Science.gov

Sample records for additional state variable

  1. The Variable Transition State in Polar Additions to Pi Bonds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Hilton M.

    2010-01-01

    A vast majority of polar additions of Bronsted acids to alkynes involve a termolecular transition state. With strong acids, considerable positive charge is developed on carbon and Markovnikov addition predominates. In less acidic solutions, however, the reaction is much slower and the transition state more closely resembles the olefinic product.…

  2. Additional security features for optically variable foils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Allan C.; Russo, Frank

    1998-04-01

    For thousands of years, man has exploited the attraction and radiance of pure gold to adorn articles of great significance. Today, designers decorate packaging with metallic gold foils to maintain the prestige of luxury items such as perfumes, chocolates, wine and whisky, and to add visible appeal and value to wide range of products. However, today's products do not call for the hand beaten gold leaf of the Ancient Egyptians, instead a rapid production technology exists which makes use of accurately coated thin polymer films and vacuum deposited metallic layers. Stamping Foils Technology is highly versatile since several different layers may be combined into one product, each providing a different function. Not only can a foil bring visual appeal to an article, it can provide physical and chemical resistance properties and also protect an article from human forms of interference, such as counterfeiting, copying or tampering. Stamping foils have proved to be a highly effective vehicle for applying optical devices to items requiring this type of protection. Credit cards, bank notes, personal identification documents and more recently high value packaged items such as software and perfumes are protected by optically variable devices applied using stamping foil technology.

  3. State-variable theories for nonelastic deformation

    SciTech Connect

    Li, C.Y.

    1981-01-01

    The various concepts of mechanical equation of state for nonelastic deformation in crystalline solids, originally proposed for plastic deformation, have been recently extended to describe additional phenomena such as anelastic and microplastic deformation including the Bauschinger effect. It has been demonstrated that it is possible to predict, based on current state variables in a unified way, the mechanical response of a material under an arbitrary loading. Thus, if the evolution laws of the state variables are known, one can describe the behavior of a material for a thermal-mechanical path of interest, for example, during constant load (or stress) creep without relying on specialized theories. Some of the existing theories of mechanical equation of state for nonelastic deformation are reviewed. The establishment of useful forms of mechanical equation of state has to depend on extensive experimentation in the same way as that involved in the development, for example, the ideal gas law. Recent experimental efforts are also reviewed. It has been possible to develop state-variable deformation models based on experimental findings and apply them to creep, cyclic deformation, and other time-dependent deformation. Attempts are being made to correlate the material parameters of the state-variable models with the microstructure of a material. 24 figures.

  4. Decreasing Cloudiness Over China: An Updated Analysis Examining Additional Variables

    SciTech Connect

    Kaiser, D.P.

    2000-01-14

    As preparation of the IPCC's Third Assessment Report takes place, one of the many observed climate variables of key interest is cloud amount. For several nations of the world, there exist records of surface-observed cloud amount dating back to the middle of the 20th Century or earlier, offering valuable information on variations and trends. Studies using such databases include Sun and Groisman (1999) and Kaiser and Razuvaev (1995) for the former Soviet Union, Angel1 et al. (1984) for the United States, Henderson-Sellers (1986) for Europe, Jones and Henderson-Sellers (1992) for Australia, and Kaiser (1998) for China. The findings of Kaiser (1998) differ from the other studies in that much of China appears to have experienced decreased cloudiness over recent decades (1954-1994), whereas the other land regions for the most part show evidence of increasing cloud cover. This paper expands on Kaiser (1998) by analyzing trends in additional meteorological variables for Chi na [station pressure (p), water vapor pressure (e), and relative humidity (rh)] and extending the total cloud amount (N) analysis an additional two years (through 1996).

  5. Bounds on internal state variables in viscoplasticity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freed, Alan D.

    1993-01-01

    A typical viscoplastic model will introduce up to three types of internal state variables in order to properly describe transient material behavior; they are as follows: the back stress, the yield stress, and the drag strength. Different models employ different combinations of these internal variables--their selection and description of evolution being largely dependent on application and material selection. Under steady-state conditions, the internal variables cease to evolve and therefore become related to the external variables (stress and temperature) through simple functional relationships. A physically motivated hypothesis is presented that links the kinetic equation of viscoplasticity with that of creep under steady-state conditions. From this hypothesis one determines how the internal variables relate to one another at steady state, but most importantly, one obtains bounds on the magnitudes of stress and back stress, and on the yield stress and drag strength.

  6. Brainstem response and state-trait variables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilliland, Kirby

    1988-01-01

    A series of investigations are summarized from a personality research program that have relevance for mental state estimation. Of particular concern are those personality variables that are believed to have either a biological or perceptual basis and their relationship to human task performance and psychophysiology. These variables are among the most robust personality measures and include such dimensions as extraversion-introversion, sensation seeking, and impulsiveness. These dimensions also have the most distinct link to performance and psychophysiology. Through the course of many of these investigations two issues have emerged repeatedly: these personality dimensions appear to mediate mental state, and mental state appears to influence measures of performance or psychophysiology.

  7. Efficient State Tomography for Continuous Variable Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Chao; Jiang, Luyao; Krastanov, Stefan; Albert, Victor V.; Heeres, Reinier; Vlastakis, Brian; Schoelkopf, Rob; Jiang, Liang

    2015-03-01

    We propose an efficient and error robust scheme for state tomography of a continuous variable system, which is dispersively coupled to a two-level system. Our adaptive tomography protocol offers a significant speed up compared to the conventional Wigner tomography for a practically interesting class of states, such as Schrodinger cat states. In the presence of typical experimental errors, the number of measurements required is still close to the information theoretic limit. Our proposals can be readily implemented in platforms such as superconducting transmon qubit inside a microwave cavity.

  8. Variable Torque Prescription: State of Art.

    PubMed Central

    Lacarbonara, Mariano; Accivile, Ettore; Abed, Maria R.; Dinoi, Maria Teresa; Monaco, Annalisa; Marzo, Giuseppe; Capogreco, Mario

    2015-01-01

    The variable prescription is widely described under the clinical aspect: the clinics is the result of the evolution of the state-of-the-art, aspect that is less considered in the daily literature. The state-of-the-art is the key to understand not only how we reach where we are but also to learn how to manage propely the torque, focusing on the technical and biomechanical purpos-es that led to the change of the torque values over time. The aim of this study is to update the clinicians on the aspects that affect the torque under the biomechanical sight, helping them to understand how to managing it, following the “timeline changes” in the different techniques so that the Variable Prescription Orthodontic (VPO) would be a suitable tool in every clinical case. PMID:25674173

  9. State variable theories based on Hart's formulation

    SciTech Connect

    Korhonen, M.A.; Hannula, S.P.; Li, C.Y.

    1985-01-01

    In this paper a review of the development of a state variable theory for nonelastic deformation is given. The physical and phenomenological basis of the theory and the constitutive equations describing macroplastic, microplastic, anelastic and grain boundary sliding enhanced deformation are presented. The experimental and analytical evaluation of different parameters in the constitutive equations are described in detail followed by a review of the extensive experimental work on different materials. The technological aspects of the state variable approach are highlighted by examples of the simulative and predictive capabilities of the theory. Finally, a discussion of general capabilities, limitations and future developments of the theory and particularly the possible extensions to cover an even wider range of deformation or deformation-related phenomena is presented.

  10. Flexible quantum circuits using scalable continuous-variable cluster states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, Rafael N.; Menicucci, Nicolas C.

    2016-06-01

    We show that measurement-based quantum computation on scalable continuous-variable (CV) cluster states admits more quantum-circuit flexibility and compactness than similar protocols for standard square-lattice CV cluster states. This advantage is a direct result of the macronode structure of these states—that is, a lattice structure in which each graph node actually consists of several physical modes. These extra modes provide additional measurement degrees of freedom at each graph location, which can be used to manipulate the flow and processing of quantum information more robustly and with additional flexibility that is not available on an ordinary lattice.

  11. Experimental investigation of state variables in a dense granular layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lechenault, Frederic

    2008-10-01

    Stationary states in dense granular systems lack a predictive statistical description, as kinetic theory approaches fail when the interactions significantly deviate from binary collisions. In particular, because of the degeneracy of geometric states due to friction forces, it has been argued that a comprehensive theory of such dense granular systems must incorporate additional state variables associated with constraint fluctuations. We investigate the relevance of various ensembles in a dense mixture of disks laid on a horizontal air table and driven into steady states by random kicks at the boundaries. We study how microscopically defined intensive parameters affect the macroscopic response of the system, and clarify the equilibration properties of these parameters. In collaboration with Karen Daniels, North Carolina State University.

  12. State variables in dense granular materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniels, Karen

    2009-11-01

    Granular materials are integral to many parts of our daily lives, from the coffee beans that fuel our mornings to the coal that fuels our power plants. Two related aspects of their dynamics are particularly striking: their ability to exhibit both solid-like and liquid-like behavior, and the presence of highly heterogeneous force chains in which the magnitude of the local stress varies widely over short distances. These distinctive behaviors are connected to the fact that granular materials are always out of equilibrium: first, because they are typically both driven and dissipative, but also because they remain in metastable states even when they aren't being driven. I will present recent results from several experiments ranging from the theoretically-motivated (the equilibration of state variables within a non-equilibrium system) to the practical (particle-segregation by size). The results of these experiments elucidate the complex behaviors which underlay granular dynamics, and provide a reason to hope that statistical physics might hold the keys to explaining the observed phenomena.

  13. Teleportation of continuous variable multimode Greeberger Horne Zeilinger entangled states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Guangqiang; Zhang, Jingtao; Zeng, Guihua

    2008-11-01

    Quantum teleportation protocols of continuous variable (CV) Greeberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) and Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) entangled states are proposed, and are generalized to teleportation of arbitrary multimode GHZ entangled states described by Van Loock and Braunstein (2000 Phys. Rev. Lett. 84 3482). Each mode of a multimode entangled state is teleported using a CV EPR entangled pair and classical communication. The analytical expression of fidelity for the multimode Gaussian states which evaluates the teleportation quality is presented. The analytical results show that the fidelity is a function of both the squeezing parameter r, which characterizes the multimode entangled state to be teleported, and the channel parameter p, which characterizes the EPR pairs shared by Alice and Bob. The fidelity increases with increasing p, but decreases with increasing r, i.e., it is more difficult to teleport the more perfect multimode entangled states. The entanglement degree of the teleported multimode entangled states increases with increasing both r and p. In addition, the fact is proved that our teleportation protocol of EPR entangled states using parallel EPR pairs as quantum channels is the best case of the protocol using four-mode entangled states (Adhikari et al 2008 Phys. Rev. A 77 012337).

  14. Generalized additive modeling with implicit variable selection by likelihood-based boosting.

    PubMed

    Tutz, Gerhard; Binder, Harald

    2006-12-01

    The use of generalized additive models in statistical data analysis suffers from the restriction to few explanatory variables and the problems of selection of smoothing parameters. Generalized additive model boosting circumvents these problems by means of stagewise fitting of weak learners. A fitting procedure is derived which works for all simple exponential family distributions, including binomial, Poisson, and normal response variables. The procedure combines the selection of variables and the determination of the appropriate amount of smoothing. Penalized regression splines and the newly introduced penalized stumps are considered as weak learners. Estimates of standard deviations and stopping criteria, which are notorious problems in iterative procedures, are based on an approximate hat matrix. The method is shown to be a strong competitor to common procedures for the fitting of generalized additive models. In particular, in high-dimensional settings with many nuisance predictor variables it performs very well. PMID:17156269

  15. The Relationship Between Socioeconomic Variables and State Effort for Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparkman, William E.

    1977-01-01

    Examines the relationship between selected socioeconomic data and state effort for the support of public schools among the 50 states. Two measures of state effort are identified for use as dependent variables, and multiple regression analysis is used to determine the relationship between socioeconomic factors and state effort for education.…

  16. Increased rainfall variability and N addition accelerate litter decomposition in a restored prairie.

    PubMed

    Schuster, Michael J

    2016-03-01

    Anthropogenic nitrogen deposition and projected increases in rainfall variability (the frequency of drought and heavy rainfall events) are expected to strongly influence ecosystem processes such as litter decomposition. However, how these two global change factors interact to influence litter decomposition is largely unknown. I examined how increased rainfall variability and nitrogen addition affected mass and nitrogen loss of litter from two tallgrass prairie species, Schizachyrium scoparium and Solidago canadensis, and isolated the effects of each during plant growth and during litter decomposition. I increased rainfall variability by consolidating ambient rainfall into larger events and simulated chronic nitrogen deposition using a slow-release urea fertilizer. S. scoparium litter decay was more strongly regulated by the treatments applied during plant growth than by those applied during decomposition. During plant growth, increased rainfall variability resulted in S. scoparium litter that subsequently decomposed more slowly and immobilized more nitrogen than litter grown under ambient conditions, whereas nitrogen addition during plant growth accelerated subsequent mass loss of S. scoparium litter. In contrast, S. canadensis litter mass and N losses were enhanced under either N addition or increased rainfall variability both during plant growth and during decomposition. These results suggest that ongoing changes in rainfall variability and nitrogen availability are accelerating nutrient cycling in tallgrass prairies through their combined effects on litter quality, environmental conditions, and plant community composition. PMID:26216200

  17. Testing quantum contextuality of continuous-variable states

    SciTech Connect

    McKeown, Gerard; Paternostro, Mauro; Paris, Matteo G. A.

    2011-06-15

    We investigate the violation of noncontextuality by a class of continuous-variable states, including variations of entangled coherent states and a two-mode continuous superposition of coherent states. We generalize the Kochen-Specker (KS) inequality discussed by Cabello [A. Cabello, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 210401 (2008)] by using effective bidimensional observables implemented through physical operations acting on continuous-variable states, in a way similar to an approach to the falsification of Bell-Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequalities put forward recently. We test for state-independent violation of KS inequalities under variable degrees of state entanglement and mixedness. We then demonstrate theoretically the violation of a KS inequality for any two-mode state by using pseudospin observables and a generalized quasiprobability function.

  18. Continuous variable quantum cryptography using coherent states.

    PubMed

    Grosshans, Frédéric; Grangier, Philippe

    2002-02-01

    We propose several methods for quantum key distribution (QKD) based on the generation and transmission of random distributions of coherent or squeezed states, and we show that they are secure against individual eavesdropping attacks. These protocols require that the transmission of the optical line between Alice and Bob is larger than 50%, but they do not rely on "sub-shot-noise" features such as squeezing. Their security is a direct consequence of the no-cloning theorem, which limits the signal-to-noise ratio of possible quantum measurements on the transmission line. Our approach can also be used for evaluating various QKD protocols using light with Gaussian statistics.

  19. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  20. Quantum-state engineering with continuous-variable postselection

    SciTech Connect

    Lance, Andrew M.; Grosse, Nicolai B.; Symul, Thomas; Lam, Ping Koy; Jeong, Hyunseok; Ralph, Timothy C.

    2006-04-15

    We present a scheme to conditionally engineer an optical quantum system via continuous-variable measurements. This scheme yields high-fidelity squeezed single photons and a superposition of coherent states, from input single- and two-photon Fock states, respectively. The input Fock state is interacted with an ancilla squeezed vacuum state using a beam splitter. We transform the quantum system by postselecting on the continuous-observable measurement outcome of the ancilla state. We experimentally demonstrate the principles of this scheme using coherent states and experimentally measure fidelities that are only achievable using quantum resources.

  1. The biobehavioral family model: testing social support as an additional exogenous variable.

    PubMed

    Woods, Sarah B; Priest, Jacob B; Roush, Tara

    2014-12-01

    This study tests the inclusion of social support as a distinct exogenous variable in the Biobehavioral Family Model (BBFM). The BBFM is a biopsychosocial approach to health that proposes that biobehavioral reactivity (anxiety and depression) mediates the relationship between family emotional climate and disease activity. Data for this study included married, English-speaking adult participants (n = 1,321; 55% female; M age = 45.2 years) from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication, a nationally representative epidemiological study of the frequency of mental disorders in the United States. Participants reported their demographics, marital functioning, social support from friends and relatives, anxiety and depression (biobehavioral reactivity), number of chronic health conditions, and number of prescription medications. Confirmatory factor analyses supported the items used in the measures of negative marital interactions, social support, and biobehavioral reactivity, as well as the use of negative marital interactions, friends' social support, and relatives' social support as distinct factors in the model. Structural equation modeling indicated a good fit of the data to the hypothesized model (χ(2)  = 846.04, p = .000, SRMR = .039, CFI = .924, TLI = .914, RMSEA = .043). Negative marital interactions predicted biobehavioral reactivity (β = .38, p < .001), as did relatives' social support, inversely (β = -.16, p < .001). Biobehavioral reactivity predicted disease activity (β = .40, p < .001) and was demonstrated to be a significant mediator through tests of indirect effects. Findings are consistent with previous tests of the BBFM with adult samples, and suggest the important addition of family social support as a predicting factor in the model. PMID:24981970

  2. The biobehavioral family model: testing social support as an additional exogenous variable.

    PubMed

    Woods, Sarah B; Priest, Jacob B; Roush, Tara

    2014-12-01

    This study tests the inclusion of social support as a distinct exogenous variable in the Biobehavioral Family Model (BBFM). The BBFM is a biopsychosocial approach to health that proposes that biobehavioral reactivity (anxiety and depression) mediates the relationship between family emotional climate and disease activity. Data for this study included married, English-speaking adult participants (n = 1,321; 55% female; M age = 45.2 years) from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication, a nationally representative epidemiological study of the frequency of mental disorders in the United States. Participants reported their demographics, marital functioning, social support from friends and relatives, anxiety and depression (biobehavioral reactivity), number of chronic health conditions, and number of prescription medications. Confirmatory factor analyses supported the items used in the measures of negative marital interactions, social support, and biobehavioral reactivity, as well as the use of negative marital interactions, friends' social support, and relatives' social support as distinct factors in the model. Structural equation modeling indicated a good fit of the data to the hypothesized model (χ(2)  = 846.04, p = .000, SRMR = .039, CFI = .924, TLI = .914, RMSEA = .043). Negative marital interactions predicted biobehavioral reactivity (β = .38, p < .001), as did relatives' social support, inversely (β = -.16, p < .001). Biobehavioral reactivity predicted disease activity (β = .40, p < .001) and was demonstrated to be a significant mediator through tests of indirect effects. Findings are consistent with previous tests of the BBFM with adult samples, and suggest the important addition of family social support as a predicting factor in the model.

  3. State-Level Variability of Educational Outcomes of Students with Emotional Disturbance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villarreal, Victor

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the educational environment placement and educational outcomes of students identified as having an emotional disturbance (ED). The sample was drawn from special education enrollment data for students aged 6-21 years in the 50 states and Washington, DC in 2010. Additional economic and demographic state-level variables were…

  4. Additive manufacturing metrology: State of the art and needs assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koester, L.; Taheri, H.; Bond, L. J.; Barnard, D.; Gray, J.

    2016-02-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) is a technology that first emerged in 1987 with stereolithography (SL) of plastic materials from 3D Systems. It saw light use for rapid prototyping and very low volume production for a number of years. However, in the past few years AM of metallic materials has become a practical fabrication technology, use is rapidly increasing and is projected to continue with double digit growth in coming years. The promise and flexibility shown by AM has spurred efforts to begin standardization of this type of process. This paper provides an assessment of the state of the art for in-situ process monitoring of AM processes with an emphasis on the production of metallic components. It is seen that with the implementation of proper process control there is potential to create reliable and reproducible materials and geometries previously unachievable using metal removal based means of production. A reliable methodology for detection and control of microstructure and defects would be of great value in terms of enabling broader AM utilization.

  5. Explaining finite state machine characteristics using variable structure control

    SciTech Connect

    Feddema, J.T.; Robinett, R.D.; Driessen, B.J.

    1997-10-01

    This paper describes how variable structure control can be used to describe the overall behavior of multiple autonomous robotic vehicles with simple finite state machine rules. The importance of this result is that it allows for the design of provably asymptotically stable group behaviors from a set of simple control laws and appropriate switching points with variable structure control. The ability to prove convergence to a goal is especially important for applications such as locating military targets or land mines.

  6. Addition of simultaneous heat and solute transport and variable fluid viscosity to SEAWAT

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thorne, D.; Langevin, C.D.; Sukop, M.C.

    2006-01-01

    SEAWAT is a finite-difference computer code designed to simulate coupled variable-density ground water flow and solute transport. This paper describes a new version of SEAWAT that adds the ability to simultaneously model energy and solute transport. This is necessary for simulating the transport of heat and salinity in coastal aquifers for example. This work extends the equation of state for fluid density to vary as a function of temperature and/or solute concentration. The program has also been modified to represent the effects of variable fluid viscosity as a function of temperature and/or concentration. The viscosity mechanism is verified against an analytical solution, and a test of temperature-dependent viscosity is provided. Finally, the classic Henry-Hilleke problem is solved with the new code. ?? 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Enhancing quantum entanglement for continuous variables by a coherent superposition of photon subtraction and addition

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Su-Yong; Kim, Ho-Joon; Ji, Se-Wan; Nha, Hyunchul

    2011-07-15

    We investigate how the entanglement properties of a two-mode state can be improved by performing a coherent superposition operation ta+ra{sup {dagger}} of photon subtraction and addition, proposed by Lee and Nha [Phys. Rev. A 82, 053812 (2010)], on each mode. We show that the degree of entanglement, the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-type correlation, and the performance of quantum teleportation can be all enhanced for the output state when the coherent operation is applied to a two-mode squeezed state. The effects of the coherent operation are more prominent than those of the mere photon subtraction a and the addition a{sup {dagger}} particularly in the small-squeezing regime, whereas the optimal operation becomes the photon subtraction (case of r=0) in the large-squeezing regime.

  8. Variability in Medical Marijuana Laws in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Bestrashniy, Jessica; Winters, Ken C.

    2015-01-01

    Marijuana use and its distribution raise several complex health, social and legal issues in the United States. Marijuana is prohibited in only 23 states and pro-marijuana laws are likely to be introduced in these states in the future. Increased access to and legalization of medical marijuana may have an impact on recreational marijuana use and perception through increased availability and decreased restrictiveness around the drug. The authors undertook an analysis to characterize the policy features of medical marijuana legislation, including an emphasis on the types of medical conditions that are included in medical marijuana laws. A high degree of variability in terms of allowable medical conditions, limits on cultivation and possession, and restrictiveness of policies was discovered. Further research is needed to determine if this variability impacts recreational use in those states. PMID:26415061

  9. Distinguishing between state-dependent and non-state-dependent depression-related psychosocial variables.

    PubMed

    Rosenbaum, M; Lewinsohn, P M; Gotlib, I H

    1996-09-01

    The goals of this study were: (a) to determine which among a set of depression-related psychosocial variables are state-dependent; (b) to examine whether state-trait distinctions among psychosocial variables are a function of gender; and (c) to test the hypothesis that state-dependence of psychosocial variables is mostly evident in people with a history of clinical depression. Altogether, 562 participants residing in two communities completed a battery of psychosocial measures at point of entry into the study (T1) and after an average interval of 8.3 months (T2). The state-dependence of psychosocial variables was examined in two groups of participants: (a) low-high (LH: those who were low on the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale at T1 and high at T2; N = 45); and (b) high-low (HL: those who were high at T1 and low at T2; N = 64). The following variables were found to be state-dependent: engagement in pleasant and unpleasant events; frequency of social contacts; dissatisfaction with oneself, one's neighborhood dwelling and one's friends; irrational beliefs, and positive and negative expectancies. In contrast, the following variables were not state-dependent: dissatisfaction with family and job, perception of control, and external attributions for positive and negative events. State-dependence was not moderated by age, gender or a history of depression. Possible explanations for why some variables are state-dependent and others are not state-dependent are offered.

  10. State-Variable Representations For Moving-Average Sampling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polites, Michael E.

    1991-01-01

    Two state-variable representations derived for continuous-time plant driven by control algorithm including zero-order hold and measurements sampled at mutliple rates by multiple-input/multiple-output moving-average processes. New representations enhance observability and controllability of plant. Applications include mathematical modeling of navigation systems including star trackers, gyroscopes, and accelerometers.

  11. Sampling state and process variables on coral reefs.

    PubMed

    Green, Roger H; McArdle, Brian A; van Woesik, Robert

    2011-07-01

    Contemporary coral reefs are forced to survive through and recover from disturbances at a variety of spatial and temporal scales. Understanding disturbances in the context of ecological processes may lead to accurate predictive models of population trajectories. Most coral-reef studies and monitoring programs examine state variables, which include the percentage coverage of major benthic organisms, but few studies examine the key ecological processes that drive the state variables. Here we outline a sampling strategy that captures both state and process variables, at a spatial scale of tens of kilometers. Specifically, we are interested in (1) examining spatial and temporal patterns in coral population size-frequency distributions, (2) determining major population processes, including rates of recruitment and mortality, and (3) examining relationships between processes and state variables. Our effective sampling units are randomly selected 75 × 25 m stations, spaced approximately 250-500 m apart, representing a 10(3) m spatial scale. Stations are nested within sites, spaced approximately 2 km apart, representing a 10(4) m spatial scale. Three randomly selected 16 m(2) quadrats placed in each station and marked for relocation are used to assess processes across time, while random belt-transects, re-randomized at each sampling event, are used to sample state variables. Both quadrats and belt-transects are effectively sub-samples from which we will derive estimates of means for each station at each sampling event. This nested sampling strategy allows us to determine critical stages in populations, examine population performance, and compare processes through disturbance events and across regions.

  12. Effects of state recovery on creep buckling under variable loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, D. N.; Arnold, S. M.

    1986-01-01

    Structural alloys embody internal mechanisms that allow recovery of state with varying stress and elevated temperature, i.e., they can return to a softer state following periods of hardening. Such material behavior is known to strongly influence structural response under some important thermomechanical loadings, for example, that involving thermal ratchetting. The influence of dynamic and thermal recovery on the creep buckling of a column under variable loading is investigated. The column is taken as the idealized (Shanley) sandwich column. The constitutive model, unlike the commonly employed Norton creep model, incorporates a representation of both dynamic and thermal (state) recovery. The material parameters of the constitutive model are chosen to characterize Narloy Z, a representative copper alloy used in thrust nozzle liners of reusable rocket engines. Variable loading histories include rapid cyclic unloading/reloading sequences and intermittent reductions of load for extended periods of time; these are superimposed on a constant load. The calculated results show that state recovery significantly affects creep buckling under variable loading. Structural alloys embody internal mechanisms that allow recovery of state with varying stress and time.

  13. A Proposal for Testing Local Realism Without Using Assumptions Related to Hidden Variable States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryff, Luiz Carlos

    1996-01-01

    A feasible experiment is discussed which allows us to prove a Bell's theorem for two particles without using an inequality. The experiment could be used to test local realism against quantum mechanics without the introduction of additional assumptions related to hidden variables states. Only assumptions based on direct experimental observation are needed.

  14. Compact Two-State-Variable Second-Order Memristor Model.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sungho; Kim, Hee-Dong; Choi, Sung-Jin

    2016-06-01

    A key requirement for using memristors in functional circuits is a predictive physical model to capture the resistive switching behavior, which shall be compact enough to be implemented using a circuit simulator. Although a number of memristor models have been developed, most of these models (i.e., first-order memristor models) have utilized only a one-state-variable. However, such simplification is not adequate for accurate modeling because multiple mechanisms are involved in resistive switching. Here, a two-state-variable based second-order memristor model is presented, which considers the axial drift of the charged vacancies in an applied electric field and the radial vacancy motion caused by the thermophoresis and diffusion. In particular, this model emulates the details of the intrinsic short-term dynamics, such as decay and temporal heat summation, and therefore, it accurately predicts the resistive switching characteristics for both DC and AC input signals. PMID:27152649

  15. Compact Two-State-Variable Second-Order Memristor Model.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sungho; Kim, Hee-Dong; Choi, Sung-Jin

    2016-06-01

    A key requirement for using memristors in functional circuits is a predictive physical model to capture the resistive switching behavior, which shall be compact enough to be implemented using a circuit simulator. Although a number of memristor models have been developed, most of these models (i.e., first-order memristor models) have utilized only a one-state-variable. However, such simplification is not adequate for accurate modeling because multiple mechanisms are involved in resistive switching. Here, a two-state-variable based second-order memristor model is presented, which considers the axial drift of the charged vacancies in an applied electric field and the radial vacancy motion caused by the thermophoresis and diffusion. In particular, this model emulates the details of the intrinsic short-term dynamics, such as decay and temporal heat summation, and therefore, it accurately predicts the resistive switching characteristics for both DC and AC input signals.

  16. Squeezed states and Hermite polynomials in a complex variable

    SciTech Connect

    Ali, S. Twareque; Górska, K. Horzela, A.; Szafraniec, F. H.

    2014-01-15

    Following the lines of the recent paper of J.-P. Gazeau and F. H. Szafraniec [J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 44, 495201 (2011)], we construct here three types of coherent states, related to the Hermite polynomials in a complex variable which are orthogonal with respect to a non-rotationally invariant measure. We investigate relations between these coherent states and obtain the relationship between them and the squeezed states of quantum optics. We also obtain a second realization of the canonical coherent states in the Bargmann space of analytic functions, in terms of a squeezed basis. All this is done in the flavor of the classical approach of V. Bargmann [Commun. Pure Appl. Math. 14, 187 (1961)].

  17. Stokes-operator-squeezed continuous-variable polarization states

    SciTech Connect

    Schnabel, Roman; Bowen, Warwick P.; Treps, Nicolas; Bachor, Hans-A.; Lam, Ping Koy; Ralph, Timothy C.

    2003-01-01

    We investigate nonclassical Stokes-operator variances in continuous-wave polarization-squeezed laser light generated from one and two optical parametric amplifiers. A general expression of how Stokes-operator variances decompose into two-mode quadrature operator variances is given. Stokes parameter variance spectra for four different polarization-squeezed states have been measured and compared with a coherent state. Our measurement results are visualized by three-dimensional Stokes-operator noise volumes mapped on the quantum Poincare sphere. We quantitatively compare the channel capacity of the different continuous-variable polarization states for communication protocols. It is shown that squeezed polarization states provide 33% higher channel capacities than the optimum coherent beam protocol.

  18. Modeling protein density of states: additive hydrophobic effects are insufficient for calorimetric two-state cooperativity.

    PubMed

    Chan, H S

    2000-09-01

    A well-established experimental criterion for two-state thermodynamic cooperativity in protein folding is that the van't Hoff enthalpy DeltaH(vH) around the transition midpoint is equal, or very nearly so, to the calorimetric enthalpy DeltaH(cal) of the entire transition. This condition is satisfied by many small proteins. We use simple lattice models to provide a statistical mechanical framework to elucidate how this calorimetric two-state picture may be reconciled with the hierarchical multistate scenario emerging from recent hydrogen exchange experiments. We investigate the feasibility of using inverse Laplace transforms to recover the underlying density of states (i.e., enthalpy distribution) from calorimetric data. We find that the constraint imposed by DeltaH(vH)/DeltaH(cal) approximately 1 on densities of states of proteins is often more stringent than other "two-state" criteria proposed in recent theoretical studies. In conjunction with reasonable assumptions, the calorimetric two-state condition implies a narrow distribution of denatured-state enthalpies relative to the overall enthalpy difference between the native and the denatured conformations. This requirement does not always correlate with simple definitions of "sharpness" of a transition and has important ramifications for theoretical modeling. We find that protein models that assume capillarity cooperativity can exhibit overall calorimetric two-state-like behaviors. However, common heteropolymer models based on additive hydrophobic-like interactions, including highly specific two-dimensional Gō models, fail to produce proteinlike DeltaH(vH)/DeltaH(cal) approximately 1. A simple model is constructed to illustrate a proposed scenario in which physically plausible local and nonlocal cooperative terms, which mimic helical cooperativity and environment-dependent hydrogen bonding strength, can lead to thermodynamic behaviors closer to experiment. Our results suggest that proteinlike thermodynamic

  19. Use of generalised additive models to categorise continuous variables in clinical prediction

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In medical practice many, essentially continuous, clinical parameters tend to be categorised by physicians for ease of decision-making. Indeed, categorisation is a common practice both in medical research and in the development of clinical prediction rules, particularly where the ensuing models are to be applied in daily clinical practice to support clinicians in the decision-making process. Since the number of categories into which a continuous predictor must be categorised depends partly on the relationship between the predictor and the outcome, the need for more than two categories must be borne in mind. Methods We propose a categorisation methodology for clinical-prediction models, using Generalised Additive Models (GAMs) with P-spline smoothers to determine the relationship between the continuous predictor and the outcome. The proposed method consists of creating at least one average-risk category along with high- and low-risk categories based on the GAM smooth function. We applied this methodology to a prospective cohort of patients with exacerbated chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The predictors selected were respiratory rate and partial pressure of carbon dioxide in the blood (PCO2), and the response variable was poor evolution. An additive logistic regression model was used to show the relationship between the covariates and the dichotomous response variable. The proposed categorisation was compared to the continuous predictor as the best option, using the AIC and AUC evaluation parameters. The sample was divided into a derivation (60%) and validation (40%) samples. The first was used to obtain the cut points while the second was used to validate the proposed methodology. Results The three-category proposal for the respiratory rate was ≤ 20;(20,24];> 24, for which the following values were obtained: AIC=314.5 and AUC=0.638. The respective values for the continuous predictor were AIC=317.1 and AUC=0.634, with no statistically

  20. Solid-State Additive Manufacturing for Heat Exchangers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norfolk, Mark; Johnson, Hilary

    2015-03-01

    Energy densities in devices are increasing across many industries including power generation, high power electronics, manufacturing, and automotive. Increasingly, there is a need for very high efficiency thermal management devices that can pull heat out of a small area at higher and higher rates. Metal additive manufacturing (AM) technologies have the promise of creating parts with complex internal geometries required for integral thermal management. However, this goal has not been met due to constraints in fusion-based metal 3D printers. This work presents a new strategy for metal AM of heat exchangers using an ultrasonic sheet lamination approach.

  1. Local hidden-variable models for entangled quantum states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Augusiak, R.; Demianowicz, M.; Acín, A.

    2014-10-01

    While entanglement and violation of Bell inequalities were initially thought to be equivalent quantum phenomena, we now have different examples of entangled states whose correlations can be described by local hidden-variable models and, therefore, do not violate any of the Bell inequalities. We provide an up-to-date overview of the existing literature regarding local hidden-variable models for entangled quantum states, in both the bipartite and multipartite cases, and discuss some of the most relevant open questions in this context. Our review covers twenty five years of this line of research, beginning with the seminal work by Werner (1989 Phys. Rev. A 40 8), which provided the first example of an entangled state with a local model. Werner's work, in turn, appeared twenty five years after the seminal work by Bell (1964 Physics 1 195), about the impossibility of recovering the predictions of quantum mechanics using a local hidden-variable theory. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘50 years of Bell’s theorem’.

  2. Identifiability of Additive Actuator and Sensor Faults by State Augmentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joshi, Suresh; Gonzalez, Oscar R.; Upchurch, Jason M.

    2014-01-01

    A class of fault detection and identification (FDI) methods for bias-type actuator and sensor faults is explored in detail from the point of view of fault identifiability. The methods use state augmentation along with banks of Kalman-Bucy filters for fault detection, fault pattern determination, and fault value estimation. A complete characterization of conditions for identifiability of bias-type actuator faults, sensor faults, and simultaneous actuator and sensor faults is presented. It is shown that FDI of simultaneous actuator and sensor faults is not possible using these methods when all sensors have unknown biases. The fault identifiability conditions are demonstrated via numerical examples. The analytical and numerical results indicate that caution must be exercised to ensure fault identifiability for different fault patterns when using such methods.

  3. Variability of Power from Large-Scale Solar Photovoltaic Scenarios in the State of Gujarat (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Parsons, B.; Hummon, M.; Cochran, J.; Stoltenberg, B.; Batra, P.; Mehta, B.; Patel, D.

    2014-04-01

    India has ambitious goals for high utilization of variable renewable power from wind and solar, and deployment has been proceeding at a rapid pace. The western state of Gujarat currently has the largest amount of solar generation of any Indian state, with over 855 Megawatts direct current (MWDC). Combined with over 3,240 MW of wind, variable generation renewables comprise nearly 18% of the electric-generating capacity in the state. A new historic 10-kilometer (km) gridded solar radiation data set capturing hourly insolation values for 2002-2011 is available for India. We apply an established method for downscaling hourly irradiance data to one-minute irradiance data at potential PV power production locations for one year, 2006. The objective of this report is to characterize the intra-hour variability of existing and planned photovoltaic solar power generation in the state of Gujarat (a total of 1.9 gigawatts direct current (GWDC)), and of five possible expansion scenarios of solar generation that reflect a range of geographic diversity (each scenario totals 500-1,000 MW of additional solar capacity). The report statistically analyzes one year's worth of power variability data, applied to both the baseline and expansion scenarios, to evaluate diurnal and seasonal power fluctuations, different timescales of variability (e.g., from one to 15 minutes), the magnitude of variability (both total megawatts and relative to installed solar capacity), and the extent to which the variability can be anticipated in advance. The paper also examines how Gujarat Energy Transmission Corporation (GETCO) and the Gujarat State Load Dispatch Centre (SLDC) could make use of the solar variability profiles in grid operations and planning.

  4. Variability of Power from Large-Scale Solar Photovoltaic Scenarios in the State of Gujarat: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Parsons, B.; Hummon, M.; Cochran, J.; Stoltenberg, B.; Batra, P.; Mehta, B.; Patel, D.

    2014-04-01

    India has ambitious goals for high utilization of variable renewable power from wind and solar, and deployment has been proceeding at a rapid pace. The western state of Gujarat currently has the largest amount of solar generation of any Indian state, with over 855 Megawatts direct current (MWDC). Combined with over 3,240 MW of wind, variable generation renewables comprise nearly 18% of the electric-generating capacity in the state. A new historic 10-kilometer (km) gridded solar radiation data set capturing hourly insolation values for 2002-2011 is available for India. We apply an established method for downscaling hourly irradiance data to one-minute irradiance data at potential PV power production locations for one year, 2006. The objective of this report is to characterize the intra-hour variability of existing and planned photovoltaic solar power generation in the state of Gujarat (a total of 1.9 gigawatts direct current (GWDC)), and of five possible expansion scenarios of solar generation that reflect a range of geographic diversity (each scenario totals 500-1,000 MW of additional solar capacity). The report statistically analyzes one year's worth of power variability data, applied to both the baseline and expansion scenarios, to evaluate diurnal and seasonal power fluctuations, different timescales of variability (e.g., from one to 15 minutes), the magnitude of variability (both total megawatts and relative to installed solar capacity), and the extent to which the variability can be anticipated in advance. The paper also examines how Gujarat Energy Transmission Corporation (GETCO) and the Gujarat State Load Dispatch Centre (SLDC) could make use of the solar variability profiles in grid operations and planning.

  5. Variability of Photovoltaic Power in the State of Gujarat Using High Resolution Solar Data

    SciTech Connect

    Hummon, M.; Cochran, J.; Weekley, A.; Lopez, A.; Zhang, J.; Stoltenberg, B.; Parsons, B.; Batra, P.; Mehta, B.; Patel, D.

    2014-03-01

    India has ambitious goals for high utilization of variable renewable power from wind and solar, and deployment has been proceeding at a rapid pace. The western state of Gujarat currently has the largest amount of solar generation of any Indian state, with over 855 Megawatts direct current (MWDC). Combined with over 3,240 MW of wind, variable generation renewables comprise nearly 18% of the electric-generating capacity in the state. A new historic 10-kilometer (km) gridded solar radiation data set capturing hourly insolation values for 2002-2011 is available for India. We apply an established method for downscaling hourly irradiance data to one-minute irradiance data at potential PV power production locations for one year, 2006. The objective of this report is to characterize the intra-hour variability of existing and planned photovoltaic solar power generation in the state of Gujarat (a total of 1.9 gigawatts direct current (GWDC)), and of five possible expansion scenarios of solar generation that reflect a range of geographic diversity (each scenario totals 500-1,000 MW of additional solar capacity). The report statistically analyzes one year's worth of power variability data, applied to both the baseline and expansion scenarios, to evaluate diurnal and seasonal power fluctuations, different timescales of variability (e.g., from one to 15 minutes), the magnitude of variability (both total megawatts and relative to installed solar capacity), and the extent to which the variability can be anticipated in advance. The paper also examines how Gujarat Energy Transmission Corporation (GETCO) and the Gujarat State Load Dispatch Centre (SLDC) could make use of the solar variability profiles in grid operations and planning.

  6. Increased variability of tornado occurrence in the United States.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Harold E; Carbin, Gregory W; Marsh, Patrick T

    2014-10-17

    Whether or not climate change has had an impact on the occurrence of tornadoes in the United States has become a question of high public and scientific interest, but changes in how tornadoes are reported have made it difficult to answer it convincingly. We show that, excluding the weakest tornadoes, the mean annual number of tornadoes has remained relatively constant, but their variability of occurrence has increased since the 1970s. This is due to a decrease in the number of days per year with tornadoes combined with an increase in days with many tornadoes, leading to greater variability on annual and monthly time scales and changes in the timing of the start of the tornado season.

  7. Increased variability of tornado occurrence in the United States.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Harold E; Carbin, Gregory W; Marsh, Patrick T

    2014-10-17

    Whether or not climate change has had an impact on the occurrence of tornadoes in the United States has become a question of high public and scientific interest, but changes in how tornadoes are reported have made it difficult to answer it convincingly. We show that, excluding the weakest tornadoes, the mean annual number of tornadoes has remained relatively constant, but their variability of occurrence has increased since the 1970s. This is due to a decrease in the number of days per year with tornadoes combined with an increase in days with many tornadoes, leading to greater variability on annual and monthly time scales and changes in the timing of the start of the tornado season. PMID:25324388

  8. A method for linearizing a nonlinear system with six state variables and three control variables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsia, W. S.

    1986-01-01

    A nonlinear system governed by x = f(x,u) with six state variables and three control variables is considered in this project. A set of transformations from (x,u) - space to (z,v) - space is defined such that the linear tangent model is independent of the operating point in the z-space. Therefore, it is possible to design a control law satisfying all operating points in the transformed space. An algorithm to construct the above transformations and to obtain the associated linearized system is described in this report. This method is applied to a rigid body using pole placement for the control law. Results are verified by numerical simulation. Closed loop poles in x-space using traditional local linearization are compared with those pole placements in the z-space.

  9. Quantum frequency up-conversion of continuous variable entangled states

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Wenyuan; Wang, Ning; Li, Zongyang; Li, Yongmin

    2015-12-07

    We demonstrate experimentally quantum frequency up-conversion of a continuous variable entangled optical field via sum-frequency-generation process. The two-color entangled state initially entangled at 806 and 1518 nm with an amplitude quadrature difference squeezing of 3.2 dB and phase quadrature sum squeezing of 3.1 dB is converted to a new entangled state at 530 and 1518 nm with the amplitude quadrature difference squeezing of 1.7 dB and phase quadrature sum squeezing of 1.8 dB. Our implementation enables the observation of entanglement between two light fields spanning approximately 1.5 octaves in optical frequency. The presented scheme is robust to the excess amplitude and phase noises of the pump field, making it a practical building block for quantum information processing and communication networks.

  10. Variable energy, high flux, ground-state atomic oxygen source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chutjian, Ara (Inventor); Orient, Otto J. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A variable energy, high flux atomic oxygen source is described which is comprised of a means for producing a high density beam of molecules which will emit O(-) ions when bombarded with electrons; a means of producing a high current stream of electrons at a low energy level passing through the high density beam of molecules to produce a combined stream of electrons and O(-) ions; means for accelerating the combined stream to a desired energy level; means for producing an intense magnetic field to confine the electrons and O(-) ions; means for directing a multiple pass laser beam through the combined stream to strip off the excess electrons from a plurality of the O(-) ions to produce ground-state O atoms within the combined stream; electrostatic deflection means for deflecting the path of the O(-) ions and the electrons in the combined stream; and, means for stopping the O(-) ions and the electrons and for allowing only the ground-state O atoms to continue as the source of the atoms of interest. The method and apparatus are also adaptable for producing other ground-state atoms and/or molecules.

  11. Finite element implementation of state variable-based viscoplasticity models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iskovitz, I.; Chang, T. Y. P.; Saleeb, A. F.

    1991-01-01

    The implementation of state variable-based viscoplasticity models is made in a general purpose finite element code for structural applications of metals deformed at elevated temperatures. Two constitutive models, Walker's and Robinson's models, are studied in conjunction with two implicit integration methods: the trapezoidal rule with Newton-Raphson iterations and an asymptotic integration algorithm. A comparison is made between the two integration methods, and the latter method appears to be computationally more appealing in terms of numerical accuracy and CPU time. However, in order to make the asymptotic algorithm robust, it is necessary to include a self adaptive scheme with subincremental step control and error checking of the Jacobian matrix at the integration points. Three examples are given to illustrate the numerical aspects of the integration methods tested.

  12. Scaling cosmology with variable dark-energy equation of state

    SciTech Connect

    Castro, David R.; Velten, Hermano; Zimdahl, Winfried E-mail: velten@physik.uni-bielefeld.de

    2012-06-01

    Interactions between dark matter and dark energy which result in a power-law behavior (with respect to the cosmic scale factor) of the ratio between the energy densities of the dark components (thus generalizing the ΛCDM model) have been considered as an attempt to alleviate the cosmic coincidence problem phenomenologically. We generalize this approach by allowing for a variable equation of state for the dark energy within the CPL-parametrization. Based on analytic solutions for the Hubble rate and using the Constitution and Union2 SNIa sets, we present a statistical analysis and classify different interacting and non-interacting models according to the Akaike (AIC) and the Bayesian (BIC) information criteria. We do not find noticeable evidence for an alleviation of the coincidence problem with the mentioned type of interaction.

  13. Phenomenological model for transient deformation based on state variables

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, M S; Cho, C W; Alexopoulos, P; Mughrabi, H; Li, C Y

    1980-01-01

    The state variable theory of Hart, while providing a unified description of plasticity-dominated deformation, exhibits deficiencies when it is applied to transient deformation phenomena at stresses below yield. It appears that the description of stored anelastic strain is oversimplified. Consideration of a simple physical picture based on continuum dislocation pileups suggests that the neglect of weak barriers to dislocation motion is the source of these inadequacies. An appropriately modified description incorporating such barriers then allows the construction of a macroscopic model including transient effects. Although the flow relations for the microplastic element required in the new theory are not known, tentative assignments may be made for such functions. The model then exhibits qualitatively correct behavior when tensile, loading-unloading, reverse loading, and load relaxation tests are simulated. Experimental procedures are described for determining the unknown parameters and functions in the new model.

  14. Quantum anonymous voting with unweighted continuous-variable graph states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Ying; Feng, Yanyan; Zeng, Guihua

    2016-08-01

    Motivated by the revealing topological structures of continuous-variable graph state (CVGS), we investigate the design of quantum voting scheme, which has serious advantages over the conventional ones in terms of efficiency and graphicness. Three phases are included, i.e., the preparing phase, the voting phase and the counting phase, together with three parties, i.e., the voters, the tallyman and the ballot agency. Two major voting operations are performed on the yielded CVGS in the voting process, namely the local rotation transformation and the displacement operation. The voting information is carried by the CVGS established before hand, whose persistent entanglement is deployed to keep the privacy of votes and the anonymity of legal voters. For practical applications, two CVGS-based quantum ballots, i.e., comparative ballot and anonymous survey, are specially designed, followed by the extended ballot schemes for the binary-valued and multi-valued ballots under some constraints for the voting design. Security is ensured by entanglement of the CVGS, the voting operations and the laws of quantum mechanics. The proposed schemes can be implemented using the standard off-the-shelf components when compared to discrete-variable quantum voting schemes attributing to the characteristics of the CV-based quantum cryptography.

  15. Societal Adaptation to Decadal Climate Variability in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenberg, Norman J.; Mehta, Vikram M.; Olsen, J. Rolf; von Storch, Hans; Varady, Robert G.; Hayes, Michael J.; Wilhite, Donald

    2007-10-01

    CRCES Workshop on Societal Impacts of Decadal Climate Variability in the United States, 26-28 April 2007, Waikoloa, Hawaii The search for evidence of decadal climatic variability (DCV) has a very long history. In the past decade, a research community has coalesced around a series of roughly biennial workshops that have emphasized description of past DCV events; their causes and their ``teleconnections'' responsible for droughts, floods, and warm and cold spells around the world; and recently, the predictability of DCV events. Researchers studying climate change put great emphasis on prospective impacts, but the DCV community has yet to do so. To begin rectifying this deficiency, a short but ambitious workshop was convened in Waikoloa, near Kona, Hawaii, from 26-28 April 2007. This workshop, sponsored by the Center for Research on the Changing Earth System (CRCES), NOAA, the U.S. Geological Survey, and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, brought together climatologists and sectoral specialists representing agriculture, water resources, economics, the insurance industry, and developing country interests.

  16. Arbitrated Quantum Signature Scheme with Continuous-Variable Coherent States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Ying; Feng, Yanyan; Huang, Dazu; Shi, Jinjing

    2016-04-01

    Motivated by the revealing features of the continuous-variable (CV) quantum cryptography, we suggest an arbitrated quantum signature (AQS) protocol with CV coherent states. It involves three participants, i.e., the signer Alice, the verifier Bob and the arbitrator Charlie who is trustworthy by Alice and Bob. Three phases initializing phase, signing phase and verifying phase are included in our protocol. The security of the signature scheme is guaranteed by the generation of the shared keys via the CV-based quantum key distribution (CV-QKD) and the implementation process of the CV-based quantum teleportation as well. Security analysis demonstrates that the signature can be neither forged by anyone nor disavowed by the receiver and signer. Moreover, the authenticity and integrality of the transmitted messages can be ensured. The paper shows that a potential high-speed quantum signature scheme with high detection efficiency and repetition rate can be realized when compared to the discrete-variable (DV) quantum signature scheme attributing to the well characteristics of CV-QKD.

  17. Characterization of Nighttime Light Variability over the Southeastern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, T.; Molthan, A.; Schultz, L. A.

    2015-12-01

    Severe meteorological events such as thunderstorms, tropical cyclones and winter ice storms often produce prolonged, widespread power outages affecting large populations and regions. The spatial impact of these events can extend from relatively rural, small towns (i.e. November 17, 2013 Washington, IL EF-4 tornado) to a series of adjoined states (i.e. April 27, 2011 severe weather outbreak) to entire regions (i.e. 2012 Hurricane Sandy) during their lifespans. As such, affected populations can vary greatly, depending on the event's intensity, location and duration. Actions taken by disaster response agencies like FEMA, the American Red Cross and NOAA to provide support to communities during the recovery process need accurate and timely information on the extent and location(s) of power disruption. This information is often not readily available to these agencies given communication interruptions, independent storm damage reports and other response-inhibiting factors. VIIRS DNB observations which provide daily, nighttime measurements of light sources can be used to detect and monitor power outages caused by these meteorological disaster events. To generate such an outage product, normal nighttime light variability must be analyzed and understood at varying spatial scales (i.e individual pixels, clustered land uses/covers, entire city extents). The southeastern portion of the United States serves as the study area in which the mean, median and standard deviation of nighttime lights are examined over numerous temporal periods (i.e. monthly, seasonally, annually, inter-annually). It is expected that isolated pixels with low population density (rural) will have tremendous variability in which an outage "signal" is difficult to detect. Small towns may have more consistent lighting (over a few pixels), making it easier to identify outages and reductions. Finally, large metropolitan areas may be the most "stable" light source, but the entire area may rarely experience a

  18. 24 CFR 570.711 - State borrowers; additional requirements and application procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT BLOCK GRANTS Loan Guarantees § 570.711 State borrowers; additional requirements and application... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false State borrowers; additional requirements and application procedures. 570.711 Section 570.711 Housing and Urban Development...

  19. Interannual climate variability and snowpack in the western United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cayan, Daniel R.

    1996-01-01

    An important part of the water supply in the western United States is derived from runoff fed by mountain snowmelt Snow accumulation responds to both precipitation and temperature variations, and forms an interesting climatic index, since it integrates these influences over the entire late fall-spring period. Here, effects of cool season climate variability upon snow water equivalent (SWE) over the western part of the conterminous United States are examined. The focus is on measurements on/and 1 April, when snow accumulation is typically greatest. The primary data, from a network of mountainous snow courses, provides a good description of interannual fluctuations in snow accumulations, since many snow courses have records of five decades or more. For any given year, the spring SWE anomaly at a particular snow course is likely to be 25%–60% of its long-term average. Five separate regions of anomalous SWE variability are distinguished, using a rotated principal components analysis. Although effects vary with region and with elevation, in general, the anomalous winter precipitation has the strongest influence on spring SWE fluctuations. Anomalous temperature has a weaker effect overall, but it has great influence in lower elevations such as in the coastal Northwest, and during spring in higher elevations. The regional snow anomaly patterns are associated with precipitation and temperature anomalies in winter and early spring. Patterns of the precipitation, temperature, and snow anomalies extend over broad regional areas, much larger than individual watersheds. These surface anomalies are organized by the atmospheric circulation, with primary anomaly centers over the North Pacific Ocean as well as over western North America. For most of the regions, anomalously low SWE is associated with a winter circulation resembling the PNA pattern. With a strong low in the central North Pacific and high pressure over the Pacific Northwest, this pattern diverts North Pacific

  20. The theory of planned behaviour and healthy eating: Examining additive and moderating effects of social influence variables.

    PubMed

    Povey, R; Conner, M; Sparks, P; James, R; Shepherd, R

    2000-11-01

    Abstract This paper examines the additive and moderating effects of social influence variables (injunctive norms, descriptive norms, perceived social support) within the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB). The target behaviour is the decision to eat healthily. Questionnaire responses on components of the TPB, descriptive norms, perceived social support, and subsequent healthy eating were obtained from a prospective sample of 235 members of the general public. Good predictions of intentions (42% of variance explained) and behaviour (15% of variance explained) were found using the Theory of Planned Behaviour. Neither descriptive norms nor perceived social support added to these predictions of intentions over and above the TPB variables. However, perceived social support was found to act as a moderator variable on the relationship between perceived behavioral control and intention, and the relationship between attitude and intention. Implications for exploring the role of social influence variables on decisions concerning health behavioun an discussed.

  1. The theory of planned behaviour and healthy eating: Examining additive and moderating effects of social influence variables.

    PubMed

    Povey, R; Conner, M; Sparks, P; James, R; Shepherd, R

    2000-11-01

    Abstract This paper examines the additive and moderating effects of social influence variables (injunctive norms, descriptive norms, perceived social support) within the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB). The target behaviour is the decision to eat healthily. Questionnaire responses on components of the TPB, descriptive norms, perceived social support, and subsequent healthy eating were obtained from a prospective sample of 235 members of the general public. Good predictions of intentions (42% of variance explained) and behaviour (15% of variance explained) were found using the Theory of Planned Behaviour. Neither descriptive norms nor perceived social support added to these predictions of intentions over and above the TPB variables. However, perceived social support was found to act as a moderator variable on the relationship between perceived behavioral control and intention, and the relationship between attitude and intention. Implications for exploring the role of social influence variables on decisions concerning health behavioun an discussed. PMID:22175258

  2. The Geographic Variability of Contemporary United States Land Cover Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loveland, T. R.

    2004-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with NASA and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, is conducing a study to document the rates, causes, and consequences of 1973 to 2000 land cover change for the eighty-four ecoregions of the conterminous United States. Estimates of change are based on the interpretation of five dates of Landsat MSS and TM data (nominally 1973, 1980, 1986, 1992, and 2000). Results from an analysis of the first twenty-five ecoregions indicate that the rates, causes, and consequences of change are relative consistent within ecoregions but there are significant differences in the rates of change and types of dominant land use and land cover conversions occurring between ecoregions. For example, high rates of cyclic change are found in ecoregions dominated by resource-based economies while lower but unidirectional change is more common in more urbanized ecoregions. The specific character of change in each ecoregion is shaped by the resource potential of each ecoregion and the historical settlement patterns. Land uses changes that determine changes in cover in a given ecoregion are typically based on the highest economic use enabled by the physical environment (i.e., climate, soils, geology, landforms, etc.) and the comparative advantages associate with resource, location, and history. The differences in rates of change combined with the prevailing land use practices and enduring environmental character of different regions have a significant impact on issues such as carbon dynamics. An assessment of the ecoregion carbon dynamics also shows significant differences in flux rates over time. Overall, the results of this study show that the fabric of change across the conterminous United States highly variable in time and space and understanding the geographic dimensions of change. This suggests that ecoregions offer a framework for projecting rates, types, and the subsequent consequences of change.

  3. Phenotypic Variability in Resting-State Functional Connectivity: Current Status

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Evan M.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract We reviewed the extant literature with the goal of assessing the extent to which resting-state functional connectivity is associated with phenotypic variability in healthy and disordered populations. A large corpus of work has accumulated to date (125 studies), supporting the association between intrinsic functional connectivity and individual differences in a wide range of domains—not only in cognitive, perceptual, motoric, and linguistic performance, but also in behavioral traits (e.g., impulsiveness, risky decision making, personality, and empathy) and states (e.g., anxiety and psychiatric symptoms) that are distinguished by cognitive and affective functioning, and in neurological conditions with cognitive and motor sequelae. Further, intrinsic functional connectivity is sensitive to remote (e.g., early-life stress) and enduring (e.g., duration of symptoms) life experience, and it exhibits plasticity in response to recent experience (e.g., learning and adaptation) and pharmacological treatment. The most pervasive associations were observed with the default network; associations were also widespread between the cingulo-opercular network and both cognitive and affective behaviors, while the frontoparietal network was associated primarily with cognitive functions. Associations of somatomotor, frontotemporal, auditory, and amygdala networks were relatively restricted to the behaviors linked to their respective putative functions. Surprisingly, visual network associations went beyond visual function to include a variety of behavioral traits distinguished by affective function. Together, the reviewed evidence sets the stage for testing causal hypothesis about the functional role of intrinsic connectivity and augments its potential as a biomarker for healthy and disordered brain function. PMID:23294010

  4. Phenotypic variability in resting-state functional connectivity: current status.

    PubMed

    Vaidya, Chandan J; Gordon, Evan M

    2013-01-01

    We reviewed the extant literature with the goal of assessing the extent to which resting-state functional connectivity is associated with phenotypic variability in healthy and disordered populations. A large corpus of work has accumulated to date (125 studies), supporting the association between intrinsic functional connectivity and individual differences in a wide range of domains-not only in cognitive, perceptual, motoric, and linguistic performance, but also in behavioral traits (e.g., impulsiveness, risky decision making, personality, and empathy) and states (e.g., anxiety and psychiatric symptoms) that are distinguished by cognitive and affective functioning, and in neurological conditions with cognitive and motor sequelae. Further, intrinsic functional connectivity is sensitive to remote (e.g., early-life stress) and enduring (e.g., duration of symptoms) life experience, and it exhibits plasticity in response to recent experience (e.g., learning and adaptation) and pharmacological treatment. The most pervasive associations were observed with the default network; associations were also widespread between the cingulo-opercular network and both cognitive and affective behaviors, while the frontoparietal network was associated primarily with cognitive functions. Associations of somatomotor, frontotemporal, auditory, and amygdala networks were relatively restricted to the behaviors linked to their respective putative functions. Surprisingly, visual network associations went beyond visual function to include a variety of behavioral traits distinguished by affective function. Together, the reviewed evidence sets the stage for testing causal hypothesis about the functional role of intrinsic connectivity and augments its potential as a biomarker for healthy and disordered brain function. PMID:23294010

  5. Trend analysis of precipitation in Jharkhand State, India - Investigating precipitation variability in Jharkhand State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandniha, Surendra Kumar; Meshram, Sarita Gajbhiye; Adamowski, Jan Franklin; Meshram, Chandrashekhar

    2016-08-01

    Jharkhand is one of the eastern states of India which has an agriculture-based economy. Uncertain and erratic distribution of precipitation as well as a lack of state water resources planning is the major limitation to crop growth in the region. In this study, the spatial and temporal variability in precipitation in the state was examined using a monthly precipitation time series of 111 years (1901-2011) from 18 meteorological stations. Autocorrelation and Mann-Kendall/modified Mann-Kendall tests were utilized to detect possible trends, and the Theil and Sen slope estimator test was used to determine the magnitude of change over the entire time series. The most probable change year (change point) was detected using the Pettitt-Mann-Whitney test, and the entire time series was sub-divided into two parts: before and after the change point. Arc-Map 9.3 software was utilized to assess the spatial patterns of the trends over the entire state. Annual precipitation exhibited a decreasing trend in 5 out of 18 stations during the whole period. For annual, monsoon and winter periods of precipitation, the slope test indicated a decreasing trend for all stations during 1901-2011. The highest variability was observed in post-monsoon precipitation (77.87 %) and the lowest variability was observed in the annual series (15.76 %) over the 111 years. An increasing trend in precipitation in the state was found during the period 1901-1949, which was reversed during the subsequent period (1950-2011).

  6. Engineering of Schroedinger cat states by a sequence of displacements and photon additions or subtractions

    SciTech Connect

    Podoshvedov, S. A.

    2011-04-15

    A method to generate Schroedinger cat states in free propagating optical fields based on the use of displaced states (or displacement operators) is developed. Some optical schemes with photon-added coherent states are studied. The schemes are modifications of the general method based on a sequence of displacements and photon additions or subtractions adjusted to generate Schroedinger cat states of a larger size. The effects of detection inefficiency are taken into account.

  7. Technical options for processing additional light tight oil volumes within the United States

    EIA Publications

    2015-01-01

    This report examines technical options for processing additional LTO volumes within the United States. Domestic processing of additional LTO would enable an increase in petroleum product exports from the United States, already the world’s largest net exporter of petroleum products. Unlike crude oil, products are not subject to export limitations or licensing requirements. While this is one possible approach to absorbing higher domestic LTO production in the absence of a relaxation of current limitations on crude exports, domestic LTO would have to be priced at a level required to encourage additional LTO runs at existing refinery units, debottlenecking, or possible additions of processing capacity.

  8. Prediction of telephone calls load using Echo State Network with exogenous variables.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Filippo Maria; Scardapane, Simone; Uncini, Aurelio; Rizzi, Antonello; Sadeghian, Alireza

    2015-11-01

    We approach the problem of forecasting the load of incoming calls in a cell of a mobile network using Echo State Networks. With respect to previous approaches to the problem, we consider the inclusion of additional telephone records regarding the activity registered in the cell as exogenous variables, by investigating their usefulness in the forecasting task. Additionally, we analyze different methodologies for training the readout of the network, including two novel variants, namely ν-SVR and an elastic net penalty. Finally, we employ a genetic algorithm for both the tasks of tuning the parameters of the system and for selecting the optimal subset of most informative additional time-series to be considered as external inputs in the forecasting problem. We compare the performances with standard prediction models and we evaluate the results according to the specific properties of the considered time-series.

  9. STEADY-STATE DESIGN OF VERTICAL WELLS FOR LIQUIDS ADDITION AT BIOREACTOR LANDFILLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents design charts that a landfill engineer can use for the design of a vertical well system for liquids addition at bioreactor landfills. The flow rate and lateral and vertical zones of impact of a vertical well were estimated as a function of input variables su...

  10. Hispanic-White Differences in Lifespan Variability in the United States.

    PubMed

    Lariscy, Joseph T; Nau, Claudia; Firebaugh, Glenn; Hummer, Robert A

    2016-02-01

    This study is the first to investigate whether and, if so, why Hispanics and non-Hispanic whites in the United States differ in the variability of their lifespans. Although Hispanics enjoy higher life expectancy than whites, very little is known about how lifespan variability-and thus uncertainty about length of life-differs by race/ethnicity. We use 2010 U.S. National Vital Statistics System data to calculate lifespan variance at ages 10+ for Hispanics and whites, and then decompose the Hispanic-white variance difference into cause-specific spread, allocation, and timing effects. In addition to their higher life expectancy relative to whites, Hispanics also exhibit 7 % lower lifespan variability, with a larger gap among women than men. Differences in cause-specific incidence (allocation effects) explain nearly two-thirds of Hispanics' lower lifespan variability, mainly because of the higher mortality from suicide, accidental poisoning, and lung cancer among whites. Most of the remaining Hispanic-white variance difference is due to greater age dispersion (spread effects) in mortality from heart disease and residual causes among whites than Hispanics. Thus, the Hispanic paradox-that a socioeconomically disadvantaged population (Hispanics) enjoys a mortality advantage over a socioeconomically advantaged population (whites)-pertains to lifespan variability as well as to life expectancy. Efforts to reduce U.S. lifespan variability and simultaneously increase life expectancy, especially for whites, should target premature, young adult causes of death-in particular, suicide, accidental poisoning, and homicide. We conclude by discussing how the analysis of Hispanic-white differences in lifespan variability contributes to our understanding of the Hispanic paradox.

  11. Spatially variable synergistic effects of disturbance and additional nutrients on kelp recruitment and recovery.

    PubMed

    Carnell, Paul E; Keough, Michael J

    2014-05-01

    Understanding the impact of multiple stressors on ecosystems is of pronounced importance, particularly when one or more of those stressors is anthropogenic. Here we investigated the role of physical disturbance and increased nutrients on reefs dominated by the canopy-forming kelp Ecklonia radiata. We combined experimental kelp canopy removals and additional nutrient at three different locations in a large embayment in temperate southeastern Australia. Over the following winter recruitment season, Ecklonia recruitment was unaffected by increased nutrients alone, but tripled at all sites where the canopy had been removed. At one site, the combination of disturbance and increased nutrients resulted in more than four times the recruitment of the introduced kelp Undaria pinnatifida. Six months after disturbance, the proliferation of the Undaria canopy in the canopy-removal and nutrient-addition treatment negatively influenced the recovery of the native kelp Ecklonia. Given the otherwise competitive dominance of adult Ecklonia, this provides a mechanism whereby Undaria could maintain open space for the following recruitment season. This interplay between disturbance, nutrients and the response of native and invasive species makes a compelling case for how a combination of factors can influence species dynamics.

  12. Regional Climate and Variability of the Summertime Continental United States in Reanalyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bosilovich, M G.; Robertson, F. R.; Roberts, B.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding climate variability at regional scales is an important for research and societal needs. Atmospheric retrospective-analyses (or reanalyses) integrate multitudes of observing systems with numerical models to produce continuous data that include variables not easily observed, if at all. The breadth of variables as well as observational influence included in reanalyses make them ideal for investigating climate variability. In this paper, we assess NASA s Modern Era Retrospective-analysis for Research and Application (MERRA) regional variability in North America, specifically the United States, in conjunction with current satellite data reanalyses. Emphasis is placed on summertime precipitation because 1) it is a difficult parameter to capture in the most difficult season, 2) significant observational resources exist to benchmark comparisons, and 3) accurate assessment of precipitation variability is crucial to a multitude of sectors and applications. Likewise, we have also begun to evaluate surface air temperature. While precipitation biases are identified, year to year variability of the precipitation variations, in many cases, are quite reasonable. However, some spurious long term trends and sudden shifts in the time series are also identified. In surface air temperature, analysis of station observations provides ERA Interim a clear overall advantage. However, in a number of regions, all the reanalyses are quite comparable in variability and trend. In other regions, significant precipitation biases may occur, which has implications for the ancillary process data in a reanalysis, such as surface fluxes. We also characterize the reanalyses ability to capture variability related to ENSO. In general, the summertime variations of precipitation in the reanalyses are more highly correlated (positively) to ENSO (using ENSO34) than are the observations. The Northwestern US shows the largest positive correlations to ENSO34, and reanalyses agree with that, and

  13. Continuous-variable quantum-state sharing via quantum disentanglement

    SciTech Connect

    Lance, Andrew M.; Symul, Thomas; Lam, Ping Koy; Bowen, Warwick P.; Sanders, Barry C.; Tyc, Tomas; Ralph, T.C.

    2005-03-01

    Quantum-state sharing is a protocol where perfect reconstruction of quantum states is achieved with incomplete or partial information in a multipartite quantum network. Quantum-state sharing allows for secure communication in a quantum network where partial information is lost or acquired by malicious parties. This protocol utilizes entanglement for the secret-state distribution and a class of 'quantum disentangling' protocols for the state reconstruction. We demonstrate a quantum-state sharing protocol in which a tripartite entangled state is used to encode and distribute a secret state to three players. Any two of these players can collaborate to reconstruct the secret state, while individual players obtain no information. We investigate a number of quantum disentangling processes and experimentally demonstrate quantum-state reconstruction using two of these protocols. We experimentally measure a fidelity, averaged over all reconstruction permutations, of F=0.73{+-}0.02. A result achievable only by using quantum resources.

  14. 34 CFR 403.12 - What are the additional responsibilities of the State board?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What are the additional responsibilities of the State board? 403.12 Section 403.12 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF VOCATIONAL AND ADULT EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STATE VOCATIONAL AND...

  15. 34 CFR 403.12 - What are the additional responsibilities of the State board?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What are the additional responsibilities of the State board? 403.12 Section 403.12 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF VOCATIONAL AND ADULT EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STATE VOCATIONAL AND...

  16. 42 CFR 440.360 - State plan requirement for providing additional services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS SERVICES: GENERAL PROVISIONS Benchmark Benefit and Benchmark-Equivalent Coverage § 440.360 State plan requirement for providing additional... to individuals enrolled in benchmark or benchmark-equivalent plans. The State plan must describe...

  17. 42 CFR 440.360 - State plan requirement for providing additional services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS SERVICES: GENERAL PROVISIONS Benchmark Benefit and Benchmark-Equivalent Coverage § 440.360 State plan requirement for providing additional... to individuals enrolled in benchmark or benchmark-equivalent plans. The State plan must describe...

  18. 42 CFR 440.360 - State plan requirement for providing additional services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS SERVICES: GENERAL PROVISIONS Benchmark Benefit and Benchmark-Equivalent Coverage § 440.360 State plan requirement for providing additional... to individuals enrolled in benchmark or benchmark-equivalent plans. The State plan must describe...

  19. 34 CFR 403.12 - What are the additional responsibilities of the State board?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... TECHNOLOGY EDUCATION PROGRAM What Are the State's Organizational and Planning Responsibilities? § 403.12 What... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are the additional responsibilities of the State board? 403.12 Section 403.12 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of...

  20. 77 FR 2492 - United States Pharmacopeial Convention; Filing of Food Additive Petition; Amendment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-18

    ... published in the Federal Register on August 10, 2010 (75 FR 48353), FDA announced that a food additive... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Parts 172, 173, 178, and 180 United States Pharmacopeial Convention; Filing of Food Additive Petition; Amendment AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration,...

  1. Response additivity: effects of superimposed free reinforcement on a variable-interval baseline.

    PubMed

    Boakes, R A; Halliday, M S; Poli, M

    1975-03-01

    Three experiments examined the effects of superimposing free reinforcement (Free VI 30-sec) on behavior maintained by a response dependent mult VI 2-min VI 2-min schedule of reinforcement. Experiment I used pigeons as subjects, key pecking as the response, and colors of response key as the stimuli associated with the multiple-schedule components. When free reinforcement was added during only one component (Differential condition) a large and highly significant increase in response rate developed in this component. Adding free reinforcement during both components (Nondifferential condition) produced smaller and far less-consistent effects. An entirely different pattern of results was obtained in two subsequent experiments, where similar procedures and reinforcement conditions were used with rats as subjects and bar pressing as the response. In both Experiments II and III, response rates decreased to the stimulus associated with added free reinforcement in the Differential condition. These findings are interpreted as the result of interactions between behavior maintained by response-reinforcer contingencies and behavior maintained by stimulus-reinforcer contingencies. As such, they support the main assumption of an autoshaping theory of behavioral contrast, that additivity of responding generated by the two kinds of contingency can occur only in situations favorable to autoshaping.

  2. Contact pair correlation functions and equation of state for additive hard disk fluid mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrio, C.; Solana, J. R.

    2001-10-01

    The contact pair correlation functions and the equation of state for a binary mixture of additive hard disks is obtained using a procedure similar to that leading to the Boublı´k-Mansoori-Carnahan-Starling-Leland equation of state for mixtures of additive hard spheres. The results from the derived equations are tested against new Monte Carlo data obtained for several diameter ratios and mole fractions. The overall agreement is excellent. The equation of state reproduces exactly the second virial coefficient of the mixture and the third with great accuracy. Predicted values of the fourth and fifth virial coefficients are also in very good agreement with numerical data.

  3. Conservative-variable average states for equilibrium gas multi-dimensional fluxes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iannelli, G. S.

    1992-01-01

    Modern split component evaluations of the flux vector Jacobians are thoroughly analyzed for equilibrium-gas average-state determinations. It is shown that all such derivations satisfy a fundamental eigenvalue consistency theorem. A conservative-variable average state is then developed for arbitrary equilibrium-gas equations of state and curvilinear-coordinate fluxes. Original expressions for eigenvalues, sound speed, Mach number, and eigenvectors are then determined for a general average Jacobian, and it is shown that the average eigenvalues, Mach number, and eigenvectors may not coincide with their classical pointwise counterparts. A general equilibrium-gas equation of state is then discussed for conservative-variable computational fluid dynamics (CFD) Euler formulations. The associated derivations lead to unique compatibility relations that constrain the pressure Jacobian derivatives. Thereafter, alternative forms for the pressure variation and average sound speed are developed in terms of two average pressure Jacobian derivatives. Significantly, no additional degree of freedom exists in the determination of these two average partial derivatives of pressure. Therefore, they are simultaneously computed exactly without any auxiliary relation, hence without any geometric solution projection or arbitrary scale factors. Several alternative formulations are then compared and key differences highlighted with emphasis on the determination of the pressure variation and average sound speed. The relevant underlying assumptions are identified, including some subtle approximations that are inherently employed in published average-state procedures. Finally, a representative test case is discussed for which an intrinsically exact average state is determined. This exact state is then compared with the predictions of recent methods, and their inherent approximations are appropriately quantified.

  4. On the use of internal state variables in thermoviscoplastic constitutive equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, D. H.; Beek, J. M.

    1985-01-01

    The general theory of internal state variables are reviewed to apply it to inelastic metals in use in high temperature environments. In this process, certain constraints and clarifications will be made regarding internal state variables. It is shown that the Helmholtz free energy can be utilized to construct constitutive equations which are appropriate for metallic superalloys. Internal state variables are shown to represent locally averaged measures of dislocation arrangement, dislocation density, and intergranular fracture. The internal state variable model is demonstrated to be a suitable framework for comparison of several currently proposed models for metals and can therefore be used to exhibit history dependence, nonlinearity, and rate as well as temperature sensitivity.

  5. Nonlinear intrinsic variables and state reconstruction in multiscale simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Dsilva, Carmeline J.; Talmon, Ronen Coifman, Ronald R.; Rabin, Neta; Kevrekidis, Ioannis G.

    2013-11-14

    Finding informative low-dimensional descriptions of high-dimensional simulation data (like the ones arising in molecular dynamics or kinetic Monte Carlo simulations of physical and chemical processes) is crucial to understanding physical phenomena, and can also dramatically assist in accelerating the simulations themselves. In this paper, we discuss and illustrate the use of nonlinear intrinsic variables (NIV) in the mining of high-dimensional multiscale simulation data. In particular, we focus on the way NIV allows us to functionally merge different simulation ensembles, and different partial observations of these ensembles, as well as to infer variables not explicitly measured. The approach relies on certain simple features of the underlying process variability to filter out measurement noise and systematically recover a unique reference coordinate frame. We illustrate the approach through two distinct sets of atomistic simulations: a stochastic simulation of an enzyme reaction network exhibiting both fast and slow time scales, and a molecular dynamics simulation of alanine dipeptide in explicit water.

  6. Characterization of Nighttime Light Variability Over the Southeastern United States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, Tony A.; Molthan, Andrew L.; Schultz, Lori A.

    2016-01-01

    City lights provide indications of human activity at night. Nighttime satellite imagery offers daily snapshots of this activity. With calibrated, science-quality imagery, long-term monitoring can also be achieved. The degree to which city lights fluctuate, however, is not well known. For the application of detecting power outages, this degree of variability is crucial for assessing reductions to city lights based on historical trends. Eight southeastern U.S. cities are analyzed to understand the relationship between emission variability and several population centers. A preliminary, example case power outage study is also discussed as a transition into future work.

  7. On computing ``accurate'' derivatives of Equation-of-State variables

    SciTech Connect

    Shestakov, A. I.

    2015-12-11

    We analyze a log-log interpolant for 2D EOS lookups, where the EOS independent variables are, say, T and ρ. If the data f (Ti, ρj) are in the form of a power law, even locally, the interpolant is exact.

  8. Effect of Periodic Water Addition on Citric Acid Production in Solid State Fermentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utpat, Shraddha S.; Kinnige, Pallavi T.; Dhamole, Pradip B.

    2013-09-01

    Water addition is one of the methods used to control the moisture loss in solid state fermentation (SSF). However, none of the studies report the timing of water addition and amount of water to be added in SSF. Therefore, this work was undertaken with an objective to evaluate the performance of periodic water addition on citric acid production in SSF. Experiments were conducted at different moistures (50-80 %) and temperatures (30-40 °C) to simulate the conditions in a fermenter. Citric acid production by Aspergillus niger (ATCC 9029) using sugarcane baggase was chosen as a model system. Based on the moisture profile, citric acid and sugar data, a strategy was designed for periodic addition of water. Water addition at 48, 96, 144 and 192 h enhanced the citric acid production by 62 % whereas water addition at 72, 120, and 168 h increased the citric acid production by just 17 %.

  9. Theory and computer simulation for the equation of state of additive hard-disk fluid mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrio, C.; Solana, J. R.

    2001-01-01

    A procedure previously developed by the authors to obtain the equation of state for a mixture of additive hard spheres on the basis of a pure fluid equation of state is applied here to a binary mixture of additive hard disks in two dimensions. The equation of state depends on two parameters which are determined from the second and third virial coefficients for the mixture, which are known exactly. Results are compared with Monte Carlo calculations which are also reported. The agreement between theory and simulation is very good. For the fourth and fifth virial coefficients of the mixture, the equation of state gives results which are also in close agreement with exact numerical values reported in the literature.

  10. Major histocompatibility complex harbors widespread genotypic variability of non-additive risk of rheumatoid arthritis including epistasis

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Wen-Hua; Bowes, John; Plant, Darren; Viatte, Sebastien; Yarwood, Annie; Massey, Jonathan; Worthington, Jane; Eyre, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Genotypic variability based genome-wide association studies (vGWASs) can identify potentially interacting loci without prior knowledge of the interacting factors. We report a two-stage approach to make vGWAS applicable to diseases: firstly using a mixed model approach to partition dichotomous phenotypes into additive risk and non-additive environmental residuals on the liability scale and secondly using the Levene’s (Brown-Forsythe) test to assess equality of the residual variances across genotype groups per marker. We found widespread significant (P < 2.5e-05) vGWAS signals within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) across all three study cohorts of rheumatoid arthritis. We further identified 10 epistatic interactions between the vGWAS signals independent of the MHC additive effects, each with a weak effect but jointly explained 1.9% of phenotypic variance. PTPN22 was also identified in the discovery cohort but replicated in only one independent cohort. Combining the three cohorts boosted power of vGWAS and additionally identified TYK2 and ANKRD55. Both PTPN22 and TYK2 had evidence of interactions reported elsewhere. We conclude that vGWAS can help discover interacting loci for complex diseases but require large samples to find additional signals. PMID:27109064

  11. Formation and nonlinear dynamics of the squeezed state of a helical electron beam with additional deceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Egorov, E. N. Koronovskii, A. A.; Kurkin, S. A.; Hramov, A. E.

    2013-11-15

    Results of numerical simulations and analysis of the formation and nonlinear dynamics of the squeezed state of a helical electron beam in a vircator with a magnetron injection gun as an electron source and with additional electron deceleration are presented. The ranges of control parameters where the squeezed state can form in such a system are revealed, and specific features of the system dynamics are analyzed. It is shown that the formation of a squeezed state of a nonrelativistic helical electron beam in a system with electron deceleration is accompanied by low-frequency longitudinal dynamics of the space charge.

  12. Variability in Ozone in the Tropical Tropopause Region from the 1998-2000 SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere ADditional OZonesondes) Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Anne M.; Witte, J. C.; Oltmans, S. J.; Schmidlin, F. J.

    2002-01-01

    The first view of stratospheric and tropospheric ozone variability in the southern hemisphere tropics is provided by a 3-year, 10-site record of ozone soundings from the Southern Hemisphere ADditional OZonesondes (SHADOZ) network. Observations covering 1998-2000 were made over Ascension Island; Nairobi, Kenya; Irene, South Africa; Reunion Island; Watukosek, Java; Fiji; Tahiti; American Samoa; San Cristobal, Galapagos; Natal, Brazil. Taking the TTL (tropical tropopause layer) as the region between 12 and 17 km, we examine ozone variability in this region on a week-to-week and seasonal basis. The TTL layer is lower in September-October-November than in March-April-May, when ozone is a minimum at most SHADOZ stations. A zonal wave-one pattern is apparent in column-integrated TTL ozone because ozone mixing ratios are greater over the Atlantic and adjacent continents than over the Pacific and eastern Indian Ocean. The wave-one persists all year with varying magnitude and appears to be due to general circulation - with subsidence over the Atlantic and frequent deep convection over the Pacific and Indian Ocean. The variability of deep convection - most prominent at Java, Fiji, Samoa and Natal - is explored in time-vs-altitude ozone curtains. Stratospheric incursions into the troposphere are most prominent in soundings at Irene and Reunion Island.

  13. Variability in Ozone in the Tropical Tropopause Region from the 1998-2000 SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere ADditional OZonesondes) Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, A. M.; Witte, J. C.; Oltmans, S. J.; Schmidlin, F. J.

    2002-05-01

    The first view of stratospheric and tropospheric ozone variability in the southern hemisphere tropics is provided by a 3-year, 10-site record of ozone soundings from the Southern Hemisphere ADditional OZonesondes (SHADOZ) network: (http://code916.gsfc.nasa.gov/Data_services/shadoz). Observations covering 1998-2000 were made over Ascension Island; Nairobi, Kenya; Irene, South Africa; Réunion Island; Watukosek, Java; Fiji; Tahiti; American Samoa; San Cristóbal, Galapagos; Natal, Brazil. Taking the TTL (tropical tropopause layer) as the region between 12 and 17 km, we examine ozone variability in this region on a week-to-week and seasonal basis. The TTL layer is lower in September-October-November than in March-April-May, when ozone is a minimum at most SHADOZ stations. A zonal wave-one pattern is apparent in column-integrated TTL ozone because ozone mixing ratios are greater over the Atlantic and adjacent continents than over the Pacific and eastern Indian Ocean. The wave-one persists all year with varying magnitude and appears to be due to general circulation - with subsidence over the Atlantic and frequent deep convection over the Pacific and Indian Ocean. The variability of deep convection - most prominent at Java, Fiji, Samoa and Natal - is explored in time-vs-altitude ozone curtains. Stratospheric incursions into the troposphere are most prominent in soundings at Irene and Réunion Island.

  14. Efficient Three-Party Quantum Dialogue Protocol Based on the Continuous Variable GHZ States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Zhen-Bo; Gong, Li-Hua; Zhu, Qi-Biao; Cheng, Shan; Zhou, Nan-Run

    2016-07-01

    Based on the continuous variable GHZ entangled states, an efficient three-party quantum dialogue protocol is devised, where each legitimate communication party could simultaneously deduce the secret information of the other two parties with perfect efficiency. The security is guaranteed by the correlation of the continuous variable GHZ entangled states and the randomly selected decoy states. Furthermore, the three-party quantum dialogue protocol is directly generalized to an N-party quantum dialogue protocol by using the n-tuple continuous variable GHZ entangled states.

  15. Program Guidelines: Additional Apportionment Provisions of State Aid. 1975-76.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Office of Research, Planning, and Evaluation.

    Reviewed are program guidelines for the use of additional apportionment provisions of New York State aid for pupils with special educational needs, students with handicapping conditions, and severely handicapped pupils. Considered in three sections are general information (including an overview of 1975-76 requirements, department policies, and…

  16. Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes (SHADOZ) 1998-2000 tropical ozone climatology 2. Tropospheric variability and the zonal wave-one

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Anne M.; Witte, Jacquelyn C.; Oltmans, Samuel J.; Schmidlin, Francis J.; Logan, Jennifer A.; Fujiwara, Masatomo; Kirchhoff, Volker W. J. H.; Posny, FrançOise; Coetzee, Gert J. R.; Hoegger, Bruno; Kawakami, Shuji; Ogawa, Toshihiro; Fortuin, J. P. F.; Kelder, H. M.

    2003-01-01

    The first view of stratospheric and tropospheric ozone variability in the Southern Hemisphere tropics is provided by a 3-year record of ozone soundings from the Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes (SHADOZ) network (http://croc.gsfc.nasa.gov/shadoz). Observations covering 1998-2000 were made over Ascension Island, Nairobi (Kenya), Irene (South Africa), Réunion Island, Watukosek (Java), Fiji, Tahiti, American Samoa, San Cristóbal (Galapagos), and Natal (Brazil). Total, stratospheric, and tropospheric column ozone amounts usually peak between August and November. Other features are a persistent zonal wave-one pattern in total column ozone and signatures of the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) in stratospheric ozone. The wave-one is due to a greater concentration of free tropospheric ozone over the tropical Atlantic than the Pacific and appears to be associated with tropical general circulation and seasonal pollution from biomass burning. Tropospheric ozone over the Indian and Pacific Oceans displays influences of the waning 1997-1998 El Niño, seasonal convection, and pollution transport from Africa. The most distinctive feature of SHADOZ tropospheric ozone is variability in the data, e.g., a factor of 3 in column amount at 8 of 10 stations. Seasonal and monthly means may not be robust quantities because statistics are frequently not Gaussian even at sites that are always in tropical air. Models and satellite retrievals should be evaluated on their capability for reproducing tropospheric variability and fine structure. A 1999-2000 ozone record from Paramaribo, Surinam (6°N, 55°W) (also in SHADOZ) shows a marked contrast to southern tropical ozone because Surinam is often north of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). A more representative tropospheric ozone climatology for models and satellite retrievals requires additional Northern Hemisphere tropical data.

  17. Continuous-variable quantum key distribution with noisy coherent states

    SciTech Connect

    Filip, Radim

    2008-02-15

    An excess noise in coherent-state preparation can prevent secure key distribution through lossy channel. The feasible single-copy and multicopy linear optical methods are proposed to purify the prepared state. The single-copy method always sufficiently reduces the excess noise to obtain the key secure against both the individual and collective attacks even through any lossy channel. To increase the secure key rate, two feasible applications of the multicopy linear optical purification are proposed. As a result, maximal secure key rate achievable through a given lossy channel can be approached.

  18. Temporal variability in the hydrologic regimes of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hubbard, E.F.; Landwehr, J.M.; Barker, A.R.

    1997-01-01

    Discharge records where flows have not been subject to overt anthropogenic controls have been identified for over 1500 streamflow gauging stations throughout the United States in the US Geological Survey Hydro-Climatic Data Network. These stations fall within all 21 water resources regions of the United States. Analysis of runoff in 20 regions, where long-term daily records are available, shows an increasing trend in 16 regions. Further analysis using a stratified subset of 65 sites shows an increase in baseflow at approximately 90% of the sites during the past 50 years, regardless of the size of the drainage area. Because anthropogenic alterations of watershed characteristics cannot explain these hydrologic changes, then meteorological or climatic forces are implicated.

  19. High-fidelity teleportation of continuous-variable quantum states using delocalized single photons.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Ulrik L; Ralph, Timothy C

    2013-08-01

    Traditional continuous-variable teleportation can only approach unit fidelity in the limit of an infinite (and unphysical) amount of squeezing. We describe a new method for continuous-variable teleportation that approaches unit fidelity with finite resources. The protocol is not based on squeezed states as in traditional teleportation but on an ensemble of single photon entangled states. We characterize the teleportation scheme with coherent states, mesoscopic superposition states, and two-mode squeezed states and we find several situations in which near-unity teleportation fidelity can be obtained with modest resources. PMID:23952378

  20. High-fidelity teleportation of continuous-variable quantum states using delocalized single photons.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Ulrik L; Ralph, Timothy C

    2013-08-01

    Traditional continuous-variable teleportation can only approach unit fidelity in the limit of an infinite (and unphysical) amount of squeezing. We describe a new method for continuous-variable teleportation that approaches unit fidelity with finite resources. The protocol is not based on squeezed states as in traditional teleportation but on an ensemble of single photon entangled states. We characterize the teleportation scheme with coherent states, mesoscopic superposition states, and two-mode squeezed states and we find several situations in which near-unity teleportation fidelity can be obtained with modest resources.

  1. All-optical digital logic: Full addition or subtraction on a three-state system

    SciTech Connect

    Remacle, F.; Levine, R. D.

    2006-03-15

    Stimulated Raman adiabatic passage (STIRAP) is a well-studied pump-probe control scheme for manipulating the population of quantum states of atoms or molecules. By encoding the digits to be operated on as 'on' or 'off' laser input signals we show how STIRAP can be used to implement a finite-state logic machine. The physical conditions required for an effective STIRAP operation are related to the physical conditions expected for a logic machine. In particular, a condition is derived on the mean number of photons that represent an on pulse. A finite-state machine computes Boolean expressions that depend both on the input and on the present state of the machine. With two input signals we show how to implement a full adder where the carry-in digit is stored in the state of the machine. Furthermore, we show that it is possible to store the carry-out digit as the next state and thereby return the machine to a state ready for the next full addition. Such a machine operates as a cyclical full adder. We further show how this full adder can equally well be operated as a full subtractor. To the best of our knowledge this is the first example of a nanosized system that implements a full subtraction.

  2. Streamflow variability in the United States: 1931-1978.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lins, H.F.

    1985-01-01

    Systematic modes of spatial and temporal variation in a 48-year record of streamflow are defined using principal components. The components were calculated from a matrix of annual streamflow departures for 106 grid cells covering the United States in the years 1931-78. Five statistically significant components are found to account for more than 56% of the total variance. A varimax orthogonal rotation of the original components describes regional anomaly cores located in the middle Mississippi Valley, Pacific Northwest, Far West, Northeast, and northern Great Plains. -from Author

  3. THE GJ1214 SUPER-EARTH SYSTEM: STELLAR VARIABILITY, NEW TRANSITS, AND A SEARCH FOR ADDITIONAL PLANETS

    SciTech Connect

    Berta, Zachory K.; Charbonneau, David; Bean, Jacob; Irwin, Jonathan; Burke, Christopher J.; Desert, Jean-Michel; Nutzman, Philip; Falco, Emilio E.

    2011-07-20

    The super-Earth GJ1214b transits a nearby M dwarf that exhibits a 1% intrinsic variability in the near-infrared. Here, we analyze new observations to refine the physical properties of both the star and planet. We present three years of out-of-transit photometric monitoring of the stellar host GJ1214 from the MEarth Observatory and find the rotation period to be long, most likely an integer multiple of 53 days, suggesting low levels of magnetic activity and an old age for the system. We show that such variability will not pose significant problems to ongoing studies of the planet's atmosphere with transmission spectroscopy. We analyze two high-precision transit light curves from ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT) along with seven others from the MEarth and Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory 1.2 m telescopes, finding physical parameters for the planet that are consistent with previous work. The VLT light curves show tentative evidence for spot occultations during transit. Using two years of MEarth light curves, we place limits on additional transiting planets around GJ1214 with periods out to the habitable zone of the system. We also improve upon the previous photographic V-band estimate for the star, finding V = 14.71 {+-} 0.03.

  4. Subseasonal climate variability for North Carolina, United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayemuzzaman, Mohammad; Jha, Manoj K.; Mekonnen, Ademe; Schimmel, Keith A.

    2014-08-01

    Subseasonal trends in climate variability for maximum temperature (Tmax), minimum temperature (Tmin) and precipitation were evaluated for 249 ground-based stations in North Carolina for 1950-2009. The magnitude and significance of the trends at all stations were determined using the non-parametric Theil-Sen Approach (TSA) and the Mann-Kendall (MK) test, respectively. The Sequential Mann-Kendall (SQMK) test was also applied to find the initiation of abrupt trend changes. The lag-1 serial correlation and double mass curve were employed to address the data independency and homogeneity. Using the MK trend test, statistically significant (confidence level ≥ 95% in two-tailed test) decreasing (increasing) trends by 44% (45%) of stations were found in May (June). In general, trends were decreased in Tmax and increased in Tmin data series in subseasonal scale. Using the TSA method, the magnitude of lowest (highest) decreasing (increasing) trend in Tmax is - 0.050 °C/year (+ 0.052 °C/year) in the monthly series for May (March) and for Tmin is - 0.055 °C/year (+ 0.075 °C/year) in February (December). For the precipitation time series using the TSA method, it was found that the highest (lowest) magnitude of 1.00 mm/year (- 1.20 mm/year) is in September (February). The overall trends in precipitation data series were not significant at the 95% confidence level except that 17% of stations were found to have significant (confidence level ≥ 95% in two-tailed test) decreasing trends in February. The statistically significant trend test results were used to develop a spatial distribution of trends: May for Tmax, June for Tmin, and February for precipitation. A correlative analysis of significant temperature and precipitation trend results was examined with respect to large scale circulation modes (North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and Southern Oscillation Index (SOI). A negative NAO index (positive-El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) index) was found to be associated with

  5. The Effectiveness of Six Personality Variables in Predicting Success on the Nursing State Board Examination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cusick, Patricia; Harckham, Laura D.

    A study was conducted to determine whether six personality variables, presently used in admissions decisions by a nursing school, were effective predictors of success on the State Board Examination (SBE), the nursing licensing examination. The personality variables were measured by subtests of the Personal Preference Schedule of the Psychological…

  6. Multiport solid-state imager characterization at variable pixel rates

    SciTech Connect

    Yates, G.J.; Albright, K.A.; Turko, B.T.

    1993-08-01

    The imaging performance of an 8-port Full Frame Transfer Charge Coupled Device (FFT CCD) as a function of several parameters including pixel clock rate is presented. The device, model CCD- 13, manufactured by English Electric Valve (EEV) is a 512 {times} 512 pixel array designed with four individual programmable bidirectional serial registers and eight output amplifiers permitting simultaneous readout of eight segments (128 horizontal {times} 256 vertical pixels) of the array. The imager was evaluated in Los Alamos National Laboratory`s High-Speed Solid-State Imager Test Station at true pixel rates as high as 50 MHz for effective imager pixel rates approaching 400 MHz from multiporting. Key response characteristics measured include absolute responsivity, Charge-Transfer-Efficiency (CTE), dynamic range, resolution, signal-to-noise ratio, and electronic and optical crosstalk among the eight video channels. Preliminary test results and data obtained from the CCD-13 will be presented and the versatility/capabilities of the test station will be reviewed.

  7. Fitness variables and the lipid profile in United States astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berry, M. A.; Squires, W. G.; Jackson, A. S.

    1980-01-01

    The study examines the relationship between several measures of fitness and the lipid profile in United States astronauts. Data were collected on 89 astronauts, previously selected (PSA) and newly selected (NSA), during their annual physical examinations. Several similarities were seen in the two groups. The PSA (mean age of 46.1) had a lower maximum oxygen capacity (41.7 ml kg/min vs. 47.5 ml kg/min); when adjusted for age, it was no different from the NSA (mean age 33.5). The PSA had similar body composition with 15.7% - lower than expected for age. The lipid profiles of the two groups were basically the same with the differences being a function of age. Compared to a normative population, the astronauts had similar cholesterols, lower triglycerides, and higher HDLs. The astronaut profiles were generally more favorable than the age-matched controls, which is felt to be a result of the self-supervised conditioning program and annual preventive medicine consultation and education.

  8. Simultaneous Estimation of Model State Variables and Observation and Forecast Biases Using a Two-Stage Hybrid Kalman Filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pauwels, V. R. N.; DeLannoy, G. J. M.; Hendricks Franssen, H.-J.; Vereecken, H.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present a two-stage hybrid Kalman filter to estimate both observation and forecast bias in hydrologic models, in addition to state variables. The biases are estimated using the discrete Kalman filter, and the state variables using the ensemble Kalman filter. A key issue in this multi-component assimilation scheme is the exact partitioning of the difference between observation and forecasts into state, forecast bias and observation bias updates. Here, the error covariances of the forecast bias and the unbiased states are calculated as constant fractions of the biased state error covariance, and the observation bias error covariance is a function of the observation prediction error covariance. In a series of synthetic experiments, focusing on the assimilation of discharge into a rainfall-runoff model, it is shown that both static and dynamic observation and forecast biases can be successfully estimated. The results indicate a strong improvement in the estimation of the state variables and resulting discharge as opposed to the use of a bias-unaware ensemble Kalman filter. Furthermore, minimal code modification in existing data assimilation software is needed to implement the method. The results suggest that a better performance of data assimilation methods should be possible if both forecast and observation biases are taken into account.

  9. A new analytical equation of state for additive hard sphere fluid mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrio, C.; Solana, J. R.

    A study has been made of the relation between the equation of state of additive binary hard sphere fluid mixtures and the equation of state of a pure hard sphere fluid for the same packing fraction. An analysis of the existing simulation data for a wide variety of compositions of the mixture and diameter ratios up to 1/0.2 makes it possible to conclude that the ratio of the excess compressibility factor of the mixture to that of the pure fluid is, to a very good approximation, a linear function of the packing fraction. This suggests the possibility of deriving the equation of state of the mixture from that of the pure fluid by using the second and third virial coefficients of the mixture, which are known analytically, to reproduce the linear relation mentioned above. When a suitable equation of state is chosen for the pure fluid, the results from the equation of state of the mixture thus obtained are in excellent agreement with simulation data. The predictions for the fourth and fifth virial coefficients also are very accurate compared with known numerical data.

  10. Variable Temperature Stress in the Nematode Caenorhabditis elegans (Maupas) and Its Implications for Sensitivity to an Additional Chemical Stressor.

    PubMed

    Cedergreen, Nina; Nørhave, Nils Jakob; Svendsen, Claus; Spurgeon, David J

    2016-01-01

    A wealth of studies has investigated how chemical sensitivity is affected by temperature, however, almost always under different constant rather than more realistic fluctuating regimes. Here we compared how the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans responds to copper at constant temperatures (8-24°C) and under fluctuation conditions of low (±4°C) and high (±8°C) amplitude (averages of 12, 16, 20°C and 16°C respectively). The DEBkiss model was used to interpret effects on energy budgets. Increasing constant temperature from 12-24°C reduced time to first egg, life-span and population growth rates consistent with temperature driven metabolic rate change. Responses at 8°C did not, however, accord with this pattern (including a deviation from the Temperature Size Rule), identifying a cold stress effect. High amplitude variation and low amplitude variation around a mean temperature of 12°C impacted reproduction and body size compared to nematodes kept at the matching average constant temperatures. Copper exposure affected reproduction, body size and life-span and consequently population growth. Sensitivity to copper (EC50 values), was similar at intermediate temperatures (12, 16, 20°C) and higher at 24°C and especially the innately stressful 8°C condition. Temperature variation did not increase copper sensitivity. Indeed under variable conditions including time at the stressful 8°C condition, sensitivity was reduced. DEBkiss identified increased maintenance costs and increased assimilation as possible mechanisms for cold and higher copper concentration effects. Model analysis of combined variable temperature effects, however, demonstrated no additional joint stressor response. Hence, concerns that exposure to temperature fluctuations may sensitise species to co-stressor effects seem unfounded in this case.

  11. Variable Temperature Stress in the Nematode Caenorhabditis elegans (Maupas) and Its Implications for Sensitivity to an Additional Chemical Stressor.

    PubMed

    Cedergreen, Nina; Nørhave, Nils Jakob; Svendsen, Claus; Spurgeon, David J

    2016-01-01

    A wealth of studies has investigated how chemical sensitivity is affected by temperature, however, almost always under different constant rather than more realistic fluctuating regimes. Here we compared how the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans responds to copper at constant temperatures (8-24°C) and under fluctuation conditions of low (±4°C) and high (±8°C) amplitude (averages of 12, 16, 20°C and 16°C respectively). The DEBkiss model was used to interpret effects on energy budgets. Increasing constant temperature from 12-24°C reduced time to first egg, life-span and population growth rates consistent with temperature driven metabolic rate change. Responses at 8°C did not, however, accord with this pattern (including a deviation from the Temperature Size Rule), identifying a cold stress effect. High amplitude variation and low amplitude variation around a mean temperature of 12°C impacted reproduction and body size compared to nematodes kept at the matching average constant temperatures. Copper exposure affected reproduction, body size and life-span and consequently population growth. Sensitivity to copper (EC50 values), was similar at intermediate temperatures (12, 16, 20°C) and higher at 24°C and especially the innately stressful 8°C condition. Temperature variation did not increase copper sensitivity. Indeed under variable conditions including time at the stressful 8°C condition, sensitivity was reduced. DEBkiss identified increased maintenance costs and increased assimilation as possible mechanisms for cold and higher copper concentration effects. Model analysis of combined variable temperature effects, however, demonstrated no additional joint stressor response. Hence, concerns that exposure to temperature fluctuations may sensitise species to co-stressor effects seem unfounded in this case. PMID:26784453

  12. Variable Temperature Stress in the Nematode Caenorhabditis elegans (Maupas) and Its Implications for Sensitivity to an Additional Chemical Stressor

    PubMed Central

    Svendsen, Claus; Spurgeon, David J.

    2016-01-01

    A wealth of studies has investigated how chemical sensitivity is affected by temperature, however, almost always under different constant rather than more realistic fluctuating regimes. Here we compared how the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans responds to copper at constant temperatures (8–24°C) and under fluctuation conditions of low (±4°C) and high (±8°C) amplitude (averages of 12, 16, 20°C and 16°C respectively). The DEBkiss model was used to interpret effects on energy budgets. Increasing constant temperature from 12–24°C reduced time to first egg, life-span and population growth rates consistent with temperature driven metabolic rate change. Responses at 8°C did not, however, accord with this pattern (including a deviation from the Temperature Size Rule), identifying a cold stress effect. High amplitude variation and low amplitude variation around a mean temperature of 12°C impacted reproduction and body size compared to nematodes kept at the matching average constant temperatures. Copper exposure affected reproduction, body size and life-span and consequently population growth. Sensitivity to copper (EC50 values), was similar at intermediate temperatures (12, 16, 20°C) and higher at 24°C and especially the innately stressful 8°C condition. Temperature variation did not increase copper sensitivity. Indeed under variable conditions including time at the stressful 8°C condition, sensitivity was reduced. DEBkiss identified increased maintenance costs and increased assimilation as possible mechanisms for cold and higher copper concentration effects. Model analysis of combined variable temperature effects, however, demonstrated no additional joint stressor response. Hence, concerns that exposure to temperature fluctuations may sensitise species to co-stressor effects seem unfounded in this case. PMID:26784453

  13. Impact of semidiurnal tidal variability during SSWs on the mean state of the ionosphere and thermosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedatella, N. M.; Richmond, A. D.; Maute, A.; Liu, H.-L.

    2016-08-01

    Observations from the Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate (COSMIC) satellites reveal a global reduction in the zonal and diurnal mean F region peak electron density (NmF2) during sudden stratosphere warmings (SSWs). The present study investigates the source of the global NmF2 decrease by performing numerical experiments with the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) thermosphere-ionosphere-electrodynamics general circulation model. The simulations reveal that the NmF2 reduction coincides with a depletion of thermospheric [O]/[N2], indicating that the NmF2 depletion is related to changes in thermospheric composition during SSWs. Numerical experiments further illustrate that the short-term (˜10 day) enhancement of the migrating semidiurnal solar tide (SW2) during SSWs is the source of the variability in thermospheric composition. In particular, the enhancement of the SW2 during SSWs alters the lower thermosphere zonal mean circulation, leading to a reduction in atomic oxygen in the lower thermosphere. The atomic oxygen reduction propagates into the upper thermosphere through molecular diffusion, leading to a decrease in [O]/[N2] throughout the low- to middle-latitude thermosphere. It is anticipated that the effects of the SW2 on the ionosphere and thermosphere investigated herein will be modulated by SSW related enhancements of the migrating semidiurnal lunar tide (M2). The magnitude of the combined impact of the SW2 and M2 on the ionosphere-thermosphere mean state will depend on the relative phasing of the solar and lunar tides. The results demonstrate that in addition to modulating the low-latitude electrodynamics, tidal variability during SSWs can significantly impact the mean state of the ionosphere and thermosphere.

  14. Addition of Multimodal Therapy to Standard Management of Steady State Sickle Cell Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ikefuna, Anthony; Duru, Augustine; Chukwu, Barth; Madu, Anazoeze; Nwagha, Theresa; Ocheni, Sunday; Ibegbulam, Obike; Emodi, Ifeoma; Anike, Uche; Nonyelu, Charles; Anigbo, Chukwudi; Agu, Kingsley; Ajuba, Ifeoma; Chukwura, Awele; Ugwu, Ogechukwu; Ololo, Uche

    2013-01-01

    Most people on folic acid to boost erythropoiesis and prophylactic antimicrobials, the standard management of steady state sickle cell disease (SCD), have unacceptable numbers of crises. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of adding multimodal therapy with potassium thiocyanate and omega-3 fatty acids to the standard management of steady state SCD. Pre- and post-treatment numbers of crises and other disease indices were compared in 16 HbSS individuals on folic acid and paludrine after 12 months of adding eicosapentaenoic acid 15 mg/kg/day, docosahexaenoic acid 10 mg/kg/day, and potassium thiocyanate 1-2 mL/day, each milliliter of which contained 250 mg of thiocyanate and 100 micrograms of iodine to prevent hypothyroidism: a possible side-effect due to competitive inhibition of the transport of iodide into the thyroid gland by thiocyanate. Median number of crises reduced from 3/yr to 1/yr (P < 0.0001). There was no evidence of impaired thyroid function. Plasma level of tri-iodothyronine improved (P < 0.0001). Steady state full blood count and bilirubin level did not change significantly. The findings suggest that addition of potassium thiocyanate and eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids to standard management of steady state SCD reduces the number of crises. This observation needs to be evaluated in larger studies. PMID:24386573

  15. Addition of multimodal therapy to standard management of steady state sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Okpala, Iheanyi; Ezenwosu, Osita; Ikefuna, Anthony; Duru, Augustine; Chukwu, Barth; Madu, Anazoeze; Nwagha, Theresa; Ocheni, Sunday; Ibegbulam, Obike; Emodi, Ifeoma; Anike, Uche; Nonyelu, Charles; Anigbo, Chukwudi; Agu, Kingsley; Ajuba, Ifeoma; Chukwura, Awele; Ugwu, Ogechukwu; Ololo, Uche

    2013-01-01

    Most people on folic acid to boost erythropoiesis and prophylactic antimicrobials, the standard management of steady state sickle cell disease (SCD), have unacceptable numbers of crises. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of adding multimodal therapy with potassium thiocyanate and omega-3 fatty acids to the standard management of steady state SCD. Pre- and post-treatment numbers of crises and other disease indices were compared in 16 HbSS individuals on folic acid and paludrine after 12 months of adding eicosapentaenoic acid 15 mg/kg/day, docosahexaenoic acid 10 mg/kg/day, and potassium thiocyanate 1-2 mL/day, each milliliter of which contained 250 mg of thiocyanate and 100 micrograms of iodine to prevent hypothyroidism: a possible side-effect due to competitive inhibition of the transport of iodide into the thyroid gland by thiocyanate. Median number of crises reduced from 3/yr to 1/yr (P < 0.0001). There was no evidence of impaired thyroid function. Plasma level of tri-iodothyronine improved (P < 0.0001). Steady state full blood count and bilirubin level did not change significantly. The findings suggest that addition of potassium thiocyanate and eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids to standard management of steady state SCD reduces the number of crises. This observation needs to be evaluated in larger studies.

  16. Nondestructive Evaluation of Additive Manufacturing State-of-the-Discipline Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waller, Jess M.; Parker, Bradford H.; Hodges, Kenneth L.; Burke, Eric R.; Walker, James L.

    2014-01-01

    This report summarizes the National Aeronautics and Space Administrations (NASA) state of the art of nondestructive evaluation (NDE) for additive manufacturing (AM), or "3-D printed", hardware. NASA's unique need for highly customized spacecraft and instrumentation is suited for AM, which offers a compelling alternative to traditional subtractive manufacturing approaches. The Agency has an opportunity to push the envelope on how this technology is used in zero gravity, an enable in-space manufacturing of flight spares and replacement hardware crucial for long-duration, manned missions to Mars. The Agency is leveraging AM technology developed internally and by industry, academia, and other government agencies for its unique needs. Recent technical interchange meetings and workshops attended by NASA have identified NDE as a universal need for all aspects of additive manufacturing. The impact of NDE on AM is cross cutting and spans materials, processing quality assurance, testing and modeling disciplines. Appropriate NDE methods are needed before, during, and after the AM production process.

  17. Identifiability of Additive, Time-Varying Actuator and Sensor Faults by State Augmentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Upchurch, Jason M.; Gonzalez, Oscar R.; Joshi, Suresh M.

    2014-01-01

    Recent work has provided a set of necessary and sucient conditions for identifiability of additive step faults (e.g., lock-in-place actuator faults, constant bias in the sensors) using state augmentation. This paper extends these results to an important class of faults which may affect linear, time-invariant systems. In particular, the faults under consideration are those which vary with time and affect the system dynamics additively. Such faults may manifest themselves in aircraft as, for example, control surface oscillations, control surface runaway, and sensor drift. The set of necessary and sucient conditions presented in this paper are general, and apply when a class of time-varying faults affects arbitrary combinations of actuators and sensors. The results in the main theorems are illustrated by two case studies, which provide some insight into how the conditions may be used to check the theoretical identifiability of fault configurations of interest for a given system. It is shown that while state augmentation can be used to identify certain fault configurations, other fault configurations are theoretically impossible to identify using state augmentation, giving practitioners valuable insight into such situations. That is, the limitations of state augmentation for a given system and configuration of faults are made explicit. Another limitation of model-based methods is that there can be large numbers of fault configurations, thus making identification of all possible configurations impractical. However, the theoretical identifiability of known, credible fault configurations can be tested using the theorems presented in this paper, which can then assist the efforts of fault identification practitioners.

  18. Use of heart rate variability differentiates between physical and psychological states

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The major goal of animal welfare scientists is to determine when animals are experiencing a state of good welfare or poor welfare. The goal of this research was to determine if measures of heart rate variability can be used to differentiate whether animals are experiencing differing states of physi...

  19. Quantum discord of X-states as optimization of a one variable function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Naihuan; Yu, Bing

    2016-09-01

    We solve the quantum discord completely as an optimization of a certain one variable function for an arbitrary two qubit X state. Exact solutions of the quantum discord are obtained for several nontrivial regions of the five parametric space for the quantum state. Exceptional solutions are determined via an iterative algorithm.

  20. Distribution of Personal Income in Agriculture-Dependent Counties of Midwestern States: A Policy Variables Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goreham, Gary A.; And Others

    Significant social, demographic, and economic changes have occurred in the North Central states since 1960. This document examines structural and policy variables related to distribution of income, during the years 1960-80 in the 397 counties defined as agriculture-dependent in 13 North Central states. Personal income distribution has been…

  1. Analyzing State and Private School Students' Achievement Goal Orientation Levels in Terms of Some Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Türkçapar, Ünal

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the state and private school students' achievement goal orientation levels in terms of some variables. Quantitative survey method was used in this study. Study group in this research consists of 201 students who are studying at state and private school in Kahramanmaras during the 2014-2015 academic year.…

  2. The Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes (SHADOZ) 1998-2002 Tropical Ozone Climatology. 3; Instrumentation and Station-to-Station Variability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Anne M.; Witte, Jacqueline C.; Smit, Herman G. J.; Oltmans, Samuel J.; Johnson, Bryan J.; Kirchhoff, Volker W. J. H.; Schmidlin, Francis J.

    2004-01-01

    Abstract: Since 1998 the Southern Hemisphere ADditional OZonesondes (SHADOZ) project has collected more than 2000 ozone profiles from a dozen tropical and subtropical sites using balloon-borne electrochemical concentration cell (ECC) ozonesondes. The data (with accompanying pressure-temperature-humidity soundings) are archived. Analysis of ozonesonde imprecision within the SHADOZ dataset revealed that variations in ozonesonde technique could lead to station-to-station biases in the measurements. In this paper imprecisions and accuracy in the SHADOZ dataset are examined in light of new data. When SHADOZ total ozone column amounts are compared to version 8 TOMS (2004 release), discrepancies between sonde and satellite datasets decline 1-2 percentage points on average, compared to version 7 TOMS. Variability among stations is evaluated using total ozone normalized to TOMS and results of laboratory tests on ozonesondes (JOSE-2O00, Julich Ozonesonde Intercomparison Experiment). Ozone deviations from a standard instrument in the JOSE flight simulation chamber resemble those of SHADOZ station data relative to a SHADOZ-defined climatological reference. Certain systematic variations in SHADOZ ozone profiles are accounted for by differences in solution composition, data processing and instrument (manufacturer). Instrument bias leads to a greater ozone measurement above 25 km over Nairobi and to lower total column ozone at three Pacific sites compared to other SHADOZ stations at 0-20 deg.S.

  3. Optimal control of singularly perturbed nonlinear systems with state-variable inequality constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calise, A. J.; Corban, J. E.

    1990-01-01

    The established necessary conditions for optimality in nonlinear control problems that involve state-variable inequality constraints are applied to a class of singularly perturbed systems. The distinguishing feature of this class of two-time-scale systems is a transformation of the state-variable inequality constraint, present in the full order problem, to a constraint involving states and controls in the reduced problem. It is shown that, when a state constraint is active in the reduced problem, the boundary layer problem can be of finite time in the stretched time variable. Thus, the usual requirement for asymptotic stability of the boundary layer system is not applicable, and cannot be used to construct approximate boundary layer solutions. Several alternative solution methods are explored and illustrated with simple examples.

  4. Variability of tornado occurrence over the continental United States since 1950

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Li; Wang, Kaicun; Bluestein, Howard B.

    2016-06-01

    The United States experiences the most tornadoes of any country in the world. Given the catastrophic impact of tornadoes, concern has arisen regarding the variation in climatology of U.S. tornadoes under the changing climate. A recent study claimed that the temporal variability of tornado occurrence over the continental U.S. has increased since the 1970s. However, that study ignored the highly regionalized climatology of U.S. tornadoes. To address this issue, we examined the long-term trend of tornado temporal variability in each continental U.S. state. Based on the 64 year tornado records (1950-2013), we found that the trends in tornado temporal variability varied across the U.S., with only one third of the continental area or three out of 10 contiguous states (mostly from the Great Plains and Southeast, but where the frequency of occurrence of tornadoes is greater) displaying a significantly increasing trend. The other two-thirds area, where 60% of the U.S. tornadoes were reported (but the frequency of occurrence of tornadoes is less), however, showed a decreasing or a near-zero trend in tornado temporal variability. Furthermore, unlike the temporal variability alone, the combined spatial-temporal variability of U.S. tornado occurrence has remained nearly constant since 1950. Such detailed information on the climatological variability of U.S. tornadoes refines the claim of previous study and can be helpful for local mitigation efforts toward future tornado risks.

  5. 42 CFR 493.645 - Additional fee(s) applicable to approved State laboratory programs and laboratories issued a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS General Administration § 493.645 Additional fee(s) applicable to approved State laboratory programs...

  6. 42 CFR 493.645 - Additional fee(s) applicable to approved State laboratory programs and laboratories issued a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS General Administration § 493.645 Additional fee(s) applicable to approved State laboratory programs...

  7. Theory and design of variable conductance heat pipes: Steady state and transient performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, D. K.; Fleischman, G. L.; Marcus, B. D.

    1972-01-01

    Heat pipe technology pertinent to the design and application of self-controlled, variable conductance heat pipes for spacecraft thermal control is discussed. Investigations were conducted to: (1) provide additional confidence in existing design tools, (2) to generate new design tools, and (3) to develop superior variable conductance heat pipe designs. A computer program for designing and predicting the performance of the heat pipe systems was developed.

  8. Consistency conditions and equation of state for additive hard-sphere fluid mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrio, C.; Solana, J. R.

    2000-12-01

    A number of consistency conditions for the contact values gij(σij) of the pair correlation function of species i and j in an additive hard-sphere fluid mixture are discussed. It is shown that most of the theoretically-based expressions, as well as other more empirical in character, existing for these functions, fail to satisfy at least one of the conditions. It is suggested that one could improve the performance of the expressions for gij(σij) and the equation of state by using the consistency conditions. This is illustrated by modifying the Boublı´k-Mansoori-Carnahan-Starling-Leland expressions for gij(σij), which results in better predictions for these functions as well as for the compressibility factor and the fourth and fifth virial coefficients.

  9. Practical limitation for continuous-variable quantum cryptography using coherent States.

    PubMed

    Namiki, Ryo; Hirano, Takuya

    2004-03-19

    In this Letter, first, we investigate the security of a continuous-variable quantum cryptographic scheme with a postselection process against individual beam splitting attack. It is shown that the scheme can be secure in the presence of the transmission loss owing to the postselection. Second, we provide a loss limit for continuous-variable quantum cryptography using coherent states taking into account excess Gaussian noise on quadrature distribution. Since the excess noise is reduced by the loss mechanism, a realistic intercept-resend attack which makes a Gaussian mixture of coherent states gives a loss limit in the presence of any excess Gaussian noise.

  10. Novel Multiparty Controlled Bidirectional Quantum Secure Direct Communication Based on Continuous-variable States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Zhen-Bo; Gong, Li-Hua; Wen, Ru-Hong

    2016-03-01

    A novel multiparty controlled bidirectional quantum secure direct communication protocol combining continuous-variable states with qubit block transmission is proposed. Two legitimate communication parties encode their own secret information into entangled optical modes with translation operations, and the secret information of each counterpart can only be recovered under the permission of all controllers. Due to continuous-variable states and block transmission strategy, the proposed protocol is easy to realize with perfect qubit efficiency. Security analyses show that the proposed protocol is free from common attacks, including the man-in-the-middle attack.

  11. Effects of Climate Variability and Change on Groundwater Resources of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gurdak, Jason S.; Hanson, Randall T.; Green, Timothy R.

    2009-01-01

    Groundwater is an important part of the global fresh water supply and is affected by climate. U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists are working with local, State, Federal, and international partners to understand how the availability and sustainability of groundwater resources in the United States will be affected by climate variability and change. This fact sheet describes climate variability and change, important groundwater resources of the Nation, and how USGS research is helping to answer critical questions about the effects of climate on groundwater.

  12. Analytical optimal controls for the state constrained addition and removal of cryoprotective agents

    PubMed Central

    Chicone, Carmen C.; Critser, John K.

    2014-01-01

    Cryobiology is a field with enormous scientific, financial and even cultural impact. Successful cryopreservation of cells and tissues depends on the equilibration of these materials with high concentrations of permeating chemicals (CPAs) such as glycerol or 1,2 propylene glycol. Because cells and tissues are exposed to highly anisosmotic conditions, the resulting gradients cause large volume fluctuations that have been shown to damage cells and tissues. On the other hand, there is evidence that toxicity to these high levels of chemicals is time dependent, and therefore it is ideal to minimize exposure time as well. Because solute and solvent flux is governed by a system of ordinary differential equations, CPA addition and removal from cells is an ideal context for the application of optimal control theory. Recently, we presented a mathematical synthesis of the optimal controls for the ODE system commonly used in cryobiology in the absence of state constraints and showed that controls defined by this synthesis were optimal. Here we define the appropriate model, analytically extend the previous theory to one encompassing state constraints, and as an example apply this to the critical and clinically important cell type of human oocytes, where current methodologies are either difficult to implement or have very limited success rates. We show that an enormous increase in equilibration efficiency can be achieved under the new protocols when compared to classic protocols, potentially allowing a greatly increased survival rate for human oocytes, and pointing to a direction for the cryopreservation of many other cell types. PMID:22527943

  13. Solid-state supercapacitors with ionic liquid based gel polymer electrolyte: Effect of lithium salt addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, G. P.; Hashmi, S. A.

    2013-12-01

    Performance characteristics of the solid-state supercapacitors fabricated with ionic liquid (IL) incorporated gel polymer electrolyte and acid treated multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) electrodes have been studied. The effect of Li-salt (LiPF6) addition in the IL (1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tris(pentafluoroethyl) trifluorophosphate, EMImFAP) based gel electrolyte on the performance of supercapacitors has been specifically investigated. The LiPF6/IL/poly(vinylidine fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVdF-HFP) gel electrolyte film possesses excellent electrochemical window of 4 V (from -2.0 to 2.0 V), high ionic conductivity ˜2.6 × 10-3 S cm-1 at 20 °C and high enough thermal stability. The comparative performance of supercapacitors employing electrolytes with and without lithium salt has been evaluated by impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetric studies. The acid-treated MWCNT electrodes show specific capacitance of ˜127 F g-1 with IL/LiPF6 containing gel polymer electrolyte as compared to that with the gel polymer electrolyte without Li-salt, showing the value of ˜76 F g-1. The long cycling stability of the solid state supercapacitor based on the Li-salt containing gel polymer electrolyte confirms the electrochemical stability of the electrolyte.

  14. Interannual Variability of Ammonia Concentrations over the United States: Sources and Implications for Inorganic Particulate Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiferl, L. D.; Heald, C. L.; Van Damme, M.; Pierre-Francois, C.; Clerbaux, C.

    2015-12-01

    Modern agricultural practices have greatly increased the emission of ammonia (NH3) to the atmosphere. Recent controls to reduce the emissions of sulfur and nitrogen oxides (SOX and NOX) have increased the importance of understanding the role ammonia plays in the formation of surface fine inorganic particulate matter (PM2.5) in the United States. In this study, we identify the interannual variability in ammonia concentration, explore the sources of this variability and determine their contribution to the variability in surface PM2.5 concentration. Over the summers of 2008-2012, measurements from the Ammonia Monitoring Network (AMoN) and the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) satellite instrument show considerable variability in both surface and column ammonia concentrations (+/- 29% and 28% of the mean), respectively. This observed variability is larger than that simulated by the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model, where meteorology dominates the variability in ammonia and PM2.5 concentrations compared to the changes caused by SOX and NOX reductions. Our initial simulation does not include year-to-year changes in ammonia agricultural emissions. We use county-wide information on fertilizer sales and livestock populations, as well as meteorological variations to account for the interannual variability in agricultural activity and ammonia volatilization. These sources of ammonia emission variability are important for replicating observed variations in ammonia and PM2.5, highlighting how accurate ammonia emissions characterization is central to PM air quality prediction.

  15. Assessing the future of crop yield variability in the United States with downscaled climate projections (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobell, D. B.; Urban, D.

    2010-12-01

    One aspect of climate change of particular concern to farmers and food markets is the potential for increased year-to-year variability in crop yields. Recent episodes of food price increases following the Australian drought or Russian heat wave have heightened this concern. Downscaled climate projections that properly capture the magnitude of daily and interannual variability of weather can be useful for projecting future yield variability. Here we examine the potential magnitude and cause of changes in variability of corn yields in the United States up to 2050. Using downscaled climate projections from multiple models, we estimate a distribution of changes in mean and variability of growing season average temperature and precipitation. These projections are then fed into a model of maize yield that explicitly factors in the effect of extremely warm days. Changes in yield variability can result from a shift in mean temperatures coupled with a nonlinear crop response, a shift in climate variability, or a combination of the two. The results are decomposed into these different causes, with implications for future research to reduce uncertainties in projections of future yield variability.

  16. Evidence for increasingly variable Palmer Drought Severity Index in the United States since 1895.

    PubMed

    Rayne, Sierra; Forest, Kaya

    2016-02-15

    Annual and summertime trends towards increasingly variable values of the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) over a sub-decadal period (five years) were investigated within the contiguous United States between 1895 and the present. For the contiguous United States as a whole, there is a significant increasing trend in the five-year running minimum-maximum ranges for the annual PDSI (aPDSI5 yr(min|max, range)). During this time frame, the average aPDSI5 yr(min|max, range) has increased by about one full unit, indicating a substantial increase in drought variability over short time scales across the United States. The end members of the running aPDSI5 yr(min|max, range) highlight even more rapid changes in the drought index variability within the past 120 years. This increasing variability in the aPDSI5 yr(min|max, range) is driven primarily by changes taking place in the Pacific and Atlantic Ocean coastal climate regions, climate regions which collectively comprise one-third the area of the contiguous United States. Similar trends were found for the annual and summertime Palmer Hydrological Drought Index (PHDI), the Palmer Modified Drought Index (PMDI), and the Palmer Z Index (PZI). Overall, interannual drought patterns in the contiguous United States are becoming more extreme and difficult to predict, posing a challenge to agricultural and other water-resource related planning efforts.

  17. Utilizing multiple state variables to improve the dynamic range of analog switching in a memristor

    SciTech Connect

    Jeong, YeonJoo; Kim, Sungho; Lu, Wei D.

    2015-10-26

    Memristors and memristive systems have been extensively studied for data storage and computing applications such as neuromorphic systems. To act as synapses in neuromorphic systems, the memristor needs to exhibit analog resistive switching (RS) behavior with incremental conductance change. In this study, we show that the dynamic range of the analog RS behavior can be significantly enhanced in a tantalum-oxide-based memristor. By controlling different state variables enabled by different physical effects during the RS process, the gradual filament expansion stage can be selectively enhanced without strongly affecting the abrupt filament length growth stage. Detailed physics-based modeling further verified the observed experimental effects and revealed the roles of oxygen vacancy drift and diffusion processes, and how the diffusion process can be selectively enhanced during the filament expansion stage. These findings lead to more desirable and reliable memristor behaviors for analog computing applications. Additionally, the ability to selectively control different internal physical processes demonstrated in the current study provides guidance for continued device optimization of memristor devices in general.

  18. Anomalous Low States and Long Term Variability in the Black Hole Binary LMC X-3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smale, Alan P.; Boyd, Patricia T.

    2012-01-01

    Rossi X-my Timing Explorer observations of the black hole binary LMC X-3 reveal an extended very low X-ray state lasting from 2003 December 13 until 2004 March 18, unprecedented both in terms of its low luminosity (>15 times fainter than ever before seen in this source) and long duration (approx 3 times longer than a typical low/hard state excursion). During this event little to no source variability is observed on timescales of approx hours-weeks, and the X-ray spectrum implies an upper limit of 1.2 x 10(exp 35) erg/s, Five years later another extended low state occurs, lasting from 2008 December 11 until 2009 June 17. This event lasts nearly twice as long as the first, and while significant variability is observed, the source remains reliably in the low/hard spectral state for the approx 188 day duration. These episodes share some characteristics with the "anomalous low states" in the neutron star binary Her X-I. The average period and amplitude of the Variability of LMC X-3 have different values between these episodes. We characterize the long-term variability of LMC X-3 before and after the two events using conventional and nonlinear time series analysis methods, and show that, as is the case in Her X-I, the characteristic amplitude of the variability is related to its characteristic timescale. Furthermore, the relation is in the same direction in both systems. This suggests that a similar mechanism gives rise to the long-term variability, which in the case of Her X-I is reliably modeled with a tilted, warped precessing accretion disk.

  19. ANOMALOUS LOW STATES AND LONG-TERM VARIABILITY IN THE BLACK HOLE BINARY LMC X-3

    SciTech Connect

    Smale, Alan P.; Boyd, Patricia T. E-mail: padi.boyd@nasa.gov

    2012-09-10

    Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer observations of the black hole binary LMC X-3 reveal an extended very low X-ray state lasting from 2003 December 13 until 2004 March 18, unprecedented both in terms of its low luminosity (>15 times fainter than ever before seen in this source) and long duration ({approx}3 times longer than a typical low/hard state excursion). During this event little to no source variability is observed on timescales of {approx}hours-weeks, and the X-ray spectrum implies an upper limit of 1.2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 35} erg s{sup -1}. Five years later another extended low state occurs, lasting from 2008 December 11 until 2009 June 17. This event lasts nearly twice as long as the first, and while significant variability is observed, the source remains reliably in the low/hard spectral state for the {approx}188 day duration. These episodes share some characteristics with the 'anomalous low states' in the neutron star binary Her X-1. The average period and amplitude of the variability of LMC X-3 have different values between these episodes. We characterize the long-term variability of LMC X-3 before and after the two events using conventional and nonlinear time series analysis methods, and show that, as is the case in Her X-1, the characteristic amplitude of the variability is related to its characteristic timescale. Furthermore, the relation is in the same direction in both systems. This suggests that a similar mechanism gives rise to the long-term variability, which in the case of Her X-1 is reliably modeled with a tilted, warped precessing accretion disk.

  20. State-variable models of structures having rigid-body modes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craig, Roy R., Jr.; Su, Tsu-Jeng; Ni, Zhenhua

    1990-01-01

    In cases where the equations of motion of a structure having rigid-body freedom are cast in state-variable form, generalized state rigid-body modes may be needed. It is possible to find a linearly-independent set of generalized vectors which transform an n x n matrix into the almost-diagonal Jordan form. Attention is presently given to equations governing these generalized eigenvectors, together with illustrative examples of the damped and undamped structure cases.

  1. The Effect of Three Cognitive Variables on Students' Understanding of the Particulate Nature of Matter and its Changes of State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsitsipis, Georgios; Stamovlasis, Dimitrios; Papageorgiou, George

    2010-05-01

    In this study, students' understanding of the structure of matter and its changes of state such as melting, evaporation, boiling, and condensation was investigated in relation to three cognitive variables: logical thinking (LTh), field dependence/independence, and convergence/divergence dimension. The study took place in Greece with the participation of 329 ninth-grade junior high school pupils (age 14-15). A stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed that all of the above-mentioned cognitive variables were statistically significant predictors of the students' achievement. Among the three predictors, LTh was found to be the most dominant. In addition, students' understanding of the structure of matter, along with the cognitive variables, was shown to have an effect on their understanding of the changes of states and on their competence to interpret these physical changes. Path analyses were implemented to depict these effects. Moreover, a theoretical analysis is provided that associates LTh and cognitive styles with the nature of mental tasks involved when learning the material concerning the particulate nature of matter and its changes of state. Implications for science education are also discussed.

  2. Effects of climate oscillations on wind resource variability in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamlington, B. D.; Hamlington, P. E.; Collins, S. G.; Alexander, S. R.; Kim, K.-Y.

    2015-01-01

    Natural climate variations in the United States wind resource are assessed by using cyclostationary empirical orthogonal functions (CSEOFs) to decompose wind reanalysis data. Compared to approaches that average climate signals or assume stationarity of the wind resource on interannual time scales, the CSEOF analysis isolates variability associated with specific climate oscillations, as well as their modulation from year to year. Contributions to wind speed variability from the modulated annual cycle (MAC) and the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) are quantified, and information provided by the CSEOF analysis further allows the spatial variability of these effects to be determined. The impacts of the MAC and ENSO on the wind resource are calculated at existing wind turbine locations in the United States, revealing variations in the wind speed of up to 30% at individual sites. The results presented here have important implications for predictions of wind plant power output and siting.

  3. Quantum error correction of continuous-variable states against Gaussian noise

    SciTech Connect

    Ralph, T. C.

    2011-08-15

    We describe a continuous-variable error correction protocol that can correct the Gaussian noise induced by linear loss on Gaussian states. The protocol can be implemented using linear optics and photon counting. We explore the theoretical bounds of the protocol as well as the expected performance given current knowledge and technology.

  4. Heart Rate Variability – a Tool to Differentiate Positive and Negative Affective States in Pigs?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The causal neurophysiological processes, such as autonomic nervous system activity, that mediate behavioral and physiological reactivity to an environment have largely been ignored. Heart rate variability (HRV) analysis is a clinical diagnostic tool used to assess affective states (stressful and ple...

  5. The Use of Heart Rate Variability as a Novel Method to Differentiate between Affective States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The major goal of animal welfare scientists is to determine when animals are experiencing a state of good welfare or poor welfare. The goal of this research was to determine if measures of heart rate variability can be used to differentiate whether animals are experiencing ‘unpleasant’ versus ‘pleas...

  6. State-variable analysis of non-linear circuits with a desk computer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, E.

    1981-01-01

    State variable analysis was used to analyze the transient performance of non-linear circuits on a desk top computer. The non-linearities considered were not restricted to any circuit element. All that is required for analysis is the relationship defining each non-linearity be known in terms of points on a curve.

  7. Dynamics of Neurobehavioral Performance Variability Under Forced Desynchrony: Evidence of State Instability

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xuan; Ferguson, Sally A.; Matthews, Raymond W.; Sargent, Charli; Darwent, David; Kennaway, David J.; Roach, Gregory D.

    2011-01-01

    Study Objectives: The state instability hypothesis posits that increasing sleep drive brings about escalating state instability in attention, making neurobehavioral performance increasingly variable. This hypothesis predicts that performance variability is a function of prior wake, circadian phase, and time on task. These predictions have been supported when wakefulness is beyond the habitual wake period. Our study aimed to test these predictions within the habitual wake period. Design: A 12-calendar-day 28-h forced desynchrony protocol consisting of 7 repetitions of a 28-h sleep/wake cycle, with two-thirds time awake and one-third time in bed. Each wake period included 7 equally spaced 1-h testing sessions. Setting: A time-isolation sleep laboratory. Participants: Thirteen young healthy males. Interventions: Wake periods during the protocol were 4 h delayed each 28-h “day” relative to the circadian system, such that they were distributed across the whole circadian cycle. This allowed performance testing at different combinations of prior wake of a habitual length (i.e., < 18 h) and circadian phase. Measurements and Results: Performance variability was indexed by standard deviation of response times within a 10-min psychomotor vigilance task. We found that response times became more variable with increasing wakefulness and towards circadian nadir, i.e., when sleep drive was increasing. These changes in response time variability were however not dependent on time on task, which is likely due to the modest level of sleep drive in our study. Conclusions: The state instability hypothesis, as an explanation for the responsiveness of neurobehavioral performance to increasing sleep drive, is supported during the habitual wake period. Citation: Zhou X; Ferguson SA; Matthews RW; Sargent C; Darwent D; Kennaway DJ; Roach GD. Dynamics of neurobehavioral performance variability under forced desynchrony: evidence of state instability. SLEEP 2011;34(1):57-63. PMID:21203373

  8. a Latent Variable Path Analysis Model of Secondary Physics Enrollments in New York State.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobolewski, Stanley John

    The Percentage of Enrollment in Physics (PEP) at the secondary level nationally has been approximately 20% for the past few decades. For a more scientifically literate citizenry as well as specialists to continue scientific research and development, it is desirable that more students enroll in physics. Some of the predictor variables for physics enrollment and physics achievement that have been identified previously includes a community's socioeconomic status, the availability of physics, the sex of the student, the curriculum, as well as teacher and student data. This study isolated and identified predictor variables for PEP of secondary schools in New York. Data gathered by the State Education Department for the 1990-1991 school year was used. The source of this data included surveys completed by teachers and administrators on student characteristics and school facilities. A data analysis similar to that done by Bryant (1974) was conducted to determine if the relationships between a set of predictor variables related to physics enrollment had changed in the past 20 years. Variables which were isolated included: community, facilities, teacher experience, number of type of science courses, school size and school science facilities. When these variables were isolated, latent variable path diagrams were proposed and verified by the Linear Structural Relations computer modeling program (LISREL). These diagrams differed from those developed by Bryant in that there were more manifest variables used which included achievement scores in the form of Regents exam results. Two criterion variables were used, percentage of students enrolled in physics (PEP) and percent of students enrolled passing the Regents physics exam (PPP). The first model treated school and community level variables as exogenous while the second model treated only the community level variables as exogenous. The goodness of fit indices for the models was 0.77 for the first model and 0.83 for the second

  9. Variability and Limits of US State Laws Regulating Workplace Wellness Programs.

    PubMed

    Pomeranz, Jennifer L; Garcia, Andrea M; Vesprey, Randy; Davey, Adam

    2016-06-01

    We examined variability in state laws related to workplace wellness programs for public and private employers. We conducted legal research using LexisNexis and Westlaw to create a master list of US state laws that existed in 2014 dedicated to workplace wellness programs. The master list was then divided into laws focusing on public employers and private employers. We created 2 codebooks to describe the variables used to examine the laws. Coders used LawAtlas(SM) Workbench to code the laws related to workplace wellness programs. Thirty-two states and the District of Columbia had laws related to workplace wellness programs in 2014. Sixteen states and the District of Columbia had laws dedicated to public employers, and 16 states had laws dedicated to private employers. Nine states and the District of Columbia had laws that did not specify employer type. State laws varied greatly in their methods of encouraging or shaping wellness program requirements. Few states have comprehensive requirements or incentives to support evidence-based workplace wellness programs.

  10. Quantum key distribution using continuous-variable non-Gaussian states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borelli, L. F. M.; Aguiar, L. S.; Roversi, J. A.; Vidiella-Barranco, A.

    2016-02-01

    In this work, we present a quantum key distribution protocol using continuous-variable non-Gaussian states, homodyne detection and post-selection. The employed signal states are the photon added then subtracted coherent states (PASCS) in which one photon is added and subsequently one photon is subtracted from the field. We analyze the performance of our protocol, compared with a coherent state-based protocol, for two different attacks that could be carried out by the eavesdropper (Eve). We calculate the secret key rate transmission in a lossy line for a superior channel (beam-splitter) attack, and we show that we may increase the secret key generation rate by using the non-Gaussian PASCS rather than coherent states. We also consider the simultaneous quadrature measurement (intercept-resend) attack, and we show that the efficiency of Eve's attack is substantially reduced if PASCS are used as signal states.

  11. Sensing for directed energy deposition and powder bed fusion additive manufacturing at Penn State University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nassar, Abdalla R.; Reutzel, Edward W.; Brown, Stephen W.; Morgan, John P.; Morgan, Jacob P.; Natale, Donald J.; Tutwiler, Rick L.; Feck, David P.; Banks, Jeffery C.

    2016-04-01

    Additive manufacturing of metal components through directed energy deposition or powder bed fusion is a complex undertaking, often involving hundreds or thousands of individual laser deposits. During processing, conditions may fluctuate, e.g. material feed rate, beam power, surrounding gas composition, local and global temperature, build geometry, etc., leading to unintended variations in final part geometry, microstructure and properties. To assess or control as-deposited quality, researchers have used a variety of methods, including those based on sensing of melt pool and plume emission characteristics, characteristics of powder application, and layer-wise imaging. Here, a summary of ongoing process monitoring activities at Penn State is provided, along with a discussion of recent advancements in the area of layer-wise image acquisition and analysis during powder bed fusion processing. Specifically, methods that enable direct comparisons of CAD model, build images, and 3D micro-tomographic scan data will be covered, along with thoughts on how such analyses can be related to overall process quality.

  12. Trends and variability in snowmelt runoff in the western United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCabe, G.J.; Clark, M.P.

    2005-01-01

    The timing of snowmelt runoff (SMR) for 84 rivers in the western United States is examined to understand the character of SMR variability and the climate processes that may be driving changes in SMR timing. Results indicate that the timing of SMR for many rivers in the western United States has shifted to earlier in the snowmelt season. This shift occurred as a step change during the mid-1980s in conjunction with a step increase in spring and early-summer atmospheric pressures and temperatures over the western United States. The cause of the step change has not yet been determined. ?? 2005 American Meteorological Society.

  13. Near-optimal, asymptotic tracking in control problems involving state-variable inequality constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markopoulos, N.; Calise, A. J.

    1993-01-01

    The class of all piecewise time-continuous controllers tracking a given hypersurface in the state space of a dynamical system can be split by the present transformation technique into two disjoint classes; while the first of these contains all controllers which track the hypersurface in finite time, the second contains all controllers that track the hypersurface asymptotically. On this basis, a reformulation is presented for optimal control problems involving state-variable inequality constraints. If the state constraint is regarded as 'soft', there may exist controllers which are asymptotic, two-sided, and able to yield the optimal value of the performance index.

  14. Continuous-variable quantum information processing with squeezed states of light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yonezawa, H.; Furusawa, A.

    2010-02-01

    We investigate experiments of continuous-variable quantum information processing based on the teleportation scheme. Quantum teleportation, which is realized by a two-mode squeezed vacuum state and measurement-and-feedforward, is considered as an elementary quantum circuit as well as quantum communication. By modifying ancilla states or measurement-and-feedforwards, we can realize various quantum circuits which suffice for universal quantum computation. In order to realize the teleportation-based computation we improve the level of squeezing, and fidelity of teleportation. With a high-fidelity teleporter we demonstrate some advanced teleportation experiments, i.e., teleportation of a squeezed state and sequential teleportation of a coherent state. Moreover, as an example of the teleportation-based computation, we build a QND interaction gate which is a continuous-variable analog of a CNOT gate. A QND interaction gate is constructed only with ancillary squeezed vacuum states and measurement-and-feedforwards. We also create continuous-variable four mode cluster type entanglement for further application, namely, one-way quantum computation.

  15. Interannual variability of ammonia concentrations over the United States: sources and implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiferl, Luke D.; Heald, Colette L.; Van Damme, Martin; Clarisse, Lieven; Clerbaux, Cathy; Coheur, Pierre-François; Nowak, John B.; Neuman, J. Andrew; Herndon, Scott C.; Roscioli, Joseph R.; Eilerman, Scott J.

    2016-09-01

    The variability of atmospheric ammonia (NH3), emitted largely from agricultural sources, is an important factor when considering how inorganic fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations and nitrogen cycling are changing over the United States. This study combines new observations of ammonia concentration from the surface, aboard aircraft, and retrieved by satellite to both evaluate the simulation of ammonia in a chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem) and identify which processes control the variability of these concentrations over a 5-year period (2008-2012). We find that the model generally underrepresents the ammonia concentration near large source regions (by 26 % at surface sites) and fails to reproduce the extent of interannual variability observed at the surface during the summer (JJA). Variability in the base simulation surface ammonia concentration is dominated by meteorology (64 %) as compared to reductions in SO2 and NOx emissions imposed by regulation (32 %) over this period. Introduction of year-to-year varying ammonia emissions based on animal population, fertilizer application, and meteorologically driven volatilization does not substantially improve the model comparison with observed ammonia concentrations, and these ammonia emissions changes have little effect on the simulated ammonia concentration variability compared to those caused by the variability of meteorology and acid-precursor emissions. There is also little effect on the PM2.5 concentration due to ammonia emissions variability in the summer when gas-phase changes are favored, but variability in wintertime emissions, as well as in early spring and late fall, will have a larger impact on PM2.5 formation. This work highlights the need for continued improvement in both satellite-based and in situ ammonia measurements to better constrain the magnitude and impacts of spatial and temporal variability in ammonia concentrations.

  16. Generating arbitrary photon-number entangled states for continuous-variable quantum informatics.

    PubMed

    Lee, Su-Yong; Park, Jiyong; Lee, Hai-Woong; Nha, Hyunchul

    2012-06-18

    We propose two experimental schemes that can produce an arbitrary photon-number entangled state (PNES) in a finite dimension. This class of entangled states naturally includes non-Gaussian continuous-variable (CV) states that may provide some practical advantages over the Gaussian counterparts (two-mode squeezed states). We particularly compare the entanglement characteristics of the Gaussian and the non-Gaussian states in view of the degree of entanglement and the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen correlation, and further discuss their applications to the CV teleportation and the nonlocality test. The experimental imperfection due to the on-off photodetectors with nonideal efficiency is also considered in our analysis to show the feasibility of our schemes within existing technologies. PMID:22714485

  17. Local hidden variable models for entangled quantum States using finite shared randomness.

    PubMed

    Bowles, Joseph; Hirsch, Flavien; Quintino, Marco Túlio; Brunner, Nicolas

    2015-03-27

    The statistics of local measurements performed on certain entangled states can be reproduced using a local hidden variable (LHV) model. While all known models make use of an infinite amount of shared randomness, we show that essentially all entangled states admitting a LHV model can be simulated with finite shared randomness. Our most economical model simulates noisy two-qubit Werner states using only log_{2}(12)≃3.58 bits of shared randomness. We also discuss the case of positive operator valued measures, and the simulation of nonlocal states with finite shared randomness and finite communication. Our work represents a first step towards quantifying the cost of LHV models for entangled quantum states.

  18. Corresponding-states behavior of an ionic model fluid with variable dispersion interactions.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Volker C

    2016-06-21

    Guggenheim's corresponding-states approach for simple fluids leads to a remarkably universal representation of their thermophysical properties. For more complex fluids, such as polar or ionic ones, deviations from this type of behavior are to be expected, thereby supplying us with valuable information about the thermodynamic consequences of the interaction details in fluids. Here, the gradual transition of a simple fluid to an ionic one is studied by varying the relative strength of the dispersion interactions compared to the electrostatic interactions among the charged particles. In addition to the effects on the reduced surface tension that were reported earlier [F. Leroy and V. C. Weiss, J. Chem. Phys. 134, 094703 (2011)], we address the shape of the coexistence curve and focus on properties that are related to and derived from the vapor pressure. These quantities include the enthalpy and entropy of vaporization, the boiling point, and the critical compressibility factor Zc. For all of these properties, the crossover from simple to characteristically ionic fluid is seen once the dispersive attraction drops below 20%-40% of the electrostatic attraction (as measured for two particles at contact). Below this threshold, ionic fluids display characteristically low values of Zc as well as large Guggenheim and Guldberg ratios for the reduced enthalpy of vaporization and the reduced boiling point, respectively. The coexistence curves are wider and more skewed than those for simple fluids. The results for the ionic model fluid with variable dispersion interactions improve our understanding of the behavior of real ionic fluids, such as inorganic molten salts and room temperature ionic liquids, by gauging the importance of different types of interactions for thermodynamic properties.

  19. Corresponding-states behavior of an ionic model fluid with variable dispersion interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, Volker C.

    2016-06-01

    Guggenheim's corresponding-states approach for simple fluids leads to a remarkably universal representation of their thermophysical properties. For more complex fluids, such as polar or ionic ones, deviations from this type of behavior are to be expected, thereby supplying us with valuable information about the thermodynamic consequences of the interaction details in fluids. Here, the gradual transition of a simple fluid to an ionic one is studied by varying the relative strength of the dispersion interactions compared to the electrostatic interactions among the charged particles. In addition to the effects on the reduced surface tension that were reported earlier [F. Leroy and V. C. Weiss, J. Chem. Phys. 134, 094703 (2011)], we address the shape of the coexistence curve and focus on properties that are related to and derived from the vapor pressure. These quantities include the enthalpy and entropy of vaporization, the boiling point, and the critical compressibility factor Zc. For all of these properties, the crossover from simple to characteristically ionic fluid is seen once the dispersive attraction drops below 20%-40% of the electrostatic attraction (as measured for two particles at contact). Below this threshold, ionic fluids display characteristically low values of Zc as well as large Guggenheim and Guldberg ratios for the reduced enthalpy of vaporization and the reduced boiling point, respectively. The coexistence curves are wider and more skewed than those for simple fluids. The results for the ionic model fluid with variable dispersion interactions improve our understanding of the behavior of real ionic fluids, such as inorganic molten salts and room temperature ionic liquids, by gauging the importance of different types of interactions for thermodynamic properties.

  20. Projected changes in snowfall extremes and interannual variability of snowfall in the western United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lute, A. C.; Abatzoglou, J. T.; Hegewisch, K. C.

    2015-02-01

    Projected warming will have significant impacts on snowfall accumulation and melt, with implications for water availability and management in snow-dominated regions. Changes in snowfall extremes are confounded by projected increases in precipitation extremes. Downscaled climate projections from 20 global climate models were bias-corrected to montane Snowpack Telemetry stations across the western United States to assess mid-21st century changes in the mean and variability of annual snowfall water equivalent (SFE) and extreme snowfall events, defined by the 90th percentile of cumulative 3 day SFE amounts. Declines in annual SFE and number of snowfall days were projected for all stations. Changes in the magnitude of snowfall event quantiles were sensitive to historical winter temperature. At climatologically cooler locations, such as in the Rocky Mountains, changes in the magnitude of snowfall events mirrored changes in the distribution of precipitation events, with increases in extremes and less change in more moderate events. By contrast, declines in snowfall event magnitudes were found for all quantiles in warmer locations. Common to both warmer and colder sites was a relative increase in the magnitude of snowfall extremes compared to annual SFE and a larger fraction of annual SFE from snowfall extremes. The coefficient of variation of annual SFE increased up to 80% in warmer montane regions due to projected declines in snowfall days and the increased contribution of snowfall extremes to annual SFE. In addition to declines in mean annual SFE, more frequent low-snowfall years and less frequent high-snowfall years were projected for every station.

  1. Corresponding-states behavior of an ionic model fluid with variable dispersion interactions.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Volker C

    2016-06-21

    Guggenheim's corresponding-states approach for simple fluids leads to a remarkably universal representation of their thermophysical properties. For more complex fluids, such as polar or ionic ones, deviations from this type of behavior are to be expected, thereby supplying us with valuable information about the thermodynamic consequences of the interaction details in fluids. Here, the gradual transition of a simple fluid to an ionic one is studied by varying the relative strength of the dispersion interactions compared to the electrostatic interactions among the charged particles. In addition to the effects on the reduced surface tension that were reported earlier [F. Leroy and V. C. Weiss, J. Chem. Phys. 134, 094703 (2011)], we address the shape of the coexistence curve and focus on properties that are related to and derived from the vapor pressure. These quantities include the enthalpy and entropy of vaporization, the boiling point, and the critical compressibility factor Zc. For all of these properties, the crossover from simple to characteristically ionic fluid is seen once the dispersive attraction drops below 20%-40% of the electrostatic attraction (as measured for two particles at contact). Below this threshold, ionic fluids display characteristically low values of Zc as well as large Guggenheim and Guldberg ratios for the reduced enthalpy of vaporization and the reduced boiling point, respectively. The coexistence curves are wider and more skewed than those for simple fluids. The results for the ionic model fluid with variable dispersion interactions improve our understanding of the behavior of real ionic fluids, such as inorganic molten salts and room temperature ionic liquids, by gauging the importance of different types of interactions for thermodynamic properties. PMID:27334174

  2. Towards a relevant set of state variables to describe static granular packings.

    PubMed

    Pugnaloni, Luis A; Sánchez, Iván; Gago, Paula A; Damas, José; Zuriguel, Iker; Maza, Diego

    2010-11-01

    We analyze, experimentally and numerically, the steady states, obtained by tapping, of a two-dimensional granular layer. Contrary to the usual assumption, we show that the reversible (steady state branch) of the density-acceleration curve is nonmonotonous. Accordingly, steady states with the same mean volume can be reached by tapping the system with very different intensities. Simulations of dissipative frictional disks show that equal volume steady states have different values of the force moment tensor. Additionally, we find that steady states of equal stress can be obtained by changing the duration of the taps; however, these states present distinct mean volumes. These results confirm previous speculations that the volume and the force moment tensor are both needed to describe univocally equilibrium states in static granular assemblies.

  3. Mid to late Holocene Leeuwin Current variability offshore southern Australia linked to ENSO state changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perner, Kerstin; Moros, Matthias; De Deckker, Patrick; Blanz, Thomas; Siegel, Herbert; Wacker, Lukas; Schneider, Ralph; Jansen, Eystein

    2015-04-01

    The El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), a key aspect of the Earth's climate, drives regional to global oceanic and climate changes on various time-scales. Differences in the temporal coverage of Holocene records for the more general state in El Niño frequency, however, restrict a comprehensive overview. Oceanic variability offshore southern Australia is linked to the Leeuwin Current (LC), an eastern boundary current, transporting tropical waters from the Indo Pacific Warm Pool region towards higher latitudes. Instrumental data, spanning the last few decades, document that ENSO modulates LC variability. Here we present new, well-dated time series from two marine sediment cores (MD03-2611 and SS0206-GC 15)of past LC variability, based on alkenone-derived sea-surface temperatures (SST) and planktonic foraminifera offshore southern Australia, an area affected by recent El Niño and La Niña events. Our reconstructions of ENSO-state changes cover the last 7,400 years. With transition into the mid Holocene [dates], we find clear evidence that oceanic conditions prevailed under the dominant influence of a persistent La Niña mode. A strong LC produces a stratified water column and establishes a permanent thermocline as seen in the high abundance of the 'tropical fauna' (Globoturborotalita rubescens, Globoturborotalita tenella and Globigerinella sacculifer (including G. trilobus)) and maximum SST offshore southern Australia. During this La Niña-state dominated period, we record at c. 5000 years BP the first short period of a strong El Niño-like-state, by a pronounced drop in abundance of the subtropical species Globigerinoides ruber and a reduced SST gradient between the two core sites. The Late Holocene (from 3,500 years BP onwards) period is characterized by centennial to millennial scale variability in the LC strength, which is accompanied by an overall decrease of SSTs offshore southern Australia. We link this LC variability to Late Holocene centennial

  4. Finite element analysis of notch behavior using a state variable constitutive equation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dame, L. T.; Stouffer, D. C.; Abuelfoutouh, N.

    1985-01-01

    The state variable constitutive equation of Bodner and Partom was used to calculate the load-strain response of Inconel 718 at 649 C in the root of a notch. The constitutive equation was used with the Bodner-Partom evolution equation and with a second evolution equation that was derived from a potential function of the stress and state variable. Data used in determining constants for the constitutive models was from one-dimensional smooth bar tests. The response was calculated for a plane stress condition at the root of the notch with a finite element code using constant strain triangular elements. Results from both evolution equations compared favorably with the observed experimental response. The accuracy and efficiency of the finite element calculations also compared favorably to existing methods.

  5. Atomic homodyne detection of continuous-variable entangled twin-atom states.

    PubMed

    Gross, C; Strobel, H; Nicklas, E; Zibold, T; Bar-Gill, N; Kurizki, G; Oberthaler, M K

    2011-12-01

    Historically, the completeness of quantum theory has been questioned using the concept of bipartite continuous-variable entanglement. The non-classical correlations (entanglement) between the two subsystems imply that the observables of one subsystem are determined by the measurement choice on the other, regardless of the distance between the subsystems. Nowadays, continuous-variable entanglement is regarded as an essential resource, allowing for quantum enhanced measurement resolution, the realization of quantum teleportation and quantum memories, or the demonstration of the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox. These applications rely on techniques to manipulate and detect coherences of quantum fields, the quadratures. Whereas in optics coherent homodyne detection of quadratures is a standard technique, for massive particles a corresponding method was missing. Here we report the realization of an atomic analogue to homodyne detection for the measurement of matter-wave quadratures. The application of this technique to a quantum state produced by spin-changing collisions in a Bose-Einstein condensate reveals continuous-variable entanglement, as well as the twin-atom character of the state. Our results provide a rare example of continuous-variable entanglement of massive particles. The direct detection of atomic quadratures has applications not only in experimental quantum atom optics, but also for the measurement of fields in many-body systems of massive particles. PMID:22139418

  6. Designing stable finite state machine behaviors using phase plane analysis and variable structure control

    SciTech Connect

    Feddema, J.T.; Robinett, R.D.; Driessen, B.J.

    1998-03-10

    This paper discusses how phase plane analysis can be used to describe the overall behavior of single and multiple autonomous robotic vehicles with finite state machine rules. The importance of this result is that one can begin to design provably asymptotically stable group behaviors from a set of simple control laws and appropriate switching points with decentralized variable structure control. The ability to prove asymptotically stable group behavior is especially important for applications such as locating military targets or land mines.

  7. Temporal-mode continuous-variable cluster states using linear optics

    SciTech Connect

    Menicucci, Nicolas C.

    2011-06-15

    An extensible experimental design for optical continuous-variable cluster states of arbitrary size using four offline (vacuum) squeezers and six beam splitters is presented. This method has all the advantages of a temporal-mode encoding [Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 250503 (2010)], including finite requirements for coherence and stability even as the computation length increases indefinitely, with none of the difficulty of inline squeezing. The extensibility stems from a construction based on Gaussian projected entangled pair states. The potential for use of this design within a fully fault-tolerant model is discussed.

  8. Fault-tolerant measurement-based quantum computing with continuous-variable cluster states.

    PubMed

    Menicucci, Nicolas C

    2014-03-28

    A long-standing open question about Gaussian continuous-variable cluster states is whether they enable fault-tolerant measurement-based quantum computation. The answer is yes. Initial squeezing in the cluster above a threshold value of 20.5 dB ensures that errors from finite squeezing acting on encoded qubits are below the fault-tolerance threshold of known qubit-based error-correcting codes. By concatenating with one of these codes and using ancilla-based error correction, fault-tolerant measurement-based quantum computation of theoretically indefinite length is possible with finitely squeezed cluster states.

  9. Failure mode analysis using state variables derived from fault trees with application

    SciTech Connect

    Bartholomew, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) is used extensively to assess both the qualitative and quantitative reliability of engineered nuclear power systems employing many subsystems and components. FTA is very useful, but the method is limited by its inability to account for failure mode rate-of-change interdependencies (coupling) of statistically independent failure modes. The state variable approach (using FTA-derived failure modes as states) overcomes these difficulties and is applied to the determination of the lifetime distribution function for a heat pipe-thermoelectric nuclear power subsystem. Analyses are made using both Monte Carlo and deterministic methods and compared with a Markov model of the same subsystem.

  10. Why Lifespans Are More Variable Among Blacks Than Among Whites in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Acciai, Francesco; Noah, Aggie J.; Prather, Christopher; Nau, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Lifespans are both shorter and more variable for blacks than for whites in the United States. Because their lifespans are more variable, there is greater inequality in length of life—and thus greater uncertainty about the future—among blacks. This study is the first to decompose the black-white difference in lifespan variability in America. Are lifespans more variable for blacks because they are more likely to die of causes that disproportionately strike the young and middle-aged, or because age at death varies more for blacks than for whites among those who succumb to the same cause? We find that it is primarily the latter. For almost all causes of death, age at death is more variable for blacks than it is for whites, especially among women. Although some youthful causes of death, such as homicide and HIV/AIDS, contribute to the black-white disparity in variance, those contributions are largely offset by the higher rates of suicide and drug poisoning deaths for whites. As a result, differences in the causes of death for blacks and whites account, on net, for only about one-eighth of the difference in lifespan variance. PMID:25391224

  11. Climate Variability and Change and Their Potential Health Effects in Small Island States: Information for Adaptation Planning in the Health Sector

    PubMed Central

    Ebi, Kristie L.; Lewis, Nancy D.; Corvalan, Carlos

    2006-01-01

    Small island states are likely the countries most vulnerable to climate variability and long-term climate change. Climate models suggest that small island states will experience warmer temperatures and changes in rainfall, soil moisture budgets, prevailing winds (speed and direction), and patterns of wave action. El Niño events likely will strengthen short-term and interannual climate variations. In addition, global mean sea level is projected to increase by 0.09–0.88 m by 2100, with variable effects on regional and local sea level. To better understand the potential human health consequences of these projected changes, a series of workshops and a conference organized by the World Health Organization, in partnership with the World Meteorological Organization and the United Nations Environment Programme, addressed the following issues: the current distribution and burden of climate-sensitive diseases in small island states, the potential future health impacts of climate variability and change, the interventions currently used to reduce the burden of climate-sensitive diseases, additional interventions that are needed to adapt to current and future health impacts, and the health implications of climate variability and change in other sectors. Information on these issues is synthesized and key recommendations are identified for improving the capacity of the health sector to anticipate and prepare for climate variability and change in small island states. PMID:17185291

  12. Climate variability and change and their potential health effects in small island states: information for adaptation planning in the health sector.

    PubMed

    Ebi, Kristie L; Lewis, Nancy D; Corvalan, Carlos

    2006-12-01

    Small island states are likely the countries most vulnerable to climate variability and longterm climate change. Climate models suggest that small island states will experience warmer temperatures and changes in rainfall, soil moisture budgets, prevailing winds (speed and direction), and patterns of wave action. El Niño events likely will strengthen shortterm and interannual climate variations. In addition, global mean sea level is projected to increase by 0.09-0.88 m by 2100, with variable effects on regional and local sea level. To better understand the potential human health consequences of these projected changes, a series of workshops and a conference organized by the World Health Organization, in partnership with the World Meteorological Organization and the United Nations Environment Programme, addressed the following issues: the current distribution and burden of climate-sensitive diseases in small island states, the potential future health impacts of climate variability and change, the interventions currently used to reduce the burden of climate-sensitive diseases, additional interventions that are needed to adapt to current and future health impacts, and the health implications of climate variability and change in other sectors. Information on these issues is synthesized and key recommendations are identified for improving the capacity of the health sector to anticipate and prepare for climate variability and change in small island states.

  13. A STATE-VARIABLE APPROACH FOR PREDICTING THE TIME REQUIRED FOR 50% RECRYSTALLIZATION

    SciTech Connect

    M. STOUT; ET AL

    2000-08-01

    It is important to be able to model the recrystallization kinetics in aluminum alloys during hot deformation. The industrial relevant process of hot rolling is an example of where the knowledge of whether or not a material recrystallizes is critical to making a product with the correct properties. Classically, the equations that describe the kinetics of recrystallization predict the time to 50% recrystallization. These equations are largely empirical; they are based on the free energy for recrystallization, a Zener-Holloman parameter, and have several adjustable exponents to fit the equation to engineering data. We have modified this form of classical theory replacing the Zener-Hollomon parameter with a deformation energy increment, a free energy available to drive recrystallization. The advantage of this formulation is that the deformation energy increment is calculated based on the previously determined temperature and strain-rate sensitivity of the constitutive response. We modeled the constitutive response of the AA5182 aluminum using a state variable approach, the value of the state variable is a function of the temperature and strain-rate history of deformation. Thus, the recrystallization kinetics is a function of only the state variable and free energy for recrystallization. There are no adjustable exponents as in classical theory. Using this approach combined with engineering recrystallization data we have been able to predict the kinetics of recrystallization in AA5182 as a function of deformation strain rate and temperature.

  14. Contribution of Land-atmosphere Coupling to Summer Climate Variability over the Contiguous United States

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jingyong; Wang, Wei-Chyung; Leung, Lai R.

    2008-11-27

    The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model has been used to study the role of land-atmosphere coupling in influencing interannual summer climate variability over the contiguous U.S. Two long-term climate simulations are performed: A control experiment (CTL) allows soil moisture to interact freely with the atmosphere, and an additional experiment uncouples the land surface from the atmosphere by replacing soil moisture at each time step with the climatology of CTL. The CTL simulation reproduces well the observed temperature and precipitation variability, despite some discrepancies in daily mean and maximum temperature variability in the Midwest/Ohio Valley region and the adjacent areas, and precipitation variability in the Great Plains and some other areas. Strong coupling of soil moisture with daily mean temperature appears mainly over the transitional zone between cold and warm climates from the Southwest to the northern Great Plains to the Southeast, contributing up to about 30%-60% of the total interannual variance of temperature. There is a significantly different influence on daily maximum and minimum temperatures. Whereas soil moisture plays a leading role in explaining the variability of maximum temperature over the transitional zone, minimum temperature variability is highly constrained by external factors including atmospheric circulation and sea surface temperature almost everywhere over land. Soil moisture, mainly through its effects on convection, makes a dominant contribution to precipitation variability over about half of the northern U.S. The model’s behavior agrees generally well with land-atmosphere relationships diagnosed using available observations and soil moisture data from the Global Land Data Assimilation System.

  15. Continuous Variable Cluster State Generation over the Optical Spatial Mode Comb

    DOE PAGES

    Pooser, Raphael C.; Jing, Jietai

    2014-10-20

    One way quantum computing uses single qubit projective measurements performed on a cluster state (a highly entangled state of multiple qubits) in order to enact quantum gates. The model is promising due to its potential scalability; the cluster state may be produced at the beginning of the computation and operated on over time. Continuous variables (CV) offer another potential benefit in the form of deterministic entanglement generation. This determinism can lead to robust cluster states and scalable quantum computation. Recent demonstrations of CV cluster states have made great strides on the path to scalability utilizing either time or frequency multiplexingmore » in optical parametric oscillators (OPO) both above and below threshold. The techniques relied on a combination of entangling operators and beam splitter transformations. Here we show that an analogous transformation exists for amplifiers with Gaussian inputs states operating on multiple spatial modes. By judicious selection of local oscillators (LOs), the spatial mode distribution is analogous to the optical frequency comb consisting of axial modes in an OPO cavity. We outline an experimental system that generates cluster states across the spatial frequency comb which can also scale the amount of quantum noise reduction to potentially larger than in other systems.« less

  16. Continuous Variable Cluster State Generation over the Optical Spatial Mode Comb

    SciTech Connect

    Pooser, Raphael C.; Jing, Jietai

    2014-10-20

    One way quantum computing uses single qubit projective measurements performed on a cluster state (a highly entangled state of multiple qubits) in order to enact quantum gates. The model is promising due to its potential scalability; the cluster state may be produced at the beginning of the computation and operated on over time. Continuous variables (CV) offer another potential benefit in the form of deterministic entanglement generation. This determinism can lead to robust cluster states and scalable quantum computation. Recent demonstrations of CV cluster states have made great strides on the path to scalability utilizing either time or frequency multiplexing in optical parametric oscillators (OPO) both above and below threshold. The techniques relied on a combination of entangling operators and beam splitter transformations. Here we show that an analogous transformation exists for amplifiers with Gaussian inputs states operating on multiple spatial modes. By judicious selection of local oscillators (LOs), the spatial mode distribution is analogous to the optical frequency comb consisting of axial modes in an OPO cavity. We outline an experimental system that generates cluster states across the spatial frequency comb which can also scale the amount of quantum noise reduction to potentially larger than in other systems.

  17. 34 CFR 403.12 - What are the additional responsibilities of the State board?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... model curricula to address State labor market needs. The technical committees shall develop an inventory... relevant occupations; and (iii) Organized labor, if appropriate. (c) Except for the functions described...

  18. 42 CFR 440.360 - State plan requirements for providing additional services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... CFR 156.100. ... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS SERVICES: GENERAL PROVISIONS Benchmark Benefit and Benchmark-Equivalent Coverage § 440.360 State plan requirements for providing...

  19. 42 CFR 440.360 - State plan requirement for providing additional services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... benchmark plans described in 45 CFR 156.100. ... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS SERVICES: GENERAL PROVISIONS Benchmark Benefit and Benchmark-Equivalent Coverage § 440.360 State plan requirement for providing...

  20. 42 CFR 460.48 - Additional actions by CMS or the State.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) Sanctions, Enforcement Actions, and Termination § 460.48 Additional actions...

  1. 42 CFR 460.48 - Additional actions by CMS or the State.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) Sanctions, Enforcement Actions, and Termination § 460.48 Additional actions...

  2. 42 CFR 460.48 - Additional actions by CMS or the State.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) Sanctions, Enforcement Actions, and Termination § 460.48 Additional actions...

  3. 42 CFR 460.48 - Additional actions by CMS or the State.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) Sanctions, Enforcement Actions, and Termination § 460.48 Additional actions...

  4. 42 CFR 460.48 - Additional actions by CMS or the State.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) Sanctions, Enforcement Actions, and Termination § 460.48 Additional actions...

  5. Habitat and Vegetation Variables Are Not Enough When Predicting Tick Populations in the Southeastern United States

    PubMed Central

    Trout Fryxell, R. T.; Moore, J. E.; Collins, M. D.; Kwon, Y.; Jean-Philippe, S. R.; Schaeffer, S. M.; Odoi, A.; Kennedy, M.; Houston, A. E.

    2015-01-01

    Two tick-borne diseases with expanding case and vector distributions are ehrlichiosis (transmitted by Amblyomma americanum) and rickettiosis (transmitted by A. maculatum and Dermacentor variabilis). There is a critical need to identify the specific habitats where each of these species is likely to be encountered to classify and pinpoint risk areas. Consequently, an in-depth tick prevalence study was conducted on the dominant ticks in the southeast. Vegetation, soil, and remote sensing data were used to test the hypothesis that habitat and vegetation variables can predict tick abundances. No variables were significant predictors of A. americanum adult and nymph tick abundance, and no clustering was evident because this species was found throughout the study area. For A. maculatum adult tick abundance was predicted by NDVI and by the interaction between habitat type and plant diversity; two significant population clusters were identified in a heterogeneous area suitable for quail habitat. For D. variabilis no environmental variables were significant predictors of adult abundance; however, D. variabilis collections clustered in three significant areas best described as agriculture areas with defined edges. This study identified few landscape and vegetation variables associated with tick presence. While some variables were significantly associated with tick populations, the amount of explained variation was not useful for predicting reliably where ticks occur; consequently, additional research that includes multiple sampling seasons and locations throughout the southeast are warranted. This low amount of explained variation may also be due to the use of hosts for dispersal, and potentially to other abiotic and biotic variables. Host species play a large role in the establishment, maintenance, and dispersal of a tick species, as well as the maintenance of disease cycles, dispersal to new areas, and identification of risk areas. PMID:26656122

  6. Habitat and Vegetation Variables Are Not Enough When Predicting Tick Populations in the Southeastern United States.

    PubMed

    Trout Fryxell, R T; Moore, J E; Collins, M D; Kwon, Y; Jean-Philippe, S R; Schaeffer, S M; Odoi, A; Kennedy, M; Houston, A E

    2015-01-01

    Two tick-borne diseases with expanding case and vector distributions are ehrlichiosis (transmitted by Amblyomma americanum) and rickettiosis (transmitted by A. maculatum and Dermacentor variabilis). There is a critical need to identify the specific habitats where each of these species is likely to be encountered to classify and pinpoint risk areas. Consequently, an in-depth tick prevalence study was conducted on the dominant ticks in the southeast. Vegetation, soil, and remote sensing data were used to test the hypothesis that habitat and vegetation variables can predict tick abundances. No variables were significant predictors of A. americanum adult and nymph tick abundance, and no clustering was evident because this species was found throughout the study area. For A. maculatum adult tick abundance was predicted by NDVI and by the interaction between habitat type and plant diversity; two significant population clusters were identified in a heterogeneous area suitable for quail habitat. For D. variabilis no environmental variables were significant predictors of adult abundance; however, D. variabilis collections clustered in three significant areas best described as agriculture areas with defined edges. This study identified few landscape and vegetation variables associated with tick presence. While some variables were significantly associated with tick populations, the amount of explained variation was not useful for predicting reliably where ticks occur; consequently, additional research that includes multiple sampling seasons and locations throughout the southeast are warranted. This low amount of explained variation may also be due to the use of hosts for dispersal, and potentially to other abiotic and biotic variables. Host species play a large role in the establishment, maintenance, and dispersal of a tick species, as well as the maintenance of disease cycles, dispersal to new areas, and identification of risk areas.

  7. Distillation of mixed-state continuous-variable entanglement by photon subtraction

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Shengli; Loock, Peter van

    2010-12-15

    We present a detailed theoretical analysis for the distillation of one copy of a mixed two-mode continuous-variable entangled state using beam splitters and coherent photon-detection techniques, including conventional on-off detectors and photon-number-resolving detectors. The initial Gaussian mixed-entangled states are generated by transmitting a two-mode squeezed state through a lossy bosonic channel, corresponding to the primary source of errors in current approaches to optical quantum communication. We provide explicit formulas to calculate the entanglement in terms of logarithmic negativity before and after distillation, including losses in the channel and the photon detection, and show that one-copy distillation is still possible even for losses near the typical fiber channel attenuation length. A lower bound for the transmission coefficient of the photon-subtraction beam splitter is derived, representing the minimal value that still allows to enhance the entanglement.

  8. Storage and retrieval of continuous-variable polarization-entangled cluster states in atomic ensembles

    SciTech Connect

    Li Dachuang; Yuan Chunhua; Zhang Weiping; Cao Zhuoliang

    2011-08-15

    We present a proposal for storing and retrieving a continuous-variable quadripartite polarization-entangled cluster state, using macroscopic atomic ensembles in a magnetic field. The Larmor precession of the atomic spins leads to a symmetry between the atomic canonical operators. In this scheme, each of the four spatially separated pulses passes twice through the respective ensemble in order to map the polarization-entangled cluster state onto the long-lived atomic ensembles. The stored state can then be retrieved by another four read-out pulses, each crossing the respective ensemble twice. By calculating the variances, we analyzed the fidelities of the storage and retrieval, and our scheme is feasible under realistic experimental conditions.

  9. On the optimal minimum order observer-based compensator and the limited state variable feedback controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Llorens-Ortiz, B.

    1976-01-01

    Four design problems are considered: two on the optimal minimum order observer-based compensator design and two on the optimal limited state variable feedback controller. The problem of designing an optimal discrete time linear time-invariant observer-based compensator for the regulation of an n dimensional linear discrete time time-invariant plant with m independent outputs is considered. This is a stochastic design problem to the extent that the initial plant state is assumed to be a random vector with known first and second order statistics. The compensator parameters are obtained by minimizing the expectation, with respect to the initial conditions, of the standard cost, quadratic in the state and control vectors with the inclusion of cross terms.

  10. Stimulus Variability Affects the Amplitude of the Auditory Steady-State Response

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, Michael I. G.; Woods, William P.; Prendergast, Garreth; Johnson, Sam R.; Green, Gary G. R.

    2012-01-01

    In this study we investigate whether stimulus variability affects the auditory steady-state response (ASSR). We present cosinusoidal AM pulses as stimuli where we are able to manipulate waveform shape independently of the fixed repetition rate of 4 Hz. We either present sounds in which the waveform shape, the pulse-width, is fixed throughout the presentation or where it varies pseudo-randomly. Importantly, the average spectra of all the fixed-width AM stimuli are equal to the spectra of the mixed-width AM. Our null hypothesis is that the average ASSR to the fixed-width AM will not be significantly different from the ASSR to the mixed-width AM. In a region of interest beamformer analysis of MEG data, we compare the 4 Hz component of the ASSR to the mixed-width AM with the 4 Hz component of the ASSR to the pooled fixed-width AM. We find that at the group level, there is a significantly greater response to the variable mixed-width AM at the medial boundary of the Middle and Superior Temporal Gyri. Hence, we find that adding variability into AM stimuli increases the amplitude of the ASSR. This observation is important, as it provides evidence that analysis of the modulation waveform shape is an integral part of AM processing. Therefore, standard steady-state studies in audition, using sinusoidal AM, may not be sensitive to a key feature of acoustic processing. PMID:22509343

  11. Assessing evapotranspiration variability in contiguous United States: Comparing the various remote-sensed observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, X.; Zeng, R.

    2015-12-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET) couples the water cycle and energy budget of hydrological processes. Understanding the components of ET variability and their spatial distribution is essential for improving hydrological simulations, quantifying ET observation uncertainties and supporting water resources management under climate change. Although advances in monitoring hydrological components have been made, how to use various existing observations to obtain a better knowledge about ET variability remains a challenging task. This study adopts a system approach to analyze ET variability in contiguous United States, considering the factors of climatic forcing fluctuations and catchment storage dynamics. We apply an ET variance decomposition framework (Zeng and Cai, 2015) to calculate monthly ET variance based on climatic forcing (i.e., precipitation and potential ET) and GRACE terrestrial storage change data. We quantify the various sources of ET variance, in terms of variances of precipitation, potential ET and terrestrial storage and their covariances, and obtain a spatial map of its primary and secondary controlling factors in the in contiguous United States. Furthermore, the estimated ET variance is compared to two existing ET products (e.g., MODIS-based remote sensing and FLUEXNET-based interpolation). It is found that FLUXNET-based interpolation is systematically smaller than the estimated ET variance with less deviation; while the MODIS-based ET agrees with estimated ET variance with larger uncertainty. The decomposition framework provides not only an independent estimation of ET variance but also a method to assess the uncertainty of existing ET products.

  12. Tropical interannual variability in a global coupled GCM: Sensitivity to mean climate state

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, A.M.

    1995-04-01

    A global coupled ocean-atmosphere-sea ice general circulation model is used to study interannual variability in the Tropics. Flux correction is used to control the mean climate of the coupled system, and in one configuration of the coupled model, interannual variability in the tropical Pacific is dominated by westward moving anomalies. Through a series of experiments in which the equatorial ocean wave speeds and ocean-atmosphere coupling strength are varied, it is demonstrated that these westward moving disturbances are probably some manifestation of what Neelin describes as an {open_quotes}SST mode.{close_quotes} By modifying the flux correction procedure, the mean climate of the coupled model can be changed. A fairly modest change in the mean climate is all that is required to excite eastward moving anomalies in place of the westward moving SST modes found previously. The apparent sensitivity of the nature of tropical interannual variability to the mean climate state in a coupled general circulation model such as that used here suggests that caution is advisable if we try to use such models to answer questions relating to changes in ENSO-like variability associated with global climate change. 41 refs., 23 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Long-term trend and variability of precipitation in Chhattisgarh State, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meshram, Sarita Gajbhiye; Singh, Vijay P.; Meshram, Chandrashekhar

    2016-04-01

    Spatial and temporal precipitation variability in Chhattisgarh State in India was examined by using monthly precipitation data for 102 years (1901-2002) from 16 stations. The homogeneity of precipitation data was evaluated by the double-mass curve approach and the presence of serial correlation by lag-1 autocorrelation coefficient. Linear regression analysis, the conventional Mann-Kendall (MK) test, and Spearman's rho were employed to identify trends and Sen's slope to estimate the slope of trend line. The coefficient of variation (CV) was used to analyze precipitation variability. Spatial interpolation was done by a Kriging process using ArcGIS 9.3. Results of both parametric and non-parametric tests and trend tests showed that at 5 % significance level, annual precipitation exhibited a decreasing trend at all stations except Bilaspur and Dantewada. For both annual and monsoon precipitation, Sen's test showed a decreasing trend for all stations, except Bilaspur and Dantewada. The highest percentage of variability was observed in winter precipitation (88.75 %) and minimum percentage variability in annual series (14.01 %) over the 102-year periods.

  14. Determination of organic additives in mortars by near-IR spectroscopy. A novel approach to designing a sample set with high-variability components.

    PubMed

    Blanco, Marcelo; Peguero, Anna

    2007-02-01

    Industrial mortars consist primarily of a mixture of cement and an aggregate plus a small amount of additives that are used to modify specific properties. Using too high or too low additive rates usually results in the loss of desirable properties in the end product. This entails carefully controlling the amounts of additives added to mortar in order to ensure correct dosing and/or adequate homogeneity in the final mixture. Near-IR (NIR) spectroscopy has proved effective for this purpose as it requires no sample pretreatment and affords expeditious analyses. The purpose of this work was to determine two organic additives (viz. Ad1 and Ad2) in mortars by using partial least squares regression multivariate calibration models constructed from NIR spectroscopic data. The additives are used to expedite setting and increase cohesion between particles in the mortar. In order to ensure that the sample set contained natural variability in the samples, we used a methodology based on experimental design to construct a representative set of samples. This novel design is based on a hexagonal antiprism that encompasses the concentration ranges spanned by the analytes and the variability inherent in each additive. The D-optimality criterion was used to obtain various combinations between Ad1 and Ad2 additive classes. The partial least squares calibration models thus constructed for each additive provided accurate predictions: the intercept and the slope of the plots of predicted values versus reference values for each additive were close to 0 and 1, respectively, and their confidence ranges included the respective value. The ensuing analytical methods were validated by using an external sample set.

  15. Using Multigroup-Multiphase Latent State-Trait Models to Study Treatment-Induced Changes in Intra-Individual State Variability: An Application to Smokers' Affect

    PubMed Central

    Geiser, Christian; Griffin, Daniel; Shiffman, Saul

    2016-01-01

    Sometimes, researchers are interested in whether an intervention, experimental manipulation, or other treatment causes changes in intra-individual state variability. The authors show how multigroup-multiphase latent state-trait (MG-MP-LST) models can be used to examine treatment effects with regard to both mean differences and differences in state variability. The approach is illustrated based on a randomized controlled trial in which N = 338 smokers were randomly assigned to nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) vs. placebo prior to quitting smoking. We found that post quitting, smokers in both the NRT and placebo group had significantly reduced intra-individual affect state variability with respect to the affect items calm and content relative to the pre-quitting phase. This reduction in state variability did not differ between the NRT and placebo groups, indicating that quitting smoking may lead to a stabilization of individuals' affect states regardless of whether or not individuals receive NRT. PMID:27499744

  16. Efficient method for computing the maximum-likelihood quantum state from measurements with additive Gaussian noise.

    PubMed

    Smolin, John A; Gambetta, Jay M; Smith, Graeme

    2012-02-17

    We provide an efficient method for computing the maximum-likelihood mixed quantum state (with density matrix ρ) given a set of measurement outcomes in a complete orthonormal operator basis subject to Gaussian noise. Our method works by first changing basis yielding a candidate density matrix μ which may have nonphysical (negative) eigenvalues, and then finding the nearest physical state under the 2-norm. Our algorithm takes at worst O(d(4)) for the basis change plus O(d(3)) for finding ρ where d is the dimension of the quantum state. In the special case where the measurement basis is strings of Pauli operators, the basis change takes only O(d(3)) as well. The workhorse of the algorithm is a new linear-time method for finding the closest probability distribution (in Euclidean distance) to a set of real numbers summing to one.

  17. Analyzing Variability in Ebola-Related Controls Applied to Returned Travelers in the United States.

    PubMed

    Kraemer, John D; Siedner, Mark J; Stoto, Michael A

    2015-01-01

    Public health authorities have adopted entry screening and subsequent restrictions on travelers from Ebola-affected West African countries as a strategy to prevent importation of Ebola virus disease (EVD) cases. We analyzed international, federal, and state policies-principally based on the policy documents themselves and media reports-to evaluate policy variability. We employed means-ends fit analysis to elucidate policy objectives. We found substantial variation in the specific approaches favored by WHO, CDC, and various American states. Several US states impose compulsory quarantine on a broader range of travelers or require more extensive monitoring than recommended by CDC or WHO. Observed differences likely partially resulted from different actors having different policy goals-particularly the federal government having to balance foreign policy objectives less salient to states. Further, some state-level variation appears to be motivated by short-term political goals. We propose recommendations to improve future policies, which include the following: (1) actors should explicitly clarify their objectives, (2) legal authority should be modernized and clarified, and (3) the federal government should consider preempting state approaches that imperil its goals. PMID:26348222

  18. Analyzing Variability in Ebola-Related Controls Applied to Returned Travelers in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Siedner, Mark J.; Stoto, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Public health authorities have adopted entry screening and subsequent restrictions on travelers from Ebola-affected West African countries as a strategy to prevent importation of Ebola virus disease (EVD) cases. We analyzed international, federal, and state policies—principally based on the policy documents themselves and media reports—to evaluate policy variability. We employed means-ends fit analysis to elucidate policy objectives. We found substantial variation in the specific approaches favored by WHO, CDC, and various American states. Several US states impose compulsory quarantine on a broader range of travelers or require more extensive monitoring than recommended by CDC or WHO. Observed differences likely partially resulted from different actors having different policy goals—particularly the federal government having to balance foreign policy objectives less salient to states. Further, some state-level variation appears to be motivated by short-term political goals. We propose recommendations to improve future policies, which include the following: (1) actors should explicitly clarify their objectives, (2) legal authority should be modernized and clarified, and (3) the federal government should consider preempting state approaches that imperil its goals. PMID:26348222

  19. Changes in Autonomic Variables Following Two Meditative States Described in Yoga Texts

    PubMed Central

    Raghavendra, Bhat Ramachandra; Naveen, Kalkuni Visweswaraiah; Manjunath, Nandi Krishnamurthy; Kumar, Sanjay; Subramanya, Pailoor

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objectives In ancient yoga texts there are two meditative states described. One is dharana, which requires focusing, the second is dhyana, during which there is no focusing, but an expansive mental state is reached. While an earlier study did show improved performance in an attention task after dharana, the autonomic changes during these two states have not been studied. Methods Autonomic and respiratory variables were assessed in 30 healthy male volunteers (group mean age±SD, 29.1±5.1 years) during four mental states described in traditional yoga texts. These four mental states are random thinking (cancalata), nonmeditative focusing (ekagrata), meditative focusing (dharana), and effortless meditation (dhyana). Assessments were made before (5 minutes), during (20 minutes), and after (5 minutes), each of the four states, on four separate days. Results During dhyana there was a significant increase in the skin resistance level (p<0.001; post hoc analysis following ANOVA, during compared to pre) and photo-plethysmogram amplitude (p<0.05), whereas there was a significant decrease in the heart rate (p<0.001) and breath rate (p<0.001). There was a significant decrease in the low frequency (LF) power (p<0.001) and increase in the high frequency (HF) power (p<0.001) in the frequency domain analysis of the heart rate variability (HRV) spectrum, on which HF power is associated with parasympathetic activity. There was also a significant increase in the NN50 count (the number of interval differences of successive NN intervals greater than 50 ms; p<0.001) and the pNN50 (the proportion derived by dividing NN50 by the total number of NN intervals; p<0.001) in time domain analysis of HRV, both indicative of parasympathetic activity. Conclusions Maximum changes were seen in autonomic variables and breath rate during the state of effortless meditation (dhyana). The changes were all suggestive of reduced sympathetic activity and/or increased vagal modulation. During

  20. Formation mechanism for the amplitude of interannual climate variability in subtropical northern hemisphere: relative contributions from the zonal asymmetric mean state and the interannual variability of SST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Chao; Lin, Ailan; Gu, Dejun; Li, Chunhui; Zheng, Bin

    2016-04-01

    The Amplitude Interannual climate Variability (AIV) differs among the subtropical northern hemisphere, and the Western North Pacific (WNP) was claimed to exhibit the largest AIV. The robustness of the AIV pattern is investigated in this study with different atmospheric variables from multiple datasets. As consistently shown by the interannual variance patterns of precipitation and circulation, the AIV over subtropical northern hemisphere closely follows the mean state of precipitation, where higher (lower) AIV is located at moister (drier) regions. The largest AIV is seen over the broad area from South Asia to WNP, followed by a secondary local maximum over the Gulf of Mexico. To further investigate the formation mechanism for the AIV pattern, numerical simulations are performed by Community Atmosphere Model version 4 (CAM4). The zonal asymmetry of AIV is reduced if the interannual SST variability is removed, and it almost disappears if the zonal asymmetry of SST mean state is removed. The results suggest that the zonal asymmetric AIV pattern primarily originates from the zonal asymmetric SST mean state, and it is amplified by the interannual SST variability. The atmospheric convection-circulation feedback plays a key role in connecting the AIV with the mean state precipitation. In both observation and CAM4 simulations, stronger (weaker) convection-circulation feedback is seen in moister (drier) regions. By modulating the mean state precipitation and the associated intensity of convection-circulation feedback, the zonal asymmetric SST mean state accounts for the zonal asymmetry of AIV in the subtropical northern hemisphere.

  1. 75 FR 65368 - Additional Waivers Granted to and Alternative Requirements for the State of Illinois' CDBG...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-22

    ...' CDBG Disaster Recovery Grant Under Public Law 110-329 AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, HUD. ACTION... waivers and alternative requirements applicable to the Community Development Block Grant (CDBG) disaster... the consequences of the State's 2008 disasters. HUD previously published allocation and...

  2. 34 CFR 694.23 - What additional activities are allowable for State GEAR UP projects?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... of students. (c) Providing administrative support to help build the capacity of Partnerships to... that align efforts in the State to prepare eligible students to attend and succeed in postsecondary... students. (f)(1) Disseminating information on effective coursework and support services that...

  3. 34 CFR 694.23 - What additional activities are allowable for State GEAR UP projects?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... of students. (c) Providing administrative support to help build the capacity of Partnerships to... that align efforts in the State to prepare eligible students to attend and succeed in postsecondary... students. (f)(1) Disseminating information on effective coursework and support services that...

  4. 34 CFR 694.23 - What additional activities are allowable for State GEAR UP projects?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... of students. (c) Providing administrative support to help build the capacity of Partnerships to... that align efforts in the State to prepare eligible students to attend and succeed in postsecondary... students. (f)(1) Disseminating information on effective coursework and support services that...

  5. 34 CFR 694.23 - What additional activities are allowable for State GEAR UP projects?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... of students. (c) Providing administrative support to help build the capacity of Partnerships to... that align efforts in the State to prepare eligible students to attend and succeed in postsecondary... students. (f)(1) Disseminating information on effective coursework and support services that...

  6. 42 CFR 403.306 - Additional requirements for State systems-mandatory approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... effect of materially changing payments to hospitals can take effect only upon 60 days notice to CMS and to the hospitals likely to be materially affected by the change and upon CMS's approval of the change... designated under State law; (ii) Provide for payments to hospitals using a methodology under which—...

  7. Additional Handicapping Conditions Among Hearing Impaired Students. United States: 1971-72.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gentile, Augustine; McCarthy Barbara

    The Annual Survey of Hearing Impaired Children and Youth (1971-72) obtained information on 42,513 students enrolled in 636 preschool, elementary, and secondary educational programs for the hearing impaired. Data were gathered on the number of hearing impaired students with additional handicapping conditions, the types of conditions reported, the…

  8. Variable pulse repetition frequency output from an optically injected solid state laser.

    PubMed

    Kane, D M; Toomey, J P

    2011-02-28

    An optically injected solid state laser (OISSL) system is known to generate complex nonlinear dynamics within the parameter space of varying the injection strength of the master laser and the frequency detuning between the master and slave lasers. Here we show that within these complex nonlinear dynamics, a system which can be operated as a source of laser pulses with a pulse repetition frequency (prf) that can be continuously varied by a single control, is embedded. Generation of pulse repetition frequencies ranging from 200 kHz up to 4 MHz is shown to be achievable for an optically injected Nd:YVO4 solid state laser system from analysis of prior experimental and simulation results. Generalizing this to other optically injected solid state laser systems, the upper bound on the repetition frequency is of order the relaxation oscillation frequency for the lasers. The system is discussed in the context of prf versatile laser systems more generally. Proposals are made for the next generation of OISSLs that will increase understanding of the variable pulse repetition frequency operation, and determine its practical limitations. Such variable prf laser systems; both low powered, and, higher powered systems achieved using one or more optical power amplifier stages; have many potential applications from interrogating resonance behaviors in microscale structures, through sensing and diagnostics, to laser processing.

  9. The influence of climate state variables on Atlantic Tropical Cyclone occurrence rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabbatelli, Thomas A.; Mann, Michael E.

    2007-09-01

    We analyzed annual North Atlantic tropical cyclone (TC) counts from 1871-2004, considering three climate state variables—the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO), peak (August-October or `ASO') Sea Surface Temperatures (SST) over the main development region (`MDR': 6-18°N, 20-60°W), and the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO)—thought to influence variations in annual TC counts on interannual and longer timescales. The unconditional distribution of TC counts is observed to be inconsistent with the null hypothesis of a fixed rate random (Poisson) process. However, using two different methods, we find that conditioning TC counts on just two climate state variables, ENSO and MDR SST, can account for much or all of the apparent non-random variations over time in TC counts. Based on statistical models of annual Atlantic TC counts developed in this study and current forecasts of climate state variables, we predicted m = 15 ± 4 total named storms for the 2007 season.

  10. Attribution of Trends and Variability in Surface Ozone over the United States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strode, Sarah; Cooper, Owen; Damo, Megan; Logan, Jennifer; Rodriquez, Jose; Strahan, Susan; Witte, Jacquie

    2013-01-01

    Concentrations of tropospheric ozone, a greenhouse gas and air pollutant, are impacted by changes in precursor emissions as well meteorology and influx from the stratosphere. Observations show a decreasing trend in summertime surface ozone at rural stations in the eastern United States, while some western stations show increasing trends, particularly in springtime. We use the Global Modeling Initiative (GMI) global chemical transport model to investigate the roles of precursor emission changes, meteorological variability, and stratosphere-troposphere exchange (STE) in explaining observed trends in surface ozone from rural sites in the United States from 1991-2010. The model's interannual variability shows significant correlations with observations from many of the surface sites. We also compare the simulated ozone to ozonesonde data for several locations with sufficiently long records. We compare a simulation with time-dependent precursor emissions, including emission reductions over the United States and Europe and increases over Asia, to a simulation with fixed emissions to quantify the impact of changing emissions on the surface trends. The simulation with varying emissions reproduces much of the east-west difference in summertime ozone over the U.S., although it generally underestimates the negative trend in the East. In contrast, the fixed-emission simulation shows increasing ozone at both eastern and western sites. We will discuss possible causes of this behavior, including long-range transport and STE.

  11. Internal state variable approach for predicting stiffness reductions in fibrous laminated composites with matrix cracks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jong-Won; Allen, D. H.; Harris, C. E.

    1989-01-01

    A mathematical model utilizing the internal state variable concept is proposed for predicting the upper bound of the reduced axial stiffnesses in cross-ply laminates with matrix cracks. The axial crack opening displacement is explicitly expressed in terms of the observable axial strain and the undamaged material properties. A crack parameter representing the effect of matrix cracks on the observable axial Young's modulus is calculated for glass/epoxy and graphite/epoxy material systems. The results show that the matrix crack opening displacement and the effective Young's modulus depend not on the crack length, but on its ratio to the crack spacing.

  12. Analyzing drivers of variability in the Δ17O of nitrate in the northwestern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, S. M.; Chung, S. H.; Welker, J. M.; Harlow, B.; Evans, R. D.

    2015-12-01

    The Δ17O of nitrate (NO3-) has beens used to track atmospheric inputs to ecosystems with biological sources near 0‰ and atmospheric sources from 20 to 40‰. The elevated Δ17O of atmospheric NO3- is due to oxidation with ozone. We analyzed the isotope composition of NO3- in weekly precipitation samples from 8 NADP/USNIP sites in the northwestern US between 1997-2004. Each site exhibits annual variation with lowest Δ17O during summer and highest Δ17O during winter. WA24 and WA19 exhibited the greatest (14.0‰) and least (8.9‰) annual variation, respectively. This significant and variable amount of seasonal change motivated analyzing drivers of this variability. Potential factors that influence Δ17O were evaluated with linear regression. Meteorological variables were tested which may account for inter-week variation. Measures of fire activity were included for effects on atmospheric oxidation. Lastly, NADP ion concentrations were used as potential indicators of marine influence which could introduce halogen chemistry and alter oxidation. Temperature was the only variable to significantly correlate with Δ17O at all sites (P<0.0001 at ID11 to P=0.05 at WA98). Fire activity (number of fires, area burned) significantly correlated with Δ17O at 4 of 8 sites (p<0.05) and suggested potential influence at 3 additional sites (0.1> P >0.05). No potential indicators of marine influence showed a relationship with Δ17O at coastal sites (WA19 and WA98), but there was a significant relationship between concentrations of Na and Cl with Δ17O at UT01 site which is influenced by the Great Salt Lake. Overall, temperature and fire activity best explain variability in the Δ17O of NO3- in the northwestern US. Understanding this variability is crucial to correctly attribute NO3- sources in ecological studies between biological and atmospheric inputs in mixing models. Incorrect accounting of variability leads to unnecessary error and incorrect identification of NO3- sources in

  13. Lake variability: key factors controlling mercury concentrations in New York State fish.

    PubMed

    Simonin, Howard A; Loukmas, Jefferey J; Skinner, Lawrence C; Roy, Karen M

    2008-07-01

    A 4year study surveyed 131 lakes across New York State beginning in 2003 to improve our understanding of mercury and gather information from previously untested waters. Our study focused on largemouth and smallmouth bass, walleye and yellow perch, common piscivorous fish shown to accumulate high mercury concentrations and species important to local fisheries. Fish from Adirondack and Catskill Forest Preserve lakes generally had higher mercury concentrations than those from lakes in other areas of the state. Variability between nearby individual lakes was observed, and could be due to differences in water chemistry, lake productivity or the abundance of wetlands in the watershed. We found the following factors impact mercury bioaccumulation: fish length, lake pH, specific conductivity, chlorophyll a, mercury concentration in the water, presence of an outlet dam and amount of contiguous wetlands.

  14. Spatiotemporal variability of the precipitation dipole transition zone in the western United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wise, Erika K.

    2010-04-01

    El Niño-Southern Oscillation-related hydroclimatic variability in the western United States is characterized by a north-south dipole pattern of precipitation anomalies with opposing signs. Here I use a high-resolution dataset to analyze spatiotemporal patterns in the transition zone between the centers of opposite association. Results indicate that the transition zone is spatially limited west of the continental divide, consisting of a narrow zone within the 40-42°N latitude band and portions of eastern Washington, eastern Oregon, and western Colorado. The transition zone was narrower when the Southern Oscillation Index and the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) were in a constructive phase and during the negative Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation phase. Although the transition zone has remained remarkably stationary across the Great Basin, shifts (likely PDO-related) have occurred over time in the West Coast states. Implications for water resource planning in river basins underlying the transition zone vary by region.

  15. Autoregressive modeling with state-space embedding vectors for damage detection under operational and environmental variability

    SciTech Connect

    Farrar, Charles; Figueiredo, Eloi; Todd, Michael; Flynn, Eric

    2010-01-01

    A nonlinear time series approach is presented to detect damage in systems by using a state-space reconstruction to infer the geometrical structure of a deterministic dynamical system from observed time series response at multiple locations. The unique contribution of this approach is using a Multivariate Autoregressive (MAR) model of a baseline condition to predict the state space, where the model encodes the embedding vectors rather than scalar time series. A hypothesis test is established that the MAR model will fail to predict future response if damage is present in the test condition, and this test is investigated for robustness in the context of operational and environmental variability. The applicability of this approach is demonstrated using acceleration time series from a base-excited 3-story frame structure.

  16. Definitions of state variables and state space for brain-computer interface : Part 2. Extraction and classification of feature vectors.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Walter J

    2007-06-01

    The hypothesis is proposed that the central dynamics of the action-perception cycle has five steps: emergence from an existing macroscopic brain state of a pattern that predicts a future goal state; selection of a mesoscopic frame for action control; execution of a limb trajectory by microscopic spike activity; modification of microscopic cortical spike activity by sensory inputs; construction of mesoscopic perceptual patterns; and integration of a new macroscopic brain state. The basis is the circular causality between microscopic entities (neurons) and the mesoscopic and macroscopic entities (populations) self-organized by axosynaptic interactions. Self-organization of neural activity is bidirectional in all cortices. Upwardly the organization of mesoscopic percepts from microscopic spike input predominates in primary sensory areas. Downwardly the organization of spike outputs that direct specific limb movements is by mesoscopic fields constituting plans to achieve predicted goals. The mesoscopic fields in sensory and motor cortices emerge as frames within macroscopic activity. Part 1 describes the action-perception cycle and its derivative reflex arc qualitatively. Part 2 describes the perceptual limb of the arc from microscopic MSA to mesoscopic wave packets, and from these to macroscopic EEG and global ECoG fields that express experience-dependent knowledge in successive states. These macroscopic states are conceived to embed and control mesoscopic frames in premotor and motor cortices that are observed in local ECoG and LFP of frontoparietal areas. The fields sampled by ECoG and LFP are conceived as local patterns of neural activity in which trajectories of multiple spike activities (MSA) emerge that control limb movements. Mesoscopic frames are located by use of the analytic signal from the Hilbert transform after band pass filtering. The state variables in frames are measured to construct feature vectors by which to describe and classify frame patterns

  17. Solid-state fermentation in rotating drum bioreactors: operating variables affect performance through their effects on transport phenomena.

    PubMed

    Stuart, D M; Mitchell, D A; Johns, M R; Litster, J D

    1999-05-20

    Aspergillus oryzae ACM 4996 was grown on an artificial gel-based substrate and on steamed wheat bran during solid-state fermentations in 18.7 L rotating drum bioreactors. For gel fermentations fungal growth decreased as rotational speed increased, presumably due to increased shear. For wheat bran fermentations fungal growth improved under agitated compared to static culture conditions, due to superior heat and mass transfer. We conclude that the effects of operational variables on the performance of SSF bioreactors are mediated by their effects on transport phenomena such as mixing, shear, heat transfer, and mass transfer within the substrate bed. In addition, the substrate characteristics affect the need for and the rates of these transport processes. Different transport phenomena may be rate limiting with different substrates. This work improves understanding of the effects of bioreactor operation on SSF performance. PMID:10099618

  18. Impact of climate variability on runoff in the north-central United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ryberg, Karen R.; Lin, Wei; Vecchia, Aldo V.

    2014-01-01

    Large changes in runoff in the north-central United States have occurred during the past century, with larger floods and increases in runoff tending to occur from the 1970s to the present. The attribution of these changes is a subject of much interest. Long-term precipitation, temperature, and streamflow records were used to compare changes in precipitation and potential evapotranspiration (PET) to changes in runoff within 25 stream basins. The basins studied were organized into four groups, each one representing basins similar in topography, climate, and historic patterns of runoff. Precipitation, PET, and runoff data were adjusted for near-decadal scale variability to examine longer-term changes. A nonlinear water-balance analysis shows that changes in precipitation and PET explain the majority of multidecadal spatial/temporal variability of runoff and flood magnitudes, with precipitation being the dominant driver. Historical changes in climate and runoff in the region appear to be more consistent with complex transient shifts in seasonal climatic conditions than with gradual climate change. A portion of the unexplained variability likely stems from land-use change.

  19. Definitions of state variables and state space for brain-computer interface : Part 1. Multiple hierarchical levels of brain function.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Walter J

    2007-03-01

    Neocortical state variables are defined and evaluated at three levels: microscopic using multiple spike activity (MSA), mesoscopic using local field potentials (LFP) and electrocorticograms (ECoG), and macroscopic using electroencephalograms (EEG) and brain imaging. Transactions between levels occur in all areas of cortex, upwardly by integration (abstraction, generalization) and downwardly by differentiation (speciation). The levels are joined by circular causality: microscopic activity upwardly creates mesoscopic order parameters, which downwardly constrain the microscopic activity that creates them. Integration dominates in sensory cortices. Microscopic activity evoked by receptor input in sensation induces emergence of mesoscopic activity in perception, followed by integration of perceptual activity into macroscopic activity in concept formation. The reverse process dominates in motor cortices, where the macroscopic activity embodying the concepts supports predictions of future states as goals. These macroscopic states are conceived to order mesoscopic activity in patterns that constitute plans for actions to achieve the goals. These planning patterns are conceived to provide frames in which the microscopic activity evolves in trajectories that adapted to the immediate environmental conditions detected by new stimuli. This circular sequence forms the action-perception cycle. Its upward limb is understood through correlation of sensory cortical activity with behavior. Now brain-machine interfaces (BMI) offer a means to understand the downward sequence through correlation of behavior with motor cortical activity, beginning with macroscopic goal states and concluding with recording of microscopic MSA trajectories that operate neuroprostheses. Part 1 develops a hypothesis that describes qualitatively the neurodynamics that supports the action-perception cycle and derivative reflex arc. Part 2 describes episodic, "cinematographic" spatial pattern formation and

  20. Boundary layer versus free tropospheric CO budget and variability over the United States during summertime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boynard, A.; Pfister, Gabriele G.; Edwards, David P.

    2012-02-01

    The regional Weather Research and Forecasting Model with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) version 3.2 is used to analyze the carbon monoxide (CO) budget and spatiotemporal variability over the United States in summer 2008. CO tracers for different emission sources are used to separate the modeled CO fields into the contributions from individual sources (pollution inflow to the model domain, chemical production within the model domain, and local emissions by type). The implementation of tagged CO tracers into WRF-Chem constitutes an innovative aspect of this work. We evaluate WRF-Chem CO concentrations using aircraft, satellite, and surface observations. The model reproduces fairly well the observed CO concentrations for the entire altitude range but tends to underestimate fire emissions and overestimate anthropogenic sources and CO from pollution inflow. Evaluation results also show that the model gives a good representation of background CO mixing ratios with mean biases better than ˜15 ppbv in the free troposphere (FT) and less than 20 ppbv toward the surface. The analysis of the CO budget over the contiguous United States shows that at the surface, CO from inflow is the dominant source, with a mean relative contribution of 63 ± 19%. Anthropogenic and photochemically produced CO contribute to surface CO to a lesser extent (18 ± 14% and 14 ± 8%, respectively). The average contribution from fire emissions to surface CO during the period examined is small (2 ± 5%) but can have a large impact in certain regions and times. Similar trends are found in the planetary boundary layer (PBL). In the FT, the average CO relative contributions are estimated as 84 ± 12% for CO from inflow, 5 ± 4% for anthropogenic CO, 9 ± 7% for photochemically produced CO, and 1 ± 5% for CO from fires. Using WRF-Chem simulations, we also examine the representation of surface and PBL CO concentration variability that would be captured by current near infrared (NIR) and thermal infrared (TIR

  1. Characterization of the hydration state of pharmaceuticals by variable-temperature diffuse-reflectance infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wasacz, Frank M.; Strand, Scott W.; Bugay, David E.; Morris, Kenneth R.

    1992-03-01

    The characterization of hydrates is exceedingly important for pharmaceuticals since the state of hydration of a drug can effect its solubility, dissolution rate, bioavailability, chemical stability, and the physical stability of subsequent dosage forms. In addition, the United States Food and Drug Administration concerns about the above issue make complete characterization of hydrates a necessary part of investigative new drug filings. A Collector TM Diffuse Reflectance accessory fitted with a controlled Environmental Chamber was used to study drug formulations under varying temperature and humidity conditions.

  2. Event triggered state estimation techniques for power systems with integrated variable energy resources.

    PubMed

    Francy, Reshma C; Farid, Amro M; Youcef-Toumi, Kamal

    2015-05-01

    For many decades, state estimation (SE) has been a critical technology for energy management systems utilized by power system operators. Over time, it has become a mature technology that provides an accurate representation of system state under fairly stable and well understood system operation. The integration of variable energy resources (VERs) such as wind and solar generation, however, introduces new fast frequency dynamics and uncertainties into the system. Furthermore, such renewable energy is often integrated into the distribution system thus requiring real-time monitoring all the way to the periphery of the power grid topology and not just the (central) transmission system. The conventional solution is two fold: solve the SE problem (1) at a faster rate in accordance with the newly added VER dynamics and (2) for the entire power grid topology including the transmission and distribution systems. Such an approach results in exponentially growing problem sets which need to be solver at faster rates. This work seeks to address these two simultaneous requirements and builds upon two recent SE methods which incorporate event-triggering such that the state estimator is only called in the case of considerable novelty in the evolution of the system state. The first method incorporates only event-triggering while the second adds the concept of tracking. Both SE methods are demonstrated on the standard IEEE 14-bus system and the results are observed for a specific bus for two difference scenarios: (1) a spike in the wind power injection and (2) ramp events with higher variability. Relative to traditional state estimation, the numerical case studies showed that the proposed methods can result in computational time reductions of 90%. These results were supported by a theoretical discussion of the computational complexity of three SE techniques. The work concludes that the proposed SE techniques demonstrate practical improvements to the computational complexity of

  3. Event triggered state estimation techniques for power systems with integrated variable energy resources.

    PubMed

    Francy, Reshma C; Farid, Amro M; Youcef-Toumi, Kamal

    2015-05-01

    For many decades, state estimation (SE) has been a critical technology for energy management systems utilized by power system operators. Over time, it has become a mature technology that provides an accurate representation of system state under fairly stable and well understood system operation. The integration of variable energy resources (VERs) such as wind and solar generation, however, introduces new fast frequency dynamics and uncertainties into the system. Furthermore, such renewable energy is often integrated into the distribution system thus requiring real-time monitoring all the way to the periphery of the power grid topology and not just the (central) transmission system. The conventional solution is two fold: solve the SE problem (1) at a faster rate in accordance with the newly added VER dynamics and (2) for the entire power grid topology including the transmission and distribution systems. Such an approach results in exponentially growing problem sets which need to be solver at faster rates. This work seeks to address these two simultaneous requirements and builds upon two recent SE methods which incorporate event-triggering such that the state estimator is only called in the case of considerable novelty in the evolution of the system state. The first method incorporates only event-triggering while the second adds the concept of tracking. Both SE methods are demonstrated on the standard IEEE 14-bus system and the results are observed for a specific bus for two difference scenarios: (1) a spike in the wind power injection and (2) ramp events with higher variability. Relative to traditional state estimation, the numerical case studies showed that the proposed methods can result in computational time reductions of 90%. These results were supported by a theoretical discussion of the computational complexity of three SE techniques. The work concludes that the proposed SE techniques demonstrate practical improvements to the computational complexity of

  4. Continuous-variable entanglement distillation of non-Gaussian mixed states

    SciTech Connect

    Dong Ruifang; Lassen, Mikael; Heersink, Joel; Marquardt, Christoph; Leuchs, Gerd; Andersen, Ulrik L.

    2010-07-15

    Many different quantum-information communication protocols such as teleportation, dense coding, and entanglement-based quantum key distribution are based on the faithful transmission of entanglement between distant location in an optical network. The distribution of entanglement in such a network is, however, hampered by loss and noise that is inherent in all practical quantum channels. Thus, to enable faithful transmission one must resort to the protocol of entanglement distillation. In this paper we present a detailed theoretical analysis and an experimental realization of continuous variable entanglement distillation in a channel that is inflicted by different kinds of non-Gaussian noise. The continuous variable entangled states are generated by exploiting the third order nonlinearity in optical fibers, and the states are sent through a free-space laboratory channel in which the losses are altered to simulate a free-space atmospheric channel with varying losses. We use linear optical components, homodyne measurements, and classical communication to distill the entanglement, and we find that by using this method the entanglement can be probabilistically increased for some specific non-Gaussian noise channels.

  5. ENERGY-DEPENDENT POWER SPECTRAL STATES AND ORIGIN OF APERIODIC VARIABILITY IN BLACK HOLE BINARIES

    SciTech Connect

    Yu Wenfei; Zhang Wenda

    2013-06-20

    We found that the black hole candidate MAXI J1659-152 showed distinct power spectra, i.e., power-law noise (PLN) versus band-limited noise (BLN) plus quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) below and above about 2 keV, respectively, in observations with Swift and the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer during the 2010 outburst, indicating a high energy cutoff of the PLN and a low energy cutoff of the BLN and QPOs around 2 keV. The emergence of the PLN and the fading of the BLN and QPOs initially took place below 2 keV when the source entered the hard intermediate state and settled in the soft state three weeks later. The evolution was accompanied by the emergence of the disk spectral component and decreases in the amplitudes of variability in the soft and hard X-ray bands. Our results indicate that the PLN is associated with an optically thick disk in both hard and intermediate states, and the power spectral state is independent of the X-ray energy spectral state in a broadband view. We suggest that in the hard or intermediate state, the BLN and QPOs emerge from the innermost hot flow subjected to Comptonization, while the PLN originates from the optically thick disk farther out. The energy cutoffs of the PLN and the BLN or QPOs then follow the temperature of the seed photons from the inner edge of the optically thick disk, while the high frequency cutoff of the PLN follows the orbital frequency of the inner edge of the optically thick disk as well.

  6. Energy-dependent Power Spectral States and Origin of Aperiodic Variability in Black Hole Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Wenfei; Zhang, Wenda

    2013-06-01

    We found that the black hole candidate MAXI J1659-152 showed distinct power spectra, i.e., power-law noise (PLN) versus band-limited noise (BLN) plus quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) below and above about 2 keV, respectively, in observations with Swift and the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer during the 2010 outburst, indicating a high energy cutoff of the PLN and a low energy cutoff of the BLN and QPOs around 2 keV. The emergence of the PLN and the fading of the BLN and QPOs initially took place below 2 keV when the source entered the hard intermediate state and settled in the soft state three weeks later. The evolution was accompanied by the emergence of the disk spectral component and decreases in the amplitudes of variability in the soft and hard X-ray bands. Our results indicate that the PLN is associated with an optically thick disk in both hard and intermediate states, and the power spectral state is independent of the X-ray energy spectral state in a broadband view. We suggest that in the hard or intermediate state, the BLN and QPOs emerge from the innermost hot flow subjected to Comptonization, while the PLN originates from the optically thick disk farther out. The energy cutoffs of the PLN and the BLN or QPOs then follow the temperature of the seed photons from the inner edge of the optically thick disk, while the high frequency cutoff of the PLN follows the orbital frequency of the inner edge of the optically thick disk as well.

  7. Sub-additive ionic transport across arrays of solid-state nanopores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadaleta, A.; Sempere, C.; Gravelle, S.; Siria, A.; Fulcrand, R.; Ybert, C.; Bocquet, L.

    2014-01-01

    Nanopores, either biological, solid-state, or ultrathin pierced graphene, are powerful tools which are central to many applications, from sensing of biological molecules to desalination and fabrication of ion selective membranes. However, the interpretation of transport through low aspect-ratio nanopores becomes particularly complex as 3D access effects outside the pores are expected to play a dominant role. Here, we report both experiments and theory showing that, in contrast to naïve expectations, long-range mutual interaction across an array of nanopores leads to a non-extensive, sub-linear scaling of the global conductance on the number of pores N. A scaling analysis demonstrates that the N-dependence of the conductance depends on the topology of the network. It scales like G ˜ N/log N for a 1D line of pores, and like G˜ sqrt{N} for a 2D array, in agreement with experimental measurements. Our results can be extended to alternative transport phenomena obeying Laplace equations, such as diffusive, thermal, or hydrodynamic transport. Consequences of this counter-intuitive behavior are discussed in the context of transport across thin membranes, with applications in energy harvesting.

  8. Climate model biases in the Indian Ocean meant state, variability and change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, S. P.; Li, G.

    2015-12-01

    Long-standing biases of climate models limit the skills of climate prediction and projection. The monsoonal tropical Indian Ocean (IO) has been overlooked in bias studies because model errors compensate among seasons and do not manifest prominently in the annual means. In the phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) multimodel ensemble, we have identified a common error pattern in climate models that resembles the IO dipole (IOD) mode of interannual variability in nature, with an excessive equatorial easterly wind bias during boreal autumn accompanied by physically consistent biases in precipitation, sea surface temperature (SST), and subsurface ocean temperature. The analyses show that such IOD-like biases can be traced back to errors in the South Asian summer monsoon. A southwest summer monsoon that is too weak over the Arabian Sea generates a warm SST bias over the western equatorial IO. In boreal autumn, Bjerknes feedback helps amplify the error into an IOD-like bias pattern in wind, precipitation, SST, and subsurface ocean temperature. Such mean state biases result in an interannual IOD variability that is too strong. Most models project an IOD-like future change for the boreal autumn mean state in the global warming scenario, which would result in more frequent occurrences of extreme positive IOD events in the future with important consequences to Indonesia and East Africa. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fifth Assessment Report (AR5) characterizes this future IOD-like projection in the mean state as robust based on consistency among models, but the authors' results cast doubts on this conclusion since models with larger IOD amplitude biases tend to produce stronger IOD-like projected changes in the future.

  9. Effects of steady-state and variable ozone concentration profiles on pulmonary function

    SciTech Connect

    Hazucha, M.J.; Folinsbee, L.J.; Seal, E. Jr. )

    1992-12-01

    Measurements of ambient ozone (O2) concentration during daylight hours have shown a spectrum of concentration profiles, from a relatively stable to a variable pattern usually reaching a peak level in the early afternoon. Several recent studies have suggested that in estimating exposure dose (O3 concentration [C] x exposure time [T] x ventilation [V]), O3 concentration needs to be weighted more heavily than either ventilation or duration of exposure in the estimates. In this study we tested the hypothesis that regardless of concentration pattern and exposure rate the same exposure dose of O3 will induce the same spirometric response. We exposed 23 healthy male volunteers (20 to 35 yr of age) for 8 h to air, 0.12 ppm O3 (steady-state), and a triangular exposure pattern (concentration increased steadily from zero to 0.24 ppm over the first 4 h and decreased back to zero by 8 h). During the first 30 min of each hour, subjects exercised for 30 min at minute ventilation (VE) approximately 40 L/min. The order of the exposures was randomized, and the exposures were separated by at least 7 days. The response patterns over the 8-h periods for spirometric variables in both O3 exposures were statistically different from air exposure changes and from each other. For FEV1 the p values were 0.017 between air and steady-state profile, 0.002 between air and triangular profile, and 0.037 between steady-state and triangular profiles. Although in the triangular pattern of exposure the maximal O3 concentration was reached at 4 h, the maximum FEV1 decrement (10.2%) was observed at 6 h of exposure.

  10. Sports Participation and Social Personality Variable of Students in Secondary Schools in Central Senatorial District of Cross River State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edim, M. E.; Odok, E. A.

    2015-01-01

    The main thrust of this study was to investigate sports participation and social personality variable of students in secondary schools in Central Senatorial District of Cross River State, Nigeria. To achieve the purpose of this study, one hypothesis was formulated to guide the study. Literature review was carried out according to the variable of…

  11. Personality Traits and Socio-Demographic Variables as Correlates of Counselling Effectiveness of Counsellors in Enugu State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onyekuru, Bruno U.; Ibegbunam, Josephat

    2015-01-01

    Quality personality traits and socio-demographic variables are essential elements of effective counselling. This correlational study investigated personality traits and socio-demographic variables as predictors of counselling effectiveness of counsellors in Enugu State. The instruments for data collection were Personality Traits Assessment Scale…

  12. Interannual to Multidecadal Climate Variability and Groundwater Resources of the Western United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurdak, J. J.; Kuss, A. M.

    2011-12-01

    Climate variability and change have important implications for groundwater recharge, discharge, contaminant transport, and resource sustainability. Reliable predictions of groundwater sustainability due to climate change will require improved understanding of the effects of global scale atmosphere-ocean climate oscillations on interannual to multidecadal timescales. Climate variability on these timescales partially controls precipitation, air temperature, drought, evapotranspiration, streamflow, recharge, and mobilization of subsurface-chemical reservoirs. Climate variability can augment or diminish human stresses on groundwater, and the responses in storage can be dramatic when different climate cycles lie coincident in a positive or negative phase of variability. Thus, understanding climate variability has particular relevance for management decisions during drought and for water resources close to the limits of sustainability. Major findings will be presented from a national scale study of climate variability on recharge rates and groundwater levels, and will highlight regional aquifers of the western United States, including the Basin and Range (700,000 km2), Central Valley (52,000 km2), High Plains (450,000 km2), and Mississippi Embayment (181,000 km2) aquifer systems. Using singular spectrum analysis, the groundwater pumping signal was removed and natural variations were identified in groundwater levels as partially coincident with the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) (2-6 year cycle), North Atlantic Oscillation (3-6 year cycle), Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) (10-25 year cycle), and Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) (50-80 year cycle). The PDO was the most significant contributor to recharge and groundwater level fluctuations in most aquifers. In the Central Valley and the Basin and Range, the PDO contributes to the greatest amount of variance (ranging from 13.6-83%) in all precipitation and groundwater level time series, with moderate to strong

  13. Classification of symmetric polynomials of infinite variables: Construction of Abelian and non-Abelian quantum Hall states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Xiao-Gang; Wang, Zhenghan

    2008-06-01

    The classification of complex wave functions of infinite variables is an important problem since it is related to the classification of possible quantum states of matter. In this paper, we propose a way to classify symmetric polynomials of infinite variables using the pattern of zeros of the polynomials. Such a classification leads to a construction of a class of simple non-Abelian quantum Hall states which are closely related to parafermion conformal field theories.

  14. Influence of nutritional state on radiographic variables in upper canine teeth.

    PubMed

    Wuscovi, Luis F; Aragón, Hugo N; Gordillo, María E; López, María E

    2009-01-01

    Permanent upper canine tooth impaction is related to both genetic causes and nutritional and local causes. Based on radiographic studies of children, Haavikko, 1974, calculated the median of the degree of calcification for each tooth according to age. The aim of our study was to establish associations between certain radiographic variables with respect to upper canine tooth buds and nutritional state in a population of schoolchildren. Thirty-three children of chronological ages 3 to 9 years from a population of rural schoolchildren took part in the study. The children were classified into three groups: malnourished, control and overweight. For the radiographic study we used a systematized technique using DSJ 70 kV radiographic equipment with 8 mA and Insight intraoral film (E F speed; Eastman Kodak, Rochester, NY). The images obtained from the 66 radiographic studies were scanned. The program Image tool for Windows was used to measure: (a) distance from the canine cusp to the intermaxillary suture, (b) outer angle formed between the aris of the canine tooth and the plane that cuts the intermaxillary suture perpendicularly, (c) degree of calcification (d) presence of supernumerary teeth. The values of these variables were analyzed statistically with the Kruskal-Wallis test of the SPSS program. The results were: (a) For the distance variable there is no significant difference between the malnourished and control groups (p > 0.05), although there are differences (p < 0.001) between the control and overweight groups; (b) There is no significant difference between nutritional states for the angle variable; (c) For the ratio between chronological age and dental age calculated according to degree of calcification, significant differences were found between the malnourished and overweight groups (p < 0.01), while the control group showed no difference regarding Haavikko's values (p > 0.05). Both the distance of the canine tooth bud and its degree of calcification vary in

  15. Spectroscopy of the enigmatic short-period cataclysmic variable IR Com in an extended low state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manser, C. J.; Gänsicke, B. T.

    2014-07-01

    We report the occurrence of a deep low state in the eclipsing short-period cataclysmic variable (CV) IR Com, lasting more than two years. Spectroscopy obtained in this state shows the system as a detached white dwarf plus low-mass companion, indicating that accretion has practically ceased. The spectral type of the companion derived from the SDSS spectrum is M6-7, somewhat later than expected for the orbital period of IR Com. Its radial velocity amplitude, K2 = 419.6 ± 3.4 km s-1, together with the inclination of 75°-90° implies 0.8 < Mwd <1.0 M⊙. We estimate the white dwarf temperature to be ≃15 000 K, and the absence of Zeeman splitting in the Balmer lines rules out magnetic fields in excess of ≃5 MG. IR Com still defies an unambiguous classification, in particular the occurrence of a deep, long low state is so far unique among short-period CVs that are not strongly magnetic.

  16. Fighting for accretion: the origing of low states in cataclysmic variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Knox; Rodriguez-Gil, Pablo; Schmidtobreick, Linda; Gaensicke, Boris

    2010-02-01

    SW Sextantis stars are fundamental to understanding how cataclysmic variables evolve. Their maverick behavior and unexplained accumulation in the orbital period range 3-4 h, about to enter the ``period gap'' where mass transfer is predicted to cease until a period of 2 h is reached, challenge the current evolution theory. To characterize these systems better, we need to determine the nature of the accreting white dwarf and the more normal donor star. But they are usually invisible due to the extreme accretion luminosity these systems normally show. The only chances of characterizing the stars in the system are during rare ``low states'', when the mass transfer rate reaches a minimum for months and the stars are exposed to observations and, therefore, binary parameters measurement. Only dynamical mass measurements can address the evolutionary status. This is a proposal to continue to monitor the brightness of a select group of SW Sextantis stars begun when STScI was a member of the SMARTS consortium to determine their long-term accretion history and, to provide warning when they are entering faint states. The data are essential to characterize the recurrence and duration of these states (likely related to magnetic cycles in the donor star), and trigger our TOO programs in 8-m class telescopes.

  17. Variable-State-Dimension Kalman-based Filter for orientation determination using inertial and magnetic sensors.

    PubMed

    Sabatini, Angelo Maria

    2012-01-01

    In this paper a quaternion-based Variable-State-Dimension Extended Kalman Filter (VSD-EKF) is developed for estimating the three-dimensional orientation of a rigid body using the measurements from an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) integrated with a triaxial magnetic sensor. Gyro bias and magnetic disturbances are modeled and compensated by including them in the filter state vector. The VSD-EKF switches between a quiescent EKF, where the magnetic disturbance is modeled as a first-order Gauss-Markov stochastic process (GM-1), and a higher-order EKF where extra state components are introduced to model the time-rate of change of the magnetic field as a GM-1 stochastic process, namely the magnetic disturbance is modeled as a second-order Gauss-Markov stochastic process (GM-2). Experimental validation tests show the effectiveness of the VSD-EKF, as compared to either the quiescent EKF or the higher-order EKF when they run separately. PMID:23012502

  18. Tree Tensor Network State with Variable Tensor Order: An Efficient Multireference Method for Strongly Correlated Systems.

    PubMed

    Murg, V; Verstraete, F; Schneider, R; Nagy, P R; Legeza, Ö

    2015-03-10

    We study the tree-tensor-network-state (TTNS) method with variable tensor orders for quantum chemistry. TTNS is a variational method to efficiently approximate complete active space (CAS) configuration interaction (CI) wave functions in a tensor product form. TTNS can be considered as a higher order generalization of the matrix product state (MPS) method. The MPS wave function is formulated as products of matrices in a multiparticle basis spanning a truncated Hilbert space of the original CAS-CI problem. These matrices belong to active orbitals organized in a one-dimensional array, while tensors in TTNS are defined upon a tree-like arrangement of the same orbitals. The tree-structure is advantageous since the distance between two arbitrary orbitals in the tree scales only logarithmically with the number of orbitals N, whereas the scaling is linear in the MPS array. It is found to be beneficial from the computational costs point of view to keep strongly correlated orbitals in close vicinity in both arrangements; therefore, the TTNS ansatz is better suited for multireference problems with numerous highly correlated orbitals. To exploit the advantages of TTNS a novel algorithm is designed to optimize the tree tensor network topology based on quantum information theory and entanglement. The superior performance of the TTNS method is illustrated on the ionic-neutral avoided crossing of LiF. It is also shown that the avoided crossing of LiF can be localized using only ground state properties, namely one-orbital entanglement.

  19. Equation of state of additive hard-disk fluid mixtures: A critical analysis of two recent proposals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López de Haro, M.; Yuste, S. B.; Santos, A.

    2002-09-01

    A detailed analysis of two different theoretical equations of state for a binary mixture of additive hard disks [C. Barrio and J. R. Solana, Phys. Rev. E 63, 011201 (2001); A. Santos, S. B. Yuste, and M. López de Haro, Mol. Phys. 96, 1 (1999)], including their comparison with Monte Carlo results, is carried out. It is found that both proposals, which require the equation of state of the single-component system as input, lead to comparable accuracy when the same input is used in both, but that advocated by Santos et al. is simpler and complies with the exact limit in which the small disks are point particles.

  20. Variability in Ozone in the Tropical Upper Troposphere-Lower Stratosphere from the 1998-2000 SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes) Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, A. M.; Witte, J. C.; McPeters, R. D.; Schmidlin, F. J.; Oltmans, S. J.; Kirchhoff, V. W. J. H.; Coetzee, G. J. R.; Posny, F.; Kawakami, S.; Ogawa, T.; Bhartia, P. K. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The first view of lower stratospheric and upper tropospheric structure from sondes is provided by a 3-year, 10-site record from the Southern Hemisphere ADditional OZonesondes (SHADOZ) network: . Observations covering 1998-2000 were made over Ascension Island; Nairobi, Kenya; Irene, South Africa; Reunion Island; Watukosek, Java; Fiji; Tahiti; American Samoa; San Cristobal, Galapagos; Natal, Brazil. Taking the UT/LS (upper troposphere- lower stratosphere) as the region between 12 and 17 km, we examine ozone variability in this region on a week-to-week and seasonal basis. The tropopause is lower in September-October-November than in March-April-May, when ozone is a minimum at most SHADOZ stations. A zonal wave-one pattern (referring to ozone mixing ratios greater over the Atlantic and adjacent continents than over the Pacific and eastern Indian Ocean), persists all year. The wave, predominantly in the troposphere and with variable magnitude, appears to be due to general circulation - with subsidence over the Atlantic and frequent deep convection over the Pacific and Indian Ocean. The variability of deep convection most prominent at Java, Fiji, Samoa and Natal - is explored in time-vs-altitude ozone curtains. Stratospheric incursions into the troposphere are most prominent in soundings at Irene and Reunion Island.

  1. Variability in Ozone in the Tropical Upper Troposphere-Lower Stratosphere from the 1998 - 200 SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere ADditional Ozonesondes) Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, A.; Witte, J.; Oltmans, S.; Coetzee, G.; Kawakami, S.; Ogawa, T.

    The first view of lower stratospheric and upper tropospheric structure from sondes is provided by a 3 year, 10-site record from the Southern Hemisphere ADditional- OZonesondes (SHADOZ) network: . Observations covering 1998-2000 were made over Ascension Island; Nairobi, Kenya; Irene, South Africa; Reunion Island; Watukosek, Java; Fiji; Tahiti; American Samoa; San Crist"bal, Galapagos; Natal, Brazil. Taking the UT/LS (upper troposphere-lower stratosphere) as the region between 12 and 17 km, we examine ozone variability in this region on a week- to- week and seasonal basis. The tropopause is lower in September-October-November than in March-April- May, when ozone is a minimum at most SHADOZ stations. A zonal wave-one pattern (referring to ozone mixing ratios greater over the Atlantic and adjacent continents than over the Pacific and eastern Indian Ocean), persists all year. The wave, predominantly in the troposphere and with variable magnitude, appears to be due to general circulation - with subsidence over the Atlantic and frequent deep convection over the Pacific and Indian Ocean. The variability of deep convection - most prominent at Java, Fiji, Samoa and Natal - is explored in time-vs-altitude ozone curtains. Stratospheric incursions into the troposphere are most prominent in soundings at Irene and Reunion Island.

  2. Influence of independent and proximate variables on condom use in selected states in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Akinyemi, A I; Aransiola, J O; Banjo, O; Bamiwuye, O; Fadeyibi, O; Adewuyi, A

    2010-12-01

    The study examined the influence of individual and proximate factors in determining condom use. Current use of condom and condom use during last sex were used as proxies for consistent condom use. Data on 3,797 sexually active respondents of reproductive age were analyzed from the 2007 USAID-COMPASS midline evaluation on basic family planning and reproductive health outcomes in five Nigerian states. About 9% of respondents were current users, while 11% used a condom during last sex. Younger and more educated respondents were more likely to report condom use. Of the 23 variables, four were statistically significant (p < 0.05) in predicting current use for females, and five for males; six were statistically significant in predicting condom use during last sex for females and seven for males. The paper concluded that understanding the determinants and predictors of condom use is critical to improving family planning and reproductive health indicators in Nigeria.

  3. Variability of Meloidogyne exigua on Coffee in the Zona da Mata of Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, D. S.; Oliveira, R. D. L.; Freitas, L. G.; Silva, R. V.

    2005-01-01

    Minas Gerais is the major coffee-producing state of Brazil, with 28% of its production coming from the region of Zona da Mata. Four major species of root-knot nematode attacking coffee (Meloidogyne incognita, M. paranaensis, M. coffeicola, and M. exigua) have been reported from Brazil. To determine the variability in Meloidogyne spp. occurring in that region, 57 populations from 20 localities were evaluated for morphological, enzymatic, and physiological characteristics. According to the perineal pattern, all the populations were identified as M. exigua; however populations from the municipality of São João do Manhuaçu exhibited patterns very similar to M. arenaria. The identity of all the populations was confirmed by the phenotypes of esterase, malate dehydrogenase, superoxide dismutase, and glutamate-oxaloacetate transaminase. Thirteen populations (22.8%) showed the typical one-band (E1) esterase phenotype, whereas the others (77.2%) had a novel two-band phenotype (E2). No intraspecies variability was found in any population. All populations were able to reproduce on tomato, pepper, beans, cacao, and soybean. Reproduction was greater on tomato and pepper than on coffee seedlings, the susceptible standard. PMID:19262880

  4. Solid-state non-volatile electronically programmable reversible variable resistance device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramesham, Rajeshuni (Inventor); Thakoor, Sarita (Inventor); Daud, Taher (Inventor); Thakoor, Aniklumar P. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A solid-state variable resistance device (10) whose resistance can be repeatedly altered by a control signal over a wide range, and which will remain stable after the signal is removed, is formed on an insulated layer (14), supported on a substrate (12) and comprises a set of electrodes (16a, 16b) connected by a layer (18) of material, which changes from an insulator to a conductor upon the injection of ions, covered by a layer (22) of material with insulating properties which permit the passage of ions, overlaid by an ion donor material (20). The ion donor material is overlaid by an insulating layer (24) upon which is deposited a control gate (26) located above the contacts. In a preferred embodiment, the variable resistance material comprises WO.sub.3, the ion donor layer comprises Cr.sub.2 O.sub.3, and the layers sandwiching the ion donor layer comprise silicon monoxide. When a voltage is applied to the gate, the resistance between the electrode contacts changes, decreasing with positive voltage and increasing with negative voltage.

  5. Determination of interfacial states in solid heterostructures using a variable-energy positron beam

    DOEpatents

    Asokakumar, P.P.V.; Lynn, K.G.

    1993-04-06

    A method and means is provided for characterizing interfacial electron states in solid heterostructures using a variable energy positron beam to probe the solid heterostructure. The method includes the steps of directing a positron beam having a selected energy level at a point on the solid heterostructure so that the positron beam penetrates into the solid heterostructure and causes positrons to collide with the electrons at an interface of the solid heterostructure. The number and energy of gamma rays emitted from the solid heterostructure as a result of the annihilation of positrons with electrons at the interface are detected. The data is quantified as a function of the Doppler broadening of the photopeak about the 511 keV line created by the annihilation of the positrons and electrons at the interface, preferably, as an S-parameter function; and a normalized S-parameter function of the data is obtained. The function of data obtained is compared with a corresponding function of the Doppler broadening of the annihilation photopeak about 511 keV for a positron beam having a second energy level directed at the same material making up a portion of the solid heterostructure. The comparison of these functions facilitates characterization of the interfacial states of electrons in the solid heterostructure at points corresponding to the penetration of positrons having the particular energy levels into the interface of the solid heterostructure. Accordingly, the invention provides a variable-energy non-destructive probe of solid heterostructures, such as SiO[sub 2]/Si, MOS or other semiconductor devices.

  6. Determination of interfacial states in solid heterostructures using a variable-energy positron beam

    DOEpatents

    Asoka kumar, Palakkal P. V.; Lynn, Kelvin G.

    1993-01-01

    A method and means is provided for characterizing interfacial electron states in solid heterostructures using a variable energy positron beam to probe the solid heterostructure. The method includes the steps of directing a positron beam having a selected energy level at a point on the solid heterostructure so that the positron beam penetrates into the solid heterostructure and causes positrons to collide with the electrons at an interface of the solid heterostructure. The number and energy of gamma rays emitted from the solid heterostructure as a result of the annihilation of positrons with electrons at the interface are detected. The data is quantified as a function of the Doppler broadening of the photopeak about the 511 keV line created by the annihilation of the positrons and electrons at the interface, preferably, as an S-parameter function; and a normalized S-parameter function of the data is obtained. The function of data obtained is compared with a corresponding function of the Doppler broadening of the annihilation photopeak about 511 keV for a positron beam having a second energy level directed at the same material making up a portion of the solid heterostructure. The comparison of these functions facilitates characterization of the interfacial states of electrons in the solid heterostructure at points corresponding to the penetration of positrons having the particular energy levels into the interface of the solid heterostructure. Accordingly, the invention provides a variable-energy non-destructive probe of solid heterostructures, such as SiO.sub.2 /Si, MOS or other semiconductor devices.

  7. A dynamic state variable model of mate desertion in Cooper's Hawks

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, E.J. ); Kennedy, P.L. )

    1993-03-01

    In a 4-yr study of the reproductive strategies of Cooper's Hawks (Accipiter cooperii) nesting in north-central New Mexico, >50% of the females deserted during the fledgling-dependence period and did not renest. A dynamic state variable model was developed to study the females' brood-rearing strategies. In this model a strategy consisted of combinations of staying at the nest, hunting, and deserting. The modeling assumptions were: a female's strategy during brood rearing maximizes her reproductive fitness, defined as the weighted average of the expected probability of survival of her current offspring and her expected future reproduction; and the reproductive fitness function depends on the physical condition of the female and nestlings, the risks to the nestlings associated with each strategy, and the male's foraging capabilities. The model predictions were compared to the observations of female strategies in Cooper's Hawks. The best match between observations and predictions (84-96%) was obtained when the nestlings' survival and the female's future reproductive potential were equally weighted during the nestling stage, but weighted in favor of the female's reproductive potential during the fledgling stage. A sensitivity analysis showed that the model predictions corresponded well with the observations of staying and hunting. However, those combinations of parameter values that reflected conditions with the least pressure to desert missed 70-85% of the desertions. The sensitivity analysis also indicated that a key factor influencing the female's choise of strategy was the interaction between the threat to her future reproduction due to her poor physical condition and the nestlings' risk of death from predation and exposure. The agreement of model predictions and observed strategies supported the modeling assumptions. Dynamic state variable modeling is an excellent tool for studying mate desertion. 54 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  8. Origin of the OFF state variability in ReRAM cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salaoru, Iulia; Khiat, Ali; Li, Qingjiang; Berdan, Radu; Papavassiliou, Christos; Prodromakis, Themistoklis

    2014-04-01

    This work exploits the switching dynamics of nanoscale resistive random access memory (ReRAM) cells with particular emphasis on the origin of the observed variability when cells are consecutively cycled/programmed at distinct memory states. It is demonstrated that this variance is a common feature of all ReRAM elements and is ascribed to the formation and rupture of conductive filaments that expand across the active core, independently of the material employed as the active switching core, the causal physical switching mechanism, the switching mode (bipolar/unipolar) or even the unit cells' dimensions. Our hypothesis is supported through both experimental and theoretical studies on TiO2 and In2O3 : SnO2 (ITO) based ReRAM cells programmed at three distinct resistive states. Our prototypes employed TiO2 or ITO active cores over 5 × 5 µm2 and 100 × 100 µm2 cell areas, with all tested devices demonstrating both unipolar and bipolar switching modalities. In the case of TiO2-based cells, the underlying switching mechanism is based on the non-uniform displacement of ionic species that foster the formation of conductive filaments. On the other hand, the resistive switching observed in the ITO-based devices is considered to be due to a phase change mechanism. The selected experimental parameters allowed us to demonstrate that the observed programming variance is a common feature of all ReRAM devices, proving that its origin is dependent upon randomly oriented local disorders within the active core that have a substantial impact on the overall state variance, particularly for high-resistive states.

  9. Post-lumpectomy CT-guided tumor bed delineation for breast boost and partial breast irradiation: Can additional pre- and postoperative imaging reduce interobserver variability?

    PubMed Central

    DEN HARTOGH, MARISKA D.; PHILIPPENS, MARIELLE E.P.; VAN DAM, IRIS E.; KLEYNEN, CATHARINA E.; TERSTEEG, ROBBERT J.H.A.; KOTTE, ALEXIS N.T.J.; VAN VULPEN, MARCO; VAN ASSELEN, BRAM; VAN DEN BONGARD, DESIRÉE H.J.G.

    2015-01-01

    For breast boost radiotherapy or accelerated partial breast irradiation, the tumor bed (TB) is delineated by the radiation oncologist on a planning computed tomography (CT) scan. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the interobserver variability (IOV) of the TB delineation is reduced by providing the radiation oncologist with additional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or CT scans. A total of 14 T1-T2 breast cancer patients underwent a standard planning CT in the supine treatment position following lumpectomy, as well as additional pre- and postoperative imaging in the same position. Post-lumpectomy TBs were independently delineated by four breast radiation oncologists on standard postoperative CT and on CT registered to an additional imaging modality. The additional imaging modalities used were postoperative MRI, preoperative contrast-enhanced (CE)-CT and preoperative CE-MRI. A cavity visualization score (CVS) was assigned to each standard postoperative CT by each observer. In addition, the conformity index (CI), volume and distance between centers of mass (dCOM) of the TB delineations were calculated. On CT, the median CI was 0.57, with a median volume of 22 cm3 and dCOM of 5.1 mm. The addition of postoperative MRI increased the median TB volume significantly to 28 cm3 (P<0.001), while the CI (P=0.176) and dCOM (P=0.110) were not affected. The addition of preoperative CT or MRI increased the TB volume to 26 and 25 cm3, respectively (both P<0.001), while the CI increased to 0.58 and 0.59 (both P<0.001) and the dCOM decreased to 4.7 mm (P=0.004) and 4.6 mm (P=0.001), respectively. In patients with CVS≤3, the median CI was 0.40 on CT, which was significantly increased by all additional imaging modalities, up to 0.52, and was accompanied by a median volume increase up to 6 cm3. In conclusion, the addition of postoperative MRI, preoperative CE-CT or preoperative CE-MRI did not result in a considerable reduction in the IOV in postoperative CT

  10. Trap density of states in n-channel organic transistors: variable temperature characteristics and band transport

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, Joung-min Akiyama, Yuto; Kakinuma, Tomoyuki; Mori, Takehiko

    2013-10-15

    We have investigated trap density of states (trap DOS) in n-channel organic field-effect transistors based on N,N ’-bis(cyclohexyl)naphthalene diimide (Cy-NDI) and dimethyldicyanoquinonediimine (DMDCNQI). A new method is proposed to extract trap DOS from the Arrhenius plot of the temperature-dependent transconductance. Double exponential trap DOS are observed, in which Cy-NDI has considerable deep states, by contrast, DMDCNQI has substantial tail states. In addition, numerical simulation of the transistor characteristics has been conducted by assuming an exponential trap distribution and the interface approximation. Temperature dependence of transfer characteristics are well reproduced only using several parameters, and the trap DOS obtained from the simulated characteristics are in good agreement with the assumed trap DOS, indicating that our analysis is self-consistent. Although the experimentally obtained Meyer-Neldel temperature is related to the trap distribution width, the simulation satisfies the Meyer-Neldel rule only very phenomenologically. The simulation also reveals that the subthreshold swing is not always a good indicator of the total trap amount, because it also largely depends on the trap distribution width. Finally, band transport is explored from the simulation having a small number of traps. A crossing point of the transfer curves and negative activation energy above a certain gate voltage are observed in the simulated characteristics, where the critical V{sub G} above which band transport is realized is determined by the sum of the trapped and free charge states below the conduction band edge.

  11. Documentation for the State Variables Package for the Groundwater-Management Process of MODFLOW-2005 (GWM-2005)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ahlfeld, David P.; Barlow, Paul M.; Baker, Kristine M.

    2011-01-01

    Many groundwater-management problems are concerned with the control of one or more variables that reflect the state of a groundwater-flow system or a coupled groundwater/surface-water system. These system state variables include the distribution of heads within an aquifer, streamflow rates within a hydraulically connected stream, and flow rates into or out of aquifer storage. This report documents the new State Variables Package for the Groundwater-Management Process of MODFLOW-2005 (GWM-2005). The new package provides a means to explicitly represent heads, streamflows, and changes in aquifer storage as state variables in a GWM-2005 simulation. The availability of these state variables makes it possible to include system state in the objective function and enhances existing capabilities for constructing constraint sets for a groundwater-management formulation. The new package can be used to address groundwater-management problems such as the determination of withdrawal strategies that meet water-supply demands while simultaneously maximizing heads or streamflows, or minimizing changes in aquifer storage. Four sample problems are provided to demonstrate use of the new package for typical groundwater-management applications.

  12. Application of the Bammann inelasticity internal state variable constitutive model to geological materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherburn, J. A.; Horstemeyer, M. F.; Bammann, D. J.; Baumgardner, J. R.

    2011-03-01

    We describe how the Bammann internal state variable (ISV) constitutive approach, which has proven highly successful in modelling deformation processes in metals, can be applied with great benefit to silicate rocks and other geological materials in modelling their deformation dynamics. In its essence, ISV theory provides a constitutive framework to account for changing history states that arise from inelastic dissipative microstructural evolution of a polycrystalline solid. In this paper, we restrict our attention to a Bammann ISV elastic-viscoplastic model with temperature and strain rate dependence and use isotropic hardening and anisotropic hardening as our two ISVs. We show the Bammann model captures the inelastic behaviour of olivine aggregates (with and without water), lherzolite (with and without water), Carrara marble and rock salt using some experimental data found in the literature. These examples illustrate that when more experimental stress-strain data are gathered on other rock materials, much more realistic numerical simulation of rock behaviour becomes feasible. Though not available in the literature, we outline a set of experiments to obtain unique Bammann ISV model constants.

  13. Equation of state in relativistic magnetohydrodynamics: variable versus constant adiabatic index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mignone, A.; McKinney, Jonathan C.

    2007-07-01

    The role of the equation of state (EoS) for a perfectly conducting, relativistic magnetized fluid is the main subject of this work. The ideal constant Γ-law EoS, commonly adopted in a wide range of astrophysical applications, is compared with a more realistic EoS that better approximates the single-specie relativistic gas. The paper focuses on three different topics. First, the influence of a more realistic EoS on the propagation of fast magnetosonic shocks is investigated. This calls into question the validity of the constant Γ-law EoS in problems where the temperature of the gas substantially changes across hydromagnetic waves. Secondly, we present a new inversion scheme to recover primitive variables (such as rest-mass density and pressure) from conservative ones that allows for a general EoS and avoids catastrophic numerical cancellations in the non-relativistic and ultrarelativistic limits. Finally, selected numerical tests of astrophysical relevance (including magnetized accretion flows around Kerr black holes) are compared using different equations of state. Our main conclusion is that the choice of a realistic EoS can considerably bear upon the solution when transitions from cold to hot gas (or vice versa) are present. Under these circumstances, a polytropic EoS can significantly endanger the solution.

  14. Association of socioeconomic and clinical variables with the state of frailty among older inpatients1

    PubMed Central

    Tavares, Darlene Mara dos Santos; Nader, Isabella Danielle; de Paiva, Mariana Mapelli; Dias, Flavia Aparecida; Pegorari, Maycon Sousa

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: to identify the prevalence of frailty among inpatient older adults in a clinical hospital and check the association of the socioeconomic and clinical characteristics with the state of frailty. Method: observational, cross-sectional and analytical study, conducted with 255 hospitalized patients. Materials used: structured instrument for the economical and clinical data and frailty phenotype of Fried. Descriptive and bivariate statistical analysis was carried out and, by means of chi-square tests and ANOVA One-way (p<0.05). Results: the prevalence of frailty corresponded to 26.3%, while pre-frailty represented 53.3%. The highest proportion of frail seniors was identified for 80 years or older (p = 0.004), widowed (p = 0.035) and with the highest average length of stay (p = 0.006). Conclusion: inpatient older adults presented high percentages of frail states associated with socioeconomic variables and hospitalization period. The identification of the health conditions related to pre-frailty and frailty can foster the planning and implementation of the assistance to older adults in this context. PMID:26626004

  15. Electrochemical state and internal variables estimation using a reduced-order physics-based model of a lithium-ion cell and an extended Kalman filter

    SciTech Connect

    Stetzel, KD; Aldrich, LL; Trimboli, MS; Plett, GL

    2015-03-15

    This paper addresses the problem of estimating the present value of electrochemical internal variables in a lithium-ion cell in real time, using readily available measurements of cell voltage, current, and temperature. The variables that can be estimated include any desired set of reaction flux and solid and electrolyte potentials and concentrations at any set of one-dimensional spatial locations, in addition to more standard quantities such as state of charge. The method uses an extended Kalman filter along with a one-dimensional physics-based reduced-order model of cell dynamics. Simulations show excellent and robust predictions having dependable error bounds for most internal variables. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Assessing positive emotional states in dogs using heart rate and heart rate variability.

    PubMed

    Zupan, Manja; Buskas, Julia; Altimiras, Jordi; Keeling, Linda J

    2016-03-01

    Since most animal species have been recognized as sentient beings, emotional state may be a good indicator of welfare in animals. The goal of this study was to manipulate the environment of nine beagle research dogs to highlight physiological responses indicative of different emotional experiences. Stimuli were selected to be a more or a less positive food (meatball or food pellet) or social reward (familiar person or less familiar person). That all the stimuli were positive and of different reward value was confirmed in a runway motivation test. Dogs were tested individually while standing facing a display theatre where the different stimuli could be shown by lifting a shutter. The dogs approached and remained voluntarily in the test system. They were tested in four sessions (of 20s each) for each of the four stimuli. A test session consisted of four presentation phases (1st exposure to stimulus, post exposure, 2nd exposure, and access to reward). Heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) responses were recorded during testing in the experimental room and also when lying resting in a quiet familiar room. A new method of 'stitching' short periods of HRV data together was used in the analysis. When testing different stimuli, no significant differences were observed in HR and LF:HF ratio (relative power in low frequency (LF) and the high-frequency (HF) range), implying that the sympathetic tone was activated similarly for all the stimuli and may suggest that dogs were in a state of positive arousal. A decrease of HF was associated with the meatball stimulus compared to the food pellet and the reward phase (interacting with the person or eating the food) was associated with a decrease in HF and RMSSD (root mean square of successive differences of inter-beat intervals) compared to the preceding phase (looking at the person or food). This suggests that parasympathetic deactivation is associated with a more positive emotional state in the dog. A similar reduction

  17. Multipartite entanglement in three-mode Gaussian states of continuous-variable systems: Quantification, sharing structure, and decoherence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adesso, Gerardo; Serafini, Alessio; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2006-03-01

    We present a complete analysis of the multipartite entanglement of three-mode Gaussian states of continuous-variable systems. We derive standard forms which characterize the covariance matrix of pure and mixed three-mode Gaussian states up to local unitary operations, showing that the local entropies of pure Gaussian states are bound to fulfill a relationship which is stricter than the general Araki-Lieb inequality. Quantum correlations can be quantified by a proper convex roof extension of the squared logarithmic negativity, the continuous-variable tangle, or contangle. We review and elucidate in detail the proof that in multimode Gaussian states the contangle satisfies a monogamy inequality constraint [G. Adesso and F. Illuminati, New J. Phys8, 15 (2006)]. The residual contangle, emerging from the monogamy inequality, is an entanglement monotone under Gaussian local operations and classical communications and defines a measure of genuine tripartite entanglements. We determine the analytical expression of the residual contangle for arbitrary pure three-mode Gaussian states and study in detail the distribution of quantum correlations in such states. This analysis yields that pure, symmetric states allow for a promiscuous entanglement sharing, having both maximum tripartite entanglement and maximum couplewise entanglement between any pair of modes. We thus name these states GHZ/W states of continuous-variable systems because they are simultaneous continuous-variable counterparts of both the GHZ and the W states of three qubits. We finally consider the effect of decoherence on three-mode Gaussian states, studying the decay of the residual contangle. The GHZ/W states are shown to be maximally robust against losses and thermal noise.

  18. Multipartite entanglement in three-mode Gaussian states of continuous-variable systems: Quantification, sharing structure, and decoherence

    SciTech Connect

    Adesso, Gerardo; Serafini, Alessio; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2006-03-15

    We present a complete analysis of the multipartite entanglement of three-mode Gaussian states of continuous-variable systems. We derive standard forms which characterize the covariance matrix of pure and mixed three-mode Gaussian states up to local unitary operations, showing that the local entropies of pure Gaussian states are bound to fulfill a relationship which is stricter than the general Araki-Lieb inequality. Quantum correlations can be quantified by a proper convex roof extension of the squared logarithmic negativity, the continuous-variable tangle, or contangle. We review and elucidate in detail the proof that in multimode Gaussian states the contangle satisfies a monogamy inequality constraint [G. Adesso and F. Illuminati, New J. Phys8, 15 (2006)]. The residual contangle, emerging from the monogamy inequality, is an entanglement monotone under Gaussian local operations and classical communications and defines a measure of genuine tripartite entanglements. We determine the analytical expression of the residual contangle for arbitrary pure three-mode Gaussian states and study in detail the distribution of quantum correlations in such states. This analysis yields that pure, symmetric states allow for a promiscuous entanglement sharing, having both maximum tripartite entanglement and maximum couplewise entanglement between any pair of modes. We thus name these states GHZ/W states of continuous-variable systems because they are simultaneous continuous-variable counterparts of both the GHZ and the W states of three qubits. We finally consider the effect of decoherence on three-mode Gaussian states, studying the decay of the residual contangle. The GHZ/W states are shown to be maximally robust against losses and thermal noise.

  19. Influence of Additives on the Yield and Pathogenicity of Conidia Produced by Solid State Cultivation of an Isaria javanica Isolate

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Ling; Han, Ji Hee; Lee, Sang Yeob

    2014-01-01

    Recently, the Q biotype of tobacco whitefly has been recognized as the most hazardous strain of Bemisia tabaci worldwide, because of its increased resistance to some insecticide groups. As an alternative control agent, we selected an Isaria javanica isolate as a candidate for the development of a mycopesticide against the Q biotype of sweet potato whitefly. To select optimal mass production media for solid-state fermentation, we compared the production yield and virulence of conidia between 2 substrates (barley and brown rice), and we also compared the effects of various additives on conidia production and virulence. Barley was a better substrate for conidia production, producing 3.43 × 1010 conidia/g, compared with 3.05 × 1010 conidia/g for brown rice. The addition of 2% CaCO3 + 2% CaSO4 to barley significantly increased conidia production. Addition of yeast extract, casein, or gluten also improved conidia production on barley. Gluten addition (3% and 1.32%) to brown rice improved conidia production by 14 and 6 times, respectively, relative to brown rice without additives. Conidia cultivated on barley produced a mortality rate of 62% in the sweet potato whitefly after 4-day treatment, compared with 53% for conidia cultivated on brown rice. The amendment of solid substrate cultivation with additives changed the virulence of the conidia produced; the median lethal time (LT50) was shorter for conidia produced on barley and brown rice with added yeast extract (1.32% and 3%, respectively), KNO3 (0.6% and 1%), or gluten (1.32% and 3%) compared with conidia produced on substrates without additives. PMID:25606006

  20. Modulation Depth Estimation and Variable Selection in State-Space Models for Neural Interfaces

    PubMed Central

    Hochberg, Leigh R.; Donoghue, John P.; Brown, Emery N.

    2015-01-01

    Rapid developments in neural interface technology are making it possible to record increasingly large signal sets of neural activity. Various factors such as asymmetrical information distribution and across-channel redundancy may, however, limit the benefit of high-dimensional signal sets, and the increased computational complexity may not yield corresponding improvement in system performance. High-dimensional system models may also lead to overfitting and lack of generalizability. To address these issues, we present a generalized modulation depth measure using the state-space framework that quantifies the tuning of a neural signal channel to relevant behavioral covariates. For a dynamical system, we develop computationally efficient procedures for estimating modulation depth from multivariate data. We show that this measure can be used to rank neural signals and select an optimal channel subset for inclusion in the neural decoding algorithm. We present a scheme for choosing the optimal subset based on model order selection criteria. We apply this method to neuronal ensemble spike-rate decoding in neural interfaces, using our framework to relate motor cortical activity with intended movement kinematics. With offline analysis of intracortical motor imagery data obtained from individuals with tetraplegia using the BrainGate neural interface, we demonstrate that our variable selection scheme is useful for identifying and ranking the most information-rich neural signals. We demonstrate that our approach offers several orders of magnitude lower complexity but virtually identical decoding performance compared to greedy search and other selection schemes. Our statistical analysis shows that the modulation depth of human motor cortical single-unit signals is well characterized by the generalized Pareto distribution. Our variable selection scheme has wide applicability in problems involving multisensor signal modeling and estimation in biomedical engineering systems. PMID

  1. Modulation depth estimation and variable selection in state-space models for neural interfaces.

    PubMed

    Malik, Wasim Q; Hochberg, Leigh R; Donoghue, John P; Brown, Emery N

    2015-02-01

    Rapid developments in neural interface technology are making it possible to record increasingly large signal sets of neural activity. Various factors such as asymmetrical information distribution and across-channel redundancy may, however, limit the benefit of high-dimensional signal sets, and the increased computational complexity may not yield corresponding improvement in system performance. High-dimensional system models may also lead to overfitting and lack of generalizability. To address these issues, we present a generalized modulation depth measure using the state-space framework that quantifies the tuning of a neural signal channel to relevant behavioral covariates. For a dynamical system, we develop computationally efficient procedures for estimating modulation depth from multivariate data. We show that this measure can be used to rank neural signals and select an optimal channel subset for inclusion in the neural decoding algorithm. We present a scheme for choosing the optimal subset based on model order selection criteria. We apply this method to neuronal ensemble spike-rate decoding in neural interfaces, using our framework to relate motor cortical activity with intended movement kinematics. With offline analysis of intracortical motor imagery data obtained from individuals with tetraplegia using the BrainGate neural interface, we demonstrate that our variable selection scheme is useful for identifying and ranking the most information-rich neural signals. We demonstrate that our approach offers several orders of magnitude lower complexity but virtually identical decoding performance compared to greedy search and other selection schemes. Our statistical analysis shows that the modulation depth of human motor cortical single-unit signals is well characterized by the generalized Pareto distribution. Our variable selection scheme has wide applicability in problems involving multisensor signal modeling and estimation in biomedical engineering systems. PMID

  2. Soil Carbon Variability and Change Detection in the Forest Inventory Analysis Database of the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, A. M.; Nater, E. A.; Dalzell, B. J.; Perry, C. H.

    2014-12-01

    The USDA Forest Service's Forest Inventory Analysis (FIA) program is a national effort assessing current forest resources to ensure sustainable management practices, to assist planning activities, and to report critical status and trends. For example, estimates of carbon stocks and stock change in FIA are reported as the official United States submission to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. While the main effort in FIA has been focused on aboveground biomass, soil is a critical component of this system. FIA sampled forest soils in the early 2000s and has remeasurement now underway. However, soil sampling is repeated on a 10-year interval (or longer), and it is uncertain what magnitude of changes in soil organic carbon (SOC) may be detectable with the current sampling protocol. We aim to identify the sensitivity and variability of SOC in the FIA database, and to determine the amount of SOC change that can be detected with the current sampling scheme. For this analysis, we attempt to answer the following questions: 1) What is the sensitivity (power) of SOC data in the current FIA database? 2) How does the minimum detectable change in forest SOC respond to changes in sampling intervals and/or sample point density? Soil samples in the FIA database represent 0-10 cm and 10-20 cm depth increments with a 10-year sampling interval. We are investigating the variability of SOC and its change over time for composite soil data in each FIA region (Pacific Northwest, Interior West, Northern, and Southern). To guide future sampling efforts, we are employing statistical power analysis to examine the minimum detectable change in SOC storage. We are also investigating the sensitivity of SOC storage changes under various scenarios of sample size and/or sample frequency. This research will inform the design of future FIA soil sampling schemes and improve the information available to international policy makers, university and industry partners, and the public.

  3. Ocean acidification state in western Antarctic surface waters: drivers and interannual variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattsdotter Björk, M.; Fransson, A.; Chierici, M.

    2013-05-01

    Each December during four years from 2006 to 2010, the surface water carbonate system was measured and investigated in the Amundsen Sea and Ross Sea, western Antarctica as part of the Oden Southern Ocean expeditions (OSO). The I/B Oden started in Punta Arenas in Chile and sailed southwest, passing through different regimes such as, the marginal/seasonal ice zone, fronts, coastal shelves, and polynyas. Discrete surface water was sampled underway for analysis of total alkalinity (AT), total dissolved inorganic carbon (CT) and pH. Two of these parameters were used together with sea-surface temperature (SST), and salinity to obtain a full description of the surface water carbonate system, including pH in situ and calcium carbonate saturation state of aragonite (ΩAr) and calcite (ΩCa). Multivariate analysis was used to investigate interannual variability and the major controls (sea-ice concentration, SST, salinity and chlorophyll a) on the variability in the carbonate system and Ω. This analysis showed that SST and chlorophyll a were the major drivers of the Ω variability in both the Amundsen and Ross seas. In 2007, the sea-ice edge was located further south and the area of the open polynya was relatively small compared to 2010. We found the lowest pH in situ (7.932) and Ω = 1 values in the sea-ice zone and in the coastal Amundsen Sea, nearby marine out flowing glaciers. In 2010, the sea-ice coverage was the largest and the areas of the open polynyas were the largest for the whole period. This year we found the lowest salinity and AT, coinciding with highest chl a. This implies that the highest ΩAr in 2010 was likely an effect of biological CO2 drawdown, which out-competed the dilution of carbonate ion concentration due to large melt water volumes. We predict and discuss future Ω values, using our data and reported rates of oceanic uptake of anthropogenic CO2, suggesting that the Amundsen Sea will become undersaturated with regard to aragonite about 20 yr sooner

  4. Homeostatic and Circadian Contribution to EEG and Molecular State Variables of Sleep Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Curie, Thomas; Mongrain, Valérie; Dorsaz, Stéphane; Mang, Géraldine M.; Emmenegger, Yann; Franken, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: Besides their well-established role in circadian rhythms, our findings that the forebrain expression of the clock-genes Per2 and Dbp increases and decreases, respectively, in relation to time spent awake suggest they also play a role in the homeostatic aspect of sleep regulation. Here, we determined whether time of day modulates the effects of elevated sleep pressure on clock-gene expression. Time of day effects were assessed also for recognized electrophysiological (EEG delta power) and molecular (Homer1a) markers of sleep homeostasis. Design: EEG and qPCR data were obtained for baseline and recovery from 6-h sleep deprivation starting at ZT0, -6, -12, or -18. Setting: Mouse sleep laboratory. Participants: Male mice. Interventions: Sleep deprivation. Results: The sleep-deprivation induced changes in Per2 and Dbp expression importantly varied with time of day, such that Per2 could even decrease during sleep deprivations occurring at the decreasing phase in baseline. Dbp showed similar, albeit opposite dynamics. These unexpected results could be reliably predicted assuming that these transcripts behave according to a driven damped harmonic oscillator. As expected, the sleep-wake distribution accounted for a large degree of the changes in EEG delta power and Homer1a. Nevertheless, the sleep deprivation-induced increase in delta power varied also with time of day with higher than expected levels when recovery sleep started at dark onset. Conclusions: Per2 and delta power are widely used as exclusive state variables of the circadian and homeostatic process, respectively. Our findings demonstrate a considerable cross-talk between these two processes. As Per2 in the brain responds to both sleep loss and time of day, this molecule is well positioned to keep track of and to anticipate homeostatic sleep need. Citation: Curie T; Mongrain V; Dorsaz S; Mang GM; Emmenegger Y; Franken P. Homeostatic and circadian contribution to EEG and molecular state

  5. A historical review of additives and modifiers used in paving asphalt refining processes in the United States.

    PubMed

    Mundt, Diane J; Adams, Robert C; Marano, Kristin M

    2009-11-01

    The U.S. asphalt paving industry has evolved over time to meet various performance specifications for liquid petroleum asphalt binder (known as bitumen outside the United States). Additives to liquid petroleum asphalt produced in the refinery may affect exposures to workers in the hot mix paving industry. This investigation documented the changes in the composition and distribution of the liquid petroleum asphalt products produced from petroleum refining in the United States since World War II. This assessment was accomplished by reviewing documents and interviewing individual experts in the industry to identify current and historical practices. Individuals from 18 facilities were surveyed; the number of facilities reporting use of any material within a particular class ranged from none to more than half the respondents. Materials such as products of the process stream, polymers, elastomers, and anti-strip compounds have been added to liquid petroleum asphalt in the United States over the past 50 years, but modification has not been generally consistent by geography or time. Modifications made to liquid petroleum asphalt were made generally to improve performance and were dictated by state specifications.

  6. Chemical and particle-size evidence for addition of fine dust to soils of the midwestern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, Joseph A.; Jacobs, Peter M.

    1998-12-01

    Significant long-term atmospheric dust additions to soils are well documented in many parts of the world, but not in the midwestern United States. We investigated elemental mass fluxes associated with soil development in late Wisconsinan loess in Illinois and Minnesota, using Zr as a stable index element. Positive mass fluxes of Al, Fe, and Ti can most plausibly be explained by additions to these soils of fine far-traveled dust, with higher Al/Zr, Fe/Zr, and Ti/Zr ratios than the coarser locally derived loess. High-resolution particle-size analyses support this explanation. The proposed dust influx will complicate efforts to quantify weathering processes in these soils. Far-traveled dust influx could have occurred simultaneously with the final phase of local loess deposition, and/or later, in the Holocene. Depending on the timing of dust influx, many other soils of the region may have been affected by it.

  7. A formal method for identifying distinct states of variability in time-varying sources: SGR A* as an example

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, L.; Witzel, G.; Ghez, A. M.; Longstaff, F. A.

    2014-08-10

    Continuously time variable sources are often characterized by their power spectral density and flux distribution. These quantities can undergo dramatic changes over time if the underlying physical processes change. However, some changes can be subtle and not distinguishable using standard statistical approaches. Here, we report a methodology that aims to identify distinct but similar states of time variability. We apply this method to the Galactic supermassive black hole, where 2.2 μm flux is observed from a source associated with Sgr A* and where two distinct states have recently been suggested. Our approach is taken from mathematical finance and works with conditional flux density distributions that depend on the previous flux value. The discrete, unobserved (hidden) state variable is modeled as a stochastic process and the transition probabilities are inferred from the flux density time series. Using the most comprehensive data set to date, in which all Keck and a majority of the publicly available Very Large Telescope data have been merged, we show that Sgr A* is sufficiently described by a single intrinsic state. However, the observed flux densities exhibit two states: noise dominated and source dominated. Our methodology reported here will prove extremely useful to assess the effects of the putative gas cloud G2 that is on its way toward the black hole and might create a new state of variability.

  8. State Anxiety and Nonlinear Dynamics of Heart Rate Variability in Students

    PubMed Central

    Dimitriev, Aleksey D.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Clinical and experimental research studies have demonstrated that the emotional experience of anxiety impairs heart rate variability (HRV) in humans. The present study investigated whether changes in state anxiety (SA) can also modulate nonlinear dynamics of heart rate. Methods A group of 96 students volunteered to participate in the study. For each student, two 5-minute recordings of beat intervals (RR) were performed: one during a rest period and one just before a university examination, which was assumed to be a real-life stressor. Nonlinear analysis of HRV was performed. The Spielberger’s State-Trait Anxiety Inventory was used to assess the level of SA. Results Before adjusting for heart rate, a Wilcoxon matched pairs test showed significant decreases in Poincaré plot measures, entropy, largest Lyapunov exponent (LLE), and pointwise correlation dimension (PD2), and an increase in the short-term fractal-like scaling exponent of detrended fluctuation analysis (α1) during the exam session, compared with the rest period. A Pearson analysis indicated significant negative correlations between the dynamics of SA and Poincaré plot axes ratio (SD1/SD2), and between changes in SA and changes in entropy measures. A strong negative correlation was found between the dynamics of SA and LLE. A significant positive correlation was found between the dynamics of SA and α1. The decreases in Poincaré plot measures (SD1, complex correlation measure), entropy measures, and LLE were still significant after adjusting for heart rate. Corrected α1 was increased during the exam session. As before, the dynamics of adjusted LLE was significantly correlated with the dynamics of SA. Conclusions The qualitative increase in SA during academic examination was related to the decrease in the complexity and size of the Poincaré plot through a reduction of both the interbeat interval and its variation. PMID:26807793

  9. Variable-temperature 13C solid-state NMR study of the molecular structure of honeybee wax and silk.

    PubMed

    Kameda, Tsunenori; Tamada, Yasushi

    2009-01-01

    To elucidate the native-state crystal structure of beeswax from the Japanese bee, Apis cerana japonica, we determined the relationship between temperature and the 13C solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) chemical shift of methylene carbon of beeswax, with comparison to n-alkanes and polyethylene in the orthorhombic, monoclinic, or triclinic crystal form. Variable-temperature 13C solid-state NMR observations of n-alkanes and polyethylene revealed that the chemical shifts of methylene carbon in the orthorhombic crystal form increased linearly with increasing temperature, that of the triclinic form decreased, and that of the monoclinic form was unaltered. These relations were compared with results of variable-temperature 13C solid-state NMR observation of beeswax. Results clarified that the two crystal forms comprising the beeswax in the native state are orthorhombic and monoclinic. The variable-temperature 13C solid-state NMR observations were also applied to interpret the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) curve of beeswax. They were used to clarify the structural changes of beeswax for widely various temperatures. For beeswax secreted by the Japanese bee, the transition from the orthorhombic form to the rotator phase occurred at 36 degrees C, that is from the crystalline to the intermediate state at 45 degrees C. Moreover, the variable-temperature 13C solid-state NMR spectrum of honeybee silk in the native state was observed. Results demonstrated that the secondary structures of honeybee silk proteins in the native state comprised coexisting alpha-helix and beta-sheet conformations and that the amount of alpha-helices was greater. The alpha-helix content of honeybee silk was compared with that of hornet silk produced by Vespa larvae.

  10. Salinity variability along the eastern continental shelf of Canada and the United States, 1973-2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bisagni, James J.

    2016-09-01

    Continental shelf waters located off the east coast of Canada and the United States are part of a long shelf current system that is partly comprised of colder, less-saline waters originating from high latitudes, including waters from the North Atlantic sub-polar gyre, along with ice-melt and freshwater input from local rivers. A 41-year analysis (1973-2013) of near-surface salinity (NSS) using three hydrographic datasets (Bedford Institute of Oceanography "Climate", NOAA/ESDIM, and Canadian Marine Environmental Data Service (MEDS)) allowed an examination of NSS variability within 11 continental shelf sub-regions, extending from the southern Newfoundland Shelf of eastern Canada to the DelMarVa/Hatteras Shelf of the United States. Although the periods of record containing sufficient data vary between sub-regions, regional mean NSS values are lowest within the Gulf of St. Lawrence and highest on the DelMarVa/Hatteras shelf, with largest annual variability within the Gulf of St. Lawrence. After removal of outliers, long-term linear trends computed from annual mean NSS were detected along the Newfoundland Shelf (+0.011 y-1), Western Scotian Shelf (-0.007 y-1), Gulf of Maine (-0.014 y-1), Georges Bank (-0.011 y-1), and DelMarVa/Hatteras Shelf (+0.024 y-1). A long-term quadratic fit to annual mean NSS from the Eastern Scotian Shelf displays a salinity increase through 1992 of +0.026 y-1, decreasing thereafter until 2013 by -0.028 y-1. A quadratic fit for the Western Grand Banks displays a NSS increase through 2007 of +0.022 y-1, decreasing thereafter through 2013 by -0.006 y-1. Annual mean NSS from the Eastern Grand Banks, Tail of the Grand Banks, Gulf of St. Lawrence, and Middle Atlantic Bight display no long-term trends. Inter-annual variability (IAV) of NSS residuals shows similar small mean squared error (mse) of 0.02-0.04 for the four northern-most sub-regions (Newfoundland Shelf, Eastern, Tail and Western Grand Banks) and are correlated at 0-year lag. IAV of NSS

  11. Variability of runoff-based drought conditions in the conterminous United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCabe, Gregory; Wolock, David M.; Austin, Samuel H.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a monthly water-balance model is used to simulate monthly runoff for 2109 hydrologic units (HUs) in the conterminous United States (CONUS) for water-years 1901 through 2014. The monthly runoff time series for each HU were smoothed with a 3-month moving average, and then the 3-month moving-average runoff values were converted to percentiles. For each HU, a drought was considered to occur when the HU runoff percentile dropped to the 20th percentile or lower. A drought was considered to end when the HU runoff percentile exceeded the 20th percentile. After identifying drought events for each HU, the frequency and length of drought events were examined. Results indicated that (1) the longest mean drought lengths occur in the eastern CONUS and parts of the Rocky Mountain region and the northwestern CONUS, (2) the frequency of drought is highest in the southwestern and central CONUS, and lowest in the eastern CONUS, the Rocky Mountain region, and the northwestern CONUS, (3) droughts have occurred during all months of the year and there does not appear to be a seasonal pattern to drought occurrence, (4) the variability of precipitation appears to have been the principal climatic factor determining drought, and (5) for most of the CONUS, drought frequency appears to have decreased during the 1901 through 2014 period.

  12. Theorems and Application of Local Activity of CNN with Five State Variables and One Port

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Gang; Dong, Xisong; Xie, Li; Yang, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Coupled nonlinear dynamical systems have been widely studied recently. However, the dynamical properties of these systems are difficult to deal with. The local activity of cellular neural network (CNN) has provided a powerful tool for studying the emergence of complex patterns in a homogeneous lattice, which is composed of coupled cells. In this paper, the analytical criteria for the local activity in reaction-diffusion CNN with five state variables and one port are presented, which consists of four theorems, including a serial of inequalities involving CNN parameters. These theorems can be used for calculating the bifurcation diagram to determine or analyze the emergence of complex dynamic patterns, such as chaos. As a case study, a reaction-diffusion CNN of hepatitis B Virus (HBV) mutation-selection model is analyzed and simulated, the bifurcation diagram is calculated. Using the diagram, numerical simulations of this CNN model provide reasonable explanations of complex mutant phenomena during therapy. Therefore, it is demonstrated that the local activity of CNN provides a practical tool for the complex dynamics study of some coupled nonlinear systems. PMID:22611440

  13. The Pattern Across the Continental United States of Evapotranspiration Variability Associated with Water Availability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koster, Randal; Salvucci, Guido; Rigden, Angela; Jung, Martin; Collatz, G.; Schubert, Siegfried

    2015-07-01

    The spatial pattern across the continental United States of the interannual variance of warm-season water-dependent evapotranspiration, a pattern of relevance to land-atmosphere feedback, cannot be measured directly. Alternative and indirect approaches to estimating the pattern, however, do exist, and given the uncertainty of each, we use several such approaches here. We first quantify the water-dependent evapotranspiration variance pattern inherent in two derived evapotranspiration datasets available from the literature. We then search for the pattern in proxy geophysical variables (air temperature, streamflow, and NDVI) known to have strong ties to evapotranspiration. The variances inherent in all of the different (and mostly independent) data sources show some differences but are generally strongly consistent - they all show a large variance signal down the center of the U.S., with lower variances toward the east and (for the most part) toward the west. The robustness of the pattern across the datasets suggests that it indeed represents the pattern operating in nature. Using Budyko’s hydroclimatic framework, we show that the pattern can largely be explained by the relative strength of water and energy controls on evapotranspiration across the continent.

  14. An internal state variable mapping approach for Li-Plating diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Guangxing; Wang, Pingfeng

    2016-08-01

    Li-ion battery failure becomes one of major challenges for reliable battery applications, as it could cause catastrophic consequences. Compared with capacity fading resulted from calendar effects, Li-plating induced battery failures are more difficult to identify, as they causes sudden capacity loss leaving limited time for failure diagnosis. This paper presents a new internal state variable (ISV) mapping approach to identify values of immeasurable battery ISVs considering changes of inherent parameters of battery system dynamics for Li-plating diagnosis. Employing the developed ISV mapping approach, an explicit functional relationship model between measurable battery signals and immeasurable battery ISVs can be developed. The developed model can then be used to identify ISVs from an online battery system for the occurrence identification of Li-plating. Employing multiphysics based simulation of Li-plating using COMSOL, the proposed Li-plating diagnosis approach is implemented under different conditions in the case studies to demonstrate its efficacy in diagnosis of Li-plating onset timings.

  15. The Pattern Across the Continental United States of Evapotranspiration Variability Associated with Water Availability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koster, Randal D.; Salvucci, Guido D.; Rigden, Angela J.; Jung, Martin; Collatz, G. James; Schubert, Siegfried D.

    2015-01-01

    The spatial pattern across the continental United States of the interannual variance of warm season water-dependent evapotranspiration, a pattern of relevance to land-atmosphere feedback, cannot be measured directly. Alternative and indirect approaches to estimating the pattern, however, do exist, and given the uncertainty of each, we use several such approaches here. We first quantify the water dependent evapotranspiration variance pattern inherent in two derived evapotranspiration datasets available from the literature. We then search for the pattern in proxy geophysical variables (air temperature, stream flow, and NDVI) known to have strong ties to evapotranspiration. The variances inherent in all of the different (and mostly independent) data sources show some differences but are generally strongly consistent they all show a large variance signal down the center of the U.S., with lower variances toward the east and (for the most part) toward the west. The robustness of the pattern across the datasets suggests that it indeed represents the pattern operating in nature. Using Budykos hydroclimatic framework, we show that the pattern can largely be explained by the relative strength of water and energy controls on evapotranspiration across the continent.

  16. Hydraulic fracturing water use variability in the United States and potential environmental implications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gallegos, Tanya J.; Varela, Brian A.; Haines, Seth S.; Engle, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    Until now, up-to-date, comprehensive, spatial, national-scale data on hydraulic fracturing water volumes have been lacking. Water volumes used (injected) to hydraulically fracture over 263,859 oil and gas wells drilled between 2000 and 2014 were compiled and used to create the first U.S. map of hydraulic fracturing water use. Although median annual volumes of 15,275 m3 and 19,425 m3 of water per well was used to hydraulically fracture individual horizontal oil and gas wells, respectively, in 2014, about 42% of wells were actually either vertical or directional, which required less than 2600 m3 water per well. The highest average hydraulic fracturing water usage (10,000−36,620 m3 per well) in watersheds across the United States generally correlated with shale-gas areas (versus coalbed methane, tight oil, or tight gas) where the greatest proportion of hydraulically fractured wells were horizontally drilled, reflecting that the natural reservoir properties influence water use. This analysis also demonstrates that many oil and gas resources within a given basin are developed using a mix of horizontal, vertical, and some directional wells, explaining why large volume hydraulic fracturing water usage is not widespread. This spatial variability in hydraulic fracturing water use relates to the potential for environmental impacts such as water availability, water quality, wastewater disposal, and possible wastewater injection-induced earthquakes.

  17. Water Table Response to Climate Variability In The Northeastern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boutt, David

    2015-04-01

    The New England region is one of the few locations of the United States that is experiencing an increasing amount of annual precipitation over the last few decades. This increase in precipitation is not necessarily resulting in higher annual streamflow but is impacting the amount of water recharging subsurface reservoirs. In this contribution we present a quantitative analysis of instrumental data and use that to drive a regional modeling study of the interaction of recharge water and the distinct aquifers of the region. The region is characterized by four main aquifer recharge types, which are shown to have distinct hydraulic responses to recharge variability due to both their aquifer hydraulic properties and their hydrogeologic setting. Assessments of hydraulic properties allows the prediction of ground water storage changes from the water level changes. Modeling results show that the timing of recharge to the aquifer system has not necessarily changed but the amount precipitation during these times has increased significantly. The last ten years of ground water storage prediction shows a significant increase in the amount of time when positive storage conditions are present. Extreme precipitation events from tropical cyclones have resulted in some of the highest water tables recorded in the instrumental record. Comparison of these results to those from paleo-hydrological studies on lake levels suggest that this region is experiencing some of the wettest conditions recorded since de-glaciation. These results have significant implications for management approaches dealing with low flow stream requirements across the region.

  18. Excited-state hydroxyl maser catalogue from the methanol multibeam survey - I. Positions and variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avison, A.; Quinn, L. J.; Fuller, G. A.; Caswell, J. L.; Green, J. A.; Breen, S. L.; Ellingsen, S. P.; Gray, M. D.; Pestalozzi, M.; Thompson, M. A.; Voronkov, M. A.

    2016-09-01

    We present the results of the first complete unbaised survey of the Galactic plane for 6035-MHz excited-state hydroxyl (ex-OH) masers undertaken as part of the methanol multibeam (MMB) survey. These observations cover the Galactic longitude ranges 186° < l < 60° including the Galactic Centre. We report the detection of 127 ex-OH masers within the survey region, 47 being new sources. The positions of new detections were determined from interferometric observations with the Australia Telescope Compact Array. We discuss the association of 6035-MHz masers in our survey with the 6668-MHz masers from the MMB Survey, finding 37 likely CH3OH-ex-OH maser pairs with physical separations of ≤0.03 pc and 55 pairings separated by ≤0.1 pc. Using these we calculate for the first time an ex-OH maser lifetime of between 3.3 × 103 and 8.3 × 103 yr. We also discuss the variability of the 6035-MHz masers and detection rates of counterpart 6030-MHz ex-OH masers (28 per cent of our sample having detection at both frequencies).

  19. A piecewise linear state variable technique for real time propulsion system simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mihaloew, J. R.; Roth, S. P.

    1982-01-01

    The emphasis on increased aircraft and propulsion control system integration and piloted simulation has created a need for higher fidelity real time dynamic propulsion models. A real time propulsion system modeling technique which satisfies this need and which provides the capabilities needed to evaluate propulsion system performance and aircraft system interaction on manned flight simulators was developed and demonstrated using flight simulator facilities at NASA Ames. A piecewise linear state variable technique is used. This technique provides the system accuracy, stability and transient response required for integrated aircraft and propulsion control system studies. The real time dynamic model includes the detail and flexibility required for the evaluation of critical control parameters and propulsion component limits over a limited flight envelope. The model contains approximately 7.0 K bytes of in-line computational code and 14.7 K of block data. It has an 8.9 ms cycle time on a Xerox Sigma 9 computer. A Pegasus-Harrier propulsion system was used as a baseline for developing the mathematical modeling and simulation technique. A hydromechanical and water injection control system was also simulated. The model was programmed for interfacing with a Harrier aircraft simulation at NASA Ames. Descriptions of the real time methodology and model capabilities are presented.

  20. A Piecewise Linear State Variable Technique for Real Time Propulsion System Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mihaloew, J. R.; Roth, S. P.

    1982-01-01

    The emphasis on increased aircraft and propulsion control system integration and piloted simulation has created a need for higher fidelity real time dynamic propulsion models. A real time propulsion system modeling technique which satisfies this need and which provides the capabilities needed to evaluate propulsion system performance and aircraft system interaction on manned flight simulators was developed and demonstrated using flight simulator facilities at NASA Ames. A piecewise linear state variable technique is used. This technique provides the system accuracy, stability and transient response required for integrated aircraft and propulsion control system studies. The real time dynamic model includes the detail and flexibility required for the evaluation of critical control parameters and propulsion component limits over a limited flight envelope. The model contains approximately 7.0 K bytes of in-line computational code and 14.7 K of block data. It has an 8.9 ms cycle time on a Xerox Sigma 9 computer. A Pegasus-Harrier propulsion system was used as a baseline for developing the mathematical modeling and simulation technique. A hydromechanical and water injection control system was also simulated. The model was programmed for interfacing with a Harrier aircraft simulation at NASA Ames. Descriptions of the real time methodology and model capabilities are presented.

  1. Hydraulic fracturing water use variability in the United States and potential environmental implications

    PubMed Central

    Varela, Brian A.; Haines, Seth S.; Engle, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Until now, up‐to‐date, comprehensive, spatial, national‐scale data on hydraulic fracturing water volumes have been lacking. Water volumes used (injected) to hydraulically fracture over 263,859 oil and gas wells drilled between 2000 and 2014 were compiled and used to create the first U.S. map of hydraulic fracturing water use. Although median annual volumes of 15,275 m3 and 19,425 m3 of water per well was used to hydraulically fracture individual horizontal oil and gas wells, respectively, in 2014, about 42% of wells were actually either vertical or directional, which required less than 2600 m3 water per well. The highest average hydraulic fracturing water usage (10,000−36,620 m3 per well) in watersheds across the United States generally correlated with shale‐gas areas (versus coalbed methane, tight oil, or tight gas) where the greatest proportion of hydraulically fractured wells were horizontally drilled, reflecting that the natural reservoir properties influence water use. This analysis also demonstrates that many oil and gas resources within a given basin are developed using a mix of horizontal, vertical, and some directional wells, explaining why large volume hydraulic fracturing water usage is not widespread. This spatial variability in hydraulic fracturing water use relates to the potential for environmental impacts such as water availability, water quality, wastewater disposal, and possible wastewater injection‐induced earthquakes. PMID:26937056

  2. Hydraulic fracturing water use variability in the United States and potential environmental implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallegos, Tanya J.; Varela, Brian A.; Haines, Seth S.; Engle, Mark A.

    2015-07-01

    Until now, up-to-date, comprehensive, spatial, national-scale data on hydraulic fracturing water volumes have been lacking. Water volumes used (injected) to hydraulically fracture over 263,859 oil and gas wells drilled between 2000 and 2014 were compiled and used to create the first U.S. map of hydraulic fracturing water use. Although median annual volumes of 15,275 m3 and 19,425 m3 of water per well was used to hydraulically fracture individual horizontal oil and gas wells, respectively, in 2014, about 42% of wells were actually either vertical or directional, which required less than 2600 m3 water per well. The highest average hydraulic fracturing water usage (10,000-36,620 m3 per well) in watersheds across the United States generally correlated with shale-gas areas (versus coalbed methane, tight oil, or tight gas) where the greatest proportion of hydraulically fractured wells were horizontally drilled, reflecting that the natural reservoir properties influence water use. This analysis also demonstrates that many oil and gas resources within a given basin are developed using a mix of horizontal, vertical, and some directional wells, explaining why large volume hydraulic fracturing water usage is not widespread. This spatial variability in hydraulic fracturing water use relates to the potential for environmental impacts such as water availability, water quality, wastewater disposal, and possible wastewater injection-induced earthquakes.

  3. Statistical correlation of fractional oscillator response by complex spectral moments and state variable expansion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinnola, Francesco Paolo

    2016-10-01

    The statistical characterization of the oscillator response with non-integer order damping under Gaussian noise represents an important challenge in the modern stochastic mechanics. In fact, this kind of problem appears in several issues of different type (wave propagation in viscoelastic media, Brownian motion, fluid dynamics, RLC circuit, etc.). The aim of this paper is to provide a stochastic characterization of the stationary response of linear fractional oscillator forced by normal white noise. In particular, this paper shows a new method to obtain the correlation function by exact complex spectral moments. These complex quantities contain all the information to describe the random processes but in the considered case their analytical evaluation needs some mathematical manipulations. For this reason such complex spectral moment characterization is used in conjunction with a fractional-order state variable analysis. This kind of analysis permits to find the exact expression of complex spectral moments, and the correlation function by using the Mellin transform. Moreover, the proposed approach provides an analytical expression of the response variance of the fractional oscillator. Capability and efficiency of the present method are shown in the numerical examples in which correlation and variance of fractional oscillator response are found and compared with those obtained by Monte Carlo simulations.

  4. [Metabolic states at athletes in the strenuous muscular activity of variable character].

    PubMed

    Volkov, N I; Tambovtseva, R V; Iurikov, R V

    2012-01-01

    Investigated dynamics of metabolic conditions at athletes in strenuous muscular activity of variable character. The sportsmen of high qualification specializing in bicycle and skating sports, performed in vitro work on a bicycle ergometer at level of critical power at the maximum consumption of oxygen. In two additional series of experiences each of examinees has performed work on critical power by the initial accelerations making 28% from limiting duration of exercise of 45 and 108 seconds. At work on critical power on a course of performance of exercise consecutive change of metabolic conditions with a phase initial a log-period, fast exponential increase to level of the critical power, the subsequent maintenance of critical power and final dissociation of functions of an aerobic metabolism at increase of local exhaustion was traced. It is established that the most effective concerning work maintenance at level of critical power are short-term (no more than 10 s) initial accelerations on the power corresponding to 45-second limiting exercises: these accelerations stimulate development of functions of an aerobic metabolism and don't lead to exhaustion anaerobic resources and to development of the expressed local exhaustion in the end of work.

  5. Distinguishing State Variability From Trait Change in Longitudinal Data: The Role of Measurement (Non)Invariance in Latent State-Trait Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Geiser, Christian; Keller, Brian T.; Lockhart, Ginger; Eid, Michael; Cole, David A.; Koch, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    Researchers analyzing longitudinal data often want to find out whether the process they study is characterized by (1) short-term state variability, (2) long-term trait change, or (3) a combination of state variability and trait change. Classical latent state-trait (LST) models are designed to measure reversible state variability around a fixed set-point or trait, whereas latent growth curve (LGC) models focus on long-lasting and often irreversible trait changes. In the present paper, we contrast LST and LGC models from the perspective of measurement invariance (MI) testing. We show that establishing a pure state-variability process requires (a) the inclusion of a mean structure and (b) establishing strong factorial invariance in LST analyses. Analytical derivations and simulations demonstrate that LST models with non-invariant parameters can mask the fact that a trait-change or hybrid process has generated the data. Furthermore, the inappropriate application of LST models to trait change or hybrid data can lead to bias in the estimates of consistency and occasion-specificity, which are typically of key interest in LST analyses. Four tips for the proper application of LST models are provided. PMID:24652650

  6. The Effects of Chemical Additives on the Induction Phase in Solid-State Thermal Decomposition of Ammonia Borane

    SciTech Connect

    Heldebrant, David J.; Karkamkar, Abhijeet J.; Hess, Nancy J.; Bowden, Mark E.; Rassat, Scot D.; Zheng, Feng; Rappe, Kenneth G.; Autrey, Thomas

    2008-08-26

    The solid-state decomposition of ammonia borane (AB) alone and in the presence of chemical additives was investigated by a series of experimental methods to develop an approach for reducing the induction period for hydrogen release. Gas chromatography techniques were used to measure the yield of hydrogen as a function of time under isothermal conditions between 70 and 90 °C, and the polyaminoborane (PAB) products produced from hydrogen loss from AB show significant cross linking by 11B NMR spectroscopy. Raman microscopy was used to follow the transformation of crystalline AB to amorphous AB with the subsequent formation of the diammoniate of diborane (DADB). A gas burette was used to monitor the time-dependent release of hydrogen from AB in the presence of chemical additives. The combination of these approaches provides insight into the mechanism of hydrogen release from solid AB. The release of molecular hydrogen is described by a process involving sequential induction (disruption of dihydrogen bonds), nucleation (formation of DADB), and growth (hydrogen release through dehydrocoupling). Addition of DADB or ammonium chloride to neat AB significantly reduces the induction time for hydrogen release. The authors wish to acknowledge support from the U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. This work was performed as part of the Center of Excellence in Chemical Hydrogen Storage and in collaboration with the International Partnership for the Hydrogen Economy. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated for the U.S. Department of Energy by Battelle.

  7. Toward demonstrating controlled-X operation based on continuous-variable four-partite cluster states and quantum teleporters

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Yu; Su Xiaolong; Shen Heng; Tan Aihong; Xie Changde; Peng Kunchi

    2010-02-15

    One-way quantum computation based on measurement and multipartite cluster entanglement offers the ability to perform a variety of unitary operations only through different choices of measurement bases. Here we present an experimental study toward demonstrating the controlled-X operation, a two-mode gate in which continuous variable (CV) four-partite cluster states of optical modes are utilized. Two quantum teleportation elements are used for achieving the gate operation of the quantum state transformation from input target and control states to output states. By means of the optical cluster state prepared off-line, the homodyne detection and electronic feeding forward, the information carried by the input control state is transformed to the output target state. The presented scheme of the controlled-X operation based on teleportation can be implemented nonlocally and deterministically. The distortion of the quantum information resulting from the imperfect cluster entanglement is estimated with the fidelity.

  8. Relative spatial soil geochemical variability along two transects across the United States and Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garrett, Robert G.

    2009-01-01

    The patterns of relative variability differ by transect and horizon. The N–S transect A-horizon soils show significant between-40-km scale variability for 29 elements, with only 4 elements (Ca, Mg, Pb and Sr) showing in excess of 50% of their variability at the within-40-km and ‘at-site’ scales. In contrast, the C-horizon data demonstrate significant between-40-km scale variability for 26 elements, with 21 having in excess of 50% of their variability at the within-40-km and ‘at-site’ scales. In 36 instances, the ‘at-site’ variability is statistically significant in terms of the sample preparation and analysis variability. It is postulated that this contrast between the A- and C- horizons along the N–S transect, that is dominated by agricultural land uses, is due to the local homogenization of Ap-horizon soils by tillage reducing the ‘at-site’ variability. The spatial variability is distributed similarly between scales for the A- and C-horizon soils of the E–W transect. For all elements, there is significant variability at the within-40-km scale. Notwithstanding this, there is significant between-40-km variability for 28 and 20 of the elements in the A- and C-horizon data, respectively. The differences between the two transects are attributed to (1) geology, the N–S transect runs generally parallel to regional strikes, whereas the E–W transect runs across regional structures and lithologies; and (2) land use, with agricultural tillage dominating along the N–S transect. The spatial analysis of the transect data indicates that continental-scale maps demonstrating statistically significant patterns of geochemical variability may be prepared for many elements from data on soil samples collected on a 40 x 40 km grid or similar sampling designs resulting in a sample density of 1 site per 1600 km2.

  9. Tropical Pacific forcing of Late-Holocene hydrologic variability in the coastal southwest United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirby, Matthew E.; Feakins, Sarah J.; Hiner, Christine A.; Fantozzi, Joanna; Zimmerman, Susan R. H.; Dingemans, Theodore; Mensing, Scott A.

    2014-10-01

    Change in water availability is of great concern in the coastal southwest United States (CSWUS). Reconstructing the history of water pre-1800 AD requires the use of proxy data. Lakes provide long-lived, high-resolution terrestrial archives of past hydrologic change, and their sediments contain a variety of proxies. This study presents geochemical and sedimentological data from Zaca Lake, CA (Santa Barbara County) used to reconstruct a 3000 year history of winter season moisture source (δDwax) and catchment run-off (125-2000 μm sand) at decadal resolution. Here we show that winter season moisture source and run-off are highly variable over the past 3000 years; superimposed are regime shifts between wetter or drier conditions that persist on average over multiple centuries. Moisture source and run-off do not consistently covary indicating multiple atmospheric circulation modes where wetter/drier conditions prevail. Grain-size analysis reveals two intervals of multi-century drought with less run-off that pre-date the “epic droughts” as identified by Cook et al. (2004). A well-defined wet period with more run-off is identified during the Little Ice Age. Notably, the grain size data show strong coherence with western North American percent drought area indices for the past 1000 years. As a result, our data extend the history of drought and pluvials back to 3000 calendar years BP in the CSWUS. Comparison to tropical Pacific proxies confirms the long-term relationship between El Niño and enhanced run-off in the CSWUS. Our results demonstrate the long-term importance of the tropical Pacific to the CSWUS winter season hydroclimate.

  10. Tropical Pacific Forcing of Late-Holocene Hydrologic Variability in the Coastal Southwest United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirby, M. E.; Feakins, S. J.; Hiner, C.; Fantozzi, J. M.; Zimmerman, S. R. H.; Dingemans, T.; Mensing, S. A.

    2014-12-01

    Change in water availability is of great concern in the coastal southwest United States (CSWUS). Reconstructing the history of water pre-1800 AD requires the use of proxy data. Lakes provide long-lived, high-resolution terrestrial archives of past hydrologic change, and their sediments contain a variety of proxies. This study presents geochemical, sedimentological, and biological data from Zaca Lake, CA (Santa Barbara County) used to reconstruct a 3000 year history of winter season moisture source (dDwax) and catchment run-off (125-2000 mm sand) at decadal resolution. Vegetative response to hydrologic change is also investigated using pollen. Here we show that winter season moisture source and run-off are highly variable over the past 3000 years; superimposed are regime shifts between wetter or drier conditions that persist on average over multiple centuries. Moisture source and run-off do not consistently covary indicating multiple atmospheric circulation modes where wetter/drier conditions prevail. Grain-size analysis reveals two intervals of multi-century drought with less run-off that pre-date the "epic droughts" as identified by Cook et al. (2004). A well-defined wet period with more run-off is identified during the Little Ice Age. Notably, the grain size data show strong coherence with western North American percent drought area indices for the past 1000 years. As a result, our data extend the history of drought and pluvials back to 3000 calendar years BP in the CSWUS. Comparison to tropical Pacific proxies confirms the long-term relationship between El Niño and enhanced run-off in the CSWUS. Our results demonstrate the long-term importance of the tropical Pacific to the CSWUS winter season hydroclimate.

  11. Precipitation and evapotranspiration controls on daily runoff variability in the contiguous United States and Puerto Rico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, Matthew W.; Whipple, Kelin X.; Vivoni, Enrique R.

    2016-01-01

    Daily runoff variability is an important driver of fluvial erosion but is difficult to incorporate into landscape evolution models due to limited observations and incomplete understanding of hydroclimatic controls on runoff distributions. Prior work in the contiguous U.S. showed how limitations can be overcome when mean runoff is correlated with the shape of the right tail of runoff distributions. However, which probability distribution functions best capture geomorphically important events and whether patterns in the contiguous U.S. transfer to other settings remain important open questions. Our analysis of large hydroclimatic data sets from the contiguous U.S. and Puerto Rico reveals that stretched exponential distributions provide a common probabilistic framework to evaluate daily rainfall and runoff variability. In both settings, daily runoff variability is correlated with the evapotranspiration ratio, aridity index, and the ratio of wet to dry days. Surprisingly, mean storm depth (estimated from average daily precipitation during wet days only) and storm depth variability are uncorrelated with daily runoff variability in either data set. These findings suggest that first-order controls on runoff variability are processes that reduce runoff during intermediate frequency flows rather than processes that enhance the magnitude of rare floods. However, by normalizing local runoff variability by storm depth variability, some correlations collapse onto a single trend for the contiguous U.S. and Puerto Rico, suggesting a secondary role for rainfall variability on runoff variability. Taken together, this analysis provides a rationale for how hydroclimatic controls on runoff variability can be better incorporated into landscape evolution models from readily available data.

  12. Cloning and optimal Gaussian individual attacks for a continuous-variable quantum key distribution using coherent states and reverse reconciliation

    SciTech Connect

    Namiki, Ryo; Koashi, Masato; Imoto, Nobuyuki

    2006-03-15

    We investigate the security of continuous-variable quantum key distribution using coherent states and reverse reconciliation against Gaussian individual attacks based on an optimal Gaussian 1{yields}2 cloning machine. We provide an implementation of the optimal Gaussian individual attack. We also find a Bell-measurement attack which works without delayed choice of measurements and has better performance than the cloning attack.

  13. The Effect of Three Cognitive Variables on Students' Understanding of the Particulate Nature of Matter and Its Changes of State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsitsipis, Georgios; Stamovlasis, Dimitrios; Papageorgiou, George

    2010-01-01

    In this study, students' understanding of the structure of matter and its changes of state such as melting, evaporation, boiling, and condensation was investigated in relation to three cognitive variables: logical thinking (LTh), field dependence/independence, and convergence/divergence dimension. The study took place in Greece with the…

  14. Personality Variables as Predictors of Leadership Role Performance Effectiveness of Administrators of Public Secondary Schools in Cross River State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akpan, Charles P.; Archibong, Ijeoma A.

    2012-01-01

    The study sought to find out the predictive effect of self-concept, self-efficacy, self-esteem and locus of control on the instructional and motivational leadership roles performance effectiveness of administrators of public secondary schools in Cross River State of Nigeria. The relative contribution of each of the independent variables to the…

  15. Qualitative Contrast between Knowledge-Limited Mixed-State and Variable-Resources Models of Visual Change Detection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nosofsky, Robert M.; Donkin, Chris

    2016-01-01

    We report an experiment designed to provide a qualitative contrast between knowledge-limited versions of mixed-state and variable-resources (VR) models of visual change detection. The key data pattern is that observers often respond "same" on big-change trials, while simultaneously being able to discriminate between same and small-change…

  16. Self Efficacy and Some Demographic Variables as Predictors of Occupational Stress among Primary School Teachers in Delta State of Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akpochafo, G. O.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated self efficacy and some demographic variables as predictors of occupational stress among primary school teachers in Delta State. Three hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. The study adopted a descriptive survey design that utilized an expost-facto research type. A sample of one hundred and twenty primary school…

  17. The Invisible Link: Using State Space Representations to Investigate the Connection between Variables and Their Referents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollack, Courtney

    2012-01-01

    The ability to represent numerical quantities in symbolic form is a necessary foundation for mathematical competence. Variables are particularly important symbolic representations for learning algebra and succeeding in higher mathematics, but the mechanisms of how students link a variable to what it represents are not well understood. Research…

  18. The binary millisecond pulsar PSR J1023+0038 during its accretion state - I. Optical variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahbaz, T.; Linares, M.; Nevado, S. P.; Rodríguez-Gil, P.; Casares, J.; Dhillon, V. S.; Marsh, T. R.; Littlefair, S.; Leckngam, A.; Poshyachinda, S.

    2015-11-01

    We present time-resolved optical photometry of the binary millisecond `redback' pulsar PSR J1023+0038 (=AY Sex) during its low-mass X-ray binary phase. The light curves taken between 2014 January and April show an underlying sinusoidal modulation due to the irradiated secondary star and accretion disc. We also observe superimposed rapid flaring on time-scales as short as ˜20 s with amplitudes of ˜0.1-0.5 mag and additional large flare events on time-scales of ˜5-60 min with amplitudes of ˜0.5-1.0 mag. The power density spectrum of the optical flare light curves is dominated by a red-noise component, typical of aperiodic activity in X-ray binaries. Simultaneous X-ray and UV observations by the Swift satellite reveal strong correlations that are consistent with X-ray reprocessing of the UV light, most likely in the outer regions of the accretion disc. On some nights we also observe sharp-edged, rectangular, flat-bottomed dips randomly distributed in orbital phase, with a median duration of ˜250 s and a median ingress/egress time of ˜20 s. These rectangular dips are similar to the mode-switching behaviour between disc `active' and `passive' luminosity states, observed in the X-ray light curves of other redback millisecond pulsars. This is the first time that the optical analogue of the X-ray mode-switching has been observed. The properties of the passive- and active-state light curves can be explained in terms of clumpy accretion from a trapped inner accretion disc near the corotation radius, resulting in rectangular, flat-bottomed optical and X-ray light curves.

  19. The 1998-2000 SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere ADditional OZonesondes) Tropical Ozone Climatology. 2; Stratospheric and Tropospheric Ozone Variability and the Zonal Wave-One

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Anne M.; Witte, Jacquelyn C.; Oltmans, Samuel J.; Schmidlin, Francis J.; Logan, Jennifer A.; Fujiwara, Masatomo; Kirchhoff, Volker W. J. H.; Posny, Francoise; Coetzee, Gert J. R.; Hoegger, Bruno; Bhartia, P. K. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This is the second 'reference' or 'archival' paper for the SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes) network and is a follow-on to the recently accepted paper with similar first part of title. The latter paper compared SHADOZ total ozone with satellite and ground-based instruments and showed that the equatorial wave-one in total ozone is in the troposphere. The current paper presents details of the wave-one structure and the first overview of tropospheric ozone variability over the southern Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Ocean basins. The principal new result is that signals of climate effects, convection and offsets between biomass burning seasonality and tropospheric ozone maxima suggest that dynamical factors are perhaps more important than pollution in determining the tropical distribution of tropospheric ozone. The SHADOZ data at () are setting records in website visits and are the first time that the zonal view of tropical ozone structure has been recorded - thanks to the distribution of the 10 sites that make up this validation network.

  20. The influence of environmental variables on the presence of white sharks, Carcharodon carcharias at two popular Cape Town bathing beaches: a generalized additive mixed model.

    PubMed

    Weltz, Kay; Kock, Alison A; Winker, Henning; Attwood, Colin; Sikweyiya, Monwabisi

    2013-01-01

    Shark attacks on humans are high profile events which can significantly influence policies related to the coastal zone. A shark warning system in South Africa, Shark Spotters, recorded 378 white shark (Carcharodon carcharias) sightings at two popular beaches, Fish Hoek and Muizenberg, during 3690 six-hour long spotting shifts, during the months September to May 2006 to 2011. The probabilities of shark sightings were related to environmental variables using Binomial Generalized Additive Mixed Models (GAMMs). Sea surface temperature was significant, with the probability of shark sightings increasing rapidly as SST exceeded 14 °C and approached a maximum at 18 °C, whereafter it remains high. An 8 times (Muizenberg) and 5 times (Fish Hoek) greater likelihood of sighting a shark was predicted at 18 °C than at 14 °C. Lunar phase was also significant with a prediction of 1.5 times (Muizenberg) and 4 times (Fish Hoek) greater likelihood of a shark sighting at new moon than at full moon. At Fish Hoek, the probability of sighting a shark was 1.6 times higher during the afternoon shift compared to the morning shift, but no diel effect was found at Muizenberg. A significant increase in the number of shark sightings was identified over the last three years, highlighting the need for ongoing research into shark attack mitigation. These patterns will be incorporated into shark awareness and bather safety campaigns in Cape Town. PMID:23874668

  1. The influence of environmental variables on the presence of white sharks, Carcharodon carcharias at two popular Cape Town bathing beaches: a generalized additive mixed model.

    PubMed

    Weltz, Kay; Kock, Alison A; Winker, Henning; Attwood, Colin; Sikweyiya, Monwabisi

    2013-01-01

    Shark attacks on humans are high profile events which can significantly influence policies related to the coastal zone. A shark warning system in South Africa, Shark Spotters, recorded 378 white shark (Carcharodon carcharias) sightings at two popular beaches, Fish Hoek and Muizenberg, during 3690 six-hour long spotting shifts, during the months September to May 2006 to 2011. The probabilities of shark sightings were related to environmental variables using Binomial Generalized Additive Mixed Models (GAMMs). Sea surface temperature was significant, with the probability of shark sightings increasing rapidly as SST exceeded 14 °C and approached a maximum at 18 °C, whereafter it remains high. An 8 times (Muizenberg) and 5 times (Fish Hoek) greater likelihood of sighting a shark was predicted at 18 °C than at 14 °C. Lunar phase was also significant with a prediction of 1.5 times (Muizenberg) and 4 times (Fish Hoek) greater likelihood of a shark sighting at new moon than at full moon. At Fish Hoek, the probability of sighting a shark was 1.6 times higher during the afternoon shift compared to the morning shift, but no diel effect was found at Muizenberg. A significant increase in the number of shark sightings was identified over the last three years, highlighting the need for ongoing research into shark attack mitigation. These patterns will be incorporated into shark awareness and bather safety campaigns in Cape Town.

  2. The Influence of Environmental Variables on the Presence of White Sharks, Carcharodon carcharias at Two Popular Cape Town Bathing Beaches: A Generalized Additive Mixed Model

    PubMed Central

    Weltz, Kay; Kock, Alison A.; Winker, Henning; Attwood, Colin; Sikweyiya, Monwabisi

    2013-01-01

    Shark attacks on humans are high profile events which can significantly influence policies related to the coastal zone. A shark warning system in South Africa, Shark Spotters, recorded 378 white shark (Carcharodon carcharias) sightings at two popular beaches, Fish Hoek and Muizenberg, during 3690 six-hour long spotting shifts, during the months September to May 2006 to 2011. The probabilities of shark sightings were related to environmental variables using Binomial Generalized Additive Mixed Models (GAMMs). Sea surface temperature was significant, with the probability of shark sightings increasing rapidly as SST exceeded 14°C and approached a maximum at 18°C, whereafter it remains high. An 8 times (Muizenberg) and 5 times (Fish Hoek) greater likelihood of sighting a shark was predicted at 18°C than at 14°C. Lunar phase was also significant with a prediction of 1.5 times (Muizenberg) and 4 times (Fish Hoek) greater likelihood of a shark sighting at new moon than at full moon. At Fish Hoek, the probability of sighting a shark was 1.6 times higher during the afternoon shift compared to the morning shift, but no diel effect was found at Muizenberg. A significant increase in the number of shark sightings was identified over the last three years, highlighting the need for ongoing research into shark attack mitigation. These patterns will be incorporated into shark awareness and bather safety campaigns in Cape Town. PMID:23874668

  3. The effect of zinc addition on the oxidation state of cobalt in Co/ZrO2 catalysts.

    PubMed

    Lebarbier, Vanessa M; Karim, Ayman M; Engelhard, Mark H; Wu, Yu; Xu, Bo-Qing; Petersen, Eric J; Datye, Abhaya K; Wang, Yong

    2011-11-18

    The effect of zinc promotion on the oxidation state of cobalt in Co/ZrO(2) catalysts was investigated and correlated with the activity and selectivity for ethanol steam reforming (ESR). Catalysts were synthesized by applying incipient wetness impregnation and characterized by using Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), temperature-programmed reduction (TPR) measurements, X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Higher ethanol conversion and lower CH(4) selectivity are observed for the Co/ZrO(2) catalyst promoted with Zn as compared to the Co/ZrO(2) catalyst alone. Addition of Zn inhibits the oxidation of metallic cobalt (Co(0) ) particles and results in a higher ratio of Co(0) /Co(2+) in the Zn-promoted Co/ZrO(2) catalyst. These results suggest that metallic cobalt (Co(0) ) is more active than Co(2+) in the ethanol conversion through dehydrogenation and that Co(2+) may play a role in the CH(4) formation. TPR measurements, on the other hand, reveal that Zn addition inhibits the reduction of Co(2+) and Co(3+) , which would lead to the false conclusion that oxidized Co is required to reduce the CH(4) formation. Therefore, TPR measurements may not be appropriate to correlate the degree of metal reducibility (in this case Co(0)) with the catalyst activity for reactions, such as ESR, where oxidizing conditions exist. PMID:21919212

  4. Quantitative effects of composting state variables on C/N ratio through GA-aided multivariate analysis.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wei; Huang, Guo H; Zeng, Guangming; Qin, Xiaosheng; Yu, Hui

    2011-03-01

    It is widely known that variation of the C/N ratio is dependent on many state variables during composting processes. This study attempted to develop a genetic algorithm aided stepwise cluster analysis (GASCA) method to describe the nonlinear relationships between the selected state variables and the C/N ratio in food waste composting. The experimental data from six bench-scale composting reactors were used to demonstrate the applicability of GASCA. Within the GASCA framework, GA searched optimal sets of both specified state variables and SCA's internal parameters; SCA established statistical nonlinear relationships between state variables and the C/N ratio; to avoid unnecessary and time-consuming calculation, a proxy table was introduced to save around 70% computational efforts. The obtained GASCA cluster trees had smaller sizes and higher prediction accuracy than the conventional SCA trees. Based on the optimal GASCA tree, the effects of the GA-selected state variables on the C/N ratio were ranged in a descending order as: NH₄+-N concentration>Moisture content>Ash Content>Mean Temperature>Mesophilic bacteria biomass. Such a rank implied that the variation of ammonium nitrogen concentration, the associated temperature and the moisture conditions, the total loss of both organic matters and available mineral constituents, and the mesophilic bacteria activity, were critical factors affecting the C/N ratio during the investigated food waste composting. This first application of GASCA to composting modelling indicated that more direct search algorithms could be coupled with SCA or other multivariate analysis methods to analyze complicated relationships during composting and many other environmental processes. PMID:21257193

  5. A comparison of the additional protocols of the five nuclear weapon states and the ensuing safeguards benefits to international nonproliferation efforts

    SciTech Connect

    Uribe, Eva C; Sandoval, M Analisa; Sandoval, Marisa N; Boyer, Brian D; Leitch, Rosalyn M

    2009-01-01

    With the 6 January 2009 entry into force of the Additional Protocol by the United States of America, all five declared Nuclear Weapon States that are part of the Nonproliferation Treaty have signed, ratified, and put into force the Additional Protocol. This paper makes a comparison of the strengths and weaknesses of the five Additional Protocols in force by the five Nuclear Weapon States with respect to the benefits to international nonproliferation aims. This paper also documents the added safeguards burden to the five declared Nuclear Weapon States that these Additional Protocols put on the states with respect to access to their civilian nuclear programs and the hosting of complementary access activities as part of the Additional Protocol.

  6. Autogenic variability and dynamic steady-state in sand-bedded rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jerolmack, D. J.; McElroy, B.; Mohrig, D.

    2004-12-01

    In sand-bedded rivers, the local physics of sediment transport produces spatially varying topography that evolves unpredictably in time, even when the structure of the stream-bed varies little in a statistical sense. Understanding autogenic adjustments within trains of bedforms under conditions of steady and uniform flow is necessary before we can predict the response of channel morphology to changes in flow conditions, e.g. the stage-discharge relationship. Also, dunes may coalesce to form bars, which are capable of laterally deflecting flow and ultimately modifying the path and shape of a channel. Bedforms are the link between sediment transport and channel morphology in sandy rivers, and their collective interactions maintain a dynamic steady-state on the river bottom. We document the evolution of fields of dunes under steady flow in the N. Loup River, NE, using topographic maps generated from low-altitude aerial photography. The distributions of bedform height, length and migration rate are broad (coefficient of variation 0.5 for each), but remain stationary in time. Individual bedforms, however, undergo substantial deformation during migration, through interactions with neighboring bedforms and the associated spatially varying sediment flux. Cross-correlation techniques show that the spatial/temporal correlation coefficient of the sediment-fluid interface decays exponentially with migration distance and time. Hence, the dunes themselves are inherently unstable objects and become unrecognizable from their original form after migrating a few wavelengths, corresponding here to a distance of 2 m and a time of 1 hour. If bedload is the dominant style of sediment transport, then sediment flux may be treated as responding instantaneously to the flow field. We build a simple mathematical model in which instantaneous sediment flux is computed locally from a combination of bed elevation and slope, and we deduce the general form of a surface evolution equation for

  7. Individual Variability and Test-Retest Reliability Revealed by Ten Repeated Resting-State Brain Scans over One Month.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bing; Xu, Ting; Zhou, Changle; Wang, Luoyu; Yang, Ning; Wang, Ze; Dong, Hao-Ming; Yang, Zhi; Zang, Yu-Feng; Zuo, Xi-Nian; Weng, Xu-Chu

    2015-01-01

    Individual differences in mind and behavior are believed to reflect the functional variability of the human brain. Due to the lack of a large-scale longitudinal dataset, the full landscape of variability within and between individual functional connectomes is largely unknown. We collected 300 resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rfMRI) datasets from 30 healthy participants who were scanned every three days for one month. With these data, both intra- and inter-individual variability of six common rfMRI metrics, as well as their test-retest reliability, were estimated across multiple spatial scales. Global metrics were more dynamic than local regional metrics. Cognitive components involving working memory, inhibition, attention, language and related neural networks exhibited high intra-individual variability. In contrast, inter-individual variability demonstrated a more complex picture across the multiple scales of metrics. Limbic, default, frontoparietal and visual networks and their related cognitive components were more differentiable than somatomotor and attention networks across the participants. Analyzing both intra- and inter-individual variability revealed a set of high-resolution maps on test-retest reliability of the multi-scale connectomic metrics. These findings represent the first collection of individual differences in multi-scale and multi-metric characterization of the human functional connectomes in-vivo, serving as normal references for the field to guide the use of common functional metrics in rfMRI-based applications.

  8. Individual Variability and Test-Retest Reliability Revealed by Ten Repeated Resting-State Brain Scans over One Month

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Changle; Wang, Luoyu; Yang, Ning; Wang, Ze; Dong, Hao-Ming; Yang, Zhi; Zang, Yu-Feng; Zuo, Xi-Nian; Weng, Xu-Chu

    2015-01-01

    Individual differences in mind and behavior are believed to reflect the functional variability of the human brain. Due to the lack of a large-scale longitudinal dataset, the full landscape of variability within and between individual functional connectomes is largely unknown. We collected 300 resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rfMRI) datasets from 30 healthy participants who were scanned every three days for one month. With these data, both intra- and inter-individual variability of six common rfMRI metrics, as well as their test-retest reliability, were estimated across multiple spatial scales. Global metrics were more dynamic than local regional metrics. Cognitive components involving working memory, inhibition, attention, language and related neural networks exhibited high intra-individual variability. In contrast, inter-individual variability demonstrated a more complex picture across the multiple scales of metrics. Limbic, default, frontoparietal and visual networks and their related cognitive components were more differentiable than somatomotor and attention networks across the participants. Analyzing both intra- and inter-individual variability revealed a set of high-resolution maps on test-retest reliability of the multi-scale connectomic metrics. These findings represent the first collection of individual differences in multi-scale and multi-metric characterization of the human functional connectomes in-vivo, serving as normal references for the field to guide the use of common functional metrics in rfMRI-based applications. PMID:26714192

  9. Recommendations for State Data Systems: The Importance of Socioeconomic Variables. Policy Alert.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arcia, Emily; Gallagher, James J.

    To determine the extent to which states are able to assess their provision of services to typically underserved populations, this study interviewed 16 Part H (Individuals with Disabilities Education Act) state coordinators. Major findings indicated: (1) six states identified their rural population as most underserved and six identified one or more…

  10. State as Variable, as Obstacle and as Mediator of Stimulation in Infant Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korner, Anneliese F.

    This paper is a discussion of the different contexts in which the concept of the infant's state is used in infant research. The infant states discussed are: regular sleep, irregular sleep, drowsiness, alert inactivity, waking activity, and crying. Also included are hunger periods and indeterminate states, those instances in which an infant's state…

  11. Effect of Selected Variables on Funding State Compensatory and Regular Education in Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiesman, Karen Wheeler

    2009-01-01

    Funding public schools has been an ongoing struggle since the inception of the United States. Beginning with Jefferson's "A General Diffusion of Knowledge" that charged the states with properly funding public schools, to the current day legal battles that continue in states across the Union, America struggles with finding a solution to adequate…

  12. The Public-Good Variable: Can Public Engagement Boost State Support for Higher Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weerts, David J.

    2015-01-01

    As state support for higher education has continued its downward slide, several commissions, declarations, and association reports have called on colleges and universities to be more productively engaged with state and regional needs. An underlying subtext of these reports is that the future of state support for higher education hinges on the…

  13. Effects of winter atmospheric circulation on temporal and spatial variability in annual streamflow in the western United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCabe, G.J.

    1996-01-01

    Winter mean 700-hectoPascal (hPa) height anomalies, representing the average atmospheric circulation during the snow season, are compared with annual streamflow measured at 140 streamgauges in the western United States. Correlation and anomaly pattern analyses are used to identify relationships between winter mean atmospheric circulation and temporal and spatial variability in annual streamflow. Results indicate that variability in winter mean 700-Hpa height anomalies accounts for a statistically significant portion of the temporal variability in annual streamflow in the western United States. In general, above-average annual streamflow is associated with negative winter mean 700-Hpa height anomalies over the eastern North Pacific Ocean and/or the western United States. The anomalies produce an anomalous flow of moist air from the eastern North Pacific Ocean into the western United States that increases winter precipitation and snowpack accumulations, and subsequently streamflow. Winter mean 700-hPa height anomalies also account for statistically significant differences in spatial distributions of annual streamflow. As part of this study, winter mean atmospheric circulation patterns for the 40 years analysed were classified into five winter mean 700-hPa height anomaly patterns. These patterns are related to statistically significant and physically meaningful differences in spatial distributions of annual streamflow.

  14. Genetic Structure and Molecular Variability of Cucumber mosaic virus Isolates in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Nouri, Shahideh; Arevalo, Rafael; Falk, Bryce W.; Groves, Russell L.

    2014-01-01

    Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) has a worldwide distribution and the widest host range of any known plant virus. From 2000 to 2012, epidemics of CMV severely affected the production of snap bean (Phaseulos vulgaris L.) in the Midwest and Northeastern United States. Virus diversity leading to emergence of new strains is often considered a significant factor in virus epidemics. In addition to epidemics, new disease phenotypes arising from genetic exchanges or mutation can compromise effectiveness of plant disease management strategies. Here, we captured a snapshot of genetic variation of 32 CMV isolates collected from different regions of the U.S including new field as well as historic isolates. Nucleotide diversity (π) was low for U.S. CMV isolates. Sequence and phylogenetic analyses revealed that CMV subgroup I is predominant in the US and further showed that the CMV population is a mixture of subgroups IA and IB. Furthermore, phylogenetic analysis suggests likely reassortment between subgroups IA and IB within five CMV isolates. Based on phylogenetic and computational analysis, recombination between subgroups I and II as well as IA and IB in RNA 3 was detected. This is the first report of recombination between CMV subgroups I and II. Neutrality tests illustrated that negative selection was the major force operating upon the CMV genome, although some positively selected sites were detected for all encoded proteins. Together, these data suggest that different regions of the CMV genome are under different evolutionary constraints. These results also delineate composition of the CMV population in the US, and further suggest that recombination and reassortment among strain subgroups does occur but at a low frequency, and point towards CMV genomic regions that differ in types of selection pressure. PMID:24801880

  15. Familial aggregation of blood pressure with respect to anthropometric variables in a business community of Punjab, a north Indian state.

    PubMed

    Badaruddoza; Sawhney, Rashveen

    2009-12-01

    This study aimed to examine the familial aggregation of blood pressure with respect to anthropometric variables in an upper-middle class business community in Punjab, a northern state of India. The results were evaluated in a sample of 75 families, constituting 305 individual from three generations such as offspring, parental and grandparental. The data were analyzed through familial correlations, multiple regressions, percent of variance and univariate analysis. The data indicate a strong familial aggregation of blood pressure in this population especially in offspring generations and show that such a familial influence on blood pressure can be detected from the different anthropometric variables, genetic factors, shared household environment and age. These effects were strong in SBP and moderate in DBP. SBP and DBP have showed higher genetic correlation with many anthropometric characters in offspring generation as compared to other generations. These correlations are negligible in male grandparental generation. The results suggest that almost all measured variables are significant multivariate correlates with blood pressure.

  16. Two-state on-off intermittency caused by unstable dimension variability in periodically forced drift waves

    SciTech Connect

    Galuzio, P. P.; Lopes, S. R.; Viana, R. L.

    2011-11-15

    Certain high-dimensional dynamical systems present two or more attractors characterized by different energy branches. For some parameter values the dynamics oscillates between these two branches in a seemingly random fashion, a phenomenon called two-state on-off intermittency. In this work we show that the dynamical mechanism underlying this intermittency involves the severe breakdown of hyperbolicity of the attractors through a mechanism known as unstable dimension variability. We characterize the parametric evolution of this variability using statistical properties of the finite-time Lyapunov exponents. As a model system that exhibits this behavior we consider periodically forced and damped drift waves. In this spatiotemporal example there is a low-dimensional chaotic attractor that is created by an interior crisis, already presenting unstable dimension variability.

  17. Continuous-variable quantum cloning of coherent states with phase-conjugate input modes using linear optics

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Haixia; Zhang, Jing

    2007-02-15

    We propose a scheme for continuous-variable quantum cloning of coherent states with phase-conjugate input modes using linear optics. The quantum cloning machine yields M identical optimal clones from N replicas of a coherent state and N replicas of its phase conjugate. This scheme can be straightforwardly implemented with the setups accessible at present since its optical implementation only employs simple linear optical elements and homodyne detection. Compared with the original scheme for continuous-variable quantum cloning with phase-conjugate input modes proposed by Cerf and Iblisdir [Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 247903 (2001)], which utilized a nondegenerate optical parametric amplifier, our scheme loses the output of phase-conjugate clones and is regarded as irreversible quantum cloning.

  18. Invited Article: Generation of one-million-mode continuous-variable cluster state by unlimited time-domain multiplexing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshikawa, Jun-ichi; Yokoyama, Shota; Kaji, Toshiyuki; Sornphiphatphong, Chanond; Shiozawa, Yu; Makino, Kenzo; Furusawa, Akira

    2016-09-01

    In recent quantum optical continuous-variable experiments, the number of fully inseparable light modes has drastically increased by introducing a multiplexing scheme either in the time domain or in the frequency domain. Here, modifying the time-domain multiplexing experiment reported in the work of Yokoyama et al. [Nat. Photonics 7, 982 (2013)], we demonstrate the successive generation of fully inseparable light modes for more than one million modes. The resulting multi-mode state is useful as a dual-rail continuous variable cluster state. We circumvent the previous problem of optical phase drifts, which has limited the number of fully inseparable light modes to around ten thousands, by continuous feedback control of the optical system.

  19. Data for first NASA Atmospheric Variability Experiment (AVE 1). Part 1: Data tabulation. [rawindsonde data for eastern United States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scoggins, J. R.; Smith, O. E.

    1973-01-01

    A tablulation is given of rawinsonde data for NASA's first Atmospheric Variability Experiment (AVE 1) conducted during the period February 19-22, 1964. Methods of data handling and processing, and estimates of error magnitudes are also given. Data taken on the AVE 1 project in 1964 enabled an analysis of a large sector of the eastern United States on a fine resolution time scale. This experiment was run in February 1964, and data were collected as a wave developed in the East Gulf on a frontal system which extended through the eastern part of the United States. The primary objective of AVE 1 was to investigate the variability of parameters in space and over time intervals of three hours, and to integrate the results into NASA programs which require this type of information. The results presented are those from one approach, and represent only a portion of the total research effort that can be accomplished.

  20. Analytical study of bound states in graphene nanoribbons and carbon nanotubes: The variable phase method and the relativistic Levinson theorem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miserev, D. S.

    2016-06-01

    The problem of localized states in 1D systems with a relativistic spectrum, namely, graphene stripes and carbon nanotubes, is studied analytically. The bound state as a superposition of two chiral states is completely described by their relative phase, which is the foundation of the variable phase method (VPM) developed herein. Based on our VPM, we formulate and prove the relativistic Levinson theorem. The problem of bound states can be reduced to the analysis of closed trajectories of some vector field. Remarkably, the Levinson theorem appears as the Poincaré index theorem for these closed trajectories. The VPM equation is also reduced to the nonrelativistic and semiclassical limits. The limit of a small momentum p y of transverse quantization is applicable to an arbitrary integrable potential. In this case, a single confined mode is predicted.

  1. Motor variability arises from a slow random walk in neural state.

    PubMed

    Chaisanguanthum, Kris S; Shen, Helen H; Sabes, Philip N

    2014-09-01

    Even well practiced movements cannot be repeated without variability. This variability is thought to reflect "noise" in movement preparation or execution. However, we show that, for both professional baseball pitchers and macaque monkeys making reaching movements, motor variability can be decomposed into two statistical components, a slowly drifting mean and fast trial-by-trial fluctuations about the mean. The preparatory activity of dorsal premotor cortex/primary motor cortex neurons in monkey exhibits similar statistics. Although the neural and behavioral drifts appear to be correlated, neural activity does not account for trial-by-trial fluctuations in movement, which must arise elsewhere, likely downstream. The statistics of this drift are well modeled by a double-exponential autocorrelation function, with time constants similar across the neural and behavioral drifts in two monkeys, as well as the drifts observed in baseball pitching. These time constants can be explained by an error-corrective learning processes and agree with learning rates measured directly in previous experiments. Together, these results suggest that the central contributions to movement variability are not simply trial-by-trial fluctuations but are rather the result of longer-timescale processes that may arise from motor learning. PMID:25186752

  2. Variability in Fusarium oxysporum from sugar beets in the United States – Final Report

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium yellows can cause significant reduction in root yield, sucrose percentage and juice purity in affected sugar beets. Research in our laboratory and others on variability in Fusarium oxysporum associated with sugar beets demonstrated that isolates that are pathogenic on sugar beet can be hig...

  3. Mnemonic Device for Relating the Eight Thermodynamic State Variables: The Energy Pie

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fieberg, Jeffrey E.; Girard, Charles A.

    2011-01-01

    A mnemonic device, the energy pie, is presented that provides relationships between thermodynamic potentials ("U," "H," "G," and "A") and other sets of variables that carry energy units, "TS" and "PV." Methods are also presented in which the differential expressions for the potentials and the corresponding Maxwell relations follow from the energy…

  4. An Examination of Teacher Quality Variables Associated with Passing State Content Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrell, Pamela Esprivalo; Harris, Mary M.; Jackson, Jennifer K.

    2009-01-01

    Graduates of a post-baccalaureate secondary education program working on certification in five core subject fields served as a sample for transcript review to investigate how well the variables of number of hours completed for content major course work, the content major grade point average (GPA), and the age of content major course work predicted…

  5. Land change variability and human-environment dynamics in the United States Great Plains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Drummond, M.A.; Auch, R.F.; Karstensen, K.A.; Sayler, K.L.; Taylor, J.L.; Loveland, T.R.

    2012-01-01

    Land use and land cover changes have complex linkages to climate variability and change, biophysical resources, and socioeconomic driving forces. To assess these land change dynamics and their causes in the Great Plains, we compare and contrast contemporary changes across 16 ecoregions using Landsat satellite data and statistical analysis. Large-area change analysis of agricultural regions is often hampered by change detection error and the tendency for land conversions to occur at the local-scale. To facilitate a regional-scale analysis, a statistical sampling design of randomly selected 10 km ?? 10 km blocks is used to efficiently identify the types and rates of land conversions for four time intervals between 1973 and 2000, stratified by relatively homogenous ecoregions. Nearly 8% of the overall Great Plains region underwent land-use and land-cover change during the study period, with a substantial amount of ecoregion variability that ranged from less than 2% to greater than 13%. Agricultural land cover declined by more than 2% overall, with variability contingent on the differential characteristics of regional human-environment systems. A large part of the Great Plains is in relatively stable land cover. However, other land systems with significant biophysical and climate limitations for agriculture have high rates of land change when pushed by economic, policy, technology, or climate forcing factors. The results indicate the regionally based potential for land cover to persist or fluctuate as land uses are adapted to spatially and temporally variable forcing factors. ?? 2011.

  6. Land change variability and human-environment dynamics in the United States Great Plains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Drummond, Mark A.; Auch, Roger F.; Karstensen, Krista A.; Sayler, Kristi L.; Taylor, Janis L.; Loveland, Thomas R.

    2012-01-01

    Land use and land cover changes have complex linkages to climate variability and change, biophysical resources, and socioeconomic driving forces. To assess these land change dynamics and their causes in the Great Plains, we compare and contrast contemporary changes across 16 ecoregions using Landsat satellite data and statistical analysis. Large-area change analysis of agricultural regions is often hampered by change detection error and the tendency for land conversions to occur at the local-scale. To facilitate a regional-scale analysis, a statistical sampling design of randomly selected 10 km x 10 km blocks is used to efficiently identify the types and rates of land conversions for four time intervals between 1973 and 2000, stratified by relatively homogenous ecoregions. Nearly 8% of the overall Great Plains region underwent land-use and land-cover change during the study period, with a substantial amount of ecoregion variability that ranged from less than 2% to greater than 13%. Agricultural land cover declined by more than 2% overall, with variability contingent on the differential characteristics of regional human–environment systems. A large part of the Great Plains is in relatively stable land cover. However, other land systems with significant biophysical and climate limitations for agriculture have high rates of land change when pushed by economic, policy, technology, or climate forcing factors. The results indicate the regionally based potential for land cover to persist or fluctuate as land uses are adapted to spatially and temporally variable forcing factors.

  7. Motor variability arises from a slow random walk in neural state.

    PubMed

    Chaisanguanthum, Kris S; Shen, Helen H; Sabes, Philip N

    2014-09-01

    Even well practiced movements cannot be repeated without variability. This variability is thought to reflect "noise" in movement preparation or execution. However, we show that, for both professional baseball pitchers and macaque monkeys making reaching movements, motor variability can be decomposed into two statistical components, a slowly drifting mean and fast trial-by-trial fluctuations about the mean. The preparatory activity of dorsal premotor cortex/primary motor cortex neurons in monkey exhibits similar statistics. Although the neural and behavioral drifts appear to be correlated, neural activity does not account for trial-by-trial fluctuations in movement, which must arise elsewhere, likely downstream. The statistics of this drift are well modeled by a double-exponential autocorrelation function, with time constants similar across the neural and behavioral drifts in two monkeys, as well as the drifts observed in baseball pitching. These time constants can be explained by an error-corrective learning processes and agree with learning rates measured directly in previous experiments. Together, these results suggest that the central contributions to movement variability are not simply trial-by-trial fluctuations but are rather the result of longer-timescale processes that may arise from motor learning.

  8. Continuous-variable entanglement and quantum-state teleportation between optical and macroscopic vibrational modes through radiation pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Pirandola, Stefano; Mancini, Stefano; Vitali, David; Tombesi, Paolo

    2003-12-01

    We study an isolated, perfectly reflecting, mirror illuminated by an intense laser pulse. We show that the resulting radiation pressure efficiently entangles a mirror vibrational mode with the two reflected optical sideband modes of the incident carrier beam. The entanglement of the resulting three-mode state is studied in detail and it is shown to be robust against the mirror mode temperature. We then show how this continuous-variable entanglement can be profitably used to teleport an unknown quantum state of an optical mode onto the vibrational mode of the mirror.

  9. Herd management and social variables associated with bulk tank somatic cell count in dairy herds in the eastern United States.

    PubMed

    Schewe, R L; Kayitsinga, J; Contreras, G A; Odom, C; Coats, W A; Durst, P; Hovingh, E P; Martinez, R O; Mobley, R; Moore, S; Erskine, R J

    2015-11-01

    The ability to reduce somatic cell counts (SCC) and improve milk quality depends on the effective and consistent application of established mastitis control practices. The US dairy industry continues to rely more on nonfamily labor to perform critical tasks to maintain milk quality. Thus, it is important to understand dairy producer attitudes and beliefs relative to management practices, as well as employee performance, to advance milk quality within the changing structure of the dairy industry. To assess the adoption rate of mastitis control practices in United States dairy herds, as well as assess social variables, including attitudes toward employees relative to mastitis control, a survey was sent to 1,700 dairy farms in Michigan, Pennsylvania, and Florida in January and February of 2013. The survey included questions related to 7 major areas: sociodemographics and farm characteristics, milking proficiency, milking systems, cow environment, infected cow monitoring and treatment, farm labor, and attitudes toward mastitis and related antimicrobial use. The overall response rate was 41% (21% in Florida, 39% in Michigan, and 45% in Pennsylvania). Herd size ranged from 9 to 5,800 cows. Self-reported 3-mo geometric mean bulk tank SCC (BTSCC) for all states was 194,000 cells/mL. Multivariate analysis determined that proven mastitis control practices such as the use of internal teat sealants and blanket dry cow therapy, and not using water during udder preparation before milking, were associated with lower BTSCC. Additionally, farmer and manager beliefs and attitudes, including the perception of mastitis problems and the threshold of concern if BTSCC is above 300,000 cells/mL, were associated with BTSCC. Ensuring strict compliance with milking protocols, giving employees a financial or other penalty if BTSCC increased, and a perceived importance of reducing labor costs were negatively associated with BTSCC in farms with nonfamily employees. These findings highlight the

  10. Herd management and social variables associated with bulk tank somatic cell count in dairy herds in the eastern United States.

    PubMed

    Schewe, R L; Kayitsinga, J; Contreras, G A; Odom, C; Coats, W A; Durst, P; Hovingh, E P; Martinez, R O; Mobley, R; Moore, S; Erskine, R J

    2015-11-01

    The ability to reduce somatic cell counts (SCC) and improve milk quality depends on the effective and consistent application of established mastitis control practices. The US dairy industry continues to rely more on nonfamily labor to perform critical tasks to maintain milk quality. Thus, it is important to understand dairy producer attitudes and beliefs relative to management practices, as well as employee performance, to advance milk quality within the changing structure of the dairy industry. To assess the adoption rate of mastitis control practices in United States dairy herds, as well as assess social variables, including attitudes toward employees relative to mastitis control, a survey was sent to 1,700 dairy farms in Michigan, Pennsylvania, and Florida in January and February of 2013. The survey included questions related to 7 major areas: sociodemographics and farm characteristics, milking proficiency, milking systems, cow environment, infected cow monitoring and treatment, farm labor, and attitudes toward mastitis and related antimicrobial use. The overall response rate was 41% (21% in Florida, 39% in Michigan, and 45% in Pennsylvania). Herd size ranged from 9 to 5,800 cows. Self-reported 3-mo geometric mean bulk tank SCC (BTSCC) for all states was 194,000 cells/mL. Multivariate analysis determined that proven mastitis control practices such as the use of internal teat sealants and blanket dry cow therapy, and not using water during udder preparation before milking, were associated with lower BTSCC. Additionally, farmer and manager beliefs and attitudes, including the perception of mastitis problems and the threshold of concern if BTSCC is above 300,000 cells/mL, were associated with BTSCC. Ensuring strict compliance with milking protocols, giving employees a financial or other penalty if BTSCC increased, and a perceived importance of reducing labor costs were negatively associated with BTSCC in farms with nonfamily employees. These findings highlight the

  11. Steady-state visual evoked potentials in the low frequency range in migraine: a study of habituation and variability phenomena.

    PubMed

    de Tommaso, Marina; Stramaglia, Sebastiano; Schoffelen, Jan Mathijs; Guido, Marco; Libro, Giuseppe; Losito, Luciana; Sciruicchio, Vittorio; Sardaro, Michele; Pellicoro, Mario; Puca, Franco Michele

    2003-08-01

    Previous studies have revealed that migraine patients display an increased photic driving to flash stimuli in the medium frequency range. The aim of this study was to perform a topographic analysis of steady-state visual evoked potentials (SVEPs) in the low frequency range (3-9 Hz), evaluating the temporal behaviour of the F1 amplitude by investigating habituation and variability phenomena. The main component of SVEPs, the F1, demonstrated an increased amplitude in several channels at 3 Hz. Behaviour of F1 amplitude was rather variable over time, and the wavelet-transform standard deviation was increased in migraine patients at a low stimulus rate. The discriminative value of the F1 mean amplitude and variability index, tested by both an artificial neural network classifier and a support vector machine, were high according to both methods. The increased photic driving in migraine should be subtended by a more generic abnormality of visual reactivity instead of a selective impairment of a visual subsystem. Temporal behaviour of SVEPs is not influenced by a clear tendency to habituation, but the F1 amplitude seemed to change in a complex way, which is better described by variability phenomena. An increased variability in response to flicker stimuli in migraine patients could be interpreted as an overactive regulation mechanism, prone to instability and consequently to headache attacks, whether spontaneous or triggered. PMID:12919718

  12. Steady-state visual evoked potentials in the low frequency range in migraine: a study of habituation and variability phenomena.

    PubMed

    de Tommaso, Marina; Stramaglia, Sebastiano; Schoffelen, Jan Mathijs; Guido, Marco; Libro, Giuseppe; Losito, Luciana; Sciruicchio, Vittorio; Sardaro, Michele; Pellicoro, Mario; Puca, Franco Michele

    2003-08-01

    Previous studies have revealed that migraine patients display an increased photic driving to flash stimuli in the medium frequency range. The aim of this study was to perform a topographic analysis of steady-state visual evoked potentials (SVEPs) in the low frequency range (3-9 Hz), evaluating the temporal behaviour of the F1 amplitude by investigating habituation and variability phenomena. The main component of SVEPs, the F1, demonstrated an increased amplitude in several channels at 3 Hz. Behaviour of F1 amplitude was rather variable over time, and the wavelet-transform standard deviation was increased in migraine patients at a low stimulus rate. The discriminative value of the F1 mean amplitude and variability index, tested by both an artificial neural network classifier and a support vector machine, were high according to both methods. The increased photic driving in migraine should be subtended by a more generic abnormality of visual reactivity instead of a selective impairment of a visual subsystem. Temporal behaviour of SVEPs is not influenced by a clear tendency to habituation, but the F1 amplitude seemed to change in a complex way, which is better described by variability phenomena. An increased variability in response to flicker stimuli in migraine patients could be interpreted as an overactive regulation mechanism, prone to instability and consequently to headache attacks, whether spontaneous or triggered.

  13. Interannual hypoxia variability in a coastal upwelling system: Ocean shelf exchange, climate and ecosystem-state implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monteiro, P. M. S.; van der Plas, A. K.; Mélice, J.-L.; Florenchie, P.

    2008-04-01

    In this study we use multi-year time series to examine the dynamic characteristics of coupled physical-biogeochemical processes that modulate interannual coastal hypoxia in the Benguela upwelling system in the southeast Atlantic. The results confirmed earlier findings on the role of advection to explain much of the seasonal-decadal variability. These results challenge the predominantly biogeochemical basis, namely benthic-pelagic coupling, to understand the variability of hypoxia and its ecosystem implications. Unexpectedly, the results showed that the variability was insensitive to changes in the electron-donating capacity (carbon export fluxes) but strongly dependent on the advected oxygen fluxes. The dynamics of the interaction of equatorial and polar boundary conditions (ocean-shelf exchange) and seasonally phased shelf advection were the key forcing functions that explained hypoxia variability in seasonal-decadal time scales. The vulnerability of the system to climate change lies in the long-term response of the equatorial system that governs seasonal and interannual warming at the Angola-Benguela front as well as wind stress in the Luderitz southern boundary that governs ventilation. The proposed model was able to explain most of the decadal scale variability of two different ecosystem-state indicators. The model predicts a long-term decline of present ecosystem function with climate change.

  14. [Variability patterns of nest construction, physiological state, and morphometric traits in honey bee].

    PubMed

    Es'kov, E K; Es'kova, M D

    2014-01-01

    High variability of cells size is used selectively for reproduction of working bees and drones. A decrease in both distance between cells and cells size themselves causes similar effects to body mass and morphometric traits of developing individuals. Adaptation of honey bees to living in shelters has led to their becoming tolerant to hypoxia. Improvement of ethological and physiological mechanisms of thermal regulation is associated with limitation of ecological valence and acquiring of stenothermic features by breed. Optimal thermal conditions for breed are limited by the interval 33-34.5 degrees C. Deviations of temperature by 3-4 degrees C beyond this range have minimum lethal effect at embryonic stage of development and medium effect at the stage of pre-pupa and pupa. Developing at the low bound of the vital range leads to increasing, while developing at the upper bound--to decreasing of body mass, mandibular and hypopharyngeal glands, as well as other organs, which, later, affects the variability of these traits during the adult stage of development. Eliminative and teratogenic efficiency of ecological factors that affect a breed is most often manifested in underdevelopment of wings. However, their size (in case of wing laminas formation). is characterized by relatively low variability and size-dependent asymmetry. Asymmetry variability of wings and other pair organs is expressed through realignment of size excess from right- to left-side one with respect to their increase. Selective elimination by those traits whose emerging probability increases as developmental conditions deviate from the optimal ones promotes restrictions on individual variability. Physiological mechanisms that facilitate adaptability enhancement under conditions of increasing anthropogenic contamination of eivironment and trophic substrates consumed by honey bees, arrear to be toxicants accumulation in rectum and crops' ability to absorb contaminants from nectar in course of its

  15. [Variability patterns of nest construction, physiological state, and morphometric traits in honey bee].

    PubMed

    2014-01-01

    High variability of cells size is used selectively for reproduction of working bees and drones. A decrease in both distance between cells and cells size themselves causes similar effects to body mass and morphometric traits of developing individuals. Adaptation of honey bees to living in shelters has led to their becoming tolerant to hypoxia. Improvement of ethological and physiological mechanisms of thermal regulation is associated with limitation of ecological valence and acquiring of stenothermic features by breed. Optimal thermal conditions for breed are limited by the interval 33-34.5 degrees C. Deviations of temperature by 3-4 degrees C beyond this range have minimum lethal effect at embryonic stage of development and medium effect at the stage of pre-pupa and pupa. Developing at the low bound of the vital range leads to increasing, while developing at the upper bound--to decreasing of body mass, mandibular and hypopharyngeal glands, as well as other organs, which, later, affects the variability of these traits during the adult stage of development. Eliminative and teratogenic efficiency of ecological factors that affect a breed is most often manifested in underdevelopment of wings. However, their size (in case of wing laminas formation). is characterized by relatively low variability and size-dependent asymmetry. Asymmetry variability of wings and other pair organs is expressed through realignment of size excess from right- to left-side one with respect to their increase. Selective elimination by those traits whose emerging probability increases as developmental conditions deviate from the optimal ones promotes restrictions on individual variability. Physiological mechanisms that facilitate adaptability enhancement under conditions of increasing anthropogenic contamination of eivironment and trophic substrates consumed by honey bees, arrear to be toxicants accumulation in rectum and crops' ability to absorb contaminants from nectar in course of its

  16. [Variability patterns of nest construction, physiological state, and morphometric traits in honey bee].

    PubMed

    Es'kov, E K; Es'kova, M D

    2014-01-01

    High variability of cells size is used selectively for reproduction of working bees and drones. A decrease in both distance between cells and cells size themselves causes similar effects to body mass and morphometric traits of developing individuals. Adaptation of honey bees to living in shelters has led to their becoming tolerant to hypoxia. Improvement of ethological and physiological mechanisms of thermal regulation is associated with limitation of ecological valence and acquiring of stenothermic features by breed. Optimal thermal conditions for breed are limited by the interval 33-34.5 degrees C. Deviations of temperature by 3-4 degrees C beyond this range have minimum lethal effect at embryonic stage of development and medium effect at the stage of pre-pupa and pupa. Developing at the low bound of the vital range leads to increasing, while developing at the upper bound--to decreasing of body mass, mandibular and hypopharyngeal glands, as well as other organs, which, later, affects the variability of these traits during the adult stage of development. Eliminative and teratogenic efficiency of ecological factors that affect a breed is most often manifested in underdevelopment of wings. However, their size (in case of wing laminas formation). is characterized by relatively low variability and size-dependent asymmetry. Asymmetry variability of wings and other pair organs is expressed through realignment of size excess from right- to left-side one with respect to their increase. Selective elimination by those traits whose emerging probability increases as developmental conditions deviate from the optimal ones promotes restrictions on individual variability. Physiological mechanisms that facilitate adaptability enhancement under conditions of increasing anthropogenic contamination of eivironment and trophic substrates consumed by honey bees, arrear to be toxicants accumulation in rectum and crops' ability to absorb contaminants from nectar in course of its

  17. Heart rate variability parameters and fetal movement complement fetal behavioral states detection via magnetography to monitor neurovegetative development

    PubMed Central

    Brändle, Johanna; Preissl, Hubert; Draganova, Rossitza; Ortiz, Erick; Kagan, Karl O.; Abele, Harald; Brucker, Sara Y.; Kiefer-Schmidt, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    Fetal behavioral states are defined by fetal movement and heart rate variability (HRV). At 32 weeks of gestational age (GA) the distinction of four fetal behavioral states represented by combinations of quiet or active sleep or awakeness is possible. Prior to 32 weeks, only periods of fetal activity and quiesence can be distinguished. The increasing synchronization of fetal movement and HRV reflects the development of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) control. Fetal magnetocardiography (fMCG) detects fetal heart activity at high temporal resolution, enabling the calculation of HRV parameters. This study combined the criteria of fetal movement with the HRV analysis to complete the criteria for fetal state detection. HRV parameters were calculated including the standard deviation of the normal-to-normal R–R interval (SDNN), the mean square of successive differences of the R–R intervals (RMSSD, SDNN/RMSSD ratio, and permutation entropy (PE) to gain information about the developing influence of the ANS within each fetal state. In this study, 55 magnetocardiograms from healthy fetuses of 24–41 weeks’ GA were recorded for up to 45 min using a fetal biomagnetometer. Fetal states were classified based on HRV and movement detection. HRV parameters were calculated for each state. Before GA 32 weeks, 58.4% quiescence and 41.6% activity cycles were observed. Later, 24% quiet sleep state (1F), 65.4% active sleep state (2F), and 10.6% active awake state (4F) were observed. SDNN increased over gestation. Changes of HRV parameters between the fetal behavioral states, especially between 1F and 4F, were statistically significant. Increasing fetal activity was confirmed by a decrease in PE complexity measures. The fHRV parameters support the differentiation between states and indicate the development of autonomous nervous control of heart rate function. PMID:25904855

  18. 34 CFR 403.71 - In what additional ways may funds be used under the State Programs and State Leadership Activities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... agencies; (b) The support for tech-prep education as described in 34 CFR part 406; (c)(1) The support of... State Programs and State Leadership Activities? 403.71 Section 403.71 Education Regulations of the... Secretary Assist Under the Basic Programs? State Programs and State Leadership Activities § 403.71 In...

  19. 34 CFR 403.71 - In what additional ways may funds be used under the State Programs and State Leadership Activities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... agencies; (b) The support for tech-prep education as described in 34 CFR part 406; (c)(1) The support of... State Programs and State Leadership Activities? 403.71 Section 403.71 Education Regulations of the... Secretary Assist Under the Basic Programs? State Programs and State Leadership Activities § 403.71 In...

  20. 34 CFR 403.71 - In what additional ways may funds be used under the State Programs and State Leadership Activities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... agencies; (b) The support for tech-prep education as described in 34 CFR part 406; (c)(1) The support of... State Programs and State Leadership Activities? 403.71 Section 403.71 Education Regulations of the... Secretary Assist Under the Basic Programs? State Programs and State Leadership Activities § 403.71 In...

  1. 34 CFR 403.71 - In what additional ways may funds be used under the State Programs and State Leadership Activities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... agencies; (b) The support for tech-prep education as described in 34 CFR part 406; (c)(1) The support of... State Programs and State Leadership Activities? 403.71 Section 403.71 Education Regulations of the... Secretary Assist Under the Basic Programs? State Programs and State Leadership Activities § 403.71 In...

  2. 34 CFR 403.71 - In what additional ways may funds be used under the State Programs and State Leadership Activities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... agencies; (b) The support for tech-prep education as described in 34 CFR part 406; (c)(1) The support of... State Programs and State Leadership Activities? 403.71 Section 403.71 Education Regulations of the... Secretary Assist Under the Basic Programs? State Programs and State Leadership Activities § 403.71 In...

  3. X-RAY VARIABILITY AND HARDNESS OF ESO 243-49 HLX-1: CLEAR EVIDENCE FOR SPECTRAL STATE TRANSITIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Servillat, Mathieu; Farrell, Sean A.; Lin Dacheng; Godet, Olivier; Barret, Didier; Webb, Natalie A.

    2011-12-10

    The ultraluminous X-ray (ULX) source ESO 243-49 HLX-1, which reaches a maximum luminosity of 10{sup 42} erg s{sup -1} (0.2-10 keV), currently provides the strongest evidence for the existence of intermediate-mass black holes (IMBHs). To study the spectral variability of the source, we conduct an ongoing monitoring campaign with the Swift X-ray Telescope (XRT), which now spans more than two years. We found that HLX-1 showed two fast rise and exponential decay type outbursts in the Swift XRT light curve with increases in the count rate of a factor {approx}40 separated by 375 {+-} 13 days. We obtained new XMM-Newton and Chandra dedicated pointings that were triggered at the lowest and highest luminosities, respectively. From spectral fitting, the unabsorbed luminosities ranged from 1.9 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 40} to 1.25 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 42} erg s{sup -1}. We confirm here the detection of spectral state transitions from HLX-1 reminiscent of Galactic black hole binaries (GBHBs): at high luminosities, the X-ray spectrum showed a thermal state dominated by a disk component with temperatures of 0.26 keV at most, and at low luminosities the spectrum is dominated by a hard power law with a photon index in the range 1.4-2.1, consistent with a hard state. The source was also observed in a state consistent with the steep power-law state, with a photon index of {approx}3.5. In the thermal state, the luminosity of the disk component appears to scale with the fourth power of the inner disk temperature, which supports the presence of an optically thick, geometrically thin accretion disk. The low fractional variability (rms of 9% {+-} 9%) in this state also suggests the presence of a dominant disk. The spectral changes and long-term variability of the source cannot be explained by variations of the beaming angle and are not consistent with the source being in a super-Eddington accretion state as is proposed for most ULX sources with lower luminosities. All this

  4. X-ray off states and optical variability in CAL 83

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greiner, J.; Di Stefano, R.

    2002-06-01

    CAL 83 was one of the first supersoft X-ray binaries (SSBs) to be discovered and is considered to be the prototype of its class. In 15 X-ray observations between 1983-1997 it was observed to have nearly constant X-ray luminosity and temperature, with the exception of one off-state in 1996 (Kahabka et al. 1996). We report on a second X-ray off-state, discovered with a Chandra ACIS-S observation in November 1999. We consider the long-term X-ray and MACHO optical light curves. We find that, during more than 7 years of monitoring by the MACHO team, CAL 83 has exhibited distinct and well-defined low, intermediate, and high optical states. Transitions between states are not accompanied by color variations. We also find that both X-ray off states were observed during optical high states and were followed by optical low states within ~50 days. We discuss possible explanations for the observed optical and X-ray variations. While photospheric adjustments might account for the variations in soft X-ray flux, optical variations can be explained only by invoking changes in the accretion disk, which is the primary source of optical radiation.

  5. Functional covariance networks: obtaining resting-state networks from intersubject variability.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Paul A; Gohel, Suril; Di, Xin; Walter, Martin; Biswal, Bharat B

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we investigate a new approach for examining the separation of the brain into resting-state networks (RSNs) on a group level using resting-state parameters (amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation [ALFF], fractional ALFF [fALFF], the Hurst exponent, and signal standard deviation). Spatial independent component analysis is used to reveal covariance patterns of the relevant resting-state parameters (not the time series) across subjects that are shown to be related to known, standard RSNs. As part of the analysis, nonresting state parameters are also investigated, such as mean of the blood oxygen level-dependent time series and gray matter volume from anatomical scans. We hypothesize that meaningful RSNs will primarily be elucidated by analysis of the resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) parameters and not by non-RSFC parameters. First, this shows the presence of a common influence underlying individual RSFC networks revealed through low-frequency fluctation (LFF) parameter properties. Second, this suggests that the LFFs and RSFC networks have neurophysiological origins. Several of the components determined from resting-state parameters in this manner correlate strongly with known resting-state functional maps, and we term these "functional covariance networks". PMID:22765879

  6. Relative Contributions of Mean-State Shifts and ENSO-Driven Variability to Precipitation Changes in a Warming Climate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonfils, Celine J. W.; Santer, Benjamin D.; Phillips, Thomas J.; Marvel, Kate; Leung, L. Ruby; Doutriaux, Charles; Capotondi, Antonietta

    2015-01-01

    El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is an important driver of regional hydroclimate variability through far-reaching teleconnections. This study uses simulations performed with coupled general circulation models (CGCMs) to investigate how regional precipitation in the twenty-first century may be affected by changes in both ENSO-driven precipitation variability and slowly evolving mean rainfall. First, a dominant, time-invariant pattern of canonical ENSO variability (cENSO) is identified in observed SST data. Next, the fidelity with which 33 state-of-the-art CGCMs represent the spatial structure and temporal variability of this pattern (as well as its associated precipitation responses) is evaluated in simulations of twentieth-century climate change. Possible changes in both the temporal variability of this pattern and its associated precipitation teleconnections are investigated in twenty-first-century climate projections. Models with better representation of the observed structure of the cENSO pattern produce winter rainfall teleconnection patterns that are in better accord with twentieth-century observations and more stationary during the twenty-first century. Finally, the model-predicted twenty-first-century rainfall response to cENSO is decomposed into the sum of three terms: 1) the twenty-first-century change in the mean state of precipitation, 2) the historical precipitation response to the cENSO pattern, and 3) a future enhancement in the rainfall response to cENSO, which amplifies rainfall extremes. By examining the three terms jointly, this conceptual framework allows the identification of regions likely to experience future rainfall anomalies that are without precedent in the current climate.

  7. Relative contributions of mean-state shifts and ENSO-driven variability to precipitation changes in a warming climate

    DOE PAGES

    Bonfils, Celine J. W.; Santer, Benjamin D.; Phillips, Thomas J.; Marvel, Kate; Leung, L. Ruby; Doutriaux, Charles; Capotondi, Antonietta

    2015-12-18

    The El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is an important driver of regional hydroclimate variability through far-reaching teleconnections. This study uses simulations performed with coupled general circulation models (CGCMs) to investigate how regional precipitation in the twenty-first century may be affected by changes in both ENSO-driven precipitation variability and slowly evolving mean rainfall. First, a dominant, time-invariant pattern of canonical ENSO variability (cENSO) is identified in observed SST data. Next, the fidelity with which 33 state-of-the-art CGCMs represent the spatial structure and temporal variability of this pattern (as well as its associated precipitation responses) is evaluated in simulations of twentieth-century climate change.more » Possible changes in both the temporal variability of this pattern and its associated precipitation teleconnections are investigated in twenty-first-century climate projections. Models with better representation of the observed structure of the cENSO pattern produce winter rainfall teleconnection patterns that are in better accord with twentieth-century observations and more stationary during the twenty-first century. Finally, the model-predicted twenty-first-century rainfall response to cENSO is decomposed into the sum of three terms: 1) the twenty-first-century change in the mean state of precipitation, 2) the historical precipitation response to the cENSO pattern, and 3) a future enhancement in the rainfall response to cENSO, which amplifies rainfall extremes. Lastly, by examining the three terms jointly, this conceptual framework allows the identification of regions likely to experience future rainfall anomalies that are without precedent in the current climate.« less

  8. Relative contributions of mean-state shifts and ENSO-driven variability to precipitation changes in a warming climate

    SciTech Connect

    Bonfils, Celine J. W.; Santer, Benjamin D.; Phillips, Thomas J.; Marvel, Kate; Leung, L. Ruby; Doutriaux, Charles; Capotondi, Antonietta

    2015-12-18

    The El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is an important driver of regional hydroclimate variability through far-reaching teleconnections. This study uses simulations performed with coupled general circulation models (CGCMs) to investigate how regional precipitation in the twenty-first century may be affected by changes in both ENSO-driven precipitation variability and slowly evolving mean rainfall. First, a dominant, time-invariant pattern of canonical ENSO variability (cENSO) is identified in observed SST data. Next, the fidelity with which 33 state-of-the-art CGCMs represent the spatial structure and temporal variability of this pattern (as well as its associated precipitation responses) is evaluated in simulations of twentieth-century climate change. Possible changes in both the temporal variability of this pattern and its associated precipitation teleconnections are investigated in twenty-first-century climate projections. Models with better representation of the observed structure of the cENSO pattern produce winter rainfall teleconnection patterns that are in better accord with twentieth-century observations and more stationary during the twenty-first century. Finally, the model-predicted twenty-first-century rainfall response to cENSO is decomposed into the sum of three terms: 1) the twenty-first-century change in the mean state of precipitation, 2) the historical precipitation response to the cENSO pattern, and 3) a future enhancement in the rainfall response to cENSO, which amplifies rainfall extremes. Lastly, by examining the three terms jointly, this conceptual framework allows the identification of regions likely to experience future rainfall anomalies that are without precedent in the current climate.

  9. Synchronization states and multistability in a ring of periodic oscillators: Experimentally variable coupling delays

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Caitlin R. S.; Sorrentino, Francesco; Murphy, Thomas E.; Roy, Rajarshi

    2013-12-15

    We experimentally study the complex dynamics of a unidirectionally coupled ring of four identical optoelectronic oscillators. The coupling between these systems is time-delayed in the experiment and can be varied over a wide range of delays. We observe that as the coupling delay is varied, the system may show different synchronization states, including complete isochronal synchrony, cluster synchrony, and two splay-phase states. We analyze the stability of these solutions through a master stability function approach, which we show can be effectively applied to all the different states observed in the experiment. Our analysis supports the experimentally observed multistability in the system.

  10. Using Climate Variability to Predict Annual Precipitation and Estimate the Persistence of Climate Extremes for Major Urban Areas and Regions within the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giovannettone, J. P.

    2015-12-01

    Relationships between climate variability and precipitation in several urban areas throughout the United States are developed using various global climate indices. Precipitation data for over 1200 stations are obtained from the United States Historical Climatology Network maintained by the National Climate Data Center, NOAA. All data are averaged over an extended period (up to five years) and correlated to several climate indices averaged over a period of equal length using lag times also up to five years. The period length and lag time are optimized in order to produce the highest correlation. The index that best correlates with precipitation for each urban area analyzed in the current study is identified and used to create regions within the United States that are predominantly affected by a particular index; strong correlations (r2 values > 0.70) were found in all regions. The final result is a map of the United States that displays the spatial distribution of each region. These results, which include the specific relationships developed for each region and urban area, will not only allow a greater understanding of the major mechanisms that are responsible for rainfall variability throughout the United States, but will also result in improved predictability of precipitation over multiple time scales, including seasonal and annual. In addition, the ability to predict total rainfall for periods greater than one year will allow an estimate of the persistence of trends and extreme events, such as periods of drought or above-average rainfall, to be made in advance; how far these projections can be made in advance depends on the lag times used to create each site-specific and regional correlation. An example related to the California Drought is given.

  11. Rate independence of material properties and remnant state variables during domain switching by electric field or stress in ferroelectric ceramics at room and high temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Dae Won; Kim, Sang-Joo

    2016-09-01

    Various numbers of electric field or compressive stress pulses with increasing magnitude are applied to a poled lead titanate zirconate rectangular parallelepiped specimen. Changes in linear material properties are estimated from measured responses and plotted versus remnant polarization. The dependence of linear material properties on remnant polarization is shown to be the same independent of the overall rate of domain switching by electric field or stress at room and high temperatures. The evolution path of remnant polarization and strains in the plane of remnant state variables is also found to be equal independent of switching rate at room and high temperatures. Finally, when the values of remnant state variables at high temperature are transformed to those of reference remnant state variables, the evolution path of the reference remnant state variables is compared to be coincident with that of remnant state variables at room temperature, implying the same switching process at different temperatures.

  12. A Transformation Approach to Optimal Control Problems with Bounded State Variables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanafy, Lawrence Hanafy

    1971-01-01

    A technique is described and utilized in the study of the solutions to various general problems in optimal control theory, which are converted in to Lagrange problems in the calculus of variations. This is accomplished by mapping certain properties in Euclidean space onto closed control and state regions. Nonlinear control problems with a unit m cube as control region and unit n cube as state region are considered.

  13. Climate and climate variability of the wind power resources in the Great Lakes region of the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, X.; Zhong, S.; Bian, X.; Heilman, W. E.

    2010-09-01

    The climate and climate variability of low-level winds over the Great Lakes region of the United States is examined using 30 year (1979-2008) wind records from the recently released North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR), a three-dimensional, high-spatial and temporal resolution, and dynamically consistent climate data set. The analyses focus on spatial distribution and seasonal and interannual variability of wind speed at 80 m above the ground, the hub height of the modern, 77 m diameter, 1500 kW wind turbines. The daily mean wind speeds exhibit a large seasonal variability, with the highest mean wind speed (˜6.58 m s-1) in November through January and the lowest (˜4.72 m s-1) in July and August. The spatial variability of the annual mean winds is small across the entire region and is dominated by land-water contrasts with stronger winds over the lake surface than over land. Larger interannual variability is found during the winter months, whereas smaller variations occur in mid to late summer. The interannual variability appears to have some connections to El Niño-Southern Oscillation, with lower mean wind speeds and more frequent occurrences of lulls during major El Niño episodes. Above-normal ice cover of the Great Lakes appears to be associated with slightly lower wind speeds and vice versa. According to NARR data and the criteria established by wind energy industry, the areas over Lake Superior, Michigan, and Ontario appear to be rich in wind resources, but most land areas in the region are either unsuitable or marginal for potential wind energy development.

  14. Genetic variability in the human cannabinoid receptor 1 is associated with resting state EEG theta power in humans.

    PubMed

    Heitland, I; Kenemans, J L; Böcker, K B E; Baas, J M P

    2014-11-01

    It has long been postulated that exogenous cannabinoids have a profound effect on human cognitive functioning. These cannabinoid effects are thought to depend, at least in parts, on alterations of phase-locking of local field potential neuronal firing. The latter can be measured as activity in the theta frequency band (4-7Hz) by electroencephalogram. Theta oscillations are supposed to serve as a mechanism in neural representations of behaviorally relevant information. However, it remains unknown whether variability in endogenous cannabinoid activity is involved in theta rhythms and therefore, may serve as an individual differences index of human cognitive functioning. To clarify this issue, we recorded resting state EEG activity in 164 healthy human subjects and extracted EEG power across frequency bands (δ, θ, α, and β). To assess variability in the endocannabinoid system, two genetic polymorphisms (rs1049353, rs2180619) within the cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) were determined in all participants. As expected, we observed significant effects of rs1049353 on EEG power in the theta band at frontal, central and parietal electrode regions. Crucially, these effects were specific for the theta band, with no effects on activity in the other frequency bands. Rs2180619 showed no significant associations with theta power after Bonferroni correction. Taken together, we provide novel evidence in humans showing that genetic variability in the cannabinoid receptor 1 is associated with resting state EEG power in the theta frequency band. This extends prior findings of exogenous cannabinoid effects on theta power to the endogenous cannabinoid system.

  15. Genetic variability in the human cannabinoid receptor 1 is associated with resting state EEG theta power in humans.

    PubMed

    Heitland, I; Kenemans, J L; Böcker, K B E; Baas, J M P

    2014-11-01

    It has long been postulated that exogenous cannabinoids have a profound effect on human cognitive functioning. These cannabinoid effects are thought to depend, at least in parts, on alterations of phase-locking of local field potential neuronal firing. The latter can be measured as activity in the theta frequency band (4-7Hz) by electroencephalogram. Theta oscillations are supposed to serve as a mechanism in neural representations of behaviorally relevant information. However, it remains unknown whether variability in endogenous cannabinoid activity is involved in theta rhythms and therefore, may serve as an individual differences index of human cognitive functioning. To clarify this issue, we recorded resting state EEG activity in 164 healthy human subjects and extracted EEG power across frequency bands (δ, θ, α, and β). To assess variability in the endocannabinoid system, two genetic polymorphisms (rs1049353, rs2180619) within the cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) were determined in all participants. As expected, we observed significant effects of rs1049353 on EEG power in the theta band at frontal, central and parietal electrode regions. Crucially, these effects were specific for the theta band, with no effects on activity in the other frequency bands. Rs2180619 showed no significant associations with theta power after Bonferroni correction. Taken together, we provide novel evidence in humans showing that genetic variability in the cannabinoid receptor 1 is associated with resting state EEG power in the theta frequency band. This extends prior findings of exogenous cannabinoid effects on theta power to the endogenous cannabinoid system. PMID:25116250

  16. An additional role for the Brønsted acid-base catalysts of mandelate racemase in transition state stabilization.

    PubMed

    Nagar, Mitesh; Bearne, Stephen L

    2015-11-10

    Mandelate racemase (MR) catalyzes the interconversion of the enantiomers of mandelate and serves as a paradigm for understanding the enzyme-catalyzed abstraction of an α-proton from a carbon acid substrate with a high pKa. The enzyme utilizes a two-base mechanism with Lys 166 and His 297 acting as Brønsted acid and base catalysts, respectively, in the R → S reaction direction. In the S → R reaction direction, their roles are reversed. Using isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), MR is shown to bind the intermediate/transition state (TS) analogue inhibitor benzohydroxamate (BzH) in an entropy-driven process with a value of ΔCp equal to -358 ± 3 cal mol(-1) K(-1), consistent with an increased number of hydrophobic interactions. However, MR binds BzH with an affinity that is ∼2 orders of magnitude greater than that predicted solely on the basis of hydrophobic interactions [St. Maurice, M., and Bearne, S. L. (2004) Biochemistry 43, 2524], suggesting that additional specific interactions contribute to binding. To test the hypothesis that cation-π/NH-π interactions between the side chains of Lys 166 and His 297 and the aromatic ring and/or the hydroxamate/hydroximate moiety of BzH contribute to the binding of BzH, site-directed mutagenesis was used to generate the MR variants K166M, K166C, H297N, and K166M/H297N and their binding affinity for various ligands determined using ITC. Comparison of the binding affinities of these MR variants with the intermediate/TS analogues BzH and cyclohexanecarbohydroxamate revealed that cation-π/NH-π interactions between His 297 and the hydroxamate/hydroximate moiety and the phenyl ring of BzH contribute approximately 0.26 and 0.91 kcal/mol to binding, respectively, while interactions with Lys 166 contribute approximately 1.74 and 1.74 kcal/mol, respectively. Similarly, comparison of the binding affinities of these mutants with substrate analogues revealed that Lys 166 contributes >2.93 kcal/mol to the binding of (R

  17. An additional role for the Brønsted acid-base catalysts of mandelate racemase in transition state stabilization.

    PubMed

    Nagar, Mitesh; Bearne, Stephen L

    2015-11-10

    Mandelate racemase (MR) catalyzes the interconversion of the enantiomers of mandelate and serves as a paradigm for understanding the enzyme-catalyzed abstraction of an α-proton from a carbon acid substrate with a high pKa. The enzyme utilizes a two-base mechanism with Lys 166 and His 297 acting as Brønsted acid and base catalysts, respectively, in the R → S reaction direction. In the S → R reaction direction, their roles are reversed. Using isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), MR is shown to bind the intermediate/transition state (TS) analogue inhibitor benzohydroxamate (BzH) in an entropy-driven process with a value of ΔCp equal to -358 ± 3 cal mol(-1) K(-1), consistent with an increased number of hydrophobic interactions. However, MR binds BzH with an affinity that is ∼2 orders of magnitude greater than that predicted solely on the basis of hydrophobic interactions [St. Maurice, M., and Bearne, S. L. (2004) Biochemistry 43, 2524], suggesting that additional specific interactions contribute to binding. To test the hypothesis that cation-π/NH-π interactions between the side chains of Lys 166 and His 297 and the aromatic ring and/or the hydroxamate/hydroximate moiety of BzH contribute to the binding of BzH, site-directed mutagenesis was used to generate the MR variants K166M, K166C, H297N, and K166M/H297N and their binding affinity for various ligands determined using ITC. Comparison of the binding affinities of these MR variants with the intermediate/TS analogues BzH and cyclohexanecarbohydroxamate revealed that cation-π/NH-π interactions between His 297 and the hydroxamate/hydroximate moiety and the phenyl ring of BzH contribute approximately 0.26 and 0.91 kcal/mol to binding, respectively, while interactions with Lys 166 contribute approximately 1.74 and 1.74 kcal/mol, respectively. Similarly, comparison of the binding affinities of these mutants with substrate analogues revealed that Lys 166 contributes >2.93 kcal/mol to the binding of (R

  18. Multi-color optical variability of the TeV blazar Mrk 501 in the low-state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, A. C.; Deng, W. G.; Joshi, U. C.; Bai, J. M.; Lee, M. G.

    2008-08-01

    We report results based on the monitoring of the BL Lac object Mrk 501 in the optical (B, V and R) passbands from March to May 2000. Observations spread over 12 nights were carried out using 1.2 m Mount Abu Telescope, India and 61 cm Telescope at Sobaeksan Astronomy Observatory, South Korea. The aim is to study the intra-day variability (IDV), short term variability and color variability in the low state of the source. We have detected flux variation of 0.05 mag in the R-band in time scale of 15 min in one night. In the B and V passbands, we have less data points and it is difficult to infer any IDVs. Short term flux variations are also observed in the V and R bands during the observing run. No significant variation in color (B-R) has been detected but (V-R) shows variation during the present observing run. Assuming the shortest observed time scale of variability (15 min) to represent the disk instability or pulsation at a distance of five Schwarschild radii from the black hole (BH), mass of the central BH is estimated ∼1.20 × 108M⊙.

  19. Climate variability and change in the United States: potential impacts on water- and foodborne diseases caused by microbiologic agents.

    PubMed

    Rose, J B; Epstein, P R; Lipp, E K; Sherman, B H; Bernard, S M; Patz, J A

    2001-05-01

    Exposure to waterborne and foodborne pathogens can occur via drinking water (associated with fecal contamination), seafood (due to natural microbial hazards, toxins, or wastewater disposal) or fresh produce (irrigated or processed with contaminated water). Weather influences the transport and dissemination of these microbial agents via rainfall and runoff and the survival and/or growth through such factors as temperature. Federal and state laws and regulatory programs protect much of the U.S. population from waterborne disease; however, if climate variability increases, current and future deficiencies in areas such as watershed protection, infrastructure, and storm drainage systems will probably increase the risk of contamination events. Knowledge about transport processes and the fate of microbial pollutants associated with rainfall and snowmelt is key to predicting risks from a change in weather variability. Although recent studies identified links between climate variability and occurrence of microbial agents in water, the relationships need further quantification in the context of other stresses. In the marine environment as well, there are few studies that adequately address the potential health effects of climate variability in combination with other stresses such as overfishing, introduced species, and rise in sea level. Advances in monitoring are necessary to enhance early-warning and prevention capabilities. Application of existing technologies, such as molecular fingerprinting to track contaminant sources or satellite remote sensing to detect coastal algal blooms, could be expanded. This assessment recommends incorporating a range of future scenarios of improvement plans for current deficiencies in the public health infrastructure to achieve more realistic risk assessments.

  20. Effect of additional optical pumping injection into the ground-state ensemble on the gain and the phase recovery acceleration of quantum-dot semiconductor optical amplifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jungho

    2014-02-01

    The effect of additional optical pumping injection into the ground-state ensemble on the ultrafast gain and the phase recovery dynamics of electrically-driven quantum-dot semiconductor optical amplifiers is numerically investigated by solving 1088 coupled rate equations. The ultrafast gain and the phase recovery responses are calculated with respect to the additional optical pumping power. Increasing the additional optical pumping power can significantly accelerate the ultrafast phase recovery, which cannot be done by increasing the injection current density.

  1. Circumbinary Dust in Magnetic Cataclysmic Variables - Bright State of AM Her

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoard, Donald; Brinkworth, Carolyn; Howell, Steve; Wachter, Stefanie

    2007-07-01

    Observations by the AAVSO during the past several days of the polar AM Herculis show that it may be leaving the "normal" faint state it has occupied during the past ~2 years, and becoming bright. We observed AM Her with IRAC during GO-3 as part of program 30249. That program also included two medium-impact TOO observations to be triggered to re-observe any target of 30249 that changed brightness state during GO-3 from whatever state it was in when its non-TOO observation for 30249 was made. Unfortunately, those TOOs expired at the end of June, at about the same time that AM Her first started to show an indication that it might be getting bright. So, we are requesting a DDT observation, for the same scientific reasons that the TOO observations were requested (and approved) for program 30249 (to be detailed in a follow-on email to the Spitzer Helpdesk). The target is visible to Spitzer until Dec 2007 - we request the DDT observation during IRAC-43 or IRAC-44, in case the high state is of short duration. Total AOR duration will be ~10 minutes. We have requested that the AAVSO alert its members to intensify observations of AM Her so we can confirm with certainty the rise to bright state within the next few days; in the meantime, please consider this TOO request and notify us if it would be approved. By then, we should know if the rise to bright state is real and should be observed.

  2. 76 FR 41046 - Addition of the New State of the Republic of South Sudan to the Export Administration Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-13

    ... Secretary of State as a state sponsor of terrorism under U.S. law on August 12, 1993 (58 FR 52523, Oct. 8... FR 50681, August 16, 2010), has continued the EAR in effect under the International Emergency....C. 7210; E.O. 13026, 61 FR 58767, 3 CFR, 1996 Comp., p. 228; E.O. 13222, 66 FR 44025, 3 CFR,...

  3. Investigation of the Motivation Level of Teachers Working at State Schools in Relation to Some Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Can, Süleyman

    2015-01-01

    In order to give the best and accurate orientation to teachers working in school organizations, it seems to be necessary to determine their motivation level. Thus, the purpose of the current study is to determine the motivation level of teachers working in state elementary and secondary schools. Moreover, the study also looks at the relationships…

  4. Initial Adjustment of Taiwanese Students to the United States: The Impact of Postarrival Variables.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ying, Yu-Wen; Liese, Lawrence H.

    1994-01-01

    Examines the adjustment of 172 Taiwanese students during their first months in the United States. A multidimensional model is used that accounts for 39% of the variance of adjustment. Mediating factors of the model include demographics, personality, number and severity of problems experienced, prearrival preparation, social support, language…

  5. What Variables Condition Syntactic Transfer? A Look at the L3 Initial State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothman, Jason; Cabrelli Amaro, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates transfer at the third-language (L3) initial state, testing between the following possibilities: (1) the first language (L1) transfer hypothesis (an L1 effect for all adult acquisition), (2) the second language (L2) transfer hypothesis, where the L2 blocks L1 transfer (often referred to in the recent literature as the "L2…

  6. Quantitative Analysis of Variables Affecting Nursing Program Completion at Arizona State University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrera, Cheryl

    2013-01-01

    This study is designed to understand the patterns of selection, preparation, retention and graduation of undergraduate pre-licensure clinical nursing students in the College of Nursing and Health Innovation at Arizona State University enrolled in 2007 and 2008. The resulting patterns may guide policy decision making regarding future cohorts in…

  7. Relationships among Selected Variables in the South Dakota All-State Band Auditions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lien, Joelle L.; Humphreys, Jere T.

    2001-01-01

    Examines the data from the 1992-97 South Dakota all-state band auditions. Focuses on the effects of school enrollment, distance to audition site, sex of auditionees, and the type of instrument. Presents the results of the study in detail. Includes references. (CMK)

  8. ENVIRONMENTAL VARIABLES CONTROLLING NITRIC OXIDE EMISSIONS FROM AGRICULTURAL SOILS IN THE SOUTHEAST UNITED STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fluxes of nitric oxide (NO) were measured during the summer of 1994 (12 July to 11 August) in the Upper Coastal Plain of North Carolina in a continuing effort to characterize NO emissions from intensively managed agricultural soils in the southeastern United States. Previous work...

  9. EXAMINING THE IMPACT OF CLIMATE CHANGE AND VARIABILITY OF REGIONAL AIR QUALITY OVER THE UNITED STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The United States has established a series of standards for criteria and other air pollutants to safeguard air quality to protect human health and the environment. The Climate Impact on Regional Air Quality (CIRAQ) project, a collaborative research effort involving multiple Fede...

  10. Dynamical connection between Great Plains low-level winds and variability of central Gulf States precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pu, Bing; Dickinson, Robert E.; Fu, Rong

    2016-04-01

    The Great Plains low-level jet has been related to summer precipitation over the northern Great Plains and Midwest through its moisture transport and convergence at the jet exit area. Much less studied has been its negative relationship with precipitation over the southern Great Plains and the Gulf coastal area. This work shows that the southerly low-level winds at 30°-40°N over the southern Great Plains are significantly correlated with anticyclonic vorticity to its east over the central Gulf States (30°-35°N, 85°-95°W) from May to July. When the low-level jet is strong in June and July, anomalous anticyclonic vorticity over the central Gulf States leads to divergence and consequent subsidence suppressing precipitation over that region. In contrast, an enhanced southerly flow at the entrance region of the jet over the Gulf of Mexico, largely uncorrelated with the meridional wind over the southern Great Plains, is correlated with increased precipitation over the central Gulf States. Precipitation is large over the central Gulf States when the meridional wind over the southern Great Plains is weakest and over the Gulf of Mexico is strongest. This increase is consistent with the increased moisture transport and dynamic balance between loss of vorticity by advection and friction and gain by convergence.

  11. Sensitivity of a semi-arid riparian ecosystem to climatic variability in the southwestern United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Climatic change will have strong impacts on riverine ecosystems and their associated riparian zones. In the southwestern United States, conservation and restoration of riparian habitats has become a priority for resource management agencies and conservation groups, and these areas are biodiversity h...

  12. Personality Variables as Correlates of Marital Adjustment among Married Persons in Delta State of Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebenuwa-Okoh, E. E.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which emotional expression, communication flow, financial management and work involvement predict marital adjustment among married persons in Delta State, Nigeria. One question was raised and one hypothesis was formulated to guide the study. 2561 married persons were selected through the use of purposive sampling…

  13. Variable Classification of Drug-Intoxication Suicides across US States: A Partial Artifact of Forensics?

    PubMed Central

    Rockett, Ian R. H.; Hobbs, Gerald R.; Wu, Dan; Jia, Haomiao; Nolte, Kurt B.; Smith, Gordon S.; Putnam, Sandra L.; Caine, Eric D.

    2015-01-01

    Background The 21st-century epidemic of pharmaceutical and other drug-intoxication deaths in the United States (US) has likely precipitated an increase in misclassified, undercounted suicides. Drug-intoxication suicides are highly prone to be misclassified as accident or undetermined. Misclassification adversely impacts suicide and other injury mortality surveillance, etiologic understanding, prevention, and hence clinical and public health policy formation and practice. Objective To evaluate whether observed variation in the relative magnitude of drug-intoxication suicides across US states is a partial artifact of the scope and quality of toxicological testing and type of medicolegal death investigation system. Methods This was a national, state-based, ecological study of 111,583 drug-intoxication fatalities, whose manner of death was suicide, accident, or undetermined. The proportion of (nonhomicide) drug-intoxication deaths classified by medical examiners and coroners as suicide was analyzed relative to the proportion of death certificates citing one or more specific drugs and two types of state death investigation systems. Our model incorporated five sociodemographic covariates. Data covered the period 2008–2010, and derived from NCHS’s Multiple Cause-of-Death public use files. Results Across states, the proportion of drug-intoxication suicides ranged from 0.058 in Louisiana to 0.286 in South Dakota and the rate from 1 per 100,000 population in North Dakota to 4 in New Mexico. There was a low correlation between combined accident and undetermined drug-intoxication death rates and corresponding suicide rates (Spearman’s rho = 0.38; p<0.01). Citation of 1 or more specific drugs on the death certificate was positively associated with the relative odds of a state classifying a nonhomicide drug-intoxication death as suicide rather than accident or undetermined, adjusting for region and type of state death investigation system (odds ratio, 1.062; 95% CI,1.016

  14. Leprosy incidence, characterization of cases and correlation with household and cases variables of the Brazilian states in 2010*

    PubMed Central

    de Castro, Shamyr Sulyvan; Santos, Juliana Pereira Pontes; Abreu, Graziela Basílio; Oliveira, Vanessa Rossato; Fernandes, Luciane Fernanda Rodrigues Martinho

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Leprosy is millenary disease and still persists in several countries. OBJECTIVES: To estimate the incidence of leprosy in the Brazilian states and for the country in the year 2010; to describe the cases reported according to the studied variables; to verify the correlation between the overall incidence and the studied variables. METHODS: Ecological descriptive study, with population data from the 27 states, 2010. Information about reported cases were collected: gender, race, percentage of patients younger than 15 years old and living conditions. The analysis was performed using percentages, means, incidence rates and the Spearman correlation test. RESULTS: The states of Mato Grosso and Tocantins recorded the highest incidence rates; Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina, the lowest; there was a higher incidence of leprosy among men; the incidence of leprosy increases proportionally with the nonwhites among the inhabitants; patients younger than 15 years; the average number of residents per household; and a decrease in coverage of water supply and presence of bathrooms. CONCLUSION: The incidence of leprosy is related to factors as gender, race and house conditions (p<0,05 for all). PMID:26982775

  15. Solving a conundrum of a steady-state hilltop with variable soil depths and production rates, Bodmin Moor, UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riggins, Susan G.; Anderson, Robert S.; Anderson, Suzanne Prestrud; Tye, Andrew M.

    2011-05-01

    The common wisdom is that steady-state hilltops should display convex shape with both uniform soil thickness and uniform rates of lowering of the soil-bedrock interface. A 120 m hilltop transect on Bodmin Moor, southwest UK, displays a parabolic hilltop form, which implies it is in geomorphic steady state, yet the measured depths to bedrock range almost 6-fold from 14 to 80 cm, and the soil production rates derived from 10Be concentrations in rock at the soil interface range by 2-fold from 10 to 20 m/My. We address this conundrum by developing a theory to explain the scatter in soil depths that would result from block-by-block lowering of the soil-bedrock boundary, and support our theory with a simple model involving block release and diffusive transport. We show that over long timescales a hilltop can indeed be in geomorphic steady state while at any point in time exhibiting a broad range of depths to bedrock. Variable depth to bedrock results in variable 10Be concentrations in the rock sampled at the base of regolith, which yields calculated soil production rates that vary about the long-term average. Hence, scatter in plots of soil production as a function of soil depth are to be expected in many landscapes, and if the landscape is in geomorphic steady state, this scatter reflects the stochastic nature of the block release mechanism by which the bedrock interface is lowering. We find in our models that the commonly observed humped and exponentially declining soil production functions are only preserved during the transient approach toward geomorphic steady state.

  16. Arthritis in the prehistoric Southeastern United States: biological and cultural variables.

    PubMed

    Hudson, C; Butler, R; Sikes, D

    1975-07-01

    Recent research shows that a bacterial life form, Erysipelothrix insidiosa, can produce rheumatoid arthritis in deer, swine, and dogs, and that a number of animals, including man, birds, and fish, may be infected by the organism. Examination of the archaeological record suggests that both cultural and biological variables may be interrelated in the maintenance of some forms of arthritis over long periods of time in geographically disparate populations. Re-examination of Cherokee folk beliefs concerning arthritis suggests that they had some recognition of this connection, and it also suggests that they had some recognition of this connection, and it also suggests that the term "magical" may relate more to the world view of the observer than to any actual inability of preliterate peoples to draw causal relations on the basis of their own intimate knowledge of their environments. PMID:1098480

  17. Mean state and interannual variability of the Indian summer monsoon simulation by NCEP CFSv2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, Ravi P.; Huang, Bohua

    2016-06-01

    The capability of the National Centers for Environmental Prediction climate forecast system version 2 (CFSv2) in simulating the Indian summer monsoon (ISM) is evaluated in the context of the global monsoon in the Indo-Pacific domain and its variability. Although the CFSv2 captures the ISM spatial structure qualitatively, it demonstrates a severe dry bias over the Indian subcontinent. The weaker model monsoon may be related to an excessive surface convergence over the equatorial Indian Ocean, which reduces the moisture transport toward the Indian subcontinent. The excessively low equatorial pressure is in turn a part of a tropical-wise bias with the largest errors in the central and eastern equatorial Pacific associated with the cold sea surface temperature bias and an overly strong inter-tropical convergence zone. In this sense, the model bias in the tropical Pacific influences those in the Indian Ocean-ISM region substantially. The leading mode of the June-September averaged CFSv2 rainfall anomalies covering the ISM and its adjacent oceanic regions is qualitatively similar to that of the observations, characterized by a spatial pattern of strong anomalies over either side of the Indian peninsula as well as center of opposite sign over Myanmar. However, the model fails to reproduce the northward expansion of rainfall anomalies from Myanmar, leading to opposite anomalies over northeast India and Himalayas region. A substantial amount of the anomalous fluctuation is attributed to the El Niño and the Southern Oscillation (ENSO), although the model variability depends more strongly on ENSO. The active regional influences in the observations may contribute to its baroclinic vertical structure of the geopotential height anomalies in the ISM region, compared with the predominantly barotropic one in CFSv2. Model ENSO deficiencies also affects its ISM simulation significantly.

  18. Relationships Among Top-of-atmosphere Radiation and Atmospheric State Variables in Observations and CESM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trenberth, K. E.

    2015-12-01

    A detailed examination is made in both observations and the Community Earth System Model (CESM) of relationships among top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiation and surface air temperatures, as well as water vapor, tropospheric temperatures and precipitation for 2000-2014 to assess the origins of radiative perturbations and climate feedbacks empirically. The 30-member CESM large ensemble coupled runs are analyzed. Both global and local relationships are examined. There is a lot more high frequency variability in radiative fluxes than in temperature, highlighting the role of clouds and transient weather systems in the radiation statistics. Surface temperatures respond to a radiative imbalance and also greatly affect the outgoing longwave radiation OLR), especially over land. However, tropospheric temperatures are much more influenced by clouds, which affect both absorbed solar radiation (ASR) and OLR, and with large compensation. The vertical structure of the CESM temperature profile tends to be top-heavy in the model, with too much deep convection and not enough lower stratospheric cooling as part of the response to tropospheric heating. There is too much ASR over the southern oceans and not enough in the tropics, and ENSO is too large in amplitude in this version of the model. However, the co-variability of monthly mean anomalies produces remarkably good replication of most of the observed relationships. Over the Warm Pool in the tropical western Pacific and Indian oceans, where non-local effects from the Walker circulation driven by the ENSO events are important, several related biases emerge: in response to high SST anomalies there is more precipitation, water vapor and cloud, and less ASR and OLR in the model than observed. Different model global mean trends are evident, however, and hint at too much positive cloud feedback in the model.

  19. Copper Speciation in Variably Toxic Sediments at the Ely Copper Mine, Vermont, United States.

    PubMed

    Kimball, Bryn E; Foster, Andrea L; Seal, Robert R; Piatak, Nadine M; Webb, Samuel M; Hammarstrom, Jane M

    2016-02-01

    At the Ely Copper Mine Superfund site, Cu concentrations exceed background values in both streamwater (160-1200 times) and sediments (15-79 times). Previously, these sediment samples were incubated with laboratory test organisms, and they exhibited variable toxicity for different stream sites. In this study we combined bulk- and microscale techniques to determine Cu speciation and distribution in these contaminated sediments on the basis of evidence from previous work that Cu was the most important stressor in this environment and that variable observed toxicity could have resulted from differences in Cu speciation. Copper speciation results were similar at microscopic and bulk scales. The major Cu species in the more toxic samples were sorbed or coprecipitated with secondary Mn (birnessite) and Fe minerals (jarosite and goethite), which together accounted for nearly 80% of the total Cu. The major Cu species in the less toxic samples were Cu sulfides (chalcopyrite and a covellite-like phase), making up about 80-95% of the total Cu, with minor amounts of Cu associated with jarosite or goethite. These Cu speciation results are consistent with the toxicity results, considering that Cu sorbed or coprecipitated with secondary phases at near-neutral pH is relatively less stable than Cu bound to sulfide at lower pH. The more toxic stream sediment sites were those that contained fewer detrital sulfides and were upstream of the major mine waste pile, suggesting that removal and consolidation of sulfide-bearing waste piles on site may not eliminate all sources of bioaccessible Cu.

  20. Copper Speciation in Variably Toxic Sediments at the Ely Copper Mine, Vermont, United States.

    PubMed

    Kimball, Bryn E; Foster, Andrea L; Seal, Robert R; Piatak, Nadine M; Webb, Samuel M; Hammarstrom, Jane M

    2016-02-01

    At the Ely Copper Mine Superfund site, Cu concentrations exceed background values in both streamwater (160-1200 times) and sediments (15-79 times). Previously, these sediment samples were incubated with laboratory test organisms, and they exhibited variable toxicity for different stream sites. In this study we combined bulk- and microscale techniques to determine Cu speciation and distribution in these contaminated sediments on the basis of evidence from previous work that Cu was the most important stressor in this environment and that variable observed toxicity could have resulted from differences in Cu speciation. Copper speciation results were similar at microscopic and bulk scales. The major Cu species in the more toxic samples were sorbed or coprecipitated with secondary Mn (birnessite) and Fe minerals (jarosite and goethite), which together accounted for nearly 80% of the total Cu. The major Cu species in the less toxic samples were Cu sulfides (chalcopyrite and a covellite-like phase), making up about 80-95% of the total Cu, with minor amounts of Cu associated with jarosite or goethite. These Cu speciation results are consistent with the toxicity results, considering that Cu sorbed or coprecipitated with secondary phases at near-neutral pH is relatively less stable than Cu bound to sulfide at lower pH. The more toxic stream sediment sites were those that contained fewer detrital sulfides and were upstream of the major mine waste pile, suggesting that removal and consolidation of sulfide-bearing waste piles on site may not eliminate all sources of bioaccessible Cu. PMID:26734712

  1. Copper speciation in variably toxic sediments at the Ely Copper Mine, Vermont, United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kimball, Bryn E.; Foster, Andrea L.; Seal, Robert; Piatak, Nadine; Webb, Samuel M.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.

    2016-01-01

    At the Ely Copper Mine Superfund site, Cu concentrations exceed background values in both streamwater (160–1200 times) and sediments (15–79 times). Previously, these sediment samples were incubated with laboratory test organisms, and they exhibited variable toxicity for different stream sites. In this study we combined bulk- and microscale techniques to determine Cu speciation and distribution in these contaminated sediments on the basis of evidence from previous work that Cu was the most important stressor in this environment and that variable observed toxicity could have resulted from differences in Cu speciation. Copper speciation results were similar at microscopic and bulk scales. The major Cu species in the more toxic samples were sorbed or coprecipitated with secondary Mn (birnessite) and Fe minerals (jarosite and goethite), which together accounted for nearly 80% of the total Cu. The major Cu species in the less toxic samples were Cu sulfides (chalcopyrite and a covellite-like phase), making up about 80–95% of the total Cu, with minor amounts of Cu associated with jarosite or goethite. These Cu speciation results are consistent with the toxicity results, considering that Cu sorbed or coprecipitated with secondary phases at near-neutral pH is relatively less stable than Cu bound to sulfide at lower pH. The more toxic stream sediment sites were those that contained fewer detrital sulfides and were upstream of the major mine waste pile, suggesting that removal and consolidation of sulfide-bearing waste piles on site may not eliminate all sources of bioaccessible Cu.

  2. Multiband optical variability of the blazar S5 0716+714 in outburst state during 2014-2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agarwal, Aditi; Gupta, Alok C.; Bachev, R.; Strigachev, A.; Semkov, E.; Wiita, Paul J.; Fan, J. H.; Pandey, U. S.; Boeva, S.; Spassov, B.

    2016-01-01

    We analysed the multiband optical behaviour of the BL Lacertae object, S5 0716+714, during its outburst state from 2014 November to 2015 March. We took data on 23 nights at three observatories, one in India and two in Bulgaria, making quasi-simultaneous observations in B, V, R, and I bands. We measured multiband optical fluxes, colour, and spectral variations for this blazar on intraday and short time-scales. The source was in a flaring state during the period analysed and displayed intense variability in all wavelengths. R-band magnitude of 11.6 was attained by the target on 2015 January 18, which is the brightest value ever recorded for S5 0716+714. The discrete correlation function method yielded good correlation between the bands with no measurable time lags, implying that radiation in these bands originate from the same region and by the same mechanism. We also used the structure function technique to look for characteristic time-scales in the light curves. During the times of rapid variability, no evidence for the source to display spectral changes with magnitude was found on either of the time-scales. The amplitude of variations tends to increase with increasing frequency with a maximum of ˜22 per cent seen during flaring states in B band. A mild trend of larger variability amplitude as the source brightens was also found. We found the duty cycle of our source during the analysed period to be ˜90 per cent. We also investigated the optical spectral energy distribution of S5 0716+714 using B, V, R, and I data points for 21 nights. We briefly discuss physical mechanisms most likely responsible for its flux and spectral variations.

  3. 20 CFR 1010.230 - In addition to the responsibilities of all recipients, do States and political subdivisions of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Boards, and One-Stop Career Centers for all qualified job training programs delivered through the State's... the local One-Stop Career Centers and for service delivery by local workforce preparation and...

  4. 20 CFR 1010.230 - In addition to the responsibilities of all recipients, do States and political subdivisions of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Boards, and One-Stop Career Centers for all qualified job training programs delivered through the State's... the local One-Stop Career Centers and for service delivery by local workforce preparation and...

  5. 20 CFR 1010.230 - In addition to the responsibilities of all recipients, do States and political subdivisions of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Boards, and One-Stop Career Centers for all qualified job training programs delivered through the State's... the local One-Stop Career Centers and for service delivery by local workforce preparation and...

  6. 20 CFR 1010.230 - In addition to the responsibilities of all recipients, do States and political subdivisions of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Boards, and One-Stop Career Centers for all qualified job training programs delivered through the State's... the local One-Stop Career Centers and for service delivery by local workforce preparation and...

  7. Spatial variability of soil carbon across Mexico and the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vargas, R.; Guevara, M.; Cruz Gaistardo, C.; Paz, F.; de Jong, B.; Etchevers, J.

    2015-12-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) is directly linked to soil quality, food security, and land use/global environmental change. We use publicly available information on SOC and couple it with digital elevation models and derived terrain attributes using a machine learning approach. We found a strong spatial dependency of SOC across the United States, but less spatial dependency of SOC across Mexico. Using High Performance Computing (HPC) we derived a 1 km resolution map of SOC across Mexico and the United States. We tested different machine learning methods (e.g., kernel based, tree based and/or Geo-statistics approaches) for computational efficiency and statistical accuracy. Using random forest combined with geo-statistics we were able to explain >70% of SOC variance for Mexico and >40% in the case of the United States via cross validation. These results compare with other published estimates of SOC at 1km resolution that only explain <30% of SOC variance across the world. Topographic attributes derived from digital elevation models are freely available globally at fine spatial resolution (<100 m), and this information allowed us to make predictions of SOC at fine scales. We further tested this approach using SOC information from the International Soil Carbon Network to predict SOC in other regions of the world. We conclude that this approach (using public information and open source platforms for data analysis) could be implemented to predict detailed explicit information of SOC across different spatial scales.

  8. Longshore variability of beach states and bar types in a microtidal, storm-influenced, low-energy environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleman, N.; Robin, N.; Certain, R.; Anthony, E. J.; Barusseau, J.-P.

    2015-07-01

    Beach classification models are widely used in the literature to describe beach states in response to environmental conditions. These models were essentially developed for sandy barred to barless beaches in micro- to meso-tidal environments subject to moderate to high wave energy conditions and have been based on field studies over limited stretches of coast. Here, we further interrogate the performance of the Australian beach classification scheme by analysing beach states and corresponding bar types on a regional scale in a storm-influenced, low wave-energy, microtidal environment, using a large and unique spatial and temporal dataset of supra- and subtidal beach morphology and sedimentology. The 200 km-long coast of the Gulf of Lions in the Mediterranean consists of quasi-continuous sandy beaches with a well-developed double sandbar system. All the reported classical beach states were observed on this coast, from reflective to dissipative, along with two more unusual states: the rock platform-constrained beach state which is associated with bedrock outcrops, and the non-barred dissipative beach state which is more commonly found in large tidal-range settings. LiDAR bathymetry shows that the transitions between beach state zones are marked mainly headlands but transitions also occur progressively along stretches of continuous sandy beach. The longshore distribution of beach states and associated bar types on a regional scale can be related to the variability of hydrodynamic conditions (wave incidence and energy) and sediment characteristics (particle size). However, the influence of these parameters on beach state seems to be largely controlled by the geological context such as the presence of a river mouth, headland or rock platform. Finally, we assessed the ability of the parameter Ω, commonly used to characterise beach states, which combines wave characteristics and sediment fall velocity, to predict the observed beach states and bar types using a very large

  9. The sensitivity of terrestrial carbon storage to historical climate variability and atmospheric CO2 in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tian, H.; Melillo, J.M.; Kicklighter, D.W.; McGuire, A.D.; Helfrich, J.

    1999-01-01

    We use the Terrestrial Ecosystem Model (TEM, Version 4.1) and the land cover data set of the international geosphere-biosphere program to investigate how increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration and climate variability during 1900-1994 affect the carbon storage of terrestrial ecosystems in the conterminous USA, and how carbon storage has been affected by land-use change. The estimates of TEM indicate that over the past 95 years a combination of increasing atmospheric CO2 with historical temperature and precipitation variability causes a 4.2% (4.3 Pg C) decrease in total carbon storage of potential vegetation in the conterminous US, with vegetation carbon decreasing by 7.2% (3.2 Pg C) and soil organic carbon decreasing by 1.9% (1.1 Pg C). Several dry periods including the 1930s and 1950s are responsible for the loss of carbon storage. Our factorial experiments indicate that precipitation variability alone decreases total carbon storage by 9.5%. Temperature variability alone does not significantly affect carbon storage. The effect of CO2 fertilization alone increases total carbon storage by 4.4%. The effects of increasing atmospheric CO2 and climate variability are not additive. Interactions among CO2, temperature and precipitation increase total carbon storage by 1.1%. Our study also shows substantial year-to-year variations in net carbon exchange between the atmosphere and terrestrial ecosystems due to climate variability. Since the 1960s, we estimate these terrestrial ecosystems have acted primarily as a sink of atmospheric CO2 as a result of wetter weather and higher atmospheric CO2 concentrations. For the 1980s, we estimate the natural terrestrial ecosystems, excluding cropland and urban areas, of the conterminous US have accumulated 78.2 Tg C yr-1 because of the combined effect of increasing atmospheric CO2 and climate variability. For the conterminous US, we estimate that the conversion of natural ecosystems to cropland and urban areas has caused a 18.2% (17

  10. Distribution and variability of precipitation chemistry in the conterminous United States, January through December 1983

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rinella, J.F.; Miller, T.L.

    1988-01-01

    Analysis of atmospheric precipitation samples, collected during the 1983 calendar year from 109 National Trends Network sites in the United States, are presented in this report. The sites were grouped into six geographical regions based on the chemical composition of the samples. Precipitation chemistry in these regions was influenced by proximity to (1) oceans, (2) major industrial and fossil-fuel consuming areas, and (3) major agricultural and livestock areas. Frequency distributions of ionic composition, determined on 10 chemical constituents and on precipitation quantities for each site, showed wide variations in chemical concentrations and precipitation quantities from site to site. Of the 109 sites, 55 had data coverage for the year sufficient to characterize precipitation quality patterns on a nationwide basis. Except for ammonium and calcium, both of which showed largest concentrations in the agricultural midwest and plains states, the largest concentrations and loads generally were in areas that include the heavily industrialized population center of the eastern United States. Except for hydrogen, all chemical ions are inversely related to the quantity of precipitation depth. Precipitation quantities generally account for less than 30% of chemical variation in precipitation samples. However, precipitation quantities account for 30 to 65% of the variations of calcium concentrations in precipitation. In regions where precipitation has a large ionic proportion of hydrogen-ion equivalents, much of the hydrogen-ion concentration could be balanced by sulfate equivalents and partly balanced by nitrite-plus-nitrate equivalents. In the regions where hydrogen-ion equivalents in precipitation were smaller, ammonion-and calcium-ion equivalents were necessary, along with the hydrogen-ion equivalents, to balance the sulfate plus nitrite-plus-nitrate equivalent. (USGS)

  11. Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles with variable size and an iron oxidation state as prospective imaging agents.

    PubMed

    Kucheryavy, Pavel; He, Jibao; John, Vijay T; Maharjan, Pawan; Spinu, Leonard; Goloverda, Galina Z; Kolesnichenko, Vladimir L

    2013-01-15

    Magnetite nanoparticles in the size range of 3.2-7.5 nm were synthesized in high yields under variable reaction conditions using high-temperature hydrolysis of the precursor iron(II) and iron(III) alkoxides in diethylene glycol solution. The average sizes of the particles were adjusted by changing the reaction temperature and time and by using a sequential growth technique. To obtain γ-iron(III) oxide particles in the same range of sizes, magnetite particles were oxidized with dry oxygen in diethylene glycol at room temperature. The products were characterized by DLS, TEM, X-ray powder diffractometry, TGA, chemical analysis, and magnetic measurements. NMR r(1) and r(2) relaxivity measurements in water and diethylene glycol (for OH and CH(2) protons) have shown a decrease in the r(2)/r(1) ratio with the particle size reduction, which correlates with the results of magnetic measurements on magnetite nanoparticles. Saturation magnetization of the oxidized particles was found to be 20% lower than that for Fe(3)O(4) with the same particle size, but their r(1) relaxivities are similar. Because the oxidation of magnetite is spontaneous under ambient conditions, it was important to learn that the oxidation product has no disadvantages as compared to its precursor and therefore may be a better prospective imaging agent because of its chemical stability.

  12. Spatial and seasonal variability of dissolved methylmercury in two stream basins in the eastern United States.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Paul M; Burns, Douglas A; Murray, Karen Riva-; Brigham, Mark E; Button, Daniel T; Chasar, Lia C; Marvin-Dipasquale, Mark; Lowery, Mark A; Journey, Celeste A

    2011-03-15

    We assessed methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations across multiple ecological scales in the Edisto (South Carolina) and Upper Hudson (New York) River basins. Out-of-channel wetland/floodplain environments were primary sources of filtered MeHg (F-MeHg) to the stream habitat in both systems. Shallow, open-water areas in both basins exhibited low F-MeHg concentrations and decreasing F-MeHg mass flux. Downstream increases in out-of-channel wetlands/floodplains and the absence of impoundments result in high MeHg throughout the Edisto. Despite substantial wetlands coverage and elevated F-MeHg concentrations at the headwater margins, numerous impoundments on primary stream channels favor spatial variability and lower F-MeHg concentrations in the Upper Hudson. The results indicated that, even in geographically, climatically, and ecologically diverse streams, production in wetland/floodplain areas, hydrologic transport to the stream aquatic environment, and conservative/nonconservative attenuation processes in open water areas are fundamental controls on dissolved MeHg concentrations and, by extension, MeHg availability for potential biotic uptake. PMID:21341694

  13. Climatic variability in the eastern United States over the past millenium from Chesapeake Bay sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cronin, T.; Willard, D.; Karlsen, A.; Ishman, S.; Verardo, S.; McGeehin, J.; Kerhin, R.; Holmes, C.; Colman, S.; Zimmerman, A.

    2000-01-01

    Salinity oscillations caused by multidecadal climatic variability had major impacts on the Chesapeake Bay estuarine ecosystem during the past 1000 yr. Microfossils from sediments dated by radiometry (14C, 137Cs, 210Pb) and pollen stratigraphy indicate that salinity in mesohaline regions oscillated 10-15 ppt during periods of extreme drought (low fresh-water discharge) and wet climate (high discharge). During the past 500 yr, 14 wet-dry cycles occurred, including sixteenth and early seventeenth century megadroughts that exceeded twentieth century droughts in their severity. These droughts correspond to extremely dry climate also recorded in North American tree-ring records and by early colonists. Wet periods occurred every ~60-70 yr, began abruptly, lasted <20 yr, and had mean annual rainfall ~25%-30% and fresh-water discharge ~40%-50% greater than during droughts. A shift toward wetter regional climate occurred in the early nineteenth century, lowering salinity and compounding the effects of agricultural land clearance on bay ecosystems.

  14. Finite State Control of a Variable Impedance Hybrid Neuroprosthesis for Locomotion after Paralysis

    PubMed Central

    Bulea, Thomas C.; Kobetic, R.; Audu, M.L.; Schnellenberger, J.; Triolo, R.J.

    2013-01-01

    We have previously reported on a novel variable impedance knee mechanism (VIKM). The VIKM was designed as a component of a hybrid neuroprosthesis to regulate knee flexion. The hybrid neuroprosthesis is a device that uses a controllable brace to support the body against collapse while stimulation provides power for movement. The hybrid neuroprosthesis requires a control system to coordinate the actions of the VIKM with the stimulation system; the development and evaluation of such a controller is presented. Brace mounted sensors and a baseline open loop stimulation pattern are utilized as control signals to activate the VIKM during stance phase while simultaneously modulating muscle stimulation in an on-off fashion. The objective is twofold: reduce the amount of stimulation necessary for walking while simultaneously restoring more biologically correct knee motion during stance using the VIKM. Custom designed hardware and software components were developed for controller implementation. The VIKM hybrid neuroprosthesis (VIKM-HNP) was evaluated during walking in one participant with thoracic level spinal cord injury. In comparison to walking with functional neuromuscular stimulation (FNS) alone, the VIKM-HNP restored near normal stance phase knee flexion during loading response and pre-swing phases while decreasing knee extensor stimulation by up to 40%. PMID:23193320

  15. Spatial and seasonal variability of dissolved methylmercury in two stream basins in the Eastern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradley, Paul M.; Burns, Douglas A.; Riva-Murray, Karen; Brigham, Mark E.; Button, Daniel T.; Chasar, Lia C.; Marvin-DiPasquale, Mark; Lowery, Mark A.; Journey, Celeste A.

    2011-01-01

    We assessed methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations across multiple ecological scales in the Edisto (South Carolina) and Upper Hudson (New York) River basins. Out-of-channel wetland/floodplain environments were primary sources of filtered MeHg (F-MeHg) to the stream habitat in both systems. Shallow, open-water areas in both basins exhibited low F-MeHg concentrations and decreasing F-MeHg mass flux. Downstream increases in out-of-channel wetlands/floodplains and the absence of impoundments result in high MeHg throughout the Edisto. Despite substantial wetlands coverage and elevated F-MeHg concentrations at the headwater margins, numerous impoundments on primary stream channels favor spatial variability and lower F-MeHg concentrations in the Upper Hudson. The results indicated that, even in geographically, climatically, and ecologically diverse streams, production in wetland/floodplain areas, hydrologic transport to the stream aquatic environment, and conservative/nonconservative attenuation processes in open water areas are fundamental controls on dissolved MeHg concentrations and, by extension, MeHg availability for potential biotic uptake.

  16. Variability of Ecosystem State in Rivers Containing Natural Dams: A Chemical Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, Z. A.

    2015-12-01

    Flooding, and the resulting economic damage to roads and property, is associated with natural dams such as beaver dams or log jams. For this reason, humans often remove natural dams; however, river reaches with natural dams provide very different ecosystem services in comparison with free-flowing river reaches. Therefore, the goal of this project is to assess the differences in ecosystem state between these different river reach types in the northeastern United States. We focused on differences in basic chemistry (e.g., dissolved oxygen, pH, temperature, and organic carbon) to assess the impact of natural dams on river ecosystem state. Study sites include rivers in the White Mountains and southeastern New Hampshire at locations with beaver dams, beaver ponds, beaver meadows, log jams, and free-flowing reaches. Dissolved oxygen, ORP, pH, temperature, and conductivity were measured in the field with a YSI Professional Plus meter. Water samples were collected for subsequent laboratory analysis of total organic carbon with a Shimadzu TOC-L. Preliminary results show that the chemistry of river water varies with feature type. Most significantly, dissolved oxygen concentrations are highest in free-flowing reaches and lowest in beaver ponds. Although beaver ponds are often associated with lower pH, due the increased concentration of organic acids, some beaver ponds can increase pH when compared to free-flowing reaches on the same river. Early results also show that water chemistry returns quickly to the chemistry typical of the free-flowing river reaches after being altered by a natural dam. Overall, natural dams create a river system that has more heterogeneity, and therefore has opportunities to provide more ecosystem functions, than a purely free-flowing river; this can increase the number of supported instream and riparian species. By increasing the understanding of how natural dams affect the chemistry of river water, river engineers can improve their decisions on how

  17. Statistically designed study of the variables and parameters of carbon dioxide equations of state

    SciTech Connect

    Donohue, M.D.; Naiman, D.Q.; Jin, Gang; Loehe, J.R.

    1991-05-01

    Carbon dioxide is used widely in enhanced oil recovery (EOR) processes to maximize the production of crude oil from aging and nearly depleted oil wells. Carbon dioxide also is encountered in many processes related to oil recovery. Accurate representations of the properties of carbon dioxide, and its mixtures with hydrocarbons, play a critical role in a number of enhanced oil recovery operations. One of the first tasks of this project was to select an equation of state to calculate the properties of carbon dioxide and its mixtures. The equations simplicity, accuracy, and reliability in representing phase behavior and thermodynamic properties of mixtures containing carbon dioxide with hydrocarbons at conditions relevant to enhanced oil recovery were taken into account. We also have determined the thermodynamic properties that are important to enhanced oil recovery and the ranges of temperature, pressure and composition that are important. We chose twelve equations of state for preliminary studies to be evaluated against these criteria. All of these equations were tested for pure carbon dioxide and eleven were tested for pure alkanes and their mixtures with carbon dioxide. Two equations, the ALS equation and the ESD equation, were selected for detailed statistical analysis. 54 refs., 41 figs., 36 tabs.

  18. Variable Charge State Impurities in Coupled Kinetic Plasma-Kinetic Neutral Transport Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stotler, D. P.; Hager, R.; Kim, K.; Koskela, T.; Park, G.

    2015-11-01

    A previous version of the XGC0 neoclassical particle transport code with two fully stripped impurity species was used to study kinetic neoclassical transport in the DIII-D H-mode pedestal. To properly simulate impurities in the scrape-off layer and divertor and to account for radiative cooling, however, the impurity charge state distributions must evolve as the particles are transported into regions of different electron temperatures and densities. To do this, the charge state of each particle in XGC0 is included as a parameter in the list that represents the particle's location in phase space. Impurity ionizations and recombinations are handled with a dedicated collision routine. The associated radiative cooling is accumulated during the process and applied to the electron population later in the time step. The density profiles of the neutral impurities are simulated with the DEGAS 2 neutral transport code and then used as a background for electron impact ionization in XGC0 via a test particle Monte Carlo method analogous to that used for deuterium. This work supported by US DOE contracts DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  19. Projecting 21st Century Snowpack Trends in the Western United States using Variable-Resolution CESM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhoades, A.; Huang, X.; Zarzycki, C. M.; Ullrich, P. A.

    2015-12-01

    The western USA is integrally reliant upon winter season snowpack, which supplies 3/4 of the region's fresh water and buffers against seasonal aridity on agricultural, ecosystem, and urban water demands. By the end of the 21st century, western USA snowpack (SWE) could decline by 40-70%, snowfall by 25-40%, more winter storms could tend towards rain rather than snow, and the peak timing of snowmelt will shift several weeks earlier in the season. Further, there has been evidence that mountain ranges could face more accelerated warming (elevational dependent warming) due to climate change. These future trends have largely been derived from global climate models (CMIP5) which can't resolve some of the more relatively narrow mountain ranges, like the California Sierra Nevada, in great detail. Therefore, due to the importance of orographic uplift on weather fronts, eastern Pacific sea-surface temperature anomalies, atmospheric river events, and mesoscale convective systems, high-resolution global scale modeling techniques are necessary to properly resolve western USA mountain range climatology. Variable-resolution global climate models (VRGCMs) are a promising next-generation technique to analyze both past and future hydroclimatic trends in the region. VRGCMs serve as a bridge between regional and global models by allowing for high-resolution in areas of interest, eliminate lateral boundary forcings (and resultant model biases), allow for more dynamically inclusive large-scale climate teleconnections, and require smaller simulation times and lower data storage demand (compared to conventional global models). This presentation focuses on validating these next-generation models as well as projecting future climate change scenario impacts on several of the western USA's key hydroclimate metrics (e.g., two-meter surface temperature, snow cover, snow water equivalent, and snowfall) to inform water managers and policy makers and offer resilience to climate change impacts

  20. Low Flows over the Eastern United States: Variability, Trends, and Attributions (1962-2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kam, J.; Sheffield, J.

    2014-12-01

    Low flows are a seasonal hydrologic response generally during a drying period. Extreme low flows are a result of prolonged antecedent precipitation deficit and/or high evaporative demand, and can indicate hydrological droughts (water availability deficit) and ecological droughts (water quality degradation). Human impacts (e.g. dams, reservoirs, and power plants) also play a role in exacerbating the severity of low flow droughts. For drought mitigation, it is critical to better understand how low flows vary over time and their generating mechanisms. The goals of this study are to examine trends in low flows over the eastern U.S. and to assess their attributions and teleconnections in the context of climate change and variability. We selected 149 out of 4878 USGS stations over the eastern U.S., taking into account data availability and minimal human impacts. We analyzed annual 7-day low flows (Q7) from the series of daily streamflow records for 1962-2011. We also computed an antecedent precipitation (AP) over the corresponding basin for each station. We found a north-south (increasing-decreasing) dipole pattern in Q7 trends and a monopole (increasing) pattern in AP trends, which indicates a gap between the trends of Q7 and AP over the southern part of the study region (Virginia, North and South Carolina). We found that these regions show significant increasing trends in potential evapotranspiration (PET) as driven by increasing temperatures and vapor pressure deficit. We also examined teleconnections between detrended Q7 and nine atmospheric and oceanic climate indices. We found that the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and Pacific North America (PNA) pattern show prediction skill for Q7 at one and two month lead time, respectively. Our findings suggest that the worst scenario for future droughts over the eastern U.S. is a combination of a response to an increasing trend in temperature driving PET with strong negative NAO and positve PNA during summer.

  1. 78 FR 77666 - Notice and Request for Public Comment on State Requests To Include Additional Proof-of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-24

    ... Instructions on the National Mail Voter Registration Form AGENCY: U.S. Election Assistance Commission (EAC..., and Georgia on the National Mail Voter Registration Form (``Federal Form''). Those States have... requirements that, as a precondition to registering to vote in Federal elections, voter registration...

  2. Conversion of canola meal into a high-protein feed additive via solid-state fungal incubation process

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The study goal was to determine the optimal fungal culture to reduce glucosinolates (GLS), fiber, and residual sugars while increasing the protein content and nutritional value of canola meal. Solid-state incubation conditions were used to enhance filamentous growth of the fungi. Flask trials were p...

  3. Contrasts in the Sensitivity of Community Calcification to Saturation State Variability Within Temperate and Tropical Marine Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwiatkowski, L.

    2015-12-01

    Ongoing emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) and invasion of part of this CO2 into the oceans are projected to lower the calcium carbonate saturation state. As a result, the ability of many marine organisms to calcify may be compromised, with significant impacts on ocean ecosystems throughout the Anthropocene. In laboratory manipulations, calcifying organisms have exhibited reduced calcification under elevated pCO2 conditions. However, very few experiments have observed how in situ community calcification, which incorporates complex species interactions, responds to natural variations in carbonate chemistry. Using intensive seawater sampling techniques we assess the community level sensitivity of calcification rates to natural variability in the aragonite saturation state (Ωarag) at both a tropical coral reef and temperate intertidal study site. Both sites experiences large daily variation in Ωarag during low tide due to photosynthesis, respiration, and the time at which the sites are isolated from the open ocean. On hourly timescales, we find that community level rates of calcification have only a weak dependence on variability in Ωarag at the tropical study site. At the temperate study site, although weak Ωarag sensitivity is observed during the day, nighttime community calcification rates are found to be strongly influenced by variability in Ωarag, with greater dissolution rates at lower Ωarag levels. If the short-term sensitivity of community calcification to Ωarag described here is representative of the long-term sensitivity of marine ecosystems to ocean acidification, then one would expect temperate intertidal calcifying communities to be more vulnerable than tropical coral reef calcifying communities. In particular, reductions in net community calcification, in the temperate intertidal zone may be predominately due to the nocturnal impact of ocean acidification.

  4. The Soft State of Cygnus X-1 Observed with NuSTAR: A Variable Corona and a Stable Inner Disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walton, D. J.; Tomsick, J. A.; Madsen, K. K.; Grinberg, V.; Barret, D.; Boggs, S. E.; Christensen, F. E.; Clavel, M.; Craig, W. W.; Fabian, A. C.; Fuerst, F.; Hailey, C. J.; Harrison, F. A.; Miller, J. M.; Parker, M. L.; Rahoui, F.; Stern, D.; Tao, L.; Wilms, J.; Zhang, W.

    2016-07-01

    We present a multi-epoch hard X-ray analysis of Cygnus X-1 in its soft state based on four observations with the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR). Despite the basic similarity of the observed spectra, there is clear spectral variability between epochs. To investigate this variability, we construct a model incorporating both the standard disk-corona continuum and relativistic reflection from the accretion disk, based on prior work on Cygnus X-1, and apply this model to each epoch independently. We find excellent consistency for the black hole spin and the iron abundance of the accretion disk, which are expected to remain constant on observational timescales. In particular, we confirm that Cygnus X-1 hosts a rapidly rotating black hole, 0.93≲ {a}* ≲ 0.96, in broad agreement with the majority of prior studies of the relativistic disk reflection and constraints on the spin obtained through studies of the thermal accretion disk continuum. Our work also confirms the apparent misalignment between the inner disk and the orbital plane of the binary system reported previously, finding the magnitude of this warp to be ˜10°-15°. This level of misalignment does not significantly change (and may even improve) the agreement between our reflection results and the thermal continuum results regarding the black hole spin. The spectral variability observed by NuSTAR is dominated by the primary continuum, implying variability in the temperature of the scattering electron plasma. Finally, we consistently observe absorption from ionized iron at ˜6.7 keV, which varies in strength as a function of orbital phase in a manner consistent with the absorbing material being an ionized phase of the focused stellar wind from the supergiant companion star.

  5. Climate variability and change in the United States: potential impacts on water- and foodborne diseases caused by microbiologic agents.

    PubMed

    Rose, J B; Epstein, P R; Lipp, E K; Sherman, B H; Bernard, S M; Patz, J A

    2001-05-01

    Exposure to waterborne and foodborne pathogens can occur via drinking water (associated with fecal contamination), seafood (due to natural microbial hazards, toxins, or wastewater disposal) or fresh produce (irrigated or processed with contaminated water). Weather influences the transport and dissemination of these microbial agents via rainfall and runoff and the survival and/or growth through such factors as temperature. Federal and state laws and regulatory programs protect much of the U.S. population from waterborne disease; however, if climate variability increases, current and future deficiencies in areas such as watershed protection, infrastructure, and storm drainage systems will probably increase the risk of contamination events. Knowledge about transport processes and the fate of microbial pollutants associated with rainfall and snowmelt is key to predicting risks from a change in weather variability. Although recent studies identified links between climate variability and occurrence of microbial agents in water, the relationships need further quantification in the context of other stresses. In the marine environment as well, there are few studies that adequately address the potential health effects of climate variability in combination with other stresses such as overfishing, introduced species, and rise in sea level. Advances in monitoring are necessary to enhance early-warning and prevention capabilities. Application of existing technologies, such as molecular fingerprinting to track contaminant sources or satellite remote sensing to detect coastal algal blooms, could be expanded. This assessment recommends incorporating a range of future scenarios of improvement plans for current deficiencies in the public health infrastructure to achieve more realistic risk assessments. PMID:11359688

  6. The Soft State of Cygnus X-1 Observed with NuSTAR: A Variable Corona and a Stable Inner Disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walton, D. J.; Tomsick, J. A.; Madsen, K. K.; Grinberg, V.; Barret, D.; Boggs, S. E.; Christensen, F. E.; Clavel, M.; Craig, W. W.; Fabian, A. C.; Fuerst, F.; Hailey, C. J.; Harrison, F. A.; Miller, J. M.; Parker, M. L.; Rahoui, F.; Stern, D.; Tao, L.; Wilms, J.; Zhang, W.

    2016-07-01

    We present a multi-epoch hard X-ray analysis of Cygnus X-1 in its soft state based on four observations with the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR). Despite the basic similarity of the observed spectra, there is clear spectral variability between epochs. To investigate this variability, we construct a model incorporating both the standard disk-corona continuum and relativistic reflection from the accretion disk, based on prior work on Cygnus X-1, and apply this model to each epoch independently. We find excellent consistency for the black hole spin and the iron abundance of the accretion disk, which are expected to remain constant on observational timescales. In particular, we confirm that Cygnus X-1 hosts a rapidly rotating black hole, 0.93≲ {a}* ≲ 0.96, in broad agreement with the majority of prior studies of the relativistic disk reflection and constraints on the spin obtained through studies of the thermal accretion disk continuum. Our work also confirms the apparent misalignment between the inner disk and the orbital plane of the binary system reported previously, finding the magnitude of this warp to be ˜10°–15°. This level of misalignment does not significantly change (and may even improve) the agreement between our reflection results and the thermal continuum results regarding the black hole spin. The spectral variability observed by NuSTAR is dominated by the primary continuum, implying variability in the temperature of the scattering electron plasma. Finally, we consistently observe absorption from ionized iron at ˜6.7 keV, which varies in strength as a function of orbital phase in a manner consistent with the absorbing material being an ionized phase of the focused stellar wind from the supergiant companion star.

  7. Late Holocene Hydrologic Variability Reconstruction of the Coastal Southwestern United States Using Lake Sediments from Crystal Lake, CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palermo, J. A.; Kirby, M. E.; Hiner, C.; Leeper, R. J.

    2014-12-01

    This study aims to reconstruct a high resolution, late Holocene record of precipitation variability for the coastal southwestern United States region using sediment cores from Crystal Lake, CA. This region is especially susceptible to droughts and episodic floods, making it of particular importance to understand past hydrologic variability. Crystal Lake is a small, alpine landslide dammed lake in the Angeles National Forest of the San Gabriel Mountains. The lake is the only permanent, freshwater lake located in the range. It is hydrologically closed, meaning all lake level changes are controlled by changes in precipitation: evaporation. To reconstruct past hydrologic variability, two Livingston piston cores were taken 15 m apart in the depocenter of the lake in May 2014. A multi-proxy methodology was utilized including: magnetic susceptibility, total organic matter and total carbonate content, grain size, and bulk d13Corg of sediments. All analyses were conducted at 1 cm contiguous intervals except bulk d13Corg (at 2 cm). Seismic reflection profiles were also generated to examine the basin's stratigraphic features in the context of the individual sediment cores. A working age model was provided by multiple AMS 14C dates from discrete organic matter (i.e., seeds, charcoal). Results from this study are compared to preexisting records of late Holocene hydrologic variability from coastal, central, and southern California. Further, the forcing mechanisms that drive hydrologic change (wet vs. dry episodes) in Southern California, such as ocean-atmosphere interactions including El Niño Southern Oscillation or the Pacific Decadal Oscillation, are discussed.

  8. Climate variability and change in the United States: potential impacts on water- and foodborne diseases caused by microbiologic agents.

    PubMed Central

    Rose, J B; Epstein, P R; Lipp, E K; Sherman, B H; Bernard, S M; Patz, J A

    2001-01-01

    Exposure to waterborne and foodborne pathogens can occur via drinking water (associated with fecal contamination), seafood (due to natural microbial hazards, toxins, or wastewater disposal) or fresh produce (irrigated or processed with contaminated water). Weather influences the transport and dissemination of these microbial agents via rainfall and runoff and the survival and/or growth through such factors as temperature. Federal and state laws and regulatory programs protect much of the U.S. population from waterborne disease; however, if climate variability increases, current and future deficiencies in areas such as watershed protection, infrastructure, and storm drainage systems will probably increase the risk of contamination events. Knowledge about transport processes and the fate of microbial pollutants associated with rainfall and snowmelt is key to predicting risks from a change in weather variability. Although recent studies identified links between climate variability and occurrence of microbial agents in water, the relationships need further quantification in the context of other stresses. In the marine environment as well, there are few studies that adequately address the potential health effects of climate variability in combination with other stresses such as overfishing, introduced species, and rise in sea level. Advances in monitoring are necessary to enhance early-warning and prevention capabilities. Application of existing technologies, such as molecular fingerprinting to track contaminant sources or satellite remote sensing to detect coastal algal blooms, could be expanded. This assessment recommends incorporating a range of future scenarios of improvement plans for current deficiencies in the public health infrastructure to achieve more realistic risk assessments. PMID:11359688

  9. Interannual variability in associations between seasonal climate, weather, and extremes: wintertime temperature over the Southwestern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guirguis, Kristen; Gershunov, Alexander; Cayan, Daniel R.

    2015-12-01

    Temperature variability in the Southwest US is investigated using skew-normal probability distribution functions (SN PDFs) fitted to observed wintertime daily maximum temperature records. These PDFs vary significantly between years, with important geographical differences in the relationship between the central tendency and tails, revealing differing linkages between weather and climate. The warmest and coldest extremes do not necessarily follow the distribution center. In some regions one tail of the distribution shows more variability than does the other. For example, in California the cold tail is more variable while the warm tail remains relatively stable, so warm years are associated with fewer cold extremes but not necessarily more warm extremes. The opposite relationship is seen in the Great Plains. Changes in temperature PDFs are conditioned by different phases of El Niño-La Niña (ENSO) and the Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO). In the Southern Great Plains, La Niña and/or negative PDO are associated with generally warmer conditions. However, in terms of extremes, while the warm tails become thicker and longer, the cool tails are not impacted—extremely warm days become more frequent but extremely cool days are not less frequent. In contrast, in coastal California, La Niña or negative PDO bring generally cooler conditions with more/stronger cold extremes but the warm extreme probability is not significantly affected. These results could have implications for global warming. If a rigid shift of the whole range occurs, then warm years are not necessarily a good analogue for a warmer climate. If global warming instead brings regional changes more aligned with a preferred state of dominant climate variability modes, then we may see asymmetric changes in the tails of local temperature PDFs.

  10. Seasonal Variability of Halocarbon Emissions in California and The United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gentner, D. R.; Goldstein, A. H.; Miller, A. M.; Harley, R. A.

    2009-12-01

    Ambient concentrations of 8 predominantly anthropogenic halocarbons were measured via in situ gas chromatography in California’s South Coast air basin during both summer and fall as part of the 2005 Study of Organic Aerosols at Riverside (SOAR). Ongoing emissions of methylchloroform, CFC-11, and HCFC-141b, whose production is banned by the Montreal Protocol, were detected by comparison to similar-latitude background measurements at remote AGAGE and NOAA sites. CFC-113 emissions were not detected. Using coincident ambient measurements of carbon monoxide and an emission inventory for carbon monoxide, emission estimates for both California and the United States were estimated for methylchloroform, CFC-11, HCFC-141b, tetrachloroethene, trichloroethylene, dichloromethane, and chloroform of anthropogenic origin. We present evidence for anthropogenic sources of both methylchloroform and chloroform in the Los Angeles region, which show clear seasonal differences in emissions between summer and fall. We compare and contrast our emission estimates to other recently reported estimates.

  11. 49 CFR 1155.23 - Additional requirements when filing after an unsatisfactory result from a State, local, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... required in 49 CFR 1155.23(b). The petition shall be filed simultaneously with the land-use-exemption... Procedures Governing Applications for a Land-Use-Exemption Permit § 1155.23 Additional requirements when... siting of the facility, the applicant may petition the Board to accept an application for a...

  12. 12 CFR 208.73 - What additional provisions are applicable to state member banks with financial subsidiaries?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... determining the bank's ratio of tangible equity to total assets under § 208.43(b)(5), the bank must deduct the... subsidiaries from the bank's tangible equity and total assets. (5) If the deduction from Tier 2 capital... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What additional provisions are applicable...

  13. Regional Variability and Uncertainty of Electric Vehicle Life Cycle CO₂ Emissions across the United States.

    PubMed

    Tamayao, Mili-Ann M; Michalek, Jeremy J; Hendrickson, Chris; Azevedo, Inês M L

    2015-07-21

    We characterize regionally specific life cycle CO2 emissions per mile traveled for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) and battery electric vehicles (BEVs) across the United States under alternative assumptions for regional electricity emission factors, regional boundaries, and charging schemes. We find that estimates based on marginal vs average grid emission factors differ by as much as 50% (using National Electricity Reliability Commission (NERC) regional boundaries). Use of state boundaries versus NERC region boundaries results in estimates that differ by as much as 120% for the same location (using average emission factors). We argue that consumption-based marginal emission factors are conceptually appropriate for evaluating the emissions implications of policies that increase electric vehicle sales or use in a region. We also examine generation-based marginal emission factors to assess robustness. Using these two estimates of NERC region marginal emission factors, we find the following: (1) delayed charging (i.e., starting at midnight) leads to higher emissions in most cases due largely to increased coal in the marginal generation mix at night; (2) the Chevrolet Volt has higher expected life cycle emissions than the Toyota Prius hybrid electric vehicle (the most efficient U.S. gasoline vehicle) across the U.S. in nearly all scenarios; (3) the Nissan Leaf BEV has lower life cycle emissions than the Prius in the western U.S. and in Texas, but the Prius has lower emissions in the northern Midwest regardless of assumed charging scheme and marginal emissions estimation method; (4) in other regions the lowest emitting vehicle depends on charge timing and emission factor estimation assumptions.

  14. Regional Variability and Uncertainty of Electric Vehicle Life Cycle CO₂ Emissions across the United States.

    PubMed

    Tamayao, Mili-Ann M; Michalek, Jeremy J; Hendrickson, Chris; Azevedo, Inês M L

    2015-07-21

    We characterize regionally specific life cycle CO2 emissions per mile traveled for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) and battery electric vehicles (BEVs) across the United States under alternative assumptions for regional electricity emission factors, regional boundaries, and charging schemes. We find that estimates based on marginal vs average grid emission factors differ by as much as 50% (using National Electricity Reliability Commission (NERC) regional boundaries). Use of state boundaries versus NERC region boundaries results in estimates that differ by as much as 120% for the same location (using average emission factors). We argue that consumption-based marginal emission factors are conceptually appropriate for evaluating the emissions implications of policies that increase electric vehicle sales or use in a region. We also examine generation-based marginal emission factors to assess robustness. Using these two estimates of NERC region marginal emission factors, we find the following: (1) delayed charging (i.e., starting at midnight) leads to higher emissions in most cases due largely to increased coal in the marginal generation mix at night; (2) the Chevrolet Volt has higher expected life cycle emissions than the Toyota Prius hybrid electric vehicle (the most efficient U.S. gasoline vehicle) across the U.S. in nearly all scenarios; (3) the Nissan Leaf BEV has lower life cycle emissions than the Prius in the western U.S. and in Texas, but the Prius has lower emissions in the northern Midwest regardless of assumed charging scheme and marginal emissions estimation method; (4) in other regions the lowest emitting vehicle depends on charge timing and emission factor estimation assumptions. PMID:26125323

  15. Interannual variability of snowmelt in the Sierra Nevada and Rocky Mountains, United States: examples from two alpine watersheds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jepsen, Steven M.; Molotch, Noah P.; Williams, Mark W.; Rittger, Karl E.; Sickman, James O.

    2012-01-01

    The distribution of snow and the energy flux components of snowmelt are intrinsic characteristics of the alpine water cycle controlling the location of source waters and the effect of climate on streamflow. Interannual variability of these characteristics is relevant to the effect of climate change on alpine hydrology. Our objective is to characterize the interannual variability in the spatial distribution of snow and energy fluxes of snowmelt in watersheds of a maritime setting, Tokopah Basin (TOK) in California's southern Sierra Nevada, and a continental setting, Green Lake 4 Valley (GLV4) in Colorado's Front Range, using a 12 year database (1996–2007) of hydrometeorological observations and satellite-derived snow cover. Snowpacks observed in GLV4 exhibit substantially greater spatial variability than in TOK (0.75 versus 0.28 spatial coefficient of variation). In addition, modeling results indicate that the net turbulent energy flux contribution to snowmelt in GLV4 is, on average, 3 times greater in magnitude (mean 29% versus 10%) and interannual variability (standard deviation 17% versus 6%) than in TOK. These energy flux values exhibit strong seasonality, increasing as the melt season progresses to times later in the year (R2 = 0.54–0.77). This seasonality of energy flux appears to be associated with snowmelt rates that generally increase with onset date of melt (0.02 cm d-2). This seasonality in snowmelt rate, coupled to differences in hydrogeology, may account for the observed differences in correspondence between the timing of snowmelt and timing of streamflow in these watersheds.

  16. Interannual variability of snowmelt in the Sierra Nevada and Rocky Mountains, United States: Examples from two alpine watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jepsen, Steven M.; Molotch, Noah P.; Williams, Mark W.; Rittger, Karl E.; Sickman, James O.

    2012-02-01

    The distribution of snow and the energy flux components of snowmelt are intrinsic characteristics of the alpine water cycle controlling the location of source waters and the effect of climate on streamflow. Interannual variability of these characteristics is relevant to the effect of climate change on alpine hydrology. Our objective is to characterize the interannual variability in the spatial distribution of snow and energy fluxes of snowmelt in watersheds of a maritime setting, Tokopah Basin (TOK) in California's southern Sierra Nevada, and a continental setting, Green Lake 4 Valley (GLV4) in Colorado's Front Range, using a 12 year database (1996-2007) of hydrometeorological observations and satellite-derived snow cover. Snowpacks observed in GLV4 exhibit substantially greater spatial variability than in TOK (0.75 versus 0.28 spatial coefficient of variation). In addition, modeling results indicate that the net turbulent energy flux contribution to snowmelt in GLV4 is, on average, 3 times greater in magnitude (mean 29% versus 10%) and interannual variability (standard deviation 17% versus 6%) than in TOK. These energy flux values exhibit strong seasonality, increasing as the melt season progresses to times later in the year (R2 = 0.54-0.77). This seasonality of energy flux appears to be associated with snowmelt rates that generally increase with onset date of melt (0.02 cm d-2). This seasonality in snowmelt rate, coupled to differences in hydrogeology, may account for the observed differences in correspondence between the timing of snowmelt and timing of streamflow in these watersheds.

  17. Spatial variability of steady-state infiltration into a two-layer soil system on burned hillslopes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kinner, D.A.; Moody, J.A.

    2010-01-01

    Rainfall-runoff simulations were conducted to estimate the characteristics of the steady-state infiltration rate into 1-m2 north- and south-facing hillslope plots burned by a wildfire in October 2003. Soil profiles in the plots consisted of a two-layer system composed of an ash on top of sandy mineral soil. Multiple rainfall rates (18.4-51.2 mm h-1) were used during 14 short-duration (30 min) and 2 long-duration simulations (2-4 h). Steady state was reached in 7-26 min. Observed spatially-averaged steady-state infiltration rates ranged from 18.2 to 23.8 mm h-1 for north-facing and from 17.9 to 36.0 mm h-1 for south-facing plots. Three different theoretical spatial distribution models of steady-state infiltration rate were fit to the measurements of rainfall rate and steady-state discharge to provided estimates of the spatial average (19.2-22.2 mm h-1) and the coefficient of variation (0.11-0.40) of infiltration rates, overland flow contributing area (74-90% of the plot area), and infiltration threshold (19.0-26 mm h-1). Tensiometer measurements indicated a downward moving pressure wave and suggest that infiltration-excess overland flow is the runoff process on these burned hillslope with a two-layer system. Moreover, the results indicate that the ash layer is wettable, may restrict water flow into the underlying layer, and increase the infiltration threshold; whereas, the underlying mineral soil, though coarser, limits the infiltration rate. These results of the spatial variability of steady-state infiltration can be used to develop physically-based rainfall-runoff models for burned areas with a two-layer soil system. ?? 2010 Elsevier B.V.

  18. A non-additive repulsive contribution in an equation of state: The development for homonuclear square well chains equation of state validated against Monte Carlo simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trinh, Thi-Kim-Hoang; Passarello, Jean-Philippe; de Hemptinne, Jean-Charles; Lugo, Rafael; Lachet, Veronique

    2016-03-01

    This work consists of the adaptation of a non-additive hard sphere theory inspired by Malakhov and Volkov [Polym. Sci., Ser. A 49(6), 745-756 (2007)] to a square-well chain. Using the thermodynamic perturbation theory, an additional term is proposed that describes the effect of perturbing the chain of square well spheres by a non-additive parameter. In order to validate this development, NPT Monte Carlo simulations of thermodynamic and structural properties of the non-additive square well for a pure chain and a binary mixture of chains are performed. Good agreements are observed between the compressibility factors originating from the theory and those from molecular simulations.

  19. Investigation of the oxidation states of Cu additive in colored borosilicate glasses by electron energy loss spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Guang Cheng, Shaodong; Li, Chao; Ma, Chuansheng; Zhong, Jiasong; Xiang, Weidong; Wang, Zhao

    2014-12-14

    Three optically transparent colorful (red, green, and blue) glasses were synthesized by the sol-gel method. Nano-sized precipitates were found in scanning electron microscopy images. The precipitates were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high resolution TEM. The measured lattice parameters of these precipitates were found to fit the metallic copper in red glass but deviate from single valenced Cu oxides in green and blue glasses. The chemistry of these nano-sized particles was confirmed by electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). By fitting the EELS spectra obtained from the precipitates with the linear combination of reference spectra from Cu reference compounds, the oxidation states of Cu in the precipitates have been derived. First principle calculations suggested that the Cu nano-particles, which are in the similar oxidation states as our measurement, would show green color in the visible light range.

  20. M Times Photon Subtraction-Addition Coherent Superposition Operated Odd-Schrődinger-cat State: Nonclassicality and Decoherence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Li; Guo, Qin; Jiang, Li-ying; Chen, Ge; Xu, Xue-xiang; Yuan, Wen

    2015-08-01

    We introduce a new non-Gaussian state (MCSO-OSCS), generated by m times coherent superposition operation acos θ + a †sin θ (MCSO) on odd-Schrődinger-cat state | α 0> - | - α 0>(OSCS), whose normalized constant is shown to be related to Hermite polynomials. We investigate the nonclassical properties of the MCSO-OSCS through Mandel's Q-parameter, quadrature squeezing, the photocount distribution and Wigner function (WF), which is turned out to be influenced by parameters m, θ and α 0. Especially the volume of negative region of WF could increase through controlling the parameters m, θ and α 0. We also investigate the decoherence of the MCSO-OSCS in terms of the fadeaway of the negativity of WF in a thermal environment.

  1. CXOGBS J174444.7-260330: a new long orbital period cataclysmic variable in a low state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratti, E. M.; van Grunsven, T. F. J.; Jonker, P. G.; Britt, C. T.; Hynes, R. I.; Steeghs, D.; Greiss, S.; Torres, M. A. P.; Maccarone, T. J.; Groot, P. J.; Knigge, C.; Gossen, L.; Mikles, V.; Villar, V. A.; Collazzi, A. C.

    2013-02-01

    We present phase-resolved spectroscopy and photometry of a source discovered with the Chandra Galactic Bulge Survey (GBS), CXOGBS J174444.7-260330 (aka CX93 and CX153 in the previously published GBS list). We find two possible values for the orbital period P, differing from each other by ˜13 s. The most likely solution is P = 5.690 14(6) h. The optical lightcurves show ellipsoidal modulations, whose modelling provides an inclination of 32±1° for the most likely P. The spectra are dominated by a K5 V companion star (the disc veiling is ≲5 per cent). Broad and structured emission from the Balmer lines is also detected, as well as fainter emission from He i. From the absorption lines we measure K2 = 117 ± 8 km s- 1 and v sin i = 69 ± 7 km s- 1. By solving the system mass function we find M1 = 0.8 ± 0.2 M⊙ for the favoured P and i, consistent with a white dwarf accretor, and M2 = 0.6 ± 0.2 M⊙. We estimate a distance in the range 400-700 pc. Although in a low accretion state, both spectroscopy and photometry provide evidence of variability on a time-scale of months or faster. Besides finding a new, long orbital period cataclysmic variable (CV) in a low accretion state, this work shows that the design of the GBS works efficiently to find accreting X-ray binaries in quiescence, highlighting that the spectra of CVs in a low accretion state can at times appear suggestive of a quiescent neutron star or a black hole system.

  2. Patterns of acid deposition variability in the Eastern United States, 1981-84

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lins, H.F.; Lanfear, K.J.; Schertz, T.L.

    1987-01-01

    An increase in pH and a decrease in sulfate concentration of precipitation were recorded at National Atmospheric Deposition Program and National Trends Network (NADP/NTN) monitoring sites in the Eastern United States between 1981 and 1984. The decline in acidity, however, was not spatially or temporally uniform. The range in acidity and sulfate concentrations decreased during the four-yr period. Variations in the area of constant pH surfaces take the general form of area reductions in both the lower (pH 4.01-4.40) and upper (pH 4.91-5.40) range of values with concomitant area increases in the middle (pH 4.41-4.90) range. The pattern for sulfate is simpler, with area increases occurring in the lower (1.0-1.9 mg/L) range, decreases in the upper (2.5-4.4 mg/L) range, with approximate stability in the middle (2.0-2.4 mg/L) range of values. (Author 's abstract)

  3. Simultaneous measurements of several state variables in shocked carbon by imaging x-ray scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Gamboa, E. J. Drake, R. P.; Keiter, P. A.; Trantham, M. R.; Falk, K.; Montgomery, D. S.; Benage, J. F.

    2014-04-15

    We apply the novel experimental technique of imaging x-ray Thomson scattering to measure the spatial profiles of the temperature, ionization state, relative material density, and the shock speed in a high-energy density system. A blast wave driven in a low-density foam is probed with 90∘ scattering of 7.8 keV helium-like nickel x-rays, which are spectrally dispersed and resolved in one spatial dimension by a doubly curved crystal. The inferred properties of the shock are shown to be self-consistent with 1D analytical estimates. These high-resolution measurements enable a direct comparison of the observed temperature with the results from hydrodynamic simulations. We find good agreement with the simulations for the temperature at the shock front but discrepancies in the modeling of the spatial temperature profile and shock speed. These results indicate the challenges in modeling the shock dynamics of structured materials like foams, commonly used in many high-energy density and laboratory astrophysics experiments.

  4. Simultaneous measurements of several state variables in shocked carbon by imaging x-ray scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamboa, E. J.; Drake, R. P.; Falk, K.; Keiter, P. A.; Montgomery, D. S.; Benage, J. F.; Trantham, M. R.

    2014-04-01

    We apply the novel experimental technique of imaging x-ray Thomson scattering to measure the spatial profiles of the temperature, ionization state, relative material density, and the shock speed in a high-energy density system. A blast wave driven in a low-density foam is probed with 90∘ scattering of 7.8 keV helium-like nickel x-rays, which are spectrally dispersed and resolved in one spatial dimension by a doubly curved crystal. The inferred properties of the shock are shown to be self-consistent with 1D analytical estimates. These high-resolution measurements enable a direct comparison of the observed temperature with the results from hydrodynamic simulations. We find good agreement with the simulations for the temperature at the shock front but discrepancies in the modeling of the spatial temperature profile and shock speed. These results indicate the challenges in modeling the shock dynamics of structured materials like foams, commonly used in many high-energy density and laboratory astrophysics experiments.

  5. Monitoring multiple species: Estimating state variables and exploring the efficacy of a monitoring program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mattfeldt, S.D.; Bailey, L.L.; Grant, E.H.C.

    2009-01-01

    Monitoring programs have the potential to identify population declines and differentiate among the possible cause(s) of these declines. Recent criticisms regarding the design of monitoring programs have highlighted a failure to clearly state objectives and to address detectability and spatial sampling issues. Here, we incorporate these criticisms to design an efficient monitoring program whose goals are to determine environmental factors which influence the current distribution and measure change in distributions over time for a suite of amphibians. In designing the study we (1) specified a priori factors that may relate to occupancy, extinction, and colonization probabilities and (2) used the data collected (incorporating detectability) to address our scientific questions and adjust our sampling protocols. Our results highlight the role of wetland hydroperiod and other local covariates in the probability of amphibian occupancy. There was a change in overall occupancy probabilities for most species over the first three years of monitoring. Most colonization and extinction estimates were constant over time (years) and space (among wetlands), with one notable exception: local extinction probabilities for Rana clamitans were lower for wetlands with longer hydroperiods. We used information from the target system to generate scenarios of population change and gauge the ability of the current sampling to meet monitoring goals. Our results highlight the limitations of the current sampling design, emphasizing the need for long-term efforts, with periodic re-evaluation of the program in a framework that can inform management decisions.

  6. Forest response to 1,000 years of drought variability in the Southwestern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, A. P.; Meko, D. M.; Woodhouse, C. A.; Cook, E.; Swetnam, T. W.; Macalady, A. K.; Allen, C. D.; Rauscher, S. A.; Jiang, X.; Grissino-Mayer, H.; McDowell, N. G.; Cai, M.

    2011-12-01

    Droughts in the early 1950s and early 2000s significantly accelerated tree mortality rates in the Southwestern United States. During the early 2000s, forest inventory data indicate that the proportion of dead piñon pine, ponderosa pine, and Douglas-fir trees doubled in the Southwest. The 2000s drought peaked in 2002 and was the most severe drought in at least 100 years. In 2011, precipitation, dew-point, and wind data indicate the intensity of the 2002 drought has been surpassed in a number of ways. Measurements of water potential in piñon pine trees in northern New Mexico indicate that, at present, trees have less access to soil moisture than in 2002 when widespread mortality occurred. How do these recent droughts compare to those of the last 1000 years? We used records of annual tree-ring widths from 309 populations of piñon pine, ponderosa pine, and Douglas-fir throughout the Southwestern United States to reconstruct a single record of regional drought stress from 1000-2005 AD. This record indicates that the last Southwestern drought similar in intensity to one in the early 2000s occurred in the late 1600s. Both of these droughts, however, paled in comparison to a mega-drought that occurred from 1575-1595. The emergence from this mega-drought, around 1600 AD, appears to mark a transition period from a time when droughts similar the early 2000s drought were much more common. Tree-age studies indicate a scarcity of Southwestern trees with rings extending back beyond the mega-drought of the late 1500s. This suggests that (1) the late-1500s mega-drought triggered a massive die-off of forests and/or (2) the higher frequency of drought events prior to the mega-drought sustained a much more sparse forest population than the one that has thrived from the 1600s through present. Given this apparent plasticity of Southwestern forests, a change in the forest population should be underway if higher temperatures contribute to forest drought stress. The Southwestern tree

  7. Yeast invertase polymorphism is correlated with variable states of oligosaccharide chain phosphorylation.

    PubMed Central

    Frevert, J; Ballou, C E

    1982-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae invertase (EC 3.2.1.26) isolated from wild-type strain X2180 can be resolved by isoelectric focusing into at least seven bands revealed by an activity stain. Most of this polymorphism is eliminated in mutants that are defective in phosphorylation of the mannoprotein carbohydrate chains (mnn4 and mnn6). In contrast to strain X2180, invertase from the mnn9 mutant, which makes mannoprotein lacking the outer portion of the polymannose chains, shows only two major bands on isoelectric focusing. Although mnn2 mannoprotein is though not to have any branches in its outer chain, the invertase of this mutant shows at least six bands on isoelectric focusing, and digestion of this invertase with an endo-alph aI leads to 6-mannanase that removes the unbranched outer chain produces an invertase with two bands that are similar to those from the mnn9 mutant. The invertase from mnn2 cells, grown with [32P]orthophosphate and precipitated with specific antiserum, gives at least five radioactive bands on isoelectric focusing, and after digestion with the endomannanase the radioactivity no longer migrates with the residual invertase. Mutants with shortened and unbranched outer chains (mnn2 mnn7, mnn2 mnn8, and mnn2 mnn10) give invertase patterns similar to mnn2. The results suggest that multiple states of outer chain phosphorylation lead to isoelectric polymorphism of S. cerevisiae external invertase and, because invertase has nine carbohydrate chains, no more than one phosphate group per chain would be required to account for this property. Images PMID:6755465

  8. Sensitivity of global tropical climate to land surface processes: Mean state and interannual variability

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Hsi-Yen; Xiao, Heng; Mechoso, C. R.; Xue, Yongkang

    2013-03-01

    This study examines the sensitivity of global tropical climate to land surface processes (LSP) using an atmospheric general circulation model both uncoupled (with prescribed SSTs) and coupled to an oceanic general circulation model. The emphasis is on the interactive soil moisture and vegetation biophysical processes, which have first order influence on the surface energy and water budgets. The sensitivity to those processes is represented by the differences between model simulations, in which two land surface schemes are considered: 1) a simple land scheme that specifies surface albedo and soil moisture availability, and 2) the Simplified Simple Biosphere Model (SSiB), which allows for consideration of interactive soil moisture and vegetation biophysical process. Observational datasets are also employed to assess the reality of model-revealed sensitivity. The mean state sensitivity to different LSP is stronger in the coupled mode, especially in the tropical Pacific. Furthermore, seasonal cycle of SSTs in the equatorial Pacific, as well as ENSO frequency, amplitude, and locking to the seasonal cycle of SSTs are significantly modified and more realistic with SSiB. This outstanding sensitivity of the atmosphere-ocean system develops through changes in the intensity of equatorial Pacific trades modified by convection over land. Our results further demonstrate that the direct impact of land-atmosphere interactions on the tropical climate is modified by feedbacks associated with perturbed oceanic conditions ("indirect effect" of LSP). The magnitude of such indirect effect is strong enough to suggest that comprehensive studies on the importance of LSP on the global climate have to be made in a system that allows for atmosphere-ocean interactions.

  9. Cluster analysis applied to the spatial and temporal variability of monthly rainfall in Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teodoro, Paulo Eduardo; de Oliveira-Júnior, José Francisco; da Cunha, Elias Rodrigues; Correa, Caio Cezar Guedes; Torres, Francisco Eduardo; Bacani, Vitor Matheus; Gois, Givanildo; Ribeiro, Larissa Pereira

    2016-04-01

    The State of Mato Grosso do Sul (MS) located in Brazil Midwest is devoid of climatological studies, mainly in the characterization of rainfall regime and producers' meteorological systems and rain inhibitors. This state has different soil and climatic characteristics distributed among three biomes: Cerrado, Atlantic Forest and Pantanal. This study aimed to apply the cluster analysis using Ward's algorithm and identify those meteorological systems that affect the rainfall regime in the biomes. The rainfall data of 32 stations (sites) of the MS State were obtained from the Agência Nacional de Águas (ANA) database, collected from 1954 to 2013. In each of the 384 monthly rainfall temporal series was calculated the average and applied the Ward's algorithm to identify spatial and temporal variability of rainfall. Bartlett's test revealed only in January homogeneous variance at all sites. Run test showed that there was no increase or decrease in trend of monthly rainfall. Cluster analysis identified five rainfall homogeneous regions in the MS State, followed by three seasons (rainy, transitional and dry). The rainy season occurs during the months of November, December, January, February and March. The transitional season ranges between the months of April and May, September and October. The dry season occurs in June, July and August. The groups G1, G4 and G5 are influenced by South Atlantic Subtropical Anticyclone (SASA), Chaco's Low (CL), Bolivia's High (BH), Low Levels Jet (LLJ) and South Atlantic Convergence Zone (SACZ) and Maden-Julian Oscillation (MJO). Group G2 is influenced by Upper Tropospheric Cyclonic Vortex (UTCV) and Front Systems (FS). The group G3 is affected by UTCV, FS and SACZ. The meteorological systems' interaction that operates in each biome and the altitude causes the rainfall spatial and temporal diversity in MS State.

  10. Spatial and temporal expression of vegetation and atmospheric variability from stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis of bat guano in the southern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wurster, Christopher M.; McFarlane, Donald A.; Bird, Michael I.

    2007-07-01

    Stable isotopes of faeces contain information related to the animals feeding ecology. The use of stable isotope values from subfossil faeces as a palaeoenvironmental indicator depends on how faithfully the animal records their local environment. Here we present insectivorous bat guano δ 13C and δ 15N values from a precipitation gradient across the southern United States and northern Mexico to compare with local vegetation and climate. We find δ 13C values to be an excellent predictor of expected C 4/CAM vegetation, indicating that the bats are non-selective in their diet. Moreover, we find bat guano δ 13C values to be strongly correlated with summer precipitation amount and winter precipitation ratio. We also find evidence for a significant relationship with mean annual temperature. In general, we do not find δ 15N values to be related to any parameters along the climatic gradient we examined. Additionally, we measured δ 13C and δ 15N values of bulk guano deposited annually from 1968 to 1987 in a varved guano deposit at Eagle Creek Cave, Arizona. Neither δ 13C nor δ 15N values were significantly related to various local meteorological variables; however, we found δ 13C values of guano to be significantly related to drought and to the North American Monsoon indicating bat guano δ 13C values preserve an interpretable record of large-scale atmospheric variability.

  11. State Test Programs Mushroom as NCLB Mandate Kicks in: Nearly Half of States Are Expanding Their Testing Programs to Additional Grades This School Year to Comply with the Federal No Child Left Behind Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Lynn

    2005-01-01

    Twenty-three states are expanding their testing programs to additional grades this school year to comply with the federal No Child Left Behind Act. In devising the new tests, most states have defied predictions and chosen to go beyond multiple-choice items, by including questions that ask students to construct their own responses. But many state…

  12. The potential impacts of climate variability and change on health impacts of extreme weather events in the United States.

    PubMed Central

    Greenough, G; McGeehin, M; Bernard, S M; Trtanj, J; Riad, J; Engelberg, D

    2001-01-01

    Extreme weather events such as precipitation extremes and severe storms cause hundreds of deaths and injuries annually in the United States. Climate change may alter the frequency, timing, intensity, and duration of these events. Increases in heavy precipitation have occurred over the past century. Future climate scenarios show likely increases in the frequency of extreme precipitation events, including precipitation during hurricanes, raising the risk of floods. Frequencies of tornadoes and hurricanes cannot reliably be projected. Injury and death are the direct health impacts most often associated with natural disasters. Secondary effects, mediated by changes in ecologic systems and public health infrastructure, also occur. The health impacts of extreme weather events hinge on the vulnerabilities and recovery capacities of the natural environment and the local population. Relevant variables include building codes, warning systems, disaster policies, evacuation plans, and relief efforts. There are many federal, state, and local government agencies and nongovernmental organizations involved in planning for and responding to natural disasters in the United States. Future research on health impacts of extreme weather events should focus on improving climate models to project any trends in regional extreme events and as a result improve public health preparedness and mitigation. Epidemiologic studies of health effects beyond the direct impacts of disaster will provide a more accurate measure of the full health impacts and will assist in planning and resource allocation. PMID:11359686

  13. The potential impacts of climate variability and change on health impacts of extreme weather events in the United States.

    PubMed

    Greenough, G; McGeehin, M; Bernard, S M; Trtanj, J; Riad, J; Engelberg, D

    2001-05-01

    Extreme weather events such as precipitation extremes and severe storms cause hundreds of deaths and injuries annually in the United States. Climate change may alter the frequency, timing, intensity, and duration of these events. Increases in heavy precipitation have occurred over the past century. Future climate scenarios show likely increases in the frequency of extreme precipitation events, including precipitation during hurricanes, raising the risk of floods. Frequencies of tornadoes and hurricanes cannot reliably be projected. Injury and death are the direct health impacts most often associated with natural disasters. Secondary effects, mediated by changes in ecologic systems and public health infrastructure, also occur. The health impacts of extreme weather events hinge on the vulnerabilities and recovery capacities of the natural environment and the local population. Relevant variables include building codes, warning systems, disaster policies, evacuation plans, and relief efforts. There are many federal, state, and local government agencies and nongovernmental organizations involved in planning for and responding to natural disasters in the United States. Future research on health impacts of extreme weather events should focus on improving climate models to project any trends in regional extreme events and as a result improve public health preparedness and mitigation. Epidemiologic studies of health effects beyond the direct impacts of disaster will provide a more accurate measure of the full health impacts and will assist in planning and resource allocation.

  14. Thermal state of permafrost in the Northern Yakutia: modern dynamics and spatial variability.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kholodov, Alexander; Gilichinsky, David; Abramov, Andrey; Lupachev, Alexey; Davydov, Sergey; Romanovsky, Vladimir; Natali, Susan

    2013-04-01

    Permafrost exerts a significant influence on northern socioeconomic and biological systems. The thermal state of permafrost has recently become the focus of rapt attention around the world. Permafrost temperature is an integrated parameter and depends not only on the air temperature, but also on the heat transfer conditions at the ground surface and on the thermal properties of deposits; any permafrost regional forecasts and models must take these factors into consideration. Current research concerns to study of regional permafrost feedbacks associated with climate change in the Northern Yakutia. The investigated region covers the most ancient permafrost area in the Northern Hemisphere; it is characterized by varied climate zones, from a maritime to a continental. There are 3 main landscape types here including boreal forest, tundra and river or streams valleys. The research was based on making geothermal observations in an already-established network of boreholes. Recently this network includes 12 boreholes. Temperature measurements were supplemented with investigations of landscape conditions and determination of relevant soil physical properties at the key observational sites. We will achieve the goals of this project by comparing modern measurements with historical data and meteorological observations in combination with investigating heat transfer parameters at the monitoring sites. Geothermal measurements show that in the boreal forest natural zones recent permafrost temperature varies from -2.6 to -6.4°C, at the Kolyma-Panteleiha floodplain from -4.7 to -5.5°C and in tundra natural zone -9 to -10.4°C. Most of observed boreholes shows sustainable permafrost temperature rising. Within the tundra zone rate of mean annual ground temperature (MAGT) increasing consists of 0.073 to 0.109°C per year, within the boreal forest - from 0.035 to 0.063°C per year and in the floodplain 0.019°C per year. Such variations in both MAGT values and its modern changes rates

  15. A methodology to asess relations between climatic variability and variations in hydrologic time series in the southwestern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hanson, R.T.; Newhouse, M.W.; Dettinger, M.D.

    2004-01-01

    A new method for frequency analysis of hydrologic time series was developed to facilitate the estimation and reconstruction of individual or groups of frequencies from hydrologic time-series and facilitate the comparison of these isolated time-series components across data types, between different hydrologic settings within a watershed, between watersheds, and across frequencies. While climate-related variations in inflow to and outflow from aquifers have often been neglected, the development and management of ground-water and surface-water resources has required the inclusion of the assessment of the effects of climatic variability on the supply and demand and sustainability of use. The regional assessment of climatic variability of surface-water and ground-water flow throughout the southwestern United States required this new systematic method of hydrologic time-series analysis. To demonstrate the application of this new method, six hydrologic time-series from the Mojave River Basin, California were analyzed. The results indicate that climatic variability exists in all the data types and are partially coincident with known climate cycles such as the Pacific Decadal Oscillation and the El Nino-Southern Oscillation. The time-series also indicate lagged correlations between tree-ring indices, streamflow, stream base flow, and ground-water levels. These correlations and reconstructed time-series can be used to better understand the relation of hydrologic response to climatic forcings and to facilitate the simulation of streamflow and ground-water recharge for a more realistic approach to water-resource management. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. The Effect of Zn Addition on the Oxidation State of Cobalt in Co/ZrO2 Catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Lebarbier, Vanessa MC; Karim, Ayman M.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Wu, Yu; Xu, Bo-Qing; Petersen, Eric J.; Datye, Abhaya K.; Wang, Yong

    2011-09-01

    The effect of Zn promotion on the activity and selectivity of Co/ZrO{sub 2} catalysts for ethanol steam reforming was investigated. The catalysts were synthesized by incipient wetness impregnation and characterized using BET measurements, temperature programmed reduction, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray electron spectroscopy. Compared to Co/ZrO{sub 2} catalyst, a higher ethanol conversion and a lower CH{sub 4} selectivity were observed for the Co/ZrO{sub 2} catalyst promoted with Zn. It was found that addition of Zn inhibits the oxidation of metallic cobalt (Co{sup 0}) particles, which results in a higher ratio of Co{sup 0}/Co{sup 2+} present in the Zn promoted Co/ZrO{sub 2} catalyst. These results suggest that metallic cobalt (Co{sup 0}) is responsible for ethanol conversion via ethanol dehydrogenation whereas Co{sup 2+} plays a role in the CH{sub 4} formation. For both catalysts, the experimental results show that CH4 is mainly produced via CO and/or CO{sub 2} methanation. TPR measurements, on the other hand, show Zn addition inhibits the reduction of Co{sup 2+} and Co{sup 3+}, which would mislead the conclusion that oxidized Co is required to reduce the CH{sub 4} formation. Therefore, TPR may not be appropriate to correlate the degree of metal reducibility (in this case Co{sup 0}) with the catalyst activity for reactions such as ethanol steam reforming where oxidizing conditions exist.

  17. Relations between climatic variability and hydrologic time series from four alluvial basins across the southwestern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hanson, R.T.; Dettinger, M.D.; Newhouse, M.W.

    2006-01-01

    Hydrologic time series of groundwater levels, streamflow, precipitation, and tree-ring indices from four alluvial basins in the southwestern United States were spectrally analyzed, and then frequency components were reconstructed to isolate variability due to climatic variations on four time scales. Reconstructed components (RCs), from each time series, were compared to climatic indices like the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), North American Monsoon (NAM), and El Nin??o-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), to reveal that as much as 80% of RC variation can be correlated with climate variations on corresponding time scales. In most cases, the hydrologic RCs lag behind the climate indices by 1-36 months. In all four basins, PDO-like components were the largest contributors to cyclic hydrologic variability. Generally, California time series have more variation associated with PDO and ENSO than the Arizona series, and Arizona basins have more variation associated with NAM. ENSO cycles were present in all four basins but were the largest relative contributors in southeastern Arizona. Groundwater levels show a wide range of climate responses that can be correlated from well to well in the various basins, with climate responses found in unconfined and confined aquifers from pumping centers to mountain fronts. ?? Springer-Verlag 2006.

  18. Relative Contributions of Mean-State Shifts and ENSO-Driven Variability to Precipitation Changes in a Warming Climate

    SciTech Connect

    Bonfils, Celine; Santer, Benjamin D.; Phillips, Thomas J.; Marvel, Kate; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Doutriaux, Charles; Capotondi, Antonietta

    2015-12-15

    The El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is an important driver of regional hydroclimate variability through far-reaching teleconnections. Most climate models project an increase in the frequency of extreme El Niño events under increased greenhouse-gas (GHG) forcing. However, it is unclear how other aspects of ENSO and ENSO-driven teleconnections will evolve in the future. Here, we identify in 20th century sea-surface temperature (SST) observations a time-invariant ENSO-like (ENSOL) pattern that is largely uncontaminated by GHG forcing. We use this pattern to investigate the future precipitation (P) response to ENSO-like SST anomalies. Models that better capture observed ENSOL characteristics produce P teleconnection patterns that are in better accord with observations and more stationary in the 21st century. We decompose the future P response to ENSOL into the sum of three terms: (1) the change in P mean state, (2) the historical P response to ENSOL, and (3) a future enhancement in the P response to ENSOL. In many regions, this last term can aggravate the P extremes associated with ENSO variability. This simple decomposition allows us to identify regions likely to experience ENSOL-induced P changes that are without precedent in the current climate.

  19. The Causal Connection Between Disc and Power-Law Variability in Hard State Black Hole X-Ray Binaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uttley, P.; Wilkinson, T.; Cassatella, P.; Wilms, J.; Pottschimdt, K.; Hanke, M.; Boeck, M.

    2010-01-01

    We use the XMM-Newton EPIC-pn instrument in timing mode to extend spectral time-lag studies of hard state black hole X-ray binaries into the soft X-ray band. \\Ve show that variations of the disc blackbody emission substantially lead variations in the power-law emission, by tenths of a second on variability time-scales of seconds or longer. The large lags cannot be explained by Compton scattering but are consistent with time-delays due to viscous propagation of mass accretion fluctuations in the disc. However, on time-scales less than a second the disc lags the power-law variations by a few ms, consistent with the disc variations being dominated by X-ray heating by the power-law, with the short lag corresponding to the light-travel time between the power-law emitting region and the disc. Our results indicate that instabilities in the accretion disc are responsible for continuum variability on time-scales of seconds or longer and probably also on shorter time-scales.

  20. 30,000 years of hydroclimatic variability in the coastal southwest United States: regional synthesis and forcings analysis.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirby, M. E.

    2015-12-01

    The coastal southwest United States is characterized by a winter dominated hydroclimate. Far from dependable, this region's supply of winter precipitation is highly variable and often characterized by hydrologic opposites - droughts and floods. Predicting future precipitation and hydrologic dynamics requires a paleoperspective. Here, we present an up-to-date synthesis of hydroclimatic variability over the past 30,000 years. A variety of terrestrial-based studies are examined and compared to understand patterns of regional hydroclimatic change. This comparison is extended into the San Joaquin Basin of California where future climate change will impact the region's agricultural stability and economy. Particularly interesting is the apparent role that Pacific sea surface temperatures (SSTs) play in modulating the region's hydroclimate over a variety of timescales. Are past periods of above average Pacific SSTs analogs for future global warming? If yes, the region might expect an increase in winter precipitation as SSTs rise in response to global warming. However, how this potential precipitation increase is manifest is unknown. For example, will the intensity of precipitation events increase and thus present increased flood hazards and diminished freshwater capture? Finally, we present evidence for changes in the source of winter precipitation over time as well as ecological responses to past hydrologic change.

  1. [Impact variables on the decline in infant mortality in the state of São Paulo, Brazil: 1998-2008].

    PubMed

    Lourenço, Eloisio do Carmo; Guerra, Luciane Miranda; Tuon, Rogerio Antonio; Vidal e Silva, Sandra Maria Cunha; Ambrosano, Glaucia Maria Bovi; Corrente, José Eduardo; Cortellazzi, Karine Laura; Vazquez, Fabiana de Lima; Meneghim, Marcelo de Castro; Pereira, Antonio Carlos

    2014-07-01

    This is an ecological, analytical and retrospective study comprising the 645 municipalities in the State of São Paulo, the scope of which was to determine the relationship between socioeconomic, demographic variables and the model of care in relation to infant mortality rates in the period from 1998 to 2008. The ratio of average annual change for each indicator per stratum coverage was calculated. Infant mortality was analyzed according to the model for repeated measures over time, adjusted for the following correction variables: the city's population, proportion of Family Health Programs (PSFs) deployed, proportion of Growth Acceleration Programs (PACs) deployed, per capita GDP and SPSRI (São Paulo social responsibility index). The analysis was performed by generalized linear models, considering the gamma distribution. Multiple comparisons were performed with the likelihood ratio with chi-square approximate distribution, considering a significance level of 5%. There was a decrease in infant mortality over the years (p < 0.05), with no significant difference from 2004 to 2008 (p > 0.05). The proportion of PSFs deployed (p < 0.0001) and per capita GDP (p < 0.0001) were significant in the model. The decline of infant mortality in this period was influenced by the growth of per capita GDP and PSFs.

  2. Identification of solid state fermentation degree with FT-NIR spectroscopy: Comparison of wavelength variable selection methods of CARS and SCARS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Hui; Zhang, Hang; Chen, Quansheng; Mei, Congli; Liu, Guohai

    2015-10-01

    The use of wavelength variable selection before partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) for qualitative identification of solid state fermentation degree by FT-NIR spectroscopy technique was investigated in this study. Two wavelength variable selection methods including competitive adaptive reweighted sampling (CARS) and stability competitive adaptive reweighted sampling (SCARS) were employed to select the important wavelengths. PLS-DA was applied to calibrate identified model using selected wavelength variables by CARS and SCARS for identification of solid state fermentation degree. Experimental results showed that the number of selected wavelength variables by CARS and SCARS were 58 and 47, respectively, from the 1557 original wavelength variables. Compared with the results of full-spectrum PLS-DA, the two wavelength variable selection methods both could enhance the performance of identified models. Meanwhile, compared with CARS-PLS-DA model, the SCARS-PLS-DA model achieved better results with the identification rate of 91.43% in the validation process. The overall results sufficiently demonstrate the PLS-DA model constructed using selected wavelength variables by a proper wavelength variable method can be more accurate identification of solid state fermentation degree.

  3. Identification of solid state fermentation degree with FT-NIR spectroscopy: Comparison of wavelength variable selection methods of CARS and SCARS.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hui; Zhang, Hang; Chen, Quansheng; Mei, Congli; Liu, Guohai

    2015-01-01

    The use of wavelength variable selection before partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) for qualitative identification of solid state fermentation degree by FT-NIR spectroscopy technique was investigated in this study. Two wavelength variable selection methods including competitive adaptive reweighted sampling (CARS) and stability competitive adaptive reweighted sampling (SCARS) were employed to select the important wavelengths. PLS-DA was applied to calibrate identified model using selected wavelength variables by CARS and SCARS for identification of solid state fermentation degree. Experimental results showed that the number of selected wavelength variables by CARS and SCARS were 58 and 47, respectively, from the 1557 original wavelength variables. Compared with the results of full-spectrum PLS-DA, the two wavelength variable selection methods both could enhance the performance of identified models. Meanwhile, compared with CARS-PLS-DA model, the SCARS-PLS-DA model achieved better results with the identification rate of 91.43% in the validation process. The overall results sufficiently demonstrate the PLS-DA model constructed using selected wavelength variables by a proper wavelength variable method can be more accurate identification of solid state fermentation degree.

  4. Variability for Categorical Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kader, Gary D.; Perry, Mike

    2007-01-01

    Introductory statistics textbooks rarely discuss the concept of variability for a categorical variable and thus, in this case, do not provide a measure of variability. The impression is thus given that there is no measurement of variability for a categorical variable. A measure of variability depends on the concept of variability. Research has…

  5. Impact of additional counselling sessions through phone calls on smoking cessation outcomes among smokers in Penang State, Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Studies all over the world reported that smoking relapses occur during the first two weeks after a quit date. The current study aimed to assess the impact of the additional phone calls counselling during the first month on the abstinence rate at 3 and 6 months after quit date among smokers in Penang, Malaysia. Methods The study was conducted at Quit Smoking Clinic of two major hospitals in Penang, Malaysia. All the eligible smokers who attended the clinics between February 1st and October 31st 2012 were invited. Participants were randomly assigned by using urn design method either to receive the usual care that followed in the clinics (control) or the usual care procedure plus extra counselling sessions through phone calls during the first month of quit attempt (intervention). Results Participants in our cohort smoked about 14 cigarettes per day on average (mean = 13.78 ± 7.0). At 3 months, control group was less likely to quit smoking compared to intervention group (36.9% vs. 46.7%, verified smoking status) but this did not reach statistical significance (OR = 0.669; 95% CI = 0.395-1.133, P = 0.86). However, at 6 months, 71.7% of the intervention group were successfully quit smoking (bio-chemically verified) compared to 48.6% of the control group (P < 0.001). The control group were significantly less likely to quit smoking (OR = 0.375; 95% CI = 0.217-0.645, P < 0.001). Conclusions Smoking cessation intervention consisting of phone calls counselling delivered during the first month of quit attempt revealed significantly higher abstinence rates compared with a standard care approach. Therefore, the additional counselling in the first few weeks after stop smoking is a promising treatment strategy that should be evaluated further. Trial registration TCTR20140504001 PMID:24886549

  6. Value addition of vegetable wastes by solid-state fermentation using Aspergillus niger for use in aquafeed industry.

    PubMed

    Rajesh, N; Imelda-Joseph; Raj, R Paul

    2010-11-01

    Vegetable waste typically has high moisture content and high levels of protein, vitamins and minerals. Its value as an agricultural feed can be enhanced through solid-state fermentation (SSF). Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the nutritional status of the products derived by SSF of a mixture of dried vegetable waste powder and oil cake mixture (soybean flour, wheat flour, groundnut oil cake and sesame oil cake at 4:3:2:1 ratio) using fungi Aspergillus niger S(1)4, a mangrove isolate, and A. niger NCIM 616. Fermentation was carried out for 9 days at 35% moisture level and neutral pH. Significant (p<0.05) increase in crude protein and amino acids were obtained in both the trials. The crude fat and crude fibre content showed significant reduction at the end of fermentation. Nitrogen free extract (NFE) showed a gradual decrease during the fermentation process. The results of the study suggest that the fermented product obtained on days 6 and 9 in case of A. niger S(1)4 and A. niger NCIM 616 respectively contained the highest levels of crude protein.

  7. Climate variability and change in the United States: potential impacts on vector- and rodent-borne diseases.

    PubMed

    Gubler, D J; Reiter, P; Ebi, K L; Yap, W; Nasci, R; Patz, J A

    2001-05-01

    Diseases such as plague, typhus, malaria, yellow fever, and dengue fever, transmitted between humans by blood-feeding arthropods, were once common in the United States. Many of these diseases are no longer present, mainly because of changes in land use, agricultural methods, residential patterns, human behavior, and vector control. However, diseases that may be transmitted to humans from wild birds or mammals (zoonoses) continue to circulate in nature in many parts of the country. Most vector-borne diseases exhibit a distinct seasonal pattern, which clearly suggests that they are weather sensitive. Rainfall, temperature, and other weather variables affect in many ways both the vectors and the pathogens they transmit. For example, high temperatures can increase or reduce survival rate, depending on the vector, its behavior, ecology, and many other factors. Thus, the probability of transmission may or may not be increased by higher temperatures. The tremendous growth in international travel increases the risk of importation of vector-borne diseases, some of which can be transmitted locally under suitable circumstances at the right time of the year. But demographic and sociologic factors also play a critical role in determining disease incidence, and it is unlikely that these diseases will cause major epidemics in the United States if the public health infrastructure is maintained and improved.

  8. Climate variability and change in the United States: potential impacts on vector- and rodent-borne diseases.

    PubMed Central

    Gubler, D J; Reiter, P; Ebi, K L; Yap, W; Nasci, R; Patz, J A

    2001-01-01

    Diseases such as plague, typhus, malaria, yellow fever, and dengue fever, transmitted between humans by blood-feeding arthropods, were once common in the United States. Many of these diseases are no longer present, mainly because of changes in land use, agricultural methods, residential patterns, human behavior, and vector control. However, diseases that may be transmitted to humans from wild birds or mammals (zoonoses) continue to circulate in nature in many parts of the country. Most vector-borne diseases exhibit a distinct seasonal pattern, which clearly suggests that they are weather sensitive. Rainfall, temperature, and other weather variables affect in many ways both the vectors and the pathogens they transmit. For example, high temperatures can increase or reduce survival rate, depending on the vector, its behavior, ecology, and many other factors. Thus, the probability of transmission may or may not be increased by higher temperatures. The tremendous growth in international travel increases the risk of importation of vector-borne diseases, some of which can be transmitted locally under suitable circumstances at the right time of the year. But demographic and sociologic factors also play a critical role in determining disease incidence, and it is unlikely that these diseases will cause major epidemics in the United States if the public health infrastructure is maintained and improved. PMID:11359689

  9. One-way quantum computing with arbitrarily large time-frequency continuous-variable cluster states from a single optical parametric oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, Rafael N.; Wang, Pei; Sridhar, Niranjan; Chen, Moran; Pfister, Olivier; Menicucci, Nicolas C.

    2016-09-01

    One-way quantum computing is experimentally appealing because it requires only local measurements on an entangled resource called a cluster state. Record-size, but nonuniversal, continuous-variable cluster states were recently demonstrated separately in the time and frequency domains. We propose to combine these approaches into a scalable architecture in which a single optical parametric oscillator and simple interferometer entangle up to (3 ×103 frequencies) × (unlimited number of temporal modes) into a computationally universal continuous-variable cluster state. We introduce a generalized measurement protocol to enable improved computational performance on this entanglement resource.

  10. Effects of additives on the phase transformation, occurrence state, and the interface of the Ti component in Ti-bearing blast furnace slag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Li; Zhang, Wu; Zhang, Ju-hua; Li, Guang-qiang

    2016-09-01

    The influences of additives on the phase transformation, occurrence state, and the interface of the Ti component in Ti-bearing blast furnace slag were investigated. After oxidation, most of the Ti component in the slag was enriched into the perovskite phase, which served as the Ti-rich phase during the crystallization process. The phase transformation, occurrence state, and the interface of the Ti component were observed to be affected by the addition of different types of agents. During the oxidation process, titanaugite and Ti-rich diopside phases gradually transformed into non-Ti phases (anorthite: CaMgSi2O6 and CaAl2Si2O8) in the form of dendrites or columns, which were observed to be distributed at the surface of the perovskite phase. Several more cracks appeared along the grain boundaries of the perovskite phase after the addition of P2O5, facilitating the liberation of the perovskite phase. Composite additives combining both an acid and a base, such as CaO + CaF2 or P2O5 + CaF2, were used. We observed that the disadvantages of using single additives were successfully overcome.

  11. Using the Threshold of Motion as a State Variable to Predict Bed Load Hysteresis in Mountain Rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, J. P.; Olinde, L.

    2015-12-01

    While bedload transport hysteresis is common in steep mountain streams, very few transport models predict hysteresis and its causes remain uncertain. A key variable in transport models is the nondimensional shear stress at which bedload movement becomes significant (τ*ri). Many factors influence τ*ri including clast size, the grain size distribution of the surrounding bed, turbulent intensity, clast protrusion, packing and clustering. Rather than attempt to isolate the myriad competing influences, we present a new model in which τ*ri evolves through time as a generalized function of upstream discharge and sediment supply. Discharge serves competing purposes: cumulative flow stabilizes beds by packing and interlocking grains (increasing τ*ri), while relatively higher discharge tends to destabilize beds (decreasing τ*ri). Sediment supply also influences transport rates at a given discharge. The model term that describes how τ*ri varies with supply is similar to the Exner equation. If more sediment enters a reach than leaves, then τ*ri decreases. Conceptually this occurs because deposition preferentially fills topographic lows, smooths the bed and increases near-bed velocities. Conversely, when more sediment exits a reach than enters, then τ*ri increases because erosion tends to increase bed roughness and move grains from less stable to more stable positions. We compare the new τ*ri equation to flume experiments and to field data. The model can predict both clockwise and counterclockwise hysteresis that have been observed in coarse mountain rivers. Finally, we suggest that τ*ri should be thought of as a state variable, which influences the evolution of a reach towards the equilibrium condition of transport rate just balancing supply rate.

  12. Nonequilibrium Thermodynamic State Variables of Human Self-Paced Rhythmic Motions: Canonical-Dissipative Approach, Augmented Langevin Equation, and Entropy Maximization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S.; Gordon, J. M.; Frank, T. D.

    2015-03-01

    Nonequilibrium thermodynamic state variables are derived for a stochastic limit-cycle oscillator model that has been used in motor control research to describe human rhythmic limb movements. The nonequilibrium thermodynamic state variables are regarded as counterparts to the thermodynamic state variables entropy, internal energy, and free energy of equilibrium systems. The derivation of the state variables is based on maximum entropy distributions of the Hamiltonian energy of the stochastic limit-cycle oscillators. The limit-cycle oscillator model belongs to the class of canonical-dissipative systems, on the one hand, and, on the other hand, can be cast into the form of an augmented Langevin equation. Both concepts are known as physical models for open systems. Experimental data from paced and self-paced pendulum swinging experiments are presented and estimates for the nonequilibrium thermodynamic state variables are given. Entropy and internal energy increased with increasing oscillation frequency both for the paced and self-paced conditions. Interestingly, the nonequilibrium free energy decayed when oscillation frequency was increased, which is akin to the decay of the Landau free energy when the control parameter is scaled further away from its critical value.

  13. Analysis of within Subjects Variability in Mouse Ultrasonic Vocalization: Pups Exhibit Inconsistent, State-Like Patterns of Call Production

    PubMed Central

    Rieger, Michael A.; Dougherty, Joseph D.

    2016-01-01

    Mice produce ultrasonic vocalizations (USV) in multiple communicative contexts, including adult social interaction (e.g., male to female courtship), as well as pup calls when separated from the dam. Assessment of pup USV has been widely applied in models of social and communicative disorders, dozens of which have shown alterations to this conserved behavior. However, features such as call production rate can vary substantially even within experimental groups and it is unclear to what extent aspects of USV represent stable trait-like influences or are vulnerable to an animal's state. To address this question, we have employed a mixed modeling approach to describe consistency in USV features across time, leveraging multiple large cohorts recorded from two strains, and across ages/times. We find that most features of pup USV show consistent patterns within a recording session, but inconsistent patterns across postnatal development. This supports the conclusion that pup USV is most strongly influenced by “state”-like variables. In contrast, adult USV call rate and call duration show higher consistency across sessions and may reflect a stable “trait.” However, spectral features of adult song such as the presence of pitch jumps do not show this level of consistency, suggesting that pitch modulation is more susceptible to factors affecting the animal's state at the time of recording. Overall, the utility of this work is three-fold. First, as variability necessarily affects the sensitivity of the assay to detect experimental perturbation, we hope the information provided here will be used to help researchers plan sufficiently powered experiments, as well as prioritize specific ages to study USV behavior and to decide which features to consider most strongly in analysis. Second, via the mouseTube platform, we have provided these hundreds of recordings and associated data to serve as a shared resource for other researchers interested in either benchmark data for

  14. Evaluating Inter-Annual Climate Variability of Nitrogen Wet Deposition in the United States Using Wavelet Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nergui, T.; Thomas, N.; Liu, M.; Lamb, B. K.; Adam, J. C.; Chung, S. H.

    2012-12-01

    Human activities, primarily agricultural practices and fossil fuel combustion, have caused a significant increase in nitrogen (N) emissions into the atmosphere over the last 150 years. The increase in emission subsequently leads to elevated ozone concentration, haze, increased acid rain and N deposition at local and regional scales. Many ecosystems in the US are naturally N limited. These regions are highly vulnerable to increased N deposition which can lead to irreversible changes in biodiversity richness and composition of the ecosystems. Through the impact on atmospheric chemistry and scavenging by precipitation, climate variability can play a major role on N deposition rates. The El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO), Northern Annular Mode/Arctic Oscillation (NAM/AO), North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), and the Pacific-North American Pattern (PNA) indices are the key climate indices that characterize the climate in the contiguous US at inter-annual timescale. Here, we identify dominant periodic components (signal) in the N wet deposition and the climate index timeseries and examine their correlations and coherences using wavelet analysis. Seasonal precipitation and nitrogen (ammonium and nitrate) wet deposition data from the National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP), National Trends Network (NTN) for 87 sites across the United States are used for the study. The sites were selected based on data continuity of 21 years or more and NADP criteria for valid precipitation and wet deposition data. Precipitation data from the Parameter-elevation Regressions on Independent Slopes Model (PRISM) are also used to replicate and validate the general features of climate variability effects in different regions of US. Initial analysis reveals nitrate wet deposition has a dominant 1-4 year periodicity while ammonium wet deposition has a shorter periodicity (about 0.5-2 year) during 1979 to 2011. Precipitation and total N wet deposition are most correlated in the Great Plains

  15. An instrumental variable approach finds no associated harm or benefit from early dialysis initiation in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Scialla, Julia J.; Liu, Jiannong; Crews, Deidra C.; Guo, Haifeng; Bandeen-Roche, Karen; Ephraim, Patti L.; Tangri, Navdeep; Sozio, Stephen M.; Shafi, Tariq; Miskulin, Dana C.; Michels, Wieneke M.; Jaar, Bernard G.; Wu, Albert W.; Powe, Neil R.; Boulware, L. Ebony

    2014-01-01

    The estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) at dialysis initiation has been rising. Observational studies suggest harm, but may be confounded by unmeasured factors. As instrumental variable methods may be less biased we performed a retrospective cohort study of 310,932 patients starting dialysis between 2006 to 2008 and registered in the United States Renal Data System in order to describe geographic variation in eGFR at dialysis initiation and determine its association with mortality. Patients were grouped into 804 health service areas by zip code. Individual eGFR at dialysis initiation averaged 10.8 ml/min/1.73m2 but varied geographically. Only 11% of the variation in mean health service areas-level eGFR at dialysis initiation was accounted for by patient characteristics. We calculated demographic-adjusted mean eGFR at dialysis initiation in the health service areas using the 2006 and 2007 incident cohort as our instrument and estimated the association between individual eGFR at dialysis initiation and mortality in the 2008 incident cohort using the 2 stage residual inclusion method. Among 89,547 patients starting dialysis in 2008 with eGFR 5 to 20 ml/min/1.73m2, eGFR at initiation was not associated with mortality over a median of 15.5 months [hazard ratio 1.025 per 1 ml/min/1.73m2 for eGFR 5 to 14 ml/min/1.73m2; and 0.973 per 1 ml/min/1.73m2 for eGFR 14 to 20 ml/min/1.73m2]. Thus, there was no associated harm or benefit from early dialysis initiation in the United States. PMID:24786707

  16. Role of aerosols on the Indian Summer Monsoon variability, as simulated by state-of-the-art global climate models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cagnazzo, Chiara; Biondi, Riccardo; D'Errico, Miriam; Cherchi, Annalisa; Fierli, Federico; Lau, William K. M.

    2016-04-01

    Recent observational and modeling analyses have explored the interaction between aerosols and the Indian summer monsoon precipitation on seasonal-to-interannual time scales. By using global scale climate model simulations, we show that when increased aerosol loading is found on the Himalayas slopes in the premonsoon period (April-May), intensification of early monsoon rainfall over India and increased low-level westerly flow follow, in agreement with the elevated-heat-pump (EHP) mechanism. The increase in rainfall during the early monsoon season has a cooling effect on the land surface that may also be amplified through solar dimming (SD) by more cloudiness and aerosol loading with subsequent reduction in monsoon rainfall over India. We extend this analyses to a subset of CMIP5 climate model simulations. Our results suggest that 1) absorbing aerosols, by influencing the seasonal variability of the Indian summer monsoon with the discussed time-lag, may act as a source of predictability for the Indian Summer Monsoon and 2) if the EHP and SD effects are operating also in a number of state-of-the-art climate models, their inclusion could potentially improve seasonal forecasts.

  17. Variable-cell double-ended surface walking method for fast transition state location of solid phase transitions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Jie; Liu, Zhi-Pan

    2015-10-13

    To identify the low energy pathway for solid-to-solid phase transition has been a great challenge in physics and material science. This work develops a new theoretical method, namely, variable-cell double-ended surface walking (VC-DESW) to locate the transition state (TS) and deduce the pathway in solid phase transition. Inherited from the DESW method ( J. Chem. Theory Comput. 2013 , 9 , 5745 ) for molecular systems, the VC-DESW method implements an efficient mechanism to couple the lattice and atom degrees of freedom. The method features with fast pseudopathway building and accurate TS location for solid phase transition systems without requiring expensive Hessian computation and iterative pathway optimization. A generalized coordinate, consisting of the lattice vectors and the scaled atomic coordinates, is designed for describing the crystal potential energy surface (PES), which is able to capture the anisotropic behavior in phase transition. By comparing with the existing method for solid phase transition in different systems, we show that the VC-DESW method can be much more efficient for finding the TS in crystal phase transition. With the combination of the recently developed unbiased stochastic surface walking pathway sampling method, the VC-DESW is further utilized to resolve the lowest energy pathway of SiO2 α-quartz to quartz-II phase transition from many likely reaction pathways. These new methods provide a powerful platform for understanding and predicting the solid phase transition mechanism and kinetics.

  18. Analytical Plans Supporting The Sludge Batch 8 Glass Variability Study Being Conducted By Energysolutions And Cua's Vitreous State Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, T. B.; Peeler, D. K.

    2012-11-26

    EnergySolutions (ES) and its partner, the Vitreous State Laboratory (VSL) of The Catholic University of America (CUA), are to provide engineering and technical services support to Savannah River Remediation, LLC (SRR) for ongoing operation of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) flowsheet as well as for modifications to improve overall plant performance. SRR has requested via a statement of work that ES/VSL conduct a glass variability study (VS) for Sludge Batch 8. SRR issued a technical task request (TTR) asking that the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) provide planning and data reduction support for the ES/VSL effort. This document provides two analytical plans for use by ES/VSL: one plan is to guide the measurement of the chemical composition of the study glasses while the second is to guide the measurement of the durability of the study glasses. The measurements generated by ES/VSL are to be provided to SRNL for data reduction and evaluation. SRNL is to review the results of its evaluation with ES/VSL and SRR. The results will subsequently be incorporated into a joint report with ES/VSL as a deliverable to SRR to support the processing of SB8 at DWPF.

  19. Characterization of depressive States in bipolar patients using wearable textile technology and instantaneous heart rate variability assessment.

    PubMed

    Valenza, Gaetano; Citi, Luca; Gentili, Claudio; Lanata, Antonio; Scilingo, Enzo Pasquale; Barbieri, Riccardo

    2015-01-01

    The analysis of cognitive and autonomic responses to emotionally relevant stimuli could provide a viable solution for the automatic recognition of different mood states, both in normal and pathological conditions. In this study, we present a methodological application describing a novel system based on wearable textile technology and instantaneous nonlinear heart rate variability assessment, able to characterize the autonomic status of bipolar patients by considering only electrocardiogram recordings. As a proof of this concept, our study presents results obtained from eight bipolar patients during their normal daily activities and being elicited according to a specific emotional protocol through the presentation of emotionally relevant pictures. Linear and nonlinear features were computed using a novel point-process-based nonlinear autoregressive integrative model and compared with traditional algorithmic methods. The estimated indices were used as the input of a multilayer perceptron to discriminate the depressive from the euthymic status. Results show that our system achieves much higher accuracy than the traditional techniques. Moreover, the inclusion of instantaneous higher order spectra features significantly improves the accuracy in successfully recognizing depression from euthymia.

  20. The application of Hart's state variable description of inelastic deformation to Carrara marble at T less than 450 C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Covey-Crump, S. J.

    1994-10-01

    A attempt has been made to determine if the material parameters in constitutive equations for inelastic deformation which fully accommodate the deformation history dependence of inelastic properties can be evaluated with sufficient accuracy at elevated confining pressures for such equations to be of interest in characterizing geological materials. Accordingly, a large number of constant displacement rate and load relaxation experiments (or varients thereof) have been conducted on Carrara marble at 200 MPa confining pressure in the temperature range 120 to 400 C, and the results have been interpreted in terms of Hart's state variable description of inelastic deformation. The observed mechanical behavoir conforms to Hart's description, with a changeover at about 250 C from deformation rate controlled by dislocation glide controlled processes (as represented by concave upward (log(dot)epsilon), log sigma) load relaxation curves), to rate control by strongly thermally activated processes (as represented by concave downward relaxation curves). All relaxation curves generated at a given temperature may be superposed by a translation in fixed direction in the (log(dot) epsilon, log sigma) plane. This defines a master relaxation curve which represents what any individual relaxation curve would look like if it could be determined over a sufficiently wide range of strain rates. For concave downward relaxation curves the master curve extends over 9 orders of magnitude of strain rate and, in consequence, substantially eases the problem of extrapolating the laboratory data to geological strain rates.

  1. Study of Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen state for space-time variables in a two photon interference experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shih, Y. H.; Sergienko, A. V.; Rubin, M. H.

    1993-01-01

    A pair of correlated photons generated from parametric down conversion was sent to two independent Michelson interferometers. Second order interference was studied by means of a coincidence measurement between the outputs of two interferometers. The reported experiment and analysis studied this second order interference phenomena from the point of view of Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox. The experiment was done in two steps. The first step of the experiment used 50 psec and 3 nsec coincidence time windows simultaneously. The 50 psec window was able to distinguish a 1.5 cm optical path difference in the interferometers. The interference visibility was measured to be 38 percent and 21 percent for the 50 psec time window and 22 percent and 7 percent for the 3 nsec time window, when the optical path difference of the interferometers were 2 cm and 4 cm, respectively. By comparing the visibilities between these two windows, the experiment showed the non-classical effect which resulted from an E.P.R. state. The second step of the experiment used a 20 psec coincidence time window, which was able to distinguish a 6 mm optical path difference in the interferometers. The interference visibilities were measured to be 59 percent for an optical path difference of 7 mm. This is the first observation of visibility greater than 50 percent for a two interferometer E.P.R. experiment which demonstrates nonclassical correlation of space-time variables.

  2. Spatial Variability in Black Carbon Mixing State Observed During The Multi-City NASA DISCOVER-AQ Field Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, R.; Ziemba, L. D.; Beyersdorf, A. J.; Chen, G.; Corr, C.; Hudgins, C.; Martin, R.; Shook, M.; Thornhill, K. L., II; Winstead, E.; Anderson, B. E.

    2014-12-01

    mixed fraction of particles containing BC across the optically-active region of the size distribution (200-1000 nm) and 2) the internally mixed volume fraction of BC relative to the total particle volume assuming spherical particles. Vertical profiles of these variables are discussed in the context of remotely sensing aerosol mixing state.

  3. The Oxidation State of Fe in Glasses from the Galapagos Archipelago: Variable Oxygen Fugacity as a Function of Mantle Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, M. E.; Kelley, K. A.; Cottrell, E.; Saal, A. E.; Kurz, M. D.

    2015-12-01

    The oxidation state of the mantle plays an intrinsic role in the magmatic evolution of the Earth. Here we present new μ-XANES measurements of Fe3+/ΣFe ratios (a proxy for ƒO2) in a suite of submarine glasses from the Galapagos Archipelago. Using previously presented major, trace, and volatile elements and isotopic data for 4 groups of glass that come from distinct mantle sources (depleted upper mantle, 2 recycled, and a primitive mantle source) we show that Fe3+/ΣFe ratios vary both with the influence of shallow level processes and with variations in mantle source. Fe3+/ΣFe ratios increase with differentiation (i.e. decreasing MgO), but show a large variation at a given MgO. Progressive degassing of sulfur accompanies decreasing Fe3+/ΣFe ratios, while assimilation of hydrothermally altered crust (as indicated by increasing Sr/Sr*) is shown to increase Fe3+/ΣFe ratios. After taking these processes into account, there is still variability in the Fe3+/ΣFe ratios of the isotopically distinct sample suites studied, yielding a magmatic ƒO2 that ranges from ΔQFM = +0.16 to +0.74 (error < 0.5 log units) and showing that oxidation state varies as a function of mantle source composition in the Galapagos hotspot system. After correcting back to a common MgO content = 8.0 wt%, the trace element depleted group similar to MORB (ITD), and the group similar to Pinta (WD = high Th/La, Δ7/4, Δ8/4 ratios) show Fe3+/ΣFe ratios within the range of MORB (average ITD = 0.162 ± 0.003 and WD = 0.164 ± 0.006). Another trace element enriched group similar to Sierra Negra and Cerro Azul (ITE = enriched Sr and Pb isotopes) shows evidence of mixing between oxidized and reduced sources (ITE oxidized end-member = 0.177). This suggests that mantle sources in the Galapagos that are thought to contain recycled components (i.e., WD and ITE groups) have distinct oxidation states. The high 3He/4He Fernandina samples (HHe group) are shown to be the most oxidized (ave. 0.175 ± 0

  4. The SU(2) action-angle variables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellinas, Demosthenes

    1993-01-01

    Operator angle-action variables are studied in the frame of the SU(2) algebra, and their eigenstates and coherent states are discussed. The quantum mechanical addition of action-angle variables is shown to lead to a noncommutative Hopf algebra. The group contraction is used to make the connection with the harmonic oscillator.

  5. Deriving the equation of state of additive hard-sphere fluid mixtures from that of a pure hard-sphere fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrio, C.; Solana, J. R.

    2006-07-01

    We have analyzed the rate of convergence of a series expansion, in terms of the density, of the ratio of the excess compressibility factor of fluid mixtures of additive hard spheres to that of a pure hard-sphere fluid with the same reduced density. The terms in the series can be obtained from the virial coefficients. We have found that the series converges quickly, so that frequently the knowledge of the first two terms of the series, that can be obtained from the second and third virial coefficients which are known analytically, is sufficient to provide an accurate equation of state.

  6. A polarization stabilizer up to 12.6 krad/s with an additional function of stable state of polarization transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiao-Guang; Fang, Guang-Qing; Zhao, Xin-Yuan; Zhang, Wen-Bo; Xi, Li-Xia; Xiong, Qian-Jin; Li, Xi-Xiang; Zhang, Guang-Yong

    2010-04-01

    This paper reports on an experiment about a novel method of polarization stabilization. The polarization stabilizer proposed here has an additional function of polarization transformation from any state of polarization into any others. The particle swarm optimization is introduced as a control algorithm in the process of either searching or endless tracking. The tracking speed of the stabilizer is obtained up to 12.6 krad/s by using hardware we have in the laboratory, which means that we can achieve a higher speed practical polarization stabilizer if we have faster hardware.

  7. The evolution of earthquake-nucleating slip instabilities under spatially variable steady-state rate dependence of friction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, S.; Viesca, R. C.

    2014-12-01

    Following laboratory rock friction experiments, fault strength under sub-seismic slip speeds is thought to depend on a slip rate- and state-dependent friction. Laboratory-measured temperature dependence of the frictional properties and their implied variation with depth form the basis for current models of the seismic cycle. However, scant attention has been paid to the role such heterogeneity has on determining the location and manner in which an earthquake nucleating slip instability develops. Recent work demonstrates that a slip instability on a fault with rate-and-state friction (in which state evolution follows the aging law) occurs as the attraction of a dynamical system towards a fixed point (Viesca, this meeting). Based on this development, we find that the location of that fixed point may be determined if a heterogeneous distribution of the relative rate-weakening parameter a/b is known. (Rate-weakening occurs for 01). That this arises can be deduced considering that (i) the problem that determines the fixed points is equivalent to finding the equilibrium solution for a linearly slip-weakening crack, and (ii) heterogeneities in the parameter a/b have analogy in the equivalent problem to heterogeneities in the background stress. Physically, instability develops where rate-weakening is strongest. We examined the influence such a heterogeneity has on the fixed point attractor (and hence on the instability development) by considering the scenario of a rate-weakening patch embedded within a rate-strengthening region with in-plane or anti-plane slip conditions. Specifically, we solve for fixed points under a rate-weakening heterogeneity within |x|1) outside. Additionally, a linear stability analysis reveals the effect of heterogeneity on the stability of the fixed points of the dynamical system. The heterogeneity parameters (a

  8. Genetic variability of the european corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis, suggests gene flow between populations in the Midwestern United States.

    PubMed

    Krumm, Jeffrey T; Hunt, Thomas E; Skoda, Steven R; Hein, Gary L; Lee, Donald J; Clark, Pete L; Foster, John E

    2008-01-01

    The European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is a widely distributed and serious economic pest to corn production in the U.S. Genetic variability of O. nubilalis was studied in 18 sub-populations in the upper Midwestern United States using amplified fragment length polymorphism. The relatively low GST values indicate that more variation exists within populations than between populations. High gene flow (Nm) values were indicated across the entire O. nubilalis population; the lowest degree of gene flow was in the northern samples (Nm = 1.96) and the highest degree of gene flow was in the southern samples (Nm = 2.77). The differences observed in the respective regions (north vs. south) may be explained by the voltinism patterns (univoltine vs. multivoltine, respectively) of O. nubilalis: southern multivoltine populations have opportunities for multiple matings for the duration of the year, further mix alleles. AMOVA results also indicated that most of the genetic variation was within sub-populations ( approximately 81% of total variation); less variation ( approximately 13%) was detected among populations within each of the three regions as designated for this study. However, the most striking and unexpected result was the low percentage of variation between all groups ( approximately 6%), further supporting implications of a high degree of gene flow. These results provide support for current requirements of refugia corn planting in Bt-corn management. These results also indicate that if resistance to Bt were to evolve in O. nubilalis, quick action would be necessary to deter the rapid spread of the gene for resistance.

  9. Genetic Variability of the European Corn Borer, Ostrinia nubilalis, Suggests Gene Flow Between Populations in the Midwestern United States

    PubMed Central

    Krumm, Jeffrey T.; Hunt, Thomas E.; Skoda, Steven R.; Hein, Gary L.; Lee, Donald J.; Clark, Pete L.; Foster, John E.

    2008-01-01

    The European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is a widely distributed and serious economic pest to corn production in the U.S. Genetic variability of O. nubilalis was studied in 18 sub-populations in the upper Midwestern United States using amplified fragment length polymorphism. The relatively low GST values indicate that more variation exists within populations than between populations. High gene flow (Nm) values were indicated across the entire O. nubilalis population; the lowest degree of gene flow was in the northern samples (Nm = 1.96) and the highest degree of gene flow was in the southern samples (Nm = 2.77). The differences observed in the respective regions (north vs. south) may be explained by the voltinism patterns (univoltine vs. multivoltine, respectively) of O. nubilalis: southern multivoltine populations have opportunities for multiple matings for the duration of the year, further mix alleles. AMOVA results also indicated that most of the genetic variation was within sub-populations (≈ 81% of total variation); less variation (≈ 13%) was detected among populations within each of the three regions as designated for this study. However, the most striking and unexpected result was the low percentage of variation between all groups (≈ 6%), further supporting implications of a high degree of gene flow. These results provide support for current requirements of refugia corn planting in Bt-corn management. These results also indicate that if resistance to Bt were to evolve in O. nubilalis, quick action would be necessary to deter the rapid spread of the gene for resistance. PMID:20307230

  10. Polydisperse methyl β-cyclodextrin–epichlorohydrin polymers: variable contact time 13C CP-MAS solid-state NMR characterization

    PubMed Central

    Mallard, Isabelle; Baudelet, Davy; Castiglione, Franca; Ferro, Monica; Panzeri, Walter; Ragg, Enzio

    2015-01-01

    Summary The polymerization of partially methylated β-cyclodextrin (CRYSMEB) with epichlorohydrin was carried out in the presence of a known amount of toluene as imprinting agent. Three different preparations (D1, D2 and D3) of imprinted polymers were obtained and characterized by solid-state 13C NMR spectroscopy under cross-polarization magic angle spinning (CP-MAS) conditions. The polymers were prepared by using the same synthetic conditions but with different molar ratios of imprinting agent/monomer, leading to morphologically equivalent materials but with different absorption properties. The main purpose of the work was to find a suitable spectroscopic descriptor accounting for the different imprinting process in three homogeneous polymeric networks. The polymers were characterized by studying the kinetics of the cross-polarization process. This approach is based on variable contact time CP-MAS spectra, referred to as VCP-MAS. The analysis of the VCP-MAS spectra provided two relaxation parameters: T CH (the CP time constant) and T 1ρ (the proton spin-lattice relaxation time in the rotating frame). The results and the analysis presented in the paper pointed out that T CH is sensitive to the imprinting process, showing variations related to the toluene/cyclodextrin molar ratio used for the preparation of the materials. Conversely, the observed values of T 1ρ did not show dramatic variations with the imprinting protocol, but rather confirmed that the three polymers are morphologically similar. Thus the combined use of T CH and T 1ρ can be helpful for the characterization and fine tuning of imprinted polymeric matrices. PMID:26877800

  11. Robust integration schemes for generalized viscoplasticity with internal-state variables. Part 1: Theoretical developments and applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saleeb, Atef F.; Li, Wei

    1995-01-01

    This two-part report is concerned with the development of a general framework for the implicit time-stepping integrators for the flow and evolution equations in generalized viscoplastic models. The primary goal is to present a complete theoretical formulation, and to address in detail the algorithmic and numerical analysis aspects involved in its finite element implementation, as well as to critically assess the numerical performance of the developed schemes in a comprehensive set of test cases. On the theoretical side, the general framework is developed on the basis of the unconditionally-stable, backward-Euler difference scheme as a starting point. Its mathematical structure is of sufficient generality to allow a unified treatment of different classes of viscoplastic models with internal variables. In particular, two specific models of this type, which are representative of the present start-of-art in metal viscoplasticity, are considered in applications reported here; i.e., fully associative (GVIPS) and non-associative (NAV) models. The matrix forms developed for both these models are directly applicable for both initially isotropic and anisotropic materials, in general (three-dimensional) situations as well as subspace applications (i.e., plane stress/strain, axisymmetric, generalized plane stress in shells). On the computational side, issues related to efficiency and robustness are emphasized in developing the (local) interative algorithm. In particular, closed-form expressions for residual vectors and (consistent) material tangent stiffness arrays are given explicitly for both GVIPS and NAV models, with their maximum sizes 'optimized' to depend only on the number of independent stress components (but independent of the number of viscoplastic internal state parameters). Significant robustness of the local iterative solution is provided by complementing the basic Newton-Raphson scheme with a line-search strategy for convergence. In the present first part of the

  12. Polydisperse methyl β-cyclodextrin-epichlorohydrin polymers: variable contact time (13)C CP-MAS solid-state NMR characterization.

    PubMed

    Mallard, Isabelle; Baudelet, Davy; Castiglione, Franca; Ferro, Monica; Panzeri, Walter; Ragg, Enzio; Mele, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    The polymerization of partially methylated β-cyclodextrin (CRYSMEB) with epichlorohydrin was carried out in the presence of a known amount of toluene as imprinting agent. Three different preparations (D1, D2 and D3) of imprinted polymers were obtained and characterized by solid-state (13)C NMR spectroscopy under cross-polarization magic angle spinning (CP-MAS) conditions. The polymers were prepared by using the same synthetic conditions but with different molar ratios of imprinting agent/monomer, leading to morphologically equivalent materials but with different absorption properties. The main purpose of the work was to find a suitable spectroscopic descriptor accounting for the different imprinting process in three homogeneous polymeric networks. The polymers were characterized by studying the kinetics of the cross-polarization process. This approach is based on variable contact time CP-MAS spectra, referred to as VCP-MAS. The analysis of the VCP-MAS spectra provided two relaxation parameters: T CH (the CP time constant) and T 1ρ (the proton spin-lattice relaxation time in the rotating frame). The results and the analysis presented in the paper pointed out that T CH is sensitive to the imprinting process, showing variations related to the toluene/cyclodextrin molar ratio used for the preparation of the materials. Conversely, the observed values of T 1ρ did not show dramatic variations with the imprinting protocol, but rather confirmed that the three polymers are morphologically similar. Thus the combined use of T CH and T 1ρ can be helpful for the characterization and fine tuning of imprinted polymeric matrices. PMID:26877800

  13. Robust integration schemes for generalized viscoplasticity with internal-state variables. Part 2: Algorithmic developments and implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Wei; Saleeb, Atef F.

    1995-01-01

    This two-part report is concerned with the development of a general framework for the implicit time-stepping integrators for the flow and evolution equations in generalized viscoplastic models. The primary goal is to present a complete theoretical formulation, and to address in detail the algorithmic and numerical analysis aspects involved in its finite element implementation, as well as to critically assess the numerical performance of the developed schemes in a comprehensive set of test cases. On the theoretical side, the general framework is developed on the basis of the unconditionally-stable, backward-Euler difference scheme as a starting point. Its mathematical structure is of sufficient generality to allow a unified treatment of different classes of viscoplastic models with internal variables. In particular, two specific models of this type, which are representative of the present start-of-art in metal viscoplasticity, are considered in applications reported here; i.e., fully associative (GVIPS) and non-associative (NAV) models. The matrix forms developed for both these models are directly applicable for both initially isotropic and anisotropic materials, in general (three-dimensional) situations as well as subspace applications (i.e., plane stress/strain, axisymmetric, generalized plane stress in shells). On the computational side, issues related to efficiency and robustness are emphasized in developing the (local) interative algorithm. In particular, closed-form expressions for residual vectors and (consistent) material tangent stiffness arrays are given explicitly for both GVIPS and NAV models, with their maximum sizes 'optimized' to depend only on the number of independent stress components (but independent of the number of viscoplastic internal state parameters). Significant robustness of the local iterative solution is provided by complementing the basic Newton-Raphson scheme with a line-search strategy for convergence. In the present second part of

  14. An Alexandrium Spp. Cyst Record from Sequim Bay, Washington State, USA, and its Relation to Past Climate Variability(1).

    PubMed

    Feifel, Kirsten M; Moore, Stephanie K; Horner, Rita A

    2012-06-01

    Since the 1970s, Puget Sound, Washington State, USA, has experienced an increase in detections of paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) in shellfish due to blooms of the harmful dinoflagellate Alexandrium. Natural patterns of climate variability, such as the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), and changes in local environmental factors, such as sea surface temperature (SST) and air temperature, have been linked to the observed increase in PSTs. However, the lack of observations of PSTs in shellfish prior to the 1950s has inhibited statistical assessments of longer-term trends in climate and environmental conditions on Alexandrium blooms. After a bloom, Alexandrium cells can enter a dormant cyst stage, which settles on the seafloor and then becomes entrained into the sedimentary record. In this study, we created a record of Alexandrium spp. cysts from a sediment core obtained from Sequim Bay, Puget Sound. Cyst abundances ranged from 0 to 400 cysts · cm(-3) and were detected down-core to a depth of 100 cm, indicating that Alexandrium has been present in Sequim Bay since at least the late 1800s. The cyst record allowed us to statistically examine relationships with available environmental parameters over the past century. Local air temperature and sea surface temperature were positively and significantly correlated with cyst abundances from the late 1800s to 2005; no significant relationship was found between PDO and cyst abundances. This finding suggests that local environmental variations more strongly influence Alexandrium population dynamics in Puget Sound when compared to large-scale changes. PMID:27011070

  15. Age-related Multiscale Changes in Brain Signal Variability in Pre-task versus Post-task Resting-state EEG.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongye; McIntosh, Anthony R; Kovacevic, Natasa; Karachalios, Maria; Protzner, Andrea B

    2016-07-01

    Recent empirical work suggests that, during healthy aging, the variability of network dynamics changes during task performance. Such variability appears to reflect the spontaneous formation and dissolution of different functional networks. We sought to extend these observations into resting-state dynamics. We recorded EEG in young, middle-aged, and older adults during a "rest-task-rest" design and investigated if aging modifies the interaction between resting-state activity and external stimulus-induced activity. Using multiscale entropy as our measure of variability, we found that, with increasing age, resting-state dynamics shifts from distributed to more local neural processing, especially at posterior sources. In the young group, resting-state dynamics also changed from pre- to post-task, where fine-scale entropy increased in task-positive regions and coarse-scale entropy increased in the posterior cingulate, a key region associated with the default mode network. Lastly, pre- and post-task resting-state dynamics were linked to performance on the intervening task for all age groups, but this relationship became weaker with increasing age. Our results suggest that age-related changes in resting-state dynamics occur across different spatial and temporal scales and have consequences for information processing capacity. PMID:26942319

  16. Food additives

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Michael

    1974-01-01

    Food additives are discussed from the food technology point of view. The reasons for their use are summarized: (1) to protect food from chemical and microbiological attack; (2) to even out seasonal supplies; (3) to improve their eating quality; (4) to improve their nutritional value. The various types of food additives are considered, e.g. colours, flavours, emulsifiers, bread and flour additives, preservatives, and nutritional additives. The paper concludes with consideration of those circumstances in which the use of additives is (a) justified and (b) unjustified. PMID:4467857

  17. X-ray variability with spectral state transitions in NS-LMXBs observed with MAXI/GSC and Swift/BAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asai, Kazumi; Mihara, Tatehiro; Matsuoka, Masaru; Sugizaki, Mutsumi

    2015-10-01

    X-ray variabilities with spectral state transitions in bright low-mass X-ray binaries containing a neutron star are investigated by using the one-day bin light curves of MAXI/GSC (Gas Slit Camera) and Swift/BAT (Burst Alert Telescope). Four sources (4U 1636-536, 4U 1705-44, 4U 1608-52, and GS 1826-238) exhibited small-amplitude X-ray variabilities with spectral state transitions. Such "mini-outbursts" were characterized by smaller amplitudes (several times) and shorter duration (less than several tens of days) than those of "normal outbursts." A theoretical model of disk instability by Mineshige and Osaki (PASJ, 37, 1, 1985) predicts both large-amplitude outbursts and small-amplitude variabilities. We interpret the normal outbursts as the former prediction of this model, and the mini-outbursts as the latter. Here, we can also call the mini-outburst a "purr-type outburst" referring to the theoretical work. We suggest that similar variabilities lasting for several tens of days without spectral state transitions, which are often observed in the hard state, may be repeats of mini-outbursts.

  18. Relative Contributions of Selected Teachers' Variables and Students' Attitudes toward Academic Achievement in Biology among Senior Secondary School Students in Ondo State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gbore, L. O.; Daramola, C. A.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the relative contributions of selected teachers' variables and students' attitude towards academic achievement in biology among senior secondary schools in Ondo State, Nigeria. It involved descriptive survey research and ex-post facto research designs. The sample, 360 respondents which consists of 180 biology teachers and…

  19. Higher Education and the Spectre of Variable Fees: Public Policy and Institutional Responses in the United States and the United Kingdom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, David; Douglass, John Aubrey

    2006-01-01

    As part of a larger effort to fund public universities, variable fees at the graduate and undergraduate levels are a topic of discussion in the United States and increasingly throughout the European Union. This essay describes the relatively new shift to have students pay for a significant portion of their university education, emerging fee…

  20. The Role of Motivation and Learner Variables in L1 and L2 Vocabulary Development in Japanese Heritage Language Speakers in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mori, Yoshiko; Calder, Toshiko M.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the role of motivation and learner variables in bilingual vocabulary development among first language (L1) Japanese students attending hoshuukoo (i.e., supplementary academic schools for Japanese-speaking children) in the United States. One hundred sixteen high school students ages 15-18 from eight hoshuukoo completed…

  1. Additional Testing of the DHC-6 Twin Otter Tailplane Iced Airfoil Section in the Ohio State University 7x10 Low Speed Wind Tunnel. Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregorek, Gerald; Dresse, John J.; LaNoe, Karine; Ratvasky, Thomas (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The need for fundamental research in Ice Contaminated Tailplane Stall (ICTS) was established through three international conferences sponsored by the FAA. A joint NASA/FAA Tailplane Icing Program was formed in 1994 with the Ohio State University playing a critical role for wind tunnel and analytical research. Two entries of a full-scale 2-dimensional tailplane airfoil model of a DHC-6 Twin Otter were made in The Ohio State University 7x10 ft wind tunnel. This report describes the second test entry that examined additional ice shapes and roughness, as well as airfoil section differences. The addition data obtained in this test fortified the original database of aerodynamic coefficients that permit a detailed analysis of flight test results with an OSU-developed analytical program. The testing encompassed a full range of angles of attack and elevator deflections at flight Reynolds number conditions. Aerodynamic coefficients, C(L), C(M), and C(He), were obtained by integrating static pressure coefficient, C(P), values obtained from surface taps. Comparisons of clean and iced airfoil results show a significant decrease in the tailplane aeroperformance (decreased C(Lmax), decreased stall angle, increased C(He)) for all ice shapes with the grit having the lease affect and the LEWICE shape having the greatest affect. All results were consistent with observed tailplane stall phenomena and constitute an effective set of data for comprehensive analysis of ICTS.

  2. Entanglement transfer from two-mode continuous variable SU(2) cat states to discrete qubits systems in Jaynes-Cummings Dimers.

    PubMed

    Ran, Du; Hu, Chang-Sheng; Yang, Zhen-Biao

    2016-08-24

    We study the entanglement transfer from a two-mode continuous variable system (initially in the two-mode SU(2) cat states) to a couple of discrete two-state systems (initially in an arbitrary mixed state), by use of the resonant Jaynes-Cummings (JC) interaction. We first quantitatively connect the entanglement transfer to non-Gaussianity of the two-mode SU(2) cat states and find a positive correlation between them. We then investigate the behaviors of the entanglement transfer and find that it is dependent on the initial state of the discrete systems. We also find that the largest possible value of the transferred entanglement exhibits a variety of behaviors for different photon number as well as for the phase angle of the two-mode SU(2) cat states. We finally consider the influences of the noise on the transferred entanglement.

  3. Assessing the significance of fidelity as a figure of merit in quantum state reconstruction of discrete and continuous-variable systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandarino, Antonio; Bina, Matteo; Porto, Carmen; Cialdi, Simone; Olivares, Stefano; Paris, Matteo G. A.

    2016-06-01

    We experimentally address the significance of fidelity as a figure of merit in quantum state reconstruction of discrete (DV) and continuous-variable (CV) quantum optical systems. In particular, we analyze the use of fidelity in quantum homodyne tomography of CV states and maximum-likelihood polarization tomography of DV ones, focusing attention on nonclassicality, entanglement, and quantum discord as a function of fidelity to a target state. Our findings show that high values of fidelity, despite well quantifying geometrical proximity in the Hilbert space, may be obtained for states displaying opposite physical properties, e.g., quantum or semiclassical features. In particular, we analyze in detail the quantum-to-classical transition for squeezed thermal states of a single-mode optical system and for Werner states of a two-photon polarization qubit system.

  4. Entanglement transfer from two-mode continuous variable SU(2) cat states to discrete qubits systems in Jaynes-Cummings Dimers

    PubMed Central

    Ran, Du; Hu, Chang-Sheng; Yang, Zhen-Biao

    2016-01-01

    We study the entanglement transfer from a two-mode continuous variable system (initially in the two-mode SU(2) cat states) to a couple of discrete two-state systems (initially in an arbitrary mixed state), by use of the resonant Jaynes-Cummings (JC) interaction. We first quantitatively connect the entanglement transfer to non-Gaussianity of the two-mode SU(2) cat states and find a positive correlation between them. We then investigate the behaviors of the entanglement transfer and find that it is dependent on the initial state of the discrete systems. We also find that the largest possible value of the transferred entanglement exhibits a variety of behaviors for different photon number as well as for the phase angle of the two-mode SU(2) cat states. We finally consider the influences of the noise on the transferred entanglement. PMID:27553881

  5. Entanglement transfer from two-mode continuous variable SU(2) cat states to discrete qubits systems in Jaynes-Cummings Dimers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ran, Du; Hu, Chang-Sheng; Yang, Zhen-Biao

    2016-08-01

    We study the entanglement transfer from a two-mode continuous variable system (initially in the two-mode SU(2) cat states) to a couple of discrete two-state systems (initially in an arbitrary mixed state), by use of the resonant Jaynes-Cummings (JC) interaction. We first quantitatively connect the entanglement transfer to non-Gaussianity of the two-mode SU(2) cat states and find a positive correlation between them. We then investigate the behaviors of the entanglement transfer and find that it is dependent on the initial state of the discrete systems. We also find that the largest possible value of the transferred entanglement exhibits a variety of behaviors for different photon number as well as for the phase angle of the two-mode SU(2) cat states. We finally consider the influences of the noise on the transferred entanglement.

  6. Entanglement transfer from two-mode continuous variable SU(2) cat states to discrete qubits systems in Jaynes-Cummings Dimers.

    PubMed

    Ran, Du; Hu, Chang-Sheng; Yang, Zhen-Biao

    2016-01-01

    We study the entanglement transfer from a two-mode continuous variable system (initially in the two-mode SU(2) cat states) to a couple of discrete two-state systems (initially in an arbitrary mixed state), by use of the resonant Jaynes-Cummings (JC) interaction. We first quantitatively connect the entanglement transfer to non-Gaussianity of the two-mode SU(2) cat states and find a positive correlation between them. We then investigate the behaviors of the entanglement transfer and find that it is dependent on the initial state of the discrete systems. We also find that the largest possible value of the transferred entanglement exhibits a variety of behaviors for different photon number as well as for the phase angle of the two-mode SU(2) cat states. We finally consider the influences of the noise on the transferred entanglement. PMID:27553881

  7. Graphite electrode thermal behavior and solid electrolyte interphase investigations: Role of state-of-the-art binders, carbonate additives and lithium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide salt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forestier, Coralie; Grugeon, Sylvie; Davoisne, Carine; Lecocq, Amandine; Marlair, Guy; Armand, Michel; Sannier, Lucas; Laruelle, Stephane

    2016-10-01

    The risk of thermal runaway is, for Li-ion batteries, a critical issue for large-scale applications. This results in manufacturers and researchers placing great emphasis on minimizing the heat generation and thereby mitigating safety-related risks through the search for suitable materials or additives. To this end, an in-depth stepwise investigation has been undertaken to provide a better understanding of the exothermic processes that take place at the negative electrode/electrolyte interface as well as an increased visibility of the role of the state-of-the-art electrode binders, additives and lithium salt by means of the classical DSC technique. A reliable experimental set up helped quantify the beneficial or harmful contribution of binder polymers to the exothermic behavior of the CMC/SBR containing graphite electrode film in contact with 1 M LiPF6 in EC:DMC:EMC (1:1:1 v/v/v) electrolyte. Further, the role of the VC, FEC and VEC electrolyte additives (2 wt%) in reinforcing the protective SEI layer towards thermally induced electrolyte reduction is discussed in the light of infrared spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy analyzes results. Moreover, after a preliminary corrosion study of LiPF6/LiFSI mixtures, we showed that the 0.66/0.33 M composition can be used in commercial NMC-based LiBs with a positive effect on the thermal runaway.

  8. Regionally-Coherent Moisture Variability at Multi-Centennial Time-Scales in the Northeastern United States during the Holocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donnelly, J. P.; Shuman, B. N.

    2006-12-01

    Few records of Holocene climate variability have been reproduced in detail at multiple sites and with a clear indication of the controls on the paleoclimate proxy. Here, we present a well-replicated regional record of multi- century drought in the Northeast U.S. based on sedimentary evidence for lake level changes. Our record derives from evidence for repeated ~700-yr long episodes of low lake levels in the past 5600 yrs at three lakes up to 240 km apart in Massachusetts. Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) profiles and sediment cores show four paleoshorelines within the lakes that date between 5600 and 2300 cal yr BP following several millennia without evidence for low lake stands. Loss-on-ignition and scanning XRF data from near-shore cores within the three lakes reveal repeated sand layers that correlate with near-shore unconformities in GPR profiles. Such features can be well explained by low lake levels and the generation of sandy lags and erosional surfaces by wave action in shallow water near to shore; during intermediate high lake phases, low wave energy in deep water at the same locations enabled the accumulation of fine-grained organic-rich sediments. The calibrated ages for the beginning of the first low stand are 5340-5730 cal yr BP at New Long Pond, 5570-5690 cal yr BP at Round Pond, and 5655-5605 cal yr BP at Davis Pond; ages for the end of the fourth low stand are 2000- 2110 cal yr BP at New Long Pond, 2270-2390 cal yr BP at Round Pond, and 2325-2350 cal yr BP at Davis Pond. The strong correlation of water table low stands at three different lakes in different parts of the state confirm that the events are related to regional climate phenomena. Like the AD 1964 drought, which severely reduced the water supply to Boston and New York City, these events may have been generated by atmospheric circulation patterns established in response to changes in Atlantic sea-surface temperature gradients.

  9. Factors affecting temporal variability of arsenic in groundwater used for drinking water supply in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ayotte, Joseph D.; Belaval, Marcel; Olson, Scott A.; Burow, Karen R.; Flanagan, Sarah M.; Hinkle, Stephen R.; Lindsey, Bruce D.

    2014-01-01

    The occurrence of arsenic in groundwater is a recognized environmental hazard with worldwide importance and much effort has been focused on surveying and predicting where arsenic occurs. Temporal variability is one aspect of this environmental hazard that has until recently received less attention than other aspects. For this study, we analyzed 1245 wells with two samples per well. We suggest that temporal variability, often reported as affecting very few wells, is perhaps a larger issue than it appears and has been masked by datasets with large numbers of non-detect data. Although there was only a slight difference in arsenic concentration variability among samples from public and private wells (p = 0.0452), the range of variability was larger for public than for private wells. Further, we relate the variability we see to geochemical factors—primarily variability in redox—but also variability in pH and major-ion chemistry. We also show that in New England there is a weak but statistically significant indication that seasonality may have an effect on concentrations, whereby concentrations in the first two quarters of the year (January–June) are significantly lower than in the second two quarters (July–December) (p < 0.0001). In the Central Valley of California, though not statistically significant (p = 0.4169), arsenic concentration is lower in the first quarter of the year but increases in subsequent quarters. In both regions, these changes appear to follow groundwater levels. It is possible that this difference in arsenic concentrations is related to groundwater level changes, pumping stresses, evapotranspiration effects, or perhaps mixing of more oxidizing, lower pH recharge water in wetter months. Focusing on the understanding the geochemical conditions in aquifers where arsenic concentrations are concerns and causes of geochemical changes in the groundwater environment may lead to a better understanding of where and by how much arsenic will vary over

  10. Factors affecting temporal variability of arsenic in groundwater used for drinking water supply in the United States.

    PubMed

    Ayotte, Joseph D; Belaval, Marcel; Olson, Scott A; Burow, Karen R; Flanagan, Sarah M; Hinkle, Stephen R; Lindsey, Bruce D

    2015-02-01

    The occurrence of arsenic in groundwater is a recognized environmental hazard with worldwide importance and much effort has been focused on surveying and predicting where arsenic occurs. Temporal variability is one aspect of this environmental hazard that has until recently received less attention than other aspects. For this study, we analyzed 1245 wells with two samples per well. We suggest that temporal variability, often reported as affecting very few wells, is perhaps a larger issue than it appears and has been overshadowed by datasets with large numbers of non-detect data. Although there was only a slight difference in arsenic concentration variability among samples from public and private wells (p=0.0452), the range of variability was larger for public than for private wells. Further, we relate the variability we see to geochemical factors-primarily variability in redox-but also variability in major-ion chemistry. We also show that in New England there is a weak but statistically significant indication that seasonality may have an effect on concentrations, whereby concentrations in the first two quarters of the year (January-June) are significantly lower than in the second two quarters (July-December) (p<0.0001). In the Central Valley of California, the relation of arsenic concentration to season was not statistically significant (p=0.4169). In New England, these changes appear to follow groundwater levels. It is possible that this difference in arsenic concentrations is related to groundwater level changes, pumping stresses, evapotranspiration effects, or perhaps mixing of more oxidizing, lower pH recharge water in wetter months. Focusing on the understanding the geochemical conditions in aquifers where arsenic concentrations are concerns and causes of geochemical changes in the groundwater environment may lead to a better understanding of where and by how much arsenic will vary over time.

  11. Data regarding hydraulic fracturing distributions and treatment fluids, additives, proppants, and water volumes applied to wells drilled in the United States from 1947 through 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gallegos, Tanya J.; Varela, Brian A.

    2015-01-01

    Comprehensive, published, and publicly available data regarding the extent, location, and character of hydraulic fracturing in the United States are scarce. The objective of this data series is to publish data related to hydraulic fracturing in the public domain. The spreadsheets released with this data series contain derivative datasets aggregated temporally and spatially from the commercial and proprietary IHS database of U.S. oil and gas production and well data (IHS Energy, 2011). These datasets, served in 21 spreadsheets in Microsoft Excel (.xlsx) format, outline the geographical distributions of hydraulic fracturing treatments and associated wells (including well drill-hole directions) as well as water volumes, proppants, treatment fluids, and additives used in hydraulic fracturing treatments in the United States from 1947 through 2010. This report also describes the data—extraction/aggregation processing steps, field names and descriptions, field types and sources. An associated scientific investigation report (Gallegos and Varela, 2014) provides a detailed analysis of the data presented in this data series and comparisons of the data and trends to the literature.

  12. The ANAMMOX reactor under transient-state conditions: process stability with fluctuations of the nitrogen concentration, inflow rate, pH and sodium chloride addition.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jin-Jin; Jin, Ren-Cun

    2012-09-01

    The process stability of an anaerobic ammonium oxidation (ANAMMOX) was investigated in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor subjected to overloads of 2.0- to 3.0-fold increases in substrate concentrations, inflow rates lasting 12 or 24h, extreme pH levels of 4 and 10 for 12h and a 12-h 30 g l(-1) NaCl addition. During the overloads, the nitrogen removal rate improved, and the shock period was an important factor affecting the reactor performance. In the high pH condition, the reactor performance significantly degenerated; while in the low pH condition, it did not happen. The NaCl addition caused the most serious deterioration in the reactor, which took 108 h to recover and was accompanied by a stoichiometric ratio divergence. There are well correlations between the total nitrogen and the electrical conductivity which is considered to be a convenient signal for controlling and monitoring the ANAMMOX process under transient-state conditions.

  13. Additive effect of ionic liquids on the electrochemical property of a sulfur composite electrode for all-solid-state lithium-sulfur battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinoshita, Shunji; Okuda, Kazuya; Machida, Nobuya; Shigematsu, Toshihiko

    2014-12-01

    We investigated additive effect of five kinds of ionic liquids, such as 1-ethyl-3-methyl-imidazolium bis(trifluoromethane-sulfonyl)imide [EMI][TFSI], 1-ethyl-3-methyl-imidazolium tetrafluoroborate [EMI][BF4], 1-buthyl-3-methyl-imidazolium bis(trifluoromethane- sulfonyl) imide [BMI][TFSI], 1-buthyl-3-methyl-imidazolium tetrafluoroborate [BMI][BF4], and/or 1-buthyl-3-methyl-imidazolium iodide [BMI][I], on electrochemical properties of the sulfur composite electrode for all-solid-state lithium-sulfur batteries. The sulfur composite electrode that was composed of sulfur (29.9 wt%), vapor-grown carbon fiber (VGCF, 9.9 wt%), solid electrolyte (amorphous Li3PS4, 60.0 wt%), and [EMI][TFSI] (0.2 wt%) showed high initial specific capacity of 1270 mAh g-1 at 25 °C, which was calculated on the base of the weight of sulfur. To construct a laboratory-scale all-solid-state battery, amorphous Li3PS4 and meta-stable Li4.4Si alloy were used as solid electrolyte and as negative electrode materials, respectively. The laboratory-scale all-solid-state battery showed good discharge-charge cycle performance under a constant current density of 0.1 mA cm-2 (24 mA g-1) at room temperature and retained the large specific capacity more than 1230 mAh g-1 even after 50 cycles at 25 °C. The capacity after 50 cycles was about 97% of the initial capacity of the test cell.

  14. State-of-the-Art Sensor Technology in Spain: Invasive and Non-Invasive Techniques for Monitoring Respiratory Variables

    PubMed Central

    Domingo, Christian; Blanch, Lluis; Murias, Gaston; Luján, Manel

    2010-01-01

    The interest in measuring physiological parameters (especially arterial blood gases) has grown progressively in parallel to the development of new technologies. Physiological parameters were first measured invasively and at discrete time points; however, it was clearly desirable to measure them continuously and non-invasively. The development of intensive care units promoted the use of ventilators via oral intubation ventilators via oral intubation and mechanical respiratory variables were progressively studied. Later, the knowledge gained in the hospital was applied to out-of-hospital management. In the present paper we review the invasive and non-invasive techniques for monitoring respiratory variables. PMID:22399898

  15. The amplitude of decadal to multidecadal variability in precipitation simulated by state-of-the-art climate models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ault, T. R.; Cole, J. E.; St. George, S.

    2012-11-01

    We assess the magnitude of decadal to multidecadal (D2M) variability in Climate Model Intercomparison Project 5 (CMIP5) simulations that will be used to understand, and plan for, climate change as part of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's 5th Assessment Report. Model performance on D2M timescales is evaluated using metrics designed to characterize the relative and absolute magnitude of variability at these frequencies. In observational data, we find that between 10% and 35% of the total variance occurs on D2M timescales. Regions characterized by the high end of this range include Africa, Australia, western North America, and the Amazon region of South America. In these areas D2M fluctuations are especially prominent and linked to prolonged drought. D2M fluctuations account for considerably less of the total variance (between 5% and 15%) in the CMIP5 archive of historical (1850-2005) simulations. The discrepancy between observation and model based estimates of D2M prominence reflects two features of the CMIP5 archive. First, interannual components of variability are generally too energetic. Second, decadal components are too weak in several key regions. Our findings imply that projections of the future lack sufficient decadal variability, presenting a limited view of prolonged drought and pluvial risk.

  16. Analysis of the spatial and temporal variability of terrestrial water storage and snowpack in the Pacific Northwestern United States

    EPA Science Inventory

    The spatial and temporal variability of terrestrial water storage and snowpack in the Pacific Northwest (PNW) was analyzed for water years 2001–2010 using measurements from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) instrument. GRACE provides remotely-sensed measurements...

  17. Factors Affecting Temporal Variability of Arsenic in Groundwater Used for Drinking Water Supply in the United States

    EPA Science Inventory

    The occurrence of arsenic in groundwater is a recognized environmental hazard with worldwide importance and much effort has been focused on surveying and predicting where arsenic occurs. Temporal variability is one aspect of this environmental hazard that has until recently recei...

  18. Genetic variability of spined soldier bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) sampled from distinct field sites and laboratory colonies in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The spined soldier bug, Podisus maculiventris (Say), is an important biological control agent for agricultural and forest pests that preys on eggs and larvae of lepidopteran and coleopteran species. Genetic variability among field collected samples from Michigan, Mississippi, Missouri, and Florida, ...

  19. Controlling variability.

    PubMed

    Sanger, Terence D

    2010-11-01

    In human motor control, there is uncertainty in both estimation of initial sensory state and prediction of the outcome of motor commands. With practice, increasing precision can often be achieved, but such precision incurs costs in time, effort, and neural resources. Therefore, motor planning must account for variability, uncertainty, and noise, not just at the endpoint of movement but throughout the movement. The author presents a mathematical basis for understanding the time course of uncertainty during movement. He shows that it is possible to achieve accurate control of the endpoint of a movement even with highly inaccurate and variable controllers. The results provide a first step toward a theory of optimal control for variable, uncertain, and noisy systems that must nevertheless accomplish real-world tasks reliably.

  20. Phosphazene additives

    DOEpatents

    Harrup, Mason K; Rollins, Harry W

    2013-11-26

    An additive comprising a phosphazene compound that has at least two reactive functional groups and at least one capping functional group bonded to phosphorus atoms of the phosphazene compound. One of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with cellulose and the other of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with a resin, such as an amine resin of a polycarboxylic acid resin. The at least one capping functional group is selected from the group consisting of a short chain ether group, an alkoxy group, or an aryloxy group. Also disclosed are an additive-resin admixture, a method of treating a wood product, and a wood product.