Science.gov

Sample records for additional spectral bands

  1. Biomass estimator for NIR image with a few additional spectral band images taken from light UAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pölönen, Ilkka; Salo, Heikki; Saari, Heikki; Kaivosoja, Jere; Pesonen, Liisa; Honkavaara, Eija

    2012-05-01

    A novel way to produce biomass estimation will offer possibilities for precision farming. Fertilizer prediction maps can be made based on accurate biomass estimation generated by a novel biomass estimator. By using this knowledge, a variable rate amount of fertilizers can be applied during the growing season. The innovation consists of light UAS, a high spatial resolution camera, and VTT's novel spectral camera. A few properly selected spectral wavelengths with NIR images and point clouds extracted by automatic image matching have been used in the estimation. The spectral wavelengths were chosen from green, red, and NIR channels.

  2. Pulsed thermography in multiple infrared spectral bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Netzelmann, U.; Abuhamad, M.

    2010-03-01

    Spectrally resolved active thermography by flash pulse excitation was performed in four sub-bands of a mid-wave infrared camera using spectral filtering and in the full long-wave band of a second infrared camera. On zirconia thermal barrier coatings on steel and PVC blocks, spectrally dependent decay rates of the thermal contrast were found. The observed behaviour can be explained by the infrared spectra of the specimens.

  3. Aggregation of Hyperion hyperspectral spectral bands into Landsat-7 ETM+ spectral bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarecke, Peter J.; Barry, Pamela; Pearlman, Jay; Markham, Brian L.

    2002-01-01

    The LANDSAT-7 ETM+ spectral bands centered at 479nm, 561 nm, 661 nm and 834 nm (bands 1, 2, 3, and 4) fall nicely across the Hyperion VNIR hyperspectral response region. They have bandwidths of 67nm, 78nm, 60 nm and 120 nm, respectively. The Hyperion spectral bandwidth of 10.2 nm results in 10 to 15 Hyperion spectral samples across each Landsat band in the VNIR. When the Hyperion spectral responses in the 10.2 nm bands are properly weighted to aggregate to a given Landsat band, the radiometric response of the Landsat band can be reproduced by Hyperion. Landsat bands 5 and 7 centered at 1650 and 2207 nm (with bandwidths of 190 and 250 nm respectively) fall in the Hyperion SWIR spectral response region. Hyperion spectral response for one area of a scene in Railroad Valley, NV on May 13, 2001 has been binned into Landsat bands and compared with Landsat values collected at the same time.

  4. Feature Transformation Detection Method with Best Spectral Band Selection Process for Hyper-spectral Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hai-Wen; McGurr, Mike; Brickhouse, Mark

    2015-11-01

    We present a newly developed feature transformation (FT) detection method for hyper-spectral imagery (HSI) sensors. In essence, the FT method, by transforming the original features (spectral bands) to a different feature domain, may considerably increase the statistical separation between the target and background probability density functions, and thus may significantly improve the target detection and identification performance, as evidenced by the test results in this paper. We show that by differentiating the original spectral, one can completely separate targets from the background using a single spectral band, leading to perfect detection results. In addition, we have proposed an automated best spectral band selection process with a double-threshold scheme that can rank the available spectral bands from the best to the worst for target detection. Finally, we have also proposed an automated cross-spectrum fusion process to further improve the detection performance in lower spectral range (<1000 nm) by selecting the best spectral band pair with multivariate analysis. Promising detection performance has been achieved using a small background material signature library for concept-proving, and has then been further evaluated and verified using a real background HSI scene collected by a HYDICE sensor.

  5. Spectral Band Selection for Urban Material Classification Using Hyperspectral Libraries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Bris, A.; Chehata, N.; Briottet, X.; Paparoditis, N.

    2016-06-01

    In urban areas, information concerning very high resolution land cover and especially material maps are necessary for several city modelling or monitoring applications. That is to say, knowledge concerning the roofing materials or the different kinds of ground areas is required. Airborne remote sensing techniques appear to be convenient for providing such information at a large scale. However, results obtained using most traditional processing methods based on usual red-green-blue-near infrared multispectral images remain limited for such applications. A possible way to improve classification results is to enhance the imagery spectral resolution using superspectral or hyperspectral sensors. In this study, it is intended to design a superspectral sensor dedicated to urban materials classification and this work particularly focused on the selection of the optimal spectral band subsets for such sensor. First, reflectance spectral signatures of urban materials were collected from 7 spectral libraires. Then, spectral optimization was performed using this data set. The band selection workflow included two steps, optimising first the number of spectral bands using an incremental method and then examining several possible optimised band subsets using a stochastic algorithm. The same wrapper relevance criterion relying on a confidence measure of Random Forests classifier was used at both steps. To cope with the limited number of available spectra for several classes, additional synthetic spectra were generated from the collection of reference spectra: intra-class variability was simulated by multiplying reference spectra by a random coefficient. At the end, selected band subsets were evaluated considering the classification quality reached using a rbf svm classifier. It was confirmed that a limited band subset was sufficient to classify common urban materials. The important contribution of bands from the Short Wave Infra-Red (SWIR) spectral domain (1000-2400 nm) to material

  6. Automated coregistration of MTI spectral bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theiler, James P.; Galbraith, Amy E.; Pope, Paul A.; Ramsey, Keri A.; Szymanski, John J.

    2002-08-01

    In the focal plane of a pushbroom imager, a linear array of pixels is scanned across the scene, building up the image one row at a time. For the Multispectral Thermal Imager (MTI), each of fifteen different spectral bands has its own linear array. These arrays are pushed across the scene together, but since each band's array is at a different position on the focal plane, a separate image is produced for each band. The standard MTI data products (LEVEL1B_R_COREG and LEVEL1B_R_GEO) resample these separate images to a common grid and produce coregistered multispectral image cubes. The coregistration software employs a direct ``dead reckoning' approach. Every pixel in the calibrated image is mapped to an absolute position on the surface of the earth, and these are resampled to produce an undistorted coregistered image of the scene. To do this requires extensive information regarding the satellite position and pointing as a function of time, the precise configuration of the focal plane, and the distortion due to the optics. These must be combined with knowledge about the position and altitude of the target on the rotating ellipsoidal earth. We will discuss the direct approach to MTI coregistration, as well as more recent attempts to tweak the precision of the band-to-band registration using correlations in the imagery itself.

  7. Automated coregistration of MTI spectral bands.

    SciTech Connect

    Theiler, J. P.; Galbraith, A. E.; Pope, P. A.; Ramsey, K. A.; Szymanski, J. J.

    2002-01-01

    In the focal plane of a pushbroom imager, a linear array of pixels is scanned across the scene, building up the image one row at a time. For the Multispectral Thermal Imager (MTI), each of fifteen different spectral bands has its own linear array. These arrays are pushed across the scene together, but since each band's array is at a different position on the focal plane, a separate image is produced for each band. The standard MTI data products resample these separate images to a common grid and produce coregistered multispectral image cubes. The coregistration software employs a direct 'dead reckoning' approach. Every pixel in the calibrated image is mapped to an absolute position on the surface of the earth, and these are resampled to produce an undistorted coregistered image of the scene. To do this requires extensive information regarding the satellite position and pointing as a function of time, the precise configuration of the focal plane, and the distortion due to the optics. These must be combined with knowledge about the position and altitude of the target on the rotating ellipsoidal earth. We will discuss the direct approach to MTI coregistration, as well as more recent attempts to 'tweak' the precision of the band-to-band registration using correlations in the imagery itself.

  8. Spectral image fusion using band reduction and contourlets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Yoonsuk; Sharifahmadian, Ershad; Latifi, Shahram

    2014-06-01

    Spectral images have relatively low spatial resolution, compared to high-resolution single band panchromatic (PAN) images. Therefore, fusing a spectral image with a PAN image has been widely studied to produce a high-resolution spectral image. However, raw spectral images are too large to process and contain redundant information that is not utilized in the fusion process. In this study, we propose a novel fusion method that employs a spectral band reduction and contourlets. The band reduction begins with the best two band combination, and this two-band combination is subsequently augmented to three, four, and more until the desired number of bands is selected. The adopted band selection algorithm using the endmember extraction concept employs a sequential forward search strategy. Next, the image fusion is performed with two different spectral images based on the frequency components that are newly obtained by contourlet transform (CT). One spectral image that is used as a dataset is multispectral (MS) image and the other is hyperspectral (HS) image. Each original spectral image is pre-processed by spectrally integrating over the entire spectral range to obtain a PAN source image that is used in the fusion process. This way, we can eliminate the step of image co-registration since the obtained PAN image is already perfectly aligned to the spectral image. Next, we fuse the band-reduced spectral images with the PAN images using contourlet-based fusion framework. The resultant fusion image provides enhanced spatial resolution while preserving the spectral information. In order to analyze the band reduction performance, the original spectral images are fused with the same PAN images to serve as a reference image, which is then compared to the band-reduced spectral image fusion results using six different quality metrics.

  9. Spectral band selection for classification of soil organic matter content

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, Tracey L.; Szilagyi, Andrea; Baumgardner, Marion F.; Chen, Chih-Chien Thomas; Landgrebe, David A.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes the spectral-band-selection (SBS) algorithm of Chen and Landgrebe (1987, 1988, and 1989) and uses the algorithm to classify the organic matter content in the earth's surface soil. The effectiveness of the algorithm was evaluated comparing the results of classification of the soil organic matter using SBS bands with those obtained using Landsat MSS bands and TM bands, showing that the algorithm was successful in finding important spectral bands for classification of organic matter content. Using the calculated bands, the probabilities of correct classification for climate-stratified data were found to range from 0.910 to 0.980.

  10. Band analysis by spectral curve fitting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, C. L.; Shaw, J. H.; Calvert, J. G.

    1980-01-01

    A method of estimating the values of the parameters in the models describing the positions, widths, and intensities of the lines in rotation-vibration bands of gases, without the need for line by line analysis, is described. To illustrate the technique, portions of the 1-0 bands of HCl and CO have been analyzed. The values of up to 27 parameters, their standard deviations, and the correlations between the parameters required to describe the spectra have been obtained.

  11. Thermal Infrared Spectral Band Detection Limits for Unidentified Surface Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirkland, Laurel E.; Herr, Kenneth C.; Salisbury, John W.

    2001-01-01

    Infrared emission spectra recorded by airborne or satellite spectrometers can be searched for spectral features to determine the composition of rocks on planetary surfaces. Surface materials are identified by detections of characteristic spectral bands. We show how to define whether to accept an observed spectral feature as a detection when the target material is unknown. We also use remotely sensed spectra measured by the Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) and the Spatially Enhanced Broadband Array Spectrograph System to illustrate the importance of instrument parameters and surface properties on band detection limits and how the variation in signal-to-noise ratio with wavelength affects the bands that are most detectable for a given instrument. The spectrometer's sampling interval, spectral resolution, signal-to-noise ratio as a function of wavelength, and the sample's surface properties influence whether the instrument can detect a spectral feature exhibited by a material. As an example, in the 6-13 micrometer wavelength region, massive carbonates exhibit two bands: a very strong, broad feature at approximately 6.5 micrometers and a less intense, sharper band at approximately 11.25 micrometers. Although the 6.5-micrometer band is stronger and broader in laboratory-measured spectra, the 11.25-micrometer band will cause a more detectable feature in TES spectra.

  12. Piecewise spectrally band-pass for compressive coded aperture spectral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Lu-Lu; Lü, Qun-Bo; Huang, Min; Xiang, Li-Bin

    2015-08-01

    Coded aperture snapshot spectral imaging (CASSI) has been discussed in recent years. It has the remarkable advantages of high optical throughput, snapshot imaging, etc. The entire spatial-spectral data-cube can be reconstructed with just a single two-dimensional (2D) compressive sensing measurement. On the other hand, for less spectrally sparse scenes, the insufficiency of sparse sampling and aliasing in spatial-spectral images reduce the accuracy of reconstructed three-dimensional (3D) spectral cube. To solve this problem, this paper extends the improved CASSI. A band-pass filter array is mounted on the coded mask, and then the first image plane is divided into some continuous spectral sub-band areas. The entire 3D spectral cube could be captured by the relative movement between the object and the instrument. The principle analysis and imaging simulation are presented. Compared with peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) and the information entropy of the reconstructed images at different numbers of spectral sub-band areas, the reconstructed 3D spectral cube reveals an observable improvement in the reconstruction fidelity, with an increase in the number of the sub-bands and a simultaneous decrease in the number of spectral channels of each sub-band. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation for Distinguished Young Scholars of China (Grant No. 61225024) and the National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (Grant No. 2011AA7012022).

  13. Extraction of Optimal Spectral Bands Using Hierarchical Band Merging Out of Hyperspectral Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Bris, A.; Chehata, N.; Briottet, X.; Paparoditis, N.

    2015-08-01

    Spectral optimization consists in identifying the most relevant band subset for a specific application. It is a way to reduce hyperspectral data huge dimensionality and can be applied to design specific superspectral sensors dedicated to specific land cover applications. Spectral optimization includes both band selection and band extraction. On the one hand, band selection aims at selecting an optimal band subset (according to a relevance criterion) among the bands of a hyperspectral data set, using automatic feature selection algorithms. On the other hand, band extraction defines the most relevant spectral bands optimizing both their position along the spectrum and their width. The approach presented in this paper first builds a hierarchy of groups of adjacent bands, according to a relevance criterion to decide which adjacent bands must be merged. Then, band selection is performed at the different levels of this hierarchy. Two approaches were proposed to achieve this task : a greedy one and a new adaptation of an incremental feature selection algorithm to this hierarchy of merged bands.

  14. Hyperspectral bands prediction based on inter-band spectral correlation structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Ayman M.; Sharkawy, Mohamed El.; Elramly, Salwa H.

    2013-02-01

    Hyperspectral imaging has been widely studied in many applications; notably in climate changes, vegetation, and desert studies. However, such kind of imaging brings a huge amount of data, which requires transmission, processing, and storage resources for both airborne and spaceborne imaging. Compression of hyperspectral data cubes is an effective solution for these problems. Lossless compression of the hyperspectral data usually results in low compression ratio, which may not meet the available resources; on the other hand, lossy compression may give the desired ratio, but with a significant degradation effect on object identification performance of the hyperspectral data. Moreover, most hyperspectral data compression techniques exploits the similarities in spectral dimensions; which requires bands reordering or regrouping, to make use of the spectral redundancy. In this paper, we analyze the spectral cross correlation between bands for AVIRIS and Hyperion hyperspectral data; spectral cross correlation matrix is calculated, assessing the strength of the spectral matrix, we propose new technique to find highly correlated groups of bands in the hyperspectral data cube based on "inter band correlation square", and finally, we propose a new technique of band regrouping based on correlation values weights for different group of bands as network of correlation.

  15. Wide-band array signal processing via spectral smoothing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, Guanghan; Kailath, Thomas

    1989-01-01

    A novel algorithm for the estimation of direction-of-arrivals (DOA) of multiple wide-band sources via spectral smoothing is presented. The proposed algorithm does not require an initial DOA estimate or a specific signal model. The advantages of replacing the MUSIC search with an ESPRIT search are discussed.

  16. Recursive spectral similarity measure-based band selection for anomaly detection in hyperspectral imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yuanlei; Liu, Daizhi; Yi, Shihua

    2011-01-01

    Band selection has been widely used in hyperspectral image processing for dimension reduction. In this paper, a recursive spectral similarity measure-based band selection (RSSM-BBS) method is presented. Unlike most of the existing image-based band selection techniques, it is for two hyperspectral signatures with its main focus on their spectral separability. Furthermore, it is unsupervised and based on the recursive calculation of the spectral similarity measure with an additional band. In order to demonstrate the utility of the proposed method, an anomaly detection algorithm is developed, which first extracts the anomalous target spectrum from the image using the automatic target detection and classification algorithm (ATDCA), followed by the maximum spectral screening (MSS) to obtain a good estimate of the background, and then implements RSSM-BBS to select bands that participate in the subsequent adaptive cosine/coherence estimator (ACE) target detection. As shown in the experimental result on the AVIRIS dataset, the detection performance of the ACE has been improved greatly with the bands selected by RSSM-BBS over that using full bands.

  17. Noise Reduction using Frequency Sub-Band Adaptive Spectral Subtraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kozel, David

    2000-01-01

    A frequency sub-band based adaptive spectral subtraction algorithm is developed to remove noise from noise-corrupted speech signals. A single microphone is used to obtain both the noise-corrupted speech and the estimate of the statistics of the noise. The statistics of the noise are estimated during time frames that do not contain speech. These statistics are used to determine if future time frames contain speech. During speech time frames, the algorithm determines which frequency sub-bands contain useful speech information and which frequency sub-bands contain only noise. The frequency sub-bands, which contain only noise, are subtracted off at a larger proportion so the noise does not compete with the speech information. Simulation results are presented.

  18. Optimization of spectral band utilization in gridless WDM optical network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, Indayara B.; Aldaya, Ivan; Perez-Sanchez, G.; Gallion, Philippe

    2014-02-01

    In this paper, the effects of gridless spectrum allocation in Wavelength Division Multiplexed (WDM) optical networks are examined. The advanced modulation formats and multi-rate transmissions of the signals, which are key parameters in the optical system project, are taken into account. The consumed spectrum, as well as the impact of linear and nonlinear impairments on the signal transmission, are compared to WDM network adopting standard grid and gridless ITU. To analyze the influence of these physical effects, some key network design parameters are monitored and evaluated, such as the guard band size, the signal occupied bandwidth, the laser power and the quality of channels. The applied signal modulation formats were On/Off Keying (OOK), Quadrature Phase Shift keying (QPSK), and Dual Polarization State Phase Modulation (DP-QPSK), whereas the transmission rate per wavelength was varied from 10 Gb/s to 100Ghz. The guard band, signal band, and laser power were swept and the resulted Bit Error Rate (BER) was estimated from the eye-diagram. Analytical calculations and simulations are conducted in order to evaluate the impact of the gridless spectrum allocation on both the spectral consumption and the signal quality of transmission (QoT). Results reveal that a gridless transmission system reduces the spectral consumption while offering an acceptable QoT. This work was carried out with both analytical modeling and numerical calculation using the Optisystem as well as Matlab.

  19. Characterization of MODIS VIS/NIR spectral band detector-to-detector differences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, X.; Sun, J.; Meister, G.; Kwiatkowska, E.; Barnes, W. L.

    2008-08-01

    MODIS has 36 spectral bands with wavelengths in the visible (VIS), near-infrared (NIR), short-wave infrared (SWIR), mid-wave infrared (MWIR), and long-wave infrared (LWIR). It makes observations at three nadir spatial resolutions: 0.25km for bands 1-2 (40 detectors per band), 0.5km for bands 3-7 (20 detectors per band), and 1km for bands 8-36 (10 detectors per band). The VIS, NIR, and SWIR are the reflective solar bands (RSB), which are calibrated on-orbit by a solar diffuser (SD) and a solar diffuser stability monitor (SDSM). The bi-directional reflectance factor (BRF) of the SD provides a RSB calibration reference and its on-orbit changes are tracked by the SDSM. In addition, MODIS lunar observations are regularly scheduled and used to track the RSB calibration stability. On-orbit observations show that the changes in detector response are wavelength and scan angle dependent. In this study, we focus on detector-to-detector calibration differences in the MODIS VIS/NIR spectral bands, which are determined using SD and lunar observations, while the calibration performance is evaluated using the Earth view (EV) level 1B (L1B) data products. For Aqua MODIS, the detector calibration differences and their impact are also characterized using standard ocean color data products. The current calibration approach for MODIS RSB carries a band-averaged response versus scan angle (RVS) correction. The results from this study suggest that a detector-based RVS correction should, due to changes in the scan mirror's optical properties, be implemented in order to maintain and improve the current RSB L1B data product quality, particularly, for several VIS bands in Terra MODIS.

  20. Optical Communications in the mid-wave IR spectral band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, Narasimha S.

    The mid-wave IR (MWIR) spectral band extending from 3 to 5 microns is considered to be a low loss atmospheric window. The MWIR wavelengths are eye safe and are attractive for several free-space applications including remote sensing of chemical and biological species, hard target imaging, range finding, target illumination, and free-space Communications. Due to the nature of light-matter interaction characteristics, MWIR wavelength based Systems can provide unique advantages over other spectral bands for these applications, The MWIR wavelengths are found to effectively penetrate natural and anthropogenic obscurants. Consequently, MWIR Systems offer increased range Performance at reduced power levels. Free-space, line-of-sight optical communication links for terrestrial as well as space based platforms using MWIR wavelengths can be designed to operate under low visibility conditions. Combined with high-bandwidth, eye-safe, covert and jam proof features, a MWIR wavelength based optical communication link could play a vital role in hostile environments.

  1. [Wavebands selection for rice information extraction based on spectral bands inter-correlation].

    PubMed

    Wang, Fu-Min; Huang, Jing-Feng; Xu, Jun-Feng; Wang, Xiu-Zhen

    2008-05-01

    The hyperspectral remote sensing data usually involve hundreds or even thousands of narrow bands, which may be crucial for providing additional information with significant improvements over broad bands in quantifying biophysical and biochemical variables of agricultural crop. However, the huge data generated by hyperspectral systems, and the problems this presents for storage and analysis, have far prevented the routine use of such data. The objective of the present research was to identify the spectral bands in the visible and near-infrared range that were suitable for the study of rice. The hyperspectral reflectance of canopy in different development stages was measured in experimental field using a 1 nm-wide spectroradiometer but was aggregated to 10 nm-wide bandwidths to match the first spaceborne hyperspectral sensor, Hyperion. The correlation coefficients(r) between all the combinations of spectral bands were computed, and then they were converted to R2 , which constituted R2 matrices. The matrices were plotted against wavebands. The criterion of band selection is that the lower the R2 value, the less the redundancy between two wavebands while the higher R2 indicates that there is redundant information between two wavebands. According to the criterion, the wavebands corresponding to the first 100 minimum R2 values were selected from all canopy spectra collected on different dates. And then these bands were analyzed. The results indicate that the visible and infrared (NIR and SWIR) themselves contain redundant information. The wavebands containing abundant information of rice are located in specific bands in the longer wavelength portion of the visible region, with secondary clusters in red edge region, in strongly reflective near-infrared region with relatively higher reflectance, in one particular section of short wave near-infrared (SWIR) (1 530 nm) and in the second maximum reflectance region of SWIR (2 215 nm). Compared with the selected bands with other

  2. Dual spectral band reconnaissance systems for multiple platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyatt, Steve H.

    2002-11-01

    Recon/Optical, Inc. (ROI) has a family of digital, dual spectral band (visible/IR) cameras that is readily applicable for reconnaissance missions on virtually any airborne platform available today. Each camera is based on a modular design that allows reconfiguration for a multitude of volumetric and mission constraints. The open architecture facilitates integration as either a reconnaissance system components or as the system master controller. Output data can be formatted to satisfy either NITF or STANAG requirements making the camera adaptable to applications throughout the world. These cameras offer several key features, including a stabilization system, that can be tuned to each platform, optional data compression to optimize data storage and data link performance, and a camera-mounted inertial measurement unit for improved pointing accuracy. These and other core capabilities are especially beneficial to users with unique platform integration requirements. Camera flexibility translates into low-risk integration to a variety of reconnaissance platforms.

  3. Broad band spectral energy distribution studies of Fermi bright blazars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monte, C.; Giommi, P.; Cavazzuti, E.; Gasparrini, D.; Rainò, S.; Fuhrmann, L.; Angelakis, E.; Villata, M.; Raiteri, C. M.; Perri, M.; Richards, J.

    2011-02-01

    The Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope was successfully launched on June 11, 2008 and has already opened a new era for gamma-ray astronomy. The Large Area Telescope (LAT), the main instrument on board Fermi, presents a significant improvement in sensitivity over its predecessor EGRET, due to its large field of view and effective area, combined with its excellent timing capabilities. The preliminary results of the Spectral Energy Distribution Analysis performed on a sample of bright blazars are presented. For this study, the data from the first three months of data collection of Fermi have been used. The analysis is extended down to radio, mm, near-IR, optical, UV and X-ray bands and up to TeV energies based on unprecedented sample of simultaneous multi-wavelength observations by GASP-WEBT.

  4. Radiometric spectral and band rendering of targets using anisotropic BRDFs and measured backgrounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilgers, John W.; Hoffman, Jeffrey A.; Reynolds, William R.; Jafolla, James C.

    2000-07-01

    Achievement of ultra-high fidelity signature modeling of targets requires a significant level of complexity for all of the components required in the rendering process. Specifically, the reflectance of the surface must be described using the bi-directional distribution function (BRDF). In addition, the spatial representation of the background must be high fidelity. A methodology and corresponding model for spectral and band rendering of targets using both isotropic and anisotropic BRDFs is presented. In addition, a set of tools will be described for generating theoretical anisotropic BRDFs and for reducing data required for a description of an anisotropic BRDF by 5 orders of magnitude. This methodology is hybrid using a spectrally measured panoramic of the background mapped to a large hemisphere. Both radiosity and ray-tracing approaches are incorporated simultaneously for a robust solution. In the thermal domain the spectral emission is also included in the solution. Rendering examples using several BRDFs will be presented.

  5. A comparative study of the thematic mapper and Landsat spectral bands from field measurement data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badhwar, G. D.; Henderson, K. E.

    1982-01-01

    Principal component and factor analysis techniques were applied to the spectral data collected over 27 field plots of various crops under varying agronomic conditions. The spectral data was integrated over the proposed thematic mapper bands and Landsat MSS spectral bands. The results were examined to compare the discrimination power of the thematic mapper. Previously announced in STAR as N81-33549

  6. Calibration improvements for MODIS and VIIRS SWIR spectral bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Angal, Amit; Fulbright, Jon; Lei, Ning; Mu, Qiaozhen; Wang, Zhipeng; Wu, Aisheng

    2015-09-01

    Both MODIS and VIIRS use a solar diffuser (SD) to calibrate their reflective solar bands (RSB), covering wavelengths from 0.41 to 2.3 μm. On-orbit changes of the SD bi-directional reflectance factor (BRF) are tracked by an on-board solar diffuser stability monitor (SDSM). The current SDSM design only covers the spectral range from 0.41 to 0.93 μm. In general, the SD degradation is strongly wavelength-dependent with larger degradation occurring at shorter wavelengths, and the degradation in the SWIR region is expected to be extremely small. As each mission continues, however, the impact due to SD degradation at SWIR needs to be carefully examined and the correction if necessary should be applied in order to maintain the calibration quality. For Terra MODIS, alternative approaches have been developed and used to estimate the SD degradation for its band 5 at 1.24 μm and a time-dependent correction has already been applied to the current level 1B (L1B) collection 6 (C6). In this paper, we present different methodologies that can be used to examine the SD degradation and their applications for both Terra and Aqua MODIS and S-NPP VIIRS SWIR calibration. These methodologies include but not limited to the use of lunar observations, Pseudo Invariant Calibration Sites (PICS), and deep convective clouds (DCC). A brief description of relative approaches and their use is also provided in this paper.

  7. Spectrally resolved white light interferometry to measure material dispersion over a wide spectral band in a single acquisition.

    PubMed

    Arosa, Yago; Lago, Elena López; Varela, Luis Miguel; de la Fuente, Raúl

    2016-07-25

    In this paper we apply spectrally resolved white light interferometry to measure refractive and group index over a wide spectral band from 400 to 1000 nm. The output of a Michelson interferometer is spectrally decomposed by a homemade prism spectrometer with a high resolution camera. The group index is determined directly from the phase extracted from the spectral interferogram while the refractive index is estimated once its value at a given wavelength is known. PMID:27464179

  8. Relationships between Electroencephalographic Spectral Peaks Across Frequency Bands

    PubMed Central

    van Albada, S. J.; Robinson, P. A.

    2013-01-01

    The degree to which electroencephalographic spectral peaks are independent, and the relationships between their frequencies have been debated. A novel fitting method was used to determine peak parameters in the range 2–35 Hz from a large sample of eyes-closed spectra, and their interrelationships were investigated. Findings were compared with a mean-field model of thalamocortical activity, which predicts near-harmonic relationships between peaks. The subject set consisted of 1424 healthy subjects from the Brain Resource International Database. Peaks in the theta range occurred on average near half the alpha peak frequency, while peaks in the beta range tended to occur near twice and three times the alpha peak frequency on an individual-subject basis. Moreover, for the majority of subjects, alpha peak frequencies were significantly positively correlated with frequencies of peaks in the theta and low and high beta ranges. Such a harmonic progression agrees semiquantitatively with theoretical predictions from the mean-field model. These findings indicate a common or analogous source for different rhythms, and help to define appropriate individual frequency bands for peak identification. PMID:23483663

  9. Testing of infrared image enhancing algorithm in different spectral bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dulski, R.; Sosnowski, T.; Kastek, M.; Trzaskawka, P.

    2012-06-01

    The paper presents results of testing the infrared image quality enhancing algorithm based on histogram processing. Testing were performed on real images registered in NIR, MWIR, and LWIR spectral bands. Infrared images are a very specific type of information. The perception and interpretation of such image depends not only on radiative properties of observed objects and surrounding scenery. Probably still most important are skills and experience of an observer itself. In practice, the optimal settings of the camera as well as automatic temperature range or contrast control do not guarantee the displayed images are optimal from observer's point of view. The solution to this are algorithms of image quality enhancing based on digital image processing methods. Such algorithms can be implemented inside the camera or applied later, after image registration. They must improve the visibility of low-contrast objects. They should also provide effective dynamic contrast control not only across entire image but also selectively to specific areas in order to maintain optimal visualization of observed scenery. In the paper one histogram equalization algorithm was tested. Adaptive nature of the algorithm should assure significant improvement of the image quality and the same effectiveness of object detection. Another requirement and difficulty is that it should also be effective for any given thermal image and it should not cause a visible image degradation in unpredictable situations. The application of tested algorithm is a promising alternative to a very effective but complex algorithms due to its low complexity and real time operation.

  10. The SDSS-III APOGEE Spectral Line List for H-band Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shetrone, M.; Bizyaev, D.; Lawler, J. E.; Allende Prieto, C.; Johnson, J. A.; Smith, V. V.; Cunha, K.; Holtzman, J.; García Pérez, A. E.; Mészáros, Sz.; Sobeck, J.; Zamora, O.; García-Hernández, D. A.; Souto, D.; Chojnowski, D.; Koesterke, L.; Majewski, S.; Zasowski, G.

    2015-12-01

    We present the H-band spectral line lists adopted by the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE). The APOGEE line lists comprise astrophysical, theoretical, and laboratory sources from the literature, as well as newly evaluated astrophysical oscillator strengths and damping parameters. We discuss the construction of the APOGEE line list, which is one of the critical inputs for the APOGEE Stellar Parameters and Chemical Abundances Pipeline, and present three different versions that have been used at various stages of the project. The methodology for the newly calculated astrophysical line lists is reviewed. The largest of these three line lists contains 134,457 molecular and atomic transitions. In addition to the format adopted to store the data, the line lists are available in MOOG, Synspec, and Turbospectrum formats. The limitations of the line lists along with guidance for its use on different spectral types are discussed. We also present a list of H-band spectral features that are either poorly represented or completely missing in our line list. This list is based on the average of a large number of spectral fit residuals for APOGEE observations spanning a wide range of stellar parameters.

  11. Spectral Envelopes and Additive + Residual Analysis/Synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodet, Xavier; Schwarz, Diemo

    The subject of this chapter is the estimation, representation, modification, and use of spectral envelopes in the context of sinusoidal-additive-plus-residual analysis/synthesis. A spectral envelope is an amplitude-vs-frequency function, which may be obtained from the envelope of a short-time spectrum (Rodet et al., 1987; Schwarz, 1998). [Precise definitions of such an envelope and short-time spectrum (STS) are given in Section 2.] The additive-plus-residual analysis/synthesis method is based on a representation of signals in terms of a sum of time-varying sinusoids and of a non-sinusoidal residual signal [e.g., see Serra (1989), Laroche et al. (1993), McAulay and Quatieri (1995), and Ding and Qian (1997)]. Many musical sound signals may be described as a combination of a nearly periodic waveform and colored noise. The nearly periodic part of the signal can be viewed as a sum of sinusoidal components, called partials, with time-varying frequency and amplitude. Such sinusoidal components are easily observed on a spectral analysis display (Fig. 5.1) as obtained, for instance, from a discrete Fourier transform.

  12. GEOS-2 C-band radar system project. Spectral analysis as related to C-band radar data analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Work performed on spectral analysis of data from the C-band radars tracking GEOS-2 and on the development of a data compaction method for the GEOS-2 C-band radar data is described. The purposes of the spectral analysis study were to determine the optimum data recording and sampling rates for C-band radar data and to determine the optimum method of filtering and smoothing the data. The optimum data recording and sampling rate is defined as the rate which includes an optimum compromise between serial correlation and the effects of frequency folding. The goal in development of a data compaction method was to reduce to a minimum the amount of data stored, while maintaining all of the statistical information content of the non-compacted data. A digital computer program for computing estimates of the power spectral density function of sampled data was used to perform the spectral analysis study.

  13. M Dwarf Luminosity, Radius, and α-enrichment from I-band Spectral Features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terrien, Ryan C.; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Bender, Chad F.; Deshpande, Rohit; Robertson, Paul

    2015-03-01

    Despite the ubiquity of M dwarfs and their growing importance to studies of exoplanets, Galactic evolution, and stellar structure, methods for precisely measuring their fundamental stellar properties remain elusive. Existing techniques for measuring M dwarf luminosity, mass, radius, or composition are calibrated over a limited range of stellar parameters or require expensive observations. We find a strong correlation between the KS-band luminosity (MK), the observed strength of the I-band sodium doublet absorption feature, and [Fe/H] in M dwarfs without strong Hα emission. We show that the strength of this feature, coupled with [Fe/H] and spectral type, can be used to derive M dwarf MK and radius without requiring parallax. Additionally, we find promising evidence that the strengths of the I-band sodium doublet and the nearby I-band calcium triplet may jointly indicate α-element enrichment. The use of these I-band features requires only moderate-resolution near-infrared spectroscopy to provide valuable information about the potential habitability of exoplanets around M dwarfs, and surface gravity and distance for M dwarfs throughout the Galaxy. This technique has immediate applicability for both target selection and candidate planet-host system characterization for exoplanet missions such as TESS and K2.

  14. High resolution spectral analysis of oxygen. III. Laboratory investigation of the airglow bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drouin, Brian J.; Yu, Shanshan; Elliott, Ben M.; Crawford, Timothy J.; Miller, Charles E.

    2013-10-01

    We report the first high spectral resolution laboratory measurements of simulated oxygen A-band night glow. Our static discharge system approximates the conditions of the mesospheric oxygen night glow - suggesting O(1D) + O2 (X ^3Σ _g^-) → O(3P) + O2 (b ^1Σ _g^+) → O2 (X ^3Σ _g^-) + hν as the primary source of the emission. Additionally, use of the static cell has enabled us to collect spectra for all six molecular oxygen isotopologues using isotopically enriched samples. The (0,0), (0,1), and (1,1) b - X vibrational bands were observed for all six isotopologues. The (1,2) and (2,2) bands were also observed for 16O2. The frequencies of the observed (0,1) transitions resolved discrepancies in Raman data for 16O17O, 17O2, and 17O18O, enabling us to improve the vibrational parameterization of the ground electronic state global fit. Rotationally resolved intensities were determined for the (0,0), (0,1), and (1,1) bands. The experimental band intensity ratios I(0,0)/I(0,1) = 13.53(24); I(1,1)/I(1,0) = 11.9(65); I(0,0)/I(0,2) = 503(197); and I(1,1)/I(1,2) = 5.6(19) are in excellent agreement with the recent mesospheric remote sensing data and calculated Franck-Condon factors.

  15. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography imaging of subretinal bands associated with chronic retinal detachments

    PubMed Central

    Kothari, Nikisha; Kuriyan, Ajay E; Flynn, Harry W

    2016-01-01

    We report three patients with subretinal bands associated with retinal detachment in chronic retinal detachments who underwent successful retinal reattachment. Subretinal bands before and after surgery can be identified on clinical examination and spectral domain optical coherence tomography. Removal of subretinal bands is not mandatory to achieve retinal reattachment. PMID:27099457

  16. Spectral Band Characterization for Hyperspectral Monitoring of Water Quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vermillion, Stephanie C.; Raqueno, Rolando; Simmons, Rulon

    2001-01-01

    A method for selecting the set of spectral characteristics that provides the smallest increase in prediction error is of interest to those using hyperspectral imaging (HSI) to monitor water quality. The spectral characteristics of interest to these applications are spectral bandwidth and location. Three water quality constituents of interest that are detectable via remote sensing are chlorophyll (CHL), total suspended solids (TSS), and colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM). Hyperspectral data provides a rich source of information regarding the content and composition of these materials, but often provides more data than an analyst can manage. This study addresses the spectral characteristics need for water quality monitoring for two reasons. First, determination of the greatest contribution of these spectral characteristics would greatly improve computational ease and efficiency. Second, understanding the spectral capabilities of different spectral resolutions and specific regions is an essential part of future system development and characterization. As new systems are developed and tested, water quality managers will be asked to determine sensor specifications that provide the most accurate and efficient water quality measurements. We address these issues using data from the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) and a set of models to predict constituent concentrations.

  17. MODIS On-orbit Spectral Calibration for the Reflective Solar Bands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xiong, X.; Che, N.; Barnes, W.

    2004-01-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) makes observations in 36 spectral bands with wavelengths from 0.41 to 14.5 microns. The bands with center wavelengths below 2.2 microns are referred as the reflective solar bands (RSB) with their radiometric calibration performed by a solar diffuser (SD) and a solar diffuser stability monitor (SDSM). This paper focuses on the MODIS spectral calibration performed by its unique on-board calibrator (OBC): the Spectro-Radiometric Calibration Assembly (SRCA). When operated in the spectral mode, the SRCA acts as a monochromator with internal spherical integration source (SIS) that measures the spectral responses for all the reflective solar bands. A wavelength calibrator, a didymium filter with known spectral profile, is utilized to calibrate the wavelength scale for the grating positions during each SRCA spectral calibration activity. The capability of self-wavelength calibration allows the SRCA to track the center wavelength shifts and to monitor the spectral response changes throughout the instruments lifetime. The MODIS spectral calibration, same for both Terra and Aqua missions, is performed every three months on-orbit. An overview of MODIS spectral characterization approach and a summary of the on-orbit results will be presented in this paper.

  18. Spectral band passes for a high precision satellite sounder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaplan, L. D.; Chahine, M. T.; Susskind, J.; Searl, J. E.

    1977-01-01

    Atmospheric temperature soundings with significantly improved vertical resolution can be obtained from carefully chosen narrow band-pass measurements in the 4.3-micron band of CO2 by taking advantage of the variation of the absorption coefficients, and thereby the weighting functions, with pressure and temperature. A set of channels has been found in the 4.2-micron region that is capable of yielding about 2-km vertical resolution in the troposphere. The concept of a complete system is presented for obtaining high resolution retrievals of temperature and water vapor distribution, as well as surface and cloud top temperatures, even in the presence of broken clouds.

  19. Optical design and system calibration for three-band spectral imaging system with interchangeable filters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The design and calibration of a three-band image acquisition system was reported. The prototype system developed in this research was a three-band spectral imaging system that acquired two visible (510 and 568 nm) images and a near-infrared (NIR) (800 nm) image simultaneously. The system was proto...

  20. An automated astronomical scanning complex for parallel and independent operation in two spectral bands.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vdovichenko, V. D.; Gajsin, S. M.; Lukichev, A. G.; Mosina, S. A.

    A new medium-resolution spectrometer for the 1.5-meter telescope is described. To improve efficiency and broaden the working band in the spectrum, the beam is split by a dichroic filter after reflection from the collimator and directed into two spectral channels, each with its own diffraction grating and camera. The first ("blue") channel works in the spectral range 300 - 780 nm, and the second ("red") channel at 760 - 1100 nm. The FEU-39, -79, -136, and -83 photomultiplier radiation detectors used in these channels are operated in the photon-counting mode. The information in each channel is registered independently and concurrently. In addition to the spectral channels there is a reference photometric channel for atmospheric-transparency monitoring. A diaphragm unit is placed in the plane of the spectrometer entrance slit so that the photometric profiles of extended objects can be obtained by image scanning. All mechanical operations are performed with the aid of computer-controlled stepping motors and electromagnets.

  1. TEMPORAL SPECTRAL SHIFT AND POLARIZATION OF A BAND-SPLITTING SOLAR TYPE II RADIO BURST

    SciTech Connect

    Du, Guohui; Chen, Yao; Lv, Maoshui; Kong, Xiangliang; Feng, Shiwei; Guo, Fan; Li, Gang

    2014-10-01

    In many type II solar radio bursts, the fundamental and/or the harmonic branches of the bursts can split into two almost parallel bands with similar spectral shapes and frequency drifts. However, the mechanisms accounting for this intriguing phenomenon remain elusive. In this study, we report a special band-splitting type II event in which spectral features appear systematically earlier on the upper band (with higher frequencies) than on the lower band (with lower frequencies) by several seconds. Furthermore, the emissions carried by the splitting band are moderately polarized with the left-hand polarized signals stronger than the right-hand ones. The polarization degree varies in a range of –0.3 to –0.6. These novel observational findings provide important constraints on the underlying physical mechanisms of band-splitting of type II radio bursts.

  2. High resolution spectral analysis of oxygen. III. Laboratory investigation of the airglow bands.

    PubMed

    Drouin, Brian J; Yu, Shanshan; Elliott, Ben M; Crawford, Timothy J; Miller, Charles E

    2013-10-14

    We report the first high spectral resolution laboratory measurements of simulated oxygen A-band night glow. Our static discharge system approximates the conditions of the mesospheric oxygen night glow--suggesting O((1)D) + O2 (X(3)Σg(-)) → O((3)P) + O2 (b(1)Σg(+)) → O2 (X(3)Σg(-)) + hν as the primary source of the emission. Additionally, use of the static cell has enabled us to collect spectra for all six molecular oxygen isotopologues using isotopically enriched samples. The (0,0), (0,1), and (1,1) b - X vibrational bands were observed for all six isotopologues. The (1,2) and (2,2) bands were also observed for (16)O2. The frequencies of the observed (0,1) transitions resolved discrepancies in Raman data for (16)O(17)O, (17)O2, and (17)O(18)O, enabling us to improve the vibrational parameterization of the ground electronic state global fit. Rotationally resolved intensities were determined for the (0,0), (0,1), and (1,1) bands. The experimental band intensity ratios I(0,0)/I(0,1) = 13.53(24); I(1,1)/I(1,0) = 11.9(65); I(0,0)/I(0,2) = 503(197); and I(1,1)/I(1,2) = 5.6(19) are in excellent agreement with the recent mesospheric remote sensing data and calculated Franck-Condon factors. PMID:24116613

  3. Non-destructive estimation of foliar chlorophyll and carotenoid contents: Focus on informative spectral bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kira, Oz; Linker, Raphael; Gitelson, Anatoly

    2015-06-01

    Leaf pigment content provides valuable insight into the productivity, physiological and phenological status of vegetation. Measurement of spectral reflectance offers a fast, nondestructive method for pigment estimation. A number of methods were used previously for estimation of leaf pigment content, however, spectral bands employed varied widely among the models and data used. Our objective was to find informative spectral bands in three types of models, vegetation indices (VI), neural network (NN) and partial least squares (PLS) regression, for estimating leaf chlorophyll (Chl) and carotenoids (Car) contents of three unrelated tree species and to assess the accuracy of the models using a minimal number of bands. The bands selected by PLS, NN and VIs were in close agreement and did not depend on the data used. The results of the uninformative variable elimination PLS approach, where the reliability parameter was used as an indicator of the information contained in the spectral bands, confirmed the bands selected by the VIs, NN, and PLS models. All three types of models were able to accurately estimate Chl content with coefficient of variation below 12% for all three species with VI showing the best performance. NN and PLS using reflectance in four spectral bands were able to estimate accurately Car content with coefficient of variation below 14%. The quantitative framework presented here offers a new way of estimating foliar pigment content not requiring model re-parameterization for different species. The approach was tested using the spectral bands of the future Sentinel-2 satellite and the results of these simulations showed that accurate pigment estimation from satellite would be possible.

  4. Multi-spectral band selection for satellite-based systems

    SciTech Connect

    Clodius, W.B.; Weber, P.G.; Borel, C.C.; Smith, B.W.

    1998-09-01

    The design of satellite based multispectral imaging systems requires the consideration of a number of tradeoffs between cost and performance. The authors have recently been involved in the design and evaluation of a satellite based multispectral sensor operating from the visible through the long wavelength IR. The criteria that led to some of the proposed designs and the modeling used to evaluate and fine tune the designs will both be discussed. These criteria emphasized the use of bands for surface temperature retrieval and the correction of atmospheric effects. The impact of cost estimate changes on the final design will also be discussed.

  5. An examination of spectral band ratioing to reduce the topographic effect on remotely sensed data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holben, B.; Justice, C.

    1981-01-01

    Spectral-band ratioing of radiance data is examined as a means of reducing the topographic effect in multispectral data. A ground-based nadir-pointing two-channel radiometer filtered for the red and photographic IR portions of the spectrum was used to measure the topographic effect associated with a uniform surface inclined from horizontal to 60 deg at 16 compass points and for several solar elevations. It is found that ratioing reduced the topographic effect in the field-measured radiance data by an average of 83%, that the remaining topographic effect could be further reduced by subtracting the scattered-light component of the global irradiance before ratioing, and that ratioing was not effective in reducing the topographic effect on shaded surfaces illuminated solely by scattered light. It is concluded that additional variations in ratios can be expected for Landsat data owing to sensor calibration and quantization.

  6. Applications of spectral band adjustment factors (SBAF) for cross-calibration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chander, Gyanesh

    2013-01-01

    To monitor land surface processes over a wide range of temporal and spatial scales, it is critical to have coordinated observations of the Earth's surface acquired from multiple spaceborne imaging sensors. However, an integrated global observation framework requires an understanding of how land surface processes are seen differently by various sensors. This is particularly true for sensors acquiring data in spectral bands whose relative spectral responses (RSRs) are not similar and thus may produce different results while observing the same target. The intrinsic offsets between two sensors caused by RSR mismatches can be compensated by using a spectral band adjustment factor (SBAF), which takes into account the spectral profile of the target and the RSR of the two sensors. The motivation of this work comes from the need to compensate the spectral response differences of multispectral sensors in order to provide a more accurate cross-calibration between the sensors. In this paper, radiometric cross-calibration of the Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) and the Terra Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensors was performed using near-simultaneous observations over the Libya 4 pseudoinvariant calibration site in the visible and near-infrared spectral range. The RSR differences of the analogous ETM+ and MODIS spectral bands provide the opportunity to explore, understand, quantify, and compensate for the measurement differences between these two sensors. The cross-calibration was initially performed by comparing the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) reflectances between the two sensors over their lifetimes. The average percent differences in the long-term trends ranged from $-$5% to $+$6%. The RSR compensated ETM+ TOA reflectance (ETM+$^{ast}$) measurements were then found to agree with MODIS TOA reflectance to within 5% for all bands when Earth Observing-1 Hy- erion hyperspectral data were used to produce the SBAFs. These differences were later

  7. Multiplexed Volume Bragg Gratings in Narrowand Broad-band Spectral Systems: Analysis and Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingersoll, Gregory B.

    exhibit performance improvements over single-grating solutions, especially when reduced dispersion is required. Dispersion performance can be further improved by employing more than two VBGs in the spectrum splitter, but efficiency is compromised by additional cross-coupling effects. Narrow-band applications of the multi-grating theory include spectral beam combining (SBC) systems. SBC systems utilizing multiple VBGs must be carefully analyzed to maximize channel density and efficiency, and thus output radiance. This analysis grows increasingly difficult as the number of channels in the system increases, and heuristic optimization techniques (e.g. PSO) are again useful tools for exploring the limits of these systems. We explore three classes of multi-grating SBC systems: "cascaded" where each grating adds a new channel to the system in sequence, "sandwiched" where several individual gratings are placed together and all channels enter the system at the same facet, and "multiplexed" where all of the gratings occupy the same holographic optical element (HOE). Loss mechanisms differ among these three basic classes, and the optimization algorithm shows that the highest channel density for a given minimum efficiency and fixed operating bandwidth is achieved for a cascaded-grating system. The multiplexed-grating system exhibits the lowest channel density under that same constraints but has the distinct advantage of being realized by a single HOE. For a particular application, one must weigh channel density and efficiency versus system complexity when choosing among these basic classes of SBC system. Additionally, one may need to consider the effects of finite-width input beams. As input beam radius is reduced, angular clipping effects begin to dominate over spectral interference and crosstalk effects, limiting all three classes of SBC systems in a similar manner.

  8. Spectral narrowing of solid state lasers by narrow-band PTR Bragg mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, T.; Rapaport, A.; Chen, Y.; Smirnov, V.; Hemmer, M.; Glebov, L. B.; Richardson, M. C.; Bass, M.

    2006-05-01

    Dramatic spectral narrowing of normally broad band lasers, Ti:Sapphire,Cr:LiSAF, and alexandrite was achieved by simply replacing the output mirror with a reflective, volumetric Bragg grating recorded in photo thermal refractive (PTR) glass. The output power of each laser was changed very slightly from that obtained using dielectric coated output mirrors with the same output coupling as the Bragg grating while spectral brightness increased by about three orders of magnitude.

  9. Assessing Spectral Simulation Protocols for the Amide I Band of Proteins.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Ana V; Bondarenko, Anna S; Jansen, Thomas L C

    2016-08-01

    We present a benchmark study of spectral simulation protocols for the amide I band of proteins. The amide I band is widely used in infrared spectroscopy of proteins due to the large signal intensity, high sensitivity to hydrogen bonding, and secondary structural motifs. This band has, thus, proven valuable in many studies of protein structure-function relationships. We benchmark spectral simulation protocols using two common force fields in combination with several electrostatic mappings and coupling models. The results are validated against experimental linear absorption and two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy for three well-studied proteins. We find two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy to be much more sensitive to the simulation protocol than linear absorption and report on the best simulation protocols. The findings demonstrate that there is still room for ideas to improve the existing models for the amide I band of proteins. PMID:27348022

  10. Development of simple band-spectral pyranometer and quantum meter using photovoltaic cells and bandpass filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilguun, Amarsaikhan; Nakaso, Tetsushi; Harigai, Toru; Suda, Yoshiyuki; Takikawa, Hirofumi; Tanoue, Hideto

    2016-02-01

    In recent years, greenhouse automatic-control, based on the measurement of solar irradiance, has been attracting attention. This control is an effective method for improving crop production. In the agricultural field, it is necessary to measure Photon Flux Density (PFD), which is an important parameter in the promotion of plant growth. In particular, the PFD of Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR, 400-700 nm) and Plant Biologically Active Radiation (PBAR, 300-800 nm) have been discussed in agricultural plant science. The commercial quantum meter (QM, PAR meter) can only measure Photosynthetically Photon Flux Density (PPFD) which is the integrated PFD quantity on the PAR wavelength. In this research, a band-spectral pyranometer or quantum meter using PVs with optical bandpass filters for dividing the PBAR wavelength into 100 nm bands (five independent channels) was developed. Before field testing, calibration of the instruments was carried out using a solar simulator. Next, a field test was conducted in three differing weather conditions such as clear, partly cloudy and cloudy skies. As a result, it was found that the response rate of the developed pyranometer was faster by four seconds compared with the response rate of the commercial pyranometer. Moreover, the outputs of each channel in the developed pyranometer were very similar to the integrated outputs of the commercial spectroradiometer. It was confirmed that the solar irradiance could be measured in each band separately using the developed band-spectral pyranometer. It was indicated that the developed band-spectral pyranometer could also be used as a PV band-spectral quantum meter which is obtained by converting the band irradiance into band PFD.

  11. Line parameters for ozone hot bands in the 4.8-micron spectral region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Camy-Peyret, Claude; Flaud, Jean-Marie; Rinsland, Curtis P.; Smith, Mary Ann H.; Devi, V. Malathy

    1990-01-01

    Line positions, intensities, and lower-state energies have been calculated for nine hot bands of (O-16)3 in the 4.8-micron spectral region using improved spectroscopic parameters deduced in recent high-resolution laboratory studies. The good quality of the hot-band parameters has been verified through comparisons of line-by-line simulations with 0.005/cm-resolution laboratory spectra of ozone. The present work and the line parameters calculated for the main bands by Pickett et al. (1988) provide a complete update of ozone spectroscopic parameters in the 4.8 micron region.

  12. [Hyperspectral Band Selection Based on Spectral Clustering and Inter-Class Separability Factor].

    PubMed

    Qin, Fang-pu; Zhang, Ai-wu; Wang, Shu-min; Meng, Xian-gang; Hu, Shao-xing; Sun, Wei-dong

    2015-05-01

    With the development of remote sensing technology and imaging spectrometer, the resolution of hyperspectral remote sensing image has been continually improved, its vast amount of data not only improves the ability of the remote sensing detection but also brings great difficulties for analyzing and processing at the same time. Band selection of hyperspectral imagery can effectively reduce data redundancy and improve classification accuracy and efficiency. So how to select the optimum band combination from hundreds of bands of hyperspectral images is a key issue. In order to solve these problems, we use spectral clustering algorithm based on graph theory. Firstly, taking of the original hyperspectral image bands as data points to be clustered , mutual information between every two bands is calculated to generate the similarity matrix. Then according to the graph partition theory, spectral decomposition of the non-normalized Laplacian matrix generated by the similarity matrix is used to get the clusters, which the similarity between is small and the similarity within is large. In order to achieve the purpose of dimensionality reduction, the inter-class separability factor of feature types on each band is calculated, which is as the reference index to choose the representative bands in the clusters furthermore. Finally, the support vector machine and minimum distance classification methods are employed to classify the hyperspectral image after band selection. The method in this paper is different from the traditional unsupervised clustering method, we employ spectral clustering algorithm based on graph theory and compute the interclass separability factor based on a priori knowledge to select bands. Comparing with traditional adaptive band selection algorithm and band index based on automatically subspace divided algorithm, the two sets of experiments results show that the overall accuracy of SVM is about 94. 08% and 94. 24% and the overall accuracy of MDC is about 87

  13. Surface plasmonic enhanced polarimetric longwave infrared photodetection with band pass spectral filtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasinajindakaw, Puminun; Vaillancourt, Jarrod; Gu, Guiru; Lu, Xuejun

    2012-06-01

    In this paper, we report a surface plasmonic enhanced polarimetric longwave infrared (LWIR) photodetector. Polarization-selective detection of LWIR incidence with different polarizations is achieved at different plasmonic resonant modes. Band-pass spectral filtering is also provided at the plasmonic resonant modes by the plasmonic enhancement. The extinction ratio (ER) of the polarimetric detection and its limiting factor is discussed.

  14. SNPP VIIRS spectral bands co-registration and spatial response characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Guoqing; Tilton, James C.; Wolfe, Robert E.; Tewari, Krishna P.; Nishihama, Masahiro

    2013-09-01

    The Visible Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument onboard the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (SNPP) satellite was launched on 28 October 2011. The VIIRS has 5 imagery spectral bands (I-bands), 16 moderate resolution spectral bands (M-bands) and a panchromatic day/night band (DNB). Performance of the VIIRS spatial response and band-to-band co-registration (BBR) was measured through intensive pre-launch tests. These measurements were made in the non-aggregated zones near the start (or end) of scan for the I-bands and M-bands and for a limited number of aggregation modes for the DNB in order to test requirement compliance. This paper presents results based on a recently re-processed pre-launch test data. Sensor (detector) spatial impulse responses in the scan direction are parameterized in terms of ground dynamic field of view (GDFOV), horizontal spatial resolution (HSR), modulation transfer function (MTF), ensquared energy (EE) and integrated out-of-pixel (IOOP) spatial response. Results are presented for the non-aggregation, 2-sample and 3-sample aggregation zones for the I-bands and M-bands, and for a limited number of aggregation modes for the DNB. On-orbit GDFOVs measured for the 5 I-bands in the scan direction using a straight bridge are also presented. Band-to-band co-registration (BBR) is quantified using the prelaunch measured band-to-band offsets. These offsets may be expressed as fractions of horizontal sampling intervals (HSIs), detector spatial response parameters GDFOV or HSR. BBR bases on HSIs in the non-aggregation, 2-sample and 3-sample aggregation zones are presented. BBR matrices based on scan direction GDFOV and HSR are compared to the BBR matrix based on HSI in the non-aggregation zone. We demonstrate that BBR based on GDFOV is a better representation of footprint overlap and so this definition should be used in BBR requirement specifications. We propose that HSR not be used as the primary image quality indicator, since we

  15. SNPP VIIRS Spectral Bands Co-Registration and Spatial Response Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Guoqing; Tilton, James C.; Wolfe, Robert E.; Tewari, Krishna P.; Nishihama, Masahiro

    2013-01-01

    The Visible Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument onboard the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (SNPP) satellite was launched on 28 October 2011. The VIIRS has 5 imagery spectral bands (I-bands), 16 moderate resolution spectral bands (M-bands) and a panchromatic day/night band (DNB). Performance of the VIIRS spatial response and band-to-band co-registration (BBR) was measured through intensive pre-launch tests. These measurements were made in the non-aggregated zones near the start (or end) of scan for the I-bands and M-bands and for a limited number of aggregation modes for the DNB in order to test requirement compliance. This paper presents results based on a recently re-processed pre-launch test data. Sensor (detector) spatial impulse responses in the scan direction are parameterized in terms of ground dynamic field of view (GDFOV), horizontal spatial resolution (HSR), modulation transfer function (MTF), ensquared energy (EE) and integrated out-of-pixel (IOOP) spatial response. Results are presented for the non-aggregation, 2-sample and 3-sample aggregation zones for the I-bands and M-bands, and for a limited number of aggregation modes for the DNB. On-orbit GDFOVs measured for the 5 I-bands in the scan direction using a straight bridge are also presented. Band-to-band co-registration (BBR) is quantified using the prelaunch measured band-to-band offsets. These offsets may be expressed as fractions of horizontal sampling intervals (HSIs), detector spatial response parameters GDFOV or HSR. BBR bases on HSIs in the non-aggregation, 2-sample and 3-sample aggregation zones are presented. BBR matrices based on scan direction GDFOV and HSR are compared to the BBR matrix based on HSI in the non-aggregation zone. We demonstrate that BBR based on GDFOV is a better representation of footprint overlap and so this definition should be used in BBR requirement specifications. We propose that HSR not be used as the primary image quality indicator, since we

  16. Spectral imaging of the 3.3 and 11.3 micron emission bands in NGC 1333 - Discovery of spatially separate band emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bregman, Jesse; Rank, David; Sandford, Scott A.; Temi, Pasquale

    1993-01-01

    Spectral images in the 3.3 and 11.3 micron IR emission band around the star SVS 3 in NGC 1333 indicate that the two bands have their origin in different locations, rendering them useless in estimates of the sizes of the molecules emitting the bands. This is in keeping with the emission bands' generation by a mixture of variously sized polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) whose smallest species have been dehydrogenated in the vicinity of SVS 3. Hot bands and overtone/combination bands may account for the 3.4-micron band, rather than molecular side-groups of the PAHs.

  17. Spectral Correspondence to the Evolution of Chemical Bond and Valence Band in Oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Chang Q.; Zhang, Sam; Hing, Peter; Wei, Jun; Xie, Hong; Wee, Andrew T. S.

    Spectroscopy covering energies around Fermi level of a metal is of particular interest as it does give direct information of bond forming and its consequence on the energy states (DOS). However, the origin of some outstanding spectral features from metal surface with chemisorbed oxygen has not yet been well established. It is shown in this letter that a bond-to-band model for oxidation enables the nature of a sum of spectral features to be consistently defined. All the spectral changes in the STS, XPS, UPS, photoemission spectroscopy (PES) and the thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) are classified by four DOS features around Fermi level and three bonding processes. Such a definition leads not only to new knowledge of the nature of O-metal interaction but also to a direct understanding of the bond-and-band forming dynamics.

  18. The spectral response of the SCUBA-2 850- and 450-micron photometric bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naylor, David A.; Gom, Brad G.; Abdelazim, Sherif; Friberg, Per; Bintley, Daniel; Holland, Wayne S.; MacIntosh, Michael J.; Ade, Peter A. R.; Tucker, Carole E.

    2014-07-01

    SCUBA-2 is a wide-field submillimeter bolometer camera operating at the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope. The camera has twin focal planes, each with 5120 superconducting Transition Edge Sensors, which provide simultaneous images in two filter bands at 450 and 850 microns matched to the atmospheric windows. Detailed knowledge of the optical filter profiles that define these bands is important for estimating potential contamination from the prevalent CO J = 3-2 and CO 6-5 line emission, and correctly interpreting the effects of the source spectral index on photometric observations. We present measurements of the spectral response of SCUBA-2 obtained with FTS-2, the ancillary Fourier transform spectrometer instrument at the JCMT. The spectral measurements will be compared with the predicted filter profile determined from the linear combination of the individual filter profiles present in the SCUBA-2 optical train.

  19. Quantitative study of detection performance for LWIR hyperspectral imagers as a function of number of spectral bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, Rulon R.; Priest, Richard G.

    2001-08-01

    Remote passive sensors can collect data that depict both the spatial distribution of objects in the scene and the spectral distributions for those objects within the scene. Target search techniques, such as matched filter algorithms, use highly resolved wavelength spectra (large number of bands) to help detect fine features in the spectrum in order to discriminate objects from the background. The use of a large number of bands during the target search, however, significantly slows image collection and area coverage rates. This study quantitatively examines how binning or integrating bands can affect target detection. Our study examines the long-wave infrared spectra of man-made targets and natural backgrounds obtained with the SEBASS (8-12 micrometers ) imager as part of the Dark HORSE 2 exercise during the HYDRA data collection in November, 1998. In this collection, at least 30 bands of data were obtained, but they were then binned to as few as 2 bands. This study examines the effect on detection performance of reducing the number of bands, through computation of the signal to clutter ratio (SCR) for a variety of target types. In addition, this study examines how band reduction affects the receiver operator curves (ROC) i.e. the target detection probability versus false alarm rate, for matched filter algorithms using in-scene target signatures and hyperspectral images. Target detection, as measured by SCR, for a variety of target types, improves with increasing number of bands. The enhancement in SCR levels off at approximately 10 bands, with only a small increase in SCR obtained from 10 to 30 bands. Variable number of bands within a bin (for fixed number of bins), generated by a genetic algorithm, increases SCR and ROC curve performance for multi-temporal studies. Thus, optimal selection of bands derived from one mission, may be robust and stable, and provide enhanced target detection for data collected on subsequent days. This investigation is confined to the

  20. Mass spectral characterization of petroleum dyes, tracers, and additives

    SciTech Connect

    Youngless, T.L.; Swansiger, J.T.; Danner, D.A.; Greco, M.

    1985-08-01

    Petroleum dyes, additives, and tracers are important for identifying gasolines in spill and contamination problems. High-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) was used for the characterization of 21 commercial petroleum dyes. Many contained common chromophores, typically azo or anthraquinone groups, and often differed only in their degree of alkyl substitution. Few dyes were pure and typically contained several chromogens with homologous series of substituents. A separation method was developed to concentrate the polar fractions containing the additives. Subsequent characterization of the polar fraction by GC/MS showed distinct differences between different gasolines. Various colorless tracers were evaluated in terms of detectability, soil adsorption, and cost. Many tracers exhibited soil adsorption and interferences which limited their detectability. Alcohols in the C8-C10 range were found to be the most suitable tracers with GC/MS detection limits of 1 ppm. 22 references, 4 figures, 3 tables.

  1. Searching for I-band variability in stars in the M/L spectral transition region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramsay, Gavin; Hakala, Pasi; Doyle, J. Gerry

    2015-10-01

    We report on I-band photometric observations of 21 stars with spectral types between M8 and L4 made using the Isaac Newton Telescope. The total amount of time for observations which had a cadence of <2.3 min was 58.5 h, with additional data with lower cadence. We test for photometric variability using the Kruskal-Wallis H-test and find that four sources (2MASS J10224821+5825453, 2MASS J07464256+2000321, 2MASS J16262034+3925190 and 2MASS J12464678+4027150) were found to be significantly variable at least on one epoch. Three of these sources are reported as photometrically variable for the first time. If we include sources which were deemed marginally variable, the number of variable sources is 6 (29 per cent). No flares were detected from any source. The percentage of sources which we found were variable is similar to previous studies. We summarize the mechanisms which have been put forward to explain the light curves of brown dwarfs.

  2. F, G, K, M Spectral Standards in the Y Band (0.95-1.11 μm)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharon, Chelsea; Hillenbrand, Lynne; Fischer, William; Edwards, Suzan

    2010-02-01

    We take advantage of good atmospheric transparency and the availability of high-quality instrumentation in the 1 μm near-infrared atmospheric window to present a grid of F, G, K, and M spectral standards observed at high spectral resolution (R ≈ 25, 000). In addition to a spectral atlas, we present a catalog of atomic line absorption features in the 0.95-1.11 μm range. The catalog includes a wide range of line excitation potentials, from 0-13 eV, arising from neutral and singly ionized species, most frequently those of Fe I and Ti I at low excitation, Cr I, Fe I, and Si I at moderate excitation, and C I, S I, and Si I having relatively high excitation. The spectra also include several prominent molecular bands from CN and FeH. For the atomic species, we analyze trends in the excitation potential, line depth, and equivalent width across the grid of spectroscopic standards to identify temperature and surface gravity diagnostics near 1 μm. We identify the line ratios that appear especially useful for spectral typing as those involving Ti I and C I or S I, which are temperature sensitive in opposite directions, and Sr II, which is gravity sensitive at all spectral types. ASCII versions of all spectra are available in the online version of the journal.

  3. Global four-band spectral classification of Jupiter's clouds - Color/albedo units and trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, W. Reid

    Voyager 2 digital images of Jupiter have been used to construct a global data base of cloud reflectance in four spectral bands: three wideband 'colors' with effective wavelengths at 431 nm, 564 nm, and 599 nm, plus the narrowband CH4 filter centered at 621 nm. This data base has been spectrally classified at 0.5 deg resolution to separate the complex scene into cloud color/albedo units on a pixel-by-pixel basis, revealing 20 distinct and five tentative units. These include both large, globally distributed units and very small, localized units. Global color maps and unit membership maps are used to highlight associations and trends.

  4. Do Additional Bands (coastal, NIR-2, Red-Edge and Yellow) in WORLDVIEW-2 Multispectral Imagery Improve Discrimination of AN Invasive Tussock, Buffel Grass (cenchrus Ciliaris)?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, V.; Lewis, M.; Ostendorf, B.

    2012-07-01

    Our goals is to determine if Worldview-2 8-band multispectral imagery can be used to discriminate an invasive grass species namely, Buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris) in the subtropical arid parts of central Australia and whether it offers a tangible improvement on 4-band (visible and near infra red) multispectral imagery. A Worldview-2 scene was acquired for a 10*10km area just west of Alice Springs in central Australia following heavy rains of early Summer. Mixture Tuned Matched Filtering was used to classify the image. Target and background spectra were selected in the field and extracted from the image. Linear discriminate analysis (LDA) was used to examine the spectral separability of each group of the target/ background spectra. The importance of the additional spectral bands on the image classification was assessed by running LDA for both 8 and 4 bands (red, green, blue and NIR). LDA did not indicate improved separability between groups when additional spectral bands were applied. Preliminary classification results indicate that Buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris) is detected with an omission error 44%, commission error of 11.8% and overall accuracy of 59.5%. We were surprised that the additional spectral bands did not improve spectral separability and in part attribute this to the high degree of variance we observed within groups of spectra, which was particularly observable in the NIR2 and Yellow bands. The analyses may be significantly improved by acquiring imagery following the first big rains at the end of the dry season. At this time, phonological differences between our focal species and the surrounding native vegetation should be maximised. We suspect that Worldview-2 will offer even greater potential for the discrimination of Buffel grass under these conditions, being able to fully utilise the yellow-band in particular.

  5. Selection of a seventh spectral band for the LANDSAT-D thematic mapper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, Q. A. (Principal Investigator); Nuesch, D. R.

    1978-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Each of the candidate bands were examined in terms of the feasibility of gathering high quality imagery from space while taking into account solar illumination, atmospheric attenuation, and the signal/noise ratio achievable within the TM sensor constraints. For the 2.2 micron region and the thermal IR region, inband signal values were calculated from representative spectral reflectance/emittance curves and a linear discriminant analysis was employed to predict classification accuracies. Based upon the substantial improvement (from 78 t0 92%) in discriminating zones of hydrothermally altered rocks from unaltered zones, over a broad range of observation conditions, a 2.08-2.35 micron spectral band having a ground resolution of 30 meters was recommended.

  6. Focused vs 'unlimited' spectral bands for aquatic remote sensing: potentials and limitations (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Z.

    2013-12-01

    It has long been concluded that the measurement of ocean (water) color with satellite sensors is an indispensable means for the study of biogeochemistry of the global oceans, and the first moderate-resolution map of biomass in the surface oceans was achieved with the Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) operated in the late 1970s and earlier 1980s. CZCS had 5 bands in the visible-near-infrared (VNIR) domain and was found inadequate for the separation of colored dissolved organic matter from phytoplankton. Subsequently more bands were included in ocean color sensors: the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) had 7 bands, the Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) had 12, and the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) has 8, while the newly launched Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) has 7 in the VNIR domain. Some airborne sensors, such as the Airborne Visible-Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) and the Portable Remote Imaging Spectrometer (PRISM), or experimental sensors, such as Hyperion and the Hyperspectral Imager for the Coastal Ocean (HICO), on the other hand, had much more spectral bands in the VNIR domain. Further, for ocean color missions planned for the coming decades, such as the Pre-Aerosol, Clouds, and ocean Ecosystem (PACE) and the Geostationary Coastal and Air Pollution Events (GEO-CAPE), there is a desire to use "hyperspectral" sensors. Do we really need a satellite sensor with 'hyperspectral', or contiguous, bands? What are the potentials and limitations? This review intends to provide a summary of research results of using both multi-band and "hyperspectral" data, and to discuss the pros and cons of employing a sensor with 'unlimited' spectral bands.

  7. The GOES-R Advanced Baseline Imager: detector spectral response effects on thermal emissive band calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearlman, Aaron J.; Padula, Francis; Cao, Changyong; Wu, Xiangqian

    2015-10-01

    The Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) will be aboard the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite R-Series (GOES-R) to supply data needed for operational weather forecasts and long-term climate variability studies, which depend on high quality data. Unlike the heritage operational GOES systems that have two or four detectors per band, ABI has hundreds of detectors per channel requiring calibration coefficients for each one. This increase in number of detectors poses new challenges for next generation sensors as each detector has a unique spectral response function (SRF) even though only one averaged SRF per band is used operationally to calibrate each detector. This simplified processing increases computational efficiency. Using measured system-level SRF data from pre-launch testing, we have the opportunity to characterize the calibration impact using measured SRFs, both per detector and as an average of detector-level SRFs similar to the operational version. We calculated the spectral response impacts for the thermal emissive bands (TEB) theoretically, by simulating the ABI response viewing an ideal blackbody and practically, with the measured ABI response to an external reference blackbody from the pre-launch TEB calibration test. The impacts from the practical case match the theoretical results using an ideal blackbody. The observed brightness temperature trends show structure across the array with magnitudes as large as 0.1 K for and 12 (9.61 µm), and 0.25 K for band 14 (11.2 µm) for a 300 K blackbody. The trends in the raw ABI signal viewing the blackbody support the spectral response measurements results, since they show similar trends in bands 12 (9.61µm), and 14 (11.2 µm), meaning that the spectral effects dominate the response differences between detectors for these bands. We further validated these effects using the radiometric bias calculated between calibrations using the external blackbody and

  8. Simulator spectral characterization using balloon calibrated solar cells with narrow band pass filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodelle, G. S.; Brooks, G. R.; Seaman, C. H.

    1981-01-01

    The development and implementation of an instrument for spectral measurement of solar simulators for testing solar cell characteristics is reported. The device was constructed for detecting changes in solar simulator behavior and for comparing simulator spectral irradiance to solar AM0 output. It consists of a standard solar cell equipped with a band pass filter narrow enough so that, when flown on a balloon to sufficient altitude along with sufficient numbers of cells, each equipped with filters of different bandpass ratings, the entire spectral response of the standard cell can be determined. Measured short circuit currents from the balloon flights thus produce cell devices which, when exposed to solar simulator light, have a current which does or does not respond as observed under actual AM0 conditions. Improvements of the filtered cells in terms of finer bandpass filter tuning and measurement of temperature coefficients are indicated.

  9. An Evaluation of Total Solar Reflectance and Spectral Band Ratioing Techniques for Estimating Soil Water Content

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reginato, R. J.; Vedder, J. F.; Idso, S. B.; Jackson, R. D.; Blanchard, M. B.; Goettelman, R.

    1977-01-01

    For several days in March of 1975, reflected solar radiation measurements were obtained from smooth and rough surfaces of wet, drying, and continually dry Avondale loam at Phoenix, Arizona, with pyranometers located 50 cm above the ground surface and a multispectral scanner flown at a 300-m height. The simple summation of the different band radiances measured by the multispectral scanner proved equally as good as the pyranometer data for estimating surface soil water content if the multispectral scanner data were standardized with respect to the intensity of incoming solar radiation or the reflected radiance from a reference surface, such as the continually dry soil. Without this means of standardization, multispectral scanner data are most useful in a spectral band ratioing context. Our results indicated that, for the bands used, no significant information on soil water content could be obtained by band ratioing. Thus the variability in soil water content should insignificantly affect soil-type discrimination based on identification of type-specific spectral signatures. Therefore remote sensing, conducted in the 0.4- to 1.0-micron wavelength region of the solar spectrum, would seem to be much More suited to identifying crop and soil types than to estimating of soil water content.

  10. The use of high spectral resolution bands for estimating absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (A par)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Moon S.; Daughtry, C. S. T.; Chappelle, E. W.; Mcmurtrey, J. E.; Walthall, C. L.

    1994-01-01

    Most remote sensing estimations of vegetation variables such as Leaf Area Index (LAI), Absorbed Photosynthetically Active Radiation (APAR), and phytomass are made using broad band sensors with a bandwidth of approximately 100 nm. However, high resolution spectrometers are available and have not been fully exploited for the purpose of improving estimates of vegetation variables. A study directed to investigate the use of high spectral resolution spectroscopy for remote sensing estimates of APAR in vegetation canopies in the presence of nonphotosynthetic background materials such as soil and leaf litter is presented. A high spectral resolution method defined as the Chlorophyll Absorption Ratio Index (CARI) was developed for minimizing the effects of nonphotosynthetic materials in the remote estimates of APAR. CARI utilizes three bands at 550, 670, and 700 nm with bandwidth of 10 nm. Simulated canopy reflectance of a range of LAI were generated with the SAIL model using measurements of 42 different soil types as canopy background. CARI obtained from the simulated canopy reflectance was compared with the broad band vegetation indices (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI), and Simple Ratio (SR)). CARI reduced the effect of nonphotosynthetic background materials in the assessment of vegetation canopy APAR more effectively than broad band vegetation indices.

  11. Spectral and polarization structure of field-induced photonic bands in cholesteric liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palto, S. P.; Barnik, M. I.; Geivandov, A. R.; Kasyanova, I. V.; Palto, V. S.

    2015-09-01

    Transmission of planar layers of cholesteric liquid crystals is studied in pulsed electric fields perpendicular to the helix axis at normal incidence of both linearly polarized and unpolarized light. Spectral and light polarization properties of the primary photonic band and the field-induced bands up to fourth order of Bragg selective reflection are studied in detail. In our experiments we have achieved an electric field strength several times higher than the theoretical values corresponding to the critical field of full helix unwinding. However, the experiments show that despite the high strength of the electric field applied the helix does not unwind, but strongly deforms, keeping its initial spatial period. Strong helix deformation results in distinct spectral band splitting, as well as very high field-induced selective reflectance that can be applied in lasers and other optoelectronic devices. Peculiarities of inducing and splitting the bands are discussed in terms of the scattering coefficient approach. All observed effects are confirmed by numerical simulations. The simulations also show that liquid crystal surface anchoring is not the factor that prevents the helix unwinding. Thus, the currently acknowledged concept of continuous helix unwinding in the electric field should be reconsidered.

  12. Classification method, spectral diversity, band combination and accuracy assessment evaluation for urban feature detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erener, A.

    2013-04-01

    Automatic extraction of urban features from high resolution satellite images is one of the main applications in remote sensing. It is useful for wide scale applications, namely: urban planning, urban mapping, disaster management, GIS (geographic information systems) updating, and military target detection. One common approach to detecting urban features from high resolution images is to use automatic classification methods. This paper has four main objectives with respect to detecting buildings. The first objective is to compare the performance of the most notable supervised classification algorithms, including the maximum likelihood classifier (MLC) and the support vector machine (SVM). In this experiment the primary consideration is the impact of kernel configuration on the performance of the SVM. The second objective of the study is to explore the suitability of integrating additional bands, namely first principal component (1st PC) and the intensity image, for original data for multi classification approaches. The performance evaluation of classification results is done using two different accuracy assessment methods: pixel based and object based approaches, which reflect the third aim of the study. The objective here is to demonstrate the differences in the evaluation of accuracies of classification methods. Considering consistency, the same set of ground truth data which is produced by labeling the building boundaries in the GIS environment is used for accuracy assessment. Lastly, the fourth aim is to experimentally evaluate variation in the accuracy of classifiers for six different real situations in order to identify the impact of spatial and spectral diversity on results. The method is applied to Quickbird images for various urban complexity levels, extending from simple to complex urban patterns. The simple surface type includes a regular urban area with low density and systematic buildings with brick rooftops. The complex surface type involves almost all

  13. Improving the spectral resolution of flat-field concave grating miniature spectrometers by dividing a wide spectral band into two narrow ones.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qian; Pang, Jinchao; Li, Xinghui; Ni, Kai; Tian, Rui

    2015-11-10

    In this study, a new flat-field concave grating miniature spectrometer is proposed with improved resolution across a wide spectral band. A mirror is added to a conventional concave grating spectrometer and placed near the existing detector array, allowing a wide spectral band to be divided into two adjacent subspectral bands. One of these bands is directly detected by the detector, and the other is indirectly analyzed by the same detector after being reflected by the mirror. These two subspectral bands share the same entrance slit, concave grating, and detector, which allows for a compact size, while maintaining an improved spectral resolution across the entire spectral band. The positions of the mirror and other parameters of the spectrometer are designed by a computer procedure and the optical design software ZEMAX. Simulation results show that the resolution of this kind of flat-field concave grating miniature spectrometer is better than 1.6 nm across a spectral band of 700 nm. Experiments based on three laser sources reveal that the measured resolutions are comparable to the simulated ones, with a maximum relative error between them of less than 19%. PMID:26560772

  14. Some observations about the components of transonic fan noise from narrow-band spectral analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saule, A. V.

    1974-01-01

    Qualitative and quantitative spectral analyses are presented that give the broadband-noise, discrete-tone, and multiple-tone properties of the noise generated by a full-scale high-bypass single-stage axial-flow transonic fan (fan B, NASA Quiet Engine Program). The noise components were obtained from narrow-band spectra in conjunction with 1/3-octave-band spectra. Variations in the pressure levels of the noise components with fan speed, forward-quadrant azimuth angle, and frequency are presented and compared. The study shows that much of the apparent broadband noise on 1/3-octave-band plots consists of a complex system of shaft-order tones. The analyses also indicate the difficulties in determining or defining noise components, especially the broadband level under the discrete tones. The sources which may be associated with the noise components are discussed.

  15. Effects of RF side-bands on spectral reproducibility for infrared synchrotron radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Biscardi, R.; Ramirez, G.; Williams, G.P.; Zimba, C.

    1994-11-01

    We have investigated the effects of audio side-bands from the main RF of the NSLS VUV storage ring on beam motion and specifically on spectral reproducibility in the infra-red region. For this spectral region it is advantageous to use Michelson interferometers because of their high throughput (Jacquinot advantage). A second advantage is that interferometers inherently give a multiplex or Felgett advantage, since one is always looking at all the wavelengths for all of the measuring time, even though there is only one detector. In such instruments it is beneficial to scan the moving mirror at a fast rate so that any mechanical or other low frequency noise shows up as a slow modulation in the interferogram and disappears altogether in the Fourier transform from the spectral region of interest. However, audio frequency side-bands appear from the RF energy restoring cavity as noise on the beam. These always occur at multiples of 60 Hz and can thus be readily identified. They can also be confirmed by changing the mirror velocity which changes where they appear in the spectra in a predictable way. In the present work, we measured spectra while simultaneously reducing and shifting the side bands in the RF and thus were able to correlate the effects and ultimately eliminate them as a source of noise. Ultimately we were able to achieve reproducibilities of <1% in 15 seconds of scanning time across the entire spectral region from 800 cm{sup {minus}1} to 4000cm{sup {minus}1} with a sample throughput of only l0{sup {minus}10} meter{sup 2} steradians.

  16. Broad-band analysis of the spectral evolution of GX 339-4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clavel, M.; Rodriguez, J.; Corbel, S.

    2015-07-01

    Black Hole X-ray binaries display large outbursts during which their spectral properties are strongly variable. Their high-energy emission includes the contribution of thermal and non-thermal components that are respectively attributed to the emission of an accretion disk and the one of a jet. How these structures form and evolve over time is still under investigation. The aim of our group is to provide the most up to date generic properties of these objects, as observed along the course of their outbursts, in order to constrain the theoretical models. Therefore, I will present the systematic broad-band analysis of the spectral properties of black hole binaries that we are currently developing, using the 2010 outburst of GX 339-4 as an example. I will give an overview of the results we obtained using observations at all wavelengths from proprietary radio data to hard X-rays.

  17. Spectral line parameters for the O2 Herzberg I band system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cann, M. W. P.; Nicholls, R. W.

    1991-09-01

    Spectral line parameters required for line-by-line spectral synthesis have been calculated for the weak Herzberg I band system of O2. The line locations were calculated with constants from Borrell et al. (1986) and agree closely with these authors' measured wave numbers. Line strengths were calculated using formulas given by Lewis and Gibson (1990), but empirically modified to concur with the relative strengths measured by Herzberg (1952), the only ones found in the literature. Line strengths and line widths are both very uncertain and need to be revised as more information becomes available. Line parameters were calculated for transitions from the nu-double prime = 0, 1, and 2 vibrational levels.

  18. Deep galaxy count predictions in the radio, infrared, and X-ray spectral bands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Treyer, Marie-Agnes; Silk, Joseph

    1993-01-01

    The existence of a dominant population of strongly evolving starburst sources at moderate redshift is a plausible explanation for the excess number of faint blue galaxies detected in deep sky surveys. Multiwavelength observations at faint magnitudes would allow the existence of such a population to be confirmed. We use observed luminosity correlations and physical properties of known starburst galaxies to predict their contribution to the deep radio, infrared, and X-ray counts, as well as to the diffuse extragalactic background radiation in these various spectral bands.

  19. Narrow spectral band monolithic lead-chalcogenide-on-Si mid-IR photodetectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zogg, Hans; Arnold, Martin

    2007-01-01

    Narrow spectral band infrared detectors are required for multispectral infrared imaging. We review the first photovoltaic resonant cavity enhanced detectors (RCED) for the mid-IR range. The lead-chalcogenide (PbEuSe) photodetector is placed as a very thin layer inside an optical cavity. At least one side is terminated with an epitaxial Bragg mirror (consisting of quarter wavelength PbEuSe/BaF 2 pairs), while the second mirror may be a metal. Linewidths are as narrow as 37 nm at a peak wavelength of 4400 nm, and peak quantum efficiencies up to above 50% are obtained.

  20. Iron mineralogy of the surface of Mars from the 1 μm band spectral properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrozzo, F. G.; Altieri, F.; Bellucci, G.; Poulet, F.; D'Aversa, E.; Bibring, J.-P.

    2012-10-01

    We study the 1 μm absorption from OMEGA/MEX spectra to map Martian iron mineralogy at a global scale. This band is covered on the left by the VNIR (visible and near infrared) OMEGA channel and on the right by the SWIR (short wavelengths infrared) one. We first perform a systematic spatial coregistration of the two channels after an improvement of the VNIR radiometric calibration. The update of the VNIR Instrumental Transfer Function (ITF) and the internal stray-light estimation is based on the spectra of the Phobos red units and of the water ice north polar cap of Mars, which have been fitted according to an iterative process. The level of the signal in the blue wavelength range, previously systematically overestimated due to a stray-light residual and the general shape of the spectrum for λ > 0.7 μm are improved . Global maps of the 1 μm signature have been derived from 9 new spectral indices. The largest values of the 1 μm band integral are found in Noachian terrains and in the dunes around the north polar cap. In the south polar region, an area centered at ˜155°W and ˜83°S is mapped as a distinctive spectral unit, dominated by pyroxene. The northern lowlands of Mars together with other dark terrains located in the northern hemisphere show very low values of some spectral indices due to the negative spectral slope in the NIR. This behavior is consistent with the presence of weathered basalts with a possible glassy or amorphous component. Among the hydrated terrains, the only ones that can be isolated by studying the 1 μm band are those located in Terra Meridiani, Aram Chaos and Capri Chasma, enriched in sulfate and hematite. On the other hand, the sulfates of the dark dunes surrounding the northern polar cap and the phyllosilicates of the bright hydrated deposits of Mawrth Vallis cannot be isolated combining the parameters used in this study. This suggests that their distinctive mineralogy does not affect the 1 μm band, remaining similar to the global

  1. A multi-band spectral subtraction-based algorithm for real-time noise cancellation applied to gunshot acoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos, António L. L.; Holm, Sverre; Gudvangen, Sigmund; Otterlei, Ragnvald

    2013-06-01

    Acoustical sniper positioning is based on the detection and direction-of-arrival estimation of the shockwave and the muzzle blast acoustical signals. In real-life situations, the detection and direction-of-arrival estimation processes is usually performed under the influence of background noise sources, e.g., vehicles noise, and might result in non-negligible inaccuracies than can affect the system performance and reliability negatively, specially when detecting the muzzle sound under long range distance and absorbing terrains. This paper introduces a multi-band spectral subtraction based algorithm for real-time noise reduction, applied to gunshot acoustical signals. The ballistic shockwave and the muzzle blast signals exhibit distinct frequency contents that are affected differently by additive noise. In most real situations, the noise component is colored and a multi-band spectral subtraction approach for noise reduction contributes to reducing the presence of artifacts in denoised signals. The proposed algorithm is tested using a dataset generated by combining signals from real gunshots and real vehicle noise. The noise component was generated using a steel tracked military tank running on asphalt and includes, therefore, the sound from the vehicle engine, which varies slightly in frequency over time according to the engine's rpm, and the sound from the steel tracks as the vehicle moves.

  2. Pansharpening on the Narrow Vnir and SWIR Spectral Bands of SENTINEL-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaiopoulos, A. D.; Karantzalos, K.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper results from the evaluation of several state-of-the-art pansharpening techniques are presented for the VNIR and SWIR bands of Sentinel-2. A procedure for the pansharpening is also proposed which aims at respecting the closest spectral similarities between the higher and lower resolution bands. The evaluation included 21 different fusion algorithms and three evaluation frameworks based both on standard quantitative image similarity indexes and qualitative evaluation from remote sensing experts. The overall analysis of the evaluation results indicated that remote sensing experts disagreed with the outcomes and method ranking from the quantitative assessment. The employed image quality similarity indexes and quantitative evaluation framework based on both high and reduced resolution data from the literature didn't manage to highlight/evaluate mainly the spatial information that was injected to the lower resolution images. Regarding the SWIR bands none of the methods managed to deliver significantly better results than a standard bicubic interpolation on the original low resolution bands.

  3. Collisional Induced Absorption (CIA) bands measured in the IR spectral range .

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefani, S.; Piccioni, G.; Snels, M.; Adriani, A.; Grassi, D.

    In this work we present two experimental setup able to characterize the optical properties of gases, in particular CO_2 and H_2, at typically planetary conditions. The apparatus consists of a Fourier Transform InfraRed (FT-IT) interferometer able to work in a wide spectral range, from 350 to 25000 cm-1 (0.4 to 29 mu m ) with a relatively high spectral resolution, from 10 to 0.07 cm-1. Two dedicated gas cells have been integrated with the FT-IR. The first, called High Pressure High Temperature (HP-HT), can support pressures up to 300 bar, temperatures up to 300oC and is characterized by an optical path of 2 cm. The second one, a Multi Pass (MP) absorption gas cell, is designed to have a variable optical path, from 2.5 to 30 m, can be heated up to 200o and operate at pressures up to 10 bar. In this paper, measurements of Collision-Induced Absorption (CIA) bands in carbon dioxide and hydrogen recorded in the InfraRed spectral range will be presented. In principle, linear symmetric molecules such as CO_2 and H_2 possess no dipole moment, but, even when the pressure is only a few bar, we have observed the Collisional Induced Absorption (CIA) bands. This absorption results from a short-time collisional interaction between molecules. The band integrated intensity shows a quadratic dependence versus density opposed to the absorption by isolated molecules, which follows Beer's law \\citep{Beer's}. This behaviour suggests an absorption by pairs rather than by individual molecules. The bands integrated intensities show a linear dependence vs square density according to \\citep {CIA Shape} and \\citep{CIA posi}. For what concerns the H_2 CIA bands, a preliminary comparison between simulated data obtained with the model described in \\citep{CIA H2}and measured, shows a good agreement. These processes are very relevant in the dense atmospheres of planets, such as those of Venus and Jupiter and also in extrasolar planets. A detailed knowledge of these contributions is very

  4. Recognition of temporally interrupted and spectrally degraded sentences with additional unprocessed low-frequency speech

    PubMed Central

    Başkent, Deniz; Chatterjee, Monita

    2010-01-01

    Recognition of periodically interrupted sentences (with an interruption rate of 1.5 Hz, 50% duty cycle) was investigated under conditions of spectral degradation, implemented with a noiseband vocoder, with and without additional unprocessed low-pass filtered speech (cutoff frequency 500 Hz). Intelligibility of interrupted speech decreased with increasing spectral degradation. For all spectral-degradation conditions, however, adding the unprocessed low-pass filtered speech enhanced the intelligibility. The improvement at 4 and 8 channels was higher than the improvement at 16 and 32 channels: 19% and 8%, on average, respectively. The Articulation Index predicted an improvement of 0.09, in a scale from 0 to 1. Thus, the improvement at poorest spectral-degradation conditions was larger than what would be expected from additional speech information. Therefore, the results implied that the fine temporal cues from the unprocessed low-frequency speech, such as the additional voice pitch cues, helped perceptual integration of temporally interrupted and spectrally degraded speech, especially when the spectral degradations were severe. Considering the vocoder processing as a cochlear-implant simulation, where implant users’ performance is closest to 4 and 8-channel vocoder performance, the results support additional benefit of low-frequency acoustic input in combined electric-acoustic stimulation for perception of temporally degraded speech. PMID:20817081

  5. End-to-end sensor simulation for spectral band selection and optimization with application to the Sentinel-2 mission.

    PubMed

    Segl, Karl; Richter, Rudolf; Küster, Theres; Kaufmann, Hermann

    2012-02-01

    An end-to-end sensor simulation is a proper tool for the prediction of the sensor's performance over a range of conditions that cannot be easily measured. In this study, such a tool has been developed that enables the assessment of the optimum spectral resolution configuration of a sensor based on key applications. It employs the spectral molecular absorption and scattering properties of materials that are used for the identification and determination of the abundances of surface and atmospheric constituents and their interdependence on spatial resolution and signal-to-noise ratio as a basis for the detailed design and consolidation of spectral bands for the future Sentinel-2 sensor. The developed tools allow the computation of synthetic Sentinel-2 spectra that form the frame for the subsequent twofold analysis of bands in the atmospheric absorption and window regions. One part of the study comprises the assessment of optimal spatial and spectral resolution configurations for those bands used for atmospheric correction, optimized with regard to the retrieval of aerosols, water vapor, and the detection of cirrus clouds. The second part of the study presents the optimization of thematic bands, mainly driven by the spectral characteristics of vegetation constituents and minerals. The investigation is performed for different wavelength ranges because most remote sensing applications require the use of specific band combinations rather than single bands. The results from the important "red-edge" and the "short-wave infrared" domains are presented. The recommended optimum spectral design predominantly confirms the sensor parameters given by the European Space Agency. The system is capable of retrieving atmospheric and geobiophysical parameters with enhanced quality compared to existing multispectral sensors. Minor spectral changes of single bands are discussed in the context of typical remote sensing applications, supplemented by the recommendation of a few new bands for

  6. Oral cancer detection using diffuse reflectance spectral ratio R540/R575 of oxygenated hemoglobin bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subhash, N.; Mallia, J. R.; Thomas, S. S.; Mathews, A.; Sebastian, P.; Madhaven, J.

    2006-01-01

    A low-cost, fast, and noninvasive method for early diagnosis of malignant lesions of oral mucosa based on diffuse reflectance spectral signatures is presented. In this technique, output of a tungsten halogen lamp is guided to the tissue through the central fiber of a reflection probe whose surrounding six fibers collects tissue reflectance. Ex vivo diffuse reflectance spectra in the 400 to 600-nm region is measured from surgically removed oral cavity lesions using a miniature fiber optic spectrometer connected to a computer. Reflectance spectral intensity is higher in malignant tissues and shows dips at 542 and 577 nm owing to absorption from oxygenated hemoglobin (HbO2). Measurements carried out, within an hour of surgical excision, on malignant lesion and adjoining uninvolved mucosa show that these absorption features are more prominent in neoplastic tissues owing to increased microvasculature and blood content. It is observed that reflectance intensity ratio of hemoglobin bands, R540/R575, from malignant sites are always lower than that from normal sites and vary according to the histological grade of malignancy. The diffuse reflectance intensity ratio R540/R575 of the hemoglobin bands appears to be a useful tool to discriminate between malignant lesions and normal mucosa of the oral cavity in a clinical setting.

  7. Spectral optimization studies and schemes to enhance target detection and display for a three-band staring LWIR sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, Rulon R.; Waterman, James; Schuler, Jonathon; Scribner, Dean

    2003-12-01

    To achieve enhanced target discrimination, prototype three- band long wave infrared (LWIR) focal plane arrays (FPA) for missile defense applications have recently been constructed. The cutoff wavelengths, widths, and spectral overlap of the bands are critical parameters for the multicolor sensor design. Previous calculations for sensor design did not account for target and clutter spectral features in determining the optimal band characteristics. The considerable spectral overlap and correlation between the bands and attendant reduction in color contrast is another unexamined issue. To optimize and simulate the projected behavior of three-band sensors, this report examined a hyperspectral LWIR image cube. Our study starts with 30 bands of the LWIR spectra of three man-made targets and natural backgrounds that were binned to 3 bands using weighted band binning. This work achieves optimal binning by using a genetic algorithm approach and the target-to-clutter-ratio (TCR) as the optimization criterion. Another approach applies a genetic algorithm to maximize discrimination among the spectral reflectivities in the Non-conventional Exploitation Factors Data System (NEFDS) library. Each candidate band was weighted using a Fermi function to represent four interacting band edges for three- bands. It is found that choice of target can significantly influence the optimal choice of bands as expressed through the TCR and the Receiver Operator Characteristic curve. This study shows that whitening the image data prominently displays targets relative to backgrounds by increasing color contrast and also maintains color constancy. Three-color images are displayed by assigning red, green, blue colors directly to the whitened data set. Achieving constant colors of targets and backgrounds over time can greatly aid human viewers in the interpretation of the images and discriminate targets.

  8. Spectral optimization studies and schemes to enhance target detection and display for a three-band staring LWIR sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, Rulon R.; Waterman, James; Schuler, Jonathon; Scribner, Dean

    2004-01-01

    To achieve enhanced target discrimination, prototype three- band long wave infrared (LWIR) focal plane arrays (FPA) for missile defense applications have recently been constructed. The cutoff wavelengths, widths, and spectral overlap of the bands are critical parameters for the multicolor sensor design. Previous calculations for sensor design did not account for target and clutter spectral features in determining the optimal band characteristics. The considerable spectral overlap and correlation between the bands and attendant reduction in color contrast is another unexamined issue. To optimize and simulate the projected behavior of three-band sensors, this report examined a hyperspectral LWIR image cube. Our study starts with 30 bands of the LWIR spectra of three man-made targets and natural backgrounds that were binned to 3 bands using weighted band binning. This work achieves optimal binning by using a genetic algorithm approach and the target-to-clutter-ratio (TCR) as the optimization criterion. Another approach applies a genetic algorithm to maximize discrimination among the spectral reflectivities in the Non-conventional Exploitation Factors Data System (NEFDS) library. Each candidate band was weighted using a Fermi function to represent four interacting band edges for three- bands. It is found that choice of target can significantly influence the optimal choice of bands as expressed through the TCR and the Receiver Operator Characteristic curve. This study shows that whitening the image data prominently displays targets relative to backgrounds by increasing color contrast and also maintains color constancy. Three-color images are displayed by assigning red, green, blue colors directly to the whitened data set. Achieving constant colors of targets and backgrounds over time can greatly aid human viewers in the interpretation of the images and discriminate targets.

  9. Spectral band difference effects on radiometric cross-calibration between multiple satellite sensors in the Landsat solar-reflective spectral domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teillet, Philippe M.; Fedosejevs, Gunar; Thome, Kurtis J.

    2004-11-01

    This paper reports on an investigation of radiometric calibration errors due to differences in spectral response functions between satellite sensors when attempting cross-calibration based on near-simultaneous imaging of common ground targets in analogous spectral bands. Five Earth observation sensors on three satellite platforms were included on the basis of their overpass times being within 45 minutes of each other on the same day (Landsat-7 ETM+; EO-1 ALI; Terra MODIS; Terra ASTER; Terra MISR). The simulation study encompassed spectral band difference effects (SBDE) on cross-calibration between all combinations of the sensors considered, using the Landsat solar reflective spectral domain as a framework. Scene content was simulated using ground target spectra for the calibration test sites at Railroad Valley Playa, Nevada and Niobrara Grassland, Nebraska. Results were obtained as a function of calibration test site, satellite sensor, and spectral region. Overall, in the absence of corrections for SBDE, the Railroad Valley Playa site is a "good" to "very good" ground target for cross-calibration between most but not all satellite sensors considered in most but not all spectral regions investigated. "Good" and "very good" are defined as SBDEs within +/- 3 % and +/- 1 %, respectively. Without SBDE corrections, the Niobrara test site is only "good" for cross-calibration between certain sensor combinations in some spectral regions. The paper includes recommendations for spectral data and tools that would facilitate cross-calibration between multiple satellite sensors.

  10. CHEMICAL ABUNDANCES IN FIELD RED GIANTS FROM HIGH-RESOLUTION H-BAND SPECTRA USING THE APOGEE SPECTRAL LINELIST

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Verne V.; Cunha, Katia; Shetrone, Matthew D.; Meszaros, Szabolcs; Allende Prieto, Carlos; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Garcia Perez, Ana; Majewski, Steven R.; Schiavon, Ricardo; Holtzman, Jon; Johnson, Jennifer A.

    2013-03-01

    High-resolution H-band spectra of five bright field K, M, and MS giants, obtained from the archives of the Kitt Peak National Observatory Fourier transform spectrometer, are analyzed to determine chemical abundances of 16 elements. The abundances were derived via spectrum synthesis using the detailed linelist prepared for the Sloan Digital Sky Survey III Apache Point Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE), which is a high-resolution near-infrared spectroscopic survey to derive detailed chemical abundance distributions and precise radial velocities for 100,000 red giants sampling all Galactic stellar populations. The red giant sample studied here was chosen to probe which chemical elements can be derived reliably from the H-band APOGEE spectral region. These red giants consist of two K-giants ({alpha} Boo and {mu} Leo), two M-giants ({beta} And and {delta} Oph), and one thermally pulsing asymptotic giant branch (TP-AGB) star of spectral type MS (HD 199799). Measured chemical abundances include the cosmochemically important isotopes {sup 12}C, {sup 13}C, {sup 14}N, and {sup 16}O, along with Mg, Al, Si, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, and Cu. The K and M giants exhibit the abundance signature of the first dredge-up of CN-cycle material, while the TP-AGB star shows clear evidence of the addition of {sup 12}C synthesized during {sup 4}He-burning thermal pulses and subsequent third dredge-up. A comparison of the abundances derived here with published values for these stars reveals consistent results to {approx}0.1 dex. The APOGEE spectral region and linelist is thus well suited for probing both Galactic chemical evolution, as well as internal nucleosynthesis and mixing in populations of red giants via high-resolution spectroscopy.

  11. Standoff aircraft IR characterization with ABB dual-band hyper spectral imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prel, Florent; Moreau, Louis; Lantagne, Stéphane; Bullis, Ritchie D.; Roy, Claude; Vallières, Christian; Levesque, Luc

    2012-09-01

    Remote sensing infrared characterization of rapidly evolving events generally involves the combination of a spectro-radiometer and infrared camera(s) as separated instruments. Time synchronization, spatial coregistration, consistent radiometric calibration and managing several systems are important challenges to overcome; they complicate the target infrared characterization data processing and increase the sources of errors affecting the final radiometric accuracy. MR-i is a dual-band Hyperspectal imaging spectro-radiometer, that combines two 256 x 256 pixels infrared cameras and an infrared spectro-radiometer into one single instrument. This field instrument generates spectral datacubes in the MWIR and LWIR. It is designed to acquire the spectral signatures of rapidly evolving events. The design is modular. The spectrometer has two output ports configured with two simultaneously operated cameras to either widen the spectral coverage or to increase the dynamic range of the measured amplitudes. Various telescope options are available for the input port. Recent platform developments and field trial measurements performances will be presented for a system configuration dedicated to the characterization of airborne targets.

  12. Predicting spectral features in galaxy spectra from broad-band photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdalla, F. B.; Mateus, A.; Santos, W. A.; Sodrè, L., Jr.; Ferreras, I.; Lahav, O.

    2008-07-01

    We explore the prospects of predicting emission-line features present in galaxy spectra given broad-band photometry alone. There is a general consent that colours, and spectral features, most notably the 4000 Å break, can predict many properties of galaxies, including star formation rates and hence they could infer some of the line properties. We argue that these techniques have great prospects in helping us understand line emission in extragalactic objects and might speed up future galaxy redshift surveys if they are to target emission-line objects only. We use two independent methods, Artificial Neural Networks (based on the ANNz code) and Locally Weighted Regression (LWR), to retrieve correlations present in the colour N-dimensional space and to predict the equivalent widths present in the corresponding spectra. We also investigate how well it is possible to separate galaxies with and without lines from broad-band photometry only. We find, unsurprisingly, that recombination lines can be well predicted by galaxy colours. However, among collisional lines some can and some cannot be predicted well from galaxy colours alone, without any further redshift information. We also use our techniques to estimate how much information contained in spectral diagnostic diagrams can be recovered from broad-band photometry alone. We find that it is possible to classify active galactic nuclei and star formation objects relatively well using colours only. We suggest that this technique could be used to considerably improve redshift surveys such as the upcoming Fibre Multi Object Spectrograph (FMOS) survey and the planned Wide Field Multi Object Spectrograph (WFMOS) survey.

  13. Multiwavelength observations of the energetic GRB 080810: detailed mapping of the broad-band spectral evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Page, K. L.; Willingale, R.; Bissaldi, E.; Postigo, A. De Ugarte; Holland, S. T.; McBreen, S.; O'Brien, P. T.; Osborne, J. P.; Prochaska, J. X.; Rol, E.; Rykoff, E. S.; Starling, R. L. C.; Tanvir, N. R.; van der Horst, A. J.; Wiersema, K.; Zhang, B.; Aceituno, F. J.; Akerlof, C.; Beardmore, A. P.; Briggs, M. S.; Burrows, D. N.; Castro-Tirado, A. J.; Connaughton, V.; Evans, P. A.; Fynbo, J. P. U.; Gehrels, N.; Guidorzi, C.; Howard, A. W.; Kennea, J. A.; Kouveliotou, C.; Pagani, C.; Preece, R.; Perley, D.; Steele, I. A.; Yuan, F.

    2009-11-01

    GRB 080810 was one of the first bursts to trigger both Swift and the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. It was subsequently monitored over the X-ray and UV/optical bands by Swift, in the optical by Robotic Optical Transient Search Experiment (ROTSE) and a host of other telescopes, and was detected in the radio by the Very Large Array. The redshift of z = 3.355 +/- 0.005 was determined by Keck/High Resolution Echelle Spectrometer (HIRES) and confirmed by RTT150 and NOT. The prompt gamma/X-ray emission, detected over 0.3-103 keV, systematically softens over time, with Epeak moving from ~600 keV at the start to ~40 keV around 100s after the trigger; alternatively, this spectral evolution could be identified with the blackbody temperature of a quasi-thermal model shifting from ~60 to ~3keV over the same time interval. The first optical detection was made at 38s, but the smooth, featureless profile of the full optical coverage implies that this is originated from the afterglow component, not from the pulsed/flaring prompt emission. Broad-band optical and X-ray coverage of the afterglow at the start of the final X-ray decay (~8ks) reveals a spectral break between the optical and X-ray bands in the range of 1015-2 × 1016Hz. The decay profiles of the X-ray and optical bands show that this break initially migrates blueward to this frequency and then subsequently drifts redward to below the optical band by ~3 × 105s. GRB 080810 was very energetic, with an isotropic energy output for the prompt component of 3 × 1053 and 1.6 × 1052 erg for the afterglow; there is no evidence for a jet break in the afterglow up to 6d following the burst. This paper is dedicated to the memory of Professor Martin Turner, who sadly passed away during its writing. Martin was an influential figure in X-ray Astronomy and an excellent PhD supervisor. He will be greatly missed. E-mail: kpa@star.le.ac.uk ‡ NASA postdoctoral program fellow.

  14. Cyclic additional optical true time delay for microwave beam steering with spectral filtering.

    PubMed

    Cao, Z; Lu, R; Wang, Q; Tessema, N; Jiao, Y; van den Boom, H P A; Tangdiongga, E; Koonen, A M J

    2014-06-15

    Optical true time delay (OTTD) is an attractive way to realize microwave beam steering (MBS) due to its inherent features of broadband, low-loss, and compactness. In this Letter, we propose a novel OTTD approach named cyclic additional optical true time delay (CAO-TTD). It applies additional integer delays of the microwave carrier frequency to achieve spectral filtering but without disturbing the spatial filtering (beam steering). Based on such concept, a broadband MBS scheme for high-capacity wireless communication is proposed, which allows the tuning of both spectral filtering and spatial filtering. The experimental results match well with the theoretical analysis. PMID:24978496

  15. Compactional deformation bands in Wingate Sandstone; additional evidence of an impact origin for Upheaval Dome, Utah

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okubo, Chris H.; Schultz, Richard A.

    2007-04-01

    Field and microstructural observations from Upheaval Dome, in Canyonlands National Park, Utah, show that inelastic strain of the Wingate Sandstone is localized along compactional deformation bands. These bands are tabular discontinuities (< 0.5 cm thick) that accommodate inelastic shear and compaction of inter-granular volume. Measurements of porosity and grain size from non-deformed samples are used to define a set of capped strength envelopes for the Wingate Sandstone. These strength envelopes reveal that compactional deformation bands require at least ca. 0.7 GPa (and potentially more than 2.3 GPa) of effective mean stress in order to nucleate within this sandstone. We find that the most plausible geologic process capable of generating these required magnitudes of mean stress is a meteoritic impact. Therefore the compactional deformation bands observed within the Wingate Sandstone are additional evidence of an impact event at Upheaval Dome and support a post-Wingate (post-Early Jurassic) age for this impact.

  16. New H-band Stellar Spectral Libraries for the SDSS-III/APOGEE Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamora, O.; García-Hernández, D. A.; Allende Prieto, C.; Carrera, R.; Koesterke, L.; Edvardsson, B.; Castelli, F.; Plez, B.; Bizyaev, D.; Cunha, K.; García Pérez, A. E.; Gustafsson, B.; Holtzman, J. A.; Lawler, J. E.; Majewski, S. R.; Manchado, A.; Mészáros, Sz.; Shane, N.; Shetrone, M.; Smith, V. V.; Zasowski, G.

    2015-06-01

    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey-III (SDSS-III) Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) has obtained high-resolution (R ˜ 22,500), high signal-to-noise ratio (\\gt 100) spectra in the H-band (˜1.5-1.7 μm) for about 146,000 stars in the Milky Way galaxy. We have computed spectral libraries with effective temperature ({{T}eff}) ranging from 3500 to 8000 K for the automated chemical analysis of the survey data. The libraries, used to derive stellar parameters and abundances from the APOGEE spectra in the SDSS-III data release 12 (DR12), are based on ATLAS9 model atmospheres and the ASSɛT spectral synthesis code. We present a second set of libraries based on MARCS model atmospheres and the spectral synthesis code Turbospectrum. The ATLAS9/ASSɛT ({{T}eff} = 3500-8000 K) and MARCS/Turbospectrum ({{T}eff} = 3500-5500 K) grids cover a wide range of metallicity (-2.5 ≤slant [M/H] ≤slant +0.5 dex), surface gravity (0 ≤ log g ≤slant 5 dex), microturbulence (0.5 ≤slant ξ ≤slant 8 km s-1), carbon (-1 ≤slant [C/M] ≤slant +1 dex), nitrogen (-1 ≤slant [N/M] ≤slant +1 dex), and α-element (-1 ≤slant [α/M] ≤slant +1 dex) variations, having thus seven dimensions. We compare the ATLAS9/ASSɛT and MARCS/Turbospectrum libraries and apply both of them to the analysis of the observed H-band spectra of the Sun and the K2 giant Arcturus, as well as to a selected sample of well-known giant stars observed at very high resolution. The new APOGEE libraries are publicly available and can be employed for chemical studies in the H-band using other high-resolution spectrographs.

  17. Sensitivity analysis of oxygen absorption lines in the 1.26-1.27 micron spectral band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, W. C.; Prasad, N.; Browell, E. V.

    2009-12-01

    In the Decadal Survey prepared by the National Research Council (Reference: Earth Science and Applications from Space: National Imperatives for the Next Decade and Beyond), the ASCENDS mission (Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days and Seasons), requires simultaneous laser remote sensing of CO2 and O2 in order to convert CO2 atmospheric concentrations to mixing ratios. As the mission is envisioned, the CO2 mixing ratio needs to be measured to a precision of 0.5 percent of background or better (slightly less than 2 ppm) at 100-km horizontal length scale overland and at 200-km scale over open oceans. While the O2 measurement could be made at 0.765 µm (the oxygen A band), the absorption cross section is substantially higher and the scattering is lower in the 1.26-1.27 µm wavelength band, and as such it is anticipated that better accuracies could be accomplished. Hence, NASA Langley Research Center is developing oxygen lidar technology in the 1.26-1.27 micron band for surface pressure measurements. One or more wavelengths for differential absorption lidar operation have to be carefully chosen to eliminate ambient influences on them. The model optical depth calculation is very sensitive to knowledge of the transmitted wavelengths and to the choice of Voigt input parameters. Uncertainties in atmospheric profiles of temperature, pressure and relative humidity can cause ~0.5 % errors in model optical depths. In order to select candidate wavelengths in the 1.26 micron spectral band, wavelength uncertainties due to temperature and pressure have to be determined. Uncertainties at line center and offset wavelengths have to be known precisely to reduce uncertainties in oxygen concentration measurements from airborne and space based platforms. In this paper, based on HITRAN database and absorption line measurements, we evaluate systematic relative errors and their sources of pressure shift and atmospheric temperature influences for selected O2 lines suitable for

  18. Narrow spectral band monolithic lead-chalcogenide-on-Si mid-IR photodetectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zogg, H.; Arnold, M.

    2006-03-01

    Narrow spectral band infrared detectors are required for multispectral infrared imaging. Wavelength selectivity can be obtained by placing passive line filters in front of the detectors, or, the preferred choice, by making the detectors themselves wavelength selective. We review the first photovoltaic resonant cavity enhanced detectors (RCED) for the mid-IR range. The lead-chalcogenide (PbEuSe) photodetector is placed as a very thin layer inside an optical cavity. At least one side is terminated with an epitaxial Brugg mirror (consisting of quarter wavelength PbEuSe/BaF2 pairs), while the second mirror may be a metal. Linewidths are as narrow as 37 nm at a peak wavelength of 4400 nm, and peak quantum efficiencies up to above 50% are obtained.

  19. A Steady-State Kalman Predictor-Based Filtering Strategy for Non-Overlapping Sub-Band Spectral Estimation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zenghui; Xu, Bin; Yang, Jian; Song, Jianshe

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on suppressing spectral overlap for sub-band spectral estimation, with which we can greatly decrease the computational complexity of existing spectral estimation algorithms, such as nonlinear least squares spectral analysis and non-quadratic regularized sparse representation. Firstly, our study shows that the nominal ability of the high-order analysis filter to suppress spectral overlap is greatly weakened when filtering a finite-length sequence, because many meaningless zeros are used as samples in convolution operations. Next, an extrapolation-based filtering strategy is proposed to produce a series of estimates as the substitutions of the zeros and to recover the suppression ability. Meanwhile, a steady-state Kalman predictor is applied to perform a linearly-optimal extrapolation. Finally, several typical methods for spectral analysis are applied to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed strategy. PMID:25609038

  20. A steady-state Kalman predictor-based filtering strategy for non-overlapping sub-band spectral estimation.

    PubMed

    Li, Zenghui; Xu, Bin; Yang, Jian; Song, Jianshe

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on suppressing spectral overlap for sub-band spectral estimation, with which we can greatly decrease the computational complexity of existing spectral estimation algorithms, such as nonlinear least squares spectral analysis and non-quadratic regularized sparse representation. Firstly, our study shows that the nominal ability of the high-order analysis filter to suppress spectral overlap is greatly weakened when filtering a finite-length sequence, because many meaningless zeros are used as samples in convolution operations. Next, an extrapolation-based filtering strategy is proposed to produce a series of estimates as the substitutions of the zeros and to recover the suppression ability. Meanwhile, a steady-state Kalman predictor is applied to perform a linearly-optimal extrapolation. Finally, several typical methods for spectral analysis are applied to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed strategy. PMID:25609038

  1. [The Near Infrared Spectral Bands Optimal Selection in the Application of Liquor Fermented Grains Composition Analysis].

    PubMed

    Xiong, Ya-ting; Li, Zong-peng; Wang, Jian; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Shu-jun; Yin, Jian-jun; Song, Quan-hou

    2016-01-01

    In order to improve the technical level of the rapid detection of liquor fermented grains, in this paper, use near infrared spectroscopy technology to quantitative analysis moisture, starch, acidity and alcohol of liquor fermented grains. Using CARS, iPLS and no information variable elimination method (UVE), realize the characteristics of spectral band selection. And use the multiple scattering correction (MSC), derivative and standard normal variable transformation (SNV) pretreatment method to optimize the models. Establish models of quantitative analysis of fermented grains by PLS, and in order to select the best modeling method, using R2, RMSEP and optimal number of main factors to evaluate models. The results showed that the band selection is vital to optimize the model and CARS is the best optimization of the most significant effect. The calculation results showed that R2 of moisture, starch, acidity and alcohol were 0.885, 0.915, 0.951, 0.885 respectively and RMSEP of moisture, starch, acidity and alcohol were 0.630, 0.519, 0.228, 0.234 respectively. After optimization, the model prediction effect is good, the models can satisfy the requirement of the rapid detection of liquor fermented grains, which has certain reference value in the practical. PMID:27228746

  2. An infrared remote sensor with high integration and multi-spectral bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lisha; Liu, Zhaojun; Ma, Wenpo; Tang, Shaofan; Hu, Bin

    2014-11-01

    Along with the further application of optical remote sensing, it becomes main trend to realize high spatial resolution, high time resolution, high spectrum resolution and high irradiance sensitivity simultaneously. We present a new satellite-based imaging system that will provide images with these high performances. The structure of the system is compact with small size and light weight. The IR imager, a new generation of high resolution optical remote sensing, is universally acknowledged as the most effective approach to surveil dynamic changes in the environment on the earth. Pushbroom imaging fashion with high efficiency and long-array focal plane detector with passive cooling are adopted to realize area imaging relevant to the flight direction of satellite. The instrument is a dual-optical-path system with long-wave infrared (LWIR) and mid-short-wave infrared (MW-SWIR) bands - which has 4 narrow spectrum bands respectively. An IR dichroic beam-splitter is use to divide wideband incident infrared into LWIR and MW-SWIR. Then two pieces of joint filters, which are integrated in front of detectors and then enveloped by IR Dewars, are used to divide the LWIR and MWIR into 4 spectral bands separately. The focal plane arrays (FPA) are fixed on the optical imaging plane of the lens. The LWIR and MW-SWIR FPA are cooled around 80K or even below. For cooled FPA, optical system must provide a real, accessible exit pupil coupled with a fast f/number refractive component in a Dewar and very close to the FPA. Compared to traditional infrared instruments, high spatial resolution and spectrum resolution can be obtained simultaneously within mass, volume and performance constraints.

  3. Simultaneous Multi-Spectral Narrow Band Auroral Imagery From Space (1150Å to 6300Å)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schenkel, F. W.; Ogorzalek, B. S.; Gardner, R. R.; Hutchins, R. A.; Huffman, R. E.; Larrabee, J. C.

    1986-12-01

    The design of a multi-mode instrument known as the Auroral Ionospheric Remote Sensor, AIRS, is described. The design criteria are enumerated. The goal of the AIRS instrument is to produce data on the global imaging of the auroral display in both dark and sunlit hemispheres with the remote sensing of ionospheric airglows to deduce ionospheric parameters such as electron density profiles and atmospheric background emissions. The AIRS will fly on the POLAR BEAR spacecraft in a near polar circular orbit at an altitude of 1,000 km with a scheduled launch in the fall of 1986. The AIRS instrument is designed as a multi-mode system with four (4) channels of data to yield simultaneous operation in the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV), near ultraviolet (UV) and visible spectral bands. Two of the data channels are designed to operate in the VUV with 30A windows having a 240Å separation. These two channels utilize an Ebert-Fastie spectrometer which can provide total coverage for each of these channels from 1150Å to 1800Å. The other two channels utilize a filter selector system to provide preselected, 10Å bandwidth spectral channels at 3371Å, 3914Å and 6300Å, and a 200Å wide channel centered at 2250Å. These spectral bands are paired to provide simultaneous pair coverage of 2250Å and 3371Å and simultaneous pair coverage of 3914Å and 6300Å. All four channels view the auroral scene of the north polar cap via appropriate optics and a scan mirror system. In effect a line scan image of the auroral scene is produced via the scan mirror operating in the orbit cross plane with the longitudinal direction provided by the forward motion of the spacecraft. All four channels can also operate in the photometer mode by locking of the scan mirror in the nadir viewing position. The two VUV channels can also operate in a spectrometer mode with the scan mirror locked in the nadir viewing position and the Ebert-Fastie spectrometer performing a spectral scan. The basic ground level spatial

  4. A method to compute the n-dimensional solid spectral angle between vectors and its use for band selection in hyperspectral data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, M.; Feng, J.; Rivard, B.; Zhao, C.

    2016-08-01

    This study presents the calculation of spectral angle beyond two endmember vectors to the n-dimensional solid spectral angle (NSSA). The calculation of the NSSA is used to characterize the local spectral shape difference among a set of endmembers, leading to a methodology for band selection based on spectral shape variations of more than two spectra. Equidistributed sequences used in the quasi-Monte Carlo method (ESMC) for numerical simulations are shown to expedite the calculation of the NSSA. We develop a band selection method using the computation of NSSA(ϑn) in the context of a sliding window. By sliding the window over all bands available for varying band intervals, the calculated solid spectral angle values can capture the similarity of the endmembers over all spectral regions available and for spectral features of varying widths. By selecting a subset of spectral bands with largest solid spectral angles, a methodology can be developed to capture the most important spectral information for the separation or mapping of endmembers. We provide an example of the merits of the NSSA-ESMC method for band selection as applied to linear spectral unmixing. Specifically, we examine the endmember abundance errors resulting from the NSSA band selection method as opposed to using the full spectral dimensionality available.

  5. Spectral optimization studies and simulations for two-, three-, and four-band staring LWIR sensors in missile defense scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, Rulon R.; Scribner, Dean; Fleet, Erin; Waterman, James; Schuler, Jonathon; Kruer, Mel

    2004-10-01

    Prototype 2-, 3-, and 4- band long wave infrared (LWIR) focal plane arrays (FPA) for missile defense applications have recently been constructed to enhance target discrimination in space-based interceptor seekers. To address issues related to target identification such as algorithm choice and band number, this study created synthesized, optimized (using a genetic algorithm) image cubes (8- 12 mm) of targets and backgrounds compatible with expected mid-course defense scenarios and current multicolor sensors. Each candidate band was weighted using an interacting band edge model for 2-, 3- or 4- band sensors, consistent with a DRS multi-color HgCdTe LWIR FPA. Whitening the binned cubes and assigning red, green, blue colors directly to the whitened data set can prominently display and identify targets. Modified target signatures applied in matched filters searches and spectral angle maps autonomously searched for targets in the synthetic binned image cubes. Target discrimination diminished with decreasing target temperature and/or increasing distance between sensor and targets due to mixing subpixel target spectra with noise background. Spectral angle maps identified target temperatures and materials substantively better than the matched filter in this particular study. Target material and temperature identification improved by increasing number of bands, with greatest improvement for 3 bands relative to 2 bands. Extending detector sensitivity to 6-14 mm failed to improve target identification. This is the first study to systematically examine target identification in synthetic images cubes, consistent with missile defense scenarios and current multi-sensor technology.

  6. Effects of spectrometer band pass, sampling, and signal-to-noise ratio on spectral identification using the Tetracorder algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swayze, Gregg A.; Clark, Roger N.; Goetz, Alexander F. H.; Chrien, Thomas G.; Gorelick, Noel S.

    2003-09-01

    Estimates of spectrometer band pass, sampling interval, and signal-to-noise ratio required for identification of pure minerals and plants were derived using reflectance spectra convolved to AVIRIS, HYDICE, MIVIS, VIMS, and other imaging spectrometers. For each spectral simulation, various levels of random noise were added to the reflectance spectra after convolution, and then each was analyzed with the Tetracorder spectral identification algorithm [Clark et al., 2003]. The outcome of each identification attempt was tabulated to provide an estimate of the signal-to-noise ratio at which a given percentage of the noisy spectra were identified correctly. Results show that spectral identification is most sensitive to the signal-to-noise ratio at narrow sampling interval values but is more sensitive to the sampling interval itself at broad sampling interval values because of spectral aliasing, a condition when absorption features of different materials can resemble one another. The band pass is less critical to spectral identification than the sampling interval or signal-to-noise ratio because broadening the band pass does not induce spectral aliasing. These conclusions are empirically corroborated by analysis of mineral maps of AVIRIS data collected at Cuprite, Nevada, between 1990 and 1995, a period during which the sensor signal-to-noise ratio increased up to sixfold. There are values of spectrometer sampling and band pass beyond which spectral identification of materials will require an abrupt increase in sensor signal-to-noise ratio due to the effects of spectral aliasing. Factors that control this threshold are the uniqueness of a material's diagnostic absorptions in terms of shape and wavelength isolation, and the spectral diversity of the materials found in nature and in the spectral library used for comparison. Array spectrometers provide the best data for identification when they critically sample spectra. The sampling interval should not be broadened to

  7. Use of EO-1 Hyperion data to calculate spectral band adjustment factors (SBAF) between the L7 ETM+ and Terra MODIS sensors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chander, Gyanesh; Mishra, N.; Helder, Dennis L.; Aaron, D.; Choi, T.; Angal, A.; Xiong, X.

    2010-01-01

    Different applications and technology developments in Earth observations necessarily require different spectral coverage. Thus, even for the spectral bands designed to look at the same region of the electromagnetic spectrum, the relative spectral responses (RSR) of different sensors may be different. In this study, spectral band adjustment factors (SBAF) are derived using hyperspectral Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) Hyperion measurements to adjust for the spectral band differences between the Landsat 7 (L7) Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) and the Terra Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) top-of-atmosphere (TOA) reflectance measurements from 2000 to 2009 over the pseudo-invariant Libya 4 reference standard test site.

  8. Effects of spectrometer band pass, sampling, and signal-to-noise ratio on spectral identification using the Tetracorder algorithm

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swayze, G.A.; Clark, R.N.; Goetz, A.F.H.; Chrien, T.H.; Gorelick, N.S.

    2003-01-01

    Estimates of spectrometer band pass, sampling interval, and signal-to-noise ratio required for identification of pure minerals and plants were derived using reflectance spectra convolved to AVIRIS, HYDICE, MIVIS, VIMS, and other imaging spectrometers. For each spectral simulation, various levels of random noise were added to the reflectance spectra after convolution, and then each was analyzed with the Tetracorder spectra identification algorithm [Clark et al., 2003]. The outcome of each identification attempt was tabulated to provide an estimate of the signal-to-noise ratio at which a given percentage of the noisy spectra were identified correctly. Results show that spectral identification is most sensitive to the signal-to-noise ratio at narrow sampling interval values but is more sensitive to the sampling interval itself at broad sampling interval values because of spectral aliasing, a condition when absorption features of different materials can resemble one another. The band pass is less critical to spectral identification than the sampling interval or signal-to-noise ratio because broadening the band pass does not induce spectral aliasing. These conclusions are empirically corroborated by analysis of mineral maps of AVIRIS data collected at Cuprite, Nevada, between 1990 and 1995, a period during which the sensor signal-to-noise ratio increased up to sixfold. There are values of spectrometer sampling and band pass beyond which spectral identification of materials will require an abrupt increase in sensor signal-to-noise ratio due to the effects of spectral aliasing. Factors that control this threshold are the uniqueness of a material's diagnostic absorptions in terms of shape and wavelength isolation, and the spectral diversity of the materials found in nature and in the spectral library used for comparison. Array spectrometers provide the best data for identification when they critically sample spectra. The sampling interval should not be broadened to

  9. Absence of systematic relationships between REMS duration episodes and spectral power Delta and Ultra-Slow bands in contiguous NREMS episodes in healthy humans.

    PubMed

    Le Bon, O; Linkowski, P

    2013-07-01

    Previous studies in animals and humans have reported correlations between the durations of rapid eye movement sleep (REMS) episodes and immediately preceding or subsequent non-REMS (NREMS) episodes. The relationship between these two types of sleep is a crucial component in understanding the regulation and neurophysiology of ultradian alternations that occur during sleep. Although the present study replicated previous studies, we also measured NREMS in terms of spectral power Delta and Ultra-Slow bands in addition to duration in examining correlations. The spectral power Delta band, also known as slow-wave activity, measures sleep quantity and is believed to reflect sleep physiology better than mere episode durations. The Ultra-Slow spectral power band was analyzed in parallel. Healthy human participants of both sexes (n = 26, age range 15-45 yr, n = 12 female) were carefully selected to participate in two consecutive series of home polysomnograms performed after 2 nights of habituation to the equipment. In the analyses, REMS episode durations (minutes) were compared with immediately preceding and immediately subsequent NREMS episodes (Delta and Ultra-Slow power) in each sleep cycle. REMS episode duration was more strongly correlated with preceding NREMS episodes than with subsequent NREMS episodes. However, in most cases, no correlations were observed in either direction. One ultradian sleep regulation hypothesis, which is based on stronger correlations between REMS and subsequent NREMS episode durations, holds that the main purpose of REMS is to reactivate NREMS during each sleep cycle. The present results do not support that hypothesis. PMID:23596336

  10. Efficient snoring and breathing detection based on sub-band spectral statistics.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiang; Kim, Jin Young; Won, Yonggwan; Kim, Jung-Ja; Kim, Kyung-Ah

    2015-01-01

    Snoring, a common symptom in the general population may indicate the presence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). In order to detect snoring events in sleep sound recordings, a novel method was proposed in this paper. The proposed method operates by analyzing the acoustic characteristics of the snoring sounds. Based on these acoustic properties, the feature vectors are obtained using the mean and standard deviation of the sub-band spectral energy. A support vector machine is then applied to perform the frame-based classification procedure. This method was demonstrated experimentally to be effective for snoring detection. The database for detection included full-night audio recordings from four individuals who acknowledged having snoring habits. The performance of the proposed method was evaluated by classifying different events (snoring, breathing and silence) from the sleep sound recordings and comparing the classification against ground truth. The proposed algorithm was able to achieve an accuracy of 99.61% for detecting snoring events, 99.16% for breathing, and 99.55% for silence. PMID:26406075

  11. Improvement of axial resolution of spectral domain optical coherence tomography with wide band PLC splitter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eom, Joo Beom; Min, Eun Jung; Lee, Byeong Ha

    2012-06-01

    We report the development and performance of high resolution spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) system based on 2×2 planar lightwave circuit (PLC) splitter that was designed as a single mode splitter at near infrared and used as the beam splitter for a SD-OCT system. The splitter has been made by coupling SMFs to a planar lightwave circuit (PLC) splitter chip. The PLC splitter chip was fabricated to have a single mode property with 740 nm cutoff wavelength and the SMFs, which have 730 nm cutoff wavelength, were securely connected to the PLC chip through fiber block arrays having lithographically fabricated V grooves. With the implemented PLC splitter, we have obtained a low excess loss of 0.4 dB at 840 nm with wide band coupling property. With the proposed 2×2 PLC splitter and fabricated WDM coupler, SD-OCT images of samples successfully obtained by using combined source with 840 nm and 880 nm SLDs.

  12. Degree of interdependence among atmospheric optical thicknesses in spectral bands between 0.36-2.4 micron

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fraser, R. S.

    1975-01-01

    The degree of dependence among the atmospheric optical thicknesses that are measured in nonselective absorption bands is studied. The observations were made previously in many spectral bands within the range 0.36-2.4 micron from near sea level in two continents where urban and industrial pollutions were weak. The sample covariance matrices and corresponding eigenvalues and eigenvectors are computed. The two highest eigenvalues account for 90% of the total variance in 10 spectral bands within the range 0.4-1.6 micron. The linear regression of the optical thickness on the total precipitable water vapor is computed to determine the attenuation coefficient that is associated with water vapor. This coefficient shows a rapid power-law decrease with wavelength in the visible spectrum and indicates that numerous water particles of radius 0.03-0.06 micron cause the attenuation.

  13. Tunable narrow-band spectral peak imposed onto a soliton with an acoustic long-period grating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolger, Jeremy A.; Luan, Feng; Yeom, Dong-Il; Tsoy, Eduard; de Sterke, C. Martijn; Eggleton, Benjamin J.

    2008-01-01

    We demonstrate a method of local spectral enhancement of an ultrafast soliton pulse. We use an in-line acoustic long-period grating (LPG), a periodic structure modifying both the phase and the loss of the propagating light, and which is readily tuned by simple adjustment of an applied electrical signal. The soliton perturbed by this narrow-band filter evolves with nonlinear propagation into an intense localised spectral peak. Our setup consists of creation of a red-shifted optical soliton by propagation of pulses from a fibre laser in standard single-mode optical fibre, followed by imposition of a spectrally narrow LPG near to the soliton peak, and then continuing propagation. The wavelength and the peak value of the resulting local enhancement can be tuned by adjustment of the applied acoustic frequency and amplitude. The physics of the observed local spectral enhancement will be discussed in detail here.

  14. Spectral line shapes of P-branch transitions of oxygen B-band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wójtewicz, Szymon; Cygan, Agata; Masłowski, Piotr; Domysławska, Jolanta; Wcisło, Piotr; Zaborowski, Mikołaj; Lisak, Daniel; Trawiński, Ryszard S.; Ciuryło, Roman

    2014-06-01

    The precise line-shape measurements of self- and foreign-broadened P-branch transitions of the oxygen B band near 689 nm are presented. Data were obtained using the Pound-Drever-Hall-locked frequency-stabilized cavity ring-down spectrometer assisted by the optical frequency comb.1,2 This technique enables us to achieve high spectral resolution (about 1 MHz) and high signal-to-noise ratio spectra (above 10000:1) of weak transitions.3,4 It is showed that the inclusion of the line-narrowing effects (Dicke narrowing or the speed dependence of collisional broadening) is necessary to properly model measured line shapes. The multispectrum fitting technique is used to minimize correlation between line-shape parameters. Relations between the line narrowing obtained from different line-shape models in the low pressure limit (below 5 kPa) were verified experimentally. Line positions with uncertainties of about 170 kHz, intensities and the collisional broadening coefficients with uncertainties of about 0.5% are reported and compared to data available in the literature.5 The research is part of the program of the National Laboratory FAMO in Toruń, Poland, and is supported by the Polish National Science Centre Projects no. DEC-2011/01/B/ST2/00491 and UMO-2012/05/N/ST2/02717. The research is also supported by the Foundation for Polish Science TEAM and HOMING PLUS Projects co-financed by the EU European Regional Development Fund. A. Cygan is partially supported by the Foundation for Polish Science START Project.

  15. Eight is enough: Identification of additional Vestoids via NIR spectral and mineralogical characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardersen, Paul S.; Reddy, Vishnu; Roberts, Rachel; Mainzer, Amy

    2014-11-01

    We present initial results of a large-scale effort to constrain the basaltic asteroid population in the main asteroid belt. Our main goal is to study potential Vestoids, which are defined as the group of asteroids most likely to be ejected fragments from (4) Vesta. Through the combination of ground-based near-infrared spectral observations, WISE-derived albedos, Vp-type taxonomies, and orbital elements (a,e,i), this work aims to better constrain the Vestoid population by studying a sample of ~125 candidate asteroids. A second part of this effort involves characterizing ~15 outer main belt asteroids to search for basaltic objects. Surface mineralogical characterizations derived from NIR spectra are a vital tool to confirm the basaltic nature of Vp-type asteroids due to ambiguities and misclassifications in taxonomies. Criteria for classification as a Vestoid includes the presence of the deep 0.9- and 1.9-μm pyroxene absorption features, derived spectral band parameters that are consistent with those of basaltic achondrites, and estimates of average surface pyroxene chemistries consistent with those of the HED meteorites derived from (4) Vesta. NIR spectral observations of 8 Vp-type asteroids were obtained at the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF), Mauna Kea, Hawai’i, on January 14, 2013 UT, utilizing SpeX in low-resolution prism mode. All eight asteroids exhibit orbital elements, taxonomies, and albedos that identify them as candidate Vestoids. They include (3867) Shiretoko, (5235) Jean-Loup, (5560) Amytis, (6331) 1992 FZ1, (6976) Kanatsu, (17469) 1991 BT, (29796) 1999 CW77, and (30872) 1992 EM17. Analysis indicates that all eight asteroids are likely Vestoids based on the criteria described above. (3867) Shiretoko has a surface mineralogy consistent with the eucrites while the remaining seven asteroids have surface mineralogies consistent with the howardites. The dominance of howarditic compositions among the Vestoids we studied is consistent with a

  16. PtSi Schottky-barrier focal plane arrays for multispectral imaging in ultraviolet, visible, and infrared spectral bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsaur, Bor-Yeu; Chen, C. K.; Mattia, John-Paul

    1990-04-01

    PtSi Schottky-barrier detectors, which are conventionally used in the back-illumination mode for thermal imaging in the 3-5 micron infrared (IR) spectral band, are shown to exhibit excellent photoresponse in the near-ultraviolet and visible regions when operated in the front-illumination mode. For devices without antireflection coatings, external quantum efficiency in excess of 60 percent has been obtained for wavelengths between 400 and 800 nm. The efficiency decreases below 400 nm but is still about 35 percent at 290 nm. High-quality imaging has been demonstrated in both the visible and 3-5 micron spectral bands for front-illuminated 160- x 244-element PtSi focal plane arrays integrated with monolithic CCD readout circuitry.

  17. Iron-absorption band analysis for the discrimination of iron-rich zones. [infrared spectral reflectance of Nevada iron deposits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowan, L. C. (Principal Investigator)

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Most major rock units and unaltered and altered areas in the study area can be discriminated on the basis of visible and near-infrared spectral reflectivity differences recorded from satellite altitude. These subtle spectral differences are detectable by digital ratioing of the MSS bands and subsequent stretching to increase the contrast to enhance spectral differences. Hydrothermally altered areas appear as anomalous color patches within the volcanic-rock areas. A map has been prepared which can be regarded as an excellent reconnaissance exploration map, for use in targeting areas for more detailed geological, geochemical, and geophysical studies. Mafic and felsic rock types are easily discriminated on the color stretched-ratio composite. The ratioing process minimizes albedo effects, leaving only the recorded characteristic spectral response. The spectra of unaltered rocks appear different from those of altered rocks, which are typically dominated by limonite and clay minerals. It seems clear that differences in spectral shape can provide a basis for discrimination of geologic material, although the relations between visible and near-infrared spectral reflectivity and mineralogical composition are not yet entirely understood.

  18. Model Calculations of Solar Spectral Irradiance in the 3.7 Micron Band for Earth Remote Sensing Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Platnick, Steven; Fontenla, Juan M.

    2006-01-01

    Since the launch of the first Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) instrument aboard TIROS-N, measurements in the 3.7 micron atmospheric window have been exploited for use in cloud detection and screening, cloud thermodynamic phase and surface snow/ice discrimination, and quantitative cloud particle size retrievals. The utility of the band has led to the incorporation of similar channels on a number of existing satellite imagers and future operational imagers. Daytime observations in the band include both reflected solar and thermal emission energy. Since 3.7 micron channels are calibrated to a radiance scale (via onboard blackbodies), knowledge of the top-of-atmosphere solar irradiance in the spectral region is required to infer reflectance. Despite the ubiquity of 3.7 micron channels, absolute solar spectral irradiance data comes from either a single measurement campaign (Thekaekara et al. 1969) or synthetic spectra. In this study, we compare historical 3.7 micron band spectral irradiance data sets with the recent semi-empirical solar model of the quiet-Sun by Fontenla et al. (2006). The model has expected uncertainties of about 2 % in the 3.7 pm spectral region. We find that channel-averaged spectral irradiances using the observations reported by Thekaekara et al. are 3.2-4.1% greater than those derived from the Fontenla et al. model for MODIS and AVHRR instrument bandpasses; the Kurucz spectrum (1995) as included in the MODTRAN4 distribution, gives channel-averaged irradiances 1.2-1.5 % smaller than the Fontenla model. For the MODIS instrument, these solar irradiance uncertainties result in cloud microphysical retrievals uncertainties comparable with other fundamental reflectance error sources.

  19. HITEMP derived spectral database for the prediction of jet engine exhaust infrared emission using a statistical band model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindermeir, E.; Beier, K.

    2012-08-01

    The spectroscopic database HITEMP 2010 is used to upgrade the parameters of the statistical molecular band model which is part of the infrared signature prediction code NIRATAM (NATO InfraRed Air TArget Model). This band model was recommended by NASA and is applied in several codes that determine the infrared emission of combustion gases. The upgrade regards spectral absorption coefficients and line densities of the gases H2O, CO2, and CO in the spectral region 400-5000 cm-1 (2-25μm) with a spectral resolution of 5 cm-1. The temperature range 100-3000 K is covered. Two methods to update the database are presented: the usually applied method as provided in the literature and an alternative, more laborious procedure that employs least squares fitting. The achieved improvements resulting from both methods are demonstrated by comparisons of radiance spectra obtained from the band model to line-by-line results. The performance in a realistic scenario is investigated on the basis of measured and predicted spectra of a jet aircraft plume in afterburner mode.

  20. SIELETERS, an airborne infrared dual-band spectro-imaging system for measurement of scene spectral signatures.

    PubMed

    Coudrain, Christophe; Bernhardt, Sylvie; Caes, Marcel; Domel, Roland; Ferrec, Yann; Gouyon, Rémi; Henry, Didier; Jacquart, Marc; Kattnig, Alain; Perrault, Philippe; Poutier, Laurent; Rousset-Rouvière, Laurent; Tauvy, Michel; Thétas, Sophie; Primot, Jérôme

    2015-06-15

    More and more, hyperspectral images are envisaged to improve the aerial reconnaissance capability of airborne systems, both for civilian and military applications. To confirm the hopes put in this new way of imaging a scene, it is necessary to develop airborne systems allowing the measurement of the spectral signatures of objects of interest in real conditions, with high spectral and spatial resolutions. The purpose of this paper is to present the design and the first in-flight results of the dual-band infrared spectro-imaging system called Sieleters. This system has demonstrated simultaneously a ground sampling distance of 0.5m, associated with a spectral resolution of 11 cm(-1) for the Mid-Wave InfraRed (MWIR) and 5 cm(-1) for the Long-Wave InfraRed (LWIR). PMID:26193589

  1. Effect of Cd Addition in Band Gap and Volume Conductivity of SeTe Based Glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saraswat, Vibhav K.; Kishore, V.; Saraswat, Y. K.; Saxena, N. S.

    2011-10-01

    Presented paper discusses the variation in optical band gap and volume dc conductivity of Se-Te-Cd ternary Chalcogenide glasses as a function of concentration of Cd i.e. the composition of the glasses. Also, the temperature dependence of volume conductivity has been studied. The amorphous nature of these glasses has been confirmed by XRD patterns. Keithley Electrometer/High resistance meter 6517A was used in its FVMI mode to record I_V characteristics at different temperatures. Variation in conductivity, derived from I_V curves, as a function of composition of sample could be accounted for the bonds formed in the system. Additionally, the Poole-Frenkel conduction mechanism has also been verified in order to investigate the good agreement with the established fact that most of Chalcogenide glasses obey the Poole-Frenkel conduction mechanism. Absorption spectra were recorded using Ocean Optics USB2000 spectrophotometer in visible region. Band gap calculation using Tauc relation reveals that the system under test is semi-conducting in nature. The observed results are found to be in good agreement with each other.

  2. ENVISAT.MERIS spectral bands and ENVISAT ASAR - discussion on applications of Sentinel 1 and 2 for agriculture in Poland.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dabrowska-Zielinska, K.; Budzynska, M.; Tomaszewska, M.; Bartold, M.; Turlej, K.

    2012-04-01

    Presented studies were based on application of ENVISAT MERIS data for assessment of crop conditions in 04.05.2003; 26.04.2007 and 04.09.2004. Sentinel 2 will have better spatial resolution than MERIS and additionally short wave infrared band, but the results of LAI assessment were presented using various indices from MERIS and the same study will be repeated using Sentinel data. Also the indices derived from MERIS were correlated with the ASAR data to indicate the possibilities of LAI assessment using Sentinel 1. The study has been conducted at agricultural region Wielkopolska located in the West part of Poland - The dominating crops are: winter and spring wheat, winter rye, winter and spring triticale, winter and spring barley, winter rape, corn, alfalfa, and sugar beet. Also, grassland area is presented. For the test area ENVISAT.MERIS images has been obtained for the ESA projects: C1P.1427, AOALO.3677, and C1P.7389. Simultaneously to satellite overpasses ground measurement of various soil-vegetation parameters have been carried out including wet and dry biomass taken from 1 m2 (in the laboratory), LAI using LAI-2000 Plant Canopy Analyser, height of the vegetation, and soil moisture using TRIME-FM. These measurements were applied for statistical analysis of parameters with satellite-derived indices. In this article only data for biomass and Leaf Area Index have been used in order to find the relationship between measured and satellite derived index. There has been found the high correlation between biomass and LAI for each of the studied crops, the highest for beet root and alfalfa (R2=0.95 and R2=0.90), the lowest for rape For the statistical analyses between LAI and satellite data the following indices calculated from Meris have been taken into account: 2/8 (443/681), 5/12 (550/779), 10/5 (754/560), 10/9 (754/709), 12/5 (779/560), and using red edge (10-9)/(10+9), using blue spectrum (10-2)/(10+2), (12-8)/(12+8), (13-7)/(13+7). MERIS blue bands are 1-3, green 4

  3. Absolute Rovibrational Intensities of C-12O2-16 Absorption Bands in the 3090-3850/ CM Spectral Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devi, V. Malathy; Benner, D. Chris; Rinsland, Curtis P.; Smith, Mary Ann H.

    1998-01-01

    A multispectrum nonlinear least-squares fitting technique has been used to determine the absolute intensities for approximately 1500 spectral lines in 36 vibration - rotation bands Of C-12O2-16 between 3090 and 3850/ cm. A total of six absorption spectra of a high- purity (99.995% minimum) natural sample of carbon dioxide were used in the analysis. The spectral data (0.01/cm resolution) were recorded at room temperature and low pressure (1 to 10 Torr) using the McMath-Pierce Fourier transform spectrometer of the National Solar Observatory (NSO) on Kitt Peak. The absorption path lengths for these spectra varied between 24.86 and 385.76 m. The first experimental determination of the intensity of the theoretically predicted 2(nu)(sub 2, sup 2) + nu(sub 3) "forbidden" band has been made. The measured line intensities obtained for each band have been analyzed to determine the vibrational band intensity, S(sub nu), in /cm/( molecule/sq cm) at 296 K, square of the rotationless transition dipole moment |R|(exp 2) in Debye, as well as the nonrigid rotor coefficients. The results are compared to the values listed in the 1996 HITRAN database which are obtained using the direct numerical diagonalization (DND) technique as well as to other published values where available.

  4. Detection of small surface vessels in near, medium, and far infrared spectral bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dulski, R.; Milewski, S.; Kastek, M.; Trzaskawka, P.; Szustakowski, M.; Ciurapinski, W.; Zyczkowski, M.

    2011-11-01

    Protection of naval bases and harbors requires close co-operation between security and access control systems covering land areas and those monitoring sea approach routes. The typical location of naval bases and harbors - usually next to a large city - makes it difficult to detect and identify a threat in the dense regular traffic of various sea vessels (i.e. merchant ships, fishing boats, tourist ships). Due to the properties of vessel control systems, such as AIS (Automatic Identification System), and the effectiveness of radar and optoelectronic systems against different targets it seems that fast motor boats called RIB (Rigid Inflatable Boat) could be the most serious threat to ships and harbor infrastructure. In the paper the process and conditions for the detection and identification of high-speed boats in the areas of ports and naval bases in the near, medium and far infrared is presented. Based on the results of measurements and recorded thermal images the actual temperature contrast delta T (RIB / sea) will be determined, which will further allow to specify the theoretical ranges of detection and identification of the RIB-type targets for an operating security system. The data will also help to determine the possible advantages of image fusion where the component images are taken in different spectral ranges. This will increase the probability of identifying the object by the multi-sensor security system equipped additionally with the appropriate algorithms for detecting, tracking and performing the fusion of images from the visible and infrared cameras.

  5. Full range complex spectral domain optical coherence tomography without additional phase shifters.

    PubMed

    Baumann, Bernhard; Pircher, Michael; Götzinger, Erich; Hitzenberger, Christoph K

    2007-10-01

    We demonstrate a new full range complex spectral domain optical coherence tomography (FRC SD-OCT) method. Other than FRC SD-OCT systems reported in literature, which employed devices such as electro-/acousto optic modulators or piezo-driven mirrors providing the phase modulations necessary for retrieval of the complex-valued signal, the system presented works without any additional phase shifting device. The required phase shift is introduced by the galvanometer scanner used for transversally scanning the sample beam. By means of a slight displacement of the probe beam with respect to the scanning mirror's pivot axis, the sample arm length and thus the phase is continuously modulated as the beam is scanned in lateral direction. From such modulated spectral data, the complex-valued data yielding a twofold increase of accessible depth range can be calculated using an algorithm based on the Hilbert transform. To demonstrate the performance of our method quantitative measurements of the suppression of mirror images as a function of induced phase shift were performed. In order to validate the FRC SD-OCT technique for high-speed imaging of biological tissue, we present full-range images of the human anterior chamber in vivo. PMID:19550607

  6. Relative spectral response corrected calibration inter-comparison of S-NPP VIIRS and Aqua MODIS thermal emissive bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efremova, Boryana; Wu, Aisheng; Xiong, Xiaoxiong

    2014-09-01

    The S-NPP Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument is built with strong heritage from EOS MODIS, and has very similar thermal emissive bands (TEB) calibration algorithm and on-board calibrating source - a V-grooved blackbody. The calibration of the two instruments can be assessed by comparing the brightness temperatures retrieved from VIIRS and Aqua MODIS simultaneous nadir observations (SNO) from their spectrally matched TEB. However, even though the VIIRS and MODIS bands are similar there are still relative spectral response (RSR) differences and thus some differences in the retrieved brightness temperatures are expected. The differences depend on both the type and the temperature of the observed scene, and contribute to the bias and the scatter of the comparison. In this paper we use S-NPP Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS) data taken simultaneously with the VIIRS data to derive a correction for the slightly different spectral coverage of VIIRS and MODIS TEB bands. An attempt to correct for RSR differences is also made using MODTRAN models, computed with physical parameters appropriate for each scene, and compared to the value derived from actual CrIS spectra. After applying the CrIS-based correction for RSR differences we see an excellent agreement between the VIIRS and Aqua MODIS measurements in the studied band pairs M13-B23, M15-B31, and M16- B32. The agreement is better than the VIIRS uncertainty at cold scenes, and improves with increasing scene temperature up to about 290K.

  7. Optimization of spectral sensitivities of mosaic five-band camera for estimating chromophore densities from skin images including shading and surface reflections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirose, Misa; Akaho, Rina; Maita, Chikashi; Sugawara, Mai; Tsumura, Norimichi

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, the spectral sensitivities of a mosaic five-band camera were optimized using a numerical skin phantom to perform the separation of chromophore densities, shading and surface reflection. To simulate the numerical skin phantom, the spectral reflectance of skin was first calculated by Monte Carlo simulation of photon migration for different concentrations of melanin, blood and oxygen saturation levels. The melanin and hemoglobin concentration distributions used in the numerical skin phantom were obtained from actual skin images by independent component analysis. The calculated components were assigned as concentration distributions. The spectral sensitivities of the camera were then optimized using a nonlinear technique to estimate the spectral reflectance for skin separation. In this optimization, the spectral sensitivities were assumed to be normally distributed, and the sensor arrangement was identical to that of a conventional mosaic five-band camera. Our findings demonstrated that spectral estimation could be significantly improved by optimizing the spectral sensitivities.

  8. Optimization of spectral sensitivities of mosaic five-band camera for estimating chromophore densities from skin images including shading and surface reflections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirose, Misa; Akaho, Rina; Maita, Chikashi; Sugawara, Mai; Tsumura, Norimichi

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, the spectral sensitivities of a mosaic five-band camera were optimized using a numerical skin phantom to perform the separation of chromophore densities, shading and surface reflection. To simulate the numerical skin phantom, the spectral reflectance of skin was first calculated by Monte Carlo simulation of photon migration for different concentrations of melanin, blood and oxygen saturation levels. The melanin and hemoglobin concentration distributions used in the numerical skin phantom were obtained from actual skin images by independent component analysis. The calculated components were assigned as concentration distributions. The spectral sensitivities of the camera were then optimized using a nonlinear technique to estimate the spectral reflectance for skin separation. In this optimization, the spectral sensitivities were assumed to be normally distributed, and the sensor arrangement was identical to that of a conventional mosaic five-band camera. Our findings demonstrated that spectral estimation could be significantly improved by optimizing the spectral sensitivities.

  9. Multi-band morpho-Spectral Component Analysis Deblending Tool (MuSCADeT): Deblending colourful objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joseph, R.; Courbin, F.; Starck, J.-L.

    2016-05-01

    We introduce a new algorithm for colour separation and deblending of multi-band astronomical images called MuSCADeT which is based on Morpho-spectral Component Analysis of multi-band images. The MuSCADeT algorithm takes advantage of the sparsity of astronomical objects in morphological dictionaries such as wavelets and their differences in spectral energy distribution (SED) across multi-band observations. This allows us to devise a model independent and automated approach to separate objects with different colours. We show with simulations that we are able to separate highly blended objects and that our algorithm is robust against SED variations of objects across the field of view. To confront our algorithm with real data, we use HST images of the strong lensing galaxy cluster MACS J1149+2223 and we show that MuSCADeT performs better than traditional profile-fitting techniques in deblending the foreground lensing galaxies from background lensed galaxies. Although the main driver for our work is the deblending of strong gravitational lenses, our method is fit to be used for any purpose related to deblending of objects in astronomical images. An example of such an application is the separation of the red and blue stellar populations of a spiral galaxy in the galaxy cluster Abell 2744. We provide a python package along with all simulations and routines used in this paper to contribute to reproducible research efforts. Codes can be found at http://lastro.epfl.ch/page-126973.html

  10. Infrared spectral marker bands characterizing a transient water wire inside a hydrophobic membrane protein.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Steffen; Freier, Erik; Cui, Qiang; Gerwert, Klaus

    2014-12-14

    Proton conduction along protein-bound "water wires" is an essential feature in membrane proteins. Here, we analyze in detail a transient water wire, which conducts protons via a hydrophobic barrier within a membrane protein to create a proton gradient. It is formed only for a millisecond out of three water molecules distributed at inactive positions in a polar environment in the ground state. The movement into a hydrophobic environment causes characteristic shifts of the water bands reflecting their different chemical properties. These band shifts are identified by time-resolved Fourier Transform Infrared difference spectroscopy and analyzed by biomolecular Quantum Mechanical/Molecular Mechanical simulations. A non-hydrogen bonded ("dangling") O-H stretching vibration band and a broad continuum absorbance caused by a combined vibration along the water wire are identified as characteristic marker bands of such water wires in a hydrophobic environment. The results provide a basic understanding of water wires in hydrophobic environments. PMID:25494795

  11. Infrared spectral marker bands characterizing a transient water wire inside a hydrophobic membrane protein

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, Steffen; Gerwert, Klaus; Freier, Erik; Cui, Qiang

    2014-12-14

    Proton conduction along protein-bound “water wires” is an essential feature in membrane proteins. Here, we analyze in detail a transient water wire, which conducts protons via a hydrophobic barrier within a membrane protein to create a proton gradient. It is formed only for a millisecond out of three water molecules distributed at inactive positions in a polar environment in the ground state. The movement into a hydrophobic environment causes characteristic shifts of the water bands reflecting their different chemical properties. These band shifts are identified by time-resolved Fourier Transform Infrared difference spectroscopy and analyzed by biomolecular Quantum Mechanical/Molecular Mechanical simulations. A non-hydrogen bonded (“dangling”) O–H stretching vibration band and a broad continuum absorbance caused by a combined vibration along the water wire are identified as characteristic marker bands of such water wires in a hydrophobic environment. The results provide a basic understanding of water wires in hydrophobic environments.

  12. Infrared spectral marker bands characterizing a transient water wire inside a hydrophobic membrane protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, Steffen; Freier, Erik; Cui, Qiang; Gerwert, Klaus

    2014-12-01

    Proton conduction along protein-bound "water wires" is an essential feature in membrane proteins. Here, we analyze in detail a transient water wire, which conducts protons via a hydrophobic barrier within a membrane protein to create a proton gradient. It is formed only for a millisecond out of three water molecules distributed at inactive positions in a polar environment in the ground state. The movement into a hydrophobic environment causes characteristic shifts of the water bands reflecting their different chemical properties. These band shifts are identified by time-resolved Fourier Transform Infrared difference spectroscopy and analyzed by biomolecular Quantum Mechanical/Molecular Mechanical simulations. A non-hydrogen bonded ("dangling") O-H stretching vibration band and a broad continuum absorbance caused by a combined vibration along the water wire are identified as characteristic marker bands of such water wires in a hydrophobic environment. The results provide a basic understanding of water wires in hydrophobic environments.

  13. High spectral efficient W-band optical/wireless system employing single-sideband single-carrier modulation.

    PubMed

    Ho, Chun-Hung; Lin, Chun-Ting; Cheng, Yu-Hsuan; Huang, Hou-Tzu; Wei, Chia-Chien; Chi, Sien

    2014-02-24

    With broader available bandwidth, W-band wireless transmission has attracted a lot of interests for future Giga-bit communication. In this article, we experimentally demonstrate W-band radio-over-fiber (RoF) system employing single-sideband single-carrier (SSB-SC) modulation with lower peak-to-average-power ratio (PAPR) than orthogonal frequency division multiplex (OFDM). To overcome the inter-symbol interference (ISI) of the penalty from uneven frequency response and SSB-SC modulation, frequency domain equalizer (FDE) and decision feedback equalizer (DFE) are implemented. We discuss the maximum available bandwidth of different modulation formats between SSB-SC and OFDM signals at the BER below forward error correction (FEC) threshold (3.8 × 10(-3)). Up to 50-Gbps 32-QAM SSB-SC signals with spectral efficiency of 5 bit/s/Hz can be achieved. PMID:24663711

  14. Improved line parameters for ozone bands in the 10-micron spectral region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flaud, Jean-Marie; Camy-Peyret, Claude; Rinsland, Curtis P.; Smith, Mary Ann H.; Devi, Malathy V.

    1990-01-01

    A complete update of spectroscopic line parameters for the 10-micron bands of ozone is reported. The listing contains calculated positions, intensities, lower state energies, and air- and self-broadened halfwidths of more than 53,000 lines. The results have been generated using improved spectroscopic parameters obtained in a number of recent high resolution laboratory studies. A total of eighteen bands of (O-16)3 (sixteen hot bands plus the nu(1) and nu(3) fundamentals) are included along with the nu(1) and nu(3) fundamentals of both (O-16)(O-16)(O-18) and (O-16)(O-18)(O-16). As shown by comparisons of line-by-line simulations with 0.003/cm resolution balloon-borne stratospheric solar spectra, the new parameters greatly improve the accuracy of atmospheric calculations in the 10-micron region, especially for the isotopic (O-16)(O-16)(O-18) and (O-16)(O-18)(O-16) lines.

  15. Chlorophyll pigment concentration using spectral curvature algorithms - An evaluation of present and proposed satellite ocean color sensor bands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoge, Frank E.; Swift, Robert N.

    1986-01-01

    During the past several years symmetric three-band (460-, 490-, 520-nm) spectral curvature algorithm (SCA) has demonstrated rather accurate determination of chlorophyll pigment concentration using low-altitude airborne ocean color data. It is shown herein that the in-water asymmetric SCA, when applied to certain recently proposed OCI (NOAA-K and SPOT-3) and OCM (ERS-1) satellite ocean color bands, can adequately recover chlorophyll-like pigments. These airborne findings suggest that the proposed new ocean color sensor bands are in general satisfactorily, but not necessarily optimally, positioned to allow space evaluation of the SCA using high-precision atmospherically corrected satellite radiances. The pigment concentration recovery is not as good when existing Coastal Zone Color Scanner bands are used in the SCA. The in-water asymmetric SCA chlorophyll pigment recovery evaluations were performed using (1) airborne laser-induced chlorophyll fluorescence and (2) concurrent passive upwelled radiances. Data from a separate ocean color sensor aboard the aircraft were further used to validate the findings.

  16. Red and blue shifts of spectral luminescence band of CuInS2 nanothermometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skaptsov, Alexander A.; Novikova, Anastasia S.; Galushka, Viktor V.; Markin, Alexey V.; Kochubey, Vyacheslav I.; Goryacheva, Irina Y.

    2016-04-01

    Control methods of temperature fields inside a tissue during laser photothermolysis are an important point to develop biomedical applications of thermal destructions of cancer. One of the most promising approaches to measure and to control of temperature is the application of luminescence nanothermometers such as CuInS2 nanoparticles. Temperature measurement can be carried out by determination of the maximum of the luminescence band. Thus, we have investigated the influence of exposure time and temperature on the position of the maximum of the luminescence band of CuInS2 nanoparticles.

  17. Multi-band optical observations of V404 Cygni and correlated spectral changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarpaci, John; Maitra, Dipankar; Hynes, Rob; Markoff, Sera

    2015-06-01

    We report optical observations of V404 Cygni between 2015 June 27.10 - 27.34 UT made using Wheaton College Observatory's 0.3m telescope. During the course of the night observations were made by continuously cycling through V, R, and I band Johnson/Cousins filters.

  18. Spectral identification of the u-band variable sources in two LAMOST fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Tian-Wen; Yang, Ming; Wu, Hong; Zhang, Tian-Meng; Shi, Jian-Rong; Zhang, Hao-Tong; Yang, Fan; Zhao, Jing-Kun; Zhou, Xu; Fan, Zhou; Jiang, Zhao-Ji; Ma, Jun; Wang, Jia-Li; Wu, Zhen-Yu; Zou, Hu; Zhou, Zhi-Min; Nie, Jun-Dan; Luo, A.-Li; Wu, Xue-Bing; Zhao, Yong-Heng

    2016-09-01

    We selected 82 u-band variable objects based on the u-band photometry data from SCUSS and SDSS, in the field of LAMOST Complete Spectroscopic Survey of Pointing Area at Southern Galactic Cap. The magnitude variation of the targets is restricted to larger than 0.2 mag and limiting magnitude down to 19.0 mag in u-band. According to the spectra from LAMOST, there are 11 quasars with redshift between 0.4 and 1.8, 60 variable stars and 11 unidentified targets. The variable stars include one active M-dwarf with a series of Balmer emission lines, seven Horizontal Branch stars containing six RR Lyrae stars matching with SIMBAD, and one giant, one AGB star and two RR Lyrae candidates by different color selections. All these variable stars mainly locate near the main sequence in the g--r vs. u--g diagram. The quasars are well distinguished from stars by both u--g color and variation in u-band.

  19. An Interferometric Spectral Line and Imaging Survey of VY Canis Majoris in the 345 GHz Band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamiński, T.; Gottlieb, C. A.; Young, K. H.; Menten, K. M.; Patel, N. A.

    2013-12-01

    A spectral line survey of the oxygen-rich red supergiant VY Canis Majoris was made between 279 and 355 GHz with the Submillimeter Array (SMA). Two hundred twenty-three spectral features from 19 molecules (not counting isotopic species of some of them) were observed, including the rotational spectra of TiO, TiO2, and AlCl for the first time in this source. The parameters and an atlas of all spectral features are presented. Observations of each line with a synthesized beam of ~0.''9, reveal the complex kinematics and morphology of the nebula surrounding VY CMa. Many of the molecules are observed in high-lying rotational levels or in excited vibrational levels. From these, it was established that the main source of the submillimeter-wave continuum (dust) and the high-excitation molecular gas (the star) are separated by about 0.''15. Apparent coincidences between the molecular gas observed with the SMA, and some of the arcs and knots observed at infrared wavelengths and in the optical scattered light by the Hubble Space Telescope are identified. The observations presented here provide important constraints on the molecular chemistry in oxygen-dominated circumstellar environments and a deeper picture of the complex circumstellar environment of VY CMa.

  20. Novel 6p rearrangements and recurrent translocation breakpoints in retinoblastoma cell lines identified by spectral karyotyping and mBAND analyses.

    PubMed

    Paderova, Jana; Orlic-Milacic, Marija; Yoshimoto, Maisa; da Cunha Santos, Gilda; Gallie, Brenda; Squire, Jeremy A

    2007-12-01

    Gain of the short arm of chromosome 6, usually through isochromosome 6p formation, is present in approximately 50% of retinoblastoma tumors. The minimal region of gain maps to chromosome band 6p22. Two genes, DEK and E2F3, are implicated as candidate oncogenes. However, chromosomal translocations have been overlooked as a potential mechanism of activation of oncogenes at 6p22 in retinoblastoma. Here, we report combined spectral karyotyping), 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole banding, mBAND, and locus-specific fluorescence in situ hybridization analyses of four retinoblastoma cell lines, RB1021, RB247c, RB383, and Y79. In RB1021 and RB247c, 6p undergoes structural rearrangements involving a common translocation breakpoint at 6p22. These data imply that 6p translocations may represent another mechanism of activation of 6p oncogene(s) in a subset of retinoblastomas, besides the copy number increase. In addition to 6p22, other recurrent translocation breakpoints identified in this study are 4p16, 11p15, 17q21.3, and 20q13. Common regions of gain map to chromosomal arms 1q, 2p, 6p, 17q, and 21q. PMID:18036396

  1. Simultaneous multi-spectral narrow-band auroral imagery from space (1150A to 6300A2)

    SciTech Connect

    Schenkel, F.W.; Ogorzalek, B.S.; Gardner, R.R.; Hutchins, R.A.; Huffman, R.E.

    1986-01-01

    The design of a multi-mode instrument known as the Auroral Ionospheric Remote Sensor, AIRS, is described. The goal of the AIRS instrument is to produce data on the global imaging of the auroral display in both dark and sunlit hemispheres with the remote sensing of ionospheric airglows to deduce ionospheric parameters such as electron-density profiles and atmospheric background emissions. The AIRS will fly on a the POLAR BEAR spacecraft in a near-polar circular orbit at an altitude of 1000 km with a scheduled launch in the fall of 1986. The AIRS instrument is designed as a multi-mode system with four (4) channels of data to yield simultaneous operation in the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV), near ultraviolet (UV), and visible spectral bands. Two of the data channels are designed to operate in the VUV with 30A windows having a 240A separation. These two channels utilize an Ebert-Fastile spectrometer which can provide total coverage for each of these channels from 1150A to 1800A. The other two channels utilize a filter selector system to provide preselected, 10A bandwidth spectral channels at 3371A, 3914A, and 6300A, and a 200A wide channel centered at 2250A. These spectral bands are paired to provide simultaneous pair coverage of 2250A and 3371A and simultaneous pair coverage of 3914A and 6300A. All four channels view the auroral scene of the north polar cap via appropriate optics and scan mirror system. In effect, a line-scan image of the auroral scene is produced via the scan mirror operating in the orbit cross plane with the longitudinal direction provided by the forward motion of the spacecraft.

  2. Vegetation Red-edge Spectral Modeling for Solar-induced Chlorophyll Fluorescence Retrieval at O2-B Band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, C.; Zhang, L.; Qiao, N.; Zhang, X.; Li, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Remotely sensed solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) has been considered an ideal probe in monitoring global vegetation photosynthesis. However, challenges in accurate estimate of faint SIF (less than 5% of the total reflected radiation in near infrared bands) from the observed apparent reflected radiation greatly limit its wide applications. Currently, the telluric O2-B (~688nm) and O2-A (~761nm) have been proved to be capable of SIF retrieval based on Fraunhofer line depth (FLD) principle. They may still work well even using conventional ground-based commercial spectrometers with typical spectral resolutions of 2~5 nm and high enough signal-to-noise ratio (e.g., the ASD spectrometer). Nevertheless, almost all current FLD based algorithms were mainly developed for O2-A, a few concentrating on the other SIF emission peak in O2-B. One of the critical reasons is that it is very difficult to model the sudden varying reflectance around O2-B band located in the red-edge spectral region (about 680-800 nm). This study investigates a new method by combining the established inverted Gaussian reflectance model (IGM) and FLD principle using diurnal canopy spectra with relative low spectral resolutions of 1 nm (FluorMOD simulations) and 3 nm (measured by ASD spectrometer) respectively. The IGM has been reported to be an objective and good method to characterize the entire vegetation red-edge reflectance. Consequently, the proposed SIF retrieval method (hereinafter called IGMFLD) could exploit all the spectral information along the whole red-edge (680-800 nm) to obtain more reasonable reflectance and fluorescence correction coefficients than traditional FLD methods such as the iFLD. Initial results show that the IGMFLD can better capture the spectrally non-linear characterization of the reflectance in 680-800 nm and thereby yields much more accurate SIFs in O2-B than typical FLD methods, including sFLD, 3FLD and iFLD (see figure 1). Finally, uncertainties and prospect

  3. Scaling effects in area-averaged values of two-band spectral vegetation indices represented in a general form

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obata, Kenta; Miura, Tomoaki; Yoshioka, Hiroki

    2012-01-01

    Area-averaged vegetation index (VI) depends on spatial resolution and the computational approach used to calculate the VI from the data. Certain data treatments can introduce scaling effects and a systematic bias into datasets gathered from different sensors. This study investigated the mechanisms underlying the scaling effects of a two-band spectral VI defined in terms of the ratio of two linear sums of the red and near-infrared reflectances (a general form of the two-band VI). The general form of the VI model was linearly transformed to yield a common functional VI form that elucidated the nature of the monotonic behavior. An analytic investigation was conducted in which a two-band linear mixture model was assumed. The trends (increasing or decreasing) in the area-averaged VIs could be explained in terms of a single scalar index, ην, which may be expressed in terms of the spectra of the vegetation and nonvegetation endmembers as well as the coefficients unique to each VI. The maximum error bounds on the scaling effects were derived as a function of the endmember spectra and the choice of VI. The validity of the expressions was explored by conducting a set of numerical experiments that focused on the monotonic behavior and trends in several VIs.

  4. Generation of multiple spectral bands in a diode-pumped self-mode-locked Nd:YAP laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Y. J.; Tzeng, Y. S.; Cho, H. H.; Chen, Y. F.; Chen, W. D.; Zhang, G.; Chen, T. C.

    2016-02-01

    A single- and multispectral-band diode end-pumped self-mode-locked Nd:YAP laser is originally demonstrated with an intracavity etalon to properly control the gain-to-loss ratios among the intermanifold lines on the 4F3/2  →  4I11/2 transition level. With a pulse repetition rate of 5.07 GHz, the shortest pulse durations under the single-spectral-band operation are achieved to be 11.1 ps at 1073 nm, 10.9 ps at 1080 nm, and 15.1 ps at 1084 nm, respectively. Moreover, the temporal overlapping of the multispectral-band pulses is experimentally found to lead to the generation of an intensity fringe pattern in the autocorrelation trace with the optical-beat frequency reaching several terahertz. A simple mathematical model is developed to elucidate the formation of a train of optical-beat pulses.

  5. Thermal control design of the Lightning Mapper Sensor narrow-band spectral filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flannery, Martin R.; Potter, John; Raab, Jeff R.; Manlief, Scott K.

    1992-01-01

    The performance of the Lightning Mapper Sensor is dependent on the temperature shifts of its narrowband spectral filter. To perform over a 10 degree FOV with an 0.8 nm bandwidth, the filter must be 15 cm in diameter and mounted externally to the telescope optics. The filter thermal control required a filter design optimized for minimum bandpass shift with temperature, a thermal analysis of substrate materials for maximum temperature uniformity, and a thermal radiation analysis to determine the parameter sensitivity of the radiation shield for the filter, the filter thermal recovery time after occultation, and heater power to maintain filter performance in the earth-staring geosynchronous environment.

  6. Detection of Solar Rotational Variability in the Large Yield RAdiometer (LYRA) 190 - 222 nm Spectral Band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shapiro, A. V.; Shapiro, A. I.; Dominique, M.; Dammasch, I. E.; Wehrli, C.; Rozanov, E.; Schmutz, W.

    2013-08-01

    We analyze the variability of the spectral solar irradiance during the period from 7 January 2010 until 20 January 2010 as measured by the Herzberg channel (190 - 222 nm) of the Large Yield RAdiometer (LYRA) onboard PROBA2. In this period of time, observations by the LYRA nominal unit experienced degradation and the signal produced by the Herzberg channel frequently jumped from one level to another. Both factors significantly complicate the analysis. We present the algorithm that allowed us to extract the solar variability from the LYRA data and compare the results with SORCE/SOLSTICE measurements and with modeling based on the Code for the Solar Irradiance (COSI).

  7. Study (301)-(000) D2O band in 10200 - 10450 cm-1 spectral region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinitsa, L. N.; Serdyukov, V. I.; Shcherbakov, A. P.; Sergeeva, A. S.; Miheenko, M. O.

    2015-11-01

    Measurements of D2O absorption spectra in the visible spectral region near 0.98 μm are performed using FT-spectrometer IFS-125M and Light-emitting diode (LED) as source of radiation. Water vapor spectrum has been obtained by averaging over 17136 scans recorded at 24 m optical path length, temperature 24 C and pressure of sample 27 mBar. Due to strong emission of LED source it was possible to achieve signal-to-noise ratio about 104 and to record weak lines with intensities of 6 10-27 cm/molecule. Comparisons with results of early works are made.

  8. Optical properties of narrow-band spectral filter coatings related to layer structure and preparation.

    PubMed

    Gibson, D; Lissberger, P H

    1983-01-15

    The optical properties of thirty-five all-dielectric spectral filter coatings for the visible spectrum have been investigated and correlated with the deposition conditions of the constituent layers of cryolite and zinc sulfide and with the processes which occur when the coatings are exposed to atmosphere. It will be shown that the results of measurements of transmittance and reflectance over the passband wavelengths can be predicted theoretically only if account is taken of absorption in the layers and scattering at the rough boundaries and of changes in the refractive indices of the layers due to water penetration. PMID:18195779

  9. Spectral turning bands for efficient Gaussian random fields generation on GPUs and accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunger, L.; Cosenza, B.; Kimeswenger, S.; Fahringer, T.

    2015-11-01

    A random field (RF) is a set of correlated random variables associated with different spatial locations. RF generation algorithms are of crucial importance for many scientific areas, such as astrophysics, geostatistics, computer graphics, and many others. Current approaches commonly make use of 3D fast Fourier transform (FFT), which does not scale well for RF bigger than the available memory; they are also limited to regular rectilinear meshes. We introduce random field generation with the turning band method (RAFT), an RF generation algorithm based on the turning band method that is optimized for massively parallel hardware such as GPUs and accelerators. Our algorithm replaces the 3D FFT with a lower-order, one-dimensional FFT followed by a projection step and is further optimized with loop unrolling and blocking. RAFT can easily generate RF on non-regular (non-uniform) meshes and efficiently produce fields with mesh sizes bigger than the available device memory by using a streaming, out-of-core approach. Our algorithm generates RF with the correct statistical behavior and is tested on a variety of modern hardware, such as NVIDIA Tesla, AMD FirePro and Intel Phi. RAFT is faster than the traditional methods on regular meshes and has been successfully applied to two real case scenarios: planetary nebulae and cosmological simulations.

  10. Random fields generation on the GPU with the spectral turning bands method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunger, L.; Cosenza, B.; Kimeswenger, S.; Fahringer, T.

    2014-08-01

    Random field (RF) generation algorithms are of paramount importance for many scientific domains, such as astrophysics, geostatistics, computer graphics and many others. Some examples are the generation of initial conditions for cosmological simulations or hydrodynamical turbulence driving. In the latter a new random field is needed every time-step. Current approaches commonly make use of 3D FFT (Fast Fourier Transform) and require the whole generated field to be stored in memory. Moreover, they are limited to regular rectilinear meshes and need an extra processing step to support non-regular meshes. In this paper, we introduce TBARF (Turning BAnd Random Fields), a RF generation algorithm based on the turning band method that is optimized for massively parallel hardware such as GPUs. Our algorithm replaces the 3D FFT with a lower order, one-dimensional FFT followed by a projection step, and is further optimized with loop unrolling and blocking. We show that TBARF can easily generate RF on non-regular (non uniform) meshes and can afford mesh sizes bigger than the available GPU memory by using a streaming, out-of-core approach. TBARF is 2 to 5 times faster than the traditional methods when generating RFs with more than 16M cells. It can also generate RF on non-regular meshes, and has been successfully applied to two real case scenarios: planetary nebulae and cosmological simulations.

  11. AN INTERFEROMETRIC SPECTRAL-LINE SURVEY OF IRC+10216 IN THE 345 GHz BAND

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, Nimesh A.; Young, Ken H.; Gottlieb, Carl A.; Thaddeus, Patrick; Wilson, Robert W.; Reid, Mark J.; McCarthy, Michael C.; Keto, Eric; Menten, Karl M.; Cernicharo, Jose; He Jinhua; Bruenken, Sandra; Trung, Dinh-V.

    2011-03-15

    We report a spectral-line survey of the extreme carbon star IRC+10216 carried out between 293.9 and 354.8 GHz with the Submillimeter Array. A total of 442 lines were detected, more than 200 for the first time; 149 are unassigned. Maps at an angular resolution of {approx}3'' were obtained for each line. A substantial new population of narrow lines with an expansion velocity of {approx}4 km s{sup -1} (i.e., {approx}30% of the terminal velocity) was detected. Most of these are attributed to rotational transitions within vibrationally excited states, emitted from energy levels above the v = 0, J = 0 ground state with excitation energy of 1000-3000 K. Emission from these lines appears to be centered on the star with an angular extent of <1''. We use multiple transitions detected in several molecules to derive physical conditions in this inner envelope of IRC+10216.

  12. Spectral Line Survey toward the Young Massive Protostar NGC 2264 CMM3 in the 4 mm, 3 mm, and 0.8 mm Bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Yoshimasa; Sakai, Nami; López-Sepulcre, Ana; Furuya, Ryuta; Sakai, Takeshi; Hirota, Tomoya; Liu, Sheng-Yuan; Su, Yu-Nung; Yamamoto, Satoshi

    2015-08-01

    Spectral line survey observations are conducted toward the high-mass protostar candidate NGC 2264 CMM3 in the 4, 3, and 0.8 mm bands with the Nobeyama 45 m telescope and the Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment (ASTE) 10 m telescope. In total, 265 emission lines are detected in the 4 and 3 mm bands, and 74 emission lines in the 0.8 mm band. As a result, 36 molecular species and 30 isotopologues are identified. In addition to the fundamental molecular species, many emission lines of carbon-chain molecules such as HC5N, C4H, CCS, and C3S are detected in the 4 and 3 mm bands. Deuterated molecular species are also detected with relatively strong intensities. On the other hand, emission lines of complex organic molecules such as HCOOCH3 and CH3OCH3 are found to be weak. For the molecules for which multiple transitions are detected, rotation temperatures are derived to be 7-33 K except for CH3OH. Emission lines with high upper-state energies (Eu > 150 K) are detected for CH3OH, indicating the existence of a hot core. In comparison with the chemical composition of the Orion KL, carbon-chain molecules and deuterated molecules are found to be abundant in NGC 2264 CMM3, while sulfur-bearing species and complex organic molecules are deficient. These characteristics indicate the chemical youth of NGC 2264 CMM3 in spite of its location at the center of the cluster forming core, NGC 2264 C.

  13. Cooling the Martian atmosphere: The spectral overlap of the C02 15 micrometers band and dust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindner, Bernhard Lee

    1994-01-01

    Careful consideration must be given to the simultaneous treatment of the radiative transfer of the CO2 15 micron band and dust calculations for the Martian winter polar region show that a simple sum of separately calculated CO2 cooling rates and dust cooling rates can easily result a 30 percent error in the net cooling particularly near the surface. CO2 and dust hinder each others ability to cool the atmosphere. Even during periods of low dust opacity, dust still reduces the efficacy of CO2 at cooling the atmosphere. At the other extreme, when dust storms occur, CO2 still significantly impedes the ability of dust to cool the atmosphere. Hence, both CO2 and dust must be considered in radiative transfer models.

  14. Spectral line shapes of self-broadened P-branch transitions of oxygen B band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wójtewicz, S.; Cygan, A.; Masłowski, P.; Domysławska, J.; Lisak, D.; Trawiński, R. S.; Ciuryło, R.

    2014-09-01

    We used the Pound-Drever-Hall-locked frequency-stabilized cavity ring-down spectrometer assisted by the optical frequency comb for systematic line-shape study of self-broadened P-branch transitions of the O216B band [b1Σg+(v=1)←X3Σg-(v=0)]. In the line-shape analysis we take into account the line-narrowing effects described by Dicke narrowing or the speed dependence of collisional broadening. The relation between the parameters describing Dicke narrowing with the use of the soft- and hard-collision models is discussed and verified experimentally in the low pressure regime using the multispectrum fitting technique. We report line positions with uncertainties of about 170 kHz, the collisional broadening coefficients with 0.45% uncertainties, and line intensities with 0.5% uncertainties. We compare these results to data available in the literature.

  15. Spectral line shapes and frequencies of the molecular oxygen B-band R-branch transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domysławska, Jolanta; Wójtewicz, Szymon; Masłowski, Piotr; Cygan, Agata; Bielska, Katarzyna; Trawiński, Ryszard S.; Ciuryło, Roman; Lisak, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    We present the line-shape parameters for the first 11 lines of the oxygen B-band R-branch self-broadened transitions measured at low pressures by the Pound-Drever-Hall-locked frequency-stabilized cavity ring-down spectrometer (PDH-locked FS-CRDS) linked to the optical frequency comb. The collisional self-broadening, shifting and narrowing parameters were determined together with the quadratic speed-dependence as well as phase- and velocity-changing correlations parameters. The absolute frequencies of the transitions with combined standard uncertainties below 150 kHz are reported. Dependence of line parameters on choice of the line-shape model is discussed.

  16. The development of a power spectral density processor for C and L band airborne radar scatterometer sensor systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrison, D. A., III; Chladek, J. T.

    1983-01-01

    A real-time signal processor was developed for the NASA/JSC L-and C-band airborne radar scatterometer sensor systems. The purpose of the effort was to reduce ground data processing costs. Conversion of two quadrature channels of data (like and cross polarized) was made to obtain Power Spectral Density (PSD) values. A chirp-z transform (CZT) approach was used to filter the Doppler return signal and improved high frequency and angular resolution was realized. The processors have been tested with record signals and excellent results were obtained. CZT filtering can be readily applied to scatterometers operating at other wavelengths by altering the sample frequency. The design of the hardware and software and the results of the performance tests are described in detail.

  17. Spectral line-shapes of oxygen B-band transitions measured with cavity ring-down spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wójtewicz, S.; Cygan, A.; Masłowski, P.; Domysławska, J.; Wcisło, P.; Zaborowski, M.; Lisak, D.; Trawiński, R. S.; Ciuryło, R.

    2014-11-01

    Results of line-shape measurements of self- and N2-broadened P9 P9 transition of the oxygen B band are presented. Spectra were acquired using the optical frequency comb- assisted Pound-Drever-Hall-locked frequency-stabilized cavity ring-down spectrometer (PDH- locked FS-CRDS). In the line-shape analysis the line narrowing described by Dicke narrowing or/and the speed dependence of collisional broadening were taken into account. The multispectrum fitting technique was used to minimize numerical correlations between line-shape parameters. Collisional broadening and shifting coefficients are reported with sub-percent uncertainties. Influence of the spectral line-shape model used in data analysis on determined line intensities and collisional broadening is discussed.

  18. Additional comments on the assumption of homogenous survival rates in modern bird banding estimation models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, J.D.; Stokes, S.L.; Hines, J.E.; Conroy, M.J.

    1982-01-01

    We examined the problem of heterogeneous survival and recovery rates in bird banding estimation models. We suggest that positively correlated subgroup survival and recovery probabilities may result from winter banding operations and that this situation will produce positively biased survival rate estimates. The magnitude of the survival estimate bias depends on the proportion of the population in each subgroup. Power of the suggested goodness-of-fit test to reject the inappropriate model for heterogeneous data sets was low for all situations examined and was poorest for positively related subgroup survival and recovery rates. Despite the magnitude of some of the biases reported and the relative inability to detect heterogeneity, we suggest that levels of heterogeneity normally encountered in real data sets will produce relatively small biases of average survival rates.

  19. Comparative Analysis of Alternative Spectral Bands of CO2 and O2 for the Sensing of CO2 Mixing Ratios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pliutau, Denis; Prasad, Narasimha S.

    2013-01-01

    We performed comparative studies to establish favorable spectral regions and measurement wavelength combinations in alternative bands of CO2 and O2, for the sensing of CO2 mixing ratios (XCO2) in missions such as ASCENDS. The analysis employed several simulation approaches including separate layers calculations based on pre-analyzed atmospheric data from the modern-era retrospective analysis for research and applications (MERRA), and the line-byline radiative transfer model (LBLRTM) to obtain achievable accuracy estimates as a function of altitude and for the total path over an annual span of variations in atmospheric parameters. Separate layer error estimates also allowed investigation of the uncertainties in the weighting functions at varying altitudes and atmospheric conditions. The parameters influencing the measurement accuracy were analyzed independently and included temperature sensitivity, water vapor interferences, selection of favorable weighting functions, excitations wavelength stabilities and other factors. The results were used to identify favorable spectral regions and combinations of on / off line wavelengths leading to reductions in interferences and the improved total accuracy.

  20. Analysis of Oxygen Spectral Lines in the 1.27 Micron Band for the ASCENDS Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pliutau, Denis; Prasad, Narasimha S.

    2011-01-01

    The ASCENDS mission requires simultaneous laser remote sensing of CO2 and O2 in order to convert CO2 column number densities to average column CO2 mixing ratios (XCO2). As such, the CO2 column number density and the O2 column number density will be utilized to derive the average XCO2 column. NASA Langley Research Center, working with its partners, is developing O2 lidar technology in the 1.26-1.27- m band for surface pressure measurements. The O2 model optical depth calculation is very sensitive to knowledge of the transmitted wavelengths and to the choice of Voigt input parameters. Modeling using the HITRAN database is being carried out to establish the evolution of candidate O2 absorption lines as a function of atmospheric parameters such as altitude, temperature, and pressure. Preliminary results indicate limitations of the Voigt profile and the need to utilize more advanced models which take into account line mixing, line narrowing, and speed dependence. In this paper, we evaluate alternative lineshape models to establish the optimum lineshapes which better account for the variability of individual O2 absorption lines at various atmospheric conditions. The combination of our modeling efforts with accurate laboratory measurements is anticipated to aid in achieving the desired CO2 mixing ratio measurement accuracy requirement of for the ASCENDS mission.

  1. Aspects for efficient wide spectral band THz generation via CO2 laser down conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panchenko, Yu. N.; Andreev, Yu. M.; Lanskii, G. V.; Losev, V. F.; Lubenko, D. M.

    2015-02-01

    Detailed model study of THz generation by CO2 laser down-conversion in pure and solid solution crystals GaSe1-xSx is carried out for the first time. Both forward and backward collinear interactions of common (eo-e, oe-e, oe-o, oo-e, ee-o) and original (ee-e, oo-o) types are considered. Possibility of realization, phase matching angles and figure of merits are estimated for line mixing within 9 μm and 10 μm emission bands, as well between them. Dispersion properties of o- and e-wave refractive indices and absorption coefficients for GaSe, GaS and GaSe1-xSx crystals were preliminary measured by THz-TDS, approximated in the equation form and then used in the study. Estimated results are presented in the form of 3-D figures that are suitable for rapid analyses of DFG parameters. The most efficient type of interaction is eo-o type. Optimally doped (x = 0.09-0.13) GaSe1-xSx crystals are from 4 to 5 times more efficient at limit pump intensity than not doped GaSe crystals.

  2. Wide-Band Spatially Tunable Photonic Bandgap in Visible Spectral Range and Laser based on a Polymer Stabilized Blue Phase.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jia-De; Wang, Tsai-Yen; Mo, Ting-Shan; Huang, Shuan-Yu; Lee, Chia-Rong

    2016-01-01

    This work successfully develops a largely-gradient-pitched polymer-stabilized blue phase (PSBP) photonic bandgap (PBG) device with a wide-band spatial tunability in nearly entire visible region within a wide blue phase (BP) temperature range including room temperature. The device is fabricated based on the reverse diffusion of two injected BP-monomer mixtures with a low and a high chiral concentrations and afterwards through UV-curing. This gradient-pitched PSBP can show a rainbow-like reflection appearance in which the peak wavelength of the PBG can be spatially tuned from the blue to the red regions at room temperature. The total tuning spectral range for the cell is as broad as 165 nm and covers almost the entire visible region. Based on the gradient-pitched PSBP, a spatially tunable laser is also demonstrated in this work. The temperature sensitivity of the lasing wavelength for the laser is negatively linear and approximately -0.26 nm/°C. The two devices have a great potential for use in applications of photonic devices and displays because of their multiple advantages, such as wide-band tunability, wide operated temperature range, high stability and reliability, no issue of hysteresis, no need of external controlling sources, and not slow tuning speed (mechanically). PMID:27456475

  3. Wide-Band Spatially Tunable Photonic Bandgap in Visible Spectral Range and Laser based on a Polymer Stabilized Blue Phase

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jia-De; Wang, Tsai-Yen; Mo, Ting-Shan; Huang, Shuan-Yu; Lee, Chia-Rong

    2016-01-01

    This work successfully develops a largely-gradient-pitched polymer-stabilized blue phase (PSBP) photonic bandgap (PBG) device with a wide-band spatial tunability in nearly entire visible region within a wide blue phase (BP) temperature range including room temperature. The device is fabricated based on the reverse diffusion of two injected BP-monomer mixtures with a low and a high chiral concentrations and afterwards through UV-curing. This gradient-pitched PSBP can show a rainbow-like reflection appearance in which the peak wavelength of the PBG can be spatially tuned from the blue to the red regions at room temperature. The total tuning spectral range for the cell is as broad as 165 nm and covers almost the entire visible region. Based on the gradient-pitched PSBP, a spatially tunable laser is also demonstrated in this work. The temperature sensitivity of the lasing wavelength for the laser is negatively linear and approximately −0.26 nm/°C. The two devices have a great potential for use in applications of photonic devices and displays because of their multiple advantages, such as wide-band tunability, wide operated temperature range, high stability and reliability, no issue of hysteresis, no need of external controlling sources, and not slow tuning speed (mechanically). PMID:27456475

  4. Wide-Band Spatially Tunable Photonic Bandgap in Visible Spectral Range and Laser based on a Polymer Stabilized Blue Phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jia-De; Wang, Tsai-Yen; Mo, Ting-Shan; Huang, Shuan-Yu; Lee, Chia-Rong

    2016-07-01

    This work successfully develops a largely-gradient-pitched polymer-stabilized blue phase (PSBP) photonic bandgap (PBG) device with a wide-band spatial tunability in nearly entire visible region within a wide blue phase (BP) temperature range including room temperature. The device is fabricated based on the reverse diffusion of two injected BP-monomer mixtures with a low and a high chiral concentrations and afterwards through UV-curing. This gradient-pitched PSBP can show a rainbow-like reflection appearance in which the peak wavelength of the PBG can be spatially tuned from the blue to the red regions at room temperature. The total tuning spectral range for the cell is as broad as 165 nm and covers almost the entire visible region. Based on the gradient-pitched PSBP, a spatially tunable laser is also demonstrated in this work. The temperature sensitivity of the lasing wavelength for the laser is negatively linear and approximately ‑0.26 nm/°C. The two devices have a great potential for use in applications of photonic devices and displays because of their multiple advantages, such as wide-band tunability, wide operated temperature range, high stability and reliability, no issue of hysteresis, no need of external controlling sources, and not slow tuning speed (mechanically).

  5. Comprehensive survey of Pc4 and Pc5 band spectral content in Cluster magnetic field data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clausen, L. B. N.; Yeoman, T. K.

    2009-08-01

    In the first part of this study we present two case studies of pulsations that, with the help of ground-based data, are identified as field line resonances (FLRs). These pulsations occurred at frequencies which belong to a set of frequencies that has been suggested to be preferred in the terrestrial magnetosphere (CMS frequencies). We go on to show that for both events there is a significant signature at the same frequency in the time series of the compressional magnetic field observed by the conjugate Cluster satellites. We interpret these as signatures of the compressional mode driving the FLRs. In the second part we present a statistical study including one year's worth of Cluster magnetic field data. For each orbit between May 2004 and June 2005 we identified a three hour interval during which the satellites were located on closed magnetic field lines. We identified peaks in the spectrum between 1.0 and 15.0 mHz of the compressional, poloidal and toroidal components of the magnetic field. We use this database of spectral peaks observed on closed magnetic field lines to investigate whether peaks occur at a preferred set of frequencies which would be indicative for the Earth's magnetosphere behaving like a cavity/waveguide. We find no consistent preference for all CMS frequencies in our dataset, however we do find a preference for certain higher frequencies suggesting that higher harmonics of the cavity/waveguide are a persistent feature of the inner magnetosphere, and are detected by the Cluster spacecraft. This result could be explained by the polar orbit of the Cluster satellites.

  6. Additional evidence concerning the valence-band offset in HgTe/CdTe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, P. M.; Ehrenreich, H.

    1991-05-01

    The consistency of large values of the valence-band offset, Λ, in HgTe/CdTe superlattices with magneto-optical experiments is examined in light of data on a 90-Å HgTe/40-Å CdTe superlattice. The data are shown to be consistent with values Λ=400+/-40 meV rather than the much smaller cited values. This analysis, when considered with photoemission experiments, leaves intact the conclusion that HgTe/CdTe superlattices are best explained by a large offset.

  7. The role of volume scattering in reducing spectral contrast of reststrahlen bands in spectra of powdered minerals. [implication for remote sensing of earth, moon, Mars, and asteroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salisbury, John W.; Wald, Andrew

    1992-01-01

    The first high-resolution quantitative directional hemispherical reflectance spectra of minerals were obtained for different particle sizes, and were used to develop an accurate prediction of the particles' spectral emissivity, using Kirchhoff's law (Nicodemus, 1965) and to interpret the nature and causes of changes in the spectral contrast of reststrahlen bands. It was found that the reststrahlen bands change in shape as well as intensity; this is explained by the occurrence of substantial volume scattering at fine particle sizes. The implication of this finding for remote sensing of the earth, moon, Mercury, Mars, and the asteroids is discussed.

  8. A spectral line survey of Orion KL in the bands 486-492 and 541-577 GHz with the Odin satellite. I. The observational data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olofsson, A. O. H.; Persson, C. M.; Koning, N.; Bergman, P.; Bernath, P. F.; Black, J. H.; Frisk, U.; Geppert, W.; Hasegawa, T. I.; Hjalmarson, Å.; Kwok, S.; Larsson, B.; Lecacheux, A.; Nummelin, A.; Olberg, M.; Sandqvist, Aa.; Wirström, E. S.

    2007-12-01

    Aims:Spectral line surveys are useful since they allow identification of new molecules and new lines in uniformly calibrated data sets. The subsequent multi-transition analysis will provide improved knowledge of molecular abundances, cloud temperatures and densities, and may also reveal previously unsuspected blends of molecular lines, which otherwise may lead to erroneous conclusions. Nonetheless, large portions of the sub-millimetre spectral regime remain unexplored due to severe absorptions by H{2}O and O{2} in the terrestrial atmosphere. The purpose of the measurements presented here is to cover wavelength regions at and around 0.55 mm - regions largely unobservable from the ground. Methods: Using the Odin astronomy/aeronomy satellite, we performed the first spectral survey of the Orion KL molecular cloud core in the bands 486-492 and 541-576 GHz with rather uniform sensitivity (22-25 mK baseline noise). Odin's 1.1 m size telescope, equipped with four cryo-cooled tuneable mixers connected to broad band spectrometers, was used in a satellite position-switching mode. Two mixers simultaneously observed different 1.1 GHz bands using frequency steps of 0.5 GHz (25 h each). An on-source integration time of 20 h was achieved for most bands. The entire campaign consumed 1100 orbits, each containing one hour of serviceable astro-observation. Results: We identified 280 spectral lines from 38 known interstellar molecules (including isotopologues) having intensities in the range 80 to 0.05 K. An additional 64 weak lines remain unidentified. Apart from the ground state rotational 1{1,0}-1{0,1} transitions of ortho-H{2}O, H{2}18O and H{2}17O, the high energy 6{2,4}-7{1,7} line of para-H{2}O (Eu=867 K) and the HDO(2{0,2}-1{1,1}) line have been observed, as well as the 1{0}-0{1} lines from NH{3} and its rare isotopologue 15NH{3}. We suggest assignments for some unidentified features, notably the new interstellar molecules ND and SH-. Severe blends have been detected in the

  9. Temperature profile retrieval in axisymmetric combustion plumes using multilayer perceptron modeling and spectral feature selection in the infrared CO2 emission band.

    PubMed

    García-Cuesta, Esteban; de Castro, Antonio J; Galván, Inés M; López, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    In this work, a methodology based on the combined use of a multilayer perceptron model fed using selected spectral information is presented to invert the radiative transfer equation (RTE) and to recover the spatial temperature profile inside an axisymmetric flame. The spectral information is provided by the measurement of the infrared CO2 emission band in the 3-5 μm spectral region. A guided spectral feature selection was carried out using a joint criterion of principal component analysis and a priori physical knowledge of the radiative problem. After applying this guided feature selection, a subset of 17 wavenumbers was selected. The proposed methodology was applied over synthetic scenarios. Also, an experimental validation was carried out by measuring the spectral emission of the exhaust hot gas plume in a microjet engine with a Fourier transform-based spectroradiometer. Temperatures retrieved using the proposed methodology were compared with classical thermocouple measurements, showing a good agreement between them. Results obtained using the proposed methodology are very promising and can encourage the use of sensor systems based on the spectral measurement of the CO2 emission band in the 3-5 μm spectral window to monitor combustion processes in a nonintrusive way. PMID:25061791

  10. Review of an assortment of IR materials-devices technologies used for imaging in spectral bands ranging from the visible to very long wavelengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeWames, Roger E.

    2016-05-01

    In this paper we review the intrinsic and extrinsic technological properties of the incumbent technology, InP/In0.53Ga0.47As/InP, for imaging in the visible- short wavelength spectral band, InSb and HgCdTe for imaging in the mid-wavelength spectral band and HgCdTe for imaging in the long wavelength spectral band. These material systems are in use for a wide range of applications addressing compelling needs in night vision imaging, low light level astronomical applications and defense strategic satellite sensing. These materials systems are direct band gap energy semiconductors hence the internal quantum efficiency η, is near unity over a wide spectral band pass. A key system figure of merit of a shot noise limited detector technology is given by the equation (1+Jdark. /Jphoton), where Jdark is the dark current density and Jphoton ~qηΦ is the photocurrent density; Φ is the photon flux incident on the detector and q is the electronic charge. The capability to maintain this factor for a specific spectral band close to unity for low illumination conditions and low temperature onset of non-ideal dark current components, basically intrinsic diffusion limited performance all the way, is a marker of quality and versatility of a semiconductor detector technology. It also enables the highest temperature of operation for tactical illumination conditions. A purpose of the work reported in this paper is to explore the focal plane array data sets of photodiode detector technologies widely used to bench mark their fundamental and technology properties and identify paths for improvements.

  11. Broad-band spectral energy distribution of 3000 Å break quasars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meusinger, H.; Schalldach, P.; Mirhosseini, A.; Pertermann, F.

    2016-03-01

    Context. In past decades, huge surveys have confirmed the existence of populations of exotic and hitherto unknown quasar types. The discovery and investigation of these rare peculiar objects is important because they may represent links to special evolutionary stages and hold clues to the evolution of quasars and galaxies. Aims: The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) discovered the unusual quasars J010540.75-003313.9 and J220445.27+003141.8 and a small number of similar objects. Their spectra are characterised by a break in the continuum around 3000 Å that neither shows the typical structure of broad absorption line (BAL) troughs nor is explained by typical intrinsic dust reddening. The main aim of the present paper was twofold. First, a new target-oriented search was performed in the spectra database of the SDSS to construct a sizable sample of such 3000 Å break quasars. Second, their broad-band spectral energy distribution (SED) was compared with SEDs of BAL quasars. Methods: We used the method of Kohonen self-organising maps for data mining in the SDSS spectra archive to search for more quasars with properties comparable to the prototypes J010540.75-003313.9 and J220445.27+003141.8. We constructed a sample of 3000 Å break quasars and comparison samples of quasars with similar properties, to some extent, but also showing indications for typical BAL features. Particular attention was payed to a possible contamination by rare stellar spectral types, in particular DQ white dwarfs. We construct ensemble-averaged broad-band SEDs based on archival data from SDSS, GALEX, 2MASS, UKIDSS, WISE, and other surveys. The SEDs were corrected for dust absorption at the systemic redshifts of the quasars by the comparison with the average SED of normal quasars. Results: We compiled a list of 23 quasars classified as 3000 Å break quasars with properties similar to 010540.75-003313.9 and J220445.27+003141.8. Their de-reddened arithmetic median composite SED is indistinguishable

  12. Effect of long-term training on sound localization performance with spectrally warped and band-limited head-related transfer functions.

    PubMed

    Majdak, Piotr; Walder, Thomas; Laback, Bernhard

    2013-09-01

    Sound localization in the sagittal planes, including the ability to distinguish front from back, relies on spectral features caused by the filtering effects of the head, pinna, and torso. It is assumed that important spatial cues are encoded in the frequency range between 4 and 16 kHz. In this study, in a double-blind design and using audio-visual training covering the full 3-D space, normal-hearing listeners were trained 2 h per day over three weeks to localize sounds which were either band limited up to 8.5 kHz or spectrally warped from the range between 2.8 and 16 kHz to the range between 2.8 and 8.5 kHz. The training effect for the warped condition exceeded that for procedural task learning, suggesting a stable auditory recalibration due to the training. After the training, performance with band-limited sounds was better than that with warped ones. The results show that training can improve sound localization in cases where spectral cues have been reduced by band-limiting or remapped by warping. This suggests that hearing-impaired listeners, who have limited access to high frequencies, might also improve their localization ability when provided with spectrally warped or band-limited sounds and adequately trained on sound localization. PMID:23967945

  13. Investigation of in-band transmission of both spectral amplitude coding/optical code division multiple-access and wavelength division multiplexing signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashour, Isaac A. M.; Shaari, Sahbudin; Shalaby, Hossam M. H.; Menon, P. Susthitha

    2011-06-01

    The transmission of both optical code division multiple-access (OCDMA) and wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) users on the same band is investigated. Code pulses of spectral amplitude coding (SAC)/optical code division multiple-access (CDMA) are overlaid onto a multichannel WDM system. Notch filters are utilized in order to suppress the WDM interference signals for detection of optical broadband CDMA signals. Modified quadratic congruence (MQC) codes are used as the signature codes for the SAC/OCDMA system. The proposed system is simulated and its performance in terms of both the bit-error rate and Q-factor are determined. In addition, eavesdropper probability of error-free code detection is evaluated. Our results are compared to traditional nonhybrid systems. It is concluded that the proposed hybrid scheme still achieves acceptable performance. In addition, it provides enhanced data confidentiality as compared to the scheme with SAC/OCDMA only. It is also shown that the performance of the proposed system is limited by the interference of the WDM signals. Furthermore, the simulation illustrates the tradeoff between the performance and confidentiality for authorized users.

  14. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  15. Co-registered Topographical, Band Excitation Nanomechanical, and Mass Spectral Imaging Using a Combined Atomic Force Microscopy/Mass Spectrometry Platform

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Ovchinnikova, Olga S.; Tai, Tamin; Bocharova, Vera; Okatan, Mahmut Baris; Belianinov, Alex; Kertesz, Vilmos; Jesse, Stephen; Van Berkel, Gary J.

    2015-03-18

    The advancement of a hybrid atomic force microscopy/mass spectrometry imaging platform demonstrating for the first time co-registered topographical, band excitation nanomechanical, and mass spectral imaging of a surface using a single instrument is reported. The mass spectrometry-based chemical imaging component of the system utilized nanothermal analysis probes for pyrolytic surface sampling followed by atmospheric pressure chemical ionization of the gas phase species produced with subsequent mass analysis. We discuss the basic instrumental setup and operation and the multimodal imaging capability and utility are demonstrated using a phase separated polystyrene/poly(2-vinylpyridine) polymer blend thin film. The topography and band excitation images showedmore » that the valley and plateau regions of the thin film surface were comprised primarily of one of the two polymers in the blend with the mass spectral chemical image used to definitively identify the polymers at the different locations. Data point pixel size for the topography (390 nm x 390 nm), band excitation (781 nm x 781 nm), mass spectrometry (690 nm x 500 nm) images was comparable and submicrometer in all three cases, but the data voxel size for each of the three images was dramatically different. The topography image was uniquely a surface measurement, whereas the band excitation image included information from an estimated 10 nm deep into the sample and the mass spectral image from 110-140 nm in depth. Moreover, because of this dramatic sampling depth variance, some differences in the band excitation and mass spectrometry chemical images were observed and were interpreted to indicate the presence of a buried interface in the sample. The spatial resolution of the mass spectral image was estimated to be between 1.5 m 2.6 m, based on the ability to distinguish surface features in that image that were also observed in the other images.« less

  16. Co-registered Topographical, Band Excitation Nanomechanical, and Mass Spectral Imaging Using a Combined Atomic Force Microscopy/Mass Spectrometry Platform

    SciTech Connect

    Ovchinnikova, Olga S.; Tai, Tamin; Bocharova, Vera; Okatan, Mahmut Baris; Belianinov, Alex; Kertesz, Vilmos; Jesse, Stephen; Van Berkel, Gary J.

    2015-03-18

    The advancement of a hybrid atomic force microscopy/mass spectrometry imaging platform demonstrating for the first time co-registered topographical, band excitation nanomechanical, and mass spectral imaging of a surface using a single instrument is reported. The mass spectrometry-based chemical imaging component of the system utilized nanothermal analysis probes for pyrolytic surface sampling followed by atmospheric pressure chemical ionization of the gas phase species produced with subsequent mass analysis. We discuss the basic instrumental setup and operation and the multimodal imaging capability and utility are demonstrated using a phase separated polystyrene/poly(2-vinylpyridine) polymer blend thin film. The topography and band excitation images showed that the valley and plateau regions of the thin film surface were comprised primarily of one of the two polymers in the blend with the mass spectral chemical image used to definitively identify the polymers at the different locations. Data point pixel size for the topography (390 nm x 390 nm), band excitation (781 nm x 781 nm), mass spectrometry (690 nm x 500 nm) images was comparable and submicrometer in all three cases, but the data voxel size for each of the three images was dramatically different. The topography image was uniquely a surface measurement, whereas the band excitation image included information from an estimated 10 nm deep into the sample and the mass spectral image from 110-140 nm in depth. Moreover, because of this dramatic sampling depth variance, some differences in the band excitation and mass spectrometry chemical images were observed and were interpreted to indicate the presence of a buried interface in the sample. The spatial resolution of the mass spectral image was estimated to be between 1.5 m 2.6 m, based on the ability to distinguish surface features in that image that were also observed in the other images.

  17. Spectral line survey toward the spiral arm of M51 in the 3 and 2 mm bands

    SciTech Connect

    Watanabe, Yoshimasa; Sakai, Nami; Yamamoto, Satoshi; Sorai, Kazuo

    2014-06-10

    We have conducted a spectral line survey in the 3 and 2 mm bands toward two positions in a spiral arm of M51 (NGC 5194) with the Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique 30 m telescope. In this survey, we have identified 13 molecular species, including CN, CCH, N{sub 2}H{sup +}, HNCO, and CH{sub 3}OH. Furthermore, six isotopologues of the major species have been detected. On the other hand, SiO, HC{sub 3}N, CH{sub 3}CN, and deuterated species such as DCN and DCO{sup +} were not detected. The deuterium fractionation ratios are evaluated to be less than 0.8% and 1.2% for DCN/HCN and DCO{sup +}/HCO{sup +}, respectively. By comparing the results of the two positions with different star formation activities, we have found that the observed chemical compositions do not strongly depend on star formation activities. They seem to reflect a chemical composition averaged over the 1 kpc scale region including many giant molecular clouds. Among the detected molecules CN, CCH, and CH{sub 3}OH are found to be abundant. High abundances of CN and CCH are consistent with the above picture of a widespread distribution of molecules because they can be produced by photodissociation. On the other hand, it seems likely that CH{sub 3}OH is liberated in the gas phase by shocks associated with large-scale phenomena such as cloud-cloud collisions and/or by nonthermal desorption processes such as photoevaporation due to cosmic-ray-induced UV photons. The present result demonstrates a characteristic chemical composition of a giant molecular cloud complex in the spiral arm, which can be used as a standard reference for studying chemistry in active galactic nuclei and starbursts.

  18. Spectral modification of the laser emission of a terahertz quantum cascade laser induced by broad-band double pulse injection seeding

    SciTech Connect

    Markmann, Sergej Nong, Hanond Hekmat, Negar; Jukam, Nathan; Pal, Shovon; Scholz, Sven; Kukharchyk, Nadezhda; Ludwig, Arne; Wieck, Andreas D.; Dhillon, Sukhdeep; Tignon, Jérôme; Marcadet, Xavier; Bock, Claudia; Kunze, Ulrich

    2015-09-14

    We demonstrate by injection seeding that the spectral emission of a terahertz (THz) quantum cascade laser (QCL) can be modified with broad-band THz pulses whose bandwidths are greater than the QCL bandwidth. Two broad-band THz pulses delayed in time imprint a modulation on the single THz pulse spectrum. The resulting spectrum is used to injection seed the THz QCL. By varying the time delay between the THz pulses, the amplitude distribution of the QCL longitudinal modes is modified. By applying this approach, the QCL emission is reversibly switched from multi-mode to single mode emission.

  19. Projected performance of an enhanced VIIRS with spectral bands near 6.7 μm for measuring water vapor distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puschell, Jeffery J.; Herbst, Stephen J.

    2012-10-01

    The Visible Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) is the next-generation imaging spectroradiometer for the NOAA/NASA Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS). Flight unit 1 (F1) was successfully launched onboard the Suomi NPP spacecraft in 2011. Measured performance shows that VIIRS F1 offers important new capabilities for a wide range of weather and Earth science applications. VIIRS replaces four different sensors with a single instrument built into a flight proven rotating telescope scene scanning architecture first used in the highly successful SeaWiFS ocean color imager starting in the 1990s. This flexible VIIRS architecture can be adapted and enhanced to respond to a wide range of requirements and to incorporate new technology as it becomes available. Possible VIIRS improvements include adding water vapor and temperature sounding bands, improving spatial resolution near nadir by transmitting all unaggregated data to Earth thus avoiding aggregation of saturated or corrupted pixels with good measurements and improving sensitivity especially at the longest wavelength bands by replacing the passive radiative cooler with an active mechanical cooler. This paper extends previous work that showed that the VIIRS design can accommodate adding three water vapor bands by describing an even simpler modification to VIIRS that would involve replacing one of the current VIIRS spectral bands with a single water vapor band. Two cases are considered. The first involves replacing a redundant spectral filter and associated microlenses for the VIIRS M16 band at 12.0 μm with a water vapor band filter and microlenses based on MODIS Band 27 (MB27) at 6.7 μm, while making no changes to the detector material or ROIC. The second case involves making the same spectral filter and microlens replacements, while also improving optimization of the detector material and ROIC for operation at MB27. Expected radiometric sensitivity performance of MB27 in VIIRS is excellent in both cases and

  20. Optical coherence microscopy in 1700 nm spectral band for high-resolution label-free deep-tissue imaging

    PubMed Central

    Yamanaka, Masahito; Teranishi, Tatsuhiro; Kawagoe, Hiroyuki; Nishizawa, Norihiko

    2016-01-01

    Optical coherence microscopy (OCM) is a label-free, high-resolution, three-dimensional (3D) imaging technique based on optical coherence tomography (OCT) and confocal microscopy. Here, we report that the 1700-nm spectral band has the great potential to improve the imaging depth in high-resolution OCM imaging of animal tissues. Recent studies to improve the imaging depth in OCT revealed that the 1700-nm spectral band is a promising choice for imaging turbid scattering tissues due to the low attenuation of light in the wavelength region. In this study, we developed high-resolution OCM by using a high-power supercontinuum source in the 1700-nm spectral band, and compared the attenuation of signal-to-noise ratio between the 1700-nm and 1300-nm OCM imaging of a mouse brain under the condition of the same sensitivity. The comparison clearly showed that the 1700-nm OCM provides larger imaging depth than the 1300-nm OCM. In this 1700-nm OCM, the lateral resolution of 1.3 μm and the axial resolution of 2.8 μm, when a refractive index was assumed to be 1.38, was achieved. PMID:27546517

  1. Optical coherence microscopy in 1700 nm spectral band for high-resolution label-free deep-tissue imaging.

    PubMed

    Yamanaka, Masahito; Teranishi, Tatsuhiro; Kawagoe, Hiroyuki; Nishizawa, Norihiko

    2016-01-01

    Optical coherence microscopy (OCM) is a label-free, high-resolution, three-dimensional (3D) imaging technique based on optical coherence tomography (OCT) and confocal microscopy. Here, we report that the 1700-nm spectral band has the great potential to improve the imaging depth in high-resolution OCM imaging of animal tissues. Recent studies to improve the imaging depth in OCT revealed that the 1700-nm spectral band is a promising choice for imaging turbid scattering tissues due to the low attenuation of light in the wavelength region. In this study, we developed high-resolution OCM by using a high-power supercontinuum source in the 1700-nm spectral band, and compared the attenuation of signal-to-noise ratio between the 1700-nm and 1300-nm OCM imaging of a mouse brain under the condition of the same sensitivity. The comparison clearly showed that the 1700-nm OCM provides larger imaging depth than the 1300-nm OCM. In this 1700-nm OCM, the lateral resolution of 1.3 μm and the axial resolution of 2.8 μm, when a refractive index was assumed to be 1.38, was achieved. PMID:27546517

  2. High-power supercontinuum generation using high-repetition-rate ultrashort-pulse fiber laser for ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography in 1600 nm spectral band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamanaka, Masahito; Kawagoe, Hiroyuki; Nishizawa, Norihiko

    2016-02-01

    We describe the generation of a high-power, spectrally smooth supercontinuum (SC) in the 1600 nm spectral band for ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography (UHR-OCT). A clean SC was achieved by using a highly nonlinear fiber with normal dispersion properties and a high-quality pedestal-free pulse obtained from a passively mode-locked erbium-doped fiber laser operating at 182 MHz. The center wavelength and spectral width were 1578 and 172 nm, respectively. The output power of the SC was 51 mW. Using the developed SC source, we demonstrated UHR-OCT imaging of biological samples with a sensitivity of 109 dB and an axial resolution of 4.9 µm in tissue.

  3. Mode-locked ytterbium fiber lasers using a large modulation depth carbon nanotube saturable absorber without an additional spectral filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Y. Z.; Miao, J. G.; Liu, W. J.; Huang, X. J.; Wang, Y. B.

    2014-09-01

    We demonstrate an all-normal-dispersion ytterbium (Yb)-doped fiber laser mode-locked by a higher modulation depth carbon nanotube saturable absorber (CNT-SA) based on an evanescent field interaction scheme. The laser cavity consists of pure normal dispersion fibers without dispersion compensation and an additional spectral filter. It is exhibited that the higher modulation depth CNT-SA could contribute to stabilize the mode-locking operation within a limited range of pump power and generate the highly chirped pulses with a high-energy level in the cavity with large normal dispersion and strong nonlinearity. Stable mode-locked pulses with a maximal energy of 29 nJ with a 5.59 MHz repetition rate at the operating wavelength around 1085 nm have been obtained. The maximal time-bandwidth product is 262.4. The temporal and spectral characteristics of pulses versus pump power are demonstrated. The experimental results suggest that the CNT-SA provides a sufficient nonlinear loss to compensate high nonlinearity and catch up the gain at a different pump power and thus leads to the stable mode locking.

  4. The distribution of spectral index of magnetic field and ion velocity in Pi2 frequency band in BBFs: THEMIS statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Q.; Du, A. M.; Volwerk, M.; Wang, G. Q.

    2016-09-01

    A statistical study of the THEMIS FGM and ESA data is performed on turbulence of magnetic field and velocity for 218 selected 12 min intervals in BBFs. The spectral index α in the frequency range of 0.005-0.06 Hz are Gaussian distributions. The peaks indexes of total ion velocity Vi and parallel velocity V‖ are 1.95 and 2.07 nearly the spectral index of intermittent low frequency turbulence with large amplitude. However, most probable α of perpendicular velocity V⊥ is about 1.75. It is a little bigger than 5/3 of Kolmogorov (1941). The peak indexes of total magnetic field BT is 1.70 similar to V⊥. Compression magnetic field B‖ are 1.85 which is smaller than 2 and bigger than 5/3 of Kolmogorov (1941). The most probable spectral index of shear B⊥ is about 1.44 which is close to 3/2 of Kraichnan (1965). Max V⊥ have little effect on the power magnitude of VT and V‖ but is positively correlated to spectral index of V⊥. The spectral power of BT, B‖ and B⊥ increase with max perpendicular velocity but spectral indexes of them are negatively correlated to V⊥. The spectral index and the spectral power of magnetic field over the frequency interval 0.005-0.06 Hz is very different from that over 0.08-1 Hz.

  5. Broad-band spectral analysis of the accreting millisecond X-ray pulsar SAX J1748.9-2021

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pintore, F.; Sanna, A.; Di Salvo, T.; Del Santo, M.; Riggio, A.; D'Aì, A.; Burderi, L.; Scarano, F.; Iaria, R.

    2016-04-01

    We analysed a 115-ks XMM-Newton observation and the stacking of 8 d of INTEGRAL observations, taken during the raise of the 2015 outburst of the accreting millisecond X-ray pulsar SAX J1748.9-2021. The source showed numerous type-I burst episodes during the XMM-Newton observation, and for this reason we studied separately the persistent and burst epochs. We described the persistent emission with a combination of two soft thermal components, a cold thermal Comptonization component (˜2 keV) and an additional hard X-ray emission described by a power law (Γ ˜ 2.3). The continuum components can be associated with an accretion disc, the neutron star (NS) surface and a thermal Comptonization emission coming out of an optically thick plasma region, while the origin of the high-energy tail is still under debate. In addition, a number of broad (σ = 0.1-0.4 keV) emission features likely associated with reflection processes have been observed in the XMM-Newton data. The estimated 1.0-50 keV unabsorbed luminosity of the source is ˜5 × 1037 erg s-1, about 25 per cent of the Eddington limit assuming a 1.4 M⊙ NS. We suggest that the spectral properties of SAX J1748.9-2021 are consistent with a soft state, differently from many other accreting X-ray millisecond pulsars which are usually found in the hard state. Moreover, none of the observed type-I burst reached the Eddington luminosity. Assuming that the burst ignition and emission are produced above the whole NS surface, we estimate an NS radius of ˜7-8 km, consistent with previous results.

  6. Direct measurement of additional Ar-H2O vibration-rotation-tunneling bands in the millimeter-submillimeter range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Luyao; Widicus Weaver, Susanna L.

    2016-06-01

    Three new weak bands of the Ar-H2O vibration-rotation-tunneling spectrum have been measured in the millimeter wavelength range. These bands were predicted from combination differences based on previously measured bands in the submillimeter region. Two previously reported submillimeter bands were also remeasured with higher frequency resolution. These new measurements allow us to obtain accurate information on the Coriolis interaction between the 101 and 110 states. Here we report these results and the associated improved molecular constants.

  7. Ortho-Rectification of Narrow Band Multi-Spectral Imagery Assisted by Dslr RGB Imagery Acquired by a Fixed-Wing Uas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rau, J.-Y.; Jhan, J.-P.; Huang, C.-Y.

    2015-08-01

    Miniature Multiple Camera Array (MiniMCA-12) is a frame-based multilens/multispectral sensor composed of 12 lenses with narrow band filters. Due to its small size and light weight, it is suitable to mount on an Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) for acquiring high spectral, spatial and temporal resolution imagery used in various remote sensing applications. However, due to its wavelength range is only 10 nm that results in low image resolution and signal-to-noise ratio which are not suitable for image matching and digital surface model (DSM) generation. In the meantime, the spectral correlation among all 12 bands of MiniMCA images are low, it is difficult to perform tie-point matching and aerial triangulation at the same time. In this study, we thus propose the use of a DSLR camera to assist automatic aerial triangulation of MiniMCA-12 imagery and to produce higher spatial resolution DSM for MiniMCA12 ortho-image generation. Depending on the maximum payload weight of the used UAS, these two kinds of sensors could be collected at the same time or individually. In this study, we adopt a fixed-wing UAS to carry a Canon EOS 5D Mark2 DSLR camera and a MiniMCA-12 multi-spectral camera. For the purpose to perform automatic aerial triangulation between a DSLR camera and the MiniMCA-12, we choose one master band from MiniMCA-12 whose spectral range has overlap with the DSLR camera. However, all lenses of MiniMCA-12 have different perspective centers and viewing angles, the original 12 channels have significant band misregistration effect. Thus, the first issue encountered is to reduce the band misregistration effect. Due to all 12 MiniMCA lenses being frame-based, their spatial offsets are smaller than 15 cm and all images are almost 98% overlapped, we thus propose a modified projective transformation (MPT) method together with two systematic error correction procedures to register all 12 bands of imagery on the same image space. It means that those 12 bands of images acquired at

  8. Estimation of leaf water content using spectral bands from the commercial satellite, DigitalGlobe WorldView-3

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A recently-launched high-resolution commercial satellite, DigitalGlobe’s WorldView-3, has 8 bands in the shortwave infrared (SWIR) wavelength region, which may be capable of estimating canopy water content at 3.7-m spatial resolution. WorldView-3 also has 8 multispectral bands at 1.24-m resolution ...

  9. Spectral evolution and extreme value analysis of non-linear numerical simulations of narrow band random surface gravity waves.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Socquet-Juglard, H.; Dysthe, K. B.; Trulsen, K.; Liu, J.; Krogstad, H. E.

    2003-04-01

    Numerical simulations of a narrow band gaussian spectrum of random surface gravity waves have been carried out in two and three spatial dimensions [7]. Different types of non-linear Schr&{uml;o}dinger equations, [1] and [4], have been used in these simulations. Simulations have now been carried with a JONSWAP spectrum associated with a spreading function of the type cosine-squared [5]. The evolution of the spectrum, skewness, kurtosis, ... will be presented. In addition, some results about stochastic properties of the surface will be shown. Based on the approach found in [2], [3] and [6], the results are presented in terms of deviations from linear Gaussian theory and the standard second order small slope perturbation theory. begin{thebibliography}{9} bibitem{kk96} Trulsen, K. &Dysthe, K. B. (1996). A modified nonlinear Schr&{uml;o}dinger equation for broader bandwidth gravity waves on deep water. Wave Motion, 24, pp. 281-289. bibitem{BK2000} Krogstad, H.E. and S.F. Barstow (2000). A uniform approach to extreme value analysis of ocean waves, Proc. ISOPE'2000, Seattle, USA, 3, pp. 103-108. bibitem{PRK} Prevosto, M., H. E. Krogstad and A. Robin (2000). Probability distributions for maximum wave and crest heights, Coast. Eng., 40, 329-360. bibitem{ketal} Trulsen, K., Kliakhandler, I., Dysthe, K. B. &Velarde, M. G. (2000) On weakly nonlinear modulation of waves on deep water, Phys. Fluids, 12, pp. L25-L28. bibitem{onorato} Onorato, M., Osborne, A.R. and Serio, M. (2002) Extreme wave events in directional, random oceanic sea states, Phys. Fluids, 14, pp. 2432-2437. bibitem{BK2002} Krogstad, H.E. and S.F. Barstow (2002). Analysis and Applications of Second Order Models for the Maximum Crest height, % Proc. 21nd Int. Conf. Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Engineering, Oslo. Paper no. OMAE2002-28479. bibitem{JFMP} Dysthe, K. B., Trulsen, K., Krogstad, H. E. and Socquet-Juglard, H. (2002, in press) Evolution of a narrow band spectrum of random surface gravity waves, J. Fluid

  10. Optical parametric chirped pulse amplification and spectral shaping of a continuum generated in a photonic band gap fiber.

    PubMed

    Hugonnot, E; Somekh, M; Villate, D; Salin, F; Freysz, E

    2004-05-31

    A chirped pulse, spectrally broadened in a photonic bandgap optical fiber by 120 fs Ti:Sapphire laser pulses, is parametrically amplified in a BBO crystal pumped by a frequency doubled nanosecond Nd:YAG laser pulse. Without changing the frequency of the Ti:Sapphire, a spectral tunability of the amplified pulses is demonstrated. The possibility to achieve broader spectral range amplification is confirmed for a non-collinear pump-signal interaction geometry. For optimal non-collinear interaction geometry, the pulse duration of the original and amplified pulse are similar. Finally, we demonstrate that the combination of two BBO crystals makes it possible to spectrally shape the amplified pulses. PMID:19475076

  11. Comparing Broad-Band and Red Edge-Based Spectral Vegetation Indices to Estimate Nitrogen Concentration of Crops Using Casi Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yanjie; Liao, Qinhong; Yang, Guijun; Feng, Haikuan; Yang, Xiaodong; Yue, Jibo

    2016-06-01

    In recent decades, many spectral vegetation indices (SVIs) have been proposed to estimate the leaf nitrogen concentration (LNC) of crops. However, most of these indices were based on the field hyperspectral reflectance. To test whether they can be used in aerial remote platform effectively, in this work a comparison of the sensitivity between several broad-band and red edge-based SVIs to LNC is investigated over different crop types. By using data from experimental LNC values over 4 different crop types and image data acquired using the Compact Airborne Spectrographic Imager (CASI) sensor, the extensive dataset allowed us to evaluate broad-band and red edge-based SVIs. The result indicated that NDVI performed the best among the selected SVIs while red edge-based SVIs didn't show the potential for estimating the LNC based on the CASI data due to the spectral resolution. In order to search for the optimal SVIs, the band combination algorithm has been used in this work. The best linear correlation against the experimental LNC dataset was obtained by combining the 626.20nm and 569.00nm wavebands. These wavelengths correspond to the maximal chlorophyll absorption and reflection position region, respectively, and are known to be sensitive to the physiological status of the plant. Then this linear relationship was applied to the CASI image for generating an LNC map, which can guide farmers in the accurate application of their N fertilization strategies.

  12. Collisional Induced Absorption (CIA) bands of CO2 and H2 measured in the IR spectral range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefani, S.; Piccioni, G.; Snels, M.; Adriani, A.; Grassi, D.

    2015-10-01

    In this paper we present the results on the Collisional Induced Absorption (CIA) bands of CO2 and H2 measured employing two different experimental setup. Each of them allows us to reproduce typical planetary conditions, at a pressure and temperature from 1 up to 50 bar and from 298 up to 500 K respectively. A detailed study on the temperature dependence of the CO2 CIA absorption bands will be presented.

  13. Dual-band infrared remote sensing system with combined long-wave infrared imaging and mid-wave infrared spectral analysis.

    PubMed

    Fang, Zheng; Yi, Xinjian; Liu, Xiangyan; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Tianxu

    2013-08-01

    We present a new optical system for infrared (IR) image-spectrum integration remote sensing. The purpose to develop this instrument is to find the key spectral characteristics of typical hot target and to explore a new intelligence fusion method for the recognition. When mounted on a two-dimensional rotation stage, it can track the suspected target by image processing, and then get its spectrum to do recognition. It is a dual-band system with long-wave infrared (LWIR) imaging and mid-wave infrared (MWIR) spectrum. An IR dichroic beamsplitter is used to divide wideband incident infrared into LWIR and MWIR. Compared to traditional infrared combined imaging and spectral-analysis instruments, it yields higher sensitivity for measuring the IR spectrum. The sensors for imaging and spectrum detection are separate, so high spatial resolution, frame rate, and spectrum resolution can all be obtained simultaneously. PMID:24007052

  14. Preliminary study of the Suomi NPP VIIRS detector-level spectral response function effects for the long-wave infrared bands M15 and M16

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padula, Francis; Cao, Changyong

    2014-09-01

    The Suomi NPP Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Sea Surface Temperature (SST) Environmental Data Record (EDR) team observed an anomalous striping pattern in the SST data. To assess possible causes due to the detector-level Spectral Response Functions (SRFs), a study was conducted to compare the radiometric response of the detector-level and operation band averaged SRFs of VIIRS bands M15 & M16 using simulated blackbody radiance data and clear-sky ocean radiances under different atmospheric conditions. It was concluded that the SST product is likely impacted by small differences in detector-level SRFs, and that if users require optimal system performance detector-level processing is recommended. Future work will investigate potential SDR product improvements through detector-level processing in support of the generation of Suomi NPP VIIRS climate quality SDRs.

  15. The Influence of Finasteride on Mean and Relative Spectral Density of EEG Bands in Rat Model of Thioacetamide-Induced Hepatic Encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Mladenović, D; Hrnčić, D; Rašić-Marković, A; Macut, Dj; Stanojlović, O

    2016-08-01

    Liver failure is associated with a neuropsychiatric syndrome, known as hepatic encephalopathy (HE). Finasteride, inhibitor of neurosteroid synthesis, may improve the course of HE. The aim of our study was to investigate the influence of finasteride on mean and relative power density of EEG bands, determined by spectral analysis, in rat model of thioacetamide-induced HE. Male Wistar rats were divided into groups: (1) control; (2) thioacetamide-treated group, TAA (900 mg/kg); (3) finasteride-treated group, FIN (150 mg/kg); and (4) group treated with finasteride (150 mg/kg) and thioacetamide (900 mg/kg), FIN + TAA. Daily doses of FIN (50 mg/kg) and TAA (300 mg/kg) were administered during 3 subsequent days, and in FIN + TAA group FIN was administered 2 h before every dose of TAA. EEG was recorded 22-24 h after treatment and analyzed by fast Fourier transformation. While TAA did not induce significant changes in the beta band, mean and relative power in this band were significantly higher in FIN + TAA versus control group (p < 0.01). TAA caused a significant decline in mean power in alpha, theta, and delta band, and in FIN + TAA group the mean power in these bands was significantly higher compared with control. While in TAA group relative power was significantly decreased in theta (p < 0.01) and increased in delta band (p < 0.01) versus control, the opposite changes were found in FIN + TAA group: an increase in theta (p < 0.01) and a decrease in delta relative power (p < 0.01). In this study, finasteride pretreatment caused EEG changes that correspond to mild TAA-induced HE. PMID:26951455

  16. Simulating the spectral response of quantum dot-in-well infrared photodetectors from eight band k.p method

    SciTech Connect

    Anjan Kumar, V. Pendyala, Naresh Babu; Banerjee, Arup

    2014-11-28

    Conduction band energy levels in quantum-dot-in-a-well structures are computed by eight band k.p method (Burt-Foreman Hamiltonian) using finite element software. Optical absorption spectrum due to intersubband transitions is simulated using Fermi golden rule. The use of contact pair boundary condition in strain calculation and criteria for choosing band mixing parameter (E{sub p}) to avoid the spurious solutions are examined in this paper. The simulated intersubband optical absorption spectrum of different structures reported in the literature is in close agreement with the experimentally measured photoconductive absorption region and shows that the method can be used as an effective modeling for quick design of the heterostructures based infrared photodetectors for various wavelengths.

  17. Interpreting the Subtle Spectral Variations of the 11.2 and 12.7 μm Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shannon, M. J.; Stock, D. J.; Peeters, E.

    2016-06-01

    We report new properties of the 11 and 12.7 μm emission complexes of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by applying a Gaussian-based decomposition technique. Using high-resolution Spitzer Space Telescope data, we study in detail the spectral and spatial characteristics of the 11 and 12.7 μm emission bands in maps of reflection nebulae NGC 7023 and NGC 2023 (north and south) and the star-forming region M17. Profile variations are observed in both the 11 and 12.7 μm emission bands. We identify a neutral contribution to the traditional 11.0 μm PAH band and a cationic contribution to the traditional 11.2 μm band, the latter of which affects the PAH class of the 11.2 μm emission in our sample. The peak variations of the 12.7 μm complex are explained by the competition between two underlying blended components. The spatial distributions of these components link them to cations and neutrals. We conclude that the 12.7 μm emission originates in both neutral and cationic PAHs, lending support to the use of the 12.7/11.2 intensity ratio as a charge proxy.

  18. Clay composition and swelling potential estimation of soils using depth of absorption bands in the SWIR (1100-2500 nm) spectral domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dufréchou, Grégory; Granjean, Gilles; Bourguignon, Anne

    2014-05-01

    Swelling soils contain clay minerals that change volume with water content and cause extensive and expensive damage on infrastructures. Presence of clay minerals is traditionally a good estimator of soils swelling and shrinking behavior. Montmorillonite (i.e. smectite group), illite, kaolinite are the most common minerals in soils and are usually associated to high, moderate, and low swelling potential when they are present in significant amount. Characterization of swelling potential and identification of clay minerals of soils using conventional analysis are slow, expensive, and does not permit integrated measurements. SWIR (1100-2500 nm) spectral domain are characterized by significant spectral absorption bands related to clay content that can be used to recognize main clay minerals. Hyperspectral laboratory using an ASD Fieldspec Pro spectrometer provides thus a rapid and less expensive field surface sensing that permits to measure soil spectral properties. This study presents a new laboratory reflectance spectroscopy method that used depth of clay diagnostic absorption bands (1400 nm, 1900 nm, and 2200 nm) to compare natural soils to synthetic montmorillonite-illite-kaolinite mixtures. We observe in mixtures that illite, montmorillonite, and kaolinite content respectively strongly influence the depth of absorption bands at 1400 nm (D1400), 1900 nm (D1900), and 2200 nm (D2200). To attenuate or removed effects of abundance and grain size, depth of absorption bands ratios were thus used to performed (i) 3D (using D1900/D2200, D1400/D1900, and D2200/D1400 as axis), and (ii) 2D (using D1400/D1900 and D1900/D2200 as axis) diagrams of synthetic mixtures. In this case we supposed that the overall reduction or growth of depth absorption bands should be similarly affected by the abundance and grain size of materials in soil. In 3D and 2D diagrams, the mixtures define a triangular shape formed by two clay minerals as external envelop and the three clay minerals mixtures

  19. Impacts of hyperspectral sensor spectral coverage, sampling and resolution on cross-comparison with broadband sensor for reflective solar bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Aisheng; Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Wenny, Brian

    2013-09-01

    A new generation of hyperspectral imagers requires a much higher absolute accuracy for reflected solar radiation measurements to further improve climate monitoring capabilities. For example, the Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) mission, a future satellite mission led and developed by NASA and partner organizations, is currently considered to consist of two hyperspectral imagers that cover the reflected solar (RS) and infrared radiation. The design of the CLARREO RS instrument operates from 320 to 2300 nm with 4 nm in spectral sampling and 8 nm in spectral resolution. In this study, the sensitivity of spectral coverage, sampling and resolution of the CLARREO RS type instrument is tested for their impacts on integrated radiances using the relative spectral responses (RSR) of existing broadband sensors. As a proxy, our hyperspectral data is based on MODTRAN simulations and SCIAMACHY observations and the RSR data is from those used in MODIS, VIIRS and AVHRR level 1B (L1B) products. The sensitivity is conducted for ocean, forest, desert, snow and cloud.

  20. Absorption spectral band width of charge transfer transition of E(T)(30) dye in homogeneous and heterogeneous media.

    PubMed

    Das, Parimal Kumar; Pramanik, Ramkrishna; Bagchi, Sanjib

    2003-06-01

    Solvation characteristics in homogeneous and heterogeneous media have been probed by monitoring the band width of ICT band of 2,6-di-phenyl-4(2,4,6-triphenyl-1-pyridino) phenolate, the indicator solute for E(T)(30) scale, in pure, mixed binary solvents and aqueous micellar solution. Non-ideal solvation behaviour is observed in all the binary solvent mixtures. Index of preferential solvation has been calculated as a function of solvent composition. Study in micellar media indicates that the dye is located at the micelle-water interface. The effects of variation of micelle concentration, temperature and electrolyte concentration have also been studies. PMID:12736053

  1. Multispectrum measurements of spectral line parameters including temperature dependences of N2- and self-broadened half-width coefficients in the region of the v9 band of 12C2H6

    SciTech Connect

    Malathy Devi, V.; Benner, D. C.; Rinsland, C.P.; Smith, M.A.H.; Sams, Robert L.; Blake, Thomas A.; Flaud, Jean Marie; Sung, Keeyoon; Brown, L.R.; Mantz, A. W.

    2010-11-01

    Ethane is a prominent contributor to the spectrum of Titan, particularly in the region of the v9 band at 12μm. A multispectrum nonlinear least squares fitting program was applied to laboratory spectra of ethane to measure accurate positions, absolute intensities, N2- and selfbroadened half- width coefficients and their temperature dependences for a large number transitions. These measurements include several pQ and rQ sub-bands (and other sub-bands such as pP, rR) in the v9 fundamental band of 12C2H6 centered near 822 cm-1. Positions were measured for 2958 transitions and intensities for 3771 transitions. N2- and self-broadened half-width coefficients were determined for over 1700 transitions while temperature dependence exponents were retrieved for over 1350 of those transitions. Of these, many measurements (mostly line positions and intensities) belong to the v9+v4-v4 hot band, v9+2v4-2v4 hot band, 13C12CH6 v9 band and unidentified transitions. Forty-three high resolution (0.0016-0.005 cm-1) infrared laboratory absorption spectra recorded at temperatures between 148 and 298 K were fitted simultaneously to retrieve these parameters. Forty-one of these spectra were obtained in the temperature range of 211-298 K using the Bruker IFS 120HR interferometer located at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in Richland, Washington. Two additional spectra at 148 K were recorded using a new temperature stabilized cryogenic cell designed to work inside the sample compartment of the high resolution Bruker IFS 125HR interferometer of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in Pasadena California. The specialized cooling cell developed at Connecticut College and capable of achieving gas sample temperatures down to 70 K with a temperature stability and uniformity of better than ±0.05 K was employed to record the 148 K spectra. Constraints to intensity ratios, doublet separations, half-width coefficients and their temperature dependence exponents were required to

  2. Differential Spectral Imaging of the CN Violet Band in Laser-Induced Plasmas on TNT Simulant Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merten, J.; Jones, M.; Hoke, S.; Allen, S.

    2014-11-01

    Dual channel emission imaging of m-nitrobenzoic acid and benzoic acid was performed in order to visualize the morphology of the CN violet band emission of a TNT analogue. The CN channel was corrected for continuum emission using a simultaneously imaged background channel. Simultaneous dual channel imaging alleviated problems with shot to shot variation in the plasma morphology due to the friable substrates and showed differences between plasmas formed on the two targets.

  3. Realization of band gap shrinkage to the spectral characteristics of high-luminous-efficiency 658 nm AlGaInP/GaInP multiple quantum well lasers at room temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chackrabarti, Santosh; Zargar, Rayees A.; Bansal, Jyoti; Zaker, Tho-alfiqar A.; Hafiz, A. K.

    2016-08-01

    The temperature dependent spectral shifts in 658 nm AlGaInP multiple quantum well (MQW) red laser diodes due to band gap narrowing at room temperatures (5 °Csbnd 45 °C) is reported. The density of states effective mass approximation and the conduction band effective mass approximation are employed to formulate the carrier concentrations. The spectral shift mechanism is explored with a threshold current density of 42.28 kA/cm2 and a good characteristic temperature of 149 K. The photoluminescence (PL) peak intensity shifts towards the higher wavelength(red shift) and the full width at half maximum (FWHM) increases with the increase in temperature. The band gap narrowing value determined by a simple formula amounts to 67.4 meV and displays N1/3 dependence at higher densities. The carrier density dependence conveys that the red shift of the spectral emission is due to band gap narrowing.

  4. Detector-level spectral characterization of the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite long-wave infrared bands M15 and M16.

    PubMed

    Padula, Francis; Cao, Changyong

    2015-06-01

    The Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) sensor data record (SDR) product achieved validated maturity status in March 2014 after roughly two years of on-orbit characterization (S-NPP spacecraft launched on 28 October 2011). During post-launch analysis the VIIRS Sea Surface Temperature (SST) Environmental Data Record (EDR) team observed an anomalous striping pattern in the daytime SST data. Daytime SST retrievals use the two VIIRS long-wave infrared bands: M15 (10.7 μm) and M16 (11.8 μm). To assess possible root causes due to detector-level spectral response function (SRF) effects, a study was conducted to compare the radiometric response of the detector-level and operational-band averaged SRFs of VIIRS bands M15 and M16. The study used simulated hyperspectral blackbody radiance data and clear-sky ocean hyperspectral radiances under different atmospheric conditions. It was concluded that the SST product is likely impacted by small differences in detector-level SRFs and that if users require optimal radiometric performance, detector-level processing is recommended for both SDR and EDR products. Future work should investigate potential SDR product improvements through detector-level processing in support of the generation of Suomi NPP VIIRS climate quality SDRs. PMID:26192672

  5. Scaling effects on area-averaged fraction of vegetation cover derived using a linear mixture model with two-band spectral vegetation index constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obata, Kenta; Huete, Alfredo R.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the mechanisms underlying the scaling effects that apply to a fraction of vegetation cover (FVC) estimates derived using two-band spectral vegetation index (VI) isoline-based linear mixture models (VI isoline-based LMM). The VIs included the normalized difference vegetation index, a soil-adjusted vegetation index, and a two-band enhanced vegetation index (EVI2). This study focused in part on the monotonicity of an area-averaged FVC estimate as a function of spatial resolution. The proof of monotonicity yielded measures of the intrinsic area-averaged FVC uncertainties due to scaling effects. The derived results demonstrate that a factor ξ, which was defined as a function of "true" and "estimated" endmember spectra of the vegetated and nonvegetated surfaces, was responsible for conveying monotonicity or nonmonotonicity. The monotonic FVC values displayed a uniform increasing or decreasing trend that was independent of the choice of the two-band VI. Conditions under which scaling effects were eliminated from the FVC were identified. Numerical simulations verifying the monotonicity and the practical utility of the scaling theory were evaluated using numerical experiments applied to Landsat7-Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) data. The findings contribute to developing scale-invariant FVC estimation algorithms for multisensor and data continuity.

  6. Assessment of spectral band impact on intercalibration over desert sites using simulation based on EO-1 Hyperion data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henry, P.; Chander, G.; Fougnie, B.; Thomas, C.; Xiong, Xiaoxiong

    2013-01-01

    Since the beginning of the 1990s, stable desert sites have been used for the calibration monitoring of many different sensors. Many attempts at sensor intercalibration have been also conducted using these stable desert sites. As a result, site characterization techniques and the quality of intercalibration techniques have gradually improved over the years. More recently, the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites has recommended a list of reference pseudo-invariant calibration sites for frequent image acquisition by multiple agencies. In general, intercalibration should use well-known or spectrally flat reference. The reflectance profile of desert sites, however, might not be flat or well characterized (from a fine spectral point of view). The aim of this paper is to assess the expected accuracy that can be reached when using desert sites for intercalibration. In order to have a well-mastered estimation of different errors or error sources, this study is performed with simulated data from a hyperspectral sensor. Earth Observing-1 Hyperion images are chosen to provide the simulation input data. Two different cases of intercalibration are considered, namely, Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus with Terra Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Environmental Satellite MEdium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) with Aqua MODIS. The simulation results have confirmed that intercalibration accuracy of 1% to 2% can be achieved between sensors, provided there are a sufficient number of available measurements. The simulated intercalibrations allow explaining results obtained during real intercalibration exercises and to establish some recommendations for the use of desert sites for intercalibration.

  7. Influence of topological defects on the structure of G and D spectral bands of a single-layer carbon nanotube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ten, G. N.; Glukhova, O. E.; Slepchenkov, M. M.; Bobrinetskii, I. I.; Ibragimov, R. A.; Fedorov, G. E.; Baranov, V. I.

    2016-05-01

    A topological defect in a carbon nanotube grown by chemical vapor deposition from methane onto a silicon substrate with thermal oxide has been investigated and visualized (with a resolution of about 1.5 μm) by confocal Raman spectroscopy. Vibrational Raman spectra of molecular fragments of a single-wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) without a defect and with Stone-Wales defects (two pentagonal and two heptagonal cells) are calculated. The influence of defects on the shape of G-band components (G+ and G-), which makes it possible to determine the nanotube conductivity type, is considered.

  8. Revision of Spectral Parameters for the b- and γ-BANDS of Oxygen and Their Validation Using Atmospheric Spectra with the Sun as Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, I. E.; Rothman, L. S.; Toon, G. C.

    2011-06-01

    Until recently the B (B1ΣG+ (v=1)←X3Σ-G (v=0)) and γ (B1ΣG+ (v=2)←X3Σ-G (v=0)) bands of oxygen in the visible region had not been used extensively in satellite remote sensing. However, these bands (in particular the B-band) are now being considered for future satellite missions. In this light, it is important to make sure that the reference spectroscopic parameters are accurate enough to provide means of deducing important physical characteristics from the atmospheric spectra. The energy levels and intensities currently given for these bands in the HITRAN spectroscopic database had not been updated for over two decades. We have collected the best available measured line positions that involve the B1ΣG+ (v=1 and v=2) states for the three most abundant isotopologues of oxygen and performed a combined fit to obtain a consistent set of spectroscopic constants. These constants were then used to calculate the line positions. A careful review of the available intensity and line-shape measurements was also carried out, and new parameters were derived based on that review. In particular, line shift parameters that were not previously available were introduced. The new data have been tested in application to high-resolution atmospheric spectra measured with the Fourier transform spectrometers at Park Falls, WI (B-band) and Kitt Peak, AZ (γ-band) and have yielded substantial improvement. In addition, we report the first direct observation and analysis of the 16O18O lines in the γ-band. L.S. Rothman, I.E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D.Chris Benner, P.F. Bernath, et al, ``The HITRAN 2008 Molecular Spectroscopic Database,'' JQSRT 110, 532-572 (2009).

  9. Note: Effect of photodiode aluminum cathode frame on spectral sensitivity in the soft x-ray energy band

    SciTech Connect

    McGarry, M. B. Den Hartog, D. J.; Goetz, J. A.; Johnson, J.; Franz, P.

    2014-09-15

    Silicon photodiodes used for soft x-ray detection typically have a thin metal electrode partially covering the active area of the photodiode, which subtly alters the spectral sensitivity of the photodiode. As a specific example, AXUV4BST photodiodes from International Radiation Detectors have a 1.0 μm thick aluminum frame covering 19% of the active area of the photodiode, which attenuates the measured x-ray signal below ∼6 keV. This effect has a small systematic impact on the electron temperature calculated from measurements of soft x-ray bremsstrahlung emission from a high-temperature plasma. Although the systematic error introduced by the aluminum frame is only a few percent in typical experimental conditions on the Madison Symmetric Torus, it may be more significant for other instruments that use similar detectors.

  10. Note: Effect of photodiode aluminum cathode frame on spectral sensitivity in the soft x-ray energy band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGarry, M. B.; Franz, P.; Den Hartog, D. J.; Goetz, J. A.; Johnson, J.

    2014-09-01

    Silicon photodiodes used for soft x-ray detection typically have a thin metal electrode partially covering the active area of the photodiode, which subtly alters the spectral sensitivity of the photodiode. As a specific example, AXUV4BST photodiodes from International Radiation Detectors have a 1.0 μm thick aluminum frame covering 19% of the active area of the photodiode, which attenuates the measured x-ray signal below ˜6 keV. This effect has a small systematic impact on the electron temperature calculated from measurements of soft x-ray bremsstrahlung emission from a high-temperature plasma. Although the systematic error introduced by the aluminum frame is only a few percent in typical experimental conditions on the Madison Symmetric Torus, it may be more significant for other instruments that use similar detectors.

  11. VizieR Online Data Catalog: SDSS-III APOGEE H-band spectral line lists (Shetrone+, 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shetrone, M.; Bizyaev, D.; Lawler, J. E.; Allende Prieto, C.; Johnson, J. A.; Smith, V. V.; Cunha, K.; Holtzman, J.; Garcia Perez, A. E.; Meszaros, Sz.; Sobeck, J.; Zamora, O.; Garcia-Hernandez, D. A.; Souto, D.; Chojnowski, D.; Koesterke, L.; Majewski, S.; Zasowski, G.

    2016-01-01

    The Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) obtained high-resolution (R~22500) and high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N>100) spectra in the H band (1.51-1.70um), using the Sloan Foundation 2.5-m Telescope, for more than 100000 cool giant stars (see Zasowski et al. 2013AJ....146...81Z, for more information about targeting) spanning all components of the Milky Way. Stellar parameters and individual chemical abundances are derived from the combined APOGEE spectra (Nidever et al. 2015AJ....150..173N) with the APOGEE Stellar Parameters and Chemical Abundances Pipeline (ASPCAP), which is described in detail in Garcia Perez et al. (2015arXiv151007635G). (4 data files).

  12. Spectrally and Radiometrically Stable Wide-Band on Board Calibration Source for In-Flight Data Validation in Imaging Spectroscopy Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coles, J. B.; Richardson, Brandon S.; Eastwood, Michael L.; Sarture, Charles M.; Quetin, Gregory R.; Hernandez, Marco A.; Kroll, Linley A.; Nolte, Scott H.; Porter, Michael D.; Green, Robert O.

    2011-01-01

    The quality of the quantitative spectral data collected by an imaging spectrometer instrument is critically dependent upon the accuracy of the spectral and radiometric calibration of the system. In order for the collected spectra to be scientifically useful, the calibration of the instrument must be precisely known not only prior to but during data collection. Thus, in addition to a rigorous in-lab calibration procedure, the airborne instruments designed and built by the NASA/JPL Imaging Spectroscopy Group incorporate an on board calibrator (OBC) system with the instrument to provide auxiliary in-use system calibration data. The output of the OBC source illuminates a target panel on the backside of the foreoptics shutter both before and after data collection. The OBC and in-lab calibration data sets are then used to validate and post-process the collected spectral image data. The resulting accuracy of the spectrometer output data is therefore integrally dependent upon the stability of the OBC source. In this paper we describe the design and application of the latest iteration of this novel device developed at NASA/JPL which integrates a halogen-cycle source with a precisely designed fiber coupling system and a fiber-based intensity monitoring feedback loop. The OBC source in this Airborne Testbed Spectrometer was run over a period of 15 hours while both the radiometric and spectral stabilities of the output were measured and demonstrated stability to within 1% of nominal.

  13. Spectral shapes of Ar-broadened HCl lines in the fundamental band by classical molecular dynamics simulations and comparison with experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Tran, H.; Domenech, J.-L.

    2014-08-14

    Spectral shapes of isolated lines of HCl perturbed by Ar are investigated for the first time using classical molecular dynamics simulations (CMDS). Using reliable intermolecular potentials taken from the literature, these CMDS provide the time evolution of the auto-correlation function of the dipole moment, whose Fourier-Laplace transform leads to the absorption spectrum. In order to test these calculations, room temperature spectra of various lines in the fundamental band of HCl diluted in Ar are measured, in a large pressure range, with a difference-frequency laser spectrometer. Comparisons between measured and calculated spectra show that the CMDS are able to predict the large Dicke narrowing effect on the shape of HCl lines and to satisfactorily reproduce the shapes of HCl spectra at different pressures and for various rotational quantum numbers.

  14. Wavelength-resolved optical extinction measurements of aerosols using broad-band cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy over the spectral range of 445-480 nm.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Weixiong; Dong, Meili; Chen, Weidong; Gu, Xuejun; Hu, Changjin; Gao, Xiaoming; Huang, Wei; Zhang, Weijun

    2013-02-19

    Despite the significant progress in the measurements of aerosol extinction and absorption using spectroscopy approaches such as cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) and photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS), the widely used single-wavelength instruments may suffer from the interferences of gases absorption present in the real environment. A second instrument for simultaneous measurement of absorbing gases is required to characterize the effect of light extinction resulted from gases absorption. We present in this paper the development of a blue light-emitting diode (LED)-based incoherent broad-band cavity-enhanced spectroscopy (IBBCEAS) approach for broad-band measurements of wavelength-resolved aerosol extinction over the spectral range of 445-480 nm. This method also allows for simultaneous measurement of trace gases absorption present in the air sample using the same instrument. On the basis of the measured wavelength-dependent aerosol extinction cross section, the real part of the refractive index (RI) can be directly retrieved in a case where the RI does not vary strongly with the wavelength over the relevant spectral region. Laboratory-generated monodispersed aerosols, polystyrene latex spheres (PSL) and ammonium sulfate (AS), were employed for validation of the RI determination by IBBCEAS measurements. On the basis of a Mie scattering model, the real parts of the aerosol RI were retrieved from the measured wavelength-resolved extinction cross sections for both aerosol samples, which are in good agreement with the reported values. The developed IBBCEAS instrument was deployed for simultaneous measurements of aerosol extinction coefficient and NO(2) concentration in ambient air in a suburban site during two representative days. PMID:23320530

  15. Benefits of Red-Edge Spectral Band and Texture Features for the Object-based Classification using RapidEye sSatellite Image data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, H. O.; Yeom, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    Space-based remote sensing in agriculture is particularly relevant to issues such as global climate change, food security, and precision agriculture. Recent satellite missions have opened up new perspectives by offering high spatial resolution, various spectral properties, and fast revisit rates to the same regions. Here, we examine the utility of broadband red-edge spectral information in multispectral satellite image data for classifying paddy rice crops in South Korea. Additionally, we examine how object-based spectral features affect the classification of paddy rice growth stages. For the analysis, two seasons of RapidEye satellite image data were used. The results showed that the broadband red-edge information slightly improved the classification accuracy of the crop condition in heterogeneous paddy rice crop environments, particularly when single-season image data were used. This positive effect appeared to be offset by the multi-temporal image data. Additional texture information brought only a minor improvement or a slight decline, although it is well known to be advantageous for object-based classification in general. We conclude that broadband red-edge information derived from conventional multispectral satellite data has the potential to improve space-based crop monitoring. Because the positive or negative effects of texture features for object-based crop classification could barely be interpreted, the relationships between the textual properties and paddy rice crop parameters at the field scale should be further examined in depth.

  16. A near infrared angioscope visualizing lipid within arterial vessel wall based on multi-spectral image in 1.7 μm wavelength band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasegawa, Takemi; Sogawa, Ichiro; Suganuma, Hiroshi

    2013-03-01

    We have developed a near infrared (NIR) angioscope that takes multi-wavelength images in 1.7μm band for visualizing lipid-rich coronary plaques. The angioscope comprises light source, camera, and angioscopic catheter. The light source, containing a supercontinuum source and a switching optical filter, emits 1.60, 1.65, 1.73 and 1.76μm wavelengths sequentially in synchronization to the camera frame. The supercontinuum is seeded by 1.55μm wavelength pulses, whose spectrum is spread by an optical fiber with ring loops for reducing peak power so that light in 1.7μm band is generated efficiently. The switching filter contains 1×4 fiber-optic path switches and interferometric band-pass filters. The camera detects NIR images by an InGaAs/GaAsSb type-II quantum well sensor at 100 frames/s. The source wavelength and the camera frame are synchronized with each other by an FPGA. The angioscopic catheter, based on a silica-based image-guide designed for 1.7 μm wavelength, transmits 1300-pixel NIR images and has 0.73 mm outer diameter, which is compatible with the conventional angioscope and suited for continuous flushing to displace blood. We have also developed image processing software that calculates spectral contribution of lipid as lipid score at each pixel and create lipid-enhanced color images at 12 frames/s. The system also includes conventional visible light source and camera, and takes visible light images synchronously with the lipid-enhanced images. The performance of the angioscope for detecting lipid-rich plaque has been verified in bench tests using a plaque model made by injecting lard into excised swine carotid arterial vessel. The plaque models are imaged in water at working distances of 0 to 2 mm, and significantly distinguished from normal vessels.

  17. HST ROTATIONAL SPECTRAL MAPPING OF TWO L-TYPE BROWN DWARFS: VARIABILITY IN AND OUT OF WATER BANDS INDICATES HIGH-ALTITUDE HAZE LAYERS

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Hao; Apai, Dániel; Karalidi, Theodora; Marley, Mark S.; Saumon, Didier; Morley, Caroline V.; Buenzli, Esther; Artigau, Étienne; Radigan, Jacqueline; Metchev, Stanimir; Burgasser, Adam J.; Mohanty, Subhanjoy; Lowrance, Patrick J.; Showman, Adam P.; Flateau, Davin; Heinze, Aren N.

    2015-01-01

    We present time-resolved near-infrared spectroscopy of two L5 dwarfs, 2MASS J18212815+1414010 and 2MASS J15074759–1627386, observed with the Wide Field Camera 3 instrument on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). We study the wavelength dependence of rotation-modulated flux variations between 1.1 μm and 1.7 μm. We find that the water absorption bands of the two L5 dwarfs at 1.15 μm and 1.4 μm vary at similar amplitudes as the adjacent continuum. This differs from the results of previous HST observations of L/T transition dwarfs, in which the water absorption at 1.4 μm displays variations of about half of the amplitude at other wavelengths. We find that the relative amplitude of flux variability out of the water band with respect to that in the water band shows a increasing trend from the L5 dwarfs toward the early T dwarfs. We utilize the models of Saumon and Marley and find that the observed variability of the L5 dwarfs can be explained by the presence of spatially varying high-altitude haze layers above the condensate clouds. Therefore, our observations show that the heterogeneity of haze layers—the driver of the variability—must be located at very low pressures, where even the water opacity is negligible. In the near future, the rotational spectral mapping technique could be utilized for other atomic and molecular species to probe different pressure levels in the atmospheres of brown dwarfs and exoplanets and uncover both horizontal and vertical cloud structures.

  18. HST Rotational Spectral Mapping Of Two L-Type Brown Dwarfs: Variability In And Out Of Water Bands Indicates High-Altitude Haze Layers

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Yang, Hao; Apai, Dániel; Marley, Mark S.; Saumon, Didier; Morley, Caroline V.; Buenzli, Esther; Artigau, Étienne; Radigan, Jacqueline; Metchev, Stanimir; Burgasser, Adam J.; et al

    2014-12-17

    We present time-resolved near-infrared spectroscopy of two L5 dwarfs, 2MASS J18212815+1414010 and 2MASS J15074759-1627386, observed with the Wide Field Camera 3 instrument on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). We study the wavelength dependence of rotation-modulated flux variations between 1.1 μm and 1.7 μm. We find that the water absorption bands of the two L5 dwarfs at 1.15 μm and 1.4 μm vary at similar amplitudes as the adjacent continuum. This differs from the results of previous HST observations of L/T transition dwarfs, in which the water absorption at 1.4 μm displays variations of about half of the amplitude at othermore » wavelengths. We find that the relative amplitude of flux variability out of the water band with respect to that in the water band shows a increasing trend from the L5 dwarfs toward the early T dwarfs. We utilize the models of Saumon & Marley (2008) and find that the observed variability of the L5 dwarfs can be explained by the presence of spatially varying high-altitude haze layers above the condensate clouds. Therefore, our observations show that the heterogeneity of haze layers - the driver of the variability - must be located at very low pressures, where even the water opacity is negligible. In the near future, the rotational spectral mapping technique could be utilized for other atomic and molecular species to probe different pressure levels in the atmospheres of brown dwarfs and exoplanets and uncover both horizontal and vertical cloud structures.« less

  19. HST Rotational Spectral Mapping Of Two L-Type Brown Dwarfs: Variability In And Out Of Water Bands Indicates High-Altitude Haze Layers

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Hao; Apai, Dániel; Marley, Mark S.; Saumon, Didier; Morley, Caroline V.; Buenzli, Esther; Artigau, Étienne; Radigan, Jacqueline; Metchev, Stanimir; Burgasser, Adam J.; Mohanty, Subhanjoy; Lowrance, Patrick J.; Showman, Adam P.; Karalidi, Theodora; Flateau, Davin; Heinze, Aren N.

    2014-12-17

    We present time-resolved near-infrared spectroscopy of two L5 dwarfs, 2MASS J18212815+1414010 and 2MASS J15074759-1627386, observed with the Wide Field Camera 3 instrument on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). We study the wavelength dependence of rotation-modulated flux variations between 1.1 μm and 1.7 μm. We find that the water absorption bands of the two L5 dwarfs at 1.15 μm and 1.4 μm vary at similar amplitudes as the adjacent continuum. This differs from the results of previous HST observations of L/T transition dwarfs, in which the water absorption at 1.4 μm displays variations of about half of the amplitude at other wavelengths. We find that the relative amplitude of flux variability out of the water band with respect to that in the water band shows a increasing trend from the L5 dwarfs toward the early T dwarfs. We utilize the models of Saumon & Marley (2008) and find that the observed variability of the L5 dwarfs can be explained by the presence of spatially varying high-altitude haze layers above the condensate clouds. Therefore, our observations show that the heterogeneity of haze layers - the driver of the variability - must be located at very low pressures, where even the water opacity is negligible. In the near future, the rotational spectral mapping technique could be utilized for other atomic and molecular species to probe different pressure levels in the atmospheres of brown dwarfs and exoplanets and uncover both horizontal and vertical cloud structures.

  20. An Assessment of Differences Between Cloud Effective Particle Radius Retrievals for Marine Water Clouds from Three MODIS Spectral Bands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Platnick, Steven; Zhang, Zhibo

    2011-01-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) cloud product provides three separate 1 km resolution retrievals of cloud particle effective radii (r (sub e)), derived from 1.6, 2.1 and 3.7 micron band observations. In this study, differences among the three size retrievals for maritime water clouds (designated as r (sub e), 1.6 r (sub e), 2.1 and r (sub e),3.7) were systematically investigated through a series of case studies and global analyses. Substantial differences are found between r (sub e),3.7 and r (sub e),2.1 retrievals (delta r (sub e),3.7-2.l), with a strong dependence on cloud regime. The differences are typically small, within +/- 2 micron, over relatively spatially homogeneous coastal stratocumulus cloud regions. However, for trade wind cumulus regimes, r (sub e),3.7 was found to be substantially smaller than r (sub e),2.1, sometimes by more than 10 micron. The correlation of delta r(sub e),3.7-2.1 with key cloud parameters, including the cloud optical thickness (tau), r (sub e) and a cloud horizontal heterogeneity index (H-sigma) derived from 250 m resolution MODIS 0.86 micron band observations, were investigated using one month of MODIS Terra data. It was found that differences among the three r (sub e) retrievals for optically thin clouds (tau <5) are highly variable, ranging from - 15 micron to 10 micron, likely due to the large MODIS retrieval uncertainties when the cloud is thin. The delta r (sub e),3.7-2.1 exhibited a threshold-like dependence on both r (sub e),2.l and H-sigma. The re,3.7 is found to agree reasonably well with re,2.! when re,2.l is smaller than about 15J-Lm, but becomes increasingly smaller than re,2.1 once re,2.! exceeds this size. All three re retrievals showed little dependence when H-sigma < 0.3 (defined as standard deviation divided by the mean for the 250 m pixels within a 1 km pixel retrieval). However, for H-=sigma >0.3, both r (sub e),1.6 and r (sub e),2.1 were seen to increase quickly with H-sigma. On the

  1. A Broad-band Spectral and Timing Study of the X-Ray Binary System Centaurus X-3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Audley, Michael Damian

    1998-01-01

    This dissertation describes a multi-mission investigation of the high mass X-ray binary pulsar Centaurus X-3. Cen X-3 was observed with the Broad Band X-Ray Telescope (BBXRT) in December 1990. This was the first high-resolution solid state X-ray spectrometer to cover the iron K fluorescence region. The Fe K emission feature was resolved into two components for the first time. A broad 6.7 keV feature was found to be a blend of lines from Fe XXI-Fe XXVI with energies ranging from 6.6 to 6.9 keV due to photoionization of the companion's stellar wind. A narrow line at 6.4 keV due to fluorescence of iron in relatively low ionization states was also found. The quasi-periodic oscillations (QPO) at about 40 mHz were used to estimate the surface magnetic field of Cen X-3 as approx. 2.6 x 10(exp 12) G and to predict that there should be a cyclotron scattering resonance absorption feature (CSRF) near 30 keV. In order to further resolve the iron line complex and to investigate the pulse-phase dependence of the iron line intensities, Cen X-3 was observed with the Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics (ASCA). Using ASCA's state-of-the-art non-dispersive X-ray spectrometers the 6.4 keV fluorescent iron line was found to be pulsing while the intensities of the 6.7 and 6.9 keV recombination lines do not vary with pulse phase. This confirms that the 6.4 keV line is due to reflection by relatively neutral matter close to the neutron star while the recombination lines originate in the extended stellar wind. The continuum spectrum was found to be modified by reflection from matter close to the neutron star. Observations with the EXOSAT GSPC were used to search for a CSRF. The EXOSAT spectra were consistent with the presence of a CSRF but an unambiguous detection was not possible because of a lack of sensitivity at energies higher than the cyclotron energy. Cen X-3 was then observed with the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) and evidence for a CSRF at 25.1 +/- 0.3 keV was

  2. Spectral and temporal behavior of low mass X ray binaries observed with the Einstein SSS and MPC, and the Broad Band X Ray Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christian, Damian Joseph

    An extensive survey of 50 low mass X-ray binaries was carried out using the HEAO-2 Einstein Solid State Spectrometer data (0.5-4.5 keV) with the Monitor Proportional Counter data (1.2-20.0 keV). The SSS provided 160 eV resolution below 4.5 keV with about 200 sq cm of area, 100 times that of grating instruments on Einstein and EXOSAT. Additional observations were obtained with the Broad Band X-Ray Telescope (0.5-12 keV). Although LMXRB are some of the most luminous X-ray sources and include one of the first X-ray sources discovered, the nature of their emission regions has remained uncertain. Spectra were selected on the basis of intensity and fit with a set of simple and complex spectral models. For all the subclasses, including Eddington-limited bulge sources, bursters, dippers, the soft spectrum black hole candidates, and a few transients in decline, the spectra could be fit acceptably with combinations of thermal bremsstrahlung and blackbody spectra or a Comptonized spectrum and a blackbody. The results rule out optically thick disk models for the bright Z sources and power law models for bursters. The results suggest a progression of spectra as a function of X-ray luminosity for the bursters, Atoll, and Z sources, in which there are separate emission regions, one optically thin to scattering. The optically thick component that appears for higher luminosity may be due to a boundary layer or to high optical depth to scattering in the flow. A lower temperature blackbody indicated in some cases could be an expected contribution from the accretion disk. The soft spectrum sources are dominated by blackbody spectra, but for two, low effective area of emission is a problem for the black hole interpretation. There did not appear to be any clear selection between models for the sources with high binary orbit inclinations. Column densities for absorption by cold gas were determined simultaneously with the fits. They give distance estimates for the galactic bulge sources

  3. Spectral ladar as a UGV navigation sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powers, Michael A.; Davis, Christopher C.

    2011-06-01

    We demonstrate new results using our Spectral LADAR prototype, which highlight the benefits of this sensor for Unmanned Ground Vehicle (UGV) navigation applications. This sensor is an augmentation of conventional LADAR and uses a polychromatic source to obtain range-resolved 3D spectral point clouds. These point cloud images can be used to identify objects based on combined spatial and spectral features in three dimensions and at long standoff range. The Spectral LADAR transmits nanosecond supercontinuum pulses generated in a photonic crystal fiber. Backscatter from distant targets is dispersed into 25 spectral bands, where each spectral band is independently range resolved with multiple return pulse recognition. Our new results show that Spectral LADAR can spectrally differentiate hazardous terrain (mud) from favorable driving surfaces (dry ground). This is a critical capability, since in UGV contexts mud is potentially hazardous, requires modified vehicle dynamics, and is difficult to identify based on 3D spatial signatures. Additionally, we demonstrate the benefits of range resolved spectral imaging, where highly cluttered 3D images of scenes (e.g. containing camouflage, foliage) are spectrally unmixed by range separation and segmented accordingly. Spectral LADAR can achieve this unambiguously and without the need for stereo correspondence, sub-pixel detection algorithms, or multi-sensor registration and data fusion.

  4. Development of wide band gap p- a-SiOxCy:H using additional trimethylboron as carbon source gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Dong-Won; Sichanugrist, Porponth; Janthong, Bancha; Khan, Muhammad Ajmal; Niikura, Chisato; Konagai, Makoto

    2016-07-01

    We report p-type a-SiOxCy:H thin films which were fabricated by introducing additional Trimethylboron (TMB, B(CH3)3) doping gas into conventional standard p-type a-SiOx:H films. The TMB addition into the condition of p-a-SiOx:H improved optical bandgap from 2.14 to 2.20 eV without deterioration of electrical conductivity, which is promising for p-type window layer of thin film solar cells. The suggested p-a-SiOxCy:H films were applied in amorphous silicon solar cells and we found an increase of quantum efficiency at short wavelength regions due to wide bandgap of the new p-layer, and thus efficiency improvement from 10.4 to 10.7% was demonstrated in a-Si:H solar cell by employing the p-a-SiOxCy:H film. In case of a-SiOx:H cell, high open circuit voltage of 1.01 V was confirmed by using the suggested the p-a-SiOxCy:H film as a window layer. This new p-layer can be highly promising as a wide bandgap window layer to improve the performance of thin film silicon solar cells. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  5. Wide spectral band beam analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aharon, Oren

    2015-03-01

    The reality in laser beam profiling is that measurements are performed over a wide spectrum of wavelengths and power ranges. Many applications use multiple laser wavelengths with very different power levels, a fact which dictates a need for a better measuring tool. Rapid progress in the fiber laser area has increased the demand for lasers in the wavelength range of 900 - 1030 nm, while the telecommunication market has increased the demand for wavelength range of 1300nm - 1600 nm, on the other hand the silicone chip manufacturing and mass production requirements tend to lower the laser wavelength towards the 190nm region. In many cases there is a need to combine several lasers together in order to perform a specific task. A typical application is to combine one visible laser for pointing, with a different laser for material processing with a very different wavelength and power level. The visible laser enables accurate pointing before the second laser is operated. The beam profile of the intensity distribution is an important parameter that indicates how a laser beam will behave in an application. Currently a lab, where many different lasers are used, will find itself using various laser beam profilers from several vendors with different specifications and accuracies. It is the propose of this article to present a technological breakthrough in the area of detectors, electronics and optics allowing intricate measurements of lasers with different wavelength and with power levels that vary many orders of magnitude by a single beam profiler.

  6. Spectral and Temporal Behavior of Low Mass X-ray Binaries Observed by the Einstein SSS and MPC, and the Broad Band X-ray Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christian, D. J.; Swank, J. H.

    1992-12-01

    An extensive survey of 50 low mass X-ray binaries was carried out using the HEAO-2 Einstein Solid State Spectrometer data (0.5-4.5 keV) with the Monitor Proportional Counter data (1.2-20.0 keV) and the Broad Band X-Ray Telescope (BBXRT) (0.5-12 keV). Spectra were selected on the basis of intensity and fit with a set of simple and complex spectral models. For all the subclasses, including Eddington-limited bulge sources, bursters, dippers, the soft spectrum black hole candidates, and a few transients in decline, the spectra could be fit acceptably with combinations of thermal bremsstrahlung and blackbody spectra or a Comptonized spectrum and a blackbody. The results rule out optically thick disk models for the bright Z sources and power law models for bursters. There is a progression of spectra as a function of X-ray luminosity for the bursters, Atoll and Z sources. Interpretation is discussed in terms of separate emission regions, one due to radial accretion onto a neutron star and the optically thick component that appears for higher luminosity due to a boundary layer or to high optical depth to scattering in the flow. A lower temperature blackbody required in some cases could be an expected contribution from the accretion disk. The soft spectrum sources are dominated by blackbody spectra, but for two, low effective area is a problem for the black hole interpretation. The strongest of previously reported low energy X-ray lines due to OVIII or Fe L transitions are confirmed. Similar line emission is seen for several other sources, in particular X0614+091. The photoionized gas in the inner part of an accretion disk corona can give Fe K lines from Fe XXV. BBXRT obtained upper limits for X0614+091 and M15 which are consistent with the coronal model.

  7. Spectral Line Parameters Including Temperature Dependences of Self- and Air-Broadening in the 2 (left arrow) 0 Band of CO at 2.3 micrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devi, V. Malathy; Benner, D. Chris; Smith, M. A. H.; Mantz, A. W.; Sung, K.; Brown, L. R.; Predoi-Cross, A.

    2012-01-01

    Temperature dependences of pressure-broadened half-width and pressure-induced shift coefficients along with accurate positions and intensities have been determined for transitions in the 2<--0 band of C-12 O-16 from analyzing high-resolution and high signal-to-noise spectra recorded with two different Fourier transform spectrometers. A total of 28 spectra, 16 self-broadened and 12 air-broadened, recorded using high- purity (greater than or equal to 99.5% C-12-enriched) CO samples and CO diluted with dry air(research grade) at different temperatures and pressures, were analyzed simultaneously to maximize the accuracy of the retrieved parameters. The sample temperatures ranged from 150 to 298K and the total pressures varied between 5 and 700 Torr. A multispectrum nonlinear least squares spectrum fitting technique was used to adjust the rovibrational constants (G, B, D, etc.) and intensity parameters (including Herman-Wallis coefficients), rather than determining individual line positions and intensities. Self-and air-broadened Lorentz half-width coefficients, their temperature dependence exponents, self- and air-pressure-induced shift coefficients, their temperature dependences, self- and air-line mixing coefficients, their temperature dependences and speed dependence have been retrieved from the analysis. Speed-dependent line shapes with line mixing employing off-diagonal relaxation matrix element formalism were needed to minimize the fit residuals. This study presents a precise and complete set of spectral line parameters that consistently reproduce the spectrum of carbon monoxide over terrestrial atmospheric conditions.

  8. THE SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTION OF POST-STARBURST GALAXIES IN THE NEWFIRM MEDIUM-BAND SURVEY: A LOW CONTRIBUTION FROM TP-AGB STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Kriek, Mariska; Conroy, Charlie; Labbe, Ivo; Whitaker, Katherine E.; Van Dokkum, Pieter G.; Brammer, Gabriel B.; Muzzin, Adam; Franx, Marijn; Quadri, Ryan F.; Illingworth, Garth D.; Rudnick, Gregory

    2010-10-10

    Stellar population synthesis (SPS) models are a key ingredient of many galaxy evolution studies. Unfortunately, the models are still poorly calibrated for certain stellar evolution stages. Of particular concern is the treatment of the thermally pulsing asymptotic giant branch (TP-AGB) phase, as different implementations lead to systematic differences in derived galaxy properties. Post-starburst galaxies are a promising calibration sample, as TP-AGB stars are thought to be most prominently visible during this phase. Here, we use post-starburst galaxies in the NEWFIRM medium-band survey to assess different SPS models. The available photometry allows the selection of a homogeneous and well-defined sample of 62 post-starburst galaxies at 0.7 {approx_lt} z {approx_lt} 2.0, from which we construct a well-sampled composite spectral energy distribution (SED) over the range 1200-40000 A. The SED is well fit by the Bruzual and Charlot SPS models, while the Maraston models do not reproduce the rest-frame optical and near-infrared parts of the SED simultaneously. When the fitting is restricted to {lambda} < 6000 A, the Maraston models overpredict the near-infrared luminosity, implying that these models give too much weight to TP-AGB stars. Using the flexible SPS models by Conroy et al. and assuming solar metallicity, we find that the contribution of TP-AGB stars to the integrated SED is a factor of {approx}3 lower than predicted by the latest Padova TP-AGB models. Whether this is due to lower bolometric luminosities, shorter lifetimes, and/or heavy dust obscuration of TP-AGB stars remains to be addressed. Altogether, our data demand a low contribution from TP-AGB stars to the SED of post-starburst galaxies.

  9. Interface-engineering additives of poly(oxyethylene tridecyl ether) for low-band gap polymer solar cells consisting of PCDTBT:PCBM₇₀ bulk-heterojunction layers.

    PubMed

    Huh, Yoon Ho; Park, Byoungchoo

    2013-01-14

    We herein report on the improved photovoltaic (PV) effects of using a polymer bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) layer that consists of a low-band gap electron donor polymer of poly(N-9'-heptadecanyl-2,7-carbazole-alt-5,5-(4',7'-di-2-thienyl-2',1',3'-benzothiadiazole)) (PCDTBT) and an acceptor of [6,6]-phenyl C₇₁ butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM₇₀), doped with an interface-engineering surfactant additive of poly(oxyethylene tridecyl ether) (PTE). The presence of an interface-engineering additive in the PV layer results in excellent performance; the addition of PTE to a PCDTBT:PCBM₇₀ system produces a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 6.0%, which is much higher than that of a reference device without the additive (4.9%). We attribute this improvement to an increased charge carrier lifetime, which is likely to be the result of the presence of PTE molecules oriented at the interfaces between the BHJ PV layer and the anode and cathode, as well as at the interfaces between the phase-separated BHJ domains. Our results suggest that the incorporation of the PTE interface-engineering additive in the PCDTBT:PCBM₇₀ PV layer results in a functional composite system that shows considerable promise for use in efficient polymer BHJ PV cells. PMID:23389265

  10. Line selection and sensitivity analysis for oxygen sensing in the 1.26-1.27 micron spectral band for the ASCENDS mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, N.; Browell, E. V.; Zaccheo, T. S.; Karpowicz, B.

    2010-12-01

    The National Research Council’s (NRC) Decadal Survey (DS) of Earth Science and Applications from Space has identified the Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) as an important atmospheric science mission. The CO2 mixing ratio needs to be measured to a precision of 0.5 percent of background or better (slightly less than 2 ppm) at 100-km horizontal resolution overland and 200-km resolution over oceans. To meet this goal, the ASCENDS mission requires simultaneous laser remote sensing of CO2 and O2 in order to convert CO2 column number densities to average column CO2 mixing ratios (XCO2). As such, the CO2 column number density and the O2 column number density will be utilized to derive the average XCO2 column. NASA Langley Research Center, working with its partners, is developing O2 lidar technology in the 1.26-1.27-μm band for surface pressure measurements. To obtain XCO2 with LAS technique the simultaneous measurement of the CO2 column number density, the O2 column number density for converting the CO2 column number density to XCO2 and the total path length of the measurement are required. The O2 LAS operating at 1.26 μm will be used to convert CO2 number density to mixing ratio. The 1.26-μm spectral band was chosen due to architectural advantage from wavelengths being close to 1.57-μm CO2 LAS column measurements and the favorable spectroscopic characteristics of the O2 absorption line parameters. Furthermore, the surface and atmospheric scattering characteristics from aerosols and thin clouds are nearly the same as for 1.26-μm O2 measurements and the 1.57-μm CO2 measurements. One or more "on-line" wavelengths in the 1.26-μm O2 absorption band have to be carefully chosen to eliminate ambient influences on them when used in conjunction with the integrated path differential absorption (IPDA) technique. The O2 model optical depth calculation is very sensitive to knowledge of the transmitted wavelengths and to the choice of

  11. 3-T Breast Diffusion-Weighted MRI by Echo-Planar Imaging with Spectral Spatial Excitation or with Additional Spectral Inversion Recovery: An In Vivo Comparison of Image Quality

    PubMed Central

    Jacobsen, Megan C.; Dogan, Basak E.; Adrada, Beatriz E.; Plaxco, Jeri Sue; Wei, Wei; Son, Jong Bum; Hazle, John D.; Ma, Jingfei

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare conventional DWI with spectral spatial excitation (cDWI) and an enhanced DWI with additional adiabatic spectral inversion recovery (eDWI) for 3T breast MRI. Methods Twenty-four patients were enrolled in the study with both cDWI and eDWI. Three breast radiologists scored cDWI and eDWI images of each patient for fat-suppression quality, geometric distortion, visibility of normal structure and biopsy-proven lesions, and overall image quality. SNR, CNR and ADC for evaluable tissues were measured. Statistical tests were performed for qualitative and quantitative comparisons. Results eDWI yielded significantly higher CNR and SNR on a lesion and higher glandular CNR and SNR, and muscle SNR on a patient basis. eDWI also yielded significantly higher qualitative scores in all categories. No significant difference was found in ADC values. Conclusion eDWI provided superior image quality and higher CNR and SNR on a lesion basis. eDWI can replace cDWI for 3T breast DWI. PMID:25695868

  12. Results and Lessons from a Decade of Terra MODIS On-Orbit Spectral Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xiong, X.; Choi, T.; Che, N.; Wang, Z.; Dodd, J.

    2010-01-01

    Since its launch in December 1999, the NASA EOS Terra MODIS has successfully operated for more than a decade. MODIS makes observations in 36 spectral bands from visible (VIS) to longwave infrared (LWIR) and at three nadir spatial resolutions: 250m (2 bands), 500m (5 bands), and 1km (29 bands). In addition to its on-board calibrators designed for the radiometric calibration, MODIS was built with a unique device, called the spectro-radiometric calibration assembly (SRCA). It can be configured in three different modes: radiometric, spatial, and spectral. When it is operated in the spectral modes, the SRCA can monitor changes in Sensor spectral performance for the VIS and near-infrared (NIR) spectral bands. For more than 10 years, the SRCA operation has continued to provide valuable information for MODIS on-orbit spectral performance. This paper briefly describes SRCA on-orbit operation and calibration activities; it presents decade-long spectral characterization results for Terra MODIS VIS and NIR spectral bands in terms of chances in their center wavelengths (CW) and bandwidths (BW). It is shown that the SRCA on-orbit wavelength calibration capability remains satisfactory. For most spectral bands, the changes in CW and BW are less than 0.5 and 1 nm, respectively. Results and lessons from Terra MODIS on-orbit spectral characterization have and will continue to benefit its successor, Aqua MODIS, and other future missions.

  13. No guard-band wavelength translation of Nyquist OTDM-WDM signal for spectral defragmentation in an elastic add-drop node.

    PubMed

    Tan, Hung Nguyen; Tanizawa, Ken; Inoue, Takashi; Kurosu, Takayuki; Namiki, Shu

    2013-09-01

    We demonstrate a seamless spectral defragmentation in an elastic all-optical add-drop node based on wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) channels of Nyquist optical time division multiplexing (OTDM) signal. A 172 Gbaud Nyquist OTDM signal occupying a 215 GHz range is elastically shifted adjacent to its neighboring channel, completely filling a variable spectral gap caused by the dropped channel. The frequency shift is done in a dual-stage polarization-diversity four wave mixing-based converter using polarization-maintaining highly nonlinear fiber. The spectrally defragmented signals are successfully transmitted over a 80 km fiber link with BER<10(-9). PMID:23988936

  14. Wideband thulium-holmium-doped fiber source with combined forward and backward amplified spontaneous emission at 1600-2300  nm spectral band.

    PubMed

    Honzatko, Pavel; Baravets, Yauhen; Kasik, Ivan; Podrazky, Ondrej

    2014-06-15

    We have experimentally demonstrated two extremely wideband amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) sources. High bandwidth is achieved by combining the backward and forward ASEs generated in thulium-holmium-doped fiber using appropriate wideband couplers. The ASE source optimized for flat spectral power density covers a spectral range from 1527 to 2171 nm at a -10  dB level. The ASE source optimized for spectroscopy features an enhancement with respect to single-mode fiber (SMF) coupled halogen lamps within the spectral range from 1540 nm to more than 2340 nm covering the 800 nm bandwidth. PMID:24978559

  15. The V3, V4 and V6 bands of formaldehyde: A spectral catalog from 900 cm(-1) to 1580 cm(-1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nadler, Shachar; Reuter, D. C.; Daunt, S. J.; Johns, J. W. C.

    1988-01-01

    The results of a complete high resolution study of the three vibration-rotation bands v sub 3, v sub 4, and V sub 6 using both TDLs and FT-IR spectroscopy are presented. The reults are given in terms of a table of over 8000 predicted transition frequencies and strengths. A plot of the predicted and calculated spectra is shown. Over 3000 transitions were assigned and used in the simultaneous analysis of the three bands. The simultaneous fit permitted a rigorous study of Coriolis and other type iterations among bands yielding improved molecular constants. Line intensities of 28 transitions measured by a TDL and 20 transitions from FTS data were used, along with the eigenvectors from the frequency fitting, in a least squares analysis to evaluate the band strengths.

  16. Spectral analysis on origination of the bands at 437 nm and 475.5 nm of chlorophyll fluorescence excitation spectrum in Arabidopsis chloroplasts.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Lizhang; Wang, Yongqiang; Zhou, Jun

    2016-05-01

    Chlorophyll fluorescence has been often used as an intrinsic optical molecular probe to study photosynthesis. In this study, the origin of bands at 437 and 475.5 nm in the chlorophyll fluorescence excitation spectrum for emission at 685 nm in Arabidopsis chloroplasts was investigated using various optical analysis methods. The results revealed that this fluorescence excitation spectrum was related to the absorption characteristics of pigment molecules in PSII complexes. Moreover, the excitation band centred at 475.5 nm had a blue shift, but the excitation band at 437 nm changed relatively less due to induction of non-photochemical quenching (NPQ). Furthermore, fluorescence emission spectra showed that this blue shift occurred when excitation energy transfer from both chlorophyll b (Chl b) and carotenoids (Cars) to chlorophyll a (Chl a) was blocked. These results demonstrate that the excitation band at 437 nm was mainly contributed by Chl a, while the excitation band at 475.5 nm was mainly contributed by Chl b and Cars. The chlorophyll fluorescence excitation spectrum, therefore, could serve as a useful tool to describe specific characteristics of light absorption and energy transfer between light-harvesting pigments. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26358732

  17. a Band Selection Method for Sub-Pixel Target Detection in Hyperspectral Images Based on Laboratory and Field Reflectance Spectral Comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharifi hashjin, S.; Darvishi, A.; Khazai, S.; Hatami, F.; Jafari houtki, M.

    2016-06-01

    In recent years, developing target detection algorithms has received growing interest in hyperspectral images. In comparison to the classification field, few studies have been done on dimension reduction or band selection for target detection in hyperspectral images. This study presents a simple method to remove bad bands from the images in a supervised manner for sub-pixel target detection. The proposed method is based on comparing field and laboratory spectra of the target of interest for detecting bad bands. For evaluation, the target detection blind test dataset is used in this study. Experimental results show that the proposed method can improve efficiency of the two well-known target detection methods, ACE and CEM.

  18. Astrophysical oscillator strengths for TiO and VO bands from spectrum synthesis of spectral types M1 III to M7 III

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brett, J. M.

    1990-05-01

    For application to differential studies of molecular bandstrengths in red giant atmospheres, a comprehensive set of straight mean opacity data for O-rich stars was compiled. This includes original opacities for the TiO and VO A-X and B-X band systems. This paper reports the calibration of the opacity code which has produced a set of self-consistent astrophysical oscillator strengths for the TiO gamma, delta, phi, epsilon, and VO A-X and B-X systems. By combining these values with the known laboratory values of f(e) for the TiO delta system, estimates of the absolute value of f(e) for the TiO epsilon and VO bands are made. These estimates will be useful until laboratory measurements of the transition strengths of these astrophysically important band systems are available.

  19. Water Body Extraction from Multi Spectral Image by Spectral Pattern Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, D. D.

    2012-07-01

    Water is one of the vital components of the Earth environment which needs to be frequently monitored. Satellite multispectral remote sensing image has been used over decades for water body extraction. Methodology of water body extraction can be summarized to three groups: feature extraction, supervised and unsupervised classification and data fusion. These methods, however, are of pure mathematical and statistical approach and little of them explore essential characteristics of multispectral image which is based on ground object radiance absorption behaviour in each sensing spectral bands. The spectral absorption characteristics of water body in visible and infrared bands differ very much from the other ground objects. They depend only on the used spectral bands and can be considered as invariant and sensor independent. In this paper the author proposed an application of spectral pattern analysis for water body extraction using spectral bands green, red, near infrared NIR and short wave infrared SWIR. The proposed algorithm has been used for water body extraction by Spot 5 and Landsat 5 TM images. Ground truth validation was carried out in Hanoi City. The advantage of this algorithm does not base on water body extraction only but it allows to asses also water quality. Different level of turbidity and organic matter contents could be classified by using additional index.

  20. Measurement of the low energy spectral contribution in coincidence with valence band (VB) energy levels of Ag(100) using VB-VB coincidence spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gladen, R. W.; Joglekar, P. V.; Lim, Z. H.; Shastry, K.; Hulbert, S. L.; Weiss, A. H.

    A set of coincidence measurements were obtained for the study and measurement of the electron contribution arising from the inter-valence band (VB) transitions along with the inelastically scattered VB electron contribution. These Auger-unrelated contributions arise in the Auger spectrum (Ag 4p NVV) obtained using Auger Photoelectron Coincidence Spectroscopy (APECS). The measured Auger-unrelated contribution can be eliminated from Auger spectrum to obtain the spectrum related to Auger. In our VB-VB coincidence measurement, a photon beam of energy 180eV was used to probe the Ag(100) sample. The coincidence spectrum was obtained using two Cylindrical Mirror Analyzers (CMA's). The scan CMA measured the low energy electron contribution in the energy range 0-70eV in coincidence with VB electrons measured by the fixed CMA. In this talk, we present the data obtained for VB-VB coincidence at the valence band energy of 171eV along with the coincidence measurements in the energy range of 4p core and valence band. NSF DMR 0907679, NSF Award Number: 1213727. Use of the National Synchrotron Light Source, Brookhaven National Laboratory, was supported by the U.S. DOE, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, under Contract No. DEAC02-98CH10886.

  1. A sampling procedure to guide the collection of narrow-band, high-resolution spatially and spectrally representative reflectance data. [satellite imagery of earth resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brand, R. R.; Barker, J. L.

    1983-01-01

    A multistage sampling procedure using image processing, geographical information systems, and analytical photogrammetry is presented which can be used to guide the collection of representative, high-resolution spectra and discrete reflectance targets for future satellite sensors. The procedure is general and can be adapted to characterize areas as small as minor watersheds and as large as multistate regions. Beginning with a user-determined study area, successive reductions in size and spectral variation are performed using image analysis techniques on data from the Multispectral Scanner, orbital and simulated Thematic Mapper, low altitude photography synchronized with the simulator, and associated digital data. An integrated image-based geographical information system supports processing requirements.

  2. Progressive Band Selection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Kevin; Chang, Chein-I

    2009-01-01

    Progressive band selection (PBS) reduces spectral redundancy without significant loss of information, thereby reducing hyperspectral image data volume and processing time. Used onboard a spacecraft, it can also reduce image downlink time. PBS prioritizes an image's spectral bands according to priority scores that measure their significance to a specific application. Then it uses one of three methods to select an appropriate number of the most useful bands. Key challenges for PBS include selecting an appropriate criterion to generate band priority scores, and determining how many bands should be retained in the reduced image. The image's Virtual Dimensionality (VD), once computed, is a reasonable estimate of the latter. We describe the major design details of PBS and test PBS in a land classification experiment.

  3. Accurate band-to-band registration of AOTF imaging spectrometer using motion detection technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Pengwei; Zhao, Huijie; Jin, Shangzhong; Li, Ningchuan

    2016-05-01

    This paper concerns the problem of platform vibration induced band-to-band misregistration with acousto-optic imaging spectrometer in spaceborne application. Registrating images of different bands formed at different time or different position is difficult, especially for hyperspectral images form acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF) imaging spectrometer. In this study, a motion detection method is presented using the polychromatic undiffracted beam of AOTF. The factors affecting motion detect accuracy are analyzed theoretically, and calculations show that optical distortion is an easily overlooked factor to achieve accurate band-to-band registration. Hence, a reflective dual-path optical system has been proposed for the first time, with reduction of distortion and chromatic aberration, indicating the potential of higher registration accuracy. Consequently, a spectra restoration experiment using additional motion detect channel is presented for the first time, which shows the accurate spectral image registration capability of this technique.

  4. Mean centering of ratio spectra and concentration augmented classical least squares in a comparative approach for quantitation of spectrally overlapped bands of antihypertensives in formulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hegazy, Maha Abdel Monem; Fayez, Yasmin Mohammed

    2015-04-01

    Two different methods manipulating spectrophotometric data have been developed, validated and compared. One is capable of removing the signal of any interfering components at the selected wavelength of the component of interest (univariate). The other includes more variables and extracts maximum information to determine the component of interest in the presence of other components (multivariate). The applied methods are smart, simple, accurate, sensitive, precise and capable of determination of spectrally overlapped antihypertensives; hydrochlorothiazide (HCT), irbesartan (IRB) and candesartan (CAN). Mean centering of ratio spectra (MCR) and concentration residual augmented classical least-squares method (CRACLS) were developed and their efficiency was compared. CRACLS is a simple method that is capable of extracting the pure spectral profiles of each component in a mixture. Correlation was calculated between the estimated and pure spectra and was found to be 0.9998, 0.9987 and 0.9992 for HCT, IRB and CAN, respectively. The methods were successfully determined the three components in bulk powder, laboratory-prepared mixtures, and combined dosage forms. The results obtained were compared statistically with each other and to those of the official methods.

  5. Spectral characterization of biophysical characteristics in a boreal forest: Relationship between Thematic Mapper band reflectance and leaf area index for Aspen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badhwar, G.; Macdonald, R. B.; Hall, F. G.; Carnes, J. G.

    1984-01-01

    Results from analysis of a data set of simultaneous measurements of Thematic Mapper band reflectance and leaf area index are presented. The measurements were made over pure stands of Aspen in the Superior National Forest of northern Minnesota. The analysis indicates that the reflectance may be sensitive to the leaf area index of the Aspen early in the season. The sensitivity disappears as the season progresses. Based on the results of model calculations, an explanation for the observed relationship is developed. The model calculations indicate that the sensitivity of the reflectance to the Aspen overstory depends on the amount of understory present.

  6. Spectral characterization of biophysical characteristics in a boreal forest - Relationship between Thematic Mapper band reflectance and leaf area index for Aspen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badhwar, G. D.; Macdonald, R. B.; Hall, F. G.; Carnes, J. G.

    1986-01-01

    Results from analysis of a data set of simultaneous measurements of Thematic Mapper band reflectance and leaf area index are presented. The measurements were made over pure stands of Aspen in the Superior National Forest of northern Minnesota. The analysis indicates that the reflectance may be sensitive to the leaf area index of the Aspen early in the season. The sensitivity disappears as the season progresses. Based on the results of model calculations, an explanation for the observed relationship is developed. The model calculations indicate that the sensitivity of the reflectance to the Aspen overstory depends on the amount of understory present.

  7. Using Lunar Observations to Assess Terra MODIS Thermal Emissive Bands Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Chen, Hongda

    2010-01-01

    MODIS collects data in both the reflected solar and thermal emissive regions using 36 spectral bands. The center wavelengths of these bands cover the3.7 to 14.24 micron region. In addition to using its on-board calibrators (OBC), which include a full aperture solar diffuser (SD) and a blackbody (BB), lunar observations have been scheduled on a regular basis to support both Terra and Aqua MODIS on-orbit calibration and characterization. This paper provides an overview of MODIS lunar observations and their applications for the reflective solar bands (RSB) and thermal emissive bands (TEB) with an emphasis on potential calibration improvements of MODIS band 21 at 3.96 microns. This spectral band has detectors set with low gains to enable fire detection. Methodologies are proposed and examined on the use of lunar observations for the band 21 calibration. Also presented in this paper are preliminary results derived from Terra MODIS lunar observations and remaining challenging issues.

  8. A comprehensive comparative test of seven widely used spectral synthesis models against multi-band photometry of young massive-star clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wofford, A.; Charlot, S.; Bruzual, G.; Eldridge, J. J.; Calzetti, D.; Adamo, A.; Cignoni, M.; de Mink, S. E.; Gouliermis, D. A.; Grasha, K.; Grebel, E. K.; Lee, J. C.; Östlin, G.; Smith, L. J.; Ubeda, L.; Zackrisson, E.

    2016-04-01

    We test the predictions of spectral synthesis models based on seven different massive-star prescriptions against Legacy ExtraGalactic UV Survey (LEGUS) observations of eight young massive clusters in two local galaxies, NGC 1566 and NGC 5253, chosen because predictions of all seven models are available at the published galactic metallicities. The high angular resolution, extensive cluster inventory, and full near-ultraviolet to near-infrared photometric coverage make the LEGUS data set excellent for this study. We account for both stellar and nebular emission in the models and try two different prescriptions for attenuation by dust. From Bayesian fits of model libraries to the observations, we find remarkably low dispersion in the median E(B - V) (˜0.03 mag), stellar masses (˜104 M⊙), and ages (˜1 Myr) derived for individual clusters using different models, although maximum discrepancies in these quantities can reach 0.09 mag and factors of 2.8 and 2.5, respectively. This is for ranges in median properties of 0.05-0.54 mag, 1.8-10 × 104 M⊙, and 1.6-40 Myr spanned by the clusters in our sample. In terms of best fit, the observations are slightly better reproduced by models with interacting binaries and least well reproduced by models with single rotating stars. Our study provides a first quantitative estimate of the accuracies and uncertainties of the most recent spectral synthesis models of young stellar populations, demonstrates the good progress of models in fitting high-quality observations, and highlights the needs for a larger cluster sample and more extensive tests of the model parameter space.

  9. Switching of the photonic band gap in three-dimensional film photonic crystals based on opal-VO{sub 2} composites in the 1.3-1.6 {mu}m spectral range

    SciTech Connect

    Pevtsov, A. B. Grudinkin, S. A.; Poddubny, A. N.; Kaplan, S. F.; Kurdyukov, D. A.; Golubev, V. G.

    2010-12-15

    The parameters of three-dimensional photonic crystals based on opal-VO{sub 2} composite films in the 1.3-1.6 {mu}m spectral range important for practical applications (Telecom standard) are numerically calculated. For opal pores, the range of filling factors is established (0.25-0.6) wherein the composite exhibits the properties of a three-dimensional insulator photonic crystal. On the basis of the opal-VO{sub 2} composites, three-dimensional photonic film crystals are synthesized with specified parameters that provide a maximum shift of the photonic band gap in the vicinity of the wavelength {approx}1.5 {mu}m ({approx}170 meV) at the semiconductor-metal transition in VO{sub 2}.

  10. Spectral Measurements of Meteorite Powders: Implications for 433 Eros

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burbine, T. H.; McCoy, T. J.; Jarosewich, E.; Sunshine, J. M.

    2002-01-01

    We are re-examining the regions defined by different meteorite classes in Band Area Ratio plots by measuring more meteorite samples. These data will allow us to better determine asteroid compositions from spectral measurements. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  11. High-resolution grazing-incidence grating spectrometer for temperature measurements of low-Z ions emitting in the 100–300 Å spectral band

    SciTech Connect

    Widmann, K. Beiersdorfer, P.; Magee, E. W.; Boyle, D. P.; Kaita, R.; Majeski, R.

    2014-11-15

    We have constructed a high-resolution grazing-incidence spectrometer designed for measuring the ion temperature of low-Z elements, such as Li{sup +} or Li{sup 2+}, which radiate near 199 Å and 135 Å, respectively. Based on measurements at the Livermore Electron Beam Ion Trap we have shown that the instrumental resolution is better than 48 mÅ at the 200 Å setting and better than 40 mÅ for the 135-Å range. Such a high spectral resolution corresponds to an instrumental limit for line-width based temperature measurements of about 45 eV for the 199 Å Li{sup +} and 65 eV for the 135 Å Li{sup 2+} lines. Recently obtained survey spectra from the Lithium Tokamak Experiment at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory show the presence of these lithium emission lines and the expected core ion temperature of approximately 70 eV is sufficiently high to demonstrate the feasibility of utilizing our high-resolution spectrometer as an ion-temperature diagnostic.

  12. Cirrus cloud optical and microphysical property retrievals from eMAS during SEAC4RS using bi-spectral reflectance measurements within the 1.88 µm water vapor absorption band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Kerry; Platnick, Steven; Arnold, G. Thomas; Holz, Robert E.; Veglio, Paolo; Yorks, John; Wang, Chenxi

    2016-04-01

    Previous bi-spectral imager retrievals of cloud optical thickness (COT) and effective particle radius (CER) based on the Nakajima and King (1990) approach, such as those of the operational MODIS cloud optical property retrieval product (MOD06), have typically paired a non-absorbing visible or near-infrared wavelength, sensitive to COT, with an absorbing shortwave or mid-wave infrared wavelength sensitive to CER. However, in practice it is only necessary to select two spectral channels that exhibit a strong contrast in cloud particle absorption. Here it is shown, using eMAS observations obtained during NASA's SEAC4RS field campaign, that selecting two absorbing wavelength channels within the broader 1.88 µm water vapor absorption band, namely the 1.83 and 1.93 µm channels that have sufficient differences in ice crystal single scattering albedo, can yield COT and CER retrievals for thin to moderately thick single-layer cirrus that are reasonably consistent with other solar and IR imager-based and lidar-based retrievals. A distinct advantage of this channel selection for cirrus cloud retrievals is that the below-cloud water vapor absorption minimizes the surface contribution to measured cloudy top-of-atmosphere reflectance, in particular compared to the solar window channels used in heritage retrievals such as MOD06. This reduces retrieval uncertainty resulting from errors in the surface reflectance assumption and reduces the frequency of retrieval failures for thin cirrus clouds.

  13. Spectral characterization, optical band gap calculations and DNA binding of some binuclear Schiff-base metal complexes derived from 2-amino-ethanoic acid and acetylacetone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussien, Mostafa A.; Nawar, Nagwa; Radwan, Fatima M.; Hosny, Nasser Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    Bi-nuclear metal complexes derived from the reaction of Cu(II), Co(II), Ni(II) and Zn(II) acetates with the Schiff-base ligand (H2L) resulted from the condensation of 2-amino-ethanoic acid (glycine) and acetylacetone have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analyses, Raman spectra, FT-IR, ES-MS, UV-Vis., 1H NMR, ESR, thermal analyses (TG, DTG and DTA) and magnetic measurements. The results showed that, the Schiff base ligand can bind two metal ions in the same time. It coordinates to the first metal ion as mono-negative bi-dentate through azomethine nitrogen and enolic carbonyl after deprotonation. At the same time, it binds to the second metal ion via carboxylate oxygen after deprotonation. The thermodynamic parameters E∗, ΔH∗, ΔG∗ and ΔS∗ have been calculated by Coats-Redfern (CR) and Horowitz-Metzger (HM) methods. The optical band gaps of the isolated complexes have been calculated from absorption spectra and the results indicated semi-conducting nature of the investigated complexes. The interactions between the copper (II) complex and calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) have been studied by UV spectra. The results confirm that the Cu(II) complex binds to CT-DNA.

  14. Spectral confocal reflection microscopy using a white light source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Booth, M.; Juškaitis, R.; Wilson, T.

    2008-08-01

    We present a reflection confocal microscope incorporating a white light supercontinuum source and spectral detection. The microscope provides images resolved spatially in three-dimensions, in addition to spectral resolution covering the wavelength range 450-650nm. Images and reflection spectra of artificial and natural specimens are presented, showing features that are not normally revealed in conventional microscopes or confocal microscopes using discrete line lasers. The specimens include thin film structures on semiconductor chips, iridescent structures in Papilio blumei butterfly scales, nacre from abalone shells and opal gemstones. Quantitative size and refractive index measurements of transparent beads are derived from spectral interference bands.

  15. Band Selection Procedure for Reduction of High Resolution Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasztor, L.; Csillag, F.

    In this paper we present a technique for reduction of spectra based on the methods of multivariate statistical analysis. The procedure was developed for general processing of digital, high resolution spectra. The recursive band selection method can be applied in studies for weighting (original) spectral bands according their sensitivity to a predefined classification scheme. Additionally, definition of medium and broad band systems is possible, which can efficiently substitute the original spectrum. According to the characteristics of the method resulted from a remote sensing application (convergence, robustness), it is suggested for use in different (radio, UV, X-ray etc.) astronomical studies as well.

  16. Spectral line parameters including temperature dependences of N2- and self-broadened widths in the region of the nu9 band of C2H6 using a multispectrum fitting technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malathy Devi, V.; Benner, D. Chris; Rinsland, C. P.; Smith, M. A. H.; Sams, R. L.; Blake, T. A.; Flaud, Jean-Marie; Sung, Keeyoon; Brown, L. R.; Mantz, A. W.

    2010-04-01

    Ethane is a prominent contributor to the spectrum of Titan, particularly in the region of the nu9 band at 12 micron. A multispectrum nonlinear least squares fitting program was applied to laboratory spectra of ethane to measure accurate positions, absolute intensities, N2- and self-broadened half width coefficients and their temperature dependences for a large number transitions. These measurements include several PQ and RQ sub-bands (and other sub bands such as PP, RR) in the nu9 fundamental band of 12C2H6 centered near 822 cm-1. Positions and intensities were measured for more than 1750 transitions. N2- and self-broadened half width coefficients were measured for over 1450 transitions while the temperature dependence exponents were determined for 1330 transitions. About 1900 additional measurements (mostly line positions and intensities) belonging to the nu9+nu4-nu4 hot band, 13C12CH6 nu9 band and over 500 unidentified transitions were also made in the fitted intervals. Forty-three high resolution (0.0016-0.003 cm-1) infrared laboratory absorption spectra recorded at temperatures between 150 and 298 K were fitted simultaneously in retrieving these parameters. Forty-one of these spectra were recorded in the temperature range of 211-298 K using the Bruker IFS 120HR interferometer located at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in Richland, Washington. Two additional spectra at 150 K were obtained using the high resolution Bruker IFS 125HR interferometer of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in Pasadena, California. A specialized cooling cell capable of achieving temperatures down to 70 K was employed to record the 150 K spectra. Constraints pertaining to intensity ratios, doublet separations, half width coefficients and their temperature dependence exponents were written in determining these parameters for each of the two torsional split components. Similar to N2- and self-broadened half width coefficients, their temperature dependence exponents were

  17. Spectral characterization of the LANDSAT thematic mapper sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markham, B. L.; Barker, J. L.

    1983-01-01

    Data collected on the spectral characteristics of the LANDSAT-4 and LANDSAT-4 backup thematic mapper instruments, the protoflight (TM/PF) and flight (TM/F) models, respectively, are presented and analyzed. Tests were conducted on the instruments and their components to determine compliance with two sets of spectral specifications: band-by-band spectral coverage and channel-by-channel within-band spectral matching. Spectral coverage specifications were placed on: (1) band edges--points at 50% of peak response, (2) band edge slopes--steepness of rise and fall-off of response, (3) spectral flatness--evenness of response between edges, and (4) spurious system response--ratio of out-of-band response to in-band response. Compliance with the spectral coverage specifications was determined by analysis of spectral measurements on the individual components contributing to the overall spectral response: filters, detectors, and optical surfaces.

  18. Laboratory goniometer approach for spectral polarimetric directionality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furey, John; Zahniser, Shellie; Morgan, Cliff

    2016-05-01

    A two meter inner diameter goniometer provides approximately 0.1° angular positioning precision for a series of spectral and polarimetric instruments to enable measurements of the directionality of polarized reflectance from soils in the laboratory, at 10° increments along the azimuth and zenith. Polarimetric imaging instruments to be mounted on the goniometer, with linear polarizers in rotators in front of each instrument, include broadband focal plane array imagers in the Visible band (Vis), Near InfraRed (NIR), Short Wave InfraRed (SWIR), and Long Wave InfraRed (LWIR) spectral bands, as well as a hyperspectral imager in the Vis through NIR. Two additional hyperspectral polarimetric imagers in the Vis through NIR, and SWIR, are to be mounted separately with angles measured by laser on the goniometer frame.

  19. Ultrafast CARS with Improved Spectral Resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lütgens, M.; Chatzipapadopoulos, S.; Lochbrunner, S.

    2013-03-01

    Molecular vibrations are investigated by time and frequency resolved CARS applying ultrafast excitation and picosecond probing for high spectral resolution. Enhanced spectral structure and beating phenomena are demonstrated for coalescing Raman bands.

  20. [Research on ground scenery spectral radiation source with tunable spectra].

    PubMed

    Xiang, Jin-rong; Ren, Jian-wei; Li, Bao-yong; Wan, Zhi; Liu, Ze-xun; Liu, Hong-xing; Li, Xian-sheng; Sun, Jing-xu

    2015-02-01

    A spectrum-tunable ground scenery spectrum radiation source, using LEDs and bromine tungsten lamp as luminescence media, was introduced. System structure and control of the spectrum radiation source was expounded in detail. In order to simulate various ground scenery spectrum distribution with different shapes, a ground scenery spectral database was established in the control system. An improved genetic algorithm was proposed, and a large number of ground scenery spectra were produced by the simulator. Spectral similarity and the average spectral matching error of several typical ground scenery spectra were further analyzed. Spectral similarity of red bands, green bands, blue bands and near-infrared spectral band also was discussed. When the radiance of the target was 50 W x (m2 x sr)(-1), the average spectral matching error was less than 10% and spectral similarity was greater than 0.9, up to 0.983. Spectral similarity of red band, green band, blue band and near-infrared band (especially green band and near-infrared band) was less than that of full-band. Compared with blue band and red band, spectral similarity of green band and near-infrared band low-amplitude maximum can rearch 50%. Ground scenery spectrum radiation source can be used as radiometric calibration source for optical remote sensor, and calibration error, which is caused by objectives and calibration sources spectral mismatch, can be effectively reduced. PMID:25970881

  1. Spectrally resolved and phase-sensitive far-field measurement for the coherent addition of laser pulses in a tiled grating compressor.

    PubMed

    Hornung, Marco; Bödefeld, Ragnar; Kessler, Alexander; Hein, Joachim; Kaluza, Malte C

    2010-06-15

    We describe a method that can be used for the coherent addition of laser pulses. As different laser pulses are initially generated in a laser-pulse compressor equipped with a tiled grating, such a coherent addition is indispensable in order to maximize the intensity in the laser far field. We present measurements in this context where, up to now, an unavoidable difference in the grating constants between the phased gratings reduced the maximum achievable intensity. The method significantly facilitates the high-precision alignment of a tiled grating compressor and could also be used for a coherent addition of laser pulses. PMID:20548390

  2. Full Spectral Resolution Data Generation from the Cross-track Infrared Sounder on S-NPP at NOAA and its Use to Investigate Uncertainty in Methane Absorption Band Near 7.66 µm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, X.; Peischl, J.; Ryerson, T. B.; Sasakawa, M.; Han, Y.; Chen, Y.; Wang, L.; Tremblay, D.; Jin, X.; Zhou, L.; Liu, Q.; Weng, F.; Machida, T.

    2015-12-01

    The Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS) on Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership Satellite (S-NPP) is a Fourier transform spectrometer for atmospheric sounding. CrIS on S-NPP started to provide measurements in 1305 channels in its normal mode since its launch on November 2011 to December 4, 2014, and after that it was switched to the full spectral resolution (FSR) mode, in which the spectral resolutions are 0.625 cm-1 in all the MWIR (1210-1750 cm-1), SWIR (2155-2550 cm-1) and the LWIR bands (650-1095 cm-1) with a total of 2211 channels. While the NOAA operational Sensor Data Record (SDR) processing (IDPS) continues to produce the normal resolution SDRs by truncating full spectrum RDR data, NOAA STAR started to process the FSR SDRs data since December 4, 2014 to present, and the data is being delivered through NOAA STAR website (ftp://ftp2.star.nesdis.noaa.gov/smcd/xxiong/). The current FSR processing algorithm was developed on basis of the CrIS Algorithm Development Library (ADL), and is the baseline of J-1 CrIS SDR algorithm. One major benefit to use the FSR data is to improve the retrieval of atmospheric trace gases, such as CH4, CO and CO2 . From our previous studies to retrieve CH4 using Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) and Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI), it was found the uncertainty in the CH4 absorption band is up to 1-2%. So, in this study we computed the radiance using the community radiative transfer model (CRTM) and line-by-line model, with the inputs of "truth" of atmospheric temperature and moisture profiles from ECMWF model (and/or RAOB sounding) and CH4 profiles from in-situ aircraft measurements, then convoluted with the response function of CrIS. The difference between the simultaed radiance and the collocated CrIS FSR data is used to exam the uncertainty in these strong absorption channels.Through the improved fitting to the transmittance in these channels, it is expected to improve the retrieval of CH4 using CrIS on S

  3. Multidimensional spectral load balancing

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrickson, B.; Leland, R.

    1993-01-01

    We describe an algorithm for the static load balancing of scientific computations that generalizes and improves upon spectral bisection. Through a novel use of multiple eigenvectors, our new spectral algorithm can divide a computation into 4 or 8 pieces at once. These multidimensional spectral partitioning algorithms generate balanced partitions that have lower communication overhead and are less expensive to compute than those produced by spectral bisection. In addition, they automatically work to minimize message contention on a hypercube or mesh architecture. These spectral partitions are further improved by a multidimensional generalization of the Kernighan-Lin graph partitioning algorithm. Results on several computational grids are given and compared with other popular methods.

  4. Adjusting spectral indices for spectral response function differences of very high spatial resolution sensors simulated from field spectra.

    PubMed

    Cundill, Sharon L; van der Werff, Harald M A; van der Meijde, Mark

    2015-01-01

    The use of data from multiple sensors is often required to ensure data coverage and continuity, but differences in the spectral characteristics of sensors result in spectral index values being different. This study investigates spectral response function effects on 48 spectral indices for cultivated grasslands using simulated data of 10 very high spatial resolution sensors, convolved from field reflectance spectra of a grass covered dike (with varying vegetation condition). Index values for 48 indices were calculated for original narrow-band spectra and convolved data sets, and then compared. The indices Difference Vegetation Index (DVI), Global Environmental Monitoring Index (GEMI), Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI), Modified Soil-Adjusted Vegetation Index (MSAVI2) and Soil-Adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI), which include the difference between the near-infrared and red bands, have values most similar to those of the original spectra across all 10 sensors (1:1 line mean 1:1R2 > 0.960 and linear trend mean ccR2 > 0.997). Additionally, relationships between the indices' values and two quality indicators for grass covered dikes were compared to those of the original spectra. For the soil moisture indicator, indices that ratio bands performed better across sensors than those that difference bands, while for the dike cover quality indicator, both the choice of bands and their formulation are important. PMID:25781511

  5. Adjusting Spectral Indices for Spectral Response Function Differences of Very High Spatial Resolution Sensors Simulated from Field Spectra

    PubMed Central

    Cundill, Sharon L.; van der Werff, Harald M. A.; van der Meijde, Mark

    2015-01-01

    The use of data from multiple sensors is often required to ensure data coverage and continuity, but differences in the spectral characteristics of sensors result in spectral index values being different. This study investigates spectral response function effects on 48 spectral indices for cultivated grasslands using simulated data of 10 very high spatial resolution sensors, convolved from field reflectance spectra of a grass covered dike (with varying vegetation condition). Index values for 48 indices were calculated for original narrow-band spectra and convolved data sets, and then compared. The indices Difference Vegetation Index (DVI), Global Environmental Monitoring Index (GEMI), Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI), Modified Soil-Adjusted Vegetation Index (MSAVI2) and Soil-Adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI), which include the difference between the near-infrared and red bands, have values most similar to those of the original spectra across all 10 sensors (1:1 line mean 1:1R2 > 0.960 and linear trend mean ccR2 > 0.997). Additionally, relationships between the indices’ values and two quality indicators for grass covered dikes were compared to those of the original spectra. For the soil moisture indicator, indices that ratio bands performed better across sensors than those that difference bands, while for the dike cover quality indicator, both the choice of bands and their formulation are important. PMID:25781511

  6. Investigation of Faint Galactic Carbon Stars from the First Byurakan Spectral sky Survey. Optical Variability. I. N-Type AGB Carbon Stars. K-band Absolute Magnitudes and Distances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gigoyan, K. S.; Sarkissian, A.; Russeil, D.; Mauron, N.; Kostandyan, G.; Vartanian, R.; Abrahamyan, H. V.; Paronyan, G. M.

    2014-12-01

    The goal of this paper is to present an optical variability study of the comparatively faint carbon (C) stars which have been discovered by searching the First Byurakan Survey (FBS) low-resolution (lr) spectral plates at high Galactic latitudes using recent wide-area variability databases. The light curves from the Catalina Sky Survey (CSS) and Northern Sky Variability Survey (NSVS) databases were exploited to study theit variability nature. In this paper, first in this series, the variability classes are presented for 54 N-type Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) C stars. One finds that 9 stars belongs to the group of Mira-type, 43 are Semi-Regular (SR), and 2 stars are Irregular (Irr)-type variables. The variability types of 27 objects has been established for the first time. K-band absolute magnitudes, distances, and height from the Galactic plane were estimated for all of them. We aim to better understand the nature of the selected C stars through spectroscopy, 2MASS photometric colors, and variability data. Most of the tools used in this study are developed within the framework of the Astronomical Virtual Observatory.

  7. On the effects of spatial and spectral resolution on spatial-spectral target detection in SHARE 2012 and Bobcat 2013 hyperspectral imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufman, Jason R.; Eismann, Michael T.; Ratliff, Bradley M.; Celenk, Mehmet

    2015-05-01

    Previous work with the Bobcat 2013 data set1 showed that spatial-spectral feature extraction on visible to near infrared (VNIR) hyperspectral imagery (HSI) led to better target detection and discrimination than spectral-only techniques; however, the aforementioned study could not consider the possible benefits of the shortwaveinfrared (SWIR) portion of the spectrum due to data limitations. In addition, the spatial resolution of the Bobcat 2013 imagery was fixed at 8cm without exploring lower spatial resolutions. In this work, we evaluate the tradeoffs in spatial and spectral resolution and spectral coverage between for a common set of targets in terms of their effects on spatial-spectral target detection performance. We show that for our spatial-spectral target detection scheme and data sets, the adaptive cosine estimator (ACE) applied to S-DAISY and pseudo Zernike moment (PZM) spatial-spectral features can distinguish between targets better than ACE applied only to the spectral imagery. In particular, S-DAISY operating on bands uniformly selected from the SWIR portion of ProSpecTIR-VS sensor imagery in conjunction with bands closely corresponding to the Airborne Real-time Cueing Hyperspectral Reconnaissance (ARCHER) sensor's VNIR bands (80 total) led to the best overall average performance in both target detection and discrimination.

  8. An Airborne A-Band Spectrometer for Remote Sensing Of Aerosol and Cloud Optical Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pitts, Michael; Hostetler, Chris; Poole, Lamont; Holden, Carl; Rault, Didier

    2000-01-01

    Atmospheric remote sensing with the O2 A-band has a relatively long history, but most of these studies were attempting to estimate surface pressure or cloud-top pressure. Recent conceptual studies have demonstrated the potential of spaceborne high spectral resolution O2 A-band spectrometers for retrieval of aerosol and cloud optical properties. The physical rationale of this new approach is that information on the scattering properties of the atmosphere is embedded in the detailed line structure of the O2 A-band reflected radiance spectrum. The key to extracting this information is to measure the radiance spectrum at very high spectral resolution. Instrument performance requirement studies indicate that, in addition to high spectral resolution, the successful retrieval of aerosol and cloud properties from A-band radiance spectra will also require high radiometric accuracy, instrument stability, and high signal-to-noise measurements. To experimentally assess the capabilities of this promising new remote sensing application, the NASA Langley Research Center is developing an airborne high spectral resolution A-band spectrometer. The spectrometer uses a plane holographic grating with a folded Littrow geometry to achieve high spectral resolution (0.5 cm-1) and low stray light in a compact package. This instrument will be flown in a series of field campaigns beginning in 2001 to evaluate the overall feasibility of this new technique. Results from these campaigns should be particularly valuable for future spaceborne applications of A-band spectrometers for aerosol and cloud retrievals.

  9. Evaluating Spectral Signals to Identify Spectral Error.

    PubMed

    Bazar, George; Kovacs, Zoltan; Tsenkova, Roumiana

    2016-01-01

    Since the precision and accuracy level of a chemometric model is highly influenced by the quality of the raw spectral data, it is very important to evaluate the recorded spectra and describe the erroneous regions before qualitative and quantitative analyses or detailed band assignment. This paper provides a collection of basic spectral analytical procedures and demonstrates their applicability in detecting errors of near infrared data. Evaluation methods based on standard deviation, coefficient of variation, mean centering and smoothing techniques are presented. Applications of derivatives with various gap sizes, even below the bandpass of the spectrometer, are shown to evaluate the level of spectral errors and find their origin. The possibility for prudent measurement of the third overtone region of water is also highlighted by evaluation of a complex data recorded with various spectrometers. PMID:26731541

  10. Evaluating Spectral Signals to Identify Spectral Error

    PubMed Central

    Bazar, George; Kovacs, Zoltan; Tsenkova, Roumiana

    2016-01-01

    Since the precision and accuracy level of a chemometric model is highly influenced by the quality of the raw spectral data, it is very important to evaluate the recorded spectra and describe the erroneous regions before qualitative and quantitative analyses or detailed band assignment. This paper provides a collection of basic spectral analytical procedures and demonstrates their applicability in detecting errors of near infrared data. Evaluation methods based on standard deviation, coefficient of variation, mean centering and smoothing techniques are presented. Applications of derivatives with various gap sizes, even below the bandpass of the spectrometer, are shown to evaluate the level of spectral errors and find their origin. The possibility for prudent measurement of the third overtone region of water is also highlighted by evaluation of a complex data recorded with various spectrometers. PMID:26731541

  11. Spectral library searching in proteomics.

    PubMed

    Griss, Johannes

    2016-03-01

    Spectral library searching has become a mature method to identify tandem mass spectra in proteomics data analysis. This review provides a comprehensive overview of available spectral library search engines and highlights their distinct features. Additionally, resources providing spectral libraries are summarized and tools presented that extend experimental spectral libraries by simulating spectra. Finally, spectrum clustering algorithms are discussed that utilize the same spectrum-to-spectrum matching algorithms as spectral library search engines and allow novel methods to analyse proteomics data. PMID:26616598

  12. Spectral karyotyping analysis of human and mouse chromosomes

    PubMed Central

    Padilla-Nash, Hesed M; Barenboim-Stapleton, Linda; Difilippantonio, Michael J; Ried, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Classical banding methods provide basic information about the identities and structures of chromosomes on the basis of their unique banding patterns. Spectral karyotyping (SKY), and the related multiplex fluorescence in situ hybridization (M-FISH), are chromosome-specific multicolor FISH techniques that augment cytogenetic evaluations of malignant disease by providing additional information and improved characterization of aberrant chromosomes that contain DNA sequences not identifiable using conventional banding methods. SKY is based on cohybridization of combinatorially labeled chromosome-painting probes with unique fluorochrome signatures onto human or mouse metaphase chromosome preparations. Image acquisition and analysis use a specialized imaging system, combining Sagnac interferometer and CCD camera images to reconstruct spectral information at each pixel. Here we present a protocol for SKY analysis using commercially available SkyPaint probes, including procedures for metaphase chromosome preparation, slide pretreatment and probe hybridization and detection. SKY analysis requires approximately 6 d. PMID:17406576

  13. Easy oxidative addition of the carbon-halogen bond by dimethylplatinum(II) complexes containing a related series of diimine ligands: Synthesis, spectral characterization and crystal structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Momeni, Badri Z.; Fathi, Nastaran; Mohagheghi, Arezoo

    2015-01-01

    Dimethylplatinum(II) complexes [PtMe2(NN)] {NN = 4,4‧-Me2bpy (4,4‧-dimethyl-2,2‧-bipyridine); 5,5‧-Me2bpy (5,5‧-dimethyl-2,2‧-bipyridine)} were reacted with alkyl halides (RX = EtI, EtBr) to yield the organoplatinum(IV) complexes [PtMe2RX(NN)]. On the basis of NMR data, the platinum(IV) product of each reaction contains almost exclusively the trans isomer but small traces of the cis isomers are also observed. On the other hand, the reaction of [PtMe2(NN)] {NN = bu2bpy (4,4‧-di-tert-butyl-2,2‧-bipyridine); 4,4‧-Me2bpy; 5,5‧-Me2bpy} with CH2Br2 gave a mixture of cis and trans-[PtMe2(CH2Br)Br(NN)] formed by the oxidative addition of one of the C-Br bonds. The formation of the cis isomer increases in the order of 5,5‧-Me2bpy > bu2bpy > 4,4‧-Me2bpy. The reaction of [PtMe2(NN)] {NN = bpy (2,2‧-bipyridine), phen (1,10-phenanthroline)} with 1,8-dibromooctane or 1,9-dibromononane afforded the mononuclear complexes [PtMe2{(CH2)nBr}Br(NN)] (n = 8-9). The products were fully characterized by elemental analysis, 1H, 13C, HH COSY, HMQC, DEPT and DEPTQ-135 NMR spectroscopy. The crystal structure of [PtMe2EtI(4,4‧-Me2bpy)] reveals that Pt(IV) atom is six-coordinated in a slightly distorted octahedral geometry with the ethyl group trans to iodide.

  14. Evaluation of Cloud Microphysics Simulated using a Meso-Scale Model Coupled with a Spectral Bin Microphysical Scheme through Comparison with Observation Data by Ship-Borne Doppler and Space-Borne W-Band Radars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iguchi, T.; Nakajima, T.; Khain, A. P.; Saito, K.; Takemura, T.; Okamoto, H.; Nishizawa, T.; Tao, W.-K.

    2012-01-01

    Equivalent radar reflectivity factors (Ze) measured by W-band radars are directly compared with the corresponding values calculated from a three-dimensional non-hydrostatic meso-scale model coupled with a spectral-bin-microphysical (SBM) scheme for cloud. Three case studies are the objects of this research: one targets a part of ship-borne observation using 95 GHz Doppler radar over the Pacific Ocean near Japan in May 2001; other two are aimed at two short segments of space-borne observation by the cloud profiling radar on CloudSat in November 2006. The numerical weather prediction (NWP) simulations reproduce general features of vertical structures of Ze and Doppler velocity. A main problem in the reproducibility is an overestimation of Ze in ice cloud layers. A frequency analysis shows a strong correlation between ice water contents (IWC) and Ze in the simulation; this characteristic is similar to those shown in prior on-site studies. From comparing with the empirical correlations by the prior studies, the simulated Ze is overestimated than the corresponding values in the studies at the same IWC. Whereas the comparison of Doppler velocities suggests that large-size snowflakes are necessary for producing large velocities under the freezing level and hence rules out the possibility that an overestimation of snow size causes the overestimation of Ze. Based on the results of several sensitivity tests, we conclude that the source of the overestimation is a bias in the microphysical calculation of Ze or an overestimation of IWC. To identify the source of the problems needs further validation research with other follow-up observations.

  15. Spectral changes in spontaneous MEG activity across the lifespan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez, Carlos; Pérez-Macías, Jose M.; Poza, Jesús; Fernández, Alberto; Hornero, Roberto

    2013-12-01

    Objective. The aim of this study is to explore the spectral patterns of spontaneous magnetoencephalography (MEG) activity across the lifespan. Approach. Relative power (RP) in six frequency bands (delta, theta, alpha, beta-1, beta-2 and gamma) was calculated in a sample of 220 healthy subjects with ages ranging from 7 to 84 years. Main results. A significant RP decrease in low-frequency bands (i.e. delta and theta) and a significant increase in high bands (mainly beta-1 and beta-2) were found from childhood to adolescence. This trend was observed until the sixth decade of life, though only slight changes were found. Additionally, healthy aging was characterized by a power increase in low-frequency bands. Our results show that spectral changes across the lifespan may follow a quadratic relationship in delta, theta, alpha, beta-2 and gamma bands with peak ages being reached around the fifth or sixth decade of life. Significance. Our findings provide original insights into the definition of the ‘normal’ behavior of age-related MEG spectral patterns. Furthermore, our study can be useful for the forthcoming MEG research focused on the description of the abnormalities of different brain diseases in comparison to cognitive decline in normal aging.

  16. Calibration and characterization of spectral imaging systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polder, Gerrit; van der Heijden, Gerie W.

    2001-09-01

    Spectral image sensors provide images with a large umber of contiguous spectral channels per pixel. This paper describes the calibration of spectrograph based spectral imaging systems. The relation between pixel position and measured wavelength was determined using three different wavelength calibration sources. Results indicate that for spectral calibration a source with very small peaks,such as a HgAr source, is preferred to arrow band filters. A second order polynomial model gives a better fit than a linear model for the pixel to wavelength mapping. The signal to noise ratio (SNR)is determined per wavelength. In the blue part of the spectrum,the SNR was lower than in the green and red part.This is due to a decreased quantum efficiency of the CCD,a smaller transmission coefficient of the spectrograph,as well as poor performance of the illuminant. Increasing the amount of blue light,using additional Fluorescent tube with special coating increased the SNR considerably. Furthermore, the spatial and spectral resolution of the system are determined.These can be used to choose appropriate binning factors to decrease the image size without losing information.

  17. [Fast spectral modeling based on Voigt peaks].

    PubMed

    Li, Jin-rong; Dai, Lian-kui

    2012-03-01

    Indirect hard modeling (IHM) is a recently introduced method for quantitative spectral analysis, which was applied to the analysis of nonlinear relation between mixture spectrum and component concentration. In addition, IHM is an effectual technology for the analysis of components of mixture with molecular interactions and strongly overlapping bands. Before the establishment of regression model, IHM needs to model the measured spectrum as a sum of Voigt peaks. The precision of the spectral model has immediate impact on the accuracy of the regression model. A spectrum often includes dozens or even hundreds of Voigt peaks, which mean that spectral modeling is a optimization problem with high dimensionality in fact. So, large operation overhead is needed and the solution would not be numerically unique due to the ill-condition of the optimization problem. An improved spectral modeling method is presented in the present paper, which reduces the dimensionality of optimization problem by determining the overlapped peaks in spectrum. Experimental results show that the spectral modeling based on the new method is more accurate and needs much shorter running time than conventional method. PMID:22582612

  18. Spectral reflectance measurements in the genus Sphagnum

    SciTech Connect

    Vogelmann, J.E.; Moss, D.M. . Complex Systems/Institute for the Study of Earth Oceans and Space)

    1993-09-01

    High-spectral resolution reflectance data were acquired in the laboratory for four species of Sphagnum (peat moss): S. cuspidatum, S. papillosum, S. fallax, and S. capillifolium. All four species had different spectral reflectance properties. Species differences were noted especially in the visible portion of the spectrum from 0.45 [mu]m to 0.70 [mu]m; some major spectral differences were also noted in the near infrared. Samples analyzed had much lower reflectance than typical green vegetation in the midinfrared region of the spectrum from 1.30 [mu]m to 2.40 [mu]m. In addition, Sphagnum had very pronounced water-related absorption features at about 1.00m [mu] and 1.20 [mu]m, unlike typical green vegetation. Spectral data acquired as samples were dried indicated large spectral increases with increasing dryness, especially in the midinfrared. Simulated Landsat Thematic Mapper 5/4 band ratio data were linearly related to the log of wet weight/dry weight. Reflectance from vegetation in the midinfrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum is strongly modified by water content. Peatlands are major sources of global methane and it has been found that methane evolution within these peatlands is related to water status within these peatlands is related to water status within the wetland. It may be possible to indirectly estimate methane flux using remote sensing data.

  19. Laboratory Investigation of the Airglow Bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drouin, Brian; Yu, Shanshan; Crawford, Timothy J.; Miller, Charles E.; Yee, Jeng-Hwa

    2013-06-01

    We report the first high spectral resolution laboratory measurements of oxygen A-band night glow simulated using a static discharge cell. Our static discharge system reproduces the conditions of the mesospheric oxygen night glow - suggesting O(^1D) + O_2 as the primary source of the emission. Additionally, use of the static cell has enabled us to collect spectra for rare molecular oxygen isotopologues using isotopically enriched samples. The (0,0), (0,1), and (1,1) b-Xvibrational bands were observed with a Bruker 125 HR for all six isotopologues. The (1,2) and (2,2) bands were observed also for the main isotopologue. The frequencies of the observed (0,1) transitions resolved discrepancies in Raman data for (16-17, 17-17, and 17-18), enabling us to improve the vibrational parameterization of the ground electronic state in the global fit of Yu et al. Rotationally resolved intensities were determined for the (0,0), (0,1) and (1,1) bands. The experimental band intensity ratios I(0,0)/I(0,1) = 13.6 and I(0,0)/I(1,1) = 60 are in excellent agreement with the recent mesospheric remote sensing data. S. Yu, C.E. Miller, B.J. Drouin, H.S.P. Müller, J. Chem. Phys. 136, 024304, 2012

  20. Effect of a Simulated Analogue Telephone Channel on the Performance of a Remote Automatic System for the Detection of Pathologies in Voice: Impact of Linear Distortions on Cepstrum-Based Assessment - Band Limitation, Frequency Response and Additive Noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraile, Rubén; Sáenz-Lechón, Nicolás; Godino-Llorente, Juan Ignacio; Osma-Ruiz, Víctor; Fredouille, Corinne

    Advances in speech signal analysis during the last decade have allowed the development of automatic algorithms for a non-invasive detection of laryngeal pathologies. Performance assessment of such techniques reveals that classification success rates over 90 % are achievable. Bearing in mind the extension of these automatic methods to remote diagnosis scenarios, this paper analyses the performance of a pathology detector based on Mel Frequency Cepstral Coefficients when the speech signal has undergone the distortion of an analogue communications channel, namely the phone channel. Such channel is modeled as a concatenation of linear effects. It is shown that while the overall performance of the system is degraded, success rates in the range of 80% can still be achieved. This study also shows that the performance degradation is mainly due to band limitation and noise addition.

  1. Spectral and Spread Spectral Teleportation

    SciTech Connect

    Humble, Travis S

    2010-01-01

    We report how quantum information encoded into the spectral degree of freedom of a single-photon state is teleported using a finite spectrally entangled biphoton state. We further demonstrate how the bandwidth of a teleported waveform can be controllably and coherently dilated using a spread spectral variant of teleportation. We present analytical fidelities for spectral and spread spectral teleportation when complex-valued Gaussian states are prepared using a proposed experimental approach, and we discuss the utility of these techniques for integrating broad-bandwidth photonic qubits with narrow-bandwidth receivers in quantum communication systems.

  2. Spectral distinctions between the leading and trailing hemispheres of Callisto - New observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calvin, Wendy M.; Clark, Roger N.

    1993-01-01

    Recent spectral observations of both the leading and trailing hemispheres of Callisto confirm the conclusions of Calvin and Clark (1991) that the water ice is typically large-grained, and the general spectral trend from 3 to 43 microns is caused by an adsorbed water band associated with hydrous minerals. On the leading hemisphere, a broad absorption near 3.4 microns was definitively identified and interpreted as being caused by fine-grained water ice. This band, coupled with the slope in the region from 2 to 2.5 microns, is indicative of a small amount, on the order of 1 to 2 percent, of fine-grained ice on the leading side. It is suggested that in the longer wavelength spectral region on the leading hemisphere an additional band correlated with NH4-bearing clays may be indicated.

  3. [Review of digital ground object spectral library].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiao-Hu; Zhou, Ding-Wu

    2009-06-01

    A higher spectral resolution is the main direction of developing remote sensing technology, and it is quite important to set up the digital ground object reflectance spectral database library, one of fundamental research fields in remote sensing application. Remote sensing application has been increasingly relying on ground object spectral characteristics, and quantitative analysis has been developed to a new stage. The present article summarized and systematically introduced the research status quo and development trend of digital ground object reflectance spectral libraries at home and in the world in recent years. Introducing the spectral libraries has been established, including desertification spectral database library, plants spectral database library, geological spectral database library, soil spectral database library, minerals spectral database library, cloud spectral database library, snow spectral database library, the atmosphere spectral database library, rocks spectral database library, water spectral database library, meteorites spectral database library, moon rock spectral database library, and man-made materials spectral database library, mixture spectral database library, volatile compounds spectral database library, and liquids spectral database library. In the process of establishing spectral database libraries, there have been some problems, such as the lack of uniform national spectral database standard and uniform standards for the ground object features as well as the comparability between different databases. In addition, data sharing mechanism can not be carried out, etc. This article also put forward some suggestions on those problems. PMID:19810544

  4. Comparison of the Spectral Properties of Pansharpened Images Generated from AVNIR-2 and Prism Onboard Alos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuoka, M.

    2012-07-01

    A considerable number of methods for pansharpening remote-sensing images have been developed to generate higher spatial resolution multispectral images by the fusion of lower resolution multispectral images and higher resolution panchromatic images. Because pansharpening alters the spectral properties of multispectral images, method selection is one of the key factors influencing the accuracy of subsequent analyses such as land-cover classification or change detection. In this study, seven pixel-based pansharpening methods (additive wavelet intensity, additive wavelet principal component, generalized Laplacian pyramid with spectral distortion minimization, generalized intensity-hue-saturation (GIHS) transform, GIHS adaptive, Gram-Schmidt spectral sharpening, and block-based synthetic variable ratio) were compared using AVNIR-2 and PRISM onboard ALOS from the viewpoint of the preservation of spectral properties of AVNIR-2. A visual comparison was made between pansharpened images generated from spatially degraded AVNIR-2 and original images over urban, agricultural, and forest areas. The similarity of the images was evaluated in terms of the image contrast, the color distinction, and the brightness of the ground objects. In the quantitative assessment, three kinds of statistical indices, correlation coefficient, ERGAS, and Q index, were calculated by band and land-cover type. These scores were relatively superior in bands 2 and 3 compared with the other two bands, especially over urban and agricultural areas. Band 4 showed a strong dependency on the land-cover type. This was attributable to the differences in the observing spectral wavelengths of the sensors and local scene variances.

  5. Spectral characterization of the LANDSAT Thematic Mapper sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markham, B. L.; Barker, J. L.

    1984-01-01

    The spectral coverage characteristics of the two thematic mapper instruments were determined by analyses of spectral measurements of the optics, filters, and detectors. The following results are presented: (1) band 2 and 3 flatness was slightly below specification, and band 7 flatness was below specification; (2) band 5 upper-band edge was higher than specifications; (3) band 2 band edges were shifted upward about 9 nm relative to nominal; and (4) band 4, 5, and 7 lower band edges were 16 to 18 nm higher then nominal.

  6. Multiband fluorescence spectral properties of QMOM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomin, V. I.; Jaworski, R.

    2011-02-01

    The spectral characteristics of the 1-methyl-2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-3-hydroxy-4(1 H)-quinolone (QMOM) dye with dual fluorescence in acetonitrile were studied under selective excitation in a wide temperature range. This dye is a structural analog of 3-hydroxyflavone and exhibits excited-state proton transfer, which forms a fluorescent tautomeric form, while the solution is characterized by dual fluorescence. The thermal behavior of the relative band intensities revealed the kinetic character of the proton transfer. The third form showed itself as a maximum between the bands of the normal and tautomeric forms upon excitation in several regions of the absorption spectrum and became dominant in solution at 60-80°C. The characteristics of the third form were studied. Additional experiments showed that this was possibly the anionic form of the dye.

  7. Spectral assessment of new ASTER SWIR surface reflectance data products for spectroscopic mapping of rocks and minerals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mars, J.C.; Rowan, L.C.

    2010-01-01

    ASTER reflectance spectra from Cuprite, Nevada, and Mountain Pass, California, were compared to spectra of field samples and to ASTER-resampled AVIRIS reflectance data to determine spectral accuracy and spectroscopic mapping potential of two new ASTER SWIR reflectance datasets: RefL1b and AST_07XT. RefL1b is a new reflectance dataset produced for this study using ASTER Level 1B data, crosstalk correction, radiance correction factors, and concurrently acquired level 2 MODIS water vapor data. The AST_07XT data product, available from EDC and ERSDAC, incorporates crosstalk correction and non-concurrently acquired MODIS water vapor data for atmospheric correction. Spectral accuracy was determined using difference values which were compiled from ASTER band 5/6 and 9/8 ratios of AST_07XT or RefL1b data subtracted from similar ratios calculated for field sample and AVIRIS reflectance data. In addition, Spectral Analyst, a statistical program that utilizes a Spectral Feature Fitting algorithm, was used to quantitatively assess spectral accuracy of AST_07XT and RefL1b data.Spectral Analyst matched more minerals correctly and had higher scores for the RefL1b data than for AST_07XT data. The radiance correction factors used in the RefL1b data corrected a low band 5 reflectance anomaly observed in the AST_07XT and AST_07 data but also produced anomalously high band 5 reflectance in RefL1b spectra with strong band 5 absorption for minerals, such as alunite. Thus, the band 5 anomaly seen in the RefL1b data cannot be corrected using additional gain adjustments. In addition, the use of concurrent MODIS water vapor data in the atmospheric correction of the RefL1b data produced datasets that had lower band 9 reflectance anomalies than the AST_07XT data. Although assessment of spectral data suggests that RefL1b data are more consistent and spectrally more correct than AST_07XT data, the Spectral Analyst results indicate that spectral discrimination between some minerals, such as

  8. Enhancing the spectral response of filled bolometer arrays for submillimeter astronomy.

    PubMed

    Revéret, Vincent; Rodriguez, Louis; Agnèse, Patrick

    2010-12-10

    Future missions for astrophysical studies in the submillimeter region will need detectors with very high sensitivity and large fields of view. Bolometer arrays can fulfill these requirements over a very broad band. We describe a technique that enables bolometer arrays that use quarter-wave cavities to have a high spectral response over most of the submillimeter band. This technique is based on the addition on the front of the array of an antireflecting dielectric layer. The optimum parameters (layer thickness and distance to the array) are determined by a 2D analytic code. This general principle is applied to the case of Herschel PACS bolometers (optimized for the 60 to 210 μm band). As an example, we demonstrate experimentally that a PACS array covered by a 138 μm thick silicon layer can improve the spectral response by a factor of 1.7 in the 450 μm band. PMID:21151229

  9. SPAM- SPECTRAL ANALYSIS MANAGER (UNIX VERSION)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomon, J. E.

    1994-01-01

    The Spectral Analysis Manager (SPAM) was developed to allow easy qualitative analysis of multi-dimensional imaging spectrometer data. Imaging spectrometers provide sufficient spectral sampling to define unique spectral signatures on a per pixel basis. Thus direct material identification becomes possible for geologic studies. SPAM provides a variety of capabilities for carrying out interactive analysis of the massive and complex datasets associated with multispectral remote sensing observations. In addition to normal image processing functions, SPAM provides multiple levels of on-line help, a flexible command interpretation, graceful error recovery, and a program structure which can be implemented in a variety of environments. SPAM was designed to be visually oriented and user friendly with the liberal employment of graphics for rapid and efficient exploratory analysis of imaging spectrometry data. SPAM provides functions to enable arithmetic manipulations of the data, such as normalization, linear mixing, band ratio discrimination, and low-pass filtering. SPAM can be used to examine the spectra of an individual pixel or the average spectra over a number of pixels. SPAM also supports image segmentation, fast spectral signature matching, spectral library usage, mixture analysis, and feature extraction. High speed spectral signature matching is performed by using a binary spectral encoding algorithm to separate and identify mineral components present in the scene. The same binary encoding allows automatic spectral clustering. Spectral data may be entered from a digitizing tablet, stored in a user library, compared to the master library containing mineral standards, and then displayed as a timesequence spectral movie. The output plots, histograms, and stretched histograms produced by SPAM can be sent to a lineprinter, stored as separate RGB disk files, or sent to a Quick Color Recorder. SPAM is written in C for interactive execution and is available for two different

  10. Modeling direct band-to-band tunneling: From bulk to quantum-confined semiconductor devices

    SciTech Connect

    Carrillo-Nuñez, H.; Ziegler, A.; Luisier, M.; Schenk, A.

    2015-06-21

    A rigorous framework to study direct band-to-band tunneling (BTBT) in homo- and hetero-junction semiconductor nanodevices is introduced. An interaction Hamiltonian coupling conduction and valence bands (CVBs) is derived using a multiband envelope method. A general form of the BTBT probability is then obtained from the linear response to the “CVBs interaction” that drives the system out of equilibrium. Simple expressions in terms of the one-electron spectral function are developed to compute the BTBT current in two- and three-dimensional semiconductor structures. Additionally, a two-band envelope equation based on the Flietner model of imaginary dispersion is proposed for the same purpose. In order to characterize their accuracy and differences, both approaches are compared with full-band, atomistic quantum transport simulations of Ge, InAs, and InAs-Si Esaki diodes. As another numerical application, the BTBT current in InAs-Si nanowire tunnel field-effect transistors is computed. It is found that both approaches agree with high accuracy. The first one is considerably easier to conceive and could be implemented straightforwardly in existing quantum transport tools based on the effective mass approximation to account for BTBT in nanodevices.

  11. New spectral imaging techniques for blood oximetry in the retina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alabboud, Ied; Muyo, Gonzalo; Gorman, Alistair; Mordant, David; McNaught, Andrew; Petres, Clement; Petillot, Yvan R.; Harvey, Andrew R.

    2007-07-01

    Hyperspectral imaging of the retina presents a unique opportunity for direct and quantitative mapping of retinal biochemistry - particularly of the vasculature where blood oximetry is enabled by the strong variation of absorption spectra with oxygenation. This is particularly pertinent both to research and to clinical investigation and diagnosis of retinal diseases such as diabetes, glaucoma and age-related macular degeneration. The optimal exploitation of hyperspectral imaging however, presents a set of challenging problems, including; the poorly characterised and controlled optical environment of structures within the retina to be imaged; the erratic motion of the eye ball; and the compounding effects of the optical sensitivity of the retina and the low numerical aperture of the eye. We have developed two spectral imaging techniques to address these issues. We describe first a system in which a liquid crystal tuneable filter is integrated into the illumination system of a conventional fundus camera to enable time-sequential, random access recording of narrow-band spectral images. Image processing techniques are described to eradicate the artefacts that may be introduced by time-sequential imaging. In addition we describe a unique snapshot spectral imaging technique dubbed IRIS that employs polarising interferometry and Wollaston prism beam splitters to simultaneously replicate and spectrally filter images of the retina into multiple spectral bands onto a single detector array. Results of early clinical trials acquired with these two techniques together with a physical model which enables oximetry map are reported.

  12. Gastric Banding

    MedlinePlus

    ... gastric banding before deciding to have the procedure. Advertisements for a device or procedure may not include ... feeds Follow FDA on Twitter Follow FDA on Facebook View FDA videos on YouTube View FDA photos ...

  13. [Spectral Uncertainty of Terrestrial Objects and the Applicability of Spectral Angle Mapper Algorithm].

    PubMed

    Cen, Yi; Zhang, Gen-zhong; Zhang, Li-fu; Lu, Xu-hui; Zhang, Fei-zhou

    2015-10-01

    The spectral uncertainty of terrestrial objects causes a certain degree of spectral differences among feature spectra, which affects the accuracy of object recognition and also impacts the object recognition of spectral angle mapper algorithm (SAM). The spectral angle mapper algorithm is based on the overall similarity of the spectral curves, which was widely used in the classification of hyperspectral remotely sensed information. The spectral angle mapper algorithm does not take the spectral uncertainty of terrestrial objects into account while calculating the spectral angle between the spectral curves, and therefore does not tend to correctly identify the target objects. The applicability of the spectral angle mapper algorithm is studied for the spectral uncertainty of terrestrial objects and a modified SAM is proposed in this paper. In order to overcome the influence of the spectral uncertainty, the basic idea is to set a spectral difference value for the test spectra and the reference spectra and to calculate the spectral difference value based on derivation method according to the principle of minimum angle between the test spectra and the reference spectra. By considering the impact of the spectral uncertainty of terrestrial objects, this paper uses five kaolinite mineral spectra of USGS to calculate the spectral angle between the five kalinite mineral spectra by using local band combination and all bands to verify the improved algorithm. The calculation results and the applicability of the spectral angle mapper algorithm were analyzed. The results obtained from the experiments based on USGS mineral spectral data indicate that the modified SAM is not only helpful in characterizing and overcoming the impact of the spectral uncertainty but it can also improve the accuracy of object recognition to certain extent especially for selecting local band combination and has better applicability for the spectral uncertainty of terrestrial objects. PMID:26904829

  14. Spectral derivative feature coding for hyperspectral signature analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Chein-I.; Chakravarty, Sumit

    2006-08-01

    This paper presents a new approach to hyperspectral signature analysis, called Spectral Derivative Feature Coding (SDFC). It makes use of gradient changes in adjacent bands to characterize spectral variations so as to improve spectral discrimination and identification. In order to evaluate its performance, two binary coding methods, SPectral Analysis Manager (SPAM) and Spectral Feature-based Binary Coding (SFBC) are used to conduct comparative analysis. The experimental results demonstrate the proposed SDFC performs more effectively in capturing spectral characteristics.

  15. Microwave-Spectral Signatures Would Reveal Concealed Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arndt, G.; Ngo, P.; Carl, J. R.; Byerly, K.; Stolarcyzk, L.

    2004-01-01

    A proposed technique for locating concealed objects (especially small antipersonnel land mines) involves the acquisition and processing of spectral signatures over broad microwave frequency bands. This technique was conceived to overcome the weaknesses of older narrow- band electromagnetic techniques like ground-probing radar and low-frequency electromagnetic induction. Ground-probing radar is susceptible to false detections and/or interference caused by rocks, roots, air pockets, soil inhomogeneities, ice, liquid water, and miscellaneous buried objects other than those sought. Moreover, if the radar frequency happens to be one for which the permittivity of a sought object matches the permittivity of the surrounding soil or there is an unfavorable complex-amplitude addition of the radar reflection at the receiver, then the object is not detected. Low-frequency electromagnetic induction works well for detecting metallic objects, but the amounts of metal in plastic mines are often too small to be detectable. The potential advantage of the proposed technique arises from the fact that wideband spectral signatures generally contain more relevant information than do narrow-band signals. Consequently, spectral signatures could be used to make better decisions regarding whether concealed objects are present and whether they are the ones sought. In some cases, spectral signatures could provide information on the depths, sizes, shapes, and compositions of objects. An apparatus to implement the proposed technique (see Figure 1) could be assembled from equipment already in common use. Typically, such an apparatus would include a radio-frequency (RF) transmitter/receiver, a broad-band microwave antenna, and a fast personal computer loaded with appropriate software. In operation, the counter would be turned on, the antenna would be aimed at the ground or other mass suspected to contain a mine or other sought object, and the operating frequency would be swept over the band of

  16. L-band wavelength-tunable dissipative soliton fiber laser.

    PubMed

    Yan, Dan; Li, Xingliang; Zhang, Shumin; Han, Mengmeng; Han, Huiyun; Yang, Zhenjun

    2016-01-25

    A tunable L-band dissipative soliton (DS) fiber laser with nonlinear polarization rotation (NPR) playing the roles of both a saturable absorber (SA) and a tunable filter has been demonstrated experimentally and numerically. By appropriate adjustment of the states of the polarization controllers (PCs) and the pump power, DSs with continuously tunable wavelengths have been observed over the wavelength range from 1583.0 to 1602.4 nm with a 3-dB spectral bandwidth of around 20 nm and from 1581.9 nm to 1602.6 nm with a 3-dB spectral bandwidth of around 4 nm. In addition, we have observed that by increasing the pump power, the 3-dB spectral bandwidth of the DS could be increased without pulse breaking. Numerical results for the characteristics of the DSs are in accord with the experimental data. PMID:26832459

  17. Online Spectral Fit Tool for Analyzing Reflectance Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penttilä, A.; Kohout, T.

    2015-11-01

    The Online Spectral Fit Tool is developed for analyzing Vis-NIR spectral behavior of asteroids and meteorites. Implementation is done using JavaScript/HTML. Fitted spectra consist of spline continuum and gamma distributions for absorption bands.

  18. Spectral stratigraphy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, Harold R.

    1991-01-01

    A new approach to stratigraphic analysis is described which uses photogeologic and spectral interpretation of multispectral remote sensing data combined with topographic information to determine the attitude, thickness, and lithology of strata exposed at the surface. The new stratigraphic procedure is illustrated by examples in the literature. The published results demonstrate the potential of spectral stratigraphy for mapping strata, determining dip and strike, measuring and correlating stratigraphic sequences, defining lithofacies, mapping biofacies, and interpreting geological structures.

  19. Photoplethysmographic imaging via spectrally demultiplexed erythema fluctuation analysis for remote heart rate monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deglint, Jason; Chung, Audrey G.; Chwyl, Brendan; Amelard, Robert; Kazemzadeh, Farnoud; Wang, Xiao Yu; Clausi, David A.; Wong, Alexander

    2016-03-01

    Traditional photoplethysmographic imaging (PPGI) systems use the red, green, and blue (RGB) broadband measurements of a consumer digital camera to remotely estimate a patients heart rate; however, these broadband RGB signals are often corrupted by ambient noise, making the extraction of subtle fluctuations indicative of heart rate difficult. Therefore, the use of narrow-band spectral measurements can significantly improve the accuracy. We propose a novel digital spectral demultiplexing (DSD) method to infer narrow-band spectral information from acquired broadband RGB measurements in order to estimate heart rate via the computation of motion- compensated skin erythema fluctuation. Using high-resolution video recordings of human participants, multiple measurement locations are automatically identified on the cheeks of an individual, and motion-compensated broadband reflectance measurements are acquired at each measurement location over time via measurement location tracking. The motion-compensated broadband reflectance measurements are spectrally demultiplexed using a non-linear inverse model based on the spectral sensitivity of the camera's detector. A PPG signal is then computed from the demultiplexed narrow-band spectral information via skin erythema fluctuation analysis, with improved signal-to-noise ratio allowing for reliable remote heart rate measurements. To assess the effectiveness of the proposed system, a set of experiments involving human motion in a front-facing position were performed under ambient lighting conditions. Experimental results indicate that the proposed system achieves robust and accurate heart rate measurements and can provide additional information about the participant beyond the capabilities of traditional PPGI methods.

  20. Spectral identification of lighting type and character.

    PubMed

    Elvidge, Christopher D; Keith, David M; Tuttle, Benjamin T; Baugh, Kimberly E

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the optimal spectral bands for the identification of lighting types and the estimation of four major indices used to measure the efficiency or character of lighting. To accomplish these objectives we collected high-resolution emission spectra (350 to 2,500 nm) for forty-three different lamps, encompassing nine of the major types of lamps used worldwide. The narrow band emission spectra were used to simulate radiances in eight spectral bands including the human eye photoreceptor bands (photopic, scotopic, and "meltopic") plus five spectral bands in the visible and near-infrared modeled on bands flown on the Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM). The high-resolution continuous spectra are superior to the broad band combinations for the identification of lighting type and are the standard for calculation of Luminous Efficacy of Radiation (LER), Correlated Color Temperature (CCT) and Color Rendering Index (CRI). Given the high cost that would be associated with building and flying a hyperspectral sensor with detection limits low enough to observe nighttime lights we conclude that it would be more feasible to fly an instrument with a limited number of broad spectral bands in the visible to near infrared. The best set of broad spectral bands among those tested is blue, green, red and NIR bands modeled on the band set flown on the Landsat Thematic Mapper. This set provides low errors on the identification of lighting types and reasonable estimates of LER and CCT when compared to the other broad band set tested. None of the broad band sets tested could make reasonable estimates of Luminous Efficacy (LE) or CRI. The photopic band proved useful for the estimation of LER. However, the three photoreceptor bands performed poorly in the identification of lighting types when compared to the bands modeled on the Landsat Thematic Mapper. Our conclusion is that it is feasible to identify lighting type and make reasonable estimates of LER and CCT using four or more spectral

  1. Commission 45: Spectral Classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giridhar, Sunetra; Gray, Richard O.; Corbally, Christopher J.; Bailer-Jones, Coryn A. L.; Eyer, Laurent; Irwin, Michael J.; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Majewski, Steven; Minniti, Dante; Nordström, Birgitta

    This report gives an update of developments (since the last General Assembly at Prague) in the areas that are of relevance to the commission. In addition to numerous papers, a new monograph entitled Stellar Spectral Classification with Richard Gray and Chris Corbally as leading authors will be published by Princeton University Press as part of their Princeton Series in Astrophysics in April 2009. This book is an up-to-date and encyclopedic review of stellar spectral classification across the H-R diagram, including the traditional MK system in the blue-violet, recent extensions into the ultraviolet and infrared, the newly defined L-type and T-type spectral classes, as well as spectral classification of carbon stars, S-type stars, white dwarfs, novae, supernovae and Wolf-Rayet stars.

  2. Cooperative spectral and spatial feature fusion for camouflaged target detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sungho; Shim, Min-Sheob

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents a novel camouflaged target detection method using spectral and spatial feature fusion. Conventional unsupervised learning methods using spectral information only can be feasible solutions. Such approaches, however, sometimes produce incorrect detection results because spatial information is not considered. This paper proposes a novel band feature selection method by considering both the spectral distance and spatial statistics after spectral normalization for illumination invariance. The statistical distance metric can generate candidate feature bands and further analysis of the spatial grouping property can trim the useless feature bands. Camouflaged targets can be detected better with less computational complexity by the spectral-spatial feature fusion.

  3. Color Restoration of RGBN Multispectral Filter Array Sensor Images Based on Spectral Decomposition.

    PubMed

    Park, Chulhee; Kang, Moon Gi

    2016-01-01

    A multispectral filter array (MSFA) image sensor with red, green, blue and near-infrared (NIR) filters is useful for various imaging applications with the advantages that it obtains color information and NIR information simultaneously. Because the MSFA image sensor needs to acquire invisible band information, it is necessary to remove the IR cut-offfilter (IRCF). However, without the IRCF, the color of the image is desaturated by the interference of the additional NIR component of each RGB color channel. To overcome color degradation, a signal processing approach is required to restore natural color by removing the unwanted NIR contribution to the RGB color channels while the additional NIR information remains in the N channel. Thus, in this paper, we propose a color restoration method for an imaging system based on the MSFA image sensor with RGBN filters. To remove the unnecessary NIR component in each RGB color channel, spectral estimation and spectral decomposition are performed based on the spectral characteristics of the MSFA sensor. The proposed color restoration method estimates the spectral intensity in NIR band and recovers hue and color saturation by decomposing the visible band component and the NIR band component in each RGB color channel. The experimental results show that the proposed method effectively restores natural color and minimizes angular errors. PMID:27213381

  4. Color Restoration of RGBN Multispectral Filter Array Sensor Images Based on Spectral Decomposition

    PubMed Central

    Park, Chulhee; Kang, Moon Gi

    2016-01-01

    A multispectral filter array (MSFA) image sensor with red, green, blue and near-infrared (NIR) filters is useful for various imaging applications with the advantages that it obtains color information and NIR information simultaneously. Because the MSFA image sensor needs to acquire invisible band information, it is necessary to remove the IR cut-offfilter (IRCF). However, without the IRCF, the color of the image is desaturated by the interference of the additional NIR component of each RGB color channel. To overcome color degradation, a signal processing approach is required to restore natural color by removing the unwanted NIR contribution to the RGB color channels while the additional NIR information remains in the N channel. Thus, in this paper, we propose a color restoration method for an imaging system based on the MSFA image sensor with RGBN filters. To remove the unnecessary NIR component in each RGB color channel, spectral estimation and spectral decomposition are performed based on the spectral characteristics of the MSFA sensor. The proposed color restoration method estimates the spectral intensity in NIR band and recovers hue and color saturation by decomposing the visible band component and the NIR band component in each RGB color channel. The experimental results show that the proposed method effectively restores natural color and minimizes angular errors. PMID:27213381

  5. A reward band study of mallards to estimate band reporting rates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henny, C.J.; Burnham, K.P.

    1976-01-01

    Reward bands ($10) were placed on 2,122 hatching-year mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), and an additional 11,490 received conventional bands (controls) to estimate band reporting rates. An analysis of band recoveries indicated that the reporting rate was dependent primarily upon three factors: (1) the distance banded birds were recovered from the banding site, (2) band collecting activities of conservation agencies (usually near banding sites), and ( 3) the intensity of banding effort in the region (frequency of banded birds in the population of the region). Reporting rates were uniformly depressed near the banding sites, but they showed an east-west cline at distances greater than 80 km from the banding sites. The reporting rate was highest in the west. Limited data on historical band reporting rates were compiled. Recommendations are given for adjusting band recoveries to account for the nonreporting of bands for 1957-73.

  6. Voigt deconvolution method and its applications to pure oxygen absorption spectrum at 1270 nm band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    AL-Jalali, Muhammad A.; Aljghami, Issam F.; Mahzia, Yahia M.

    2016-03-01

    Experimental spectral lines of pure oxygen at 1270 nm band were analyzed by Voigt deconvolution method. The method gave a total Voigt profile, which arises from two overlapping bands. Deconvolution of total Voigt profile leads to two Voigt profiles, the first as a result of O2 dimol at 1264 nm band envelope, and the second from O2 monomer at 1268 nm band envelope. In addition, Voigt profile itself is the convolution of Lorentzian and Gaussian distributions. Competition between thermal and collisional effects was clearly observed through competition between Gaussian and Lorentzian width for each band envelope. Voigt full width at half-maximum height (Voigt FWHM) for each line, and the width ratio between Lorentzian and Gaussian width (ΓLΓG- 1) have been investigated. The following applied pressures were at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 8 bar, while the temperatures were at 298 K, 323 K, 348 K, and 373 K range.

  7. Voigt deconvolution method and its applications to pure oxygen absorption spectrum at 1270 nm band.

    PubMed

    Al-Jalali, Muhammad A; Aljghami, Issam F; Mahzia, Yahia M

    2016-03-15

    Experimental spectral lines of pure oxygen at 1270 nm band were analyzed by Voigt deconvolution method. The method gave a total Voigt profile, which arises from two overlapping bands. Deconvolution of total Voigt profile leads to two Voigt profiles, the first as a result of O2 dimol at 1264 nm band envelope, and the second from O2 monomer at 1268 nm band envelope. In addition, Voigt profile itself is the convolution of Lorentzian and Gaussian distributions. Competition between thermal and collisional effects was clearly observed through competition between Gaussian and Lorentzian width for each band envelope. Voigt full width at half-maximum height (Voigt FWHM) for each line, and the width ratio between Lorentzian and Gaussian width (ΓLΓG(-1)) have been investigated. The following applied pressures were at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 8 bar, while the temperatures were at 298 K, 323 K, 348 K, and 373 K range. PMID:26709019

  8. Band Together!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Cathy Applefeld

    2011-01-01

    After nearly a decade as band director at St. James High School in St. James, Missouri, Derek Limback knows that the key to building a successful program is putting the program itself above everything else. Limback strives to augment not only his students' musical prowess, but also their leadership skills. Key to his philosophy is instilling a…

  9. Spectral stratigraphy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, Harold R.

    1991-09-01

    Stratigraphic and structural studies of the Wind River and Bighorn basins, Wyoming, and the Guerrero-Morelos basin, Mexico, have resulted in development of ''spectral stratigraphy.'' This approach to stratigraphic analysis uses photogeologic and spectral interpretation of multispectral remote sensing data combined with topographic information to determine the attitude, thickness, and lithology of strata exposed at the surface. This paper reviews selected published examples that illustrate this new stratigraphic procedure. Visible to thermal infrared laboratory, spectral measurements of sedimentary rocks are the physical basis for spectral stratigraphy. Results show that laboratory, field, and remote spectroscopy can augment conventional laboratory and field methods for petrologic analysis, stratigraphic correlation, interpretation of depositional environments, and construction of facies models. Landsat thematic mapper data are used to map strata and construct stratigraphic columns and structural cross sections at 1:24,000 scale or less. Experimental multispectral thermal infrared aircraft data facilitate lithofacies/biofacies analyses. Visible short-wavelength infrared imaging spectrometer data allow remote determination of the stratigraphic distribution of iron oxides, quartz, calcite, dolomite, gypsum, specific clay species, and other minerals diagnostic of environments of deposition. Development of a desk-top, computer-based, geologic analysis system that provides for automated application of these approaches to coregistered digital image and topographic data portends major expansion in the use of spectral stratigraphy for purely scientific (lithospheric research) or practical (resource exploration) objectives.

  10. USGS Digital Spectral Library splib06a

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Roger N.; Swayze, Gregg A.; Wise, Richard A.; Livo, K. Eric; Hoefen, Todd M.; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Sutley, Stephen J.

    2007-01-01

    ), one simply needs a diagnostic absorption band. The mapping system uses continuum-removed reference spectral features fitted to features in observed spectra. Spectral features for such algorithms can be obtained from a spectrum of a sample containing large amounts of contaminants, including those that add other spectral features, as long as the shape of the diagnostic feature of interest is not modified. If, however, the data are needed for radiative transfer models to derive mineral abundances from reflectance spectra, then completely uncontaminated spectra are required. This library contains spectra that span a range of quality, with purity indicators to flag spectra for (or against) particular uses. Acquiring spectral measurements and performing sample characterizations for this library has taken about 15 person-years of effort. Software to manage the library and provide scientific analysis capability is provided (Clark, 1980, 1993). A personal computer (PC) reader for the library is also available (Livo and others, 1993). The program reads specpr binary files (Clark, 1980, 1993) and plots spectra. Another program that reads the specpr format is written in IDL (Kokaly, 2005). In our view, an ideal spectral library consists of samples covering a very wide range of materials, has large wavelength range with very high precision, and has enough sample analyses and documentation to establish the quality of the spectra. Time and available resources limit what can be achieved. Ideally, for each mineral, the sample analysis would include X-ray diffraction (XRD), electron microprobe (EM) or X-ray fluorescence (XRF), and petrographic microscopic analyses. For some minerals, such as iron oxides, additional analyses such as Mossbauer would be helpful. We have found that to make the basic spectral measurements, provide XRD, EM or XRF analyses, and microscopic analyses, document the results, and complete an entry of one spectral library sample, all takes about

  11. Ultraviolet Spectral Diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heap, Sally; Lindler, Don

    2009-01-01

    At redshifts, z>l, the rest-frame mid-UV is brought into view of large, ground-based telescopes. Here, we report on a study of the potential of the rest-frame UV spectrum for deriving the age since the last major episode of star formation in a galaxy. We base this investigation on wide-band (0.2-1.0 microns), low-resolution (R-1000) spectra of single stars in Hubble's Next Generation Spectral Library (NGSL). We find that a combination of mid-UV spectral indices and colors can indeed yield the age of a stellar population, but only if light from the stellar population is unreddened.

  12. Thematic mapper studies band correlation analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ungar, S. G.; Kiang, R.

    1976-01-01

    Spectral data representative of thematic mapper candidate bands 1 and 3 to 7 were obtained by selecting appropriate combinations of bands from the JSC 24 channel multispectral scanner. Of all the bands assigned, only candidate bands 4 (.74 mu to .80 mu) and 5 (.80 mu to .91 mu) showed consistently high intercorrelation from region to region and time to time. This extremely high correlation persisted when looking at the composite data set in a multitemporal, multilocation domain. The GISS investigations lend positive confirmation to the hypothesis, that TM bands 4 and 5 are redundant.

  13. Ultra-slow frequency bands reflecting potential coherence between neocortical brain regions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, X; Wang, Y-T; Wang, Y; Jung, T P; Huang, M; Cheng, C K; Mandell, A J

    2015-03-19

    Recent studies of electromagnetic ultra-slow waves (⩽0.1Hz) have suggested that they play a role in the integration of otherwise disassociated brain regions supporting vital functions (Ackermann and Borbely, 1997; Picchioni et al., 2010; Knyazev, 2012; Le Bon et al., 2012). We emphasize this spectral domain in probing sensor coherence issues raised by these studies using Hilbert phase coherences in the human MEG. In addition, we ask: will temporal-spatial phase coherence in regional brain oscillations obtained from the ultraslow spectral bands of multi-channel magnetoencephalograms (MEG) differentiate resting, "task-free" MEG records of normal control and schizophrenic subjects? The goal of the study is a comparison of the relative persistence of intra-regional phase locking values (PLVs), among 10, region-defined, sensors in examined in the resting multichannel, MEG records as a function of spectral frequency bands and diagnostic category. The following comparison of Hilbert-transform-engendered relative phases of each designated spectral band was made using their pair-wise PLVs. This indicated the proportion of shared cycle time in which the phase relations between the index location and reference leads were maintained. Leave one out, bootstrapping of the PLVs via a support vector machine (SVM), classified clinical status with 97.3% accuracy. It was generally the case that spectral bands ⩽1.0Hz generated the highest values of the PLVs and discriminated best between control and patient populations. We conclude that PLV analysis of the oscillatory patterns of MEG recordings in the ultraslow frequency bands suggest their functional significance in intra-regional signal coherence and provide a higher rate of classification of patients and normal subjects than the other spectral domains examined. PMID:25592429

  14. Auroral Lyman α and H2 bands from the giant planets 3. Lyman α spectral profile including charge exchange and radiative transfer effects and H2 color ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rego, D.; Prangé, R.; Ben Jaffel, L.

    1999-03-01

    in two particular wavelength ranges of the H2 Werner and Lyman bands, 1230-1300 Å and 1557-1619 Å. We also compute the ratio CLyα between the H2 short-wavelength range and the line integrated Lyman α flux. C and CLyα are sensitive to the CH4 and the H column densities, respectively, overlying the auroral source along the line of sight. Once an atmospheric model is assumed, energies of the precipitating particles can be derived. Each of these ratios shows a specific variation with the energy of the particles. In addition, CLyα is sensitive to the identity of precipitating particles as well, so that, combined together, they can, in principle, provide a unique diagnostic of the Jovian aurorae.

  15. Effect of Doping on the Electron Spectral Function of One-Dimensional Spin-Charge-Well-Separated Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yong; Liu, Fang; Zhang, Xiaowei; Lu, Junwang; Zhao, Hua

    2016-07-01

    The electron spectral function has been studied based on a model suitable for one-dimensional (1D) systems with spin and charge degrees of freedom well-separated. The result can permit a qualitative description of the spin-charge separated spectral feature observed in 1D cuprates. We find that the electron chemical potential shifts downward rapidly with hole doping, making the separated spectral feature harder and harder to be entirely detected in an angle-resolved photoemission (ARPES) measurement, which explains the ARPES result strangely observed in the 1/4-filled Cu-O chains in PrBa2Cu4O8. Additionally, doping evolution of the spectral function is found to show rich physics, and an essential feature is that a new coherent band gradually appears with hole doping just about the top of the lower Hubbard band, which is very similar to that observed in two-dimensional cuprates.

  16. Spectral analysis of the Namarunu volcanic complex in the Northern Kenya Rift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riedl, S.; Trauth, M. H.

    2009-04-01

    The Namarunu volcanic complex, situated on the western side of Suguta Valley in the northern part of the Kenya Rift, is dominated by trachytic and basaltic volcanics with a Pliocene to Holocene age range. The analysis of ASTER satellite imagery with special focus on the VNIR and SWIR bands covering a wavelength from 0.5µm to 2.4µm provides the possibility to distinguish these different volcanic rock types by means of spectral characteristics. The visualisation of calculated ratio bands also shows a distinct gradient within alluvial fans and scree surrounding Namarunu, indicating varying source areas. Based on this satellite information, samples both from in-place volcanics and from the enclosing fans were taken for additional spectral analysis. With hyperspectral lab measurements, high resolution spectra of the rock samples were acquired. These spectral signals allow establishing a basic provenance analysis of the fans. Due to limitations of the spectral characteristics of volcanics, the spectral rock classification additionally depends on alteration patterns. As Namarunu itself is active since at least 0.87Ma, its volcanic rocks comprise the latest history of the Rift Valley, including rift tectonics and the influence of lacustrine environment, thus the superimposed climate fluctuations; the analysis of the fans delivers an further insight into the volcanic evolution in Suguta Valley. Presented are the possibilities and limitations of the technique that uses the connection of remote sensing data and field samples, as well as the approach to comprehend the volcanic history of Namarunu with the help of spectral analysis.

  17. SpecViz: Interactive Spectral Data Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Earl, Nicholas Michael; STScI

    2016-06-01

    The astronomical community is about to enter a new generation of scientific enterprise. With next-generation instrumentation and advanced capabilities, the need has arisen to equip astronomers with the necessary tools to deal with large, multi-faceted data. The Space Telescope Science Institute has initiated a data analysis forum for the creation, development, and maintenance of software tools for the interpretation of these new data sets. SpecViz is a spectral 1-D interactive visualization and analysis application built with Python in an open source development environment. A user-friendly GUI allows for a fast, interactive approach to spectral analysis. SpecViz supports handling of unique and instrument-specific data, incorporation of advanced spectral unit handling and conversions in a flexible, high-performance interactive plotting environment. Active spectral feature analysis is possible through interactive measurement and statistical tools. It can be used to build wide-band SEDs, with the capability of combining or overplotting data products from various instruments. SpecViz sports advanced toolsets for filtering and detrending spectral lines; identifying, isolating, and manipulating spectral features; as well as utilizing spectral templates for renormalizing data in an interactive way. SpecViz also includes a flexible model fitting toolset that allows for multi-component models, as well as custom models, to be used with various fitting and decomposition routines. SpecViz also features robust extension via custom data loaders and connection to the central communication system underneath the interface for more advanced control. Incorporation with Jupyter notebooks via connection with the active iPython kernel allows for SpecViz to be used in addition to a user’s normal workflow without demanding the user drastically alter their method of data analysis. In addition, SpecViz allows the interactive analysis of multi-object spectroscopy in the same straight

  18. Active-passive correlation spectroscopy - A new technique for identifying ocean color algorithm spectral regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoge, F. E.; Swift, R. N.

    1986-01-01

    A new active-passive airborne data correlation technique has been developed which allows the validation of existing in-water oceoan color algorithms and the rapid search, identification, and evaluation of new sensor band locations and algorithm wavelength intervals. Thus far, applied only in conjunction with the spectral curvature algorithm (SCA), the active-passive correlation spectroscopy (APCS) technique shows that (1) the usual 490-nm (center-band) chlorophyll SCA could satisfactorily be placed anywhere within the nominal 460-510-nm interval, and (2) two other spectral regions, 645-660 and 680-695 nm, show considerable promise for chlorophyll pigment measurement. Additionally, the APCS method reveals potentially useful wavelength regions (at 600 and about 670 nm) of very low chlorophyll-in-water spectral curvature into which accessory pigment algorithms for phycoerythrin might be carefully positioned. In combination, the APCS and SCA methods strongly suggest that significant information content resides within the seemingly featureless ocean color spectrum.

  19. Large Format Narrow-Band, Multi-Band, and Broad-Band LWIR QWIP Focal Planes for Space and Earth Science Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gunapala, S. D.; Bandara, S. V.

    2004-01-01

    A 640x512 pixel, long-wavelength cutoff, narrow-band (delta(lambda)/approx. 10%) quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP) focal plane array (FPA), a four-band QWIP FPA in the 4-16 m spectral region, and a broad-band (delta(lambda)/approx. 42%) QWIP FPA having 15.4 m cutoff have been demonstrated.

  20. Characteristics of yttrium oxide laser ceramics with additives

    SciTech Connect

    Osipov, V V; Solomonov, V I; Orlov, A N; Shitov, V A; Maksimov, R N; Spirina, A V

    2013-03-31

    Neodymium- or ytterbium-doped laser ceramics with a disordered crystal-field structure formed by introduction of iso- and heterovalent elements into yttrium oxide are studied. It is shown that these additives broaden the spectral band of laser transitions, which makes it possible to use ceramics as active laser media emitting ultrashort pulses. Lasing was obtained in several samples of this ceramics. At the same time, it is shown that addition of zirconium and hafnium stimulates the Foerster quenching of upper laser levels and pump levels. (extreme light fields and their applications)

  1. The Ch asteroids: Connecting a Visible Taxonomic Class to a 3-µm spectral shape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivkin, Andrew S.; Howell, E. S.; Emery, J. P.; Volquardsen, E. L.

    2013-10-01

    The Ch-class asteroids in the Bus and Bus-DeMeo classifications are characterized by an absorption near 0.7-µm, first described in a series of papers by Vilas and her co-workers, and associated with phyllosilicates. We have known for some time that the presence of this band is correlated with the presence of the 3-µm absorption band diagnostic for OH/H2O in asteroids and meteorites (Howell, Vilas et al.). In the meteorite collection, the 0.7-µm band seems to be limited to a particular subset of carbonaceous chondrites, the CM group (Cloutis et al.). The difference in 3-µm band shape between Ceres and Pallas has been recognized since the 1980s from work by Lebofsky, Feierberg et al.. Several surveys in this spectral region have established that on the order of 3-4 different spectral shapes exist in the asteroid population (Takir et al., Rivkin et al.). One group, the largest member of which is Pallas, has spectral shapes similar to what is seen in the carbonaceous chondrite meteorites. At this writing, the L-band Mainbelt/NEO Observing Program (LMNOP) has obtained spectra for 25 asteroids classified as Ch by the SMASS surveys. Of the 20 objects that can be unambiguously assigned a 3-µm spectral type, all 20 have a Pallas-type spectral shape. An additional 6 objects in the LMNOP without SMASS classifications are classified as Ch by the S3OS2 survey. Only one of these 6 objects is not obviously Pallas-like, 791 Ani, and inspection of the S3OS2 spectrum leads to doubt that it is actually a Ch-class object. The assignment of at least 80% and perhaps 100% of Ch-class asteroids to the Pallas 3-µm type (depending on how ambiguous objects are treated) serves as evidence for a specific tie between the visible-region and infrared spectral regions, and that the 0.7-µm band can be used not only as a proxy for the presence of a 3-µm band but for a specific band shape and mineralogy. We will present our spectral results and analysis.

  2. Calibration of VIIRS F1 Sensor Fire Detection Band Using lunar Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McIntire, Jeff; Efremova, Boryana; Xiong, Xiaoxiong

    2012-01-01

    Visible Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Fight 1 (Fl) sensor includes a fire detection band at roughly 4 microns. This spectral band has two gain states; fire detection occurs in the low gain state above approximately 345 K. The thermal bands normally utilize an on-board blackbody to provide on-orbit calibration. However, as the maximum temperature of this blackbody is 315 K, the low gain state of the 4 micron band cannot be calibrated in the same manner as the rest of the thermal bands. Regular observations of the moon provide an alternative calibration source. The lunar surface temperature has been recently mapped by the DIVINER sensor on the LRO platform. The periodic on-board high gain calibration along with the DIVINER surface temperatures was used to determine the emissivity and solar reflectance of the lunar surface at 4 microns; these factors and the lunar data are then used to fit the low gain calibration coefficients of the 4 micron band. Furthermore, the emissivity of the lunar surface is well known near 8.5 microns due to the Christiansen feature (an emissivity maximum associated with Si-O stretching vibrations) and the solar reflectance is negligible. Thus, the 8.5 micron band is used for relative calibration with the 4 micron band to de-trend any temporal variations. In addition, the remaining thermal bands are analyzed in a similar fashion, with both calculated emissivities and solar reflectances produced.

  3. Spectral Predictors

    SciTech Connect

    Ibarria, L; Lindstrom, P; Rossignac, J

    2006-11-17

    Many scientific, imaging, and geospatial applications produce large high-precision scalar fields sampled on a regular grid. Lossless compression of such data is commonly done using predictive coding, in which weighted combinations of previously coded samples known to both encoder and decoder are used to predict subsequent nearby samples. In hierarchical, incremental, or selective transmission, the spatial pattern of the known neighbors is often irregular and varies from one sample to the next, which precludes prediction based on a single stencil and fixed set of weights. To handle such situations and make the best use of available neighboring samples, we propose a local spectral predictor that offers optimal prediction by tailoring the weights to each configuration of known nearby samples. These weights may be precomputed and stored in a small lookup table. We show that predictive coding using our spectral predictor improves compression for various sources of high-precision data.

  4. Spectral Dictionaries

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sangtae; Gupta, Nitin; Bandeira, Nuno; Pevzner, Pavel A.

    2009-01-01

    Database search tools identify peptides by matching tandem mass spectra against a protein database. We study an alternative approach when all plausible de novo interpretations of a spectrum (spectral dictionary) are generated and then quickly matched against the database. We present a new MS-Dictionary algorithm for efficiently generating spectral dictionaries and demonstrate that MS-Dictionary can identify spectra that are missed in the database search. We argue that MS-Dictionary enables proteogenomics searches in six-frame translation of genomic sequences that may be prohibitively time-consuming for existing database search approaches. We show that such searches allow one to correct sequencing errors and find programmed frameshifts. PMID:18703573

  5. Assessment of Thematic Mapper Band-to-band Registration by the Block Correlation Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Card, D. H.; Wrigley, R. C.; Mertz, F. C.; Hall, J. R.

    1985-01-01

    Rectangular blocks of pixels from one band image were statistically correlated against blocks centered on identical pixels from a second band image. The block pairs were shifted in pixel increments both vertically and horizontally with respect to each other and the correlation coefficient to the maximum correlation was taken as the best estimate of registration error for each block pair. For the band combinations of the Arkansas scene studied, the misregistration of TM spectral bands within the noncooled focal plane lie well within the 0.2 pixel target specification. Misregistration between the middle IR bands is well within this specification also. The thermal IR band has an apparent misregistration with TM band 7 of approximately 3 pixels in each direction. The TM band 3 has a misregistration of approximately 0.2 pixel in the across-scan direction and 0.5 pixel in the along-scan direction, with both TM bands 5 and 7.

  6. Assessment of Thematic Mapper band-to-band registration by the block correlation method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Card, D. H.; Wrigley, R. C.; Mertz, F. C.; Hall, J. R.

    1983-01-01

    Rectangular blocks of pixels from one band image were statistically correlated against blocks centered on identical pixels from a second band image. The block pairs were shifted in pixel increments both vertically and horizontally with respect to each other and the correlation coefficient to the maximum correlation was taken as the best estimate of registration error for each block pair. For the band combinations of the Arkansas scene studied, the misregistration of TM spectral bands within the noncooled focal plane lie well within the 0.2 pixel target specification. Misregistration between the middle IR bands is well within this specification also. The thermal IR band has an apparent misregistration with TM band 7 of approximately 3 pixels in each direction. The TM band 3 has a misregistration of approximately 0.2 pixel in the across-scan direction and 0.5 pixel in the along-scan direction, with both TM bands 5 and 7.

  7. Salinity and spectral reflectance of soils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szilagyi, A.; Baumgardner, M. F.

    1991-01-01

    The basic spectral response related to the salt content of soils in the visible and reflective IR wavelengths is analyzed in order to explore remote sensing applications for monitoring processes of the earth system. The bidirectional reflectance factor (BRF) was determined at 10 nm of increments over the 520-2320-nm spectral range. The effect of salts on reflectance was analyzed on the basis of 162 spectral measurements. MSS and TM bands were simulated within the measured spectral region. A strong relationship was found in variations of reflectance and soil characteristics pertaining to salinization and desalinization. Although the individual MSS bands had high R-squared values and 75-79 percent of soil/treatment combinations were separable, there was a large number of soil/treatment combinations not distinguished by any of the four highly correlated MSS bands under consideration.

  8. Narrow-band tunable alexandrite laser with passive Q switching

    SciTech Connect

    Tyryshkin, I S; Ivanov, N A; Khulugurov, V M

    1998-06-30

    An alexandrite laser with a self-injection of narrow-band radiation into its cavity was developed. A Fabry - Perot interferometer and a diffraction grating were used as dispersive components in an additional cavity. The cavity was switched by an LiF crystal with F{sub 3}{sup -} colour centres. The laser generated a single pulse of {approx} 180 ns duration and of 1.5 mJ energy, and with a spectrum 5 x 10{sup -3} cm{sup -1} wide. The laser emitted in the spectral range 720 - 780 nm. (lasers, active media)

  9. On the Use of Complementary Spectral Features for Speaker Recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseinzadeh, Danoush; Krishnan, Sridhar

    2007-12-01

    The most popular features for speaker recognition are Mel frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCCs) and linear prediction cepstral coefficients (LPCCs). These features are used extensively because they characterize the vocal tract configuration which is known to be highly speaker-dependent. In this work, several features are introduced that can characterize the vocal system in order to complement the traditional features and produce better speaker recognition models. The spectral centroid (SC), spectral bandwidth (SBW), spectral band energy (SBE), spectral crest factor (SCF), spectral flatness measure (SFM), Shannon entropy (SE), and Renyi entropy (RE) were utilized for this purpose. This work demonstrates that these features are robust in noisy conditions by simulating some common distortions that are found in the speakers' environment and a typical telephone channel. Babble noise, additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN), and a bandpass channel with 1 dB of ripple were used to simulate these noisy conditions. The results show significant improvements in classification performance for all noise conditions when these features were used to complement the MFCC and [InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.]MFCC features. In particular, the SC and SCF improved performance in almost all noise conditions within the examined SNR range (10-40 dB). For example, in cases where there was only one source of distortion, classification improvements of up to 8% and 10% were achieved under babble noise and AWGN, respectively, using the SCF feature.

  10. Spectral index development for mapping live coral cover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joyce, Karen E.; Phinn, Stuart R.

    2013-01-01

    Remotely sensed spectral indices are used in a range of environments for estimating properties of vegetation, soil, atmospheric, and water features. Here, the development of an index sensitive to the amount of live coral, using in situ spectral reflectance data from Australia and Hawaii is outlined. From an initial spectral reflectance library of common reef benthic features, linear spectral mixing was used to create mixed reflectance signatures that represented image pixels in a reef environment. The correlation between the proportion of total live coral and the mixed reflectance signal at each wavelength was calculated to determine the wavelengths sensitive to variations in the amount of live coral. First and second derivatives of the reflectance spectra, in addition to simple band ratios, were also tested. The same processing and analysis procedures were then followed after simulating the spectral mixtures under different depths and levels of suspended organic content using a radiative transfer model (Hydrolight 4.1). Results show that the second derivative of reflectance at 564 nm was one of the wavelength regions most sensitive to variations in live coral cover and least sensitive to variations in water depth and quality. Subsequent research will present the applicability of this technique to hyperspectral image data.

  11. Spectral diversity crystalline fluoride lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Jenssen, H.P.; Gabbe, D.R.; Linz, A.; Naiman, C.S.

    1981-01-01

    Within the realm of crystalline laser materials, the class of fluorides distinguishes itself mostly by the wide variety of laser wavelengths displayed. Laser operation has now been reported from 3.9 micrometers in the infrared to 286 nm in the ultraviolet. Many are operated flash-lamp pumped, while others have shown high utility as linear down conversion lasers and rare earth ion, while others are sensitized by other co-dopants which absorb the pump energy and transfer it to the active laser ions. The potential of large spectral diversity for laser operation is due both to the wide window of transparency that fluorides possess and the lower rates of nonradiative decay. The high band gap in the ultraviolet also leads to low linear absorption, low nonlinear refractive indices and multiphoton absorption. Additionally, the good chemical stability displayed by high-purity stoichiometric fluoride compounds allows their use with ultraviolet pump sources at high energies, without incurring UV-induced damage. The most recent research associated with such materials, particularly the host crystal, lithium yttrium fluoride, LiYF4 (YLF) is reviewed.

  12. Temporal relationships between spectral response and agronomic variables of a corn canopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kimes, D. S.; Markham, B. L.; Tucker, C. J.; Mcmurtrey, J. E., III

    1981-01-01

    Attention is given to an experiment in which spectral radiance data collected in three spectral regions are related to corn canopy variables. The study extends the work of Tucker et al. (1979) in that more detailed measurements of corn canopy variables were made using quantitative techniques. Wet and dry green leaf biomass is considered along with the green leaf area index, chlorotic leaf biomass, chlorotic leaf area, and leaf water content. In addition, spectral data were collected with a hand-held radiometer having Landsat-D Thematic Mapper (TM) bands TM3 (0.63-0.69 micrometers), TM4 (0.76-0.90 micrometers), and TM5 (1.55-1.75 micrometers). TM3, TM4, and TM5 seem to be well situated spectrally for making remotely sensed measurements related to chlorophyll concentration, leaf density, and leaf water content.

  13. Role of Bandwidth in Computation of NDVI From Landsat TM and NOAA AVHRR Bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, R. K.; Vijayan, D.; Prasad, T. S.; Tirumaladevi, N. Ch.

    The observations for wheat, onion, potato and chickpea over the Crop Growth Cycle (CGC) in 3 nm bandwidth were converted to AVHRR and TM bands in visible/red and near-IR spectral regions. Correlation between TM and AVHRR NDVI were very high for all these crops. The additional 0.725-0.76 μm bandwidth in AVHRR as compared to TM was causing reduction in NDVI values for AVHRR when crop NDVI value was more than 0.46

  14. A database for spectral image quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Moan, Steven; George, Sony; Pedersen, Marius; Blahová, Jana; Hardeberg, Jon Yngve

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a new image database dedicated to multi-/hyperspectral image quality assessment. A total of nine scenes representing pseudo-at surfaces of different materials (textile, wood, skin. . . ) were captured by means of a 160 band hyperspectral system with a spectral range between 410 and 1000nm. Five spectral distortions were designed, applied to the spectral images and subsequently compared in a psychometric experiment, in order to provide a basis for applications such as the evaluation of spectral image difference measures. The database can be downloaded freely from http://www.colourlab.no/cid.

  15. Electrically detected magnetic resonance in a W-band microwave cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Lang, V.; Lo, C. C.; George, R. E.; Lyon, S. A.; Bokor, J.; Schenkel, T.; Ardavan, A.; Morton, J. J. L.

    2011-01-14

    We describe a low-temperature sample probe for the electrical detection of magnetic resonance in a resonant W-band (94 GHz) microwave cavity. The advantages of this approach are demonstrated by experiments on silicon field-effect transistors. A comparison with conventional low-frequency measurements at X-band (9.7 GHz) on the same devices reveals an up to 100-fold enhancement of the signal intensity. In addition, resonance lines that are unresolved at X-band are clearly separated in the W-band measurements. Electrically detected magnetic resonance at high magnetic fields and high microwave frequencies is therefore a very sensitive technique for studying electron spins with an enhanced spectral resolution and sensitivity.

  16. Spectral function and Fermi surface in high- Tc cuprates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohta, Y.; Tsutsui, K.; Koshibae, W.; Shimozato, T.; Maekawa, S.

    1993-05-01

    An exact-diagonalization technique on small clusters is used to calculate the single-particle spectral function for the one-band and three-band Hubbard models. We show that the strongly momentum-dependent spectral-weight transfer induced by carrier doping leads to the evolution of the dispersion of low-enegy states. The quasiparticle-like band narrowing is examined.

  17. Spectral Variability among Rocks in Visible and Near Infrared Multispectral Pancam Data Collected at Gusev Crater: Examinations using Spectral Mixture Analysis and Related Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farrand, W. H.; Bell, J. F., III; Johnson, J. R.; Squyres, S. W.; Soderblom, J.; Ming, D. W.

    2006-01-01

    Visible and Near Infrared (VNIR) multispectral observations of rocks made by the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit s Panoramic camera (Pancam) have been analysed using a spectral mixture analysis (SMA) methodology. Scenes have been examined from the Gusev crater plains into the Columbia Hills. Most scenes on the plains and in the Columbia Hills could be modeled as three endmember mixtures of a bright material, rock, and shade. Scenes of rocks disturbed by the rover s Rock Abrasion Tool (RAT) required additional endmembers. In the Columbia Hills there were a number of scenes in which additional rock endmembers were required. The SMA methodology identified relatively dust-free areas on undisturbed rock surfaces, as well as spectrally unique areas on RAT abraded rocks. Spectral parameters from these areas were examined and six spectral classes were identified. These classes are named after a type rock or area and are: Adirondack, Lower West Spur, Clovis, Wishstone, Peace, and Watchtower. These classes are discriminable based, primarily, on near-infrared (NIR) spectral parameters. Clovis and Watchtower class rocks appear more oxidized than Wishstone class rocks and Adirondack basalts based on their having higher 535 nm band depths. Comparison of the spectral parameters of these Gusev crater rocks to parameters of glass-dominated basaltic tuffs indicates correspondence between measurements of Clovis and Watchtower classes, but divergence for the Wishstone class rocks which appear to have a higher fraction of crystalline ferrous iron bearing phases. Despite a high sulfur content, the rock Peace has NIR properties resembling plains basalts.

  18. Results of MODIS Band-to-Band Registration Characterization Using On-Orbit Lunar Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Sun, Junqiang; Angal,Amit

    2011-01-01

    Since launch, lunar observations have been made regularly by both Terra and Aqua MODIS and used for a number of sensor calibration and characterization related applications, including radiometric stability monitoring, spatial characterization, optical leak and electronic cross-talk characterization, and calibration inter-comparison. MODIS has 36 spectral bands with a total of 490 individual detectors. They are located on four focal plane assemblies (FPA). This paper focuses on the use of MODIS lunar observations to characterize its band-to-band registration (BBR). In addition to BBR, the approach developed by the MODIS Characterization Support Team (MCST) can be used to characterize MODIS detector-to-detector registration (DDR). Long-term BBR results developed from this approach are presented and compared with that derived from a unique on-board calibrator (OBC). Results show that on-orbit changes of BBR have been very small for both Terra and Aqua MODIS and this approach can be applied to other remote sensing instruments.

  19. Spectral characteristics and the extent of paleosols of the Palouse formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frazier, B. E.; Busacca, Alan; Cheng, Yaan; Wherry, David; Hart, Judy; Gill, Steve

    1987-01-01

    Three spectral models defining the spatial distribution of soil areas by levels of amorphous iron, organic carbon, and the ratio of amorphous iron to organic carbon were developed and field verification studies were conducted. The models used particular Thematic Mapper band ratios selected by statistical correlation with soil chemical data. The ability of the models to indicate erosion severity and to differentiate between iron enriched and carbonate paleosols is discussed. In addition, the effect of vegetation cover on paleosols is addressed.

  20. Neodymium-doped barium borate glasses as fluorescent concentrators for the infrared spectral range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyrba, Marcel; Wiegand, Marie-Christin; Ahrens, Bernd; Schweizer, Stefan

    2012-06-01

    Neodymium-doped barium borate glasses are investigated for their potential as fluorescent concentrators for the near infrared spectral range. Additional doping of the glasses with silver oxide and subsequent heat treatment leads to a reduction of the doped silver ions and to the formation of metallic silver nanoparticles. The formation of the silver nanoparticles is indicated by a broad surface plasmon-related extinction band at approximately 410 nm. The influence of the silver nanoparticles on the fluorescence properties is investigated.

  1. Optimal Band Ratio Analysis of WORLDVIEW-3 Imagery for Bathymetry of Shallow Rivers (case Study: Sarca River, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niroumand-Jadidi, M.; Vitti, A.

    2016-06-01

    The Optimal Band Ratio Analysis (OBRA) could be considered as an efficient technique for bathymetry from optical imagery due to its robustness on substrate variability. This point receives more attention for very shallow rivers where different substrate types can contribute remarkably into total at-sensor radiance. The OBRA examines the total possible pairs of spectral bands in order to identify the optimal two-band ratio that its log transformation yields a strong linear relation with field measured water depths. This paper aims at investigating the effectiveness of additional spectral bands of newly launched WorldView-3 (WV-3) imagery in the visible and NIR spectrum through OBRA for retrieving water depths in shallow rivers. In this regard, the OBRA is performed on a WV-3 image as well as a GeoEye image of a small Alpine river in Italy. In-situ depths are gathered in two river reaches using a precise GPS device. In each testing scenario, 50% of the field data is used for calibration of the model and the remained as independent check points for accuracy assessment. In general, the effect of changes in water depth is highly pronounced in longer wavelengths (i.e. NIR) due to high and rapid absorption of light in this spectrum as long as it is not saturated. As the studied river is shallow, NIR portion of the spectrum has not been reduced so much not to reach the riverbed; making use of the observed radiance over this spectral range as denominator has shown a strong correlation through OBRA. More specifically, tightly focused channels of red-edge, NIR-1 and NIR-2 provide a wealth of choices for OBRA rather than a single NIR band of conventional 4-band images (e.g. GeoEye). This advantage of WV-3 images is outstanding as well for choosing the optimal numerator of the ratio model. Coastal-blue and yellow bands of WV-3 are identified as proper numerators while only green band of the GeoEye image contributed to a reliable correlation of image derived values and field

  2. Broadband ringdown spectral photography.

    PubMed

    Scherer, J J; Paul, J B; Jiao, H; O'Keefe, A

    2001-12-20

    A new technique that enables frequency-resolved cavity ringdown absorption spectra to be obtained over a large optical bandwidth by a single laser shot is described. The technique, ringdown spectral photography (RSP), simultaneously employs two key principles to record the time and frequency response of an optical cavity along orthogonal axes of a CCD array detector. Previously, the principles employed in RSP were demonstrated with narrow-band laser light that was scanned in frequency [Chem. Phys. Lett. 292, 143 (1998)]. Here, the RSP method is demonstrated using single pulses of broadband visible laser light. The ability to obtain broad as well as rotationally resolved spectra over a large bandwidth with high sensitivity is demonstrated. PMID:18364983

  3. Electron Spectral Function for the t-J Model.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMullen, T.; Gibbs, Zane P.; Bishop, Marilyn F.

    1996-03-01

    Computed electron spectral functions for the t-J model(Z. Wang, Y. Bang, and G. Kotliar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 67), 2733, (1991). are presented. Large-\\cal N expansion techniques are used in which all self energies are evaluated to leading order in 1/\\cal N. Slave bosons are employed to enforce the non-double-occupancy constraint. Results are given for several values of the exchange coupling J/t and doping δ, including those appropriate to cuprate superconductors. A sharp dispersive quasiparticle peak is found near the Fermi energy. Additional spectral weight occurs at lower frequencies, which arises from the form of the normal self-energy. This is qualitatively similar to the self-energy obtained by Kampf and Schrieffer(A. Kampf and J. R. Schrieffer, Phys. Rev. B 41), 6399 (1990). from a parameterized model of an electron coupled to antiferromagnetic spin fluctuations, which is characterized by shadow bands. The lower shadow band in their calculation is analogous to the lower band in our results.

  4. Laboratory band strengths of methane and their application to the atmospheres of Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and Titan. II - The red region 6000-7600 A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lutz, B. L.; Owen, T.; Cess, R. D.

    1982-01-01

    Lutz et al. (1976) have reported the first quantitative analyses of the strengths of the blue-green bands of methane which dominate the visible spectra of the outer planets. The present investigation represents an extension of the first study to include a number of bands between 6000 and 7500 A. The objective of this extension is to establish the validity of the scaled numerical curve of growth of the first study further into the saturated region and to test the apparent pressure independence of the high-overtone bands over a large pressure range. In addition, it is desired to provide a set of homogeneously determined band strengths and curves of growth over a large spectral region and over a large range of band strengths. This will make it possible to investigate feasible apparent dependences of planetary methane abundances on wavelength and band strength as a probe of the scattering processes in the planetary atmospheres.

  5. Spectral image reconstruction through the PCA transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Long; Qiu, Xuewei; Cong, Yangming

    2015-12-01

    Digital color image reproduction based on spectral information has become a field of much interest and practical importance in recent years. The representation of color in digital form with multi-band images is not very accurate, hence the use of spectral image is justified. Reconstructing high-dimensional spectral reflectance images from relatively low-dimensional camera signals is generally an ill-posed problem. The aim of this study is to use the Principal component analysis (PCA) transform in spectral reflectance images reconstruction. The performance is evaluated by the mean, median and standard deviation of color difference values. The values of mean, median and standard deviation of root mean square (GFC) errors between the reconstructed and the actual spectral image were also calculated. Simulation experiments conducted on a six-channel camera system and on spectral test images show the performance of the suggested method.

  6. Quantitative Spectral Morphology Analysis of Unusually Red and Blue L Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camnasio, Sara; Khalida Alam, Munazza; Rice, Emily L.; Cruz, Kelle L.; Faherty, Jacqueline K.; Mace, Gregory N.; Martin, Emily; Logsdon, Sarah E.; McLean, Ian S.; Brown Dwarfs in New York City (BDNYC)

    2016-01-01

    In an effort to constrain the properties of photometric color outliers, we present a quantitative spectral morphology analysis of medium-resolution NIRSPEC (R~2,000), SpeX cross-dispersed (R~2,000), Palomar TripleSpec (R~2600), and Magellan FIRE (R~6000) J-band spectra for a sample of unusually red and blue L dwarfs. Some red L dwarfs are low surface gravity, young objects whose spectra present weak Na I doublets and FeH absorption bands, but strong VO features (Cruz et al. 2009). Some blue L dwarfs are subdwarfs with low metallicity spectral features such as greater H2 absorption, stronger metal hydride bands, and enhanced TiO absorption (Burgasser et al 2008c). We fit 3rd order polynomials to the pseudo-continuum in order to provide a quantitative comparison of spectral morphology with other peculiar L dwarfs, field standards, young L dwarfs, and L subdwarf. The results indicated that the coefficients of the fit correlate with spectral type, but are independent of color. This newly found trend provides a parameter which can be utilized as an additional tool in characterizing quantifiable differences in the spectra of brown dwarfs. Furthermore, this method can be applied in studying the atmospheric properties of exoplanets, given their similarities with brown dwarfs in mass and photospheric properties.

  7. Different optical spectral characteristics in a necrotic transmissible venereal tumor and a cystic lesion in the same canine prostate observed by triple-band trans-rectal optical tomography under trans-rectal ultrasound guidance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Zhen; Holyoak, G. Reed; Ritchey, Jerry W.; Bartels, Kenneth E.; Rock, Kendra; Ownby, Charlotte L.; Slobodov, Gennady; Bunting, Charles F.; Piao, Daqing

    2011-03-01

    Different optical spectral characteristics were observed in a necrotic transmissible venereal tumor (TVT) and a cystic lesion in the same canine prostate by triple-wavelength trans-rectal optical tomography under trans-rectal ultrasound (TRUS) guidance. The NIR imager acquiring at 705nm, 785nm and 808nm was used to quantify both the total hemoglobin concentration (HbT) and oxygen saturation (StO2) in the prostate. The TVT tumor in the canine prostate as a model of prostate cancer was induced in a 7-year old, 27 kg dog. A 2 mL suspension of 2.5x106 cells/mL of homogenized TVT cells recovered from an in vivo subcutaneously propagated TVT tumor in an NOD/SCID mouse were injected in the cranial aspect of the right lobe of the canine prostate. The left lobe of the prostate had a cystic lesion present before TVT inoculation. After the TVT homogenate injection, the prostate was monitored weekly over a 9-week period, using trans-rectal NIR and TRUS in grey-scale and Doppler. A TVT mass within the right lobe developed a necrotic center during the later stages of this study, as the mass presented with substantially increased [HbT] in the periphery, with an area of reduced StO2 less than the area of the mass itself shown on ultrasonography. Conversely, the cystic lesion presented with slightly increased [HbT] in the periphery of the lesion shown on ultrasound with oxygen-reduction inside and in the periphery of the lesion. There was no detectable change of blood flow on Doppler US in the periphery of the cystic lesion. The slightly increased [HbT] in the periphery of the cystic lesion was correlated with intra-lesional hemorrhage upon histopathologic examination.

  8. Band anticrossing in dilute nitrides

    SciTech Connect

    Shan, W.; Yu, K.M.; Walukiewicz, W.; Wu, J.; Ager III, J.W.; Haller, E.E.

    2003-12-23

    Alloying III-V compounds with small amounts of nitrogen leads to dramatic reduction of the fundamental band-gap energy in the resulting dilute nitride alloys. The effect originates from an anti-crossing interaction between the extended conduction-band states and localized N states. The interaction splits the conduction band into two nonparabolic subbands. The downward shift of the lower conduction subband edge is responsible for the N-induced reduction of the fundamental band-gap energy. The changes in the conduction band structure result in significant increase in electron effective mass and decrease in the electron mobility, and lead to a large enhance of the maximum doping level in GaInNAs doped with group VI donors. In addition, a striking asymmetry in the electrical activation of group IV and group VI donors can be attributed to mutual passivation process through formation of the nearest neighbor group-IV donor nitrogen pairs.

  9. TDRS Ku band gateway

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, Cynthia; Lecha, Javier; Principe, Caleb M.; Ross, Douglas

    1987-01-01

    The Wideband Transport Frame Formatter (WTFF) is the tracking and data relay satellite (TDRS) ku-band return link gateway. The WTFF system is a multiplexing device developed to process and downlink the high rate data generated by a wide variety of users. The WTFF is designed to frame and format high data rate user channels into transport frames and multiplex according to a predefined schedule into two bit streams that are compatible with TDRS Ku I and Q band service. The combined data rate will be 300 Mbps. The WTFF will service up to eight input channels generating data in the range of 10 to 150 Mbps. In addition to these input channels, audio data will be accepted by the WTFF system and inserted in the downlink. A second function of the WTFF is to provide telecommunication coding as assigned to each virtual channel to ensure a given quality of service.

  10. SPAM- SPECTRAL ANALYSIS MANAGER (DEC VAX/VMS VERSION)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomon, J. E.

    1994-01-01

    The Spectral Analysis Manager (SPAM) was developed to allow easy qualitative analysis of multi-dimensional imaging spectrometer data. Imaging spectrometers provide sufficient spectral sampling to define unique spectral signatures on a per pixel basis. Thus direct material identification becomes possible for geologic studies. SPAM provides a variety of capabilities for carrying out interactive analysis of the massive and complex datasets associated with multispectral remote sensing observations. In addition to normal image processing functions, SPAM provides multiple levels of on-line help, a flexible command interpretation, graceful error recovery, and a program structure which can be implemented in a variety of environments. SPAM was designed to be visually oriented and user friendly with the liberal employment of graphics for rapid and efficient exploratory analysis of imaging spectrometry data. SPAM provides functions to enable arithmetic manipulations of the data, such as normalization, linear mixing, band ratio discrimination, and low-pass filtering. SPAM can be used to examine the spectra of an individual pixel or the average spectra over a number of pixels. SPAM also supports image segmentation, fast spectral signature matching, spectral library usage, mixture analysis, and feature extraction. High speed spectral signature matching is performed by using a binary spectral encoding algorithm to separate and identify mineral components present in the scene. The same binary encoding allows automatic spectral clustering. Spectral data may be entered from a digitizing tablet, stored in a user library, compared to the master library containing mineral standards, and then displayed as a timesequence spectral movie. The output plots, histograms, and stretched histograms produced by SPAM can be sent to a lineprinter, stored as separate RGB disk files, or sent to a Quick Color Recorder. SPAM is written in C for interactive execution and is available for two different

  11. Power spectral estimation algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhatia, Manjit S.

    1989-01-01

    Algorithms to estimate the power spectrum using Maximum Entropy Methods were developed. These algorithms were coded in FORTRAN 77 and were implemented on the VAX 780. The important considerations in this analysis are: (1) resolution, i.e., how close in frequency two spectral components can be spaced and still be identified; (2) dynamic range, i.e., how small a spectral peak can be, relative to the largest, and still be observed in the spectra; and (3) variance, i.e., how accurate the estimate of the spectra is to the actual spectra. The application of the algorithms based on Maximum Entropy Methods to a variety of data shows that these criteria are met quite well. Additional work in this direction would help confirm the findings. All of the software developed was turned over to the technical monitor. A copy of a typical program is included. Some of the actual data and graphs used on this data are also included.

  12. A broadband spectral inversion method for spatial heterodyne spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Qisheng; Bin, Xiangli; Du, Shusong

    2014-11-01

    Spatial heterodyne spectroscopy (SHS) is a Fourier-transform spectroscopic technique with many advantages, such as high throughput, good robustness (no moving parts), and high resolving power. However, in the basic theory of SHS, the relationship between the wavenumber and the frequency of the interferogram is approximated to be linear. This approximation limits the spectral range of a spatial heterodyne spectrometer to a narrow band near the Littrow wavenumber. Several methods have been developed to extend the spectral range of the SHS. They use echelle gratings or tunable pilot mirrors to make a SHS instrument work at multiple narrow spectral bands near different Littrow wavenumbers. These solutions still utilize the linear relationship between the wavenumber and the frequency of the interferogram. But they need to separate different spectral bands, and this will increase the difficulty of post processing and the complexity of the SHS system. Here, we solve this problem from another perspective: making a SHS system work at one broad spectral band instead of multiple narrow spectral bands. As in a broad spectral range, the frequency of the interferogram will not be linear with respect to the wavenumber anymore. According to this non-linear relationship, we propose a broadband spectral inversion method based on the stationary phase theory. At first, we describe the principles and the basic characters of SHS. Then, the narrow band limitation is analyzed and the broadband spectral inversion method is elaborated. In the end, we present a parameter design example of the SHS system according to a given spectral range, and the effectiveness of this method is validated with a spectral simulation example. This broadband spectral inversion method can be applied to the existing SHS system without changing or inserting any moving components. This method retains the advantages of SHS and there is almost no increase in complexity for post processing.

  13. Micro-optics for simultaneous multi-spectral imaging applied to chemical/biological and IED detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinnrichs, Michele

    2012-06-01

    Using diffractive micro-lenses configured in an array and placed in close proximity to the focal plane array will enable a small compact simultaneous multispectral imaging camera. This approach can be applied to spectral regions from the ultraviolet (UV) to the long-wave infrared (LWIR). The number of simultaneously imaged spectral bands is determined by the number of individually configured diffractive optical micro-lenses (lenslet) in the array. Each lenslet images at a different wavelength determined by the blaze and set at the time of manufacturing based on application. In addition, modulation of the focal length of the lenslet array with piezoelectric or electro-static actuation will enable spectral band fill-in allowing hyperspectral imaging. Using the lenslet array with dual-band detectors will increase the number of simultaneous spectral images by a factor of two when utilizing multiple diffraction orders. Configurations and concept designs will be presented for detection application for biological/chemical agents, buried IED's and reconnaissance. The simultaneous detection of multiple spectral images in a single frame of data enhances the image processing capability by eliminating temporal differences between colors and enabling a handheld instrument that is insensitive to motion.

  14. Planck 2013 results. IX. HFI spectral response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Planck Collaboration; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Armitage-Caplan, C.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bobin, J.; Bock, J. J.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Boulanger, F.; Bridges, M.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chary, R.-R.; Chen, X.; Chiang, H. C.; Chiang, L.-Y.; Christensen, P. R.; Church, S.; Clements, D. L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Combet, C.; Comis, B.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B. P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.-M.; Désert, F.-X.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J. M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Falgarone, E.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Franceschi, E.; Galeotta, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Hansen, F. K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jaffe, T. R.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T. S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Laureijs, R. J.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leahy, J. P.; Leonardi, R.; Leroy, C.; Lesgourgues, J.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maffei, B.; Mandolesi, N.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D. J.; Martin, P. G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Massardi, M.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; McGehee, P.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J. A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C. B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; North, C.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Osborne, S.; Oxborrow, C. A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paoletti, D.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G. W.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Roudier, G.; Rusholme, B.; Santos, D.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Shellard, E. P. S.; Spencer, L. D.; Starck, J.-L.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sureau, F.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2014-11-01

    The Planck High Frequency Instrument (HFI) spectral response was determined through a series of ground based tests conducted with the HFI focal plane in a cryogenic environment prior to launch. The main goal of the spectral transmission tests was to measure the relative spectral response (includingthe level of out-of-band signal rejection) of all HFI detectors to a known source of electromagnetic radiation individually. This was determined by measuring the interferometric output of a continuously scanned Fourier transform spectrometer with all HFI detectors. As there is no on-board spectrometer within HFI, the ground-based spectral response experiments provide the definitive data set for the relative spectral calibration of the HFI. Knowledge of the relative variations in the spectral response between HFI detectors allows for a more thorough analysis of the HFI data. The spectral response of the HFI is used in Planck data analysis and component separation, this includes extraction of CO emission observed within Planck bands, dust emission, Sunyaev-Zeldovich sources, and intensity to polarization leakage. The HFI spectral response data have also been used to provide unit conversion and colour correction analysis tools. While previous papers describe the pre-flight experiments conducted on the Planck HFI, this paper focusses on the analysis of the pre-flight spectral response measurements and the derivation of data products, e.g. band-average spectra, unit conversion coefficients, and colour correction coefficients, all with related uncertainties. Verifications of the HFI spectral response data are provided through comparisons with photometric HFI flight data. This validation includes use of HFI zodiacal emission observations to demonstrate out-of-band spectral signal rejection better than 108. The accuracy of the HFI relative spectral response data is verified through comparison with complementary flight-data based unit conversion coefficients and colour correction

  15. Degradation of MODIS Optics and its Reflective Solar Bands Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xiong, X.; Sun, J.; Esposito, J.; Pan, C.; Xiong, S.; Guenther, B.; Barnes, W. L.; Degnan, John (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) has 36 spectral bands with wavelength ranging from 0.41 micron to 14.5 micron and spatial resolution between 0.25, 0.5, and 1.0 km at Nadir. Its ProtoFlight Model (PFM) on the NASA EOS Terra spacecraft has been providing global coverage of the Land, Ocean, and Atmosphere for the science community since the instrument opened its Nadir door on 24 February 2000. The MODIS optical system consists of a 2-sided paddle wheel scan mirror, a fold mirror, a primary mirror, and other aft optics. The sensor's 20 reflective solar bands from 0.41 to 2.1 micron are calibrated on-orbit by a solar diffuser (SD) and a solar diffuser stability monitor (SDSM). In addition to SD, degradation of the MODIS optics in the reflective solar bands has been observed, including variations in degradation between the two sides of the MODIS scan mirror. During MODIS first year of on-orbit operation, the overall degradations at the shortest wavelength (0.41 micron) are about 3% for SD, and in excess of 10% for the MODIS system. In this paper, we will present our degradation analysis results and discuss their impact on the reflective solar bands' on-orbit calibration.

  16. Origin of the characteristic X-ray spectral variations of IRAS 13224-3809

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamasaki, Hiroki; Mizumoto, Misaki; Ebisawa, Ken; Sameshima, Hiroaki

    2016-08-01

    The narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxy (NLS1) IRAS 13224-3809 is known to exhibit significant X-ray spectral variation, a sharp spectral drop at ˜7 keV, strong soft excess emission, and a hint of an iron L-edge feature, which is very similar to the NLS1 1H 0707-495. We have proposed the "Variable Double Partial Covering (VDPC) model" to explain the energy spectra and spectral variability of 1H 0707-495 (Mizumoto et al. 2014, PASJ, 66, 122). In this model, the observed flux/spectral variations below 10 keV within ˜ a day are primarily caused by change of the partial covering fraction of patchy clouds composed by double absorption layers in the line of sight. In this paper, we apply the VDPC model to IRAS 13224-3809. Consequently, we have found that the VDPC model can explain the observed spectral variations of IRAS 13224-3809 in the 0.5-10 keV band. In particular, we can explain the observed root mean square (RMS) spectra (energy dependence of the fractional flux variation) in the entire 0.5-10 keV band. In addition to the well-known significant drop in the iron K-band, we have found intriguing iron L-peaks in the RMS spectra when the iron L-edge is particularly deep. This feature, which is also found in 1H 0707-495, is naturally explained with the VDPC model, such that the RMS variations increase at the energies where optical depths of the partial absorbers are large. The absorbers have a larger optical depth at the iron L-edge than in the adjacent energy bands, and thus a characteristic iron L-peak appears. On the other hand, just below the iron K-edge, the optical depth is the lowest and the RMS spectrum has a broad dip.

  17. Interpretation of the Minkowski bands in Grw + 70 deg 8247.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angel, J. R. P.

    1972-01-01

    Demonstration on the basis of the spectral structure of circular polarization in Grw + 70 deg 8247, that the absorption bands are at least in part molecular in origin. The spectrum of molecular helium has strong bands coincident with several of the Minkowski bands and, in particular, at high temperature shows a strong band head at about 4125 A. Helium molecules could be formed in sufficient density to give the absorption features in the star if it has a pure helium atmosphere. The Zeeman effect in molecular helium can explain in general the observed spectral features in the polarization and also may be responsible for the continuum polarization.

  18. Study of Spectral Modifications in Acidified Ignitable Liquids by Attenuated Total Reflection Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Martín-Alberca, Carlos; Ojeda, Fernando Ernesto Ortega; García-Ruiz, Carmen

    2016-03-01

    In this work, the spectral characteristics of two types of acidified gasoline and acidified diesel fuel are discussed. Neat and acidified ignitable liquids (ILs) infrared absorption spectra obtained by attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were compared in order to identify the modifications produced by the reaction of the ILs with sulfuric acid. Several bands crucial for gasoline identification were modified, and new bands appeared over the reaction time. In the case of acidified diesel fuel, no significant modifications were observed. Additionally, the neat and acidified ILs spectra were used to perform a principal components analysis in order to confirm objectively the results. The complete discrimination among samples was successfully achieved, including the complete differentiation among gasoline types. Taking into account the results obtained in this work, it is possible to propose spectral fingerprints for the identification of non-burned acidified ILs in forensic investigations related with arson or the use of improvised incendiary devices (IIDs). PMID:26810182

  19. [High Precision Spectral Calibration Method of Fourier Interferometric Spectrometer].

    PubMed

    Lin, Jun; Shao, Jun; Song, Chao-yu; Li, Yun-wei; Lei, Yu-fei

    2015-12-01

    The Fourier interferometric spectrometer (FIS) acquires the interference data information of the spectrum and during the spectrum data processing, a series of spectrum reconstruction will be performed on the interference information to obtain the final spectrum information data. The spectral calibration is the key step to spectrum reconstruction of FIS, which directly determines accuracy and availability of the spectrum results. This paper introduces the basic ideas and calibration accuracy about the spectral calibration for the FIS and puts forward a new spectral calibration method based on calculating the precise value of the total optical path difference (TOPD). The TOPD of FIS is difficult to be precisely measured, but it is the core and key to the spectral calibration. In order to calculate the precise TOPD, this paper proposes the idea how to traverse the TOPD and analyzes the spectrum drift. During the calibration, all the possible values of the TOPD participate in the spectrum reconstruction flow to carry out spectrum recovery and analysis. Ultimately the TOPD with the minimum spectrum drift will be achieved, namely solution value of the TOPD. This method can accurately resolve the TOPD of the FIS and then calibrate the spectrum with high accuracy. In addition, the paper introduces the detailed and complete spectral calibration flow and obtains the center wavelength value of every band and wavenumber resolution. Moreover, the paper designs the main parameters of the typical FIS and generates its simulation interference data. Using the above method to calibrate the simulation data, the analysis and verification of the spectral calibration results proves that the calibration precision of wavenumber resolution achieves 0.000 25 cm⁻¹ or above. PMID:26964245

  20. Using the Moon to Track MODIS Reflective Solar Bands Calibration Stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Geng, Xu; Angal, Amit; Sun, Junqiang; Barnes, William

    2011-01-01

    MODIS has 20 reflective solar bands (RSB) in the visible (VIS), near infrared (NIR), and short-wave infrared (SWIR) spectral regions. In addition to instrument on-board calibrators (OBC), lunar observations have been used by both Terra and Aqua MODIS to track their reflective solar bands (RSB) on-orbit calibration stability. On a near monthly basis, lunar observations are scheduled and implemented for each instrument at nearly the same lunar phase angles. A time series of normalized detector responses to the Moon is used to monitor its on-orbit calibration stability. The normalization is applied to correct the differences of lunar viewing geometries and the Sun-Moon-Sensor distances among different lunar observations. Initially, the lunar calibration stability monitoring was only applied to MODIS bands (1-4 and 8-12) that do not saturate while viewing the Moon. As the mission continued, we extended the lunar calibration stability monitoring to other RSB bands (bands 13-16) that contain saturated pixels. For these bands, the calibration stability is monitored by referencing their non-saturated pixels to the matched pixels in a non-saturation band. In this paper, we describe this relative approach and apply it to MODIS regularly scheduled lunar observations. We present lunar trending results for both Terra and Aqua MODIS over their entire missions. Also discussed in the paper are the advantages and limitations of this approach and its potential applications to other earth-observing sensors. Keywords: Terra, Aqua, MODIS, sensor, Moon, calibration, stability

  1. Food additives

    MedlinePlus

    Food additives are substances that become part of a food product when they are added during the processing or making of that food. "Direct" food additives are often added during processing to: Add nutrients ...

  2. A Simple Band for Gastric Banding.

    PubMed

    Broadbent

    1993-08-01

    The author has noted that flexible gastric bands have occasionally stenosed the gastric stoma or allowed it to dilate. A band was developed using a soft outer silicone rubber tube over a holding mechanism made out of a nylon cable tie passed within the silicone tube. This simple, easily applied band is rigid, resisting scar contracture and dilatation. PMID:10757939

  3. An introduction to blocked impurity band detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geist, Jon

    1988-01-01

    Blocked impurity band detectors fabricated using standard silicon technologies offer the possibility of combining high sensitivity and high accuracy in a single detector operating in a low background environment. The solid state photomultiplier described by Petroff et al., which is a new type of blocked impurity band detector, offers even higher sensitivity as well as operation in the visible spectral region. The principle of operation and possible application of blocked impurity band detectors for stellar seismology and the search for extra-solar planets are described.

  4. Optical concepts for dual band infrared continuous zoom lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vizgaitis, Jay N.

    2010-08-01

    Dual band focal plane arrays enable the simultaneous imaging of the MWIR and LWIR onto the same detector. Each spectral band is read out independently providing a separable MWIR and LWIR image. The development of this technology has necessitated the further development of dual band optics. Although reflective solutions simplify the need for color correction, multiple field of view reflective optics do not package nearly as well as refractive or catadioptric solutions. Dual band optical systems require that both bands focus at the same image plane at the same time. The challenge lies with the very broad spectral band of 3.5 - 11.0 microns, the different partial dispersions between the MWIR and LWIR, and the need to minimize the number of lenses to maximize transmission. This paper looks at the development of refractive and catadioptric concepts for designing continuous zoom lenses for dual band detectors.

  5. On the Detection of Spectral Ripples from the Recombination Epoch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sathyanarayana Rao, Mayuri; Subrahmanyan, Ravi; Udaya Shankar, N.; Chluba, Jens

    2015-09-01

    Photons emitted during cosmological hydrogen (500≲ z≲ 1600) and helium recombination (1600≲ z≲ 3500 for He ii \\to He i, 5000≲ z≲ 8000 for He iii \\to He ii) are predicted to appear as broad, weak spectral distortions of the cosmic microwave background. We present a feasibility study for a ground-based detection of these recombination lines, which would uniquely probe astrophysical cosmology beyond the last scattering surface and provide observational constraints on the thermal history of the universe. We find that including sufficient signal spectral structure and maximizing signal-to-noise ratio, an octave band in the 2-6 GHz window is optimal; in this band the predicted signal appears as an additive quasi-sinusoidal component with amplitude about 8 nK embedded in a sky spectrum some nine orders of magnitude brighter. We discuss algorithms to detect these tiny spectral fluctuations in the sky spectrum by foreground modeling and introduce a maximally smooth function capable of describing the foreground spectrum and distinguishing the signal of interest. We conclude that detection is in principle feasible in realistic observing times provided that radio frequency interference and instrument bandpass calibration are controlled in this band at the required level; using Bayesian tests and mock data, we show that 90% confidence detection is possible with an array of 128 radiometers observing for 255 days of effective integration time. We propose APSERa—Array of Precision Spectrometers for the Epoch of Recombination—a dedicated radio telescope to detect these recombination lines.

  6. Food additives

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Michael

    1974-01-01

    Food additives are discussed from the food technology point of view. The reasons for their use are summarized: (1) to protect food from chemical and microbiological attack; (2) to even out seasonal supplies; (3) to improve their eating quality; (4) to improve their nutritional value. The various types of food additives are considered, e.g. colours, flavours, emulsifiers, bread and flour additives, preservatives, and nutritional additives. The paper concludes with consideration of those circumstances in which the use of additives is (a) justified and (b) unjustified. PMID:4467857

  7. Effects of viewing geometry, aggregation state, and particle size on reflectance spectra of the Murchison CM2 chondrite deconvolved to Dawn FC band passes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izawa, Matthew R. M.; Schäfer, Tanja; Pietrasz, Valerie B.; Cloutis, Edward A.; Mann, Paul; Nathues, Andreas; Mengel, Kurt; Schäfer, Michael; Thangjam, Guneshwar; Hoffmann, Martin; Tait, Kimberly T.; Applin, Daniel M.

    2016-03-01

    Several current and soon-to-launch missions will investigate 'dark' asteroids, whose spectra have few weak or no distinct spectral features. Some carbonaceous chondrites, particularly the CI and CM groups, are reasonable material analogues for many dark asteroid surfaces. In addition to compositional variations, many non-compositional effects, including viewing geometry, surface particle size and particle sorting, can influence reflectance spectra, potentially complicating mineralogical interpretation of such data from remote surfaces. We have carried out an investigation of the effects of phase angle, particle size, aggregation state, and intra-sample heterogeneity on the reflectance spectra (0.4-1.0 μm) of the Murchison CM2 carbonaceous chondrite, deconvolved to Dawn Framing Camera (FC) band passes. This study was motivated by the desire to derive information about the surface of Ceres from Dawn FC data. Key spectral parameters derived from the FC multispectral data include various two-band reflectance ratios as well as three-band ratios that have been derived for mineralogical analysis. Phase angle effects include increased visible slope with increasing phase angle, a trend that may reverse at very high phase angles. Fine-grained particles exert a strong influence on spectral properties relative to their volumetric proportion. Grain size variation effects include a decrease in spectral contrast and increased visible spectral slope with decreasing grain size. Intra-sample heterogeneity, while spectrally detectable, is of relatively limited magnitude.

  8. Spectral response measurements with white light bias

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devaney, W.; Lorenz, S.; Meakin, J. D.

    1976-01-01

    The spectral response of solar cells such as the CdS/Cu2S cell is non-linear with distinct quenching and enhancement bands. One possible technique to produce standardized solar efficiencies is to fold in spectral response with a standard solar spectrum. The spectral response of a cell was measured in a way which matched cell behavior under white light illumination. A technique was developed to measure the response of a cell to low intensity chopped monochromatic light while the cell is also illuminated with a white light bias corresponding to AMI.

  9. Spectral Anonymization of Data

    PubMed Central

    Lasko, Thomas A.; Vinterbo, Staal A.

    2011-01-01

    The goal of data anonymization is to allow the release of scientifically useful data in a form that protects the privacy of its subjects. This requires more than simply removing personal identifiers from the data, because an attacker can still use auxiliary information to infer sensitive individual information. Additional perturbation is necessary to prevent these inferences, and the challenge is to perturb the data in a way that preserves its analytic utility. No existing anonymization algorithm provides both perfect privacy protection and perfect analytic utility. We make the new observation that anonymization algorithms are not required to operate in the original vector-space basis of the data, and many algorithms can be improved by operating in a judiciously chosen alternate basis. A spectral basis derived from the data’s eigenvectors is one that can provide substantial improvement. We introduce the term spectral anonymization to refer to an algorithm that uses a spectral basis for anonymization, and we give two illustrative examples. We also propose new measures of privacy protection that are more general and more informative than existing measures, and a principled reference standard with which to define adequate privacy protection. PMID:21373375

  10. Interhemispheric differences in awake and sleep human EEG: a comparison between non-linear and spectral measures.

    PubMed

    Pereda, E; Gamundi, A; Nicolau, M C; Rial, R; González, J

    1999-03-19

    Interhemispheric differences in the EEG of nine healthy right-handed human subjects (C3 vs. C4 derivations) were investigated during resting wake with closed eyes (CE) and sleep stages I, II, III, IV and REM. The harmonic power spectral density within the EEG main spectral bands, the fractal (Dr) and the correlation (D2) dimension as well as the largest Lyapunov exponent (lambda1) of both hemispheres were compared. In addition, the relationships between non-linear and spectral measures were analyzed. Dr, D2, lambda1 and the power in alpha band exhibited interhemispheric differences during waking, the values from the right hemisphere (RH) being higher than those of the left (LH) except for lambda1. During slow wave sleep (SWS), non-linear parameters detected opposite EEG asymmetries (D2 in stage III and lambda1 in stage IV) to those found in the other behavioural stages. In addition, both D2 and lambda1 were correlated (negatively) with the power in the delta band, but lambda1 was also correlated (positively) with the power in the alpha and beta bands. In conclusion, RH appears to be more complex though more predictable than the LH during CE and sleep stages I and II, these characteristics changing to the LH during SWS. PMID:10218905

  11. The GREGOR Broad-Band Imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von der Lühe, O.; Volkmer, R.; Kentischer, T. J.; Geißler, R.

    2012-11-01

    The design and characteristics of the Broad-Band Imager (BBI) of GREGOR are described. BBI covers the visible spectral range with two cameras simultaneously for a large field and with critical sampling at 390 nm, and it includes a mode for observing the pupil in a Foucault configuration. Samples of first-light observations are shown.

  12. Spectral and spread-spectral teleportation

    SciTech Connect

    Humble, Travis S.

    2010-06-15

    We report how quantum information encoded into the spectral degree of freedom of a single-photon state may be teleported using a finite spectrally entangled biphoton state. We further demonstrate how the bandwidth of the teleported wave form can be controllably and coherently dilated using a spread-spectral variant of teleportation. We calculate analytical expressions for the fidelities of spectral and spread-spectral teleportation when complex-valued Gaussian states are transferred using a proposed experimental approach. Finally, we discuss the utility of these techniques for integrating broad-bandwidth photonic qubits with narrow-bandwidth receivers in quantum communication systems.

  13. Spectral ratio method for measuring emissivity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watson, K.

    1992-01-01

    The spectral ratio method is based on the concept that although the spectral radiances are very sensitive to small changes in temperature the ratios are not. Only an approximate estimate of temperature is required thus, for example, we can determine the emissivity ratio to an accuracy of 1% with a temperature estimate that is only accurate to 12.5 K. Selecting the maximum value of the channel brightness temperatures is an unbiased estimate. Laboratory and field spectral data are easily converted into spectral ratio plots. The ratio method is limited by system signal:noise and spectral band-width. The images can appear quite noisy because ratios enhance high frequencies and may require spatial filtering. Atmospheric effects tend to rescale the ratios and require using an atmospheric model or a calibration site. ?? 1992.

  14. [Plant Spectral Discrimination Based on Phenological Features].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Zhao, Jian-long; Jia, Kun; Li, Xiao-song

    2015-10-01

    Spectral analysis plays a significant role onplant characteristic identification and mechanism recognition, there were many papers published on the aspects of absorption features in the spectra of chlorophyll and moisture, spectral analysis onvegetation red edge effect, spectra profile feature extraction, spectra profile conversion, vegetation leaf structure and chemical composition impacts on the spectra in past years. However, fewer researches issued on spectral changes caused by plant seasonal changes of life form, chlorophyll, leaf area index. This paper studied on spectral observation of 11 plants of various life form, plant leaf structure and its size, phenological characteristics, they include deciduous forest with broad vertical leaf, needle leaf evergreen forest, needle leaf deciduous forest, deciduous forest with broadflat leaf, high shrub with big leaf, high shrub with little leaf, deciduous forest with broad little leaf, short shrub, meadow, steppe and grass. Field spectral data were observed with SVC-HR768 (Spectra Vista company, USA), the band width covers 350-2 500 nm, spectral resolution reaches 1-4 nm. The features of NDVI, spectral maximum absorption depth in green band, and spectral maximum absorption depth in red band were measured after continuum removal processing, the mean, amplitude and gradient of these features on seasonal change profile were analyzed, meanwhile, separability research on plant spectral feature of growth period and maturation period were compared. The paper presents a calculation method of separability of vegetation spectra which consider feature spatial distances. This index is carried on analysis of the vegetation discrimination. The results show that: the spectral features during plant growth period are easier to distinguish than them during maturation period. With the same features comparison, plant separability of growth period is 3 points higher than it during maturation period. The overall separabilityof vegetation

  15. Progressive band processing for hyperspectral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Robert C.

    Hyperspectral imaging has emerged as an image processing technique in many applications. The reason that hyperspectral data is called hyperspectral is mainly because the massive amount of information provided by the hundreds of spectral bands that can be used for data analysis. However, due to very high band-to-band correlation much information may be also redundant. Consequently, how to effectively and best utilize such rich spectral information becomes very challenging. One general approach is data dimensionality reduction which can be performed by data compression techniques, such as data transforms, and data reduction techniques, such as band selection. This dissertation presents a new area in hyperspectral imaging, to be called progressive hyperspectral imaging, which has not been explored in the past. Specifically, it derives a new theory, called Progressive Band Processing (PBP) of hyperspectral data that can significantly reduce computing time and can also be realized in real-time. It is particularly suited for application areas such as hyperspectral data communications and transmission where data can be communicated and transmitted progressively through spectral or satellite channels with limited data storage. Most importantly, PBP allows users to screen preliminary results before deciding to continue with processing the complete data set. These advantages benefit users of hyperspectral data by reducing processing time and increasing the timeliness of crucial decisions made based on the data such as identifying key intelligence information when a required response time is short.

  16. Accurate spectral modeling for infrared radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tiwari, S. N.; Gupta, S. K.

    1977-01-01

    Direct line-by-line integration and quasi-random band model techniques are employed to calculate the spectral transmittance and total band absorptance of 4.7 micron CO, 4.3 micron CO2, 15 micron CO2, and 5.35 micron NO bands. Results are obtained for different pressures, temperatures, and path lengths. These are compared with available theoretical and experimental investigations. For each gas, extensive tabulations of results are presented for comparative purposes. In almost all cases, line-by-line results are found to be in excellent agreement with the experimental values. The range of validity of other models and correlations are discussed.

  17. Temporal spectral response of a corn canopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markham, B. L.; Kimes, D. S.; Tucker, C. J.; Mcmurtrey, J. E., III

    1981-01-01

    Techniques developed for the prediction of winter wheat yields from remotely sensed data indicating crop status over the growing season are tested for their applicability to corn. Ground-based spectral measurements in the Landsat Thematic Mapper bands 3 (0.62-0.69 microns), 4 (0.76-0.90 microns) and 5 (1.55-1.75 microns) were performed at one-week intervals throughout the growing season for 24 plots of corn, and analyzed to derive spectral ratios and normalized spectral differences of the IR and shortwave IR bands with the red. The ratios of the near IR and shortwave IR bands are found to provide the highest and most consistent correlations with corn yield and dry matter accumulation, however the value of band 5 could not be tested due to the absence of water stress conditions. Integration of spectral ratios over several dates improved the correlations over those of any single date by achieving a seasonal, rather than instantaneous, estimate of crop status. Results point to the desirability of further tests under other growth conditions to determine whether satellite-derived data will be useful in providing corn yield information.

  18. Spectral vegetation indexes and the remote sensing of biophysical parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huemmrich, Karl F.; Goward, Samuel N.

    1992-01-01

    Combinations of remotely sensed data from different spectral bands have been combined into spectral vegetation indexes (SVIs) and used to determine biophysical parameters. The characteristics of two-band SVIs made up of visible and near-infrared reflectances are examined. Two canopy reflectance models, a turbid media model and a geometrical model, are used to study the effects of different canopy structures on the measurement of leaf area index and the fraction of photosynthetically intercepted active radiation.

  19. Specific features of the spectral properties of a photonic crystal with a nanocomposite defect with allowance for the size effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vetrov, S. Ya.; Pankin, P. S.; Timofeev, I. V.

    2015-07-01

    The spectral properties of a one-dimensional photonic crystal (PC) with a structure defect (a layer of isotropic nanocomposite inserted between two multilayer dielectric mirrors) have been investigated. The nanocomposite consists of spherical gold nanoparticles dispersed in a transparent matrix; it is characterized by effective resonant permittivity. The dependence of the transmission and absorption spectra on the size and concentration of nanoparticles is analyzed. It is shown that the transmission spectrum contains, along with the band gap caused by Bragg diffraction of light, an additional nontransmission band due to the nanocomposite absorption near the resonant frequency.

  20. Come Join the Band

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Cathy Applefeld

    2011-01-01

    A growing number of students in Blue Springs, Missouri, are joining the band, drawn by a band director who emphasizes caring and inclusiveness. In the four years since Melissia Goff arrived at Blue Springs High School, the school's extensive band program has swelled. The marching band alone has gone from 100 to 185 participants. Also under Goff's…

  1. Time-resolved optically stimulated luminescence and spectral emission features of α-Al2O3:C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chithambo, M. L.; Nyirenda, A. N.; Finch, A. A.; Rawat, N. S.

    2015-09-01

    This report is concerned with the influence of measurement temperature on luminescence lifetime and on the spectral emission features of luminescence from α-Al2O3:C. The lifetimes were determined from time-resolved luminescence spectra. Spectral measurements were done using thermoluminescence and X-ray excited optical luminescence. The emission spectra of α-Al2O3:C studied in this work shows prominent bands at 330, 380 and 420 nm associated with vacancies in the oxygen sub-lattice in α-Al2O3:C and an additional band at 695 nm due to Cr substitution for Al. Emission bands below 500 nm are independent of temperature below 125 °C but widen with temperature. Direct evidence of thermal quenching of the 420 nm emission band is provided. Beyond 200 °C, the 380 and 420 nm bands merge and widen, with the 420 nm emission dominant. Before the onset of thermal quenching, luminescence lifetimes are affected by retrapping both in the shallow- and in the main electron trap. This was deduced from features of time-resolved luminescence spectra measured from samples with and without the shallow trap. Additional measurements with temperature decreasing from 160 to 20 °C, after phototransfer as well as after a considerable delay between irradiation and measurement, suggest that the change in lifetimes could also be related to other factors including slight shifts in emission wavelength for the 380 and 420 nm emissions.

  2. Spectrally multiplexed chromatic confocal multipoint sensing.

    PubMed

    Hillenbrand, Matthias; Lorenz, Lucia; Kleindienst, Roman; Grewe, Adrian; Sinzinger, Stefan

    2013-11-15

    We present a concept for chromatic confocal distance sensing that employs two levels of spectral multiplexing for the parallelized evaluation of multiple lateral measurement points; at the first level, the chromatic confocal principle is used to encode distance information within the spectral distribution of the sensor signal. For lateral multiplexing, the total spectral bandwidth of the sensor is split into bands. Each band is assigned to a different lateral measurement point by a segmented diffractive element. Based on this concept, we experimentally demonstrate a chromatic confocal three-point sensor that is suitable for harsh production environments, since it works with a single-point spectrometer and does not require scanning functionality. The experimental system has a working distance of more than 50 mm, a measurement range of 9 mm, and an axial resolution of 50 μm. PMID:24322108

  3. On the use of a single blue band in oceanography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherman, J. W., III

    1970-01-01

    The selection of a single blue band to quantitatively measure ocean chlorophyll is dependent upon the altitude and spectral bandwidth of the filter. These relationships are discussed, and the conclusion made that a blue band from 0.44 to 0.50 microns would best serve this oceanographic application.

  4. Spectral analysis for automated exploration and sample acquisition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eberlein, Susan; Yates, Gigi

    1992-05-01

    Future space exploration missions will rely heavily on the use of complex instrument data for determining the geologic, chemical, and elemental character of planetary surfaces. One important instrument is the imaging spectrometer, which collects complete images in multiple discrete wavelengths in the visible and infrared regions of the spectrum. Extensive computational effort is required to extract information from such high-dimensional data. A hierarchical classification scheme allows multispectral data to be analyzed for purposes of mineral classification while limiting the overall computational requirements. The hierarchical classifier exploits the tunability of a new type of imaging spectrometer which is based on an acousto-optic tunable filter. This spectrometer collects a complete image in each wavelength passband without spatial scanning. It may be programmed to scan through a range of wavelengths or to collect only specific bands for data analysis. Spectral classification activities employ artificial neural networks, trained to recognize a number of mineral classes. Analysis of the trained networks has proven useful in determining which subsets of spectral bands should be employed at each step of the hierarchical classifier. The network classifiers are capable of recognizing all mineral types which were included in the training set. In addition, the major components of many mineral mixtures can also be recognized. This capability may prove useful for a system designed to evaluate data in a strange environment where details of the mineral composition are not known in advance.

  5. Spectral analysis for automated exploration and sample acquisition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eberlein, Susan; Yates, Gigi

    1992-01-01

    Future space exploration missions will rely heavily on the use of complex instrument data for determining the geologic, chemical, and elemental character of planetary surfaces. One important instrument is the imaging spectrometer, which collects complete images in multiple discrete wavelengths in the visible and infrared regions of the spectrum. Extensive computational effort is required to extract information from such high-dimensional data. A hierarchical classification scheme allows multispectral data to be analyzed for purposes of mineral classification while limiting the overall computational requirements. The hierarchical classifier exploits the tunability of a new type of imaging spectrometer which is based on an acousto-optic tunable filter. This spectrometer collects a complete image in each wavelength passband without spatial scanning. It may be programmed to scan through a range of wavelengths or to collect only specific bands for data analysis. Spectral classification activities employ artificial neural networks, trained to recognize a number of mineral classes. Analysis of the trained networks has proven useful in determining which subsets of spectral bands should be employed at each step of the hierarchical classifier. The network classifiers are capable of recognizing all mineral types which were included in the training set. In addition, the major components of many mineral mixtures can also be recognized. This capability may prove useful for a system designed to evaluate data in a strange environment where details of the mineral composition are not known in advance.

  6. Food additives.

    PubMed

    Berglund, F

    1978-01-01

    The use of additives to food fulfils many purposes, as shown by the index issued by the Codex Committee on Food Additives: Acids, bases and salts; Preservatives, Antioxidants and antioxidant synergists; Anticaking agents; Colours; Emulfifiers; Thickening agents; Flour-treatment agents; Extraction solvents; Carrier solvents; Flavours (synthetic); Flavour enhancers; Non-nutritive sweeteners; Processing aids; Enzyme preparations. Many additives occur naturally in foods, but this does not exclude toxicity at higher levels. Some food additives are nutrients, or even essential nutritents, e.g. NaCl. Examples are known of food additives causing toxicity in man even when used according to regulations, e.g. cobalt in beer. In other instances, poisoning has been due to carry-over, e.g. by nitrate in cheese whey - when used for artificial feed for infants. Poisonings also occur as the result of the permitted substance being added at too high levels, by accident or carelessness, e.g. nitrite in fish. Finally, there are examples of hypersensitivity to food additives, e.g. to tartrazine and other food colours. The toxicological evaluation, based on animal feeding studies, may be complicated by impurities, e.g. orthotoluene-sulfonamide in saccharin; by transformation or disappearance of the additive in food processing in storage, e.g. bisulfite in raisins; by reaction products with food constituents, e.g. formation of ethylurethane from diethyl pyrocarbonate; by metabolic transformation products, e.g. formation in the gut of cyclohexylamine from cyclamate. Metabolic end products may differ in experimental animals and in man: guanylic acid and inosinic acid are metabolized to allantoin in the rat but to uric acid in man. The magnitude of the safety margin in man of the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) is not identical to the "safety factor" used when calculating the ADI. The symptoms of Chinese Restaurant Syndrome, although not hazardous, furthermore illustrate that the whole ADI

  7. On-Orbit Calibration and Performance of Aqua MODIS Reflective Solar Bands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Sun, Junqiang; Xie, Xiaobo; Barnes, William; Salomonson, Vincent

    2009-01-01

    Aqua MODIS has successfully operated on-orbit for more than 6 years since its launch in May 2002, continuously making global observations and improving studies of changes in the Earth's climate and environment. 20 of the 36 MODIS spectral bands, covering wavelengths from 0.41 to 2.2 microns, are the reflective solar bands (RSB). They are calibrated on-orbit using an on-board solar diffuser (SD) and a solar diffuser stability monitor (SDSM). In addition, regularly scheduled lunar observations are made to track the RSB calibration stability. This paper presents Aqua MODIS RSB on-orbit calibration and characterization activities, methodologies, and performance. Included in this study are characterizations of detector signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), short-term stability, and long-term response change. Spectral wavelength dependent degradation of the SD bidirectional reflectance factor (BRF) and scan mirror reflectance, which also varies with angle of incidence (AOI), are examined. On-orbit results show that Aqua MODIS onboard calibrators have performed well, enabling accurate calibration coefficients to be derived and updated for the Level 1B (L1B) production and assuring high quality science data products to be continuously generated and distributed. Since launch, the short-term response, on a scan-by-scan basis, has remained extremely stable for most RSB detectors. With the exception of band 6, there have been no new RSB noisy or inoperable detectors. Like its predecessor, Terra MODIS, launched in December 1999, the Aqua MODIS visible (VIS) spectral bands have experienced relatively large changes, with an annual response decrease (mirror side 1) of 3.6% for band 8 at 0.412 microns, 2.3% for band 9 at 0.443 microns, 1.6% for band 3 at 0.469 microns, and 1.2% for band 10 at 0.488 microns. For other RSB bands with wavelengths greater than 0.5 microns, the annual response changes are typically less than 0.5%. In general, Aqua MODIS optics degradation is smaller than Terra

  8. Correlative Spectral Analysis of Gamma-Ray Bursts using Swift-BAT and GLAST-GBM

    SciTech Connect

    Stamatikos, Michael; Sakamoto, Takanori; Band, David L.

    2008-05-22

    We discuss the preliminary results of spectral analysis simulations involving anticipated correlated multi-wavelength observations of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) using Swift's Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) and the Gamma-Ray Large Area Space Telescope's (GLAST) Burst Monitor (GLAST-GBM), resulting in joint spectral fits, including characteristic photon energy (E{sub peak}) values, for a conservative annual estimate of {approx}30 GRBs. The addition of BAT/s spectral response will (i) complement in-orbit calibration efforts of GBM's detector response matrices, (ii) augment GLAST's low energy sensitivity by increasing the {approx}20-100 keV effective area, (iii) facilitate ground-based follow-up efforts of GLAST GRBs by increasing GBM's source localization precision, and (iv) help identify a subset of non-triggered GRBs discovered via off-line GBM data analysis. Such multi-wavelength correlative analyses, which have been demonstrated by successful joint-spectral fits of Swift-BAT GRBs with other higher energy detectors such as Konus-WIND and Suzaku-WAM, would enable the study of broad-band spectral and temporal evolution of prompt GRB emission over three energy decades, thus potentially increasing science return without placing additional demands upon mission resources throughout their contemporaneous orbital tenure over the next decade.

  9. Electronic band structure and optical properties of the cubic, Sc, Y and La hydride systems

    SciTech Connect

    Peterman, D.J.

    1980-01-01

    Electronic band structure calculations are used to interpret the optical spectra of the cubic Sc, Y and La hydride systems. Self-consistent band calculations of ScH/sub 2/ and YH/sub 2/ were carried out. The respective joint densities of states are computed and compared to the dielectric functions determined from the optical measurements. Additional calculations were performed in which the Fermi level or band gap energies are rigidly shifted by a small energy increment. These calculations are then used to simulate the derivative structure in thermomodulation spectra and relate the origin of experimental interband features to the calculated energy bands. While good systematic agreement is obtained for several spectral features, the origin of low-energy interband transitions in YH/sub 2/ cannot be explained by these calculated bands. A lattice-size-dependent premature occupation of octahedral sites by hydrogen atoms in the fcc metal lattice is suggested to account for this discrepancy. Various non-self-consistent calculations are used to examine the effect of such a premature occupation. Measurements of the optical absorptivity of LaH/sub x/ with 1.6 < x < 2.9 are presented which, as expected, indicate a more premature occupation of the octahedral sites in the larger LaH/sub 2/ lattice. These experimental results also suggest that, in contrast to recent calculations, LaH/sub 3/ is a small-band-gap semiconductor.

  10. Spectral marker for Cα damage in beta peptides.

    PubMed

    Green, Mandy C; Stelzleni, Sarah; Francisco, Joseph S

    2013-01-24

    The work in this article describes a spectral signature for the detection of a C(α) radical damaged peptide, which should enable the use of infrared spectroscopic methods to directly monitor oxidative events. Spectra for radical damaged peptides are computed with ab initio methods. The amide bands A, I, II, and III are analyzed for trends in the damage site. The spectral signature is found in a region (i.e., 1700-1620 cm(-1)) normally void of vibrational absorption bands from stable undamaged beta peptides. An analysis of the vibrational motions of the spectral signature is described. The uniqueness of the spectral signature is explored by an examination and comparison with C(α) monoradicals and polyradicals, as well as with other bioradicals that could act as spectral interferences. The identification of unique infrared spectral features for C(α) damage could have important implications in diagnostics for beta conformational peptides damaged by oxidative stress processes. PMID:23301948

  11. Spectral characterization of the LANDSAT-D multispectral scanner subsystems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markham, B. L. (Principal Investigator); Barker, J. L.

    1982-01-01

    Relative spectral response data for the multispectral scanner subsystems (MSS) to be flown on LANDSAT-D and LANDSAT-D backup, the protoflight and flight models, respectively, are presented and compared to similar data for the Landsat 1,2, and 3 subsystems. Channel-bychannel (six channels per band) outputs for soil and soybean targets were simulated and compared within each band and between scanners. The two LANDSAT-D scanners proved to be nearly identical in mean spectral response, but they exhibited some differences from the previous MSS's. Principal differences between the spectral responses of the D-scanners and previous scanners were: (1) a mean upper-band edge in the green band of 606 nm compared to previous means of 593 to 598 nm; (2) an average upper-band edge of 697 nm in the red band compared to previous averages of 701 to 710 nm; and (3) an average bandpass for the first near-IR band of 702-814 nm compared to a range of 693-793 to 697-802 nm for previous scanners. These differences caused the simulated D-scanner outputs to be 3 to 10 percent lower in the red band and 3 to 11 percent higher in the first near-IR band than previous scanners for the soybeans target. Otherwise, outputs from soil and soybean targets were only slightly affected. The D-scanners were generally more uniform from channel to channel within bands than previous scanners.

  12. X-Band/Ka-Band Dichroic Plate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Jacqueline C.

    1993-01-01

    Dichroic plate designed nearly transparent to circularly polarized microwaves at frequencies between 31.8 and 34.7 GHz (in and near Ka band) and reflective at frequencies between 8.4 and 8.5 GHz (in the X band). Made of electrically conductive material and contains rectangular holes in staggered pattern.

  13. Performing target specific band reduction using artificial neural networks and assessment of its efficacy using various target detection algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, Deepti; Arora, M. K.; Tiwari, K. C.; Ghosh, J. K.

    2016-04-01

    Hyperspectral imaging is a powerful tool in the field of remote sensing and has been used for many applications like mineral detection, detection of landmines, target detection etc. Major issues in target detection using HSI are spectral variability, noise, small size of the target, huge data dimensions, high computation cost, complex backgrounds etc. Many of the popular detection algorithms do not work for difficult targets like small, camouflaged etc. and may result in high false alarms. Thus, target/background discrimination is a key issue and therefore analyzing target's behaviour in realistic environments is crucial for the accurate interpretation of hyperspectral imagery. Use of standard libraries for studying target's spectral behaviour has limitation that targets are measured in different environmental conditions than application. This study uses the spectral data of the same target which is used during collection of the HSI image. This paper analyze spectrums of targets in a way that each target can be spectrally distinguished from a mixture of spectral data. Artificial neural network (ANN) has been used to identify the spectral range for reducing data and further its efficacy for improving target detection is verified. The results of ANN proposes discriminating band range for targets; these ranges were further used to perform target detection using four popular spectral matching target detection algorithm. Further, the results of algorithms were analyzed using ROC curves to evaluate the effectiveness of the ranges suggested by ANN over full spectrum for detection of desired targets. In addition, comparative assessment of algorithms is also performed using ROC.

  14. Intensity measurements in the nu8-band of propyne

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benzerhouni, K.; Meyer, C.; Dupre, J.; Walrand, J.; Derie, F.

    1990-08-01

    A tunable-diode laser spectrometer is used to measure the strengths of 36 individual lines in the nu8-band of propyne at low pressure and at 298 K. It is noted that the spectrum of nu8 is altered by the presence of hot bands and by resonance with nu9 + Nu10 and nu5, which lie in the same spectral region. A vibrational band strength of 0.02972 + or - 0.00102/sq cm-atm is obtained.

  15. The Spectral Shift Function and Spectral Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azamov, N. A.; Carey, A. L.; Sukochev, F. A.

    2007-11-01

    At the 1974 International Congress, I. M. Singer proposed that eta invariants and hence spectral flow should be thought of as the integral of a one form. In the intervening years this idea has lead to many interesting developments in the study of both eta invariants and spectral flow. Using ideas of [24] Singer’s proposal was brought to an advanced level in [16] where a very general formula for spectral flow as the integral of a one form was produced in the framework of noncommutative geometry. This formula can be used for computing spectral flow in a general semifinite von Neumann algebra as described and reviewed in [5]. In the present paper we take the analytic approach to spectral flow much further by giving a large family of formulae for spectral flow between a pair of unbounded self-adjoint operators D and D + V with D having compact resolvent belonging to a general semifinite von Neumann algebra {mathcal{N}} and the perturbation V in {mathcal{N}} . In noncommutative geometry terms we remove summability hypotheses. This level of generality is made possible by introducing a new idea from [3]. There it was observed that M. G. Krein’s spectral shift function (in certain restricted cases with V trace class) computes spectral flow. The present paper extends Krein’s theory to the setting of semifinite spectral triples where D has compact resolvent belonging to {mathcal{N}} and V is any bounded self-adjoint operator in {mathcal{N}} . We give a definition of the spectral shift function under these hypotheses and show that it computes spectral flow. This is made possible by the understanding discovered in the present paper of the interplay between spectral shift function theory and the analytic theory of spectral flow. It is this interplay that enables us to take Singer’s idea much further to create a large class of one forms whose integrals calculate spectral flow. These advances depend critically on a new approach to the calculus of functions of non

  16. Senegalese land surface change analysis and biophysical parameter estimation using NOAA AVHRR spectral data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vukovich, Fred M.; Toll, David L.; Kennard, Ruth L.

    1989-01-01

    Surface biophysical estimates were derived from analysis of NOAA Advanced Very High Spectral Resolution (AVHRR) spectral data of the Senegalese area of west Africa. The parameters derived were of solar albedo, spectral visible and near-infrared band reflectance, spectral vegetative index, and ground temperature. Wet and dry linked AVHRR scenes from 1981 through 1985 in Senegal were analyzed for a semi-wet southerly site near Tambacounda and a predominantly dry northerly site near Podor. Related problems were studied to convert satellite derived radiance to biophysical estimates of the land surface. Problems studied were associated with sensor miscalibration, atmospheric and aerosol spatial variability, surface anisotropy of reflected radiation, narrow satellite band reflectance to broad solar band conversion, and ground emissivity correction. The middle-infrared reflectance was approximated with a visible AVHRR reflectance for improving solar albedo estimates. In addition, the spectral composition of solar irradiance (direct and diffuse radiation) between major spectral regions (i.e., ultraviolet, visible, near-infrared, and middle-infrared) was found to be insensitive to changes in the clear sky atmospheric optical depth in the narrow band to solar band conversion procedure. Solar albedo derived estimates for both sites were not found to change markedly with significant antecedent precipitation events or correspondingly from increases in green leaf vegetation density. The bright soil/substrate contributed to a high albedo for the dry related scenes, whereas the high internal leaf reflectance in green vegetation canopies in the near-infrared contributed to high solar albedo for the wet related scenes. The relationship between solar albedo and ground temperature was poor, indicating the solar albedo has little control of the ground temperature. The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and the derived visible reflectance were more sensitive to antecedent

  17. Single-Band and Dual-Band Infrared Detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ting, David Z. (Inventor); Gunapala, Sarath D. (Inventor); Soibel, Alexander (Inventor); Nguyen, Jean (Inventor); Khoshakhlagh, Arezou (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Bias-switchable dual-band infrared detectors and methods of manufacturing such detectors are provided. The infrared detectors are based on a back-to-back heterojunction diode design, where the detector structure consists of, sequentially, a top contact layer, a unipolar hole barrier layer, an absorber layer, a unipolar electron barrier, a second absorber, a second unipolar hole barrier, and a bottom contact layer. In addition, by substantially reducing the width of one of the absorber layers, a single-band infrared detector can also be formed.

  18. A Novel Ku-Band/Ka-Band and Ka-Band/E-Band Multimode Waveguide Couplers for Power Measurement of Traveling-Wave Tube Amplifier Harmonic Frequencies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wintucky, Edwin G.; Simons, Rainee N.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the design, fabrication and test results for a novel waveguide multimode directional coupler (MDC). The coupler, fabricated from two dissimilar frequency band waveguides, is capable of isolating power at the second harmonic frequency from the fundamental power at the output port of a traveling-wave tube (TWT) amplifier. Test results from proof-of-concept demonstrations are presented for a Ku-band/Ka-band MDC and a Ka-band/E-band MDC. In addition to power measurements at harmonic frequencies, a potential application of the MDC is in the design of a satellite borne beacon source for atmospheric propagation studies at millimeter-wave (mm-wave) frequencies (Ka-band and E-band).

  19. JPSS-1 VIIRS prelaunch spectral characterization and performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moeller, Chris; Schwarting, Tom; McIntire, Jeff; Moyer, Dave

    2015-09-01

    The JPSS-1 VIIRS instrument completed sensor level testing, including spectral characterization, at the Raytheon El Segundo facility in 2014. Spectral subject matter experts (SMEs) of the VIIRS DAWG have reviewed and analyzed the spectral measurements leading to a Version 1 release of JPSS-1 VIIRS relative spectral response (RSR) data in June 2015. The analysis demonstrates that all bands are well characterized with minor performance specification non-compliances in a few bands similar to those seen on S-NPP VIIRS. A major reduction in the out-of-band response (compared to that seen for S-NPP) has been realized through the redesign of the JPSS-1 VIIRS integrated filter assembly for the warm focal plane bands. An EAR99 restricted DAWG Version 1 release consisting of detector and band average (over all detectors) in-band + out-of-band RSR for all VIIRS bands is available on the NASA JPSS-1 eRoom limited access site and replaces the previous Version 0 Beta release.

  20. Recursive SAM-based band selection for hyperspectral anomaly detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yuanlei; Liu, Daizhi; Yi, Shihua

    2010-10-01

    Band selection has been widely used in hyperspectral image processing for dimension reduction. In this paper, a recursive SAM-based band selection (RSAM-BBS) method is proposed. Once two initial bands are given, RSAM-BBS is performed in a sequential manner, and at each step the band that can best describe the spectral separation of two hyperspectral signatures is added to the bands already selected until the spectral angle reaches its maximum. In order to demonstrate the utility of the proposed band selection method, an anomaly detection algorithm is developed, which first extracts the anomalous target spectrum from the original image using automatic target detection and classification algorithm (ATDCA), followed by maximum spectral screening (MSS) to estimate the background average spectrum, then implements RSAM-BBS to select bands that participate in the subsequent adaptive cosine estimator (ACE) target detection. As shown in the experimental result on the AVIRIS dataset, less than five bands selected by the RSAM-BBS can achieve comparable detection performance using the full bands.

  1. [Orthogonal projection divergence-based hyperspectral band selection].

    PubMed

    Su, Hong-jun; Sheng, Ye-hua; Yang, He; Du, Qian

    2011-05-01

    Due to the high data dimensionality of a hyperspectral image, dimensionality reduction algorithm has attracted much attention in hyperspectral image analysis. Band selection algorithm, which selects appropriate bands from the original set of spectral bands, can preserve original information from the data and is useful for image classification and recognition. In the present paper, a novel band selection algorithm based on orthogonal projection divergence (OPD) is proposed, it aims to discriminate the interesting objects from background and noise information, maximize the spectral similarity between different spectral vectors by projecting the original data to feature space. Two HYDICE Washington DC Mall images and an HYMAP Purdue campus image data were experimented, and support vector machine (SVM) classifier was used for classification. The selected band number varies from 5 to 40 in order to study the impacts of different band selection algorithms on different features. For the computation complex, the sequential floating forward search (SFFS) was used to get the appropriate bands. The experiments have proved that our proposed OPD algorithm can outperform other traditional band selection methods such as SAM, ED, SID, and LCMV-BCC for hyperspectral image analysis. It is proven that OPD band selection is effective and robust in hyperspectral remote sensing dimensionality reduction PMID:21800589

  2. Potlining Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolf Keller

    2004-08-10

    In this project, a concept to improve the performance of aluminum production cells by introducing potlining additives was examined and tested. Boron oxide was added to cathode blocks, and titanium was dissolved in the metal pool; this resulted in the formation of titanium diboride and caused the molten aluminum to wet the carbonaceous cathode surface. Such wetting reportedly leads to operational improvements and extended cell life. In addition, boron oxide suppresses cyanide formation. This final report presents and discusses the results of this project. Substantial economic benefits for the practical implementation of the technology are projected, especially for modern cells with graphitized blocks. For example, with an energy savings of about 5% and an increase in pot life from 1500 to 2500 days, a cost savings of $ 0.023 per pound of aluminum produced is projected for a 200 kA pot.

  3. Phosphazene additives

    SciTech Connect

    Harrup, Mason K; Rollins, Harry W

    2013-11-26

    An additive comprising a phosphazene compound that has at least two reactive functional groups and at least one capping functional group bonded to phosphorus atoms of the phosphazene compound. One of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with cellulose and the other of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with a resin, such as an amine resin of a polycarboxylic acid resin. The at least one capping functional group is selected from the group consisting of a short chain ether group, an alkoxy group, or an aryloxy group. Also disclosed are an additive-resin admixture, a method of treating a wood product, and a wood product.

  4. VIIRS reflective solar bands on-orbit calibration coefficient performance using imagery and moderate band intercomparisons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moyer, D.; Vandermierden, N.; Rausch, K.; De Luccia, F.

    2014-09-01

    A primary sensor on-board the Suomi-National Polar-orbiting Partnership (SNPP) spacecraft, the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) has 22 bands: 7 thermal emissive bands (TEBs), 14 reflective solar bands (RSBs) and a Day Night Band (DNB). The RSBs cover the spectral wavelengths between 0.412 to 2.25 μm and have three (I1-I3) 371m and eleven (M1-M11) 742m spatial resolution bands. A VIIRS Key Performance Parameter (KPP) is the Ocean Color/Chlorophyll (OCC) which uses moderate bands M1 (0.412μm) through M7's (0.865 μm) calibrated Science Data Records (SDRs). The RSB SDRs rely on prelaunch calibration coefficients which use a quadratic algorithm to convert the detector's response to calibrated radiance. This paper will evaluate the performance of these prelaunch calibration coefficients using SDR comparisons between bands with the same spectral characteristics: I2 with M7 (0.865 μm) and I3 with M10 (1.610 μm). Changes to the prelaunch calibration coefficient's offset term c0 to improve the SDR's performance at low radiance levels will also be discussed.

  5. Pitch and spectral resolution: A systematic comparison of bottom-up cues for top-down repair of degraded speech.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Jeanne; Başkent, Deniz; Gaudrain, Etienne

    2016-01-01

    The brain is capable of restoring missing parts of speech, a top-down repair mechanism that enhances speech understanding in noisy environments. This enhancement can be quantified using the phonemic restoration paradigm, i.e., the improvement in intelligibility when silent interruptions of interrupted speech are filled with noise. Benefit from top-down repair of speech differs between cochlear implant (CI) users and normal-hearing (NH) listeners. This difference could be due to poorer spectral resolution and/or weaker pitch cues inherent to CI transmitted speech. In CIs, those two degradations cannot be teased apart because spectral degradation leads to weaker pitch representation. A vocoding method was developed to evaluate independently the roles of pitch and spectral resolution for restoration in NH individuals. Sentences were resynthesized with different spectral resolutions and with either retaining the original pitch cues or discarding them all. The addition of pitch significantly improved restoration only at six-bands spectral resolution. However, overall intelligibility of interrupted speech was improved both with the addition of pitch and with the increase in spectral resolution. This improvement may be due to better discrimination of speech segments from the filler noise, better grouping of speech segments together, and/or better bottom-up cues available in the speech segments. PMID:26827034

  6. Spectral function and photoemission spectra in antiferromagnetically correlated metals

    SciTech Connect

    Kampf, A.P.; Schrieffer, J.R. )

    1990-11-01

    Antiferromagnetic spin fluctuations in a two-dimensional metal, such as doped high-{Tc} superconductors, lead to a pseudogap in the electronic spectrum. In the spectral function weight is shifted from the single quasiparticle peak of the Fermi-liquid regime to the incoherent particle and hole backgrounds, which evolve into the upper and lower Mott-Hubbard bands of the antiferromagnetic insulator. Precursors of these split bands show up as shadow bands'' in angle-resolved photoemission spectra.

  7. Challenges of an automated spectral responsivity characterization system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKee, Greg

    2013-01-01

    An essential part of characterizing and improving imaging system performance and modeling is the determination of spectral responsivity; namely the spectral band-shape and out-of-band response. These complicated measurements have heretofore been difficult to make with consistency with do-it-yourself solutions. To address this industry-wide problem, Labsphere has developed an automated spectral response measurement stations, incorporating several techniques to enhance accuracy and ease of use. This presentation will cover the physics and considerations behind the scaling of these types of systems and the experimental methodology required to assure absolute traceability, as well as some of the lessons learned along the way.

  8. Integrated filter and detector array for spectral imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Labaw, Clayton C. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A spectral imaging system having an integrated filter and photodetector array is disclosed. The filter has narrow transmission bands which vary in frequency along the photodetector array. The frequency variation of the transmission bands is matched to, and aligned with, the frequency variation of a received spectral image. The filter is deposited directly on the photodetector array by a low temperature deposition process. By depositing the filter directly on the photodetector array, permanent alignment is achieved for all temperatures, spectral crosstalk is substantially eliminated, and a high signal to noise ratio is achieved.

  9. Photonic band gap materials

    SciTech Connect

    Soukoulis, C.M. |

    1993-12-31

    An overview of the theoretical and experimental efforts in obtaining a photonic band gap, a frequency band in three-dimensional dielectric structures in which electromagnetic waves are forbidden, is presented.

  10. CSF oligoclonal banding

    MedlinePlus

    ... the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). CFS is the clear fluid that flows in the space around the spinal cord and brain. Oligoclonal bands are proteins called immunoglobulins. The ... system. Oligoclonal bands may be a sign of multiple sclerosis.

  11. Tri-band optical coherence tomography for lipid and vessel spectroscopic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Luoqin; Kang, Jiqiang; Wang, Xie; Wei, Xiaoming; Chan, Kin-Tak; Lee, Nikki P.; Wong, Kenneth K. Y.

    2016-03-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has been utilized for various functional imaging applications. One of its highlights comes from spectroscopic imaging, which can simultaneously obtain both morphologic and spectroscopic information. Assisting diagnosis and therapeutic intervention of coronary artery disease is one of the major directions in spectroscopic OCT applications. Previously Tanaka et al. have developed a spectral domain OCT (SDOCT) to image lipid distribution within blood vessel [1]. In the meantime, Fleming et al. have demonstrated optical frequency domain imaging (OFDI) by a 1.3-μm swept source and quadratic discriminant analysis model [2]. However, these systems suffered from burdensome computation as the optical properties' variation was calculated from a single-band illumination that provided limited contrast. On the other hand, multi-band OCT facilitates contrast enhancement with separated wavelength bands, which further offers an easier way to distinguish different materials. Federici and Dubois [3] and Tsai and Chan [4] have demonstrated tri-band OCT systems to further enhance the image contrast. However, these previous work provided under-explored functional properties. Our group has reported a dual-band OCT system based on parametrically amplified Fourier domain mode-locked (FDML) laser with time multiplexing scheme [5] and a dual-band FDML laser OCT system with wavelength-division multiplexing [6]. Fiber optical parametric amplifier (OPA) can be ideally incorporated in multi-band spectroscopic OCT system as it has a broad amplification window and offers an additional output range at idler band, which is phase matched with the signal band. The sweeping ranges can thus overcome traditional wavelength bands that are limited by intra-cavity amplifiers in FDML lasers. Here, we combines the dual-band FDML laser together with fiber OPA, which consequently renders a simultaneous tri-band output at 1.3, 1.5, and 1.6 μm, for intravascular applications

  12. Wide band focusing x-ray spectrograph with spatial resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Pikuz, S. A.; Douglass, J. D.; Shelkovenko, T. A.; Sinars, D. B.; Hammer, D. A.

    2008-01-15

    A new, wide spectral bandwidth x-ray spectrograph, the wide-bandwidth focusing spectrograph with spatial resolution (WB-FSSR), based on spherically bent mica crystals, is described. The wide bandwidth is achieved by combining three crystals to form a large aperture dispersive element. Since the WB-FSSR covers a wide spectral band, it is very convenient for application as a routine diagnostic tool in experiments in which the desired spectral coverage is different from one test to the next. The WB-FSSR has been tested in imploding wire-array experiments on a 1 MA pulsed power machine, and x-ray spectra were recorded in the 1-20 A spectral band using different orders of mica crystal reflection. Using a two mirror-symmetrically placed WB-FSSR configuration, it was also possible to distinguish between a real spectral shift and a shift of recorded spectral lines caused by the spatial distribution of the radiating plasma. A spectral resolution of about 2000 was demonstrated and a spatial resolution of {approx}100 {mu}m was achieved in the spectral band of 5-10 A in second order of mica reflection. A simple method of numerical analysis of spectrograph capability is proposed.

  13. Low-Cost Spectral Sensor Development Description.

    SciTech Connect

    Armijo, Kenneth Miguel; Yellowhair, Julius

    2014-11-01

    Solar spectral data for all parts of the US is limited due in part to the high cost of commercial spectrometers. Solar spectral information is necessary for accurate photovoltaic (PV) performance forecasting, especially for large utility-scale PV installations. A low-cost solar spectral sensor would address the obstacles and needs. In this report, a novel low-cost, discrete- band sensor device, comprised of five narrow-band sensors, is described. The hardware is comprised of commercial-off-the-shelf components to keep the cost low. Data processing algorithms were developed and are being refined for robustness. PV module short-circuit current ( I sc ) prediction methods were developed based on interaction-terms regression methodology and spectrum reconstruction methodology for computing I sc . The results suggest the computed spectrum using the reconstruction method agreed well with the measured spectrum from the wide-band spectrometer (RMS error of 38.2 W/m 2 -nm). Further analysis of computed I sc found a close correspondence of 0.05 A RMS error. The goal is for ubiquitous adoption of the low-cost spectral sensor in solar PV and other applications such as weather forecasting.

  14. Interstellar fullerene compounds and diffuse interstellar bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omont, Alain

    2016-05-01

    Recently, the presence of fullerenes in the interstellar medium (ISM) has been confirmed and new findings suggest that these fullerenes may possibly form from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the ISM. Moreover, the first confirmed identification of two strong diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) with the fullerene, C60+, connects the long standing suggestion that various fullerenes could be DIB carriers. These new discoveries justify reassessing the overall importance of interstellar fullerene compounds, including fullerenes of various sizes with endohedral or exohedral inclusions and heterofullerenes (EEHFs). The phenomenology of fullerene compounds is complex. In addition to fullerene formation in grain shattering, fullerene formation from fully dehydrogenated PAHs in diffuse interstellar clouds could perhaps transform a significant percentage of the tail of low-mass PAH distribution into fullerenes including EEHFs. But many uncertain processes make it extremely difficult to assess their expected abundance, composition and size distribution, except for the substantial abundance measured for C60+. EEHFs share many properties with pure fullerenes, such as C60, as regards stability, formation/destruction and chemical processes, as well as many basic spectral features. Because DIBs are ubiquitous in all lines of sight in the ISM, we address several questions about the interstellar importance of various EEHFs, especially as possible carriers of diffuse interstellar bands. Specifically, we discuss basic interstellar properties and the likely contributions of fullerenes of various sizes and their charged counterparts such as C60+, and then in turn: 1) metallofullerenes; 2) heterofullerenes; 3) fulleranes; 4) fullerene-PAH compounds; 5) H2@C60. From this reassessment of the literature and from combining it with known DIB line identifications, we conclude that the general landscape of interstellar fullerene compounds is probably much richer than heretofore realized

  15. Flat Band Quastiperiodic Lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodyfelt, Joshua; Flach, Sergej; Danieli, Carlo

    2014-03-01

    Translationally invariant lattices with flat bands (FB) in their band structure possess irreducible compact localized flat band states, which can be understood through local rotation to a Fano structure. We present extension of these quasi-1D FB structures under incommensurate lattices, reporting on the FB effects to the Metal-Insulator Transition.

  16. Spectral variability among rocks in visible and near-infrared mustispectral Pancam data collected at Gusev crater: Examinations using spectral mixture analysis and related techniques

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Farrand, W. H.; Bell, J.F.; Johnson, J. R.; Squyres, S. W.; Soderblom, J.; Ming, D. W.

    2006-01-01

    Visible and near-infrared (VNIR) multispectral observations of rocks made by the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit's Panoramic camera (Pancam) have been analyzed using a spectral mixture analysis (SMA) methodology. Scenes have been examined from the Gusev crater plains into the Columbia Hills. Most scenes on the plains and in the Columbia Hills could be modeled as three end-member mixtures of a bright material, rock, and shade. Scenes of rocks disturbed by the rover's Rock Abrasion Tool (RAT) required additional end-members. In the Columbia Hills, there were a number of scenes in which additional rock end-members were required. The SMA methodology identified relatively dust-free areas on undisturbed rock surfaces as well as spectrally unique areas on RAT abraded rocks. Spectral parameters from these areas were examined, and six spectral classes were identified. These classes are named after a type rock or area and are Adirondack, Lower West Spur, Clovis, Wishstone, Peace, and Watchtower. These classes are discriminable based, primarily, on near-infrared (NIR) spectral parameters. Clovis and Watchtower class rocks appear more oxidized than Wishstone class rocks and Adirondack basalts based on their having higher 535 nm band depths. Comparison of the spectral parameters of these Gusev crater rocks to parameters of glass-dominated basaltic tuffs indicates correspondence between measurements of Clovis and Watchtower classes but divergence for the Wishstone class rocks, which appear to have a higher fraction of crystalline ferrous iron-bearing phases. Despite a high sulfur content, the rock Peace has NIR properties resembling plains basalts. Copyright 2006 by the American Geophysical Union.

  17. An Imaging Spectral Line Survey of IRC+10216 using the Expanded Very Large Array (EVLA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claussen, Mark J.; EVLA Scientific Commissioning Team

    2011-01-01

    The Expanded Very Large Array (EVLA) is currently undergoing scientific commissioning, with full scientific operations expected in 2013. During the commissioning, we have performed a rather coarse ( 25 km/s) and shallow imaging spectral survey of the circumstellar environment of the well-known and nearby carbon-rich asymptotic giant branch (AGB) star IRC+10°216 (CW Leo) in the frequency range 18 - 26.5 GHz, using the capability of the WIDAR correlator to simultaneously observe 2 GHz of bandwidth. In addition we have used the additional capability of WIDAR to observe widely spaced sub-bands to observe eight pairs of targeted lines with much better spectral resolution (1.0 - 2.0 km/s) in the 18 - 26.5 GHz receiver band (selected from the coarse survey) and the 26.5 - 40 GHz receiver band (selected from the single-dish survey of Kawaguchi et al. (1995, PASJ, 47, 853). In the coarse survey, we detected twenty-one transitions of eleven molecules including eight transitions of HC7N, ranging from 18.049 GHz to 25.946 GHz, the J = 1 - 0 maser transition of SiS at 18.156 GHz, and three transitions of HC5N. We will present further results of the survey and images of the emission from the targeted lines. The National Radio Astronomy is a facility of the National Science Foundation operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc.

  18. UNIDENTIFIED INFRARED EMISSION BANDS: PAHs or MAONs?

    SciTech Connect

    Sun Kwok; Yong Zhang

    2013-07-01

    We suggest that the carrier of the unidentified infrared emission (UIE) bands is an amorphous carbonaceous solid with mixed aromatic/aliphatic structures, rather than free-flying polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon molecules. Through spectral fittings of the astronomical spectra of the UIE bands, we show that a significant amount of the energy is emitted by the aliphatic component, implying that aliphatic groups are an essential part of the chemical structure. Arguments in favor of an amorphous, solid-state structure rather than a gas-phase molecule as a carrier of the UIE are also presented.

  19. G-Band Vapor Radiometer Profiler (GVRP) Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Caddeau, MP

    2010-06-23

    The G-Band Vapor Radiometer Profiler (GVRP) provides time-series measurements of brightness temperatures from 15 channels between 170 and 183.310 GHz. Atmospheric emission in this spectral region is primarily due to water vapor, with some influence from liquid water. Channels between 170.0 and 176.0 GHz are particularly sensitive to the presence of liquid water. The sensitivity to water vapor of the 183.31-GHz line is approximately 30 times higher than at the frequencies of the two-channel microwave radiometer (MWR) for a precipitable water vapor (PWV) amount of less than 2.5 mm. Measurements from the GVRP instrument are therefore especially useful during low-humidity conditions (PWV < 5 mm). In addition to integrated water vapor and liquid water, the GVRP can provide low-resolution vertical profiles of water vapor in very dry conditions.

  20. Broad-Band Spectroscopy of Hercules X-1 with Suzaku

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asami, Fumi; Enoto, Teruaki; Iwakiri, Wataru; Yamada, Shin'ya; Tamagawa, Toru; Mihara, Tatehiro; Nagase, Fumiaki

    2014-01-01

    Hercules X-1 was observed with Suzaku in the main-on state from 2005 to 2010. The 0.4- 100 keV wide-band spectra obtained in four observations showed a broad hump around 4-9 keV in addition to narrow Fe lines at 6.4 and 6.7 keV. The hump was seen in all the four observations regardless of the selection of the continuum models. Thus it is considered a stable and intrinsic spectral feature in Her X-1. The broad hump lacked a sharp structure like an absorption edge. Thus it was represented by two different spectral models: an ionized partial covering or an additional broad line at 6.5 keV. The former required a persistently existing ionized absorber, whose origin was unclear. In the latter case, the Gaussian fitting of the 6.5-keV line needs a large width of sigma = 1.0-1.5 keV and a large equivalent width of 400-900 eV. If the broad line originates from Fe fluorescence of accreting matter, its large width may be explained by the Doppler broadening in the accretion flow. However, the large equivalent width may be inconsistent with a simple accretion geometry.

  1. Onboard spectral imager data processor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otten, Leonard J.; Meigs, Andrew D.; Franklin, Abraham J.; Sears, Robert D.; Robison, Mark W.; Rafert, J. Bruce; Fronterhouse, Donald C.; Grotbeck, Ronald L.

    1999-10-01

    Previous papers have described the concept behind the MightySat II.1 program, the satellite's Fourier Transform imaging spectrometer's optical design, the design for the spectral imaging payload, and its initial qualification testing. This paper discusses the on board data processing designed to reduce the amount of downloaded data by an order of magnitude and provide a demonstration of a smart spaceborne spectral imaging sensor. Two custom components, a spectral imager interface 6U VME card that moves data at over 30 MByte/sec, and four TI C-40 processors mounted to a second 6U VME and daughter card, are used to adapt the sensor to the spacecraft and provide the necessary high speed processing. A system architecture that offers both on board real time image processing and high-speed post data collection analysis of the spectral data has been developed. In addition to the on board processing of the raw data into a usable spectral data volume, one feature extraction technique has been incorporated. This algorithm operates on the basic interferometric data. The algorithm is integrated within the data compression process to search for uploadable feature descriptions.

  2. Assessing spatial and seasonal variations in grasslands with spectral reflectances from a helicopter platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walthall, Charles L.; Middleton, Elizabeth M.

    1992-11-01

    Helicopter-based radiometric measurements of grassland sites were acquired during the First International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project (ISLSCP) Field Experiment (FIFE) to quantify the spatial and spectral variations in surface reflectance contributing to variations in albedo and for comparison with surface fluxes. The helicopter instrumentation consisted of an eight-channel modular multiband radiometer (MMR), video, and photographic cameras. Seasonal and spatial variability of the entire FIFE study area were characterized using 20 MMR data sets from five FIFE sites during the four best ("Golden") data collection days of 1987. The means and coefficients of variation for each spectral band were calculated and analyzed as a function of spatial and seasonal domains. Linear models describing simple ratio (SR) and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) as functions of several surface variables were tested. All eight MMR bands contributed information beneficial for characterizing spatial and temporal variations, and the most useful bands were the red (MMR3, 0.63-0.68 μm) and the third middle infrared (MMR7, 2.08-2.37 μm). The blue band (MMRl, 0.45-0.52 μm) proved to be valuable, whereas the often utilized near infrared band (MMR4, 0.75-0.88 μm) was among the least important bands for discriminating landscape variations. The SR was more sensitive than the NDVI to variations in the Konza grassland at all scales: intrasite and intersite, between management practices of burning and grazing, and over time. Furthermore, the relationship of the NDVI with leaf area index was curvilinear, whereas the relationship of the SR was linear at low-leaf area index and was improved by the addition of a second variable, the percent of green dry weight biomass. Improvements in data collection methodologies are recommended for future large scale experiments such as the Boreal Ecosystem and Atmosphere Study (BOREAS).

  3. Spectral ellipsometry of GaSb and GaInAsSb: Experiment and modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Charache, G.W.; Mu {tilde n}oz, M.; Wei, K.; Pollak, F.H.; Freeouf, J.L.

    1999-06-30

    The optical constants {epsilon}(E)[={epsilon}{sub 1}(E)+i{epsilon}{sub 2}(E)] of single-crystal GaSb at 300K have been measured using spectral ellipsometry in the range of 0.3-5.3 eV. The {epsilon}(E) spectra displayed distinct structures associated with critical points (CPs) at E{sub 0} (direct gap), spin-orbit split E{sub 0}+{Delta}{sub 0} component, spin-orbit split (E{sub 1}, E{sub 1}+{Delta}{sub 1}) and (E{sub 0}{prime}, E{sub 0}{prime}+{Delta}{sub 0}{prime}) doublets, as well as E{sub 2}. The experimental data over the entire measured spectral range (after oxide removal) has been fit using the Holden model dielectric function based on the electronic energy-band structure near these CPs plus excitonic and band-to-band Coulomb enhancement effects at E{sub 0}, E{sub 0}+{Delta}{sub 0} and the E{sub 1}, E{sub 1}+{Delta}{sub 1} doublet. In addition to evaluating the energies of these various band-to-band CPs, information about the binding energy (R{sub 1}) of the two-dimensional exciton related to the E{sub 1}, E{sub 1}+{Delta}{sub 1} CPs was obtained. The value of R{sub 1} was in good agreement with effective mass/k{sup {rightharpoonup}}{center_dot}p{sup {rightharpoonup}} theory. The ability to evaluate R{sub 1} has important ramifications for recent first-principles band structure calculations which include exciton effects at E{sub 0}, E{sub 1}, and E{sub 2}. The experimental results were compared to other evaluations of the optical constants of GaSb.

  4. Laboratory Measurements of the 940, 1130, and 1370 nm Water Vapor Absorption Band Profiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giver, Lawrence P.; Gore, Warren J.; Pilewskie, P.; Freedman, R. S.; Chackerian, C., Jr.; Varanasi, P.

    2001-01-01

    We have used the solar spectral flux radiometer (SSFR) flight instrument with the Ames 25 meter base-path White cell to obtain about 20 moderate resolution (8 nm) pure water vapor spectra from 650 to 1650 nm, with absorbing paths from 806 to 1506 meters and pressures up to 14 torr. We also obtained a set at 806 meters with several different air-broadening pressures. Model simulations were made for the 940, 1130, and 1370 nm absorption bands for some of these laboratory conditions using the Rothman, et al HITRAN-2000 linelist. This new compilation of HITRAN includes new intensity measurements for the 940 nm region. We compared simulations for our spectra of this band using HITRAN-2000 with simulations using the prior HITRAN-1996. The simulations of the 1130 nm band show about 10% less absorption than we measured. There is some evidence that the total intensity of this band is about 38% stronger than the sum of the HITRAN line intensities in this region. In our laboratory conditions the absorption depends approximately on the square root of the intensity. Thus, our measurements agree that the band is stronger than tabulated in HITRAN, but by about 20%, substantially less than the published value. Significant differences have been shown between Doppler-limited resolution spectra of the 1370 nm band obtained at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and HITRAN simulations. Additional new intensity measurements in this region are continuing to be made. We expect the simulations of our SSFR lab data of this band will show the relative importance of improving the HITRAN line intensities of this band for atmospheric measurements.

  5. Spectral ladar: towards active 3D multispectral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powers, Michael A.; Davis, Christopher C.

    2010-04-01

    In this paper we present our Spectral LADAR concept, an augmented implementation of traditional LADAR. This sensor uses a polychromatic source to obtain range-resolved 3D spectral images which are used to identify objects based on combined spatial and spectral features, resolving positions in three dimensions and up to hundreds of meters in distance. We report on a proof-of-concept Spectral LADAR demonstrator that generates spectral point clouds from static scenes. The demonstrator transmits nanosecond supercontinuum pulses generated in a photonic crystal fiber. Currently we use a rapidly tuned receiver with a high-speed InGaAs APD for 25 spectral bands with the future expectation of implementing a linear APD array spectrograph. Each spectral band is independently range resolved with multiple return pulse recognition. This is a critical feature, enabling simultaneous spectral and spatial unmixing of partially obscured objects when not achievable using image fusion of monochromatic LADAR and passive spectral imagers. This enables higher identification confidence in highly cluttered environments such as forested or urban areas (e.g. vehicles behind camouflage or foliage). These environments present challenges for situational awareness and robotic perception which can benefit from the unique attributes of Spectral LADAR. Results from this demonstrator unit are presented for scenes typical of military operations and characterize the operation of the device. The results are discussed here in the context of autonomous vehicle navigation and target recognition.

  6. Spectral line polarimetry with a channeled polarimeter.

    PubMed

    van Harten, Gerard; Snik, Frans; Rietjens, Jeroen H H; Martijn Smit, J; Keller, Christoph U

    2014-07-01

    Channeled spectropolarimetry or spectral polarization modulation is an accurate technique for measuring the continuum polarization in one shot with no moving parts. We show how a dual-beam implementation also enables spectral line polarimetry at the intrinsic resolution, as in a classic beam-splitting polarimeter. Recording redundant polarization information in the two spectrally modulated beams of a polarizing beam-splitter even provides the possibility to perform a postfacto differential transmission correction that improves the accuracy of the spectral line polarimetry. We perform an error analysis to compare the accuracy of spectral line polarimetry to continuum polarimetry, degraded by a residual dark signal and differential transmission, as well as to quantify the impact of the transmission correction. We demonstrate the new techniques with a blue sky polarization measurement around the oxygen A absorption band using the groundSPEX instrument, yielding a polarization in the deepest part of the band of 0.160±0.010, significantly different from the polarization in the continuum of 0.2284±0.0004. The presented methods are applicable to any dual-beam channeled polarimeter, including implementations for snapshot imaging polarimetry. PMID:25089978

  7. Investigation of tree spectral reflectance characteristics using a mobile terrestrial line spectrometer and laser scanner.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yi; Puttonen, Eetu; Hyyppä, Juha

    2013-01-01

    In mobile terrestrial hyperspectral imaging, individual trees often present large variations in spectral reflectance that may impact the relevant applications, but the related studies have been seldom reported. To fill this gap, this study was dedicated to investigating the spectral reflectance characteristics of individual trees with a Sensei mobile mapping system, which comprises a Specim line spectrometer and an Ibeo Lux laser scanner. The addition of the latter unit facilitates recording the structural characteristics of the target trees synchronously, and this is beneficial for revealing the characteristics of the spatial distributions of tree spectral reflectance with variations at different levels. Then, the parts of trees with relatively low-level variations can be extracted. At the same time, since it is difficult to manipulate the whole spectrum, the traditional concept of vegetation indices (VI) based on some particular spectral bands was taken into account here. Whether the assumed VIs capable of behaving consistently for the whole crown of each tree was also checked. The specific analyses were deployed based on four deciduous tree species and six kinds of VIs. The test showed that with the help of the laser scanner data, the parts of individual trees with relatively low-level variations can be located. Based on these parts, the relatively stable spectral reflectance characteristics for different tree species can be learnt. PMID:23877127

  8. Investigation of Tree Spectral Reflectance Characteristics Using a Mobile Terrestrial Line Spectrometer and Laser Scanner

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yi; Puttonen, Eetu; Hyyppä, Juha

    2013-01-01

    In mobile terrestrial hyperspectral imaging, individual trees often present large variations in spectral reflectance that may impact the relevant applications, but the related studies have been seldom reported. To fill this gap, this study was dedicated to investigating the spectral reflectance characteristics of individual trees with a Sensei mobile mapping system, which comprises a Specim line spectrometer and an Ibeo Lux laser scanner. The addition of the latter unit facilitates recording the structural characteristics of the target trees synchronously, and this is beneficial for revealing the characteristics of the spatial distributions of tree spectral reflectance with variations at different levels. Then, the parts of trees with relatively low-level variations can be extracted. At the same time, since it is difficult to manipulate the whole spectrum, the traditional concept of vegetation indices (VI) based on some particular spectral bands was taken into account here. Whether the assumed VIs capable of behaving consistently for the whole crown of each tree was also checked. The specific analyses were deployed based on four deciduous tree species and six kinds of VIs. The test showed that with the help of the laser scanner data, the parts of individual trees with relatively low-level variations can be located. Based on these parts, the relatively stable spectral reflectance characteristics for different tree species can be learnt. PMID:23877127

  9. Mapping dustfall distribution in urban areas using remote sensing and ground spectral data.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xing; Shi, Wenzhong; Zhao, Wenji; Luo, Nana

    2015-02-15

    The aim of this study was to utilize remote sensing and ground-based spectral data to assess dustfall distribution in urban areas. The ground-based spectral data denoted that dust has a significant impact on spectral features. Dusty leaves have an obviously lower reflectance than clean leaves in the near-infrared bands (780-1,300 nm). The correlation analysis between dustfall weight and spectral reflectance showed that spectroscopy in the 350-2,500-nm region produced useful dust information and could assist in dust weight estimation. A back propagation (BP) neutral network model was generated using spectral response functions and integrated remote sensing data to assess dustfall weight in the city of Beijing. Compared with actual dustfall weight, validation of the results showed a satisfactory accuracy with a lower root mean square error (RMSE) of 3.6g/m(2). The derived dustfall distribution in Beijing indicated that dustfall was easily accumulated and increased in the south of the city. In addition, our results showed that construction sites and low-rise buildings with inappropriate land use were two main sources of dust pollution. This study offers a low-cost and effective method for investigating detailed dustfall in an urban environment. Environmental authorities may use this method for deriving dustfall distribution maps and pinpointing the sources of pollutants in urban areas. PMID:25433376

  10. Diffuse interstellar bands in reflection nebulae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischer, O.; Henning, Thomas; Pfau, Werner; Stognienko, R.

    1994-01-01

    A Monte Carlo code for radiation transport calculations is used to compare the profiles of the lambda lambda 5780 and 6613 Angstrom diffuse interstellar bands in the transmitted and the reflected light of a star embedded within an optically thin dust cloud. In addition, the behavior of polarization across the bands were calculated. The wavelength dependent complex indices of refraction across the bands were derived from the embedded cavity model. In view of the existence of different families of diffuse interstellar bands the question of other parameters of influence is addressed in short.

  11. Spectral Reflectance Studies of the Orientale Basin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hawke, B. R.; Lucey, P.; Bell, J. F.; Spudis, P. D.

    1985-01-01

    Twelve near-infrared spectra were obtained at the Mauna Kea Observatory 2.2-m telescopy using the Planetary Geosciences Division indium antimonide spectrometer. These include spectra obtained for two fresh surfaces on the inner Rook ring, two fresh craters in the outer Rook Mts., and two inner Rook ring, two fresh craters in the outer Rook Mts., and two fresh 11-km. craters (Eichstadt G and H) which are located between the outer Rook ring and the Cordillera ring and exposed material from within the knobby facies of the Montes Rook Formation. In addition, spectra were collected for portions of the Maunder Formation. Special attention was paid to the spectra collected for six immature features within the Cordillers ring. Analyses of the 1-micron band positions and shapes as well as continuum slopes indicate that the spectra for craters in the knobby facies and in the outer Rook Mts., while differing in detail, exhibit many common spectral characteristics. These spectra represent relatively fresh highlands rocks dominated by abundant Fe-bearing plagioclase feldspar and Ca-poor orthopyroxene. Compositions ranging between noritic anorthosite and anorthositic norite are indicated.

  12. High spectral resolution airborne short wave infrared hyperspectral imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Liqing; Yuan, Liyin; Wang, Yueming; Zhuang, Xiaoqiong

    2016-05-01

    Short Wave InfraRed(SWIR) spectral imager is good at detecting difference between materials and penetrating fog and mist. High spectral resolution SWIR hyperspectral imager plays a key role in developing earth observing technology. Hyperspectral data cube can help band selections that is very important for multispectral imager design. Up to now, the spectral resolution of many SWIR hyperspectral imagers is about 10nm. A high sensitivity airborne SWIR hyperspectral imager with narrower spectral band will be presented. The system consists of TMA telescope, slit, spectrometer with planar blazed grating and high sensitivity MCT FPA. The spectral sampling interval is about 3nm. The IFOV is 0.5mrad. To eliminate the influence of the thermal background, a cold shield is designed in the dewar. The pixel number of spatial dimension is 640. Performance measurement in laboratory and image analysis for flight test will also be presented.

  13. Dark Bands on Europa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Dark crisscrossing bands on Jupiter's moon Europa represent widespread disruption from fracturing and the possible eruption of gases and rocky material from the moon's interior in this four-frame mosaic of images from NASA's Galileo spacecraft. These and other features suggest that soft ice or liquid water was present below the ice crust at the time of disruption. The data do not rule out the possibility that such conditions exist on Europa today. The pictures were taken from a distance of 156,000 kilometers (about 96,300 miles) on June 27, 1996. Many of the dark bands are more than 1,600 kilometers (1,000 miles) long, exceeding the length of the San Andreas fault of California. Some of the features seen on the mosaic resulted from meteoritic impact, including a 30- kilometer (18.5 mile) diameter crater visible as a bright scar in the lower third of the picture. In addition, dozens of shallow craters seen in some terrains along the sunset terminator zone (upper right shadowed area of the image) are probably impact craters. Other areas along the terminator lack craters, indicating relatively youthful surfaces, suggestive of recent eruptions of icy slush from the interior. The lower quarter of the mosaic includes highly fractured terrain where the icy crust has been broken into slabs as large as 30 kilometers (18.5 miles) across. The mosaic covers a large part of the northern hemisphere and includes the north pole at the top of the image. The sun illuminates the surface from the left. The area shown is centered on 20 degrees north latitude and 220 degrees west longitude and is about as wide as the United States west of the Mississippi River. The Galileo mission is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

  14. Spectral observations of the extreme ultraviolet astronomical background radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Labov, S.; Bowyer, S.

    1988-01-01

    Observations in the FUV and soft X-ray bands suggest that the ISM contains several components of high-temperature gas (100,000-1 million K). If large volumes of local interstellar space are filled with this hot plasma, emission lines will be produced in the EUV. Diffuse EUV radiation, however, has only been detected with photometric instruments; no spectral measurements exist below 520 A. A unique grazing-incidence spectrometer to study the diffuse emission between 80 and 650 A with resolution 10-30 A was successfully flown on a sounding rocket in April 1986, and a preliminary analysis reveals several features. In addition to the expected interplanetary He I 584 A emission and the geocoronal He II 304 A emission, other features appear which may orginate in the hot ionized interstellar gas.

  15. X-RAY SPECTRAL VARIABILITY IN NGC 3783

    SciTech Connect

    Reis, R. C.; Miller, J. M.; Fabian, A. C.; Walton, D. J.; Reynolds, C. S.; Trippe, M.; Mushotzky, R. F.; Brenneman, L. W.; Nowak, M. A.

    2012-01-20

    NGC 3783 was observed for approximately 210 ks by Suzaku and in this time showed significant spectral and flux variability at both short (20 ks) and long (100 ks) timescales. The full observation is found to consist of approximately six 'spectral periods' where the behavior of the soft (0.3-1.0 keV) and hard (2-10 keV) bands are somewhat distinct. Using a variety of methods we find that the strong warm absorber present in this source does not change on these timescales, confirming that the broadband variability is intrinsic to the central source. The time-resolved difference-spectra are well modeled with an absorbed power law below 10 keV, but show an additional hard excess at Almost-Equal-To 20 keV in the latter stages of the observation. This suggests that, in addition to the variable power law, there is a further variable component that varies with time but not monotonically with flux. We show that a likely interpretation is that this further component is associated with variations in the reflection fraction or possibly ionization state of the accretion disk a few gravitational radii from the black hole.

  16. Spectral emission properties of a LPP light source in the sub-200nm range for wafer inspection applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gambino, Nadia; Rollinger, Bob; Hudgins, Duane; Abhari, Reza; Abreau, F.

    2015-03-01

    In this work, the spectral emission proprieties of a droplet-based laser-produced plasma are investigated in the VUV range. These studies are performed with a spectrograph operating from 30 nm to 180 nm at a spectral resolution of 0.1 nm. The emission spectra are recorded for different droplet-based metal fuels such as tin, indium and gallium in the presence of different background gas pressure levels. The experimental results are relevant for alternative light sources that would be needed for future wafer inspection tools. In addition, the experimental results help to determine the Out- Of-Band (OOB) radiation emission of the EUV source. By tuning the type of fuel, the laser energies and the background gas, the LPP light source shows good capabilities to be operated as a tunable light source that covers a spectral emission range from the EUV to the sub-200 nm range.

  17. Spatio-temporal Spectral Variability in Cas A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nambiar, Yamini; Kashyap, V.; Patnaude, D.

    2014-01-01

    We have analyzed Chandra archival data of Cas A Supernova Remnant to identify regions with large spectral abnormalities and variability over the last decade. We use 8 ACIS-S observations spanning the years 2000 to 2012. We compute spectral hardness ratios in the soft/medium and medium/hard CSC bands over spatial scales corresponding to binning by 4, 8, 16, 32, and 64. We reduce the data and apply the latest calibration using the CIAO tool chandra_repro. We account for exposure variations using exposure maps and compute photon fluxes using the CIAO tool fluximage. We then renormalize the color light curves at each pixel and flag large departures from the norm by comparing with the observed spread in the renormalized color light curves. This allows regions with different intrinsic spectral properties to be compared. We flag deviations of >3σ from the renormalized mean at each epoch, and combine all such pixels to form a map of interesting regions in the remnant. We also identify pixels which have intrinsically abnormal hardness ratios at each epoch. We show that there exist many sites on Cas A where abnormal variations in the spectrum exist. Specifically, we find that many of the identified regions coincide with prominent features of the SNR, such as the edge of the remnant, the central compact object, and numerous knots. In addition, we find various other locations 1000) where there is indication of an atypical spectral signature. The full region lists, along with analysis scripts and the figures and tables shown in this poster, are stored on the Harvard Dataverse Network, at http://dx.doi.org/10.7910/DVN1/22634 YN thanks ABRHS and Young Einsteins Science Club for support and guidance. VK and DP acknowledge support during this project from the Chandra X-Ray Center.

  18. Finding the bare band: Electron coupling to two phonon modes in potassium-doped graphene on Ir(111)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pletikosić, I.; Kralj, M.; Milun, M.; Pervan, P.

    2012-04-01

    We analyze renormalization of the π* band of n-doped epitaxial graphene on Ir(111) induced by electron-phonon coupling. Our procedure of extracting the bare band relies on recursive self-consistent refining of the functional form of the bare band until the convergence. We demonstrate that the components of the self-energy, as well as the spectral intensity obtained from angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy, show that the renormalization is due to the coupling to two distinct phonon excitations. From the velocity renormalization and an increase of the imaginary part of the self-energy we find the electron-phonon coupling constant to be ˜0.2, which is in fair agreement with a previous study of the same system, despite the notable difference in the width of spectroscopic curves. Our experimental results also suggest that potassium intercalated between graphene and Ir(111) does not introduce any additional increase of the quasiparticle scattering rate.

  19. In situ spectral reflectance studies of tidal wetland grasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartlett, D. S.; Klemas, V.

    1981-01-01

    Field measurements of wetland spectral canopy reflectance in the Landsat-MSS wavebands were correlated with biotic factors. The highest single band correlations were observed between visible (MSS Band 4: 0.5 to 0.6 micron and Band 5: 0.6 to 0.7 micron) canopy reflectance and the percentage, by weight, of live (green) vegetation in the canopies of Spartina alterniflora (salt marsh cordgrass), Spartina patens (salt meadow grass), and Distichlis spicata (spike grass). Infrared canopy reflectance displayed significant but weaker dependence on canopy parameters such as live and total biomass and canopy height. The Band 7 (0.8 to 1.1 microns)/Band 5 (0.6 to 0.7 micron) reflectance ratio was found to be highly correlated with green biomass for S. alterniflora. Highest spectral separability between the 'low marsh' S. alterniflora and the 'high marsh' Salt Hay (S. patens and D. spicata) communities in Delaware occurs during December.

  20. Iridescence and spectral filtering of the gyroid-type photonic crystals in Parides sesostris wing scales

    PubMed Central

    Wilts, Bodo D.; Michielsen, Kristel; De Raedt, Hans; Stavenga, Doekele G.

    2012-01-01

    The cover scales on the wing of the Emerald-patched Cattleheart butterfly, Parides sesostris, contain gyroid-type biological photonic crystals that brightly reflect green light. A pigment, which absorbs maximally at approximately 395 nm, is immersed predominantly throughout the elaborate upper lamina. This pigment acts as a long-pass filter shaping the reflectance spectrum of the underlying photonic crystals. The additional effect of the filtering is that the spatial distribution of the scale reflectance is approximately angle-independent, leading to a stable wing pattern contrast. The spectral tuning of the original reflectance is verified by photonic band structure modelling. PMID:24098853

  1. ATR neutron spectral characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, J.W.; Anderl, R.A.

    1995-11-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at INEL provides intense neutron fields for irradiation-effects testing of reactor material samples, for production of radionuclides used in industrial and medical applications, and for scientific research. Characterization of the neutron environments in the irradiation locations of the ATR has been done by means of neutronics calculations and by means of neutron dosimetry based on the use of neutron activation monitors that are placed in the various irradiation locations. The primary purpose of this report is to present the results of an extensive characterization of several ATR irradiation locations based on neutron dosimetry measurements and on least-squares-adjustment analyses that utilize both neutron dosimetry measurements and neutronics calculations. This report builds upon the previous publications, especially the reference 4 paper. Section 2 provides a brief description of the ATR and it tabulates neutron spectral information for typical irradiation locations, as derived from the more historical neutron dosimetry measurements. Relevant details that pertain to the multigroup neutron spectral characterization are covered in section 3. This discussion includes a presentation on the dosimeter irradiation and analyses and a development of the least-squares adjustment methodology, along with a summary of the results of these analyses. Spectrum-averaged cross sections for neutron monitoring and for displacement-damage prediction in Fe, Cr, and Ni are given in section 4. In addition, section4 includes estimates of damage generation rates for these materials in selected ATR irradiation locations. In section 5, the authors present a brief discussion of the most significant conclusions of this work and comment on its relevance to the present ATR core configuration. Finally, detailed numerical and graphical results for the spectrum-characterization analyses in each irradiation location are provided in the Appendix.

  2. A Multispectrum Analysis Of Carbon Dioxide Bands In The 6280 To 6390 Cm-1 Including Line Mixing And Speed Dependence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkataraman, Malathy D.; Benner, D. C.; Brown, L. R.; Miller, C. E.; Toth, R. A.

    2006-09-01

    To support atmospheric remote sensing studies and obtain total column CO2 measurements with a precision of 0.3%, accurate values of ro-vibrational constants, vibrational band intensity and Herman-Wallis coefficients, self- and air-broadening and self- and air-induced pressure-shift coefficients have been measured for the CO2 bands in the 6280 to 6380 cm-1 spectral region from high-resolution (0.01-cm-1) long-path absorption spectra. In addition, line mixing coefficients in the P- and R-branches have also been determined using the off-diagonal relaxation matrix elements for both self- and air-broadening. A multispectrum nonlinear least squares fitting technique modified to include line mixing and speed-dependent line shape and the capability to constrain various spectral line parameters (e.g. positions and intensities) has been applied in the analysis to maximize the accuracy of the retrieved parameters. In addition to the 2201←0000 combination band, rotational constants and intensity parameters were measured for five additional bands that appeared in the same spectral region. The data used in this study were recorded at room temperature with the McMath-Pierce Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) located at the National Solar Observatory on Kitt Peak. Where appropriate, present results are compared with previous measurements reported in the literature. Part of the research described in this paper was performed at the Jet Propulsion laboratory, California Institute of Technology under contracts and cooperative agreements with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The research conducted at the College of William and Mary is supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. ATM-0338475.

  3. Broadening of effective photonic band gaps in biological chiral structures: From intrinsic narrow band gaps to broad band reflection spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vargas, W. E.; Hernández-Jiménez, M.; Libby, E.; Azofeifa, D. E.; Solis, Á.; Barboza-Aguilar, C.

    2015-09-01

    Under normal illumination with non-polarized light, reflection spectra of the cuticle of golden-like and red Chrysina aurigans scarabs show a structured broad band of left-handed circularly polarized light. The polarization of the reflected light is attributed to a Bouligand-type left-handed chiral structure found through the scarab's cuticle. By considering these twisted structures as one-dimensional photonic crystals, a novel approach is developed from the dispersion relation of circularly polarized electromagnetic waves traveling through chiral media, to show how the broad band characterizing these spectra arises from an intrinsic narrow photonic band gap whose spectral position moves through visible and near-infrared wavelengths.

  4. Evaluation of new spectral bands for multi-spectral imaging: SMIRR aircraft test results

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goetz, Alexander F.H.; Rowan, Lawrence C.

    1980-01-01

    A 10-channel radiometer called the Shuttle Multispectral Infrared Radiometer (SMIRR) is scheduled to take data from orbit on the second shuttle orbital light test. As part of the instrument test sequence, a series of aircraft flights was carried out over 10 test areas in Utah and Nevada. Apart from vegetation, the materials exposed at the surface were volcanic sequences ranging from tuffs to basalts, areas of hydrothermally altered volcanic rocks, sedimentary sequences of sandstone and carbonate rocks, and alluvial cover.

  5. Enhancement of digital images through band ratio techniques for geological applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Filho, R. A. (Principal Investigator); Vitorello, I.

    1982-01-01

    The fundamentals in the use of band ratio techniques to enhance spectral signatures of geologic interest are discussed. The path radiance, additive term of the measured radiance at any given wavelength, is almost completely eliminated from LANDSAT images by subtracting the smallest value of the radiance measured in each channel, at shadows caused by topographic relief and clouds, and deep clear water bodies. By ratioing successive spectral channels the effect of solar angle of elevation is minimized and the product expresses, to a first approximation, a relationship between reflectances, which are intrinsic characteristics of the targets. Ratios between noncorrelated channels, such as R 7/4, R 7/5, and R 6/4 are useful to show variations in the vegetation cover, probably related to geobotanical associations.

  6. Spectral reflectance of surface soils - A statistical analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crouse, K. R.; Henninger, D. L.; Thompson, D. R.

    1983-01-01

    The relationship of the physical and chemical properties of soils to their spectral reflectance as measured at six wavebands of Thematic Mapper (TM) aboard NASA's Landsat-4 satellite was examined. The results of performing regressions of over 20 soil properties on the six TM bands indicated that organic matter, water, clay, cation exchange capacity, and calcium were the properties most readily predicted from TM data. The middle infrared bands, bands 5 and 7, were the best bands for predicting soil properties, and the near infrared band, band 4, was nearly as good. Clustering 234 soil samples on the TM bands and characterizing the clusters on the basis of soil properties revealed several clear relationships between properties and reflectance. Discriminant analysis found organic matter, fine sand, base saturation, sand, extractable acidity, and water to be significant in discriminating among clusters.

  7. Spectral Methods for Magnetic Anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, R. L.; Gee, J. S.

    2013-12-01

    Spectral methods, that is, those based in the Fourier transform, have long been employed in the analysis of magnetic anomalies. For example, Schouten and MaCamy's Earth filter is used extensively to map patterns to the pole, and Parker's Fourier transform series facilitates forward modeling and provides an efficient algorithm for inversion of profiles and surveys. From a different, and perhaps less familiar perspective, magnetic anomalies can be represented as the realization of a stationary stochastic process and then statistical theory can be brought to bear. It is vital to incorporate the full 2-D power spectrum, even when discussing profile data. For example, early analysis of long profiles failed to discover the small-wavenumber peak in the power spectrum predicted by one-dimensional theory. The long-wavelength excess is the result of spatial aliasing, when energy leaks into the along-track spectrum from the cross-track components of the 2-D spectrum. Spectral techniques may be used to improve interpolation and downward continuation of survey data. They can also evaluate the reliability of sub-track magnetization models both across and and along strike. Along-strike profiles turn out to be surprisingly good indicators of the magnetization directly under them; there is high coherence between the magnetic anomaly and the magnetization over a wide band. In contrast, coherence is weak at long wavelengths on across-strike lines, which is naturally the favored orientation for most studies. When vector (or multiple level) measurements are available, cross-spectral analysis can reveal the wavenumber interval where the geophysical signal resides, and where noise dominates. One powerful diagnostic is that the phase spectrum between the vertical and along-path components of the field must be constant 90 degrees. To illustrate, it was found that on some very long Project Magnetic lines, only the lowest 10% of the wavenumber band contain useful geophysical signal. In this

  8. Calculation of tunable type-II band alignments in InAsxSbyP1-x-y/InAs heterojunctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shim, Kyurhee

    2016-01-01

    The energy band gaps of the alloy InAsxSbyP1-x-y are calculated using the correlated function expansion (CFE) technique over the entire composition space x and y, for which the CFE band gap composition contour for the mid-infrared (MIR) spectral region of 2 (0.62)-5 µm (0.25 eV) is presented. The composition dependence of the valence-band maximum (VBM) is obtained using the universal tight binding (UTB) method, and the corresponding conduction-band minimum (CBM) can be computed from the difference between the band gap and the VBM. By organizing the relative positions of the VBM and CBM between the quaternary alloy InAsSbP and the binary compound InAs, the band alignments and band types of InAsSbP/InAs heterojunctions (HJs) along the lattice-matching conditions x and y [i.e., y = 0.311(1 - x)] are determined. It is found that the VBMs of the alloy InAsxSbyP1-x-y are located within the band gap of InAs, whereas the CBMs of the alloy lie outside the band gap of InAs over the entire composition range. This implies that the InAsxSbyP1-x-y/InAs HJs exhibit composition-tunable, type-II (staggered) band alignments. In addition, the conduction-band offset (CBO) and valence-band offset (VBO) of InAsSbP/InAs HJs both present the upward bowing trend, with the CBO curves appearing sharp and the VBO curves appearing smooth.

  9. Atmospheric Solar Heating in Minor Absorption Bands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chou, Ming-Dah

    1998-01-01

    Solar radiation is the primary source of energy driving atmospheric and oceanic circulations. Concerned with the huge computing time required for computing radiative transfer in weather and climate models, solar heating in minor absorption bands has often been neglected. The individual contributions of these minor bands to the atmospheric heating is small, but collectively they are not negligible. The solar heating in minor bands includes the absorption due to water vapor in the photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) spectral region from 14284/cm to 25000/cm, the ozone absorption and Rayleigh scattering in the near infrared, as well as the O2 and CO2 absorption in a number of weak bands. Detailed high spectral- and angular-resolution calculations show that the total effect of these minor absorption is to enhance the atmospheric solar heating by approximately 10%. Depending upon the strength of the absorption and the overlapping among gaseous absorption, different approaches are applied to parameterize these minor absorption. The parameterizations are accurate and require little extra time for computing radiative fluxes. They have been efficiently implemented in the various atmospheric models at NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, including cloud ensemble, mesoscale, and climate models.

  10. Banded ion morphology

    SciTech Connect

    Frahm, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    Bands of ions have been observed at constant pitch angle by the Dynamics Explorer High- and Low-Altitude Plasma Instruments at auroral latitudes. The observed ion-dispersion pattern shows lower-energy ions toward the equatorward side of the band and higher-energy ions toward the poleward side of the band. Ion bands have their highest-energy flux at small pitch angles. The observed bands have been correlated with storm phase (by Dst) and substorm phase (by AE). Bands are more likely to occur during main-storm phase than during recovery storm phase. Substorm correlations are statistically significant, but there is a hint that most bands occur during substorm recovery phase. Two models have the potential of producing ion signatures that are similar to the band feature. They are the time-of-flight mechanism and the convective dispersion mechanism. Under a time-of-flight mechanism, ions are dispersed along a magnetic filed line with higher-energy particles outrunning lower energy particles. Ions are dispersed perpendicular to the magnetic field under convective dispersion. A time-of-flight effect does not explain the band energy-latitude dependence observed in the southern night or northern day very well, whereas the convective dispersion mechanism easily accomplishes this.

  11. Terahertz dual-band resonator on silicon.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yong; Chen, Qin; Khalid, A; Saha, Shimul C; Cumming, David R S

    2010-02-15

    We have designed and fabricated a dual-band resonator in the terahertz frequency range on high-resistivity silicon. The device is designed to show resonances at 2.6 and 4.3 THz using the finite-difference time-domain modeling method. The characteristics of the fabricated device have been examined by using a Fourier-transform IR spectrometer. Measured results are in excellent agreement with the simulated data, showing two polarization-independent resonant peaks observed at 2.60 and 4.37 THz, respectively. The first resonance has a bandwidth of 0.56 THz, while the second one has a bandwidth of 0.70 THz. These dual-band resonant devices can be used for various applications such as dual-band spectral imaging and multiband biosensors. PMID:20160787

  12. Spectral line discriminator for passive detection of fluorescence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kebabian, Paul L. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A method and apparatus for detecting fluorescence from sunlit plants is based on spectral line discrimination using the A-band and B-band absorption of atmospheric oxygen. Light from a plant including scattered sunlight and the fluorescence from chlorophyll is passed through a chopper into a cell containing low-pressure, high-purity oxygen. A-band or B-band wavelengths present in the light are absorbed by the oxygen in the cell. When the chopper is closed, the absorbed light is remitted as fluorescence into a detector. The intensity of the fluorescence from the oxygen is proportional to the intensity of fluorescence from the plant.

  13. Multiyear On-orbit Calibration and Performance of Terra MODIS Thermal Emissive Bands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Chiang, Kwo-Fu; Wu, Aisheng; Barnes, William; Guenther, Bruce; Salomonson, Vincent

    2007-01-01

    Since launch in December 1999, Terra MODIS has been making continuous Earth observations for more than seven years. It has produced a broad range of land, ocean, and atmospheric science data products for improvements in studies of global climate and environmental change. Among its 36 spectral bands, there are 20 reflective solar bands (RSB) and 16 thermal emissive bands (TEB). MODIS thermal emissive bands cover the mid-wave infrared (MWIR) and long-wave infrared (LWIR) spectral regions with wavelengths from 3.7 to 14.4pm. They are calibrated on-orbit using an on-board blackbody (BB) with its temperature measured by a set of thermistors on a scan-by-scan basis. This paper will provide a brief overview of MODIS TEB calibration and characterization methodologies and illustrate on-board BB functions and TEB performance over more than seven years of on-orbit operation and calibration. Discussions will be focused on TEB detector short-term stability and noise characterization, and changes in long-term response (or system gain). Results show that Terra MODIS BB operation has been extremely stable since launch. When operated at its nominal controlled temperature of 290K, the BB temperature variation is typically less than +0.30mK on a scan-by-scan basis and there has been no time-dependent temperature drift. In addition to excellent short-term stability, most TEB detectors continue to meet or exceed their specified noise characterization requirements, thus enabling calibration accuracy and science data product quality to be maintained. Excluding the noisy detectors identified pre-launch and those that occurred post-launch, the changes in TEB responses have been less than 0.7% on an annual basis. The optical leak corrections applied to bands 32-36 have been effective and stable over the entire mission

  14. Detection of vibronic bands of C3 in a translucent cloud towards HD 169454

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, M. R.; Krełowski, J.; Galazutdinov, G. A.; Zhao, D.; Haddad, M. A.; Ubachs, W.; Linnartz, H.

    2014-06-01

    We report the detection of eight vibronic bands of C3, seven of which have been hitherto unobserved in astrophysical objects, in the translucent cloud towards HD 169454. Four of these bands are also found towards two additional objects: HD 73882 and HD 154368. Very high signal-to-noise ratio (˜1000 and higher) and high resolving power (R = 80 000) UVES-VLT spectra (Paranal, Chile) allow for detecting novel spectral features of C3, even revealing weak perturbed features in the strongest bands. The work presented here provides the most complete spectroscopic survey of the so far largest carbon chain detected in translucent interstellar clouds. High-quality laboratory spectra of C3 are measured using cavity ring-down absorption spectroscopy in a supersonically expanding hydrocarbon plasma, to support the analysis of the identified bands towards HD 169454. A column density of N(C3) = (6.6 ± 0.2) × 1012 cm-2 is inferred and the excitation of the molecule exhibits two temperature components; Texc = 22 ± 1 K for the low-J states and Texc = 187 ± 25 K for the high-J tail. The rotational excitation of C3 is reasonably well explained by models involving a mechanism including inelastic collisions, formation and destruction of the molecule, and radiative pumping in the far-infrared. These models yield gas kinetic temperatures comparable to those found for Texc. The assignment of spectral features in the UV-blue range 3793-4054 Å may be of relevance for future studies aiming at unravelling spectra to identify interstellar molecules associated with the diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs).

  15. Feasibility of multi-spectral imaging system to provide enhanced demarcation for skin tumor resection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Roode, Rowland; Noordmans, Herke Jan; Verdaasdonk, Rudolf

    2007-02-01

    Invading tumors like basal cell carcinoma have usually no distinct demarcation for the human eye. Therefore, during resection, an additional rim around the tumor is removed. However, extending sprouts can be missed since most lesions are not uniform. To improve the visualization of the tumor demarcation, we developed a multi-spectral imaging system especially adapted for dermatological applications based on tunable liquid crystal spectral tunable filter technology and LED illumination. Enhanced visualization of skin tumor demarcation was achieved using three strategies. The first strategy is based on creating false color images by combining narrow band spectral filtered images by placing them into the red, green and blue image components of a color image at three specific wavelengths. These specific wavelengths were determined using a trial on error tool to achieve the highest contrast between malignant and healthy tissue. The second strategy is to make ratio images of narrow band spectral filtered images at specific wavelengths. A trail on error tool was created which enables the user to try multiple wavelengths to obtain optimal contrast. This method could be applied in realtime. For the third strategy, on pixel spectral segmentation is applied by selecting the pixel spectra in the center of a tumor, surrounding tissue and healthy tissue far away from the tumor. The correlation between these specific spectra and all image pixels is calculated using a fast algorithm. The degree is correlation is graded by color coding and presented in a false color images showing a detailed demarcation of suspicious regions in the tissue. Although this strategy is expected to provide a higher specificity, it takes more time to calculate than the first strategy.

  16. Wide Band to ''Double Band'' upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Kasper, P.; Currier, R.; Garbincius, P.; Butler, J.

    1988-06-01

    The Wide Band beam currently uses electrons obtained from secondary photon conversions to produce the photon beam incident on the experimental targets. By transporting the positrons produced in these conversions as well as the electrons it is possible to almost double the number of photons delivered to the experiments per primary beam proton. 11 figs.

  17. Optical band gap study of a-Se and Se-Sb thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Ramandeep; Singh, Palwinder; Thakur, Anup

    2016-05-01

    Amorphous selenium (a-Se) and a-Se95Sb5 alloy were prepared using melt quenching technique. X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern confirmed the amorphous nature of the prepared samples. Composition of the prepared samples has been determined using Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) technique. Differential thermal analysis (DTA) confirmed the glassy nature of the prepared samples. Thin films of the prepared samples were deposited on glass substrate using thermal evaporation method. Amorphous nature of the deposited films was confirmed using XRD. Optical properties of these films were obtained from the UV-VIS transmission spectra, at normal incidence, over 200-1100 nm spectral range. The optical absorption edge was described by using the model given by the Tauc. Optical band gap of the deposited films was calculated using Tauc plot. Optical characterization showed that average transmission and optical band gap decreased with the addition of antinomy.

  18. Band-integrated infrared absorptance of low-molecular-weight paraffin hydrocarbons at high temperatures.

    PubMed

    Fuss, S P; Hall, M J; Ezekoye, O A

    1999-05-01

    The spectral absorptance of the 3.4-microm band of methane, ethane, propane, and butane has been measured with a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer over a range of temperatures from 296 to 900 K. The measurements were made at a 4-cm(-1) resolution and integrated over the entire band to give the total absorptance. The total absorptance is found to behave in such a way that it can be correlated by a combination of algebraic expressions that depend on the gas temperature and concentration. Average discrepancies between the correlations and the measurements are less than 4%, with maximum differences of no greater than 17%. In addition, the correlations presented here for methane are shown to be in good agreement with established models. Expressions given for the integrated intensity of each gas show an inverse dependence on temperature, reflecting the associated change in density. PMID:18319871

  19. Bilayer graphene spectral function in the random phase approximation and self-consistent GW approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabashvili, Andro; Östlund, Stellan; Granath, Mats

    2013-08-01

    We calculate the single-particle spectral function for doped bilayer graphene in the low energy limit, described by two parabolic bands with zero band gap and long range Coulomb interaction. Calculations are done using thermal Green's functions in both the random phase approximation (RPA) and the fully self-consistent GW approximation. Consistent with previous studies RPA yields a spectral function which, apart from the Landau quasiparticle peaks, shows additional coherent features interpreted as plasmarons, i.e., composite electron-plasmon excitations. In the GW approximation the plasmaron becomes incoherent and peaks are replaced by much broader features. The deviation of the quasiparticle weight and mass renormalization from their noninteracting values is small which indicates that bilayer graphene is a weakly interacting system. The electron energy loss function, Im[-ɛq-1(ω)] shows a sharp plasmon mode in RPA which in the GW approximation becomes less coherent and thus consistent with the weaker plasmaron features in the corresponding single-particle spectral function.

  20. Anisotropic spectral-spatial total variation model for multispectral remote sensing image destriping.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yi; Yan, Luxin; Fang, Houzhang; Luo, Chunan

    2015-06-01

    Multispectral remote sensing images often suffer from the common problem of stripe noise, which greatly degrades the imaging quality and limits the precision of the subsequent processing. The conventional destriping approaches usually remove stripe noise band by band, and show their limitations on different types of stripe noise. In this paper, we tentatively categorize the stripes in remote sensing images in a more comprehensive manner. We propose to treat the multispectral images as a spectral-spatial volume and pose an anisotropic spectral-spatial total variation regularization to enhance the smoothness of solution along both the spectral and spatial dimension. As a result, a more comprehensive stripes and random noise are perfectly removed, while the edges and detail information are well preserved. In addition, the split Bregman iteration method is employed to solve the resulting minimization problem, which highly reduces the computational load. We extensively validate our method under various stripe categories and show comparison with other approaches with respect to result quality, running time, and quantitative assessments. PMID:25706634

  1. Effects of Viewing Geometry and Temperature on Spectral Reflectance of Planetary-analog Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izenberg, N. R.; Hibbitts, C.; Klima, R. L.; Greenspon, A. S.; Marusiak, A. G.; Sprague, A. L.; Domingue, D. L.; Helbert, J.; Blewett, D. T.

    2012-12-01

    The MESSENGER spacecraft's Mercury Atmospheric and Surface Composition Spectrometer (MASCS) has obtained over 2 million spectra of Mercury's surface between 300 and 1450 nm. VIRS reflectance spectra have shown no unequivocal evidence of the crystal-field absorption band centered near 1000-nm wavelength associated with the presence of ferrous iron in silicates. The lack of this absorption, and presence of an oxygen-metal charge transfer (OMCT)-like band at 300-400 nm is consistent with low (< 2-4%), but variable Fe contents in surface minerals. Two key factors that may affect the relative breadth, depth, and band center of subtle bands in reflectance spectra measured by MESSENGER are the viewing geometry of MASCS observations and the high temperature of the dayside Mercury surface, which can exceed 400° C. MESSENGER orbital and pointing constraints restrict reflectance observations of Mercury to phase angles between 78° and 102°, with average incidence and emission angles between 39° and 51°, but ranging from near 0° to 90°. A pilot study at Brown University's Reflectance Laboratory (RELAB) and the optics laboratory of the Applied Physics Laboratory (APL) has measured a suite of low-Fe silicates at angles of incidence, emission, and phase, chosen to cover those of the MASCS measurements. The purpose is to provide direct photometric comparisons of known laboratory samples to Mercury observations. We present initial findings that indicate small (~4%) effects of viewing geometry on the 1000-nm band absorption and other spectral features. At APL, we are investigating thermal effects on spectral reflectance of rock-forming minerals from UV through NIR wavelengths under vacuum over a temperature range of -140 to 400°C. Different silicate absorption bands in the 1-4 micron range tend to widen and shallow by up to tens of percent, and shift band center slightly with increasing temperature. In addition, overall reflectance decreases with increasing temperatures

  2. Spectral methods for CFD

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zang, Thomas A.; Streett, Craig L.; Hussaini, M. Yousuff

    1989-01-01

    One of the objectives of these notes is to provide a basic introduction to spectral methods with a particular emphasis on applications to computational fluid dynamics. Another objective is to summarize some of the most important developments in spectral methods in the last two years. The fundamentals of spectral methods for simple problems will be covered in depth, and the essential elements of several fluid dynamical applications will be sketched.

  3. Monolithic mid-infrared fiber lasers for the 2-4 μm spectral region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortin, Vincent; Bernier, Martin; Caron, Nicolas; Faucher, Dominic; El-Amraoui, Mohammed; Messaddeq, Younès.; Vallée, Réal

    2013-03-01

    A growing number of applications are calling for compact laser sources operating in the mid-infrared spectral region. A review of our recent work on monolithic fiber lasers based either on the use of rare-earth fluoride fibers or on Raman gain in both fluoride and chalcogenide glass fibers is presented. Accordingly, an erbium-doped double clad fluoride glass all-fiber laser operating in the vicinity of 3 μm is shown. In addition, we present recent results on the first demonstrations of both fluoride and chalcogenide Raman fiber lasers operating at 2.23 μm and 3.34 μm, respectively. It is shown that based on this approach, monolithic fiber lasers could be developed to cover the whole 2-4 μm spectral band.

  4. Rayleigh imaging in spectral mammography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berggren, Karl; Danielsson, Mats; Fredenberg, Erik

    2016-03-01

    Spectral imaging is the acquisition of multiple images of an object at different energy spectra. In mammography, dual-energy imaging (spectral imaging with two energy levels) has been investigated for several applications, in particular material decomposition, which allows for quantitative analysis of breast composition and quantitative contrast-enhanced imaging. Material decomposition with dual-energy imaging is based on the assumption that there are two dominant photon interaction effects that determine linear attenuation: the photoelectric effect and Compton scattering. This assumption limits the number of basis materials, i.e. the number of materials that are possible to differentiate between, to two. However, Rayleigh scattering may account for more than 10% of the linear attenuation in the mammography energy range. In this work, we show that a modified version of a scanning multi-slit spectral photon-counting mammography system is able to acquire three images at different spectra and can be used for triple-energy imaging. We further show that triple-energy imaging in combination with the efficient scatter rejection of the system enables measurement of Rayleigh scattering, which adds an additional energy dependency to the linear attenuation and enables material decomposition with three basis materials. Three available basis materials have the potential to improve virtually all applications of spectral imaging.

  5. Quantum graph as a quantum spectral filter

    SciTech Connect

    Turek, Ondrej; Cheon, Taksu

    2013-03-15

    We study the transmission of a quantum particle along a straight input-output line to which a graph {Gamma} is attached at a point. In the point of contact we impose a singularity represented by a certain properly chosen scale-invariant coupling with a coupling parameter {alpha}. We show that the probability of transmission along the line as a function of the particle energy tends to the indicator function of the energy spectrum of {Gamma} as {alpha}{yields}{infinity}. This effect can be used for a spectral analysis of the given graph {Gamma}. Its applications include a control of a transmission along the line and spectral filtering. The result is illustrated with an example where {Gamma} is a loop exposed to a magnetic field. Two more quantum devices are designed using other special scale-invariant vertex couplings. They can serve as a band-stop filter and as a spectral separator, respectively.

  6. EEG Bands of Wakeful Rest, Slow-Wave and Rapid-Eye-Movement Sleep at Different Brain Areas in Rats.

    PubMed

    Jing, Wei; Wang, Yanran; Fang, Guangzhan; Chen, Mingming; Xue, Miaomiao; Guo, Daqing; Yao, Dezhong; Xia, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating evidence reveals that neuronal oscillations with various frequency bands in the brain have different physiological functions. However, the frequency band divisions in rats were typically based on empirical spectral distribution from limited channels information. In the present study, functionally relevant frequency bands across vigilance states and brain regions were identified using factor analysis based on 9 channels EEG signals recorded from multiple brain areas in rats. We found that frequency band divisions varied both across vigilance states and brain regions. In particular, theta oscillations during REM sleep were subdivided into two bands, 5-7 and 8-11 Hz corresponding to the tonic and phasic stages, respectively. The spindle activities of SWS were different along the anterior-posterior axis, lower oscillations (~16 Hz) in frontal regions and higher in parietal (~21 Hz). The delta and theta activities co-varied in the visual and auditory cortex during wakeful rest. In addition, power spectra of beta oscillations were significantly decreased in association cortex during REM sleep compared with wakeful rest. These results provide us some new insights into understand the brain oscillations across vigilance states, and also indicate that the spatial factor should not be ignored when considering the frequency band divisions in rats. PMID:27536231

  7. EEG Bands of Wakeful Rest, Slow-Wave and Rapid-Eye-Movement Sleep at Different Brain Areas in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Jing, Wei; Wang, Yanran; Fang, Guangzhan; Chen, Mingming; Xue, Miaomiao; Guo, Daqing; Yao, Dezhong; Xia, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating evidence reveals that neuronal oscillations with various frequency bands in the brain have different physiological functions. However, the frequency band divisions in rats were typically based on empirical spectral distribution from limited channels information. In the present study, functionally relevant frequency bands across vigilance states and brain regions were identified using factor analysis based on 9 channels EEG signals recorded from multiple brain areas in rats. We found that frequency band divisions varied both across vigilance states and brain regions. In particular, theta oscillations during REM sleep were subdivided into two bands, 5–7 and 8–11 Hz corresponding to the tonic and phasic stages, respectively. The spindle activities of SWS were different along the anterior-posterior axis, lower oscillations (~16 Hz) in frontal regions and higher in parietal (~21 Hz). The delta and theta activities co-varied in the visual and auditory cortex during wakeful rest. In addition, power spectra of beta oscillations were significantly decreased in association cortex during REM sleep compared with wakeful rest. These results provide us some new insights into understand the brain oscillations across vigilance states, and also indicate that the spatial factor should not be ignored when considering the frequency band divisions in rats. PMID:27536231

  8. Multitemporal Cross-Calibration of the Terra MODIS and Landsat 7 ETM+ Reflective Solar Bands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angal, Amit; Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Wu, Aisheng; Changler, Gyanesh; Choi, Taeyoyung

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a significant increase in the use of remotely sensed data to address global issues. With the open data policy, the data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) sensors have become a critical component of numerous applications. These two sensors have been operational for more than a decade, providing a rich archive of multispectral imagery for analysis of mutitemporal remote sensing data. This paper focuses on evaluating the radiometric calibration agreement between MODIS and ETM+ using the near-simultaneous and cloud-free image pairs over an African pseudo-invariant calibration site, Libya 4. To account for the combined uncertainties in the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) reflectance due to surface and atmospheric bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF), a semiempirical BRDF model was adopted to normalize the TOA reflectance to the same illumination and viewing geometry. In addition, the spectra from the Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) Hyperion were used to compute spectral corrections between the corresponding MODIS and ETM+ spectral bands. As EO-1 Hyperion scenes were not available for all MODIS and ETM+ data pairs, MODerate resolution atmospheric TRANsmission (MODTRAN) 5.0 simulations were also used to adjust for differences due to the presence or lack of absorption features in some of the bands. A MODIS split-window algorithm provides the atmospheric water vapor column abundance during the overpasses for the MODTRAN simulations. Additionally, the column atmospheric water vapor content during the overpass was retrieved using the MODIS precipitable water vapor product. After performing these adjustments, the radiometric cross-calibration of the two sensors was consistent to within 7%. Some drifts in the response of the bands are evident, with MODIS band 3 being the largest of about 6% over 10 years, a change that will be corrected in Collection 6 MODIS processing.

  9. Analysis of exploitable spectral features of target and background materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkelmann, Max

    2015-10-01

    The spectral behavior of textile camouflage materials in the electro-optical spectral range is analyzed and compared with different backgrounds. It is shown that it will be difficult to develop camouflage materials that match a vegetative background in the NIR and SWIR spectral range. The problem of water absorption spectral features is discussed. In addition the effect of different surface finishing of textiles is shown.

  10. SPECTRAL LAGS AND THE LAG-LUMINOSITY RELATION: AN INVESTIGATION WITH SWIFT BAT GAMMA-RAY BURSTS

    SciTech Connect

    Ukwatta, T. N.; Dhuga, K. S.; Eskandarian, A.; Maximon, L. C.; Parke, W. C.; Stamatikos, M.; Sakamoto, T.; Barthelmy, S. D.; Gehrels, N.; Norris, J. P.

    2010-03-10

    Spectral lag, the time difference between the arrival of high-energy and low-energy photons, is a common feature in gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Norris et al. reported a correlation between the spectral lag and the isotropic peak luminosity of GRBs based on a limited sample. More recently, a number of authors have provided further support for this correlation using arbitrary energy bands of various instruments. In this paper, we report on a systematic extraction of spectral lags based on the largest Swift sample to date of 31 GRBs with measured redshifts. We extracted the spectral lags for all combinations of the standard Swift hard X-ray energy bands: 15-25 keV, 25-50 keV, 50-100 keV, and 100-200 keV and plotted the time dilation corrected lag as a function of isotropic peak luminosity. The mean value of the correlation coefficient for various channel combinations is -0.68 with a chance probability of {approx}0.7 x 10{sup -3}. In addition, the mean value of the power-law index is 1.4 +- 0.3. Hence, our study lends support to the existence of a lag-luminosity correlation, albeit with large scatter.

  11. Stretch Band Exercise Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skirka, Nicholas; Hume, Donald

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses how to use stretch bands for improving total body fitness and quality of life. A stretch band exercise program offers a versatile and inexpensive option to motivate participants to exercise. The authors suggest practical exercises that can be used in physical education to improve or maintain muscular strength and endurance,…

  12. Singing with the Band

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altman, Timothy Meyer; Wright, Gary K.

    2012-01-01

    Usually band, orchestra, and choir directors work independently. However, the authors--one a choral director, the other a band director--have learned that making music together makes friends. Not only can ensemble directors get along, but joint concerts may be just the way to help students see how music can reach the heart. Combined instrumental…

  13. Rubber Band Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowens, John

    2005-01-01

    Not only are rubber bands great for binding objects together, but they can be used in a simple science experiment that involves predicting, problem solving, measuring, graphing, and experimenting. In this article, the author describes how rubber bands can be used to teach the force of mass.

  14. Oil droplets of bird eyes: microlenses acting as spectral filters

    PubMed Central

    Stavenga, Doekele G.; Wilts, Bodo D.

    2014-01-01

    An important component of the cone photoreceptors of bird eyes is the oil droplets located in front of the visual-pigment-containing outer segments. The droplets vary in colour and are transparent, clear, pale or rather intensely yellow or red owing to various concentrations of carotenoid pigments. Quantitative modelling of the filter characteristics using known carotenoid pigment spectra indicates that the pigments’ absorption spectra are modified by the high concentrations that are present in the yellow and red droplets. The high carotenoid concentrations not only cause strong spectral filtering but also a distinctly increased refractive index at longer wavelengths. The oil droplets therefore act as powerful spherical microlenses, effectively channelling the spectrally filtered light into the photoreceptor's outer segment, possibly thereby compensating for the light loss caused by the spectral filtering. The spectral filtering causes narrow-band photoreceptor spectral sensitivities, which are well suited for spectral discrimination, especially in birds that have feathers coloured by carotenoid pigments. PMID:24395968

  15. The effect of spectral filters on VEP and alpha-wave responses

    PubMed Central

    Willeford, Kevin T.; Fimreite, Vanessa; Ciuffreda, Kenneth J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Spectral filters are used to treat light sensitivity in individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI); however, the effect of these filters on normal visual function has not been elucidated. Thus, the current study aimed to determine the effect of spectral filters on objectively-measured visual-evoked potential (VEP) and alpha-wave responses in the visually-normal population. Methods The full-field (15°H × 17°V), pattern-reversal VEP (20′ check size, mean luminance 52 cd/m2) was administered to 20 visually-normal individuals. They were tested with four Intuitive-Colorimeter-derived, broad-band, spectral filters (i.e., gray/neutral density, blue, yellow, and red), which produced similar luminance values for the test stimulus. The VEP N75 and P100 latencies, and VEP amplitude, were recorded. Power spectrum analysis was used to derive the respective powers at each frequency, and peak frequency, for the selected 9–11 Hz components of the alpha band. Results Both N75 and P100 latencies increased with the addition of each filter when compared to baseline. Additionally, each filter numerically reduced intra-session amplitude variability relative to baseline. There were no significant effects on either the mean VEP amplitude or alpha wave parameters. Conclusions The Intuitive Colorimeter filters significantly increased both N75 and P100 latencies, an effect which is primarily attributable (∼75%) to luminance, and in some cases, specific spectral effects (e.g., blue and red). VEP amplitude and alpha power were not significantly affected. These findings provide an important reference to which either amplitude or power changes in light-sensitive, younger clinical groups can be compared. PMID:26293969

  16. Spectral Maps of Titan’s Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffith, Caitlin Ann; Penteado, Paulo; Turner, Jake D.; Khamsi, Tymon; Montiel, Nicholas J.

    2015-11-01

    Titan’s surface can be observed most clearly at 7 spectral regions that lie in between the strong methane bands in Titan’s spectrum. Within these ”windows”, between 0.8 to 5 microns, the surface is nonetheless obscured by methane and haze, the latter of which is optically thick at lower wavelengths. Studies of Titan’s surface must eliminate the effects of atmospheric extinction, which particularly at high latitudes, are not well constrained. A more general challenge in the study of planetary surfaces is the extraction of subtle spectral features from a large quantity of low-resolution data, which have dominant spectral trends, upon which lesser trends reside. This characteristic (a dominant spectral trend) is seen in Titan’s data: images at all 7 wavelengths appear essentially the same, with the bright terrain relatively bright at all wavelengths and vise versa. The question arises as to how to discern and map the smaller and orthogonal spectral trends of Titan’s surface in order to investigate the composition. Towards this goal we have constructed spectral maps of Titan’s surface by minimizing the covariance matrix of the I/F values (and separately the surface albedo) at the 7 window wavelengths. This application of the Principal Components Analyses (PCA) yields the orthogonal spectral trends based on the variance of the I/F values, and, separately, the surface albedos derived from radiative transfer models. Here we will present some of the interesting spectral trends detected through the application of this method to small sections of Titan’s surface.

  17. Monaural envelope correlation perception for bands narrower or wider than a critical band

    PubMed Central

    Buss, Emily; Hall, Joseph W.; Grose, John H.

    2013-01-01

    Monaural envelope correlation perception concerns the ability of listeners to discriminate stimuli based on the degree of correlation between the temporal envelopes of two or more frequency-separated bands of noise [Richards, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 82, 1621–1630 (1987)]. Previous work has examined this ability for relatively narrow bandwidths, generally 100 Hz or less. The present experiment explored a wide range of bandwidths, from 25 to 1600 Hz, which included bands narrower and wider than a critical bandwidth. Stimuli were pairs of noise bands separated by a 500-Hz-wide spectral gap centered on 2250 Hz. The magnitude spectra of the pair of comodulated bands were either identical or reflected around the midpoint of the band, and performance was assessed with and without a low-pass noise masker. Although discrimination was best for intermediate bandwidths, mean performance was above chance for all bandwidths tested. Data were similar for stimuli with identical and reflected magnitude spectra, and for stimuli with and without the low-pass masker. The one exception was particularly good performance for intermediate-bandwidth stimuli with identical spectra, for which some listeners reported hearing a tonal cue. Results indicate that listeners are flexible in selecting spectral regions upon which to base across-frequency comparisons. PMID:23297912

  18. Rangeland condition assessment using high spatial and spectral resolution remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bork, Edward William

    This research evaluated the use of electromagnetic induction (EM), broad-band (BB) spectrometry, and narrow-band (NB) spectrometry for assessing rangeland condition on six long-term sagebrush-steppe grazing treatments. Objectives included (1) updating quantitative differences in cover components among treatments, (2) using EM to assess soil depth variability within and among treatments, (3) determining the spectral characteristics of in situ cover components, (4) establishing BB and NB predictive regressions for individual cover components, and (5) testing the predictive accuracy of the regressions and their effectiveness in distinguishing among treatments. Few soil-based differences were found among the treatments. Shrub and annual herb cover were greater on the spring-grazed areas than fall-grazed and exclosed areas. Fall-grazed areas had less shrub and more perennial herb. Residual effects of spring grazing prior to 1950 were also evident within treatments. A subsequent investigation of the long-term fall and spring paddocks found that EM technology could predict soil depth. Positive relationships between apparent conductivity and depth were used to map soil depth across these two paddocks. Despite considerable local variability, overall soil depth differences between treatments were minimal, indicating vegetational differences between paddocks are likely as the result of grazing history and not soil depth. In situ spectral measurements of 15 rangeland cover components found that most were spectrally unique. Other factors that affected spectral reflectance were the field of view and soil moisture content. Greater spectral differences were found as plants advanced phenologically. Consequently, NB data, particularly multitemporal, may improve the identification of cover components. Localized mixed pixels were used to calibrate BB and NB spectral data from June, July, and August to measure ground cover of 11 components. Simple and multiple regression indicated some

  19. A Self-Calibrating Multi-Band Region Growing Approach to Segmentation of Single and Multi-Band Images

    SciTech Connect

    Paglieroni, D W

    2002-12-20

    Image segmentation transforms pixel-level information from raw images to a higher level of abstraction in which related pixels are grouped into disjoint spatial regions. Such regions typically correspond to natural or man-made objects or structures, natural variations in land cover, etc. For many image interpretation tasks (such as land use assessment, automatic target cueing, defining relationships between objects, etc.), segmentation can be an important early step. Remotely sensed images (e.g., multi-spectral and hyperspectral images) often contain many spectral bands (i.e., multiple layers of 2D images). Multi-band images are important because they contain more information than single-band images. Objects or natural variations that are readily apparent in certain spectral bands may be invisible in 2D broadband images. In this paper, the classical region growing approach to image segmentation is generalized from single to multi-band images. While it is widely recognized that the quality of image segmentation is affected by which segmentation algorithm is used, this paper shows that algorithm parameter values can have an even more profound effect. A novel self-calibration framework is developed for automatically selecting parameter values that produce segmentations that most closely resemble a calibration edge map (derived separately using a simple edge detector). Although the framework is generic in the sense that it can imbed any core segmentation algorithm, this paper only demonstrates self-calibration with multi-band region growing. The framework is applied to a variety of AVIRIS image blocks at different spectral resolutions, in an effort to assess the impact of spectral resolution on segmentation quality. The image segmentations are assessed quantitatively, and it is shown that segmentation quality does not generally appear to be highly correlated with spectral resolution.

  20. Triatomic Spectral Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 117 Triatomic Spectral Database (Web, free access)   All of the rotational spectral lines observed and reported in the open literature for 55 triatomic molecules have been tabulated. The isotopic molecular species, assigned quantum numbers, observed frequency, estimated measurement uncertainty and reference are given for each transition reported.

  1. Hydrocarbon Spectral Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 115 Hydrocarbon Spectral Database (Web, free access)   All of the rotational spectral lines observed and reported in the open literature for 91 hydrocarbon molecules have been tabulated. The isotopic molecular species, assigned quantum numbers, observed frequency, estimated measurement uncertainty and reference are given for each transition reported.

  2. Diatomic Spectral Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 114 Diatomic Spectral Database (Web, free access)   All of the rotational spectral lines observed and reported in the open literature for 121 diatomic molecules have been tabulated. The isotopic molecular species, assigned quantum numbers, observed frequency, estimated measurement uncertainty, and reference are given for each transition reported.

  3. Rayleigh radiance computations for satellite remote sensing: accounting for the effect of sensor spectral response function.

    PubMed

    Wang, Menghua

    2016-05-30

    To understand and assess the effect of the sensor spectral response function (SRF) on the accuracy of the top of the atmosphere (TOA) Rayleigh-scattering radiance computation, new TOA Rayleigh radiance lookup tables (LUTs) over global oceans and inland waters have been generated. The new Rayleigh LUTs include spectral coverage of 335-2555 nm, all possible solar-sensor geometries, and surface wind speeds of 0-30 m/s. Using the new Rayleigh LUTs, the sensor SRF effect on the accuracy of the TOA Rayleigh radiance computation has been evaluated for spectral bands of the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) on the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (SNPP) satellite and the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS)-1, showing some important uncertainties for VIIRS-SNPP particularly for large solar- and/or sensor-zenith angles as well as for large Rayleigh optical thicknesses (i.e., short wavelengths) and bands with broad spectral bandwidths. To accurately account for the sensor SRF effect, a new correction algorithm has been developed for VIIRS spectral bands, which improves the TOA Rayleigh radiance accuracy to ~0.01% even for the large solar-zenith angles of 70°-80°, compared with the error of ~0.7% without applying the correction for the VIIRS-SNPP 410 nm band. The same methodology that accounts for the sensor SRF effect on the Rayleigh radiance computation can be used for other satellite sensors. In addition, with the new Rayleigh LUTs, the effect of surface atmospheric pressure variation on the TOA Rayleigh radiance computation can be calculated precisely, and no specific atmospheric pressure correction algorithm is needed. There are some other important applications and advantages to using the new Rayleigh LUTs for satellite remote sensing, including an efficient and accurate TOA Rayleigh radiance computation for hyperspectral satellite remote sensing, detector-based TOA Rayleigh radiance computation, Rayleigh radiance calculations for high altitude

  4. A practical approach to spectral volume rendering.

    PubMed

    Bergner, Steven; Möller, Torsten; Tory, Melanie; Drew, Mark S

    2005-01-01

    To make a spectral representation of color practicable for volume rendering, a new low-dimensional subspace method is used to act as the carrier of spectral information. With that model, spectral light material interaction can be integrated into existing volume rendering methods at almost no penalty. In addition, slow rendering methods can profit from the new technique of postillumination-generating spectral images in real-time for arbitrary light spectra under a fixed viewpoint. Thus, the capability of spectral rendering to create distinct impressions of a scene under different lighting conditions is established as a method of real-time interaction. Although we use an achromatic opacity in our rendering, we show how spectral rendering permits different data set features to be emphasized or hidden as long as they have not been entirely obscured. The use of postillumination is an order of magnitude faster than changing the transfer function and repeating the projection step. To put the user in control of the spectral visualization, we devise a new widget, a "light-dial," for interactively changing the illumination and include a usability study of this new light space exploration tool. Applied to spectral transfer functions, different lights bring out or hide specific qualities of the data. In conjunction with postillumination, this provides a new means for preparing data for visualization and forms a new degree of freedom for guided exploration of volumetric data sets. PMID:15747643

  5. Bulk band gaps in divalent hexaborides

    SciTech Connect

    Denlinger, Jonathan; Clack, Jules A.; Allen, James W.; Gweon, Gey-Hong; Poirier, Derek M.; Olson, Cliff G.; Sarrao, John L.; Bianchi, Andrea D.; Fisk, Zachary

    2002-08-01

    Complementary angle-resolved photoemission and bulk-sensitive k-resolved resonant inelastic x-ray scattering of divalent hexaborides reveal a >1 eV X-point gap between the valence and conduction bands, in contradiction to the band overlap assumed in several models of their novel ferromagnetism. This semiconducting gap implies that carriers detected in transport measurements arise from defects, and the measured location of the bulk Fermi level at the bottom of the conduction band implicates boron vacancies as the origin of the excess electrons. The measured band structure and X-point gap in CaB6 additionally provide a stringent test case for proper inclusion of many-body effects in quasi-particle band calculations.

  6. The characteristic analysis of spectral image for cabbage leaves damaged by diamondback moth pests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Li-bo; Li, Hong-ning; Cao, Peng-fei; Qin, Feng; Yang, Shu-ming; Feng, Jie

    2015-02-01

    Cabbage growth and health diagnosis are important parts for cabbage fine planting, spectral imaging technology with the advantages of obtaining spectrum and space information of the target at the same time, which has become a research hotspot at home and abroad. The experiment measures the reflection spectrum at different stages using liquid crystal tunable filter (LCTF) and monochromatic CMOS camera composed of spectral imaging system for cabbage leaves damaged by diamondback moth pests, and analyzes its feature bands and the change of spectral parameters. The study shows that the feature bands of cabbage leaves damaged by diamondback moth pests have a tendency to blue light direction, the red edge towards blue shift, and red valley raising in spectral characteristic parameters, which have a good indication in diagnosing the extent of cabbage damaged by pests. Therefore, it has a unique advantage of monitoring the cabbage leaves damaged by diamondback moth pests by combinating feature bands and spectral characteristic parameters in spectral imaging technology.

  7. LAMBDAR: Lambda Adaptive Multi-Band Deblending Algorithm in R

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Angus H.

    2016-04-01

    LAMBDAR measures galaxy fluxes from an arbitrary FITS image, covering an arbitrary photometric wave-band, when provided all parameters needed to construct galactic apertures at the required locations for multi-band matched aperture galactic photometry. Through sophisticated matched aperture photometry, the package develops robust Spectral Energy Distributions (SEDs) and accurately establishes the physical properties of galactic objects. LAMBDAR was based on a package detailed in Bourne et al. (2012) that determined galactic fluxes in low resolution Herschel images.

  8. Spectral properties of simulated impact glasses produced from martian soil analogue JSC Mars-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moroz, L. V.; Basilevsky, A. T.; Hiroi, T.; Rout, S. S.; Baither, D.; van der Bogert, C. H.; Yakovlev, O. I.; Fisenko, A. V.; Semjonova, L. F.; Rusakov, V. S.; Khramov, D. A.; Zinovieva, N. G.; Arnold, G.; Pieters, C. M.

    2009-07-01

    To simulate the formation of impact glasses on Mars, an analogue of martian bright soil (altered volcanic soil JSC Mars-1) was melted at relevant oxygen fugacities using a pulsed laser and a resistance furnace. Reduction of Fe3+ to Fe2+ and in some cases formation of nanophase Fe0 in the glasses were documented by Mössbauer spectroscopy and TEM studies. Reflectance spectra for several size fractions of the JSC Mars-1 sample and the glasses were acquired between 0.3 and 25 μm. The glasses produced from the JSC Mars-1 soil show significant spectral variability depending on the method of production and the cooling rate. In general, they are dark and less red in the visible compared to the original JSC Mars-1 soil. Their spectra do not have absorption bands due to bound water and structural OH, have positive spectral slopes in the near-infrared range, and show two broad bands centered near 1.05 and 1.9 μm, typical of glasses rich in ferrous iron. The latter bands and low albedo partly mimic the spectral properties of martian dark regions, and may easily be confused with mafic materials containing olivine and low-Ca pyroxene. Due to their disordered structures and vesicular textures, the glasses show relatively weak absorption features from the visible to the thermal infrared. These weak absorption bands may be masked by the stronger bands of mafic minerals. Positive near-infrared spectral slopes typical of fresh iron-bearing impact or volcanic glasses may be masked either by oxide/dust coatings or by aerosols in the Mars' atmosphere. As a result, impact glasses may be present on the surface of Mars in significant quantities that have been either misidentified as other phases or masked by phases with stronger infrared features. Spectrometers with sufficient spatial resolution and wavelength coverage may detect impact glasses at certain locations, e.g., in the vicinity of fresh impact craters. Such dark materials are usually interpreted as accumulations of mafic

  9. Spectrally encoded photoacoustic microscopy using a digital mirror device

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yu; Maslov, Konstantin

    2012-01-01

    Abstract. We have developed spectrally encoded photoacoustic microscopy using a digital mirror device for multi-wavelength tomography, which enables fast spectral imaging of optical absorption. The optical illumination wavelengths are multiplexed at a laser pulse repetition rate of ∼2  kHz. Liquid samples, whole blood, and blood vessels in mouse ears were imaged. Compared with internal wavelength tuning of a narrow-band laser, external wavelength tuning based on a digital mirror device improves the data acquisition speed of spectral photoacoustic microscopy. Compared with external wavelength scanning of a wide-band laser with the same pulse energy, spectral encoding improves the signal-to-noise ratio. PMID:22734776

  10. Temporal Profiles and Spectral Lags of XRF 060218

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liang, En-Wei; Zhang, Bin-Bin; Stamatikos, Mike; Zhang, Bing; Norris, Jay; Gehrels, Neil; Zhang, Jin; Dai, Z. G.

    2006-01-01

    The spectral and temporal properties of the nonthermal emission of the nearby XRF 060218 in the 0.3-150 keV band are studied. We show that both the spectral energy distribution and the light-curve properties suggest the same origin of the nonthermal emission detected by Swift BAT and XRT. This event has the longest pulse duration and spectral lag observed to date among the known GRBs. The pulse structure and its energy dependence are analogous to typical GRBs,. By extrapolating the observed spectral lag to the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO) BATSE bands we find that the hypothesis that this event complies with the same luminosity-lag relation with bright GRBs cannot be ruled out at 2 sigma significance level. These intriguing facts, along with its compliance with the Amati relation, indicate that XRF 060218 shares the similar radiation physics as typical GRBs.

  11. Spectral distortions of the cosmic microwave background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Fred C.; Mcdowell, Jonathan C.; Freese, Katherine; Levin, Janna

    1989-01-01

    Recent experiments indicate that the spectrum of the cosmic microwave background deviates from a pure blackbody; here, spectral distortions produced by cosmic dust are considered. The main result is that cosmic dust in conjunction with an injected radiation field (perhaps produced by an early generation of very massive stars) can explain the observed spectral distortions without violating existing cosmological constraints. In addition, it is shown that Compton y-distortions can also explain the observed spectral shape, but the energetic requirements are more severe.

  12. [Analysis and Correction of Spectral Curvature in Hadamard Transform Spectrometer with DMD].

    PubMed

    Quan, Xiang-qian; Liu, Hua; Lu, Zhen-wu; Wang, Xiao-duo; Dang, Bo-shi; Chen, Xiang-zi; Wang, Fang

    2016-02-01

    Due to the advantages of its low cost and high utilization rate of light energy and no moving parts, Hadamard transform spectrometer with DMD has become a focus in the research of spectrometer. In order to solve the reduction of spectral resolution caused by the spectral curvature of Hadamard transform spectrometer with DMD (Digital Micro-mirror Device), the spectral aliasing in the spectrometer was investigated. Firstly, the mathematical relationship of spectral aliasing to radius of spectral curvature was deduced. Then, two procedures were proposed to solve the spectral aliasing. One is making the DMD encoded spectral band accordant with the standard spectral band as far as possible by adjusting the DMD-encoded stripe, and another is correcting remaining spectral aliasing by means of data processing. Finally, by analyzing and correcting spectral curvature in six situations of the curvature radius of 15.8 x 10⁴, 7.8 x 10⁴, 9.7 x 10⁴ µm and etc, we fit out the relationship of spectral aliasing and spectrum correction effect of spectral-curvature to the curvature radius. The simulation indicates that the spectral resolution increases to the resolution of optical system. It shows that the proposed methods are universal, simple and effective in the improvement of spectral resolution. PMID:27209768

  13. Assessing the information content of the Tropospheric Infrared Mapping Spectrometers (TIMS) GEO-CAPE instrument concept when applied for several infrared ozone bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumer, J. B.; Roche, A. E.; Rairden, R. L.; Desouza-Machado, S. G.; Chatfield, R. B.

    2009-12-01

    With support of NASA ESTO Instrument Incubator Program (IIP) Tropospheric Infrared Mapping Spectrometers (TIMS) have been demonstrated for multi-layer retrieval of Atmospheric CO. Two TIMS units operating in spectral regions centered at 2.33 and 4.68 µm were developed for this demonstration. Here we scale the characteristics of the demonstration measurements including spectral range, sample spacing and resolution, and noise per sample to the scenario of GEO-CAPE mission and to several additional wave length regions. A method for estimating vertical information content that is based on these scaled instrument characteristics is reviewed. The method is applied and estimated vertical information content of measurements in ozone bands near 9.4, 4.7, 3.6 and 3.3 µm, and in various combinations of these bands is presented.

  14. The band structure of WO3 and non-rigid-band behaviour in Na0.67WO3 derived from soft x-ray spectroscopy and density functional theory.

    PubMed

    Chen, B; Laverock, J; Piper, L F J; Preston, A R H; Cho, S W; DeMasi, A; Smith, K E; Scanlon, D O; Watson, G W; Egdell, R G; Glans, P-A; Guo, J-H

    2013-04-24

    The electronic structure of single-crystal WO3 and Na0.67WO3 (a sodium-tungsten bronze) has been measured using soft x-ray absorption and resonant soft x-ray emission oxygen K-edge spectroscopies. The spectral features show clear differences in energy and intensity between WO3 and Na0.67WO3. The x-ray emission spectrum of metallic Na0.67WO3 terminates in a distinct Fermi edge. The rigid-band model fails to explain the electronic structure of Na0.67WO3 in terms of a simple addition of electrons to the conduction band of WO3. Instead, Na bonding and Na 3s-O 2p hybridization need to be considered for the sodium-tungsten bronze, along with occupation of the bottom of the conduction band. Furthermore, the anisotropy in the band structure of monoclinic γ-WO3 revealed by the experimental spectra with orbital-resolved geometry is explained via density functional theory calculations. For γ-WO3 itself, good agreement is found between the experimental O K-edge spectra and the theoretical partial density of states of O 2p orbitals. Indirect and direct bandgaps of insulating WO3 are determined from extrapolating separations between spectral leading edges and accounting for the core-hole energy shift in the absorption process. The O 2p non-bonding states show upward band dispersion as a function of incident photon energy for both compounds, which is explained using the calculated band structure and experimental geometry. PMID:23553445

  15. Hyperspectral image classification by a variable interval spectral average and spectral curve matching combined algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senthil Kumar, A.; Keerthi, V.; Manjunath, A. S.; Werff, Harald van der; Meer, Freek van der

    2010-08-01

    Classification of hyperspectral images has been receiving considerable attention with many new applications reported from commercial and military sectors. Hyperspectral images are composed of a large number of spectral channels, and have the potential to deliver a great deal of information about a remotely sensed scene. However, in addition to high dimensionality, hyperspectral image classification is compounded with a coarse ground pixel size of the sensor for want of adequate sensor signal to noise ratio within a fine spectral passband. This makes multiple ground features jointly occupying a single pixel. Spectral mixture analysis typically begins with pixel classification with spectral matching techniques, followed by the use of spectral unmixing algorithms for estimating endmembers abundance values in the pixel. The spectral matching techniques are analogous to supervised pattern recognition approaches, and try to estimate some similarity between spectral signatures of the pixel and reference target. In this paper, we propose a spectral matching approach by combining two schemes—variable interval spectral average (VISA) method and spectral curve matching (SCM) method. The VISA method helps to detect transient spectral features at different scales of spectral windows, while the SCM method finds a match between these features of the pixel and one of library spectra by least square fitting. Here we also compare the performance of the combined algorithm with other spectral matching techniques using a simulated and the AVIRIS hyperspectral data sets. Our results indicate that the proposed combination technique exhibits a stronger performance over the other methods in the classification of both the pure and mixed class pixels simultaneously.

  16. Chiral Bands and Triaxiality

    SciTech Connect

    Petrache, C.M.

    2004-02-27

    The results obtained with the GASP array in the A=130 mass region are reviewed, emphasizing the discovery excited highly-deformed bands and their decay out, the study of the odd-odd Pr nuclei up to high spins, the discovery of stable triaxial bands in Nd nuclei close to the N=82 shell closure. The very recent studies of nuclei near the proton drip line are described. A discussion of the origin of the various doublet bands observed in odd-odd nuclei of the A=130 mass region is presented.

  17. Sensitivity of Sentinel-2 Red-Edge Bands to Leaf Chlorophyll Concentration in Winter Wheat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincini, Massimo; Amaducci, Stefano; Frazzi, Ermes

    2012-04-01

    The present work addresses the comparison between the sensitivity of several narrow-band and broad-band vegetation indices (VI) to leaf chlorophyll concentration at the canopy scale in winter wheat field trials with different nitrogen fertilization levels. Spectral signatures were collected on three dates (Feekes growth stages 5-6-9) over experimental plots with a portable spectroradiometer (ASD FieldSpec HH), along with Minolta SPAD measures of leaf optical thickness as a proxy of leaf chlorophyll concentration. Considered broad-band indices included classical slope-based VI (i.e.: NDVI, SR and OSAVI) and some indices incorporating green reflectance (i.e. Green NDVI, Green SR, CVI and MTVI), whereas narrow-band indices included VI specifically proposed as leaf chlorophyll estimators at the canopy scale (i.e. MCARI/OSAVI, TCARI/OSAVI, TCI/OSAVI, NOAC, REIP and MTCI). Broad-band VI were obtained from average reflectance in spectral ranges corresponding to SPOT HRG bands and from average reflectance in Sentinel-2 visible and NIR bands whereas narrow-band VI were obtained from reflectance at the original spectral resolution of the spectroradiometer and from average reflectance in Sentinel-2 Red-Edge bands. Among VI obtained from Sentinel-2 bands REIP and MTCI indices were the best narrow-band estimators of winter wheat leaf chlorophyll concentration, whereas CVI was the best estimator among broad-band VI.

  18. Metal silicate mixtures - Spectral properties and applications to asteroid taxonomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cloutis, Edward A.; Smith, Dorian G. W.; Lambert, Richard St. J.; Gaffey, Michael J.

    1990-01-01

    The reflectance spectra of combinations of olivine, orthopyroxene, and iron meteorite metal are experimentally studied, and the obtained variations in spectral properties are used to constrain the physical and chemical properties of the assemblages. The presence of metal most noticeably affects band area ratios, peak-to-peak and peak-to-minimum reflectance ratios, and band widths. Band width and band areas are useful for determining metal abundance in olivine and metal and orthopyroxene and metal assemblages, respectively. Mafic silicate grain size variations are best determined using band depth criteria. Band centers are most useful for determining mafic silicate composition. An application of these parameters to the S-class asteroid Flora is presented.

  19. Formant measurement in children’s speech based on spectral filtering

    PubMed Central

    Story, Brad H.; Bunton, Kate

    2015-01-01

    Children’s speech presents a challenging problem for formant frequency measurement. In part, this is because high fundamental frequencies, typical of a children’s speech production, generate widely spaced harmonic components that may undersample the spectral shape of the vocal tract transfer function. In addition, there is often a weakening of upper harmonic energy and a noise component due to glottal turbulence. The purpose of this study was to develop a formant measurement technique based on cepstral analysis that does not require modification of the cepstrum itself or transformation back to the spectral domain. Instead, a narrow-band spectrum is low-pass filtered with a cutoff point (i.e., cutoff “quefrency” in the terminology of cepstral analysis) to preserve only the spectral envelope. To test the method, speech representative of a 2–3 year-old child was simulated with an airway modulation model of speech production. The model, which includes physiologically-scaled vocal folds and vocal tract, generates sound output analogous to a microphone signal. The vocal tract resonance frequencies can be calculated independently of the output signal and thus provide test cases that allow for assessing the accuracy of the formant tracking algorithm. When applied to the simulated child-like speech, the spectral filtering approach was shown to provide a clear spectrographic representation of formant change over the time course of the signal, and facilitates tracking formant frequencies for further analysis. PMID:26855461

  20. What Do Millimeter Continuum and Spectral Line Observations Tell Us about Solar System Bodies?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milam, Stefanie N.

    2013-01-01

    Solar system objects are generally cold and radiate at low frequencies and tend to have strong molecular rotational transitions. Millimeter continuum and spectral line observations provide detailed information for nearly all solar system bodies. At these wavelengths, details of the bulk physical composition of icy surfaces, the size and albedo of small objects, the composition of planetary atmospheres can be measured as well as monitoring of time variable phenomena for extended periods (not restricted to nighttime observations), etc. Major issues in solar system science can be addressed by observations in the millimeter/sub-millimeter regime such as the origin of the solar system (isotope ratios, composition) and the evolution of solar system objects (dynamics, atmospheric constituents, etc). ALMA s exceptional sensitivity, large spectral bandwidth, high spectral resolution, and angular resolution (down to 10 milliarcsec) will enable researchers for the first time to better resolve the smallest bodies in the solar system and provide detailed maps of the larger objects. Additionally, measurements with nearly 8 GHz of instantaneous bandwidth to fully characterize solar system object s spectrum and detect trace species. The spatial information and line profiles can be obtained over 800 GHz of bandwidth in 8 receiver bands to not only assist in the identification of spectral lines and emission components for a given species but also to help elucidate the chemistry of the extraterrestrial bodies closest to us.