoliator Thaumetopoea pityocampa) using half-sib families drawn from a sample of the population of Pinus radiata introduced to Spain in the mid-19th century. We found (i) significant genetic variation, with moderate-to-high narrow-sense heritabilities for both the production of constitutive non-volatile resin and induced total phenolics, and for constitutive resistance against T. pityocampa in bioassays, (ii) no evolutionary trade-offs between plant resistance and growth traits or between the production of different quantitative chemical defences and (iii) a positive genetic correlation between constitutive resistance to the two studied herbivores. Overall, results of our study indicate that the exotic pine P. radiata has limited genetic constraints on the evolution of resistance against herbivores in its introduced range, suggesting that, at least in terms of interactions with these enemies, this pine species has potential to become invasive in the future.

  9. Anisakid nematodes (Nematoda: Anisakidae) from the marine fishes Plectropomus laevis Lacépède (Serranidae) and Sphyraena qenie Klunzinger (Sphyraenidae) off New Caledonia, including two new species of Hysterothylacium Ward & Magath, 1917.

    PubMed

    Moravec, František; Justine, Jean-Lou

    2015-11-01

    Based on light and scanning electron microscopical studies, two new species of Hysterothylacium Ward & Magath, 1917 (Nematoda: Anisakidae) are described from the digestive tract of perciform fishes off New Caledonia: H. alatum n. sp. from Plectropomus laevis (Lacépède) (Serranidae) and H. sphyraenae n. sp. from Sphyraena qenie Klunzinger (Sphyraenidae). The former species (H. alatum) is mainly characterised by its large body (male 42.05 mm, gravid females 51.18-87.38 mm long), the shape of the dorsal lip, conspicuously broad cervical alae, a short caecum and a long ventricular appendix, the length of the spicules (925 µm), the number (25 pairs) and distribution of the genital papillae and the tail tip bearing numerous minute cuticular protuberances. The other species (H. sphyraenae) is mainly characterised by the presence of narrow lateral alae, a short caecum and a long ventricular appendix, the length (762-830 µm) and shape of the spicules, the number (37-38 pairs) and arrangement of the genital papillae, and by the tail tip which lacks any distinct cuticular projections visible under the light microscope. In addition, and unidentifiable at the species level, conspicuously large (45.71-66.10 mm long) larvae of Contracaecum Railliet & Henry, 1912, were found in the body cavity of P. laevis, which serves as a paratenic host for this parasite.

  10. Measurement of $\\mathrm{ t \\bar{t} } $ production with additional jet activity, including b quark jets, in the dilepton decay channel using pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s} =$ 8 TeV

    SciTech Connect

    Khachatryan, Vardan

    2016-07-07

    Jet multiplicity distributions in top quark pair (tt-bar) events are measured in pp collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV with the CMS detector at the LHC using a data set corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 19.7 fb-1. The measurement is performed in the dilepton decay channels (e+e-+μ- and e±μ). Furthermore, the absolute and normalized differential cross sections for tt-bar production are measured as a function of the jet multiplicity in the event for different jet transverse momentum thresholds and the kinematic properties of the leading additional jets. The differential tt-barb and tt-barbb-bar cross sections are presented for the first time as a function of the kinematic properties of the leading additional b jets. Furthermore, the fraction of events without additional jets above a threshold is measured as a function of the transverse momenta of the leading additional jets and the scalar sum of the transverse momenta of all additional jets. Finally, the data are compared and found to be consistent with predictions from several perturbative quantum chromodynamics event generators and a next-to-leading ordercalculation.

  11. Measurement of $$\\mathrm{ t \\bar{t} } $$ production with additional jet activity, including b quark jets, in the dilepton decay channel using pp collisions at $$\\sqrt{s} =$$ 8 TeV

    DOE PAGES

    Khachatryan, Vardan

    2016-07-07

    Jet multiplicity distributions in top quark pair (tt-bar) events are measured in pp collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV with the CMS detector at the LHC using a data set corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 19.7 fb-1. The measurement is performed in the dilepton decay channels (e+e-,μ+μ- and e±μ∓). Furthermore, the absolute and normalized differential cross sections for tt-bar production are measured as a function of the jet multiplicity in the event for different jet transverse momentum thresholds and the kinematic properties of the leading additional jets. The differential tt-barb and tt-barbb-bar cross sections are presented formore » the first time as a function of the kinematic properties of the leading additional b jets. Furthermore, the fraction of events without additional jets above a threshold is measured as a function of the transverse momenta of the leading additional jets and the scalar sum of the transverse momenta of all additional jets. Finally, the data are compared and found to be consistent with predictions from several perturbative quantum chromodynamics event generators and a next-to-leading ordercalculation.« less

  12. Measurement of toverline{t} production with additional jet activity, including b quark jets, in the dilepton decay channel using pp collisions at √{s} = 8 {TeV}

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khachatryan, V.; Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Adam, W.; Asilar, E.; Bergauer, T.; Brandstetter, J.; Brondolin, E.; Dragicevic, M.; Erö, J.; Friedl, M.; Frühwirth, R.; Ghete, V. M.; Hartl, C.; Hörmann, N.; Hrubec, J.; Jeitler, M.; Knünz, V.; König, A.; Krammer, M.; Krätschmer, I.; Liko, D.; Matsushita, T.; Mikulec, I.; Rabady, D.; Rahbaran, B.; Rohringer, H.; Schieck, J.; Schöfbeck, R.; Strauss, J.; Treberer-Treberspurg, W.; Waltenberger, W.; Wulz, C.-E.; Mossolov, V.; Shumeiko, N.; Suarez Gonzalez, J.; Alderweireldt, S.; Cornelis, T.; de Wolf, E. A.; Janssen, X.; Knutsson, A.; Lauwers, J.; Luyckx, S.; van de Klundert, M.; van Haevermaet, H.; van Mechelen, P.; van Remortel, N.; van Spilbeeck, A.; Abu Zeid, S.; Blekman, F.; D'Hondt, J.; Daci, N.; de Bruyn, I.; Deroover, K.; Heracleous, N.; Keaveney, J.; Lowette, S.; Moreels, L.; Olbrechts, A.; Python, Q.; Strom, D.; Tavernier, S.; van Doninck, W.; van Mulders, P.; van Onsem, G. P.; van Parijs, I.; Barria, P.; Brun, H.; Caillol, C.; Clerbaux, B.; de Lentdecker, G.; Fasanella, G.; Favart, L.; Grebenyuk, A.; Karapostoli, G.; Lenzi, T.; Léonard, A.; Maerschalk, T.; Marinov, A.; Perniè, L.; Randle-Conde, A.; Reis, T.; Seva, T.; Vander Velde, C.; Yonamine, R.; Vanlaer, P.; Yonamine, R.; Zenoni, F.; Zhang, F.; Adler, V.; Beernaert, K.; Benucci, L.; Cimmino, A.; Crucy, S.; Dobur, D.; Fagot, A.; Garcia, G.; Gul, M.; McCartin, J.; Ocampo Rios, A. A.; Poyraz, D.; Ryckbosch, D.; Salva, S.; Sigamani, M.; Strobbe, N.; Tytgat, M.; van Driessche, W.; Yazgan, E.; Zaganidis, N.; Basegmez, S.; Beluffi, C.; Bondu, O.; Brochet, S.; Bruno, G.; Caudron, A.; Ceard, L.; da Silveira, G. G.; Delaere, C.; Favart, D.; Forthomme, L.; Giammanco, A.; Hollar, J.; Jafari, A.; Jez, P.; Komm, M.; Lemaitre, V.; Mertens, A.; Musich, M.; Nuttens, C.; Perrini, L.; Pin, A.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Popov, A.; Quertenmont, L.; Selvaggi, M.; Vidal Marono, M.; Beliy, N.; Hammad, G. H.; Júnior, W. L. Aldá; Alves, F. L.; Alves, G. A.; Brito, L.; Correa Martins Junior, M.; Hamer, M.; Hensel, C.; Mora Herrera, C.; Moraes, A.; Pol, M. E.; Rebello Teles, P.; Belchior Batista Das Chagas, E.; Carvalho, W.; Chinellato, J.; Custódio, A.; da Costa, E. M.; de Jesus Damiao, D.; de Oliveira Martins, C.; Fonseca de Souza, S.; Huertas Guativa, L. M.; Malbouisson, H.; Matos Figueiredo, D.; Mundim, L.; Nogima, H.; Prado da Silva, W. L.; Santoro, A.; Sznajder, A.; Tonelli Manganote, E. J.; Vilela Pereira, A.; Ahuja, S.; Bernardes, C. A.; de Souza Santos, A.; Dogra, S.; Fernandez Perez Tomei, T. R.; Gregores, E. M.; Mercadante, P. G.; Moon, C. S.; Novaes, S. F.; Padula, Sandra S.; Romero Abad, D.; Ruiz Vargas, J. C.; Aleksandrov, A.; Hadjiiska, R.; Iaydjiev, P.; Rodozov, M.; Stoykova, S.; Sultanov, G.; Vutova, M.; Dimitrov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Litov, L.; Pavlov, B.; Petkov, P.; Ahmad, M.; Bian, J. G.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, M.; Cheng, T.; Du, R.; Jiang, C. H.; Plestina, R.; Romeo, F.; Shaheen, S. M.; Spiezia, A.; Tao, J.; Wang, C.; Wang, Z.; Zhang, H.; Asawatangtrakuldee, C.; Ban, Y.; Li, Q.; Liu, S.; Mao, Y.; Qian, S. J.; Wang, D.; Xu, Z.; Avila, C.; Cabrera, A.; Chaparro Sierra, L. F.; Florez, C.; Gomez, J. P.; Gomez Moreno, B.; Sanabria, J. C.; Godinovic, N.; Lelas, D.; Puljak, I.; Ribeiro Cipriano, P. M.; Antunovic, Z.; Kovac, M.; Brigljevic, V.; Kadija, K.; Luetic, J.; Micanovic, S.; Sudic, L.; Attikis, A.; Mavromanolakis, G.; Mousa, J.; Nicolaou, C.; Ptochos, F.; Razis, P. A.; Rykaczewski, H.; Bodlak, M.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; El Sawy, M.; El-Khateeb, E.; Elkafrawy, T.; Mohamed, A.; Salama, E.; Calpas, B.; Kadastik, M.; Murumaa, M.; Raidal, M.; Tiko, A.; Veelken, C.; Eerola, P.; Pekkanen, J.; Voutilainen, M.; Härkönen, J.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Mäenpää, T.; Peltola, T.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuovinen, E.; Wendland, L.; Talvitie, J.; Tuuva, T.; Besancon, M.; Couderc, F.; Dejardin, M.; Denegri, D.; Fabbro, B.; Faure, J. L.; Favaro, C.; Ferri, F.; Ganjour, S.; Givernaud, A.; Gras, P.; Hamel de Monchenault, G.; Jarry, P.; Locci, E.; Machet, M.; Malcles, J.; Rander, J.; Rosowsky, A.; Titov, M.; Zghiche, A.; Antropov, I.; Baffioni, S.; Beaudette, F.; Busson, P.; Cadamuro, L.; Chapon, E.; Charlot, C.; Dahms, T.; Davignon, O.; Filipovic, N.; Florent, A.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Lisniak, S.; Mastrolorenzo, L.; Miné, P.; Naranjo, I. N.; Nguyen, M.; Ochando, C.; Ortona, G.; Paganini, P.; Pigard, P.; Regnard, S.; Salerno, R.; Sauvan, J. B.; Sirois, Y.; Strebler, T.; Yilmaz, Y.; Zabi, A.; Agram, J.-L.; Andrea, J.; Aubin, A.; Bloch, D.; Brom, J.-M.; Buttignol, M.; Chabert, E. C.; Chanon, N.; Collard, C.; Conte, E.; Coubez, X.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Gelé, D.; Goerlach, U.; Goetzmann, C.

    2016-07-01

    Jet multiplicity distributions in top quark pair ({t}{overline{t}}) events are measured in pp collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV with the CMS detector at the LHC using a data set corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 19.7 {fb}^ {-1}. The measurement is performed in the dilepton decay channels (e^+e^-, μ^+ μ^-, and e^{±} μ^{∓}). The absolute and normalized differential cross sections for {t}overline{t} production are measured as a function of the jet multiplicity in the event for different jet transverse momentum thresholds and the kinematic properties of the leading additional jets. The differential {t overline{t} b} and {t overline{t} b overline{b}} cross sections are presented for the first time as a function of the kinematic properties of the leading additional b jets. Furthermore, the fraction of events without additional jets above a threshold is measured as a function of the transverse momenta of the leading additional jets and the scalar sum of the transverse momenta of all additional jets. The data are compared and found to be consistent with predictions from several perturbative quantum chromodynamics event generators and a next-to-leading order calculation.

  13. Nomenclatural Status and Some Additions to the Species Listed in the Publication, New Species of Mosquitoes in the Fauna of the USSR by A. V. Gutsevich and A. M. Dubitskiy (1981) (Diptera: Culicidae)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-01-01

    account the modern concept of species developed by Ernst Mayr and associates over the past 40 years ( Mayr 1963). It is advisable to consider CCC. p...Mosquito Systematics Vol. 19(l) 1987 99 Mayr , E. 1963. Animal species and evolution. Harvard Univ. Press, Cambridge, 797 pp. Mayr , E. 1969

  14. RNA polymerase beta subunit (rpoB) gene and the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic transcribed spacer region (ITS) as complementary molecular markers in addition to the 16S rRNA gene for phylogenetic analysis and identification of the species of the family Mycoplasmataceae.

    PubMed

    Volokhov, Dmitriy V; Simonyan, Vahan; Davidson, Maureen K; Chizhikov, Vladimir E

    2012-01-01

    Conventional classification of the species in the family Mycoplasmataceae is mainly based on phenotypic criteria, which are complicated, can be difficult to measure, and have the potential to be hampered by phenotypic deviations among the isolates. The number of biochemical reactions suitable for phenotypic characterization of the Mycoplasmataceae is also very limited and therefore the strategy for the final identification of the Mycoplasmataceae species is based on comparative serological results. However, serological testing of the Mycoplasmataceae species requires a performance panel of hyperimmune sera which contains anti-serum to each known species of the family, a high level of technical expertise, and can only be properly performed by mycoplasma-reference laboratories. In addition, the existence of uncultivated and fastidious Mycoplasmataceae species/isolates in clinical materials significantly complicates, or even makes impossible, the application of conventional bacteriological tests. The analysis of available genetic markers is an additional approach for the primary identification and phylogenetic classification of cultivable species and uncultivable or fastidious organisms in standard microbiological laboratories. The partial nucleotide sequences of the RNA polymerase β-subunit gene (rpoB) and the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic transcribed spacer (ITS) were determined for all known type strains and the available non-type strains of the Mycoplasmataceae species. In addition to the available 16S rRNA gene data, the ITS and rpoB sequences were used to infer phylogenetic relationships among these species and to enable identification of the Mycoplasmataceae isolates to the species level. The comparison of the ITS and rpoB phylogenetic trees with the 16S rRNA reference phylogenetic tree revealed a similar clustering patterns for the Mycoplasmataceae species, with minor discrepancies for a few species that demonstrated higher divergence of their ITS and rpoB in

  15. Enzymes as feed additive to aid in responses against Eimeria species in coccidia-vaccinated broilers fed corn-soybean meal diets with different protein levels.

    PubMed

    Parker, J; Oviedo-Rondón, E O; Clack, B A; Clemente-Hernández, S; Osborne, J; Remus, J C; Kettunen, H; Mäkivuokko, H; Pierson, E M

    2007-04-01

    This research aimed to evaluate the effects of adding a combination of exogenous enzymes to starter diets varying in protein content and fed to broilers vaccinated at day of hatch with live oocysts and then challenged with mixed Eimeria spp. Five hundred four 1-d-old male Cobb-500 chickens were distributed in 72 cages. The design consisted of 12 treatments. Three anticoccidial control programs [ionophore (IO), coccidian vaccine (COV), and coccidia-vaccine + enzymes (COV + EC)] were evaluated under 3 CP levels (19, 21, and 23%), and 3 unmedicated-uninfected (UU) negative controls were included for each one of the protein levels. All chickens except those in unmedicated-uninfected negative controls were infected at 17 d of age with a mixed oral inoculum of Eimeria acervulina, Eimeria maxima, and Eimeria tenella. Live performance, lesion scores, oocyst counts, and samples for gut microflora profiles were evaluated 7 d postinfection. Ileal digestibility of amino acids (IDAA) was determined 8 d postinfection. Microbial communities (MC) were analyzed by G + C%, microbial numbers were counted by flow cytometry, and IgA concentrations were measured by ELISA. The lowest CP diets had poorer (P < or = 0.001) BW gain and feed conversion ratio in the preinfection period. Coccidia-vaccinated broilers had lower performance than the ones fed ionophore diets during pre- and postchallenge periods. Intestinal lesion scores were affected (P < or = 0.05) by anticoccidial control programs, but responses changed according to gut section. Feed additives or vaccination had no effect (P > or = 0.05) on IDAA, and diets with 23% CP had the lowest (P < or = 0.001) IDAA. Coccidial infection had no effect on MC numbers in the ileum but reduced MC numbers in ceca and suppressed ileal IgA production. The COV + EC treatment modulated MC during mixed coccidiosis infection but did not significantly improve chicken performance. Results indicated that feed enzymes may be used to modulate the gut

  16. Two new endemic species of Ameiva (Squamata: Teiidae) from the dry forest of northwestern Peru and additional information on Ameiva concolor Ruthven, 1924.

    PubMed

    Koch, Claudia; Venegas, Pablo J; Rödder, Dennis; Flecks, Morris; Böhme, Wolfgang

    2013-12-04

    We describe two new species of Ameiva Meyer, 1795 from the dry forest of the Northern Peruvian Andes. The new species Ameiva nodam sp. nov. and Ameiva aggerecusans sp. nov. share a divided frontal plate and are differentiated from each other and from their congeners based on genetic (12S and 16S rRNA genes) and morphological characteristics. A. nodam sp. nov. has dilated postbrachials, a maximum known snout-vent length of 101 mm, 10 longitudinal rows of ventral plates, 86-113 midbody granules, 25-35 lamellae under the fourth toe, and a color pattern with 5 longitudinal yellow stripes on the dorsum. Ameiva aggerecusans sp. nov. has not or only hardly dilated postbrachials, a maximum known snout-vent length of 99.3 mm, 10-12 longitudinal rows of ventral plates, 73-92 midbody granules, 31-39 lamellae under the fourth toe, and the females and juveniles of the species normally exhibit a cream-colored vertebral stripe on a dark dorsum ground color. We provide information on the intraspecific variation and distribution of A. concolor. Furthermore, we provide information on the environmental niches of the taxa and test for niche conservatism. 

  17. A revision of the Axylus group of Agraeciini (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae: Conocephalinae) and of some other species formerly included in Nicsara or Anthracites Revision of the Indo-Australian Conocephalinae, Part 3.

    PubMed

    Ingrisch, Sigfrid

    2015-11-23

    Axylus group is used to include the five genera Axylus Stål, 1877, Anthracites Redtenbacher, 1891 sensu stricto, Eucoptaspis Willemse, 1966, Eulobaspis gen. nov., and Heminicsara Karny, 1912. It is mainly based on a combination of the characters shape of pronotum, spiniform meso- and metasternal lobes, and similar basic ground plans of the male cerci, titillators and female subgenital plates. The five genera together with two superficially similar genera Euanthracites gen. nov. and Sulasara gen. nov. are fully revised. Papuacites gen. nov. is proposed for two New Guinean species formerly included in Anthracites. Nicsara Walker, 1869 is restricted to Australian species; Spinisternum Willemse, 1942 is synonymised with Heminicsara Karny, 1912; Odontocoryphus Karny, 1907 based on two nymphs is synonymised with Macroxiphus Pictet, 1888; Pseudoliara Karny, 1907 described after one nymph is regarded incertae sedis. 40 new combination of species are proposed: Axylus bimaculatus (Redtenbacher, 1891) comb. nov., A. inferior (Brunner, 1898) comb. nov., A. inflatus (Brunner, 1898) comb. nov., A. loboensis (De Haan, 1842) comb. nov., A. minutus (Dohrn, 1905) comb. nov., A. nigrifrons (Brunner, 1898) comb. nov., A. philippinus (Hebard, 1922) comb. nov., A, taylori (Hebard, 1922) comb. nov., and A. thoracicus (Dohrn, 1905) comb. nov. (all from Nicsara); Euanthracites apoensis (Hebard, 1922) comb. nov., E. femoralis (Dohrn, 1905) comb. nov., E. rufus (Ingrisch, 1998) comb. nov., and E. tibialis (Karny, 1931) comb. nov. (from Anthracites); Eucoptaspis inexpectatus (Willemse, 1953) comb. nov. (from Gonatacanthus Karny, 1907); Eulobaspis dehaani (Karny, 1920) comb. nov., E. emarginata (Karny, 1926) comb. nov., E. moluccana (Redtenbacher, 1891) comb. nov., E. personata (Karny, 1926) comb. nov., E. quadrimaculata (Karny, 1926) comb. nov., E. rotundata (Karny, 1926) comb. nov., and E. strigatipes (Bolivar, 1898) comb. nov. (from Nicsara); Eulobaspis lobaspoides (Karny, 1907) comb. nov

  18. Sylphellapuccoon gen. n., sp. n. and two additional new species of aquatic oligochaetes (Lumbriculidae, Clitellata) from poorly-known lotic habitats in North Carolina (USA).

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Pilar; Fend, Steven V; Lenat, David R

    2014-01-01

    Three new species of Lumbriculidae were collected from floodplain seeps and small streams in southeastern North America. Some of these habitats are naturally acidic. Sylphellapuccoon gen. n., sp. n. has prosoporous male ducts in X-XI, and spermathecae in XII-XIII. Muscular, spherical atrial ampullae and acuminate penial sheaths distinguish this monotypic new genus from other lumbriculid genera having similar arrangements of reproductive organs. Cookidriluspocosinus sp. n. resembles its two subterranean, Palearctic congeners in the arrangement of reproductive organs, but is easily distinguished by the position of the spermathecal pores in front of the chaetae in X-XIII. Stylodriluscoreyi sp. n. differs from congeners having simple-pointed chaetae and elongate atria primarily by the structure of the male duct and the large clusters of prostate cells. Streams and wetlands of Southeastern USA have a remarkably high diversity of endemic lumbriculids, and these poorly-known invertebrates should be considered in conservation efforts.

  19. Sylphella puccoon gen. n., sp. n. and two additional new species of aquatic oligochaetes (Lumbriculidae, Clitellata) from poorly-known lotic habitats in North Carolina (USA)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rodriguez, Pilar; Fend, Steven V.; Lenat, David R.

    2014-01-01

    Three new species of Lumbriculidae were collected from floodplain seeps and small streams in southeastern North America. Some of these habitats are naturally acidic. Sylphella puccoon gen. n., sp. n. has prosoporous male ducts in X-XI, and spermathecae in XII-XIII. Muscular, spherical atrial ampullae and acuminate penial sheaths distinguish this monotypic new genus from other lumbriculid genera having similar arrangements of reproductive organs. Cookidrilus pocosinus sp. n. resembles its two subterranean, Palearctic congeners in the arrangement of reproductive organs, but is easily distinguished by the position of the spermathecal pores in front of the chaetae in X-XIII. Stylodrilus coreyi sp. n. differs from congeners having simple-pointed chaetae and elongate atria primarily by the structure of the male duct and the large clusters of prostate cells. Streams and wetlands of Southeastern USA have a remarkably high diversity of endemic lumbriculids, and these poorly-known invertebrates should be considered in conservation efforts.

  20. Sylphella puccoon gen. n., sp. n. and two additional new species of aquatic oligochaetes (Lumbriculidae, Clitellata) from poorly-known lotic habitats in North Carolina (USA)

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Pilar; Fend, Steven V.; Lenat, David R.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Three new species of Lumbriculidae were collected from floodplain seeps and small streams in southeastern North America. Some of these habitats are naturally acidic. Sylphella puccoon gen. n., sp. n. has prosoporous male ducts in X–XI, and spermathecae in XII–XIII. Muscular, spherical atrial ampullae and acuminate penial sheaths distinguish this monotypic new genus from other lumbriculid genera having similar arrangements of reproductive organs. Cookidrilus pocosinus sp. n. resembles its two subterranean, Palearctic congeners in the arrangement of reproductive organs, but is easily distinguished by the position of the spermathecal pores in front of the chaetae in X–XIII. Stylodrilus coreyi sp. n. differs from congeners having simple-pointed chaetae and elongate atria primarily by the structure of the male duct and the large clusters of prostate cells. Streams and wetlands of Southeastern USA have a remarkably high diversity of endemic lumbriculids, and these poorly-known invertebrates should be considered in conservation efforts. PMID:25493045

  1. Effect of Inert Gas Additive Species on Cl(2) High Density Plasma Etching of Compound Semiconductors: Part 1. GaAs and GaSb

    SciTech Connect

    Abernathy, C.R.; Cho, H.; Hahn, Y.B.; Hays, D.C.; Jung, K.B.; Pearton, S.J.; Shul, R.J.

    1998-12-23

    The role of the inert gas additive (He, Ar, Xe) to C12 Inductively Coupled Plasmas for dry etching of GaAs and GaSb was examined through the effect on etch rate, surface roughness and near-surface stoichiometry. The etch rates for both materials go through a maximum with Clz 0/0 in each type of discharge (C12/'He, C12/Ar, C12/Xc), reflecting the need to have efficient ion-assisted resorption of the etch products. Etch yields initially increase strongly with source power as the chlorine neutral density increases, but decrease again at high powers as the etching becomes reactant-limited. The etched surfaces are generally smoother with Ax or Xe addition, and maintain their stoichiometry.

  2. Alien genes introgression and development of alien monosomic addition lines from a threatened species, Allium roylei Stearn, to Allium cepa L.

    PubMed

    Vu, Hoa Q; Yoshimatsu, Yasuyuki; Khrustaleva, Ludmila I; Yamauchi, Naoki; Shigyo, Masayoshi

    2012-05-01

    To produce alien monosomic addition lines (AMALs) of Allium cepa (genomes CC, 2n = 2x = 16) carrying extrachromosomes from Allium roylei (RR, 2n = 2x = 16), reciprocal backcrossing of allotriploids (2n = 24, CCR) with diploids (2n = 16, CC) and selfing of a single allotriploid were carried out. The chromosome numbers in the BC(2)F(1) and BC(1)F(2) progenies ranged from 16 to 32. Forty-eight plants were recorded to possess 2n = 17 among a total of 169 plants in observation. Through the analyses of isozymes, expressed sequence tag (EST) markers, and karyotypes, all eight possible types of A. cepa-A. roylei monosomic addition lines (CC+1R-CC+8R) could be identified. Seven types of representative AMALs (without CC+2R) were used for the GISH analysis of somatic chromosomes. Except for CC+6R, all AMALs showed an entire (unrecombined) extrachromosome from A. roylei in the integral diploid background of A. cepa. A single recombination between A. cepa and A. roylei was observed on the extrachromosome in the remaining type. All alloplasmic AMALs possessing A. roylei cytoplasm showed high or complete pollen sterility. Only the autoplasmic CC+4R with A. cepa cytoplasm possessed relatively high pollen fertility. The bulbs of CC+4R displayed the distinct ovoid shape that discriminates them from spherical or oval ones in other AMALs. Downy mildew screening in the field showed higher resistance in A. roylei, a hypo-allotriploid (CCR-nR, 2n = 23), and an allotriploid (CCR, 2n = 24). Meanwhile, no complete resistance was found in some AMALs examined. This was the first trial toward the establishment of a complete set of A. cepa-A. roylei monosomic additions.

  3. Stabilizing Cr species in incinerator fly ashes with/without kaolin addition through a firing process: a molecular study on heated Cr.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yu-Ling; Wang, Hsi-Chih; Peng, Yen-Shiun

    2016-10-06

    Cr speciation in Cr-sorbing washed incinerator fly ash after heating up to 1100°C is temperature dependent. Higher temperature leads to greater level of chemical reduction of Cr(VI) that is considerably more toxic than Cr(III). Most Cr(VI) sorbed washed incinerator fly ash is effectively transformed into Cr(III) after heating to 1100°C for 2 hr, as indicated by the disappearance of hexavalent pre-edge peak of Cr K-edge XANES spectrum. After heating the Cr-sorbing incinerator fly ash to 100(o)C and 500(o)C for 2 hr, water soluble CaCrO4 is determined to be the principal Cr species due to the chemical reaction between the sorbed Cr(VI) and CaO component of washed fly ash, based on the comparison between sample and reference XANES spectra. Replacing half of the washed fly ash with kaolin could effectively reduce all Cr(VI) after heating to ≧900(o)C for 2 hr.

  4. Further karyosystematic studies of the Boreonectesgriseostriatus (De Geer) group of sibling species (Coleoptera, Dytiscidae)-characterisation of B.emmerichi (Falkenström, 1936) and additional European data.

    PubMed

    Angus, Robert B; Angus, Elizabeth M; Jia, Fenglong; Chen, Zhen-Ning; Zhang, Ying

    2015-01-01

    A lectotype is designated for the Tibetan species Deronectesemmerichi Falkenström, 1936 (Currently Boreonectesemmerichi (Falkenström)), and its habitus, as well as the median lobe and parameres of its aedeagus, are figured along with additional comparative material. Material of Boreonectesemmerichi from Sikkim (BMNH) represents the first record of a Boreonectes Angus, 2010 species from India. The karyotype of Boreonectesemmerichi is described as having 26 pairs of autosomes plus sex chromosomes which are X0 (♂), XX (♀). The karyotype is most like that of Boreonectesmacedonicus (Géuorguiev, 1959), but with slight differences. Additional chromosomal information is given for Boreonectesgriseostriatusgriseostriatus (De Geer, 1774) in the French Alps, Boreonectesgriseostriatusstrandi (Brinck, 1943) on the Kola Peninsula, Boreonectesmultilineatus (Falkenström, 1922) in the Pyrenees and Boreonectesibericus (Dutton & Angus, 2007) in the Spanish Picos de Europa.

  5. Further karyosystematic studies of the Boreonectes griseostriatus (De Geer) group of sibling species (Coleoptera, Dytiscidae)–characterisation of B. emmerichi (Falkenström, 1936) and additional European data

    PubMed Central

    Angus, Robert B.; Angus, Elizabeth M.; Jia, Fenglong; Chen, Zhen-ning; Zhang, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A lectotype is designated for the Tibetan species Deronectes emmerichi Falkenström, 1936 (Currently Boreonectes emmerichi (Falkenström)), and its habitus, as well as the median lobe and parameres of its aedeagus, are figured along with additional comparative material. Material of Boreonectes emmerichi from Sikkim (BMNH) represents the first record of a Boreonectes Angus, 2010 species from India. The karyotype of Boreonectes emmerichi is described as having 26 pairs of autosomes plus sex chromosomes which are X0 (♂), XX (♀). The karyotype is most like that of Boreonectes macedonicus (Géuorguiev, 1959), but with slight differences. Additional chromosomal information is given for Boreonectes griseostriatus griseostriatus (De Geer, 1774) in the French Alps, Boreonectes griseostriatus strandi (Brinck, 1943) on the Kola Peninsula, Boreonectes multilineatus (Falkenström, 1922) in the Pyrenees and Boreonectes ibericus (Dutton & Angus, 2007) in the Spanish Picos de Europa. PMID:25893080

  6. Food additives

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Michael

    1974-01-01

    Food additives are discussed from the food technology point of view. The reasons for their use are summarized: (1) to protect food from chemical and microbiological attack; (2) to even out seasonal supplies; (3) to improve their eating quality; (4) to improve their nutritional value. The various types of food additives are considered, e.g. colours, flavours, emulsifiers, bread and flour additives, preservatives, and nutritional additives. The paper concludes with consideration of those circumstances in which the use of additives is (a) justified and (b) unjustified. PMID:4467857

  7. Two new species of Coelostoma Brullé, 1835 from China and additional faunistic records of the genus from the Oriental Region (Coleoptera: Hydrophilidae: Sphaeridiinae: Coelostomatini).

    PubMed

    Jia, Fenglong; Lin, Renchao; Chan, Eric; Skale, Andre; Fikáček, Martin

    2017-02-15

    Two new species of Coelostoma Brullé, 1835 are described from China: C. (Lachnocoelostoma) jaechi sp. nov. (Hong Kong) and C. (Lachnocoelostoma) tangliangi sp. nov. (Hainan). Coelostoma (s. str.) subditum Orchymont, 1936 is reported for the first time from continental Asia (China: Hong Kong, Yunnan). The first country or province records are provided for an additional 10 species: C. (s. str.) vividum Orchymont, 1936 from Cambodia and Pakistan, C. (s. str.) vitalisi Orchymont, 1923 from Cambodia and Thailand; C. (Holocoelostoma) stultum (Walker, 1858) from Myanmar and China: Hainan, Chongqing; C. (Lachnocoelostoma) coomani Orchymont, 1932 from China: Guizhou, Sichuan; C. (L.) hongkongense Jia, Aston & Fikáček, 2014 from Thailand and China: Yunnan; C. (L.) horni (Régimbart, 1902) from Thailand; C. (L.) huangi Jia, Aston & Fikáček, 2014 from Thailand; C. (L.) phallicum Orchymont, 1940 from China: Yunnan; C. (L.) vagum Orchymont, 1940 from China: Fujian; and C. (L.) wui Orchymont, 1940 from China: Fujian, Henan. Coelostoma coomani diversum Orchymont, 1932 is elevated to species rank (as C. diversum stat. nov.) based on the study of its type specimens and comparison with species treated here. An updated key to the species of Chinese Coelostoma is provided.

  8. New species of Chaetozone and Tharyx (Polychaeta: Cirratulidae) from the Alaskan and Canadian Arctic and the Northeastern Pacific, including a description of the lectotype of Chaetozone setosa Malmgren from Spitsbergen in the Norwegian Arctic.

    PubMed

    Blake, James A

    2015-02-18

    Eight new species of cirratulid polychaetes of the genus Chaetozone from the Alaskan (Beaufort Sea) and Canadian Arctic (Baffin Island, Baffin Bay, Labrador, Hudson Strait, and Hudson Bay) and the Northeastern Pacific are reported together with two new species of Tharyx from the Alaskan Beaufort Sea and the Strait of Juan de Fuca. The new species of Chaetozone and Tharyx are compared with related species; distinct species groups within these genera are discussed. A redescription of C. setosa Malmgren, 1867, the type species of the genus from Spitsbergen, based on a lectotype and associated paralectotypes designated by the late Dr. Mary E. Petersen is presented. A review of characters important in the taxonomy of the genera Chaetozone and Tharyx is presented. A key to species of Chaetozone from the Northeastern Pacific and North American Arctic is provided.

  9. Evaluation of caspofungin susceptibility testing by the new Vitek 2 AST-YS06 yeast card using a unique collection of FKS wild-type and hot spot mutant isolates, including the five most common candida species.

    PubMed

    Astvad, Karen M; Perlin, David S; Johansen, Helle K; Jensen, Rasmus H; Arendrup, Maiken C

    2013-01-01

    FKS mutant isolates associated with breakthrough or failure cases are emerging in clinical settings. Discrimination of these from wild-type (wt) isolates in a routine laboratory setting is complicated. We evaluated the ability of caspofungin MIC determination using the new Vitek 2 AST-Y06 yeast susceptibility card to correctly identify the fks mutants from wt isolates and compared the performance to those of the CLSI and EUCAST reference methods. A collection of 98 Candida isolates, including 31 fks hot spot mutants, were included. Performance was evaluated using the FKS genotype as the "gold standard" and compared to those of the CLSI and EUCAST methodologies. The categorical agreement for Vitek 2 was 93.9%, compared to 88.4% for the CLSI method and 98.7% for the EUCAST method. Vitek 2 misclassified 19.4% (6/31) of the fks mutant isolates as susceptible, in contrast to <4% for each of the reference methods. The overall essential agreement between the CLSI method and Vitek 2 MICs was 92.6% (88/95) but was substantially lower for fks mutant isolates (78.6% [22/28]). Correct discrimination between susceptible and intermediate Candida glabrata isolates was not possible, as the revised species-specific susceptibility breakpoint was not included in the Vitek 2 detection range (MIC of ≤0.250 to ≥4 mg/liter). In conclusion, the Vitek 2 allowed correct categorization of all wt isolates as susceptible. However, despite an acceptable categorical agreement, it failed to reliably classify isolates harboring fks hot spot mutations as intermediate or resistant, which was in part due to the fact that the detection range did not span the susceptibility breakpoint for C. glabrata.

  10. Regioselective nucleophilic addition of triphenylphosphine to the nitrosylruthenium alkynyl complexes having a hydrotris(pyrazol-1-yl)borate: formation of phosphonio-alkenyl, alkynyl, and allenyl species.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Yoshimasa; Arikawa, Yasuhiro; Inoue, Takanori; Onishi, Masayoshi

    2005-03-07

    A nitrosylruthenium alkynyl complex of TpRuCl(C[triple bond]CPh)(NO)(1a) was reacted with PPh3 in the presence of HBF4.Et2O at room temperature to give a beta-phosphonio-alkenyl complex (E)-[TpRuCl{CH=C(PPh3)Ph}(NO)]BF4(2.BF4). On the other hand, for gamma-hydroxyalkynyl complexes TpRuCl{C[triple bond]CC(R)2OH}(NO)(R = Me (1b), Ph (1c), H (1d)), similar treatments with PPh3 were found to give gamma-phosphonio-alkynyl [TpRuCl{C[triple bond]CC(Me)2PPh3}(NO)]BF4(3.BF4),alpha-phosphonio-allenyl [TpRuCl{C(PPh3)=C=CPh2}(NO)]BF4(4.BF4), and a novel product of gamma-hydroxy-beta-phosphonio-alkenyl (E)-[TpRuCl{CH=C(PPh3)CH2OH}(NO)]BF4(5.BF4), respectively. Dominant factors for the selectivity in affording 3-5 were associated with the steric congestion and electronic properties at the gamma-carbons, along with those around the metal fragment. From the bis(alkynyl) complex TpRu(C[triple bond]CPh)2(NO)6, a bis(beta-phosphonio-alkenyl)(E,E)-[TpRu{CH=C(PPh3)Ph}2(NO)](BF4)2{7.(BF4)2} was produced at room temperature. However, similar reactions at 0 degrees C gave an alkynyl beta-phosphonio-alkenyl complex (E)-[TpRu(C[triple bondCPh){CH=C(PPh3)Ph}(NO)]BF4(8.BF4) as a sole product, of which additional hydration in the presence of HBF4.Et2O afforded a [small beta]-phosphonio-alkenyl ketonyl (E)-[TpRu{CH2C(O)Ph}{CH=C(PPh3)Ph}(NO)]BF(.9BF4). Five complexes, 2-5 and 7 were crystallographically characterized.

  11. Terraranans of the Lost World: a new species of Pristimantis (Amphibia, Craugastoridae) from Abakapá-tepui in the Chimantá massif, Venezuelan Guayana, and additions to the knowledge of P. muchimuk.

    PubMed

    Rojas-Runjaic, Fernando J M; Salerno, Patricia E; Señaris, J Celsa; Pauly, Gregory B

    2013-01-01

    A new frog of the genus Pristimantis is named and described from the summit of Abakapá-tepui in the Chimantd massif, south-eastern Venezuela. The new species is known from two adult specimens and is the second craugastorid species described from this massif. It can be readily distinguished from all congeners inhabiting the highlands of the Guiana Shield by the unique combination of the following characters: dorsal skin shagreen and ventral skin coarsely areolate, tympanum small and ill-defined, vocal slits absent in males, finger I shorter than II, thumbs with two whitish and non-spinous nuptial pads in adult males, fingers and toes with broad lateral fringes, basal webbing between all toes, throat and chest nacreous white in life. Also, based on five specimens of Pristimantis muchimuk recently collected from Churi-tepui, we provide new information on this little known species, including an amended diagnosis, notes on morphology, color variation, advertisement calls, and natural history.

  12. Species concepts and species delimitation.

    PubMed

    De Queiroz, Kevin

    2007-12-01

    The issue of species delimitation has long been confused with that of species conceptualization, leading to a half century of controversy concerning both the definition of the species category and methods for inferring the boundaries and numbers of species. Alternative species concepts agree in treating existence as a separately evolving metapopulation lineage as the primary defining property of the species category, but they disagree in adopting different properties acquired by lineages during the course of divergence (e.g., intrinsic reproductive isolation, diagnosability, monophyly) as secondary defining properties (secondary species criteria). A unified species concept can be achieved by treating existence as a separately evolving metapopulation lineage as the only necessary property of species and the former secondary species criteria as different lines of evidence (operational criteria) relevant to assessing lineage separation. This unified concept of species has several consequences for species delimitation, including the following: First, the issues of species conceptualization and species delimitation are clearly separated; the former secondary species criteria are no longer considered relevant to species conceptualization but only to species delimitation. Second, all of the properties formerly treated as secondary species criteria are relevant to species delimitation to the extent that they provide evidence of lineage separation. Third, the presence of any one of the properties (if appropriately interpreted) is evidence for the existence of a species, though more properties and thus more lines of evidence are associated with a higher degree of corroboration. Fourth, and perhaps most significantly, a unified species concept shifts emphasis away from the traditional species criteria, encouraging biologists to develop new methods of species delimitation that are not tied to those properties.

  13. Larvicidal activity of Blumea eriantha essential oil and its components against six mosquito species, including Zika virus vectors: the promising potential of (4E,6Z)-allo-ocimene, carvotanacetone and dodecyl acetate.

    PubMed

    Benelli, Giovanni; Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Rajeswary, Mohan; Senthilmurugan, Sengamalai; Vijayan, Periasamy; Alharbi, Naiyf S; Kadaikunnan, Shine; Khaled, Jamal M

    2017-04-01

    The effective and environmentally sustainable control of mosquitoes is a challenge of essential importance. This is due to the fact that some invasive mosquitoes, with special reference to the Aedes genus, are particularly difficult to control, due to their high ecological plasticity. Moreover, the indiscriminate overuse of synthetic insecticides resulted in undesirable effects on human health and non-target organisms, as well as resistance development in targeted vectors. Here, the leaf essential oil (EO) extracted from a scarcely studied plant of ethno-medicinal interest, Blumea eriantha (Asteraceae), was tested on the larvae of six mosquitoes, including Zika virus vectors. The B. eriantha EO was analyzed by GC and GC-MS. The B. eriantha EO showed high toxicity against 3rd instar larvae of six important mosquito species: Anopheles stephensi (LC50=41.61 μg/ml), Aedes aegypti (LC50=44.82 μg/ml), Culex quinquefasciatus (LC50 =48.92 μg/ml), Anopheles subpictus (LC50=51.21 μg/ml), Ae. albopictus (LC50=56.33 μg/ml) and Culex tritaeniorhynchus (LC50=61.33 μg/ml). The major components found in B. eriantha EO were (4E,6Z)-allo-ocimene (12.8%), carvotanacetone (10.6%), and dodecyl acetate (8.9%). Interestingly, two of the main EO components, (4E,6Z)-allo-ocimene and carvotanacetone, achieved LC50 lower than 10 μg/ml on all tested mosquito species. The acute toxicity of B. eriantha EO and its major constituents on four aquatic predators of mosquito larval instars was limited, with LC50 ranging from 519 to 11.431 μg/ml. Overall, the larvicidal activity of (4E,6Z)-allo-ocimene and carvotanacetone far exceed most of the LC50 calculated in current literature on mosquito botanical larvicides, allowing us to propose both of them as potentially alternatives for developing eco-friendly mosquito control tools.

  14. Potlining Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolf Keller

    2004-08-10

    In this project, a concept to improve the performance of aluminum production cells by introducing potlining additives was examined and tested. Boron oxide was added to cathode blocks, and titanium was dissolved in the metal pool; this resulted in the formation of titanium diboride and caused the molten aluminum to wet the carbonaceous cathode surface. Such wetting reportedly leads to operational improvements and extended cell life. In addition, boron oxide suppresses cyanide formation. This final report presents and discusses the results of this project. Substantial economic benefits for the practical implementation of the technology are projected, especially for modern cells with graphitized blocks. For example, with an energy savings of about 5% and an increase in pot life from 1500 to 2500 days, a cost savings of $ 0.023 per pound of aluminum produced is projected for a 200 kA pot.

  15. Phosphazene additives

    DOEpatents

    Harrup, Mason K; Rollins, Harry W

    2013-11-26

    An additive comprising a phosphazene compound that has at least two reactive functional groups and at least one capping functional group bonded to phosphorus atoms of the phosphazene compound. One of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with cellulose and the other of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with a resin, such as an amine resin of a polycarboxylic acid resin. The at least one capping functional group is selected from the group consisting of a short chain ether group, an alkoxy group, or an aryloxy group. Also disclosed are an additive-resin admixture, a method of treating a wood product, and a wood product.

  16. Non-phytoseiid Mesostigmata within citrus orchards in Florida: species distribution, relative and seasonal abundance within trees, associated vines and ground cover plants and additional collection records of mites in citrus orchards.

    PubMed

    Childers, Carl C; Ueckermann, Eduard A

    2015-03-01

    Seven citrus orchards on reduced- to no-pesticide spray programs in central and south central Florida were sampled for non-phytoseiid mesostigmatid mites. Inner and outer canopy leaves, fruits, twigs and trunk scrapings were sampled monthly between August 1994 and January 1996. Open flowers were sampled in March from five of the sites. A total of 431 samples from one or more of 82 vine or ground cover plants were sampled monthly in five of the seven orchards. Two of the seven orchards (Mixon I and II) were on full herbicide programs and vines and ground cover plants were absent. A total of 2,655 mites (26 species) within the families: Ascidae, Blattisociidae, Laelapidae, Macrochelidae, Melicharidae, Pachylaelapidae and Parasitidae were identified. A total of 685 mites in the genus Asca (nine species: family Ascidae) were collected from within tree samples, 79 from vine or ground cover plants. Six species of Blattisociidae were collected: Aceodromus convolvuli, Blattisocius dentriticus, B. keegani, Cheiroseius sp. near jamaicensis, Lasioseius athiashenriotae and L. dentatus. A total of 485 Blattisociidae were collected from within tree samples compared with 167 from vine or ground cover plants. Low numbers of Laelapidae and Macrochelidae were collected from within tree samples. One Zygoseius furciger (Pachylaelapidae) was collected from Eleusine indica. Four species of Melicharidae were identified from 34 mites collected from within tree samples and 1,190 from vine or ground cover plants: Proctolaelaps lobatus was the most abundant species with 1,177 specimens collected from seven ground cover plants. One Phorytocarpais fimetorum (Parasitidae) was collected from inner leaves and four from twigs. Species of Ascidae, Blattisociidae, Melicharidae, Laelapidae and Pachylaelapidae were collected from 31 of the 82 vine or ground cover plants sampled, representing only a small fraction of the total number of Phytoseiidae collected from the same plants. Including the

  17. A revision of the genus Thouarella Gray, 1870 (Octocorallia: Primnoidae), including an illustrated dichotomous key, a new species description, and comments on Plumarella Gray, 1870 and Dasystenella, Versluys, 1906.

    PubMed

    Taylor, M L; Cairns, S D; Agnew, D J; Rogers, A D

    2013-01-14

    A comprehensive revision of the genus Thouarella is presented. Thirty-five holotypes of the 38 nominal Thouarella species, two varieties, and one form were examined. The number of original Thouarella species has been reduced to 25, mostly through synonymy or new genus combinations. In the process several new species have also been identified, one of which is described here as Thouarella parachilensis nov. sp. The genus is split into two groups based on polyp arrangement: Group 1 with isolated polyps and Group 2 with polyps in pairs or whorls. An illustrated dichotomous key and detailed character table of the 25 Thouarella species are presented alongside an up-to-date account of all species described in the 19th and 20th centuries and summaries of the few described from 2000 onwards. We propose that Thouarella longispinosa is synonymous with Dasystenella acanthina, T. versluysi with T. brucei, and, T. tenuisquamis, T. flabellata, and T. carinata are synonymous with T. laxa. Lastly, we propose that T. bayeri and T. undulata be placed in Plumarella and support recent suggestions that T. alternata, T. recta, T. superba, and T. diadema are also Plumarella.

  18. On a New Species of Parasitic Barnacle (Crustacea: Rhizocephala), Sacculina shiinoi sp. nov., Parasitizing Japanese Mud Shrimps Upogebia spp. (Decapoda: Thalassinidea: Upogebiidae), Including a Description of a Novel Morphological Structure in the Rhizocephala.

    PubMed

    Lützen, Jørgen; Itani, Gyo; Jespersen, Åse; Hong, Jae-Sang; Rees, David; Glenner, Henrik

    2016-04-01

    The rhizocephalan Sacculina shiinoi sp. nov. parasitizes three species of Upogebia in Japan. It is described morphologically and compared with another Upogebia parasite, Sacculina upogebiae Shiino, 1943 from Japan and Korea. These two species are the only sacculinids that parasitize mud shrimps. DNA analyses clearly show the two species to be separate and not closely related. The cuticle differs in being provided with close-set, branched, and spiny excrescences in S. shiinoi, while it lacks excrescences, but forms small scales in S. upogebiae. In S. upogebiae, the bulbous sperm-producing part and the narrow receptacle duct are separated by a compartmentalized mid portion, which is missing in S. shiinoi. A ridge, having a thickened, fluffy cuticle with a U-shaped course, passes across the visceral mass between the two receptacle openings in S. shiinoi. Such a structure has never been described in other rhizocephalans, and its function is uncertain.

  19. Acute toxicity of TFM and a TFM/niclosamide mixture to selected species of fish, including lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) and mudpuppies (Necturus maculosus), in laboratory and field exposures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boogaard, M.A.; Bills, T.D.; Johnson, D.A.

    2003-01-01

    The toxicity of the lampricides 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM) and 2',5-dichloro-4'-nitrosalicylanilide (niclosamide) to non-target fishes has been a major point of concern since their use to control larval sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) populations began in the early 1960s. The toxicity of TFM to several non-target fish species has been demonstrated in previous studies. However, little information is available on the toxicity of the TFM/1% niclosamide mixture. One species of particular concern is the lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens). Juvenile lake sturgeon of several size ranges were exposed to determine potential effects of the lampricides to individuals present in treatment streams. Sac fry were most resistant to the lampricides followed by fingerlings in the 200 to 225 mm size range. Swim-up fry and fingerlings less than 100 mm were the most sensitive. Concentrations that produced 50% mortality (LC50s) in juvenile lake sturgeon of these smaller size ranges were at or near the minimum lethal concentrations (MLCs) required for effective control of larval sea lampreys. The mudpuppy (Necturus maculosus), an amphibian native to several tributaries of the Great Lakes, have also become a species of interest in recent years. Laboratory tests conducted with TFM and a TFM/1% niclosamide mixture on adult mudpuppies indicate that although the amphibian is sensitive to the lampricides, an adequate margin of safety exists for adult mudpuppies to survive when exposed during stream treatments. Fifteen other fish species native to streams treated with lampricides were investigated in the laboratory to determine their sensitivity to the lampricides. Centrarchids, bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) and green sunfish (Lepomis cyanellus) were the least sensitive to TFM, while ictalurids, black bullhead (Ictalurus melas), channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus), and tadpole madtom (Notorus gyrinus) were the most sensitive. On-site bioassays conducted before lampricide

  20. Acute toxicity of TFM and a TFM/niclosamide mixture to selected species of fish, including lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) and mudpuppies (Necturus maculosus), in laboratory and field exposures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boogaard, M.A.; Bills, T.D.; Johnson, D.A.

    2003-01-01

    The toxicity of the lampricides 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM) and 2???,5-dichloro-4???-nitrosalicylanilide (niclosamide) to non-target fishes has been a major point of concern since their use to control larval sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) populations began in the early 1960s. The toxicity of TFM to several non-target fish species has been demonstrated in previous studies. However, little information is available on the toxicity of the TFM/1 % niclosamide mixture. One species of particular concern is the lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens). Juvenile lake sturgeon of several size ranges were exposed to determine potential effects of the lampricides to individuals present in treatment streams. Sac fry were most resistant to the lampricides followed by fingerlings in the 200 to 225 mm size range. Swim-up fry and fingerlings less than 100 mm were the most sensitive. Concentrations that produced 50% mortality (LC50s) in juvenile lake sturgeon of these smaller size ranges were at or near the minimum lethal concentrations (MLCs) required for effective control of larval sea lampreys. The mudpuppy (Necturus maculosus), an amphibian native to several tributaries of the Great Lakes, have also become a species of interest in recent years. Laboratory tests conducted with TFM and a TFM/1 % niclosamide mixture on adult mudpuppies indicate that although the amphibian is sensitive to the lampricides, an adequate margin of safety exists for adult mudpuppies to survive when exposed during stream treatments. Fifteen other fish species native to streams treated with lampricides were investigated in the laboratory to determine their sensitivity to the lampricides. Centrarchids, bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) and green sunfish (Lepomis cyanellus) were the least sensitive to TFM, while ictalurids, black bullhead (Ictalurus melas), channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus), and tadpole madtom (Notorus gyrinus) were the most sensitive. On-site bioassays conducted before lampricide

  1. A description of seven Antarctic marine gymnamoebae including a new subspecies, two new species and a new genus: Neoparamoeba aestuarina antarctica n. subsp., Platyamoeba oblongata n. sp., Platyamoeba contorta n. sp. and Vermistella antarctica n. gen. n. sp.

    PubMed

    Moran, Dawn M; Anderson, O Roger; Dennett, Mark R; Caron, David A; Gast, Rebecca J

    2007-01-01

    Seven marine gymnamoebae were isolated from different environments of seawater, slush (pack ice meltwater), and sediment in the Ross Sea area of Antarctica. All amoebae were isolated and maintained at temperatures below 4 degrees C. Growth, rate of locomotion, and general morphology were observed at an environmentally appropriate temperature (1 degrees C) and at room temperature (approximately 25 degrees C). Molecular (srDNA sequences) and microscopical techniques were used to identify the gymnamoebae and establish their phylogenetic affinities. Three isolates (S-131-2, SL-200, and W4-3) were assigned to a psychrophilic subspecies of Neoparamoeba aestuarina, N. aestuarina antarctica n. subsp., one isolate (S-205) was assigned to a new species of Platyamoeba, P. oblongata n. sp., two isolates (W51C#4 & W51C#5) were also assigned to a new species of Platyamoeba, P. contorta n. sp., and one isolate (S-241) was a novel psychrophilic gymnamoeba Vermistella antarctica n. gen. n. sp. Molecular and morphological results revealed that V. antarctica was not related to any described family of gymnamoebae. Strains S-205, W51C#4, and W51C#5 were capable of locomotion at room temperature, while strains SL-200, S-131-2, W4-3, and S-241 exhibited locomotion only below approximately 10 degrees C. Our results imply that the Antarctic environment is host both to cosmopolitan gymnamoebae that have acquired adaptations for existence at low environmental temperature and to apparently novel psychrophilic amoebae described here for the first time.

  2. Refraction, including prisms.

    PubMed

    Hiatt, R L

    1991-02-01

    The literature in the past year on refraction is replete with several isolated but very important topics that have been of interest to strabismologists and refractionists for many decades. The refractive changes in scleral buckling procedures include an increase in axial length as well as an increase in myopia, as would be expected. Tinted lenses in dyslexia show little positive effect in the nonasthmatic patients in one study. The use of spectacles or bifocals as a way to control increase in myopia is refuted in another report. It has been shown that in accommodative esotropia not all patients will be able to escape the use of bifocals in the teenage years, even though surgery might be performed. The hope that disposable contact lenses would cut down on the instance of giant papillary conjunctivitis and keratitis has been given some credence, and the conventional theory that sclerosis alone is the cause of presbyopia is attacked. Also, gas permeable bifocal contact lenses are reviewed and the difficulties of correcting presbyopia by this method outlined. The practice of giving an aphakic less bifocal addition instead of a nonaphakic, based on the presumption of increased effective power, is challenged. In the review of prisms, the majority of articles concern prism adaption. The most significant report is that of the Prism Adaptation Study Research Group (Arch Ophthalmol 1990, 108:1248-1256), showing that acquired esotropia in particular has an increased incidence of stable and full corrections surgically in the prism adaptation group versus the control group.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. De novo assembly and characterization of the floral transcriptome of an economically important tree species, Lindera glauca (Lauraceae), including the development of EST-SSR markers for population genetics.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Shanshan; Ding, Yanqian; Yap, Zhaoyan; Qiu, Yingxiong

    2016-11-01

    Lindera glauca (Lauraceae) is an economically important East Asian forest tree characterized by a dioecy in China and apomixis in Japan. However, patterns of population genetic diversity and structure of this species remain unknown for this species due to a lack of efficient molecular markers. In this study, we employed Illumina sequencing to analyze the transcriptomes of the female and male flower buds of L. glauca. We retrieved 59,753 and 75,075 unigenes for the female and male buds, respectively. Based on sequence similarity, 44,379 (74.27 %) unigenes for the female and 45,414 (60.49 %) unigenes for the male were matched to public databases. We identified 11,127 putative differentially expressed genes between the female and male buds and 20,048 expressed sequence tag-simple sequence repeats (EST-SSRs). From 3147 primer pairs designed successfully, 120 were selected for validation of polymorphism, and 13 could reliably amplify polymorphic bands and exhibited moderate levels of genetic diversity (e.g., N A = 4.42; H E = 0.56) when surveyed across 96 individuals of altogether six L. glauca populations from China and Japan. One of the three population genetic clusters identified in China was fixed in Japan, suggesting a historical population bottleneck following island immigration. The present study has generated a wealth of transcriptome data for future functional genomic research focused on the variable reproductive system of L. glauca (dioecy, apomixis) as well as EST-SSR markers for population genetics studies and its intriguing evolutionary shift from dioecy to apomixis in the wake of island colonization.

  4. Additive Manufactured Product Integrity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waller, Jess; Wells, Doug; James, Steve; Nichols, Charles

    2017-01-01

    NASA is providing key leadership in an international effort linking NASA and non-NASA resources to speed adoption of additive manufacturing (AM) to meet NASA's mission goals. Participants include industry, NASA's space partners, other government agencies, standards organizations and academia. Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) is identified as a universal need for all aspects of additive manufacturing.

  5. How to improve fertility of African soils? Leguminous fallows (Cameroon), addition of farmyard manure and mineral fertilizer (Kenya), organic residues management and introduction of N2 fixing species in forest plantations (Congo).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koutika, Lydie-Stella; Mareschal, Louis; Mouanda, Cadeau; Epron, Daniel

    2014-05-01

    Most of African soils are inherently infertile and poor in nutrients mainly nitrogen and phosphorus. Several practices are used to improve soil fertility, increase productivity and ensure their sustainability. Soil fertility in the leguminous fallows was evaluated through particulate organic matter (POM), the more active part of soil organic matter (SOM) in Cameroon. The combination of mineral and organic (manure) fertilizers increased microbial P biomass allowing the release of P along the plant growing period in the Kenyan soils. Organic residues management and introduction of nitrogen fixing species (Acacia) were used to improve soil fertility and sustain forest productivity on the coastal plains of Congo. SOM fractionation was made under Pueraria, Mucuna fallows and natural regrowth mainly Chromolaena and under 3 forest plantation treatments installed in previous savanna: 1) no input, 2) normal input, and 3) double input of organic residues. Microbial P biomass and sequential P fractionation were evaluated in high and low P fixing soils. N, C, available P and pH were determined on soil sampled in acacia (100A), eucalypt (100E) and mixed-species (50A:50E) stands. N and P were determined in aboveground litters and in leaves, bark and wood of trees. The two leguminous fallows increased N content in POM fractions i.e., N >1% for Pueraria and Mucuna against N<1% for natural regrowth in the 0-0.10m depth, probably through N input from N2 fixation from the atmosphere (Cameroon).The addition of mineral fertilizers and farmyard manure increases P biomass (4.8 after 2 weeks to 15.2 after 16 weeks), and then decreased to 9.7 mg P g-1 soil (week 32). It also changes the P Hedley fractions partition in the high P fixing Kenyan soil (0-0.10m). After two rotations (14 years), SOM mineralization was the highest in the double input of organic residues treatment (low coarse POM 5.6 g kg-1 of soil and high organo-mineral fraction (OMF) 115 g kg-1 of soil). The introduction of A

  6. 50 CFR 453.06 - Additional Committee powers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE); ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE REGULATIONS ENDANGERED SPECIES EXEMPTION PROCESS ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE § 453.06 Additional Committee powers. (a) Secure information....

  7. 50 CFR 453.06 - Additional Committee powers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE); ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE REGULATIONS ENDANGERED SPECIES EXEMPTION PROCESS ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE § 453.06 Additional Committee powers. (a) Secure information....

  8. 50 CFR 453.06 - Additional Committee powers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE); ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE REGULATIONS ENDANGERED SPECIES EXEMPTION PROCESS ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE § 453.06 Additional Committee powers. (a) Secure information....

  9. 50 CFR 453.06 - Additional Committee powers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE); ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE REGULATIONS ENDANGERED SPECIES EXEMPTION PROCESS ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE § 453.06 Additional Committee powers. (a) Secure information....

  10. 50 CFR 453.06 - Additional Committee powers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE); ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE REGULATIONS ENDANGERED SPECIES EXEMPTION PROCESS ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE § 453.06 Additional Committee powers. (a) Secure information....

  11. Cavearhynchus, a new genus of tapeworm (Cestoda: Trypanorhyncha: Pterobothriidae) from Himantura lobistoma Manjaji-Matsumoto & Last, 2006 (Rajiformes) off Borneo, including redescriptions and new records of species of Pterobothrium Diesing, 1850.

    PubMed

    Schaeffner, Bjoern C; Beveridge, Ian

    2012-06-01

    A new genus of trypanorhynch cestode is described from the tubemouth whipray Himantura lobistoma Manjaji-Matsumoto & Last, 2006 in the South China Sea off Malaysian Borneo. Cavearhynchus foveatus n. g., n. sp. possesses four pedicellate bothria in a cruciform arrangement, a heteroacanthous, heteromorphous metabasal tentacular armature with five hooks per principle row and an alternating longitudinal file of intercalary hooks on the bothrial surface of each tentacle, but lacks prebulbar organs and gland-cells within the bulbs. It, thus, closely resembles taxa belonging to the lacistorhynchoid family Pterobothriidae Pintner, 1931. However, the new genus differs from other genera within this family in the possession of bothrial pits. Although a distinguishing characteristic of the superfamily Otobothrioidea Dollfus, 1942, representatives of this group exhibit two bothria and the bothrial pits are lined with spiniform microtriches, whereas the pit-like structures.of C. foveatus n. g., n. sp. entirely lack microtriches. Redescriptions of two species of Pterobothrium, namely P. lesteri Campbell & Beveridge, 1996 and P. platycephalum (Shipley & Hornell, 1906) Dollfus, 1930 are provided from material collected off Borneo and several localities off Australia. Moreover, new host and locality records are added for P. australiense Campbell & Beveridge, 1996 and P. pearsoni (Southwell, 1929) Beveridge & Campbell, 1989.

  12. A survey of the praying mantises of Rwanda, including new records (Insecta, Mantodea).

    PubMed

    Tedrow, Riley; Nathan, Kabanguka; Richard, Nasasira; Svenson, Gavin J

    2015-10-01

    We report the results of two surveys targeting praying mantises in four localities in Rwanda, specifically Akagera National Park, Nyungwe National Park, Volcanoes National Park, and the Arboretum de Ruhande at the National University of Rwanda. Using an assortment of collecting techniques, including metal halide light traps, sweep netting vegetation and general searching, we obtained 387 adult and 352 juvenile specimens, representing 41 species. A total of 28 novel species records for Rwanda are added to the 18 previously recorded species for the country, in addition to 20 novel species records for the broader region, including neighbouring Uganda and Burundi. This study provides high resolution images of the dorsal habitus of both sexes of representative species, both pinned and living. Species distribution records are presented and discussed. With a 155% increase in species recorded from Rwanda, this survey illustrates the need for further taxonomic work in the region.

  13. Pump apparatus including deconsolidator

    DOEpatents

    Sonwane, Chandrashekhar; Saunders, Timothy; Fitzsimmons, Mark Andrew

    2014-10-07

    A pump apparatus includes a particulate pump that defines a passage that extends from an inlet to an outlet. A duct is in flow communication with the outlet. The duct includes a deconsolidator configured to fragment particle agglomerates received from the passage.

  14. Optical modulator including grapene

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Ming; Yin, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiang

    2016-06-07

    The present invention provides for a one or more layer graphene optical modulator. In a first exemplary embodiment the optical modulator includes an optical waveguide, a nanoscale oxide spacer adjacent to a working region of the waveguide, and a monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to the spacer. In a second exemplary embodiment, the optical modulator includes at least one pair of active media, where the pair includes an oxide spacer, a first monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a first side of the spacer, and a second monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a second side of the spacer, and at least one optical waveguide adjacent to the pair.

  15. Dual-energy precursor and nuclear erythroid-related factor 2 activator treatment additively improve redox glutathione levels and neuron survival in aging and Alzheimer mouse neurons upstream of reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Debolina; LeVault, Kelsey R; Brewer, Gregory J

    2014-01-01

    To determine whether glutathione (GSH) loss or increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) are more important to neuron loss, aging, and Alzheimer's disease (AD), we stressed or boosted GSH levels in neurons isolated from aging 3xTg-AD neurons compared with those from age-matched nontransgenic (non-Tg) neurons. Here, using titrating with buthionine sulfoximine, an inhibitor of γ-glutamyl cysteine synthetase (GCL), we observed that GSH depletion increased neuronal death of 3xTg-AD cultured neurons at increasing rates across the age span, whereas non-Tg neurons were resistant to GSH depletion until old age. Remarkably, the rate of neuron loss with ROS did not increase in old age and was the same for both genotypes, which indicates that cognitive deficits in the AD model were not caused by ROS. Therefore, we targeted for neuroprotection activation of the redox sensitive transcription factor, nuclear erythroid-related factor 2 (Nrf2) by 18 alpha glycyrrhetinic acid to stimulate GSH synthesis through GCL. This balanced stimulation of a number of redox enzymes restored the lower levels of Nrf2 and GCL seen in 3xTg-AD neurons compared with those of non-Tg neurons and promoted translocation of Nrf2 to the nucleus. By combining the Nrf2 activator together with the NADH precursor, nicotinamide, we increased neuron survival against amyloid beta stress in an additive manner. These stress tests and neuroprotective treatments suggest that the redox environment is more important for neuron survival than ROS. The dual neuroprotective treatment with nicotinamide and an Nrf2 inducer indicates that these age-related and AD-related changes are reversible.

  16. Australian Marsh Beetles (Coleoptera: Scirtidae). 9. The relations of Australasian Ypsiloncyphon species to their Asian congeners, additions, mainly to Petrocyphon and Prionocyphon, and a key to Australian genera of Scirtinae.

    PubMed

    Zwick, Peter

    2016-03-02

    The endemic Australasian species of Ypsiloncyphon are the sister group of the combined Asian species groups 1, 2, and 4. The description of the type species, Y. chlorizans (Klausnitzer), is supplemented by details of male and female genitalia. New species are described and illustrated in several genera: Austrocyphon scissus n. sp., Leptocyphon abnormis n. sp., Petrocyphon bonang n. sp., P. lacteus n. sp., P. televisionarius n. sp., Prionocyphon bidentatus n. sp., P. cacatua n. sp., P. laurae n. sp., P. neboissi n. sp., P. serratus n. sp., P. uncatus n. sp., and P. urbanus n. sp. Genus Prionocyphon is distinguished from Oriental genera with similar antennal modifications. However, a synapomorphy of Prionocyphon as presently understood is not known. Supplementary information on various species in the aforementioned genera and in Pachycyphon and Calvarium is provided. A key to the genera of adult Australian Scirtidae: Scirtinae is presented.

  17. Including Jews in Multiculturalism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langman, Peter F.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses reasons for the lack of attention to Jews as an ethnic minority within multiculturalism both by Jews and non-Jews; why Jews and Jewish issues need to be included; and addresses some of the issues involved in the ethical treatment of Jewish clients. (Author)

  18. Novel members of the family Flavobacteriaceae from Antarctic maritime habitats including Subsaximicrobium wynnwilliamsii gen. nov., sp. nov., Subsaximicrobium saxinquilinus sp. nov., Subsaxibacter broadyi gen. nov., sp. nov., Lacinutrix copepodicola gen. nov., sp. nov., and novel species of the genera Bizionia, Gelidibacter and Gillisia.

    PubMed

    Bowman, John P; Nichols, David S

    2005-07-01

    Several orange- and yellow-pigmented, halophilic, strictly aerobic, chemoheterotrophic, Gram-negative strains were isolated during investigations of maritime Antarctic habitats, including coastal fast sea-ice brine and algae, crustaceans and quartz stone sublithic cyanobacterial biofilms. Isolates investigated in this study belonged to the marine clade of the family Flavobacteriaceae and represented lineages that were either distinct from species with validly published names or appeared to be distinct species within existing genera. A polyphasic taxonomic analysis demonstrated the novelty of these strains, and several new taxa are proposed. Strains from quartz stone sublithic communities were grouped into two new genera designated Subsaximicrobium gen. nov. and Subsaxibacter gen. nov. The genus Subsaximicrobium included the species Subsaximicrobium wynnwilliamsii sp. nov. (type species; type strain G#7(T)=ACAM 1070(T)=CIP 108525(T)) and Subsaximicrobium saxinquilinus sp. nov. (type strain Y4-5(T)=ACAM 1063(T)=CIP 108526(T)). The genus Subsaxibacter contained a single species designated Subsaxibacter broadyi sp. nov. (type strain P7(T)=ACAM 1064(T)=CIP 108527(T)). A novel bacterial strain isolated from the lake-dwelling, calanoid copepod Paralabidocera antarctica was given the name Lacinutrix copepodicola gen. nov., sp. nov. (type strain DJ3(T)=ACAM 1055(T)=CIP 108538(T)). Four novel species of the genus Bizionia were discovered, Bizionia algoritergicola sp. nov. (type strain APA-1(T)=ACAM 1056(T)=CIP 108533(T)) and Bizionia myxarmorum sp. nov. (type strain ADA-4(T)=ACAM 1058(T)=CIP 108535(T)), which were isolated from the carapace surfaces of sea-ice algae-feeding amphipods, and Bizionia gelidisalsuginis sp. nov. (type strain IC164(T)=ACAM 1057(T)=CIP 108536(T)) and Bizionia saleffrena sp. nov. (type strain HFD(T)=ACAM 1059(T)=CIP 108534(T)), which were isolated from sea-ice brines. Several other novel species were also isolated from sea-ice samples, including two

  19. Chemical equilibrium of ablation materials including condensed species

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stroud, C. W.; Brinkley, K. L.

    1975-01-01

    Equilibrium is determined by finding chemical composition with minimum free energy. Method of steepest descent is applied to quadratic representation of free-energy surface. Solution is initiated by selecting arbitrary set of mole fractions, from which point on free-energy surface is computed.

  20. Nutritional therapies (including fosteum).

    PubMed

    Nieves, Jeri W

    2009-03-01

    Nutrition is important in promoting bone health and in managing an individual with low bone mass or osteoporosis. In adult women and men, known losses of bone mass and microarchitecture occur, and nutrition can help minimize these losses. In every patient, a healthy diet with adequate protein, fruits, vegetables, calcium, and vitamin D is required to maintain bone health. Recent reports on nutritional remedies for osteoporosis have highlighted the importance of calcium in youth and continued importance in conjunction with vitamin D as the population ages. It is likely that a calcium intake of 1200 mg/d is ideal, and there are some concerns about excessive calcium intakes. However, vitamin D intake needs to be increased in most populations. The ability of soy products, particularly genistein aglycone, to provide skeletal benefit has been recently studied, including some data that support a new medical food marketed as Fosteum (Primus Pharmaceuticals, Scottsdale, AZ).

  1. The Trichoderma koningii aggregate species

    PubMed Central

    Samuels, Gary J.; Dodd, Sarah L.; Lu, Bing-Sheng; Petrini, Orlando; Schroers, Hans-Josef; Druzhinina, Irina S.

    2006-01-01

    The morphological concept of Trichoderma koningii is found to include several species that differ from each other in details of phenotype (including conidium morphology, growth rate) and biogeography. Phylogenetic analysis utilizing partial sequences of the translation-elongation factor 1 alpha (tef1), as well as fragments of actin and calmodulin genes, indicate that phenotypic characters typical of T. koningii evolved independently in three well-separated main lineages. Combined molecular and phenotype data lead to the development of a taxonomy with the recognition of twelve taxonomic species and one variety within the three lineages. These lineages include: (1) T. koningii and T. ovalisporum and the new species T. caribbaeum var. caribbaeum, T. caribbaeum var. aequatoriale, T. dorotheae, T. dingleyae, T. intricatum, T. koningiopsis, T. petersenii and T. taiwanense; (2) the new species T. rogersonii and T. austrokoningii, and (3) the new anamorph T. stilbohypoxyli. Trichoderma koningii s. str. is an uncommon species restricted to Europe and eastern North America; T. caribbaeum var. aequatoriale, T. koningiopsis, and T. ovalisporum were isolated as endophytes of trunks of Theobroma species in tropical America, and T. ovalisporum from the woody liana Banisteropsis caapi in Ecuador; T. koningiopsis is common in tropical America but was isolated also from natural substrata in East Africa, Europe and Canada, and from ascospores in eastern North America, and as an endophyte in Theobroma species; T. stilbohypoxyli, originally described as a parasite of Stilbohypoxylon species in Puerto Rico, is found to be more common in the tropics, besides an endophytic isolate from Fagus in U.K. The additional new species are known almost exclusively from their teleomorphs. Isolates of T. ovalisporum and T. koningiopsis may have biological control potential. A morphophenetic key and a set of tools for molecular species identification were developed. PMID:18490990

  2. Species of colletotrichum on agavaceae.

    PubMed

    Farr, David F; Aime, M Catherine; Rossman, Amy Y; Palm, Mary E

    2006-12-01

    Species of Colletotrichum cause diseases on a wide range of hosts, frequently infecting plants in the Agavaceae (monocotyledons: Liliales). Three species of Colletotrichum restricted to the Agavaceae were detected through morphological studies of specimens and molecular sequence analyses of the LSU of the nu-rDNA and the ITS region of the nu-rDNA from cultures. Colletotrichum agaves on Agave is fully described and illustrated. Colletotrichum dracaenophilum is described as a new species for isolates having long conidia and occurring on Dracaena sanderiana from China. Colletotrichum phormii and Glomerella phormii are determined to be the correct scientific names for the asexual and sexual states, respectively, of a species commonly referred to as C. rhodocyclum and G. phacidiomorpha occurring mainly on Phormium. In addition, C. gloeosporioides and C. boninense were isolated from plants in the Agavaceae. All species of Colletotrichum described on Agavaceae were evaluated based on type specimens. A key to the five species of Colletotrichum on Agavaceae is included. This paper includes one new species, Colletotrichum dracaenophilum, and three new combinations, Colletotrichum phormii, Glomerella phormii, and Phaeosphaeriopsis phacidiomorpha.

  3. Introduced species in the Pantanal: implications for conservation.

    PubMed

    Alho, C J R; Mamede, S; Bitencourt, K; Benites, M

    2011-04-01

    Land use and human occupation within the natural habitats of the Pantanal have facilitated introduction of invasive species of plants and animals, including domestic species. Exotic species threaten regional biodiversity because they modify ecological community structure, alter natural habitats and affect local biodiversity. An international organisation, the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), and the Brazilian government, identify invasive species as the third most important threat to biodiversity, following habitat loss and direct effect on species. In addition, exotic species carry pathogens or may function as vectors or reservoirs for diseases that affect regional biota.

  4. Reservoirs of Non-baumannii Acinetobacter Species

    PubMed Central

    Al Atrouni, Ahmad; Joly-Guillou, Marie-Laure; Hamze, Monzer; Kempf, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Acinetobacter spp. are ubiquitous gram negative and non-fermenting coccobacilli that have the ability to occupy several ecological niches including environment, animals and human. Among the different species, Acinetobacter baumannii has evolved as global pathogen causing wide range of infection. Since the implementation of molecular techniques, the habitat and the role of non-baumannii Acinetobacter in human infection have been elucidated. In addition, several new species have been described. In the present review, we summarize the recent data about the natural reservoir of non-baumannii Acinetobacter including the novel species that have been described for the first time from environmental sources and reported during the last years. PMID:26870013

  5. Articles including thin film monolayers and multilayers

    DOEpatents

    Li, DeQuan; Swanson, Basil I.

    1995-01-01

    Articles of manufacture including: (a) a base substrate having an oxide surface layer, and a multidentate ligand, capable of binding a metal ion, attached to the oxide surface layer of the base substrate, (b) a base substrate having an oxide surface layer, a multidentate ligand, capable of binding a metal ion, attached to the oxide surface layer of the base substrate, and a metal species attached to the multidentate ligand, (c) a base substrate having an oxide surface layer, a multidentate ligand, capable of binding a metal ion, attached to the oxide surface layer of the base substrate, a metal species attached to the multidentate ligand, and a multifunctional organic ligand attached to the metal species, and (d) a base substrate having an oxide surface layer, a multidentate ligand, capable of binding a metal ion, attached to the oxide surface layer of the base substrate, a metal species attached to the multidentate ligand, a multifunctional organic ligand attached to the metal species, and a second metal species attached to the multifunctional organic ligand, are provided, such articles useful in detecting the presence of a selected target species, as nonliear optical materials, or as scavengers for selected target species.

  6. Additions to the checklist of the ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Peru.

    PubMed

    Guénard, Benoit; Economo, Evan P

    2015-11-10

    A recent species checklist of the ants of Peru recorded 592 nominal species and 79 genera on the basis of a literature review. Here we complement the previously published checklist with the addition of 83 nominal species and six genera, including three genera recorded only from morphospecies. This increases the list of ants reported from Peru to at least 679 species and subspecies and 85 genera. We also modify the list of species known as endemic from Peru, discuss the historical importance of the Peruvian ant fauna in myrmecology, and highlight potential research for future studies.

  7. Reactive oxygen species in iridium-based OER catalysts† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c6sc01860b Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Pfeifer, Verena; Wrabetz, Sabine; Massué, Cyriac; Velasco Vélez, Juan J.; Arrigo, Rosa; Scherzer, Michael; Piccinin, Simone; Hävecker, Michael; Knop-Gericke, Axel; Schlögl, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Tremendous effort has been devoted towards elucidating the fundamental reasons for the higher activity of hydrated amorphous IrIII/IV oxyhydroxides (IrOx) in the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) in comparison with their crystalline counterpart, rutile-type IrO2, by focusing on the metal oxidation state. Here we demonstrate that, through an analogy to photosystem II, the nature of this reactive species is not solely a property of the metal but is intimately tied to the electronic structure of oxygen. We use a combination of synchrotron-based X-ray photoemission and absorption spectroscopies, ab initio calculations, and microcalorimetry to show that holes in the O 2p states in amorphous IrOx give rise to a weakly bound oxygen that is extremely susceptible to nucleophilic attack, reacting stoichiometrically with CO already at room temperature. As such, we expect this species to play the critical role of the electrophilic oxygen involved in O–O bond formation in the electrocatalytic OER on IrOx. We propose that the dynamic nature of the Ir framework in amorphous IrOx imparts the flexibility in Ir oxidation state required for the formation of this active electrophilic oxygen. PMID:28042464

  8. Species listing under Canada's Species at Risk Act.

    PubMed

    Findlay, C Scott; Elgie, Stewart; Giles, Brian; Burr, Linda

    2009-12-01

    In a preliminary analysis of listing decisions under Canada's Species at Risk Act (SARA), Mooers et al. (2007)demonstrated an apparent bias against marine and northern species. As a follow-up, we expanded the set of potential explanatory variables, including information on jurisdictional and administrative elements of the listing process, and considered an additional 16 species recommended for listing by SARA's scientific advisory committee as of 15 August 2006. Logistic model selection based on Akaike differences suggested that species were less likely to be listed if they were harvested or had commercial or subsistence harvesting as an explicitly identified threat; had Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) as a responsible authority (RA); were located in Canada's north generally, and especially in Nunavut; or were found mostly or entirely within Canada. Subsequent model validation with an independent set of 50 species for which a listing decision was handed down in December 2007 showed an overall misclassification rate of <0.10, indicating reasonable predictive power. In light of these results, we recommend that RAs under SARA adopt a two-track listing approach to address problems of delays arising from extended consultations and the inconsistent use by the RAs of socioeconomic analysis; consider revising SARA so that socioeconomic analysis occurs during decisions about protecting species and their habitats rather than at the listing stage; and maintain an integrated database with information on species' biology, threats, and agency actions to enable future evaluation of SARA's impact.

  9. Additives in fibers and fabrics.

    PubMed Central

    Barker, R H

    1975-01-01

    The additives and contaminants which occur in textile fibers vary widely, depending on the type of fiber and the pretreatment which it has received. Synthetic fibers such as nylon and polyester contain trace amounts of contaminants such as catalysts and catalyst deactivators which remain after the synthesis of the basic polymers. In addition, there are frequently a number of materials which are added to perform specific functions in almost all man-made fibers. Examples of these would include traces of metals or metal salts used as tracers for identification of specific lots of fiber, TiO2 or similar materials added as delustrants, and a host of organic species added for such special purposes as antistatic agents or flame retardants. There may also be considerable quantities of residual monomer or small oligomers dissolved in the polymer matrix. The situation becomes even more complex after the fibers are converted into fabric form. Numerous materials are applied at various stages of fabric preparation to act as lubricants, sizing agents, antistats, bleaches, and wetting agents to facilitate the processing, but these are normally removed before the fabric reaches the cutters of the ultimate consumers and therefore usually do not constitute potential hazards. However, there are many other chemical agents which are frequently added during the later stages of fabric preparation and which are not designed to be removed. Aside from dyes and printing pigments, the most common additive for apparel fabrics is a durable press treatment. This generally involves the use of materials capable of crosslinking cellulosics by reacting through such functions as N-methylolated amides or related compounds such as ureas and carbamates. These materials pose some potential hazards due to both the nitrogenous bases and the formaldehyde which they usually release. There is usually also some residual catalyst in fabrics which have received such treatments. Other types of chemical treatments

  10. Managing aquatic species of conservation concern in the face of climate change and invasive species.

    PubMed

    Rahel, Frank J; Bierwagen, Britta; Taniguchi, Yoshinori

    2008-06-01

    The difficult task of managing species of conservation concern is likely to become even more challenging due to the interaction of climate change and invasive species. In addition to direct effects on habitat quality, climate change will foster the expansion of invasive species into new areas and magnify the effects of invasive species already present by altering competitive dominance, increasing predation rates, and enhancing the virulence of diseases. In some cases parapatric species may expand into new habitats and have detrimental effects that are similar to those of invading non-native species. The traditional strategy of isolating imperiled species in reserves may not be adequate if habitat conditions change beyond historic ranges or in ways that favor invasive species. The consequences of climate change will require a more active management paradigm that includes implementing habitat improvements that reduce the effects of climate change and creating migration barriers that prevent an influx of invasive species. Other management actions that should be considered include providing dispersal corridors that allow species to track environmental changes, translocating species to newly suitable habitats where migration is not possible, and developing action plans for the early detection and eradication of new invasive species.

  11. Perspectives on Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourell, David L.

    2016-07-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) has skyrocketed in visibility commercially and in the public sector. This article describes the development of this field from early layered manufacturing approaches of photosculpture, topography, and material deposition. Certain precursors to modern AM processes are also briefly described. The growth of the field over the last 30 years is presented. Included is the standard delineation of AM technologies into seven broad categories. The economics of AM part generation is considered, and the impacts of the economics on application sectors are described. On the basis of current trends, the future outlook will include a convergence of AM fabricators, mass-produced AM fabricators, enabling of topology optimization designs, and specialization in the AM legal arena. Long-term developments with huge impact are organ printing and volume-based printing.

  12. Cyanovanadate(III) complexes as novel additives for efficient generation of volatile cadmium species in complex samples prior to determinations by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS).

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Vedat; Arslan, Zikri; Rose, LaKeysha; Little, Maria D

    2013-10-15

    A new method has been described for generation of volatile species of Cd using vanadium(III) cyanide complex. Aqueous solutions of 0.04 mol L(-1) vanadium chloride (VCl3) and 0.12 mol L(-1) potassium cyanide (KCN) were reacted on-line yielding a suspension of vanadium hydroxide, V(OH)3. This suspension was dissolved along the stream of sample solution in dilute HCl to form heptacyanovanadate(III) complex, [V(CN)7]4-. Volatile Cd species were generated by reacting the stream of sample solution and cyanovanadate(III) complex with sodium borohydride (NaBH4). Feasibility of off-line and on-online approaches was investigated for quantitative determinations. Better precision and daily stability were achieved with on-line settings. Optimum signals were obtained from sample solutions within a range of 3 to 5% v/v HCl. A concentration of 2% m/v NaBH4 was adequate to achieve an enhancement of 20-fold in the presence of cyanovanadate(III) complex. The limits of detection were 5.0 and 4.5 ng L(-1) for 110Cd and 111Cd isotopes, respectively. Precision (%RSD) was better than 4.7% for six replicate measurements. The interferences of Cu(II) and Ni(II) were marginal (<10%) at 1.0 µg mL(-1). Depressive effects from Bi, Se and Sn were not significant below 0.1 µg mL(-1). The method was validated by determination of Cd using ICP-MS in certified reference materials of Nearshore seawater (CASS-4), Bone ash (SRM 1400), Dogfish liver (DOLT-4) and Mussel tissue (SRM 2976).

  13. Bond additivity corrections for quantum chemistry methods

    SciTech Connect

    C. F. Melius; M. D. Allendorf

    1999-04-01

    In the 1980's, the authors developed a bond-additivity correction procedure for quantum chemical calculations called BAC-MP4, which has proven reliable in calculating the thermochemical properties of molecular species, including radicals as well as stable closed-shell species. New Bond Additivity Correction (BAC) methods have been developed for the G2 method, BAC-G2, as well as for a hybrid DFT/MP2 method, BAC-Hybrid. These BAC methods use a new form of BAC corrections, involving atomic, molecular, and bond-wise additive terms. These terms enable one to treat positive and negative ions as well as neutrals. The BAC-G2 method reduces errors in the G2 method due to nearest-neighbor bonds. The parameters within the BAC-G2 method only depend on atom types. Thus the BAC-G2 method can be used to determine the parameters needed by BAC methods involving lower levels of theory, such as BAC-Hybrid and BAC-MP4. The BAC-Hybrid method should scale well for large molecules. The BAC-Hybrid method uses the differences between the DFT and MP2 as an indicator of the method's accuracy, while the BAC-G2 method uses its internal methods (G1 and G2MP2) to provide an indicator of its accuracy. Indications of the average error as well as worst cases are provided for each of the BAC methods.

  14. The teratology testing of food additives.

    PubMed

    Barrow, Paul C; Spézia, François

    2013-01-01

    The developmental and reproductive toxicity testing (including teratogenicity) of new foods and food additives is performed worldwide according to the guidelines given in the FDA Redbook. These studies are not required for substances that are generally recognized as safe, according to the FDA inventory. The anticipated cumulated human exposure level above which developmental or reproduction studies are required depends on the structure-alert category. For food additives of concern, both developmental (prenatal) and reproduction (multigeneration) studies are required. The developmental studies are performed in two species, usually the rat and the rabbit. The reproduction study is generally performed in the rat. The two rat studies are preferably combined into a single experimental design, if possible. The test methods described in the FDA Redbook are similar to those specified by the OECD for the reproductive toxicity testing of chemicals.

  15. New Neotropical species of Chimarra (Trichoptera, Philopotamidae)

    PubMed Central

    Blahnik, Roger J.; Holzenthal, Ralph W.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Ten new Neotropical species of Chimarra are described in the subgenera Chimarra, Chimarrita, and Otarrha. New species in the subgenus Chimarra include, in the Chimarra ortiziana group: Chimarra calori sp. n. (southeastern Brazil) and Chimarra onchyrhina sp. n. (Venezuela); in the Chimarra picea group: Chimarra inchoata sp. n. (Venezuela), Chimarra nicehuh sp. n. (Venezuela), and Chimarra sunima sp. n. (Colombia); and in the Chimarra poolei group: Chimarra cauca sp. n. (Colombia) and Chimarra desirae sp. n. (Bolivia). New species in the subgenus Chimarrita include, in the Chimarra simpliciforma group: Chimarra curvipenis sp. n. (SE Brazil) and Chimarra latiforceps sp. n. (SE Brazil). A single new species in the subgenus Otarrha is also described: Chimarra soroa sp. n. (Cuba). Males and females for all of the new species are illustrated, except for Chimarra desirae, for which female specimens were unavailable. Additionally, the female of Chimarra (Chimarrita) camella, which was previously unknown, is illustrated. PMID:22573949

  16. COMPUTATIONAL RESOURCES FOR BIOFUEL FEEDSTOCK SPECIES

    SciTech Connect

    Buell, Carol Robin; Childs, Kevin L

    2013-05-07

    While current production of ethanol as a biofuel relies on starch and sugar inputs, it is anticipated that sustainable production of ethanol for biofuel use will utilize lignocellulosic feedstocks. Candidate plant species to be used for lignocellulosic ethanol production include a large number of species within the Grass, Pine and Birch plant families. For these biofuel feedstock species, there are variable amounts of genome sequence resources available, ranging from complete genome sequences (e.g. sorghum, poplar) to transcriptome data sets (e.g. switchgrass, pine). These data sets are not only dispersed in location but also disparate in content. It will be essential to leverage and improve these genomic data sets for the improvement of biofuel feedstock production. The objectives of this project were to provide computational tools and resources for data-mining genome sequence/annotation and large-scale functional genomic datasets available for biofuel feedstock species. We have created a Bioenergy Feedstock Genomics Resource that provides a web-based portal or clearing house for genomic data for plant species relevant to biofuel feedstock production. Sequence data from a total of 54 plant species are included in the Bioenergy Feedstock Genomics Resource including model plant species that permit leveraging of knowledge across taxa to biofuel feedstock species.We have generated additional computational analyses of these data, including uniform annotation, to facilitate genomic approaches to improved biofuel feedstock production. These data have been centralized in the publicly available Bioenergy Feedstock Genomics Resource (http://bfgr.plantbiology.msu.edu/).

  17. Response in soil of Cupriavidus necator and other copper-resistant bacterial predators of bacteria to addition of water, soluble nutrients, various bacterial species, or Bacillus thuringiensis spores and crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Casida, L.E. Jr. )

    1988-09-01

    Soil was incubated with various species of bacteria, Bacillus subtilis, or Bacillus thuringiensis spores and crystals. These were added to serve as potential prey for indigenous, copper-resistant, nonobligate bacterial predators of bacteria in the soil. Alternatively, the soil was incubated with soluble nutrients or water only to cause potential indigenous prey cells to multiply so the predator cells would multiply. All of these incubation procedures caused excessive multiplication of some gram-negative bacteria in soil. Even greater multiplication, however, often occurred for certain copper-resistant bacterial predators of bacteria that made up a part of the gram-negative response. Incubation of the soil with copper per se did not give these responses. In most cases, the copper-resistant bacteria that responded were Cupriavidus necator, bacterial predator L-2, or previously unknown bacteria that resembled them. The results suggest that, under various conditions of soil incubation, gram-negative bacterial predators of bacteria multiply and that several copper-resistant types among them can be detected, counted, and isolated by plating dilutions of the soil onto media containing excess copper.

  18. A new species in the genus Amphipteryx Selys, 1853 (Odonata, Amphipterygidae) from Pico Bonito National Park, Honduras.

    PubMed

    Jocque, Merlijn; Argueta, Ivany

    2014-01-01

    The Mesoamerican damselfly genus Amphipteryx includes four species: Amphipteryx agrioides (Mexico), A. chiapensis (Mexico), A. meridionalis (Honduras) and A. nataliae (Verapaz, Guatemala). We describe a fifth species, Amphipteryx jaroli, from the cloud forest in Pico Bonito National park, Honduras. Additionally we include an up to date key of all species in the genus for both sexes.

  19. Employment, Training, and Literacy Enhancement Act of 1997. Report of the Committee on Education and the Workforce, House of Representatives, on H.R. 1385 Together with Additional and Dissenting Views [Including Cost Estimate of the Congressional Budget Office], 105th Congress, 1st Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and the Workforce.

    This document contains the text of the Employment, Training, and Literacy Enhancement Act of 1997, as amended by committee, including the titles that cover the following: general provisions; employment and training programs for disadvantaged youth; federally administered programs; adult education programs; miscellaneous provisions; the State Human…

  20. Plasmids in diatom species.

    PubMed Central

    Hildebrand, M; Corey, D K; Ludwig, J R; Kukel, A; Feng, T Y; Volcani, B E

    1991-01-01

    We have discovered plasmids in 5 of 18 diatom species surveyed. In several species, more than one type of plasmid is present. Several of the plasmids show similarity by hybridization previously characterized plasmids in Cylindrotheca fusiformis (J. D. Jacobs et al., unpublished data). Additionally, there is similarity between the plasmids found in C. fusiformis and chloroplast DNA in three diatom species. These results add to the evidence that the plasmids have features of mobile genetic elements. Images PMID:1885558

  1. Phenotypic differentiation within a foundation grass species correlates with species richness in a subalpine community.

    PubMed

    Al Hayek, Patrick; Touzard, Blaise; Le Bagousse-Pinguet, Yoann; Michalet, Richard

    2014-10-01

    Few studies have examined consequences of ecotypic differentiation within alpine foundation species for community diversity and their feedbacks for the foundation species' fitness. Additionally, no study has quantified ecotypic differences in competitive effects in the field and in controlled conditions to disentangle genetic from plasticity effects in foundation/subordinate species interactions. We focused on a subalpine community of the French Pyrenees including two phenotypes of a cushion-forming species, Festuca gautieri: tight cushions in dry convex outcrops, and loose cushions (exhibiting high subordinate species richness) in wet concave slopes. We assessed, with field and shadehouse experiments, the genetic vs. plasticity basis of differences in: (1) cushion traits and (2) competitive effects on subordinates, and (3) quantified community feedbacks on foundation species' fitness. We found that trait differences across habitats had both genetic and plasticity bases, with stronger contribution of the latter. Field results showed higher competition within loose than tight phenotypes. In contrast, shadehouse results showed higher competitive ability for tight phenotypes. However, as changes in interactions across habitats were due to environmental effects without changes in cushion effects, we argue that heritable and plastic changes in competitive effects maintain high subordinate species diversity through decreasing competition. We showed high reproduction cost for loose cushions when hosting subordinates highlighting the occurrence of community feedbacks. These results suggest that phenotypic differentiation within foundation species may cascade on subordinate species diversity through heritable and plastic changes in the foundation species' competitive effects, and that community feedbacks may affect foundation species' fitness.

  2. Fingerprinting the Asterid Species Using Subtracted Diversity Array Reveals Novel Species-Specific Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Mantri, Nitin; Olarte, Alexandra; Li, Chun Guang; Xue, Charlie; Pang, Edwin C. K.

    2012-01-01

    Background Asterids is one of the major plant clades comprising of many commercially important medicinal species. One of the major concerns in medicinal plant industry is adulteration/contamination resulting from misidentification of herbal plants. This study reports the construction and validation of a microarray capable of fingerprinting medicinally important species from the Asterids clade. Methodology/Principal Findings Pooled genomic DNA of 104 non-asterid angiosperm and non-angiosperm species was subtracted from pooled genomic DNA of 67 asterid species. Subsequently, 283 subtracted DNA fragments were used to construct an Asterid-specific array. The validation of Asterid-specific array revealed a high (99.5%) subtraction efficiency. Twenty-five Asterid species (mostly medicinal) representing 20 families and 9 orders within the clade were hybridized onto the array to reveal its level of species discrimination. All these species could be successfully differentiated using their hybridization patterns. A number of species-specific probes were identified for commercially important species like tea, coffee, dandelion, yarrow, motherwort, Japanese honeysuckle, valerian, wild celery, and yerba mate. Thirty-seven polymorphic probes were characterized by sequencing. A large number of probes were novel species-specific probes whilst some of them were from chloroplast region including genes like atpB, rpoB, and ndh that have extensively been used for fingerprinting and phylogenetic analysis of plants. Conclusions/Significance Subtracted Diversity Array technique is highly efficient in fingerprinting species with little or no genomic information. The Asterid-specific array could fingerprint all 25 species assessed including three species that were not used in constructing the array. This study validates the use of chloroplast genes for bar-coding (fingerprinting) plant species. In addition, this method allowed detection of several new loci that can be explored to solve

  3. Additive Similarity Trees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sattath, Shmuel; Tversky, Amos

    1977-01-01

    Tree representations of similarity data are investigated. Hierarchical clustering is critically examined, and a more general procedure, called the additive tree, is presented. The additive tree representation is then compared to multidimensional scaling. (Author/JKS)

  4. Additive lattice kirigami.

    PubMed

    Castle, Toen; Sussman, Daniel M; Tanis, Michael; Kamien, Randall D

    2016-09-01

    Kirigami uses bending, folding, cutting, and pasting to create complex three-dimensional (3D) structures from a flat sheet. In the case of lattice kirigami, this cutting and rejoining introduces defects into an underlying 2D lattice in the form of points of nonzero Gaussian curvature. A set of simple rules was previously used to generate a wide variety of stepped structures; we now pare back these rules to their minimum. This allows us to describe a set of techniques that unify a wide variety of cut-and-paste actions under the rubric of lattice kirigami, including adding new material and rejoining material across arbitrary cuts in the sheet. We also explore the use of more complex lattices and the different structures that consequently arise. Regardless of the choice of lattice, creating complex structures may require multiple overlapping kirigami cuts, where subsequent cuts are not performed on a locally flat lattice. Our additive kirigami method describes such cuts, providing a simple methodology and a set of techniques to build a huge variety of complex 3D shapes.

  5. Additive lattice kirigami

    PubMed Central

    Castle, Toen; Sussman, Daniel M.; Tanis, Michael; Kamien, Randall D.

    2016-01-01

    Kirigami uses bending, folding, cutting, and pasting to create complex three-dimensional (3D) structures from a flat sheet. In the case of lattice kirigami, this cutting and rejoining introduces defects into an underlying 2D lattice in the form of points of nonzero Gaussian curvature. A set of simple rules was previously used to generate a wide variety of stepped structures; we now pare back these rules to their minimum. This allows us to describe a set of techniques that unify a wide variety of cut-and-paste actions under the rubric of lattice kirigami, including adding new material and rejoining material across arbitrary cuts in the sheet. We also explore the use of more complex lattices and the different structures that consequently arise. Regardless of the choice of lattice, creating complex structures may require multiple overlapping kirigami cuts, where subsequent cuts are not performed on a locally flat lattice. Our additive kirigami method describes such cuts, providing a simple methodology and a set of techniques to build a huge variety of complex 3D shapes. PMID:27679822

  6. Plant responses to climatic extremes: within-species variation equals among-species variation.

    PubMed

    Malyshev, Andrey V; Arfin Khan, Mohammed A S; Beierkuhnlein, Carl; Steinbauer, Manuel J; Henry, Hugh A L; Jentsch, Anke; Dengler, Jürgen; Willner, Evelin; Kreyling, Juergen

    2016-01-01

    Within-species and among-species differences in growth responses to a changing climate have been well documented, yet the relative magnitude of within-species vs. among-species variation has remained largely unexplored. This missing comparison impedes our ability to make general predictions of biodiversity change and to project future species distributions using models. We present a direct comparison of among- versus within-species variation in response to three of the main stresses anticipated with climate change: drought, warming, and frost. Two earlier experiments had experimentally induced (i) summer drought and (ii) spring frost for four common European grass species and their ecotypes from across Europe. To supplement existing data, a third experiment was carried out, to compare variation among species from different functional groups to within-species variation. Here, we simulated (iii) winter warming plus frost for four grasses, two nonleguminous, and two leguminous forbs, in addition to eleven European ecotypes of the widespread grass Arrhenatherum elatius. For each experiment, we measured: (i) C/N ratio and biomass, (ii) chlorophyll content and biomass, and (iii) plant greenness, root (15) N uptake, and live and dead tissue mass. Using coefficients of variation (CVs) for each experiment and response parameter, a total of 156 within- vs. among-species comparisons were conducted, comparing within-species variation in each of four species with among-species variation for each seed origin (five countries). Of the six significant differences, within-species CVs were higher than among-species CVs in four cases. Partitioning of variance within each treatment in two of the three experiments showed that within-species variability (ecotypes) could explain an additional 9% of response variation after accounting for the among-species variation. Our observation that within-species variation was generally as high as among-species variation emphasizes the importance of

  7. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, J. R.; St. Clair, T. L.; Burks, H. D.; Stoakley, D. M.

    1987-01-01

    A method has been found for enhancing the melt flow of thermoplastic polyimides during processing. A high molecular weight 422 copoly(amic acid) or copolyimide was fused with approximately 0.05 to 5 pct by weight of a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive, and this melt was studied by capillary rheometry. Excellent flow and improved composite properties on graphite resulted from the addition of a PMDA-aniline additive to LARC-TPI. Solution viscosity studies imply that amic acid additives temporarily lower molecular weight and, hence, enlarge the processing window. Thus, compositions containing the additive have a lower melt viscosity for a longer time than those unmodified.

  8. [Food additives and healthiness].

    PubMed

    Heinonen, Marina

    2014-01-01

    Additives are used for improving food structure or preventing its spoilage, for example. Many substances used as additives are also naturally present in food. The safety of additives is evaluated according to commonly agreed principles. If high concentrations of an additive cause adverse health effects for humans, a limit of acceptable daily intake (ADI) is set for it. An additive is a risk only when ADI is exceeded. The healthiness of food is measured on the basis of nutrient density and scientifically proven effects.

  9. Seed oil and Fatty acid content in okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) and related species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Approximately 1100 genebank accessions of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) and 540 additional accessions that included six of its related species were evaluated for seed oil content using TD-NMR. Species evaluated included; A. caillei, A. crinitis, A. esculentus, A. ficulneus, A. manihot, A. moschat...

  10. Invasive Species

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Invasive species have significantly changed the Great Lakes ecosystem. An invasive species is a plant or animal that is not native to an ecosystem, and whose introduction is likely to cause economic, human health, or environmental damage.

  11. Multiple-species analysis of point count data: A more parsimonious modelling framework

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alldredge, M.W.; Pollock, K.H.; Simons, T.R.; Shriner, S.A.

    2007-01-01

    1. Although population surveys often provide information on multiple species, these data are rarely analysed within a multiple-species framework despite the potential for more efficient estimation of population parameters. 2. We have developed a multiple-species modelling framework that uses similarities in capture/detection processes among species to model multiple species data more parsimoniously. We present examples of this approach applied to distance, time of detection and multiple observer sampling for avian point count data. 3. Models that included species as a covariate and individual species effects were generally selected as the best models for distance sampling, but group models without species effects performed best for the time of detection and multiple observer methods. Population estimates were more precise for no-species-effect models than for species-effect models, demonstrating the benefits of exploiting species' similarities when modelling multiple species data. Partial species-effect models and additive models were also useful because they modelled similarities among species while allowing for species differences. 4. Synthesis and applications. We recommend the adoption of multiple-species modelling because of its potential for improved population estimates. This framework will be particularly beneficial for modelling count data from rare species because information on the detection process can be 'borrowed' from more common species. The multiple-species modelling framework presented here is applicable to a wide range of sampling techniques and taxa. ?? 2007 The Authors.

  12. Food Additives and Hyperkinesis: A Controlled Double-Blind Experiment. (Includes NIE Staff Critique).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conners, C. Keith; And Others

    Fifteen hyperkinetic children (6-12 years old) were involved in a pilot study to test B. Feingold's hypothesis that hyperkinesis may be caused by artificial flavors and colors in food. Prior to treatment, parents and teachers completed bi-weekly questionnaires regarding each Ss' behavior both on medication (pretreatment period) and when medication…

  13. Collaborative Assessment: Working with Students Who Are Blind or Visually Impaired, Including Those with Additional Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Stephen A., Ed.; Wittenstein, Stuart H., Ed.

    This book offers a comprehensive text on the assessment of students with blindness or visual impairment with a focus on approaches used at the California School for the Blind. An introductory chapter is by Frances K. Liefert and Marsha A. Silver. Eleven chapters have the following titles and authors: (1) "Introduction to Visual Impairment"…

  14. Polylactides in additive biomanufacturing.

    PubMed

    Poh, Patrina S P; Chhaya, Mohit P; Wunner, Felix M; De-Juan-Pardo, Elena M; Schilling, Arndt F; Schantz, Jan-Thorsten; van Griensven, Martijn; Hutmacher, Dietmar W

    2016-12-15

    New advanced manufacturing technologies under the alias of additive biomanufacturing allow the design and fabrication of a range of products from pre-operative models, cutting guides and medical devices to scaffolds. The process of printing in 3 dimensions of cells, extracellular matrix (ECM) and biomaterials (bioinks, powders, etc.) to generate in vitro and/or in vivo tissue analogue structures has been termed bioprinting. To further advance in additive biomanufacturing, there are many aspects that we can learn from the wider additive manufacturing (AM) industry, which have progressed tremendously since its introduction into the manufacturing sector. First, this review gives an overview of additive manufacturing and both industry and academia efforts in addressing specific challenges in the AM technologies to drive toward AM-enabled industrial revolution. After which, considerations of poly(lactides) as a biomaterial in additive biomanufacturing are discussed. Challenges in wider additive biomanufacturing field are discussed in terms of (a) biomaterials; (b) computer-aided design, engineering and manufacturing; (c) AM and additive biomanufacturing printers hardware; and (d) system integration. Finally, the outlook for additive biomanufacturing was discussed.

  15. Genetic calibration of species diversity among North America's freshwater fishes

    PubMed Central

    April, Julien; Mayden, Richard L.; Hanner, Robert H.; Bernatchez, Louis

    2011-01-01

    Freshwater ecosystems are being heavily exploited and degraded by human activities all over the world, including in North America, where fishes and fisheries are strongly affected. Despite centuries of taxonomic inquiry, problems inherent to species identification continue to hamper the conservation of North American freshwater fishes. Indeed, nearly 10% of species diversity is thought to remain undescribed. To provide an independent calibration of taxonomic uncertainty and to establish a more accessible molecular identification key for its application, we generated a standard reference library of mtDNA sequences (DNA barcodes) derived from expert-identified museum specimens for 752 North American freshwater fish species. This study demonstrates that 90% of known species can be delineated using barcodes. Moreover, it reveals numerous genetic discontinuities indicative of independently evolving lineages within described species, which points to the presence of morphologically cryptic diversity. From the 752 species analyzed, our survey flagged 138 named species that represent as many as 347 candidate species, which suggests a 28% increase in species diversity. In contrast, several species of parasitic and nonparasitic lampreys lack such discontinuity and may represent alternative life history strategies within single species. Therefore, it appears that the current North American freshwater fish taxonomy at the species level significantly conceals diversity in some groups, although artificially creating diversity in others. In addition to providing an easily accessible digital identification system, this study identifies 151 fish species for which taxonomic revision is required. PMID:21670289

  16. Genetic calibration of species diversity among North America's freshwater fishes.

    PubMed

    April, Julien; Mayden, Richard L; Hanner, Robert H; Bernatchez, Louis

    2011-06-28

    Freshwater ecosystems are being heavily exploited and degraded by human activities all over the world, including in North America, where fishes and fisheries are strongly affected. Despite centuries of taxonomic inquiry, problems inherent to species identification continue to hamper the conservation of North American freshwater fishes. Indeed, nearly 10% of species diversity is thought to remain undescribed. To provide an independent calibration of taxonomic uncertainty and to establish a more accessible molecular identification key for its application, we generated a standard reference library of mtDNA sequences (DNA barcodes) derived from expert-identified museum specimens for 752 North American freshwater fish species. This study demonstrates that 90% of known species can be delineated using barcodes. Moreover, it reveals numerous genetic discontinuities indicative of independently evolving lineages within described species, which points to the presence of morphologically cryptic diversity. From the 752 species analyzed, our survey flagged 138 named species that represent as many as 347 candidate species, which suggests a 28% increase in species diversity. In contrast, several species of parasitic and nonparasitic lampreys lack such discontinuity and may represent alternative life history strategies within single species. Therefore, it appears that the current North American freshwater fish taxonomy at the species level significantly conceals diversity in some groups, although artificially creating diversity in others. In addition to providing an easily accessible digital identification system, this study identifies 151 fish species for which taxonomic revision is required.

  17. Phytoseiid mites (Acari: Phytoseiidae) from Egypt, with new records, descriptions of new species, and a key to species.

    PubMed

    Abo-Shnaf, Reham I A; De Moraes, Gilberto J

    2014-09-19

    The present paper refers to the identification of phytoseiid specimens newly collected by the first author of this paper and her collaborators, as well as to the examination of type specimens of species previously described from Egypt. The taxonomy of phytoseiid mites has been studied in Egypt since 1967. Until now, 78 nominal species have been recorded, of which 60 are valid. One of those species, Phytoseius plumifer (Canestrini & Fanzago), appears to be based on an incorrect record. An additional species (Typhlodromus hellei Hassan, Afifi & Nawar), described from Egypt, is not sufficiently characterised to allow its correct generic classification and the determination of its validity. Eight new records are reported in this paper, including two new species, Proprioseiopsis ismailiaensis n. sp. and Typhlodromus (Anthoseius) fayoumensis n. sp., which are described. Complementary descriptions of 11 known species are given. An updated survey of all species reported from Egypt and a taxonomic key to separate them are also presented. Six new synonymies are proposed.

  18. Caveats for correlative species distribution modeling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jarnevich, Catherine S.; Stohlgren, Thomas J.; Kumar, Sunil; Morisette, Jeffrey T.; Holcombe, Tracy R.

    2015-01-01

    Correlative species distribution models are becoming commonplace in the scientific literature and public outreach products, displaying locations, abundance, or suitable environmental conditions for harmful invasive species, threatened and endangered species, or species of special concern. Accurate species distribution models are useful for efficient and adaptive management and conservation, research, and ecological forecasting. Yet, these models are often presented without fully examining or explaining the caveats for their proper use and interpretation and are often implemented without understanding the limitations and assumptions of the model being used. We describe common pitfalls, assumptions, and caveats of correlative species distribution models to help novice users and end users better interpret these models. Four primary caveats corresponding to different phases of the modeling process, each with supporting documentation and examples, include: (1) all sampling data are incomplete and potentially biased; (2) predictor variables must capture distribution constraints; (3) no single model works best for all species, in all areas, at all spatial scales, and over time; and (4) the results of species distribution models should be treated like a hypothesis to be tested and validated with additional sampling and modeling in an iterative process.

  19. Introduced species and their missing parasites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Torchin, Mark E.; Lafferty, Kevin D.; Dobson, Andrew P.; McKenzie, Valerie J.; Kuris, Armand M.

    2003-01-01

    Damage caused by introduced species results from the high population densities and large body sizes that they attain in their new location. Escape from the effects of natural enemies is a frequent explanation given for the success of introduced species. Because some parasites can reduce host density and decrease body size, an invader that leaves parasites behind and encounters few new parasites can experience a demographic release and become a pest. To test whether introduced species are less parasitized, we have compared the parasites of exotic species in their native and introduced ranges, using 26 host species of molluscs, crustaceans, fishes, birds, mammals, amphibians and reptiles. Here we report that the number of parasite species found in native populations is twice that found in exotic populations. In addition, introduced populations are less heavily parasitized (in terms of percentage infected) than are native populations. Reduced parasitization of introduced species has several causes, including reduced probability of the introduction of parasites with exotic species (or early extinction after host establishment), absence of other required hosts in the new location, and the host-specific limitations of native parasites adapting to new hosts.

  20. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fletcher, James C. (Inventor); Pratt, J. Richard (Inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (Inventor); Burks, Harold D. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A process for preparing polyimides having enhanced melt flow properties is described. The process consists of heating a mixture of a high molecular weight poly-(amic acid) or polyimide with a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive in the range of 0.05 to 15 percent by weight of additive. The polyimide powders so obtained show improved processability, as evidenced by lower melt viscosity by capillary rheometry. Likewise, films prepared from mixtures of polymers with additives show improved processability with earlier onset of stretching by TMA.

  1. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, J. Richard (Inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (Inventor); Burks, Harold D. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A process for preparing polyimides having enhanced melt flow properties is described. The process consists of heating a mixture of a high molecular weight poly-(amic acid) or polyimide with a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive in the range of 0.05 to 15 percent by weight of the additive. The polyimide powders so obtained show improved processability, as evidenced by lower melt viscosity by capillary rheometry. Likewise, films prepared from mixtures of polymers with additives show improved processability with earlier onset of stretching by TMA.

  2. 77 FR 47587 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing 38 Species on Molokai, Lanai, and Maui as...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-09

    ... widespread species from New Zealand. In addition, we propose name changes or corrections for 11 endangered... climate change on the species included in this proposed rule, and any special management needs or...; Listing 38 Species on Molokai, Lanai, and Maui as Endangered and Designating Critical Habitat on...

  3. Checklist of tortoise beetles (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Cassidinae) from Colombia with new data and description of a new species

    PubMed Central

    Borowiec, Lech; Świętojańska, Jolanta

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A new tortoise beetle species, Cyrtonota abrili, is described from the Antioquia and Caldas departments in Colombia. New faunistic data are provided for 87 species, including 16 new additions to the country’s fauna. A checklist of the known 238 species of tortoise beetles recorded from Colombia is given. PMID:26448702

  4. Adverse reactions to drug additives.

    PubMed

    Simon, R A

    1984-10-01

    There is a long list of additives used by the pharmaceutical industry. Most of the agents used have not been implicated in hypersensitivity reactions. Among those that have, only reactions to parabens and sulfites have been well established. Parabens have been shown to be responsible for rare immunoglobulin E-mediated reactions that occur after the use of local anesthetics. Sulfites, which are present in many drugs, including agents commonly used to treat asthma, have been shown to provoke severe asthmatic attacks in sensitive individuals. Recent studies indicate that additives do not play a significant role in "hyperactivity." The role of additives in urticaria is not well established and therefore the incidence of adverse reactions in this patient population is simply not known. In double-blind, placebo-controlled studies, reactions to tartrazine or additives other than sulfites, if they occur at all, are indeed quite rare for the asthmatic population, even for the aspirin-sensitive subpopulation.

  5. The Colletotrichum gloeosporioides species complex

    PubMed Central

    Weir, B.S.; Johnston, P.R.; Damm, U.

    2012-01-01

    The limit of the Colletotrichum gloeosporioides species complex is defined genetically, based on a strongly supported clade within the Colletotrichum ITS gene tree. All taxa accepted within this clade are morphologically more or less typical of the broadly defined C. gloeosporioides, as it has been applied in the literature for the past 50 years. We accept 22 species plus one subspecies within the C. gloeosporioides complex. These include C. asianum, C. cordylinicola, C. fructicola, C. gloeosporioides, C. horii, C. kahawae subsp. kahawae, C. musae, C. nupharicola, C. psidii, C. siamense, C. theobromicola, C. tropicale, and C. xanthorrhoeae, along with the taxa described here as new, C. aenigma, C. aeschynomenes, C. alatae, C. alienum, C. aotearoa, C. clidemiae, C. kahawae subsp. ciggaro, C. salsolae, and C. ti, plus the nom. nov. C. queenslandicum (for C. gloeosporioides var. minus). All of the taxa are defined genetically on the basis of multi-gene phylogenies. Brief morphological descriptions are provided for species where no modern description is available. Many of the species are unable to be reliably distinguished using ITS, the official barcoding gene for fungi. Particularly problematic are a set of species genetically close to C. musae and another set of species genetically close to C. kahawae, referred to here as the Musae clade and the Kahawae clade, respectively. Each clade contains several species that are phylogenetically well supported in multi-gene analyses, but within the clades branch lengths are short because of the small number of phylogenetically informative characters, and in a few cases individual gene trees are incongruent. Some single genes or combinations of genes, such as glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and glutamine synthetase, can be used to reliably distinguish most taxa and will need to be developed as secondary barcodes for species level identification, which is important because many of these fungi are of biosecurity

  6. Food Additives and Hyperkinesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wender, Ester H.

    1977-01-01

    The hypothesis that food additives are causally associated with hyperkinesis and learning disabilities in children is reviewed, and available data are summarized. Available from: American Medical Association 535 North Dearborn Street Chicago, Illinois 60610. (JG)

  7. Smog control fuel additives

    SciTech Connect

    Lundby, W.

    1993-06-29

    A method is described of controlling, reducing or eliminating, ozone and related smog resulting from photochemical reactions between ozone and automotive or industrial gases comprising the addition of iodine or compounds of iodine to hydrocarbon-base fuels prior to or during combustion in an amount of about 1 part iodine per 240 to 10,000,000 parts fuel, by weight, to be accomplished by: (a) the addition of these inhibitors during or after the refining or manufacturing process of liquid fuels; (b) the production of these inhibitors for addition into fuel tanks, such as automotive or industrial tanks; or (c) the addition of these inhibitors into combustion chambers of equipment utilizing solid fuels for the purpose of reducing ozone.

  8. A review of the New World Coproica (Diptera: Sphaeroceridae) with a description of 8 new species.

    PubMed

    Bergeron, Matthew D; Marshall, Stephen A; Swann, John E

    2015-04-30

    The New World species of Coproica Rondani, 1861 (Diptera: Sphaeroceridae) are reviewed on the basis of over 17,000 examined specimens. The genus is divided into three major clades: the C. acutangula, C. vagans, and C. urbana species groups. Eight new species (C. bifurcata, C. bispatha, C. brachystyla, C. diabolica, C. emarginata, C. galapagosensis, C. novacula, and C. testudinea) are described, and redescriptions are provided for eleven additional species. Included are two keys (one for the twenty New World species only and one for all described species), updated New World distribution records, and illustrations of male and female genitalic structures.

  9. Evaluation of certain food additives.

    PubMed

    2015-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives, including flavouring agents, and to prepare specifications for identity and purity. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles governing the toxicological evaluation of and assessment of dietary exposure to food additives, including flavouring agents. A summary follows of the Committee's evaluations of technical, toxicological and dietary exposure data for eight food additives (Benzoe tonkinensis; carrageenan; citric and fatty acid esters of glycerol; gardenia yellow; lutein esters from Tagetes erecta; octenyl succinic acid-modified gum arabic; octenyl succinic acid-modified starch; paprika extract; and pectin) and eight groups of flavouring agents (aliphatic and alicyclic hydrocarbons; aliphatic and aromatic ethers; ionones and structurally related substances; miscellaneous nitrogen-containing substances; monocyclic and bicyclic secondary alcohols, ketones and related esters; phenol and phenol derivatives; phenyl-substituted aliphatic alcohols and related aldehydes and esters; and sulfur-containing heterocyclic compounds). Specifications for the following food additives were revised: citric acid; gellan gum; polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monostearate; potassium aluminium silicate; and Quillaia extract (Type 2). Annexed to the report are tables summarizing the Committee's recommendations for dietary exposures to and toxicological evaluations of all of the food additives and flavouring agents considered at this meeting.

  10. Group Sparse Additive Models

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Junming; Chen, Xi; Xing, Eric P.

    2016-01-01

    We consider the problem of sparse variable selection in nonparametric additive models, with the prior knowledge of the structure among the covariates to encourage those variables within a group to be selected jointly. Previous works either study the group sparsity in the parametric setting (e.g., group lasso), or address the problem in the nonparametric setting without exploiting the structural information (e.g., sparse additive models). In this paper, we present a new method, called group sparse additive models (GroupSpAM), which can handle group sparsity in additive models. We generalize the ℓ1/ℓ2 norm to Hilbert spaces as the sparsity-inducing penalty in GroupSpAM. Moreover, we derive a novel thresholding condition for identifying the functional sparsity at the group level, and propose an efficient block coordinate descent algorithm for constructing the estimate. We demonstrate by simulation that GroupSpAM substantially outperforms the competing methods in terms of support recovery and prediction accuracy in additive models, and also conduct a comparative experiment on a real breast cancer dataset.

  11. Additive Manufacturing Infrared Inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaddy, Darrell

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing is a rapid prototyping technology that allows parts to be built in a series of thin layers from plastic, ceramics, and metallics. Metallic additive manufacturing is an emerging form of rapid prototyping that allows complex structures to be built using various metallic powders. Significant time and cost savings have also been observed using the metallic additive manufacturing compared with traditional techniques. Development of the metallic additive manufacturing technology has advanced significantly over the last decade, although many of the techniques to inspect parts made from these processes have not advanced significantly or have limitations. Several external geometry inspection techniques exist such as Coordinate Measurement Machines (CMM), Laser Scanners, Structured Light Scanning Systems, or even traditional calipers and gages. All of the aforementioned techniques are limited to external geometry and contours or must use a contact probe to inspect limited internal dimensions. This presentation will document the development of a process for real-time dimensional inspection technique and digital quality record of the additive manufacturing process using Infrared camera imaging and processing techniques.

  12. Additive Manufacturing of Aerospace Propulsion Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Misra, Ajay K.; Grady, Joseph E.; Carter, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The presentation will provide an overview of ongoing activities on additive manufacturing of aerospace propulsion components, which included rocket propulsion and gas turbine engines. Future opportunities on additive manufacturing of hybrid electric propulsion components will be discussed.

  13. Phenylethynyl Containing Reactive Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G., Jr. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Phenylethynyl containing reactive additives were prepared from aromatic diamine, containing phenylethvnvl groups and various ratios of phthalic anhydride and 4-phenylethynviphthalic anhydride in glacial acetic acid to form the imide in one step or in N-methyl-2-pvrrolidinone to form the amide acid intermediate. The reactive additives were mixed in various amounts (10% to 90%) with oligomers containing either terminal or pendent phenylethynyl groups (or both) to reduce the melt viscosity and thereby enhance processability. Upon thermal cure, the additives react and become chemically incorporated into the matrix and effect an increase in crosslink density relative to that of the host resin. This resultant increase in crosslink density has advantageous consequences on the cured resin properties such as higher glass transition temperature and higher modulus as compared to that of the host resin.

  14. Fused Lasso Additive Model

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Ashley; Witten, Daniela; Simon, Noah

    2016-01-01

    We consider the problem of predicting an outcome variable using p covariates that are measured on n independent observations, in a setting in which additive, flexible, and interpretable fits are desired. We propose the fused lasso additive model (FLAM), in which each additive function is estimated to be piecewise constant with a small number of adaptively-chosen knots. FLAM is the solution to a convex optimization problem, for which a simple algorithm with guaranteed convergence to a global optimum is provided. FLAM is shown to be consistent in high dimensions, and an unbiased estimator of its degrees of freedom is proposed. We evaluate the performance of FLAM in a simulation study and on two data sets. Supplemental materials are available online, and the R package flam is available on CRAN. PMID:28239246

  15. Phenylethynyl Containing Reactive Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G., Jr. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Phenylethynyl containing reactive additives were prepared from aromatic diamines containing phenylethynyl groups and various ratios of phthalic anhydride and 4-phenylethynylphthalic anhydride in glacial acetic acid to form the imide in one step or in N-methyl-2-pyrrolidi none to form the amide acid intermediate. The reactive additives were mixed in various amounts (10% to 90%) with oligomers containing either terminal or pendent phenylethynyl groups (or both) to reduce the melt viscosity and thereby enhance processability. Upon thermal cure, the additives react and become chemically incorporated into the matrix and effect an increase in crosslink density relative to that of the host resin. This resultant increase in crosslink density has advantageous consequences on the cured resin properties such as higher glass transition temperature and higher modulus as compared to that of the host resin.

  16. Novelties in Selaginella (Selaginellaceae - Lycopodiophyta), with emphasis on Brazilian species.

    PubMed

    Valdespino, Iván A

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, I describe five new species of Selaginella from Brazil (Selaginella nanuzae, Selaginella neospringiana, Selaginella pellucidopunctata, Selaginella stomatoloma, and Selaginella trygonoides), compare them to morphologically similar species, and provide a preliminary conservation status assessment for each. The new species are illustrated with scanning electron photomicrographs of stem sections, leaves, and spores, when available. Also discussed in this paper are ten species, mainly from Brazil and with new distribution records, and the forthcoming resurrection of three species also occurring in Brazil. Three further non-native and presumed naturalized species are recognized in Brazil, and publication of one additional taxon is planned. Eighty-six Selaginella species are now known from Brazil and, of these, 80 are native (including 26 / 32.5%, endemic), and six are introduced. Brazil and Mexico have the second highest number of native Selaginella species in the Neotropics after Venezuela, which is estimated to have about 100. Of the newly documented species, Selaginella cabrerensis is now known to occur in French Guiana, Brazil, and Bolivia, in addition to Colombia, and Selaginella arroyoana and Selaginella chiquitana are synonymized under it. Likewise, Selaginella potaroensis is also recorded from Costa Rica and Brazil, and Selaginella seemannii from Panama and Brazil. Finally, leaf marginal stomata are reported on the newly described species and their functionality is discussed under Selaginella stomatoloma.

  17. Additives in plastics.

    PubMed Central

    Deanin, R D

    1975-01-01

    The polymers used in plastics are generally harmless. However, they are rarely used in pure form. In almost all commercial plastics, they are "compounded" with monomeric ingredients to improve their processing and end-use performance. In order of total volume used, these monomeric additives may be classified as follows: reinforcing fibers, fillers, and coupling agents; plasticizers; colorants; stabilizers (halogen stabilizers, antioxidants, ultraviolet absorbers, and biological preservatives); processing aids (lubricants, others, and flow controls); flame retardants, peroxides; and antistats. Some information is already available, and much more is needed, on potential toxicity and safe handling of these additives during processing and manufacture of plastics products. PMID:1175566

  18. Additives in plastics.

    PubMed

    Deanin, R D

    1975-06-01

    The polymers used in plastics are generally harmless. However, they are rarely used in pure form. In almost all commercial plastics, they are "compounded" with monomeric ingredients to improve their processing and end-use performance. In order of total volume used, these monomeric additives may be classified as follows: reinforcing fibers, fillers, and coupling agents; plasticizers; colorants; stabilizers (halogen stabilizers, antioxidants, ultraviolet absorbers, and biological preservatives); processing aids (lubricants, others, and flow controls); flame retardants, peroxides; and antistats. Some information is already available, and much more is needed, on potential toxicity and safe handling of these additives during processing and manufacture of plastics products.

  19. Biobased lubricant additives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fully biobased lubricants are those formulated using all biobased ingredients, i.e. biobased base oils and biobased additives. Such formulations provide the maximum environmental, safety, and economic benefits expected from a biobased product. Currently, there are a number of biobased base oils that...

  20. More Than Additional Space...

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CEFP Journal, 1973

    1973-01-01

    A much needed addition to the Jamestown Elementary School turned out to be more than an expansion of walls for more space. A new educational program, a limited budget, and a short time line were tackled on a team approach basis and were successfully resolved. (Author)

  1. Extension of JAGUAR Procedures for New Gaseous and Condensed Species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stiel, Leonard; Baker, Ernest; Murphy, Daniel

    2011-06-01

    JAGUAR is a highly efficient and accurate thermochemical equilibrium program for the detonation properties of explosives. In previous studies equation of state EXP-6 parameters for H-CN-O gaseous explosives product species have been optimized with available individual species Hugoniot data. The Jaguar library also includes solid and liquid properties for carbon and aluminum, silicon, and boron compounds. In this study the Jaguar property library has been expanded to include additional gaseous, liquid, and solid detonation products. New EXP-6 parameters for gaseous fluorine and chlorine compounds have been established through theoretical procedures, and by analyses of Hugoniot data for the actual species or for reactants which decompose into these compounds. Properties for additional condensed species have also been analyzed and added to the library. Extensive tests have beeb performed to determine the accuracy of calculated detonation properties in comparison to experimental data. The authors gratefully acknowledge the support of the Institute for Multi Scale Reactive Modeling.

  2. Consideration of species community composition in statistical ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Diseases are increasing in marine ecosystems, and these increases have been attributed to a number of environmental factors including climate change, pollution, and overfishing. However, many studies pool disease prevalence into taxonomic groups, disregarding host species composition when comparing sites or assessing environmental impacts on patterns of disease presence. We used simulated data under a known environmental effect to assess the ability of standard statistical methods (binomial and linear regression, ANOVA) to detect a significant environmental effect on pooled disease prevalence with varying species abundance distributions and relative susceptibilities to disease. When one species was more susceptible to a disease and both species only partially overlapped in their distributions, models tended to produce a greater number of false positives (Type I error). Differences in disease risk between regions or along an environmental gradient tended to be underestimated, or even in the wrong direction, when highly susceptible taxa had reduced abundances in impacted sites, a situation likely to be common in nature. Including relative abundance as an additional variable in regressions improved model accuracy, but tended to be conservative, producing more false negatives (Type II error) when species abundance was strongly correlated with the environmental effect. Investigators should be cautious of underlying assumptions of species similarity in susceptib

  3. EMC Recent Additions

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page has information about recent changes to promulgated and proposed test methods, perfomance specifications, and quality assurance procedures. It also includes updates and changes to all other approved and proposed test methods.

  4. Vinyl capped addition polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vannucci, Raymond D. (Inventor); Malarik, Diane C. (Inventor); Delvigs, Peter (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    Polyimide resins (PMR) are generally useful where high strength and temperature capabilities are required (at temperatures up to about 700 F). Polyimide resins are particularly useful in applications such as jet engine compressor components, for example, blades, vanes, air seals, air splitters, and engine casing parts. Aromatic vinyl capped addition polyimides are obtained by reacting a diamine, an ester of tetracarboxylic acid, and an aromatic vinyl compound. Low void materials with improved oxidative stability when exposed to 700 F air may be fabricated as fiber reinforced high molecular weight capped polyimide composites. The aromatic vinyl capped polyimides are provided with a more aromatic nature and are more thermally stable than highly aliphatic, norbornenyl-type end-capped polyimides employed in PMR resins. The substitution of aromatic vinyl end-caps for norbornenyl end-caps in addition polyimides results in polymers with improved oxidative stability.

  5. Electrophilic addition of astatine

    SciTech Connect

    Norseev, Yu.V.; Vasaros, L.; Nhan, D.D.; Huan, N.K.

    1988-03-01

    It has been shown for the first time that astatine is capable of undergoing addition reactions to unsaturated hydrocarbons. A new compound of astatine, viz., ethylene astatohydrin, has been obtained, and its retention numbers of squalane, Apiezon, and tricresyl phosphate have been found. The influence of various factors on the formation of ethylene astatohydrin has been studied. It has been concluded on the basis of the results obtained that the univalent cations of astatine in an acidic medium is protonated hypoastatous acid.

  6. Functional Generalized Additive Models.

    PubMed

    McLean, Mathew W; Hooker, Giles; Staicu, Ana-Maria; Scheipl, Fabian; Ruppert, David

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the functional generalized additive model (FGAM), a novel regression model for association studies between a scalar response and a functional predictor. We model the link-transformed mean response as the integral with respect to t of F{X(t), t} where F(·,·) is an unknown regression function and X(t) is a functional covariate. Rather than having an additive model in a finite number of principal components as in Müller and Yao (2008), our model incorporates the functional predictor directly and thus our model can be viewed as the natural functional extension of generalized additive models. We estimate F(·,·) using tensor-product B-splines with roughness penalties. A pointwise quantile transformation of the functional predictor is also considered to ensure each tensor-product B-spline has observed data on its support. The methods are evaluated using simulated data and their predictive performance is compared with other competing scalar-on-function regression alternatives. We illustrate the usefulness of our approach through an application to brain tractography, where X(t) is a signal from diffusion tensor imaging at position, t, along a tract in the brain. In one example, the response is disease-status (case or control) and in a second example, it is the score on a cognitive test. R code for performing the simulations and fitting the FGAM can be found in supplemental materials available online.

  7. Improved Molecular Technique for the Differentiation of Neotropical Anopheline Species

    PubMed Central

    Matson, Ryan; Rios, Carlos Tong; Chavez, Cesar Banda; Gilman, Robert H.; Florin, David; Sifuentes, Victor Lopez; Greffa, Roldan Cardenas; Yori, Pablo Peñataro; Fernandez, Roberto; Portocarrero, Daniel Velasquez; Vinetz, Joseph M.; Kosek, Margaret

    2008-01-01

    We evaluated a PCR-RFLP of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 2 region (ITS2) to distinguish species of Anopheles commonly reported in the Amazon and validated this method using reared F1 offspring. The following species of Anopheles were used for molecular analysis: An. (Nys.) benarrochi, An. (Nys.) darlingi, An. (Nys.) nuneztovari, An. (Nys.) konderi, An. (Nys.) rangeli, and An. (Nys.) triannulatus sensu lato (s.l.). In addition, three species of the subgenus Anopheles, An. (Ano.) forattini, An. (Ano.) mattogrossensis, and An. (Ano.) peryassui were included for testing. Each of the nine species tested yielded diagnostic banding patterns. The PCR-RFLP method was successful in identifying all life stages including exuviae with small fractions of the sample. The assay is rapid and can be applied as an unbiased confirmatory method for identification of morphologic variants, disputed samples, imperfectly preserved specimens, and life stages from which taxonomic keys do not allow for definitive species determination. PMID:18337348

  8. Nematocarcinus Milne Edwards, 1881 (Crustacea, Decapoda) from Southwestern Atlantic, including the Southern Mid-Atlantic Ridge area.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Irene A; Burukovsky, Rudolf N

    2014-11-26

    The deep sea shrimp genus Nematocarcinus Milne Edwards, 1881 includes 47 species, ten of them have been recorded from the Atlantic Ocean. Herein, material sampled during three scientific projects (REVIZEE Central Fishery project; Campos Basin Deep Sea Environmental Project; Evaluation of Environmental Heterogeneity in the Campos Basin) made in the Southwestern Atlantic, off Brazil, is examined. In addition, material sampled from the South Mid Atlantic Ridge (MAR-ECO Project) was also examined. Four species are recorded for the first time to the southwestern Atlantic Ocean including Mid Atlantic Ridge area: Nematocarcinus faxoni Burukovsky, 2001; N. gracilipes Filhol, 1884; N. rotundus Crosnier & Forest, 1973 and N. tenuipes Spence-Bate, 1888.

  9. Siloxane containing addition polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maudgal, S.; St. Clair, T. L.

    1984-01-01

    Addition polyimide oligomers have been synthesized from bis(gamma-aminopropyl) tetramethyldisiloxane and 3, 3', 4, 4'-benzophenonetetracarboxylic dianhydride using a variety of latent crosslinking groups as endcappers. The prepolymers were isolated and characterized for solubility (in amide, chlorinated and ether solvents), melt flow and cure properties. The most promising systems, maleimide and acetylene terminated prepolymers, were selected for detailed study. Graphite cloth reinforced composites were prepared and properties compared with those of graphite/Kerimid 601, a commercially available bismaleimide. Mixtures of the maleimide terminated system with Kerimid 601, in varying proportions, were also studied.

  10. Biofilms of Clostridium species.

    PubMed

    Pantaléon, Véronique; Bouttier, Sylvie; Soavelomandroso, Anna Philibertine; Janoir, Claire; Candela, Thomas

    2014-12-01

    The biofilm is a microbial community embedded in a synthesized matrix and is the main bacterial way of life. A biofilm adheres on surfaces or is found on interfaces. It protects bacteria from the environment, toxic molecules and may have a role in virulence. Clostridium species are spread throughout both environments and hosts, but their biofilms have not been extensively described in comparison with other bacterial species. In this review we describe all biofilms formed by Clostridium species during both industrial processes and in mammals where biofilms may be formed either during infections or associated to microbiota in the gut. We have specifically focussed on Clostridium difficile and Clostridium perfringens biofilms, which have been studied in vitro. Regulatory processes including sporulation and germination highlight how these Clostridium species live in biofilms. Furthermore, biofilms may have a role in the survival and spreading of Clostridium species.

  11. Evaluation of certain food additives.

    PubMed

    2012-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives, including flavouring agents, with a view to concluding as to safety concerns and to preparing specifications for identity and purity. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles governing the toxicological evaluation of and assessment of dietary exposure to food additives, including flavouring agents. A summary follows of the Committee's evaluations of technical, toxicological and dietary exposure data for five food additives (magnesium dihydrogen diphosphate; mineral oil (medium and low viscosity) classes II and III; 3-phytase from Aspergillus niger expressed in Aspergillus niger; serine protease (chymotrypsin) from Nocardiopsis prasina expressed in Bacillus licheniformis; and serine protease (trypsin) from Fusarium oxysporum expressed in Fusarium venenatum) and 16 groups of flavouring agents (aliphatic and aromatic amines and amides; aliphatic and aromatic ethers; aliphatic hydrocarbons, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids and related esters, sulfides, disulfides and ethers containing furan substitution; aliphatic linear alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes, acids and related alcohols, acetals and esters; amino acids and related substances; epoxides; furfuryl alcohol and related substances; linear and branched-chain aliphatic, unsaturated, unconjugated alcohols, aldehydes, acids and related esters; miscellaneous nitrogen-containing substances; phenol and phenol derivatives; pyrazine derivatives; pyridine, pyrrole and quinoline derivatives; saturated aliphatic acyclic branched-chain primary alcohols, aldehydes and acids; simple aliphatic and aromatic sulfides and thiols; sulfur-containing heterocyclic compounds; and sulfur-substituted furan derivatives). Specifications for the following food additives were revised: ethyl cellulose, mineral oil (medium viscosity), modified starches and titanium

  12. A synopsis of the subgenus Centris (Hemisiella) Moure, 1945 (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Centridini) in Colombia, with description of a new species.

    PubMed

    Vivallo, Felipe; Vélez, Danny

    2016-09-08

    A synopsis of the species of Centris subgenus Hemisiella Moure in Colombia is presented. The species included are Centris dichrootricha (Moure), C. facialis Mocsáry, C. merrillae Cockerell, C. tarsata Smith, C. trigonoides Lepeletier and C. vittata Lepeletier. In addition, C. nebulosa new species from northwestern Colombia is described, as well as the male of C. merrillae. Diagnoses for both sexes, occurrence records, and an identification key for the seven species of the subgenus that occur in the country are provided.

  13. Platelet additive solution - electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Azuma, Hiroshi; Hirayama, Junichi; Akino, Mitsuaki; Ikeda, Hisami

    2011-06-01

    Recent attention to solutions that replace most or all plasma in platelet concentrates, while maintaining satisfactory platelet function, is motivated by the potential of plasma reduction or depletion to mitigate various transfusion-related adverse events. This report considers the electrolytic composition of previously described platelet additive solutions, in order to draw general conclusions about what is required for platelet function and longevity. The optimal concentrations of Na(+) and Cl(-) are 69-115 mM. The presence of both K(+) and Mg(2+) in platelet suspension at nearly physiological concentrations (3-5mM and 1.5-3mM, respectively) is indispensable for good preservation capacity because both electrolytes are required to prevent platelet activation. In contrast to K(+) and Mg(2+), Ca(2+) may not be important because no free Ca(2+) is available in M-sol, which showed excellent platelet preservation capacity at less than 5% plasma concentration. The importance of bicarbonate (approximately 40 mM) can be recognized when the platelets are suspended in additive solution under less than 5% residual plasma concentration.

  14. European species of Hypocrea Part I. The green-spored species

    PubMed Central

    Jaklitsch, Walter M.

    2009-01-01

    anamorphs in Europe. Of the hyaline-spored species, H. minutispora is by far the most common species in Europe, while of the green-spored species this is H. strictipilosa. General ecology of Hypocrea is discussed. Specific associations, either with host fungi or trees have been found, but the majority of species seems to be necrotrophic on diverse fungi on wood and bark. The taxonomy of the genus will be treated in two parts. In this first part 19 species of Hypocrea with green ascospores, including six new teleomorph and five new anamorph species, are described in detail. All green-spored species belong to previously recognised clades, except H. spinulosa, which forms the new Spinulosa Clade with two additional new species, and H. fomiticola, which belongs to the Semiorbis Clade and forms effuse to large subpulvinate stromata on Fomes fomentarius, a trait new for species with green ascospores. Anamorph names are established prospectively in order to provide a basis for possible policy alterations towards their use for holomorphs. PMID:19826500

  15. New species of Bidessonotus Régimbart, 1895 with a review of the South American species (Coleoptera, Adephaga, Dytiscidae, Hydroporinae, Bidessini).

    PubMed

    Miller, Kelly B

    2016-01-01

    The South American species of the New World genus Bidessonotus Régimbart, 1895 are reviewed with descriptions of seven new species. This brings the total number of valid Bidessonotus species to 37, making it the largest Bidessini genus in the New World. The new species are Bidessonotus annaesp. n. (Venezuela), Bidessonotus josiahisp. n. (Venezuela), Bidessonotus palecephalussp. n. (Venezuela), Bidessonotus reductussp. n. (Venezuela), Bidessonotus septimussp. n. (Venezuela), Bidessonotus spinosussp. n. (Venezuela), and Bidessonotus valdezisp. n. (Guyana, Suriname). New distribution records are provided for many other South American Bidessonotus species. The main diagnostic features of Bidessonotus species are in the male genitalia, and these are illustrated for all South American species. Diagnostic features, distributions (including distribution maps), and additional comments are provided for all South American species.

  16. New species of Bidessonotus Régimbart, 1895 with a review of the South American species (Coleoptera, Adephaga, Dytiscidae, Hydroporinae, Bidessini)

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Kelly B.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The South American species of the New World genus Bidessonotus Régimbart, 1895 are reviewed with descriptions of seven new species. This brings the total number of valid Bidessonotus species to 37, making it the largest Bidessini genus in the New World. The new species are Bidessonotus annae sp. n. (Venezuela), Bidessonotus josiahi sp. n. (Venezuela), Bidessonotus palecephalus sp. n. (Venezuela), Bidessonotus reductus sp. n. (Venezuela), Bidessonotus septimus sp. n. (Venezuela), Bidessonotus spinosus sp. n. (Venezuela), and Bidessonotus valdezi sp. n. (Guyana, Suriname). New distribution records are provided for many other South American Bidessonotus species. The main diagnostic features of Bidessonotus species are in the male genitalia, and these are illustrated for all South American species. Diagnostic features, distributions (including distribution maps), and additional comments are provided for all South American species. PMID:27843382

  17. Detection of toxic monofluoroacetate in Palicourea species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Numerous plant species worldwide including some Palicourea (Rubiaceae), Tanaecium (Bignoniaceae), and Amorimia (Malpighiaceae) species in Brazil cause sudden death and are known to contain monofluoroacetate (MFA). Two species of Palicourea, P. aenofusca and P. marcgravii, cause sudden death and are...

  18. Advances in Additive Manufacturing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-07-14

    casting molds for traditional casting processes on the battlefield, and 3) the use of recycled polymeric materials as feedstock for 3-D printers ...nondestructive characterization technique allows for 3D imaging that readily captures defects and voids on the conditions that the attenuation, which is...of 3D -printed structures. Analysis examples will include quantification of tolerance differences between the designed and manufactured parts, void

  19. Additive composition, for gasoline

    SciTech Connect

    Vataru, M.

    1989-01-10

    An admixture is described that comprises Diesel fuel and an additive composition added thereto which is between about 0.05 to about 2.0 percent by weight of the fuel, the composition comprising: (a) between about 0.05 and 25% relative weight parts of an organic peroxide, and (b) between about 0.1 and 25% relative weight parts of detergent selected from the component group that consists of: (i) fatty amines; (ii) ethoxylated and propoxylated derivatives of fatty amines; (iii) fatty diamines; (iv) fatty imidazlines; (v) polymeric amines and derivatives thereof; (vi) combination of one or more of the (i) through (v) components with carboxylic acid or acids having from three to forth carbon atoms, (c) from about 99.0 to about 50% by weight of a hydrocarbon solvent.

  20. Teardrop bladder: additional considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Wechsler, R.J.; Brennan, R.E.

    1982-07-01

    Nine cases of teardrop bladder (TDB) seen at excretory urography are presented. In some of these patients, the iliopsoas muscles were at the upper limit of normal in size, and additional evaluation of the perivesical structures with computed tomography (CT) was necessary. CT demonstrated only hypertrophied muscles with or without perivesical fat. The psoas muscles and pelvic width were measured in 8 patients and compared with the measurements of a control group of males without TDB. Patients with TDB had large iliopsoas muscles and narrow pelves compared with the control group. The psoas muscle width/pelvic width ratio was significantly greater (p < 0.0005) in patients with TDB than in the control group, with values of 1.04 + 0.05 and 0.82 + 0.09, respectively. It is concluded that TDB is not an uncommon normal variant in black males. Both iliopsoas muscle hypertrophy and a narrow pelvis are factors that predispose a patient to TDB.

  1. New addition curing polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frimer, Aryeh A.; Cavano, Paul

    1991-01-01

    In an attempt to improve the thermal-oxidative stability (TOS) of PMR-type polymers, the use of 1,4-phenylenebis (phenylmaleic anhydride) PPMA, was evaluated. Two series of nadic end-capped addition curing polyimides were prepared by imidizing PPMA with either 4,4'-methylene dianiline or p-phenylenediamine. The first resulted in improved solubility and increased resin flow while the latter yielded a compression molded neat resin sample with a T(sub g) of 408 C, close to 70 C higher than PME-15. The performance of these materials in long term weight loss studies was below that of PMR-15, independent of post-cure conditions. These results can be rationalized in terms of the thermal lability of the pendant phenyl groups and the incomplete imidization of the sterically congested PPMA. The preparation of model compounds as well as future research directions are discussed.

  2. Sewage sludge additive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalvinskas, J. J.; Mueller, W. A.; Ingham, J. D. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    The additive is for a raw sewage treatment process of the type where settling tanks are used for the purpose of permitting the suspended matter in the raw sewage to be settled as well as to permit adsorption of the dissolved contaminants in the water of the sewage. The sludge, which settles down to the bottom of the settling tank is extracted, pyrolyzed and activated to form activated carbon and ash which is mixed with the sewage prior to its introduction into the settling tank. The sludge does not provide all of the activated carbon and ash required for adequate treatment of the raw sewage. It is necessary to add carbon to the process and instead of expensive commercial carbon, coal is used to provide the carbon supplement.

  3. Accounting for Incomplete Species Detection in Fish Community Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    McManamay, Ryan A; Orth, Dr. Donald J; Jager, Yetta

    2013-01-01

    Riverine fish assemblages are heterogeneous and very difficult to characterize with a one-size-fits-all approach to sampling. Furthermore, detecting changes in fish assemblages over time requires accounting for variation in sampling designs. We present a modeling approach that permits heterogeneous sampling by accounting for site and sampling covariates (including method) in a model-based framework for estimation (versus a sampling-based framework). We snorkeled during three surveys and electrofished during a single survey in suite of delineated habitats stratified by reach types. We developed single-species occupancy models to determine covariates influencing patch occupancy and species detection probabilities whereas community occupancy models estimated species richness in light of incomplete detections. For most species, information-theoretic criteria showed higher support for models that included patch size and reach as covariates of occupancy. In addition, models including patch size and sampling method as covariates of detection probabilities also had higher support. Detection probability estimates for snorkeling surveys were higher for larger non-benthic species whereas electrofishing was more effective at detecting smaller benthic species. The number of sites and sampling occasions required to accurately estimate occupancy varied among fish species. For rare benthic species, our results suggested that higher number of occasions, and especially the addition of electrofishing, may be required to improve detection probabilities and obtain accurate occupancy estimates. Community models suggested that richness was 41% higher than the number of species actually observed and the addition of an electrofishing survey increased estimated richness by 13%. These results can be useful to future fish assemblage monitoring efforts by informing sampling designs, such as site selection (e.g. stratifying based on patch size) and determining effort required (e.g. number of

  4. Ionic liquids, electrolyte solutions including the ionic liquids, and energy storage devices including the ionic liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Gering, Kevin L.; Harrup, Mason K.; Rollins, Harry W.

    2015-12-08

    An ionic liquid including a phosphazene compound that has a plurality of phosphorus-nitrogen units and at least one pendant group bonded to each phosphorus atom of the plurality of phosphorus-nitrogen units. One pendant group of the at least one pendant group comprises a positively charged pendant group. Additional embodiments of ionic liquids are disclosed, as are electrolyte solutions and energy storage devices including the embodiments of the ionic liquid.

  5. Additive-driven assembly of block copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Ying; Daga, Vikram; Anderson, Eric; Watkins, James

    2011-03-01

    One challenge to the formation of well ordered hybrid materials is the incorporation of nanoscale additives including metal, semiconductor and dielectric nanoparticles at high loadings while maintaining strong segregation. Here we describe the molecular and functional design of small molecule and nanoparticle additives that enhance phase segregation in their block copolymer host and enable high additive loadings. Our approach includes the use of hydrogen bond interactions between the functional groups on the additive or particle that serve as hydrogen bond donors and one segment of the block copolymer containing hydrogen bond acceptors. Further, the additives show strong selectively towards the targeted domains, leading to enhancements in contrast between properties of the phases. In addition to structural changes, we explore how large changes in the thermal and mechanical properties occur upon incorporation of the additives. Generalization of this additive-induced ordering strategy to various block copolymers will be discussed.

  6. A new species of seahorse (Teleostei: Syngnathidae) from the South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan-Hong; Qin, Geng; Wang, Xin; Lin, Qiang

    2016-09-23

    A new species of seahorse, Hippocampus casscsio sp. nov. was collected over shallow seagrass beds in Beibu Bay, China. This species is diagnosed from all other seahorse species by morphological characters, including the lower number of tail rings (35); 15 pectoral-fin rays; 16 dorsal-fin rays; a rounded nuchal plate without a raised coronet; a snout length 30% head length; two cheek spines and a dark brown coloration. In addition, molecular analysis showed all individuals of the new species clustering together suggesting a monophyletic lineage. This combined analysis supports the distinctness of H. casscsio sp. nov. as a new species, which is described herein.

  7. Decontamination formulation with sorbent additive

    DOEpatents

    Tucker; Mark D. , Comstock; Robert H.

    2007-10-16

    A decontamination formulation and method of making that neutralizes the adverse health effects of both chemical and biological compounds, especially chemical warfare (CW) and biological warfare (BW) agents, and toxic industrial chemicals. The formulation provides solubilizing compounds that serve to effectively render the chemical and biological compounds, particularly CW and BW compounds, susceptible to attack, and at least one reactive compound that serves to attack (and detoxify or kill) the compound. The formulation includes at least one solubilizing agent, a reactive compound, a bleaching activator, a sorbent additive, and water. The highly adsorbent, water-soluble sorbent additive (e.g., sorbitol or mannitol) is used to "dry out" one or more liquid ingredients, such as the liquid bleaching activator (e.g., propylene glycol diacetate or glycerol diacetate) and convert the activator into a dry, free-flowing powder that has an extended shelf life, and is more convenient to handle and mix in the field.

  8. Influence of Antimony-Halogen Additives on Flame Propagation.

    PubMed

    Babushok, Valeri I; Deglmann, Peter; Krämer, Roland; Linteris, Gregory T

    2017-01-01

    A kinetic model for flame inhibition by antimony-halogen compounds in hydrocarbon flames is developed. Thermodynamic data for the relevant species are assembled from the literature, and calculations are performed for a large set of additional species of Sb-Br-C-H-O system. The main Sb- and Br-containing species in the combustion products and reaction zone are determined using flame equilibrium calculations with a set of possible Sb-Br-C-H-O species, and these are used to develop the species and reactions in a detailed kinetic model for antimony flame inhibition. The complete thermodynamic data set and kinetic mechanism are presented. Laminar burning velocity simulations are used to validate the mechanism against available data in the literature, as well as to explore the relative performance of the antimony-halogen compounds. Further analysis of the premixed flame simulations has unraveled the catalytic radical recombination cycle of antimony. It includes (primarily) the species Sb, SbO, SbO2, and HOSbO, and the reactions: Sb+O+M=SbO+M; Sb+O2+M=SbO2+M; SbO+H=Sb+OH; SbO+O=Sb+O2; SbO+OH+M=HOSbO+M; SbO2+H2O=HOSbO+OH; HOSbO+H=SbO+H2O; SbO+O+M=SbO2+M. The inhibition cycles of antimony are shown to be more effective than those of bromine, and intermediate between the highly effective agents CF3Br and trimethylphosphate. Preliminary examination of a Sb/Br gas-phase system did not show synergism in the gas-phase catalytic cycles (i.e., they acted essentially independently).

  9. Towards a general framework for predicting threat status of data-deficient species from phylogenetic, spatial and environmental information

    PubMed Central

    Jetz, Walter; Freckleton, Robert P.

    2015-01-01

    In taxon-wide assessments of threat status many species remain not included owing to lack of data. Here, we present a novel spatial-phylogenetic statistical framework that uses a small set of readily available or derivable characteristics, including phylogenetically imputed body mass and remotely sensed human encroachment, to provide initial baseline predictions of threat status for data-deficient species. Applied to assessed mammal species worldwide, the approach effectively identifies threatened species and predicts the geographical variation in threat. For the 483 data-deficient species, the models predict highly elevated threat, with 69% ‘at-risk’ species in this set, compared with 22% among assessed species. This results in 331 additional potentially threatened mammals, with elevated conservation importance in rodents, bats and shrews, and countries like Colombia, Sulawesi and the Philippines. These findings demonstrate the future potential for combining phylogenies and remotely sensed data with species distributions to identify species and regions of conservation concern. PMID:25561677

  10. Ceramics with Different Additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Juanjuan; Feng, Lajun; Lei, Ali; Zhao, Kang; Yan, Aijun

    2014-09-01

    Li2CO3, MgCO3, BaCO3, and Bi2O3 dopants were introduced into CaCu3Ti4O12 (CCTO) ceramics in order to improve the dielectric properties. The CCTO ceramics were prepared by conventional solid-state reaction method. The phase structure, microstructure, and dielectric behavior were carefully investigated. The pure structure without any impurity phases can be confirmed by the x-ray diffraction patterns. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) analysis illuminated that the grains of Ca0.90Li0.20Cu3Ti4O12 ceramics were greater than that of pure CCTO. It was important for the properties of the CCTO ceramics to study the additives in complex impedance spectroscopy. It was found that the Ca0.90Li0.20Cu3Ti4O12 ceramics had the higher permittivity (>45000), the lower dielectric loss (<0.025) than those of CCTO at 1 kHz at room temperature and good temperature stability from -30 to 75 °C.

  11. Scale insect species names combined with the genus name Chermes Linnaeus (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Coccomorpha).

    PubMed

    Williams, D J

    2015-01-30

    Species names in the scale insects that have been combined with the genus name Chermes Linnaeus, 1758, are listed. This list supplements a list published already for the Sternorrhyncha but that was restricted to names of species that had been described originally in the genus. The present list includes, in addition, all species names in the scale insects that have been combined with the name Chermes. 

  12. Fire-Retardant Polymeric Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Martha K.; Smith, Trent M.

    2011-01-01

    Polyhydroxyamide (PHA) and polymethoxyamide (PMeOA) are fire-retardant (FR) thermoplastic polymers and have been found to be useful as an additive for imparting fire retardant properties to other compatible, thermoplastic polymers (including some elastomers). Examples of compatible flammable polymers include nylons, polyesters, and acrylics. Unlike most prior additives, PHA and PMeOA do not appreciably degrade the mechanical properties of the matrix polymer; indeed, in some cases, mechanical properties are enhanced. Also, unlike some prior additives, PHA and PMeOA do not decompose into large amounts of corrosive or toxic compounds during combustion and can be processed at elevated temperatures. PMeOA derivative formulations were synthesized and used as an FR additive in the fabrication of polyamide (PA) and polystyrene (PS) composites with notable reduction (>30 percent for PS) in peak heat release rates compared to the neat polymer as measured by a Cone Calorimeter (ASTM E1354). Synergistic effects were noted with nanosilica composites. These nanosilica composites had more than 50-percent reduction in peak heat release rates. In a typical application, a flammable thermoplastic, thermoplastic blend, or elastomer that one seeks to render flame-retardant is first dry-mixed with PHA or PMeOA or derivative thereof. The proportion of PHA or PMeOA or derivative in the mixture is typically chosen to lie between 1 and 20 weight percent. The dry blend can then be melt-extruded. The extruded polymer blend can further be extruded and/or molded into fibers, pipes, or any other of a variety of objects that may be required to be fire-retardant. The physical and chemical mechanisms which impart flame retardancy of the additive include inhibiting free-radical oxidation in the vapor phase, preventing vaporization of fuel (the polymer), and cooling through the formation of chemical bonds in either the vapor or the condensed phase. Under thermal stress, the cyclic hydroxyl/ methoxy

  13. Should Relational Aggression Be Included in DSM-V?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keenan, Kate; Coyne, Claire; Lahey, Benjamin B.

    2008-01-01

    The study examines whether relational aggression should be included in DSM-V disruptive behavior disorders. The results conclude that some additional information is gathered from assessing relational aggression but not enough to be included in DSM-V.

  14. Reaction Landscape of a Pentadentate N5-Ligated MnII Complex with O2•− and H2O2 Includes Conversion of a Peroxomanganese(III) Adduct to a Bis(μ-oxo)dimanganese(III,IV) Species

    PubMed Central

    Leto, Domenick F.; Chattopadhyay, Swarup; Day, Victor W.

    2015-01-01

    Herein we describe the chemical reactivity of the mononuclear [MnII(N4py)(OTf)](OTf) (1) complex with hydrogen peroxide and superoxide. Treatment of 1 with one equivalent superoxide at −40 °C in MeCN formed the peroxomanganese(III) adduct, [MnIII(O2)(N4py)]+ (2) in ~30% yield. Complex 2 decayed over time and the formation of the bis(μ-oxo)dimanganese(III,IV) complex, [MnIIIMnIV(μ-O)2(N4py)2]3+ (3) was observed. When 2 was formed in higher yields (~60%) using excess superoxide, the [MnIII(O2)(N4py)]+ species thermally decayed to MnII species and 3 was formed in no greater than 10% yield. Treatment of [MnIII(O2)(N4py)]+ with 1 resulted in the formation of 3 in ~90% yield, relative to the concentration of [MnIII(O2)(N4py)]+. This reaction mimics the observed chemistry of Mn-ribonucleotide reductase, as it features the conversion of two MnII species to an oxo-bridged MnIIIMnIV compound using O2− as oxidant. Complex 3 was independently prepared through treatment of 1 with H2O2 and base at −40 °C. The geometric and electronic structures of 3 were probed using electronic absorption, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), magnetic circular dichroism (MCD), variable-temperature, variable-field MCD (VTVH-MCD), and X-ray absorption (XAS) spectroscopies. Complex 3 was structurally characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), which revealed the N4py ligand bound in an unusual tetradentate fashion. PMID:23872704

  15. Inferring phylogeny and speciation of Gymnosporangium species, and their coevolution with host plants

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Peng; Liu, Fang; Li, Ying-Ming; Cai, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Gymnosporangium species (Pucciniaceae, Pucciniales) cause serious diseases and significant economic losses to apple cultivars. Most of the reported species are heteroecious and complete their life cycles on two different plant hosts belonging to two unrelated genera, i.e. Juniperus and Malus. However, the phylogenetic relationships among Gymnosporangium species and the evolutionary history of Gymnosporangium on its aecial and telial hosts were still undetermined. In this study, we recognized species based on rDNA sequence data by using coalescent method of generalized mixed Yule-coalescent (GMYC) and Poisson Tree Processes (PTP) models. The evolutionary relationships of Gymnosporangium species and their hosts were investigated by comparing the cophylogenetic analyses of Gymnosporangium species with Malus species and Juniperus species, respectively. The concordant results of GMYC and PTP analyses recognized 14 species including 12 known species and two undescribed species. In addition, host alternations of 10 Gymnosporangium species were uncovered by linking the derived sequences between their aecial and telial stages. This study revealed the evolutionary process of Gymnosporangium species, and clarified that the aecial hosts played more important roles than telial hosts in the speciation of Gymnosporangium species. Host switch, losses, duplication and failure to divergence all contributed to the speciation of Gymnosporangium species. PMID:27385413

  16. Four new species of Cladorhizidae (Porifera, Demospongiae, Poecilosclerida) from the Northeast Pacific.

    PubMed

    Lundsten, Lonny; Reiswig, Henry M; Austin, William C

    2014-04-09

    Interest in cladorhizid sponges has grown rapidly in the past 19 years since a unique feeding strategy, carnivory, was described by Vacelet and Boury-Esnault in 1995. Since that time, 31% of the 133 extant cladorhizids have been described. Previously, seven species of cladorhizid sponges were known from the Northeast Pacific. Here we describe four additional species, including two species of Asbestopluma and two species of Cladorhiza. We report on species ranges, habitat, and ecology, including one from a chemosynthetic environment that appears to be using methane-oxidizing bacteria as a nutrient source. In fact, three of the four species described here were found in chemosynthetic habitats. The presence of small crustacean prey was also documented for three of these species

  17. RAD-Seq analysis of typical and minor Citrus accessions, including Bhutanese varieties

    PubMed Central

    Penjor, Tshering; Mimura, Takashi; Kotoda, Nobuhiro; Matsumoto, Ryoji; Nagano, Atsushi J.; Honjo, Mie N.; Kudoh, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Masashi; Nagano, Yukio

    2016-01-01

    We analyzed the reduced-representation genome sequences of Citrus species by double-digest restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (ddRAD-Seq) using 44 accessions, including typical and minor accessions, such as Bhutanese varieties. The results of this analysis using typical accessions were consistent with previous reports that citron, papeda, pummelo, and mandarin are ancestral species, and that most Citrus species are derivatives or hybrids of these four species. Citrus varieties often reproduce asexually and heterozygosity is highly conserved within each variety. Because this approach could readily detect conservation of heterozygosity, it was able to discriminate citrus varieties such as satsuma mandarin from closely related species. Thus, this method provides an inexpensive way to protect citrus varieties from unintended introduction and to prevent the provision of incorrect nursery stocks to customers. One Citrus variety in Bhutan was morphologically similar to Mexican lime and was designated as Himalayan lime. The current analysis confirmed the previous proposition that Mexican lime is a hybrid between papeda and citron, and also suggested that Himalayan lime is a probable hybrid between mandarin and citron. In addition to Himalayan lime, current analysis suggested that several accessions were formed by previously undescribed combinations. PMID:28163596

  18. Microfluidic devices and methods including porous polymer monoliths

    DOEpatents

    Hatch, Anson V; Sommer, Gregory J; Singh, Anup K; Wang, Ying-Chih; Abhyankar, Vinay V

    2014-04-22

    Microfluidic devices and methods including porous polymer monoliths are described. Polymerization techniques may be used to generate porous polymer monoliths having pores defined by a liquid component of a fluid mixture. The fluid mixture may contain iniferters and the resulting porous polymer monolith may include surfaces terminated with iniferter species. Capture molecules may then be grafted to the monolith pores.

  19. Microfluidic devices and methods including porous polymer monoliths

    SciTech Connect

    Hatch, Anson V.; Sommer, Gregory j.; Singh, Anup K.; Wang, Ying-Chih; Abhyankar, Vinay

    2015-12-01

    Microfluidic devices and methods including porous polymer monoliths are described. Polymerization techniques may be used to generate porous polymer monoliths having pores defined by a liquid component of a fluid mixture. The fluid mixture may contain iniferters and the resulting porous polymer monolith may include surfaces terminated with iniferter species. Capture molecules may then be grafted to the monolith pores.

  20. Should family planning include STD services?

    PubMed

    Finger, W R

    1994-05-01

    Recent reviews suggest that the addition of programs aimed at preventing and controlling sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), specifically human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), to existing family planning programs does not necessarily dilute overall program effectiveness. In Colombia, Mexico, and Jamaica, where condom distribution and/or information to prevent HIV transmission was integrated into the activities of family planning field workers, no negative effect on the image of condoms as a pregnancy prevention method was observed and there was a great demand on the part of family planning clients for information about acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). In Brazil, family planning staff are receiving training in HIV risk assessment and the counseling of women in partner negotiation skills. However, steps must be taken to reach men since it is their high-risk behavior that puts most women at risk of HIV. Both separate STD clinics for men and condom social marketing projects have yielded promising results. Obstacles to the addition of STD services to family planning programs include the need to treat male partners as well as female clients, a shortage of diagnostic tools and antibiotics for treatment, and the fact that the majority of women with STDs are asymptomatic. Indicative of the increased attention being given this approach, however, is the recent release of guidelines by the US Agency for International Development Office of Population on how family planning programs should approach integration. Suggested activities include condom promotion, behavior change, counseling, information, contraceptive development, and selected efforts at STD treatment.

  1. How reticulated are species?

    PubMed Central

    Besansky, Nora; Hahn, Matthew W.

    2015-01-01

    Many groups of closely related species have reticulate phylogenies. Recent genomic analyses are showing this in many insects and vertebrates, as well as in microbes and plants. In microbes, lateral gene transfer is the dominant process that spoils strictly tree‐like phylogenies, but in multicellular eukaryotes hybridization and introgression among related species is probably more important. Because many species, including the ancestors of ancient major lineages, seem to evolve rapidly in adaptive radiations, some sexual compatibility may exist among them. Introgression and reticulation can thereby affect all parts of the tree of life, not just the recent species at the tips. Our understanding of adaptive evolution, speciation, phylogenetics, and comparative biology must adapt to these mostly recent findings. Introgression has important practical implications as well, not least for the management of genetically modified organisms in pest and disease control. PMID:26709836

  2. Non-additive effects of intra- and interspecific competition between two larval salamanders.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Thomas L; Whiteman, Howard H

    2015-05-01

    Assessment of the relative strengths of intra- and interspecific competition has increased in recent years and is critical to understanding the importance of competition. Yet, whether intra- and interspecific competition can have non-additive effects has rarely been tested. The resulting fitness consequences of such non-additive interactions are important to provide the context necessary to advance our understanding of competition theory. We compared the strength of additive and non-additive intra- and interspecific competition by manipulating densities of a pair of larval salamanders (Ambystoma talpoideum and A. maculatum) in experimental mesocosms within a response surface design. Intraspecific density had the strongest effect on the strength of competition for both species, and few observed comparisons indicated interspecific competition was an important factor in predicting body size, growth or larval period length of either species. Non-additive effects of intra- and interspecific competition influenced some response variables, including size and mass at metamorphosis in A. maculatum, but at a reduced strength compared to intraspecific effects alone. Intraspecific competition was thus the dominant biotic interaction, but non-additive effects also impact the outcome of competition in these species, validating the importance of testing for and incorporating non-additive density effects into competition models.

  3. Annotated checklist of the leech species diversity in the Maloe More Strait of Lake Baikal, Russia

    PubMed Central

    Kaygorodova, Irina A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In this paper, the very first checklist of the freshwater leeches of Maloe More Strait, a special part of Lake Baikal, is presented. It includes 14 free-living and parasitic species, of which four species belong to endemic Baikal genera – two species from Baicalobdella and one species each from Baicaloclepsis and Codonobdella. The checklist highlights six potentially new morphological species recorded for the first time in the area. The exact systematic position is stated for all leech species. Each species from the list is provided with information on taxonomic synonymy, data on its geographic distribution, and ecological characteristics. New species records are additionally provided with brief morphological characteristics and photos of their external morphology. PMID:26798292

  4. Species concepts should not conflict with evolutionary history, but often do.

    PubMed

    Velasco, Joel D

    2008-12-01

    Many phylogenetic systematists have criticized the Biological Species Concept (BSC) because it distorts evolutionary history. While defences against this particular criticism have been attempted, I argue that these responses are unsuccessful. In addition, I argue that the source of this problem leads to previously unappreciated, and deeper, fatal objections. These objections to the BSC also straightforwardly apply to other species concepts that are not defined by genealogical history. What is missing from many previous discussions is the fact that the Tree of Life, which represents phylogenetic history, is independent of our choice of species concept. Some species concepts are consistent with species having unique positions on the Tree while others, including the BSC, are not. Since representing history is of primary importance in evolutionary biology, these problems lead to the conclusion that the BSC, along with many other species concepts, are unacceptable. If species are to be taxa used in phylogenetic inferences, we need a history-based species concept.

  5. SPECIES - EVALUATING THERMODYNAMIC PROPERTIES, TRANSPORT PROPERTIES & EQUILIBRIUM CONSTANTS OF AN 11-SPECIES AIR MODEL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, R. A.

    1994-01-01

    Accurate numerical prediction of high-temperature, chemically reacting flowfields requires a knowledge of the physical properties and reaction kinetics for the species involved in the reacting gas mixture. Assuming an 11-species air model at temperatures below 30,000 degrees Kelvin, SPECIES (Computer Codes for the Evaluation of Thermodynamic Properties, Transport Properties, and Equilibrium Constants of an 11-Species Air Model) computes values for the species thermodynamic and transport properties, diffusion coefficients and collision cross sections for any combination of the eleven species, and reaction rates for the twenty reactions normally occurring. The species represented in the model are diatomic nitrogen, diatomic oxygen, atomic nitrogen, atomic oxygen, nitric oxide, ionized nitric oxide, the free electron, ionized atomic nitrogen, ionized atomic oxygen, ionized diatomic nitrogen, and ionized diatomic oxygen. Sixteen subroutines compute the following properties for both a single species, interaction pair, or reaction, and an array of all species, pairs, or reactions: species specific heat and static enthalpy, species viscosity, species frozen thermal conductivity, diffusion coefficient, collision cross section (OMEGA 1,1), collision cross section (OMEGA 2,2), collision cross section ratio, and equilibrium constant. The program uses least squares polynomial curve-fits of the most accurate data believed available to provide the requested values more quickly than is possible with table look-up methods. The subroutines for computing transport coefficients and collision cross sections use additional code to correct for any electron pressure when working with ionic species. SPECIES was developed on a SUN 3/280 computer running the SunOS 3.5 operating system. It is written in standard FORTRAN 77 for use on any machine, and requires roughly 92K memory. The standard distribution medium for SPECIES is a 5.25 inch 360K MS-DOS format diskette. The contents of the

  6. A nomenclator of Pacific oceanic island Phyllanthus (Phyllanthaceae), including Glochidion

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Warren L.; Lorence, David H.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Recent molecular phylogenetic studies and reevaluation of morphological characters have led to the inclusion of Glochidion within a broader delimitation of Phyllanthus. It is necessary for preparation of the Vascular Flora of the Marquesas Islands to make new combinations for the Marquesan species. We also provide the relevant combinations and listing of all of the currently accepted species of Phyllanthus on Pacific oceanic islands for a total of 69 native species in oceanic Pacific islands. Glochidion tooviianum J. Florenceis here placed into synonymy of Phyllanthus marchionicus (F. Br.) W. L. Wagner & Lorence based on new assessment of recently collected specimens from Nuku Hiva. Glochidion excorticans Fosberg var. calvum Fosberg is placed into synonomy of Phyllanthus ponapense (Hosokawa) W. L. Wagner & Lorenceand Glochidion puberulum Hosokawa and Glochidion excorticans Fosberg are placed in synonymy of Phyllanthus senyavinianus (Glassman)W. L. Wagner & Lorence based on new study of all Micronesian specimens available to us. No infraspecific taxa are recognized within Phyllanthus pacificus of the Marquesas Islands. Species already with valid names in Phyllanthus are also listed for completeness and convenience. Brief distributional comments are given for each species. We propose new names for species for which a new combination is not possible: Phyllanthus florencei W. L. Wagner & Lorence, nom. nov., Phyllanthus mariannensis W.L. Wagner & Lorence, nom. nov., Phyllanthus otobedii W. L. Wagner & Lorence, Phyllanthus raiateaensis W. L. Wagner & Lorence, Phyllanthus st-johnii W. L. Wagner & Lorence, nom. nov., and Phyllanthus vitilevuensis W.L. Wagner & Lorence, nom. nov. We provide information for four additional naturalized species within the region (Phyllanthus amarus, Phyllanthus debilis, Phyllanthus tenellus, and Phyllanthus urinaria). The name Glochidion ramiflorum widely applied to Pacific island populations is here considered to be a species further

  7. A nomenclator of Pacific oceanic island Phyllanthus (Phyllanthaceae), including Glochidion.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Warren L; Lorence, David H

    2011-01-01

    Recent molecular phylogenetic studies and reevaluation of morphological characters have led to the inclusion of Glochidion within a broader delimitation of Phyllanthus. It is necessary for preparation of the Vascular Flora of the Marquesas Islands to make new combinations for the Marquesan species. We also provide the relevant combinations and listing of all of the currently accepted species of Phyllanthus on Pacific oceanic islands for a total of 69 native species in oceanic Pacific islands. Glochidion tooviianum J. Florenceis here placed into synonymy of Phyllanthus marchionicus (F. Br.) W. L. Wagner & Lorence based on new assessment of recently collected specimens from Nuku Hiva. Glochidion excorticans Fosberg var. calvum Fosberg is placed into synonomy of Phyllanthus ponapense (Hosokawa) W. L. Wagner & Lorenceand Glochidion puberulum Hosokawa and Glochidion excorticans Fosberg are placed in synonymy of Phyllanthus senyavinianus (Glassman)W. L. Wagner & Lorence based on new study of all Micronesian specimens available to us. No infraspecific taxa are recognized within Phyllanthus pacificus of the Marquesas Islands. Species already with valid names in Phyllanthus are also listed for completeness and convenience. Brief distributional comments are given for each species. We propose new names for species for which a new combination is not possible: Phyllanthus florencei W. L. Wagner & Lorence, nom. nov., Phyllanthus mariannensis W.L. Wagner & Lorence, nom. nov., Phyllanthus otobedii W. L. Wagner & Lorence, Phyllanthus raiateaensis W. L. Wagner & Lorence, Phyllanthus st-johnii W. L. Wagner & Lorence, nom. nov., and Phyllanthus vitilevuensis W.L. Wagner & Lorence, nom. nov. We provide information for four additional naturalized species within the region (Phyllanthus amarus, Phyllanthus debilis, Phyllanthus tenellus, and Phyllanthus urinaria). The name Glochidion ramiflorum widely applied to Pacific island populations is here considered to be a species further west in

  8. Extension of jaguar procedures for new gaseous species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stiel, Leonard; Baker, Ernest L.; Murphy, Daniel

    2012-03-01

    Jaguar is a highly efficient and accurate thermochemical equilibrium program for the detonation properties of explosives. In previous studies, equation of state Exp-6 parameters for H-C-N-O gaseous explosives product species have been optimized with available individual species Hugoniot data. The Jaguar library also includes solid and liquid properties for carbon and aluminum, silicon, and boron compounds. In this study the Jaguar property library has been expanded to include additional gaseous detonation products. New Exp-6 parameters for gaseous fluorine and chlorine compounds have been established by analyses of Hugoniot data for the actual species or for reactants which decompose into these compounds. Tests with data for explosives and additional compounds containing fluorine and chlorine have been performed to determine the accuracy of calculated detonation properties in comparison to experimental data.

  9. Hydrogen species

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schiff, H. I.; Burnett, C.; Carli, B.; Dezafra, R.; Evans, W. F. J.; Guthrie, P. D.; Hampson, R. F.; Heaps, W.; Jones, R.; Kley, D.

    1985-01-01

    Measurements of the members of the HO(x) family (OH, HO2, and H2O2) and their major source gases, H2O, and CH4 are discussed. Emphasis is placed on measurements which were made since the 1982 World Meteorologic Organization (WMO) report. Measurement techniques, available data, an assessment of data reliability, and a comparison of the data with theoretical distributions of stratospheric HO(x) species predicted from one and two dimensional photochemical models are discussed.

  10. Evaluation of Boundary-Enhancement Additives for Perfluoropolyethers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shogrin, Bradley A.; Jones, William R. , Jr.; Herrera-Fierro, Pilar; Lin, Tzuhn-Yuan; Kawa, Hajimu